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Sample records for potentials epic okinawa

  1. EPIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-29

    ISS030-E-017789 (29 Dec. 2011) --- Working in chorus with the International Space Station team in Houston?s Mission Control Center, this astronaut and his Expedition 30 crewmates on the station install a set of Enhanced Processor and Integrated Communications (EPIC) computer cards in one of seven primary computers onboard. The upgrade will allow more experiments to operate simultaneously, and prepare for the arrival of commercial cargo ships later this year.

  2. Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-11

    The southern half of the island of Okinawa, Japan (26.5N, 128.0E) can be seen in this nearly cloud free view. Okinawa is part of the Ryuku Islands which extend from Taiwan northeastward to Kyushu, southernmost of the Japanese Home Islands. The large military base at Kadena, with large runways, is visible near the center of the scene. Kadena is one of several emergency landing sites around the world for the space shuttle.

  3. Potential substitution of mineral P fertilizer by manure: EPIC development and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Ligia B.; Vadas, Peter A.; Balkovič, Juraj; Skalský, Rastislav; Folberth, Christian; van der Velde, Marijn; Obersteiner, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Sources of mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizers are non-renewable. Although the longevity of P mines and the risk of future P depletion are highly debated P scarcity may be detrimental to agriculture in various ways. Some of these impacts include increasing food insecurity and nitrogen (N) and P imbalances, serious fluctuations in the global fertilizer and crop market prices, and contribution in geopolitical conflicts. P-rich waste produced from livestock production activities (i.e. manure) are an alternative to mineral P fertilizer. The substitution of mineral fertilizer with manure (1) delays the depletion of phosphate rock stocks, (2) reduces the vulnerability of P fertilizer importing countries to sudden changes in the fertilizer market, (3) reduces the chances of geopolitical conflicts arising from P exploitation pressures, (4) avoids the need for environmental protection policies in livestock systems, (5) is an opportunity for the boosting of crop yields in low nutrient input agricultural systems, and (6) contributes to the inflow of not only P but also other essential nutrients to agricultural soils. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (EPIC) is a widely used process-based, crop model integrating various environmental flows relevant to crop production as well as environmental quality assessments. We simulate crop yields using a powerful computer cluster infra-structure (known as EPIC-IIASA) in combination with spatially-explicit EPIC input data on climate, management, soils, and landscape. EPIC-IIASA contains over 131,000 simulation units and it has 5 arc-min resolution. In this work, we implement two process-based models of manure biogeochemistry into EPIC-IIASA, i.e. SurPhos (for P) and Manure DNDC (for N and carbon) and a fate model model describing nutrient outflows from fertilizer via runoff. For EGU, we will use EPIC-IIASA to quantify the potential of mineral P fertilizer substitution with manure. Specifically, we will estimate the relative

  4. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  5. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  6. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  7. Degradation potential and microbial community structure of heavy oil-enriched microbial consortia from mangrove sediments in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Bacosa, Hernando P; Suto, Koichi; Inoue, Chihiro

    2013-01-01

    Mangroves constitute valuable coastal resources that are vulnerable to oil pollution. One of the major processes to remove oil from contaminated mangrove sediment is microbial degradation. A study on heavy oil- and hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortia from mangrove sediments in Okinawa, Japan was performed to evaluate their capacity to biodegrade and their microbial community composition. Surface sediment samples were obtained from mangrove sites in Okinawa (Teima, Oura, and Okukubi) and enriched with heavy oil as the sole carbon and energy source. The results revealed that all enriched microbial consortia degraded more than 20% of heavy oil in 21 days. The K1 consortium from Okukubi site showed the most extensive degradative capacity after 7 and 21 days. All consortia degraded more than 50% of hexadecane but had little ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The consortia were dominated by Pseudomonas or Burkholderia. When incubated in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds, the active bacterial community shifted to favor the dominance of Pseudomonas. The K1 consortium was a superior degrader, demonstrating the highest ability to degrade aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds; it was even able to degrade heavy oil at a concentration of 15%(w/v). The dominance and turn-over of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia in the consortia suggest an important ecological role for and relationship between these two genera in the mangrove sediments of Okinawa.

  8. Traditional Food Items in Ogimi, Okinawa: l-Serine Content and the Potential for Neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Cox, Paul Alan; Metcalf, James S

    2017-01-01

    Ogimi village is renowned for its aging population. We sought to determine if the l-serine content of their diet could account for their neurological health. The most frequently consumed food items, including tofu and seaweeds, are rich in the dietary amino acid l-serine. l-serine content of the Ogimi diet >8 grams/day for Ogimi women significantly exceeds the average American dietary intake of 2.5 grams/day for women >70 years old. Our hypothesis that the high l-serine content of the Ogimi diet is related to the paucity of tangle diseases among villagers is buttressed by in vivo results with non-human primates where dietary l-serine slowed development of neurofibrillary tangles and β-amyloid plaques by up to 85% and a human clinical trial finding that l-serine at 15 grams/day twice daily slows functional decline in ALS patients. Analysis of the Ogimi diet suggests that l-serine should be evaluated for therapeutic potential as a neuroprotective agent.

  9. Photochemical Formation of Hydroxyl Radical in Red-Soil-Polluted Seawater in Okinawa, Japan -Potential Impacts on Marine Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakaki, T.; Hamdun, A. M.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Ikota, H.; Fujimura, H.; Oomori, T.

    2004-12-01

    Development of pineapple farmlands and construction of recreational facilities caused runoff of red soil into coastal ocean (locally termed as red-soil-pollution) in the north of Okinawa Island, Japan. In an attempt to understand the impacts of red soil on oxidizing power of the seawater, we studied formation of hydroxyl radical (OH radical), the most potent oxidant in the environment, in red-soil-polluted seawaters, using 313 nm monochromatic light. Photo-formation rates of OH radical showed a good correlation with dissolved iron concentrations (R = 0.98). The major source of OH radical was found to be the Fenton reaction (a reaction between Fe(II) and HOOH). The un-filtered red-soil-polluted seawater samples exhibited faster OH radical formation rates than the filtered samples, suggesting that iron-bearing red soil particles enhanced formation of OH radical.

  10. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  11. Okinawa, Japan: Geologic Battleground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waymack, S. W.; Carrington, M. P.; Harpp, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    One of our main goals as instructors, particularly in introductory courses, is to impart students with an appreciation of how geology has influenced the course of human events. Despite the apparent accessibility of such topics, communicating this in a lively, relevant, and effective way often proves difficult. We use a series of historical events, the Pacific island hopping campaign of WWII, to engage students in an active, guided inquiry exercise to explore how terrain and the underlying geology of an area can shape historical events. Teams of students are assigned the role of planning either the defense or occupation of Okinawa Island, in the Ryukyu arc, in a theoretical version of the 1945 conflict. Students are given a package of information, including geologic and topographic maps, a list of military resources available to them at the time, and some historical background. Students also have access to "reconnaissance" images, 360o digital panoramas of the landscape of Okinawa, keyed to their maps. Each team has a week to plan their strategies and carry out additional research, which they subsequently bring to the table in the form of a written battle plan. With an instructor as arbiter, teams alternate drawing their maneuvers on a map of the island, to which the other team then responds. This continues one move at a time, until the instructor declares a victor. Throughout the exercise, the instructor guides students through analysis of each strategic decision in light of the island's structure and topography, with an emphasis on the appropriate interpretation of the maps. Students soon realize that an understanding of the island's terrain literally meant the difference between life and death for civilians and military participants alike in 1945. The karst landscape of Okinawa posed unique obstacles to both the Japanese and the American forces, including difficult landing sites, networks of natural caves, and sequences of hills aligned perpendicular to the

  12. Potential Predictors of Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Concentrations: Cross-Sectional Analysis in the EPIC-Germany Study

    PubMed Central

    di Giuseppe, Romina; Kühn, Tilman; Hirche, Frank; Buijsse, Brian; Dierkes, Jutta; Fritsche, Andreas; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Stangl, Gabriele I.; Weikert, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived hormone involved in the regulation of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, has been related to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in chronic kidney disease patients and in the general population. However, what determines higher FGF23 levels is still unclear. Also, little is known about the influence of diet on FGF23. The aim of this study was therefore to identify demographic, clinical and dietary correlates of high FGF23 concentrations in the general population. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis within a randomly selected subcohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany comprising 2134 middle-aged men and women. The Human FGF23 (C-Terminal) ELISA kit was used to measure FGF23 in citrate plasma. Dietary data were obtained at baseline via validated food frequency questionnaires including up to 148 food items. Results Multivariable adjusted logistic regression showed that men had a 66% lower and smokers a 64% higher probability of having higher FGF23 (≥ 90 RU/mL) levels compared, respectively, with women and nonsmokers. Each doubling in parathyroid hormone, creatinine, and C-reactive protein was related to higher FGF23. Among the dietary factors, each doubling in calcium and total energy intake was related, respectively, to a 1.75 and to a 4.41 fold increased probability of having higher FGF23. Finally, each doubling in the intake of iron was related to an 82% lower probability of having higher FGF23 levels. Results did not substantially change after exclusion of participants with lower kidney function. Conclusions In middle-aged men and women traditional and non-traditional CVD risk factors were related to higher FGF23 concentrations. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the potential mechanisms linking increased FGF23 to increased CVD risk. PMID:26193703

  13. Potential Predictors of Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Concentrations: Cross-Sectional Analysis in the EPIC-Germany Study.

    PubMed

    di Giuseppe, Romina; Kühn, Tilman; Hirche, Frank; Buijsse, Brian; Dierkes, Jutta; Fritsche, Andreas; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Stangl, Gabriele I; Weikert, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived hormone involved in the regulation of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, has been related to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in chronic kidney disease patients and in the general population. However, what determines higher FGF23 levels is still unclear. Also, little is known about the influence of diet on FGF23. The aim of this study was therefore to identify demographic, clinical and dietary correlates of high FGF23 concentrations in the general population. We performed a cross-sectional analysis within a randomly selected subcohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany comprising 2134 middle-aged men and women. The Human FGF23 (C-Terminal) ELISA kit was used to measure FGF23 in citrate plasma. Dietary data were obtained at baseline via validated food frequency questionnaires including up to 148 food items. Multivariable adjusted logistic regression showed that men had a 66% lower and smokers a 64% higher probability of having higher FGF23 (≥ 90 RU/mL) levels compared, respectively, with women and nonsmokers. Each doubling in parathyroid hormone, creatinine, and C-reactive protein was related to higher FGF23. Among the dietary factors, each doubling in calcium and total energy intake was related, respectively, to a 1.75 and to a 4.41 fold increased probability of having higher FGF23. Finally, each doubling in the intake of iron was related to an 82% lower probability of having higher FGF23 levels. Results did not substantially change after exclusion of participants with lower kidney function. In middle-aged men and women traditional and non-traditional CVD risk factors were related to higher FGF23 concentrations. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the potential mechanisms linking increased FGF23 to increased CVD risk.

  14. Teaching the Epic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Margaret, Ed.

    Assembled to aid high school literature teachers in exploring the epic with their students, materials in this book approach the epic as a product of a specific culture which presents vivid pictures of earlier societies. Following the introduction and the opening essay, "The Role of the Supernatural in the Epic," chapters are grouped under the…

  15. Crustal structure of the southern Okinawa Trough: Symmetrical rifting, submarine volcano, and potential mantle accretion in the continental back-arc basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Ryuta; Kodaira, Shuichi; Yuka, Kaiho; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Miura, Seiichi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Back-arc basins are a primary target to understand lithospheric evolution in extension associated with plate subduction. Most of the currently active back-arc basins formed in intraoceanic settings and host well-developed spreading centers where seafloor spreading has occurred. However, rift structure at its initial stage, a key to understand how the continental lithosphere starts to break in a magma-rich back-arc setting, is poorly documented. Here we present seismological evidence for structure of the southern Okinawa Trough, an active rift zone behind the Ryukyu subduction zone. We find that the southern Okinawa Trough exhibits an almost symmetric rift system across the rift axis (Yaeyama Rift) and that the sedimentary layers are highly cut by inward dipping normal faults. The rift structure also accompanies a narrow (2-7 km wide) on-axis intrusion resulted from passive upwelling of magma. On the other hand, an active submarine volcano is located 10 km away from the rift axis. The P wave velocity (Vp) model derived from seismic refraction data suggests that the crust has been significantly thinned from the original 25 km thick arc crust and the thinnest part with 12 km thickness occurs directly beneath the rift axis. The velocity model also reveals that there exists a thick layer with Vp of 6.5-7.2 km/s at lower crustal levels and may indicate that mantle materials accreted at the bottom of the crust during the crustal stretching. The abrupt crustal thinning and the velocity-depth profile suggest that the southern Okinawa Trough is at a transitional stage from continental rifting to seafloor spreading.

  16. Factors restricting the range expansion of the invasive green anole Anolis carolinensis on Okinawa Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki-Ohno, Yukari; Morita, Kenjiro; Nagata, Nobuaki; Mori, Hideaki; Abe, Shintaro; Makino, Takashi; Kawata, Masakado

    2017-06-01

    The green anole Anolis carolinensis invaded the Ogasawara Islands in Japan, drove various native species to extinction, and its distribution expanded 14 years after initial establishment. A. carolinensis invaded Okinawa Island, but it has not expanded its distribution in more than 25 years, although its density is extremely high in the southern region. To determine whether A. carolinensis has the potential to expand its distribution on Okinawa Island, we performed phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial ND2 DNA sequences to study the origin of A. carolinensis that invaded Okinawa Island. We further used a species distribution model (MaxEnt) based on the distribution of native populations in North America to identify ecologically suitable areas on Okinawa Island. Nucleotide sequence analysis shows that the invader A. carolinensis originated in the western part of the Gulf Coast and inland areas of the United States and that a portion of the anoles on Okinawa was not introduced via the Ogasawara Islands. The MaxEnt predictions indicate that most areas in Okinawa Island are suitable for A. carolinensis. Therefore, A. carolinensis may have the potential to expand its distribution in Okinawa Island. The predictions indicate that habitat suitability is high in areas of high annual mean temperature and urbanized areas. The values of precipitation in summer in the northern region of Okinawa Island were higher compared with those of North America, which reduced the habitat suitability in Okinawa Island. Adaptation to low temperatures, an increase in the mean temperature through global warming, and an increase in open environments through land development will likely expand the distribution of A. carolinensis in Okinawa Island. Therefore, we must continue to monitor the introduced populations and be alert to the possibility that city planning that increases open environments may cause their range to expand.

  17. EPIC Computer Upgrade

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank and Flight Engineer Don Pettit work on installing hardware for the Enhanced Processor and Integrated Communications (EPIC) upgrade of the International Space Sta...

  18. T-cell lymphoma in a wild Okinawa rail (Gallirallus okinawae).

    PubMed

    Neagari, Yasuko; Nagamine, Takashi; Nakaya, Yumiko; Onuma, Manabu; Murata, Koichi; Kuwana, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    The Okinawa rail (Gallirallus okinawae) is an endangered species that inhabits the northern part of Okinawa Main Island in southern Japan. A wild Okinawa rail was rescued from a road in Kunigami Village in Okinawa in October 2009. The bird subsequently died and underwent necropsy. Tumors were found in the liver, spleen and part of the small intestine. Microscopically, lymphoid neoplasm was confirmed in these tissues. The tumor cells were mainly positive for CD3 and CD8α by immunohistochemistry. No Marek's disease virus genes were detected by PCR of a liver tumor. This is the first report of T-cell lymphoma in the Okinawa rail.

  19. Potential Scientific Output from the Visible Channels of EPIC Spectroradiometer as Part of the DSCOVR L1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Herman, Jay

    2011-01-01

    In addition to 4 UV channels, the EPIC spectroradiometer will provide measurements at 6 visible (and near IR) channels (443,551,680,687.75, 764 and 779.9 nm) at roughly 10 km spatial resolution. The scattering angles are near backscattering and vary between 165 and 176 degree. Two pairs {680 and 687.75 nm} and {764 and 779.9 nm} represent 02 B- and A-bands (and their references) channels; they will be used for cloud height measurements over land and ocean. The B-band channel will contribute to the more absorbing A-band measurements over bright vegetation. A pair {680 and 779.9 nm} will be used for retrieving vegetation properties. Due to the special EPIC geometry, the illuminated part of the leaves will be always observed. As a result, in additional to the traditional Leaf Area Index (LAI), these observations for the first time will provide the sunlit fraction of LAI. Since the sunlit and shaded leaves exhibit different photosynthetic response to incident radiation, these measurements will help to improve global ecological and biogeochemistry models. Finally, a pair {443 and 551 nm} will be used for atmospheric correction. As a by-product of the atmospheric correction algorithm, we also expect to get aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and surface bidirectional reflection function (BRF). The presentation will briefly overview the proposed science algorithms.

  20. Risk in the Ryukyu Islands: Joint Planning for Okinawa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-25

    Hagushi landings and overcome its associated risks. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Joint Operational Planning, Operational Art, Operation Iceberg, Okinawa. 16...The decision to recognize the benefits associated with the Hagushi landings, considering the potential consequences, displayed sound operational...across the joint force to produce an operational approach to exploit the benefits of the Hagushi landings and overcome its associated risks. iv

  1. American Epic: Then and Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Nathan

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the epic of America as frontier and vast land of freedom has been replaced by an epic that emphasizes racial and ethnic diversity in America, whether in an optimistic or pessimistic mood. The old epic was connected with an available frontier, but the new epic is city-centered in the stories of minorities. (SLD)

  2. EPIC/JANUS user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-30

    EPIC/JANUS, the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Publication and Interactive Composition System, is a software system the allows text, tables, halftones, and graphics to be combined interactively in a single document. In essence, it automates the entire process of composition and production of camera-ready copy. EPIC is a machine-independent document management and translation system developed by EIA. JANUS is an interactive document composition system which formats and typesets a document. This User's Guide provides complete information on how to use the EPIC/JANUS system. Included in the discussion are sections on getting started, the EPIC system and EIA Standard Text Codes, EPIC interactive commands, graphics in EPIC/JANUS, tables in EPIC/JANUS, EPIC Error messages, MVS and VM listings from EPIC/JANUS, using JANUS interactively, mathematical formula, and producing EPIC/JANUS publications through a displaywriter. Appendices contain a quick reference guide to text codes and text code examples. (DWL)

  3. EPICS system: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, J.F.; Bobbitt, J.S.; Kramper, B.J.; Lahey, T.E.; MacKinnon, B.A.; West, R.E.

    1984-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of the EPICS control system at FERMILAB. EPICS is a distributed, multi-user, interactive system for the control and monitoring of particle beamlines at a high-energy experimental physics laboratory. The overview discusses the operating environment of the control system, the requirements which determined the design decisions, the hardware and software configurations, and plans for the future growth and enhancement of the present system. This paper is the first of three related papers on the EPICS system. The other two cover (1) the system structure and user interface and (2) RSX implementation issues.

  4. Hawaii-Okinawa Building Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, I.; Salasovich, J.

    2013-05-01

    NREL conducted energy evaluations at the Itoman City Hall building in Itoman, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the Hawaii State Capitol building in Honolulu, Hawaii. This report summarizes the findings from the evaluations, including the best practices identified at each site and opportunities for improving energy efficiency and renewable energy. The findings from this evaluation are intended to inform energy efficient building design, energy efficiency technology, and management protocols for buildings in subtropical climates.

  5. Perspectives on Epic Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    1999-07-14

    An electron-proton/ion polarized beam collider (EPIC) with high luminosity and center of mass energy square root s = 25 GeV would be a valuable facility for fundamental studies of proton and nuclear structure and tests of quantum chromodynamics, I review a sample of prospective EPIC topics, particularly semi-exclusive reactions, studies of the proton fragmentation region, heavy quark electroproduction, and a new probe of odderon/pomeron interference.

  6. EPIC: A Framework for Using Video Games in Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrier, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Ethics education can potentially be supplemented through the use of video games. This article proposes a novel framework (Ethics Practice and Implementation Categorization [EPIC] Framework), which helps educators choose games to be used for ethics education purposes. The EPIC Framework is derived from a number of classic moral development,…

  7. EPIC: A Framework for Using Video Games in Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrier, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Ethics education can potentially be supplemented through the use of video games. This article proposes a novel framework (Ethics Practice and Implementation Categorization [EPIC] Framework), which helps educators choose games to be used for ethics education purposes. The EPIC Framework is derived from a number of classic moral development,…

  8. Inflammatory potential of the diet and mortality in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain).

    PubMed

    Agudo, Antonio; Masegú, Raquel; Bonet, Catalina; Jakszyn, Paula; Quirós, J Ramon; Ardanaz, Eva; Moreno-Iribas, Conchi; Barricarte, Aurelio; Amiano, Pilar; Arriola, Larraitz; Chamosa, Saioa; Dorronsoro, Miren; Larrañaga, Nerea; Navarro, Carmen; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Cirera, Lluís; Gavrila, Diana; Huerta, José-María; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Sánchez, María-José

    2017-08-01

    Low-grade chronic inflammation is associated with several chronic conditions, and diet is known to play a role in chronic inflammation. We aimed to evaluate the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and mortality in the Spanish population from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain). The study included 41 199 participants (62% female) aged 29-69 years from five Spanish regions. During 18 years of follow-up 3316 deaths were identified. The dietary inflammatory potential was assessed by means of an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD), calculated using 30 dietetic components and their corresponding inflammatory scores (weights). The association between the ISD and mortality was analyzed by multivariate Cox regression models. There was a significant association between ISD and mortality: subjects classified in the fifth quintile of the ISD (more proinflammatory diets) had a hazard ratio of 1.42 (95%-confidence interval 1.25-1.60) as compared with those in the first quintile; the corresponding figures were 1.89 (1.48-2.40) for cardiovascular diseases mortality and 1.44 (1.22-1.69) for death by cancer. Consuming more proinflammatory diets, expressed by means of the ISD, is associated with higher mortality; this effect seems to be stronger for deaths by cardiovascular diseases. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Progress in infant health in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hokama, Tomiko; Binns, Colin

    2012-07-01

    The infant mortality rate (IMR) and neonatal mortality rate (NMR) defined as the number of infant and newborn deaths per 1000 live births, respectively, are widely accepted as population indicators of the level of perinatal and postnatal health. Since the end of World War II, Japan has made substantial progress in reducing its IMR and NMR. This resulted from improving living standards and the provision of universal maternal and child health care (MCH) services. Okinawa, the island prefecture that is the furthest from mainland Japan, had the third highest IMR and the highest low-birth-weight rate (LBW) among all prefectures when its statistics were integrated into Japan in 1973. Even though the LBW rate in Okinawa has remained higher than the all-Japan average, Okinawa has shown a considerable improvement in IMR and NMR. The aim is to review the trends in IMR, NMR, and LBW in Japan and Okinawa and to discuss sociodemographic trends, economics, and the provision of health care services. The IMR and NMR in Okinawa decreased during that time from 14.8 to 2.4 and from 7.5 to 0.8, respectively. The LBW rate decreased until the mid-1980s, but since then it has increased to 11.5 (Okinawa) and 9.6 (Japan) in 2009. Okinawa's public health and primary health care model for infants has been very successful and may be applicable to child health in island nations of the Asia-Pacific region.

  10. EPICS-DDS

    SciTech Connect

    Malitsky,N.; Shah, J.; Hasabnis, N.

    2009-05-04

    This paper presents a new extension to EPICS, approaching the Data Distributed Service (DDS) interface based on the Channel Access protocol. DDS is the next generation of middleware industrial standards, bringing a data-centric publish-subscribe paradigm to distributed control systems. In comparison with existing middleware technologies, the data-centric approach is able to provide a consistent consolidated model supporting difference data dissemination scenarios and integrating many important issues, such as quality of service, user-specific data structures, and others. The paper considers different features of the EPICS-DDS layer in the context of the high-level accelerator environment.

  11. Tectonic evolution of the northernmost Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oiwane, H.; Tonai, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Kiyokawa, S.; Tokuyama, H.

    2007-12-01

    Over the last decades, mechanism of backarc opening has been the subject of controversy. Okinawa Trough has been noticed as an incipient continental backarc basin. So far studies on the Okinawa Trough have been conducted mainly in its southern and middle part. Nevertheless, only a few studies have been conducted on the relationship between geologic structures and the tectonic evolution of northernmost Okinawa Trough. Our main object is to consider the tectonic evolution of the Okinawa Trough by means of structural geology, not only in ocean but also land area. We executed seismic reflection survey in northernmost Okinawa trough and investigated fault systems on Koshikijima islands located on northeastern edge of the Okinawa Trough. Then we compared geologic structures on land and sea floor. First of all, we interpreted seismic reflection data acquired by hydraulic department of Japan Coast Guard in northernmost Okinawa Trough in 1975. Furthermore, we executed multi-channel seismic reflection survey in this area (KT06-03, KT07-03 cruise). NNE and ENE trending fault systems were recognized. It is clear that Northernmost Okinawa Trough has been subsided by activation of NNE trending fault system at the east edge of trough basin with several hundred meters of displacement. The ENE trending fault system has displacement in the surface sediment, which means they are active faults. On the other hand, we held on-land field survey in northern part of the Koshikijima Islands. Fault system, which can be related to the Okinawa Trough, is reported in this area (Inoue et al., 1982). So we focused on that NNE trending normal fault system (F2 fault system). On the basis of crosscut relationship and K-Ar dating of fault rocks and dikes, F2 fault system was formed after late Miocene and likely to have been formed in a shallow underground. F2 fault system on Koshikijima islands and NNE trending fault systems in the Okinawa Trough have similar strike, displaced direction and

  12. EPIC'S PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPIC completes approximately 150 site characterizations annually using current and historical aerial photographs. This work is done in support of EPA Regional and Program
    offices. Site characterization provides detailed information about a site and its history, often going ba...

  13. EPICS personal computer evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Kramper, B.; MacKinnon, B.

    1984-02-01

    This document is an evaluation of five personal computers to be used as intelligent terminals on the beamline control system (EPICS). It is not intended to be a general comment on the computers themselves. Rather, it is an evaluation of these computers for a specific need. Nevertheless, this document should be useful for those considering the acquisition of a personal computer.

  14. EPIC'S PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPIC completes approximately 150 site characterizations annually using current and historical aerial photographs. This work is done in support of EPA Regional and Program
    offices. Site characterization provides detailed information about a site and its history, often going ba...

  15. The Owens Valley Epics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Donald

    2007-01-01

    One of the best-studied, least-discussed texts of Native American oral literature is a long Mojave "epic" taken down from a man named Inyo-kutavere by Alfred Kroeber in 1902 and published in 1951. The text was published in twenty-nine pages along with forty-eight pages of commentary and twenty-five pages of notes. In 1999, Arthur Hatto, an…

  16. EPIC Computer Cards

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-29

    ISS030-E-017776 (29 Dec. 2011) --- Working in chorus with the International Space Station team in Houston?s Mission Control Center, this astronaut and his Expedition 30 crewmates on the station install a set of Enhanced Processor and Integrated Communications (EPIC) computer cards in one of seven primary computers onboard. The upgrade will allow more experiments to operate simultaneously, and prepare for the arrival of commercial cargo ships later this year.

  17. The Owens Valley Epics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Donald

    2007-01-01

    One of the best-studied, least-discussed texts of Native American oral literature is a long Mojave "epic" taken down from a man named Inyo-kutavere by Alfred Kroeber in 1902 and published in 1951. The text was published in twenty-nine pages along with forty-eight pages of commentary and twenty-five pages of notes. In 1999, Arthur Hatto, an…

  18. Comments on dietary restriction, Okinawa diet and longevity.

    PubMed

    Gavrilova, Natalia S; Gavrilov, Leonid A

    2012-01-01

    Longevity in Okinawa is considered to be a result of traditional low calorie diet. Le Bourg suggests that Okinawa is an example of severe malnutrition, which is harmful for later generations. We believe that current loss of longevity advantage in Okinawa is a result of diet westernization and that the dietary restriction is a valid way of life extension in humans.

  19. Comments on Dietary Restriction, Okinawa Diet and Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilova, Natalia S.; Gavrilov, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Longevity in Okinawa is considered to be a result of traditional low calorie diet. Le Bourg suggests that Okinawa is an example of severe malnutrition, which is harmful for later generations. We believe that current loss of longevity advantage in Okinawa is a result of diet westernization and that the dietary restriction is a valid way of life extension in humans. PMID:21893946

  20. Tectonic evolution and volcanism of Okinawa Trough

    SciTech Connect

    Sibuet, J.C.; Letouzey, J.; Marsset, B.; Davagnier, M.; Foucher, J.P.; Bougault, H.; Dosso, L.; Maury, R.; Joron, J.L.

    1986-07-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a back-arc basin formed by extension of the east China continental lithosphere behind the Ryukyu Trench system. The age of marine deposits drilled in the northern Okinawa Trough indicates a Miocene age for the splitting of the volcanic arc and the first tensional movements. The POP 1 cruise of the R/V Jean-Charcot (September-October 1984) provided new evidence concerning the two main periods of extension as recognized by Kimura (Marine and Petroleum Geology, 1985). Tilted fault blocks in the northern Okinawa Trough trend north 40/sup 0/-60/sup 0/ and belong to the early Pleistocene phase (2-0.5 Ma). The present-day phase is characterized over the entire basin by normal faults oriented 80/sup 0/N in the north and 90/sup 0/N in the south. In the southern Okinawa Trough, most of the deformation occurs along linear, subparallel, en echelon depressions intruded by volcanic ridges associated with positive magnetic anomalies. The system of volcanic ridges ends northeast of Okinawa Island in a series of parallel volcanic ridges named the VAMP (Volcanic arc-rift migration processes) area, which merges into an active volcanic chain extending north to Japan. Chemical analyses of the vesicular basalts dredged on the back-arc basin display flat to enriched rare-earth patterns. The niobium-tantalum negative anomalies reflect a subduction signature. A good positive correlation between strontium isotopic compositions and concentrations suggests a contamination effect.

  1. Genetic diversity and phylogeny of the endangered Okinawa Rail, Gallirallus okinawae.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Kiyoaki; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamagishi, Satoshi

    2010-02-01

    Genetic diversity of the wild population of the endangered Okinawa Rail, Gallirallus okinawae, was revealed by analyzing haplotypes in the mitochondrial control region for 177 individuals. We found 6 haplotypes with nucleotide differences at 6 sites. The four major haplotypes, Type 1 to Type 4, were present in 121 (68.4%), 21 (11.9%), 8 (4.5%) and 25 individuals (14.1%), respectively. Type 5 and Type 6 were each found in one individual. The gene diversity (h) and nucleotide diversity (pi) of Okinawa Rail were calculated to be 0.499 +/- 0.040 and 0.00146 +/- 0.00098, respectively. Gene diversity in Okinawa Rail is higher than that found in other endangered avian species, but the relative nucleotide diversity is lower due to few nucleotide differences among the haplotypes. Our sample of 177 individuals represents 20-25% of the total population, and thus allows a rigorous estimate of the population structure of Okinawa Rail, and makes it unlikely that more haplotypes would be found with additional sampling. The low nucleotide diversity in the control region may indicate that Okinawa Rail has gone through a recent bottleneck. The minimal span network of haplotypes, and the distribution pattern of sampled individuals, indicate that the number of birds with rare haplotypes, Type 5 and 6, decreased during the recent population decline caused by habitat loss and introduced predators. Our results are relevant to the current conservation program for the endangered Okinawa Rail, and perhaps for other species of flightless rails.

  2. Serum carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes as potential biomarkers of dietary intake and their relation with incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-Norfolk study123

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pinal S; Cooper, Andrew JM; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Kuhnle, Gunter GC; Kneale, Catherine K; Mulligan, Angela M; Luben, Robert N; Brage, Soren; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Forouhi, Nita G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Stable-isotope ratios of carbon (13C/12C, expressed as δ13C) and nitrogen (15N/14N, or δ15N) have been proposed as potential nutritional biomarkers to distinguish between meat, fish, and plant-based foods. Objective: The objective was to investigate dietary correlates of δ13C and δ15N and examine the association of these biomarkers with incident type 2 diabetes in a prospective study. Design: Serum δ13C and δ15N (‰) were measured by using isotope ratio mass spectrometry in a case-cohort study (n = 476 diabetes cases; n = 718 subcohort) nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)–Norfolk population-based cohort. We examined dietary (food-frequency questionnaire) correlates of δ13C and δ15N in the subcohort. HRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using Prentice-weighted Cox regression. Results: Mean (±SD) δ13C and δ15N were −22.8 ± 0.4‰ and 10.2 ± 0.4‰, respectively, and δ13C (r = 0.22) and δ15N (r = 0.20) were positively correlated (P < 0.001) with fish protein intake. Animal protein was not correlated with δ13C but was significantly correlated with δ15N (dairy protein: r = 0.11; meat protein: r = 0.09; terrestrial animal protein: r = 0.12, P ≤ 0.013). δ13C was inversely associated with diabetes in adjusted analyses (HR per tertile: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.65, 0.83; P-trend < 0.001], whereas δ15N was positively associated (HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.38; P-trend = 0.001). Conclusions: The isotope ratios δ13C and δ15N may both serve as potential biomarkers of fish protein intake, whereas only δ15N may reflect broader animal-source protein intake in a European population. The inverse association of δ13C but a positive association of δ15N with incident diabetes should be interpreted in the light of knowledge of dietary intake and may assist in identifying dietary components that are associated with health risks and benefits. PMID:24990425

  3. DSCOVR_EPIC_L1A

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-04

    DSCOVR_EPIC_L1A Full sun-light Earth images calibrated with ... 551NM 680NM 688NM 764NM 780NM DSCOVR EPIC IMAGERY L1B LAGRANGE Order Data:  Earthdata ... Guide Documents:  DSCOVR Overview EPIC Data Format Control Book DSCOVR EPIC L0L1a Processor V01 ...

  4. Using EPIC to search the OCLC Online Union Catalog in a health sciences library.

    PubMed

    Richwine, P W

    1991-01-01

    EPIC is a service that provides keyword or subject access to the OCLC Online Union Catalog (OLUC). This capability increases the success rate for title location as well as the potential uses of the OLUC. The features of the EPIC system, application of these features to the OLUC, and specific uses in health sciences libraries are described in this article.

  5. Imported malaria cases in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao; Tasato, Daisuke; Karimata, Yosuke; Nakamura, Hideta; Miyagi, Kazuya; Haranaga, Shusaku; Hirata, Tetsuo; Hokama, Akira; Cash, Haley L; Toma, Hiromu; Fujita, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in global transportation, imported malaria has become a significant public health concern in Japan. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed all imported malaria cases in Okinawa Prefecture from 1988 to 2012. In that period, 23 patients with imported malaria were admitted to the University of the Ryukyus Hospital. Malaria types observed included Plasmodium falciparum (14 cases), P. vivax (7 cases), combined P. falciparum and P. ovale (1 case), and combined P. vivax and P. malariae (1 case). All cases were resolved by anti-malarial treatment. The clinical data from these patients highlights the importance of collecting patient travel history and ensuring an adequate supply of both diagnostic test and drug treatments in Okinawa.

  6. Demographic, phenotypic, and genetic characteristics of centenarians in Okinawa and Japan: Part 1-centenarians in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Bradley J; Willcox, Donald Craig; Suzuki, Makoto

    2016-11-12

    A study of elderly Okinawans has been carried out by the Okinawa Centenarian Study (OCS) research group for over four decades. The OCS began in 1975 as a population-based study of centenarians (99-year-olds and older) and other selected elderly persons residing in the main island of the Japanese prefecture of Okinawa. As of 2015, over 1000 centenarians have been examined. By several measures of health and longevity the Okinawans can claim to be the world's healthiest and longest-lived people. In this paper we explore the demographic, phenotypic, and genetic characteristics of this fascinating population.

  7. DSCOVR_EPIC_L1B

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-04

    DSCOVR_EPIC_L1B Full sun-light Earth images, georectified to the same ... 551NM 680NM 688NM 764NM 780NM DSCOVR EPIC IMAGERY L1B LAGRANGE Order Data:  Earthdata ...   Order Data Readme Files:  EPIC Data Format Control Book SCAR-B Block:  ...

  8. EPICS system: system structure and user interface

    SciTech Connect

    West, R.E.; Bartlett, J.F.; Bobbitt, J.S.; Lahey, T.E.; Kramper, B.J.; MacKinnon, B.A.

    1984-02-01

    This paper present the user's view of and the general organization of the EPICS control system at Fermilab. Various subsystems of the EPICS control system are discussed. These include the user command language, software protection, the device database, remote computer interfaces, and several application utilities. This paper is related to two other papers on EPICS: an overview paper and a detailed implementation paper.

  9. Microbial Communities of the Okinawa Backarc Basin Subvent Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, L. D.; House, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Expedition 331 to the Okinawa backarc basin provided an opportunity to study the microbial stratigraphy within the sediments surrounding a hydrothermal vent. The Okinawa backarc basin is a sedimented region of the seafloor located on a continental margin, and also hosts a hydrothermal network within the subsurface. Site C0014 within the Iheya North hydrothermal field is located 450 m east of the active vent and has a surface temperature of 5°C with no evidence of hydrothermal alteration within the top 10 m. Temperature increases with depth at an estimated rate of 3°C/m and transitions from non-hydrothermal margin sediments to a hydrothermally altered regime below 10 m. Site C0014 is a unique location to study changes in microbial communities with depth, as the hydrothermal system generates a thermally and geochemically restrictive subvent biosphere. In this study, we utilized deep 16S rRNA sequencing of DNA from IODP Expedition 331 Site C0014 sediment horizons in order to assess diversity throughout the sediment column as well as determine the potential limits of the biosphere. Analysis of the amplicon data suggests that Archaea represent a significant proportion of the indigenous community throughout the top 15 m of sediment, where Archaea then abruptly disappear. Furthermore, a deeper classification of Archaeal sequences suggests a transition from a mesophilic community to a potentially thermophilic one, where there is an increasingly stronger signal of Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG) followed by Terrestrial Hot Spring Crenarchaeotic Group (THSCG). Additionally, there are several horizons in which methanotrophy is likely supported, indicated by peaks in anaerobic methanotrophic Archaea. The cessation of Archaea as well as Chloroflexi, a common marine subsurface bacterial phylum, at approximately 15 meters below seafloor (mbsf) is suggestive of a potential boundary within Site C0014 in which the environmental conditions have become too restrictive

  10. Industrial partnerships yield EPIC results

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.

    1996-08-01

    With a new era of competition approaching in the electricity supply industry, utilities are getting closer than ever to their industrial customers, in many cases making direct alliances as partners to help customers become more efficient, productive, and competitive. The EPRI Partnership for Industrial Competitiveness (EPIC) program aims to help industrial customers address critical priorities in environmental impact, efficiency, and productivity with the ultimate goals of long-term profitability and job retention. By offering in-plant consultant evaluations of systems and processes, EPIC helps industrial customers develop strategic insights into their operations and leverage technology and productivity solutions for competitive business advantage.

  11. Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    EPIC is a NASA mission being studied to detect and characterize Jovian and superEarth planets, and, the dust/debris disks surrounding the parent star. It will be launched into a heliocentric Earth trailing orbit and operate for 5 years. EPIC would operate over the wavelength range of 480 - 960 nm with spectral resolutions of R < 50 and employs a visible nulling coronagraph (VNC) to suppress the starlight, yielding contrast ratios of greater than 9 orders of magnitude. We will discuss the science mission, and its role in the search for habitable planets.

  12. Reproductive cycle observation of the Okinawa rail (Gallirallus okinawae) in the wild.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Manabu; Nagamine, Takashi; Nakaya, Yumiko; Neagari, Yasuko

    2011-09-01

    The captive breeding program of the Okinawa rail started in 2008. For successful captive breeding, information related to reproduction, such as age at sexual maturity, testicular cycles and ovulatory cycles, is essential to predict when reproduction is possible and when certain reproductive behaviors are most likely to occur. We made gross and histological observations of the reproductive organs of Okinawa rails to gain understanding of sexual maturity, the testicular cycle and the ovulatory cycle. We found that the weight of the testis was smallest in December and largest in March. Changes in the diameter of the seminiferous tubule showed the same pattern. Mature sperm were observed from March to June. The heaviest ovary was observed in April. A single peak of reproduction, from March to April, was observed in males and females. Our observations suggested that the Okinawa rail is a seasonal breeder. Establishing suitable breeding pairs will be critical to ensure success of the Okinawa rail captive breeding program. Our results suggested that pairing must be started before March. If supportive breeding is used, semen should be collected from March to June and artificial insemination conducted in April.

  13. Epidemiology of hip fractures in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Arakaki, Harumi; Owan, Ichiro; Kudoh, Hirohisa; Horizono, Hidehiro; Arakaki, Kaoru; Ikema, Yasunari; Shinjo, Hirotaka; Hayashi, Kaori; Kanaya, Fuminori

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the current incidence of hip fractures in Okinawa prefecture and compared the data with those obtained in our previous study, which was conducted using similar methods in 1987/1988. All patients, aged 50 years or older and residing in Okinawa, admitted to Okinawa hospitals in 2004 for a fresh hip fracture were identified from hospital registries. Details were obtained from the medical records and radiographs of all patients and classified according to fracture type (cervical or trochanteric), age, sex, and fracture location. Subtrochanteric fractures and pathological fractures were excluded. A total of 1,349 patients (242 men and 1,107 women) were admitted for a fresh hip fracture in 2004. Their average age was 76.9 years for men and 82.4 years for women. There were 671 cervical fractures, 654 trochanteric fractures, and 24 unclassified proximal femoral fractures. Comparing the data from 1987/1988 to those from 2004, the total number of hip fractures increased by 188%, from 469 to 1,349. The age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000, standardized to the 2000 US population, were 75.7 and 296.1 in 1987/1988 and 123.6 and 420 in 2004 for men and women, respectively. The incidence rates in all age groups (at 5-year intervals) were higher in 2004 than in 1987/1988, indicating that people 50 years of age or older became more susceptible to hip fractures. Accordingly, the accretion of the hip fracture incidence rate was greater than that which could be explained purely by changes in population size and structure.

  14. EPICS: Channel Access security design

    SciTech Connect

    Kraimer, M.; Hill, J.

    1994-05-01

    This document presents the design for implementing the requirements specified in: EPICS -- Channel Access Security -- functional requirements, Ned. D. Arnold, 03/09/92. Use of the access security system is described along with a summary of the functional requirements. The programmer`s interface is given. Security protocol is described and finally aids for reading the access security code are provided.

  15. [Three Cases of Tsutsugamushi Disease in Miyakojima Island, Okinawa, Japan].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kei; Shinzato, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Tsutsugamushi disease (Scrub thyphus) has been reported from all over Japan except the Hokkaido area. In Okinawa, only one patient was reported in 2001, who was infected outside Okinawa Prefecture. The first case infected in Okinawa was reported at Miyakojima Island in 2008. We report herein on the second case diagnosed in 2010, and the third and fourth in 2011, and all three patients were suspected to have been infected at Ikemajima Island adjacent to the island of Miyakojima. The patients recovered without any severe complications after antibiotic therapy with tetracyclines. We should take Tsutsugamushi disease into consideration in the differential diagnosis for a patient with fever, skin rash, and/or eschar even in the Okinawa area. Implementation of appropriate information and education about the disease should be carried out for local residents and tourists.

  16. An Epidemiological Analysis of Summer Influenza Epidemics in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, Satoko; Iha, Yoshikazu; Taira, Katsuya; Okano, Sho; Kinjo, Takeshi; Higa, Futoshi; Kuba, Kazufumi; Tateyama, Masao; Nakamura, Katsunori; Nakamura, Shota; Motooka, Daisuke; Horii, Toshihiro; Parrott, Gretchen L; Fujita, Jiro

    Objective This study evaluates the difference between winter influenza and summer influenza in Okinawa. Methods From January 2007 to June 2014, weekly rapid antigen test (RAT) results performed in four acute care hospitals were collected for the surveillance of regional influenza prevalence in the Naha region of the Okinawa Islands. Results An antigenic data analysis revealed that multiple H1N1 and H3N2 viruses consistently co-circulate in Okinawa, creating synchronized seasonal patterns and a high genetic diversity of influenza A. Additionally, influenza B viruses play a significant role in summer epidemics, almost every year. To further understand influenza epidemics during the summer in Okinawa, we evaluated the full genome sequences of some representative human influenza A and influenza B viruses isolated in Okinawa. Phylogenetic data analysis also revealed that multiple H1N1 and H3N2 viruses consistently co-circulate in Okinawa. Conclusion This surveillance revealed a distinct epidemic pattern of seasonal and pandemic influenza in this subtropical region.

  17. An Epidemiological Analysis of Summer Influenza Epidemics in Okinawa

    PubMed Central

    Sunagawa, Satoko; Iha, Yoshikazu; Taira, Katsuya; Okano, Sho; Kinjo, Takeshi; Higa, Futoshi; Kuba, Kazufumi; Tateyama, Masao; Nakamura, Katsunori; Nakamura, Shota; Motooka, Daisuke; Horii, Toshihiro; Parrott, Gretchen L.; Fujita, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study evaluates the difference between winter influenza and summer influenza in Okinawa. Methods From January 2007 to June 2014, weekly rapid antigen test (RAT) results performed in four acute care hospitals were collected for the surveillance of regional influenza prevalence in the Naha region of the Okinawa Islands. Results An antigenic data analysis revealed that multiple H1N1 and H3N2 viruses consistently co-circulate in Okinawa, creating synchronized seasonal patterns and a high genetic diversity of influenza A. Additionally, influenza B viruses play a significant role in summer epidemics, almost every year. To further understand influenza epidemics during the summer in Okinawa, we evaluated the full genome sequences of some representative human influenza A and influenza B viruses isolated in Okinawa. Phylogenetic data analysis also revealed that multiple H1N1 and H3N2 viruses consistently co-circulate in Okinawa. Conclusion This surveillance revealed a distinct epidemic pattern of seasonal and pandemic influenza in this subtropical region. PMID:27980256

  18. Can we improve breast cancer mortality in Okinawa? Consensus of the 7th Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Kentaro; Tamaki, Nobumitsu; Kamada, Yoshihiko; Uehara, Kano; Zaha, Hisamitsu; Onomura, Mai; Ueda, Makoto; Kurashita, Kaname; Miyazato, Keiko; Higa, Junko; Miyara, Kyuichiro; Shiraishi, Makiko; Murayama, Shigemi; Ishida, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    The rate of breast cancer mortality in Okinawa has gradually been increasing up to 2010. Now Okinawa has the second worst mortality rate in Japan, in part due to the enormous dietary changes resulting from the post-World War II US military occupation, high incidence of obesity, high non-optimal treatment rate, and low breast-cancer screening rate. To reduce breast cancer mortality in Okinawa, we established the Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting (OBOM) in 2012. At the 7th OBOM held on January 10th, 2014, we discussed the breast cancer mortality in Okinawa focusing on lifestyle, breast cancer screening and optimal treatments. The Okinawan women who were overweight and/or obese during premenopausal and postmenopausal ages had a statistically significant higher risk of breast cancer development compared to those with non-overweight and/or obese women. The traditional diet of Okinawa consists of foods low in calories but rich in nutritional value. Therefore, we recommend Okinawan people not to forget the Okinawan traditional lifestyle, and to reduce their bodyweight to prevent breast cancer. One of the main goals of the OBOM is to raise breast cancer screening attendance rates to 50% (29.2% in 2010). We should standardize the quality control for breast cancer screening in Okinawa. It is important to continue enlightening the Okinawan population to receive optimal treatment. In addition, we are striving to establish systematic medical cooperation between the hospitals specializing in breast cancer treatment with rural hospitals. The OBOM group endeavors to contribute to the improvement of breast cancer mortality in Okinawa.

  19. EPICS release 3.11 specific documentation -- EPICS release notes for 3.11

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-19

    EPICS release 3.11 is now ready for user testing. A person who wants to set up a simplified application environment to boot an IOC and create databases using R3.11 should follow the directions in Appendix B, page 27, of the EPICS Source/Release Control Manual, Sept. 20, 1993. The R3.11 EPICS path at ANL/APS is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11 so the command to get the new release is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11/Unix/share/bin/getrel /net/phebos/epics/R3.11. An existing R3.8 short form report can be copied to this new directory and used to create a database. ANL/APS is currently testing an Application Developers Source/Release control system. It is not yet ready for general distribution. Attached are the EPICS R3.11 release notes.

  20. Intermediate and deep water formation in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Hirohiko; Nishina, Ayako; Liu, Zhaojun; Tanaka, Fumiyo; Wimbush, Mark; Park, Jae-Hun

    2013-12-01

    Water mass formation in the intermediate and deep layers of the Okinawa Trough is investigated using two distinct data sets: a quasi-climatological data set of the water properties of the minimum salinity surface produced from Argo float profiles and historical CTD data, and a velocity data set in the Kerama Gap measured by moored current meters during June 2009 to June 2011. The formation process of Okinawa Trough Intermediate Water is explained on the basis of horizontal advection and mixing of North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) and South China Sea Intermediate Water (SCSIW). The salinity-minimum water intruding into the Okinawa Trough through the channel east of Taiwan is approximately composed of 45% NPIW and 55% SCSIW, while that through the Kerama Gap is 75% NPIW and 25% SCSIW. Salinities of these water masses increase in the Okinawa Trough due to strong diapycnal diffusion; its coefficient is estimated as 6.8-21.5 × 10-4 m2 s-1 based on a simple advection-diffusion equation. On the other hand, deep water in the Okinawa Trough, below the sill depth of the Kerama Gap (˜1100 m), is ventilated by overflow in the bottom layer of the Kerama Gap down to the deepest layer (˜2000 m) in the southern Okinawa Trough. A simple box model predicts that this bottom overflow (0.18-0.35 Sv) causes strong upwelling (3.8-7.6 × 10-6 m s-1) in the southern Okinawa Trough, which must be maintained by buoyancy gain of the deep water due to strong diapycnal diffusion (4.8-9.5 × 10-4 m2 s-1).

  1. NASA Captures 'EPIC' Earth Image

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    A NASA camera on the Deep Space Climate Observatory satellite has returned its first view of the entire sunlit side of Earth from one million miles away. This color image of Earth was taken by NASA’s Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC), a four megapixel CCD camera and telescope. The image was generated by combining three separate images to create a photographic-quality image. The camera takes a series of 10 images using different narrowband filters -- from ultraviolet to near infrared -- to produce a variety of science products. The red, green and blue channel images are used in these color images. The image was taken July 6, 2015, showing North and Central America. The central turquoise areas are shallow seas around the Caribbean islands. This Earth image shows the effects of sunlight scattered by air molecules, giving the image a characteristic bluish tint. The EPIC team is working to remove this atmospheric effect from subsequent images. Once the instrument begins regular data acquisition, EPIC will provide a daily series of Earth images allowing for the first time study of daily variations over the entire globe. These images, available 12 to 36 hours after they are acquired, will be posted to a dedicated web page by September 2015. The primary objective of DSCOVR, a partnership between NASA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Air Force, is to maintain the nation’s real-time solar wind monitoring capabilities, which are critical to the accuracy and lead time of space weather alerts and forecasts from NOAA. For more information about DSCOVR, visit: www.nesdis.noaa.gov/DSCOVR/

  2. Cloud Detection with the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Kerry; Marshak, Alexander; Lyapustin, Alexei; Torres, Omar; Wang, Yugie

    2011-01-01

    The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) on board the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) would provide a unique opportunity for Earth and atmospheric research due not only to its Lagrange point sun-synchronous orbit, but also to the potential for synergistic use of spectral channels in both the UV and visible spectrum. As a prerequisite for most applications, the ability to detect the presence of clouds in a given field of view, known as cloud masking, is of utmost importance. It serves to determine both the potential for cloud contamination in clear-sky applications (e.g., land surface products and aerosol retrievals) and clear-sky contamination in cloud applications (e.g., cloud height and property retrievals). To this end, a preliminary cloud mask algorithm has been developed for EPIC that applies thresholds to reflected UV and visible radiances, as well as to reflected radiance ratios. This algorithm has been tested with simulated EPIC radiances over both land and ocean scenes, with satisfactory results. These test results, as well as algorithm sensitivity to potential instrument uncertainties, will be presented.

  3. First observations of volcanic eruption clouds from L1 by DSCOVR/EPIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carn, S. A.; Krotkov, N. A.; Taylor, S.; Fisher, B. L.; Li, C.; Hughes, E. J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Prata, F.

    2016-12-01

    Volcanic emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ash have been measured by ultraviolet (UV) sensors on US and European polar-orbiting satellites since the late 1970s. Although successful, the main limitation of these UV observations from low-Earth orbit has been poor temporal resolution. Timeliness can be crucial when detecting hazardous volcanic eruption clouds that threaten aviation, and most operational geostationary satellites cannot detect SO2, a key tracer of volcanic plumes. In 2015, the launch of the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) aboard the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) provided the first opportunity to observe volcanic clouds from the L1 Lagrange point. EPIC is a 10-band spectroradiometer spanning UV to near-IR wavelengths with two UV channels sensitive to SO2, and a ground resolution of 25 km. The unique L1 vantage point provides continuous observations of the sunlit Earth disk, potentially offering multiple daily observations of volcanic SO2 and ash clouds in the EPIC field of view. When coupled with complementary retrievals from polar-orbiting UV and infrared (IR) sensors such as the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS), and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the increased observation frequency afforded by DSCOVR/EPIC will permit more timely volcanic eruption detection, improved trajectory modeling, and novel analyses of the temporal evolution of volcanic clouds. We demonstrate the sensitivity of EPIC UV radiances to volcanic clouds using examples from the first year of EPIC observations including the December 2015 paroxysmal eruption of Etna volcano (Italy). When combined with OMI and OMPS measurements, the EPIC SO2 data permit hourly tracking of the Etna eruption cloud as it drifts away from the volcano. We also describe ongoing efforts to adapt existing UV backscatter (BUV) algorithms to produce operational EPIC SO2 and Ash Index (AI) products.

  4. Experience using EPICS on PC platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.O.; Kasemire, K.U.

    1998-03-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been widely adopted in the accelerator community. Although EPICS is available on many platforms, the majority of implementations have used UNIX workstations as clients, and VME- or VXI-based processors for distributed input output controllers. Recently, a significant portion of EPICS has been ported to personal computer (PC) hardware platforms running Microsoft`s operating systems, and also Wind River System`s real time vxWorks operating system. This development should significantly reduce the cost of deploying EPICS systems, and the prospect of using EPICS together with the many high quality commercial components available for PC platforms is also encouraging. A hybrid system using both PC and traditional platforms is currently being implemented at LANL for LEDA, the low energy demonstration accelerator under construction as part of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project. To illustrate these developments the authors compare their recent experience deploying a PC-based EPICS system with experience deploying similar systems based on traditional (UNIX-hosted) EPICS hardware and software platforms.

  5. Integrating commercial and legacy systems with EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.O.; Kasemir, K.U.; Kowalkowski, J.B.

    1997-09-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is a software toolkit, developed by a worldwide collaboration, which significantly reduces the level of effort required to implement a new control system. Recent developments now also significantly reduce the level of effort required to integrate commercial, legacy and/or site-authored control systems with EPICS. This paper will illustrate with an example both the level and type of effort required to use EPICS with other control system components as well as the benefits that may arise.

  6. Dengue virus presence and surveillance in Okinawa (Review).

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Onodera, Takashi; Shintani, Hideharu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that the dengue virus (DENV) is a serious concern worldwide, especially in subtropical areas such as South-East Asia. With the development of transportation systems, the risk of DENV infection spreading is increasing. Since mosquitoes transmit DENV to humans, surveillance of DENV-infected mosquito vectors is the most effective approach for preventing DENV. Okinawa is the only prefecture located in a subtropical region in Japan and historically shows continuous importation of DENV-related mosquito vectors. In this review, we describe the current and historical status of DENV in Okinawa.

  7. Dengue virus presence and surveillance in Okinawa (Review)

    PubMed Central

    SAKUDO, AKIKAZU; ONODERA, TAKASHI; SHINTANI, HIDEHARU; IKUTA, KAZUYOSHI

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that the dengue virus (DENV) is a serious concern worldwide, especially in subtropical areas such as South-East Asia. With the development of transportation systems, the risk of DENV infection spreading is increasing. Since mosquitoes transmit DENV to humans, surveillance of DENV-infected mosquito vectors is the most effective approach for preventing DENV. Okinawa is the only prefecture located in a subtropical region in Japan and historically shows continuous importation of DENV-related mosquito vectors. In this review, we describe the current and historical status of DENV in Okinawa. PMID:22969837

  8. The challenge to reduce breast cancer mortality in Okinawa: consensus of the first Okinawa breast oncology meeting.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Kentaro; Tamaki, Nobumitsu; Kamada, Yoshihiko; Uehara, Kano; Zaha, Hisamitsu; Onomura, Mai; Gushimiyagi, Masanori; Kurashita, Kaname; Miyazato, Keiko; Tengan, Hiromu; Miyara, Kyuichiro; Ishida, Takanori

    2013-02-01

    Breast cancer mortality is gradually increasing in Okinawa. The 1st Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting was held on 6 July 2012 and discussions on how to curb the rising trend were focused on breast cancer screening, adjuvant treatment, socioeconomic and geographic issues, and the problem of complementary and alternative medicine. The consensus of the 1st Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting was that ultrasonography screening is an acceptable screening system for Okinawan women because of the geographic disadvantage of having many small islands and rural areas. Educational and economic support is needed for women in rural areas to get correct information, for access to urban areas and to be treated by evidence-based optimal therapy for breast cancer. In addition, new approaches are needed for Okinawan people to successfully educate patients to correctly interpret evidence-based information.

  9. Next generation epics interface to abstract data.

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J. O.; Lange, R.

    2001-01-01

    The set of externally visible properties associated with process variables in the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is predefined in the EPICS base distribution and is therefore not extensible by plug-compatible applications. We believe that this approach, while practical for early versions of the system with a smaller user base, is now severely limiting expansion of the high-level application tool set for EPICS. To eliminate existing barriers, we propose a new C++ based interface to abstract containerized data. This paper describes the new interface, its application to message passing in distributed systems, its application to direct communication between tightly coupled programs co-resident in an address space, and its paramount position in an emerging role for EPICS -- the integration of dissimilar systems.

  10. EPIC View of Moon Transiting the Earth

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation features actual satellite images of the far side of the moon, illuminated by the sun, as it crosses between the DSCOVR spacecraft's Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and tele...

  11. DSCOVR_EPIC_L1B_2

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-10-01

    ... Tools:  Earthdata Search:   Order Data Search and Order:   ASDC Order Tool OPeNDAP Access:   OPeNDAP ... DSCOVR EPIC IMAGERY L1B LAGRANGE Order Data:  Earthdata Search:   Order Data Guide ...

  12. Evaluation of various biomarkers as potential mediators of the association between coffee consumption and incident type 2 diabetes in the EPIC-Potsdam Study.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Simone; Kröger, Janine; Floegel, Anna; Boeing, Heiner; Drogan, Dagmar; Pischon, Tobias; Fritsche, Andreas; Prehn, Cornelia; Adamski, Jerzy; Isermann, Berend; Weikert, Cornelia; Schulze, Matthias B

    2014-09-01

    The inverse association between coffee consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is well established; however, little is known about potential mediators of this association. We aimed to investigate the association between coffee consumption and diabetes-related biomarkers and their potential role as mediators of the association between coffee consumption and T2D. We analyzed a case-cohort study (subcohort: n = 1610; verified incident T2D cases: n = 417) nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam study involving 27,548 middle-aged participants. Habitual coffee consumption was assessed with a validated, semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. We evaluated the association between coffee consumption and several T2D-related biomarkers, such as liver markers (reflected by γ-glutamyltransferase, fetuin-A, and sex hormone-binding globulin), markers of dyslipidemia (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides), inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP)], an adipokine (adiponectin), and metabolites, stratified by sex. Coffee consumption was inversely associated with diacyl-phosphatidylcholine C32:1 in both sexes and with phenylalanine in men, as well as positively associated with acyl-alkyl-phosphatidylcholines C34:3, C40:6, and C42:5 in women. Furthermore, coffee consumption was inversely associated with fetuin-A (P-trend = 0.06) and CRP in women and γ-glutamyltransferase and triglycerides in men. Coffee consumption tended to be inversely associated with T2D risk in both sexes, reaching significance only in men [HR (95% CI): women: ≥4 compared with >0 to <2 cups coffee/d: 0.78 (0.46, 1.33); men: ≥5 compared with >0 to <2 cups coffee/d: 0.40 (0.19, 0.81)]. The association between coffee consumption and T2D risk in men was slightly reduced after adjustment for phenylalanine or lipid markers. Coffee consumption was inversely associated with a diacyl-phosphatidylcholine and liver markers in both sexes and

  13. Blood Metabolic Signatures of Body Mass Index: A Targeted Metabolomics Study in the EPIC Cohort.

    PubMed

    Carayol, Marion; Leitzmann, Michael F; Ferrari, Pietro; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Achaintre, David; Stepien, Magdalena; Schmidt, Julie A; Travis, Ruth C; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Bachlechner, Ursula; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J Ramón; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Huerta, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Agudo, Antonio; Nilsson, Jan; Melander, Olle; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Jenab, Mazda; Key, Timothy J; Scalbert, Augustin; Rinaldi, Sabina

    2017-09-01

    Metabolomics is now widely used to characterize metabolic phenotypes associated with lifestyle risk factors such as obesity. The objective of the present study was to explore the associations of body mass index (BMI) with 145 metabolites measured in blood samples in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Metabolites were measured in blood from 392 men from the Oxford (UK) cohort (EPIC-Oxford) and in 327 control subjects who were part of a nested case-control study on hepatobiliary carcinomas (EPIC-Hepatobiliary). Measured metabolites included amino acids, acylcarnitines, hexoses, biogenic amines, phosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelins. Linear regression models controlled for potential confounders and multiple testing were run to evaluate the associations of metabolite concentrations with BMI. 40 and 45 individual metabolites showed significant differences according to BMI variations, in the EPIC-Oxford and EPIC-Hepatobiliary subcohorts, respectively. Twenty two individual metabolites (kynurenine, one sphingomyelin, glutamate and 19 phosphatidylcholines) were associated with BMI in both subcohorts. The present findings provide additional knowledge on blood metabolic signatures of BMI in European adults, which may help identify mechanisms mediating the relationship of BMI with obesity-related diseases.

  14. The U.S. Military Presence in Okinawa and the Futenma Base Controversy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-03

    CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress The U.S. Military Presence in Okinawa and the Futenma Base...in Okinawa and the Futenma Base Controversy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 The U.S. Military Presence in Okinawa and the Futenma Base Controversy Congressional Research

  15. Collaborative development of the EPICS Qt framework Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayssat, Robert E.

    2015-01-15

    At Lyncean, a private company spun-off from technology developed at the SLAC National Lab, we have been using EPICS for over a decade. EPICS is ubiquitous on our flagship product – the Compact Light Source. EPICS is not only used to control our laser and accelerator systems, but also to control our x-ray beamlines. The goal of this SBIR is for Lyncean Technologies to spearhead a worldwide collaborative effort for the development of control system tools for EPICS using the Qt framework, a C++-based coding environment that could serve as a competitive alternative to the Java-based Control System Studio (CSS). This grant's Phase I, not unlike a feasibility study, is designed for planning and scoping the preparatory work needed for Phase II or other funding opportunities. The three main objectives of this Phase I are (1) to become better acquainted with the existing EPICS Qt software and Qt framework in order to evaluate the best options for ongoing development, (2) to demonstrate that our engineers can lead the EPICS community and jump-start the Qt collaboration, and (3) to identify a scope for our future work with solicited feedback from the EPICS community. This Phase I report includes key technical findings. It clarifies the differences between the two apparently-competing EPICS Qt implementations, caQtDM and the QE Framework; it explains how to create python-bindings, and compares Qt graphical libraries. But this report is also a personal story that narrates the birth of a collaboration. Starting a collaboration is not the work of a single individual, but the work of many. Therefore this report is also an attempt to publicly give credit to many who supported the effort. The main take-away from this grant is the successful birth of an EPICS Qt collaboration, seeded with existing software from the PSI and the Australian Synchrotron. But a lot more needs to be done for the collaboration founders' vision to be realized, and for the collaboration to reach its full

  16. EPIC Simulations of Jovian Specific Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, T. E.

    1998-09-01

    The Explicit Planetary Isentropic-Coordinate (EPIC) atmospheric model has been expanded to include the specific humidities of H_2O, NH_3, NH_4SH, and CH_4 as optional prognostic variables. This permits us to study the thermodynamical effects of clouds in a global model of the gas-giant atmospheres (active ortho-para hydrogen conversion was already part of the model). We present a report on the effects of including clouds in the Jupiter EPIC model. On the hardware front, the simulations use a new 8-processor Beowulf parallel computer (2600 MHz total CPU). On the software front, the EPIC model's data format has been switched to the netCDF (Network Common Data Format) standard, for which tools exist in IDL, Matlab, and AVS, which makes it easier to analyze results and exchange files.

  17. EPICS application source/release control

    SciTech Connect

    Zieman, B.; Anderson, J.; Kraimer, M

    1995-12-31

    This manual describes a set of Application Source/Release Control tools (appSR) that can be used to develop software for EPICS based control systems. The Application Source/Release Control System (appSR) has been unbundled from base EPICS and is now available as an EPICS extension. Due to this unbundling, two new directories must be added to a user`s path (see section ``Environment`` on page 3 for more information) and a new command getapp must be issued after the getrel command to get a specific version of appSR (see section ``Creating The Initial Application System Area`` on page 7 for more information). It is now required that GNU make version 3.71 or later be used for makes instead of SUN make. Users should now type gmake instead of make.

  18. The Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, I. G.; Mandell, M. J.; Kuharski, R. A.; Davis, V. A.; Gardner, B. M.; Minor, J.

    2004-01-01

    Science Applications International Corporation is currently developing the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code, EPIC, as part of a project sponsored by the Space Environments and Effects Program at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Now in its second year of development, EPIC is an interactive computer tool that allows the construction of a 3-D spacecraft model, and the assessment of a variety of interactions between its subsystems and the plume from an electric thruster. These interactions may include erosion of surfaces due to sputtering and re-deposition of sputtered materials, surface heating, torque on the spacecraft, and changes in surface properties due to erosion and deposition. This paper describes the overall capability of EPIC and provides an outline of the physics and algorithms that comprise many of its computational modules.

  19. Epic Flooding in Georgia, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Metropolitan Atlanta-September 2009 Floods The epic floods experienced in the Atlanta area in September 2009 were extremely rare. Eighteen streamgages in the Metropolitan Atlanta area had flood magnitudes much greater than the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) annual exceedance probability. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) reported that 23 counties in Georgia were declared disaster areas due to this flood and that 16,981 homes and 3,482 businesses were affected by floodwaters. Ten lives were lost in the flood. The total estimated damages exceed $193 million (H.E. Longenecker, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., November 2009). On Sweetwater Creek near Austell, Ga., just north of Interstate 20, the peak stage was more than 6 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. Flood magnitudes in Cobb County on Sweetwater, Butler, and Powder Springs Creeks greatly exceeded the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) floods for these streams. In Douglas County, the Dog River at Ga. Highway 5 near Fairplay had a peak stage nearly 20 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. On the Chattahoochee River, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gage at Vinings reached the highest level recorded in the past 81 years. Gwinnett, De Kalb, Fulton, and Rockdale Counties also had record flooding.South Georgia March and April 2009 FloodsThe March and April 2009 floods in South Georgia were smaller in magnitude than the September floods but still caused significant damage. No lives were lost in this flood. Approximately $60 million in public infrastructure damage occurred to roads, culverts, bridges and a water treatment facility (Joseph T. McKinney, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., July 2009). Flow at the Satilla River near Waycross, exceeded the 0.5-percent (200-year) flood. Flows at seven other stations in South Georgia exceeded the 1-percent (100-year) flood.

  20. Monitoring of EPIC 204278916 requested

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2017-04-01

    Dr. Carlo Manara (ESA Science and Technology SCI-S, the Netherlands) and colleagues have requested AAVSO assistance in monitoring the young, disk-bearing low-mass (M type) pre-main-sequence star EPIC 204278916 (2MASS J16020757-2257467). Dr. Manara reports that this star showed "a very interesting dimming event in August-September 2014 which may be caused by transiting material (exo-comets like) (Scaringi et al., 2016MNRAS.463.2265S, https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/#abs/2016MNRAS.tmp.1267S/abstract). It would be very useful to know whether this event has any periodicity in order to constrain the possible scenario...The major dimming [up to 65%] we see is 1.2 mag in V, others are 0.5-0.8 mag" in V. He also notes that "the dimming event we saw lasted for some 25 days, although the most extreme event was 1 day long. Based on the noisy WASP data we have [there are] some suggestions that the event happens every 100 days, but we are not sure about it." Manara requests ongoing monitoring of this system to look for additional dimming events and to observe any that are seen, so that he and his colleagues may determine if periodicity exists in these events and to study its nature. Beginning now and continuing until further notice, nightly observations in V are requested. Weekly observations in B are also requested. If a dimming event occurs, observations in V and B at a higher cadence are requested. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (https://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

  1. User Instructions for the EPIC-3 Code.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    Johnson, G.R., D.D Colby, and D J Vavrick. "Three-Dimensional Computer Code for Dynamic Response of Solids to Intense Impulsive Loads." Internatiunal...A182 728 USER INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE EPIC-3 CODE (U) HONEYWELL INC 1/1 BROOKLYN PARK MN DEFENSE SYSTEMS DIV JOHNSON ET AL MAY 87 7-8B-6 AFATL-TR-87-iB...COed AFATL-TR-87-10 AD-A 182 728 User Instructions for the EPIC -3 Code G R Johnson R A Stryk HONEYWELL INCORPORATED DEFENSE SYSTEMS DIVISION 7225

  2. Nutritional factors for longevity in Okinawa--present and future.

    PubMed

    Mimura, G; Murakami, K; Gushiken, M

    1992-01-01

    Several factors, such as environment and heredity, are presumed to be related to longevity. Of these nutrition is believed to function as a regulatory factor. Okinawa prefecture is well known as the leading area for longevity in the world. We therefore examined present and past nutrition records together with the background of all the 88 centenarians (18 male, 70 female) who are living in Okinawa in 1991. Their leading occupation was agriculture, and they were in work until the 8th decade. They took rice or potato as carbohydrate with abundant vegetables and vegetable protein or fish protein. Although they did not take a rich diet it was well balanced, and was assumed to be related to longevity because of the decreased incidence of atherosclerosis; together with a good genetic background, suggested by the accumulation of longevity in their siblings.

