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Sample records for potentials epic okinawa

  1. Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The southern half of the island of Okinawa, Japan (26.5N, 128.0E) can be seen in this nearly cloud free view. Okinawa is part of the Ryuku Islands which extend from Taiwan northeastward to Kyushu, southernmost of the Japanese Home Islands. The large military base at Kadena, with large runways, is visible near the center of the scene. Kadena is one of several emergency landing sites around the world for the space shuttle.

  2. Potential substitution of mineral P fertilizer by manure: EPIC development and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Ligia B.; Vadas, Peter A.; Balkovič, Juraj; Skalský, Rastislav; Folberth, Christian; van der Velde, Marijn; Obersteiner, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Sources of mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizers are non-renewable. Although the longevity of P mines and the risk of future P depletion are highly debated P scarcity may be detrimental to agriculture in various ways. Some of these impacts include increasing food insecurity and nitrogen (N) and P imbalances, serious fluctuations in the global fertilizer and crop market prices, and contribution in geopolitical conflicts. P-rich waste produced from livestock production activities (i.e. manure) are an alternative to mineral P fertilizer. The substitution of mineral fertilizer with manure (1) delays the depletion of phosphate rock stocks, (2) reduces the vulnerability of P fertilizer importing countries to sudden changes in the fertilizer market, (3) reduces the chances of geopolitical conflicts arising from P exploitation pressures, (4) avoids the need for environmental protection policies in livestock systems, (5) is an opportunity for the boosting of crop yields in low nutrient input agricultural systems, and (6) contributes to the inflow of not only P but also other essential nutrients to agricultural soils. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (EPIC) is a widely used process-based, crop model integrating various environmental flows relevant to crop production as well as environmental quality assessments. We simulate crop yields using a powerful computer cluster infra-structure (known as EPIC-IIASA) in combination with spatially-explicit EPIC input data on climate, management, soils, and landscape. EPIC-IIASA contains over 131,000 simulation units and it has 5 arc-min resolution. In this work, we implement two process-based models of manure biogeochemistry into EPIC-IIASA, i.e. SurPhos (for P) and Manure DNDC (for N and carbon) and a fate model model describing nutrient outflows from fertilizer via runoff. For EGU, we will use EPIC-IIASA to quantify the potential of mineral P fertilizer substitution with manure. Specifically, we will estimate the relative

  3. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  4. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  5. Degradation potential and microbial community structure of heavy oil-enriched microbial consortia from mangrove sediments in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Bacosa, Hernando P; Suto, Koichi; Inoue, Chihiro

    2013-01-01

    Mangroves constitute valuable coastal resources that are vulnerable to oil pollution. One of the major processes to remove oil from contaminated mangrove sediment is microbial degradation. A study on heavy oil- and hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortia from mangrove sediments in Okinawa, Japan was performed to evaluate their capacity to biodegrade and their microbial community composition. Surface sediment samples were obtained from mangrove sites in Okinawa (Teima, Oura, and Okukubi) and enriched with heavy oil as the sole carbon and energy source. The results revealed that all enriched microbial consortia degraded more than 20% of heavy oil in 21 days. The K1 consortium from Okukubi site showed the most extensive degradative capacity after 7 and 21 days. All consortia degraded more than 50% of hexadecane but had little ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The consortia were dominated by Pseudomonas or Burkholderia. When incubated in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds, the active bacterial community shifted to favor the dominance of Pseudomonas. The K1 consortium was a superior degrader, demonstrating the highest ability to degrade aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds; it was even able to degrade heavy oil at a concentration of 15%(w/v). The dominance and turn-over of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia in the consortia suggest an important ecological role for and relationship between these two genera in the mangrove sediments of Okinawa.

  6. Photochemical Formation of Hydroxyl Radical in Red-Soil-Polluted Seawater in Okinawa, Japan -Potential Impacts on Marine Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakaki, T.; Hamdun, A. M.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Ikota, H.; Fujimura, H.; Oomori, T.

    2004-12-01

    Development of pineapple farmlands and construction of recreational facilities caused runoff of red soil into coastal ocean (locally termed as red-soil-pollution) in the north of Okinawa Island, Japan. In an attempt to understand the impacts of red soil on oxidizing power of the seawater, we studied formation of hydroxyl radical (OH radical), the most potent oxidant in the environment, in red-soil-polluted seawaters, using 313 nm monochromatic light. Photo-formation rates of OH radical showed a good correlation with dissolved iron concentrations (R = 0.98). The major source of OH radical was found to be the Fenton reaction (a reaction between Fe(II) and HOOH). The un-filtered red-soil-polluted seawater samples exhibited faster OH radical formation rates than the filtered samples, suggesting that iron-bearing red soil particles enhanced formation of OH radical.

  7. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  8. Potential Predictors of Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Concentrations: Cross-Sectional Analysis in the EPIC-Germany Study

    PubMed Central

    di Giuseppe, Romina; Kühn, Tilman; Hirche, Frank; Buijsse, Brian; Dierkes, Jutta; Fritsche, Andreas; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Stangl, Gabriele I.; Weikert, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived hormone involved in the regulation of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, has been related to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in chronic kidney disease patients and in the general population. However, what determines higher FGF23 levels is still unclear. Also, little is known about the influence of diet on FGF23. The aim of this study was therefore to identify demographic, clinical and dietary correlates of high FGF23 concentrations in the general population. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis within a randomly selected subcohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany comprising 2134 middle-aged men and women. The Human FGF23 (C-Terminal) ELISA kit was used to measure FGF23 in citrate plasma. Dietary data were obtained at baseline via validated food frequency questionnaires including up to 148 food items. Results Multivariable adjusted logistic regression showed that men had a 66% lower and smokers a 64% higher probability of having higher FGF23 (≥ 90 RU/mL) levels compared, respectively, with women and nonsmokers. Each doubling in parathyroid hormone, creatinine, and C-reactive protein was related to higher FGF23. Among the dietary factors, each doubling in calcium and total energy intake was related, respectively, to a 1.75 and to a 4.41 fold increased probability of having higher FGF23. Finally, each doubling in the intake of iron was related to an 82% lower probability of having higher FGF23 levels. Results did not substantially change after exclusion of participants with lower kidney function. Conclusions In middle-aged men and women traditional and non-traditional CVD risk factors were related to higher FGF23 concentrations. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the potential mechanisms linking increased FGF23 to increased CVD risk. PMID:26193703

  9. Teaching the Epic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Margaret, Ed.

    Assembled to aid high school literature teachers in exploring the epic with their students, materials in this book approach the epic as a product of a specific culture which presents vivid pictures of earlier societies. Following the introduction and the opening essay, "The Role of the Supernatural in the Epic," chapters are grouped under the…

  10. Okinawa, Japan: Geologic Battleground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waymack, S. W.; Carrington, M. P.; Harpp, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    One of our main goals as instructors, particularly in introductory courses, is to impart students with an appreciation of how geology has influenced the course of human events. Despite the apparent accessibility of such topics, communicating this in a lively, relevant, and effective way often proves difficult. We use a series of historical events, the Pacific island hopping campaign of WWII, to engage students in an active, guided inquiry exercise to explore how terrain and the underlying geology of an area can shape historical events. Teams of students are assigned the role of planning either the defense or occupation of Okinawa Island, in the Ryukyu arc, in a theoretical version of the 1945 conflict. Students are given a package of information, including geologic and topographic maps, a list of military resources available to them at the time, and some historical background. Students also have access to "reconnaissance" images, 360o digital panoramas of the landscape of Okinawa, keyed to their maps. Each team has a week to plan their strategies and carry out additional research, which they subsequently bring to the table in the form of a written battle plan. With an instructor as arbiter, teams alternate drawing their maneuvers on a map of the island, to which the other team then responds. This continues one move at a time, until the instructor declares a victor. Throughout the exercise, the instructor guides students through analysis of each strategic decision in light of the island's structure and topography, with an emphasis on the appropriate interpretation of the maps. Students soon realize that an understanding of the island's terrain literally meant the difference between life and death for civilians and military participants alike in 1945. The karst landscape of Okinawa posed unique obstacles to both the Japanese and the American forces, including difficult landing sites, networks of natural caves, and sequences of hills aligned perpendicular to the

  11. EPIC Computer Upgrade

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank and Flight Engineer Don Pettit work on installing hardware for the Enhanced Processor and Integrated Communications (EPIC) upgrade of the International Space Sta...

  12. Potential scientific output from the visible channels of EPIC spectroradiometer as part of the DSCOVR L1 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshak, A.; Herman, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    In addition to 4 UV channels, the EPIC spectroradiometer will provide measurements at 6 visible (and near IR) channels (443, 551, 680, 687.75, 764 and 779.9 nm) at roughly 10 km spatial resolution. The scattering angles are near backscattering and vary between 165 and 176 degree. Two pairs {680 and 687.75 nm} and {764 and 779.9 nm} represent O2 B- and A-bands (and their reference) channels; they will be used for cloud height measurements over land and ocean. The B-band channel will contribute to the more absorbing A-band measurements over bright vegetation. A pair {680 and 779.9 nm} will be used for retrieving vegetation properties. Due to the special EPIC geometry, the illuminated part of the leaves will be always observed. As a result, in additional to the traditional Leaf Area Index (LAI), these observations for the first time will provide the sunlit fraction of LAI. Since the sunlit and shaded leaves exhibit different photosynthetic response to incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), these measurements will help to improve global ecological and biogeochemistry models. Finally, a pair {443 and 551 nm} will be used for atmospheric correction. As a by-product of the atmospheric correction algorithm, we also expect to get aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and surface bidirectional reflection function (BRF). The presentation will briefly overview the proposed science algorithms.

  13. Potential Scientific Output from the Visible Channels of EPIC Spectroradiometer as Part of the DSCOVR L1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Herman, Jay

    2011-01-01

    In addition to 4 UV channels, the EPIC spectroradiometer will provide measurements at 6 visible (and near IR) channels (443,551,680,687.75, 764 and 779.9 nm) at roughly 10 km spatial resolution. The scattering angles are near backscattering and vary between 165 and 176 degree. Two pairs {680 and 687.75 nm} and {764 and 779.9 nm} represent 02 B- and A-bands (and their references) channels; they will be used for cloud height measurements over land and ocean. The B-band channel will contribute to the more absorbing A-band measurements over bright vegetation. A pair {680 and 779.9 nm} will be used for retrieving vegetation properties. Due to the special EPIC geometry, the illuminated part of the leaves will be always observed. As a result, in additional to the traditional Leaf Area Index (LAI), these observations for the first time will provide the sunlit fraction of LAI. Since the sunlit and shaded leaves exhibit different photosynthetic response to incident radiation, these measurements will help to improve global ecological and biogeochemistry models. Finally, a pair {443 and 551 nm} will be used for atmospheric correction. As a by-product of the atmospheric correction algorithm, we also expect to get aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and surface bidirectional reflection function (BRF). The presentation will briefly overview the proposed science algorithms.

  14. American Epic: Then and Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Nathan

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the epic of America as frontier and vast land of freedom has been replaced by an epic that emphasizes racial and ethnic diversity in America, whether in an optimistic or pessimistic mood. The old epic was connected with an available frontier, but the new epic is city-centered in the stories of minorities. (SLD)

  15. EPIC/JANUS user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-30

    EPIC/JANUS, the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Publication and Interactive Composition System, is a software system the allows text, tables, halftones, and graphics to be combined interactively in a single document. In essence, it automates the entire process of composition and production of camera-ready copy. EPIC is a machine-independent document management and translation system developed by EIA. JANUS is an interactive document composition system which formats and typesets a document. This User's Guide provides complete information on how to use the EPIC/JANUS system. Included in the discussion are sections on getting started, the EPIC system and EIA Standard Text Codes, EPIC interactive commands, graphics in EPIC/JANUS, tables in EPIC/JANUS, EPIC Error messages, MVS and VM listings from EPIC/JANUS, using JANUS interactively, mathematical formula, and producing EPIC/JANUS publications through a displaywriter. Appendices contain a quick reference guide to text codes and text code examples. (DWL)

  16. T-cell lymphoma in a wild Okinawa rail (Gallirallus okinawae).

    PubMed

    Neagari, Yasuko; Nagamine, Takashi; Nakaya, Yumiko; Onuma, Manabu; Murata, Koichi; Kuwana, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    The Okinawa rail (Gallirallus okinawae) is an endangered species that inhabits the northern part of Okinawa Main Island in southern Japan. A wild Okinawa rail was rescued from a road in Kunigami Village in Okinawa in October 2009. The bird subsequently died and underwent necropsy. Tumors were found in the liver, spleen and part of the small intestine. Microscopically, lymphoid neoplasm was confirmed in these tissues. The tumor cells were mainly positive for CD3 and CD8α by immunohistochemistry. No Marek's disease virus genes were detected by PCR of a liver tumor. This is the first report of T-cell lymphoma in the Okinawa rail.

  17. EPIC: A Framework for Using Video Games in Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrier, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Ethics education can potentially be supplemented through the use of video games. This article proposes a novel framework (Ethics Practice and Implementation Categorization [EPIC] Framework), which helps educators choose games to be used for ethics education purposes. The EPIC Framework is derived from a number of classic moral development,…

  18. Hawaii-Okinawa Building Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, I.; Salasovich, J.

    2013-05-01

    NREL conducted energy evaluations at the Itoman City Hall building in Itoman, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the Hawaii State Capitol building in Honolulu, Hawaii. This report summarizes the findings from the evaluations, including the best practices identified at each site and opportunities for improving energy efficiency and renewable energy. The findings from this evaluation are intended to inform energy efficient building design, energy efficiency technology, and management protocols for buildings in subtropical climates.

  19. EPICS-DDS

    SciTech Connect

    Malitsky,N.; Shah, J.; Hasabnis, N.

    2009-05-04

    This paper presents a new extension to EPICS, approaching the Data Distributed Service (DDS) interface based on the Channel Access protocol. DDS is the next generation of middleware industrial standards, bringing a data-centric publish-subscribe paradigm to distributed control systems. In comparison with existing middleware technologies, the data-centric approach is able to provide a consistent consolidated model supporting difference data dissemination scenarios and integrating many important issues, such as quality of service, user-specific data structures, and others. The paper considers different features of the EPICS-DDS layer in the context of the high-level accelerator environment.

  20. EPIC'S PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPIC completes approximately 150 site characterizations annually using current and historical aerial photographs. This work is done in support of EPA Regional and Program
    offices. Site characterization provides detailed information about a site and its history, often going ba...

  1. Progress in infant health in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hokama, Tomiko; Binns, Colin

    2012-07-01

    The infant mortality rate (IMR) and neonatal mortality rate (NMR) defined as the number of infant and newborn deaths per 1000 live births, respectively, are widely accepted as population indicators of the level of perinatal and postnatal health. Since the end of World War II, Japan has made substantial progress in reducing its IMR and NMR. This resulted from improving living standards and the provision of universal maternal and child health care (MCH) services. Okinawa, the island prefecture that is the furthest from mainland Japan, had the third highest IMR and the highest low-birth-weight rate (LBW) among all prefectures when its statistics were integrated into Japan in 1973. Even though the LBW rate in Okinawa has remained higher than the all-Japan average, Okinawa has shown a considerable improvement in IMR and NMR. The aim is to review the trends in IMR, NMR, and LBW in Japan and Okinawa and to discuss sociodemographic trends, economics, and the provision of health care services. The IMR and NMR in Okinawa decreased during that time from 14.8 to 2.4 and from 7.5 to 0.8, respectively. The LBW rate decreased until the mid-1980s, but since then it has increased to 11.5 (Okinawa) and 9.6 (Japan) in 2009. Okinawa's public health and primary health care model for infants has been very successful and may be applicable to child health in island nations of the Asia-Pacific region.

  2. The Owens Valley Epics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Donald

    2007-01-01

    One of the best-studied, least-discussed texts of Native American oral literature is a long Mojave "epic" taken down from a man named Inyo-kutavere by Alfred Kroeber in 1902 and published in 1951. The text was published in twenty-nine pages along with forty-eight pages of commentary and twenty-five pages of notes. In 1999, Arthur Hatto, an…

  3. Serum carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes as potential biomarkers of dietary intake and their relation with incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-Norfolk study123

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pinal S; Cooper, Andrew JM; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Kuhnle, Gunter GC; Kneale, Catherine K; Mulligan, Angela M; Luben, Robert N; Brage, Soren; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Forouhi, Nita G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Stable-isotope ratios of carbon (13C/12C, expressed as δ13C) and nitrogen (15N/14N, or δ15N) have been proposed as potential nutritional biomarkers to distinguish between meat, fish, and plant-based foods. Objective: The objective was to investigate dietary correlates of δ13C and δ15N and examine the association of these biomarkers with incident type 2 diabetes in a prospective study. Design: Serum δ13C and δ15N (‰) were measured by using isotope ratio mass spectrometry in a case-cohort study (n = 476 diabetes cases; n = 718 subcohort) nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)–Norfolk population-based cohort. We examined dietary (food-frequency questionnaire) correlates of δ13C and δ15N in the subcohort. HRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using Prentice-weighted Cox regression. Results: Mean (±SD) δ13C and δ15N were −22.8 ± 0.4‰ and 10.2 ± 0.4‰, respectively, and δ13C (r = 0.22) and δ15N (r = 0.20) were positively correlated (P < 0.001) with fish protein intake. Animal protein was not correlated with δ13C but was significantly correlated with δ15N (dairy protein: r = 0.11; meat protein: r = 0.09; terrestrial animal protein: r = 0.12, P ≤ 0.013). δ13C was inversely associated with diabetes in adjusted analyses (HR per tertile: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.65, 0.83; P-trend < 0.001], whereas δ15N was positively associated (HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.38; P-trend = 0.001). Conclusions: The isotope ratios δ13C and δ15N may both serve as potential biomarkers of fish protein intake, whereas only δ15N may reflect broader animal-source protein intake in a European population. The inverse association of δ13C but a positive association of δ15N with incident diabetes should be interpreted in the light of knowledge of dietary intake and may assist in identifying dietary components that are associated with health risks and benefits. PMID:24990425

  4. Comments on dietary restriction, Okinawa diet and longevity.

    PubMed

    Gavrilova, Natalia S; Gavrilov, Leonid A

    2012-01-01

    Longevity in Okinawa is considered to be a result of traditional low calorie diet. Le Bourg suggests that Okinawa is an example of severe malnutrition, which is harmful for later generations. We believe that current loss of longevity advantage in Okinawa is a result of diet westernization and that the dietary restriction is a valid way of life extension in humans.

  5. Tectonic evolution and volcanism of Okinawa Trough

    SciTech Connect

    Sibuet, J.C.; Letouzey, J.; Marsset, B.; Davagnier, M.; Foucher, J.P.; Bougault, H.; Dosso, L.; Maury, R.; Joron, J.L.

    1986-07-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a back-arc basin formed by extension of the east China continental lithosphere behind the Ryukyu Trench system. The age of marine deposits drilled in the northern Okinawa Trough indicates a Miocene age for the splitting of the volcanic arc and the first tensional movements. The POP 1 cruise of the R/V Jean-Charcot (September-October 1984) provided new evidence concerning the two main periods of extension as recognized by Kimura (Marine and Petroleum Geology, 1985). Tilted fault blocks in the northern Okinawa Trough trend north 40/sup 0/-60/sup 0/ and belong to the early Pleistocene phase (2-0.5 Ma). The present-day phase is characterized over the entire basin by normal faults oriented 80/sup 0/N in the north and 90/sup 0/N in the south. In the southern Okinawa Trough, most of the deformation occurs along linear, subparallel, en echelon depressions intruded by volcanic ridges associated with positive magnetic anomalies. The system of volcanic ridges ends northeast of Okinawa Island in a series of parallel volcanic ridges named the VAMP (Volcanic arc-rift migration processes) area, which merges into an active volcanic chain extending north to Japan. Chemical analyses of the vesicular basalts dredged on the back-arc basin display flat to enriched rare-earth patterns. The niobium-tantalum negative anomalies reflect a subduction signature. A good positive correlation between strontium isotopic compositions and concentrations suggests a contamination effect.

  6. Genetic diversity and phylogeny of the endangered Okinawa Rail, Gallirallus okinawae.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Kiyoaki; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamagishi, Satoshi

    2010-02-01

    Genetic diversity of the wild population of the endangered Okinawa Rail, Gallirallus okinawae, was revealed by analyzing haplotypes in the mitochondrial control region for 177 individuals. We found 6 haplotypes with nucleotide differences at 6 sites. The four major haplotypes, Type 1 to Type 4, were present in 121 (68.4%), 21 (11.9%), 8 (4.5%) and 25 individuals (14.1%), respectively. Type 5 and Type 6 were each found in one individual. The gene diversity (h) and nucleotide diversity (pi) of Okinawa Rail were calculated to be 0.499 +/- 0.040 and 0.00146 +/- 0.00098, respectively. Gene diversity in Okinawa Rail is higher than that found in other endangered avian species, but the relative nucleotide diversity is lower due to few nucleotide differences among the haplotypes. Our sample of 177 individuals represents 20-25% of the total population, and thus allows a rigorous estimate of the population structure of Okinawa Rail, and makes it unlikely that more haplotypes would be found with additional sampling. The low nucleotide diversity in the control region may indicate that Okinawa Rail has gone through a recent bottleneck. The minimal span network of haplotypes, and the distribution pattern of sampled individuals, indicate that the number of birds with rare haplotypes, Type 5 and 6, decreased during the recent population decline caused by habitat loss and introduced predators. Our results are relevant to the current conservation program for the endangered Okinawa Rail, and perhaps for other species of flightless rails.

  7. Back arc extension in the Okinawa Trough

    SciTech Connect

    Sibuet, J.; Letouzey, J.; Barbier, F.; Charvet, J.; Foucher, J.; Hilde, T.W.C.; Kimura, M.; Ling-Yun, C.; Marsset, B.; Muller, C.; and others

    1987-12-10

    The Okinawa Trough, lying to the east of China, is a back arc basin formed by extension within continental lithosphere behind the Ryukyu trench-arc system. Middle to late Miocene uplift, associated with normal faulting of the initially adjacent Ryukyu nonvolcanic arc and the Taiwan-Sinzi folded belt, corresponds to the first rifting phase. The timing of rifting is supported by the presence of marine sediments of corresponding age drilled in the northern Okinawa Trough. The rifting occurred after a major early Miocene change in the motion of the Philippine plate with respect to Eurasia and ceased during the Pliocene. A second rifting phase started about 2 m.y. ago, at the Plio-Pleistocene boundary and has continue until the present time. It has proceeded to a more advanced stage in the middle and southern Okinawa Trough than it has farther north. Detailed bathymetric (Sea Beam), seismic reflection and magnetics data collected during the POP 1 cruise of the R/V Jean Charcot reveal the principal features of the extensional processes. The back are spreading phase started very recently in the southern and middle Okinawa Trough, as exemplified by several and echelon and, in some cases, overlapping active, central graben oriented N70/sup 0/ E--N80/sup 0/ E. Some of these depressions are intruded by volcanic ridges of fresh back arc basalt with associated large magnetic anomalies. Transform faults between these en echelon active rifts are not obvious.

  8. Imported malaria cases in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao; Tasato, Daisuke; Karimata, Yosuke; Nakamura, Hideta; Miyagi, Kazuya; Haranaga, Shusaku; Hirata, Tetsuo; Hokama, Akira; Cash, Haley L; Toma, Hiromu; Fujita, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in global transportation, imported malaria has become a significant public health concern in Japan. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed all imported malaria cases in Okinawa Prefecture from 1988 to 2012. In that period, 23 patients with imported malaria were admitted to the University of the Ryukyus Hospital. Malaria types observed included Plasmodium falciparum (14 cases), P. vivax (7 cases), combined P. falciparum and P. ovale (1 case), and combined P. vivax and P. malariae (1 case). All cases were resolved by anti-malarial treatment. The clinical data from these patients highlights the importance of collecting patient travel history and ensuring an adequate supply of both diagnostic test and drug treatments in Okinawa.

  9. Microbial Communities of the Okinawa Backarc Basin Subvent Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, L. D.; House, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    IODP Expedition 331 to the Okinawa backarc basin provided an opportunity to study the microbial stratigraphy within the sediments surrounding a hydrothermal vent. The Okinawa backarc basin is a sedimented region of the seafloor located on a continental margin, and also hosts a hydrothermal network within the subsurface. Site C0014 within the Iheya North hydrothermal field is located 450 m east of the active vent and has a surface temperature of 5°C with no evidence of hydrothermal alteration within the top 10 m. Temperature increases with depth at an estimated rate of 3°C/m and transitions from non-hydrothermal margin sediments to a hydrothermally altered regime below 10 m. Site C0014 is a unique location to study changes in microbial communities with depth, as the hydrothermal system generates a thermally and geochemically restrictive subvent biosphere. In this study, we utilized deep 16S rRNA sequencing of DNA from IODP Expedition 331 Site C0014 sediment horizons in order to assess diversity throughout the sediment column as well as determine the potential limits of the biosphere. Analysis of the amplicon data suggests that Archaea represent a significant proportion of the indigenous community throughout the top 15 m of sediment, where Archaea then abruptly disappear. Furthermore, a deeper classification of Archaeal sequences suggests a transition from a mesophilic community to a potentially thermophilic one, where there is an increasingly stronger signal of Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG) followed by Terrestrial Hot Spring Crenarchaeotic Group (THSCG). Additionally, there are several horizons in which methanotrophy is likely supported, indicated by peaks in anaerobic methanotrophic Archaea. The cessation of Archaea as well as Chloroflexi, a common marine subsurface bacterial phylum, at approximately 15 meters below seafloor (mbsf) is suggestive of a potential boundary within Site C0014 in which the environmental conditions have become too restrictive

  10. Reproductive cycle observation of the Okinawa rail (Gallirallus okinawae) in the wild.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Manabu; Nagamine, Takashi; Nakaya, Yumiko; Neagari, Yasuko

    2011-09-01

    The captive breeding program of the Okinawa rail started in 2008. For successful captive breeding, information related to reproduction, such as age at sexual maturity, testicular cycles and ovulatory cycles, is essential to predict when reproduction is possible and when certain reproductive behaviors are most likely to occur. We made gross and histological observations of the reproductive organs of Okinawa rails to gain understanding of sexual maturity, the testicular cycle and the ovulatory cycle. We found that the weight of the testis was smallest in December and largest in March. Changes in the diameter of the seminiferous tubule showed the same pattern. Mature sperm were observed from March to June. The heaviest ovary was observed in April. A single peak of reproduction, from March to April, was observed in males and females. Our observations suggested that the Okinawa rail is a seasonal breeder. Establishing suitable breeding pairs will be critical to ensure success of the Okinawa rail captive breeding program. Our results suggested that pairing must be started before March. If supportive breeding is used, semen should be collected from March to June and artificial insemination conducted in April.

  11. Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) is a proposed NASA Exoplanet Probe mission to image and characterize extrasolar giant planets. EPIC will provide insights into the physical nature and architecture of a variety of planets in other solar systems. Initially, it will detect and characterize the atmospheres of planets identified by radial velocity surveys, determine orbital inclinations and masses and characterize the atmospheres around A and F type stars which cannot be found with RV techniques. It will also observe the inner spatial structure of exozodiacal disks. EPIC has a heliocentric Earth trailing drift-away orbit, with a 5 year mission lifetime. The robust mission design is simple and flexible ensuring mission success while minimizing cost and risk. The science payload consists of a heritage optical telescope assembly (OTA), and visible nulling coronagraph (VNC) instrument. The instrument achieves a contrast ratio of 10^9 over a 5 arcsecond field-of-view with an unprecedented inner working angle of 0.13 arcseconds over the spectral range of 440-880 nm. The telescope is a 1.65 meter off-axis Cassegrain with an OTA wavefront error of lambda/9, which when coupled to the VNC greatly reduces the requirements on the large scale optics.