  3. Declining longevity advantage and low birthweight in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Hokama, Tomiko; Binns, Colin

    2008-10-01

    The prefecture of Okinawa is known for the longevity of its population, for 30 years it had the longest life expectancy of all prefectures in Japan. However this advantage was lost in 2000 and male longevity is now ranked 26th among the 47 prefectures of Japan. The aim of this study was to explore whether the recent decline in Okinawan life expectancy advantage is due to the cohort effect of low birthweight infants becoming middle- and older- aged Okinawans. This is an observational study using existing demographic and health statistics. Data on life expectancy, mortality and low birthweight rates were obtained from the Okinawan Prefectural Department of Health and Welfare and the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. In the year 2000 the longevity advantage of Okinawan males over the Japanese mainland was lost and the relative life expectancy of females declines. The mortality ratio for heart disease has reversed showing a cohort effect, with younger Okinawans having higher death rates than those living in the rest of Japan. The low birthweight rate for Okinawa is 20% greater than mainland Japan. As the post World War cohort of low birthweight infants reaches middle age, the longevity advantage of Okinawans has been lost. The loss of the longevity advantage of Okinawa over the rest of Japan may be due to the increase in non-communicable disease in the post war cohort that has experienced a higher low birthweight rate.

  4. EPIC: Building a Structured Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westhead, Martin D.

    This paper outlines work in progress at the University of Edinburgh on the construction of a small World Wide Web-based interactive learning environment (EPIC) developed for the teaching of high performance computing. The paper begins by outlining work done in cognitive science on how people make use of structure in physical environments. Within…

  5. EPICS as a MARTe Configuration Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valcarcel, Daniel F.; Barbalace, Antonio; Neto, André; Duarte, André S.; Alves, Diogo; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Sousa, Jorge; Fernandes, Horácio; Goncalves, Bruno; Sartori, Filippo; Manduchi, Gabriele

    2011-08-01

    The Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) software provides an environment for the hard real-time execution of codes while leveraging a standardized algorithm development process. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) software allows the deployment and remote monitoring of networked control systems. Channel Access (CA) is the protocol that enables the communication between EPICS distributed components. It allows to set and monitor process variables across the network belonging to different systems. The COntrol and Data Acquisition and Communication (CODAC) system for the ITER Tokamak will be EPICS based and will be used to monitor and live configure the plant controllers. The reconfiguration capability in a hard real-time system requires strict latencies from the request to the actuation and it is a key element in the design of the distributed control algorithm. Presently, MARTe and its objects are configured using a well-defined structured language. After each configuration, all objects are destroyed and the system rebuilt, following the strong hard real-time rule that a real-time system in online mode must behave in a strictly deterministic fashion. This paper presents the design and considerations to use MARTe as a plant controller and enable it to be EPICS monitorable and configurable without disturbing the execution at any time, in particular during a plasma discharge. The solutions designed for this will be presented and discussed.

  6. Reflections on the Epic Challenge, 1989

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiers, Marion

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Marion Meiers reflects on the often-cited address "Literacy: The Epic Challenge Beyond Progressivism" by Garth Boomer at the 1989 joint National Conference of the Australian Reading Association (now the Australian Literacy Educator's Association) and the Australian Association for the Teaching of English at Darin High…

  7. Education for Change: Epic Charter School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The student-centered school model of Epic Charter School in Oakland, California, framed around a hero's journey empowers middle school students with sense of unity and purpose in life, where they can feel part of a culture with a shared experience and with more opportunities to experiences growth and accomplishment. Design and engineering is front…

  8. ET: EPICS TCL/TK interface

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, B.

    1995-02-01

    This document describes the tc1 command and command types which are used to communicate with EPICS database servers. The application libraries upon which et is built include tc1, tk, tc1-dp, and blt. The reader of this document is assumed to be familiar with tc1/tk.

  9. Education for Change: Epic Charter School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The student-centered school model of Epic Charter School in Oakland, California, framed around a hero's journey empowers middle school students with sense of unity and purpose in life, where they can feel part of a culture with a shared experience and with more opportunities to experiences growth and accomplishment. Design and engineering is front…

  10. Uncertainties in Cloud Phase and Optical Thickness Retrievals from the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Kerry; Yang, Yuekui; Platnick, Steven

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the expected uncertainties of a single channel cloud optical thickness (COT) retrieval technique, as well as a simple cloud-temperature-threshold-based thermodynamic phase approach, in support of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) mission. DSCOVR cloud products will be derived from Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) observations in the ultraviolet and visible spectra. Since EPIC is not equipped with a spectral channel in the shortwave or mid-wave infrared that is sensitive to cloud effective radius (CER), COT will be inferred from a single visible channel with the assumption of appropriate CER values for liquid and ice phase clouds. One month of Aqua MODIS daytime granules from April 2005 is selected for investigating cloud phase sensitivity, and a subset of these granules that has similar EPIC sun-view geometry is selected for investigating COT uncertainties. EPIC COT retrievals are simulated with the same algorithm as the operational MODIS cloud products (MOD06), except using fixed phase-dependent CER values. Uncertainty estimates are derived by comparing the single channel COT retrievals with the baseline bi-spectral MODIS retrievals. Results show that a single channel COT retrieval is feasible for EPIC. For ice clouds, single channel retrieval errors are minimal (less than 2 percent) due to the particle- size insensitivity of the assumed ice crystal (i.e., severely roughened aggregate of hexagonal columns) scattering properties at visible wavelengths, while for liquid clouds the error is mostly limited to within 10 percent, although for thin clouds (COT less than 2) the error can be higher. Potential uncertainties in EPIC cloud masking and cloud temperature retrievals are not considered in this study.

  11. EPICS simulation tools for control system development

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.M.; Kerstiens, D.M.; Vaughn, G.D.; Weiss, R.E.

    1994-09-01

    When developing control system software there are many times when the ability to simulate the response of the instrumentation can be very useful. Examples are: (i) when the operator interface is being designed and the users want an idea of what the finished system might took like; (ii) when the interface hardware is not yet available; (iii) when the reaction of the control system to an error condition must be tested, but the actual occurrence of such an error would cause undesirable side effects; (iv) when operators are being trained to use the system; (v) when an improvement or bug fix needs to be tested, but the running system cannot be shut down for long. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) provides tools for building simple simulations and interfacing to more complex simulations of accelerator hardware. At the lowest level an individual data channel can be switched to take its input from either a simulated data location or from the actual hardware. At a slightly higher level, sequences can be run on the real-time interface processor so that output to the hardware is intercepted and an appropriate substitute value is provided for the corresponding read-back records. At a still higher level a program can use the Channel Access software bus facility of EPICS to control some global aspect of an accelerator or can interface to an external accelerator simulation instead of the actual accelerator. The goal of testing control system software using simulated hardware is to minimize the changes required in shifting between the simulated system and the real system. The degree of success of the EPICS tools in meeting the minimum change goal will be addressed with suggestions for improvements. The implementation of simulated responses using EPICS tools will be discussed and examples of experience using the EPICS tools to create and interface to simulations will be given.

  12. The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzeng, Megan

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the last major battle of World War II that occurred at Okinawa (Japan) in 1945. Explains why the Battle of Okinawa was the turning point in World War II. Includes two maps in the appendix and an annotated bibliography. (CMK)

  13. International Collaboration and the Management of Linguistic Resources at a Diaspora Festival in Okinawa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrucci, Peter R.; Miyahira, Katsuyuki

    2009-01-01

    This article uses Jernudd and Neustupny's (1987) theory of language management to address the planning, management and distribution of linguistic resources at the 4th Worldwide Uchinaanchu Festival (WUF), a diaspora festival held in Okinawa, Japan. WUF organizers--from Okinawa and diaspora communities abroad--were concerned with both international…

  14. International Collaboration and the Management of Linguistic Resources at a Diaspora Festival in Okinawa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrucci, Peter R.; Miyahira, Katsuyuki

    2009-01-01

    This article uses Jernudd and Neustupny's (1987) theory of language management to address the planning, management and distribution of linguistic resources at the 4th Worldwide Uchinaanchu Festival (WUF), a diaspora festival held in Okinawa, Japan. WUF organizers--from Okinawa and diaspora communities abroad--were concerned with both international…

  15. Incidence of hyperlipemia in diabetics in Okinawa and its relation to ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Mimura, G; Nakamasu, J; Irie, M

    1983-12-01

    The average value for total cholesterol in the healthy population of Okinawa was significantly higher than that of Kyushu, but there were no differences in triglyceride levels. It is presumed that the difference in cholesterol levels was due to a 10 g difference in fat intake. The average values for total cholesterol and triglycerides in diabetics before treatment in both Kyushu and Okinawa were higher than in the healthy populations of Kyushu and Okinawa. The average values for total cholesterol and triglycerides in the diabetics in Okinawa were higher than those in the diabetics of Kyushu. The incidence of ischemic heart disease in diabetics in Okinawa classified by the Minnesota Code was higher than in the healthy population. It can be concluded that the development of ischemic heart disease in diabetics is influenced by both hypercholesterolemia and other metabolic disorders due to insufficiency of insulin action.

  16. Longevity and diet in Okinawa, Japan: the past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, S; Iwama, N; Kawabata, T; Hasegawa, K

    2003-01-01

    Japan has the longest life expectancy at birth (LEB) in the world. Okinawa, Japan's poorest prefecture, previously had the highest longevity indices in the country. However, the latest LEB for men in Okinawa is no higher than the national average. The purpose of this study is to examine why the longevity indices in Okinawa were once the highest in Japan, and to examine the reasons for their recent decline. In 1990, in Okinawa, the age-adjusted death rates (ADR) of the three leading causes of death were lower than their national averages. By 2000, the standard mortality ratios (SMR, Japan=100) of heart disease and cerebrovascular disease for both sexes in Okinawa had increased, compared to their 1990 levels. Both of the ADR of ischemic heart disease and the ADR of cerebrovascular disease for men increased to 45.5 and 63.5 in 2000, up from 42.9 and 59.1 in 1990, respectively, and the SMR of ischemic heart disease for men in Okinawa reached 101 in 2000. Consequently, the national ranking of Okinawa prefecture for LEB of men has dropped. As of 1988, in Okinawa, daily intake of meat and daily intake of pulses were both approximately 90 grams, which is about 20% and 30% higher than the national average, respectively. Also, as of 1988, daily intake of green and yellow vegetables in Okinawa was about 50% higher than the national average. However, by 1998, daily meat intake and fat energy ratio had surpassed 100 grams and 30%, respectively, and daily intake of pulses and green and yellow vegetables had declined to the level of the national average. Recently, young Japanese, particularly young men in Okinawa, have shown a tendency to avoid the traditional dishes of stewed meat and champuru.

  17. Investigating the effect of hydrothermal conditions on the subvent biosphere of the Okinawa backarc basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, L. D.; House, C. H.; Nunoura, T.; Yanagawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    IODP Expedition 331 to the Okinawa backarc basin provided an opportunity to study an interesting subset of the ocean floor -- the subsurface environment surrounding an active hydrothermal vent. The subsurface sediments of the Iheya North Field within the mid-Okinawa trough are affected by high temperature fluids. In addition, the Okinawa backarc basin is situated on a continental margin. This particular environment has a unique set of conditions for investigating the vertical variability in microbial communities with depth as conditions become increasingly restrictive. IODP Expedition 331 Site C0014, located 450 m east of the active vent, has a surface temperature of 5°C and has no evidence of hydrothermal alteration. Temperature increases with depth at an estimated rate of 3°C/m. Below a depth of ~10 mbsf, the sedimentary sequence is hydrothermally altered to a pale, gray clay with alteration products illite and montmorillonite. Thus, Site C0014 represents an ideal location to characterize whether 1) the microbial community structure shifts from non-hydrothermal margin microorganisms toward a more temperature-adapted group of microorganisms, or 2) repeating clades represented throughout the sediment column are seemingly adapting to the increasingly extreme conditions. DNA from sediments (0-44 mbsf) was extracted using a modified protocol from the MoBio PowerSoil DNA Isolation kit. Primers were designed to amplify the V6-V9 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Select samples were sequenced with the Roche 454 FLX sequencer at The Pennsylvania State University. The amplicon data suggest that the subvent biosphere resides in the top 12-14 meters below seafloor (mbsf). The archaeal sequences abruptly disappear beyond the 14 mbsf horizon. The phylum Euryarchaeota, dominated by Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Group 6 (DHVEG-6) and ANME-1, are present throughout the top 14 meters. However, there is an increasingly stronger signal of non-Euryarchaeota clades Marine Crenarchaeotic

  18. Addition of a Hydrological Cycle to the EPIC Jupiter Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, T. E.; Palotai, C. J.

    2002-09-01

    We present a progress report on the development of the EPIC atmospheric model to include clouds, moist convection, and precipitation. Two major goals are: i) to study the influence that convective water clouds have on Jupiter's jets and vortices, such as those to the northwest of the Great Red Spot, and ii) to predict ammonia-cloud evolution for direct comparison to visual images (instead of relying on surrogates for clouds like potential vorticity). Data structures in the model are now set up to handle the vapor, liquid, and solid phases of the most common chemical species in planetary atmospheres. We have adapted the Prather conservation of second-order moments advection scheme to the model, which yields high accuracy for dealing with cloud edges. In collaboration with computer scientists H. Dietz and T. Mattox at the U. Kentucky, we have built a dedicated 40-node parallel computer that achieves 34 Gflops (double precision) at 74 cents per Mflop, and have updated the EPIC-model code to use cache-aware memory layouts and other modern optimizations. The latest test-case results of cloud evolution in the model will be presented. This research is funded by NASA's Planetary Atmospheres and EPSCoR programs.

  19. EPIC optical design, calibration, and data correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cede, A.; Kowalewski, M. G.

    2016-12-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) observes Space Weather and Earth's Climate from a unique position at the Lagrange 1 point, where it can continuously see the sunlit-side of the Earth. The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) on board of DSCOVR takes images of the Earth in 10 ultraviolet and visible channels approximately every 75 minutes. The measurement are converted into color images and also into global maps of atmospheric parameters such as ozone and sulfur dioxide columns, aerosol properties, cloud distribution, height and thickness, as well as surface parameters such as vegetation and leaf area index. This presentation gives an overview of the EPIC optical design, the calibrations performed, and the corrections applied to the raw data to obtain corrected count rates.

  20. The success and the future of EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Thuot, M.E., Dalesio, L.R.; Clausen, M.; Katoh, T.

    1996-09-01

    During the past 5 years, the control system software toolkit EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) has developed from a small code co-development effort between LANL and ANL into an international collaboration on real-time distributed control system (for an accelerator facility, etc.). The wide application of this set of tools is the result of a combination of high performance, scaleable distributed control, and well defined open interfaces between system layers that encourage users to add extensions. These extensions can subsequently be reused by others, adding to the utility of the tools. This paper describes the architectural features that have supported these extensions, some of the new extensions produced by the 58 projects currently using EPICS and some of the new functions and interfaces being planned to be added to this control system toolkit.

  1. The success and the future of EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    M.E. Thuot; M. Clausen; L.R. Dalesio; T. Katoh; M.R. Kraimer; R. Mueller; H. Shoaee; W.A. Watson

    1996-08-01

    During the past five years, the control system software toolkit called EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System), has developed from a comparatively small code co-development effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory into an international collaboration on real-time distributed control systems. The wide application of this set of tools is the result of a combination of high performance, scaleable distributed control and well defined open interfaces between system layers that encourage users to add extensions. These extensions can subsequently be reused by others, adding to the utility of the tools. This paper will describe the architectural features that have supported these extensions, some of the new extensions produced by the 58 projects currently using EPICS and some of the new functions and interfaces we are planning to add to this control system toolkit.

  2. EPIC Aerosol Retrieval and Atmospheric Correction - Challenges, Solutions, and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, D.; Wang, Y.; Lyapustin, A.; Marshak, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) provides images of the entire sunlit face of Earth in 10 spectral channels from UV to near infrared wavelengths. At an orbit about 1.5 million kilometers from the Earth - the L1 Lagrangian point, EPIC offers a unique view of the Earth and thus is of high interest to climate, atmosphere, hydrology, and ecology studies. The unique orbit and choice of spectral channels also pose challenges for aerosol retrievals and atmospheric correction: (1) the ubiquitous presence of partial cloudiness due to EPIC's large pixel size; and (2) the potential ambiguity between aerosols and thin clouds without an infrared channel. We have adopted the MultiAngle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm to retrieve aerosol information and perform atmospheric correction for both clear and partially cloudy pixels. The key improvement on MAIAC is the introduction of spectral, spatial, and temporal constraints to estimate the contribution of subpixel clouds to the observed reflectance. The ambiguity between aerosols and thin clouds is partially resolved by using the oxygen absorption channels. The first aerosol optical depth retrievals based on two-month worth of EPIC observations are promising and agree well with those of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) with a correlation of about 0.75 and a mean bias less than 0.05. .

  3. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I Tax genotype analysis in Okinawa, the southernmost and remotest islands of Japan: Different distributions compared with mainland Japan and the potential value for the prognosis of aggressive adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Sakihama, Shugo; Saito, Mineki; Kuba-Miyara, Megumi; Tomoyose, Takeaki; Taira, Naoya; Miyagi, Takashi; Hayashi, Masaki; Kinjo, Shigeko; Nakachi, Sawako; Tedokon, Iori; Nishi, Yukiko; Tamaki, Keita; Morichika, Kazuho; Uchihara, Jun-Nosuke; Morishima, Satoko; Karube, Ken-Nosuke; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Fukushima, Takuya

    2017-10-01

    Okinawa, comprising remote islands off the mainland of Japan, is an endemic area of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1), the causative virus of adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM). We investigated the tax genotype of HTLV-1 among 29 HTLV-1 carriers, 74 ATL patients, and 33 HAM patients in Okinawa. The genotype distribution-60 (44%) taxA cases and 76 (56%) taxB cases-differed from that of a previous report from Kagoshima Prefecture in mainland Japan (taxA, 10%; taxB, 90%). A comparison of the clinical outcomes of 45 patients (taxA, 14; taxB, 31) with aggressive ATL revealed that the overall response and 1-year overall survival rates for taxA (50% and 35%, respectively) were lower than those for taxB (71% and 49%, respectively). In a multivariate analysis of two prognostic indices for aggressive ATL, Japan Clinical Oncology Group-Prognostic Index and Prognostic Index for acute and lymphoma ATL, with respect to age, performance status, corrected calcium, soluble interleukin-2 receptor, and tax genotype, the estimated hazard ratio of taxA compared with taxB was 2.68 (95% confidence interval, 0.87-8.25; P=0.086). Our results suggest that the tax genotype has clinical value as a prognostic factor for aggressive ATL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. EPICS Version 4 - Implementing Complex Data Types

    SciTech Connect

    Marty Kraimer,; John dalesio

    2012-11-27

    Through phase 1 and phase 2 SBIR grants, s fully functional I/O Controller and communication protocol for version 4 of EPICS is completed. This new software architecture provides a flexible and extendible architecture. Version 4 is implemented fully in Java. The performance metrics look promising. The final portion of phase 2 is to optimize the communication mechanisms. Subsequent work on different aspects of this are required to provide a viable solutions in various areas. Version 3 of EPICS is able to provide a platform for implementing channel based control, because the channel and attributes for time stamping, alarm, display and control were narrow, well defined, and complete. To extend EPICS functionality beyond this, it is necessary to define attributes needed for archive data, array, image data, and directory services. The proper handling of several array types enables the development of middle layer servers such as orbit and bump control in accelerators. Phase 1 should produce a well defined, reviewed, and agreed upon definition of the metadata required for these services. A Phase 2 grant would provide tools that implemented archiving, general array, imaging, and directory applications.

  5. EPICS: Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epics Development Team

    2013-02-01

    EPICS is a set of software tools and applications developed collaboratively and used to create distributed soft real-time control systems for scientific instruments such as particle accelerators and telescopes. Such distributed control systems typically comprise tens or even hundreds of computers, networked together to allow communication between them and to provide control and feedback of the various parts of the device from a central control room, or even remotely over the internet. EPICS uses Client/Server and Publish/Subscribe techniques to communicate between the various computers. A Channel Access Gateway allows engineers and physicists elsewhere in the building to examine the current state of the IOCs, but prevents them from making unauthorized adjustments to the running system. In many cases the engineers can make a secure internet connection from home to diagnose and fix faults without having to travel to the site. EPICS is used by many facilities worldwide, including the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, Fermilab, Keck Observatory, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Australian Synchrotron, and Stanford Linear Accellerator Center.

  6. Distribution of Aeromonas species in environmental water used in daily life in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Kazufumi; Hirai, Itaru; Sano, Kouichi

    2016-09-01

    The genus Aeromonas is known to causes diseases such as food poisoning, sepsis, and wound infection. However, the mode of Aeromonas transmission from environment to humans is not clearly understood. To evaluate the health risks of Aeromonas spp. in environmental freshwater, the number, proportion and putative virulence factors of Aeromonas species were investigated in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Environmental freshwater samples were collected from three dams, two springs and three private wells. Aeromonas strains were identified by the biochemical method and the viable count was calculated. The production of extracellular enzymes and the virulence genes were investigated for possessing putative virulence factors using representative isolates. At least seven species of already-known Aeromonas isolates as well as unidentified Aeromonas spp. with/without arginin dehydrolase (ADH) exist in water at these sites. Aeromonas spp. was found to exist at over 1000 CFU/100 ml in one spring and two wells. A. veronii biovar sobria and A. jandaei were the predominant species in dams, and A. hydrophila and/or A. eucrenophila were predominant in wells. Almost all the sampled Aeromonas species produced protease, gelatinase, lipase, esterase and DNase, but A. caviae, A. caviae-like bacteria, and A. eucrenophila had low hemolytic activity. Most sampled A. hydrophila strains possessed both aerolysin gene (aer) and hemolysin gene (hlyA), but A. caviae and A. eucrenophila strains did not possess either gene. Since these results indicated that several Aeromonas species having potential pathogenicity exist in environmental water in Okinawa, surveys are recommended as a public health measure.

  7. Ciguatera incidence and fish toxicity in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Naomasa; Yogi, Kentaro; Asato, Shuko; Sasaki, Toshiki; Tamanaha, Koji; Hirama, Masahiro; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Inafuku, Yasuo

    2010-10-01

    Okinawa being located in the subtropical region has the highest incidence of ciguatera in Japan. Officially, 33 outbreaks involving 103 patients have been reported between 1997 and 2006. The implicated species were Variola louti, Lutjanus bohar, Lutjanus monostigma, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, unidentified Lutjanus sp., Plectropomus areolatus, Oplegnathus punctatus, Epinephelus polyphekadion, Caranx ignobilis and moray eel. Toxicities of the leftover meals, as determined by mouse bioassays, ranged from 0.025 to 0.8 MU/g or above (equivalent to 0.175-5.6 ngCTX1B/g). We collected 612 specimens of fish belonging to L. monostigma, L. bohar, Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Lutjanus russellii, V. louti, Variola albimarginata, and E. fuscoguttatus from the coasts around Okinawa and examined the toxicity of the flesh by the mouse bioassay. The rate of toxic fish was as follows: L. monostigma: 32.3%, L. bohar: 11.9%, V. louti: 14.3%, E. fuscoguttatus: 20.8%. Only one out of 36 samples of V. albimarginata and two of 74 samples of L. russellii were found toxic. None of the 35 samples of L. argentimaculatus was toxic. Nor the L. bohar samples weighing less than 4 kg were toxic. In all toxic samples, CTX1B was detected by LC/MS analysis but CTX3C and 51-hydroxyCTX3C were not. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High-resolution MIRU-VNTRs typing reveals the unique nature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Millet, Julie; Miyagi-Shiohira, Chika; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Mokrousov, Igor; Rastogi, Nalin

    2012-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage is highly prevalent in Japan. The aim of the present study was to describe the population structure of the Beijing lineage in this country based on 12-, 15-, and 21-loci MIRU-VNTR genotyping schemes. The MIRU-VNTR patterns of Beijing strains from Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands were compared to those recently published from the Osaka-Kobe megalopolis of the main island of Japan, Honshu (Wada et al., 2009). We also compared proportions of "modern/typical" vs. "ancient/atypical" Beijing strains as defined by structure of the NTF locus. Contrarily to the 12-loci Minimum Spanning Tree (MST), the 15- and 21-loci trees allowed the distinction of two groups of strains in Okinawa. A 12-loci MIRU-VNTR pattern (223325173533) corresponding to MIRU international type MIT17 was identified as the most prevalent Beijing genotype in Japan. In the SITVIT2 database, this pattern was found to be disseminated worldwide and corresponded to the most widely distributed Beijing profile in East Asia and former USSR countries. A comparison of 15- and 21-loci MIRU-VNTR patterns showed that two loci (QUB-4156 and Mtub21) were most polymorphic in our study, and could be potential candidates to distinguish between NTF locus based subclassification of Beijing strains. High-resolution VNTR typing using 15- and 21-loci underlined an evolutionarily distinct "ancient/atypical" subpopulation of the Beijing genotype in Okinawa as well as a subgroup of strains closely related to "modern/typical" Beijing strains observed in Osaka/Kobe.

  9. Simulating soil C dynamics with EPIC: Model description and testing against long-term data

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Williams, Jimmy R.; Mcgill, William B.; Rosenberg, Norman J.; Quiroga Jakas, Maria C.

    2006-01-01

    Soil carbon sequestration (SCS) has emerged as a technology with significant potential to help stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations and thus reduce the threat of global warming. Methods and models are needed to evaluate and recommend SCS practices based on their effects on carbon dynamics and environmental quality. EPIC (Environment Policy Integrated Climate) is a widely used and tested model for simulating many agroecosystem processes including plant growth, crop yield, tillage, wind and water erosion, runoff, soil density, and leaching. Here we describe new C and N modules developed in EPIC built on concepts from the Century model to connect the simulation of soil C dynamics to crop management, tillage methods, and erosion processes. The added C and N routines interact directly with soil moisture, temperature, erosion, tillage, soil density, leaching, and translocation functions in EPIC. Equations were also added to describe the effects of soil texture on soil C stabilization. Lignin concentration is modeled as a sigmoidal function of plant age. EPIC was tested against data from a Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) 6-yr experiment at five sites in three U.S. Great Plains states and a 61-y long-term agronomic experiment in Canada. Mean Square Deviations (MSD) calculated for CRP sites were less than 0.01 kg C2 m2, except for one site where it reached 0.025 kg2 C2 m. MSD values in the 61-y experiment ranged between 0.047 and 0.077 kg C2 m2. In conclusion, the version of the EPIC model presented and tested here contains the necessary algorithms to simulate SCS and improve understanding of the interactions among soil erosion, C dynamics, and tillage. A strength of the model as tested is its ability to explain the variability in crop production, C inputs and SOC and N cycling over a wised range soil, cropping and climatic conditions over periods from 6 to 61 years. For example, at the Breton site over 61 years, EPIC accounted for 69% of the variability in grain

  10. The EPIC Leadership Development Program Evaluation Report. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Leaders for New Schools (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    New Leaders for New Schools created the Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC) initiative in 2006 to learn from educators driving achievement gains in high-need urban schools. EPIC identifies school leaders and teachers whose students are making significant achievement gains and financially rewards these educators in exchange for sharing…

  11. Evaluation Report: The EPIC Leadership Development Model and Pilot Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Leaders (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    New Leaders created the Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC) initiative in 2006 to learn from educators driving achievement gains in high-need urban schools. EPIC identifies school leaders and teachers whose students are making significant achievement gains and financially rewards these educators in exchange for sharing and documenting…

  12. Modular Curriculum: English. Comparative Literature: The Epic Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Barbara; Wiley, Shirley

    This independent course of study is designed to be completed within a one-year period. The course centers on the epic tradition, analyzing several well-known epics and comparing them from a critic's point of view. It is emphasized that many aspects of the course involve questions for which there are no ready answers. The introductions following…

  13. AN OVERVIEW OF THE EPA ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory



    The EPA Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) supports the EPA Regions and Program Offices with remote sensing based technical support and research and development products. Since 1972, EPIC has provided both imagery and imagery-derived products to the E...

  14. AN OVERVIEW OF EPA ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory



    The EPA Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) supports the EPA Regions and Program Offices with remote sensing based technical support and research and development products. Since 1972, EPIC has provided both imagery and imagery-derived products to the E...

  15. Perfusion Electronic Record Documentation Using Epic Systems Software.

    PubMed

    Riley, Jeffrey B; Justison, George A

    2015-12-01

    The authors comment on Steffens and Gunser's article describing the University of Wisconsin adoption of the Epic anesthesia record to include perfusion information from the cardiopulmonary bypass patient experience. We highlight the current-day lessons and the valuable quality and safety principles the Wisconsin-Epic model anesthesia-perfusion record provides.

  16. AN OVERVIEW OF EPA ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory



    The EPA Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) supports the EPA Regions and Program Offices with remote sensing based technical support and research and development products. Since 1972, EPIC has provided both imagery and imagery-derived products to the E...

  17. Modular Curriculum: English. Comparative Literature: The Epic Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Barbara; Wiley, Shirley

    This independent course of study is designed to be completed within a one-year period. The course centers on the epic tradition, analyzing several well-known epics and comparing them from a critic's point of view. It is emphasized that many aspects of the course involve questions for which there are no ready answers. The introductions following…

  18. Reweaving the Fabric of Rural Vermont: The EPIC Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jean

    1998-01-01

    A Vermont project, the Environmental Programs/Partnerships in Communities (EPIC) project provides a transferable model for rural development. The program is sensitive to people and environmental needs, and emphasizes long-term functioning of the entire community system, not just specific outcomes. EPIC has supported leadership training, local…

  19. EPIC and APEX: Model use, calibration, and validation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) and Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) models have been developed to assess a wide variety of agricultural water resource, water quality, and other environmental problems. The EPIC model is designed to be applied at a field-scale leve...

  20. Child Development in Okinawa Compared with Tokyo and Denver, and the Implications for Developmental Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueda, Reiko

    1978-01-01

    Developmental differences in the Denver Developmental Screening Test items were demonstrated between samples of children from Okinawa (n=615) and Tokyo (n=1171), who were 16 days to 6 years old. Journal availability: see EC 112 661. (Author)

  1. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis E viruses from mongooses in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nidaira, Minoru; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Ogura, Go; Taira, Katsuya; Okano, Shou; Kudaka, Jun; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Mishiro, Shunji; Nakamura, Masaji

    2012-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has previously been reported in wild mongooses on Okinawa Island; to date however, only one HEV RNA sequence has been identified in a mongoose. Hence, this study was performed to detect HEV RNA in 209 wild mongooses on Okinawa Island. Six (2.9%) samples tested positive for HEV RNA. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 6 HEV RNAs belonged to genotype 3 and were classified into groups A and B. In group B, mongoose-derived HEV sequences were very similar to mongoose HEV previously detected on Okinawa Island, as well as to those of a pig. This investigation emphasized the possibility that the mongoose is a reservoir animal for HEV on Okinawa Island.

  2. Child Development in Okinawa Compared with Tokyo and Denver, and the Implications for Developmental Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueda, Reiko

    1978-01-01

    Developmental differences in the Denver Developmental Screening Test items were demonstrated between samples of children from Okinawa (n=615) and Tokyo (n=1171), who were 16 days to 6 years old. Journal availability: see EC 112 661. (Author)

  3. Descriptive analysis of the prevalence and the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium complex-infected pigs that were slaughtered on the main island of Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Hibiya, K; Kazumi, Y; Nishiuchi, Y; Sugawara, I; Miyagi, K; Oda, Y; Oda, E; Fujita, J

    2010-09-01

    Recent genetic studies have revealed that several epidemiological factors affect Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in pig populations. However, mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC infection among hog farms have not been clarified. In consideration of this situation, we cross-sectionally investigated the mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC on the island of Okinawa. Pigs slaughtered (n=706,763) and 331 hog farms on Okinawa were surveyed during the years 2002-2004. Two outbreaks of MAC infection were occurred in several farms during survey period. Bacteria were isolated from randomly selected pigs and genotype of isolates was determined by using genetic finger printing methods with the insertion sequence (IS) 1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Most isolates had large numbers of IS1245 copies, while strains with low copy numbers of IS1245 and isolates without IS1245 were seen in few farms. MACs strains were repeatedly isolated from pigs of the affected farms during the survey period. Those farms with an identical pig rearing systems showed synchronic changes in the prevalence of MAC infection. An industrial farm without an outbreak had an independent pig flow, but maintained distinct MAC strains. Multivariate analysis did not reveal independent factors for the prevalence of the MAC infection. These findings suggest that there were three clusters distinguished genetically in the main island of Okinawa, which were potentially spread by common pig flow. However, the outbreaks occurred because of unspecified conditions on each farm environment.

  4. Association between Helicobacter pylori virulence factors and gastroduodenal diseases in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsunari, Osamu; Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Watada, Masahide; Kinjo, Nagisa; Murakami, Kazunari; Fujioka, Toshio; Kinjo, Fukunori; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of gastric cancer in Okinawa is lowest in Japan. Some previous reports using small number of strains suggested that the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori with Western-type cagA in Okinawa compared to other areas in Japan might contribute to the low incidence of gastric cancer. It has still not been confirmed why the prevalence of Western-type cagA strains is high in Okinawa. We examined the association between the virulence factors of H. pylori and gastroduodenal diseases in Okinawa. The genotypes of cagA and vacA of 337 H. pylori strains were determined by PCR and gene sequencing. The genealogy of these Western-type cagA strains in Okinawa was analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Overall, 86.4% of the strains possessed cagA: 70.3% were East-Asian type and 16.0% were Western type. After adjustment by age and sex, the presence of East-Asian-type cagA/vacA s1m1 genotypes was significantly associated with gastric cancer compared to gastritis (odds ratio = 6.68, 95% confidence interval = 1.73 to 25.8). The structure of Western-type CagA in Okinawa was different from that of typical Western-type CagA found in Western countries. Intriguingly, MLST analysis revealed that the majority of Western-type cagA strains formed individual clusters but not hpEurope. Overall, low prevalence of gastric cancer in Okinawa may result from the high prevalence of non-East-Asian-type cagA strains. The origin of Western-type cagA strains in Okinawa may be different from those of Western countries.

  5. Association between Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors and Gastroduodenal Diseases in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsunari, Osamu; Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Watada, Masahide; Kinjo, Nagisa; Murakami, Kazunari; Fujioka, Toshio; Kinjo, Fukunori

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of gastric cancer in Okinawa is lowest in Japan. Some previous reports using small number of strains suggested that the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori with Western-type cagA in Okinawa compared to other areas in Japan might contribute to the low incidence of gastric cancer. It has still not been confirmed why the prevalence of Western-type cagA strains is high in Okinawa. We examined the association between the virulence factors of H. pylori and gastroduodenal diseases in Okinawa. The genotypes of cagA and vacA of 337 H. pylori strains were determined by PCR and gene sequencing. The genealogy of these Western-type cagA strains in Okinawa was analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Overall, 86.4% of the strains possessed cagA: 70.3% were East-Asian type and 16.0% were Western type. After adjustment by age and sex, the presence of East-Asian-type cagA/vacA s1m1 genotypes was significantly associated with gastric cancer compared to gastritis (odds ratio = 6.68, 95% confidence interval = 1.73 to 25.8). The structure of Western-type CagA in Okinawa was different from that of typical Western-type CagA found in Western countries. Intriguingly, MLST analysis revealed that the majority of Western-type cagA strains formed individual clusters but not hpEurope. Overall, low prevalence of gastric cancer in Okinawa may result from the high prevalence of non-East-Asian-type cagA strains. The origin of Western-type cagA strains in Okinawa may be different from those of Western countries. PMID:22189111

  6. [Basic study on wartime reminiscences of older adults in Okinawa].

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Maiko; Tanaka, Kanji

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated retrospectively the thoughts people had of World War II, especially the Battle of Okinawa at that time, and their current evaluation of their own wartime experience. A questionnaire survey was conducted, and 217 older adults, 114 women and 103 men between 65 and 88 years old, participated. Results indicated that men generally had more negative feelings than women at the end of the war. And psychological damages caused by traumatic war memories seemed to have persisted in not a few individuals in spite of over half a century since the end of the war. However, others had been more positive and accepting toward their wartime experiences. This difference appeared to be related to qualitative differences of various experiences, as well as the person's age. It is argued that a vigorous approach will be necessary for this sort of study of Japanese war victims from a number of viewpoints.

  7. Typhoon damage on a shallow mesophotic reef in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Taku; Fujii, Takuma; Kawamura, Iori; Mizuyama, Masaru; Montenegro, Javier; Shikiba, Haruka; Naruse, Tohru; McClelland, TY; Denis, Vianney; Reimer, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about effects of large storm systems on mesophotic reefs. This study reports on how Typhoon 17 (Jelawat) affected Ryugu Reef on Okinawa-jima, Japan in September 2012. Benthic communities were surveyed before and after the typhoon using line intercept transect method. Comparison of the benthic assemblages showed highly significant differences in coral coverage at depths of 25–32 m before and after Typhoon 17. A large deep stand of Pachyseris foliosa was apparently less resistant to the storm than the shallower high diversity area of this reef. Contradictory to common perception, this research shows that large foliose corals at deeper depths are just as susceptible to typhoon damage as shallower branching corals. However, descriptive functional group analyses resulted in only minor changes after the disturbance, suggesting the high likelihood of recovery and the high resilience capacity of this mesophotic reef. PMID:24032094

  8. Gravity Inversion with Geological Modeling Constraint and Its Application in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.

    2014-12-01

    The satellite altimetry gravity data is used to recover the 3D distribution of oceanic lithosphere density in the Okinawa Trough and its neighbor region. It's difficult to use only gravity data to invert complex geological structure and density distribution by 3D gravity Inversion method. In order to improve the vertical resolution of the density inversion result, 3D geological modeling method is used to build structural model for the inversion, prior constraint conditions can be applied to solve the non-unique problem. In the Okinawa Trough, it is proved by earthquake data that the Philippine plate dives beneath the Okinawa Trough, which result in the upwelling of mantel material and decrease of the crust thickness. The Benioff zone clearly shows the plate's subduction parameter, such as direction, dip, transformation. Therefore, a structural subduction model is created by geological modeling method and works as the initial model and as constraint condition in gravity inversion. The 3D gravity inversion result and seismology CMT data are both used to explain the oceanic lithosphere structure in the Okinawa Trough. The inversion result illustrates high density anomaly under the Okinawa Trough. Affected by small scale mantle convections, the continental lithosphere is separated, which result in the spreading of back-arc basin and the formation of the Okinawa Trough.

  9. Structural features related to the volcanic gases in Southern Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. F.; Hsu, S. K.; Tsia, C. H.; Chen, S. C.; Wu, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a rifted back-arc basin, heavily sedimented and formed in an intracontinental rift zone behind the Ryukyu trench-arc system. The Southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) east of Taiwan is the place where post-collisional extension happened. The collision moved southwestward and the Ryukyu trench-arc extension westward, Arc volcanism is dominant in the Northern Ryukyu volcanic arc and back-arc volcanism in the Southern Okinawa Trough. Marine geophysical data including side-scan sonar (SSS), sub-bottom profiler (SBP) and echo sounder system (EK60) data are used in this study. Active fluid activities out of seafloor are obvious from various images observed on these data, such as gas plumes. These hydrothermal vents have been located at a water depth of 1400 m. Our preliminary results show that gas seepage structures appear in the location where is a week zone, such as a normal fault in the slope. The hydrothermal activity within the Okinawa Trough is associated with volcanism located in rift zones in the Southern Okinawa Trough. However, the origin of the submarine hydrothermal fluids within the Okinawa Trough is diverse with contributions from volcanic, sedimentary and magmatic sources, needed further investigations.

  10. Metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Shiohira, Y; Uezu, Y; Higa, A; Iseki, K

    2006-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a hospital-based screening program in Okinawa, Japan. The significance of metabolic syndrome as a determinant of CKD was examined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 6980 participants, aged 30-79 years, participated in a screening program in Tomishiro Chuo Hospital. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria of the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III). Data were also analyzed according to the modified criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) that defines abdominal obesity as a waist circumference of > oe =85 cm in men and > or =90 cm in women. CKD was defined as dipstick proteinuria (> or =1+) or a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). GFR was estimated using the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and CKD was 12.8 and 13.7%, respectively. Metabolic syndrome was a significant determinant of CKD (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.537 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.277-1.850, P<0.0001). The adjusted OR (95% CI) was 1.770 (1.215-2.579, P=0.0029) for those with four metabolic syndrome risk factors compared to those with no metabolic syndrome risk factors. Metabolic syndrome was a significant determinant for younger participants (<60 years; OR 1.686, 95% CI 1.348-2.107, P<0.0001), but not for older participants (> or =60 years; OR 1.254, 95% CI 0.906-1.735, NS). The relationship between the number of metabolic syndrome risk factors and the prevalence of CKD was linear using the modified criteria. The results suggest that metabolic syndrome is a significant determinant of CKD in men under 60 years of age, in Okinawa, Japan.

  11. A MySQL Based EPICS Archiver

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Slominski

    2009-10-01

    Archiving a large fraction of the EPICS signals within the Jefferson Lab (JLAB) Accelerator control system is vital for postmortem and real-time analysis of the accelerator performance. This analysis is performed on a daily basis by scientists, operators, engineers, technicians, and software developers. Archiving poses unique challenges due to the magnitude of the control system. A MySQL Archiving system (Mya) was developed to scale to the needs of the control system; currently archiving 58,000 EPICS variables, updating at a rate of 11,000 events per second. In addition to the large collection rate, retrieval of the archived data must also be fast and robust. Archived data retrieval clients obtain data at a rate over 100,000 data points per second. Managing the data in a relational database provides a number of benefits. This paper describes an archiving solution that uses an open source database and standard off the shelf hardware to reach high performance archiving needs. Mya has been in production at Jefferson Lab since February of 2007.

  12. EPICS Channel Access Server for LabVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukov, Alexander P.

    2016-10-01

    It can be challenging to interface National Instruments LabVIEW (http://www.ni.com/labview/) with EPICS (http://www.aps.anl.gov/epics/). Such interface is required when an instrument control program was developed in LabVIEW but it also has to be part of global control system. This is frequently useful in big accelerator facilities. The Channel Access Server is written in LabVIEW, so it works on any hardware/software platform where LabVIEW is available. It provides full server functionality, so any EPICS client can communicate with it.

  13. Marine Subsurface Microbial Communities Across a Hydrothermal Gradient in Okinawa Trough Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, L. D.; Hser Wah Saw, J.; Ettema, T.; House, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    IODP Expedition 331 to the Okinawa backarc basin provided an opportunity to study the microbial stratigraphy within the sediments surrounding a hydrothermal vent. The Okinawa backarc basin is a sedimented region of the seafloor located on a continental margin, and also hosts a hydrothermal network within the subsurface. Site C0014 within the Iheya North hydrothermal field is located 450 m east of the active vent and has a surface temperature of 5°C with no evidence of hydrothermal alteration within the top 10 meters below sea floor (mbsf). Temperature increases with depth at an estimated rate of 3°C/m and transitions from non-hydrothermal margin sediments to a hydrothermally altered regime below 10 mbsf. In this study, we utilized deep 16S rRNA sequencing of DNA from IODP Expedition 331 Site C0014 sediment horizons in order to assess diversity throughout the sediment column as well as determine the potential limits of the biosphere. Analysis of the amplicon data shows a shift over 15 mbsf from a heterogeneous community of cosmopolitan marine subsurface taxa toward an archaeal-dominated community in the deepest horizons of the predicted biosphere. Notably, the phylum Chloroflexi represents a substantial taxon through most horizons, where it appears to be replaced below 10 mbsf by punctuations of thermophilic and methanotrophic Archaea and Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group abundances. DNA from the aforementioned transition horizons was further analyzed using metagenomic sequencing. Preliminary taxonomic analysis of the metagenomic data agrees well with amplicon data in capturing the shift in relative abundance of Archaea increasing with depth. Additionally, reverse gyrase, a gene found exclusively in hyperthermophilic microorganisms, was recovered only in the metagenome of the deepest horizon. A BLAST search of this protein sequence against the GenBank non-redudnant protein database produced top hits with reverse gyrase from Thermococcus and Pyrococcus, which are

  14. The EPIC study: a lesson to learn.

    PubMed

    Auerswald, G; Kurnik, K; Aledort, L M; Chehadeh, H; Loew-Baselli, A; Steinitz, K; Reininger, A J

    2015-09-01

    Inhibitory antibodies to factor VIII occur in about 30% of previously untreated patients (PUPs) and are the most serious complication of haemophilia A. It is unclear why some patients develop inhibitors and others do not. The Early Prophylaxis Immunologic Challenge (EPIC) study was designed to test the hypothesis that inhibitor incidence in PUPs with severe or moderately severe haemophilia A could be reduced when a once-weekly FVIII prophylaxis starts with 25 IU kg(-1) rAHF-PFM before 1 year of age and immunological danger signals are minimized. These signals were minimized by avoiding: surgery; the first FVIII infusion during severe bleeding or an infection; central venous access devices and administering vaccinations intramuscularly 3-4 days before or after FVIII. Eight of the 19 treated subjects (42.1%) developed confirmed inhibitors. Eleven of the 19 treated subjects were PUPs without any prior exposure to FVIII. Three of them (27.3%) developed a confirmed inhibitor together with FVIII-binding antibodies. The study was stopped because the likelihood to reach the primary objective was minimal, a decision endorsed by the data safety monitoring board. Because of early termination, the EPIC study hypothesis could not be corroborated. Nonetheless, our data analyses indicate that the current definition of an inhibitor only based on plasma inhibitor activity ≥0.6 BU mL(-1) may not always reflect the presence of FVIII-neutralizing antibodies. The findings of this study teach us that low-level inhibitor activity results need in addition a confirmatory test and/or the assessment of the therapeutic response. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. ORAL PRESENTATION:EPA'S ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an overview of the remote sensing technical support and research and development activities of the Environmental Photographic Interprettion Center (EPIC). It is the basis for a presentation given at the EPA's Office of Acquisition Management's Annual C...

  16. Students Speak With Gary Cox, EPIC Project Manager

    NASA Image and Video Library

    From NASA’s International Space Station Mission Control Center Gary Cox EPIC Project Manager, participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at South Effingham Middle School...

  17. Compilation of a standardised international folate database for EPIC.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Geneviève; Witthöft, Cornelia M; Vignat, Jérôme; Knaze, Viktoria; Huybrechts, Inge; Roe, Mark; Finglas, Paul; Slimani, Nadia

    2016-02-15

    This paper describes the methodology applied for compiling an "international end-user" folate database. This work benefits from the unique dataset offered by the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) (N=520,000 subjects in 23 centres). Compilation was done in four steps: (1) identify folate-free foods then find folate values for (2) folate-rich foods common across EPIC countries, (3) the remaining "common" foods, and (4) "country-specific" foods. Compiled folate values were concurrently standardised in terms of unit, mode of expression and chemical analysis, using information in national food composition tables (FCT). 43-70% total folate values were documented as measured by microbiological assay. Foods reported in EPIC were either matched directly to FCT foods, treated as recipes or weighted averages. This work has produced the first standardised folate dataset in Europe, which was used to calculate folate intakes in EPIC; a prerequisite to study the relation between folate intake and diseases.

  18. ORAL PRESENTATION:EPA'S ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an overview of the remote sensing technical support and research and development activities of the Environmental Photographic Interprettion Center (EPIC). It is the basis for a presentation given at the EPA's Office of Acquisition Management's Annual C...

  19. Operational experience from a large EPICS-based accelerator facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ciarlette, D.J.; Gerig, R.

    1995-12-31

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory is a third-generation x-ray light source which uses the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) to operate its linear accelerator, positron accumulator ring, booster synchrotron, and storage ring equipment. EPICS has been used at the APS since the beginning of installation and commissioning. Currently, EPICS controls approximately 100 VME crates containing over 100,000 process variables. With this complexity, the APS has had to review some of the methods originally employed and make changes as necessary. In addition, due to commissioning and operational needs, higher-level operator software needed to be created. EPICS has been flexible enough to allow this.

  20. Experience with EPICS in a wide variety of applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kraimer, M.R.; Clausen, M.; Lupton, W.; Watson, C.

    1997-08-01

    Currently more than 70 organizations have obtained permission to use the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), a set of software packages for building real-time control systems. In this paper representatives from four of these sites discuss the reasons their sites chose EPICS, provide a brief discussion of their control system development, and discuss additional control system tools obtained elsewhere or developed locally.

  1. Molecular Epidemiological Study of Mumps Epidemics of 2015 in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kuba, Yumani; Kyan, Hisako; Arakaki, Eri; Takara, Taketoshi; Kato, Takashi; Okano, Sho; Oshiro, Yuko; Kudaka, Jun; Kidokoro, Minoru

    2017-05-24

    Although major mumps epidemics occurred every 4-5 years in Okinawa Prefecture in Japan, no laboratory diagnoses were conducted. A mumps epidemic started in Okinawa in October 2014, and we collected clinical samples from 31 patients in 4 areas (Hokubu, Nanbu, Miyako, and Yaeyama) from July to December 2015, for virus isolation and RT-PCR, whose positive ratios were 52% and 87%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses showed that all isolates were classified into genotype G, and with one exception, consisted of 2 subgenotypes, Ge (55.6%) and Gw (40.7%), which have been prominent in Japan recently. One isolate was classified in another lineage, which was detected in Japan for the first time, and was similar to a Hong Kong isolate from 2014. Remarkably, the geographic distributions of the 2 major lineages were separated. The Ge viruses were isolated from the main island of Okinawa and the Yaeyama Islands, whereas the Gw isolates were mainly detected from the Miyako Islands. These results suggest that the Ge and Gw mumps viruses mainly caused the mumps epidemics of 2015 in Okinawa, and that they spread independently in separate regions. This is the first report describing the molecular epidemiology of mumps epidemics in Okinawa Prefecture.

  2. Real-Time performance measurements of EPICS IOCcore.

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S.; Kraimer, M. R.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2005-01-01

    As the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is used in an increasing number of accelerator control systems, EPICS IOCcore is ported to a wider variety of OS platforms and thus the performance of EPICS IOCcore on different hardware and software platforms becomes more important. This paper provides real-time performance measurements of EPICS IOCcore on a VME hardware platform and on three different OS platforms: vxWorks, RTEMS, and Linux. EPICS Input/Output Controller core (IOCcore) software has been ported to several different operating systems (OSs) and many hardware platforms. This paper compares the EPICS IOCcore runtime performance on one hardware platform (MVME2100 PowerPC) and three popular Operating Systems: vxWorks, RTEMS, and Linux. For Linux the following versions were tested: Linux 2.4.2 hard hat 2.0, standard Linux 2.4.30, and Linux 2.6.13. For Linux 2.6.13, the kernel was built both preemptive and non-preemptive. Three real-time parameters are measured: interrupt, context switch, and total response latency. On Linux, more detailed interrupt latencies are measured: interrupt top half to bottom half, and interrupt bottom half to user space interrupt service routine. To implement the tests, several software components were developed. In order to port to other operating systems or hardware platforms only, one component has to be implemented.

  3. Aerosol Retrieval and Atmospheric Correction Algorithms for EPIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yujie; Lyapustin, Alexei; Marshak, Alexander; Korkin, Sergey; Herman, Jay

    2011-01-01

    EPIC is a multi-spectral imager onboard planned Deep Space Climate ObserVatoRy (DSCOVR) designed for observations of the full illuminated disk of the Earth with high temporal and coarse spatial resolution (10 km) from Lagrangian L1 point. During the course of the day, EPIC will view the same Earth surface area in the full range of solar and view zenith angles at equator with fixed scattering angle near the backscattering direction. This talk will describe a new aerosol retrieval/atmospheric correction algorithm developed for EPIC and tested with EPIC Simulator data. This algorithm uses the time series approach and consists of two stages: the first stage is designed to periodically re-initialize the surface spectral bidirectional reflectance (BRF) on stable low AOD days. Such days can be selected based on the same measured reflectance between the morning and afternoon reciprocal view geometries of EPIC. On the second stage, the algorithm will monitor the diurnal cycle of aerosol optical depth and fine mode fraction based on the known spectral surface BRF. Testing of the developed algorithm with simulated EPIC data over continental USA showed a good accuracy of AOD retrievals (10-20%) except over very bright surfaces.

  4. Marine Subsurface Microbial Community Shifts Across a Hydrothermal Gradient in Okinawa Trough Sediments

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Sediments within the Okinawa back-arc basin overlay a subsurface hydrothermal network, creating intense temperature gradients with sediment depth and potential limits for microbial diversity. We investigated taxonomic changes across 45 m of recovered core with a temperature gradient of 3°C/m from the dynamic Iheya North Hydrothermal System. The interval transitions sharply from low-temperature marine mud to hydrothermally altered clay at 10 meters below seafloor (mbsf). Here, we present taxonomic results from an analysis of the 16S rRNA gene that support a conceptual model in which common marine subsurface taxa persist into the subsurface, while high temperature adapted archaeal taxa show localized peaks in abundances in the hydrothermal clay horizons. Specifically, the bacterial phylum Chloroflexi accounts for a major proportion of the total microbial community within the upper 10 mbsf, whereas high temperature archaea (Terrestrial Hot Spring Crenarchaeotic Group and methanotrophic archaea) appear in varying local abundances in deeper, hydrothermal clay horizons with higher in situ temperatures (up to 55°C, 15 mbsf). In addition, geochemical evidence suggests that methanotrophy may be occurring in various horizons. There is also relict DNA (i.e., DNA preserved after cell death) that persists in horizons where the conditions suitable for microbial communities have ceased. PMID:28096736

  5. Marine Subsurface Microbial Community Shifts Across a Hydrothermal Gradient in Okinawa Trough Sediments.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Leah D; House, Christopher H

    2016-01-01

    Sediments within the Okinawa back-arc basin overlay a subsurface hydrothermal network, creating intense temperature gradients with sediment depth and potential limits for microbial diversity. We investigated taxonomic changes across 45 m of recovered core with a temperature gradient of 3°C/m from the dynamic Iheya North Hydrothermal System. The interval transitions sharply from low-temperature marine mud to hydrothermally altered clay at 10 meters below seafloor (mbsf). Here, we present taxonomic results from an analysis of the 16S rRNA gene that support a conceptual model in which common marine subsurface taxa persist into the subsurface, while high temperature adapted archaeal taxa show localized peaks in abundances in the hydrothermal clay horizons. Specifically, the bacterial phylum Chloroflexi accounts for a major proportion of the total microbial community within the upper 10 mbsf, whereas high temperature archaea (Terrestrial Hot Spring Crenarchaeotic Group and methanotrophic archaea) appear in varying local abundances in deeper, hydrothermal clay horizons with higher in situ temperatures (up to 55°C, 15 mbsf). In addition, geochemical evidence suggests that methanotrophy may be occurring in various horizons. There is also relict DNA (i.e., DNA preserved after cell death) that persists in horizons where the conditions suitable for microbial communities have ceased.

  6. Origin and model of transform faults in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Li, Sanzhong; Jiang, Suhua; Suo, Yanhui; Guo, Lingli; Wang, Yongming; Zhang, Huixuan

    2017-06-01

    Transform faults in back-arc basins are the key to revealing the opening and development of marginal seas. The Okinawa Trough (OT) represents an incipient and active back-arc or marginal sea basin oriented in a general NE-SW direction. To determine the strikes and spatial distribution of transform faults in the OT, this paper dissects the NW- and NNE-SN-trending fault patterns on the basis of seismic profiles, gravity anomalies and region geological data. There are three main NW-trending transpressional faults in the OT, which are the seaward propagation of NW-trending faults in the East China Continent. The NNE-SN-trending faults with right-stepping distribution behave as right-lateral shearing. The strike-slip pull-apart process or transtensional faulting triggered the back-arc rifting or extension, and these faults evolved into transform faults with the emergence of oceanic crust. Thus, the transform fault patterns are inherited from pre-existing oblique transtensional faults at the offsets between rifting segments. Therefore, the OT performs the oblique spreading mechanism similar to nascent oceans such as the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.

  7. Origin and model of transform faults in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Li, Sanzhong; Jiang, Suhua; Suo, Yanhui; Guo, Lingli; Wang, Yongming; Zhang, Huixuan

    2017-03-01

    Transform faults in back-arc basins are the key to revealing the opening and development of marginal seas. The Okinawa Trough (OT) represents an incipient and active back-arc or marginal sea basin oriented in a general NE-SW direction. To determine the strikes and spatial distribution of transform faults in the OT, this paper dissects the NW- and NNE-SN-trending fault patterns on the basis of seismic profiles, gravity anomalies and region geological data. There are three main NW-trending transpressional faults in the OT, which are the seaward propagation of NW-trending faults in the East China Continent. The NNE-SN-trending faults with right-stepping distribution behave as right-lateral shearing. The strike-slip pull-apart process or transtensional faulting triggered the back-arc rifting or extension, and these faults evolved into transform faults with the emergence of oceanic crust. Thus, the transform fault patterns are inherited from pre-existing oblique transtensional faults at the offsets between rifting segments. Therefore, the OT performs the oblique spreading mechanism similar to nascent oceans such as the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.

  8. Effect of introduction of a new electronic anesthesia record (Epic) system on the safety and efficiency of patient care in a gastrointestinal endoscopy suite-comparison with historical cohort

    PubMed Central

    Goudra, B; Singh, PM; Borle, A; Gouda, G

    2016-01-01

    Background: Use of electronic medical record systems has increased in the recent years. Epic is one such system gaining popularity in the USA. Epic is a private company, which invented the electronic documentation system adopted in our hospital. In spite of many presumed advantages, its use is not critically analyzed. Some of the perceived advantages are increased efficiency and protection against litigation as a result of accurate documentation. Materials and Methods: In this study, retrospective data of 305 patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (wherein electronic charting was used - “Epic group”) were compared with 288 patients who underwent the same procedure with documentation saved on a paper chart (“paper group”). Time of various events involved in the procedure such as anesthesia start, endoscope insertion, endoscope removal, and transfer to the postanesthesia care unit were routinely documented. From this data, the various time durations were calculated. Results: Both “anesthesia start to scope insertion” times and “scope removal to transfer” times were significantly less in the Epic group compared to the paper group. Use of Epic system led to a saving of 4 min of procedure time per patient. However, the mean oxygen saturation was significantly less in the Epic group. Conclusion: In spite of perceived advantages of Epic documentation system, significant hurdles remain with its use. Although the system allows seamless flow of patients, failure to remove all artifacts can lead to errors and become a source of potential litigation hazard. PMID:27051360

  9. [Investigation into drinking problem of patients who visited a general hospital in central and northern Okinawa].

    PubMed

    Nakai, Minori; Hotta, Hiroshi; Ootsuru, Taku; Hiejima, Shigeto; Murakami, Masaru; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Kondo, Tsuyoshi

    2013-04-01

    In Japan, many problems related to alcohol are pointed out from before. We believe that there is a unique drinking culture in Okinawa, such as a large amount of alcohol. Therefore, we estimate many people in Okinawa have a drinking problem. We conducted a survey of patients who visited general hospital (medical or surgical or orthopedic) in 2007. The purpose of this study is to collect basic data for introducing alcoholics to specialized treatment as early as possible, detecting the person who drink large amounts of alcohol, performing early intervention for people who drink large amount of alcohol, and advancing cooperation with specialized medical agencies of alcohol. As a result, Among the patients who visited general hospital in Okinawa, many problem drinkers are concentrated in the young age. and they have strong fears of health. The possibility of early intervention with intervention techniques, such as brief intervention, has been suggested.

  10. Development of Education Program for Okinawa Model Creative and Capable Engineers in Advanced Welding Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, Yukio; Matsue, Junji; Makishi, Takashi; Higa, Yoshikazu; Matsuda, Shoich

    Okinawa National College of Technology proposed “Educational Program for Practically Skilled Engineers in Advanced Welding Technology in Okinawa Style” to the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and was adopted as a 2-year project starting from 2005. This project designed to fit for the regional characteristics of Okinawa, aims to develop the core human resources program that will help reinforce and innovate the welding engineering in the manufacturing industries. In 2005, the education program and the original textbook were developed, and in 2006, a proof class was held to confirm the suitability and the effectiveness of the program and the textbook in order to improve the attendees' basics and the application ability of welding. The results were quite positive. Also, by collaborating with the Japan Welding Society, points scored in this course were authorized as the education points of IIW international welding engineer qualification.

  11. AERIAL PHOTO INTERPRETATION FOR SITE CHARACTERIZATION, ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) is a field station of the Landscape Ecology Branch (LEB), Environmental Sciences Division - Las Vegas, Office of Research and Development EPIC provides remote sensing technical support to help the Agency achieve its mult...

  12. EPIC'S NEW REMOTE SENSING DATA AND INFORMATION TOOLS AVAILABLE FOR EPA CUSTOMERS

    EPA Science Inventory



    EPIC's New Remote Sensing Data and Information Tools Available for EPA Customers Donald Garofalo Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) Landscape Ecology Branch Environmental Sciences Division National Exposure Research Laboratory

    Several new too...

  13. AERIAL PHOTO INTERPRETATION FOR SITE CHARACTERIZATION, ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) is a field station of the Landscape Ecology Branch (LEB), Environmental Sciences Division - Las Vegas, Office of Research and Development EPIC provides remote sensing technical support to help the Agency achieve its mult...

  14. EPIC'S NEW REMOTE SENSING DATA AND INFORMATION TOOLS AVAILABLE FOR EPA CUSTOMERS

    EPA Science Inventory



    EPIC's New Remote Sensing Data and Information Tools Available for EPA Customers Donald Garofalo Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) Landscape Ecology Branch Environmental Sciences Division National Exposure Research Laboratory

    Several new too...

  15. The EPIC Professional Learning Model: A Review of EPIC's Alignment with Leadership Development Research and Professional Learning National Standards. The Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC). Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Kay; Perreira-Leon, Maura

    2010-01-01

    With the creation of the Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC), New Leaders for New Schools hoped to accomplish two broad and ambitious goals. The first was to identify and reward leadership practices driving significant achievement gains in high-poverty, urban schools. The second was to learn from those practices and make them more widely…

  16. DOE`s Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (EPIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Otis, P.T.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (EPIC) is a computer system intended for the exchange of pollution prevention information DOE-wide. EPIC is being developed as a distributed system that will allow access to other databases and applications. The first prototype of EPIC (Prototype I) was put on-line in January 1994. Prototype I contains information on EM-funded pollution prevention projects; relevant laws, regulations, guidance, and policy; facility and DOE contacts; and meetings and conferences. Prototype I also gives users access to the INEL Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS) and to information contained on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPNS) Pollution Prevention Infbrmation Exchange System (PIES) as a test of the distributed system concept. An initial user group of about 35 is testing and providing feedback on Prototype I. Prototype II, with a Graphical User Interface (GUI), is planned for the end of CY94. This paper describes the current state of EPIC in terms of architecture, user interface, and information content. Plans for Prototype II and the final system are then discussed. The EPIC development effort is being coordinated with EPA and US Department of Defense (DoD) efforts to develop or upgrade their pollution prevention information exchange systems.

  17. Macrogenomic Evidence for the Origin of the Black Fly Simulium suzukii (Diptera: Simuliidae) on Okinawa Island, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Peter H.; Huang, Yao-Te; Reeves, Will K.; Kim, Sam Kyu; Otsuka, Yasushi; Takaoka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    To determine the geographic origin of the black fly Simulium suzukii on Okinawa Island, Japan, macrogenomic profiles derived from its polytene chromosomes were compared with those of mainland and other insular populations of S. suzukii and of the isomorphic Simulium tani species complex. The Okinawan population is a chromosomally unique cytoform, designated ‘D,’ which is essentially monomorphic and differs by about 27 fixed rearrangements from the chromosomal standard sequence for the subgenus Simulium and by two fixed differences from its nearest known relative, representing the type of S. suzukii, on the main islands of Japan. Chromosomal band sequences revealed two additional, sympatric cytoforms of S. suzukii, designated ‘A’ and ‘B,’ each with species status, in Korea, and a third cytoform, designated ‘C,’ on Hokkaido, Japan. A new cytoform, ‘K,’ of S. tani from Malaysia, representing the type of S. tani, is more closely related to cytoforms in Thailand, as are populations from Taiwan previously treated as S. suzukii but more closely aligned with S. tani and newly recognized as cytoform ‘L’ of the latter nominal species. Rooting of chromosomal band sequences by outgroup comparisons allowed directionality of chromosomal rearrangements to be established, enabling phylogenetic inference of cytoforms. Of 41 macrogenomic rearrangements discovered in the five new cytoforms, four provide evidence for a stepwise origin of the Okinawan population from populations characteristic of the main islands of Japan. The macrogenomic approach applied to black flies on Okinawa Island illustrates its potential utility in defining source areas for other species of flies including those that might pose medical and veterinary risks. PMID:23951001

  18. Macrogenomic evidence for the origin of the black fly Simulium suzukii (Diptera: Simuliidae) on Okinawa Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Adler, Peter H; Huang, Yao-Te; Reeves, Will K; Kim, Sam Kyu; Otsuka, Yasushi; Takaoka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    To determine the geographic origin of the black fly Simulium suzukii on Okinawa Island, Japan, macrogenomic profiles derived from its polytene chromosomes were compared with those of mainland and other insular populations of S. suzukii and of the isomorphic Simulium tani species complex. The Okinawan population is a chromosomally unique cytoform, designated 'D,' which is essentially monomorphic and differs by about 27 fixed rearrangements from the chromosomal standard sequence for the subgenus Simulium and by two fixed differences from its nearest known relative, representing the type of S. suzukii, on the main islands of Japan. Chromosomal band sequences revealed two additional, sympatric cytoforms of S. suzukii, designated 'A' and 'B,' each with species status, in Korea, and a third cytoform, designated 'C,' on Hokkaido, Japan. A new cytoform, 'K,' of S. tani from Malaysia, representing the type of S. tani, is more closely related to cytoforms in Thailand, as are populations from Taiwan previously treated as S. suzukii but more closely aligned with S. tani and newly recognized as cytoform 'L' of the latter nominal species. Rooting of chromosomal band sequences by outgroup comparisons allowed directionality of chromosomal rearrangements to be established, enabling phylogenetic inference of cytoforms. Of 41 macrogenomic rearrangements discovered in the five new cytoforms, four provide evidence for a stepwise origin of the Okinawan population from populations characteristic of the main islands of Japan. The macrogenomic approach applied to black flies on Okinawa Island illustrates its potential utility in defining source areas for other species of flies including those that might pose medical and veterinary risks.

  19. Passive remote sensing of altitude and optical depth of dust plumes using the oxygen A and B bands: First results from EPIC/DSCOVR at Lagrange-1 point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yi; Zeng, Jing; Torres, Omar; Yang, Yuekui; Marshak, Alexander; Reid, Jeffrey; Miller, Steve

    2017-07-01

    We presented an algorithm for inferring aerosol layer height (ALH) and optical depth (AOD) over ocean surface from radiances in oxygen A and B bands measured by the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) on the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) orbiting at Lagrangian-1 point. The algorithm was applied to EPIC imagery of a 2 day dust outbreak over the North Atlantic Ocean. Retrieved ALHs and AODs were evaluated against counterparts observed by Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, and Aerosol Robotic Network. The comparisons showed 71.5% of EPIC-retrieved ALHs were within ±0.5 km of those determined from CALIOP and 74.4% of EPIC AOD retrievals fell within a ± (0.1 + 10%) envelope of MODIS retrievals. This study demonstrates the potential of EPIC measurements for retrieving global aerosol height multiple times daily, which are essential for evaluating aerosol profile simulated in climate models and for better estimating aerosol radiative effects.

  20. 75 FR 65985 - Safety Zone: Epic Roasthouse Private Party Firework Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... off Epic Roasthouse Restaurant, San Francisco, CA during a fireworks display in support of the Epic... Restaurant, San Francisco, CA. The fireworks display is meant for entertainment purposes. This safety zone is... Epic Roasthouse Restaurant, San Francisco, CA. The fireworks launch site will be located in position 37...