  12. Epidemiology of hip fractures in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Arakaki, Harumi; Owan, Ichiro; Kudoh, Hirohisa; Horizono, Hidehiro; Arakaki, Kaoru; Ikema, Yasunari; Shinjo, Hirotaka; Hayashi, Kaori; Kanaya, Fuminori

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the current incidence of hip fractures in Okinawa prefecture and compared the data with those obtained in our previous study, which was conducted using similar methods in 1987/1988. All patients, aged 50 years or older and residing in Okinawa, admitted to Okinawa hospitals in 2004 for a fresh hip fracture were identified from hospital registries. Details were obtained from the medical records and radiographs of all patients and classified according to fracture type (cervical or trochanteric), age, sex, and fracture location. Subtrochanteric fractures and pathological fractures were excluded. A total of 1,349 patients (242 men and 1,107 women) were admitted for a fresh hip fracture in 2004. Their average age was 76.9 years for men and 82.4 years for women. There were 671 cervical fractures, 654 trochanteric fractures, and 24 unclassified proximal femoral fractures. Comparing the data from 1987/1988 to those from 2004, the total number of hip fractures increased by 188%, from 469 to 1,349. The age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000, standardized to the 2000 US population, were 75.7 and 296.1 in 1987/1988 and 123.6 and 420 in 2004 for men and women, respectively. The incidence rates in all age groups (at 5-year intervals) were higher in 2004 than in 1987/1988, indicating that people 50 years of age or older became more susceptible to hip fractures. Accordingly, the accretion of the hip fracture incidence rate was greater than that which could be explained purely by changes in population size and structure.

  13. EPICS release 3.11 specific documentation -- EPICS release notes for 3.11

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-19

    EPICS release 3.11 is now ready for user testing. A person who wants to set up a simplified application environment to boot an IOC and create databases using R3.11 should follow the directions in Appendix B, page 27, of the EPICS Source/Release Control Manual, Sept. 20, 1993. The R3.11 EPICS path at ANL/APS is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11 so the command to get the new release is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11/Unix/share/bin/getrel /net/phebos/epics/R3.11. An existing R3.8 short form report can be copied to this new directory and used to create a database. ANL/APS is currently testing an Application Developers Source/Release control system. It is not yet ready for general distribution. Attached are the EPICS R3.11 release notes.

  14. Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampin, Mark; Melnick, Gary; Lyon, Richard; Kenyon, Scott; Sasselov, Dimitar; Tolls, Volker; Ford, Holland; Golimowski, David; Petro, Larry; Hartig, George; Sparks, William; Illingworth, Garth; Lin, Doug; Seager, Sara; Weinberger, Alycia; Harwit, Martin; Marley, Mark; Schneider, Jean; Shao, Michael; Levine, Marty; Ge, Jian; Woodruff, Robert

    2006-06-01

    The Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) is a proposed NASA Discovery mission to image and characterize extrasolar giant planets in orbits with semi-major axes between 2 and 10 AU. EPIC will provide insights into the physical nature of a variety of planets in other solar systems complimenting radial velocity (RV) and astrometric planet searches. It will detect and characterize the atmospheres of planets identified by radial velocity surveys, determine orbital inclinations and masses, characterize the atmospheres around A and F type stars which cannot be found with RV techniques, and observe the inner spatial structure and colors of debris disks. EPIC has a proposed launch date of 2012 to heliocentric Earth trailing drift-away orbit, with a 3 year mission lifetime (5 year goal), and will revisit planets at least three times at intervals of 9 months. The robust mission design is simple and flexible ensuring mission success while minimizing cost and risk. The science payload consists of a heritage optical telescope assembly (OTA), and visible nulling coronagraph (VNC) instrument. The instrument achieves a contrast ratio of 109 over a 4.84 arcsecond field-of-view with an unprecedented inner working angle of 0.14 arcseconds over the spectral range of 440-880 nm, with spectral resolutions from 10 - 150. The telescope is a 1.5 meter offaxis Cassegrain with an OTA wavefront error of λ/9, which when coupled to the VNC greatly reduces the requirements on the large scale optics, compressing them to stability requirements within the relatively compact VNC optical chain. The VNC features two integrated modular nullers, a spatial filter array (SFA), and an E2V-L3 photon counting CCD. Direct null control is accomplished from the science focal mitigating against complex wavefront and amplitude sensing and control strategies.

  15. [Three Cases of Tsutsugamushi Disease in Miyakojima Island, Okinawa, Japan].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kei; Shinzato, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Tsutsugamushi disease (Scrub thyphus) has been reported from all over Japan except the Hokkaido area. In Okinawa, only one patient was reported in 2001, who was infected outside Okinawa Prefecture. The first case infected in Okinawa was reported at Miyakojima Island in 2008. We report herein on the second case diagnosed in 2010, and the third and fourth in 2011, and all three patients were suspected to have been infected at Ikemajima Island adjacent to the island of Miyakojima. The patients recovered without any severe complications after antibiotic therapy with tetracyclines. We should take Tsutsugamushi disease into consideration in the differential diagnosis for a patient with fever, skin rash, and/or eschar even in the Okinawa area. Implementation of appropriate information and education about the disease should be carried out for local residents and tourists.

  16. Cloud Detection with the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Kerry; Marshak, Alexander; Lyapustin, Alexei; Torres, Omar; Wang, Yugie

    2011-01-01

    The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) on board the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) would provide a unique opportunity for Earth and atmospheric research due not only to its Lagrange point sun-synchronous orbit, but also to the potential for synergistic use of spectral channels in both the UV and visible spectrum. As a prerequisite for most applications, the ability to detect the presence of clouds in a given field of view, known as cloud masking, is of utmost importance. It serves to determine both the potential for cloud contamination in clear-sky applications (e.g., land surface products and aerosol retrievals) and clear-sky contamination in cloud applications (e.g., cloud height and property retrievals). To this end, a preliminary cloud mask algorithm has been developed for EPIC that applies thresholds to reflected UV and visible radiances, as well as to reflected radiance ratios. This algorithm has been tested with simulated EPIC radiances over both land and ocean scenes, with satisfactory results. These test results, as well as algorithm sensitivity to potential instrument uncertainties, will be presented.

  17. Can we improve breast cancer mortality in Okinawa? Consensus of the 7th Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Kentaro; Tamaki, Nobumitsu; Kamada, Yoshihiko; Uehara, Kano; Zaha, Hisamitsu; Onomura, Mai; Ueda, Makoto; Kurashita, Kaname; Miyazato, Keiko; Higa, Junko; Miyara, Kyuichiro; Shiraishi, Makiko; Murayama, Shigemi; Ishida, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    The rate of breast cancer mortality in Okinawa has gradually been increasing up to 2010. Now Okinawa has the second worst mortality rate in Japan, in part due to the enormous dietary changes resulting from the post-World War II US military occupation, high incidence of obesity, high non-optimal treatment rate, and low breast-cancer screening rate. To reduce breast cancer mortality in Okinawa, we established the Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting (OBOM) in 2012. At the 7th OBOM held on January 10th, 2014, we discussed the breast cancer mortality in Okinawa focusing on lifestyle, breast cancer screening and optimal treatments. The Okinawan women who were overweight and/or obese during premenopausal and postmenopausal ages had a statistically significant higher risk of breast cancer development compared to those with non-overweight and/or obese women. The traditional diet of Okinawa consists of foods low in calories but rich in nutritional value. Therefore, we recommend Okinawan people not to forget the Okinawan traditional lifestyle, and to reduce their bodyweight to prevent breast cancer. One of the main goals of the OBOM is to raise breast cancer screening attendance rates to 50% (29.2% in 2010). We should standardize the quality control for breast cancer screening in Okinawa. It is important to continue enlightening the Okinawan population to receive optimal treatment. In addition, we are striving to establish systematic medical cooperation between the hospitals specializing in breast cancer treatment with rural hospitals. The OBOM group endeavors to contribute to the improvement of breast cancer mortality in Okinawa.

  18. EPIC View of Moon Transiting the Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation features actual satellite images of the far side of the moon, illuminated by the sun, as it crosses between the DSCOVR spacecraft's Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and tele...

  19. Using micro hardware to integrate EPICS and SPEC.

    SciTech Connect

    Walko, D. A.; X-Ray Science Division

    2007-11-11

    This paper describes the steps needed to use SPEC's 'macro hardware facility' for control and reading of EPICS process variables. This resource allows many instruments that can communicate with EPICS to be integrated into the SPEC diffractometer-control program.

  20. Dengue virus presence and surveillance in Okinawa (Review).

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Onodera, Takashi; Shintani, Hideharu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that the dengue virus (DENV) is a serious concern worldwide, especially in subtropical areas such as South-East Asia. With the development of transportation systems, the risk of DENV infection spreading is increasing. Since mosquitoes transmit DENV to humans, surveillance of DENV-infected mosquito vectors is the most effective approach for preventing DENV. Okinawa is the only prefecture located in a subtropical region in Japan and historically shows continuous importation of DENV-related mosquito vectors. In this review, we describe the current and historical status of DENV in Okinawa.

  1. Dengue virus presence and surveillance in Okinawa (Review).

    PubMed

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Onodera, Takashi; Shintani, Hideharu; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that the dengue virus (DENV) is a serious concern worldwide, especially in subtropical areas such as South-East Asia. With the development of transportation systems, the risk of DENV infection spreading is increasing. Since mosquitoes transmit DENV to humans, surveillance of DENV-infected mosquito vectors is the most effective approach for preventing DENV. Okinawa is the only prefecture located in a subtropical region in Japan and historically shows continuous importation of DENV-related mosquito vectors. In this review, we describe the current and historical status of DENV in Okinawa. PMID:22969837

  2. The challenge to reduce breast cancer mortality in Okinawa: consensus of the first Okinawa breast oncology meeting.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Kentaro; Tamaki, Nobumitsu; Kamada, Yoshihiko; Uehara, Kano; Zaha, Hisamitsu; Onomura, Mai; Gushimiyagi, Masanori; Kurashita, Kaname; Miyazato, Keiko; Tengan, Hiromu; Miyara, Kyuichiro; Ishida, Takanori

    2013-02-01

    Breast cancer mortality is gradually increasing in Okinawa. The 1st Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting was held on 6 July 2012 and discussions on how to curb the rising trend were focused on breast cancer screening, adjuvant treatment, socioeconomic and geographic issues, and the problem of complementary and alternative medicine. The consensus of the 1st Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting was that ultrasonography screening is an acceptable screening system for Okinawan women because of the geographic disadvantage of having many small islands and rural areas. Educational and economic support is needed for women in rural areas to get correct information, for access to urban areas and to be treated by evidence-based optimal therapy for breast cancer. In addition, new approaches are needed for Okinawan people to successfully educate patients to correctly interpret evidence-based information.

  3. Epic Flooding in Georgia, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Metropolitan Atlanta-September 2009 Floods * The epic floods experienced in the Atlanta area in September 2009 were extremely rare. Eighteen streamgages in the Metropolitan Atlanta area had flood magnitudes much greater than the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) annual exceedance probability. * The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) reported that 23 counties in Georgia were declared disaster areas due to this flood and that 16,981 homes and 3,482 businesses were affected by floodwaters. Ten lives were lost in the flood. The total estimated damages exceed $193 million (H.E. Longenecker, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., November 2009). * On Sweetwater Creek near Austell, Ga., just north of Interstate 20, the peak stage was more than 6 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. Flood magnitudes in Cobb County on Sweetwater, Butler, and Powder Springs Creeks greatly exceeded the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) floods for these streams. * In Douglas County, the Dog River at Ga. Highway 5 near Fairplay had a peak stage nearly 20 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. * On the Chattahoochee River, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gage at Vinings reached the highest level recorded in the past 81 years. Gwinnett, De Kalb, Fulton, and Rockdale Counties also had record flooding. South Georgia March and April 2009 Floods * The March and April 2009 floods in South Georgia were smaller in magnitude than the September floods but still caused significant damage. * No lives were lost in this flood. Approximately $60 million in public infrastructure damage occurred to roads, culverts, bridges and a water treatment facility (Joseph T. McKinney, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., July 2009). * Flow at the Satilla River near Waycross, exceeded the 0.5-percent (200-year) flood. Flows at seven other stations in South Georgia exceeded the 1-percent (100-year) flood.

  4. Collaborative development of the EPICS Qt framework Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayssat, Robert E.

    2015-01-15

    At Lyncean, a private company spun-off from technology developed at the SLAC National Lab, we have been using EPICS for over a decade. EPICS is ubiquitous on our flagship product – the Compact Light Source. EPICS is not only used to control our laser and accelerator systems, but also to control our x-ray beamlines. The goal of this SBIR is for Lyncean Technologies to spearhead a worldwide collaborative effort for the development of control system tools for EPICS using the Qt framework, a C++-based coding environment that could serve as a competitive alternative to the Java-based Control System Studio (CSS). This grant's Phase I, not unlike a feasibility study, is designed for planning and scoping the preparatory work needed for Phase II or other funding opportunities. The three main objectives of this Phase I are (1) to become better acquainted with the existing EPICS Qt software and Qt framework in order to evaluate the best options for ongoing development, (2) to demonstrate that our engineers can lead the EPICS community and jump-start the Qt collaboration, and (3) to identify a scope for our future work with solicited feedback from the EPICS community. This Phase I report includes key technical findings. It clarifies the differences between the two apparently-competing EPICS Qt implementations, caQtDM and the QE Framework; it explains how to create python-bindings, and compares Qt graphical libraries. But this report is also a personal story that narrates the birth of a collaboration. Starting a collaboration is not the work of a single individual, but the work of many. Therefore this report is also an attempt to publicly give credit to many who supported the effort. The main take-away from this grant is the successful birth of an EPICS Qt collaboration, seeded with existing software from the PSI and the Australian Synchrotron. But a lot more needs to be done for the collaboration founders' vision to be realized, and for the collaboration to reach its full

  5. 77 FR 73655 - Epic Marketplace, Inc., and Epic Media Group, LLC; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... (``EMG''). Epic acts as an intermediary between Web site owners who publish advertisements on their Web... purposes. The FTC's complaint charges that Epic and EMG violated Section 5(a) of the FTC Act by falsely... prevent Epic; EMG; their parent company FAS Labs, Inc.; and any of their subsidiaries, successors,...

  6. Skin cancer screening in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagano, T; Ueda, M; Suzuki, T; Naruse, K; Nakamura, T; Taguchi, M; Araki, K; Nakagawa, K; Nagai, H; Hayashi, K; Watanabe, S; Ichihashi, M

    1999-04-01

    Depletion of the ozone layer has been observed on a global scale. Ozone depletion increases the amount of biologically harmful solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) that reaches the surface of the Earth, leading to an increased incidence of skin cancer. We previously reported the prevalence and incidence of actinic keratosis (AK) in Kasai City, which is located almost at the center of Japan. To evaluate the effects of different ambient annual UV doses on the prevalence and incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer and AK in Japan, we screened for skin cancer on Ie Island in Okinawa at the southern end of Japan, where the annual cumulative dose of UV is assumed to be the highest in Japan. The island had a population of 5562 in 1993. A prospective 4-year population-based study on the prevalence and incidence of cutaneous neoplasms was conducted by examining the sun-exposed skin of people over 40 years of age living on Ie Island. In 1993 1996, 86 cases of AK, nine of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and two of squamous cell carcinoma were identified. The annual prevalence of AK on Ie Island was 1159.4 in 1993, 572.8 in 1994, 1014.3 in 1995 and 988.9 per 100000 Japanese in 1996. These values were significantly higher than those in Kasai City. The annual age-adjusted odds ratios for AK of Ie Island to Kasai City were 2.79, 1.38, 2.45 and 2.39, respectively. The incidences of AK on Ie Island per 100,000 were 637.0 in 1995 and 625.5 in 1996, which were also significantly higher than those in Kasai City (223.6 in 1993 and 171.2 in 1994). The prevalence of BCC was 123.6 and the incidence was 26.1. Together with our previous reports, the present results show a possible inverse relationship between the prevalence and incidence of AK and latitude among Japanese people.

  7. Education for Change: Epic Charter School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The student-centered school model of Epic Charter School in Oakland, California, framed around a hero's journey empowers middle school students with sense of unity and purpose in life, where they can feel part of a culture with a shared experience and with more opportunities to experiences growth and accomplishment. Design and engineering is front…

  8. The success and the future of EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Thuot, M.E., Dalesio, L.R.; Clausen, M.; Katoh, T.

    1996-09-01

    During the past 5 years, the control system software toolkit EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) has developed from a small code co-development effort between LANL and ANL into an international collaboration on real-time distributed control system (for an accelerator facility, etc.). The wide application of this set of tools is the result of a combination of high performance, scaleable distributed control, and well defined open interfaces between system layers that encourage users to add extensions. These extensions can subsequently be reused by others, adding to the utility of the tools. This paper describes the architectural features that have supported these extensions, some of the new extensions produced by the 58 projects currently using EPICS and some of the new functions and interfaces being planned to be added to this control system toolkit.

  9. The success and the future of EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    M.E. Thuot; M. Clausen; L.R. Dalesio; T. Katoh; M.R. Kraimer; R. Mueller; H. Shoaee; W.A. Watson

    1996-08-01

    During the past five years, the control system software toolkit called EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System), has developed from a comparatively small code co-development effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory into an international collaboration on real-time distributed control systems. The wide application of this set of tools is the result of a combination of high performance, scaleable distributed control and well defined open interfaces between system layers that encourage users to add extensions. These extensions can subsequently be reused by others, adding to the utility of the tools. This paper will describe the architectural features that have supported these extensions, some of the new extensions produced by the 58 projects currently using EPICS and some of the new functions and interfaces we are planning to add to this control system toolkit.

  10. EPICS: Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epics Development Team

    2013-02-01

    EPICS is a set of software tools and applications developed collaboratively and used to create distributed soft real-time control systems for scientific instruments such as particle accelerators and telescopes. Such distributed control systems typically comprise tens or even hundreds of computers, networked together to allow communication between them and to provide control and feedback of the various parts of the device from a central control room, or even remotely over the internet. EPICS uses Client/Server and Publish/Subscribe techniques to communicate between the various computers. A Channel Access Gateway allows engineers and physicists elsewhere in the building to examine the current state of the IOCs, but prevents them from making unauthorized adjustments to the running system. In many cases the engineers can make a secure internet connection from home to diagnose and fix faults without having to travel to the site. EPICS is used by many facilities worldwide, including the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, Fermilab, Keck Observatory, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Australian Synchrotron, and Stanford Linear Accellerator Center.

  11. EPICS Version 4 - Implementing Complex Data Types

    SciTech Connect

    Marty Kraimer,; John dalesio

    2012-11-27

    Through phase 1 and phase 2 SBIR grants, s fully functional I/O Controller and communication protocol for version 4 of EPICS is completed. This new software architecture provides a flexible and extendible architecture. Version 4 is implemented fully in Java. The performance metrics look promising. The final portion of phase 2 is to optimize the communication mechanisms. Subsequent work on different aspects of this are required to provide a viable solutions in various areas. Version 3 of EPICS is able to provide a platform for implementing channel based control, because the channel and attributes for time stamping, alarm, display and control were narrow, well defined, and complete. To extend EPICS functionality beyond this, it is necessary to define attributes needed for archive data, array, image data, and directory services. The proper handling of several array types enables the development of middle layer servers such as orbit and bump control in accelerators. Phase 1 should produce a well defined, reviewed, and agreed upon definition of the metadata required for these services. A Phase 2 grant would provide tools that implemented archiving, general array, imaging, and directory applications.

  12. The Battle of Okinawa, 1945: Final Turning Point in the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzeng, Megan

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the last major battle of World War II that occurred at Okinawa (Japan) in 1945. Explains why the Battle of Okinawa was the turning point in World War II. Includes two maps in the appendix and an annotated bibliography. (CMK)

  13. International Collaboration and the Management of Linguistic Resources at a Diaspora Festival in Okinawa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrucci, Peter R.; Miyahira, Katsuyuki

    2009-01-01

    This article uses Jernudd and Neustupny's (1987) theory of language management to address the planning, management and distribution of linguistic resources at the 4th Worldwide Uchinaanchu Festival (WUF), a diaspora festival held in Okinawa, Japan. WUF organizers--from Okinawa and diaspora communities abroad--were concerned with both international…

  14. Simulating soil C dynamics with EPIC: Model description and testing against long-term data

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Williams, Jimmy R.; Mcgill, William B.; Rosenberg, Norman J.; Quiroga Jakas, Maria C.

    2006-01-01

    Soil carbon sequestration (SCS) has emerged as a technology with significant potential to help stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations and thus reduce the threat of global warming. Methods and models are needed to evaluate and recommend SCS practices based on their effects on carbon dynamics and environmental quality. EPIC (Environment Policy Integrated Climate) is a widely used and tested model for simulating many agroecosystem processes including plant growth, crop yield, tillage, wind and water erosion, runoff, soil density, and leaching. Here we describe new C and N modules developed in EPIC built on concepts from the Century model to connect the simulation of soil C dynamics to crop management, tillage methods, and erosion processes. The added C and N routines interact directly with soil moisture, temperature, erosion, tillage, soil density, leaching, and translocation functions in EPIC. Equations were also added to describe the effects of soil texture on soil C stabilization. Lignin concentration is modeled as a sigmoidal function of plant age. EPIC was tested against data from a Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) 6-yr experiment at five sites in three U.S. Great Plains states and a 61-y long-term agronomic experiment in Canada. Mean Square Deviations (MSD) calculated for CRP sites were less than 0.01 kg C2 m2, except for one site where it reached 0.025 kg2 C2 m. MSD values in the 61-y experiment ranged between 0.047 and 0.077 kg C2 m2. In conclusion, the version of the EPIC model presented and tested here contains the necessary algorithms to simulate SCS and improve understanding of the interactions among soil erosion, C dynamics, and tillage. A strength of the model as tested is its ability to explain the variability in crop production, C inputs and SOC and N cycling over a wised range soil, cropping and climatic conditions over periods from 6 to 61 years. For example, at the Breton site over 61 years, EPIC accounted for 69% of the variability in grain

  15. Modular Curriculum: English. Comparative Literature: The Epic Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Barbara; Wiley, Shirley

    This independent course of study is designed to be completed within a one-year period. The course centers on the epic tradition, analyzing several well-known epics and comparing them from a critic's point of view. It is emphasized that many aspects of the course involve questions for which there are no ready answers. The introductions following…

  16. AN OVERVIEW OF EPA ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory



    The EPA Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) supports the EPA Regions and Program Offices with remote sensing based technical support and research and development products. Since 1972, EPIC has provided both imagery and imagery-derived products to the E...

  17. Evaluation Report: The EPIC Leadership Development Model and Pilot Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Leaders (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    New Leaders created the Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC) initiative in 2006 to learn from educators driving achievement gains in high-need urban schools. EPIC identifies school leaders and teachers whose students are making significant achievement gains and financially rewards these educators in exchange for sharing and documenting…

  18. The EPIC Leadership Development Program Evaluation Report. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Leaders for New Schools (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    New Leaders for New Schools created the Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC) initiative in 2006 to learn from educators driving achievement gains in high-need urban schools. EPIC identifies school leaders and teachers whose students are making significant achievement gains and financially rewards these educators in exchange for sharing…

  19. AN OVERVIEW OF THE EPA ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory



    The EPA Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) supports the EPA Regions and Program Offices with remote sensing based technical support and research and development products. Since 1972, EPIC has provided both imagery and imagery-derived products to the E...

  20. Perfusion Electronic Record Documentation Using Epic Systems Software.

    PubMed

    Riley, Jeffrey B; Justison, George A

    2015-12-01

    The authors comment on Steffens and Gunser's article describing the University of Wisconsin adoption of the Epic anesthesia record to include perfusion information from the cardiopulmonary bypass patient experience. We highlight the current-day lessons and the valuable quality and safety principles the Wisconsin-Epic model anesthesia-perfusion record provides.

  1. Investigating the effect of hydrothermal conditions on the subvent biosphere of the Okinawa backarc basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, L. D.; House, C. H.; Nunoura, T.; Yanagawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    IODP Expedition 331 to the Okinawa backarc basin provided an opportunity to study an interesting subset of the ocean floor -- the subsurface environment surrounding an active hydrothermal vent. The subsurface sediments of the Iheya North Field within the mid-Okinawa trough are affected by high temperature fluids. In addition, the Okinawa backarc basin is situated on a continental margin. This particular environment has a unique set of conditions for investigating the vertical variability in microbial communities with depth as conditions become increasingly restrictive. IODP Expedition 331 Site C0014, located 450 m east of the active vent, has a surface temperature of 5°C and has no evidence of hydrothermal alteration. Temperature increases with depth at an estimated rate of 3°C/m. Below a depth of ~10 mbsf, the sedimentary sequence is hydrothermally altered to a pale, gray clay with alteration products illite and montmorillonite. Thus, Site C0014 represents an ideal location to characterize whether 1) the microbial community structure shifts from non-hydrothermal margin microorganisms toward a more temperature-adapted group of microorganisms, or 2) repeating clades represented throughout the sediment column are seemingly adapting to the increasingly extreme conditions. DNA from sediments (0-44 mbsf) was extracted using a modified protocol from the MoBio PowerSoil DNA Isolation kit. Primers were designed to amplify the V6-V9 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Select samples were sequenced with the Roche 454 FLX sequencer at The Pennsylvania State University. The amplicon data suggest that the subvent biosphere resides in the top 12-14 meters below seafloor (mbsf). The archaeal sequences abruptly disappear beyond the 14 mbsf horizon. The phylum Euryarchaeota, dominated by Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Group 6 (DHVEG-6) and ANME-1, are present throughout the top 14 meters. However, there is an increasingly stronger signal of non-Euryarchaeota clades Marine Crenarchaeotic

  2. Mathematical models for the EPIC code

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, H.L.

    1981-06-03

    EPIC is a fluid/envelope type computer code designed to study the energetics and dynamics of a high energy, high current electron beam passing through a gas. The code is essentially two dimensional (x, r, t) and assumes an axisymmetric beam whose r.m.s. radius is governed by an envelope model. Electromagnetic fields, background gas chemistry, and gas hydrodynamics (density channel evolution) are all calculated self-consistently as functions of r, x, and t. The code is a collection of five major subroutines, each of which is described in some detail in this report.

  3. [Strategy of tuberculosis control and achievement in Okinawa].