  1. Development of mpi_EPIC model for global agroecosystem modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Kang, Shujiang; Wang, Dali; Jeff A. Nichols; ...

    2014-12-31

    Models that address policy-maker concerns about multi-scale effects of food and bioenergy production systems are computationally demanding. We integrated the message passing interface algorithm into the process-based EPIC model to accelerate computation of ecosystem effects. Simulation performance was further enhanced by applying the Vampir framework. When this enhanced mpi_EPIC model was tested, total execution time for a global 30-year simulation of a switchgrass cropping system was shortened to less than 0.5 hours on a supercomputer. The results illustrate that mpi_EPIC using parallel design can balance simulation workloads and facilitate large-scale, high-resolution analysis of agricultural production systems, management alternatives and environmentalmore » effects.« less

  2. Development of mpi_EPIC model for global agroecosystem modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shujiang; Wang, Dali; Jeff A. Nichols; Schuchart, Joseph; Kline, Keith L.; Wei, Yaxing; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Post, Wilfred M.; Izaurralde, R. Cesar

    2014-12-31

    Models that address policy-maker concerns about multi-scale effects of food and bioenergy production systems are computationally demanding. We integrated the message passing interface algorithm into the process-based EPIC model to accelerate computation of ecosystem effects. Simulation performance was further enhanced by applying the Vampir framework. When this enhanced mpi_EPIC model was tested, total execution time for a global 30-year simulation of a switchgrass cropping system was shortened to less than 0.5 hours on a supercomputer. The results illustrate that mpi_EPIC using parallel design can balance simulation workloads and facilitate large-scale, high-resolution analysis of agricultural production systems, management alternatives and environmental effects.

  3. Situation Report--Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, Sarawak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, and Sarawak. Information is provided where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning…

  4. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei Strain LC-Ikematsu, Isolated from a Pineapple in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tada, Ipputa; Saitoh, Seikoh; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Shinzato, Naoya; Yamamoto, Norikuni; Arita, Masanori; Ikematsu, Shinya

    2017-02-02

    The draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei strain LC-Ikematsu, isolated from a pineapple in Okinawa, was determined. The total length of the 87 contigs was 3.08 Mb with a G+C content of 46.2% and 2,946 coding sequences. The genome analysis revealed its biosynthetic ability of 11 amino acids.

  5. Mosquito biodiversity patterns around urban environments in South-central okinawa island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Tomonori; Imanishi, Nozomi; Higa, Yukiko; Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Okinawa is the largest, most urbanized, and densely populated island in the Ryukyus Archipelago, where mosquito species diversity has been thoroughly studied. However, the south-central Okinawa mosquito fauna has been relatively poorly studied. Here, we present results from a mosquito faunal survey in urban environments of Nishihara city, south-central Okinawa. Mosquitoes were sampled biweekly, from April 2007 to March 2008, at 3 different environments: a forest preserve, an animal farm, and a water reservoir. We employed 4 mosquito collection methods: 1) oviposition traps; 2) light traps; 3) sweep nets; and 4) larval surveys of tree holes, leaf axils, and artificial water containers. We collected a total of 568 adults and 10,270 larvae belonging to 6 genera and 13 species, including 6 species of medical importance: Aedes albopictus, Armigeres subalbatus, Anopheles Hyrcanus group, Culex bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Mosquito species composition was similar to data from previous studies in Okinawa Island. The flattening of the species accumulation curve suggests that our diversity sampling was exhaustive with light and oviposition traps, as well as the coincidence between the species richness we found in the field and estimates from the Chao2 index, a theoretical estimator of species richness based on species abundance. This study highlights the importance of combining several sampling techniques to properly characterize regional mosquito fauna and to monitor changes in the presence of mosquito species.

  6. Serologic and Virologic Studies of an Imported Dengue Case Occurring in 2014 in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mika; Tamayose, Maki; Miyagi, Kazuya; Takaragawa, Hiroo; Tateyama, Masao; Tadano, Masayuki; Fujita, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    After returning from Bali, Indonesia, in February 2014, a 72-year-old man was hospitalized in Okinawa owing to a high fever and rash. Dengue was clinically suspected, and the patient tested positive for IgM against dengue using a commercial kit. Serologically, the patient showed secondary seroreactivity. Significant increases in neutralization titers (N-titers) against all 4 serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) strains were recognized in convalescent-phase sera comparing to acute phase sera. The N-titer against DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1) was the highest among all DENV serotypes. Interestingly, the N-titers against JEV strains were significantly higher than those against all types of DENV comparing to acute phase sera. The virus was isolated from the acute-phase serum and identified as DENV-1 and designated RD14/Okinawa. The patient's symptoms were due to DENV-1 infection. Phylogenetic sequencing analysis indicated that the isolate RD14/Okinawa belonged to genotype I of DENV-1, which is closely related to the Southeast Asian strains and isolates found during the dengue outbreak in Japan in 2014. We should undertake control measures against dengue in Okinawa, which is a subtropical area with Aedes albopictus activity throughout year.

  7. Subclinical Carotid Atherosclerosis Burden in the Japanese: Comparison between Okinawa and Nagano Residents.

    PubMed

    Shimabukuro, Michio; Hasegawa, Yoshimasa; Higa, Moritake; Amano, Rie; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Mizushima, Shunsaku; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Sata, Masataka

    2015-08-26

    The prevalence of overweight and a change in atherosclerotic lipid profiles may be linked to region-specific differences in atherosclerotic diseases. We evaluated whether the lipid phenotype could be linked to region- and sex-specific differences in the degree of atherosclerosis. Non-diabetic subjects included Okinawa (n=1674) and Nagano (n=1392) residents aged 30-75 years who underwent carotid ultrasonography for the measurement of maximum intima-media thickness (max IMT). Average max IMT was higher in Okinawa men and women, and the increase in max IMT with age was enhanced in men. Multiple regression analysis showed that in addition to age and systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were IMT determinants only in men for both Okinawa and Nagano. Meanwhile, HDL-cholesterol was a determinant for Okinawa men and women, but not for Nagano men and women. This is the first report to show region- and sex-specific differences in the determinants for max IMT in a Japanese population. The evaluation of the relationship between lipid profile patterns and region- and sex-specific differences in carotid atherosclerosis burden may be required.

  8. Vertical distribution of precipitation particles in Baiu frontal stratiform intense rainfall around Okinawa Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oue, M.; Ohigashi, T.; Tsuboki, K.; Nakakita, E.

    2015-06-01

    The vertical distribution of precipitation particles in an intensely precipitating stratiform cloud associated with the Baiu front around Okinawa Island was observed. X-band polarimetric radar, disdrometer, and hydrometeor videosonde data were used to examine the precipitation processes. The cloud top was approximately 12 km above sea level, as convection was depressed while stratiform regions developed near Okinawa Island. In the rain region below 3 km, the mean median volume diameter of the raindrop size distribution (DSD) estimated from the radar variables was 1.55 mm, and the mean normalized intercept parameter was 104.12 mm-1 m-3 with a mean radar reflectivity of 40.5 dBZe. The DSD indicates that the stratiform precipitation was characterized by higher number concentrations of smaller drops than observed previously in convective cells in a Baiu frontal convective precipitation region around Okinawa Island. The DSD also suggests the presence of larger raindrops than in convective cells embedded in a Baiu frontal stratiform precipitation region around Okinawa Island. In the ice region at 5-6 km, just above the melting layer and 6 km below the cloud top, the differential reflectivity and specific differential phase showed positive values, and videosonde measurements revealed that the number concentration of column-, plate-, and capped-column-like crystals (maximum dimensions of ≥0.1 mm) was 112 L-1. The high number concentration of these crystals contributed to the intense stratiform rainfall associated with the Baiu front.

  9. Terrigenous transportation to the Okinawa Trough and the influence of typhoons on suspended sediment concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Changwei; Jiang, Wensheng; Song, Dehai

    2010-06-01

    The source and transport mechanisms of land-derived Okinawa Trough sediments were studied using the field data of temperature, salinity and turbidity in the East China Seas. The results suggest that there are two primary sediments sources from the Chinese Mainland to the Okinawa Trough: one is the Old Huanghe River submarine delta, and the other is the Changjiang River sediments, which are distributed at the Changjiang River estuary and the off-coast of Zhejiang and Fujian provinces. It is difficult for the Huanghe River suspended sediments to arrive in the Okinawa Trough via the new estuary. Although the Taiwan warm current blocks the seaward terrigenous transportation to a certain extent, part of the coastal suspended sediments are transported to the outer shelf. Suspended particulate matter is unable to get through the barrier of the Kuroshio Current under normal conditions. However, episodic events, such as winter storms, internal-tidal waves and turbidity flows, are capable of transporting suspended particulate matter into the Okinawa Trough. The super typhoon "Ewiniar" induced strong waves and influenced the thermocline depth and suspended sediment concentration of the East China Seas. The typhoon-induced waves pushed the thermocline depth down to around 40 m and caused the resuspension of large volumes of sediments in its path. In the other East China Seas regions, the typhoon-induced swells deepened the thermocline depth by about 5 m and increased suspended sediment concentrations. The typhoon effect on suspended sediment concentration of the East China Seas disappeared within 2 weeks.

  10. Acoustic Impact of Short-Term Ocean Variability in the Okinawa Trough

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-20

    Florida State University Tallahassee, FL USA P. Spence QinetiQ North America Technology Solutions Group —PSI, Stennis Space Center, MS, USA...analyses and public observations in the Okinawa Trough region over I August - 31 October 2007. MLD(m) ILD(m) SLD (m) BLG ((m/s)/100m) RMS BIAS RMS BIAS RMS

  11. EPICS: A control system software co-development success story

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, M.; Gurd, D.; Lewis, S.; Thuot, M.

    1993-11-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control Systems (EPICS) is the result of a software sharing and co-development effort of major importance now underway. The initial two participants, LANL and ANL, have now been joined by three other labs, and an earlier version of the software has been transferred to three commercial firms and is currently undergoing separate development. The reasons for EPICS`s success may be useful to enumerate and explain and the desire and prospects for its continued development are certainly worth examining.

  12. Elemental composition and Its seasonal variation of bulk aerosols collected at the Okinawa archipelago, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Akihide; Oshiro, Seiji; Azechi, Sotaro; Handa, Daishi; Arakaki, Takemitsu

    2010-05-01

    Okinawa is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km south east of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location in Asia is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutions in East Asia, because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. In the present study, elemental composition and its seasonal variation of bulk aerosols collected at the Okinawa archipelago was investigated by a X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF). From these results, chemical properties of aerosols transported to Okinawa archipelago and long-range transport of metal pollutions were discussed. We continuously collected bulk aerosols for 7 days at a time during 2008 - 2009. The samplings were performed by using the same type of high volume air sampler at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS), respectively. XRF allows us to analyze bulk aerosols rapidly without any pretreatment. However, it is very difficult to determine trace metals in aerosol samples accurately. The concentration ratios to Al for 15-20 elements, whose accuracy was evaluated using standard reference materials (NIES No.28) and measuring by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after acid-digestion, were obtained by XRF. From seasonal variations obtained, the concentration rations to Al for Pb and As in aerosol particles were clearly higher in winter than in summer. These results suggest that North-west wind blown in winter would transport pollutant aerosols to Okinawa archipelago from East Asia.

  13. Aerosol hygroscopcity, volatility and chemical composition between the Pearl River Delta Region and Okinawa: a comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, M.; Tan, H.; Zhao, J.; Hatakeyama, S.; Mochida, M.; Kondo, Y.; Xu, H.; Li, F.; Shimada, K.; Deng, Y.; Liu, L.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol physical and chemical properties play important roles in affecting visibility and cloud formation, and the direct and indirect effects of Earth's radiative forcing. It is hence vital to understand aerosol properties in order to assess impacts of atmospheric aerosol particles. Aerosol hygroscopicity, volatility and chemical composition were measured at an urban site in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) Region of China and at a marine site in Okinawa of Japan in November 2014 and November 2016, respectively. A hygroscopic/volatile tandem differential mobility analyzer (H/V-TDMA) and aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) were used to measure hygroscopicity/volatility and chemical composition respectively during the campaign. Aerosol particles were apportioned to more complex emission sources in the PRD than in Okinawa, resulting in about an order of magnitude higher number concentrations of particles (10nm-400nm) in the PRD than in Okinawa. The HR-ToF-AMS measurements show much higher total non-refractory PM1 (NR-PM1) in the PRD than in Okinawa. The two sites represent distinctly different chemical compositions in the total NR-PM1: organics was dominant in the PRD, while sulfate is the major component in Okinawa, reflecting different emission sources. The V-TDMA measurements showed almost no non-volatile (NV) species in 40-300nm particles, while particles in the same size range might contain black carbon or low volatile organics in the PRD. Size-resolved particles hygroscopicity and mixing state between the two measurement sites are also compared in the presentation.

  14. Association between social class and food consumption in the Italian EPIC population.

    PubMed

    Vannoni, Francesca; Spadea, Teresa; Frasca, Graziella; Tumino, Rosario; Demaria, Moreno; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Celentano, Egidio; Palli, Domenico; Saieva, Calogero; Pala, Valeria; Sieri, Sabina; Costa, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to validate the social stratification variables adopted by the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) by comparing them with data from another independent source and to evaluate the geographic and social distribution of eating habits in the Italian EPIC population. The validation of the socioeconomic data collected by the EPIC study was performed with the Turin Longitudinal Study as gold standard and using Cohen's kappa statistics to evaluate the concordance between the studies. We then analyzed food groups based on the consumption of meat and fats, carbohydrates, sweets and alcohol, and on an index of the Mediterranean diet. The standardized scores for each food group were subdivided into quartiles, which were used to compare persons in the extreme quartiles. Analysis of the differences in eating habits by center and by educational level was conducted separately for men and women, calculating the prevalence rate ratios and controlling for age, area of birth and body mass index. Concordance between the two data sources was high for educational level and low for the social-class index based on occupation. Most of the eating habits considered to be potentially harmful (high consumption of meat or fats and alcohol and low consumption of olive oil and fish) were more frequent in Northern than in Southern Italy. These habits were inversely correlated with educational level, especially in the South. A significant improvement in health could be obtained in the Italian population if culturally and socioeconomically disadvantaged individuals were to abandon their diet rich in meat and fats, as done by more advantaged persons. In the absence of preventive interventions specifically addressed to disadvantaged groups, it is likely that social inequalities in mortality and morbidity will increase.

  15. The 1768 and 1791 Okinawa tsunamis in the Ryukyu Trench region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, M.

    2013-12-01

    Risk of the great earthquakes and tsunamis has been assumed to be low in the Ryukyu Trench because the interplate coupling is weak and great interplate earthquakes (> M8.0) had not been recorded historically for about 300 years. However, recent study revealed that the 1771 Yaeyama earthquake (M8.5 from tsunami heights distribution) at south Ryukyu Trench and the 1911 Kikaijima earthquake (M 8.0) at north-central Ryukyu Trench were the interplate earthquakes. We need re-examine the great historical earthquakes in the Ryukyu Trench. Two historical tsunamis which occurred on 1768 and 1791 in the Okinawa Island were documented in the old document 'Kyuyo' (formal chronicles of Ryukyu). I investigated the source fault model of two tsunami events using numerical simulations of tsunami and earthquake shaking, and showed that their events would be the interplate earthquakes. One earthquake occurred at noon of July 22th, 1768. The rock-walls of castle, grave of royal family were collapsed by the earthquake shaking around Naha, Okinawa Island. After the shaking, tsunami arrived Naha port and Zamami Island, which is west of Okinawa Island. Recorded tsunami heights were about 1 m at Naha port. Nine houses and rice fields were damaged by the inundation of the tsunami in the Zamami Island. Estimated tsunami heights were 4 and 5 m in the villages of the Zamami Island. The numerical modeling of tsunami and the estimation of earthquake shaking using empirical formula were employed, and the fault parameters of the 1768 earthquake were estimated. The faults were set to Okinawa Trough (M7.5 normal faults), southwest of Okinawa island (M7.5 normal faults), southwest of Okinawa island (M7.5 reverse fault), and Ryukyu Trench (M8.0 thrust faults). The computed tsunami heights and intensities of the ground shaking of the M7.5 reverse fault near the Zamami Island and the M8.0 interplate earthquake models are consistent with to the recorded ones. Another tsunami was also recorded in the

  16. EPICS: porting iocCore to multiple operating systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Kraimer, M.

    1999-09-30

    An important component of EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) is iocCore, which is the core software in the IOC (input/output controller) front-end processors. Currently iocCore requires the vxWorks operating system. This paper describes the porting of iocCore to other operating systems.

  17. PvaPy: Python API for EPICS PV Access

    SciTech Connect

    Veseli, S.

    2016-01-01

    As the number of sites deploying and adopting EPICS Version 4 grows, so does the need to support PV Access from multiple languages. Especially important are the widely used scripting languages that tend to reduce both software development time and the learning curve for new users. In this paper we describe PvaPy, a Python API for the EPICS PV Access protocol and its accompanying structured data API. Rather than implementing the protocol itself in Python, PvaPy wraps the existing EPICS Version 4 C++ libraries using the Boost.Python framework. This approach allows us to benefit from the existing code base and functionality, and to significantly reduce the Python API development effort. PvaPy objects are based on Python dictionaries and provide users with the ability to access even the most complex of PV Data structures in a relatively straightforward way. Its interfaces are easy to use, and include support for advanced EPICS Version 4 features such as implementation of client and server Remote Procedure Calls (RPC).

  18. The Epic of Sundiata: Using African Literature in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret Lo Piccolo

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the "Epic of Sundiata" which chronicles the rise of the Empire of Mali in the grasslands of northwestern Africa in the 13th century. This work is a compelling drama that bears comparison to such other hero tales as "The Iliad" and the Arthurian legend. Includes suggested teaching activities. (MJP)

  19. Becoming Teachers' Little Epics: What Digital Storytelling Might Reveal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Linda; Aitken, Avril

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses pre-service teachers' use of multi-modal tools to produce three-minute films in light of critical moments in their teaching practice. Two cases are considered; each centers on a film, a "little epic" that was produced by a future teacher who attempts to work within an anti-racist framework for social justice.…

  20. "El Norte," Deracination and Circularity: An Epic Gone Awry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brakel, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Early journalistic reviews (e.g., Gold, Ebert, and Kael) of "El Norte" (1983), Gregory Nava's first major film, identify it as an epic. In "El Norte" the siblings Enrique and Rosa, two Guatemalan Amerindians, leave their native village on a quest to what for them is the mythical land in the North. Although "El Norte"…

  1. The Epic of Sundiata: Using African Literature in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret Lo Piccolo

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the "Epic of Sundiata" which chronicles the rise of the Empire of Mali in the grasslands of northwestern Africa in the 13th century. This work is a compelling drama that bears comparison to such other hero tales as "The Iliad" and the Arthurian legend. Includes suggested teaching activities. (MJP)

  2. The Epic inside Us: Using Intuitive Play to Teach Beowulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menzies, J. Beth Haase

    2004-01-01

    The element of play is underutilized in the secondary classroom in spite of the fact that play produces unique opportunities for meaningful learning. The ways in which the elements of epic poetry, Beowulf, and the Old English diction differed from the modern usage is discussed.

  3. The E.P.I.C. Journey Sanctioning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fueglein, Jennifer S.; Price, Kevin S.; Alicea-Rodriguez, Adriana; McKinney, Jan Wilson; Jimenez, Anne L.

    2012-01-01

    As universities look for more effective ways to address violations of behavioral standards, a proposed solution is to infuse intentional development into well-established conduct processes inherently focused on legal mandates and due process. The E.P.I.C. Journey Sanctioning Model was designed to refocus the outcomes of the conduct process to…

  4. Becoming Teachers' Little Epics: What Digital Storytelling Might Reveal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Linda; Aitken, Avril

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses pre-service teachers' use of multi-modal tools to produce three-minute films in light of critical moments in their teaching practice. Two cases are considered; each centers on a film, a "little epic" that was produced by a future teacher who attempts to work within an anti-racist framework for social justice.…

  5. Burbank works on the EPIC in the Node 2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-28

    ISS030-E-114433 (29 Feb. 2012) --- In the International Space Station?s Destiny laboratory, NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, Expedition 30 commander, upgrades Multiplexer/Demultiplexer (MDM) computers and Portable Computer System (PCS) laptops and installs the Enhanced Processor & Integrated Communications (EPIC) hardware in the Payload 1 (PL-1) MDM.

  6. "El Norte," Deracination and Circularity: An Epic Gone Awry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brakel, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Early journalistic reviews (e.g., Gold, Ebert, and Kael) of "El Norte" (1983), Gregory Nava's first major film, identify it as an epic. In "El Norte" the siblings Enrique and Rosa, two Guatemalan Amerindians, leave their native village on a quest to what for them is the mythical land in the North. Although "El Norte"…

  7. The Epic inside Us: Using Intuitive Play to Teach Beowulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menzies, J. Beth Haase

    2004-01-01

    The element of play is underutilized in the secondary classroom in spite of the fact that play produces unique opportunities for meaningful learning. The ways in which the elements of epic poetry, Beowulf, and the Old English diction differed from the modern usage is discussed.

  8. Microearthquakes and Crustal Structures in the Southern Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Sibuet, J.; Lee, C.; Hsu, S.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Auffret, Y.; Pelleau, P.; Crozon, J.

    2004-12-01

    Located east of Taiwan, the southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) is a portion of a young continental backarc basin, which is still in the rifting stage. Based on seismicity data, a slab tear was identified along 123.3°E. In order to better understand the nature and role of tectonic features in this region, a passive seismic Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) experiment was conducted from November 19 to December 1, 2003. 15 OBSs were deployed in a 130 x 90 km area including the Ryukyu slab tear and the Cross Backarc Volcanic Trail (CBVT). OBSs with three 4.5 Hz component geophones and an hydrophone recorded about 4000 microearthquakes. Most of them (about 94%) are crustal earthquakes (0-20 km) which occured in the SOT central graben. Just a few earthquakes were recorded from the upper slope of the northern SOT and from the Ryukyu forearc. Most of the earthquake local magnitudes (ML) range from 1 to 2, even if the whole range of magnitudes spans from 0.9 to 4. Three clusters of high microearthquake activity are observed in : (1) the CBVT area (24.7-25°N; 122.5-123°E); (2) the southern central graben area (24.65-24.85°N;123-123.3°E); and (3) the northern central graben area (24.9-25.2°N ;123.2-123.65°E). The southern central graben cluster is also identified by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The earthquakes determined by the JMA in the northern central graben present larger magnitudes than ours, but are globally located 10-km south of our cluster. The CBVT cluster is not recorded in JMA data probably because the shallow (O-5 km) volcanic activity only involved small earthquakes which are too far from the JMA's network. Based on swath bathymetric and seismic data, most of the epicenters lie along already identified normal faults. Thus, except the volcanic activity, which occurs in the CBVT area, the main factor controlling the SOT tectonic activity is normal faulting. On the northern and southern slopes of the central graben, hypocenters occur along normal fauls

  9. An Evaluation of EPIC's Analysis of School Practice & Knowledge System. The Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC). Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Kay; Pereira-Leon, Maura; Honeyford, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Established in 2006 by New Leaders for New Schools[TM], the Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC) initiative rewards high-need urban schools showing significant gains in student achievement. In exchange, schools agree to share the practices helping to drive those gains, which they do through an in-depth study of practice, aided by the EPIC…

  10. Comparative Single-Cell Genomics of Chloroflexi from the Okinawa Trough Deep-Subsurface Biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Fullerton, Heather

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chloroflexi small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences are frequently recovered from subseafloor environments, but the metabolic potential of the phylum is poorly understood. The phylum Chloroflexi is represented by isolates with diverse metabolic strategies, including anoxic phototrophy, fermentation, and reductive dehalogenation; therefore, function cannot be attributed to these organisms based solely on phylogeny. Single-cell genomics can provide metabolic insights into uncultured organisms, like the deep-subsurface Chloroflexi. Nine SSU rRNA gene sequences were identified from single-cell sorts of whole-round core material collected from the Okinawa Trough at Iheya North hydrothermal field as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 331 (Deep Hot Biosphere). Previous studies of subsurface Chloroflexi single amplified genomes (SAGs) suggested heterotrophic or lithotrophic metabolisms and provided no evidence for growth by reductive dehalogenation. Our nine Chloroflexi SAGs (seven of which are from the order Anaerolineales) indicate that, in addition to genes for the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, exogenous carbon sources can be actively transported into cells. At least one subunit for pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase was found in four of the Chloroflexi SAGs. This protein can provide a link between the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and other carbon anabolic pathways. Finally, one of the seven Anaerolineales SAGs contains a distinct reductive dehalogenase homologous (rdhA) gene. IMPORTANCE Through the use of single amplified genomes (SAGs), we have extended the metabolic potential of an understudied group of subsurface microbes, the Chloroflexi. These microbes are frequently detected in the subsurface biosphere, though their metabolic capabilities have remained elusive. In contrast to previously examined Chloroflexi SAGs, our genomes (several are from the order Anaerolineales) were recovered from a hydrothermally driven system and therefore provide a

  11. Comparative Single-Cell Genomics of Chloroflexi from the Okinawa Trough Deep-Subsurface Biosphere.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Heather; Moyer, Craig L

    2016-05-15

    Chloroflexi small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences are frequently recovered from subseafloor environments, but the metabolic potential of the phylum is poorly understood. The phylum Chloroflexi is represented by isolates with diverse metabolic strategies, including anoxic phototrophy, fermentation, and reductive dehalogenation; therefore, function cannot be attributed to these organisms based solely on phylogeny. Single-cell genomics can provide metabolic insights into uncultured organisms, like the deep-subsurface Chloroflexi Nine SSU rRNA gene sequences were identified from single-cell sorts of whole-round core material collected from the Okinawa Trough at Iheya North hydrothermal field as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 331 (Deep Hot Biosphere). Previous studies of subsurface Chloroflexi single amplified genomes (SAGs) suggested heterotrophic or lithotrophic metabolisms and provided no evidence for growth by reductive dehalogenation. Our nine Chloroflexi SAGs (seven of which are from the order Anaerolineales) indicate that, in addition to genes for the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, exogenous carbon sources can be actively transported into cells. At least one subunit for pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase was found in four of the Chloroflexi SAGs. This protein can provide a link between the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and other carbon anabolic pathways. Finally, one of the seven Anaerolineales SAGs contains a distinct reductive dehalogenase homologous (rdhA) gene. Through the use of single amplified genomes (SAGs), we have extended the metabolic potential of an understudied group of subsurface microbes, the Chloroflexi These microbes are frequently detected in the subsurface biosphere, though their metabolic capabilities have remained elusive. In contrast to previously examined Chloroflexi SAGs, our genomes (several are from the order Anaerolineales) were recovered from a hydrothermally driven system and therefore provide a unique window into

  12. Prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Tetsuo; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Kinjo, Nagisa; Hokama, Akira; Kinjo, Fukunori; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Fujita, Jiro

    2007-11-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Ryukyu University Hospital, Okinawa, Japan, between January 2004 and November 2006. Stool samples collected from 3,292 patients were examined by the direct smear method, formalin-ether sedimentation method, and agar plate culture method. The prevalence rate of B. hominis and S. stercoralis infection was 1.0 and 3.4%, respectively. The prevalence rate of B. hominis infection in patients aged >80 years old was significantly higher than that in patients <80 years old (P < 0.001). The prevalence rate of S. stercoralis infection was significantly higher in patients with B. hominis infection compared with those without (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated a prevalence rate for B. hominis and S. stercoralis infection and an association between B. hominis and S. stercoralis infection in Okinawa, Japan.

  13. Molecular epidemiology of human metapneumovirus from 2009 to 2011 in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nidaira, Minoru; Taira, Katsuya; Hamabata, Hirotsune; Kawaki, Tatsuyoshi; Gushi, Kazuo; Mahoe, Youko; Maeshiro, Noriyuki; Azama, Yasuhito; Okano, Shou; Kyan, Hisako; Kudaka, Jun; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Noda, Masahiro; Kimura, Hirokazu

    2012-07-01

    To clarify the molecular epidemiology of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) in Okinawa Prefecture, located in a subtropical region of Japan, we performed genetic analysis of the F gene in HMPV from patients with acute respiratory infection from January 2009 to December 2011. HMPV was detected in 18 of 485 throat swabs (3.7%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that 17 strains belonged to subgroup A2 and 1 strain belonged to subgroup B1. We did not observe seasonal prevalence of HMPV during the investigation period. A high level of sequence identity was observed in the strains belonging to subgroup A2 (>95%), and no amino acid substitution was found compared with other strains detected in Japan and other countries. The pairwise distance values among the present strains belonging to subgroup A2 were short. Our results suggest that the predominant HMPV strains belonging to A2 are highly homologous and seasonal epidemics were not seen in Okinawa during the investigation period.

  14. Ribosomal DNA haplotype distribution of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Kyushu and Okinawa islands, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nose, Mine; Miyahara, Fumihiko; Ohira, Mineko; Matsunaga, Koji; Tobase, Masashi; Koyama, Takao; Yoshimoto, Kikuo

    2009-01-01

    Ribosomal DNA region sequences (partial 18S, 28S and complete ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2) of the pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) were obtained from DNA extracted directly from wood pieces collected from wilted pine trees throughout the Kyushu and Okinawa islands, Japan. Either a 2569bp or 2573bp sequence was obtained from 88 of 143 samples. Together with the 45 rDNA sequences of pinewood nematode isolates previously reported, there were eight single nucleotide polymorphisms and two indels of two bases. Based on these mutations, nine haplotypes were estimated. The haplotype frequencies differed among regions in Kyushu island (northwest, northeast and center, southeast, and southwest), and the distribution was consistent with the invasion and spreading routes of the pinewood nematode previously estimated from past records of pine wilt and wood importation. There was no significant difference in haplotype frequencies among the collection sites on Okinawa island. PMID:22736814

  15. Psychometric Assessment of the Chinese Version of the Abbreviated Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC-26) and the Clinical Practice Version (EPIC-CP) in Chinese Men With Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lam, Wendy W T; Tse, Michael A; Ng, Chris N L; Chung, Edward K M; Fielding, Richard

    2017-06-01

    The Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) instrument was designed to assess a range of health-related quality-of-life issues specifically relevant to patients with prostate cancer. This study examined the validity and reliability of Chinese versions of the 26-item EPIC and of the 16-item EPIC for Clinical Practice (EPIC-CP) in Chinese patients with prostate cancer. A Chinese version of the 26-item EPIC and the 16-item EPIC-CP were self-completed by 252 Chinese patients with prostate cancer who were recruited from three community-based cancer service centers. Confirmatory factors analysis assessed the factor structures of the EPIC and the EPIC-CP. Internal consistency and construct and clinical validities of the factor structures were assessed. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the original factor structure of both EPIC-26 and EPIC-CP showed good fit to this sample. A correlated model was superior to a hierarchical model in both EPIC-26 and EPIC-CP supporting the utility of the domain scores over the total scores. Cronbach α ranged from 0.55 to 0.91 for EPIC-26 and 0.44 to 0.67 for EPIC-CP. Construct validity was supported by correlations between EPIC-26/EPIC-CP and psychological distress measures. Clinical validity was supported by differentiation between patients with and without prostatectomy. These Chinese versions of the five-factor EPIC-26 and the EPIC-CP are valid and practical measures for assessing a range of health-related quality-of-life issues related to the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer, highlighting their utility in assessing health-related quality of life for patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A remarkable new species of the genus Teinotarsina (Lepidoptera, Sesiidae) from Okinawa-jima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Sadahisa; Hirowatari, Toshiya; Arita, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    A new species of long-legged clearwing moth Teinotarsina aurantiaca Yagi, Hirowatari & Arita, sp. n. is described from Okinawa-jima, the Ryukyus, Japan. The species is distinguishable at a glance from other related congeners by the remarkable orange scales ornamenting many parts of the body, such as antennae, palpi, legs, and wings. We hypothesize that the species acquired these differences as a result of convergence with toxic species (Batesian mimicry) or other mimics (Müllerian mimicry).

  17. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei Strain LC-Ikematsu, Isolated from a Pineapple in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Saitoh, Seikoh; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Shinzato, Naoya; Yamamoto, Norikuni; Arita, Masanori; Ikematsu, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei strain LC-Ikematsu, isolated from a pineapple in Okinawa, was determined. The total length of the 87 contigs was 3.08 Mb with a G+C content of 46.2% and 2,946 coding sequences. The genome analysis revealed its biosynthetic ability of 11 amino acids. PMID:28153910

  18. A remarkable new species of the genus Teinotarsina (Lepidoptera, Sesiidae) from Okinawa-jima, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Sadahisa; Hirowatari, Toshiya; Arita, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of long-legged clearwing moth Teinotarsina aurantiaca Yagi, Hirowatari & Arita, sp. n. is described from Okinawa-jima, the Ryukyus, Japan. The species is distinguishable at a glance from other related congeners by the remarkable orange scales ornamenting many parts of the body, such as antennae, palpi, legs, and wings. We hypothesize that the species acquired these differences as a result of convergence with toxic species (Batesian mimicry) or other mimics (Müllerian mimicry). PMID:27110163

  19. Deep ventilation in the Okinawa Trough induced by Kerama Gap overflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishina, Ayako; Nakamura, Hirohiko; Park, Jae-Hun; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Tanaka, Yuki; Seo, Seongbong; Hibiya, Toshiyuki

    2016-08-01

    Near-bottom water flowing over the Kerama Gap's sills is thought to ventilate the deep water below ˜1100 m depth in the Okinawa Trough and then upwell with 5-10 years residence time. The present study follows up on this phenomenon, using comprehensive profile data of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, currents and turbulence obtained by intensive shipboard observations performed in June 2013 and June 2014 in the region. Strong near-bottom subtidal flow with speeds exceeding 0.5 m s-1 was observed within a layer of about 100 m thickness over the western side of the peak of the main sill. Temperature and salinity sections along the Kerama Gap indicated some depressions and overturns of the deep water downstream of the strong overflow, suggesting the existence of breaking internal gravity waves and hydraulic jumps. Associated vertical diffusivities, estimated using the Thorpe scale and the buoyancy frequency, were three to four orders of magnitude larger than typical values observed in the thermocline of the open ocean (˜10-5 m2 s-1). The dissolved oxygen section also indicated strong vertical mixing and associated upwelling with the entrainment of the near-bottom overflow water into the lower thermocline beneath the Kuroshio in the Okinawa Trough. The present study not only supports the previous conceptual model but also provides new evidence that the Okinawa Trough is an upwelling location where nutrient rich Philippine Sea intermediate water is sucked up into the lower thermocline below the Kuroshio.

  20. [Epidemiology of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in Okinawa, Japan (1977-2005)].

    PubMed

    Hirayasu, Kyomi; Oshiro, Satoshi; Nakada, Yukikatsu

    2010-11-01

    The epidemiology of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) has changed since the introduction of measles immunization in 1970's. We studied the incidence of SSPE in Okinawa. There were 22 cases (16 males and 6 females) of SSPE from 1977 to 2005 in Okinawa. The incidence was 0.63 per million population per year from 1977 to 1986, 0 from 1987 to 1993, 1.17 from 1994 to 1999 and 0.75 from 2000 to 2005. Twenty-one SSPE patients had a history of non-immunized measles and 19 of them (90%) had measles infection under 2 years of age. There were measles epidemic every 2-5 years in Okinawa. Ten of 21 cases contracted measles in 1990-1991. The percentage of patients with measles infection under 2 years of age during measles epidemics ranged from 46% to 56%. Early measles infection (under 2 years of age) is a risk factor for SSPE. Routine measles immunization to prevent measles infection is very important for the prevention of SSPE.

  1. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum from two different Japanese prefectures, Okinawa and Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Aita, Junya; Masatani, Tatsunori; Suzuki, Moemi; Nitta, Yoshiki; Tamayose, Genta; Iso, Takehiro; Suganuma, Keisuke; Fujiwara, Takashi; Matsuyama, Keita; Niikura, Tadamasa; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Itagaki, Tadashi; Zakimi, Satoshi; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2015-04-01

    Infectious diarrhea is the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal calves. Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the main pathogens associated with calf diarrhea. Although diarrhea is a symptom of infection with various pathogens, investigations to detect the types of pathogens have never been performed in Japan. This study investigated the prevalence of four major diarrhea-causing pathogens in calves: C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli K99). Commercial immunochromatography testing of all four pathogens and molecular analysis of C. parvum with diarrhea in calves from southernmost Okinawa and northernmost Hokkaido, Japan, were conducted. The frequencies of C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and E. coli (K99) in Okinawa were 50%, 28%, 2.3%, and 4.7%, respectively. Watery fecal stools were significantly correlated with C. parvum (p<0.05). In oocyst calculations for C. parvum, no significant difference was observed between the single-infection cases and the mixed-infection cases with rotavirus. Interestingly, molecular analyses targeting small subunit ribosomal RNA as well as glycoprotein 60 (GP60) genes revealed that the C. parvum nucleotide sequences from the two prefectures were identical, indicating that C. parvum with a uniform characteristic is distributed throughout Japan. GP60 subtyping analysis identified C. parvum from Okinawa and Hokkaido as belonging to the IIaA15G2R1 subtype, a known zoonotic subtype. Hence, control of cryptosporidiosis is important not only for pre-weaned calves, but also for human health.

  2. Okinawa: an exception to the social gradient of life expectancy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Cockerham, W C; Yamori, Y

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines why the social gradient of life expectancy does not apply in Japan when Okinawa is considered. The social gradient thesis links differences in longevity to social rank, with people and populations in higher status hierarchical positions having lower mortality and longer life expectancies than those beneath them in the social scale. Japan has been cited as a major example of this thesis in that Japanese life expectancy improved dramatically as Japan rose to the top echelon of nations in economic rank in the late 20th century. Thus it follows that Japan's most affluent and leading prefectures should be the major catalysts behind the nation's rise in life expectancy as well to the number one position in the world. However, this is not the case as life expectancy in Okinawa, Japan's poorest prefecture, exceeds that of Japan as a whole. We find that the social gradient of life expectancy does not apply at the prefectural level and question its validity for geographical areas. We suggest that healthy lifestyles, especially diet and the social support of family and friends, are more important than sense of hierarchy for longevity in Okinawa.

  3. Geographic difference in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease among Japanese screened subjects: Ibaraki versus Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Iseki, Kunitoshi; Horio, Masaru; Imai, Enyu; Matsuo, Seiichi; Yamagata, Kunihiro

    2009-02-01

    In Japan, there is a geographic difference in the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Few epidemiologic studies, however, have compared the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among different geographic areas. Other than genetic factors, socioeconomic conditions and lifestyle are targets for modification. We examined the prevalence of CKD among two large community-based screened populations, 40 years of age and older, in Japan: Ibaraki (N = 187,863) and Okinawa (N = 83,150). Prevalence of CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) using the coefficient modified abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (aMDRD) study equation using a standardized serum creatinine value. CKD prevalence was compared among screenees with (+) or without (-) hypertension (systolic blood pressure > or =140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure > or =90 mmHg) and hyperglycemia (plasma glucose > or = 126 mg/dl). Both male and female participants in Okinawa had a significantly lower prevalence of hypertension (-)/hyperglycemia (-) than did patients in Ibaraki. The prevalence of CKD in Okinawa was higher than that in Ibaraki among screenees with hypertension (-)/hyperglycemia (-), and highest among screenees with hypertension (+)/hyperglycemia (-). The regional difference in CKD prevalence may underlie the variation in ESRD prevalence observed in Japan.

  4. Prehistoric introduction of domestic pigs onto the Okinawa Islands: ancient mitochondrial DNA evidence.

    PubMed

    Watanobe, Takuma; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Nakano, Masuo; Takamiya, Hiroto; Matsui, Akira; Hongo, Hitomi

    2002-08-01

    Ancient DNAs of Sus scrofa specimens excavated from archaeological sites on the Okinawa islands were examined to clarify the genetic relationships among prehistoric Sus scrofa, modern wild boars and domestic pigs inhabiting the Ryukyu archipelago, the Japanese islands, and the Asian continent. We extracted remain DNA from 161 bone specimens excavated from 12 archaeological sites on the Okinawa islands and successfully amplified mitochondrial DNA control region fragments from 33 of 161 specimens. Pairwise difference between prehistoric and modern S. scrofa nucleotide sequences showed that haplotypes of the East Asian domestic pig lineage were found from archaeological specimens together with Ryukyu wild boars native to the Ryukyu archipelago. Phylogenetic analysis of 14 ancient sequences (11 haplotypes; 574 bp) indicated that S. scrofa specimens from two Yayoi-Heian sites (Kitahara and Ara shellmiddens) and two Recent Times sites (Wakuta Kiln and Kiyuna sites) are grouped with modern East Asian domestic pigs. Sus scrofa specimens from Shimizu shellmidden (Yayoi-Heian Period) were very closely related to modern Sus scrofa riukiuanus but had a unique nucleotide insertion, indicating that the population is genetically distinct from the lineage of modern Ryukyu wild boars. This genetic evidence suggests that domestic pigs from the Asian continent were introduced to the Okinawa islands in the early Yayoi-Heian period (1700-2000 BP), or earlier.

  5. Helicobacter pylori cagA 12-bp insertion can be a marker for duodenal ulcer in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Yuichi; Shiota, Seiji; Matsunari, Osamu; Suzuki, Rumiko; Watada, Masahide; Binh, Tran Thanh; Kinjo, Nagisa; Kinjo, Fukunori; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds Helicobacter pylori cagA can be classified into mainly two types (East-Asian-type and Western-type cagA) according to the repeat regions located in the 3′ region. Recent studies showed that the Western-type cagA in strains from Okinawa, Japan formed a different cluster (J-Western-type cagA subtype). We also reported that J-Western-type cagA possess a 12-bp insertion located in the 5′ region of cagA sequence. Methods The prevalence of 12-bp insertion in cagA in Okinawa and the United States (U.S.) was examined by DNA sequencing. We then designed the primer pair which can detect the 12-bp insertion only by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalence of strains with 12-bp insertion was examined in 336 strains isolated from Okinawa by PCR. Results In case of Western-type cagA/vacA s1m2 strains, the prevalence of 12-bp insertion was significantly higher in strains isolated from Okinawa than that from the U.S. (P = 0.002). Phylogenetic tree showed that strains with 12-bp insertion formed two individual clusters within J-Western-type cagA subtype; one is from Okinawa and another is from the U.S. Our designed primer set showed high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (90.8%) in Okinawa. The 12-bp insertion was found in 23.7%, 14.3%, 4.2%, and 4.0% of strains with duodenal ulcer (DU), gastritis, gastric cancer (GC), and gastric ulcer (GU), respectively (P < 0.001 for DU vs. GU) in Okinawa. Conclusions Although the mechanisms are unknown, the presence of 12-bp insertion was associated with the presence of DU and might have a suppressive action on GU and GC. PMID:23190390

  6. Possible food sources of macrozoobenthos in the manko mangrove ecosystem, okinawa (Japan): a stable isotope analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Wardiatno, Yusli; Mardiansyah; Prartono, Tri; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Identifying potential food sources in mangrove ecosystems is complex because of the multifarious inputs from both land and sea. This study, which was conducted in the Manko mangrove ecosystem of Okinawa, Japan, determined the composition of the stable isotopes δ(13)C and δ(15)N in primary producers and macrozoobenthos to estimate the potential food sources assimilated and to elucidate the target trophic levels of the macrozoobenthos. We measured the two stable isotope signatures of three gastropods (Cerithidea sp., Cassidula mustelina, Peronia verruculata), two crabs (Grapsidae sp., Uca sp.), mangrove tree (Kandelia candel) leaves, and sediment from the mangrove ecosystem. The respective carbon and nitrogen isotope signature results were as follows: -22.4‰ and 8.6‰ for Cerithidea sp., -25.06‰ and 8‰ for C. mustelina, -22.58‰ and 8‰ for P. verruculata, -24.3‰ and 10.6‰ for unidentified Grapsidae, -21.87 ‰ and 11.5 ‰ for Uca sp., -29.81‰ and 11‰ for K. candel, and -24.23‰ and 7.2‰ for the sediment. The stable isotope assimilation signatures of the macrozoobenthos indicated sediment as their food source. Considering the trophic levels, the stable isotope values may also indicate that the five macrozoobenthos species were secondary or higher consumers.

  7. Possible Food Sources of Macrozoobenthos in the Manko Mangrove Ecosystem, Okinawa (Japan): A Stable Isotope Analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wardiatno, Yusli; Mardiansyah; Prartono, Tri; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Identifying potential food sources in mangrove ecosystems is complex because of the multifarious inputs from both land and sea. This study, which was conducted in the Manko mangrove ecosystem of Okinawa, Japan, determined the composition of the stable isotopes δ13C and δ15N in primary producers and macrozoobenthos to estimate the potential food sources assimilated and to elucidate the target trophic levels of the macrozoobenthos. We measured the two stable isotope signatures of three gastropods (Cerithidea sp., Cassidula mustelina, Peronia verruculata), two crabs (Grapsidae sp., Uca sp.), mangrove tree (Kandelia candel) leaves, and sediment from the mangrove ecosystem. The respective carbon and nitrogen isotope signature results were as follows: −22.4‰ and 8.6‰ for Cerithidea sp., −25.06‰ and 8‰ for C. mustelina, −22.58‰ and 8‰ for P. verruculata, −24.3‰ and 10.6‰ for unidentified Grapsidae, −21.87 ‰ and 11.5 ‰ for Uca sp., −29.81‰ and 11‰ for K. candel, and −24.23‰ and 7.2‰ for the sediment. The stable isotope assimilation signatures of the macrozoobenthos indicated sediment as their food source. Considering the trophic levels, the stable isotope values may also indicate that the five macrozoobenthos species were secondary or higher consumers. PMID:26019747

  8. The Explicit Planetary Isentropic-Coordinate (EPIC) Atmospheric Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, T. E.; Fischer, A. S.; Gierasch, P. J.; Harrington, J.; LeBeau, R. P.; Santori, C. M.

    1998-04-01

    We describe a new general circulation model (GCM) designed for planetary atmospheric studies called the EPIC model. This is a finite-difference model based on the isentropic-coordinate scheme of Hsu and Arakawa (1990.Mon. Wea. Rev.118, 1933-1959). We report on previously undocumented modifications, additions, and key practical issues that experience running the model has revealed to be important. The model integrates the hydrostatic primitive equations, which are valid for large-scale atmospheric dynamics and include gravity waves (buoyancy waves), planetary waves (Rossby waves), and horizontally propagating sound waves (Lamb waves), but not vertically propagating sound waves because of the hydrostatic approximation. The vertical coordinate is entropy in the form of potential temperature, which coincides with material surfaces for adiabatic motion. This means that there is no vertical velocity except where there is heating, which improves accuracy and helps the model maintain conservation properties over long integrations. An isentropic vertical coordinate is natural for the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, which are believed to have essentially adiabatic interiors that match up with the bottom of the model and is also excellent for middle-atmosphere studies on any planet. Radiative processes are parameterized by Newtonian cooling, and the latent heat of ortho-para hydrogen conversion is included when appropriate, with a suitably defined mean potential temperature. The model is written with general map factors that make it easy to configure in oblate spherical, cylindrical, or Cartesian coordinates. The code includes optional Message Passing Interface (MPI) library calls and hence runs on any Unix-based parallel computer or network cluster. An optional graphical user interface to commercial visualization software facilitates control of the model and analysis of output. Memory is allocated dynamically such that the user does not recompile to

  9. areaDetector: Software for 2-D Detectors in EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Rivers, M.

    2011-09-23

    areaDetector is a new EPICS module designed to support 2-D detectors. It is modular C++ code that greatly simplifies the task of writing support for a new detector. It also supports plugins, which receive detector data from the driver and process it in some way. Existing plugins perform Region-Of-Interest extraction and analysis, file saving (in netCDF, HDF, TIFF and JPEG formats), color conversion, and export to EPICS records for image display in clients like ImageJ and IDL. Drivers have now been written for many of the detectors commonly used at synchrotron beamlines, including CCDs, pixel array and amorphous silicon detectors, and online image plates.

  10. areaDetector: Software for 2-D Detectors in EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Rivers, Mark L.

    2010-06-23

    areaDetector is a new EPICS module designed to support 2-D detectors. It is modular C++ code that greatly simplifies the task of writing support for a new detector. It also supports plugins, which receive detector data from the driver and process it in some way. Existing plugins perform Region-Of-Interest extraction and analysis, file saving (in netCDF, HDF, TIFF and JPEG formats), color conversion, and export to EPICS records for image display in clients like ImageJ and IDL. Drivers have now been written for many of the detectors commonly used at synchrotron beamlines, including CCDs, pixel array and amorphous silicon detectors, and online image plates.

  11. Perfusion Electronic Record Documentation Using Epic Systems Software.

    PubMed

    Steffens, Thomas G; Gunser, John M; Saviello, George M

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the design and use of Epic Systems software for documentation of perfusion activities as part of the patient electronic medical record. The University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics adapted the Anesthesia software module and developed an integrated perfusion/anesthesia record for the documentation of cardiac and non-cardiac surgical procedures. This project involved multiple committees, approvals, and training to successfully implement. This article will describe our documentation options, concepts, design, challenges, training, and implementation during our initial experience.

  12. Simulating Field-Scale Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics Using EPIC

    SciTech Connect

    Causarano, Hector J.; Shaw, Joey N.; Franzluebbers, A. J.; reeves, D. W.; Raper, Randy L.; Balkcom, Kipling S.; Norfleet, M. L.; Izaurralde, R Cesar

    2007-07-01

    Simulation models integrate our knowledge of soil organic C (SOC) dynamics and are useful tools for evaluating impacts of crop management on soil C sequestration; yet, they require local calibration. Our objectives were to calibrate the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model, and evaluate its performance for simulating SOC fractions as affected by soil landscape and management. An automated parameter optimization procedure was used to calibrate the model for a site-specific experiment in the Coastal Plain of central Alabama. The ability of EPIC to predict corn (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yields and SOC dynamics on different soil landscape positions (summit, sideslope and drainageway) during the initial period of conservation tillage adoption (5 years) was evaluated using regression and mean squared deviations. Simulated yield explained 88% of measured yield variation, with greatest disagreement on the sideslope position and highest agreement in the drainageway. Simulations explained approximately 1, 34 and 40% of the total variation in microbial biomass C (MBC), particulate organic C (POC) and total organic C (TOC), respectively. Lowest errors on TOC simulations (0-20 cm) were found on the sideslope and summit. We conclude that the automated parameterization was generally successful, although further work is needed to refine the MBC and POC fractions, and to improve EPIC predictions of SOC dynamics with depth. Overall, EPIC was sensitive to spatial differences in C fractions that resulted from differing soil landscape positions. The model needs additional refinement for accurate simulations of field-scale SOC dynamics affected by short-term management decisions.

  13. EPICS V4 Evaluation for SNS Neutron Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kasemir, Kay; Pearson, Matthew R; Guyotte, Greg S

    2015-01-01

    Version 4 of the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) toolkit allows defining application-specific structured data types (pvData) and offers a network protocol for their efficient exchange (pvAccess). We evaluated V4 for the transport of neutron events from the detectors of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to data acquisition and experiment monitoring systems. This includes the comparison of possible data structures, performance tests, and experience using V4 in production on a beam line.

  14. Measurement of high turbidity water behavior by ADCP at Izena Caldera in Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuta, S.; Arai, R.; Yamazaki, T.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrothermal processes associated with spreading centers of plate-tectonics form hydrothermal activities and the resulted seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) deposits. Given that the SMS deposits found in the western Pacific have been considered to be potential sources of gold, silver, copper, zinc, and lead, there is a strong possibility that they will be mined near future. In order to take measures against environmental impacts during the mining of SMS deposits, it is important to measure components of hydrothermal origin with high temporal and spatial resolution on site, and to understand the mass circulation and transfer systems around the mining area. The Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) is effective tool for measurement of current field in water column in general. In addition, it is also useful for detection of turbidity profile in the water column simultaneously, applying an acoustic propagation model to the data. Izena Caldera, which is 3 km in short, 6 km in long axes and is generically from1,600 m to 1,700 m in depth, is located at the northwest of Okinawa Island. There both attractive SMS deposits and active hydrothermal vent systems have been confirmed. Because of the active vent systems and a bowl-like geographical structure, a quite unique mass circulation and transfer background condition is expected in Izena Caldera. The mining operation will add plenty of suspended materials into the background condition. For a primary understanding of the background condition, the authors analyzed the ADCP data and found two high-turbidity water zones in Izena Caldera and their behavior relationships with the current structure. The vertical downward current affects one of the high-turbidity zones around 1,220 m in depth. The current velocity against north-south direction and east-west direction affects the other high-turbidity zone 1,550 m in depth. Also the zones are recognized the higher synchronization with the lumi-solar diurnal tide, about 24 hours. The

  15. Microbial diversity in the deep-sea sediments of Iheya North and Iheya Ridge, Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Sun, Qing-lei; Zeng, Zhi-gang; Chen, Shuai; Sun, Li

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed the bacterial and archaeal diversities of the deep-sea sediments in Iheya North and Iheya Ridge, Okinawa Trough, using the high-throughput sequencing technology of Illumina MiSeq 2500 platform. Four samples (IN1, IN2, IR1 and IR2) were used in this study, of which IN1 and IN2 were located at regions close to and distant, respectively, from the active hydrothermal vents in Iheya North, while IR1 and IR2 were located at regions close to and distant, respectively, from the active hydrothermal vents in Iheya Ridge. The four samples were rich in different metal elements. Sequence analysis based on the V3-V4 regions of 16S rDNA gene obtained 170,363 taxon tags, including 122,920 bacterial tags and 47,433 archaeal tags, which cover 31 phyla, 50 classes, 59 orders, 87 families, and 138 genera. Overall, the microbial communities in all samples were dominated by bacteria, in which Proteobacteria was the largest phylum, followed by Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and Nitrospirae, which together accounted for 64.6% of the total taxon tags. In contrast to the high bacterial diversities, the archaeal diversity was low and dominated by Thaumarchaeota, which accounted for 22.9% of the total taxon tags. Comparative analysis showed that (i) IN2 and IR2 exhibited more microbial richness than IN1 and IR1, (ii) IR1 and IR2 exhibited higher microbial diversities than IN1 and IN2, (iii) samples from Iheya Ridge and Iheya North fell into two groups based on principle component analysis. Furthermore, microbes potentially involved in sulfur, nitrogen, and metal metabolism and cycling were detected in all samples. These results provide for the first time a comparative picture of the microbial diversities in the sediments of Iheya North and Iheya Ridge and indicate that geological features and distance from active hydrothermal vents likely play important roles in the shaping of microbial community structure. Copyright

  16. EPICS : operating system independent device/driver support.

    SciTech Connect

    Kraimer, M. R.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2003-01-01

    Originally EPICS input/output controllers (IOCs) were only supported on VME-based systems running the vxWorks operating system. Now IOCs are supported on many systems: vxWorks, RTEMS, Solaris, HPUX, Linux, WIN32, and Darwin. A challenge is to provide operating-system-independent device and driver support. This paper presents some techniques for providing such support. EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) is a set of software tools, libraries, and applications developed collaboratively and used worldwide to create distributed, real-time control systems for scientific instruments such as particle accelerators, telescopes, and other large scientific experiments. An important component of all EPICS-based control systems is a collection of input/output controllers (IOCs). An IOC has three primary components: (1) a real-time database; (2) channel access, which provides network access to the database; and (3) device/driver support for interfacing to equipment. This paper describes some projects related to providing device/driver support on non-vxWorks systems. In order to support IOCs on platforms other than vxWorks, operating-system-independent (OSI) application program interfaces (APIs) were defined for threads, semaphores, timers, etc. Providing support for a new platform consists of providing an operating-system-dependent implementation of the OSI APIs.

  17. Anaplasma marginale infection in a Japanese Black cow 13 years after eradication of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ooshiro, Mamoru; Zakimi, Satoshi; Matsukawa, Yoshimasa; Yafuso, Makoto; Katagiri, Yoshito; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2009-03-23

    In October 2007, a 15-year-old Japanese Black cow on Ishigaki Island, Okinawa, Japan, was diagnosed with Anaplasma marginale infection based on clinical symptoms, blood examination, smear observation, 16S rRNA and groEL gene sequence analysis, and the result of a CF test. The cow was introduced into the farm from mainland Japan as a calf in 1993, one year before the eradication of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, the main vector of A. marginale in Okinawa Prefecture. It is possible that the cow was first infected with A. marginale as a calf in Ishigaki Island and had been persistently infected since then. This is the first reported clinical case of A. marginale infection of cattle since the eradication of R. microplus in Okinawa Prefecture. Additional analysis of major surface protein 1alpha amino acid sequences revealed that the A. marginale Okinawa strain presented four new repeat forms which were not seen in other strains. This indicates that the Okinawa strain may be a unique geographical variant of A. marginale.

  18. Simulating microbial denitrification with EPIC: Model description and initial testing

    DOE PAGES

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Mcgill, William B.; Williams, Jimmy R.; ...

    2017-09-01

    Microbial denitrification occurs in anaerobic soil microsites and aquatic environments leading to production of N2O and N2 gases, which eventually escape to the atmosphere. Atmospheric concentrations of N2O have been on the rise since the beginning of the industrial revolution due to large-scale manipulations of the N cycle in managed ecosystems, especially the use of synthetic nitrogenous fertilizer. Here we document and test a microbial denitrification model identified as IMWJ and implemented as a submodel in the EPIC terrestrial ecosystem model. The IMWJ model is resolved on an hourly time step using the concept that C oxidation releases electrons thatmore » drive a demand for electron acceptors such as O2 and oxides of N (NO3-, NO2-, and N2O). A spherical diffusion approach is used to describe O2 transport to microbial surfaces while a cylindrical diffusion method is employed to depict O2 transport to root surfaces. Oxygen uptake by microbes and roots is described with Michaelis-Menten kinetic equations. If insufficient O2 is present to accept all electrons generated, the deficit for electron acceptors may be met by oxides of nitrogen, if available. The movement of O2, CO2 and N2O through the soil profile is modeled using the gas transport equation solved on hourly or sub-hourly time steps. Bubbling equations also move N2O and N2 through the liquid phase to the soil surface under highly anaerobic conditions. We used results from a 2-yr field experiment conducted in 2007 and 2008 at a field site in southwest Michigan to test the ability of EPIC, with the IMWJ option, to capture the non-linear response of N2O fluxes as a function of increasing rates of N application to maize [Zea mays L.]. Nitrous oxide flux, soil inorganic N, and ancillary data from 2007 were used for EPIC calibration while 2008 data were used for independent model validation. Overall, EPIC reproduced well the timing and magnitude of N2O fluxes and NO3- mass in surficial soil layers after N

  19. Elpasolite Planetary Ice and Composition Spectrometer (EPICS): A Low-Resource Combined Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer for Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stonehill, L. C.; Coupland, D. D. S.; Mesick, K. E.; Nowicki, S.

    2016-12-01

    appropriate for proposal to NASA planetary science missions such as a Martian moon exploration, a Trojan asteroid rendezvous, or high spatial resolution mapping of water on Mars. Here we report on the expected sensitivity and performance of EPICS in several potential missions, and on the status of the EPICS development.

  20. Screening of medicinal and edible plants in Okinawa, Japan, for enhanced proliferative and collagen synthesis activities in NB1RGB human skin fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Asikin, Yonathan; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

    2012-01-01

    To identify plants with bioactive potential for skin care, methanol extracts of 56 plant parts from 47 medical and edible plants cultivated in Okinawa were tested for their proliferative effects on NB1RGB skin fibroblast cells. Extracts from six plants, Bischofia javanica, Colocasia esculenta, Melaleuca alternifolia, Piper angustifolia, Jasminum sambac, and Curcuma longa, showed higher NB1RGB cell proliferation activity (>10%) than the control, at various concentrations. Among the six extracts, only the C. longa extract caused an increase in collagen synthesis in NB1RGB cells, as compared to treatment with the positive control, ascorbic acid (AsA). Expression of the collagen synthesis marker, transforming growth factor-β1, was higher after treatment with the C. longa extract than with AsA.

  1. Massively parallel sequencing of single cells by epicPCR links functional genes with phylogenetic markers.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Sarah J; Tamminen, Manu V; Preheim, Sarah P; Guo, Mira T; Briggs, Adrian W; Brito, Ilana L; A Weitz, David; Pitkänen, Leena K; Vigneault, Francois; Juhani Virta, Marko P; Alm, Eric J

    2016-02-01

    Many microbial communities are characterized by high genetic diversity. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing can determine community members, and metagenomics can determine the functional diversity, but resolving the functional role of individual cells in high throughput remains an unsolved challenge. Here, we describe epicPCR (Emulsion, Paired Isolation and Concatenation PCR), a new technique that links functional genes and phylogenetic markers in uncultured single cells, providing a throughput of hundreds of thousands of cells with costs comparable to one genomic library preparation. We demonstrate the utility of our technique in a natural environment by profiling a sulfate-reducing community in a freshwater lake, revealing both known sulfate reducers and discovering new putative sulfate reducers. Our method is adaptable to any conserved genetic trait and translates genetic associations from diverse microbial samples into a sequencing library that answers targeted ecological questions. Potential applications include identifying functional community members, tracing horizontal gene transfer networks and mapping ecological interactions between microbial cells.

  2. An Evaluation of OCLC's EPIC as a Resource for Subject Access to Videos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Joseph W.

    1992-01-01

    An examination of OCLC's EPIC service and standard video reference tools revealed that EPIC was more comprehensive in finding video titles on the popular or specialized topics of bonsai, genealogy, karate, and holography, because of its keyword searching ability on the massive OCLC database. (11 references) (EA)

  3. EPICS-based control and data acquisition for the APS slope profiler (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Joseph; Assoufid, Lahsen; Qian, Jun; Jemian, Peter R.; Mooney, Tim; Rivers, Mark L.; Goetze, Kurt; Sluiter, Ronald L.; Lang, Keenan

    2016-09-01

    The motion control, data acquisition and analysis system for APS Slope Measuring Profiler was implemented using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). EPICS was designed as a framework with software tools and applications that provide a software infrastructure used in building distributed control systems to operate devices such as particle accelerators, large experiments and major telescopes. EPICS was chosen to implement the APS Slope Measuring Profiler because it is also applicable to single purpose systems. The control and data handling capability available in the EPICS framework provides the basic functionality needed for high precision X-ray mirror measurement. Those built in capabilities include hardware integration of high-performance motion control systems (3-axis gantry and tip-tilt stages), mirror measurement devices (autocollimator, laser spot camera) and temperature sensors. Scanning the mirror and taking measurements was accomplished with an EPICS feature (the sscan record) which synchronizes motor positioning with measurement triggers and data storage. Various mirror scanning modes were automatically configured using EPICS built-in scripting. EPICS tools also provide low-level image processing (areaDetector). Operation screens were created using EPICS-aware GUI screen development tools.

  4. An Evaluation of OCLC's EPIC as a Resource for Subject Access to Videos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Joseph W.

    1992-01-01

    An examination of OCLC's EPIC service and standard video reference tools revealed that EPIC was more comprehensive in finding video titles on the popular or specialized topics of bonsai, genealogy, karate, and holography, because of its keyword searching ability on the massive OCLC database. (11 references) (EA)

  5. EPIC Simulations of Crop Yields and Soil Organic Carbon in Iowa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Depending on management, soil organic carbon is source or sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model is a useful tool for predicting impacts of soil management on crop yields and soil organic carbon. We used EPIC-Century to simulate changes in soil o...

  6. User Instructions for the 1991 Version of the EPIC Research Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    EPIC Code, Finite Element, Computations, hligh Velocity Impact, 142 Explosive Detonation 16 . PRICE CODE 17 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18...Postprocessor Input Data for Time Plots ........................... 15 9 Materials in the EPIC Material Library ............................ 16 10 Nodal...Example . ............................ 21 15 Summary of Individual and Composite Element Options ............... 22 16 Rod Shape Geom etry

  7. Correspondence and Contradiction in Ancient Greek Society and Education: Homer's Epic Poetry and Plato's Early Dialogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichel, Betty A.

    1983-01-01

    Homer's epic poetry illustrates correspondence between society's needs and the values stressed in education, while Socrates' thought uncovers contradictions between social and educational values and seeks a new form of correspondence. Examples from the Epics and Plato's early dialogues trace changing educational attitudes among the Classical…

  8. [Identification and characterization of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus isolated in Okinawa, Japan].

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Ayano; Tokashiki, Yoshino T; Nakasone, Isamu; Kisanuki, Kyoko; Nago, Tamami T; Yamane, Nobuhisa

    2010-09-01

    We experienced hospital-acquired infection in March 2008 that three nurses became infected with Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Accordingly, we performed the retrospective study to determine the prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus in Okinawa. A total of 731 clinical isolates, consisting of 600 MRSA and 131 methicillin-susceptible isolates in Okinawa, were included. Of the isolates, 16 were positive for PVL gene (lukS-PV-lukF-PV). All the PVL-positive isolates were MRSA, and the first appeared in March 2008. The isolates from the University Hospital were characterized as staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec type IVa. Through the analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), 16 PVL-positive MRSA isolates were divided in three groups. One isolate (the first group) from the other hospital was less similar (< 40% similarity) when compared with the remaining 15 isolates from the University Hospital. The second group consisted of two respective paired isolates from the same department wards, and those were very similar with each other, indicating possible patient-to-patient transmission. The 11 isolates were characterized as the third group with >80% similarity. The DiversiLab system (bioMérieux) based on repetitive-sequence-based PCR typing demonstrated that the isolates of the third group were similar and indistinguishable with the strains of USA300 clone. However, the first and second groups were not determinable which USA clone was the origin. With these, we could conclude that the PVL-positive MRSA close to USA300 clone first appeared in Okinawa in 2008 and is now becoming prevalent multi-focally. Also, person-to-person transmission is already likely in a hospital setting.

  9. Changes in the demographics and prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Okinawa, Japan (1993 to 2003).

    PubMed

    Iseki, Kunitoshi; Kohagura, Kentaro; Sakima, Atsushi; Iseki, Chiho; Kinjo, Kozen; Ikemiya, Yoshiharu; Takishita, Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    To compare the risk factor demographics and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), we analyzed two databases from the 1993 (N=143,948) and 2003 (N=154,019) mass screenings in Okinawa, Japan (Okinawa General Health Maintenance Association registry). We estimated the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using serum creatinine (SCr) levels. SCr was measured by the modified Jaffe method in 1993 and by enzyme assay in 2003; the relation between the two methods was: SCr (Jaffe) = 0.194 + 1.079 x SCr (enzyme). CKD prevalence was compared using the estimated GFR calculated by the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. SCr was measured in 66.2% (1993) and 69.8% (2003) of the total screenees. Proteinuria was present in 3.4% (1993) and 4.3% (2003) of the total screened population, respectively. The prevalence of CKD (GFR<60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) was similar between the two databases, being 15.7% in 1993 and 15.1% in 2003. However, the demographics of the CKD risk factors changed during the study period. The mean level of systolic blood pressure decreased, whereas the prevalence of obesity and the mean levels of serum cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose increased. In 2003, the estimated prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general population of Japan calculated using the modified National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria was 19.1%. The prevalence of CKD was significantly associated with that of metabolic syndrome: the age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio was 1.332 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.277-1.389; p<0.0001). In conclusion, the demographics of the participants of the general screenings in Okinawa, Japan differed between the 1993 and 2003 screenings, but the prevalence of CKD seemed to be similar, or at least did not increase substantially, between the two databases.

  10. The "epic" challenge of optimizing antimicrobial stewardship: the role of electronic medical records and technology.

    PubMed

    Kullar, Ravina; Goff, Debra A; Schulz, Lucas T; Fox, Barry C; Rose, Warren E

    2013-10-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are established means for institutions to improve patient outcomes while reducing the emergence of resistant bacteria. With the increased adoption and evolution of electronic medical records (EMRs), there is a need to assimilate the tools of ASPs into EMRs, using decision support and feedback. Third-party software vendors provide the mainstay for integration of individual institutional EMR and ASP efforts. Epic is the leading implementer of EMR technology in the United States. A collaboration of physicians and pharmacists are working closely with Epic to provide a more comprehensive platform of ASP tools that may be institutionally individualized. We review the historical relationship between ASPs and the EMR, cite examples of Epic stewardship tools from 3 academic medical centers' ASPs, discuss limitations of these Epic tools, and conclude with the current process in evolution to integrate ASP tools and decision support capacities directly into Epic's EMR.