    PubMed

    2001-10-01

    After fierce battles in World War II, Okinawa was occupied by military of U.S.A. and consequently was administrated by USCAR (United States Civil Administration of Ryukyus). During 27 years from April 1945 to May 1972, reversion to Japan, the public Health Activities including T.B. control were performed by Ryukyus Government indirectly controlled by USCAR. The first issue of T.B. statistics was made in 1950. It revealed remarkable reduction of T.B. death rate, a quarter of that before the war. The main reasons of the reduction were considered due to the over-death in battles. But epidemic of T.B. had increased rapidly, especially since the Korean War occurred in 1950. Constructions of the military base were booming, and T.B. infection was spread among laborers, employees, and also their families. Then, Ryukyus Government enacted a temporary law of T.B. prevention and control in 1954. Home-care treatment of T.B. patient was started with registration and management in newly constructed Public Health Centers. Because of shortage of government budget, man-power including doctor and poor institutes, a system of short-termed admission treatment (6 months) and home cared chemotherapy were started. Public Health Nurses (PHN) took care the patient at home, and medical fee of T.B. treatment was free in charge to patients. So activities of PHN were very important. In 1962, Dr. Shoukou Imamura, from JATA, came to study the system of home care treatment. And 7,000 cases under supervision of Public Health Center were investigated. He reported that this system was fairly efficacious in Okinawa. In 1976, after reversion to Japan, study of T.B. surveillance control system was advised and introduced by Dr. Masakazu Aoki and Dr. Tooru Mori (JATA). By this modern system of surveillance, T.B. control is improved progressively in Okinawa. PMID:11712390

  4. A MySQL Based EPICS Archiver

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Slominski

    2009-10-01

    Archiving a large fraction of the EPICS signals within the Jefferson Lab (JLAB) Accelerator control system is vital for postmortem and real-time analysis of the accelerator performance. This analysis is performed on a daily basis by scientists, operators, engineers, technicians, and software developers. Archiving poses unique challenges due to the magnitude of the control system. A MySQL Archiving system (Mya) was developed to scale to the needs of the control system; currently archiving 58,000 EPICS variables, updating at a rate of 11,000 events per second. In addition to the large collection rate, retrieval of the archived data must also be fast and robust. Archived data retrieval clients obtain data at a rate over 100,000 data points per second. Managing the data in a relational database provides a number of benefits. This paper describes an archiving solution that uses an open source database and standard off the shelf hardware to reach high performance archiving needs. Mya has been in production at Jefferson Lab since February of 2007.

  5. High-resolution MIRU-VNTRs typing reveals the unique nature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Millet, Julie; Miyagi-Shiohira, Chika; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Mokrousov, Igor; Rastogi, Nalin

    2012-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage is highly prevalent in Japan. The aim of the present study was to describe the population structure of the Beijing lineage in this country based on 12-, 15-, and 21-loci MIRU-VNTR genotyping schemes. The MIRU-VNTR patterns of Beijing strains from Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands were compared to those recently published from the Osaka-Kobe megalopolis of the main island of Japan, Honshu (Wada et al., 2009). We also compared proportions of "modern/typical" vs. "ancient/atypical" Beijing strains as defined by structure of the NTF locus. Contrarily to the 12-loci Minimum Spanning Tree (MST), the 15- and 21-loci trees allowed the distinction of two groups of strains in Okinawa. A 12-loci MIRU-VNTR pattern (223325173533) corresponding to MIRU international type MIT17 was identified as the most prevalent Beijing genotype in Japan. In the SITVIT2 database, this pattern was found to be disseminated worldwide and corresponded to the most widely distributed Beijing profile in East Asia and former USSR countries. A comparison of 15- and 21-loci MIRU-VNTR patterns showed that two loci (QUB-4156 and Mtub21) were most polymorphic in our study, and could be potential candidates to distinguish between NTF locus based subclassification of Beijing strains. High-resolution VNTR typing using 15- and 21-loci underlined an evolutionarily distinct "ancient/atypical" subpopulation of the Beijing genotype in Okinawa as well as a subgroup of strains closely related to "modern/typical" Beijing strains observed in Osaka/Kobe.

  6. Students Speak With Gary Cox, EPIC Project Manager

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA’s International Space Station Mission Control Center Gary Cox EPIC Project Manager, participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at South Effingham Middle School...

  7. Compilation of a standardised international folate database for EPIC.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Geneviève; Witthöft, Cornelia M; Vignat, Jérôme; Knaze, Viktoria; Huybrechts, Inge; Roe, Mark; Finglas, Paul; Slimani, Nadia

    2016-02-15

    This paper describes the methodology applied for compiling an "international end-user" folate database. This work benefits from the unique dataset offered by the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) (N=520,000 subjects in 23 centres). Compilation was done in four steps: (1) identify folate-free foods then find folate values for (2) folate-rich foods common across EPIC countries, (3) the remaining "common" foods, and (4) "country-specific" foods. Compiled folate values were concurrently standardised in terms of unit, mode of expression and chemical analysis, using information in national food composition tables (FCT). 43-70% total folate values were documented as measured by microbiological assay. Foods reported in EPIC were either matched directly to FCT foods, treated as recipes or weighted averages. This work has produced the first standardised folate dataset in Europe, which was used to calculate folate intakes in EPIC; a prerequisite to study the relation between folate intake and diseases.

  8. ORAL PRESENTATION:EPA'S ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an overview of the remote sensing technical support and research and development activities of the Environmental Photographic Interprettion Center (EPIC). It is the basis for a presentation given at the EPA's Office of Acquisition Management's Annual C...

  9. Operational experience from a large EPICS-based accelerator facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ciarlette, D.J.; Gerig, R.

    1995-12-31

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory is a third-generation x-ray light source which uses the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) to operate its linear accelerator, positron accumulator ring, booster synchrotron, and storage ring equipment. EPICS has been used at the APS since the beginning of installation and commissioning. Currently, EPICS controls approximately 100 VME crates containing over 100,000 process variables. With this complexity, the APS has had to review some of the methods originally employed and make changes as necessary. In addition, due to commissioning and operational needs, higher-level operator software needed to be created. EPICS has been flexible enough to allow this.

  10. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis E viruses from mongooses in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nidaira, Minoru; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Ogura, Go; Taira, Katsuya; Okano, Shou; Kudaka, Jun; Itokazu, Kiyomasa; Mishiro, Shunji; Nakamura, Masaji

    2012-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has previously been reported in wild mongooses on Okinawa Island; to date however, only one HEV RNA sequence has been identified in a mongoose. Hence, this study was performed to detect HEV RNA in 209 wild mongooses on Okinawa Island. Six (2.9%) samples tested positive for HEV RNA. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 6 HEV RNAs belonged to genotype 3 and were classified into groups A and B. In group B, mongoose-derived HEV sequences were very similar to mongoose HEV previously detected on Okinawa Island, as well as to those of a pig. This investigation emphasized the possibility that the mongoose is a reservoir animal for HEV on Okinawa Island.

  11. Child Development in Okinawa Compared with Tokyo and Denver, and the Implications for Developmental Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueda, Reiko

    1978-01-01

    Developmental differences in the Denver Developmental Screening Test items were demonstrated between samples of children from Okinawa (n=615) and Tokyo (n=1171), who were 16 days to 6 years old. Journal availability: see EC 112 661. (Author)

  12. Descriptive analysis of the prevalence and the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium complex-infected pigs that were slaughtered on the main island of Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Hibiya, K; Kazumi, Y; Nishiuchi, Y; Sugawara, I; Miyagi, K; Oda, Y; Oda, E; Fujita, J

    2010-09-01

    Recent genetic studies have revealed that several epidemiological factors affect Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in pig populations. However, mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC infection among hog farms have not been clarified. In consideration of this situation, we cross-sectionally investigated the mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC on the island of Okinawa. Pigs slaughtered (n=706,763) and 331 hog farms on Okinawa were surveyed during the years 2002-2004. Two outbreaks of MAC infection were occurred in several farms during survey period. Bacteria were isolated from randomly selected pigs and genotype of isolates was determined by using genetic finger printing methods with the insertion sequence (IS) 1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Most isolates had large numbers of IS1245 copies, while strains with low copy numbers of IS1245 and isolates without IS1245 were seen in few farms. MACs strains were repeatedly isolated from pigs of the affected farms during the survey period. Those farms with an identical pig rearing systems showed synchronic changes in the prevalence of MAC infection. An industrial farm without an outbreak had an independent pig flow, but maintained distinct MAC strains. Multivariate analysis did not reveal independent factors for the prevalence of the MAC infection. These findings suggest that there were three clusters distinguished genetically in the main island of Okinawa, which were potentially spread by common pig flow. However, the outbreaks occurred because of unspecified conditions on each farm environment.

  13. Experience with EPICS in a wide variety of applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kraimer, M.R.; Clausen, M.; Lupton, W.; Watson, C.

    1997-08-01

    Currently more than 70 organizations have obtained permission to use the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), a set of software packages for building real-time control systems. In this paper representatives from four of these sites discuss the reasons their sites chose EPICS, provide a brief discussion of their control system development, and discuss additional control system tools obtained elsewhere or developed locally.

  14. Association between Helicobacter pylori virulence factors and gastroduodenal diseases in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsunari, Osamu; Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Watada, Masahide; Kinjo, Nagisa; Murakami, Kazunari; Fujioka, Toshio; Kinjo, Fukunori; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of gastric cancer in Okinawa is lowest in Japan. Some previous reports using small number of strains suggested that the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori with Western-type cagA in Okinawa compared to other areas in Japan might contribute to the low incidence of gastric cancer. It has still not been confirmed why the prevalence of Western-type cagA strains is high in Okinawa. We examined the association between the virulence factors of H. pylori and gastroduodenal diseases in Okinawa. The genotypes of cagA and vacA of 337 H. pylori strains were determined by PCR and gene sequencing. The genealogy of these Western-type cagA strains in Okinawa was analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Overall, 86.4% of the strains possessed cagA: 70.3% were East-Asian type and 16.0% were Western type. After adjustment by age and sex, the presence of East-Asian-type cagA/vacA s1m1 genotypes was significantly associated with gastric cancer compared to gastritis (odds ratio = 6.68, 95% confidence interval = 1.73 to 25.8). The structure of Western-type CagA in Okinawa was different from that of typical Western-type CagA found in Western countries. Intriguingly, MLST analysis revealed that the majority of Western-type cagA strains formed individual clusters but not hpEurope. Overall, low prevalence of gastric cancer in Okinawa may result from the high prevalence of non-East-Asian-type cagA strains. The origin of Western-type cagA strains in Okinawa may be different from those of Western countries.

  15. EPIC modeling of soil organic carbon sequestration in croplands of Iowa.

    PubMed

    Causarano, Hector J; Doraiswamy, Paul C; McCarty, Gregory W; Hatfield, Jerry L; Milak, Sushil; Stern, Alan J

    2008-01-01

    Depending on management, soil organic carbon (SOC) is a potential source or sink for atmospheric CO(2). We used the EPIC model to study impacts of soil and crop management on SOC in corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) croplands of Iowa. The National Agricultural Statistics Service crops classification maps were used to identify corn-soybean areas. Soil properties were obtained from a combination of SSURGO and STATSGO databases. Daily weather variables were obtained from first order meteorological stations in Iowa and neighboring states. Data on crop management, fertilizer application and tillage were obtained from publicly available databases maintained by the NRCS, USDA-Economic Research Service (ERS), and Conservation Technology Information Center. The EPIC model accurately simulated state averages of crop yields during 1970-2005 (R(2) = 0.87). Simulated SOC explained 75% of the variation in measured SOC. With current trends in conservation tillage adoption, total stock of SOC (0-20 cm) is predicted to reach 506 Tg by 2019, representing an increase of 28 Tg with respect to 1980. In contrast, when the whole soil profile was considered, EPIC estimated a decrease of SOC stocks with time, from 1835 Tg in 1980 to 1771 Tg in 2019. Hence, soil depth considered for calculations is an important factor that needs further investigation. Soil organic C sequestration rates (0-20 cm) were estimated at 0.50 to 0.63 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) depending on climate and soil conditions. Overall, combining land use maps with EPIC proved valid for predicting impacts of management practices on SOC. However, more data on spatial and temporal variation in SOC are needed to improve model calibration and validation.

  16. Real-Time performance measurements of EPICS IOCcore.

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S.; Kraimer, M. R.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2005-01-01

    As the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is used in an increasing number of accelerator control systems, EPICS IOCcore is ported to a wider variety of OS platforms and thus the performance of EPICS IOCcore on different hardware and software platforms becomes more important. This paper provides real-time performance measurements of EPICS IOCcore on a VME hardware platform and on three different OS platforms: vxWorks, RTEMS, and Linux. EPICS Input/Output Controller core (IOCcore) software has been ported to several different operating systems (OSs) and many hardware platforms. This paper compares the EPICS IOCcore runtime performance on one hardware platform (MVME2100 PowerPC) and three popular Operating Systems: vxWorks, RTEMS, and Linux. For Linux the following versions were tested: Linux 2.4.2 hard hat 2.0, standard Linux 2.4.30, and Linux 2.6.13. For Linux 2.6.13, the kernel was built both preemptive and non-preemptive. Three real-time parameters are measured: interrupt, context switch, and total response latency. On Linux, more detailed interrupt latencies are measured: interrupt top half to bottom half, and interrupt bottom half to user space interrupt service routine. To implement the tests, several software components were developed. In order to port to other operating systems or hardware platforms only, one component has to be implemented.

  17. [Basic study on wartime reminiscences of older adults in Okinawa].

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Maiko; Tanaka, Kanji

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated retrospectively the thoughts people had of World War II, especially the Battle of Okinawa at that time, and their current evaluation of their own wartime experience. A questionnaire survey was conducted, and 217 older adults, 114 women and 103 men between 65 and 88 years old, participated. Results indicated that men generally had more negative feelings than women at the end of the war. And psychological damages caused by traumatic war memories seemed to have persisted in not a few individuals in spite of over half a century since the end of the war. However, others had been more positive and accepting toward their wartime experiences. This difference appeared to be related to qualitative differences of various experiences, as well as the person's age. It is argued that a vigorous approach will be necessary for this sort of study of Japanese war victims from a number of viewpoints.