  11. Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) Survey for SMS exploration in Izena Cauldron, Okinawa-Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Tsukahara, Hitoshi; Mizohata, Shigeharu; Tara, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    In 2014, the Japanese government started the Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP), which includes 'New-generation Offshore Exploration Techniques' as an area of interest. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) survey technique for this program, especially for the exploration of Seafloor Massive Sulfides (SMS). VCS is a reflection seismic method that uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by various acoustic sources. This method is useful to delineate detailed structures in a spatially-limited area below the seabed in the deep sea where conventional surface seismic is not effective. We have been developing an autonomous VCS system with the financial support of the Japanese government since 2009. We have carried out several VCS surveys and completed our VCS system. Izena Cauldron, Okinawa Trough is one of the most promising SMS areas around Japan. There are two high potential areas, the north and south mound. We carried out the first VCS survey around the north mound in 2011 and the second survey around the south mound in 2013 respectively. The first VCS survey in Izena Cauldron was carried out using a GI gun in September, 2011, with the objective of surveying the large-scale and deeper structure of the hydrothermal system. The water depth was 1,500-1,600m. Four VCS systems were deployed. The shooting lines covered an area of 9 km x 9 km with a shooting interval of about 25m and line spacing of 200m to 400m. In the second survey, we used a high-voltage sparker. The objective is to explore very shallow parts to delineate very thin SMS deposits. The survey area was about 4 km x 4km with a 12.5 m shooting interval and 100m to 200m line spacing. Three VCS systems were deployed in this survey. The result of the first GI gun VCS survey was a 3D PSDM volume of the subsurface structure. It extends 2,000m horizontally and down to 1,500m in depth. Further, by re-processing the data with a

  12. EPICS Input Output Controller (IOC) Record Reference Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.B.; Kraimer, M.R.

    1994-12-01

    This manual describes all supported EPICS record types. The first chapter gives introduction and describes the field summary table. The second chapter describes the fields in database common, i.e. the fields that are present in every record type. The third chapter describes the input and output field that are common to many record types and have the same usage wherever they are used. Following the third chapter is a separate chapter for each record type containing a description of all the fields for that record type except those in database common.

  13. EPICS and WANs: Tradeoffs between Isolation, Security, Robustness, and Transparency

    SciTech Connect

    J. Hill; K. Furukawa; S. Hunt; A. Johnson; R. Lange; J. Sage; E. Williams

    2003-10-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS)[1] was originally designed for use in local area networks (LANs). Today, the system is routinely deployed into complex wide area networks (WANs) using specialized configuration options and proxy gateways. There are advantages to the current approach including robustness and control over isolation and security. However, some important features are missing including WAN transparent configuration, resource location monitoring, detection of name space collisions during installation, and wildcard queries into the resource attribute space. The paper discusses these issues in detail exploring the relative tradeoffs between different solutions and including our plans for future enhancements.

  14. Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS): Application source/release control for EPICS R3.11.6

    SciTech Connect

    Zieman, B.; Kraimer, M.

    1994-03-25

    This manual describes a set of tools that can be used to develop software for EPICS based control systems. It provides the following features: Multiple applications; the entire system is composed of an arbitrary number of applications: Source/Release Control; all files created or modified by the applications developers can be put under sccs (a UNIX Source/Release control utility): Multiple Developers; it allows a number of applications developers to work separately during the development phase but combine their applications for system testing and for a production system; Makefiles: makefiles are provided to automatically rebuild various application components. For C and state notation programs, Imagefiles are provided.

  15. Satellite Observations of the Epic California Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Famiglietti, J. S.; Thomas, B. F.; Reager, J. T., II; Castle, S. L.; David, C. H.; Thomas, A. C.; Andreadis, K.; Argus, D. F.; Behrangi, A.; Farr, T.; Fisher, J. B.; Landerer, F. W.; Lo, M. H.; Molotch, N. P.; Painter, T. H.; Rodell, M.; Schimel, D.; Swenson, S. C.; Watkins, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    As California enters its third year of drought, questions of future water sustainability are inevitable. Snowpack, soil moisture, streamflow, reservoir and groundwater levels are at record lows. Mandatory water restrictions are being implemented, statewide fines for wasting water have been authorized, and billions of dollars and tens of thousands of jobs have been lost. Enhanced monitoring and modeling of the state's dwindling water supplies can help manage what remains while looking forward to a post-drought, sustainable water future. Here we demonstrate the role of satellite observations in comprehensive drought characterization and monitoring. In particular we highlight changing water supply, declining groundwater and reservoir levels, agricultural and urban stress. Potential contributions to water management will be discussed.

  16. Characteristics of radon and thoron exhalation rates in Okinawa, subtropical region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiroma, Y; Kina, S; Fujitani, T; Hosoda, M; Sorimachi, A; Ishikawa, T; Sahoo, S K; Tokonami, S; Furukawa, M

    2012-11-01

    Radon and thoron exhalation rates from the ground surface were estimated in three islands of Okinawa Prefecture, a subtropical region of Japan. In situ measurements of the exhalation rates were conducted at a total of 88 points using an accumulation technique with a ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. The radon and thoron exhalation rates were calculated to be 1-137 (arithmetic mean: 21) mBq m(-2) s(-1) and 32-6244 (1801) mBq m(-2) s(-1), respectively. In the surface soil samples collected at 53 measurement points, (238)U and (232)Th series concentrations were estimated to be 17.9-254.0 (64.0) Bq kg(-1) dry and 17.8-136.1 (58.8) Bq kg(-1) dry, respectively. The maximum rates and concentrations were observed in the dark red soil area. Recent studies strongly suggest that the base material of the soils may be the eolian dust derived from the southeastern part of China, a high background radiation area. The eolian dust is, therefore, considered to be an enhancer for the radon and thoron exhalations in Okinawa.

  17. [Survey of allergic diseases in 3-year old children in Okinawa City].

    PubMed

    Takeda, F; Toma, T; Miyagi, I; Kishimoto, M

    1996-12-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted between September 1993 and March 1994 to ascertain the presence of allergic diseases among 3-year old children in Okinawa City of Okinawa Prefecture. Nine hundred and twenty-two questionnaires were sent to caretakers of 3-year old children, with 697 responses of which five invalid cases were deleted for a total of 692 responses which were analyzed. About 30% of these children had allergic diseases as diagnosed by the medical doctor. Among the respondents 15.1% had experience of atopic dermatitis, while 13.9% had experience of asthma. The incidence of atopic dermatitis in this survey was lower than those reported in other prefectures of Japan. Symptoms for atopic dermatitis were more severe during summer. About 15% of the children had been on a diet regimen for prevention or treatment of allergic diseases since the time of conception. Eighteen percent of the respondents used a vacuum cleaner on their bedding. A high proportion of respondents (65.9%) obtained information from newspapers or magazines about allergic diseases.

  18. Reproductive traits of the Ryukyu long-furred rat (Diplothrix legata) on Okinawa-jima Island

    PubMed Central

    OKANO, Tsukasa; NAKATA, Katsuhi; NAKAYA, Yumiko; NAGAMINE, Takashi; ONUMA, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    The Ryukyu long-furred rat, Diplothrix legata, is a large rodent distributed only on Amami-ohshima Island, Tokuno-shima Island and Okinawa-jima Island, Japan. This animal is endangered as a result of deforestation, predation by introduced carnivores and mortality caused by vehicles. We performed theriogenological examinations of 32 male and 25 female Ryukyu long-furred rats carcasses collected from wild populations on northern Okinawa-jima Island from December 2005 to September 2013. Adult males had remarkably large preputial glands. Seminiferous diameter of adult was significantly small (136 ± 28 µm, n=8) from April to August. Numerous spermatozoa were observed from September through February, and seminiferous diameter was significantly large (216 ± 27 µm, n=12) during this time in adults; testes length changed in a similar pattern. These findings indicate that the mating season may occur from September through February. Size (body length) at sexual maturity was estimated to be >560 mm in both sexes. From observation of corpora lutea and placental scars, litter size was estimated to range from 2 to 12 (average=6, n=4). These results provide fundamental knowledge that will be beneficial for in situ and ex situ conservation of this rare species. PMID:25649850

  19. Epidemiological study of hepatitis E virus infection in the general population of Okinawa, Kyushu, Japan.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Furusyo, Norihiro; Takeoka, Hiroaki; Murata, Masayuki; Sawayama, Yasunori; Hayashi, Jun

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in the general population of Japan by determining presence of the antibody to HEV (anti-HEV). The prevalence of HEV infection was determined by positivity of serum antibody to HEV (anti-HEV). On retrospective analysis, a significant decrease in anti-HEV prevalence was found in Okinawa healthy residents from 1995 (15.8%) to 2005 (5.5%) (P < 0.0001). In 2005, the anti-HEV prevalence was significantly higher in Okinawa wild boar hunters (25.3%) than in the residents (male 7.7% and female 4.1%) (P < 0.0001). A significant difference was found in the history of consumption of undercooked or raw boar meat between anti-HEV positive and negative hunters (100% vs 64.3%) (P = 0.0018). In conclusion, the anti-HEV prevalence has decreased in the residents of this area, but HEV infection has continued at a high rate in the hunters through the custom of eating undercooked or raw boar meat.

  20. Sea surface temperature variability in southern Okinawa Trough during last 2700 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Weichao; Tan, Wenbing; Zhou, Liping; Yang, Huan; Xu, Yunping

    2012-07-01

    Most of the temperature reconstructions for the past two millennia are based on proxy data from various sites on land. Here we present a bidecadal resolution record of sea surface temperature (SST) in Southern Okinawa Trough for the past ca. 2700 years by analyzing tetraether lipids of planktonic archaea in the ODP Hole 1202B, a site under the strong influence of Kuroshio Current and East Asian monsoon. The reconstructed SST anomalies generally coincided with previously reported late Holocene climate events, including the Roman Warm Period, Sui-Tang dynasty Warm Period, Medieval Warm Period, Current Warm Period, Dark Age Cold Period and Little Ice Age. However, the Medieval Warm Period usually thought to be a historical analogue for the Current Warm Period has a mean SST of 0.6-0.8°C lower than that of the Roman Warm Period and Sui-Tang dynasty Warm Period. Despite an increase since 1850 AD, the mean SST in the 20th century is still within the range of natural variability during the past 2700 years. A close correlation of SST in Southern Okinawa Trough with air temperature in East China, intensity of East Asian monsoon and the El-Niño Southern Oscillation index has been attributed to the fluctuations in solar output and oceanic-atmospheric circulation.

  1. Geological Structures of the South Okinawa Trough based on Seismic Reflection Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, M.; Liu, C.; Teng, L. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) located offshore northeastern Taiwan is an extensional basin north of the Ryukyu Island Arc that opens toward Taiwan. In order to better understand the geological processes in the Southern Okinawa Trough, we collect all the available multi-channel seismic reflection data, reprocess some of them to improve the data quality, and interpret 22 seismic reflection profiles. A structural map, which shows the distribution of fault structures and submarine volcanoes in the study area, is compiled with the aid of seismic sequence analysis. We found that normal faults developed in both the northern and southern flanks of the SOT, and also in the axial area where volcanic extrusions are abundant, suggesting that the SOT is presently undergoing active extension. Some deeply rooted compressional structures are observed below the younger normal faults, which may indicate that the area offshore northern Taiwan was once in a convergent tectonic environment. We use seismic and bathymetry data to discuss the fault activities and related tectonic processes, also examine the volcanic activities and their geological environment.

  2. Reproductive traits of the Ryukyu long-furred rat (Diplothrix legata) on Okinawa-jima Island.

    PubMed

    Okano, Tsukasa; Nakata, Katsuhi; Nakaya, Yumiko; Nagamine, Takashi; Onuma, Manabu

    2015-06-01

    The Ryukyu long-furred rat, Diplothrix legata, is a large rodent distributed only on Amami-ohshima Island, Tokuno-shima Island and Okinawa-jima Island, Japan. This animal is endangered as a result of deforestation, predation by introduced carnivores and mortality caused by vehicles. We performed theriogenological examinations of 32 male and 25 female Ryukyu long-furred rats carcasses collected from wild populations on northern Okinawa-jima Island from December 2005 to September 2013. Adult males had remarkably large preputial glands. Seminiferous diameter of adult was significantly small (136 ± 28 µm, n=8) from April to August. Numerous spermatozoa were observed from September through February, and seminiferous diameter was significantly large (216 ± 27 µm, n=12) during this time in adults; testes length changed in a similar pattern. These findings indicate that the mating season may occur from September through February. Size (body length) at sexual maturity was estimated to be >560 mm in both sexes. From observation of corpora lutea and placental scars, litter size was estimated to range from 2 to 12 (average=6, n=4). These results provide fundamental knowledge that will be beneficial for in situ and ex situ conservation of this rare species.

  3. A biomarker record of temperature and phytoplankton community in Okinawa Trough since the last glacial maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Jiaping

    2017-04-01

    A variety of biomarkers were examined from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) core 1202B to reconstruct temperature and phytoplankton community structures in the southern Okinawa Trough for the past ca. 20000 years. Two molecular temperature proxies (Uk37 and TEX86) show 5-6 ℃ warming during the glacial/interglacial transition. Prior to the Holocene, the Uk37-derived temperature was generally 1-4 ℃ higher than TEX86-derived temperature. This difference, however, was reduced to <1 ℃ in the Holocene when the Kuroshio Current was intensified. Correspondingly, the phytoplankton biomarkers (e.g., C37:2 alkenone, brassicasterol, C30 1,15-diols and dinosterol) suggest a shift of planktonic community assemblages with coccolithophorids becoming more abundant in the Holocene at the expense of diatoms/dinoflagellates. Such a shift is related to the variability of nutrient, temperature and salinity in the Okinawa Trough, controlled by the sea level and the intensity of Kuroshio Current. The phytoplankton community change may have profound implications on atmospheric CO2 fluctuations during glacial/interglacial cycles since diatoms and dinoflagellates have a higher efficiency of biological pump than coccolithophorids.

  4. Genotypic diversity of Theileria orientalis detected from cattle grazing in Kumamoto and Okinawa prefectures of Japan.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Naoaki; Ueno, Akio; Mizuno, Daisuke; Kuboki, Noritaka; Khukhuu, Altangerel; Igarashi, Ikuo; Miyahara, Tokuji; Shiraishi, Takashi; Kudo, Ryuta; Oshiro, Mamoru; Zakimi, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2011-03-01

    Theileria orientalis is a benign protozoan species that is widely distributed in Japan, yet sometimes causes serious economic losses in the livestock industry. In this study, we conducted a molecular survey based on genes encoding the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) and p23 for T. orientalis detected in cattle grazing in southern areas of Japan, consisting of 2 farms in Kumamoto prefecture (Aso and Kuma districts) and 3 farms in Okinawa prefecture (Ishigaki, Iriomote, and Yonaguni Islands). High prevalence rates of T. orientalis infection were shown in all the cattle populations using the diagnostic MPSP- and p23-PCR assays. Phylogenetic analyses revealed 4 MPSP genotypes and 3 p23 genotypes. Furthermore, MPSP genotype-specific PCR methods were developed in this study and wide distributions of 5-district genotypes of T. orientalis were observed for the examined farms. Our results indicate that at least 5 types of T. orientalis exist in Kumamoto and Okinawa prefectures of Japan and that genotype-specific PCR assays are highly applicable for the quarantine of transported cattle and for epidemiological surveys of bovine theileriosis in Japan.

  5. Sources and burial of organic carbon in the middle Okinawa Trough during late Quaternary paleoenvironmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Hebin; Yang, Shouye; Cai, Feng; Li, Chao; Liang, Jie; Li, Qing; Hyun, Sangmin; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Dou, Yanguang; Hu, Bangqi; Dong, Gang; Wang, Feng

    2016-12-01

    The sediments from a piston core ECS12A recovered from the middle Okinawa Trough in the East China Sea were measured for total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and other biogenic elements to provide constraints on the sources and burial rates of depositional organic matter (OM) and on the changes in primary productivity since 19 ka. The last glacial sediments (ca. 17-19 ka) are characterized by low contents of biogenic elements and well-developed turbidite layers, suggesting low primary productivity but a high component of terrigenous sediment. With rising sea level and enhanced monsoons during the deglacial period, the proportion of marine OM gradually increased. The least negative δ13Corg values and the smallest grain size of sediments deposited ca. 10-14.5 ka indicate high primary productivity and a sedimentary environment dominated by the marine component. The source and burial rates of OM in the Holocene sediments (ca. 5.4-10 ka) were largely controlled by the intensification of the Kuroshio Current, which caused a slight decrease in primary productivity, but strengthened the oceanic circulation in the East China Sea. Overall, the source-to-sink process of OM in the Okinawa Trough is governed by complex interactions between sea level, climate and ocean circulation.

  6. Recent change of the antigenicity and genotype of Japanese encephalitis viruses distributed on Okinawa Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mika; Taira, Katsuya; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Mori, Naoki

    2007-10-01

    In this study, five isolates of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) were obtained from swine serum samples collected on Okinawa Island, Japan, between 2002 and 2003. All five JEV isolates belonged to genotype 1, and JEV isolates obtained from the island before 1992 were genotype 3. Genotype 1 was known to be distributed from northern Thailand to Cambodia and recently expanded to Australia, Vietnam, the Republic of Korea, and Japan. However, phylogenetic analysis showed that the source of the newly emerging genotype 1 in Asia is different from that in Australia. Sero-epidemiologic investigations showed that serum samples collected from 1985 to 1988 from JEV-immune swine neutralized both the Naha Meat 54 strain (1985 JEV Okinawan isolate from swine, genotype 3) and the Oki 431S strain (2002 JEV Okinawan isolate from swine, genotype 1), and many samples collected in 2002 neutralized the Oki 431S strain but not the Naha Meat 54 strain. These results strongly suggest that the genotype and antigenicity of JEV on Okinawa Island have changed significantly over the past decade.

  7. Spatial variations in the frequency-magnitude distribution of earthquakes in the southwestern Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.-Y.; Sibuet, J.-C.; Lee, C.-S.; Hsu, S.-K.; Klingelhoefer, F.

    2007-04-01

    The relations between the frequency of occurrence and the magnitude of earthquakes are established in the southern Okinawa Trough for 2823 relocated earthquakes recorded during a passive ocean bottom seismometer experiment. Three high b-values areas are identified: (1) for an area offshore of the Ilan Plain, south of the andesitic Kueishantao Island from a depth of 50 km to the surface, thereby confirming the subduction component of the island andesites; (2) for a body lying along the 123.3°E meridian at depths ranging from 0 to 50 km that may reflect the high temperature inflow rising up from a slab tear; (3) for a third cylindrical body about 15 km in diameter beneath the Cross Backarc Volcanic Trail, at depths ranging from 0 to 15 km. This anomaly might be related to the presence of a magma chamber at the base of the crust already evidenced by tomographic and geochemical results. The high b-values are generally linked to magmatic and geothermal activities, although most of the seismicity is linked to normal faulting processes in the southern Okinawa Trough.

  8. Estimation of radon emanation coefficient for representative soils in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiroma, Y; Hosoda, M; Ishikawa, T; Sahoo, S K; Tokonami, S; Furukawa, M

    2015-11-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) emanation coefficients for the representative soils distributed in Okinawa Island, Japan, have been estimated empirically. Arithmetic means of the emanation coefficients for dry and moist conditions were calculated to be 0.19 and 0.29, respectively. In Okinawa, the soils are traditionally classified into three types, namely the dark red soils, the residual regosols and the red and yellow soils. The dark red soils have relatively high coefficients. The residual regosols and the red and yellow soils have relatively low coefficients. To investigate the variable factor of the emanation coefficients, analyses of radioactive elements and physical properties have also been performed on the soils. For the dark red soils, the contents of the fine particle and the (226)Ra are relatively higher than those for the other soils. Based on these results, it is suggested that the variation in the radon emanation coefficient is mainly regulated by the (226)Ra concentration, the particle sizes and the water contents of the soils.

  9. Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) Flight Experiment-Reflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.

    1997-01-01

    The Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) is a flight experiment to demonstrate and validate in a microgravity environment the Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) concept which was selected for the use aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for oxygen (O2) generation. It also is to investigate the impact of microgravity on electrochemical cell performance. Electrochemical cells are important to the space program because they provide an efficient means of generating O2 and hydrogen (H2) in space. Oxygen and H2 are essential not only for the survival of humans in space but also for the efficient and economical operation of various space systems. Electrochemical cells can reduce the mass, volume and logistical penalties associated with resupply and storage by generating and/or consuming these gases in space. An initial flight of the EPICS was conducted aboard STS-69 from September 7 to 8, 1995. A temperature sensor characteristics shift and a missing line of software code resulted in only partial success of this initial flight. Based on the review and recommendations of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) review team a reflight activity was initiated to obtain the remaining desired results, not achieved during the initial flight.

  10. JBluIce-EPICS control system for macromolecular crystallography.

    PubMed

    Stepanov, Sergey; Makarov, Oleg; Hilgart, Mark; Pothineni, Sudhir Babu; Urakhchin, Alex; Devarapalli, Satish; Yoder, Derek; Becker, Michael; Ogata, Craig; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Venugopalan, Nagarajan; Smith, Janet L; Fischetti, Robert F

    2011-03-01

    The trio of macromolecular crystallography beamlines constructed by the General Medicine and Cancer Institutes Collaborative Access Team (GM/CA-CAT) in Sector 23 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) have been in growing demand owing to their outstanding beam quality and capacity to measure data from crystals of only a few micrometres in size. To take full advantage of the state-of-the-art mechanical and optical design of these beamlines, a significant effort has been devoted to designing fast, convenient, intuitive and robust beamline controls that could easily accommodate new beamline developments. The GM/CA-CAT beamline controls are based on the power of EPICS for distributed hardware control, the rich Java graphical user interface of Eclipse RCP and the task-oriented philosophy as well as the look and feel of the successful SSRL BluIce graphical user interface for crystallography. These beamline controls feature a minimum number of software layers, the wide use of plug-ins that can be written in any language and unified motion controls that allow on-the-fly scanning and optimization of any beamline component. This paper describes the ways in which BluIce was combined with EPICS and converted into the Java-based JBluIce, discusses the solutions aimed at streamlining and speeding up operations and gives an overview of the tools that are provided by this new open-source control system for facilitating crystallographic experiments, especially in the field of microcrystallography.

  11. Data acquisition system for KOMAC beam monitoring using EPICS middleware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Gi

    2015-10-01

    The beam diagnostics instrument used to measure the beam properties is one of the important devices for the 100-MeV proton linear accelerator of the KOrea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC). A data acquisition system (DAQ) is required to collect the output beam signals conditioned in the analog front-end circuitry of a beam loss monitor (BLM) and a beam position monitor (BPM). The electrical beam signal must be digitized, and the sampling has to be synchronized to a global timing system that produces a pulse signal for the pulsed beam operation. The digitized data must be accessible by the experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS)-based control system, which manages all accelerator control. An input output controller (IOC), which runs Linux on a central process unit (CPU) module with a peripheral component interconnect (PCI) express-based Analog-to-digital converter (ADC) card, has been adopted to satisfy the requirements. An associated Linux driver and EPICS device support module have also been developed. The IOC meets the requirements, and the development and maintenance of software for the IOC is very efficient. In this paper, the details of the DAQ system for the BLM and the BPM with the introduction of the KOMAC beam-diagnostics devices, along with the performance, are described.

  12. JBluIce-EPICS control system for macromolecular crystallography.

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, S.; Makarov, O.; Hilgart, M.; Pothineni, S.; Urakhchin, A.; Devarapalli, S.; Yoder, D.; Becker, M.; Ogata, C.; Sanishvili, R.; Nagarajan, V.; Smith, J. L.; Fischetti, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    The trio of macromolecular crystallography beamlines constructed by the General Medicine and Cancer Institutes Collaborative Access Team (GM/CA-CAT) in Sector 23 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) have been in growing demand owing to their outstanding beam quality and capacity to measure data from crystals of only a few micrometres in size. To take full advantage of the state-of-the-art mechanical and optical design of these beamlines, a significant effort has been devoted to designing fast, convenient, intuitive and robust beamline controls that could easily accommodate new beamline developments. The GM/CA-CAT beamline controls are based on the power of EPICS for distributed hardware control, the rich Java graphical user interface of Eclipse RCP and the task-oriented philosophy as well as the look and feel of the successful SSRL BluIce graphical user interface for crystallography. These beamline controls feature a minimum number of software layers, the wide use of plug-ins that can be written in any language and unified motion controls that allow on-the-fly scanning and optimization of any beamline component. This paper describes the ways in which BluIce was combined with EPICS and converted into the Java-based JBluIce, discusses the solutions aimed at streamlining and speeding up operations and gives an overview of the tools that are provided by this new open-source control system for facilitating crystallographic experiments, especially in the field of microcrystallography.

  13. The EPIC-MOS Particle-Induced Background Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, K. D.; Sowden, S. L.

    2007-01-01

    In order to analyse diffuse emission that fills the field of view, one must accurately characterize the instrumental backgrounds. For the XMM-Newton EPIC instrument these backgrounds include a temporally variable "quiescent" component. as well as the strongly variable soft proton contamination. We have characterized the spectral and spatial response of the EPIC detectors to these background components and have developed tools to remove these backgrounds from observations. The "quiescent" component was characterized using a combination of the filter-wheel-closed data and a database of unexposed-region data. The soft proton contamination was characterized by differencing images and spectra taken during flared and flare-free intervals. After application of our modeled backgrounds, the differences between independent observations of the same region of "blank sky" are consistent with the statistical uncertainties except when there is clear spectral evidence of solar wind charge exchange emission. Using a large sample of blank sky data, we show that strong magnetospheric SWCX emission requires elevated solar wind fluxes; observations through the densest part of the magnetosheath are not necessarily strongly contaminated with SWCX emission.

  14. Litarcturus kexueiae sp. nov., a new deep-sea isopod from the Okinawa Trough (Crustacea, Isopoda, Valvifera, Antarcturidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenliang; Sha, Zhongli

    2015-09-11

    A new species of the genus Litarcturus Brandt, 1990, L. kexueiae sp. nov., collected from deep sea of the Okinawa Trough, is described and illustrated. It is readily distinguished from the other seven species of the genus by bearing long supraocular spines about as long as the head and posterolateral pleotelsonic spines overreaching the pleotelson apex.

  15. Work, household, and leisure-time physical activity and risk of mortality in the EPIC-Spain cohort.

    PubMed

    Huerta, José Ma; Chirlaque, María Dolores; Tormo, María José; Buckland, Genevieve; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Gavrila, Diana; Salmerón, Diego; Cirera, Lluís; Carpe, Bienvenida; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chamosa, Saioa; Travier, Noemie; Quirós, José R; Barricarte, Aurelio; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María José; Navarro, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale longitudinal data on the association of domain-specific physical activity (PA) and mortality is limited. Our objective was to evaluate the association of work, household (HPA), and leisure time PA (LTPA) with overall and cause-specific mortality in the EPIC-Spain study. 38,379 participants (62.4% women), 30-65years old, and free of chronic disease at baseline were followed-up from recruitment (1992 - 1996) to December 31st, 2008 to ascertain vital status and cause of death. PA was evaluated at baseline and at a 3-year follow-up with a validated questionnaire (EPIC-PAQ) and combined variables were used to classify the participants by sub-domains of PA. Associations with overall, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality risks were assessed using competing risk Cox regression models adjusted by potential confounders. After 13.6years of mean follow-up, 1371 deaths were available for analyses. HPA was strongly associated to reduced overall (hazard ratio (HR) for Q4 vs. Q1=0.47 (0.34, 0.64)) and cause-specific mortalities in women and to lower cancer mortality in men (P for trend=0.004), irrespective of age, education, and lifestyle and morbidity variables. LTPA was associated with lower mortality in women (HR for Q4 vs. Q1=0.71 (0.52, 0.98)), but not men. No relationships were found between sedentariness at work and overall mortality. HPA was associated to lower mortality risk in men and women from the EPIC-Spain cohort, whereas LTPA also contributed to reduce risk of death in women. Considering the large proportion of total daily PA that HPA represents in some population groups, these results are of public health importance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Interaction of Kuroshio Current with Global Oceanic and Atmospheric Circulations: Evidences of Grain Size from Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Li, A.; Xu, K.; Huang, J.

    2016-12-01

    Okinawa Trough is an ideal place for the study of paleoceanography and paleoenvironment changes. However, the provenances of the sediments and paleoenvironment evolution of the Okinawa Trough have still not been settled yet. Based on grain size, clay minerals and AMS 14C data of the Core OKI03, the provenances and paleoenvironemnt evolution in the middle Okinawa Trough during the last 8 ka were studied. The results indicate that terrigenous sediments deposited in the middle Okinawa Trough were mainly from Yangtze River and Taiwanese rivers since 8 ka. Kuroshio Current (KC), a Western Pacific Ocean boundary current, flows into Okinawa Trough by eastern Taiwan Island, and influences the sediments delivery and distribution within the trough, and also impact the regional and local marine environment in adjacent seas. Statistics study of high resolution grain size in the trough recognizes a millennial-scale oscillation (center around 1800 yr) and a centennial-scale oscillation (center around 512 yr) for KC evolution since last 8 ka. The millennial-scale oscillation is probably related to the North Atlantic Deep Water production with 1400-yr time lag, via the mixing upwelling and impacts on the sea surface temperature (SST) in equatorial Pacific. Meanwhile, the centennial-scale variation possibly corresponds to the solar irradiation with a 240-yr time uncertainty, through the SST change. KC possible influences the climate and North Atlantic Deep Water formation by transferring heat to the atmosphere in high latitude of Pacific Ocean, and also interacts with the thermohaline circulation by transferring heat to Indian Ocean through North Pacific Intermediate Water.

  17. Assessment of Spacecraft Systems Integration Using the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Mandell, Myron J.; Gardner, Barbara M.; Kauffman, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    SAIC is currently developing the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code 'EPIC', an interactive computer tool that allows the construction of a 3-D spacecraft model, and the assessment of interactions between its subsystems and the plume from an electric thruster. EPIC unites different computer tools to address the complexity associated with the interaction processes. This paper describes the overall architecture and capability of EPIC including the physics and algorithms that comprise its various components. Results from selected modeling efforts of different spacecraft-thruster systems are also presented.

  18. EPIC 2.0: a second youth for XMM-Newton's workhorse.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molendi, S.

    2016-06-01

    While much has been achieved with the EPIC experiment on board XMM-Newton, in several areas, we can get even more. In this presentation I will discuss results we have recently obtained, including those from an "all archive" analysis of the EPIC background. I will show how these, along with others, can be used to improve measures of diffuse low surface brightness sources. I will also illustrate how the work we are doing on EPIC is contributing to the design of experiments on the next Large European X-ray mission: Athena.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: K2 Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC) (Huber+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, D.; Bryson, S. T.; et al.

    2017-09-01

    The construction of the EPIC, as well as modifications and shortcomings of the catalog are described in Huber+, 2016, J/ApJS/224/2 Changes for Campaigns 0-3, 7-10 and 16 are described in: http://archive.stsci.edu/k2/manuals/epic.pdf Kepler magnitudes (Kp) are shown to be accurate to ~0.1mag for the Kepler field, and the EPIC is typically complete to Kp~17 (Kp~19 for campaigns covered by Sloan Digital Sky Survey). (1 data file).

  20. Molecular isotopic evidence for anaerobic oxidation of methane in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environment in Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, M.; Takai, K.; Inagaki, F.

    2003-04-01

    Large amount of methane in anoxic marine sediments as well as cold seeps and hydrothermal vents is recycled through for an anoxic oxidation of methane processes. Now that combined results of field and laboratory studies revealed that microbiological activity associated with syntrophic consortium of archaea performing reversed methanogenesis and sulfate-reducing bacteria is significant roles in methane recycling, anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). In this study, we examined the diversity of archaeal and bacterial assemblages of AOM using compound-specific stable carbon isotopic and phylogenetic analyses. "Iheya North" in Okinawa Trough is sediment-rich, back arc type hydrothermal system (27^o47'N, 126^o53'E). Sediment samples were collected from three sites where are "bubbling sites", yellow-colored microbial mats are formed with continuous bubbling from the seafloor bottom, vent mussel's colonies site together with slowly venting and simmering, and control site off 100 m distance from thermal vent. This subsea floor structure has important effect in the microbial ecosystem and interaction between their activity and geochemical processes in the subseafloor habitats. Culture-independent, molecular biological analysis clearly indicated the presence of thermophilic methanogens in deeper area having higher temperatures and potential activity of AMOs consortium in the shallower area. AMO is composed with sulfate-reducing bacterial components (Desulfosarcina spp.) and anoxic methane oxidizing archaea (ANME-2). These results were consistent with the results of compound-specific carbon analysis of archaeal biomarkers. They showed extremely depleted 13C contents (-80 ppm ˜ -100 ppm), which also appeared to be capable of directly oxidizing methane.

  1. Microbial community in a sediment-hosted CO2 lake of the southern Okinawa Trough hydrothermal system

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Fumio; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Tsunogai, Urumu; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Treude, Tina; Ohkubo, Satoru; Nakaseama, Miwako; Gena, Kaul; Chiba, Hitoshi; Hirayama, Hisako; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Horikoshi, Koki; Boetius, Antje

    2006-01-01

    Increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere are expected to cause climatic change with negative effects on the earth's ecosystems and human society. Consequently, a variety of CO2 disposal options are discussed, including injection into the deep ocean. Because the dissolution of CO2 in seawater will decrease ambient pH considerably, negative consequences for deep-water ecosystems have been predicted. Hence, ecosystems associated with natural CO2 reservoirs in the deep sea, and the dynamics of gaseous, liquid, and solid CO2 in such environments, are of great interest to science and society. We report here a biogeochemical and microbiological characterization of a microbial community inhabiting deep-sea sediments overlying a natural CO2 lake at the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field, southern Okinawa Trough. We found high abundances (>109 cm−3) of microbial cells in sediment pavements above the CO2 lake, decreasing to strikingly low cell numbers (107 cm−3) at the liquid CO2/CO2-hydrate interface. The key groups in these sediments were as follows: (i) the anaerobic methanotrophic archaea ANME-2c and the Eel-2 group of Deltaproteobacteria and (ii) sulfur-metabolizing chemolithotrophs within the Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria. The detection of functional genes related to one-carbon assimilation and the presence of highly 13C-depleted archaeal and bacterial lipid biomarkers suggest that microorganisms assimilating CO2 and/or CH4 dominate the liquid CO2 and CO2-hydrate-bearing sediments. Clearly, the Yonaguni Knoll is an exceptional natural laboratory for the study of consequences of CO2 disposal as well as of natural CO2 reservoirs as potential microbial habitats on early Earth and other celestial bodies. PMID:16959888

  2. Future climate change projections of the Okinawa baiu and large-scale feature using a 60-km-mesh global climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Y.; Takemi, T.; Ishikawa, H.

    2013-12-01

    Between May and July, East Asia experiences a rainy season that is known as the mei-yu in China and as the baiu in Japan. The precipitation of the baiu is indispensable to our life, but a heavy rain is often generated in this period and gives serious damage. As a starting point for further investigation, we focus on a rainy season around Okinawa region. Okinawa is located southwest of mainland Japan on the eastern fringe of the East China Sea, and consists numerous small islands. 'Baiu' in Okinawa (hereafter, Okinawa baiu) takes places earlier than that in mainland of Japan. It is different in the viewpoints of stationary of baiu front and atmospheric moisture flux from that in other regions of Japan. Okada and Yamazaki (2012) examined on the basis of the proposal of Sampe and Xie (2010), and showed the precipitation in May is explained by a strong north-south temperature gradient at 500 hPa and southerly winds in the vicinity of Okinawa. We investigate the future changes in precipitation and the feature large-scale meteorological fields around Okinawa region, with particular focus on the horizontal temperature advection at 500 hPa, using the present-day (1979-2003) and future (2075-2099) climate simulations data by the 60 km mesh Meteorological Research Institute atmospheric general circulation model (MRI-AGCM3.2H). Future changes in the precipitation of the Okinawa baiu increases slightly during May and June. However, when considered separately in May and June, it shows the precipitation in May increase, and is little change in June. In present-day climate, the May precipitation is associated with warm advection at 500 hPa, mainly due to the meridional temperature gradient and the prevailing southerly wind. This warm advection coincides with upward motion near Okinawa. Precipitation over Okinawa is reduced during late May when the baiu front shifts southeastward. A region of cold advection from the north shifts southward to cover the northern part of Okinawa

  3. An EPIC view of absorbed HMXBs in the Scutum Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodaghee, Arash

    2009-10-01

    Observations are proposed for 5 new unclassified gamma-ray sources in the Scutum Arm. Each source will be targeted by EPIC PN and MOS cameras for 25 ks providing us with: a refined position that will facilitate optical/IR identification; spectral characteristics including the slope of the power law in X-rays and the photoelectric absorption; and timing characteristics in the case of Galactic XRBs. The targets lie within 5degs of the plane of the Milky Way, towards the tangent to the Scutum Arm, and are expected to be Galactic in origin. The main objective is to elucidate the nature of these sources. An additional benefit is that we will have a more complete sample of high-energy emitters in the Scutum Arm to compare with absorbed HMXBs in the Norma Arm.

  4. Radiation effects in wild terrestrial vertebrates - the EPIC collection.

    PubMed

    Sazykina, Tatiana; Kryshev, Ivan I

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents data on radiation effects in populations of wild vertebrate animals inhabiting contaminated terrestrial ecosystems. The data were extracted from the database "Radiation effects on biota", compiled within the framework of the EC Project EPIC (2000-2003). The data collection, based on publications in Russian, demonstrates radiation effects in the areas characterized with high levels of radionuclides (Kyshtym radioactive trace; "spots" of enhanced natural radioactivity in the Komi region of Russia; territories contaminated from the Chernobyl fallout). The data covers a wide range of exposures from acute accidental irradiation to lifetime exposures at relatively low dose rates. Radiation effects include mortality, changes in reproduction, decrease of health, ecological effects, cytogenetic effects, adaptation to radiation, and others. Peculiarities of radiation effects caused by different radionuclides are described, also the severity of effects as they appear in different organisms (e.g. mice, frogs, birds, etc.).

  5. Using EPICS enabled industrial hardware for upgrading control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorkland, Eric A; Veeramani, Arun; Debelle, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with National Instruments (NI) and Cosy lab to implement EPICS Input Output Controller (IOC) software that runs directly on NI CompactRIO Real Time Controller (RTC) and communicates with NI LabVIEW through a shared memory interface. In this presentation, we will discuss our current progress in upgrading the control system at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Centre (LANSCE) and what we have learned about integrating CompactRIO into large experimental physics facilities. We will also discuss the implications of using Channel Access Server for LabVIEW which will enable more commercial hardware platforms to be used in upgrading existing facilities or in commissioning new ones.

  6. Neutron Source Facility Training Simulator Based on EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Young Soo; Wei, Thomas Y.; Vilim, Richard B.; Grelle, Austin L.; Dworzanski, Pawel L.; Gohar, Yousry

    2015-01-01

    A plant operator training simulator is developed for training the plant operators as well as for design verification of plant control system (PCS) and plant protection system (PPS) for the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology Neutron Source Facility. The simulator provides the operator interface for the whole plant including the sub-critical assembly coolant loop, target coolant loop, secondary coolant loop, and other facility systems. The operator interface is implemented based on Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), which is a comprehensive software development platform for distributed control systems. Since its development at Argonne National Laboratory, it has been widely adopted in the experimental physics community, e.g. for control of accelerator facilities. This work is the first implementation for a nuclear facility. The main parts of the operator interface are the plant control panel and plant protection panel. The development involved implementation of process variable database, sequence logic, and graphical user interface (GUI) for the PCS and PPS utilizing EPICS and related software tools, e.g. sequencer for sequence logic, and control system studio (CSS-BOY) for graphical use interface. For functional verification of the PCS and PPS, a plant model is interfaced, which is a physics-based model of the facility coolant loops implemented as a numerical computer code. The training simulator is tested and demonstrated its effectiveness in various plant operation sequences, e.g. start-up, shut-down, maintenance, and refueling. It was also tested for verification of the plant protection system under various trip conditions.

  7. JBluIce–EPICS control system for macromolecular crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Stepanov, Sergey; Makarov, Oleg; Hilgart, Mark; Pothineni, Sudhir Babu; Urakhchin, Alex; Devarapalli, Satish; Yoder, Derek; Becker, Michael; Ogata, Craig; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Venugopalan, Nagarajan; Smith, Janet L.; Fischetti, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    The trio of macromolecular crystallography beamlines constructed by the General Medicine and Cancer Institutes Collaborative Access Team (GM/CA-CAT) in Sector 23 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) have been in growing demand owing to their outstanding beam quality and capacity to measure data from crystals of only a few micrometres in size. To take full advantage of the state-of-the-art mechanical and optical design of these beamlines, a significant effort has been devoted to designing fast, convenient, intuitive and robust beamline controls that could easily accommodate new beamline developments. The GM/CA-CAT beamline controls are based on the power of EPICS for distributed hardware control, the rich Java graphical user interface of Eclipse RCP and the task-oriented philosophy as well as the look and feel of the successful SSRL BluIce graphical user interface for crystallography. These beamline controls feature a minimum number of software layers, the wide use of plug-ins that can be written in any language and unified motion controls that allow on-the-fly scanning and optimization of any beamline com­ponent. This paper describes the ways in which BluIce was combined with EPICS and converted into the Java-based JBluIce, discusses the solutions aimed at streamlining and speeding up operations and gives an overview of the tools that are provided by this new open-source control system for facilitating crystallo­graphic experiments, especially in the field of microcrystallo­graphy. PMID:21358048

  8. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Biofuel Crops and Parameterization in the EPIC Biogeochemical Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes year 1 field measurements of N2O fluxes and crop yields which are used to parameterize the EPIC biogeochemical model for the corresponding field site. Initial model simulations are also presented.

  9. Lessons learned enhancing EPICS CA for LANSCE timed and flavored data

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Jeffrey O

    2009-01-01

    A previous paper described an upgrade to EPICS enabling client side tools at LANSCE to receive subscription updates filtered selectively to match a logical configuration of LANSCE beam gates, as configured by the control room. The upgrade required fundamental changes in the EPICS core components. First, the event queue in the EPICS server was upgraded to buffer record (function block) and device specific parameters accessed generically via software interfaces for introspection of 3rd party data. In contrast, event queues in previous versions of EPICS were strictly limited to buffering only value, timestamp, and alarm status tuples. Second, the Channel Access server is being upgraded to filter subscription updates. In this follow on paper some necessary design changes mid-project and the lessons learned during the software development will be described.

  10. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Biofuel Crops and Parameterization in the EPIC Biogeochemical Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes year 1 field measurements of N2O fluxes and crop yields which are used to parameterize the EPIC biogeochemical model for the corresponding field site. Initial model simulations are also presented.

  11. Effects of causeway construction on environment and biota of subtropical tidal flats in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Reimer, James Davis; Yang, Sung-Yin; White, Kristine N; Asami, Ryuji; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Hongo, Chuki; Ito, Shingo; Kawamura, Iori; Maeda, Isshu; Mizuyama, Masaru; Obuchi, Masami; Sakamaki, Takashi; Tachihara, Katsunori; Tamura, Maiko; Tanahara, Akira; Yamaguchi, Aika; Jenke-Kodama, Holger

    2015-05-15

    Okinawa, Japan is known for its high marine biodiversity, yet little work has been performed on examining impacts of numerous large-scale coastal development projects on its marine ecosystems. Here, we examine apparent impacts of the construction of the Kaichu-Doro causeway, which was built over 40 years ago. The causeway is a 4.75 km long embankment that divides a large tidal flat and has only two points of water exchange along its entire length. We employed quadrats, transects, sampling, visual surveys, and microbial community analyses combined with environmental, water quality data, and 1m cores, at five stations of two paired sites each (one on each side of Kaichu-Doro) to investigate how the environment and biota have changed since the Kaichu-Doro was built. Results indicate reduction in water flow, and site S1 was particularly heavily impacted by poor water quality, with low diversity and disturbed biotic communities.

  12. Medical school hotline: A History of the University of Hawai'i Postgraduate Medical Education Program at Okinawa Chubu Hospital, 1966-2012.

    PubMed

    Maeshiro, Masao; Izutsu, Satoru; Connolly, Kathleen Kihmm

    2014-06-01

    The University of Hawai'i (UH) has been collaborating with Okinawa Prefectural Chubu Hospital for over 46 years. This collaboration started as a post-World War II effort to increase the physician workforce. At the initiation of the US Army and State Department, the University of Hawai'i was recruited, in cooperation with the government of the Ryukyus and USCAR, to initiate a US style postgraduate clinical training program. The Postgraduate Medical Training Program of University of Hawai'i at Okinawa Chubu Hospital introduced a style of training similar to that in the US by offering a rotating internship. The initial contract had UH establish and run the Postgraduate Medical Training Program of University of Hawaii at Okinawa Central Hospital. After Okinawa's reversion to Japan, under a new contract, UH physicians participated as consultants by providing lectures at "grand rounds" and guidance to faculty, staff, and students. To date, 895 physicians have completed the University of Hawai'i Postgraduate Medical Training Program with 74 currently training. Approximately 662 (74%) of the trainees have remained in Okinawa Prefecture to practice medicine. As a result, the program has enhanced the physician workforce for the islands of Okinawa and neighbor archipelagos of Miyako and Yaeyama Islands.

  13. Extending and Applying the EPIC Architecture for Human Cognition and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    objects and movements, such as typical radar workstation tasks, are incorrectly represented in the architecture. These considerations led to a...Validation. EPIC vs GLEAN models for the AAW task Major progress was made in modeling the MMWS AAW task in EPIC, and using the model to begin...the MMWS task started with the acuity functions developed in the modeling of the Marshall-St. John visual search task (see Kieras & Marshall, 2006) as

  14. Pettit performs the EPIC Card Testing and X2R10 Software Transition

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-28

    ISS030-E-022575 (28 Dec. 2011) -- NASA astronaut Don Pettit (foreground),Expedition 30 flight engineer, performs the Enhanced Processor and Integrated Communications (EPIC) card testing and X2R10 software transition. The software transition work will include EPIC card testing and card installations, and monitoring of the upgraded Multiplexer/ Demultiplexer (MDM) computers. Dan Burbank, Expedition 30 commander, is setting up a camcorder in the background.

  15. Pettit performs the EPIC Card Testing and X2R10 Software Transition

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-28

    ISS030-E-022574 (28 Dec. 2011) -- NASA astronaut Don Pettit (foreground),Expedition 30 flight engineer, performs the Enhanced Processor and Integrated Communications (EPIC) card testing and X2R10 software transition. The software transition work will include EPIC card testing and card installations, and monitoring of the upgraded Multiplexer/ Demultiplexer (MDM) computers. Dan Burbank, Expedition 30 commander, is setting up a camcorder in the background.

  16. Deepwater redox changes in the southern Okinawa Trough since the last glacial maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Yanguang; Yang, Shouye; Li, Chao; Shi, Xuefa; Liu, Jihua; Bi, Lei

    2015-06-01

    In this study, rare earth element (REE) was treated as a paleo-redox proxy to investigate the changes of depositional environment in the southern Okinawa Trough since the last glacial maximum. The acid-leachable fraction (leachate) of the sediments recovered from the ODP Site 1202B is dominated by biogenic and authigenic components while detrital contamination is minor. The significant enrichment of middle REE suggests a large contribution from authigenic Mn oxyhydroxides and cerium (Ce) anomaly can indicate deepwater redox change. The REE parameters including Ce anomaly in the leachate exhibit remarkable and abrupt changes in the early Holocene (∼9.5 ka) and during LGM (∼20 ka). An increase of Ce anomaly at 28-22 ka implies the suboxic deepwater condition probably caused by increased primary productivity. Weak positive Ce anomalies during the last glacial maximum and deglaciation suggest an oxic depositional environment responding to the enhanced deepwater ventilation with the advection of the North Pacific Intermediate Water and/or South China Sea Intermediate Water into the trough. A decrease of Ce anomaly in the early Holocene might be caused by the intrusion and strengthening of the Kuroshio Current in the trough that enhanced the water stratification and induced a gradual development of suboxic depositional condition. Furthermore, an abrupt change of chemical composition at ca. 4 ka probably indicates a decrease of dissolved oxygen in deepwater and a weakening of ventilation in the Okinawa Trough. This study suggests that REE proxy can provide new insights into the linkage among surface current, deepwater circulation and sediment record in the continental margin where terrigenous input dominates.

  17. Dissemination of panton-valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Mine, Yoshiko; Nakasone, Isamu; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Utani, Atsushi; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Uezato, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kenzo

    2013-01-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a pore-forming cytotoxin that is produced by Staphylococcus aureus closely associated with skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTI). PVL-positive S. aureus strains have been identified worldwide, including in the USA; however, few studies have reported the presence of these strains in Japan. In this study, we prospectively investigated the prevalence of PVL in S. aureus strains from outpatients presenting with SSTI in Okinawa and characterized the PVL-positive S. aureus strains by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). From 2008-2010, 499 clinical samples were obtained from 497 people. S. aureus was identified in 274 samples, and 36% (99 of 274) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Seventeen (6.2%) PVL-positive S. aureus strains were detected by PCR, and 12 of the 17 PVL-positive strains were MRSA. Most PVL-positive S. aureus caused furuncles or carbuncles. Nine of the 17 PVL-positive isolates had an ST8 MRSA genotype and most harbored SCCmec type IVa and the arcA gene of the arginine catabolic mobile element, which is identical to the USA300 clone prevalent in the USA. PVL-positive S. aureus strains were more likely to be resistant to erythromycin (65%) and levofloxacin (53%). PVL-positive S. aureus strains have emerged and are spreading as a causative pathogen for SSTI in Okinawa.

  18. Spectroscopic characteristics and organic carbon contents in the aerosols collected in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, H. J.; Kasaba, T.

    2015-12-01

    Organics in the atmospheric aerosols occupy 20 to 70% of the total mass. Since the proportion of organics is so large that it's important to understand their detailed characteristics. Polymeric compounds called HUmic-Like Substance (HULIS) are known to be present in the atmospheric aerosols. Biomass burning can be a source of HULIS. In this study, atmospheric aerosols were collected at Cape Hedo, a northern tip of Okinawa Island, and we characterized overall features of the organics collected in different seasons. In Okinawa, continental air mass prevails in spring, fall and winter, while maritime air mass from Pacific Ocean prevails in summer. Thus, it is relatively straightforward to identify sources of organics in different seasons. We measured total organic carbon (TOC) and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) concentrations, and absorbance and fluorescence intensity for the aerosol samples collected during Nov 2012 and July 2014 (n=90). As a result, TOC and WSOC showed almost the same trend, higher concentrations when continental air mass prevailed in fall and winter, while lower concentrations in summer. Percentages of WSOC in TOC accounted for 33-44%. Absorption efficiency, absorbance per 1 ppm organic carbon concentration, of the samples showed higher values in winter and fall, and lower values in summer. Fluorescence efficiency, normalized fluorescence with quinine sulfate per 1 ppm organic carbon concentration, were also different, it is likely that different types of organics were present in the aerosols from different seasons. We are also planning to measure HULIS in the aerosols and will be discussed a link between their contribution and trans-boundary air pollution in Asia.

  19. Estimated protein intake and blood pressure in a screened cohort in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Iseki, Kunitoshi; Iseki, Chiho; Itoh, Kazue; Sanefuji, Miho; Uezono, Keiko; Ikemiya, Yoshiharu; Fukiyama, Koshiro; Kawasaki, Terukazu

    2003-04-01

    We examined the relation between protein intake and blood pressure in a screened cohort in Okinawa, Japan. A total of 1,299 screened subjects, 885 men and 414 women, were examined at the Okinawa General Health Maintenance Association. Daily intake of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) was estimated from Na, K, and creatinine excretion by the method of Kawasaki et al., and daily protein intake was estimated by the method of Maroni et al. as the estimated daily urinary excretion of urea nitrogen. Mean (SD) daily protein intake was 71.8 (18.6) g in men and 54.0 (13.5) g in women, and the mean (SD) daily protein intake per unit kg body weight was 1.1 (0.2) g/kg in men and 1.0 (0.2) g/kg in women. In men, both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were higher in those with lower protein intake (LP; < 1.0 g/kg/day) than in those with higher protein intake (HP; > or = 1.0 g/kg/day) (p < 0 .05 for DBP). In women, both SBP and DBP were higher in those with LP than in those with HP, but these differences were not statistically significant. However, urinary excretion of both Na and K was lower in those with LP than in those with HP, respectively, both in men and women (p < 0.0001). In summary, estimated daily protein intake was about 1.1 g/kg in men and 1.0 g/kg in women. Despite the higher urinary excretion of Na, both SBP and DBP tended to be lower in those with higher daily protein intake, particularly in men.

  20. Rifting Process and Geomorphic Development of the Okinawa Tough, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Arai, K.; Inoue, T.; Matsumoto, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Ryukyu Island Arc extends from Kyushu to Taiwan, a distance of 1,200 km, along the Ryukyu Trench where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian Plate. The Okinawa Trough, a back arc basin has formed behind the Ryukyu Island Arc in late Pliocene to early Pleistocene. The research cruises of GH11 (from 14 July to 15 August, 2011) and GH12 (from 20 to 30 July, 2012) were carried out around the Okinawa Trough. More than 3,600 miles multi channel high-resolution seismic profiles were acquired during these cruises by the GI-gun (Generator 250 cu inch and Injector 105 cu. inch) systems with 16ch digital streamer cable. As a result, two unconformities and three depositional sequence divided by the unconformities are recognized in the trough. The lower and the midlle sequence are tilted and blocked by many normal faults, on the other hand the upper one is not tilted and shows the pattern of onlap fill. From this result, the upper sequence started to deposit after start of the rifting. Additionally, internal reflection of the upper sequence shows the cyclic activities of the rifting. The position of the rifting axis was revealed based on dip of the normal faults. As a result, rifting axis shows echelon arrangement and the displacement of the faults are varied with the segment of the arrangement. The location of the segment boundaries is correlated with geometrical boundary of the adjacent slope. Steep slope with incised valley is distributed in southwestern part where the displacement of the normal fault is large, on the other hand, gentle slope without incised valley is distributed in northeastern part where the displacement is small. This difference of the displacement strongly controls the geometry of the adjacent slope.

  1. Origin of the southern Okinawa Trough volcanism from detailed seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing-Yi; Sibuet, J.-C.; Lee, Chao-Shing; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Klingelhoefer, Frauke

    2007-08-01

    Magmatism associated with subducting plate edges or slab tears has been suggested in the southern Okinawa Trough. The cross back-arc volcanic trail, which consists of a cluster of about 70 seamounts, is located above a Ryukyu slab tear lying along the 123.3°E meridian. In November 2003, more than 3300 earthquakes recorded in this area by 15 ocean bottom seismometers and surrounding land stations during a period of 12 days were used to determine the three-dimensional Vp and Vs velocity structures and Vp/Vs ratios. A mantle inflow characterized by low Vp and Vs and high Vp/Vs passing through the slab tear is imaged. The fluid and/or melt component is rising obliquely from the slab tear in the directions of the cross back-arc volcanic trail, the northern slope of the southern Okinawa Trough and to north of Iriomote Island. The asthenospheric intake is also imaged by an inclined chip-like high Vp/Vs and low Vp and Vs body dipping northerly, which might be linked to the slab retreat. West of the slab tear, most of the earthquakes are located around low Vp and Vs and high Vp/Vs bodies, which suggests that the seismicity is related to magmatic and/or fluid activities. East of it, earthquakes are concentrated in an area characterized by high Vp and Vs velocities and low Vp/Vs, suggesting that the magma chamber is absent beneath the axial part of the trough and that normal faulting is the main factor controlling the seismicity.

  2. The study of active submarine volcanoes and hydrothermal vents in the Southernmost Part of Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.; Tsai, C.; Lee, C.

    2004-12-01

    The study area is located in the Southernmost Part of Okinawa Trough (SPOT), which is a back-arc basin formed by extension of Eurasian plate. Previous research indicated two extensional stages in SPOT area. Many normal-fault structures were come into existence during both extensional processes. The SPOT is presently in an activity tectonic episode. Therefore, the area becomes a frequent earthquake and abundant magmatism. The purpose of this study is to discuss which relationship between tectonics, submarine volcanoes and hydrothermal vents in SPOT area. The investigations are continued from 1998 to 2004, we have found at least twelve active hydrothermal vents in study area. Compare the locations hydrothermal vents with fault systems, we find both of them have highly correlated. We can distinguish them into two shapes, pyramidal shape and non-pyramidal shape. According to plumes height, we are able to divide these vents into two groups near east longitude 122.5° . East of this longitude, the hydrothermal plumes are more powerful and west of it are the weaker. This is closely related to the present extensional axis (N80° E) of the southern part of the Okinawa Trough. This can be explained the reason of why the more powerful vents coming out of the east group. The east group is associated with the present back-arc spreading system. West of 122.5° , the spreading system are in a primary stage. The andesitic volcanic island, the Turtle Island, is a result of N60° E extensional tectonism with a lot of faults. Besides the pyramidal shape, this can be proved indirectly. The vents located in the west side were occurred from previous extensional faults and are weaker than the eastern. Therefore, we suggest that if last the extension keeps going on, the hydrothermal vents located at the west side of the longitude 122.5° will be intensified.

  3. Dietary lipids and geriatric depression scale score among elders: the EPIC-Greece cohort.

    PubMed

    Kyrozis, A; Psaltopoulou, T; Stathopoulos, P; Trichopoulos, D; Vassilopoulos, D; Trichopoulou, A

    2009-05-01

    In a prospective epidemiological investigation aiming to identify dietary lipids potentially associated with affective state and depression, 610 healthy men and women aged 60 years or older, participating in the EPIC-Greece cohort and residing in the Attika region had dietary, sociodemographic, anthropometric, medical and lifestyle variables ascertained at enrollment. Six to 13 years later, affective state was evaluated through the 15-point geriatric depression scale (GDS) score along with cognitive function and medical variables. In multivariate linear regression analysis, while adjusting for potential confounders, GDS score was negatively associated with dietary intake of monounsaturated lipids (MUFA) and their main source, olive oil, and positively associated with intake of polyunsaturated lipids (PUFA) and one of their principal sources, seed oils. Intake of calories, total lipids, fish and seafood or saturated lipids did not exhibit significant association with GDS. Potential non-linearities were assessed by quantile multivariate regression analysis: The median GDS score was positively associated with PUFA and seed oils intake, while other lipid groups showed no appreciable associations. The 90th percentile of the GDS score (towards the high end) exhibited significant negative associations with MUFA and olive oil, weaker positive associations with PUFA and seed oils and no appreciable association with other lipid group dietary intakes. We conclude that among Attika elders, lower intake of seed oils and higher intake of olive oil prospectively predict a healthier affective state. Olive oil intake, in particular, predicts a lower chance of scoring in the highest part of the GDS.

  4. EPIC Radiance Simulator for Deep Space Climate ObserVatoRy (DSCOVR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyapustin, Alexei; Marshak, Alexander; Wang, Yujie; Korkin, Sergey; Herman, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate ObserVatoRy (DSCOVR) is a planned space weather mission for the Sun and Earth observations from the Lagrangian L1 point. Onboard of DSCOVR is a multispectral imager EPIC designed for unique observations of the full illuminated disk of the Earth with high temporal and 10 km spatial resolution. Depending on latitude, EPIC will observe the same Earth surface area during the course of the day in a wide range of solar and view zenith angles in the backscattering view geometry with the scattering angle of 164-172 . To understand the information content of EPIC data for analysis of the Earth clouds, aerosols and surface properties, an EPIC radiance Simulator was developed covering the UV -VIS-NIR range including the oxygen A and B-bands (A=340, 388, 443, 555, 680, 779.5, 687.7, 763.3 nm). The Simulator uses ancillary data (surface pressure/height, NCEP wind speed) as well as MODIS-based geophysical fields such as spectral surface bidirectional reflectance, column water vapor, and properties of aerosols and clouds including optical depth, effective radius, phase and cloud top height. The original simulations are conducted at 1 km resolution using the look-up table approach and then are averaged to 10 km EPIC radiances. This talk will give an overview of the EPIC Simulator with analysis of results over the continental USA and northern Atlantic.

  5. An autonomous observation and control system based on EPICS and RTS2 for Antarctic telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guang-yu; Wang, Jian; Tang, Peng-yi; Jia, Ming-hao; Chen, Jie; Dong, Shu-cheng; Jiang, Fengxin; Wu, Wen-qing; Liu, Jia-jing; Zhang, Hong-fei

    2016-01-01

    For unattended telescopes in Antarctic, the remote operation, autonomous observation and control are essential. An EPICS-(Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) and RTS2-(Remote Telescope System, 2nd Version) based autonomous observation and control system with remoted operation is introduced in this paper. EPICS is a set of open source software tools, libraries and applications developed collaboratively and used worldwide to create distributed soft real-time control systems for scientific instruments while RTS2 is an open source environment for control of a fully autonomous observatory. Using the advantage of EPICS and RTS2, respectively, a combined integrated software framework for autonomous observation and control is established that use RTS2 to fulfil the function of astronomical observation and use EPICS to fulfil the device control of telescope. A command and status interface for EPICS and RTS2 is designed to make the EPICS IOC (Input/Output Controller) components integrate to RTS2 directly. For the specification and requirement of control system of telescope in Antarctic, core components named Executor and Auto-focus for autonomous observation is designed and implemented with remote operation user interface based on browser-server mode. The whole system including the telescope is tested in Lijiang Observatory in Yunnan Province for practical observation to complete the autonomous observation and control, including telescope control, camera control, dome control, weather information acquisition with the local and remote operation.

  6. The new SCOS-based EGSE of the EPIC flight-spare on-ground cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Palombara, Nicola; Abbey, Anthony; Insinga, Fernando; Calderon-Riano, Pedro; Casale, Mauro; Kirsch, Marcus; Martin, James; Munoz, Ramon; Palazzo, Maddalena; Poletti, Mauro; Sembay, Steve; Vallejo, Juan C.; Villa, Gabriele

    2014-07-01

    The XMM-Newton observatory, launched by the European Space Agency in 1999, is still one of the scientific community's most important high-energy astrophysics missions. After almost 15 years in orbit its instruments continue to operate smoothly with a performance close to the immediate post-launch status. The competition for the observing time remains very high with ESA reporting a very healthy over-subscription factor. Due to the efficient use of spacecraft consumables XMM-Newton could potentially be operated into the next decade. However, since the mission was originally planned for 10 years, progressive ageing and/or failures of the on-board instrumentation can be expected. Dealing with them could require substantial changes of the on-board operating software, and of the command and telemetry database, which could potentially have unforeseen consequences for the on-board equipment. In order to avoid this risk, it is essential to test these changes on ground, before their upload. To this aim, two flight-spare cameras of the EPIC experiment (one MOS and one PN) are available on-ground. Originally they were operated through an Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) system which was developed over 15 years ago to support the test campaigns up to the launch. The EGSE used a specialized command language running on now obsolete workstations. ESA and the EPIC Consortium, therefore, decided to replace it with new equipment in order to fully reproduce on-ground the on-board configuration and to operate the cameras with SCOS2000, the same Mission Control System used by ESA to control the spacecraft. This was a demanding task, since it required both the recovery of the detailed knowledge of the original EGSE and the adjustment of SCOS for this special use. Recently this work has been completed by replacing the EGSE of one of the two cameras, which is now ready to be used by ESA. Here we describe the scope and purpose of this activity, the problems faced during its

  7. Calcareous nannofossil assemblages of the upper Miocene to Pliocene Shimajiri Group on Okinawa-jima, Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Ryo; Sato, Tokiyuki; Iryu, Yasufumi

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and paleoceanography of the Shimajiri Group in two exploratory wells (depths, 1243 and 1800 m) drilled on southern Okinawa-jima, Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan. Three late Miocene to Pliocene datum planes were identified: the first occurrence of Amaurolithus spp. (7.42 Ma), the last occurrence of Discoaster quinqueramus (5.59 Ma), and the first occurrence of Ceratolithus rugosus (5.12 Ma). These datum planes were also identified in two other deep wells on southern Okinawa-jima. Nutrient levels (reconstructed from the relative abundances of small Reticulofenestra spp., and the relative abundances of Discoaster spp. plus Sphenolithus abies) suggest that deposition of the Shimajiri Group (<8.29-3.50 Ma) occurred under conditions of increasing eutrophication. The eutrophication was likely caused by shallowing of the sedimentary basin, but a stepwise shift was associated with an abrupt eutrophication event that occurred in the northwestern Pacific Ocean at 5 Ma.

  8. Measuring and predicting prostate cancer related quality of life changes using EPIC for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Chipman, Jonathan J; Sanda, Martin G; Dunn, Rodney L; Wei, John T; Litwin, Mark S; Crociani, Catrina M; Regan, Meredith M; Chang, Peter

    2014-03-01

    We expanded the clinical usefulness of EPIC-CP (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite for Clinical Practice) by evaluating its responsiveness to health related quality of life changes, defining the minimally important differences for an individual patient change in each domain and applying it to a sexual outcome prediction model. In 1,201 subjects from a previously described multicenter longitudinal cohort we modeled the EPIC-CP domain scores of each treatment group before treatment, and at short-term and long-term followup. We considered a posttreatment domain score change from pretreatment of 0.5 SD or greater clinically significant and p ≤ 0.01 statistically significant. We determined the domain minimally important differences using the pooled 0.5 SD of the 2, 6, 12 and 24-month posttreatment changes from pretreatment values. We then recalibrated an EPIC-CP based nomogram model predicting 2-year post-prostatectomy functional erection from that developed using EPIC-26. For each health related quality of life domain EPIC-CP was sensitive to similar posttreatment health related quality of life changes with time, as was observed using EPIC-26. The EPIC-CP minimally important differences in changes in the urinary incontinence, urinary irritation/obstruction, bowel, sexual and vitality/hormonal domains were 1.0, 1.3, 1.2, 1.6 and 1.0, respectively. The EPIC-CP based sexual prediction model performed well (AUC 0.76). It showed robust agreement with its EPIC-26 based counterpart with 10% or less predicted probability differences between models in 95% of individuals and a mean ± SD difference of 0.0 ± 0.05 across all individuals. EPIC-CP is responsive to health related quality of life changes during convalescence and it can be used to predict 2-year post-prostatectomy sexual outcomes. It can facilitate shared medical decision making and patient centered care. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc

  9. Impacts of Long-Range Transport of Metals from East Asia in Bulk Aerosols Collected at the Okinawa Archipelago, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Sotaro; S, Yuka; I, Moriaki; N, Fumiya; H, Daishi; A, Takemitsu; T, Akira

    2010-05-01

    Economy of East Asia has been growing rapidly, and atmospheric aerosols discharged from this region have been transported to Japan. Okinawa island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km of south Korea. Its location in Asian is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air mass which has been affected by anthropogenic activities. Therefore, Okinawa region is suitable area for studying impacts of air pollutants from East Asia. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using the same type of high volume air samplers at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We determined the concentrations of acid-digested metals using atomic absorption spectrometer and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of metals in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island during June, 2008 to June 2009. We also determined 'background' concentration of metals in Okinawa archipelago. We then compare each chemical component among CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island to elucidate the influence of the transport processes and distances from Asian continent on metal concentrations.

  10. Dispersal of hydrothermal plumes in the near field of natural CO2 seeps in the Okinawa Trough using primordial helium-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buss, A.; Walter, M.; Mertens, C.; Sültenfuss, J.; Nakamura, K.; Rehder, G. J.; Rhein, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Okinawa Trough back-arc basin in the west Pacific Ocean is one of the two known hydrothermal active areas where venting of liquid CO2 bubbles has been observed. During the RV Sonne cruise SO-196 in March 2008 two hydrothermal vent sites in the southern Okinawa Trough were investigated: Hatoma Knoll and Yonaguni Knoll IV. Data were collected to characterise the dispersal of the hydrothermal plume and hence the spreading of CO2 in the water column. The data set consists of CTD casts with additional sensors for redox potential and pH as well as velocity measurements with a lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler (LADCP) and water samples to determine helium isotope concentrations. The dispersal of the hydrothermal plumes at the two vent sites was analysed using primordial helium as a conservative tracer for hydrothermal venting and anomalies in the redox potential and pH as an indicator of plume characteristics. The relation between the measured decrease in pH and δ3He showed a good correlation in the density ranges of the plumes at Hatoma Knoll as well as at Yonaguni Knoll IV. The heat fluxes from both vent sites were estimated through the maximum rise height of the plume and the background stratification. The vent site Hatoma Knoll lies in the middle of the caldera of a submarine volcano. One non-buoyant plume with a maximum rise height of 140 m above the seafloor has been identified. The vent site emitted a total heat flux of about 80 MW. The excess of δ3He in the water column agrees well with the maximum rise height of the plume, thus indicating a plume that had risen almost undisturbed. The vent site Yonaguni Knoll IV is located in a valley between a group of seamounts. Two non-buoyant plumes have been identified, with maximum rise heights of 230 m and 270 m above the seafloor. The total heat flux from the vent site was about 540 MW. An excess of δ3He has been found up to 600 m above the seafloor which could be caused by strong vertical mixing, but also

  11. Exploring fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Guang-Hua; Xu, Xin-Ya; Nong, Xu-Hua; Wang, Jie; Amin, Muhammad; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated the fungal diversity in four different deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1). A total of 40,297 fungal ITS1 sequences clustered into 420 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 97% sequence similarity and 170 taxa were recovered from these sediments. Most ITS1 sequences (78%) belonged to the phylum Ascomycota, followed by Basidiomycota (17.3%), Zygomycota (1.5%) and Chytridiomycota (0.8%), and a small proportion (2.4%) belonged to unassigned fungal phyla. Compared with previous studies on fungal diversity of sediments from deep-sea environments by culture-dependent approach and clone library analysis, the present result suggested that Illumina sequencing had been dramatically accelerating the discovery of fungal community of deep-sea sediments. Furthermore, our results revealed that Sordariomycetes was the most diverse and abundant fungal class in this study, challenging the traditional view that the diversity of Sordariomycetes phylotypes was low in the deep-sea environments. In addition, more than 12 taxa accounted for 21.5% sequences were found to be rarely reported as deep-sea fungi, suggesting the deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough harbored a plethora of different fungal communities compared with other deep-sea environments. To our knowledge, this study is the first exploration of the fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing.

  12. Extremely low genetic variability within and among locations of the greenfish holothurian Stichopus chloronotus Brandt, 1835 in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Taha; Takama, Okuto; Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Reimer, James D

    2016-01-01

    The greenfish sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus is an economically and ecologically important sea cucumber species throughout its range. This species is widely distributed, inhabiting coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Our study evaluated population genetic structure and levels of genetic diversity in southern Japan. A total of 180 individuals were collected from eight locations from Okinawa and Okinoerabu Islands and sequenced using mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA (16S) and nuclear histone H3 (H3) gene. Only three 16S haplotypes were detected (518 bp) with haplotype diversity ranging from 0 to 0.56 and nucleotide diversity from 0 to 0.1%. H3 showed no variation among the studied locations. It is plausible that such results could be due to a shift to asexual reproduction. Additionally, the presence of the species on the east coast of Okinawa could only be detected in one location and all individuals consisted of a single haplotype. Genetic differences between the east and west coasts of Okinawa have been noticed in other coral reef organisms, and attributed to either ecological or biogeographical historical differences between the coasts due to differing levels of isolation during Pleistocene ice ages. Results from the present study should inform management and conservation policies of S. chloronotus in southern Japan.

  13. Spatial and temporal variations of chemicals in the TSP aerosols simultaneously collected at three islands in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakaki, Takemitsu; Azechi, Sotaro; Somada, Yuka; Ijyu, Moriaki; Nakaema, Fumiya; Hitomi, Yuya; Handa, Daishi; Oshiro, Yoshito; Miyagi, Youichi; Tsuhako, Ai; Murayama, Hitomi; Higaonna, Yumi; Tanahara, Akira; Itoh, Akihide; Fukushima, Soko; Higashi, Kazuaki; Henza, Yui; Nishikawa, Rin; Shinjo, Hibiki; Wang, Hongyan

    2014-11-01

    East Asia's rapid economic growth has led to concerns about the emission of air pollutants. We collected total suspended particle (TSP) aerosol samples simultaneously at three islands in Okinawa, Japan, which are downwind of East Asia, during the Asian dust season, to examine the spatial and temporal variations and chemical transformations of major chemicals in the aerosols. Weekly samples were collected from July 2008 to June 2010, and the concentrations of water-soluble cations, anions, and organic carbon (WSOC) were determined (n = 303). Spatial distribution analysis showed that monthly mean concentrations of non-sea-salt (nss)-SO42- in the spring (Asian dust season) decreased with increasing distance from Asia, while the trend for NO3- was less evident, suggesting that chemical transformation affected the long-range transport of certain chemicals. Temporal variation analysis showed that concentrations of nss-SO42-, NO3-, and WSOC during the spring were about 2.0, 2.4, and 1.8 times those in the summer (cleaner air mass from the Pacific Ocean), respectively. This study demonstrated that air pollutants were transported from the Asian continent to the Okinawa islands and affected the air quality in the region. There may also be impacts on ecosystems, because increased concentrations of particulate NO3- could increase nutrient levels around the Okinawa islands.

  14. Extremely low genetic variability within and among locations of the greenfish holothurian Stichopus chloronotus Brandt, 1835 in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Takama, Okuto; Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Reimer, James D.

    2016-01-01

    The greenfish sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus is an economically and ecologically important sea cucumber species throughout its range. This species is widely distributed, inhabiting coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Our study evaluated population genetic structure and levels of genetic diversity in southern Japan. A total of 180 individuals were collected from eight locations from Okinawa and Okinoerabu Islands and sequenced using mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA (16S) and nuclear histone H3 (H3) gene. Only three 16S haplotypes were detected (518 bp) with haplotype diversity ranging from 0 to 0.56 and nucleotide diversity from 0 to 0.1%. H3 showed no variation among the studied locations. It is plausible that such results could be due to a shift to asexual reproduction. Additionally, the presence of the species on the east coast of Okinawa could only be detected in one location and all individuals consisted of a single haplotype. Genetic differences between the east and west coasts of Okinawa have been noticed in other coral reef organisms, and attributed to either ecological or biogeographical historical differences between the coasts due to differing levels of isolation during Pleistocene ice ages. Results from the present study should inform management and conservation policies of S. chloronotus in southern Japan. PMID:27703841

  15. Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC): Recent Enhancements and Goals for Future Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Barbara M.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Davis, Victoria A.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    2007-01-01

    The Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC) is the leading interactive computer tool for assessing the effects of electric thruster plumes on spacecraft subsystems. EPIC, developed by SAIC under the sponsorship of the Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, has three primary modules. One is PlumeTool, which calculates plumes of electrostatic thrusters and Hall-effect thrusters by modeling the primary ion beam as well as elastic scattering and charge-exchange of beam ions with thruster-generated neutrals. ObjectToolkit is a 3-D object definition and spacecraft surface modeling tool developed for use with several SEE Program codes. The main EPIC interface integrates the thruster plume into the 3-D geometry of the spacecraft and calculates interactions and effects of the plume with the spacecraft. Effects modeled include erosion of surfaces due to sputtering, re-deposition of sputtered materials, surface heating, torque on the spacecraft, and changes in surface properties due to erosion and deposition. In support of Prometheus I (JIMO), a number of new capabilities and enhancements were made to existing EPIC models. Enhancements to EPIC include adding the ability to scale and view individual plume components, to import a neutral plume associated with a thruster (to model a grid erosion plume, for example), and to calculate the plume from new initial beam conditions. Unfortunately, changes in program direction have left a number of desired enhancements undone. Variable gridding over a surface and resputtering of deposited materials, including multiple bounces and sticking coefficients, would significantly enhance the erosion/deposition model. Other modifications such as improving the heating model and the PlumeTool neutral plume model, enabling time dependent surface interactions, and including EM1 and optical effects would enable EPIC to better serve the aerospace engineer and electric propulsion systems integrator

  16. Diversity of dietary patterns observed in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) project.

    PubMed

    Slimani, N; Fahey, M; Welch, A A; Wirfält, E; Stripp, C; Bergström, E; Linseisen, J; Schulze, M B; Bamia, C; Chloptsios, Y; Veglia, F; Panico, S; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Ocké, M C; Brustad, M; Lund, E; González, C A; Barcos, A; Berglund, G; Winkvist, A; Mulligan, A; Appleby, P; Overvad, K; Tjønneland, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Kesse, E; Ferrari, P; Van Staveren, W A; Riboli, E

    2002-12-01

    To describe the diversity in dietary patterns existing across centres/regions participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Single 24-hour dietary recall measurements were obtained by means of standardised face-to-face interviews using the EPIC-SOFT software. These have been used to present a graphic multi-dimensional comparison of the adjusted mean consumption of 22 food groups. In total, 35 955 men and women, aged 35-74 years, participating in the EPIC nested calibration study. Although wide differences were observed across centres, the countries participating in EPIC are characterised by specific dietary patterns. Overall, Italy and Greece have a dietary pattern characterised by plant foods (except potatoes) and a lower consumption of animal and processed foods, compared with the other EPIC countries. France and particularly Spain have more heterogeneous dietary patterns, with a relatively high consumption of both plant foods and animal products. Apart from characteristics specific to vegetarian groups, the UK 'health-conscious' group shares with the UK general population a relatively high consumption of tea, sauces, cakes, soft drinks (women), margarine and butter. In contrast, the diet in the Nordic countries, The Netherlands, Germany and the UK general population is relatively high in potatoes and animal, processed and sweetened/refined foods, with proportions varying across countries/centres. In these countries, consumption of vegetables and fruit is similar to, or below, the overall EPIC means, and is low for legumes and vegetable oils. Overall, dietary patterns were similar for men and women, although there were large gender differences for certain food groups. There are considerable differences in food group consumption and dietary patterns among the EPIC study populations. This large heterogeneity should be an advantage when investigating the relationship between diet and cancer and formulating new aetiological

  17. Investigating the Impact of EPIC Professional Development on Perspectives Charter School Principals. An Evaluation of the EPIC Professional Learning Model. Evaluation Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Kay; Pereira-Leon, Maura; Honeyford, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In 2009-10, New Leaders for New Schools partnered with the Perspectives Charter School Network in Chicago to pilot an innovative leadership development program for principals. The program is part of the Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC) initiative, which was created by New Leaders in 2006 to identify, reward, and share effective…

  18. Underground dams for irrigation supplies in coastal limestone aquifer, Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasumoto, J.; Nakano, T.; Nawa, N.

    2011-12-01

    The use of underground dams to store water in regions with arid or tropical climates is a method that has received considerable attention in the last few decades. And now, for the tropical and subtropical islands that are highly vulnerable to climate change underground dams have been attracting attention again as a method of groundwater management. Okinawa Prefecture is Japan's southernmost prefecture, which consists of hundreds of islands in a chain over 1,000 km long, called the Ryukyu Islands which extend southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan. The national irrigation project of the Ryukyu Islands has been carried out, and several underground dams have been constructed. The Komesu and Giiza underground dams are first full scale underground dam facilities constructed for irrigation in Japan. The Komesu underground dam is a salt-water proof type. It prevents salt-water intrusion and provides storage fresh-water for irrigation in coastal limestone aquifer. Giiza underground dam is a dam up type for storage of fresh-water. These groundwater reservoirs are located in the coastal region of southern part of Okinawa (main island), where Ryukyu limestone is extensively distributed. We studied the behaviour of groundwater flow, saltwater intrusion and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) in groundwater in this region by using observation data of groundwater and springs through long term (from 1993 to 2010) monitoring. And, a groundwater flow and salt-water intrusion analysis have been conducted with three dimensional numerical model applied to these dam reservoir areas. The MODFLOW-NWT with SWI code and PEST was used to simulate the complex groundwater flow patterns. Through the comparison with simulation and observed data, it was concluded that the cut off wall of underground dams effectively stores the groundwater and prevents the salt-water intrusion in the reservoir areas. The observed groundwater levels at the reservoir areas were almost reproduced by the numerical model, but there

  19. The 2005 Ilan earthquake doublet and seismic crisis in northeastern Taiwan: evidence for dyke intrusion associated with on-land propagation of the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Kuang-Yin; Chen, Yue-Gau; Wu, Yih-Min; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Kuo, Yu-Ting; Wang, Yu; Chang, Chien-Hsin; Lin, Kuan-Chuan

    2009-11-01

    Northern Taiwan underwent mountain building in the early stage of the Taiwan orogeny but is currently subjected to post-collisional crustal extension. It may be related to gravitational collapse or to the rifting of the Okinawa Trough, which lies offshore northeastern Taiwan. The Ilan Plain, northeastern Taiwan, which is bounded by the normal fault systems and filled up with thick Pliocene-Pleistocene sedimentary sequences, formed under such an extension environment. Over there on 2005 March 5 two earthquakes with about the same magnitude (ML = 5.9) occurred within 68 s and produced intense aftershocks activity according to the records of Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network of Taiwan. We relocated the earthquake sequence by the three-dimension earthquake location algorithm with the newly published 3-D Vp and Vp/Vs velocity model, and determined the first-polarity focal mechanisms of the earthquake doublet. One major cluster of aftershocks which trends E-W and dips steeply to the south can be identified and picked up as a potential fault plane. The focal mechanisms of the two main shocks are both classified as normal type by first-polarity but strike-slip by centroid moment tensor inversion; however two methods both yield consistent E-W strike. Static coseismic deformation was additionally determined from Global Positioning System (GPS) daily solutions at a set of continuous GPS stations and from strong-motion seismographs. These data show NW-SE extension at high angle to the fault plane, which cannot be explained from a simple strike-slip double-couple mechanism. On the other hand, the small vertical displacements and steep fault plane cannot be explained from a simple normal event as well. We present from elastic dislocation modelling that the geodetic data are best explained by significant component of tensile source with centimetre-scale of opening on a 15-km-long fault extending from 1 to 13 km depth. We therefore interpret the crisis as the result of dyke

  20. The calibration of the DSCOVR EPIC multiple visible channel instrument using MODIS and VIIRS as a reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, Conor; Doelling, David; Minnis, Patrick; Bhatt, Rajendra; Scarino, Benjamin; Gopalan, Arun

    2016-09-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), launched on 11 February 2015, is a satellite positioned near the Lagrange-1 (L1) point, carrying several instruments that monitor space weather, and Earth-view sensors designed for climate studies. The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard DSCOVR continuously views the sun illuminated portion of the Earth with spectral coverage in the UV, VIS, and NIR bands. Although the EPIC instrument does not have any onboard calibration abilities, its constant view of the sunlit Earth disk provides a unique opportunity for simultaneous viewing with several other satellite instruments. This arrangement allows the EPIC sensor to be intercalibrated using other well-characterized satellite instrument reference standards. Two such instruments with onboard calibration are MODIS, flown on Aqua and Terra, and VIIRS, onboard Suomi-NPP. The MODIS and VIIRS reference calibrations will be transferred to the EPIC instrument using both all-sky ocean and deep convective clouds (DCC) ray-matched EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS radiance pairs. An automated navigation correction routine was developed to more accurately align the EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS granules. The automated navigation correction routine dramatically reduced the uncertainty of the resulting calibration gain based on the EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS radiance pairs. The SCIAMACHY-based spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) applied to the MODIS/ VIIRS radiances were found to successfully adjust the reference radiances to the spectral response of the specific EPIC channel for over-lapping spectral channels. The SBAF was also found to be effective for the non overlapping EPIC channel 10. Lastly, both ray-matching techniques found no discernable trends for EPIC channel 7 over the year of publically released EPIC data.

  1. The Calibration of the DSCOVR EPIC Multiple Visible Channel Instrument Using MODIS and VIIRS as a Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haney, Conor; Doeling, David; Minnis, Patrick; Bhatt, Rajendra; Scarino, Benjamin; Gopalan, Arun

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), launched on 11 February 2015, is a satellite positioned near the Lagrange-1 (L1) point, carrying several instruments that monitor space weather, and Earth-view sensors designed for climate studies. The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard DSCOVR continuously views the sun-illuminated portion of the Earth with spectral coverage in the UV, VIS, and NIR bands. Although the EPIC instrument does not have any onboard calibration abilities, its constant view of the sunlit Earth disk provides a unique opportunity for simultaneous viewing with several other satellite instruments. This arrangement allows the EPIC sensor to be inter-calibrated using other well-characterized satellite instrument reference standards. Two such instruments with onboard calibration are MODIS, flown on Aqua and Terra, and VIIRS, onboard Suomi-NPP. The MODIS and VIIRS reference calibrations will be transferred to the EPIC instrument using both all-sky ocean and deep convective clouds (DCC) ray-matched EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS radiance pairs. An automated navigation correction routine was developed to more accurately align the EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS granules. The automated navigation correction routine dramatically reduced the uncertainty of the resulting calibration gain based on the EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS radiance pairs. The SCIAMACHY-based spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) applied to the MODIS/ VIIRS radiances were found to successfully adjust the reference radiances to the spectral response of the specific EPIC channel for over-lapping spectral channels. The SBAF was also found to be effective for the non-overlapping EPIC channel 10. Lastly, both ray-matching techniques found no discernable trends for EPIC channel 7 over the year of publically released EPIC data.

  2. [Dietary habits and cardiovascular disease: the experience of EPIC Italian collaboration].

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Amalia; Chiodini, Paolo; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Krogh, Vittorio; Grioni, Sara; Fasanelli, Francesca; Vineis, Paolo; Saieva, Calogero; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Frasca, Graziella; Giurdanella, Maria Concetta; Panico, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    to report and evaluate the evidence produced by the EPIC Italian collaboration (EPICOR Project) on the dietary determinants of cardiovascular diseases in Italy. prospective study carried out in a large Italian population, composed by cohorts recruited in Northern, Central and Southern Italy. data on dietary habits collected at the baseline observation through standardised questionnaires on 47,749 free-living adults at the time of the recruitment of the study (1993-1998). major coronary and cerebrovascular events (acute coronary syndrome, PTCA, CABG, ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke, TEA of supraortic vessels) identified at follow-up. The longitudinal analyses here reported have measured risks through the use of multivariate Cox regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. the longitudinal analyses of EPICOR indicate that Mediterranean-oriented dietary habits, measured through specific indicators and the consumption of various typical food, are able to reduce coronary and cerebrovascular risks, and that this protection is possible even nowadays, although many changes in diet have occurred in the last decades in Italy. Habitual consumption of plant origin products, including all foods with low glycemic index, is an advantage for cardiovascular risk. the EPICOR Project is the largest, long-lasting Italian study on the relationship between diet and cardiovascular diseases. It is also the study with the greater number of observed variables. Its results point out the importance to support preventive programmes and industrial policies able to favour a dietary style inspired to the Italian Mediterranean tradition.

  3. Chemical enrichment in the hot intra-cluster medium seen with XMM-Newton/EPIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mernier, F.; de Plaa, J.; Pinto, C.; Kaastra, J.; Kosec, P.; Zhang, Y.; Mao, J.; Werner, N.

    2016-06-01

    The intra-cluster medium (ICM), permeating the large gravitational potential well of galaxy clusters and groups, is rich in metals, which can be detected via their emission lines in the soft X-ray band. These heavy elements (typically from O to Ni) have been synthesized by Type Ia (SNIa) and core-collapse (SNcc) supernovae within the galaxy members, and continuously enrich the ICM since the cosmic star formation peak (z ≃ 2-3). Because the predicted chemical yields of supernovae depend on either their explosion mechanisms (SNIa) or the initial mass and metallicity of their progenitors (SNcc), measuring the abundances in the ICM can help to constrain supernovae models. In this study, we use XMM-Newton/EPIC to measure the abundances of 9 elements (Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe and Ni) in a sample of 44 cool-core galaxy clusters, groups and ellipticals (the CHEERS catalog). Combining these results with the O and Ne abundances measured using RGS, we establish an average X/Fe abundance pattern in the ICM, and we determine the best-fit SNIa and SNcc models, as well as the relative fraction of SNIa/SNcc responsible for the enrichment.

  4. Area deprivation and age related macular degeneration in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Yip, Jennifer L Y; Khawaja, Anthony P; Chan, Michelle P Y; Broadway, David C; Peto, Tunde; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nick; Foster, Paul J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between area deprivation, individual socio-economic status (SES) and age related macular degeneration (AMD). Cross sectional study nested within a longitudinal cohort study. Data were collected in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study by trained nurses, using standardized protocols and lifestyle questionnaires. The English Index of multiple deprivation 2010 (IMD) was derived from participants' postcodes. AMD was identified from standardized grading of fundus photographs. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between IMD, SES and AMD. 5344 pairs (62.0% of total 8623) of fundus photographs were of sufficient quality for grading of AMD. Of 5182 participants with complete data, AMD was identified in 653 participants (12.60%, 95%CI = 11.7-13.5%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that people living in the most affluent 5% of areas had nearly half the odds of AMD compared to those living in comparatively more deprived areas (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.36-0.89, P = 0.02), after adjusting for age, sex, education, social class and smoking. The authors found that living in the most affluent areas exerted a protective effect on AMD, independently of education and social class. Further investigation into underlying mechanisms will inform potential interventions to reduce health inequalities relating to AMD. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Area deprivation and age related macular degeneration in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Jennifer L.Y.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P.Y.; Broadway, David C.; Peto, Tunde; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Bhaniani, Amit; Wareham, Nick; Foster, Paul J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between area deprivation, individual socio-economic status (SES) and age related macular degeneration (AMD). Study design Cross sectional study nested within a longitudinal cohort study. Methods Data were collected in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study by trained nurses, using standardized protocols and lifestyle questionnaires. The English Index of multiple deprivation 2010 (IMD) was derived from participants' postcodes. AMD was identified from standardized grading of fundus photographs. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between IMD, SES and AMD. Results 5344 pairs (62.0% of total 8623) of fundus photographs were of sufficient quality for grading of AMD. Of 5182 participants with complete data, AMD was identified in 653 participants (12.60%, 95%CI = 11.7–13.5%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that people living in the most affluent 5% of areas had nearly half the odds of AMD compared to those living in comparatively more deprived areas (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.36–0.89, P = 0.02), after adjusting for age, sex, education, social class and smoking. Conclusions The authors found that living in the most affluent areas exerted a protective effect on AMD, independently of education and social class. Further investigation into underlying mechanisms will inform potential interventions to reduce health inequalities relating to AMD. PMID:25687711

  6. Association between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and fracture risk: the EPIC-Oxford study.

    PubMed

    Roddam, Andrew W; Neale, Rachel; Appleby, Paul; Allen, Naomi E; Tipper, Sarah; Key, Timothy J

    2007-12-01

    The importance of vitamin D for bone health is well established, but few data exist on the relation between plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of fracture. The authors examined this association within the EPIC-Oxford (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford cohort) study of men and women in the United Kingdom (1993-1999). Five years after recruitment, participants completed a follow-up questionnaire where fracture incidence was self-reported. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was measured in 730 incident fracture cases and 1,445 matched controls. There was a clear association between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and month of blood draw, the highest values being during the summer months. Among women, there were significant relations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and age, body mass index, marital status, use of hormone therapy, physical activity, diet group, dietary intake of vitamin D, and alcohol. Similar relations were seen among men, although often they were nonsignificant because of smaller numbers. There was no evidence of an association between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and fracture risk for men or women; the relative risks associated with a doubling of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D were 1.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.82, 1.61) and 0.95 (95% confidence interval: 0.80, 1.13), respectively. These results were not affected by adjustment for potential confounders and were consistent across a number of subgroups.

  7. The EPIC-MOS Particle-Induced Background Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, K. D.; Snowden, S. L.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a method for constructing a spectrum of the particle-induced instrumental background of the XMM-Newton EPIC MOS detectors that can be used for observations of the diffuse background and extended sources that fill a significant fraction of the instrument field of view. The strength and spectrum of the particle-induced background, that is, the background due to the interaction of particles with the detector and the detector surroundings, is temporally variable as well as spatially variable over individual chips. Our method uses a combination of the filter-wheel-closed data and a database of unexposed-region data to construct a spectrum of the "quiescent" background. We show that, using this method of background subtraction, the differences between independent observations of the same region of "blank sky" are consistent with the statistical uncertainties except when there is clear evidence of solar wind charge exchange emission. We use the blank sky observations to show that contamination by SWCX emission is a strong function of the solar wind proton flux, and that observations through the flanks of the magnetosheath appear to be contaminated only at much higher solar wind fluxes. We have also developed a spectral model of the residual soft proton flares, which allows their effects to be removed to a substantial degree during spectral fitting.

  8. Anthropometry and the Risk of Lung Cancer in EPIC

    PubMed Central

    Dewi, Nikmah Utami; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Kampman, Ellen; Steffen, Annika; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Klinaki, Eleni; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Peeters, Petra H.; Vermeulen, Roel; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Torhild Gram, Inger; Huerta, José María; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, José Ramón; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mikael; Grankvist, Kjell; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Cross, Amanda J.; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Fanidi, Anouar; Muller, David; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas

    2016-01-01

    The associations of body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric measurements with lung cancer were examined in 348,108 participants in the European Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) between 1992 and 2010. The study population included 2,400 case patients with incident lung cancer, and the average length of follow-up was 11 years. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models in which we modeled smoking variables with cubic splines. Overall, there was a significant inverse association between BMI (weight (kg)/height (m)2) and the risk of lung cancer after adjustment for smoking and other confounders (for BMI of 30.0–34.9 versus 18.5–25.0, hazard ratio = 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.84). The strength of the association declined with increasing follow-up time. Conversely, after adjustment for BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio were significantly positively associated with lung cancer risk (for the highest category of waist circumference vs. the lowest, hazard ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.50). Given the decline of the inverse association between BMI and lung cancer over time, the association is likely at least partly due to weight loss resulting from preclinical lung cancer that was present at baseline. Residual confounding by smoking could also have influenced our findings. PMID:27370791

  9. Anthropometry and the Risk of Lung Cancer in EPIC.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Nikmah Utami; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Kampman, Ellen; Steffen, Annika; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Klinaki, Eleni; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Peeters, Petra H; Vermeulen, Roel; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Torhild Gram, Inger; Huerta, José María; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, José Ramón; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mikael; Grankvist, Kjell; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Cross, Amanda J; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Fanidi, Anouar; Muller, David; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2016-07-15

    The associations of body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric measurements with lung cancer were examined in 348,108 participants in the European Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) between 1992 and 2010. The study population included 2,400 case patients with incident lung cancer, and the average length of follow-up was 11 years. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models in which we modeled smoking variables with cubic splines. Overall, there was a significant inverse association between BMI (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and the risk of lung cancer after adjustment for smoking and other confounders (for BMI of 30.0-34.9 versus 18.5-25.0, hazard ratio = 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.84). The strength of the association declined with increasing follow-up time. Conversely, after adjustment for BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio were significantly positively associated with lung cancer risk (for the highest category of waist circumference vs. the lowest, hazard ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.50). Given the decline of the inverse association between BMI and lung cancer over time, the association is likely at least partly due to weight loss resulting from preclinical lung cancer that was present at baseline. Residual confounding by smoking could also have influenced our findings.

  10. Dating of barite and anhydrite in sea-floor hydrothermal deposits in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taisei, F.; Toyoda, S.; Uchida, A.; Ishibashi, J. I.; Totsuka, S.; Shimada, K.; Nakai, S.

    2016-12-01

    Dating of submarine hydrothermal activities has been an important issue in the aspect of the ore formation (Urabe, 1995) and biological systems sustained by the chemical species arising from hydrothermal activities (Macdonald et al., 1980). For this purpose, dating methods using radioactive disequilibrium such as U-Th method (e.g. You and Bickle, 1998) for sulfide, 226Ra-210Pb and 228Ra-228Th (e.g. Noguchi et al., 2011), Ra/Ba, and ESR (Electron Spin Resonance) methods for barite (Okumura et al., 2010) have been employed. In this study, firstly, we will report the first successful dating results on anhydrite using 226Ra-210Pb and 228Ra-228Th methods. The anhydrite samples were taken from the Daiyon-Yonaguni knoll field and the Hatoma knoll field and the Iheya North Knoll field of the Okinawa Trough by research cruises operated by JAMSTEC. The anhydrite crystals were physically scratched out of the samples. 226Ra, 228Ra and daughter nuclei were measured in the same samples for the ESR method by the low background gamma ray spectrometry. From the activity ratios, disequilibrium ages were obtained to be about 7.3 years by 226Ra-210Pb method, and to be 0.6-2.5 years by 228Ra-228Th method. Secondly, the ESR ages of barite taken from hydrothermal areas in the Okinawa trough range from 4.1 to 16000 years, filling the age gap of the maximum age, 150 years, of 226Ra-210Pb method and the minimum age, several thousand years of U-Th method, being the most appropriate age range to discuss the evolution of the hydrothermal systems. Interestingly, the 226Ra-210Pb and 228Ra-228Th ages for the same samples are the same or younger than the ESR ages. As for the latter samples, the reason has already been discussed (Uchida et al., 2015) as the deposits had been formed by two or more hydrothermal events. In the present paper, the disequilibrium and ESR ages will be simulated with these multiple hydrothermal events so that the differences in the ages are explained.

  11. Chemical Analysis of Fractionated Halogens in Atmospheric Aerosols Collected in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuhako, A.; Miyagi, Y.; Somada, Y.; Azechi, S.; Handa, D.; Oshiro, Y.; Murayama, H.; Arakaki, T.

    2013-12-01

    Halogens (Cl, Br and I) play important roles in the atmosphere, e.g. ozone depletion by Br during spring in Polar Regions. Sources of halogens in atmospheric aerosols are mainly from ocean. But, for example, when we analyzed Br- with ion chromatography, its concentrations were almost always below the detection limit, which is also much lower than the estimated concentrations from sodium ion concentrations. We hypothesized that portions of halogens are escaped to the atmosphere, similar to chlorine loss, changed their chemical forms to such as BrO3- and IO3-, and/or even formed precipitates. There was few reported data so far about fractionated halogen concentrations in atmospheric aerosols. Thus, purpose of this study was to determine halogen concentrations in different fractions; free ion, water-soluble chemically transformed ions and precipitates using the authentic aerosols. Moreover, we analyzed seasonal variation for each fraction. Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected at Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) of Okinawa, Japan during January 2010 and August 2013. A high volume air sampler was used for collecting total particulate matters on quartz filters on a weekly basis. Ultrapure water was used to extract water-soluble factions of halogens. The extracted solutions were filtered with the membrane filter and used for chemical analysis with ion chromatography and ICP-MS. Moreover, the total halogens in aerosols were obtained after digesting aerosols with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) using the microwave and analysis with ICP-MS. For Cl, water-soluble Cl- accounted for about 70% of the estimates with Na content. No other forms of water-soluble Cl were found. About 30% of Cl was assumed volatilized to the gas-phase. For Br, water-soluble Br accounted for about 43% of the estimates with Na content, and within the 43%, about 10% of Br was not in the form of Br-. About 46% of Br was assumed volatilized to the gas-phase. For I

  12. Hydrographic changes in the northern Okinawa Trough over the last 88 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xuefa; Zou, Jianjun; Wu, Yonghua

    2015-04-01

    The surface hydrographic conditions of the northern Okinawa Trough are influenced strongly by fluctuations of the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) and the Kuroshio. However, the high-resolution records of past surface hydrographic condition remain scarce in the northern Okinawa Trough (OT) on orbital and millennial time scales. In this study, we applied a multiproxy (planktonic foraminiferal species, δ18O, alkenone sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity (SSS)) reconstruction from sediment core CSH1, which is located at the main axis of the Tsushima Warm Current, a branch of the Kuroshio, in the northern OT since the last 88 ka. The relative abundances of the warm-water planktonic foraminiferal species related to the Kuroshio are high during MIS 1 and MIS 5.1, while cold-water species related to East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) and subarctic water mass are high during MIS 2. Alkenone SST measured from core CSH1 ranges between 21 and 25 ℃, with higher values during interglacials (MIS 1, 3.3, 5.1) and interstadials and lower values during glacials and Heinrich (H)/stadial events. The CSH1 SSS appears to be mainly controlled by the local river runoff and the Kuroshio, while the DOT change seems to be closely related to the strength of the Kuroshio and the latitudinal shift of the subarctic frontal zone. Our records suggest that, during MIS 1 and MIS 5.1, while global sea level was high, the Kuroshio was dominant; while during MIS 2, MIS 3 and MIS 4, with a low sea level, stronger EAWM and a more southerly subarctic front played important roles in governing the hydrographic characteristics in the OT. The hydrographic records, such as SST, SSS and DOT, show regional responses corresponding mainly to the global sea level, the Kuroshio, EAWM and subarctic front, factors which are consistently invoked in the interpretations of other regional records from the OT. Acknowledgements. This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41476056

  13. Long-Range Transport of Perchlorate Observed in the Atmospheric Aerosols Collected at Okinawa Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, D.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Nakama, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.; Oomori, T.; Miyagi, T.; Kadena, H.; Ishizaki, T.; Nakama, F.

    2007-12-01

    The study of perchlorate has become quite active in the U.S. in the last several years. Perchlorate has been recognized as a new environmental pollutant and it attracted much attention quickly in the world. The health concern about perchlorate stems from the fact that it displaces iodide in the thyroid gland, while iodine-containing thyroid hormones are essential for proper neural development from the fetal stage through the first years of life. In this study, we determined the concentrations of perchlorate ion present in the atmospheric aerosols collected in Okinawa Island, Japan. We then examined the relationships between the perchlorate concentrations and the environmental parameters and the climatic conditions peculiar to Okinawa. Bulk aerosol samples were collected on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler at Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS). Each sampling duration was one week. The quartz filters with aerosols were stirred with Milli-Q pure water for three hours before perchlorate ion was extracted. The extracted perchlorate ion concentrations were determined by ion chromatography (ICS-2000, DIONEX). The mean perchlorate concentration for the samples collected at CHAAMS was 1.83 ng/m3, and the minimum was 0.18 ng/m3. The samples collected during November 21-27, 2005, January 23-30, 2006 and April 24-01, 2006 had highest perchlorate concentrations. For these three samples, we performed back trajectory analysis, and found that the air mass for the three samples arrived from the Asian continent. A relatively strong correlation (r2 = 0.55) was found between perchlorate and nss-sulfate concentrations for the CHAAMS samples. Furthermore, we analyzed perchlorate in the soils and the fertilizers used for sugar cane farming around the CHAAMS area. The Milli-Q extract of the soil and the fertilizers did not contain any detectable levels of perchlorate ions. Therefore, it was suggested that perchlorate found in the atmospheric

  14. The influence of a subduction component on magmatism in the Okinawa Trough: Evidence from thorium and related trace element ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Kun; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Shuai; Zhang, Yu-Xiang; Qi, Hai-Yan; Ma, Yao

    2017-09-01

    The Okinawa Trough (OT) is a back-arc, initial continental marginal sea basin located behind the Ryukyu Arc-Trench System. Formation and evolution of the OT have been intimately related to subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) since the late Miocene; thus, the magma source of the trough has been affected by subduction components, as in the case of other active back-arc basins, including the Lau Basin (LB) and Mariana Trough (MT). We review all the available geochemical data relating to basaltic lavas from the OT and the middle Ryukyu Arc (RA) in this paper in order to determine the influence of the subduction components on the formation of arc and back-arc magmas within this subduction system. The results of this study reveal that the abundances of Th in OT basalts (OTBs) are higher than that in LB (LBBs) and MT basalts (MTBs) due to the mixing of subducted sediments and EMI-like enriched materials. The geochemical characteristics of Th and other trace element ratios indicate that the OTB originated from a more enriched mantle source (compared to N-mid-ocean ridge basalt, N-MORB) and was augmented by subducted sediments. Data show that the magma sources of the south OT (SOT) and middle Ryukyu Arc (MRA) basalts were principally influenced by subducted aqueous fluids and bulk sediments, which were potentially added into magma sources by accretion and underplating. At the same time, the magma sources of the middle OT (MOT) and Kobi-syo and Sekibi-Syo (KBS+SBS) basalts were impacted by subducted aqueous fluids from both altered oceanic crust (AOC) and sediment. The variable geochemical characteristics of these basalts are due to different Wadati-Benioff depths and tectonic environments of formation, while the addition of subducted bulk sediment to SOT and MRA basalts may be due to accretion and underplating, and subsequent to form mélange formation, which would occur partial melting after aqueous fluids are added. The addition of AOC and sediment aqueous fluid

  15. Microbial Community in a Sediment-Hosted CO2 Lake of the Southern Okinawa Trough Hydrothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, F.; Kuypers, M. M.; Tsunogai, U.; Ishibashi, J.; Nakamura, K.; Treude, T.; Ohkubo, S.; Nakaseama, M.; Gena, K.; Chiba, H.; Hirayama, H.; Nunoura, T.; Takai, K.; Jorgensen, B. B.; Horikoshi, K.; Boetius, A.

    2006-12-01

    One-carbon assimilating (micro-)organisms play an important role for global carbon cycling; however, the increasing level of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere has exceeded the capacity of natural biological feedback, hence as greenhouse gasses it is expected to cause climacteric change with negative effects on the earth's ecosystems and human society. To reduce CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, a variety of options have been discussed, including a disposal of CO2 into the deep ocean. However, the impact of CO2 disposal on deep-sea ecosystems as well as of the consequent microbiological feedback remains largely unknown. At the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field, southern Okinawa Trough, we observed a natural liquid CO2 lake in sediments overlying elemental sulfur and CO2 hydrates at a water depth of 1380m. The liquid CO2 droplets were composed of 85% CO2 and 14% methane with hydrogen below the detection limit. We found high abundances (>109 cm-3) of microbial cells in sediment pavements above the CO2 lake, decreasing to strikingly low cell numbers (10&^{7} cm-3) at the liquid CO2/CO2-hydrate interface. Molecular ecological study based on the sequences of 16S rRNA genes showed that the key groups in these sediments were: (i) the anaerobic methanotrophic archaea ANME-2c and the Eel-2 group of Deltaproteobacteria, and (ii) sulfur-metabolizing chemolithotrophs within the Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria. The detection of functional genes (mcrA, cbbL) related to one- carbon assimilation as well as the presence of highly 13C-depleted archaeal and bacterial lipid biomarkers suggest that microorganisms assimilating CO2 and/or methane dominate the liquid CO2 and CO2-hydrate-bearing sediments. We propose that the Yonaguni Knoll is an exceptional natural laboratory for the study of consequences of CO2 disposal as well as of natural CO2 reservoirs as potential microbial habitats on early Earth and other celestial bodies.

  16. Quantitative food intake in the EPIC-Germany cohorts. European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Schulze, M B; Brandstetter, B R; Kroke, A; Wahrendorf, J; Boeing, H

    1999-01-01

    The EPIC-Heidelberg and the EPIC-Potsdam studies with about 53,000 study participants represent the German contribution to the EPIC (European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) cohort study. Within the EPIC study, standardized 24-hour dietary recalls were applied as a quantitative calibration method in order to estimate the amount of scaling bias introduced by the varying center-specific dietary assessment methods. This article presents intake of food items and food groups in the two German cohorts estimated by 24-hour quantitative dietary recalls. Recalls from 1,013 men and 1,078 women in Heidelberg and 1,032 men and 898 women in Potsdam were included in the analysis. The intake of recorded food items or recipe ingredients as well as fat used for cooking was summarized into 16 main food groups and a variety of different subgroups stratified by sex and weighted for the day of the week and age. In more than 90% of the recalls, consumption of dairy products, cereals and cereal products, bread, fat, and non-alcoholic beverages, particularly coffee/tea, was reported. Inter-cohort evaluations revealed that bread, potatoes, fruit and fat were consumed in higher amounts in the Potsdam cohort while the opposite was found for pasta/rice, non-alcoholic, and alcoholic beverages. It was concluded that the exposure variation was increased by having two instead of one EPIC study centers in Germany. Copyright 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Insights into life-history traits of Munidopsis spp. (Anomura: Munidopsidae) from hydrothermal vent fields in the Okinawa Trough, in comparison with the existing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masako; Chen, Chong; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    Squat lobsters in the genus Munidopsis are commonly found at, and near, hydrothermal vents. However, the reproductive traits of most Munidopsis spp. are unknown. This study examined the reproductive features of two Munidopsis species sampled from hydrothermal vent fields in the southern Okinawa Trough in February 2014. Three ovigerous females were collected: two Munidopsis ryukyuensis at Irabu Knoll (1661-1675 m depth) and one M. longispinosa at Hatoma Knoll (1482 m depth). Carapace sizes and egg volumes were measured and compared with those of other Munidopsis species. The ovigerous M. ryukyuensis specimens had postorbital carapace lengths of 10.3 and 11.8 mm, without the rostrum, and carapace widths of 8.6 and 9.7 mm. Mean egg volumes of M. ryukyuensis and M. longispinosa were ~4 mm3. These results are consistent with early sexual maturity in M. ryukyuensis and lecithotrophic development in both species, as described in other species of the genus. These life-history traits may enable these vent species to maximize their reproductive and dispersive potential.

  18. The first introduction of reclaimed wastewater to dry-farming field in Okinawa Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, T; Dayanthi, W K C N; Yamashita, N; Tanaka, H; Yamashita, T

    2008-01-01

    Reclaimed wastewater (RWW) will be introduced to the first large-scale irrigation project for dry-farming on Okinawa Island, Japan. The wastewater reclamation for agricultural use sounds attractive to the water resource management. Since there are no specific standards for the RWW irrigation, the monitoring and other demonstrative experiments have been conducted using the experimental reclamation facility, which is based on the criteria "Title22". The experiments showed that the existing system is sufficient to meet the above criteria of pathogens, protozoa and viruses, and the concentrations of hazardous chemicals are lower than the environmental standards in Japan. In addition, several laboratory soil column experiments were conducted to address the environmental issues. An increase of denitrification due to the continuous irrigation was observed. Salt and nitrate accumulation in the surface soil was observed as well. We can conclude that the RWW of the above facility assures the safety for human health, and further research based on environmental issues is needed in addition to an integrated risk assessment and communication. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  19. Geochemical characteristics of hydrothermal sediments from Iheya North Knoll in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qiannan; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Fuqing; Wang, Bing; Luan, Zhendong; Chen, Chang'an; Yan, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Thirty sediment subsamples were recovered from the Iheya North hydrothermal field (with an average of 38 m away from the hydrothermal vent) in the middle Okinawa Trough. Samples were obtained by the ROV (Remote Operated Vehicle) Faxian during the virgin cruise of the R/V Kexue in 2014 with the application of push cores. The chemical compositions of the sediments show that the hydrothermal sediments near the hydrothermal vent are mainly composed of SO3, ZnO and Fe2O3. Moreover, the hydrothermal sediments are also highly enriched in Pb, As, Sb, Hg, Se, Ag, Ba, Mo and Cd comparing with previous analysis results. On the other hand, the concentrations of Sr, Hg and Ag in studied sediments are strongly and positively correlated, these elements can be used as an hydrothermal indicator. In addition, a factor analysis of the sediments suggested that the sediments were mainly influenced by hydrothermal origin, and terrestrial and biogenic input are limited in studied area. It is also suggested that different stages of crystallization were involved in the formation of hydrothermal chimney from factor analysis.

  20. Characteristics of hydrocarbons in sediment core samples from the northern Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Chen, Shuai; Zeng, Zhigang; Pu, Xiaoqiang; Hou, Qinghua

    2017-02-15

    Sediment core samples from the northern Okinawa Trough (OT) were analyzed to determine abundances and distributions of hydrocarbons by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the n-alkanes in this sediment core conform to a bimodal distribution, and exhibit an odd-to-even predominance of high molecular weights compared to an even-to-odd predominance in low molecular weight n-alkanes with maxima at C16 and C18. The concentrations of bitumen, alkanes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were higher in samples S10-07 than all others. Three maturity parameters as well as the ratios between parent phenanthrenes (Ps) and methylphenanthrenes (MPs) in samples S10-07 and S10-17 were higher. The distribution and composition of hydrocarbons in sample S10-07 suggest that one, or several, undetected hydrothermal fields may be present in the region of this sediment core. Results also suggest that volcanism may be the main reason for the observed distribution and composition of hydrocarbons in S10-17 sample.

  1. Gametogenesis and fecundity of Acropora tenella (Brook 1892) in a mesophotic coral ecosystem in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetia, Rian; Sinniger, Frederic; Harii, Saki

    2016-03-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems (below 30-40 m depth) host a large diversity of zooxanthellate coral communities and may play an important role in the ecology and conservation of coral reefs. Investigating the reproductive biology of mesophotic corals is important to understand their life history traits. Despite an increase in research on mesophotic corals in the last decade, their reproductive biology is still poorly understood. Here, gametogenesis and fecundity of the Indo-Pacific mesophotic coral , Acropora tenella, were examined in an upper mesophotic reef (40 m depth) in Okinawa, Japan for the first time. Acropora tenella is a hermaphrodite with a single annual gametogenic cycle, and both oogenesis and spermatogenesis occurring for 11-12 and 5-6 months, respectively. Timing of spawning of this species was similar to other shallow Acropora spp. in the region. However, colonies had longer gametogenic cycles and less synchronous gamete maturation compared to shallow acroporids with spawning extended over consecutive months. Both the polyp fecundity (number of eggs per polyp) and gonad index (defined as the number of eggs per square centimeter) of A. tenella were lower than most acroporids. Our findings contribute to understanding of the life history of corals on mesophotic reefs and suggest that the reproductive biology of upper mesophotic corals is similar to that of shallow-water corals.

  2. Timing of spawning and early development of Palythoa tuberculosa (Anthozoa, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae) in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Mamiko; Obuchi, Masami; Hirose, Euichi; Reimer, James D

    2011-02-01

    The spawning behavior and early embryogenesis of Palythoa tuberculosa (Anthozoa, Zoantharia) were observed in August 2009 off Okinawa Island, Japan. P. tuberculosa released zygotes just after high tide around new moon nights. The mean diameter of zygotes was 365.6 ± s.d.14.8 μm, and zygotes did not contain any symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae). About 2 h after spawning, the first cleavage furrow appeared on one side of the zygotes, although it was uncertain when eggs were fertilized. After second cleavage, the arrangement of blastomeres was pseudospherical. At 9 h after spawning, the embryo became a concave-convex dish shape, then gastrulation occurred and the blastopore was formed. Seven-day old larvae were ellipsoid and about 700 μm long, with an open mouth at one end. Two weeks after spawning, the larvae developed a longitudinal band of long cilia (= ventral ciliate band) that is characteristic of zoanthella larvae. In P. tuberculosa, larvae show a non-radial body plan and then metamorphose to almost-radial (in outward appearance) polyps after settlement. These results may support a hypothesis that a common ancestor of Cnidaria had a bilateral body plan that has been secondarily lost in some extant cnidarians.

  3. Geochemical characteristics of hydrothermal sediments from Iheya North Knoll in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qiannan; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Fuqing; Wang, Bing; Luan, Zhendong; Chen, Chang'an; Yan, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Thirty sediment subsamples were recovered from the Iheya North hydrothermal field (with an average of 38 m away from the hydrothermal vent) in the middle Okinawa Trough. Samples were obtained by the ROV (Remote Operated Vehicle) Faxian during the virgin cruise of the R/V Kexue in 2014 with the application of push cores. The chemical compositions of the sediments show that the hydrothermal sediments near the hydrothermal vent are mainly composed of SO3, ZnO and Fe2O3. Moreover, the hydrothermal sediments are also highly enriched in Pb, As, Sb, Hg, Se, Ag, Ba, Mo and Cd comparing with previous analysis results. On the other hand, the concentrations of Sr, Hg and Ag in studied sediments are strongly and positively correlated, these elements can be used as an hydrothermal indicator. In addition, a factor analysis of the sediments suggested that the sediments were mainly influenced by hydrothermal origin, and terrestrial and biogenic input are limited in studied area. It is also suggested that different stages of crystallization were involved in the formation of hydrothermal chimney from factor analysis.

  4. Determination of Dicarboxylic Acid Concentrations in Surface Microlayer of Dams in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotani, Y.; Taira, N.; Kamizato, C.; Arakaki, T.

    2008-12-01

    The surface microlayer (SML) is a thin layer that forms the boundary between atmosphere and water body. The SML includes fatty acid, protein and other organic compounds. It is the site across which the atmosphere-water system interacts. It also has unique chemical, physical and biological properties, which are very different from those of the underlying water. We determined concentrations of dicarboxylic acids (oxalic, malic, malonic, succinic, adipic, phthalic, fumaric, and maleic acids) in the SML, and compared with those of underlying bulk water. Dicarboxylic acids are the major organic compounds found in atmospheric aerosols, which can be derived from the wind-blown SML. The sampling sites we chose were dams in Okinawa, Japan. The SML was sampled by using a glass plate method. Concentrations of dicarboxylic acids were determined by using a GC-FID after derivatization. The results showed that the dicarboxylic acid concentrations were 2- 17 times higher than those of the underlying water. We have also found that the concentrations of some of the dicarboxylic acids were lower in the afternoon than those in the morning at the same sampling site.

  5. Characterization of fatty acid composition in healthy and bleached corals from Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachok, Zainudin; Mfilinge, Prosper; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2006-11-01

    Under bleaching conditions, corals lose their symbiotic zooxanthellae, and thus, the ability to synthesize fatty acids (FAs) from photosynthetically derived carbon. This study investigated the lipid content and FA composition in healthy and bleached corals from the Odo reef flat in Okinawa, southern Japan, following a bleaching event. It was hypothesized that the FA composition and abundance would change as algae are lost or die, and possibly microbial abundance would increase in corals as a consequence of bleaching. The lipid content and FA composition of three healthy coral species ( Pavona frondifera, Acropora pulchra, and Goniastrea aspera) and of partially bleached and completely bleached colonies of P. frondifera were examined. The FA composition did not differ among healthy corals, but differed significantly among healthy, partially bleached, and completely bleached specimens of P. frondifera. Completely bleached corals contained significantly lower lipid and total FA content, as well as lower relative amounts of polyunsaturated FAs and higher relative amounts of saturated FAs, than healthy and partially bleached corals. Furthermore, there was a significantly higher relative concentration of monounsaturated FAs and odd-numbered branched FAs in completely bleached corals, indicating an increase in bacterial colonization in the bleached corals.

  6. Unique chemistry of the hydrothermal solution in the mid-Okinawa Trough Backarc Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, H.; Gamo, T.; Kim, E.S.; Shitashima, K.; Yanagisawa, F.; Tsutsumi, M.; Ishibashi, J.; Sano, Y.; Wakita, H. ); Tanaka, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Naganuma, T.; Mitsuzawa, K. )

    1990-11-01

    Submarine hydrothermal fluids from JADE and CLAM sites in the mid-Okinawa Trough Backarc Basin are highly enriched in CO{sub 2}, K, Li, NH{sub 4}, CH{sub 4} and titration alkalinity compared to MOR fluids so far studied, while their H{sub 2}S and {sup 3}He contents are similar. The He and C isotropic ratios as well as these chemical features indicate that the hydrothermal systems are controlled by reaction between seawater and CO{sub 2}-rich intermediate to acid volcanic rocks of island-arc type, with strong influence of organic matter and are consistent with its initial stage of rifting on a continental plate margin. While the endmember JADE fluid is nearly devoid of Mg and SO{sub 4}, the CLAM fluid has definite concentrations of Mg (upper limit 22 {plus minus} 5 mM) and, most interestingly of {sup 34}S-enriched SO{sub 4} (upper limit 10 {plus minus} 2 mM, {delta}{sup 34}S = 27 to 39{per thousand}).

  7. Quality assurance of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (EPIC-Soft).

    PubMed

    Crispim, Sandra P; Nicolas, Genevieve; Casagrande, Corinne; Knaze, Viktoria; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Huybrechts, Inge; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-02-01

    The interview-administered 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR) EPIC-Soft® has a series of controls to guarantee the quality of dietary data across countries. These comprise all steps that are part of fieldwork preparation, data collection and data management; however, a complete characterisation of these quality controls is still lacking. The present paper describes in detail the quality controls applied in EPIC-Soft, which are, to a large extent, built on the basis of the EPIC-Soft error model and are present in three phases: (1) before, (2) during and (3) after the 24-HDR interviews. Quality controls for consistency and harmonisation are implemented before the interviews while preparing the seventy databases constituting an EPIC-Soft version (e.g. pre-defined and coded foods and recipes). During the interviews, EPIC-Soft uses a cognitive approach by helping the respondent to recall the dietary intake information in a stepwise manner and includes controls for consistency (e.g. probing questions) as well as for completeness of the collected data (e.g. system calculation for some unknown amounts). After the interviews, a series of controls can be applied by dietitians and data managers to further guarantee data quality. For example, the interview-specific 'note files' that were created to track any problems or missing information during the interviews can be checked to clarify the information initially provided. Overall, the quality controls employed in the EPIC-Soft methodology are not always perceivable, but prove to be of assistance for its overall standardisation and possibly for the accuracy of the collected data.

  8. Respondents' evaluation of the 24-h dietary recall method (EPIC-Soft) in the EFCOVAL Project.

    PubMed

    Huybrechts, I; Geelen, A; de Vries, J H; Casagrande, C; Nicolas, G; De Keyzer, W; Lillegaard, I T; Ruprich, J; Lafay, L; Wilson-van den Hooven, E C; Niekerk, E M; Margaritis, I; Rehurkova, I; Crispim, S P; Freisling, H; De Henauw, S; Slimani, N

    2011-07-01

    To improve participation rate, accuracy and respondents' compliance, it is important to know the respondents' viewpoint. To evaluate respondents' preferences and perception about the EPIC-Soft (the software developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) 24-HDR interviews and to compare these preferences and perception between population groups (for example, between genders). Data were collected in Belgium, Czech Republic, France, the Netherlands and Norway in 2007. Two 24-HDRs (face-to-face and telephone administered) were conducted using EPIC-Soft. An evaluation questionnaire on different study aspects was completed by the respondents. Data were collected in the European Food Consumption Validation Study. A convenience sample of 600 apparently healthy men and women, 45-65 years old and including all educational levels, were recruited (120 subjects per country). Differences among population groups were compared by means of the χ (2)-test. A total of 585 respondents completed the evaluation questionnaire. In all, 88% experienced problems only to a low degree when answering face-to-face and telephone-administered 24-HDR using EPIC-Soft. A total of 15% would have preferred help of another person during the face-to-face interview in the study center (mainly men: P < 0.001). Significantly, more subjects in the Netherlands and in Norway preferred two telephone (instead of face-to-face) interviews compared with the other countries (P<0.001). Most subjects only experienced problems to a low degree during the EPIC-Soft interviews. Differences in preferences and capabilities to answer the EPIC-Soft interviews were identified between population groups (for example, gender differences). Therefore, the methods and the design to be used in a survey should be adapted according to the study population, so as to optimize response rate and compliance.

  9. Improving adherence to the Epic Beacon ambulatory workflow.

    PubMed

    Chackunkal, Ellen; Dhanapal Vogel, Vishnuprabha; Grycki, Meredith; Kostoff, Diana

    2017-06-01

    Computerized physician order entry has been shown to significantly improve chemotherapy safety by reducing the number of prescribing errors. Epic's Beacon Oncology Information System of computerized physician order entry and electronic medication administration was implemented in Henry Ford Health System's ambulatory oncology infusion centers on 9 November 2013. Since that time, compliance to the infusion workflow had not been assessed. The objective of this study was to optimize the current workflow and improve the compliance to this workflow in the ambulatory oncology setting. This study was a retrospective, quasi-experimental study which analyzed the composite workflow compliance rate of patient encounters from 9 to 23 November 2014. Based on this analysis, an intervention was identified and implemented in February 2015 to improve workflow compliance. The primary endpoint was to compare the composite compliance rate to the Beacon workflow before and after a pharmacy-initiated intervention. The intervention, which was education of infusion center staff, was initiated by ambulatory-based, oncology pharmacists and implemented by a multi-disciplinary team of pharmacists and nurses. The composite compliance rate was then reassessed for patient encounters from 2 to 13 March 2015 in order to analyze the effects of the determined intervention on compliance. The initial analysis in November 2014 revealed a composite compliance rate of 38%, and data analysis after the intervention revealed a statistically significant increase in the composite compliance rate to 83% ( p < 0.001). This study supports a pharmacist-initiated educational intervention can improve compliance to an ambulatory, oncology infusion workflow.

  10. Geographical variation in echolocation call and body size of the Okinawan least horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus pumilus (Mammalia: Rhinolophidae), on Okinawa-jima Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Hajime; Matsumura, Sumiko; Kinjo, Kazumitsu; Tamura, Hisao; Ota, Hidetoshi; Izawa, Masako

    2006-08-01

    The Okinawan least horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus pumilus, is a cave-dwelling species endemic to the central and southern Ryukyus, Japan. We analyzed variation in the constant frequency (CF) of the echolocation call and in forearm length (FAL) of this species on Okinawa-jima Island on the basis of data for 479 individuals from 11 caves scattered over the island. CF values in samples from six caves, all located in the southwestern half of Okinawa-jima, were significantly higher than those in samples from five caves in the northeastern half of the island. Also, FAL was significantly greater in the latter group than in the former group, although the ranges of variation in this character substantially overlapped between the two groups. These results suggest substantial differentiation between R. pumilus populations on Okinawa-jima. The implications of our findings for the conservation of this endangered bat species are briefly discussed.

  11. Resolving the Kinetic Reconnection Length Scale in Global Magnetospheric Simulations with MHD-EPIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, G.; Chen, Y.; Cassak, P.; Jordanova, V.; Peng, B.; Markidis, S.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2016-12-01

    We have recently developed a new modeling capability: the Magnetohydrodynamics with Embedded Particle-in-Cell (MHD-EPIC) algorithm with support from Los Alamos SHIELDS and NSF INSPIRE grants. We have implemented MHD-EPIC into the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) using the implicit Particle-in-Cell (iPIC3D) and the BATS-R-US extended magnetohydrodynamic codes. The MHD-EPIC model allows two-way coupled simulations in two and three dimensions with multiple embedded PIC regions. Both BATS-R-US and iPIC3D are massively parallel codes. The MHD-EPIC approach allows global magnetosphere simulations with embedded kinetic simulations. For small magnetospheres, like Ganymede or Mercury, we can easily resolve the ion scales around the reconnection sites. Modeling the Earth magnetosphere is very challenging even with our efficient MHD-EPIC model due to the large separation between the global and ion scales. On the other hand the large separation of scales may be exploited: the solution may not be sensitive to the ion inertial length as long as it is small relative to the global scales. The ion inertial length can be varied by changing the ion mass while keeping the MHD mass density, the velocity, and pressure the same for the initial and boundary conditions. Our two-dimensional MHD-EPIC simulations for the dayside reconnection region show in fact, that the overall solution is not sensitive to ion inertial length. The shape, size and frequency of flux transfer events are very similar for a wide range of ion masses. Our results mean that 3D MHD-EPIC simulations for the Earth and other large magnetospheres can be made computationally affordable by artificially increasing the ion mass: the required grid resolution and time step in the PIC model are proportional to the ion inertial length. Changing the ion mass by a factor of 4, for example, speeds up the PIC code by a factor of 256. In fact, this approach allowed us to perform an hour-long 3D MHD-EPIC simulations for the

  12. Epidemiologic study of influenza infection in Okinawa, Japan, from 2001 to 2007: changing patterns of seasonality and prevalence of amantadine-resistant influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasushi; Taira, Katsuya; Saito, Reiko; Nidaira, Minoru; Okano, Shou; Zaraket, Hassan; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2009-03-01

    To clarify seasonal influenza patterns and the prevalence of amantadine-resistant influenza A viruses in Okinawa, located at the southern extremity of Japan in a subtropical climate, we conducted a laboratory-based study of influenza virus infections from 2001 to 2007. The annual outbreaks tended to show two peaks in Okinawa, in summer and winter, although the main islands of Japan, located in a temperate climate area, showed only winter influenza activity. Epidemic types and subtypes in Okinawa mostly matched those on the main islands of Japan in winter and those in Taiwan in summer. Rates of amantadine resistance dramatically increased, from 7.3% in the November 2002-to-March 2003 season to 90.0% in summer 2005, and a similarly high rate of resistance continued for the rest of the study period. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin gene of A/H3N2 isolates collected from 2002 to 2007 revealed a monophyletic lineage that was divided into four period groups. Each group included amantadine-sensitive and -resistant viruses within independent clusters. In the November 2005-to-March 2006 season, all of the amantadine-resistant viruses were clustered in clade N, with dual (position 193 and 225) amino acid mutations in their HA1 subunits. In 2005, clade N amantadine-resistant viruses existed in Okinawa several months before the circulation of this clade on the main islands of Japan. In conclusion, surveillance in Okinawa to monitor influenza virus circulation is important for elucidating the dynamics of virus transmission in a border area between temperate and subtropical areas, as Okinawa is one of the best sentinel points in Japan.

  13. A new species and new record of deep-sea scale-worms (Polynoidae: Polychaeta) from the Okinawa Trough and the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sui, Jixing; Li, Xinzheng

    2017-03-06

    A new species of scale-worm, Lepidonotopodium okinawae sp. nov. from the Okinawa Trough is described. The new species differs from the other species of Lepidonotopodium by having 24 segments and numerous foveolae on the surface of elytra with one globular micropapilla in every foveola. A new record of the mussel commensal Branchipolynoe pettiboneae Miura & Hashimoto, 1991 is reported and described from the northern South China Sea, where for the first time the scale-worm is noted as occurring at a cold-seep. Keys to distinguish the species of Branchipolynoe and Lepidonotopodium are provided.

  14. Prevalence and clinical features of human papillomavirus in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in Okinawa, southern Japan.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zeyi; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Matayoshi, Sen; Kiyuna, Asanori; Yamashita, Yukashi; Maeda, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Mikio

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies from Okinawa, a subtropical island in southern Japan, demonstrated a higher prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral carcinoma and a higher incidence of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma than those for mainland Japan. The present study aims to investigate epidemiologic and clinical features of HPV in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in Okinawa. A total of 150 DNA samples from 150 Okinawan patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) were screened for HPV sequences by PCR using three consensus primer sets, and HPV types were determined by direct sequencing. The samples were consisted of 46 cases from the hypopharynx, 44 from the oropharynx, 16 from the larynx, 25 from the oral cavity, 10 from the maxillary sinus, and 9 from the nasopharynx. HPV DNA was detected in 45 (30.0%) HNSCCs, and HPV-16 was identified in 86.7% of positive specimens. The highest prevalence of the HPV sequence was found in oropharyngeal carcinomas (50.0%), especially in tonsillar cancer (63.6%). Multivariate analysis showed that oropharyngeal carcinoma (P = 0.002; OR = 5.34; 95% CI = 1.83-15.58), oral cavity carcinoma (P = 0.012; OR = 4.94; 95% CI = 1.43-17.10), and histological poor differentiation (P = 0.011; OR = 4.25; 95% CI = 1.39-13.04) each independently increased the prevalence of HPV infection. The present study reveals that patients with HNSCC, e.g., oropharyngeal and oral cavity carcinomas, in Okinawa have relatively high HPV-16 positive rates and low HPV-18 positive rates comparing with mainland Japan.

  15. Geochemical features of trace and rare earth elements of pumice in middle Okinawa Trough and its indication of magmatic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Shikui; Guo, Kun; Zong, Tong; Yu, Zenghui; Wang, Shujie; Cai, Zongwei; Zhang, Xia

    2017-04-01

    Pumice, the most widely distributed volcanic rock in Okinawa Trough, is loose and porous. Since its formation, it has definitely suffered from the denudation of the sea to different degrees. In order to truly reveal the geochemical features of pumice, we choose the method of mineral separation. Firstly, the phenocryst is separated from glass. Then the phenocryst is divided into light and heavy mineral compositions. By ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) analytical technology, the contents of trace and rare earth elements in the whole pumice, the glass and the heavy and light mineral compositions are determined respectively. By researching the elemental geochemical features, the magma dynamic processes are found. It shows that the initial magma for the pumice in Okinawa Trough came from the depleted mantle, from which the N-MORB (normal type of mid-ocean ridge basalt) is formed, homologous with the local basalts. But they are formed in different periods of magma crystal fractionation. Featured with sufficient crystal fractionation for pumice, it is found that the earlier crystallizing minerals are olivine, plagioclase and pyroxene. The pumice magma, formed from the depleted mantle, was mixed with additional subduction-related materials (components), and contaminated with the mass from upper crust when it rose up into the crust. As the Okinawa Trough is a back-arc basin in its early back-arc spreading stage, its magmatism has a series of its own unique characteristics, different from not only the mid-ocean ridge expansion, but also the mature back-arc basin.

  16. On the prevalence of Asiatic cholera in Okinawa, 1879 and "Ryukyu-kiko" Written by Hironobu Tsuchiya.

    PubMed

    Fukase, Y

    1999-09-01

    The greatest prevalence of Asiatic cholera since the adoption of modern statistics was in 1879. Especially in Okinawa Prefecture, its morbidity rate was the largest in Japan in that year. Dr. Hironobu Tsuchiya, who was appointed as an official of the Department of Inner Affairs, wrote "Ryukyu-kiko" as a private memorandum. He wrote more about the situation of administrative confusion than he did about the condition of Asiatic cholera. This paper also mentions the brief sketch of Tsuchiya's life and the description of the manufacturing methods, effectiveness and use of chemical drugs which are contained in his "Sinyaku-shoko".

  17. EPIC- and CHANCE-HSQC: Two 15N Photo-CIDNP-Enhanced Pulse Sequences for the Sensitive Detection of Solvent-Exposed Tryptophan

    PubMed Central

    Sekhar, Ashok; Cavagnero, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) of nuclei other than 1H offers a tremendous potential for sensitivity enhancement in liquid state NMR under mild, physiologically relevant conditions. Photo-CIDNP enhancements of 15N magnetization are much larger than those typically observed for 1H. However, the low gyromagnetic ratio of 15N prevents a full fruition of the potential signal-to-noise gains attainable via 15N photo-CIDNP. Here, we propose two novel pulse sequences, EPIC- and CHANCE-HSQC, tailored to overcome the above limitation. EPIC-HSQC exploits the strong 1H polarization and its subsequent transfer to non-equilibrium Nz magnetization prior to 15N photo-CIDNP laser irradiation. CHANCE-HSQC synergistically combines 1H and 15N photo-CIDNP. The above pulse sequences, tested on tryptophan (Trp) and the Trp-containing protein apoHmpH, were found to display up to two-fold higher sensitivity than the reference NPE-SE-HSQC pulse train (based on simple 15N photo-CIDNP followed by N-H polarization transfer), and up to a ca. 3-fold increase in sensitivity over the corresponding dark pulse schemes (lacking laser irradiation). The observed effects are consistent with the predictions from a theoretical model of photo-CIDNP and prove the potential of 15N and 1H photo-CIDNP in liquid state heteronuclear correlation NMR. PMID:19643649

  18. Seasonal variations of biogenic secondary organic aerosol tracers in Cape Hedo, Okinawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Fu, Pingqing

    2016-04-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) substantially contributes to particulate organic matter affecting the regional and global air quality and the climate. Total suspended particle (TSP) samples were collected in October 2009 to February 2012 on a weekly basis at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, Japan in the western North Pacific Rim, an outflow region of Asian aerosols and precursors. The TSP samples were analyzed for SOA tracers derived from biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Total isoprene-SOA tracers showed a maximum in summer (2.12 ± 2.02 ng m-3) and minimum in winter (1.16 ± 0.92 ng m-3). This seasonality is mainly controlled by isoprene emission from the local subtropical forest, followed by regional scale emission of isoprene from the surrounding seas and long-range transported air masses. Total monoterpene-SOA tracers peaked in March (3.38 ± 2.03 ng m-3) followed by October (2.95 ± 1.62 ng m-3). In contrast, sesquiterpene-SOA tracer, β-caryophyllinic acid, showed winter maximum (1.63 ± 1.18 ng m-3) and summer minimum (0.20 ± 0.46 ng m-3). The variations of the monoterpene- and sesquiterpene-SOA tracers are likely related to the continental outflow of oxidation products of BVOC. Using a tracer-based method, we estimated the total biogenic SOC of 0.25-157 ng m-3 (mean 35.8 ng m-3) that accounts for 0.01-9.8% (mean 2.7%) of aerosol organic carbon. Our study suggests that SOA formation in the western North Pacific Rim is involved with not only local but also regional emissions followed by long-range atmospheric transport.

  19. Use of microbial analysis to evaluate denitrification in the karstic aquifer of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasumoto, J.

    2014-12-01

    Denitrification, a microbial process in the nitrogen cycle, is a facultative respiratory pathway in which nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide (N2O), successively, are reduced to nitrogen gas (N2). This study explores the use of microbial analysis to evaluate the processes involved in nitrate attenuation in groundwater. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is used to identify denitrifiers based only on their 16SrRNA gene sequences, and Real-Time PCR analysis is used to quantify nitrite reducing genes (nirK and nirS), this suggest that a new methods for detecting denitrification activity by comparing the gene dosage that has been detected by RT-PCR and the value of the δ15NNO3- and δ18ONO3-. This study focuses on a zone of significant NO3- attenuation occurring at underground dam catchment area in the karstic Ryukyu limestone aquifer, which is located southern part of Okinawa, Japan. As a result of microbial analysis, the bacteria were detected at all observation points which have been reported to have denitrification ability. And it has been confirmed that the bacteria has a gene nirS which is related to denitrification. In addition, many bacteria related to denitrification have been extracted from suspended solids more than from groundwater in the aquifer. And, the correlation was high between nirK /nirS gene dosage that has been detected by RT-PCR and the value of the δ15N and δ18O; therefore, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of using Real-Time PCR analysis for providing insights into the processes affecting nitrate attenuation in ground water.

  20. Experimental study on hydrothermal alteration of dacite collected from the Hatoma knoll, Okinawa Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Y.; Shibuya, T.; Yoshizaki, M.; Nozaki, T.; Suzuki, K.; Takai, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a back-arc basin located between the southern part of Japan offshore and Taiwan North. Hemipelagic sediments supplied from the continents covered at the bottom of the trough. Vigorous hydrothermal activity exists with rifting. The Hatoma Knoll (the depth 1500 m) is one of the active hydrothermal fields located in the southern part of the trough. The measured highest temperature of the vent fluid was 301 °C. The rocks were sampled by manned research submersible ship "Shinkai 2000" in 2000. During the dive program, 25 hydrothermal fluid samples were collected and their chemical compositions were analyzed (Nakano et al., 2001). As a result, it was revealed that the compositions of the hydrothermal vent fluids are strongly influenced by the dacitic rock presumably in a reaction zone. In this presentation, we will show the results of experimental study on hydrothermal alteration dacite sample collected from the Hatoma Knoll. The sample was obtained near the hydrothermal area with ROV "Hyper-Dolphin" during the NT11-20 cruise in 2011. The experiment simulating water/rock reaction was conducted at 300 °C and 325 bars for more than 2,200 hours using the dacite sample and synthetic seawater. The reaction cell is made of a gold tube with a titanium head, which is pressurized in an autoclave. The chemical components of reacted fluid and altered dacite were measured with pH meter, ion chromatograph, ICP-AES, gas chromatograph, and XRD. We also observed thin section of the samples before and after the experiment under microscope. The major element concentrations of the reacted fluid were comparable with those of the natural hydrothermal fluids in the Hatoma Knoll in an order of magnitude except for Mn. As a result of XRD analysis, there was no significant difference in mineral assemblage between the starting material and the experimental product.