  18. Typhoon damage on a shallow mesophotic reef in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Taku; Fujii, Takuma; Kawamura, Iori; Mizuyama, Masaru; Montenegro, Javier; Shikiba, Haruka; Naruse, Tohru; McClelland, TY; Denis, Vianney; Reimer, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about effects of large storm systems on mesophotic reefs. This study reports on how Typhoon 17 (Jelawat) affected Ryugu Reef on Okinawa-jima, Japan in September 2012. Benthic communities were surveyed before and after the typhoon using line intercept transect method. Comparison of the benthic assemblages showed highly significant differences in coral coverage at depths of 25–32 m before and after Typhoon 17. A large deep stand of Pachyseris foliosa was apparently less resistant to the storm than the shallower high diversity area of this reef. Contradictory to common perception, this research shows that large foliose corals at deeper depths are just as susceptible to typhoon damage as shallower branching corals. However, descriptive functional group analyses resulted in only minor changes after the disturbance, suggesting the high likelihood of recovery and the high resilience capacity of this mesophotic reef. PMID:24032094

  19. Yuta (shaman) and community mental health on Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Naka, K; Toguchi, S; Takaishi, T; Ishizu, H; Sasaki, Y

    1985-01-01

    This study reports on the relations between the yuta (shaman) and the community mental health activities on Okinawa, Japan. Focus is on the process of initiation of the yuta and its meanings from the mental health viewpoints, the functions of the yuta in the particular cultural background of the island, and the importance of admitting the existence of the yuta in its relations to the psychiatric treatment in a mental hospital. The discussion is based on the authors' research findings which were obtained mostly through their therapeutic activities and their field studies. The authors' assumption is that each culture has in it a certain social background that is unique in that culture by which a stress or insanity is increased or brought about, but in the same culture there are ways to decrease the stress and to cure the insanity.

  20. Typhoon damage on a shallow mesophotic reef in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    White, Kristine N; Ohara, Taku; Fujii, Takuma; Kawamura, Iori; Mizuyama, Masaru; Montenegro, Javier; Shikiba, Haruka; Naruse, Tohru; McClelland, Ty; Denis, Vianney; Reimer, James D

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about effects of large storm systems on mesophotic reefs. This study reports on how Typhoon 17 (Jelawat) affected Ryugu Reef on Okinawa-jima, Japan in September 2012. Benthic communities were surveyed before and after the typhoon using line intercept transect method. Comparison of the benthic assemblages showed highly significant differences in coral coverage at depths of 25-32 m before and after Typhoon 17. A large deep stand of Pachyseris foliosa was apparently less resistant to the storm than the shallower high diversity area of this reef. Contradictory to common perception, this research shows that large foliose corals at deeper depths are just as susceptible to typhoon damage as shallower branching corals. However, descriptive functional group analyses resulted in only minor changes after the disturbance, suggesting the high likelihood of recovery and the high resilience capacity of this mesophotic reef.

  1. Effect of introduction of a new electronic anesthesia record (Epic) system on the safety and efficiency of patient care in a gastrointestinal endoscopy suite-comparison with historical cohort

    PubMed Central

    Goudra, B; Singh, PM; Borle, A; Gouda, G

    2016-01-01

    Background: Use of electronic medical record systems has increased in the recent years. Epic is one such system gaining popularity in the USA. Epic is a private company, which invented the electronic documentation system adopted in our hospital. In spite of many presumed advantages, its use is not critically analyzed. Some of the perceived advantages are increased efficiency and protection against litigation as a result of accurate documentation. Materials and Methods: In this study, retrospective data of 305 patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (wherein electronic charting was used - “Epic group”) were compared with 288 patients who underwent the same procedure with documentation saved on a paper chart (“paper group”). Time of various events involved in the procedure such as anesthesia start, endoscope insertion, endoscope removal, and transfer to the postanesthesia care unit were routinely documented. From this data, the various time durations were calculated. Results: Both “anesthesia start to scope insertion” times and “scope removal to transfer” times were significantly less in the Epic group compared to the paper group. Use of Epic system led to a saving of 4 min of procedure time per patient. However, the mean oxygen saturation was significantly less in the Epic group. Conclusion: In spite of perceived advantages of Epic documentation system, significant hurdles remain with its use. Although the system allows seamless flow of patients, failure to remove all artifacts can lead to errors and become a source of potential litigation hazard. PMID:27051360

  2. Several herbal compounds in Okinawa plants directly inhibit the oncogenic/aging kinase PAK1.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Taira, Nozomi; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2014-12-01

    The p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is emerging as a promising therapeutic target, and the search for blockers of this oncogenic/aging kinase would be potentially useful for the treatment of various diseases/disorders in the future. Here, we report for the first time the anti-PAK1 activity of compounds derived from three distinct Okinawa plants. 5,6-Dehydrokawain (DK) and dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain (DDK) from alpinia inhibited directly PAK1 more strongly than mimosine and mimosinol from leucaena. Cucurbitacin I isolated from bitter gourd/melon also exhibited a moderate anti-PAK1 activity. Hispidin, a metabolite of DK, strongly inhibited PAK1 with the IC50 = 5.7 μM. The IC50 of three hispidin derivatives (H1-3) for PAK1 inhibition ranges from 1.2 to 2.0 μM, while mimosine tetrapeptides [mimosine-Phe-Phe-Tyr (MFFY) and mimosine-Phe-Trp-Tyr (MFWY)] inhibit PAK1 at nanomolar level (IC50 of 0.13 and 0.60 μM, respectively). Thus, we hope these derivatives of hispidin and mimosine could be used as potential leading compounds for developing far more potent anti-PAK1 drugs which would be useful for clinical application in the future. PMID:25639302

  3. AERIAL PHOTO INTERPRETATION FOR SITE CHARACTERIZATION, ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) is a field station of the Landscape Ecology Branch (LEB), Environmental Sciences Division - Las Vegas, Office of Research and Development EPIC provides remote sensing technical support to help the Agency achieve its mult...

  4. EPIC'S NEW REMOTE SENSING DATA AND INFORMATION TOOLS AVAILABLE FOR EPA CUSTOMERS

    EPA Science Inventory



    EPIC's New Remote Sensing Data and Information Tools Available for EPA Customers Donald Garofalo Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) Landscape Ecology Branch Environmental Sciences Division National Exposure Research Laboratory

    Several new too...

  5. Marine Subsurface Microbial Communities Across a Hydrothermal Gradient in Okinawa Trough Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, L. D.; Hser Wah Saw, J.; Ettema, T.; House, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    IODP Expedition 331 to the Okinawa backarc basin provided an opportunity to study the microbial stratigraphy within the sediments surrounding a hydrothermal vent. The Okinawa backarc basin is a sedimented region of the seafloor located on a continental margin, and also hosts a hydrothermal network within the subsurface. Site C0014 within the Iheya North hydrothermal field is located 450 m east of the active vent and has a surface temperature of 5°C with no evidence of hydrothermal alteration within the top 10 meters below sea floor (mbsf). Temperature increases with depth at an estimated rate of 3°C/m and transitions from non-hydrothermal margin sediments to a hydrothermally altered regime below 10 mbsf. In this study, we utilized deep 16S rRNA sequencing of DNA from IODP Expedition 331 Site C0014 sediment horizons in order to assess diversity throughout the sediment column as well as determine the potential limits of the biosphere. Analysis of the amplicon data shows a shift over 15 mbsf from a heterogeneous community of cosmopolitan marine subsurface taxa toward an archaeal-dominated community in the deepest horizons of the predicted biosphere. Notably, the phylum Chloroflexi represents a substantial taxon through most horizons, where it appears to be replaced below 10 mbsf by punctuations of thermophilic and methanotrophic Archaea and Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group abundances. DNA from the aforementioned transition horizons was further analyzed using metagenomic sequencing. Preliminary taxonomic analysis of the metagenomic data agrees well with amplicon data in capturing the shift in relative abundance of Archaea increasing with depth. Additionally, reverse gyrase, a gene found exclusively in hyperthermophilic microorganisms, was recovered only in the metagenome of the deepest horizon. A BLAST search of this protein sequence against the GenBank non-redudnant protein database produced top hits with reverse gyrase from Thermococcus and Pyrococcus, which are

  6. DOE`s Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (EPIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Otis, P.T.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse (EPIC) is a computer system intended for the exchange of pollution prevention information DOE-wide. EPIC is being developed as a distributed system that will allow access to other databases and applications. The first prototype of EPIC (Prototype I) was put on-line in January 1994. Prototype I contains information on EM-funded pollution prevention projects; relevant laws, regulations, guidance, and policy; facility and DOE contacts; and meetings and conferences. Prototype I also gives users access to the INEL Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS) and to information contained on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPNS) Pollution Prevention Infbrmation Exchange System (PIES) as a test of the distributed system concept. An initial user group of about 35 is testing and providing feedback on Prototype I. Prototype II, with a Graphical User Interface (GUI), is planned for the end of CY94. This paper describes the current state of EPIC in terms of architecture, user interface, and information content. Plans for Prototype II and the final system are then discussed. The EPIC development effort is being coordinated with EPA and US Department of Defense (DoD) efforts to develop or upgrade their pollution prevention information exchange systems.

  7. Development of mpi_EPIC model for global agroecosystem modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Kang, Shujiang; Wang, Dali; Jeff A. Nichols; Schuchart, Joseph; Kline, Keith L.; Wei, Yaxing; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Post, Wilfred M.; Izaurralde, R. Cesar

    2014-12-31

    Models that address policy-maker concerns about multi-scale effects of food and bioenergy production systems are computationally demanding. We integrated the message passing interface algorithm into the process-based EPIC model to accelerate computation of ecosystem effects. Simulation performance was further enhanced by applying the Vampir framework. When this enhanced mpi_EPIC model was tested, total execution time for a global 30-year simulation of a switchgrass cropping system was shortened to less than 0.5 hours on a supercomputer. The results illustrate that mpi_EPIC using parallel design can balance simulation workloads and facilitate large-scale, high-resolution analysis of agricultural production systems, management alternatives and environmentalmore » effects.« less

  8. Development of mpi_EPIC model for global agroecosystem modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shujiang; Wang, Dali; Jeff A. Nichols; Schuchart, Joseph; Kline, Keith L.; Wei, Yaxing; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Post, Wilfred M.; Izaurralde, R. Cesar

    2014-12-31

    Models that address policy-maker concerns about multi-scale effects of food and bioenergy production systems are computationally demanding. We integrated the message passing interface algorithm into the process-based EPIC model to accelerate computation of ecosystem effects. Simulation performance was further enhanced by applying the Vampir framework. When this enhanced mpi_EPIC model was tested, total execution time for a global 30-year simulation of a switchgrass cropping system was shortened to less than 0.5 hours on a supercomputer. The results illustrate that mpi_EPIC using parallel design can balance simulation workloads and facilitate large-scale, high-resolution analysis of agricultural production systems, management alternatives and environmental effects.

  9. Taxonomic notes on Lasioglossum (Lasioglossum) subopacum (Smith) and L. (L.) okinawa Ebmer et Maeta (Hymenoptera, Halictidae) from Asia

    PubMed Central

    Murao, Ryuki

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Lasioglossum (Lasioglossum) subopacum (Smith) is recorded from the Korean Peninsula for the first time. Lasioglossum (Lasioglossum) okinawa Ebmer et Maeta from Japan is ranked to a subspecies of Lasioglossum (Lasioglossum) subopacum judging from the characteristics of the male. The male of Lasioglossum (Lasioglossum) subopacum okinawa is described for the first time. Some bionomical notes of both subspecies are presented. PMID:22144867

  10. Science with EPICS, the E-ELT planet finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratton, Raffaele; Kasper, Markus; Vérinaud, Christophe; Bonavita, Mariangela; Schmid, Hans M.

    2011-11-01

    EPICS is the proposed planet finder for the European Extremely Large Telescope. EPICS is a high contrast imager based on a high performing extreme adaptive optics system, a diffraction suppression module, and two scientific instruments: an Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) for the near infrared (0.95-1.65 μm), and a differential polarization imager (E-POL). Both these instruments should allow imaging and characterization of planets shining in reflected light, possibly down to Earth-size. A few high interesting science cases are presented.

  11. EPICS: A control system software co-development success story

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, M.; Gurd, D.; Lewis, S.; Thuot, M.

    1993-11-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control Systems (EPICS) is the result of a software sharing and co-development effort of major importance now underway. The initial two participants, LANL and ANL, have now been joined by three other labs, and an earlier version of the software has been transferred to three commercial firms and is currently undergoing separate development. The reasons for EPICS`s success may be useful to enumerate and explain and the desire and prospects for its continued development are certainly worth examining.

  12. [Investigation into drinking problem of patients who visited a general hospital in central and northern Okinawa].

    PubMed

    Nakai, Minori; Hotta, Hiroshi; Ootsuru, Taku; Hiejima, Shigeto; Murakami, Masaru; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Kondo, Tsuyoshi

    2013-04-01

    In Japan, many problems related to alcohol are pointed out from before. We believe that there is a unique drinking culture in Okinawa, such as a large amount of alcohol. Therefore, we estimate many people in Okinawa have a drinking problem. We conducted a survey of patients who visited general hospital (medical or surgical or orthopedic) in 2007. The purpose of this study is to collect basic data for introducing alcoholics to specialized treatment as early as possible, detecting the person who drink large amounts of alcohol, performing early intervention for people who drink large amount of alcohol, and advancing cooperation with specialized medical agencies of alcohol. As a result, Among the patients who visited general hospital in Okinawa, many problem drinkers are concentrated in the young age. and they have strong fears of health. The possibility of early intervention with intervention techniques, such as brief intervention, has been suggested.