  1. Vibrio ishigakensis sp. nov., in Halioticoli clade isolated from seawater in Okinawa coral reef area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Al-Saari, Nurhidayu; Rohul Amin, A K M; Sato, Kazumichi; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hargreaves, Paulo Iiboshi; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

    2016-07-01

    Five novel strains showing non-motile, alginolytic, halophilic and fermentative features were isolated from seawater samples off Okinawa in coral reef areas. These strains were characterized by an advanced polyphasic taxonomy including genome based taxonomy using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and in silico DNA-DNA similarity (in silico DDH). Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates could be assigned to the genus Vibrio, however they were not allocated into any distinct cluster with known Vibrionaceae species. MLSA based on eight protein-coding genes (gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA) showed the vibrios formed an outskirt branch of Halioticoli clade. The experimental DNA-DNA hybridization data revealed that the five strains were in the range of being defined as conspecific but separate from nine Halioticoli clade species. The G+C contents of the Vibrio ishigakensis strains were 47.3-49.1mol%. Both Amino Acid Identity and Average Nucleotide Identity of the strain C1(T) against Vibrio ezurae HDS1-1(T), Vibrio gallicus HT2-1(T), Vibrio halioticoli IAM 14596(T), Vibrio neonatus HDD3-1(T) and Vibrio superstes G3-29(T) showed less than 95% similarity. The genome-based taxonomic approach by means of in silico DDH values also supports the V. ishigakensis strains being distinct from the other known Halioticoli clade species. Sixteen traits (growth temperature range, DNase and lipase production, indole production, and assimilation of 10 carbon compounds) distinguished these strains from Halioticoli clade species. The names V. ishigakensis sp. nov. is proposed for the species of Halioticoli clade, with C1(T) as the type strain (JCM 19231(T)=LMG 28703(T)).

  2. PCR survey of 50 introns in animals: cross-amplification of homologous EPIC loci in eight non-bilaterian, protostome and deuterostome phyla.

    PubMed

    Gérard, K; Guilloton, E; Arnaud-Haond, S; Aurelle, D; Bastrop, R; Chevaldonné, P; Derycke, S; Hanel, R; Lapègue, S; Lejeusne, C; Mousset, S; Ramšak, A; Remerie, T; Viard, F; Féral, J-P; Chenuil, A

    2013-12-01

    Exon Primed Intron Crossing (EPIC) markers provide molecular tools that are susceptible to be variable within species while remaining amplifiable by PCR using potentially universal primers. In this study we tested the possibility of obtaining PCR products from 50 EPIC markers on 23 species belonging to seven different phyla (Porifera, Cnidaria, Arthropoda, Nematoda, Mollusca, Annelida, Echinodermata) using 70 new primer pairs. A previous study had identified and tested those loci in a dozen species, including another phylum, Urochordata (Chenuil et al., 2010). Results were contrasted among species. The best results were achieved with the oyster (Mollusca) where 28 loci provided amplicons susceptible to contain an intron according to their size. This was however not the case with the other mollusk Crepidula fornicata, which seems to have undergone a reduction in intron number or intron size. In the Porifera, 13 loci appeared susceptible to contain an intron, a surprisingly high number for this phylum considering its phylogenetic distance with genomic data used to design the primers. For two cnidarian species, numerous loci (24) were obtained. Ecdysozoan phyla (arthropods and nematodes) proved less successful than others as expected considering reports of their rapid rate of genome evolution and the worst results were obtained for several arthropods. Some general patterns among phyla arose, and we discuss how the results of this EPIC survey may give new insights into genome evolution of the study species. This work confirms that this set of EPIC loci provides an easy-to-use toolbox to identify genetic markers potentially useful for population genetics, phylogeography or phylogenetic studies for a large panel of metazoan species. We then argue that obtaining diploid sequence genotypes for these loci became simple and affordable owing to Next-Generation Sequencing development. Species surveyed in this study belong to several genera (Acanthaster, Alvinocaris, Aplysina

  3. DIGITAL IMAGE ANALYSIS REPORTS: THE CONVERSION OF EPIC'S TRADITIONAL SITE CHARACTERIZATION PRODUCT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past several years EPIC has been exploring the practicality and cost-effectiveness of providing its traditional hard-copy report product in digital form. This conversion has a number of practical uses including- 1) compatibility for use as data layers in a GIS; 2) transp...

  4. Serial Interface through Stream Protocol on EPICS Platform for Distributed Control and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Gupta, Arnab; Srivastava, Amit K.; Sunil, S.; Khan, Ziauddin

    2017-04-01

    Remote operation of any equipment or device is implemented in distributed systems in order to control and proper monitoring of process values. For such remote operations, Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is used as one of the important software tool for control and monitoring of a wide range of scientific parameters. A hardware interface is developed for implementation of EPICS software so that different equipment such as data converters, power supplies, pump controllers etc. could be remotely operated through stream protocol. EPICS base was setup on windows as well as Linux operating system for control and monitoring while EPICS modules such as asyn and stream device were used to interface the equipment with standard RS-232/RS-485 protocol. Stream Device protocol communicates with the serial line with an interface to asyn drivers. Graphical user interface and alarm handling were implemented with Motif Editor and Display Manager (MEDM) and Alarm Handler (ALH) command line channel access utility tools. This paper will describe the developed application which was tested with different equipment and devices serially interfaced to the PCs on a distributed network.

  5. Integrating the Epic Model with spatially defined land use, soil, weather and tillage data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Land-use and soil management (including tillage and crop rotations) affect soil organic carbon (SOC) balance and can be significant for the improvement of soil quality and productivity, and greenhouse gas emissions. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was used to study the long ...

  6. Modeling Soil Organic Carbon in a Semiarid Region of Kazakhstan Using EPIC

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inappropriate land use and soil mismanagement produced wide-scale soil and environmental degradation to the short-grass steppe ecosystem in the semiarid region of Kazakhstan. We used the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model to study long-term impacts of land use changes and soil mana...

  7. Reliability and Validity of the Evidence-Based Practice Confidence (EPIC) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salbach, Nancy M.; Jaglal, Susan B.; Williams, Jack I.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The reliability, minimal detectable change (MDC), and construct validity of the evidence-based practice confidence (EPIC) scale were evaluated among physical therapists (PTs) in clinical practice. Methods: A longitudinal mail survey was conducted. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were estimated using Cronbach's alpha…

  8. The True Lion King of Africa: The Epic History of Sundiata, King of Old Mali.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterno, Domenica R.

    David Wisniewski's 1992 picture book version of the African epic of "Sundiata, Lion King of Mali" and the actual historical account of the 13th century Lion King, Sundiata, are both badly served by Disney's "The Lion King." Disney has been praised for using African animals as story characters; for using the African landscape as…

  9. Theological presuppositions of the evolutionary epic: From Robert Chambers to E. O. Wilson.

    PubMed

    Megill, Allan

    2016-08-01

    We can trace the "evolutionary epic" (named by E. O. Wilson, 1978) back to earlier writers, beginning with Robert Chambers (1844). Its basic elements are: fixation on seeing human history as rooted in biology; an aspiration toward telling the whole history of humankind (in its essential features); and insistence on the overall coherence of the projected narrative. The claim to coherence depends on assuming either that the universe possesses an "embedded rationality," or that it is guided by divine purpose. This article proposes the term "idealism" to refer to these two assumptions taken together, for in practice they were closely linked. Nietzsche (1881) was perhaps the first thinker to point out the evolutionary epic's dependence on such an idealism, and he also pointed out that the assumptions of embedded rationality and of divine purpose are closely connected. Darwin's theory of descent with modification (1859) was sharply inconsistent with these assumptions: he was not an "idealist" in the sense indicated here, and not a proponent of the evolutionary epic. Proclaiming his "materialism," Wilson (1978) failed to acknowledge that the epic depends on idealist assumptions; other adherents of the genre (M. Dowd, L. Rue) resurrect (knowingly or not) its theological roots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Structure and Scheme for the Evaluation of Innovative Programs. The EPIC Brief, Issue No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Objective evaluation of school programs is a process in which a school staff collects information used to provide feedback as to whether or not a given set of objectives has been met. The Evaluative Programs for Innovativ e Curriculums (EPIC) four-step scheme of objective evaluation is based on a three-dimensional structure of variables…

  11. Estimating plant available water for general crop simulations in ALMANAC/APEX/EPIC/SWAT

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Process-based simulation models ALMANAC/APEX/EPIC/SWAT contain generalized plant growth subroutines to predict biomass and crop yield. Environmental constraints typically restrict plant growth and yield. Water stress is often an important limiting factor; it is calculated as the sum of water use f...

  12. [Comment on barren lands: An epic search for diamonds in the North American Arctic Klondike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, David P.

    In the book review of Barren Lands: An Epic Search for Diamonds in the North American Arctic (Eos, 13 May 2003), one sentence caught my eye:“the man who triggered a mining stampede not seen since the Klondike Gold Rush of 1849.”

  13. The Epic Narrative of Intellectual Culture as a Framework for Curricular Coherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Robert N.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a proposed middle school curriculum designed to coordinate the major subject areas around a single coherent story line and tell the epic tale of the development of formal intellectual culture from its distant origins to the present day. Ourstory explores the history of scientific culture from the perspective of foundational disciplines…

  14. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anindya; Bhole, R B; Nandy, Partha P; Yadav, R C; Pal, Sarbajit; Roy, Amitava

    2015-03-01

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A set of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system.

  15. DIGITAL IMAGE ANALYSIS REPORTS: THE CONVERSION OF EPIC'S TRADITIONAL SITE CHARACTERIZATION PRODUCT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past several years EPIC has been exploring the practicality and cost-effectiveness of providing its traditional hard-copy report product in digital form. This conversion has a number of practical uses including- 1) compatibility for use as data layers in a GIS; 2) transp...

  16. Preprocessing, normalization and integration of the Illumina HumanMethylationEPIC array with minfi.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Jean-Philippe; Triche, Timothy J; Hansen, Kasper D

    2017-02-15

    The minfi package is widely used for analyzing Illumina DNA methylation array data. Here we describe modifications to the minfi package required to support the HumanMethylationEPIC ('EPIC') array from Illumina. We discuss methods for the joint analysis and normalization of data from the HumanMethylation450 ('450k') and EPIC platforms. We introduce the single-sample Noob ( ssNoob ) method, a normalization procedure suitable for incremental preprocessing of individual methylation arrays and conclude that this method should be used when integrating data from multiple generations of Infinium methylation arrays. We show how to use reference 450k datasets to estimate cell type composition of samples on EPIC arrays. The cumulative effect of these updates is to ensure that minfi provides the tools to best integrate existing and forthcoming Illumina methylation array data. The minfi package version 1.19.12 or higher is available for all platforms from the Bioconductor project. khansen@jhsph.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  17. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Anindya; Bhole, R. B.; Nandy, Partha P.; Yadav, R. C.; Pal, Sarbajit; Roy, Amitava

    2015-03-01

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A set of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system.

  18. Warrior Mothers as Heroines and Other Healing Imagery in the Finnish National Epic of "Kalevala."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiltunen, Sirkku M. Sky

    2001-01-01

    Examines mother imagery from the Finnish mythological epic "Kalevala," and describes how they offer healing imagery for understanding and acceptance of one's own mother and subsequently one's self. Offers background to the "Kalevala" itself, its language and to warriors, shamans, and sages in general. Examines seven mother…

  19. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Anindya Bhole, R. B.; Nandy, Partha P.; Yadav, R. C.; Pal, Sarbajit; Roy, Amitava

    2015-03-15

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A set of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system.

  20. Measuring School and Teacher Effectiveness in EPIC Charter School Consortium--Year 2. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potamites, Liz; Booker, Kevin; Chaplin, Duncan; Isenberg, Eric

    2009-01-01

    New Leaders for New Schools, a nonprofit organization committed to training school principals, heads the Effective Practices Incentive Community (EPIC), an initiative that offers financial awards to effective educators. Through this initiative, New Leaders offers financial awards to educators in two urban school districts and a consortium of…

  1. Educational level and risk of colorectal cancer in EPIC with specific reference to tumor location.

    PubMed

    Leufkens, Anke M; Van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Siersema, Peter D; Kunst, Anton E; Mouw, Traci; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Morois, Sophie; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Polidoro, Silvia; Palli, Domenico; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Pischon, Tobias; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Orfanos, Philippos; Goufa, Ioulia; Peeters, Petra H M; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Rodríguez, Laudina; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Sánchez-Pérez, Maria-José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Zackrisson, Sophia; Almquist, Martin; Hallmans, Goran; Palmqvist, Richard; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Gallo, Valentina; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2012-02-01

    Existing evidence is inconclusive on whether socioeconomic status (SES) and educational inequalities influence colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, and whether low or high SES/educational level is associated with developing CRC. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between educational level and CRC. We studied data from 400,510 participants in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study, of whom 2,447 developed CRC (colon: 1,551, rectum: 896, mean follow-up 8.3 years). Cox proportional hazard regression analysis stratified by age, gender and center, and adjusted for potential confounders were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Relative indices of inequality (RII) for education were estimated using Cox regression models. We conducted separate analyses for tumor location, gender and geographical region. Compared with participants with college/university education, participants with vocational secondary education or less had a nonsignificantly lower risk of developing CRC. When further stratified for tumor location, adjusted risk estimates for the proximal colon were statistically significant for primary education or less (HR 0.73, 95%CI 0.57-0.94) and for vocational secondary education (HR 0.76, 95%CI 0.58-0.98). The inverse association between low education and CRC risk was particularly found in women and Southern Europe. These associations were statistically significant for CRC, for colon cancer and for proximal colon cancer. In conclusion, CRC risk, especially in the proximal colon, is lower in subjects with a lower educational level compared to those with a higher educational level. This association is most pronounced in women and Southern Europe. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  2. Biomarkers of folate and vitamin B12 and breast cancer risk: report from the EPIC cohort.

    PubMed

    Matejcic, M; de Batlle, J; Ricci, C; Biessy, C; Perrier, F; Huybrechts, I; Weiderpass, E; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Cadeau, C; His, M; Cox, D G; Boeing, H; Fortner, R T; Kaaks, R; Lagiou, P; Trichopoulou, A; Benetou, V; Tumino, R; Panico, S; Sieri, S; Palli, D; Ricceri, F; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Skeie, G; Amiano, P; Sánchez, M J; Chirlaque, M D; Barricarte, A; Quirós, J R; Buckland, G; van Gils, C H; Peeters, P H; Key, T J; Riboli, E; Gylling, B; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A; Gunter, M J; Romieu, I; Chajès, V

    2017-03-15

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent findings for the association between B vitamins and breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated the relationship between biomarkers of folate and vitamin B12 and the risk of BC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 were determined in 2,491 BC cases individually matched to 2,521 controls among women who provided baseline blood samples. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios by quartiles of either plasma B vitamin. Subgroup analyses by menopausal status, hormone receptor status of breast tumors (estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor [PR] and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2]), alcohol intake and MTHFR polymorphisms (677C > T and 1298A > C) were also performed. Plasma levels of folate and vitamin B12 were not significantly associated with the overall risk of BC or by hormone receptor status. A marginally positive association was found between vitamin B12 status and BC risk in women consuming above the median level of alcohol (ORQ4-Q1  = 1.26; 95% CI 1.00-1.58; Ptrend  = 0.05). Vitamin B12 status was also positively associated with BC risk in women with plasma folate levels below the median value (ORQ4-Q1  = 1.29; 95% CI 1.02-1.62; Ptrend  = 0.03). Overall, folate and vitamin B12 status was not clearly associated with BC risk in this prospective cohort study. However, potential interactions between vitamin B12 and alcohol or folate on the risk of BC deserve further investigation.

  3. Glaucoma and intraocular pressure in EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study: cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Michelle P Y; Broadway, David C; Khawaja, Anthony P; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Garway-Heath, David F; Burr, Jennifer M; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To report the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) by age and sex and the prevalence of glaucoma. Design Community based cross sectional observational study. Setting EPIC-Norfolk cohort in Norwich and the surrounding rural and urban areas. Participants 8623 participants aged 48-92 recruited from the community who underwent ocular examination to identify glaucoma. Main outcome measures Prevalence and characteristics of glaucoma, distribution of IOP, and the sensitivity and specificity of IOP for case finding for glaucoma. Results The mean IOP in 8401 participants was 16.3 mm Hg (95% confidence interval 16.2 mm Hg to 16.3 mm Hg; SD 3.6 mm Hg). In 363 participants (4%), glaucoma was present in either eye; 314 (87%) had primary open angle glaucoma. In the remaining participants, glaucoma was suspected in 607 (7%), and 863 (10.0%) had ocular hypertension. Two thirds (242) of those with glaucoma had previously already received the diagnosis. In 76% of patients with newly diagnosed primary open angle glaucoma (83/107), the mean IOP was under the threshold for ocular hypertension (21 mm Hg). No one IOP threshold provided adequately high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of glaucoma. Conclusions In this British community, cases of glaucoma, suspected glaucoma, and ocular hypertension represent a large number of potential referrals to the hospital eye service. The use of IOP for detection of those with glaucoma is inaccurate and probably not viable. PMID:28903935

  4. Glaucoma and intraocular pressure in EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study: cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Michelle P Y; Broadway, David C; Khawaja, Anthony P; Yip, Jennifer L Y; Garway-Heath, David F; Burr, Jennifer M; Luben, Robert; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2017-09-13

    Objectives To report the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) by age and sex and the prevalence of glaucoma.Design Community based cross sectional observational study.Setting EPIC-Norfolk cohort in Norwich and the surrounding rural and urban areas.Participants 8623 participants aged 48-92 recruited from the community who underwent ocular examination to identify glaucoma.Main outcome measures Prevalence and characteristics of glaucoma, distribution of IOP, and the sensitivity and specificity of IOP for case finding for glaucoma.Results The mean IOP in 8401 participants was 16.3 mm Hg (95% confidence interval 16.2 mm Hg to 16.3 mm Hg; SD 3.6 mm Hg). In 363 participants (4%), glaucoma was present in either eye; 314 (87%) had primary open angle glaucoma. In the remaining participants, glaucoma was suspected in 607 (7%), and 863 (10.0%) had ocular hypertension. Two thirds (242) of those with glaucoma had previously already received the diagnosis. In 76% of patients with newly diagnosed primary open angle glaucoma (83/107), the mean IOP was under the threshold for ocular hypertension (21 mm Hg). No one IOP threshold provided adequately high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of glaucoma.Conclusions In this British community, cases of glaucoma, suspected glaucoma, and ocular hypertension represent a large number of potential referrals to the hospital eye service. The use of IOP for detection of those with glaucoma is inaccurate and probably not viable. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. A calibration procedure to improve global rice yield simulations with EPIC

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Wei; Balkovic, Juraj; van der Velde, M.; Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Skalsky, Rastislav; Lin, Erda; Mueller, Nathan; Obersteiner, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Crop models are increasingly used to assess impacts of climate change/variability and management practices on productivity and environmental performance of alternative cropping systems. Calibration is an important procedure to improve reliability of model simulations, especially for large area applications. However, global-scale crop model calibration has rarely been exercised due to limited data availability and expensive computing cost. Here we present a simple approach to calibrate Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model for a global implementation of rice. We identify four parameters (potential heat unit – PHU, planting density – PD, harvest index – HI, and biomass energy ratio – BER) and calibrate them regionally to capture the spatial pattern of reported rice yield in 2000. Model performance is assessed by comparing simulated outputs with independent FAO national data. The comparison demonstrates that the global calibration scheme performs satisfactorily in reproducing the spatial pattern of rice yield, particularly in main rice production areas. Spatial agreement increases substantially when more parameters are selected and calibrated, but with varying efficiencies. Among the parameters, PHU and HI exhibit the highest efficiencies in increasing the spatial agreement. Simulations with different calibration strategies generate a pronounced discrepancy of 5–35% in mean yields across latitude bands, and a small to moderate difference in estimated yield variability and yield changing trend for the period of 1981–2000. Present calibration has little effects in improving simulated yield variability and trends at both regional and global levels, suggesting further works are needed to reproduce temporal variability of reported yields. This study highlights the importance of crop models’ calibration, and presents the possibility of a transparent and consistent up scaling approach for global crop simulations given current availability of

  6. Experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS) input/output controller (IOC) application developer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Kraimer, M.R.

    1994-05-01

    This document describes the core software that resides in an Input/Output Controller (IOC), one of the major components of EPICS. The plan of the book is: EPICS overview, IOC test facilities, general purpose features, database locking - scanning - and processing, static database access, runtime database access, database scanning, record and device support, device support library, IOC database configuration, IOC initialization, and database structures. Other than the first chapter this document describes only core IOC software. Thus it does not describe other EPICS tools such as the sequencer. It also does not describe Channel Access, a major IOC component.

  7. Nutrient patterns and their food sources in an International Study Setting: report from the EPIC study.

    PubMed

    Moskal, Aurelie; Pisa, Pedro T; Ferrari, Pietro; Byrnes, Graham; Freisling, Heinz; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Nailler, Laura; Wendt, Andrea; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Dahm, Christina C; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Quirós, Jose R; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta Castaño, José M; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lentjes, Marleen A; Key, Timothy J; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Beulens, Joline W J; Ericson, Ulrika; Drake, Isabel; Nilsson, Lena M; Winkvist, Anna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Hjartåker, Anette; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses. We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR) data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N = 477,312). Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N = 34,436) provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC) 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores. The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs in term of food sources. These outcomes open research opportunities and

  8. Nutrient Patterns and Their Food Sources in an International Study Setting: Report from the EPIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Moskal, Aurelie; Pisa, Pedro T.; Ferrari, Pietro; Byrnes, Graham; Freisling, Heinz; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Nailler, Laura; Wendt, Andrea; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Dahm, Christina C.; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Quirós, Jose R.; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta Castaño, José M.; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lentjes, Marleen A.; Key, Timothy J.; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ocké, Marga C.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Ericson, Ulrika; Drake, Isabel; Nilsson, Lena M.; Winkvist, Anna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Hjartåker, Anette; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Background Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR) data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N = 477,312). Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N = 34,436) provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC) 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores. Conclusion/Significance The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs

  9. Organic tracers of primary biological aerosol particles at subtropical Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kunwar, Bhagawati

    2015-06-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) play an important role in affecting atmospheric physical and chemical properties. Aerosol samples were collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa Island, Japan, from October 2009 to February 2012 and analyzed for five primary saccharides and four sugar alcohols as PBAP tracers. We detected high levels of sucrose in spring when blossoming of plants happens and prolifically emits pollen to the air. Concentrations of glucose, fructose, and trehalose showed levels higher than the other saccharides in spring in 2010. In comparison, primary saccharide levels were mutually comparable in spring, summer, and autumn in 2011, indicating the interannual variability of their local production in subtropical forests, which is driven by local temperature and radiation. High trehalose events were found to be associated with Asian dust outflows, indicating that Asian dust also contributes to PBAPs at Okinawa. Sugar alcohols peaked in summer and correlated with local precipitation and temperature, indicating high microbial activities. Positive matrix factorization analysis confirmed that the PBAPs are mainly derived from local vegetation, pollen, and fungal spores. A higher contribution of PBAP tracers to water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was found in summer (14.9%). The annual mean ambient loadings of fungal spores and PBAPs were estimated as 0.49 µg m-3 and 4.12 µg m-3, respectively, using the tracer method. We report, for the first time, year-round biomarkers of PBAP and soil dust and their contributions to WSOC in the subtropical outflow region of the Asian continent.

  10. Intense winter cooling of the surface water in the northern Okinawa Trough during the last glacial period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masanobu; Kishizaki, Midori; Oba, Tadamichi; Kawahata, Hodaka

    2013-06-01

    We generated a 42,000-year record of TEX86 (TEX86L and TEX86H) from core MD98-2195 to better understand changes in the hydrology of the East China Sea (ECS) in the last glacial period. The TEX86-derived temperature showed an intense cooling in the last glacial period, whereas U37K-derived spring sea surface temperature (SST) and foraminiferal Mg/Ca-derived summer SST showed a much smaller-scale cooling. The difference between the TEX86- and Mg/Ca-derived temperatures was around 14 °C from 19 to 16 ka and abruptly decreased to around 5 °C from 16 to 13 ka. This suggests a strong winter cooling of the surface water during the last glacial period. TEX86-, U37K'-, and Mg/Ca-derived temperatures were lowest at 18-17 ka, implying that the formation of cold water was maximized during that period. These results show that the cold water mass developed in the northern Okinawa Trough during the last glacial and the Kuroshio branch did not fully enter the northern margin of the Okinawa Trough.

  11. Proposal for Japanese encephalitis surveillance using captured invasive mongooses under an eradication project on Okinawa Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mika; Nakata, Katsushi; Nishijima, Taku; Yamashita, Katsuhiro; Saito, Anna; Ogura, Go

    2009-06-01

    A project to eradicate invasive small Asian mongooses (Herpestes javanicus) is underway to conserve the unique ecosystem of Okinawa Island, Japan. In the present study, we tried to elucidate whether the mongoose is a host of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and to evaluate the reliability of surveillance of Japanese encephalitis (JE) using this species. Culex tritaeniorhynchus, the main vector mosquito of JEV, feeds on the mongoose. Eighty-five (35.4%) of 240 wild small Asian mongooses captured between 2001 and 2005 had neutralizing antibodies against more than one of four JEV strains. Prevalence rates of JEV antibodies tended to increase with body weight and length of the animals. One of three sentinel mongooses showed a temporal change in antibody titer. These results indicate that the small Asian mongooses on Okinawa Island are sensitive to JEV. From the antibody titers and the locations of capture, the JEV active area was clarified. We propose that surveillance of JE using mongooses captured under the eradication program is reliable.

  12. Trends in the prevalence of cerebral palsy in children born between 1988 and 2007 in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Touyama, Mayumi; Touyama, Jun; Toyokawa, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to describe trends in CP prevalence among children born between 1988 and 2007 in Okinawa, Japan. This study was conducted during two time periods, Period I (from 1988 to 1997) and Period II (from 1998 to 2007), using data from the local CP registration system. We assessed cerebral palsy gestational age and birth weight specific trends in prevalence and analyzed these with Poisson regression analysis. Overall crude CP prevalence was 1.88 per 1000 live births. Approximately 70% of children with CP were born preterm or with low birth weight (LBW). Overall CP prevalence increased in Period I and decreased significantly in Period II (P<0.05). Additionally, CP prevalence among children born with a birth weight between 1000 and 1999g increased in Period I and decreased significantly in Period II (P<0.05). A significant decrease was found among the children born between 1995 and 2007 with a gestational age between 28 and 31weeks (P<0.01). There was a decrease in CP prevalence from 1998 to 2007, especially among LBW children and preterm infants. The high CP proportions among LBW and preterm infants are unique features of the population of Okinawa, Japan. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Water quality comparison of secondary effluent and reclaimed water to ambient river water of southern Okinawa Island via biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mano, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Fumihiko; Kitamura, Tomokazu; Okamoto, Seiichiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Park, Chang-Beom; Yasui, Nobuhito; Kobayashi, Kentarou; Tanaka, Yuji; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Minamiyama, Mizuhiko

    2017-08-08

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological effect of the secondary effluent (SE) of a wastewater treatment plant and reclaimed water treated via ultrafiltration (UF) followed by either reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filtration or nanofiltration (NF) to be used for environmental use by comparing the results of algal growth inhibition tests of concentrated samples of the SE and permeates of RO and NF with those of six rivers in southern Okinawa Island. Although the SE water had no adverse effects on the growth of the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, it could lead to water quality degradation of rivers in terms of its toxic unit value, whereas the use of RO and NF permeates would not lead to such degradation. The recharge of rivers, into which domestic wastewater and livestock effluents might be discharged in southern Okinawa Island, with reclaimed water subjected to advanced treatment could dilute the concentrations of chemicals that cause biological effects and improve the water quality of the rivers, based on the results of the bioassay using P. subcapitata. Comparing the results of bioassays of reclaimed water with those of the ambient water at a site might be effective in assessing the water quality of reclaimed water for environmental use at the site.

  14. Survey of the antibody against japanese encephalitis virus in Ryukyu wild boars (Sus scrofa riukiuanus) in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nidaira, Minoru; Taira, Katsuya; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Kudaka, Jun; Nakamura, Masaji; Ohno, Atsusi; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2007-09-01

    Serum specimens were collected from 99 wild boars in the Northern area of the main Okinawa Island and from 27 wild boars on Iriomote Island in Okinawa Prefecture from 1997 to 2005. Sera were tested for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) antibody by hemagglutination inhibition assay and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sixty-four samples (64.6%) in the Northern area and 1 sample (3.7%) from Iriomote Island were positive for the JEV antibody. The difference in seroprevalence between the Northern area and Iriomote Island was statistically significant (P < 0.01, chi2 test). This difference may be due to the lack of a pig farm on Iriomote Island, whereas wild boars in the Northern area may be infected with JEV, amplified on pig farms. It is likely that there has recently been an increase in the number of wild boars living close to humans in certain areas of Japan. This in turn increases the possibility that wild boars are infected with JEV, which is amplified on pig farms, and these infected animals may play a role in carrying JEV to other regions of the country.

  15. A study of ambient seismic noise on the seafloor of the Okinawa trough and the Bashi Channel south of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.; Kuo, B.; Wang, C.

    2013-12-01

    Since September. 2006, the Institute of Earth Sciences, Acadmia Sinica (IES-AS) has begun deployment of Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) in the waters around Taiwan in collaboration with the National Sun Yat-sen University and the Taiwan Ocean Research Institute. So far there are three kinds of OBSs with different bandwidth that have been deployed and analyzed: 120 s - 50 Hz for WHOI designed broadband OBS, 60 s - 50 Hz for Lobster, KUM, and 20 s - 45 Hz for Yardbird-20s designed by IES (Lin et al., 2012). We have analyzed noise levels for these OBSs deployed in the Okinawa trough to the NE of Taiwan and, the Bashi channel south of Taiwan, and the Huatung basin east of Tawian. The early results had very few samples in the Okinawa trough and the Huatung basin ( Lin et al., 2010). This poster presents new results offshore southern Taiwan and increases the samples in previously studied regions. References: Ching-Ren Lin, Chai-ChangWang, Po-Chi Chen, Hsu-Kuang Chang, Jia-Pu Jang, Ban-Yuan Kuo (2012), OBS development and data analysis in Taiwan. 2012 AGU Fall Meeting. Lin, C.R., B. Y. Kuo, W. T. Liang, W. C. Chi, Y. C. Huang, J. Collins and C. Y. Wang (2010), Ambient Noise and Teleseismic Signals Recorded by Ocean-Bottom Seismometers Offshore Eastern Taiwan. Terr. Atmos. Ocea Sci., 21, No. 5, 743-75510.

  16. Feasibility of the Enhancing Participation In the Community by improving Wheelchair Skills (EPIC Wheels) program: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Edward M; Miller, William C; Eng, Janice J; Mitchell, Ian M; Woodgate, Roberta L; Goldsmith, Charles H

    2013-10-24

    Many older adults rely on a manual wheelchair for mobility but typically receive little, if any, training on how to use their wheelchair effectively and independently. Standardized skill training is an effective intervention, but limited access to clinician trainers is a substantive barrier. Enhancing Participation in the Community by Improving Wheelchair Skills (EPIC Wheels) is a 1-month monitored home training program for improving mobility skills in older novice manual wheelchair users, integrating principles from andragogy and social cognitive theory. The purpose of this study is to determine whether feasibility indicators and primary clinical outcome measures of the EPIC Wheels program are sufficiently robust to justify conducting a subsequent multi-site randomized controlled trial. A 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial at two sites will compare improvement in wheelchair mobility skills between an EPIC Wheels treatment group and a computer-game control group, with additional wheelchair use introduced as a second factor. A total of 40 community-dwelling manual wheelchair users at least 55 years old and living in two Canadian metropolitan cities (n = 20 × 2) will be recruited. Feasibility indicators related to study process, resources, management, and treatment issues will be collected during data collection and at the end of the study period, and evaluated against proposed criteria. Clinical outcome measures will be collected at baseline (pre-randomization) and post-intervention. The primary clinical outcome measure is wheelchair skill capacity, as determined by the Wheelchair Skills Test, version 4.1. Secondary clinical outcome measures include wheelchair skill safety, satisfaction with performance, wheelchair confidence, life-space mobility, divided-attention, and health-related quality of life. The EPIC Wheels training program offers several innovative features. The convenient, portable, economical, and adaptable tablet-based, home program model

  17. Feasibility of the Enhancing Participation In the Community by improving Wheelchair Skills (EPIC Wheels) program: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many older adults rely on a manual wheelchair for mobility but typically receive little, if any, training on how to use their wheelchair effectively and independently. Standardized skill training is an effective intervention, but limited access to clinician trainers is a substantive barrier. Enhancing Participation in the Community by Improving Wheelchair Skills (EPIC Wheels) is a 1-month monitored home training program for improving mobility skills in older novice manual wheelchair users, integrating principles from andragogy and social cognitive theory. The purpose of this study is to determine whether feasibility indicators and primary clinical outcome measures of the EPIC Wheels program are sufficiently robust to justify conducting a subsequent multi-site randomized controlled trial. Methods A 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial at two sites will compare improvement in wheelchair mobility skills between an EPIC Wheels treatment group and a computer-game control group, with additional wheelchair use introduced as a second factor. A total of 40 community-dwelling manual wheelchair users at least 55 years old and living in two Canadian metropolitan cities (n = 20 × 2) will be recruited. Feasibility indicators related to study process, resources, management, and treatment issues will be collected during data collection and at the end of the study period, and evaluated against proposed criteria. Clinical outcome measures will be collected at baseline (pre-randomization) and post-intervention. The primary clinical outcome measure is wheelchair skill capacity, as determined by the Wheelchair Skills Test, version 4.1. Secondary clinical outcome measures include wheelchair skill safety, satisfaction with performance, wheelchair confidence, life-space mobility, divided-attention, and health-related quality of life. Discussion The EPIC Wheels training program offers several innovative features. The convenient, portable, economical, and adaptable

  18. Association of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Forouhi, Nita G; Imamura, Fumiaki; Sharp, Stephen J; Koulman, Albert; Schulze, Matthias B; Zheng, Jusheng; Ye, Zheng; Sluijs, Ivonne; Guevara, Marcela; Huerta, José María; Kröger, Janine; Wang, Laura Yun; Summerhill, Keith; Griffin, Julian L; Feskens, Edith J M; Affret, Aurélie; Amiano, Pilar; Boeing, Heiner; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W; Gonzalez, Carlos; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Nilsson, Peter M; Overvad, Kim; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J Ramón; Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Scalbert, Augustin; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Tjonneland, Anne; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Langenberg, Claudia; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2016-07-01

    Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations. Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography among 12,132 incident T2D cases and 15,919 subcohort participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study across eight European countries. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. We also systematically reviewed published prospective studies on circulating PUFAs and T2D risk and pooled the quantitative evidence for comparison with results from EPIC-InterAct. In EPIC-InterAct, among long-chain n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with T2D (HR per standard deviation [SD] 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98), but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were not significantly associated. Among n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA) (0.80; 95% CI 0.77-0.83) and eicosadienoic acid (EDA) (0.89; 95% CI 0.85-0.94) were inversely related, and arachidonic acid (AA) was not significantly associated, while significant positive associations were observed with γ-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-GLA, docosatetraenoic acid (DTA), and docosapentaenoic acid (n6-DPA), with HRs between 1.13 to 1.46 per SD. These findings from EPIC-InterAct were broadly similar to comparative findings from summary estimates from up to nine studies including between 71 to 2,499 T2D cases. Limitations included potential residual confounding and the inability to distinguish between dietary and metabolic influences on plasma phospholipid PUFAs. These large-scale findings suggest an important inverse association of circulating plant-origin n-3 PUFA (ALA) but no convincing association of marine-derived n3 PUFAs (EPA and DHA) with T2D. Moreover, they highlight that the most abundant n6-PUFA (LA) is inversely

  19. Association of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Forouhi, Nita G.; Schulze, Matthias B.; Zheng, Jusheng; Ye, Zheng; Kröger, Janine; Wang, Laura Yun; Summerhill, Keith; Griffin, Julian L.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Affret, Aurélie; Amiano, Pilar; Boeing, Heiner; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Scalbert, Augustin; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; Riboli, Elio

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations. Methods and Findings Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography among 12,132 incident T2D cases and 15,919 subcohort participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study across eight European countries. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. We also systematically reviewed published prospective studies on circulating PUFAs and T2D risk and pooled the quantitative evidence for comparison with results from EPIC-InterAct. In EPIC-InterAct, among long-chain n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with T2D (HR per standard deviation [SD] 0.93; 95% CI 0.88–0.98), but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were not significantly associated. Among n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA) (0.80; 95% CI 0.77–0.83) and eicosadienoic acid (EDA) (0.89; 95% CI 0.85–0.94) were inversely related, and arachidonic acid (AA) was not significantly associated, while significant positive associations were observed with γ-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-GLA, docosatetraenoic acid (DTA), and docosapentaenoic acid (n6-DPA), with HRs between 1.13 to 1.46 per SD. These findings from EPIC-InterAct were broadly similar to comparative findings from summary estimates from up to nine studies including between 71 to 2,499 T2D cases. Limitations included potential residual confounding and the inability to distinguish between dietary and metabolic influences on plasma phospholipid PUFAs. Conclusions These large-scale findings suggest an important inverse association of circulating plant-origin n-3 PUFA (ALA) but no convincing association of marine-derived n3 PUFAs (EPA and DHA) with T2D. Moreover, they

  20. The InterAct Project: An Examination of the Interaction of Genetic and Lifestyle Factors on the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in the EPIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Langenberg, C; Sharp, S; Forouhi, NG; Franks, P; Schulze, MB; Kerrison, N; Ekelund, U; Barroso, I; Panico, S; Tormo, M; Spranger, J; Griffin, S; van der Schouw, YT; Amiano, P; Ardanaz, E; Arriola, L; Balkau, B; Barricarte, A; Beulens, JWJ; Boeing, H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB; Buijsse, BB; Chirlaque Lopez, MD; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Crowe, FL; de Lauzon-Guillan, B; Deloukas, P; Dorronsoro, M; Drogan, DD; Froguel, P; Gonzalez, C; Grioni, S; Groop, L; Groves, C; Hainaut, P; Halkjaer, J; Hallmans, G; Hansen, T; Kaaks, R; Key, TJ; Khaw, K; Koulman, A; Mattiello, A; Navarro, C; Nilsson, P; Norat, T; Overvad, K; Palla, L; Palli, D; Pedersen, O; Peeters, PH; Quirós, JR; Ramachandran, A; Rodriguez-Suarez, L; Rolandsson, O; Romaguera, D; Romieu, I; Sacerdote, C; Sánchez, M; Sandbaek, A; Slimani, N; Sluijs, I; Spijkerman, AMW; Teucher, B; Tjonneland, A; Tumino, R; van der A, DL; Verschuren, WMM; Tuomilehto, J; Feskens, E; McCarthy, M; Riboli, E; Wareham, NJ

    2014-01-01

    Background Studying gene-lifestyle interaction may help to identify lifestyle factors that modify genetic susceptibility and uncover genetic loci exerting important subgroup effects. Adequately powered studies with prospective, unbiased, standardised assessment of key behavioural factors for gene-lifestyle studies are lacking. Objective To establish a type 2 diabetes case-cohort study designed to investigate how genetic and potentially modifiable lifestyle and behavioral factors, particularly diet and physical activity, interact in their influence on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Methods Funded by the Sixth European Framework Programme, InterAct consortium partners ascertained and verified incident cases of type 2 diabetes occurring in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohorts between 1991 and 2007 from 8 of the 10 EPIC countries. A pragmatic, high sensitivity approach was used for case ascertainment including multiple sources at each EPIC centre, followed by diagnostic verification. Prentice-weighted Cox regression and random effects meta-analyses were used to investigate differences in diabetes incidence by age and sex. Results A total of 12,403 verified incident cases of type 2 diabetes occurred during 3.99 million person-years of follow-up of 340,234 EPIC participants eligible for InterAct. We defined a centre stratified subcohort of 16,154 individuals for comparative analyses. Individuals with incident diabetes that were randomly selected into the subcohort (n=778) were included as cases in the analyses. All prevalent diabetes cases were excluded from the study. InterAct cases were followed-up for an average of 6.9 years, 49.7% were men. Mean baseline age and age at diagnosis were 55.6 and 62.5 years, mean BMI and waist were 29.4 kg/m2 and 102.7 cm in men, and 30.1 kg/m2 and 92.8 cm in women, respectively. Risk of type 2 diabetes increased linearly with age, with an overall hazard ratio (95% CI) of 1.56 (1.48; 1

  1. Military Emergency Medical Service System Assessment: Application of the National Park Service Needs Assessment and Program Audit to Objectively Evaluate the Military EMS System of Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ross, Elliot M; Harper, Stephen A; Cunningham, Cord; Walrath, Benjamin D; DeMers, Gerard; Kharod, Chetan U

    2017-03-01

    As part of a Military Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system process improvement initiative, the authors sought to objectively evaluate the U.S. military EMS system for the island of Okinawa. They applied a program evaluation tool currently utilized by the U.S. National Park Service (NPS). A comprehensive needs assessment was conducted to evaluate the current Military EMS system in Okinawa, Japan. The NPS EMS Program Audit Worksheet was used to get an overall "score" of our assessment. After all the data had been collected, a joint committee of Military EMS physicians reviewed the findings and made formal recommendations. From 2011 to 2014, U.S. military EMS on Okinawa averaged 1,345 ± 137 patient transports annually. An advanced life support (ALS) provider would have been dispatched on 558 EMS runs (38%) based on chief complaint in 2014 had they been available. Over 36,000 man-hours were expended during this period to provide National Registry Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)-accredited instruction to certify 141 Navy Corpsman as EMT Basics. The NPS EMS Program Audit Worksheet was used and the program scored a total of 31, suggesting the program is well planned and operating within standards. This evaluation of the Military EMS system on Okinawa using the NPS program assessment and audit worksheet demonstrates the NPS evaluation instruments may offer a useful assessment tool for the evaluation of Military EMS systems. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  2. Plutonium activities and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in sediment cores from the east China sea and Okinawa Trough: Sources and inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhong-liang; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2005-05-01

    Plutonium concentrations and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediment cores were determined by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after separation using ion-exchange chromatography. The results showed that 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediments, ranging from 0.21 to 0.33, were much higher than the reported value of global fallout (0.18). The highest 240Pu/ 239Pu ratios (0.32-0.33) were observed in the deepest Okinawa Trough sediment samples. These ratios suggested the US nuclear weapons tests in the early 1950s at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands were a major source of plutonium in the East China Sea and Okinawa Trough sediments, in addition to the global fallout source. It was proposed that close-in fallout plutonium was delivered from the Pacific Proving Grounds test sites via early direct tropospheric fallout and transportation by the North Pacific Equatorial Circulation system and Kuroshio Current into the Okinawa Trough and East China Sea. The total 239 + 240 Pu inventories in the cores were about 150-200% of that expected from direct global fallout; about 46-67% of the total inventories were delivered from the Pacific Proving Grounds. Much higher 239 + 240 Pu inventories were observed in the East China Sea sediments than in sediments of the Okinawa Trough, because in the open oceans, part of the 239 + 240 Pu was still retained in the water column, and continued Pu scavenging was higher over the margin than the trough. According to the vertical distributions of 239 + 240 Pu activities and 240Pu/ 239Pu atom ratios in these cores, it was concluded that sediment mixing was the dominant process in controlling profiles of plutonium in this area. Faster mixing in the coastal samples has homogenized the entire 240Pu/ 239Pu ratio record today; slightly slower mixing and less scavenging in the Okinawa Trough have left the surface sediment ratios closer

  3. Distinct control mechanism of fine-grained sediments from Yellow River and Kyushu supply in the northern Okinawa Trough since the last glacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Debo; Wan, Shiming; Toucanne, Samuel; Clift, Peter D.; Tada, Ryuji; Révillon, Sidonie; Kubota, Yoshimi; Zheng, Xufeng; Yu, Zhaojie; Huang, Jie; Jiang, Hanchao; Xu, Zhaokai; Shi, Xuefa; Li, Anchun

    2017-08-01

    High-resolution multiproxy records, including clay minerals and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes of the clay-sized silicate fraction of sediments from IODP Site U1429 in the northern Okinawa Trough, provide reliable evidence for distinct control mechanism on fine-grained sediments input from the Yellow River and the southern Japanese Islands to the northern Okinawa Trough since 34 ka BP. Provenance analysis indicates that the sediments were mainly derived from the Yellow River and the island of Kyushu. Since the last glacial, clay-sized sediments transported from the Yellow River to the study site were strongly influenced by sea-level fluctuation. During low sea-level stage (˜34-14 ka BP), the paleo-Yellow River mouth was positioned closer to the northern Okinawa Trough, favoring large fluvial discharge or even direct input of detrital sediments, which resulted about four times more flux of clay-sized sediments supply to the study area as during the relatively high sea-level stage (˜14-0 ka BP). The input of Kyushu-derived clay-sized sediments to the study site was mainly controlled by the Kuroshio Current and Tsushima Warm Current intensity, with increased input in phase with weakened Kuroshio Current/Tsushima Warm Current. Our study suggests that the Kuroshio Current was very likely flowed into the Okinawa Trough and thus influenced the fine-grained sediment transport in the area throughout the last glacial and deglacial. During ˜34-11 ka BP, the Kyushu clay-sized sediment input was mainly controlled by the Kuroshio Current. Since ˜11 ka BP, the occurrence of Tsushima Warm Current became important in influencing the Kyushu fine-grained sediment input to the northern Okinawa Trough.

  4. Geochemical Evidence for Recent Hydrothermal Alteration of Marine Sediments in Mid-Okinawa Trough, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, A.; Abe, G.; Yamaguchi, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that submarine hydrothermal system supports diverse microbial life. Bio-essential metals supporting such microbial communities were released from basalts by high-temperature water-rock interaction in deeper part of the oceanic crust and carried by submarine fluid flow. Its total quantity in global hydrothermal settings has been estimated to be on the order of ~1019 g/yr, which is surprisingly on the same order of the total river flows (Urabe et al., 2011). Therefore, it is important to explore how submarine river system works, i.e., to understand mechanism and extent of elemental transport, which should lead to understanding of the roles of hydrothermal circulation in oceanic crust in controlling elemental budget in the global ocean and geochemical conditions to support deep hot biosphere.  We performed REE analysis of marine sediments influenced by submarine hydrothermal activity in Mid-Okinawa Trough. The sediment samples used in this study are from IODP site at Iheya North region and JADE site at Izena region. The samples show alternation between volcanic and clastic sediments. Hydrothermal fluids of this area contain elevated concentrations of volatile components such as H2, CO2, CH4, NH4+, and H2S, supporting diverse chemoautotrophic microbial community (Nakagawa et al., 2005). The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of hydrothermal activity on the REE signature of the sediments. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the samples show relative enrichment of light over heavy REEs, weak positive Ce anomalies, and variable degrees of negative Eu anomalies. The REE patterns suggest the sediments source was mainly basalt, suggesting insignificant input of continental materials. Negative Eu anomalies found in the IODP site become more pronounced with increasing depth, suggesting progressive increase of hydrothermal alteration where Eu was reductively dissolved into fluids by decomposition of feldspars. Contrary, at the JADE site

  5. Investigation of anthropogenic-origin-metals in the atmospheric aerosols collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, H.; Azechi, S.; Tsuhako, A.; Miyagi, Y.; Kasaba, T.; Arakaki, T.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are important to atmospheric chemistry, and affect our lives. Aerosols include fine particles, which consist of inorganic compounds, organic substances, heavy metals, etc. Aerosols can be roughly separated into natural and anthropogenic origins. For example, natural origins include wind-blown sea-salt, Asian dust (called Kosa in Japan), etc. Anthropogenic origins include burning of fossil fuel and agricultural biomass, automobiles, industrial activities, etc. In Japan, Kosa is the most well-known aerosol. This study investigated anthropogenic-origin-metals present in the aerosols. Aerosol samples were collected at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) in Okinawa Island, Japan with a high volume air sampler. Samples analyzed for this study were collected between January 2008 and August 2014. A 1/8 of aerosol filter was digested by the mixture of acids and oxidant (nitric acid/hydrogen fluoride/hydrogen peroxide). The sample was filtered by 0.45 μm membrane filter before analyses. Metal ion concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Na, Mg, K) and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (Al, Fe, Ca, Ti, Mn, V, Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb). Air mass movement was analyzed by NOAA's HYSPRIT model. Results showed that concentrations of heavy metals were high during winter and spring, and the lowest in summer. V/Mn ratios were used as an indicator for heavy oil burning. High V/Mn ratios were observed during maritime air mass periods. On the other hand, Pb/Zn ratio was used as an indicator for leaded gasoline usage, which was high when air mass was coming from Asian continent during winter and spring. Average Pb/Zn ratio was 0.65. Non-sea-salt K (nss-K) was used as an indicator for biomass burning, and showed good correlation with total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations. However, nss-K and crustal-origin-metals also showed good correlation. Thus, we have to be careful when considering whether nss-K is from

  6. ESR dating of barite in sea-floor hydrothermal sulfide deposits at Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, T.; Toyoda, S.; Uchida, A.; Ishibashi, J.; Nakai, S.; Takamasa, A.

    2013-12-01

    The temporal change of submarine hydrothermal activities has been an important issue in the aspect of the evolution of hydrothermal systems which is related with ore formation and biological systems sustained by the chemical species arising from hydrothermal activities (Macdonald et al., 1980). With this aspect, Okumura et al. (2010) made the first practical application of ESR (electron spin resonance) dating technique to a sample of submarine hydrothermal barite to obtain preliminary ages, while Kasuya et al. (1991) first pointed out that barite can be used for ESR dating. ESR is a method to observe radicals having unpaired electrons. As natural radiation creates unpaired electrons in minerals, the age is deduced by dividing the natural radiation dose (obtained from the amount of unpaired electrons) by the dose rate which is estimated by the amount of environmental radioactive elements. The samples were taken by the research cruises, NT12-10 and NT11-20 and NT12-06 operated by JAMSTEC from Hatoma, Yoron, Izena, North Iheya, and Yonaguni IV Knolls of Okinawa Trough. The blocks of sulfide deposits were cut into pieces, and about 2.0g was crushed. The samples were soaked in 12M hydrochloric acid, left for approximately 24 hours. Then, 13M nitric acid was added. Finally, after rinsing in distilled water, the sample was filtered and dried. Impurities were removed by handpicking. A X-ray diffraction study was made to confirm that the grains are pure barite. After γ-ray irradiation at Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, they were measured at room temperature with an ESR spectrometer (JES-PX2300) with a microwave power of 1mW, and the magnetic field modulation amplitude of 0.1mT. The equivalent natural radiation doses were obtained from the increase of ESR signal intensity of SO3- by irradiation. The bulk Ra concentration was measured by the low background pure Ge gamma ray spectrometer. Assuming that Ra is populated only in barite

  7. Geochemical observations within the water column at the CO2-rich hydrothermal systems Hatoma Knoll and Yonaguni Knoll IV, in the southern Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedzior, Stine; Buß, Antje; Schneider, Bernd; Schneider von Deimling, Jens; Sültenfuß, Jürgen; Walter, Maren; Mertens, Christian; Rehder, Gregor

    2016-09-01

    The Okinawa Trough is one of three known hydrothermal sites worldwide where liquid carbon dioxide is emitted from the seafloor into the water column. In March 2008, investigations were performed at two active areas, Yonaguni Knoll IV and Hatoma Knoll, in order to identify impacts of hydrothermal venting on the water column chemistry. Vertical profiles of pH and redox potential (Eh) were recorded and discrete water samples were taken for the analysis of total carbon dioxide (CT) and helium (3He, 4He). Anomalies with respect to reference stations (ΔCT, ΔpH) and 3He with respect to saturation with the atmosphere (3Heexcess) were used to characterize the impact of hydrothermal vents. These data indicate that the flux of CO2 into the water column is dominated by hot hydrothermal CO2-rich vents located in close proximity to the liquid CO2 emission sites. Bubbles and droplets sampled at the cold gas outlets at Hatoma Knoll differed considerably from the water column regarding CO2/3He ratios, and thus, provide additional evidence that cold liquid phase CO2 is of minor importance for the total CO2 flux at both hydrothermal systems. Although hydrothermal vents at back-arc basins are known to emit large amounts of acids other than CO2, the correlation between ΔpH and ΔCT at both research areas clearly suggests that the observed pH reduction is mainly caused by the addition of CO2. Deviating ΔCT/3He and ΔCT/ΔpH ratios and the prevailing water currents indicate a yet undiscovered vent site at the flank of a seamount in the northeast.

  8. K2 observations of pulsating subdwarf B stars: Analysis of EPIC 203948264 observed during Campaign 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketzer, L.; Reed, M. D.; Baran, A. S.; Németh, P.; Telting, J. H.; Østensen, R. H.; Jeffery, C. S.

    2017-01-01

    We apply asteroseismic tools to the newly-discovered pulsator EPIC 203948264, observed with K2, the two-gyro mission of the Kepler space telescope. A time series analysis of the 83 day Campaign 2 (C2) short cadence data set has revealed a g -mode pulsation spectrum with 22 independent pulsation periods between 0.5 and 2.8 hours. Most of the pulsations fit the asymptotic period sequences for ℓ = 1 or 2, with average period spacings of 261.3 ± 1.1 s and 151.18 ± 0.37 s, respectively. The pulsation amplitudes are below 0.77 ppt and vary over time. We include updated spectroscopic parameters, including atmospheric abundances and radial velocities which give no indication for binarity in this star. We detect one possible low-amplitude multiplet which corresponds to a rotation period of 46 days or longer. EPIC 203948264 appears as another slowly rotating sdB star.

  9. Modern laparoscopy and the archery episode in the greatest epic of India: Mahabarata.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, K

    2006-07-01

    The laparoscopic surgeon is trained to acquire advanced skills to perform the complicated laparoscopic surgery of the target tissue in a three-dimensional (3D) space by viewing its two-dimensional (2D) video image. This technique finds its parallel in a very ancient archery episode portrayed in the longest and the greatest Indian epic, Mahabarata. In this epic, Arjuna, the master archer, is required to employ the strategy of aiming at the eye of a target fish rotating above his head by viewing its reflected image below in water; of course, all this to win the hand of a beautiful princess! Arjuna is so trained that he cannot but excel in focusing his attention on his target. A comparative study of the laparoscopic surgeon and the ancient master archer is done in this paper with a view to throwing light on the interesting similarities between the archer and the modern laparoscopic surgeon with respect to training methods, skills, and techniques.

  10. Modeling Seasons in the Outer Solar System: Enabling EPIC to Roar on 1 Watt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Timothy E.; Sussman, M. G.; Greathouse, T. K.; Chanover, N. J.

    2012-10-01

    We describe solutions to key technical problems that arise in GCMs when modeling the circulations of Uranus and Neptune, and provide an update to the EPIC model radiative transfer (RT) package, with application to seasonal forcing of Saturn and Uranus. The primary challenges in ice-giant circulation modeling stem from the low value of the solar insolation ( 1 Wm-2), which results in slow ( 10-3 ms-1) meridional-plane circulations that are coupled to fast ( 102 ms-1) zonal winds. Computational modes that are negligible for inner solar-system atmospheric modeling because of high insolation are not negligible for Uranus and Neptune, and hence must be reduced or eliminated. We describe a new, high-order hyperviscosity algorithm that is non-dimensional, efficient, and has well-behaved boundary conditions at the poles. A 12th-order application to Uranus permits EPIC to run for multiple Uranus years without degrading the 11th-order zonal-wind model of Sromovsky et al. (2009). Additional EPIC (Ver. 5.0) improvements include a runtime RT package based on the Greathouse et al. (2010 EGU) Saturn seasonal model that employs our fast and accurate DISORT c_twostr rewrite, a pressure vertical-coordinate option, a dynamic convective adjustment scheme which incorporates improvements to the turbulent Prandtl number by Zilitinkevich et al. (2007), and an accurate analemma, or Sun-in-sky position as a function of time and location on the planet, for Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. These improvements make EPIC a versatile tool for dynamic 3D modeling of stratospheric temperatures and hydrocarbon distributions. This research is funded by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program, Grant NNX08AEG4G.

  11. Experience with the SNS LabVIEW/EPICS-Based Diagnostics Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Blokland, Willem; Assadi, Saeed

    2004-11-10

    The SNS Diagnostics Group uses rack-mounted PCs running LabVIEW and EPICS to implement its instruments as network attached devices. Many of these instruments, such as wire scanners and beam position monitors, come from the partner labs. The final integration and testing is done at SNS. We have now gone through several commissioning runs with success. This paper describes the integration, the commissioning, and the physics performance of the devices.

  12. HPC-EPIC for High Resolution Simulations of Environmental and Sustainability Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dali; Post, Wilfred M; Kang, Shujiang; Nichols, Dr Jeff A

    2011-01-01

    Multiple concerns over the impact of wide scale changes in land management have motivated comprehensive analyses of environmental sustainability of food and biofuel production. These call for high-resolution land management tools that enable comprehensive analyses of natural resources for decision-making. The agroecosystem simulation models with the most biophysical detail are point models, which often have a user interface that allows users to provide inputs and examine results for agricultural field scale analyses. These are not able to meet the needs of high-resolution regional or national simulations. We describe an efficient computational approach for deployment of the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model at high-resolution spatial scales using high performance computing (HPC) techniques. We developed an integrated procedure for executing the millions of simulations required for high-resolution, regional studies, and also address building databases for model initialization, model forcing data, and model outputs. We first ported EPIC from Windows to an HPC platform and validated output from both platforms. We then developed methods of packaging simulations for efficient, unattended parallel execution on the HPC cluster. The job queuing system, Portable Batch System (PBS) is employed to control job submission. Simulation outputs are extracted to PostgreSQL database for analysis. In a case study covering four counties in central Wisconsin using HPC-EPIC, we finished over 140 K simulations in a total of 10 h on an HPC cluster using 20 nodes. This is a speedup of 40 times. More nodes could be used to achieve larger speedups. The HPC-EPIC model developed in this study is anticipated to provide information useful for high-resolution land use management and decision making. The framework for high-performance computing can be extended to other traditional, point-based biophysical simulation models.

  13. The improved physical activity index for measuring physical activity in EPIC Germany.

    PubMed

    Wientzek, Angelika; Vigl, Matthäus; Steindorf, Karen; Brühmann, Boris; Bergmann, Manuela M; Harttig, Ulrich; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    In the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC), physical activity (PA) has been indexed as a cross-tabulation between PA at work and recreational activity. As the proportion of non-working participants increases, other categorization strategies are needed. Therefore, our aim was to develop a valid PA index for this population, which will also be able to express PA continuously. In the German EPIC centers Potsdam and Heidelberg, a clustered sample of 3,766 participants was re-invited to the study center. 1,615 participants agreed to participate and 1,344 participants were finally included in this study. PA was measured by questionnaires on defined activities and a 7-day combined heart rate and acceleration sensor. In a training sample of 433 participants, the Improved Physical Activity Index (IPAI) was developed. Its performance was evaluated in a validation sample of 911 participants and compared with the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index. The IPAI consists of items covering five areas including PA at work, sport, cycling, television viewing, and computer use. The correlations of the IPAI with accelerometer counts in the training and validation sample ranged r = 0.40-0.43 and with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) r = 0.33-0.40 and were higher than for the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index previously applied in EPIC. In non-working participants the IPAI showed higher correlations than the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index, with r = 0.34 for accelerometer counts and r = 0.29 for PAEE. In conclusion, we developed a valid physical activity index which is able to express PA continuously as well as to categorize participants according to their PA level. In populations with increasing rates of non-working people the performance of the IPAI is better than the established indices used in EPIC.

  14. Using EPIC to Find Conflicts, Inconsistencies, and Gaps in Department of Defense Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    new tool that automates one step of the methodology. We describe the framework, methodol- ogy, and new software- based tool and demonstrate with case...analysts showed that 113 of the extractions were related to standards. Analy- 1 The EPIC tool is a Microsoft (MS) Office– based program written in...designated approving authority DARS DoD Architecture Registry System DAS Defense Acquisition System DATO Denial of Authorization to Operate DBSMC Defense

  15. A new genus and species of octocoral with aragonite calcium-carbonate skeleton (Octocorallia, Helioporacea) from Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yu; Reimer, James Davis

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species of octocoral with a calcium-carbonate skeleton, Naniporakamurai sp. n., is described from a shallow coral reef in Okinawa, Japan. Contrary to most octocorals, the skeleton is composed of crystalline aragonite as in blue coral Heliopora. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of sequences of mtMutS, COI, and ITS1-5.8s-ITS2-28S region suggest Nanipora gen. n. specimens should be included in order Helioporacea. Based on morphological results compared with other Helioporacea including the genus Epiphaxum (family Lithotelestidae), we establish the new genus Nanipora within Lithotelestidae. This is the first time that a close molecular phylogenetic relationship between Heliopora and a related genus within Helioporacea has been revealed.

  16. Sesquiterpene Hydroquinones with Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibitory Activities from a Dysidea sp. Marine Sponge Collected in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Abdjul, Delfly B; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Ukai, Kazuyo; Namikoshi, Michio

    2016-07-22

    Three new sesquiterpene hydroquinones, avapyran (1), 17-O-acetylavarol (2), and 17-O-acetylneoavarol (3), were isolated from a Dysidea sp. marine sponge collected in Okinawa together with five known congeners: avarol (4), neoavarol (5), 20-O-acetylavarol (6), 20-O-acetylneoavarol (7), and 3'-aminoavarone (8). The structures of 1-3 were assigned on the basis of their spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-3 inhibited the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B with IC50 values of 11, 9.5, and 6.5 μM, respectively, while known compounds 4-8 gave IC50 values of 12, >32, 10, 8.6, and 18 μM, respectively. In a preliminary investigation on structure-activity relationships, six ester and methoxy derivatives (9-14) were prepared from 4 and 5.

  17. A new species of the palaemonid shrimp genus Palaemonella Dana, 1852 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Yusuke

    2015-06-03

    The palaemonid shrimp genus Palaemonella Dana, 1852 is currently represented by 21 formally described species worldwide, of which 17 species are known from the Indo-West Pacific. In this study, a new species, P. okunoi, is described and illustrated on the basis of two ovigerous female specimens collected from coastal waters in Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, at depths of 5-30 m. The new species closely resembles P. hachijo Okuno, 1999, but the shorter rostrum, more anteriorly located postrostral teeth on the carapace, the presence of a pair of submedian teeth on the fourth thoracic sternite and the less slender pereopods distinguish P. okunoi n. sp. from P. hachijo. The discovery of the present new species raises the number of Japanese species of Palaemonella to eight. An updated key to the Indo-West Pacific species of the genus is presented.

  18. A new species of the genus Tegastes (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Tegastidae) from hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Back, Jinwook; Huys, Rony; Lee, Wonchoel

    2010-08-01

    We describe a new species, Tegastes okinawaensis, from 583-711 meter-deep hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough, Japan. This species is clearly distinguishable from its congeners by four combined characters, namely 1) the last three abdominal somites are depressed inwardly towards the body, 2) there is sexual dimorphism in the number of setae of P3 and P4, 3) the male antennule is 9-segmented, with the 7th segment formed by incomplete fusion of two segments, and 4) the caudal rami are small with a distorted quadrangular shape. Additionally, the species is easily distinguishable from its congeners by the distal endopodal segment of P4, which is armed with six setae - this character has never been reported in previous descriptions of congeners. This report is the first of a species in the genus Tegastes living at ocean depths of greater than 580 m in the northwestern Pacific.

  19. Screening results of anaemia among infants in a village in Okinawa, Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Quek, K F; Hokama, T; Yogi, C

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to highlight the baseline characteristics of the results of a screening test for anaemia among infants in a village in Okinawa, Japan. The groups were classified into two; infants with and without anaemia. A total of 201 infants were screened at 3-4 months, 9-10 months and 18 months. The study showed that gestational age and BMI were predictive of anaemia at 3-4 months of age. At 9-10 months, types of feeding and weight ratio were the only factors that were found to be significantly predictive of anaemia. However, no factor was found to be predictive of anaemia at 18 months. Anaemia cases were found to occur at 3-4 months and 9-10 months. Most of the anaemia cases have successfully undergone treatment.

  20. A new genus and species of octocoral with aragonite calcium-carbonate skeleton (Octocorallia, Helioporacea) from Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Yu; Reimer, James Davis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of octocoral with a calcium-carbonate skeleton, Nanipora kamurai sp. n., is described from a shallow coral reef in Okinawa, Japan. Contrary to most octocorals, the skeleton is composed of crystalline aragonite as in blue coral Heliopora. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of sequences of mtMutS, COI, and ITS1-5.8s-ITS2-28S region suggest Nanipora gen. n. specimens should be included in order Helioporacea. Based on morphological results compared with other Helioporacea including the genus Epiphaxum (family Lithotelestidae), we establish the new genus Nanipora within Lithotelestidae. This is the first time that a close molecular phylogenetic relationship between Heliopora and a related genus within Helioporacea has been revealed. PMID:26257549

  1. Venting of carbon dioxide-rich fluid and hydrate formation in mid-okinawa trough backarc basin.

    PubMed

    Sakai, H; Gamo, T; Kim, E S; Tsutsumi, M; Tanaka, T; Ishibashi, J; Wakita, H; Yamano, M; Oomori, T

    1990-06-01

    Carbon dioxide-rich fluid bubbles, containing approximately 86 percent CO(2), 3 percent H(2)S, and 11 percent residual gas (CH(4) + H(2)), were observed to emerge from the sea floor at 1335- to 1550-m depth in the JADE hydrothermal field, mid-Okinawa Trough. Upon contact with seawater at 3.8 degrees C, gas hydrate immediately formed on the surface of the bubbles and these hydrates coalesced to form pipes standing on the sediments. Chemical composition and carbon, sulfur, and helium isotopic ratios indicate that the CO(2)-rich fluid was derived from the same magmatic source as dissolved gases in 320 degrees C hydrothermal solution emitted from a nearby black smoker chimney. The CO(2)-rich fluid phase may be separated by subsurface boiling of hydrothermal solutions or by leaching of CO(2)-rich fluid inclusion during posteruption interaction between pore water and volcanogenic sediments.

  2. The Characteristics and Radiative Impacts of Cirrus observed by Cloud Radar during EPIC2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuidema, P.; Matrosov, S.; Fairall, C.; Uttal, T.; Shupe, M.

    2002-12-01

    Cirrus unobscured by lower cloud occurred almost 10% of the time during the first leg of EPIC, and up to 35% on selected days. This presentation investigates the applicability of the Matrosov et al. (2002) technique for estimating cirrus ice water contents, particle sizes, volume extinction coefficients and optical depths. The technique is attractive because its reliance on radar measurements alone increases its applicability above dual-instrument techniques. For example, the method can be applied to situations where high cloud is associated with lower precipitation, a common situation during the first leg of EPIC. The vertical component of the Doppler velocity (Vz) measurements are used to infer particle size. Errors occur in the inference of Vz from the Doppler velocity through the contribution of the (imperfectly-known) horizontal winds, and the impact of the ship movement upon the radar beam orientation. This study investigates the applicability of the retrieval method to the EPIC data and quantifies the associated errors. Results are judged through comparisons of radiative flux calculations (for the unobscured cirrus) to the shipboard broadband solar flux measurements. These radiative heating rate and cloud forcing calculations reveal the impact of the cirrus on the earth's radiation budget. Comparisons are made between the microphysical characteristics of the unobscured cirrus, and the cirrus associated with the presence of lower precipitation.

  3. Association between socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and utilization of colonoscopy in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Silke; Friedrich, Susanne; Haug, Ulrike; Rohrmann, Sabine; Becker, Nikolaus; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to describe the utilization of colonoscopy and its association with sociodemographic characteristics within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heidelberg cohort study. We included 15 014 study participants (43% men) of the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort recruited between 1994 and 1998. At baseline recruitment, as well as in the 3-yearly follow-up surveys, study participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, socioeconomic background variables, health status, and use of medications and medical services, including colonoscopy examinations. The present analyses focused on participants who completed the question on colonoscopy examination in all follow-up rounds. Our results show that by the end of the fourth follow-up round, more than half of all participants of the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort had had a colonoscopy. Colonoscopy was associated with some socioeconomic and demographic characteristics: a positive association with vocational training level as well as overall socioeconomic status level [International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) classification]. A negative association was found for household size and employment status. Colonoscopy usage increased steeply within the subgroup of participants older than 55 years of age and decreased again within the subgroup of participants older than 75 years of age. Organized colorectal cancer screening should include a written invitation system, to overcome the problem of sociodemographic-related differential awareness of and attendance at colonoscopy examinations. Also, the high proportion of prescreened individuals should be taken into account to avoid unnecessary re-examinations.

  4. Insights into East Pacific ITCZ convection from EPIC observations and cloud-resolving modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretherton, C. S.; Blossey, P. N.

    2007-05-01

    During the EPIC 2001 project, a wealth of airborne and ship-based measurements (including a continuous scanning precipitation radar and vertically-pointing cloud radar) were made in a mesoscale region around 10 N, 95 W. Several studies based on this data have documented the vertical and horizontal structure of the convection and its connection to surface wind speed, convective inhibition, and easterly waves. Lower-tropospheric humidity, surface latent heat fluxes and mesoscale SST variability have been suggested as primary drivers modulating area-averaged rainfall over this area. We present the first EPIC cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations of the EPIC ITCZ study area. These can be compared with the whole suite of atmospheric observations and allow exploration of the correlation of rainfall with the hypothesized drivers. We compare simulations conventionally forced with specified horizontal advection and vertical motion with `weak-temperature gradient' simulations in which the vertical motion is chosen to maintain the observed tropospheric temperature, and simulations including mesoscale SST variability, and use these to test and enhance our understanding of the thermodynamic control of ITCZ convection in the east Pacific.

  5. When is pile-up important in the XMM-Newton EPIC cameras?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jethwa, P.; Saxton, R.; Guainazzi, M.; Rodriguez-Pascual, P.; Stuhlinger, M.

    2015-09-01

    Context. Pile-up in X-ray charged couple device (CCD) detectors is defined as the reconstruction of independent events in the same detection cell as a single event during a read-out cycle. Pile-up can seriously compromise the spectral performance, modifying both the flux and the spectral shape of celestial sources. Aims: In this paper we define rigorous metrics to characterise the effect of pile-up in terms of flux loss and spectral distortion. Methods: We extend analytical formulae derived for pile-up on CCD detectors with the inclusion of the calibrated energy-dependence of the point spread function. We validated our analytical results through both Monte-Carlo simulations of the EPIC cameras on-board XMM-Newton and comparison with pile-up diagnostics in observed data. Results: We estimate new count rate levels corresponding to a given degree of flux loss and spectral distortion for each EPIC imaging acquisition mode and provide guidance to observers wishing to estimate these values in their own observations. Conclusions: We strongly recommend using these thresholds in planning future observations with the EPIC cameras.

  6. Preprocessing, normalization and integration of the Illumina HumanMethylationEPIC array with minfi

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Jean-Philippe; Triche, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Summary: The minfi package is widely used for analyzing Illumina DNA methylation array data. Here we describe modifications to the minfi package required to support the HumanMethylationEPIC (‘EPIC’) array from Illumina. We discuss methods for the joint analysis and normalization of data from the HumanMethylation450 (‘450k’) and EPIC platforms. We introduce the single-sample Noob (ssNoob) method, a normalization procedure suitable for incremental preprocessing of individual methylation arrays and conclude that this method should be used when integrating data from multiple generations of Infinium methylation arrays. We show how to use reference 450k datasets to estimate cell type composition of samples on EPIC arrays. The cumulative effect of these updates is to ensure that minfi provides the tools to best integrate existing and forthcoming Illumina methylation array data. Availability and Implementation: The minfi package version 1.19.12 or higher is available for all platforms from the Bioconductor project. Contact: khansen@jhsph.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:28035024

  7. Spatial and temporal variation in the soil CO2 efflux in a subtropical broadleaved forest in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuho; Terasawa, Kei; Taniguchi, Shingo; Takashima, Atsushi; Katayama, Ayumi; Ohashi, Mizue

    2016-04-01

    Soil CO2 efflux (Rs) is a major component of the carbon emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. The spatiotemporal variation in Rs and its dependency on biotic and abiotic factors have been clarified in various ecosystems. It is thought that subtropical ecosystem RS values are slightly higher than those of temperate ecosystems, but much smaller than those of tropical ecosystems (Bond-Lamberty & Thomson, 2010), but compared with temperate and tropical ecosystems there are limited relevant data. This study examined spatial (within stand-scale) and temporal (hourly to seasonal) variation in Rs in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest on Okinawa Island, Japan. We measured Rs using a closed dynamic chamber at 60 locations within a 0.15-ha plot once a month in 2013 and 2014. In addition, Rs was measured continuously using automated chambers at two locations within the same plot in 2015. The annual average Rs value (5.5 μmol m-2 s-1) obtained from the monthly manual measurements was comparable with values reported for tropical rainforests and larger than those for temperate forests. At our site, Rs showed clear seasonal variation depending on soil temperature, unlike in tropical rainforests, which lack seasonality. The spatial variation in Rs was positively correlated with the ratio of litter cover area per unit soil area, which was larger on the ridge and smaller on the slope. We propose that the amount of litter, as a material for heterotrophic respiration, largely characterises the spatial variation in Rs at this site, with a relatively small contribution from autotrophic respiration by plant roots. The results clarify that Rs values in subtropical forests in Okinawa have characteristics between those of temperate forests (seasonality) and tropical rainforests (large Rs).

  8. Seismic observed structure of Natsushima 86-2 knoll in Iheya small-ridges of mid-Okinawa Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, Fumihiko; Tsuji, Takeshi; Kumagai, Hidenori; Takai, Ken

    2013-04-01

    Iheya small ridges are the group of the ENE-WSW elongated rod-shaped knolls at the central axis of mid-Okinawa trough back-arc extensional basin. The basin has been actively stretching more than 1000 km long at 250 km west of the convergent boundary between Philippine oceanic lithosphere and Eurasian continental counterpart since ~2 Ma (Hsu et al., 2001). Natsushima 86-2 knoll is the westernmost one of the Iheya small ridges which height is 600 m from the 1600 m depth seafloor. Multiple hydrothermal sites have been reported for these 25 years in the mid-Okinawa Trough region while previously well-studied Calyptogena site (Tanaka et al., 1989; Gamo et al., 1991) is just at the northeastern extension of the knoll. Five profiles of single-channel seismic reflection survey were obtained in Natsushima 86-2 knoll during YK-12-16 cruise in order to find structure controlling hydrothermal activity. Every profile makes the cross-section of the knoll. The source of the reflection was 150 cubic inches G-I gun with 10 seconds interval. As a result of the interpretation for seismic profiles, it is fair to conclude that the knoll has possible volcanic origin and relatively new structure. Natsushima 86-2 knoll is positioned on the normal faulted stratified deposits which are dipping from the both sides of the knoll. The surface of the knoll shows mostly low amplitude reflection which can be interpreted as pumices or other high porosity materials which is consistent with the past dredging retrieval by Kimura et al. (1987). Bend and fading of the stratified reflection approximately 100 m beneath the Calyptogena site indicates shallow intrusion of magmatic body has responsible with the formation of the hydrothermal site.

  9. Springtime variations of organic and inorganic constituents in submicron aerosols (PM1.0) from Cape Hedo, Okinawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunwar, Bhagawati; Torii, K.; Zhu, Chunmao; Fu, Pingqing; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2016-04-01

    During the spring season with enhanced Asian outflow, we collected submicron aerosol (PM1.0) samples at Cape Hedo, Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim. We analyzed the filter samples for diacids, oxoacids, pyruvic acid, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids to better understand the sources and atmospheric processes in the outflow regions of Asian pollutants. Molecular distributions of diacids show a predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids. Total diacids strongly correlated with secondary source tracers such as SO42- (r = 0.87), NH4+ (0.90) and methanesulfonate (MSA-) (0.84), suggesting that diacids are secondarily formed from their precursor compounds. We also found good correlations among C2, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in the Okinawa aerosols, suggesting that diacids are mainly derived from anthropogenic sources. However, a weak correlation of diacids with levoglucosan, a biomass burning tracer, suggests that biomass buring is not the main source of diacids, rather diacids are secondarily formed by photochemical oxidation of organic precursors derived from fossil fuel combustion. We found a strong correlation (r = 0.98) between inorganic nitrogen (NO3-N + NH4-N) and total nitrogen (TN), to which organic nitrogen (ON) contributed 23%. Fatty acids were characterized by even carbon number predominance, suggesting that they are derived from biogenic sources. The higher abundances of short chain fatty acids (C20) further suggest that fatty acids are largely derived from marine phytoplankton during spring bloom.

  10. Petrology and Geochemistry of Hydrothermally Altered Volcanic Rocks in the Iheya North Hydrothermal Field, Middle Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Iheya North hydrothermal field is located in the middle Okinawa Trough, a young and actively spreading back-arc basin extending behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system in the southeastern margin of the East China Sea. In this hydrothermal field, two scientific drilling expeditions (IODP Exp 331 and SIP CK14-04) were conducted using a deep-sea drilling vessel "Chikyu," and samples from a total of 27 holes were taken. Through these expeditions, Kuroko-type volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits (VMS), hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks, and pumiceous and pelagic sediments were recovered. The recovered core provided important information about the relationship between hydrothermal activity, alteration, and ore mineralization. Whole-rock major element composition and trace element (TE) patterns of pumices were very similar to those of rhyolites in the middle Okinawa Trough (RMO). However, pumices were relatively enriched in chalcophile elements Sr and Nb, which suggest incipient mineralization. Volcanic rock generally demonstrated strong silicification and was greenish pale gray in color. Regardless of severe alteration, some rock displayed major element composition broadly similar to the RMO. Alteration was evidenced by an increase in the content of SiO2 and MgO, and decrease in Al2O3, Na2O, and K2O content. The most striking geochemical feature of altered volcanic rock was the discordance between texture and the degree of modification of TEs. Some samples showed decussate texture occupied by petal-like quartz with severe silicification, but no prominent disturbance of concentration and patterns of TEs were observed. In contrast, samples with well-preserved igneous porphyritic texture showed very low TE content and modification of TE patterns. These results suggest that the modification of texture and composition of TEs, as well as silicification, do not occur by a uniform process, but several processes. This may reflect the differences in temperature and the

  11. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related oral squamous cell carcinoma in Okinawa, a subtropical island, in southern Japan--simultaneously infected with human papillomavirus (HPV).

    PubMed

    Higa, Mayumi; Kinjo, Takao; Kamiyama, Kazuya; Chinen, Katsuni; Iwamasa, Teruo; Arasaki, Akira; Sunakawa, Hajime

    2003-06-01

    Up to now, many authors have reported on the EBV infection and its carcinogenic importance in undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (WHO classification, type III), but the infection of the virus in well differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma has not been well described. We introduce the EBV-related well differentiated oral squamous cell carcinomas in Okinawa, a subtropical island in the southernmost part of Japan. This study aimed to clarify the pathogenesis of this malignancy in this area by carrying out analysis of the histology and the Epstein-Barr (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. In the Department of Oral Surgery, Ryukyu University Hospital Okinawa, 188 cases of oral malignant tumours were encountered from 1996 to 2000. The histopathological examination and the sequence analysis of LMP-1 carboxy terminal region and EBNA2 region of EBV were carried out, as were the analysis of virus subtypes, A and B, BamHI-F and f, and C and D. Additionally, HPV infection in the squamous cell carcinomas were demonstrated using E6 and E7 region primer sets by PCR method. In Okinawa, 94% (177/188) of the cases were squamous cell carcinomas. A surprisingly large number of EBV (72%) and HPV (78%) infections in the oral squamous cell carcinomas were demonstrated. EBV type B virus infection was found in 36% of EBV-related oral squamous cell carcinoma in Okinawa, but in only 2-5% of the mainland cases. In both regions the incidence of the BamHI- f variant infection was very low. The infected virus in 79 out of 80 (39 Okinawan and 41 mainland) cases was BamHI- F type. In Okinawa, the numbers of C and D variants were almost equal, whereas in the mainland the D variant was rare. Further, a 30 bp deletion in LMP-1 gene was frequently demonstrated in Okinawan and mainland cases of type A virus, but not in type B virus. Lastly, single nucleotide mutations in EBNA2 region of type A virus when compared with B95-8 strain were demonstrated in Okinawan cases. The

  12. Clinical implications of JUPITER in a contemporary European population: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study.

    PubMed

    Sondermeijer, Brigitte M; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Rana, Jamal S; Kastelein, John J P; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2013-05-01

    Justification for the Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) has raised several points of debate. We quantified the proportion of individuals meeting the JUPITER criteria, determined their risk profile, and their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events during a long-term follow-up in a contemporary European cohort. A total of 25 639 participants aged between 45 and 79 years were followed for 11.4 ± 2.8 years in EPIC-Norfolk population cohort. A total of 8397 individuals with complete data available were considered potentially eligible for primary prevention. A total of 846 (10.1%) individuals fulfilled the JUPITER criteria [low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-C (LDL-C) <3.4 mmol/L/C-reactive protein ≥ 2 mg]. This group had a 10-person-year event rate of 14.6% compared with 7.0% for those with LDL-C <3.4 mmol/L/C-reactive protein <2 mg (P = 0.001); the corresponding adjusted hazard ratio for future CHD was 1.70 (95% CI: 1.31-2.21). The group fulfilling JUPITER criteria had significantly higher CHD risk compared with those with LDL-C ≥ 3.4 mmol/L and C-reactive protein <2 mg/L. Among individuals who did not qualify for statin therapy based on the Society of Cardiology Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) (n = 4652) or ATP III criteria (n = 4466), 18.1 and 18.9%, respectively, would have qualified using the JUPITER criteria. In this European cohort, JUPITER-eligible individuals had significantly higher event rates compared with those with LDL-C <3.4 mmol/L/C-reactive protein <2 mg and LDL-C ≥ 3.4 mmol/L/C-reactive protein <2 mg/L. Application of the JUPITER criteria qualified almost one-fifth of the population for statin therapy that otherwise would not have qualified based on SCORE or ATP III criteria.

  13. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Jenab, Mazda; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Lajous, Martin; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Vasilopoulo, Effie; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Van-der-A, Daphne; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra H M; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Asli, Lene Angell; Rodriguez, Laudina; Navarro, Carmen; Amiano, Pilar; Sanchez, Maria-José; Barricarte, Aurelio; Buckland, Genevieve; Sonestedt, Emily; Wirfält, Elisabet; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Key, Timothy J; Allen, Naomi E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2012-08-01

    The glycemic potential of a diet is associated with chronically elevated insulin concentrations, which may augment breast cancer (BC) risk by stimulating insulin receptor or by affecting insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)-mediated mitogenesis. It is unclear whether this effect differs by BC phenotype. The objective was to investigate the relation between glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and total carbohydrate intake with BC by using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We identified 11,576 women with invasive BC among 334,849 EPIC women aged 34-66 y (5th to 95th percentiles) at baseline over a median follow-up of 11.5 y. Dietary GI and GL were calculated from country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to quantify the association between GI, GL, and carbohydrate intake and BC risk. BC tumors were classified by receptor status. Overall GI, GL, and carbohydrates were not related to BC. Among postmenopausal women, GL and carbohydate intake were significantly associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)) BC when extreme quintiles (Q) were compared [multivariable HR(Q5-Q1) (95% CI) = 1.36 (1.02, 1.82; P-trend = 0.010) and HR(Q5-Q1) = 1.41 (1.05, 1.89; P-trend = 0.009), respectively]. Further stratification by progesterone receptor (PR) status showed slightly stronger associations with ER(-)/PR(-) BC [HR(Q5-Q1) (95% CI) = 1.48 (1.07, 2.05; P-trend = 0.010) for GL and HR(Q5-Q1) = 1.62 (1.15, 2.30; P-trend = 0.005) for carbohydrates]. No significant association with ER-positive BC was observed. Our results indicate that a diet with a high GL and carbohydrate intake is positively associated with an increased risk of developing ER(-) and ER(-)/PR(-) BC among postmenopausal women.

  14. Mortality in British vegetarians: review and preliminary results from EPIC-Oxford.

    PubMed

    Key, Timothy J; Appleby, Paul N; Davey, Gwyneth K; Allen, Naomi E; Spencer, Elizabeth A; Travis, Ruth C

    2003-09-01

    Three prospective studies have examined the mortality of vegetarians in Britain. We describe these 3 studies and present preliminary results on mortality from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford (EPIC-Oxford). The Health Food Shoppers Study and the Oxford Vegetarian Study were established in the 1970s and 1980s, respectively; each included about 11 000 subjects and used a short questionnaire on diet and lifestyle. EPIC-Oxford was established in the 1990s and includes about 56 000 subjects who completed detailed food frequency questionnaires. Mortality in all 3 studies was followed though the National Health Service Central Register. Overall, the death rates of all the subjects in all 3 studies are much lower than average for the United Kingdom. Standardized mortality ratios (95% CIs) for all subjects were 59% (57%, 61%) in the Health Food Shoppers Study, 52% (49%, 56%) in the Oxford Vegetarian Study, and 39% (37%, 42%) in EPIC-Oxford. Comparing vegetarians with nonvegetarians within each cohort, the death rate ratios (DRRs), adjusted for age, sex and smoking, were 1.03 (0.95, 1.13) in the Health Food Shoppers Study, 1.01 (0.89, 1.14) in the Oxford Vegetarian Study, and 1.05 (0.86, 1.27) in EPIC-Oxford. DRRs for ischemic heart disease in vegetarians compared with nonvegetarians were 0.85 (0.71, 1.01) in the Health Food Shoppers Study, 0.86 (0.67, 1.12) in the Oxford Vegetarian Study, and 0.75 (0.41, 1.37) in EPIC-Oxford. The mortality of both the vegetarians and the nonvegetarians in these studies is low compared with national rates. Within the studies, mortality for major causes of death was not significantly different between vegetarians and nonvegetarians, but the nonsignificant reduction in mortality from ischemic heart disease among vegetarians was compatible with the significant reduction previously reported in a pooled analysis of mortality in Western vegetarians.

  15. Linear regression calibration: theoretical framework and empirical results in EPIC, Germany.

    PubMed

    Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Becker, Nikolaus; Kroke, Anja; Brandstetter, Birgit R; Wahrendorf, Jürgen; Boeing, Heiner

    2002-01-01

    Large scale dietary assessment instruments are usually based on the food frequency technique and have therefore to be tailored to the involved populations with respect to mode of application and inquired food items. In multicenter studies with different populations, the direct comparability of dietary data is therefore a challenge because each local dietary assessment tool might have its specific measurement error. Thus, for risk analysis the direct use of dietary measurements across centers requires a common reference. For example, in the European prospective cohort study EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) a 24-hour recall was chosen to serve as such a reference instrument which was based on a highly standardized computer-assisted interview (EPIC-SOFT). The 24-hour recall was applied to a representative subset of EPIC participants in all centers. The theoretical framework of combining multicenter dietary information was previously published in several papers and is called linear regression calibration. It is based on a linear regression of the food frequency questionnaire to the reference. The regression coefficients describe the absolute and proportional scaling bias of the questionnaire with the 24-hour recall taken as reference. This article describes the statistical basis of the calibration approach and presents first empirical results of its application to fruit, cereals and meat consumption in EPIC Germany represented by the two EPIC centers, Heidelberg and Potsdam. It was found that fruit could be measured well by the questionnaire in both centers (lambdacirc; = 0.98 (males) and lambdacirc; = 0.95 (females) in Heidelberg, and lambdacirc; = 0.86 (males) and lambdacirc; = 0.7 (females) in Potsdam), cereals less (lambdacirc; = 0.53 (males) and lambdacirc; = 0.4 (females) in Heidelberg, and lambdacirc; = 0.53 (males) and lambdacirc; = 0.44 (females) in Potsdam), and that the assessment of meat (lambdacirc; = 0.72 (males) and

  16. St Jude Medical Epic porcine bioprosthesis: results of the regulatory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, W R Eric; Lewis, Clifton T P; Sakwa, Marc P; Cooley, Denton A; Kshettry, Vibhu R; Jones, Kent W; David, Tirone E; Sullivan, John A; Fradet, Guy J; Bach, David S

    2011-06-01

    The St Jude Medical Epic heart valve (St Jude Medical, Inc, St Paul, Minn) is a tricomposite glutaraldehyde-preserved porcine bioprosthesis. The St Jude Medical Biocor porcine bioprosthesis is the precursor valve to the St Jude Medical Epic valve. The Epic valve is identical to the Biocor valve except that it is treated with Linx AC ethanol-based calcium mitigation therapy. The St Jude Medical Epic valve was implanted in 761 patients (mean age 73.9 ± 9.2 years) between 2003 and 2006 in the US Food and Drug Administration regulatory study in 22 investigational centers. The position distribution was 557 aortic valve replacements, 175 mitral valve replacements, and 29 double valve replacements. Concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting was performed in 50.8% of patients undergoing aortic valve replacement and 36.6% of those undergoing mitral valve replacement. The early mortality was 3.6% in aortic and 2.3% in mitral valve replacement. The follow-up was 1675.5 patient-years with a mean of 2.2 ± 1.2 years/patient. Late mortality was 5.2%/patient-year in aortic and 6.6%/patient-year in mitral valve replacement. The late major thromboembolism rate was 0.98%/patient-year for aortic and 2.6%/patient-year for mitral valve replacement. There were 19 reoperations, including 2 for structural valve deterioration, 1 for thrombosis, 9 for nonstructural dysfunction, and 7 for prosthetic valve endocarditis. The actuarial freedom from reoperation owing to structural valve deterioration for aortic valve replacement at 4 years for age 60 years or less was 93.3% ± 6.4%; for ages 61 to 70 years, 98.1% ± 1.9%; and for older than 70 years, 100% (P = .0006 > 70 vs ≤ 60 years). There were no events of structural deterioration with mitral valve replacement. The actuarial freedom from major thromboembolism for all patients at 4 years was 93.6% ± 1.0%. The 2 cases of structural valve deterioration occurred in aortic valves that became perforated without calcification causing aortic

  17. Dietary flavonoid intake and colorectal cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Barupal, Dinesh K; Rothwell, Joseph A; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Romieu, Isabelle; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Overvad, Kim; Kyrø, Cecilie; Tjønneland, Anne; Affret, Aurélie; His, Mathilde; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Kritikou, Maria; Saieva, Calogero; Agnoli, Claudia; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Tumino, Rosario; Fasanelli, Francesca; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Merino, Susana; Jakszyn, Paula; Sánchez, Maria-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Sonestedt, Emily; Ericson, Ulrika; Maria Nilsson, Lena; Bodén, Stina; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Freisling, Heinz; Cross, Amanda J; Riboli, Elio; Scalbert, Augustin

    2017-04-15

    Flavonoids have been shown to inhibit colon cancer cell proliferation in vitro and protect against colorectal carcinogenesis in animal models. However, epidemiological evidence on the potential role of flavonoid intake in colorectal cancer (CRC) development remains sparse and inconsistent. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total flavonoids and their subclasses and risk of development of CRC, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. A cohort of 477,312 adult men and women were recruited in 10 European countries. At baseline, dietary intakes of total flavonoids and individual subclasses were estimated using centre-specific validated dietary questionnaires and composition data from the Phenol-Explorer database. During an average of 11 years of follow-up, 4,517 new cases of primary CRC were identified, of which 2,869 were colon (proximal = 1,298 and distal = 1,266) and 1,648 rectal tumours. No association was found between total flavonoid intake and the risk of overall CRC (HR for comparison of extreme quintiles 1.05, 95% CI 0.93-1.18; p-trend = 0.58) or any CRC subtype. No association was also observed with any intake of individual flavonoid subclasses. Similar results were observed for flavonoid intake expressed as glycosides or aglycone equivalents. Intake of total flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses, as estimated from dietary questionnaires, did not show any association with risk of CRC development.

  18. A new solitary free-living species of the genus Sphenopus (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae) from Okinawa-jima Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takuma; Reimer, James Davis

    2016-01-01

    A new species of free-living solitary zoantharian is described from Okinawa, Japan. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. occurs on silty seafloors in Kin Bay and Oura Bay on the east coast of Okinawa-jima Island. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. is easily distinguished from other Sphenopus species by its small polyp size and slender shape, although there were relatively few differences between Sphenopus exilis sp. n. and Sphenopus marsupialis in the molecular phylogenetic analyses. Currently, very little is known about the ecology and diversity of Sphenopus species. Thus, reviewing each species carefully via combined morphological and molecular analyses by using newly obtained specimens from type localities is required to clearly understand and distinguish the species within the genus Sphenopus.

  19. A new solitary free-living species of the genus Sphenopus (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae) from Okinawa-jima Island, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Takuma; Reimer, James Davis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of free-living solitary zoantharian is described from Okinawa, Japan. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. occurs on silty seafloors in Kin Bay and Oura Bay on the east coast of Okinawa-jima Island. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. is easily distinguished from other Sphenopus species by its small polyp size and slender shape, although there were relatively few differences between Sphenopus exilis sp. n. and Sphenopus marsupialis in the molecular phylogenetic analyses. Currently, very little is known about the ecology and diversity of Sphenopus species. Thus, reviewing each species carefully via combined morphological and molecular analyses by using newly obtained specimens from type localities is required to clearly understand and distinguish the species within the genus Sphenopus. PMID:27551219

  20. Species-specific responses of corals to bleaching events on anthropogenically turbid reefs on Okinawa Island, Japan, over a 15-year period (1995-2009).

    PubMed

    Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya

    2013-01-01

    Coral bleaching, triggered by elevated sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) has caused a decline in coral cover and changes in the abundances of corals on reefs worldwide. Coral decline can be exacerbated by the effects of local stressors like turbidity, yet some reefs with a natural history of turbidity can support healthy and resilient coral communities. However, little is known about responses of coral communities to bleaching events on anthropogenically turbid reefs as a result of recent (post World War II) terrestrial runoff. Analysis of region-scale coral cover and species abundance at 17-20 sites on the turbid reefs of Okinawa Island (total of 79 species, 30 genera, and 13 families) from 1995 to 2009 indicates that coral cover decreased drastically, from 24.4% to 7.5% (1.1%/year), subsequent to bleaching events in 1998 and 2001. This dramatic decrease in coral cover corresponded to the demise of Acropora species (e.g., A. digitifera) by 2009, when Acropora had mostly disappeared from turbid reefs on Okinawa Island. In contrast, Merulinidae species (e.g., Dipsastraea pallida/speciosa/favus) and Porites species (e.g., P. lutea/australiensis), which are characterized by tolerance to thermal stress, survived on turbid reefs of Okinawa Island throughout the period. Our results suggest that high turbidity, influenced by recent terrestrial runoff, could have caused a reduction in resilience of Acropora species to severe thermal stress events, because the corals could not have adapted to a relatively recent decline in water quality. The coral reef ecosystems of Okinawa Island will be severely impoverished if Acropora species fail to recover.

  1. Probathylepadidae, a new family of Scalpelliformes (Thoracica: Cirripedia: Crustacea), for Probathylepas faxian gen. nov., sp. nov., from a hydrothermal vent in the Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xian-Qiu; Sha, Zhong-Li

    2015-10-21

    A new pedunculate barnacle, Probathylepas faxian gen. and sp. nov., is described from a hydrothermal vent in the Okinawa Trough. A new scalpelliform family, Probathylepadidae, is also proposed for the new genus and species. Probathylepadidae differs from all other five families of the order Scalpelliformes by the capitulum bearing eight primal plates and two whorls of imbricating supplementary plates, and the peduncle being without scales. The relationships between the species of the new family and sessile barnacles are also discussed.

  2. Species-Specific Responses of Corals to Bleaching Events on Anthropogenically Turbid Reefs on Okinawa Island, Japan, over a 15-year Period (1995–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya

    2013-01-01

    Coral bleaching, triggered by elevated sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) has caused a decline in coral cover and changes in the abundances of corals on reefs worldwide. Coral decline can be exacerbated by the effects of local stressors like turbidity, yet some reefs with a natural history of turbidity can support healthy and resilient coral communities. However, little is known about responses of coral communities to bleaching events on anthropogenically turbid reefs as a result of recent (post World War II) terrestrial runoff. Analysis of region-scale coral cover and species abundance at 17–20 sites on the turbid reefs of Okinawa Island (total of 79 species, 30 genera, and 13 families) from 1995 to 2009 indicates that coral cover decreased drastically, from 24.4% to 7.5% (1.1%/year), subsequent to bleaching events in 1998 and 2001. This dramatic decrease in coral cover corresponded to the demise of Acropora species (e.g., A. digitifera) by 2009, when Acropora had mostly disappeared from turbid reefs on Okinawa Island. In contrast, Merulinidae species (e.g., Dipsastraea pallida/speciosa/favus) and Porites species (e.g., P. lutea/australiensis), which are characterized by tolerance to thermal stress, survived on turbid reefs of Okinawa Island throughout the period. Our results suggest that high turbidity, influenced by recent terrestrial runoff, could have caused a reduction in resilience of Acropora species to severe thermal stress events, because the corals could not have adapted to a relatively recent decline in water quality. The coral reef ecosystems of Okinawa Island will be severely impoverished if Acropora species fail to recover. PMID:23565291

  3. Pre-treatment SNOT-22 Score Predicts Response to Endoscopic Polypectomy in Clinic (EPIC) Our experience in 30 adults.

    PubMed

    Caulley, Lisa; Lasso, Andrea; Rudmik, Luke; Kilty, Shaun J

    2016-01-23

    Endoscopic polypectomy in clinic (EPIC) has demonstrated substantial short-term improvement in patient reported quality of life measures and a pilot economic analysis of EPIC confirmed its cost-effectiveness in comparison to endoscopic sinus surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if pre-treatment Sino Nasal Outcome Tests-22 (SNOT-22) score predicts response to EPIC treatment in parallel to the results found for endoscopic sinus surgery. Depending on the baseline SNOT-22 group the probability of achieving minimal clinically important difference was 75-100% post-EPIC. The relative improvement in quality of life on average was 62% with 90% realising a minimal clinically important difference in their SNOT-22 score. These results are comparable to what has been found for endoscopic sinus surgery. The results of this study reflect the published results of the effect of endoscopic sinus surgery on SNOT-22 scores 6 months post-intervention which themselves have been shown to predict SNOT-22 scores at 18 months post-endoscopic sinus surgery. In select patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps the EPIC procedure may provide SNOT-22 score improvements similar to those seen with patients who undergo endoscopic sinus surgery This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of patients with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma in Okinawa, Japan: a retrospective analysis of a large cohort.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Yukiko; Fukushima, Takuya; Nomura, Shogo; Tomoyose, Takeaki; Nakachi, Sawako; Morichika, Kazuho; Tedokon, Iori; Tamaki, Keita; Shimabukuro, Natsuki; Taira, Naoya; Miyagi, Takashi; Karimata, Kaori; Ohama, Masayo; Yamanoha, Atsushi; Tamaki, Kazumitsu; Hayashi, Masaki; Arakaki, Hitoshi; Uchihara, Jun-Nosuke; Ohshiro, Kazuiku; Asakura, Yoshitaka; Kuba-Miyara, Megumi; Karube, Kennosuke; Masuzaki, Hiroaki

    2016-10-01

    Okinawa Prefecture, located in the subtropics, is an area of endemic adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) in Japan. We retrospectively analyzed 659 patients with aggressive ATL in seven institutions in Okinawa between 2002 and 2011. The median patient age was 68 years. More patients were aged ≥90 years (2.6 %), in this study, than in a nationwide survey (<1 %). The median survival time (MST) of the entire cohort was 6.5 months. Of the 217 patients who had a clinical status similar to that stated in the eligibility criteria of JCOG9801 (a randomized phase III study comparing VCAP-AMP-VECP with CHOP-14), 147 who received the CHOP regimen had a poorer MST than those in the CHOP-14 arm of JCOG9801 (8 vs 11 months). The prevalence of strongyloidiasis in the ATL patients was much higher (12.4 %) than in the historical cohort who visited the University of the Ryukyus Hospital (3.4 %). Furthermore, strongyloidiasis may be associated with ATL-related deaths. These findings suggest that, compared with other areas in Japan, in Okinawa, the proportion of patients aged ≥90 years with clinical features of aggressive ATL is higher, outcomes are poorer, and the disease is associated with a higher prevalence of strongyloidiasis.

  5. Developing Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC) markers for population genetic studies in three Aedes disease vectors.

    PubMed

    White, Vanessa Linley; Endersby, Nancy Margaret; Chan, Janice; Hoffmann, Ary Anthony; Weeks, Andrew Raymond

    2015-03-01

    Aedes aegypti, Aedes notoscriptus, and Aedes albopictus are important vectors of many arboviruses implicated in human disease such as dengue fever. Genetic markers applied across vector species can provide important information on population structure, gene flow, insecticide resistance, and taxonomy, however, robust microsatellite markers have proven difficult to develop in these species and mosquitoes generally. Here we consider the utility and transferability of 15 Ribosome protein (Rp) Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC) markers for population genetic studies in these 3 Aedes species. Rp EPIC markers designed for Ae. aegypti also successfully amplified populations of the sister species, Ae. albopictus, as well as the distantly related species, Ae. notoscriptus. High SNP and good indel diversity in sequenced alleles plus support for amplification of the same regions across populations and species were additional benefits of these markers. These findings point to the general value of EPIC markers in mosquito population studies.

  6. Pathogenic substitution of IVS15 + 5G > A in SLC26A4 in patients of Okinawa Islands with enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome or Pendred syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pendred syndrome (PS) and nonsyndromic hearing loss associated with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) are caused by SLC26A4 mutations. The Okinawa Islands are the southwestern-most islands of the Japanese archipelago. And ancestral differences have been reported between people from Okinawa Island and those from the main islands of Japan. To confirm the ethnic variation of the spectrum of SLC26A4 mutations, we investigated the frequencies of SLC26A4 mutations and clinical manifestations of patients with EVA or PS living in the Okinawa Islands. Methods We examined 22 patients with EVA or PS from 21 unrelated families in Okinawa Islands. The patient’s clinical history, findings of physical and otoscopic examinations, hearing test, and computed tomography (CT) scan of the temporal bones were recorded. To detect mutations, all 21 exons and the exon–intron junctions of SLC26A4 were sequenced for all subjects. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for SLC26A4 and calculations using the comparative CT (2−ΔΔCT) method were used to determine the pathogenicity associated with gene substitutions. Results SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 21 of the 22 patients. We found a compound heterozygous mutation for IVS15 + 5G > A/H723R in nine patients (41%), a homozygous substitution of IVS15 + 5G > A in six patients (27%), and homozygous mutation for H723R in five patients (23%). The most prevalent types of SLC26A4 alleles were IVS15 + 5G > A and H723R, which both accounted for 15/22 (68%) of the patients. There were no significant correlations between the types of SLC26A4 mutation and clinical manifestations. Based on qRT-PCR results, expression of SLC26A4 was not identified in patients with the homozygous substitution of IVS15 + 5G > A. Conclusions The substitution of IVS15 + 5G > A in SLC26A4 was the most common mutation in uniquely found in patients with PS and EVA in Okinawa Islands. This suggested that

  7. Pathogenic substitution of IVS15 + 5G > A in SLC26A4 in patients of Okinawa Islands with enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome or Pendred syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ganaha, Akira; Kaname, Tadashi; Yanagi, Kumiko; Naritomi, Kenji; Tono, Tetsuya; Usami, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Mikio

    2013-05-24

    Pendred syndrome (PS) and nonsyndromic hearing loss associated with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) are caused by SLC26A4 mutations. The Okinawa Islands are the southwestern-most islands of the Japanese archipelago. And ancestral differences have been reported between people from Okinawa Island and those from the main islands of Japan. To confirm the ethnic variation of the spectrum of SLC26A4 mutations, we investigated the frequencies of SLC26A4 mutations and clinical manifestations of patients with EVA or PS living in the Okinawa Islands. We examined 22 patients with EVA or PS from 21 unrelated families in Okinawa Islands. The patient's clinical history, findings of physical and otoscopic examinations, hearing test, and computed tomography (CT) scan of the temporal bones were recorded. To detect mutations, all 21 exons and the exon-intron junctions of SLC26A4 were sequenced for all subjects. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for SLC26A4 and calculations using the comparative CT (2(-ΔΔCT)) method were used to determine the pathogenicity associated with gene substitutions. SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 21 of the 22 patients. We found a compound heterozygous mutation for IVS15 + 5G > A/H723R in nine patients (41%), a homozygous substitution of IVS15 + 5G > A in six patients (27%), and homozygous mutation for H723R in five patients (23%). The most prevalent types of SLC26A4 alleles were IVS15 + 5G > A and H723R, which both accounted for 15/22 (68%) of the patients. There were no significant correlations between the types of SLC26A4 mutation and clinical manifestations. Based on qRT-PCR results, expression of SLC26A4 was not identified in patients with the homozygous substitution of IVS15 + 5G > A. The substitution of IVS15 + 5G > A in SLC26A4 was the most common mutation in uniquely found in patients with PS and EVA in Okinawa Islands. This suggested that the spectrum of SLC26A4 mutation differed

  8. Characterization of Heavy Metal Contents in the Bulk Atmospheric Aerosols Simultaneously Collected at Three Islands in Okinawa, Japan by X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiro, Y.; ITOH, A.; Azechi, S.; Somada, Y.; Handa, D.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2011-12-01

    We studied heavy metal contents of atmospheric aerosols using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF). The XRF method enables us to analyze heavy metal contents of bulk aerosols rapidly without any chemical pretreatments. We used an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer that is compact and portable. We prepared several different amounts of standard reference materials (NIES No.28) of Japanese National Institute of Environmental Studies on quartz filters for calibration curves. Then, we evaluated quantitative responses of XRF method by comparing with the metal contents determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after acid-digestion. Good linear relationships between X-ray intensity and amount of aerosol on filter were seen in the following 10 metals; Al, K, Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Rb, Ba, Pb and As. We then used XRF method to determine heavy metal contents in authentic atmospheric aerosols collected in Okinawa islands, Japan. Okinawa islands, consisting of many small islands, are situated east of Asian continent, and its location in Asian is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants. Also, in Okinawa islands, maritime air mass prevails during summer, while Asian continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background clean air and can be compared with continental air mass which has been affected by anthropogenic activities such as industries and automobiles. Therefore, Okinawa region is suitable area for studying impacts of air pollutants from East Asia. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using identical high-volume air samplers at 3 islands; Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: K2 EPIC stellar properties for 138600 targets (Huber+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, D.; Bryson, S. T.; Haas, M. R.; Barclay, T.; Barentsen, G.; Howell, S. B.; Sharma, S.; Stello, D.; Thompson, S. E.

    2016-06-01

    The K2 Mission uses the Kepler spacecraft to obtain high-precision photometry over ~80 day campaigns in the ecliptic plane. The Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC) provides coordinates, photometry, and kinematics based on a federation of all-sky catalogs to support target selection and target management for the K2 mission. We describe the construction of the EPIC, as well as modifications and shortcomings of the catalog. Kepler magnitudes (Kp) are shown to be accurate to ~0.1mag for the Kepler field, and the EPIC is typically complete to Kp~17 (Kp~19 for campaigns covered by Sloan Digital Sky Survey). We furthermore classify 138600 targets in Campaigns 1-8 (~88% of the full target sample) using colors, proper motions, spectroscopy, parallaxes, and galactic population synthesis models, with typical uncertainties for G-type stars of ~3% in Teff, ~0.3dex in logg~40% in radius, ~10% in mass, and ~40% in distance. Our results show that stars targeted by K2 are dominated by K-M dwarfs (~41% of all selected targets), F-G dwarfs (~36%), and K giants (~21%), consistent with key K2 science programs to search for transiting exoplanets and galactic archeology studies using oscillating red giants. However, we find significant variation of the fraction of cool dwarfs with galactic latitude, indicating a target selection bias due to interstellar reddening and increased contamination by giant stars near the galactic plane. We discuss possible systematic errors in the derived stellar properties, and differences with published classifications for K2 exoplanet host stars. (1 data file).

  10. Convection and Easterly Waves Observed in the Eastern Pacific ITCZ During EPIC2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Cifelli, Robert; Boccippio, Dennis J.; Rutledge, Steven A.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the last three weeks of September 2001, the East Pacific Investigation of Climate Processes in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere System (EPIC2001) intensive field campaign focused on studies of deep convection in the ITCZ-cold tongue complex over the Mexican warm-pool region (10 deg. N 95 deg. W) of the eastern Pacific Ocean. Major observational platforms deployed during this phase of EPIC2001 included two ships, the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown and the NSF R/V Horizon, and two research aircraft including a NOAA P-3 and the NCAR C-130. This study utilizes new C-band Doppler radar and sounding observations collected aboard the R/V Ronald Brown to describe the 4-D structure of ITCZ convection as a function of the environmental forcing and phase of 3-5 day easterly wave passages. Three distinct easterly wave passages occurred during EPIC2001. Each wave originated in the eastern Atlantic Ocean and after moving over Central America and into the eastern Pacific, were easily identified in time-height profiles of wind and thermodynamic data collected at the position of the R/V Brown. In all cases, the wave trough axes (as defined by changes in the meridional and zonal wind direction and changes in pressure altitude) exhibited relatively weak shear at low to mid-levels and tilted westward with height. The humidity profile in each wave did not exhibit as great a tilt in the vertical as the trough axes. Consistent with previous studies of westward tilting waves over the western Pacific Ocean, peaks in radar diagnosed rainfall tended to lead the passage of the surface wave trough by 0-2 days.

  11. Implementation of Epic Beaker Clinical Pathology at an academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Krasowski, Matthew D.; Wilford, Joseph D.; Howard, Wanita; Dane, Susan K.; Davis, Scott R.; Karandikar, Nitin J.; Blau, John L.; Ford, Bradley A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epic Beaker Clinical Pathology (CP) is a relatively new laboratory information system (LIS) operating within the Epic suite of software applications. To date, there have not been any publications describing implementation of Beaker CP. In this report, we describe our experience in implementing Beaker CP version 2012 at a state academic medical center with a go-live of August 2014 and a subsequent upgrade to Beaker version 2014 in May 2015. The implementation of Beaker CP was concurrent with implementations of Epic modules for revenue cycle, patient scheduling, and patient registration. Methods: Our analysis covers approximately 3 years of time (2 years preimplementation of Beaker CP and roughly 1 year after) using data summarized from pre- and post-implementation meetings, debriefings, and the closure document for the project. Results: We summarize positive aspects of, and key factors leading to, a successful implementation of Beaker CP. The early inclusion of subject matter experts in the design and validation of Beaker workflows was very helpful. Since Beaker CP does not directly interface with laboratory instrumentation, the clinical laboratories spent extensive preimplementation effort establishing middleware interfaces. Immediate challenges postimplementation included bar code scanning and nursing adaptation to Beaker CP specimen collection. The most substantial changes in laboratory workflow occurred with microbiology orders. This posed a considerable challenge with microbiology orders from the operating rooms and required intensive interventions in the weeks following go-live. In postimplementation surveys, pathology staff, informatics staff, and end-users expressed satisfaction with the new LIS. Conclusions: Beaker CP can serve as an effective LIS for an academic medical center. Careful planning and preparation aid the transition to this LIS. PMID:26955505

  12. 'EPIC' View of Africa and Europe from a Million Miles Away

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-29

    Africa is front and center in this image of Earth taken by a NASA camera on the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) satellite. The image, taken July 6 from a vantage point one million miles from Earth, was one of the first taken by NASA’s Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC). Central Europe is toward the top of the image with the Sahara Desert to the south, showing the Nile River flowing to the Mediterranean Sea through Egypt. The photographic-quality color image was generated by combining three separate images of the entire Earth taken a few minutes apart. The camera takes a series of 10 images using different narrowband filters -- from ultraviolet to near infrared -- to produce a variety of science products. The red, green and blue channel images are used in these Earth images. The DSCOVR mission is a partnership between NASA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Air Force, with the primary objective to maintain the nation’s real-time solar wind monitoring capabilities, which are critical to the accuracy and lead time of space weather alerts and forecasts from NOAA. DSCOVR was launched in February to its planned orbit at the first Lagrange point or L1, about one million miles from Earth toward the sun. It’s from that unique vantage point that the EPIC instrument is acquiring images of the entire sunlit face of Earth. Data from EPIC will be used to measure ozone and aerosol levels in Earth’s atmosphere, cloud height, vegetation properties and a variety of other features. Image Credit: NASA

  13. Implementation of Epic Beaker Clinical Pathology at an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Krasowski, Matthew D; Wilford, Joseph D; Howard, Wanita; Dane, Susan K; Davis, Scott R; Karandikar, Nitin J; Blau, John L; Ford, Bradley A

    2016-01-01

    Epic Beaker Clinical Pathology (CP) is a relatively new laboratory information system (LIS) operating within the Epic suite of software applications. To date, there have not been any publications describing implementation of Beaker CP. In this report, we describe our experience in implementing Beaker CP version 2012 at a state academic medical center with a go-live of August 2014 and a subsequent upgrade to Beaker version 2014 in May 2015. The implementation of Beaker CP was concurrent with implementations of Epic modules for revenue cycle, patient scheduling, and patient registration. Our analysis covers approximately 3 years of time (2 years preimplementation of Beaker CP and roughly 1 year after) using data summarized from pre- and post-implementation meetings, debriefings, and the closure document for the project. We summarize positive aspects of, and key factors leading to, a successful implementation of Beaker CP. The early inclusion of subject matter experts in the design and validation of Beaker workflows was very helpful. Since Beaker CP does not directly interface with laboratory instrumentation, the clinical laboratories spent extensive preimplementation effort establishing middleware interfaces. Immediate challenges postimplementation included bar code scanning and nursing adaptation to Beaker CP specimen collection. The most substantial changes in laboratory workflow occurred with microbiology orders. This posed a considerable challenge with microbiology orders from the operating rooms and required intensive interventions in the weeks following go-live. In postimplementation surveys, pathology staff, informatics staff, and end-users expressed satisfaction with the new LIS. Beaker CP can serve as an effective LIS for an academic medical center. Careful planning and preparation aid the transition to this LIS.

  14. Convection and Easterly Waves Observed in the Eastern Pacific ITCZ During EPIC2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Cifelli, Robert; Boccippio, Dennis J.; Rutledge, Steven A.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the last three weeks of September 2001, the East Pacific Investigation of Climate Processes in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere System (EPIC2001) intensive field campaign focused on studies of deep convection in the ITCZ-cold tongue complex over the Mexican warm-pool region (10 deg. N 95 deg. W) of the eastern Pacific Ocean. Major observational platforms deployed during this phase of EPIC2001 included two ships, the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown and the NSF R/V Horizon, and two research aircraft including a NOAA P-3 and the NCAR C-130. This study utilizes new C-band Doppler radar and sounding observations collected aboard the R/V Ronald Brown to describe the 4-D structure of ITCZ convection as a function of the environmental forcing and phase of 3-5 day easterly wave passages. Three distinct easterly wave passages occurred during EPIC2001. Each wave originated in the eastern Atlantic Ocean and after moving over Central America and into the eastern Pacific, were easily identified in time-height profiles of wind and thermodynamic data collected at the position of the R/V Brown. In all cases, the wave trough axes (as defined by changes in the meridional and zonal wind direction and changes in pressure altitude) exhibited relatively weak shear at low to mid-levels and tilted westward with height. The humidity profile in each wave did not exhibit as great a tilt in the vertical as the trough axes. Consistent with previous studies of westward tilting waves over the western Pacific Ocean, peaks in radar diagnosed rainfall tended to lead the passage of the surface wave trough by 0-2 days.

  15. Halarchaeum grantii sp. nov., a moderately acidophilic haloarchaeon isolated from a commercial salt sample made in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Shimane, Yasuhiro; Minegishi, Hiroaki; Echigo, Akinobu; Kamekura, Masahiro; Itoh, Takashi; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tsubouchi, Taishi; Usui, Keiko; Maruyama, Tadashi; Usami, Ron; Hatada, Yuji

    2015-08-03

    Three moderately acidophilic, halophilic archaeal strains, MH1-243-3T, MH1-243-5 and MH1-243-6 were isolated from a commercial salt sample made from seawater in Okinawa, Japan. Cells of the three strains were pleomorphic, and stained Gram-negative. Colonies of the strains were orange-red pigmented. Strain MH1-243-3T was able to grow at 15-27 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum at 24 %), at pH 4.5-6.5 (pH 5.5) and at 35-50 °C (45 °C). Strains MH1-243-5 and MH1-243-6 grew in slightly different ranges (shown in text). The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the three strains were identical, and the closest relative was Halarchaeum salinum MH1-34-1T with 97.0 % similarities. The rpoB' gene sequences of the three strains were also identical, and the closest relative was Hla. acidiphilum JCM 16109T with 92.0 % similarities. The DNA G+C contents of MH1-243-3T, MH1-243-5 and MH1-243-6 were 65.2 mol%. The levels of DNA-DNA relatedness amongst the three strains were 84.1-99.8 %, while that between MH1-243-3T and Halarchaeum salinum MH1-34-1 T was 30.6 % and 31.6 % (reciprocally), and those between MH1-243-3T and type strains of other species in the genus Halarchaeum were 42.3-29.4 %. Based on the phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic analyses, it is proposed that the isolates should represent a new species of the genus Halarchaeum, for which the name Halarchaeum grantii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MH1-243-3T (= JCM 19585T = KCTC 4142T) isolated from commercial sea salt produced in Okinawa, Japan. MH1-243-5 (= JCM 19586) and MH1-243-6 (= JCM 18422) are additional strains of the species.

  16. Current status of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis in Okinawa prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakama, Rika; Shingaki, Aoi; Miyazato, Hiroko; Higa, Rikako; Nagamoto, Chota; Hamamoto, Kouta; Ueda, Shuhei; Hachiman, Teruyuki; Touma, Yuki; Miyagi, Kazufumi; Kawahara, Ryuji; Toyosato, Takehiko; Hirai, Itaru

    2016-05-01

    Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) are distributed worldwide. In this study, 114 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were isolated by analyzing 1672 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae collected from an Okinawa prefectural hospital in Japan between June 2013 and July 2014. The overall prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae was 6.8%; the prevalence of different bacterial species among the ESBL-producing isolates was as follows: 11.5% Escherichia coli (90 of 783 isolates), 6.2% Klebsiella pneumoniae (19 of 307 isolates), and 11.1% Proteus mirabilis (5 of 45 isolates). The ESBL types blaCTX-M-1, -3, -15, -2, -14, -27, and mutants of blaSHV-1 were detected. Among them, blaCTX-M-15 (33.3%), blaCTX-M-14 (27.8%) and blaCTX-M-27 (33.3%) were dominant in the E. coli isolates, whereas a blaSHV mutant which possessed four mutations (Tyr7Phe, Leu35Gln, Gly238Ser and Glu240Lys) in the amino acid sequence of SHV-1 dominated in the K. pneumoniae isolates (11 of 19, 57.9%). The pandemic E. coli ST131 clone was found to constitute 3.3% of the overall examined isolates and 62.2% of the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. Our results suggest that the genetic combination of blaCTX-M, and blaSHV and antibiotics-resistant profile were different from that in other regions such as other areas of Japan, Asia, Europe, and North America, especially in the ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates and in the E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 isolates possessing blaCTX-M-15 (40.7% of the E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 isolates). Taken together, our results indicate that the ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Okinawa, Japan, might be of a unique nature.

  17. Drilling constraints on bimodal volcanism and subsequent formation of contrasted uppermost crustal compositions at the middle Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, T.; Takaya, Y.; Mukae, N.; Nagase, T.; Tindell, T.; Totsuka, S.; Uno, Y.; Yonezu, K.; Nozaki, T.; Ishibashi, J. I.; Kumagai, H.; Maeda, L.; Shipboard Scientist, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Okinawa Trough (OT) is a young and actively spreading back-arc basin, extending behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system in the southeastern margin of the East China Sea. The OT is believed to be in an initial rifting stage (starting from 6-9 Ma), prior to the normal/stable seafloor spreading which constitutes the main stage of back-arc basin formation. Two drilling cruises ‒ the IODP Exp. 331 and SIP CK14-04 D/V Chikyu Cruise (Exp. 907) in 2010 and 2014 ‒ were conducted at the Iheya North Knoll, middle OT. The Iheya North Knoll is a domal volcanic complex consisting of small volcanic bodies. On these cruises, pumiceous gravel and altered rhyolitic rocks, as well as hemi-pelagic sediments, hydrothermal clay and Kuroko-type ores, were recovered from the upper 200 m of the crust. From Feb. 11, 2016 to Mar. 17, 2016, the SIP CK16-01 (Exp. 908) D/V Chikyu cruise was conducted at Iheya North Knoll and the sediment-covered rifting center of the Iheya-Minor Ridge area, middle OT. The Iheya-Minor ridge area is also an active hydrothermal field, located 25 km southeast of the Iheya North Knoll. In this area, basaltic rocks are widely distributed, and drilling has confirmed that the basaltic materials continue to 120 m below the seafloor. From an igneous petrological point of view, the volcanic rocks in the Okinawa Trough are characterized by bimodal basaltic and rhyolitic compositions, with a compositional gap between SiO2 = 56-66 wt%. The origin of the rhyolitic rock has been interpreted as magmatic differentiation of basaltic magma. However, the existence of an active basalt-hosted hydrothermal field in the Iheya-Minor ridge area suggests the presence of hot basaltic rocks at a shallow position in the crust, and reaching recharged seawater at this depth. Furthermore, the composition of felsic rocks just after the compositional gap (SiO2 = 67 wt%) is very similar to that of the minimum melt of a granitic system, and experimental partial melt of hydrous basalt. Therefore

  18. Behavior of Particulate Mercury in the Bulk Atmospheric Aerosols Simultaneously Collected at 2 Sites in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Azechi, S.; Somada, Y.; Oshiro, Y.; Tsuhako, A.; Murayama, H.; Tanahara, A.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury is toxic to animals. Mercury is emitted to the atmosphere mainly from two sources; natural and anthropogenic sources. Natural sources include volcanic eruption, forest fire and so on. Anthropogenic sources include fossil fuel combustion, metal and cement production and so on. There are three forms of mercury in the atmosphere: gaseous elemental mercury, reactive gaseous mercury and particulate mercury. Gaseous elemental mercury is the most abundant form in the atmosphere, and has long atmospheric lifetime, ca. a few years. This study focuses on particulate mercury, which has a relatively short lifetime, ca. a few days, in the atmosphere because it reflects characteristics of nearby emission sources. Objectives of this study were to elucidate the behavior of particulate mercury in aerosols and to understand relationships between mercury and other metals and water-soluble anions. Aerosol samples were collected at two sites; Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Jan.2008-Nov.2012), northern tip of Okinawa island, and University of the Ryukyus (UR, Jan.2008-Nov.2012), central and more populated area of Okinawa island. They were collected by using identical high-volume air samplers on quartz filters. Concentrations of particulate mercury in aerosols were determined by using a MA-3000 (Nippon Instruments Corporation). The results showed that particulate Hg concentrations were mostly higher for the aerosols collected at UR site than those at CHAAMS site, suggesting locally emitted Hg. Samples collected at UR showed clear seasonal variation, the lowest in summer and the highest winter. On the other hand, the CHAAMS samples showed lower concentration in winter and higher concentration in summer, but the difference was relatively small. Both UR and CHAAMS samples had similar concentration levels in summer season. Back trajectory analysis showed that particulate Hg at CHAAMS site during summer was not from Asian continent. Since samples

  19. Intraspecific variations in carbon-isotope and oxygen-isotope compositions of a brachiopod Basiliola lucida collected off Okinawa-jima, southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayanagi, Hideko; Asami, Ryuji; Abe, Osamu; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Keiichi; Iryu, Yasufumi

    2013-08-01

    This study presents intraspecific variations in carbon-isotope (δ13C) and oxygen-isotope (δ18O) compositions of nine specimens of a subtropical brachiopod, Basiliola lucida, collected west of Okinawa-jima, Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan. The δ13C values of samples collected along the maximum growth axis (ontogenetic samples) from two modern and seven older (pre-1945 cal AD) shells show no seasonal changes. The modern shells, which were collected from comparable depths, have similar δ13C values that fall within the range of calcite precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater (equilibrium calcite) (δ13CEC values), and their mean δ13C values are ˜1.1-1.6‰ less than those from the older shells. This decrease in δ13C values is similar in magnitude to the decreases in atmospheric CO2 and the oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon at the sea surface in recent years (13C Suess effect), suggesting that the effect can even be detected at water depths of 200-300 m in the subtropical northwestern Pacific Ocean. The δ18O values fluctuate within a narrow range (0.26-0.41‰) with no seasonal changes, and they exhibit small (0.14-0.51‰) offsets from those of equilibrium calcite (δ18OEC values). A statistically significant negative linear relationship is established between seawater temperature and mean δ18O values of the nine shells, but the slope (-0.31‰/°C) is steeper than those of equilibrium calcite (-0.23‰/°C) and other calcareous organisms (-0.15‰ to -0.26‰/°C). The cross-plots of the δ13C and δ18O values suggest that the degree of the vital effect varies among individuals in this species. The δ13C and δ18O values of B. lucida are potentially useful for reconstructing the δ13C and δ18O evolution of ancient oceans, because both values show small intraspecific variations, the former is identical to the δ13CEC values, and the latter shows small within-shell variations and small, nearly constant offsets from the δ18OEC values.

  20. Molecular diversity and distribution pattern of ciliates in sediments from deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough and adjacent sea areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-10-01

    In comparison with the macrobenthos and prokaryotes, patterns of diversity and distribution of microbial eukaryotes in deep-sea hydrothermal vents are poorly known. The widely used high-throughput sequencing of 18S rDNA has revealed a high diversity of microeukaryotes yielded from both living organisms and buried DNA in marine sediments. More recently, cDNA surveys have been utilized to uncover the diversity of active organisms. However, both methods have never been used to evaluate the diversity of ciliates in hydrothermal vents. By using high-throughput DNA and cDNA sequencing of 18S rDNA, we evaluated the molecular diversity of ciliates, a representative group of microbial eukaryotes, from the sediments of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough and compared it with that of an adjacent deep-sea area about 15 km away and that of an offshore area of the Yellow Sea about 500 km away. The results of DNA sequencing showed that Spirotrichea and Oligohymenophorea were the most diverse and abundant groups in all the three habitats. The proportion of sequences of Oligohymenophorea was the highest in the hydrothermal vents whereas Spirotrichea was the most diverse group at all three habitats. Plagiopyleans were found only in the hydrothermal vents but with low diversity and abundance. By contrast, the cDNA sequencing showed that Plagiopylea was the most diverse and most abundant group in the hydrothermal vents, followed by Spirotrichea in terms of diversity and Oligohymenophorea in terms of relative abundance. A novel group of ciliates, distinctly separate from the 12 known classes, was detected in the hydrothermal vents, indicating undescribed, possibly highly divergent ciliates may inhabit this environment. Statistical analyses showed that: (i) the three habitats differed significantly from one another in terms of diversity of both the rare and the total ciliate taxa, and; (ii) the adjacent deep sea was more similar to the offshore area than to the

  1. What is the constraint on formation of oil-starved hydrothermal systems in the sediment-rich Okinawa Trough, southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, T.; Akashi, H.; Mitsunari, T.

    2012-12-01

    Petroleum generation associated with seafloor hydrothermal systems was first identified at the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California in 1978 (Simoneit et al., 1979). Since the first discovery, hydrothermal petroleums have been discovered at other seafloor hydrothermal fields, Escanaba Trough, Middle Valley, and the Red Sea, where thick sedimentary layer overlay the active spreading center. Simoneit (1990) suggested that hydrothermal petroleum can be occurred any hydrothermal systems as a result of interaction between hot hydrothermal fluid and organic mater in the sedimentary layer. In the middle Okinawa Trough, where typical sediment-hosted hydrothermal systems distribute, occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum has not been found. In 2010 IODP Exp. 331 had been performed, and then five sites were drilled at the Iheya North hydrothermal system. However, hydrothermal petroleum generation has not been reported even at that time. On the other hand, significant hydrothermal petroleum generation has been observed at a shallow-seafloor hydrothermal system in the Kagoshima Bay, north extension of Okinawa Trough (Yamanaka et al., 1999). It is an interesting subject why hydrothermal petroleum can not be found in the Okinawa Trough. So we considered what is the most critical constraint on occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum based on comparison with the well known hydrothermal fields occurred hydrothermal petroleum. Three major control factors for petroleum generation at seafloor hydrothermal systems are expected; (i) temperature, (ii) elapsed time, (iii) type of sediment. High temperature is essential for maturation of organic matter, but under extremely high temperature condition pyrolysis to gaseous hydrocarbon and other low-molecular weight product may be prevailed. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) and methane concentrations may reflect the temperature condition, because methane generation may continue under extreme condition but DOM, especially low-molecular weight organic acid

  2. EPIC: A C++ Service Oriented Inter-process Messaging Framework and its Usage in the PFS Reduction Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, C.; Chabaud, P.-Y.

    2015-09-01

    We present EPIC: a C++ library for managing inter process communication in the Prime Focus Spectrograph Data Reduction Pipeline (PFS/DRP). The aim of EPIC is to provide a consistent framework for building distributed softwares that can be efficiently used in various kind of astronomical data processing pipeline. The Prime Focus Spectrograph multi-fiber system will allow more than 2000 simultaneous spectral observations of astronomical targets at the same time, leading the need of a high throughput system for processing data reduction of each observations. This framework provide a load balanced, messages and services oriented system, where nodes communicate with each other using a set of C++ APIs.

  3. ["Expanded prostate cancer index composite" (EPIC-26): Results of functional treatment in patients with localized prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Beyer, B; Huland, H; Feick, G; Graefen, M

    2015-11-01

    The standardized collation of the quality of treatment is a subject of discussion both nationally and internationally. This article presents the work of the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) and the validated German translation of the expanded prostate cancer index composite (EPIC-26). This questionnaire allows a standardized interdisciplinary collation of the quality of treatment for all therapy modalities of localized prostate cancer. Use of the ICHOM standard set and the EPIC-26 achieves a possibility for comparison of each form of therapy with respect to the curative success and the effect on health and quality of life of patients.

  4. Incorporation of a PbSe Array Based Spectrograph into EPICS using LabView at the JLab FEL Facility

    SciTech Connect

    D. Hardy; S.V. Benson; Michelle D. Shinn; S. Zhang

    2005-08-21

    A real-time spectrograph with a 1Hz update rate was designed and installed at the JLab FEL facility using a Cal Sensors PbSe array and a Roper Scientific SpectraPro 300 monochrometer. This paper describes the implementation of EPICS channel access on a remote PC running LabView with modification of vendor supplied LabView VI's to allow display of FEL light spectra in real-time on a remote workstation. This allows PC based diagnostics to be used in EPICS.

  5. Enlisted Personnel Individualized Career System (EPICS) and Conventional Personnel System (CPS): Preliminary Comparison of Training and Ancillary Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    and CPS Economic Life Estimates (yrs.) Technological CopnetMission Life- Physical Life Life SEPICS CPS EPICS CPS EPICS CPS NSSMS 20 20 10 10 10 toJ...inflation perSyear since 1979. The convention of inflating first and discounting later is used (DoD, •" �). bb i i ’ bThe’ cost p r student was converted ...evaluation of resource manage- * ment (DoD Inst. 7041.3). Washington, DC : Author, 18 October 1972. . Department of the Navy. Economic analysis handbook

  6. Diurnal Cycle of Convection in the East Pacific ITCZ during EPIC-2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccippio, Dennis J.; Petersen, Walter A.; Cifelli, Robert; Rutledge, Steven A.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the last three weeks of September 2001, the EPIC-2001 intensive field campaign focused on studies of deep convection in the ITCZ over the Mexican warm pool region (10N, 95W) of the East Pacific. This study focuses on the pronounced observed diurnal cycle of environmental and convective parameters within the experiment domain. Data from three primary sources are examined: the R/V Ronald H. Brown C-band weather radar, 4-hourly soundings from the Brown and the Global Atmospherics, Inc. National Lightning Detection Network (long range product). Satellite data from TRMM, GOES and OV-1 are also used. The domain boundary layer shows a robust daily evolution of moist enthalpy (as reflect by equivalent potential temperature, theta-e, or wet bulb potential temperature, theta-w), with contributions from changes in both dry and moist entropy. Peak theta-w is found after local nightfall; the average diurnal range of theta-w is approximately 1 deg C. A composite diurnal cycle of convective properties was derived from the C-band volume scans, sampled continuously through the experiment at 10 minute updates. Products derived from the volumetric data include a surface PPI, 15 and 30 dBZ echo top height, vertically integrated liquid, and 6 km (mixed phase region) reflectivity CAPPIs. For almost all products, the parameter means showed virtually no diurnal cycle. However, for the upper-level products, the parameter spectra showed a clear peak in the occurrence of deep/vigorous convection (the "tail end of the distribution") between 7-9 UTC (1-3 AM local), while overall frequency of occurrence peaked later, from 12-15 UTC (6-9 AM local). This represents a daily "outbreak" of isolated deep cells a couple of hours after sunset and subsequent growth, organization and decay through the nighttime hours. The coherence of the diurnal cycle of the convective spectrum is impressive given the wide variety of convective organization observed during the experiment, and given the modulation

  7. Diurnal Cycle of Convection in the East Pacific ITCZ during EPIC-2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccippio, Dennis J.; Petersen, Walter A.; Cifelli, Robert; Rutledge, Steven A.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the last three weeks of September 2001, the EPIC-2001 intensive field campaign focused on studies of deep convection in the ITCZ over the Mexican warm pool region (10N, 95W) of the East Pacific. This study focuses on the pronounced observed diurnal cycle of environmental and convective parameters within the experiment domain. Data from three primary sources are examined: the R/V Ronald H. Brown C-band weather radar, 4-hourly soundings from the Brown and the Global Atmospherics, Inc. National Lightning Detection Network (long range product). Satellite data from TRMM, GOES and OV-1 are also used. The domain boundary layer shows a robust daily evolution of moist enthalpy (as reflect by equivalent potential temperature, theta-e, or wet bulb potential temperature, theta-w), with contributions from changes in both dry and moist entropy. Peak theta-w is found after local nightfall; the average diurnal range of theta-w is approximately 1 deg C. A composite diurnal cycle of convective properties was derived from the C-band volume scans, sampled continuously through the experiment at 10 minute updates. Products derived from the volumetric data include a surface PPI, 15 and 30 dBZ echo top height, vertically integrated liquid, and 6 km (mixed phase region) reflectivity CAPPIs. For almost all products, the parameter means showed virtually no diurnal cycle. However, for the upper-level products, the parameter spectra showed a clear peak in the occurrence of deep/vigorous convection (the "tail end of the distribution") between 7-9 UTC (1-3 AM local), while overall frequency of occurrence peaked later, from 12-15 UTC (6-9 AM local). This represents a daily "outbreak" of isolated deep cells a couple of hours after sunset and subsequent growth, organization and decay through the nighttime hours. The coherence of the diurnal cycle of the convective spectrum is impressive given the wide variety of convective organization observed during the experiment, and given the modulation

  8. Diet and risk of chronic diseases: results from the first 8 years of follow-up in the EPIC-Potsdam study.

    PubMed

    von Ruesten, A; Feller, S; Bergmann, M M; Boeing, H

    2013-04-01

    There is still a need for scientific evidence about which foods characterize a healthy diet in terms of primary prevention of major chronic diseases. Therefore, we aimed to give a comprehensive overview on health-related foods, based on 8 years of follow-up of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study. We used data from 23,531 participants of the EPIC-Potsdam study to analyse the associations between 45 single food groups and risk of major chronic diseases, namely, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), type 2 diabetes and cancer using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. Habitual dietary intake was assessed at baseline using food-frequency questionnaires. Incident chronic diseases were determined by self-administered follow-up questionnaires and medically verified, based on inquiry to treating physicians, cancer registries or through death certificates. During follow-up, 363 incident CVD, 837 type 2 diabetes and 844 cancer cases were identified. Higher intakes of whole-grain bread, raw vegetables, coffee and cakes and cookies were found to be significantly associated with a lower risk of chronic diseases. Conversely, higher intakes of low-fat dairy, butter, red meat and sauce were associated with higher risks of chronic diseases. Overall, a healthy diet was characterized by a high consumption of whole-grain bread, raw vegetables and a low consumption of red meat and possibly butter, which is generally in line with previous findings. The paradoxical findings concerning the potential health benefit of coffee as well as cakes and cookies are interesting and should be investigated further.