  13. Development of Education Program for Okinawa Model Creative and Capable Engineers in Advanced Welding Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, Yukio; Matsue, Junji; Makishi, Takashi; Higa, Yoshikazu; Matsuda, Shoich

    Okinawa National College of Technology proposed “Educational Program for Practically Skilled Engineers in Advanced Welding Technology in Okinawa Style” to the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and was adopted as a 2-year project starting from 2005. This project designed to fit for the regional characteristics of Okinawa, aims to develop the core human resources program that will help reinforce and innovate the welding engineering in the manufacturing industries. In 2005, the education program and the original textbook were developed, and in 2006, a proof class was held to confirm the suitability and the effectiveness of the program and the textbook in order to improve the attendees' basics and the application ability of welding. The results were quite positive. Also, by collaborating with the Japan Welding Society, points scored in this course were authorized as the education points of IIW international welding engineer qualification.

  14. Becoming Teachers' Little Epics: What Digital Storytelling Might Reveal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Linda; Aitken, Avril

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses pre-service teachers' use of multi-modal tools to produce three-minute films in light of critical moments in their teaching practice. Two cases are considered; each centers on a film, a "little epic" that was produced by a future teacher who attempts to work within an anti-racist framework for social justice.…

  15. The Epic inside Us: Using Intuitive Play to Teach Beowulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menzies, J. Beth Haase

    2004-01-01

    The element of play is underutilized in the secondary classroom in spite of the fact that play produces unique opportunities for meaningful learning. The ways in which the elements of epic poetry, Beowulf, and the Old English diction differed from the modern usage is discussed.

  16. The Epic Tradition in Science Fiction and Fantasy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, Robert Lee

    1987-01-01

    Claims that some of the finest works of contemporary science fiction and fantasy borrow heavily from the epic tradition. Proposes that science fiction and fantasy can avoid the disbelief problem by the simple expedient of removing the "here and now," and, thereby, the realistic diminishment of causes and heroes. (JD)

  17. "El Norte," Deracination and Circularity: An Epic Gone Awry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brakel, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Early journalistic reviews (e.g., Gold, Ebert, and Kael) of "El Norte" (1983), Gregory Nava's first major film, identify it as an epic. In "El Norte" the siblings Enrique and Rosa, two Guatemalan Amerindians, leave their native village on a quest to what for them is the mythical land in the North. Although "El Norte" corresponds to the general…

  18. The Epic of Sundiata: Using African Literature in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret Lo Piccolo

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the "Epic of Sundiata" which chronicles the rise of the Empire of Mali in the grasslands of northwestern Africa in the 13th century. This work is a compelling drama that bears comparison to such other hero tales as "The Iliad" and the Arthurian legend. Includes suggested teaching activities. (MJP)

  19. Macrogenomic evidence for the origin of the black fly Simulium suzukii (Diptera: Simuliidae) on Okinawa Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Adler, Peter H; Huang, Yao-Te; Reeves, Will K; Kim, Sam Kyu; Otsuka, Yasushi; Takaoka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    To determine the geographic origin of the black fly Simulium suzukii on Okinawa Island, Japan, macrogenomic profiles derived from its polytene chromosomes were compared with those of mainland and other insular populations of S. suzukii and of the isomorphic Simulium tani species complex. The Okinawan population is a chromosomally unique cytoform, designated 'D,' which is essentially monomorphic and differs by about 27 fixed rearrangements from the chromosomal standard sequence for the subgenus Simulium and by two fixed differences from its nearest known relative, representing the type of S. suzukii, on the main islands of Japan. Chromosomal band sequences revealed two additional, sympatric cytoforms of S. suzukii, designated 'A' and 'B,' each with species status, in Korea, and a third cytoform, designated 'C,' on Hokkaido, Japan. A new cytoform, 'K,' of S. tani from Malaysia, representing the type of S. tani, is more closely related to cytoforms in Thailand, as are populations from Taiwan previously treated as S. suzukii but more closely aligned with S. tani and newly recognized as cytoform 'L' of the latter nominal species. Rooting of chromosomal band sequences by outgroup comparisons allowed directionality of chromosomal rearrangements to be established, enabling phylogenetic inference of cytoforms. Of 41 macrogenomic rearrangements discovered in the five new cytoforms, four provide evidence for a stepwise origin of the Okinawan population from populations characteristic of the main islands of Japan. The macrogenomic approach applied to black flies on Okinawa Island illustrates its potential utility in defining source areas for other species of flies including those that might pose medical and veterinary risks.

  20. Macrogenomic Evidence for the Origin of the Black Fly Simulium suzukii (Diptera: Simuliidae) on Okinawa Island, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Peter H.; Huang, Yao-Te; Reeves, Will K.; Kim, Sam Kyu; Otsuka, Yasushi; Takaoka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    To determine the geographic origin of the black fly Simulium suzukii on Okinawa Island, Japan, macrogenomic profiles derived from its polytene chromosomes were compared with those of mainland and other insular populations of S. suzukii and of the isomorphic Simulium tani species complex. The Okinawan population is a chromosomally unique cytoform, designated ‘D,’ which is essentially monomorphic and differs by about 27 fixed rearrangements from the chromosomal standard sequence for the subgenus Simulium and by two fixed differences from its nearest known relative, representing the type of S. suzukii, on the main islands of Japan. Chromosomal band sequences revealed two additional, sympatric cytoforms of S. suzukii, designated ‘A’ and ‘B,’ each with species status, in Korea, and a third cytoform, designated ‘C,’ on Hokkaido, Japan. A new cytoform, ‘K,’ of S. tani from Malaysia, representing the type of S. tani, is more closely related to cytoforms in Thailand, as are populations from Taiwan previously treated as S. suzukii but more closely aligned with S. tani and newly recognized as cytoform ‘L’ of the latter nominal species. Rooting of chromosomal band sequences by outgroup comparisons allowed directionality of chromosomal rearrangements to be established, enabling phylogenetic inference of cytoforms. Of 41 macrogenomic rearrangements discovered in the five new cytoforms, four provide evidence for a stepwise origin of the Okinawan population from populations characteristic of the main islands of Japan. The macrogenomic approach applied to black flies on Okinawa Island illustrates its potential utility in defining source areas for other species of flies including those that might pose medical and veterinary risks. PMID:23951001

  1. Serologic and Virologic Studies of an Imported Dengue Case Occurring in 2014 in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mika; Tamayose, Maki; Miyagi, Kazuya; Takaragawa, Hiroo; Tateyama, Masao; Tadano, Masayuki; Fujita, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    After returning from Bali, Indonesia, in February 2014, a 72-year-old man was hospitalized in Okinawa owing to a high fever and rash. Dengue was clinically suspected, and the patient tested positive for IgM against dengue using a commercial kit. Serologically, the patient showed secondary seroreactivity. Significant increases in neutralization titers (N-titers) against all 4 serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) strains were recognized in convalescent-phase sera comparing to acute phase sera. The N-titer against DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1) was the highest among all DENV serotypes. Interestingly, the N-titers against JEV strains were significantly higher than those against all types of DENV comparing to acute phase sera. The virus was isolated from the acute-phase serum and identified as DENV-1 and designated RD14/Okinawa. The patient's symptoms were due to DENV-1 infection. Phylogenetic sequencing analysis indicated that the isolate RD14/Okinawa belonged to genotype I of DENV-1, which is closely related to the Southeast Asian strains and isolates found during the dengue outbreak in Japan in 2014. We should undertake control measures against dengue in Okinawa, which is a subtropical area with Aedes albopictus activity throughout year.

  2. Situation Report--Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, Sarawak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, and Sarawak. Information is provided where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning…

  3. Vertical distribution of precipitation particles in Baiu frontal stratiform intense rainfall around Okinawa Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oue, M.; Ohigashi, T.; Tsuboki, K.; Nakakita, E.

    2015-06-01

    The vertical distribution of precipitation particles in an intensely precipitating stratiform cloud associated with the Baiu front around Okinawa Island was observed. X-band polarimetric radar, disdrometer, and hydrometeor videosonde data were used to examine the precipitation processes. The cloud top was approximately 12 km above sea level, as convection was depressed while stratiform regions developed near Okinawa Island. In the rain region below 3 km, the mean median volume diameter of the raindrop size distribution (DSD) estimated from the radar variables was 1.55 mm, and the mean normalized intercept parameter was 104.12 mm-1 m-3 with a mean radar reflectivity of 40.5 dBZe. The DSD indicates that the stratiform precipitation was characterized by higher number concentrations of smaller drops than observed previously in convective cells in a Baiu frontal convective precipitation region around Okinawa Island. The DSD also suggests the presence of larger raindrops than in convective cells embedded in a Baiu frontal stratiform precipitation region around Okinawa Island. In the ice region at 5-6 km, just above the melting layer and 6 km below the cloud top, the differential reflectivity and specific differential phase showed positive values, and videosonde measurements revealed that the number concentration of column-, plate-, and capped-column-like crystals (maximum dimensions of ≥0.1 mm) was 112 L-1. The high number concentration of these crystals contributed to the intense stratiform rainfall associated with the Baiu front.

  4. Mosquito biodiversity patterns around urban environments in South-central okinawa island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Tomonori; Imanishi, Nozomi; Higa, Yukiko; Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Okinawa is the largest, most urbanized, and densely populated island in the Ryukyus Archipelago, where mosquito species diversity has been thoroughly studied. However, the south-central Okinawa mosquito fauna has been relatively poorly studied. Here, we present results from a mosquito faunal survey in urban environments of Nishihara city, south-central Okinawa. Mosquitoes were sampled biweekly, from April 2007 to March 2008, at 3 different environments: a forest preserve, an animal farm, and a water reservoir. We employed 4 mosquito collection methods: 1) oviposition traps; 2) light traps; 3) sweep nets; and 4) larval surveys of tree holes, leaf axils, and artificial water containers. We collected a total of 568 adults and 10,270 larvae belonging to 6 genera and 13 species, including 6 species of medical importance: Aedes albopictus, Armigeres subalbatus, Anopheles Hyrcanus group, Culex bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Mosquito species composition was similar to data from previous studies in Okinawa Island. The flattening of the species accumulation curve suggests that our diversity sampling was exhaustive with light and oviposition traps, as well as the coincidence between the species richness we found in the field and estimates from the Chao2 index, a theoretical estimator of species richness based on species abundance. This study highlights the importance of combining several sampling techniques to properly characterize regional mosquito fauna and to monitor changes in the presence of mosquito species.

  5. IODP Expedition 331: Strong and Expansive Subseafloor Hydrothermal Activities in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, K.; Mottl, M. J.; Nielsen, S. H. H.; IODP Expedition 331 Scientists, the

    2012-04-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 drilled into the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the middle Okinawa Trough in order to investigate active subseafloor microbial ecosystems and their physical and chemical settings. We drilled five sites during Expedition 331 using special guide bases at three holes for reentry, casing, and capping, including installation of a steel mesh platform with valve controls for postcruise sampling of fluids. At Site C0016, drilling at the base of the North Big Chimney (NBC) mound yielded low recovery, but core included the first Kuroko-type black ore ever recovered from the modern subseafloor. The other four sites yielded interbedded hemipelagic and strongly pumiceous volcaniclastic sediment, along with volcanogenic breccias that are variably hydrothermally altered and mineralized. At most sites, analyses of interstitial water and headspace gas yielded complex patterns with depth and lateral distance of only a few meters. Documented processes included formation of brines and vapor-rich fluids by phase separation and segregation, uptake of Mg and Na by alteration minerals in exchange for Ca, leaching of K at high temperature and uptake at low temperature, anhydrite precipitation, potential microbial oxidation of organic matter and anaerobic oxidation of methane utilizing sulfate, and methanogenesis. Shipboard analyses have found evidence for microbial activity in sediments within the upper 10-30 m below seafloor (mbsf) where temperatures were relatively low, but little evidence in the deeper hydrothermally altered zones and hydrothermal fluid regime. doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.13.03.2011

  6. areaDetector: Software for 2-D Detectors in EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Rivers, M.

    2011-09-23

    areaDetector is a new EPICS module designed to support 2-D detectors. It is modular C++ code that greatly simplifies the task of writing support for a new detector. It also supports plugins, which receive detector data from the driver and process it in some way. Existing plugins perform Region-Of-Interest extraction and analysis, file saving (in netCDF, HDF, TIFF and JPEG formats), color conversion, and export to EPICS records for image display in clients like ImageJ and IDL. Drivers have now been written for many of the detectors commonly used at synchrotron beamlines, including CCDs, pixel array and amorphous silicon detectors, and online image plates.

  7. areaDetector: Software for 2-D Detectors in EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Rivers, Mark L.

    2010-06-23

    areaDetector is a new EPICS module designed to support 2-D detectors. It is modular C++ code that greatly simplifies the task of writing support for a new detector. It also supports plugins, which receive detector data from the driver and process it in some way. Existing plugins perform Region-Of-Interest extraction and analysis, file saving (in netCDF, HDF, TIFF and JPEG formats), color conversion, and export to EPICS records for image display in clients like ImageJ and IDL. Drivers have now been written for many of the detectors commonly used at synchrotron beamlines, including CCDs, pixel array and amorphous silicon detectors, and online image plates.

  8. EPICS V4 Evaluation for SNS Neutron Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kasemir, Kay; Pearson, Matthew R; Guyotte, Greg S

    2015-01-01

    Version 4 of the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) toolkit allows defining application-specific structured data types (pvData) and offers a network protocol for their efficient exchange (pvAccess). We evaluated V4 for the transport of neutron events from the detectors of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to data acquisition and experiment monitoring systems. This includes the comparison of possible data structures, performance tests, and experience using V4 in production on a beam line.

  9. Perfusion Electronic Record Documentation Using Epic Systems Software.

    PubMed

    Steffens, Thomas G; Gunser, John M; Saviello, George M

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the design and use of Epic Systems software for documentation of perfusion activities as part of the patient electronic medical record. The University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics adapted the Anesthesia software module and developed an integrated perfusion/anesthesia record for the documentation of cardiac and non-cardiac surgical procedures. This project involved multiple committees, approvals, and training to successfully implement. This article will describe our documentation options, concepts, design, challenges, training, and implementation during our initial experience.