  9. Consumption of fruits, vegetables and fruit juices and differentiated thyroid carcinoma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Béraud, Virginie; Franceschi, Silvia; Cayssials, Valerie; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Eriksen, Anne K; Bonnet, Fabrice; Affret, Aurélie; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Karakatsani, Anna; Masala, Giovanna; Grioni, Sara; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Skeie, Guri; Parr, Christine L; Merino, Susana; Salamanca-Fernández, Elena; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Almquist, Martin; Drake, Isabel; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Schmidt, Julie A; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Aune, Dagfinn; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia; Scalbert, Augustin; Romieu, Isabelle; Agudo, Antonio; Rinaldi, Sabina

    2017-07-08

    Fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake is considered as probably protective against overall cancer risk, but results in previous studies are not consistent for thyroid cancer (TC). The purpose of this study is to examine the association between the consumption of fruits, vegetables, fruit juices and differentiated thyroid cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The EPIC study is a cohort including over half a million participants, recruited between 1991 and 2000. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 748 incident first primary differentiated TC cases were identified. F&V and fruit juice intakes were assessed through validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounding factors. Comparing the highest versus lowest quartile of intake, differentiated TC risk was not associated with intakes of total F&V (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.68-1.15; p-trend = 0.44), vegetables (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.69-1.14; p-trend = 0.56), or fruit (HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.79-1.26; p-trend = 0.64). No significant association was observed with any individual type of vegetable or fruit. However, there was a positive borderline trend with fruit juice intake (HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.98-1.53; p-trend = 0.06). This study did not find any significant association between F&V intakes and differentiated TC risk; however a positive trend with fruit juice intake was observed, possibly related to its high sugar content. © 2017 UICC.

  10. Consumption of predefined 'Nordic' dietary items in ten European countries - an investigation in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    PubMed

    Roswall, Nina; Olsen, Anja; Boll, Katja; Christensen, Jane; Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie C; Cottet, Vanessa; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; von Ruesten, Anne; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Oikonomou, Eleni; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Pala, Valeria; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Masala, Giovanna; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Asli, Lene A; Amiano, Pilar; Jakszyn, Paula; Ardanaz, Eva; Huerta, José M; Quirós, José R; Molina-Montes, Esther; Nilsson, Lena M; Johansson, Ingegerd; Wirfält, Elisabet; Drake, Isabel; Mulligan, Angela A; Khaw, Kay T; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Key, Tim; Riboli, Elio; Tjønneland, Anne

    2014-12-01

    Health-beneficial effects of adhering to a healthy Nordic diet index have been suggested. However, it has not been examined to what extent the included dietary components are exclusively related to the Nordic countries or if they are part of other European diets as well, suggesting a broader preventive potential. The present study describes the intake of seven a priori defined healthy food items (apples/pears, berries, cabbages, dark bread, shellfish, fish and root vegetables) across ten countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and examines their consumption across Europe. Cross-sectional study. A 24 h dietary recall was administered through a software program containing country-specific recipes. Sex-specific mean food intake was calculated for each centre/country, as well as percentage of overall food groups consumed as healthy Nordic food items. All analyses were weighted by day and season of data collection. Multi-centre, European study. Persons (n 36 970) aged 35-74 years, constituting a random sample of 519 978 EPIC participants. The highest intakes of the included diet components were: cabbages and berries in Central Europe; apples/pears in Southern Europe; dark bread in Norway, Denmark and Greece; fish in Southern and Northern countries; shellfish in Spain; and root vegetables in Northern and Central Europe. Large inter-centre variation, however, existed in some countries. Dark bread, root vegetables and fish are strongly related to a Nordic dietary tradition. Apples/pears, berries, cabbages, fish, shellfish and root vegetables are broadly consumed in Europe, and may thus be included in regional public health campaigns.

  11. Entamoeba marina n. sp.; a New Species of Entamoeba Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment of Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiratori, Takashi; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro

    2016-05-01

    The genus Entamoeba includes anaerobic lobose amoebae, most of which are parasites of various vertebrates and invertebrates. We report a new Entamoeba species, E. marina n. sp. that was isolated from a sample of tidal flat sediment collected at Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan. Trophozoites of E. marina were 12.8-32.1 μm in length and 6.8-15.9 μm in width, whereas the cysts were 8.9-15.8 μm in diam. and contained four nuclei. The E. marina cells contained a rounded nucleus with a small centric karyosome and uniformly arranged peripheral chromatin. Although E. marina is morphologically indistinguishable from other tetranucleated cyst-forming Entamoeba species, E. marina can be distinguished from them based on the combination of molecular phylogenetic analyses using SSU rDNA gene and the difference of collection sites. Therefore, we propose E. marina as a new species of the genus Entamoeba. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  12. Effect of Okinawa Propolis on PAK1 Activity, Caenorhabditis elegans Longevity, Melanogenesis, and Growth of Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Taira, Nozomi; Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Be Tu, Pham Thi; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2016-07-13

    Propolis from different areas has been reported to inhibit oncogenic/aging kinase PAK1, which is responsible for a variety of conditions, including cancer, longevity, and melanogenesis. Here, a crude extract of Okinawa propolis (OP) was tested against PAK1 activity, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) longevity, melanogenesis, and growth of cancer cells. We found that OP blocks PAK1 and exhibits anticancer activity in the A549 cell (human lung cancer cell) line with IC50 values of 6 μg/mL and 12 μg/mL, respectively. Most interestingly, OP (1 μg/mL) significantly reduces reproduction and prolongs the lifespan of C. elegans by activating the HSP-16.2 gene, as shown in the PAK1-deficient strain. Furthermore, OP inhibits melanogenesis in a melanoma cell line (B16F10) by downregulating intracellular tyrosinase activity with an IC50 of 30 μg/mL. Our results suggest that OP demonstrated a life span extending effect, C. elegans, anticancer, and antimelanogenic effects via PAK1 inactivation; therefore, this can be a potent natural medicinal supplement against PAK1-dependent diseases.

  13. [Toxicity and toxin profile of scavenging and carnivorous gastropods from the coastal waters of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan].

    PubMed

    Taniyama, Shigeto; Takatani, Tomohiro; Sorimachi, Taiki; Sagara, Takefumi; Kubo, Hirofumi; Oshiro, Naomasa; Ono, Kaname; Xiao, Ning; Tachibana, Katsuyasu; Arakawa, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    From January to June 2009, a total of 64 gastropod specimens of 15 species were collected from the coastal waters of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and examined for toxicity by means of mouse bioassay. Among the specimens tested, 5 species, Nassarius glans, Nassariuscoronatus, Olivaannulata, Oliva concavospira and Zeuxis sp., were toxic. The toxicity scores of N. glans were very high; 39.6-461 MU/g in muscle, and 98.6-189 MU/g in viscera including digestive gland, followed by Zeuxis sp. (12.7 MU/g in whole body), N. coronatus (5.64-11.1 MU/g in whole body), O. annulata (10.8 MU/g in the whole body), O. concavospira (6.65 MU/g in the muscle). Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) revealed that the major toxic component was tetrodotoxin (TTX), which accounting for 13-82% of the total toxicity. As for the remaining toxicity in the case of N. glans, 4,9-anhydroTTX, 4-epiTTX and 11-oxoTTX were contributors. Moreover, Niotha albescens showed no toxicity (less than 10 MU/g) in mouse bioassay, but TTX (5.08 MU/g) was detected by LC-MS. Paralytic shellfish poison was not detected in any of the specimens by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection (HPLC-FLD).

  14. Oxidative Stress and Longevity in Okinawa: An Investigation of Blood Lipid Peroxidation and Tocopherol in Okinawan Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Makoto; Willcox, D. Craig; Rosenbaum, Matthew W.; Willcox, Bradley J.

    2010-01-01

    Background. The Free Radical Theory of Aging mechanistically links oxidative stress to aging. Okinawa has among the world's longest-lived populations but oxidative stress in this population has not been well characterized. Methods. We compared plasma lipid peroxide (LPO) and vitamin E—plasma and intracellular tocopherol levels (total α, β, and γ), in centenarians with younger controls. Results. Both LPO and vitamin E tocopherols were lower in centenarians, with the exception of intracellular β-tocopherol, which was significantly higher in centenarians versus younger controls. There were no significant differences between age groups for tocopherol: cholesterol and tocopherol: LPO ratios. Correlations were found between α-Tocopherol and LPO in septuagenarians but not in centenarians. Conclusions. The low plasma level of LPO in Okinawan centenarians, compared to younger controls, argues for protection against oxidative stress in the centenarian population and is consistent with the predictions of the Free Radical Theory of Aging. However, the present work does not strongly support a role for vitamin E in this phenomenon. The role of intracellular β-tocopherol deserves additional study. More research is needed on the contribution of oxidative stress and antioxidants to human longevity. PMID:21490698

  15. Metabolic Syndrome and Cognitive Decline Among the Oldest Old in Okinawa: In Search of a Mechanism. The KOCOA Project

    PubMed Central

    Todoriki, Hidemi; Higashiuesato, Yasushi; Yasura, Shotoku; Willcox, D. Craig; Ohya, Yusuke; Willcox, Bradley J.; Dodge, Hiroko H.

    2012-01-01

    The study aim was to test whether the metabolic syndrome or its components predicted cognitive decline among persons aged 80 years and older (mean 85.0 years). Participants were members of the “Keys to Optimal Cognitive Aging Project,” a prospective cohort study in Okinawa, Japan. Metabolic syndrome was assessed at baseline. Cognitive functions were assessed annually for up to 3 years. One hundred and forty-eight participants completed at least one follow-up with 101 participating in all three assessments and 47 participating in two of the three assessments. The mean and median duration of follow-up were 1.8 and 2 years, respectively. Metabolic syndrome and four components were not associated with decline in global and executive cognitive functions. However, high glycosylated hemoglobin was associated with decline in memory function at the second follow-up. Our study supports accumulating evidence that the positive association between metabolic syndrome and cognitive function might not hold for the oldest old. PMID:22016359

  16. A new sponge-inhabiting Loxosomella (Entoprocta: Loxosomatidae) from Okinawa Island, Japan, with special focus on foot structure.

    PubMed

    Iseto, Tohru; Sugiyama, Nagisa; Hirose, Euichi

    2008-11-01

    Abstract A new solitary entoproct, Loxosomella plakorticola sp. nov., was found on a sponge, Plakortis sp., on a coral reef slope on the western coast of Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. This species has a medium-sized body (up to about 1.2 mm), slender proportion (the stalk is 0.83-1.76 times longer than the calyx), a slug-like foot with a foot gland and foot groove, and 14 to 18 tentacles. Small black pigment granules are visible only in the living stage in the calyx, stalk, and buds. This is the first report of a commensal loxosomatid from the Ryukyu Archipelago and the second species inhabiting sponges reported from Japan. Detailed morphological observations indicate that this species attaches to sponges by narrowing the foot groove; the sponge surface is pinched in the deepest part of the groove, which is free of the cuticle layer but covered by microvilli of epidermal cells. The accessory cells lining the foot groove have long been believed to be gland cells, but they are not gland cells in ultrastructure, at least in this species.

  17. Pb-210 fluxes and sedimentation rates on the lower continental slope between Taiwan and the South Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Y.; Chang, W. C.

    1995-03-01

    Pb-210 and Ra-226 have been measured on 11 cores taken from the continental slope between northern Taiwan and the western South Okinawa Trough. Ra-226 activities generally fall between 0.5 and 2 dpm g -1. Pb-210 activities are widely variable in these cores: negligible excess Pb-210 (or no Pb-210 flux) is observed on the upper and middle slope while large excess Pb-210 values (50-90 dpm g -1) are present on the lower slope. Sedimentation rates estimated from the excess Pb-210 profiles of the cores range from 0.09 to 0.52 cm y -1 (0.08 - 0.42 g cm -2 y -1) for the lower slope and decrease toward the deeper (eastern) slope. Excess Pb-210 inventories and the Pb-210 fluxes calculated from the lower slope are 320-840 dpm cm -2 and 10-26 dpm cm -2 y -1 , respectively, assuming a steady-state input at each site for the past 100 years. Atmospheric input of Pb-210 and local production from Ra-226 do not account for the observed fluxes. Two alternative explanations are proposed: (1) boundary scavenging coupled with the Kuroshio water flowing through the area; or (2) downslope transport of high Pb-210 activity fine-grained particles from the shelf and upper/middle slope to the lower slope where they are deposited.

  18. Fe-rich carbonate chimney in Okinawa Trough Implication for Fe-driven Microbial Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AMO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, X.; Guo, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Marine sediments associated with cold seeps at continental margins discharge substantial amounts of methane. Microbial anaerobic oxidation of methane (AMO) is a key biogeochemical process in these environments, which can trigger the formation of carbonate chimneys within sediments. The exact biogeochemical mechanism of how AMO control the formation of carbonate chimneys and influence their mineralogy and chemistry remains poorly constrained. Here, we use nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry to characterize the petrology and geochemistry of methane-derived Fe-rich carbonate chimneys formed between 5-7 Ma in the Northern Okinawa Trough. We find abundant framboid pyrites formed in the authigenic carbonates in the chimneys, indicating a non-Fe limitation sedimentary system. The δ13C values of carbonate (-18.9‰ to -45.9‰, PDB) show their probable origin from a mixing source of biogenic and thermogenic methane. The δ34S values range from -3.9 ± 0.5‰ to 23.2 ± 0.5‰ (VCDT), indicative of a strong exhaustion of sulfates in a local sulfate pool. We proposed that Fe-rich carbonate chimneys formed at the bottom of the sulfate-methane transition zone, beneath which Fe-driven AOM may happen and provide available ferrous for the extensive precipitation of pyrite in carbonate chimneys. The accumulation of reductive Fe in sediments via this process may widely occur in other analogous settings, with important application for Fe and S biogeochemical cycling within deep sediments at continental margins.

  19. Magnesium isotopic behavior during the formation of chlorite-rich hydrothermal sediment in the middle Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, H.; Yang, S.; Teng, F. Z.; Cai, D.; Humphris, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    Chlorite is a common alteration product during water-rock reactions in seafloor hydrothermal systems. This chlorite is commonly characterized by high concentrations of magnesium. However, the source of the Mg and its behavior during hydrothermal alteration have yet to be clarified. Mg isotopes have been used in recent years to investigate a variety of geological processes, including low temperature weathering and metamorphism processes, and Mg cycling in sediments. In this study, we investigate the source of Mg and its behavior in chlorite-rich sediments collected during IODP Expedition 331 from the active hydrothermal Iheya North Knoll field in the middle Okinawa Trough — an intra-continental rift in continental crust. This area is characterized by hemipelagic muds with interbedded thick layers of felsic pumiceous volcanic material. Based on mineralogical, geochemical, and isotopic data, we have previously suggested that the chlorite-rich sediments resulted from hydrothermal alteration of the pumiceous layers at temperatures of 220-300°C. Prior to Mg isotope analysis, all selected samples were pretreated with 1N HCl in order to remove carbonates and other unstable minerals, and measurements were made on both the residues (mainly chlorite) and leachates, as well as on bulk samples. The residues are expected to show higher δ26Mg than the leachates reflecting the Mg isotopic signature of the pumiceous material precursor and provide insight into the behavior of Mg isotopes during the high-temperature hydrothermal processes.

  20. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective actions of medicinal herb, Terminalia catappa L. from Okinawa Island and its tannin corilagin.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, S; Inoue, Y; Nakama, S; Ichiba, T; Aniya, Y

    2007-11-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective actions of Terminalia catappa L. collected from Okinawa Island were evaluated in vitro and in vivo using leaves extract and isolated antioxidants. A water extract of the leaves of T. catappa showed a strong radical scavenging action for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide (O(2)(.-)) anion. Chebulagic acid and corilagin were isolated as the active components from T. catappa. Both antioxidants showed a strong scavenging action for O(2)(.-) and peroxyl radicals and also inhibited reactive oxygen species production from leukocytes stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate acetate. Galactosamine (GalN, 600 mg/kg, s.c.,) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5 microg/kg, i.p.)-induced hepatotoxicity of rats as seen by an elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities was significantly reduced when the herb extract or corilagin was given intraperitoneally to rats prior to GalN/LPS treatment. Increase of free radical formation and lipid peroxidation in mitochondria caused by GalN/LPS treatment were also decreased by pretreatment with the herb/corilagin. In addition, apoptotic events such as DNA fragmentation and the increase in caspase-3 activity in the liver observed with GalN/LPS treatment were prevented by the pretreatment with the herb/corilagin. These results show that the extract of T. catappa and its antioxidant, corilagin are protective against GalN/LPS-induced liver injury through suppression of oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  1. Tombs, tunnels, and terraces a cultural resources survey of a former ammunition supply point in Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Verhaaren, B. T.; Levenson, J. B.; Komine, G.

    2000-02-09

    U.S. forces serving at military bases on foreign soil are obligated to act as good stewards of the cultural and natural resources under their control. However, cultural resources management presents special challenges at U.S. bases in other countries where cultural properties laws differ in emphasis and detail from those in the United States and issues of land ownership and occupancy are not always clear. Where status of forces agreements (SOFAs) exist, environmental governing standards bridge the gap between U.S. and host nation cultural priorities. In Japan, the Department of Defense Japan Environmental Governing Standards (JEGS) fill this function. Under Criteria 12-4.2 and 12-4.3 of the JEGS, U.S. Forces Japan commit themselves to inventory and protect cultural properties found on the lands they control or use. Cultural properties include archaeological sites, tombs, historic buildings, and shrines. Natural monuments, such as landscape features or plant and animal species, may also be designated as cultural properties. As part of this commitment, in February 1999 a cultural resources inventory was conducted in Area 1, part of Kadena Air Base (AB), Okinawa, Japan. Area 1, the former U.S. army Ammunition Supply Point 1, is currently used primarily for training exercises and recreational paint ball.

  2. Characteristics of the cultivable bacteria from sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents in Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-lei; Wang, Ming-qing; Sun, Li

    2015-12-01

    In this study, different culture-dependent methods were used to examine the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in the sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents (named HV1 and HV2) located at Iheya Ridge and Iheya North in Okinawa Trough. The two vents differed in morphology, with HV1 exhibiting diffuse flows while HV2 being a black smoker with a chimney-like structure. A total of 213 isolates were identified by near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Of these isolates, 128 were from HV1 and 85 were from HV2. The bacterial community structures were, in large parts, similar between HV1 and HV2. Nevertheless, differences between HV1 and HV2 were observed in one phylum, one class, 4 orders, 10 families, and 20 genera. Bioactivity analysis revealed that 25 isolates belonging to 9 different genera exhibited extracellular protease activities, 21 isolates from 11 genera exhibited extracellular lipase activities, and 13 isolates of 8 genera displayed antimicrobial activities. This is the first observation of a large population of bacteria with extracellular bioactivities existing in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Taken together, the results of this study provide new insights into the characteristics of the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems.

  3. Mode Identification in a Pulsating Subdwarf B Star EPIC 212707862 Observed with K2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachulski, S.; Baran, A. S.; Jeffery, C. S.; Østensen, R. H.; Reed, M. D.; Telting, J. H.; Kuutma, T.

    2016-12-01

    We present an analysis of K2 observations of EPIC 212707862, a pulsating subdwarf B star. We detected 13 significant frequencies from an 81 day run during Campaign 6. Our goal was to find features that could help us to identify pulsation modes. We could not identify any multiplets, which would also have enabled us to precisely derive a rotation period. Based on amplitude modulation we estimated that period to be around 80 days. We found two period-spacing sequences, and successfully identified modal degrees for 11 out of 13 detected frequencies. We assigned six of them to l=1, and another five to l=2. These results will facilitate future theoretical modeling. This star brings to 19 the number of pulsating subdwarf B stars observed with K2. Radial velocities obtained to date and the spectral energy distribution are consistent with EPIC 212707862 being a single hot subdwarf. Analysis of the spectrum gives atmospheric parameters: Teff=28 298±162 K, log g[cm/s2]=5.479±0.025 and log (n(He)/n(H))=-2.752±0.069.

  4. Radiative Transfer Model for Operational Retrieval of Cloud Parameters from DSCOVR-EPIC Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Molina Garcia, V.; Doicu, A.; Loyola, D. G.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) measures the radiance in the backscattering region. To make sure that all details in the backward glory are covered, a large number of streams is required by a standard radiative transfer model based on the discrete ordinates method. Even the use of the delta-M scaling and the TMS correction do not substantially reduce the number of streams. The aim of this work is to analyze the capability of a fast radiative transfer model to retrieve operationally cloud parameters from EPIC measurements. The radiative transfer model combines the discrete ordinates method with matrix exponential for the computation of radiances and the matrix operator method for the calculation of the reflection and transmission matrices. Standard acceleration techniques as, for instance, the use of the normalized right and left eigenvectors, telescoping technique, Pade approximation and successive-order-of-scattering approximation are implemented. In addition, the model may compute the reflection matrix of the cloud by means of the asymptotic theory, and may use the equivalent Lambertian cloud model. The various approximations are analyzed from the point of view of efficiency and accuracy.

  5. TSANA System -- an EPIC derivative for in-situ dataset queries and downloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.; Yuan, G.; Decarlo, S.; Potemra, J. T.; Hacker, P. W.

    2005-12-01

    In-situ oceanographic datasets have been widely used by researchers for analysis and by modelers for assimilations. The Asia-Pacific Data-Research Center (APDRC) has been serving in-situ data using the EPIC system developed at the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL). The APDRC maintains an archive of 3 million profile datasets from Argo, WOCE-WHP (World Ocean Circulation Experiment, WOCE Hydrographic Program), US GODAE/FNMOC (Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment/ Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center) and WOCE-UOT (Upper Ocean Thermal). Our in-situ time series datasets include NCAR DSS rainfall, Pacific Island rainfall and WOCE current meter datasets. With recent improvements the Java Ocean Atlas and increasing demand from users who want to select a subset of these datasets, we have developed an EPIC derivative called the TSANA System. TSANA System allows users to query its database and to make a package of selected datasets for downloading. The package is a tar file containing all the selected datasets along with an inventory file (also known as a pointer file). Currently, Java Ocean Atlas is a well-known client software that can be used to analyze datasets downloaded from TSANA. We also provide a simple Matlab script for users to open datasets through the inventory file. To use TSANA System, please visit http://apdrc.soest.hawaii.edu/tsana

  6. Phytosterol plasma concentrations and coronary heart disease in the prospective Spanish EPIC cohort

    PubMed Central

    Escurriol, Verónica; Cofán, Montserrat; Moreno-Iribas, Concepción; Larrañaga, Nerea; Martínez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez, Laudina; González, Carlos A.; Corella, Dolores; Ros, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Phytosterol intake with natural foods, a measure of healthy dietary choices, increases plasma levels, but increased plasma phytosterols are believed to be a coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor. To address this paradox, we evaluated baseline risk factors, phytosterol intake, and plasma noncholesterol sterol levels in participants of a case control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Spanish cohort who developed CHD (n = 299) and matched controls (n = 584) who remained free of CHD after a 10 year follow-up. Sitosterol-to-cholesterol ratios increased across tertiles of phytosterol intake (P = 0.026). HDL-cholesterol level increased, and adiposity measures, cholesterol/HDL ratios, and levels of glucose, triglycerides, and lathosterol, a cholesterol synthesis marker, decreased across plasma sitosterol tertiles (P < 0.02; all). Compared with controls, cases had nonsignificantly lower median levels of phytosterol intake and plasma sitosterol. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for CHD across the lowest to highest plasma sitosterol tertile was 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.36–0.97). Associations were weaker for plasma campesterol. The apolipoprotein E genotype was unrelated to CHD risk or plasma phytosterols. The data suggest that plasma sitosterol levels are associated with a lower CHD risk while being markers of a lower cardiometabolic risk in the EPIC-Spain cohort, a population with a high phytosterol intake. PMID:19786566

  7. Enabling Future Large Searches for Exoplanet Auroral Emission with the EPIC Correlator Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Beardsley, Adam P.; Bowman, Judd D.; Morales, Miguel F.

    2017-05-01

    Extrasolar planets are expected to emit strong ``auroral'' emission at radio frequencies generated by the interaction of the host star's stellar winds with the planet's magnetosphere through electron-cyclotron maser emission. This transient emission lasts a few seconds to days and is almost fully circularly polarized. Detecting this emission in exoplanets is a critical probe of their magnetospheres and thus their interior compositions and habitability. The intensity and detectability of the emission depends on the suitability of many factors to the observing parameters such as the strength of the stellar wind power, the planetary magnetosphere cross-section, the highly beamed and coherent nature of electron-cyclotron emission, and narrow ranges of the planet's orbital phase. Large areas of sky must be surveyed continuously to high sensitivity to detect auroral emission. Next-generation radio telescopes with wide fields of view, large collecting areas and high efficiency are needed for these searches. This poses challenges to traditional correlator architectures whose computational cost scales as the square of the number of antennas. I will present a novel radio aperture synthesis imaging architecture - E-field Parallel Imaging Correlator (EPIC) - whose all-sky and full Stokes imaging capabilities will not only address the aforementioned factors preventing detection but also solve the computational challenges posed by large arrays. Compared to traditional imaging, EPIC is inherently fast and thus presents the unique advantage of probing transient timescales ranging orders of magnitude from tens of microseconds to days at no additional cost.

  8. Epic Dimensions: a Comparative Analysis of 3d Acquisition Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, C. A.; Akoglu, K. G.; Lassen, A. W.; Simon, S.

    2017-08-01

    When it comes to capturing the geometry of a cultural heritage artifact, there is certainly no dearth of possible acquisition techniques. As technology has rapidly developed, the availability of intuitive 3D generating tools has increased exponentially and made it possible even for non-specialists to create many models quickly. Though the by-products of these different acquisition methods may be incongruent in terms of quality, these discrepancies are not problematic, as there are many applications of 3D models, each with their own set of requirements. Comparisons of high-resolution 3D models of an iconic Babylonian tablet, captured via four different closerange technologies discussed in this paper assess which methods of 3D digitization best suit specific intended purposes related to research, conservation and education. Taking into consideration repeatability, time and resource implications, qualitative and quantitative potential and ease of use, this paper presents a study of the strengths and weakness of structured light scanning, triangulation laser scanning, photometric stereo and close-range photogrammetry, in the context of interactive investigation, conditions monitoring, engagement, and dissemination.

  9. Mediterranean dietary pattern and cancer risk in the EPIC cohort

    PubMed Central

    Couto, E; Boffetta, P; Lagiou, P; Ferrari, P; Buckland, G; Overvad, K; Dahm, C C; Tjønneland, A; Olsen, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Cottet, V; Trichopoulos, D; Naska, A; Benetou, V; Kaaks, R; Rohrmann, S; Boeing, H; von Ruesten, A; Panico, S; Pala, V; Vineis, P; Palli, D; Tumino, R; May, A; Peeters, P H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Büchner, F L; Lund, E; Skeie, G; Engeset, D; Gonzalez, C A; Navarro, C; Rodríguez, L; Sánchez, M-J; Amiano, P; Barricarte, A; Hallmans, G; Johansson, I; Manjer, J; Wirfärt, E; Allen, N E; Crowe, F; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N; Moskal, A; Slimani, N; Jenab, M; Romaguera, D; Mouw, T; Norat, T; Riboli, E; Trichopoulou, A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although several studies have investigated the association of the Mediterranean diet with overall mortality or risk of specific cancers, data on overall cancer risk are sparse. Methods: We examined the association between adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern and overall cancer risk using data from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and nutrition, a multi-centre prospective cohort study including 142 605 men and 335 873. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was examined using a score (range: 0–9) considering the combined intake of fruits and nuts, vegetables, legumes, cereals, lipids, fish, dairy products, meat products, and alcohol. Association with cancer incidence was assessed through Cox regression modelling, controlling for potential confounders. Results: In all, 9669 incident cancers in men and 21 062 in women were identified. A lower overall cancer risk was found among individuals with greater adherence to Mediterranean diet (hazard ratio=0.96, 95% CI 0.95–0.98) for a two-point increment of the Mediterranean diet score. The apparent inverse association was stronger for smoking-related cancers than for cancers not known to be related to tobacco (P (heterogeneity)=0.008). In all, 4.7% of cancers among men and 2.4% in women would be avoided in this population if study subjects had a greater adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern. Conclusion: Greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern could reduce overall cancer risk. PMID:21468044

  10. Epic Immune Battles of History: Neutrophils vs. Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Fermin E.; Borgogna, Timothy R.; Patel, Delisha M.; Sward, Eli W.; Voyich, Jovanka M.

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in human blood and the first line of defense after bacteria have breached the epithelial barriers. After migration to a site of infection, neutrophils engage and expose invading microorganisms to antimicrobial peptides and proteins, as well as reactive oxygen species, as part of their bactericidal arsenal. Ideally, neutrophils ingest bacteria to prevent damage to surrounding cells and tissues, kill invading microorganisms with antimicrobial mechanisms, undergo programmed cell death to minimize inflammation, and are cleared away by macrophages. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a prevalent Gram-positive bacterium that is a common commensal and causes a wide range of diseases from skin infections to endocarditis. Since its discovery, S. aureus has been a formidable neutrophil foe that has challenged the efficacy of this professional assassin. Indeed, proper clearance of S. aureus by neutrophils is essential to positive infection outcome, and S. aureus has developed mechanisms to evade neutrophil killing. Herein, we will review mechanisms used by S. aureus to modulate and evade neutrophil bactericidal mechanisms including priming, activation, chemotaxis, production of reactive oxygen species, and resolution of infection. We will also highlight how S. aureus uses sensory/regulatory systems to tailor production of virulence factors specifically to the triggering signal, e.g., neutrophils and defensins. To conclude, we will provide an overview of therapeutic approaches that may potentially enhance neutrophil antimicrobial functions. PMID:28713774

  11. Expression of avian infectious bronchitis virus multi-epitope based peptide EpiC in Lactococcus lactis for oral immunization of chickens.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hai-Peng; Wang, Hong-Ning; Zhang, An-Yun; Ding, Meng-Die; Liu, Si-Tong; Cheng, Han; Zhou, Ying-Shun; Li, Xin

    2012-01-01

    The avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) multi-epitope based peptide EpiC was found to be effective in inducing strong humoral and cellular responses against IBV. In this study, the gene EpiC was introduced into Lactococcus lactis NZ3900, and three recombinant strains expressing EpiC in intracellular and extracellular forms were constructed. SDS-PAGE and Western blot results indicated that EpiC was successfully expressed and had good immunoreactivity with chicken anti-IBV serum. Fusion of the signal pepitide gene SPusp45 and the nine-peptide LEISSTCDA encoding oligonucleotide to EpiC increased the secretion of EpiC, but reduced the total yields of EpiC. Oral immunization to specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens with recombinant strains induced significantly higher levels of humoral immune responses, and provided protection against lethal dose challenge by the IBV SAIBk strain. These results indicate that it is feasible to use L. lactis as an antigen delivery vehicle in developing oral vaccines against IBV infection.

  12. 75 FR 40815 - Black Oak Energy, LLC, EPIC Merchant Energy, LP, SESCO Enterprises, LLC v. PJM Interconnection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Black Oak Energy, LLC, EPIC Merchant Energy, LP, SESCO Enterprises, LLC v... Oak Energy, LLC, et al. v. PJM Interconnection, LLC, 131 FERC ] 61,024 (2010) (April 15 Order). Any...

  13. 1977-1978 Final Evaluation Report of Career Education (Project E.P.I.C.). Report #24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jackie

    Project EPIC (Educational Preparation for Involvement in Careers) was conducted to study the best methods and techniques of infusing career education into the curriculum in five schools with high proportion of low-income children in the Jefferson County School System (Kentucky). The project had five basic goals: (1) provide low income children…

  14. Georgia Deaf-Blind Pilot Project: Project EPIC. Final Report. Optional Pilot Projects for Children with Deaf-Blindness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta.

    This final report describes activities and accomplishments of Project EPIC (Effective Partner Interaction in the Community), a 3-year federally supported project in Georgia to facilitate the establishment and implementation of effective educational practices with students having deaf-blindness. The project was designed to expand students' present…

  15. EPIC 211779126: a rare hybrid pulsating subdwarf B star richly pulsating in both pressure and gravity modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, A. S.; Reed, M. D.; Østensen, R. H.; Telting, J. H.; Jeffery, C. S.

    2017-01-01

    We present our analysis of EPIC 211779126, a pulsating subdwarf B star discovered with the Kepler spacecraft during K2 Campaign 5. We found 154 frequencies in the g-mode region as well as 29 frequencies in the p-mode region. This makes EPIC 211779126 a rare hybrid pulsator with a rich pulsation spectrum in both regions. We successfully identified modal degrees and relative radial orders of most of the g-modes using asymptotic period spacing, and modal degrees of some of the p-modes using rotational splitting. We detected trapped modes, which are a very important feature for constraining theoretical models. Our ground-based spectroscopic observations revealed no companion, therefore EPIC 211779126 is likely a single sdB star. Using p-mode multiplets, we derived a rotation period of approximately 16 days, making EPIC 211779126 the fastest rotating non-binary subdwarf B pulsator observed with Kepler. However, we do not find any resolved multiplets among the high-amplitude g-mode pulsations that correspond to the rotation rate inferred from the p-mode splittings. This may indicate that the star's core is rotating more slowly than its envelope.

  16. 75 FR 12230 - Black Oak Energy, L.L.C., EPIC Merchant Energy, LP, SESCO Enterprises, LLC v. PJM Interconnection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Black Oak Energy, L.L.C., EPIC Merchant Energy, LP, SESCO Enterprises, LLC v... (Commission) September 17, 2009, Order Accepting Compliance filing issued in this proceeding, Black Oak...

  17. “Nitrogen Budgets for the Mississippi River Basin using the linked EPIC-CMAQ-NEWS Models”

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation on the results from the 3 linked models, EPIC (USDA), CMAQ and NEWS to analyze a scenario of increased corn production related to biofuels together with Clean Air Act emission reductions across the US and the resultant effect on nitrogen loading to the Gulf of Mexico...

  18. “Nitrogen Budgets for the Mississippi River Basin using the linked EPIC-CMAQ-NEWS Models”

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation on the results from the 3 linked models, EPIC (USDA), CMAQ and NEWS to analyze a scenario of increased corn production related to biofuels together with Clean Air Act emission reductions across the US and the resultant effect on nitrogen loading to the Gulf of Mexico...

  19. Intrarectal Amifostine During External Beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer Produces Significant Improvements in Quality of Life Measured by EPIC Score

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, Nicole L.; Menard, Cynthia; Soule, Benjamin P.; Albert, Paul S.; Guion, Peter; Smith, Sharon; Godette, Denise; Crouse, Nancy S.; Sciuto, Linda C.; Cooley-Zgela, Theresa; Camphausen, Kevin; Coleman, C. Norman; Singh, Anurag K. E-mail: singan@mail.nih.gov

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether intrarectal amifostine limits symptoms of radiation proctitis, measured by using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity score and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) score. Methods and Materials: Patients with localized prostate cancer received amifostine as a rectal suspension 30-45 minutes before daily three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. The first 18 patients received 1 g of amifostine, and the next 12 patients received 2 g. Toxicity was assessed at baseline, during treatment, and at follow-up visits by using RTOG grading and the EPIC Quality of Life (QoL) 50-item questionnaire. The Bowel Function subset of the bowel domain (EPIC-BF), which targets symptom severity, and the Bowel Bother subset of the bowel domain (EPIC-BB), which assesses QoL, were evaluated and compared with the RTOG GI toxicity score. Results: Median follow-up was 30 months (range, 18-36 months). Overall, EPIC-BF and EPIC-BB scores both tracked closely with the RTOG GI toxicity score. Seven weeks after the start of radiation therapy, the incidence of RTOG Grade 2 toxicity was 33% in the 1-g group (6/18 patients) compared with 0% (0/12 patients) in the 2-g group and trended toward statistical significance (p = 0.06). A significant difference between amifostine groups was observed using the EPIC-BF score at 7 weeks (p = 0.04). A difference in EPIC-BB scores between dose groups was evident at 7 weeks (p = 0.07) and was significant at 12 months (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Higher doses of amifostine produced significant improvements in acute and late bowel QoL (up to 1 year after therapy), measured using the EPIC score.

  20. Obtaining a consistent calibration between the DSCOVR EPIC and Aqua-MODIS/NPP-VIIRS imagers using multiple calibration methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalan, A.; Haney, C.; Doelling, D. R.; Minnis, P.; Bhatt, R.; Scarino, B. R.

    2016-12-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) was launched on 11 February 2015, and maintains orbit around the Sun at the Lagrange-1 (L1) point. The L1 position offers a continuous view of the entire sunlit side of Earth, which is ideal for deriving the shortwave and longwave broadband fluxes from the National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR) instrument, a Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)-like instrument to monitor the Earth's net balance over time. The greatest challenge will be converting the measured NISTAR angular dependent radiances to fluxes, which is dependent on the underlying cloud and surface conditions or scene type. This conversion is accomplished by using the onboard Earth Polychromatic Camera (EPIC) visible imager to identify the appropriate scene type for use in the CERES angular distribution models (ADM). The technique requires that the EPIC imager calibration is referenced to Aqua-MODIS and NPP-VIIRS, thereby ensuring that the cloud properties based on EPIC are similar to the MODIS and VIIRS clouds. The CERES calibration team, which is responsible for calibrating the geostationary imagery used in CERES analyses, and for monitoring the MODIS and VIIRS temporal stability, employs several calibration methods. The similar-channel EPIC and MODIS, or VIIRS, coincident ray-matched radiance pairs are used to transfer the MODIS, or VIIRS, calibration to the EPIC instrument. The EPIC navigation is first corrected to best match either MODIS/VIIRS image. Spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) based on SCIAMACHY are used to account for the spectral differences between the EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS bands, which are a function of scene type. The calibration coefficients are found to be similar, whether all-sky ocean or deep convective clouds (DCC) are ray-matched. In fact, the SBAF can also be used to calibrate the oxygen A-band channels using either the 0.65- or 0.86-µm bands. Invariant target calibration using

  1. Baseline characteristics and factors associated with nutritional and pulmonary status at enrollment in the cystic fibrosis EPIC observational cohort.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Margaret; Emerson, Julia; McNamara, Sharon; Joubran, Kelli; Retsch-Bogart, George; Graff, Gavin R; Gutierrez, Hector H; Kanga, Jamshed F; Lahiri, Thomas; Noyes, Blake; Ramsey, Bonnie; Ren, Clement L; Schechter, Michael; Morgan, Wayne; Gibson, Ronald L

    2010-09-01

    The EPIC Observational Study is an ongoing prospective cohort study investigating risk factors for and clinical outcomes associated with early Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) acquisition in young children with cystic fibrosis (CF). To describe the baseline characteristics of the cohort and evaluate associations between potential risk factors and nutritional and respiratory characteristics at enrollment. We hypothesized that distinct demographic and environmental risk factors could be identified for poorer nutritional status and lung function at enrollment. During 2004-2006, 1,700 children with CF were enrolled at 59 US CF centers. Children

  2. Vitamin/mineral supplementation and cancer, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality in a German prospective cohort (EPIC-Heidelberg).

    PubMed

    Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2012-06-01

    To prospectively evaluate the association of vitamin/mineral supplementation with cancer, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality. In the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Heidelberg), which was recruited in 1994-1998, 23,943 participants without pre-existing cancer and myocardial infarction/stroke at baseline were included in the analyses. Vitamin/mineral supplementation was assessed at baseline and during follow-up. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After an average follow-up time of 11 years, 1,101 deaths were documented (cancer deaths = 513 and cardiovascular deaths = 264). After adjustment for potential confounders, neither any vitamin/mineral supplementation nor multivitamin supplementation at baseline was statistically significantly associated with cancer, cardiovascular, or all-cause mortality. However, baseline users of antioxidant vitamin supplements had a significantly reduced risk of cancer mortality (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.97) and all-cause mortality (HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.88). In comparison with never users, baseline non-users who started taking vitamin/mineral supplements during follow-up had significantly increased risks of cancer mortality (HR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.77) and all-cause mortality (HR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.14). Based on limited numbers of users and cases, this cohort study suggests that supplementation of antioxidant vitamins might possibly reduce cancer and all-cause mortality. The significantly increased risks of cancer and all-cause mortality among baseline non-users who started taking supplements during follow-up may suggest a "sick-user effect," which researchers should be cautious of in future observational studies.

  3. Distribution of lipid parameters according to different socio-economic indicators- the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study.

    PubMed

    Shohaimi, Shamarina; Boekholdt, Matthijs S; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nick J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-08-28

    Data on the relationship between plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides and social class have been inconsistent. Most previous studies have used one classification of social class. This was a cross-sectional population based study with data on occupational social class, educational level obtained using a detailed health and lifestyle questionnaire. A total of 10,147 men and 12,304 women aged 45-80 years living in Norfolk, United Kingdom, were recruited using general practice age-sex registers as part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk). Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were measured in baseline samples. Social class was classified according to three classifications: occupation, educational level, and area deprivation score according to Townsend deprivation index. Differences in lipid levels by socio-economic status indices were quantified by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple linear regression after adjusting for body mass index and alcohol consumption. Total cholesterol levels were associated with occupational level among men, and with educational level among women. Triglyceride levels were associated with educational level and occupational level among women, but the latter association was lost after adjustment for age and body mass index. HDL-cholesterol levels were associated with both educational level and educational level among men and women. The relationships with educational level were substantially attenuated by adjustment for age, body mass index and alcohol use, whereas the association with educational class was retained upon adjustment. LDL-cholesterol levels were not associated with social class indices among men, but a positive association was observed with educational class among women. This association was not affected by adjustment for age, body mass index and alcohol use. The findings of this study suggest that there are sex differences in the association between socio-economic status

  4. Dietary intake of acrylamide and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    PubMed

    Obón-Santacana, M; Slimani, N; Lujan-Barroso, L; Travier, N; Hallmans, G; Freisling, H; Ferrari, P; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Racine, A; Clavel, F; Saieva, C; Pala, V; Tumino, R; Mattiello, A; Vineis, P; Argüelles, M; Ardanaz, E; Amiano, P; Navarro, C; Sánchez, M J; Molina Montes, E; Key, T; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N; Peeters, P H; Trichopoulou, A; Bamia, C; Trichopoulos, D; Boeing, H; Kaaks, R; Katzke, V; Ye, W; Sund, M; Ericson, U; Wirfält, E; Overvad, K; Tjønneland, A; Olsen, A; Skeie, G; Åsli, L A; Weiderpass, E; Riboli, E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Duell, E J

    2013-10-01

    In 1994, acrylamide (AA) was classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In 2002, AA was discovered at relatively high concentrations in some starchy, plant-based foods cooked at high temperatures. A prospective analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between the dietary intake of AA and ductal adenocarcinoma of the exocrine pancreatic cancer (PC) risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort using Cox regression modeling. EPIC includes >500,000 men and women aged 35-75 at enrollment from 10 European countries. AA intake was estimated for each participant by combining questionnaire-based food consumption data with a harmonized AA database derived from the EU monitoring database of AA levels in foods, and evaluated in quintiles and continuously. After a mean follow-up of 11 years, 865 first incident adenocarcinomas of the exocrine pancreas were observed and included in the present analysis. At baseline, the mean dietary AA intake in EPIC was 26.22 µg/day. No overall association was found between continuous or quintiles of dietary AA intake and PC risk in EPIC (HR:0.95, 95%CI:0.89-1.01 per 10 µg/day). There was no effect measure modification by smoking status, sex, diabetes, alcohol intake or geographic region. However, there was an inverse association (HR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.61-0.88 per 10 µg/day) between AA intake and PC risk in obese persons as defined using the body mass index (BMI, ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), but not when body fatness was defined using waist and hip circumference or their ratio. Dietary intake of AA was not associated with an increased risk of PC in the EPIC cohort.

  5. Development and application of the EPIC model for carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel studies

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Mcgill, William B.; Williams, J.R.

    2012-06-01

    This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the EPIC model in relation to carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel applications. From its original capabilities and purpose (i.e., quantify the impacts or erosion on soil productivity), the EPIC model has evolved into a comprehensive terrestrial ecosystem model for simulating with more or less process-level detail many ecosystem processes such as weather, hydrology, plant growth and development, carbon cycle (including erosion), nutrient cycling, greenhouse-gas emissions, and the most complete set of manipulations that can be implemented on a parcel of land (e.g. tillage, harvest, fertilization, irrigation, drainage, liming, burning, pesticide application). The chapter also provides details and examples of the latest efforts in model development such as the coupled carbon-nitrogen model, a microbial denitrification model with feedback to the carbon decomposition model, updates on calculation of ecosystem carbon balances, and carbon emissions from fossil fuels. The chapter has included examples of applications of the EPIC model in soil carbon sequestration, net ecosystem carbon balance, and biofuel studies. Finally, the chapter provides the reader with an update on upcoming improvements in EPIC such as the additions of modules for simulating biochar amendments, sorption of soluble C in subsoil horizons, nitrification including the release of N2O, and the formation and consumption of methane in soils. Completion of these model development activities will render an EPIC model with one of the most complete representation of biogeochemical processes and capable of simulating the dynamic feedback of soils to climate and management in terms not only of transient processes (e.g., soil water content, heterotrophic respiration, N2O emissions) but also of fundamental soil properties (e.g. soil depth, soil organic matter, soil bulk density, water limits).

  6. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of ambient aerosols collected from Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim, an outflow region of Asian dusts and pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunwar, Bhagawati; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Zhu, Chunmao

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope ratios were measured for total carbon (TC) and nitrogen (TN), respectively, in aerosol (TSP) samples collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, an outflow region of Asian pollutants, during 2009-2010. The averaged δ13C and δ15N ratios are -22.2‰ and +12.5‰, respectively. The δ13C values are similar in both spring (-22.5‰) and winter (-22.5‰), suggesting the similar sources and/or source regions. We found that δ13C from Okinawa aerosols are ca. 2‰ higher than those reported from Chinese megacities probably due to photochemical aging of organic aerosols. A strong correlation (r = 0.81) was found between nss-Ca and TSP, suggesting that springtime aerosols are influenced from Asian dusts. However, carbonates in the Asian dusts were titrated with acidic species such as sulfuric acid and oxalic acid during atmospheric transport although two samples suggested the presence of remaining carbonate. No correlations were found between δ13C and tracer compounds (levoglucosan, elemental carbon, oxalic acid, and Na+). During winter and spring, coal burning is significant source in China. Based on isotopic mass balance, contribution of coal burning origin particles to total aerosol carbon was estimated as ca. 97% in winter, which is probably associated with the high emissions in China. Contribution of NO3- to TN was on average 45% whereas that of NH4+ was 18%. These results suggest that vehicular exhaust is an important source of TN in Okinawa aerosols. Concentration of water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) is higher in summer, suggesting that WSON is more emitted from the ocean in warmer season whereas inorganic nitrogen is more emitted in winter and spring from pollution sources in the Asian continent.

  7. Comparison of drug sensitivity and genotypes of clinically isolated strains of levofloxacin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae obtained from Okinawa Island, the Japanese main island and Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, Satoko; Fujita, Jiro; Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao; Haranaga, Shusaku; Nakasone, Isamu; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Uno, Tsukasa

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae is increasing worldwide. In the present study, a comparison of drug sensitivity and genotypes of clinically isolated strains of levofloxacin (LVFX)-resistant S. pneumoniae obtained from Hong Kong, Okinawa Island and the Japanese main island (Honshu) was performed. MICs of quinolones (LVFX, tosufloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin and sitafloxacin (STFX)) and other antibiotics (penicillin G, cefcapene, cefditoren, clarithromycin and azithromycin) were determined by a microdilution broth method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute Standards. The quinolone-resistance determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE of these strains were analyzed by PCR-based sequencing. All 40 strains tested had more than one amino-acid substitution in the QRDRs of gyrA, gyrB, parC or parE. Although there seemed to be some clonality in strains obtained from Hong Kong, there was no clonality in strains obtained from Okinawa and Japan. Strains obtained from Hong Kong, Okinawa Island and the Japanese main island were genetically different by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. The range of MIC values of STFX against isolates resistant to LVFX (MIC 4-32 mg l(-1)) was 0.12-0.5 mg l(-1), and MIC(80) values of STFX against LVFX-resistant isolates were 0.25 mg l(-1). This study suggests that LVFX-resistant S. pneumoniae is similar in all three locations and STFX is potent against LVFX-resistant S. pneumoniae with multiple mutations in QRDRs of gyrase A and topoisomerase IV.

  8. Prevalence of high fasting plasma glucose and risk of developing end-stage renal disease in screened subjects in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Iseki, Kunitoshi; Ikemiya, Yoshiharu; Kinjo, Kozen; Iseki, Chiho; Takishita, Shuichi

    2004-09-01

    The number of diabetic dialysis patients is increasing worldwide. Only a few studies, however, have examined the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) as a risk factor for the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the general population. We examined the cumulative incidence of ESRD based on the results of community-based mass screening in Okinawa, Japan, performed in 1993 by the Okinawa General Health Maintenance Association. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) data were available for 78 529 screenees (37 197 men and 41 332 women). DM was diagnosed when the FPG was 126 mg/dl or more. Screenees who developed ESRD by the end of 2000 were identified through the Dialysis Registry, Okinawa Dialysis Study. The mean (SD) FPG was 96.5 (22.8) mg/dl, ranging from 45 to 577 mg/dl. The prevalence of DM among the screenees was 4089 (5.2%). A total of 133 screenees (82 men and 51 women) developed ESRD during the 7.75-year study period. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]) in the high-FPG group for the risk of developing ESRD was 3.098 (95% CI, 1.738-5.525; P = 0.0001), when adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol, triglyceride, hematocrit, serum creatinine, hematuria, and proteinuria. The results of the present study indicated that FPG is a significant, independent predictor of ESRD. FPG and proteinuria measurements are euqally important in detecting individuals at high risk for developing ESRD.

  9. Urinary iodine and thyroid antibodies in Okinawa, Yamagata, Hyogo, and Nagano, Japan: the differences in iodine intake do not affect thyroid antibody positivity.

    PubMed

    Nagata, K; Takasu, N; Akamine, H; Ohshiro, C; Komiya, I; Murakami, K; Suzawa, A; Nomura, T

    1998-12-01

    Excess iodine intake may affect the development of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Kelp consumption is very high in Okinawa. We expected a high prevalence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in Okinawa. We studied urinary iodine excretion and the positivities of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb) and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) in the residents of Nishihara in Okinawa, Yamagata in Yamagata, Kobe in Hyogo, and Hotaka in Nagano, Japan. TGAb and/or TPOAb were positive in 142 (13.7%) of 1039 subjects in Nishihara, in 16 (16.0%) of 100 subjects in Yamagata, in 31 (13.4%) of 232 subjects in Kobe, and in 35 (13.9%) of 252 subjects in Hotaka; TGAb and/or TPOAb positivity was about the same in these 4 areas. One tenth of the subjects with positive TGAb and/or TPOAb had hypothyroidism; the frequencies of hypothyroidism in those with positive TGAb and/or TPOAb were about the same in Nishihara, Yamagata, Kobe, and Hotaka. The iodine concentration in samples of morning urine correlated well with the 24-h urine iodine excretion. The urinary iodine excretion was 1.5 mg/day in Nishihara. There were no differences between Nishihara and Yamagata in the urinary iodine concentration, but the urinary iodine concentrations in Kobe and Hotaka were less than those in Nishihara or Yamagata. The amounts of iodine excretion in Kobe and Hotaka were moderate, and less than those in Nishihara or Yamagata. The amounts of iodine intake in Kobe and Hotaka were less than those in Nishihara or Yamagata, but TGAb and/or TPOAb positivity was about the same in Nishihara, Yamagata, Kobe, and Hotaka. The differences in dietary iodine intake do not affect TGAb and/or TPOAb positivity.

  10. Influence of motorization and supermarket-proliferation on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the inhabitants of a small town on Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Takasu, Nobuyuki; Yogi, Hiroyuki; Takara, Masaki; Higa, Moritake; Kouki, Tsuyoshi; Ohshiro, Yuzuru; Mimura, Goro; Komiya, Ichiro

    2007-01-01

    Motorization and supermarket-proliferation affect lifestyles. About 15 years ago, Okinawans went to several shops on foot, but now they go to supermarkets by car. The influences of these changes on the prevalence of diabetes are uncertain. OBJECTIVE AND MEASUREMENTS: The influence of motorization and supermarket-proliferation on the prevalence of diabetes was studied in the inhabitants of a town on Okinawa, Japan. Measurements were composed of anthropometry and blood chemistry. Participants were asked where they buy food and daily necessities (several shops or a supermarket) and how they get there (by car or on foot). Serial cross-sectional. Inhabitants of the island of Okinawa were studied. In 1991, 24% went to several shops and 20% to a supermarket. However, in 2004, only 3.1% went to several shops and 83% to a supermarket. In 1991, 55% went to shopping places on foot and 38% by car. However, in 2004, only 14% went on foot and 76% by car. The prevalence of diabetes in Okinawa increased from 4.7% in 1991 to 8.4% in 2004. The prevalence of diabetes correlated positively with the percent of inhabitants going to supermarkets, and those going there by car. In 1991, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 4.7% in men and 4.6% in women; no difference was noted between men and women. In 2004, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes increased to 9.2% in men and to 7.5% in women. The increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes from 1991 to 2004 was higher in men than in women. About 15 years ago, Okinawans went to shops on foot, but now they go to supermarkets by car. The prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Motorization and supermarket-proliferation are associated with the increases of the prevalence of diabetes. The increase in diabetes prevalence was higher in men than in women.

  11. The tug-of-war between the West Philippine Sea and South China Sea Tropical Waters and Intermediate Waters in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. T. A.

    2015-12-01

    It has been known that Kuroshio subsurface waters are the major source of nutrients to the East China Sea continental shelf, a major fishing ground. It has also been known that subsurface waters that upwell onto the shelf are heavily affected by the South China Sea (SCS) Tropical Water and the SCS Intermediate Water which contain more nutrients than the tropical (Smax) and intermediate (Smin) waters from the West Philippine Sea (WPS). A front has been found to separate the tropical and intermediate waters from the SCS and WPS. The reported front in the Okinawa Trough, however, was identified based only on one-time data from a single cross-section in the central Okinawa Trough. Here historical hydrographic data between Mar. 1950 and Dec. 2011 in the Okinawa Trough and its neighborhood are analyzed. A vertical front tilted toward the west is found in all seasons in all years across the World Ocean Circulation Repeated Lines PR 18 and 19 as well as at the PN cross-section in the central Okinawa Trough. The front at the Smax level (sigma theta=24.6-24.9) shows large seasonal and interannual variations. In winter during normal and La Niña periods the presence of the SCS Tropical Water is the most prominent. It is the weakest in autumn during normal periods and in spring during La Nina periods. Yet during El Niño periods the SCS Tropical Water is the most prominent in spring and it becomes the weakest in winter. As for intermediate waters (Smin at sigma theta= 26.7-26.9) the WPS Intermediate Water and SCS Intermediate Water show much weaker seasonality compared with tropical waters although during normal periods in winter the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is slightly larger than during other times. During El Niño periods the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is the smallest but in spring it is much strengthened. On the other hand, the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is the smallest in spring, and the largest in winter during La Niña periods.

  12. Sanfilippo type B syndrome: five patients with an R565P homozygous mutation in the alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase gene from the Okinawa islands in Japan.

    PubMed

    Chinen, Yasutsugu; Tohma, Takaya; Izumikawa, Yoshinori; Uehara, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Takao

    2005-01-01

    Sanfilippo type B syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB; MPS IIIB) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder that is caused by defective alpha- N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU). We performed NAGLU gene analysis in five patients with MPS IIIB whose respective parents from the Okinawa islands in Japan were not apparently consanguineous. We found a missense mutation (R565P) in all five patients (all homozygotes). We screened this mutation in 200 healthy subjects and found one heterozygote (none of the subjects were related to the patients). These results suggest that there may be a founder effect that results in the accumulation of R565P mutation in this area.

  13. Observations of transits of K2 exoplanet discoveries EPIC 203371098b&c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Michael; Gorjian, Varoujan; Beichmani, Charles; Akeson, Rachel; Ciardi, Dave; Christiansen, Jessie; Crossfield, Ian; Petigura, Erik; Krick, Jessica

    2015-08-01

    We request DDT time to observe transits of two super-Neptune planets orbiting a bright G star, EPIC 203371098. Erik Petigura has brought to our attention a particularly interesting K2 discovery that consists of two sub-Saturn-sized planets (5.9 RE and 7.8 RE) orbiting EPIC-203371098, a bright G star (K = 9.2). The orbital periods of the planets are 20.9 d and 42.4 d, respectively. The planets have sizes between that of Neptune and Saturn; sizes not represented among the Solar System planets. Due to the brightness of the host star, this system is an ideal laboratory to study this new class of planets. Over the past two months, our team has conducted radial velocity (RV) follow up of EPIC-203371098 with Keck/HIRES. Our preliminary measurements suggest these planets have low densities, ~0.6 g/cc and ~0.4 g/cc, respectively. Low planet masses translate into larger atmospheric scale heights, which sets the amplitude of the features in planet transmission spectra. The apparent commensurability of their orbits suggest that this is a resonant system where transit timing variations may be particularly large. Our Spitzer observations, compared with the previous K2 first epoch observations, can provide initial evidence for TTVs and set the stage for future campaigns from Spitzer and other telescopes which will independently determine the planetary masses; they will also pin down the ephemerides of these interesting planets - including the hard to capture orbital eccentricity - for possible JWST study.It is important to carry out these observations in the upcoming apparition of this star in the October-December time frame because multiple observations are required for accurate studies of TTVs, and to prevent secular errors in timing from building up to a point where the system is hard to recover. The size of these planets and the brightness of the star shows us that we will achieve S/N>20 per transit on each planet.We will propose to observe one transit of each planet

  14. Geochemical Characteristics of Volcanic Rocks from the Southern Okinawa Trough and its Implications for Tectono-magmatic Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinjo, R.; Hokakubo, S.; Haraguchi, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Woodhead, J.

    2003-12-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a site of ongoing backarc rifting behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system. Recent intensive surveys, including submersible dives, at the southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) have revealed details of bathymetric, geological, and geophysical features. Here, we present the petrological and geochemical characteristics of volcanic rocks collected during these cruises, and discuss its relation to the evolutionary stage of rifting. Based on bathymetirc and magmatic features, SOT can be divided into two (i.e., eastern and western) segments with non-transform offset at ˜ 123.5° E. The eastern segment represents a well-developed rift system with E-W-trending central graben and separated NE-SW-trending volcanic front; these two features merge at ˜ 125° E. In contrast, the western segment is in the incipient rifting stage; rift axis exists close to 100 km contour of the Wadati-Benioff zone. The most notable feature is the presence of 'abnormal' volcanic chain (Cross Backarc Volcanic Trail, CBVT), which trends NE-SW and is obviously oblique to the axial trend. All rocks are subalkaline, but range from basalt to rhyolite; dacite-rhyolite are dominant in the eastern volcanic front and CBVT. Basalts from both segments are low-K tholeiites; they have high abundance of LILEs relative to HFSEs, negative Nb anomalies on MORB-normalized diagrams, and range of 143Nd/144Nd (0.5128-0.5129) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.7034-0.7048). Pb isotope systematics indicate 206Pb/204Pb=18.398-18.582, 207Pb/204Pb=15.594-15.652 and 208Pb/204Pb=38.570-38.912, clearly above the Northern Hemisphere Reference Line. These elemental and isotopic variations are compatible with derivation from Indian Ocean MORB-like mantle with strong overprint of subduction components from the slab. There is clear difference among more felsic rocks between two segments. At similar silica contents, most of felsic rocks from the western segment, including CBVT rhyolites, have higher LILE contents, 87Sr/86Sr and 208Pb/204Pb

  15. ITCZ and ENSO pacing on East Asian winter monsoon variation during the Holocene: Sedimentological evidence from the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xufeng; Li, Anchun; Wan, Shiming; Kao, Shuhji; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Deep-sea fan sediments provide an excellent geological archive for paleoenvironment reconstruction. Grain size, clay mineral and elemental (Ti, Fe, Ca) compositions were measured for a core retrieved from a submarine fan in the Okinawa Trough. Varimax-rotated Principal Component Analysis (V-PCA) on time-evolution of grain size spectrum reveals that, since the Holocene, sediment was transported mainly by the benthic nepheloid layer (33%) and upper layers (33%) which is driven by the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). The intensification of the Kuroshio Current during the Holocene, masks the fluvial signal of the summer monsoon and obstructs clay minerals derived from the Yellow River, a major contributor prior to 12 ka BP. A new grain size index (GSI), which represents the EAWM well, exhibits a negative correlation with the δ18O record in Dongge Cave, China during the Holocene when sea level was relatively steady. This anticorrelation suggests the southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The consistency among our records and rainfall records in Peru, Ti counts in the Cariaco Basin, monsoon records in Oman and the averaged summer insolation pattern at 30°N further support the ITCZ's impact on monsoon systems globally. Cross-Correlation Analyses for GSI and log(Ti/Ca) against δ18O record in Dongge Cave reveal a decoupling between the East Asian winter and summer monsoon during 5500-2500 cal yr BP, with greater complexity in the last 2500 years. This can be attributed to exacerbated ENSO mode fluctuations and possibly anthropogenic interference superimposed on insolation and ITCZ forcing.

  16. Sea surface temperature proxies (alkenones, foraminiferal Mg/Ca, and planktonic foraminiferal assemblage) and their implications in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ryoung Ah; Lee, Kyung Eun; Bae, Si Woong

    2015-12-01

    We reviewed three sea surface temperature (SST) proxies in the Okinawa Trough (OT): alkenones, planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca, and planktonic foraminiferal assemblages. The seasonal and vertical distribution patterns of each proxy-related organism in the water column were reviewed to confirm the applicability of each proxy. In addition, current SSTs (Japan Oceanographic Data Center dataset from 1906 to 2003) were compared with core-top sediment temperatures reconstructed using the proxies. Temperatures calculated using the alkenone unsaturation index represent annual mean SSTs, and temperatures calculated using Mg/Ca of Globigerinoides ruber capture summer to autumn (June-November) SSTs. Core-top August SSTs calculated from planktonic foraminiferal assemblages corresponded well with the observed SSTs, but core-top February temperatures were ~3.6 °C warmer than the observed SSTs. SST proxy estimates from marine sediments dating back to the late Holocene (0-3 cal ky BP) and the last glacial maximum (18-21 cal ky BP) were compared. Comparisons between proxy SST estimates show that foraminiferal assemblage-based August SSTs were the warmest. Alkenone-based temperature estimates were lower than Mg/Ca-based temperature estimates, probably because the alkenone-based temperature represents the annual mean temperature, whereas the Mg/Ca-based temperature represents the summer-autumn mean temperature. February assemblage SSTs seem to be greatly affected by the statistical technique and/or database used. These results suggest that seasonality should be considered in past SST reconstruction using alkenone and Mg/Ca in the OT. The planktonic foraminiferal assemblage technique does not appear to be promising with respect to accurately reconstructing past SSTs (especially winter) in the OT. Habitat depth may not be an issue because both alkenone producers and G. ruber live at the upper surface mixed layer in the area.

  17. Isotopic composition and speciation of sedimentary nitrogen and carbon in the Okinawa Trough over the past 30 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Li-Wei; Hsiao, Silver Sung-Yun; Ding, Xiao-Dong; Li, Dawei; Chang, Yuan-Pin; Kao, Shuh-Ji

    2015-10-01

    Total organic carbon to total nitrogen ratios (C/N) and their isotopic compositions (δ13CTOC and δ15NTN) are oft-applied proxies to discern terrigenous from marine-sourced organics and to unravel ancient environmental information. In high depositional Asian marginal seas, the inclusion of N-bearing minerals in the bulk sediment dilutes or masks signals sought after in δ15N and δ13C analyses, thus leading to incorrect and even contradictory interpretations. We used KOH-KOBr to separate operationally defined total organic matter into oxidizable (labile) and residual fractions for content and isotope measurements. In a sediment core in the Okinawa Trough, significant amounts of carbon and nitrogen existed in the residual phase, in which the C/N ratio was ~9, resembling most documented sedimentary bulk C/N ratios in the China marginal seas. The residual carbon, which was included in operationally defined total organic carbon (TOC), displayed a δ13C range (-22.7 to -18.9‰, mean -20.7‰) similar to the oft-used marine end-member. After removing the interference from the residual fraction, we found that the temporal pattern of δ13CLOC (LOC denotes labile organic carbon) was more variable. The residual nitrogen content was associated with illite, suggesting a terrestrial origin. Additionally, δ15N in the residual fraction likely reflected the climatic controls (e.g., precipitation) on lithogenic source materials. Further studies are required to explore the controlling factors for carbon and nitrogen isotopic speciation and to retrieve the information locked in the residual fraction.

  18. A unique Fe-rich carbonate chimney associated with cold seeps in the Northern Okinawa Trough, East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhilei; Wei, Helong; Zhang, Xunhua; Shang, Luning; Yin, Xijie; Sun, Yunbao; Xu, Lei; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Xianrong

    2015-01-01

    The East China Sea is an important marginal sea of the Western Pacific Ocean, from which natural gas hydrate sample has not been acquired so far. Recently, copious carbonate chimneys have been discovered in turbidite deposits in the olistostrome zone located on the west slope of the northern section of Okinawa Trough. Here, the petrology, geochemistry and chronology of an iron-rich carbonate chimney were characterized, confirming a close relationship between its formation and the dissociation of natural gas hydrate beneath the chimney in OT. A distinctive relationship has been observed between goethite and total carbonate contents along with a negative correlation between Fe and Ca contents. Conversely, abundant Fe accumulated on carbonate substrate by mineralized microorganisms. The δ13C values of the chimney wall were from -27.56 to -43.66‰ (average: -37.18‰, V-PDB), implying anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) as a predominant controlling factor on carbonate precipitation. As no pyrite and organic residues were identified in the iron-rich chimney, it was assumed that AOM was coupled to the iron reduction reaction at least to some extent during the chimney growth owing to the local deficiency of sulfate supply. The δ56Fe values of bulk chimney wall (ranging from -0.316‰ to -0.023‰, average -0.134‰) suggest mass and isotope exchanges between the chimney and ambient environment during its growth history, whereas the enrichment of δ18O of the carbonate implies these carbonate sourcing from hydrate dissociation underlying our sampling site. This assumption has been supported by a distinct bottom simulation reflector (BSR) and a well-developed fault system beneath the sampling site. This is the first report of cold seepage inside the OT and the identified iron-dependent AOM has shed a new light to the Carbon cycle related to the marine methane oxidation, particularly before the Great Oxidation Event ~2.45 Ga ago.

  19. Isotopic measurement of speleothem inclusion water in nano-liter quantities: application to stalagmites from Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Ryu; Nakamoto, Masashi; Asami, Ryuji; Mishima, Satoru; Gibo, Masakazu; Masaka, Kosuke; Jin-Ping, Chen; Wu, Chung-Che; Chang, Yu-Wei; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2015-04-01

    Speleothem inclusion water isotopic compositions are promising new climatic proxies. The applicability, however, is limited by low water content and challenging analytical difficulties. We have developed a precise and accurate isotopic technique based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a low sample-amount requirement of 20-260 nL of inclusion water from only 77-286 mg of stalagmite deposits in Gyokusen Cave, Okinawa Island, Japan. The 1σ reproducibility is ±0.24permil for δ18O and ±1.8permil for δD. The small sample size requirement demonstrates that our analytical technique can offer high-resolution inclusion water-based paleoclimate reconstructions. The δ18O and δD values of inclusion water samples from the two most recently layers are within the expected range of isotopic monitoring data for drip water and rainwater at the island. Data inferred from coupled stalagmite δ18O records of coeval inclusion water and carbonate indicate that a cave temperature over the past few decades agrees with instrumental observations. Inferred temperatures at 9-10 thousand years ago (ka) and 26 ka are consistent with previous marine sediment records. Our results support the application fidelity of the proposed technique for speleothem formation deposited under oxygen isotopic equilibrium conditions. However, we observed two biased temperature at the last glacial period: an enrichment of 0.5-1permil in δ13C and δ18O on the fringe carbonate deposition can bias the derived temperature by up to -4 °C. This kinetic fractionation should be carefully evaluated to avoid misleading interpretations.

  20. Carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotopic characterization of biological samples from chemo-synthetic communities in southern Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, T.; Mizota, C.; Ishibashi, J.; Nakayama, N.; Tsunogai, U.; Morimoto, Y.; Kataoka, S.; Kosaka, A.; Maki, Y.; Fujiwara, Y.; Tsuchida, S.; Fujikura, K.

    2002-12-01

    Direct measurement of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotopic compositions of the seafloor hydrothermal bacteria involves many difficulties, mainly due to lack of suitable size of samples. In contrast, the isotopic measurements of the hydrothermal vent animals can easily be made. The animals depends mainly on bacterial primary production. Carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur budget from the bacterial source should be estimated using the stable isotopic compositions of the soft tissue constituents. The hydrothermal environment involves several types of chemoautotrophc and methanotrophic bacteria such as suspending, matting, and endosymbiosis. Each hydrothermal vent animal feeds on or harbors the bacteria according to their physiology and ecology. For example, the crustaceans, Shinkaiya and Alvinocaris, feed on bacteria and the deep-sea mussel, Bathymodiolus, harbors endosymbionts in their gill tissues. Our objectives are to make clear the sources of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur of these bacteria and the relationship between the bacteria and the geochemistry of emitting hydrothermal fluids. We studied the vent animals from two hydrothermal systems where the tectonic settings are significantly different. One is located on the volcanic front of the Ryukyu Arc and the other is located on the west edge of the Okinawa Trough back-arc basin. The former hydrothermal vent site is active in the caldera where sediment starved hydrothermal system, while the latter site is active on the thick sediment-covered small trough. The geological settings of these two hydrothermal sites would provide different geochemical environments. We will discuss how the vent animals succeed to the geochemical characteristics from the viewpoint of stable isotope geochemistry.