  10. Simulating Field-Scale Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics Using EPIC

    SciTech Connect

    Causarano, Hector J.; Shaw, Joey N.; Franzluebbers, A. J.; reeves, D. W.; Raper, Randy L.; Balkcom, Kipling S.; Norfleet, M. L.; Izaurralde, R Cesar

    2007-07-01

    Simulation models integrate our knowledge of soil organic C (SOC) dynamics and are useful tools for evaluating impacts of crop management on soil C sequestration; yet, they require local calibration. Our objectives were to calibrate the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model, and evaluate its performance for simulating SOC fractions as affected by soil landscape and management. An automated parameter optimization procedure was used to calibrate the model for a site-specific experiment in the Coastal Plain of central Alabama. The ability of EPIC to predict corn (Zea mays L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yields and SOC dynamics on different soil landscape positions (summit, sideslope and drainageway) during the initial period of conservation tillage adoption (5 years) was evaluated using regression and mean squared deviations. Simulated yield explained 88% of measured yield variation, with greatest disagreement on the sideslope position and highest agreement in the drainageway. Simulations explained approximately 1, 34 and 40% of the total variation in microbial biomass C (MBC), particulate organic C (POC) and total organic C (TOC), respectively. Lowest errors on TOC simulations (0-20 cm) were found on the sideslope and summit. We conclude that the automated parameterization was generally successful, although further work is needed to refine the MBC and POC fractions, and to improve EPIC predictions of SOC dynamics with depth. Overall, EPIC was sensitive to spatial differences in C fractions that resulted from differing soil landscape positions. The model needs additional refinement for accurate simulations of field-scale SOC dynamics affected by short-term management decisions.

  11. An introduction to plant monitoring through the EPICS control system

    SciTech Connect

    Carwardine, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    The experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) environment (1) provides the framework for monitoring any equipment connected to it. Various tools offer engineers and scientists the opportunity to easily create high-level monitoring applications without having to rely on expert programmers to develop custom programs. This paper is aimed at the first-time or casual user, providing essential information for using several of the tools. Examples are taken from applications in regular use the Advanced Photon Source (APS).

  12. The 1768 and 1791 Okinawa tsunamis in the Ryukyu Trench region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, M.

    2013-12-01

    Risk of the great earthquakes and tsunamis has been assumed to be low in the Ryukyu Trench because the interplate coupling is weak and great interplate earthquakes (> M8.0) had not been recorded historically for about 300 years. However, recent study revealed that the 1771 Yaeyama earthquake (M8.5 from tsunami heights distribution) at south Ryukyu Trench and the 1911 Kikaijima earthquake (M 8.0) at north-central Ryukyu Trench were the interplate earthquakes. We need re-examine the great historical earthquakes in the Ryukyu Trench. Two historical tsunamis which occurred on 1768 and 1791 in the Okinawa Island were documented in the old document 'Kyuyo' (formal chronicles of Ryukyu). I investigated the source fault model of two tsunami events using numerical simulations of tsunami and earthquake shaking, and showed that their events would be the interplate earthquakes. One earthquake occurred at noon of July 22th, 1768. The rock-walls of castle, grave of royal family were collapsed by the earthquake shaking around Naha, Okinawa Island. After the shaking, tsunami arrived Naha port and Zamami Island, which is west of Okinawa Island. Recorded tsunami heights were about 1 m at Naha port. Nine houses and rice fields were damaged by the inundation of the tsunami in the Zamami Island. Estimated tsunami heights were 4 and 5 m in the villages of the Zamami Island. The numerical modeling of tsunami and the estimation of earthquake shaking using empirical formula were employed, and the fault parameters of the 1768 earthquake were estimated. The faults were set to Okinawa Trough (M7.5 normal faults), southwest of Okinawa island (M7.5 normal faults), southwest of Okinawa island (M7.5 reverse fault), and Ryukyu Trench (M8.0 thrust faults). The computed tsunami heights and intensities of the ground shaking of the M7.5 reverse fault near the Zamami Island and the M8.0 interplate earthquake models are consistent with to the recorded ones. Another tsunami was also recorded in the

  13. [On the leptospirosis occurred in a worker under construction of World Ocean Exposition in Okinawa Prefecture (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, M; Yamaguchi, T; Fukamachi, S; Sugata, S

    1979-07-01

    A male worker, 29 years old, was engaged in construction work of World Ocean Exposition in Okinawa Perfecture, and was diagnosed as suffering from leptospirosis in September 1973. The leptospirosis was an acute infection caused by Leptospira hebdomadis. The parasite seemed to be transmitted to him by ingestion of food and drink contaminated with the urine and excreta of the reservoir animals in the unsanitary workshop and living environment in Okinawa district. This leptospirosis was determined as an occupational disease.

  14. Doing accelerator physics using SDDS, UNIX, and EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, M.; Emery, L.; Sereno, N.

    1995-12-31

    The use of the SDDS (Self-Describing Data Sets) file protocol, together with the UNIX operating system and EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Controls System), has proved powerful during the commissioning of the APS (Advanced Photon Source) accelerator complex. The SDDS file protocol has permitted a tool-oriented approach to developing applications, wherein generic programs axe written that function as part of multiple applications. While EPICS-specific tools were written for data collection, automated experiment execution, closed-loop control, and so forth, data processing and display axe done with the SDDS Toolkit. Experiments and data reduction axe implemented as UNIX shell scripts that coordinate the execution of EPICS specific tools and SDDS tools. Because of the power and generic nature of the individual tools and of the UNIX shell environment, automated experiments can be prepared and executed rapidly in response to unanticipated needs or new ideas. Examples are given of application of this methodology to beam motion characterization, beam-position-monitor offset measurements, and klystron characterization.

  15. Comparison of microbial communities associated with phase-separation-induced hydrothermal fluids at the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field, the Southern Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken

    2009-03-01

    Microbial communities associated with a variety of hydrothermal emissions at the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field, the southernmost Okinawa Trough, were analyzed by culture-dependent and -independent techniques. In this hydrothermal field, dozens of vent sites hosting physically and chemically distinct hydrothermal fluids were observed. Variability in the gas content and formation in the hydrothermal fluids was observed and could be controlled by the potential subseafloor phase-separation and -partition processes. The hydrogen concentration in the hydrothermal fluids was also variable (0.8-3.6 mmol kg(-1)) among the chimney sites, but was unusually high as compared with those in other Okinawa Trough hydrothermal fields. Despite the physical and chemical variabilities of the hydrothermal fluids, the microbial communities were relatively similar among the habitats. Based on both culture-dependent and -independent analyses of the microbial community structures, members of Thermococcales, Methanococcales and Desulfurococcales likely represent the predominant archaeal components, while members of Nautiliaceae and Thioreductoraceae are considered to dominate the bacterial population. Most of the abundant microbial components appear to be chemolithotrophs sustained by hydrogen oxidation. The relatively consistent microbial communities found in this study could have been because of the sufficient input of hydrogen from the hydrothermal fluids rather than other chemical properties.

  16. Comparative Single-Cell Genomics of Chloroflexi from the Okinawa Trough Deep-Subsurface Biosphere

    PubMed Central

    Fullerton, Heather

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chloroflexi small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences are frequently recovered from subseafloor environments, but the metabolic potential of the phylum is poorly understood. The phylum Chloroflexi is represented by isolates with diverse metabolic strategies, including anoxic phototrophy, fermentation, and reductive dehalogenation; therefore, function cannot be attributed to these organisms based solely on phylogeny. Single-cell genomics can provide metabolic insights into uncultured organisms, like the deep-subsurface Chloroflexi. Nine SSU rRNA gene sequences were identified from single-cell sorts of whole-round core material collected from the Okinawa Trough at Iheya North hydrothermal field as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) expedition 331 (Deep Hot Biosphere). Previous studies of subsurface Chloroflexi single amplified genomes (SAGs) suggested heterotrophic or lithotrophic metabolisms and provided no evidence for growth by reductive dehalogenation. Our nine Chloroflexi SAGs (seven of which are from the order Anaerolineales) indicate that, in addition to genes for the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, exogenous carbon sources can be actively transported into cells. At least one subunit for pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase was found in four of the Chloroflexi SAGs. This protein can provide a link between the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and other carbon anabolic pathways. Finally, one of the seven Anaerolineales SAGs contains a distinct reductive dehalogenase homologous (rdhA) gene. IMPORTANCE Through the use of single amplified genomes (SAGs), we have extended the metabolic potential of an understudied group of subsurface microbes, the Chloroflexi. These microbes are frequently detected in the subsurface biosphere, though their metabolic capabilities have remained elusive. In contrast to previously examined Chloroflexi SAGs, our genomes (several are from the order Anaerolineales) were recovered from a hydrothermally driven system and therefore provide a

  17. Molecular epidemiology of human metapneumovirus from 2009 to 2011 in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nidaira, Minoru; Taira, Katsuya; Hamabata, Hirotsune; Kawaki, Tatsuyoshi; Gushi, Kazuo; Mahoe, Youko; Maeshiro, Noriyuki; Azama, Yasuhito; Okano, Shou; Kyan, Hisako; Kudaka, Jun; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Noda, Masahiro; Kimura, Hirokazu

    2012-07-01

    To clarify the molecular epidemiology of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) in Okinawa Prefecture, located in a subtropical region of Japan, we performed genetic analysis of the F gene in HMPV from patients with acute respiratory infection from January 2009 to December 2011. HMPV was detected in 18 of 485 throat swabs (3.7%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that 17 strains belonged to subgroup A2 and 1 strain belonged to subgroup B1. We did not observe seasonal prevalence of HMPV during the investigation period. A high level of sequence identity was observed in the strains belonging to subgroup A2 (>95%), and no amino acid substitution was found compared with other strains detected in Japan and other countries. The pairwise distance values among the present strains belonging to subgroup A2 were short. Our results suggest that the predominant HMPV strains belonging to A2 are highly homologous and seasonal epidemics were not seen in Okinawa during the investigation period.

  18. A remarkable new species of the genus Teinotarsina (Lepidoptera, Sesiidae) from Okinawa-jima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Sadahisa; Hirowatari, Toshiya; Arita, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    A new species of long-legged clearwing moth Teinotarsina aurantiaca Yagi, Hirowatari & Arita, sp. n. is described from Okinawa-jima, the Ryukyus, Japan. The species is distinguishable at a glance from other related congeners by the remarkable orange scales ornamenting many parts of the body, such as antennae, palpi, legs, and wings. We hypothesize that the species acquired these differences as a result of convergence with toxic species (Batesian mimicry) or other mimics (Müllerian mimicry).

  19. A remarkable new species of the genus Teinotarsina (Lepidoptera, Sesiidae) from Okinawa-jima, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Sadahisa; Hirowatari, Toshiya; Arita, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of long-legged clearwing moth Teinotarsina aurantiaca Yagi, Hirowatari & Arita, sp. n. is described from Okinawa-jima, the Ryukyus, Japan. The species is distinguishable at a glance from other related congeners by the remarkable orange scales ornamenting many parts of the body, such as antennae, palpi, legs, and wings. We hypothesize that the species acquired these differences as a result of convergence with toxic species (Batesian mimicry) or other mimics (Müllerian mimicry). PMID:27110163

  20. [Epidemiology of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in Okinawa, Japan (1977-2005)].

    PubMed

    Hirayasu, Kyomi; Oshiro, Satoshi; Nakada, Yukikatsu

    2010-11-01

    The epidemiology of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) has changed since the introduction of measles immunization in 1970's. We studied the incidence of SSPE in Okinawa. There were 22 cases (16 males and 6 females) of SSPE from 1977 to 2005 in Okinawa. The incidence was 0.63 per million population per year from 1977 to 1986, 0 from 1987 to 1993, 1.17 from 1994 to 1999 and 0.75 from 2000 to 2005. Twenty-one SSPE patients had a history of non-immunized measles and 19 of them (90%) had measles infection under 2 years of age. There were measles epidemic every 2-5 years in Okinawa. Ten of 21 cases contracted measles in 1990-1991. The percentage of patients with measles infection under 2 years of age during measles epidemics ranged from 46% to 56%. Early measles infection (under 2 years of age) is a risk factor for SSPE. Routine measles immunization to prevent measles infection is very important for the prevention of SSPE.

  1. Deep ventilation in the Okinawa Trough induced by Kerama Gap overflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishina, Ayako; Nakamura, Hirohiko; Park, Jae-Hun; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Tanaka, Yuki; Seo, Seongbong; Hibiya, Toshiyuki

    2016-08-01

    Near-bottom water flowing over the Kerama Gap's sills is thought to ventilate the deep water below ˜1100 m depth in the Okinawa Trough and then upwell with 5-10 years residence time. The present study follows up on this phenomenon, using comprehensive profile data of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, currents and turbulence obtained by intensive shipboard observations performed in June 2013 and June 2014 in the region. Strong near-bottom subtidal flow with speeds exceeding 0.5 m s-1 was observed within a layer of about 100 m thickness over the western side of the peak of the main sill. Temperature and salinity sections along the Kerama Gap indicated some depressions and overturns of the deep water downstream of the strong overflow, suggesting the existence of breaking internal gravity waves and hydraulic jumps. Associated vertical diffusivities, estimated using the Thorpe scale and the buoyancy frequency, were three to four orders of magnitude larger than typical values observed in the thermocline of the open ocean (˜10-5 m2 s-1). The dissolved oxygen section also indicated strong vertical mixing and associated upwelling with the entrainment of the near-bottom overflow water into the lower thermocline beneath the Kuroshio in the Okinawa Trough. The present study not only supports the previous conceptual model but also provides new evidence that the Okinawa Trough is an upwelling location where nutrient rich Philippine Sea intermediate water is sucked up into the lower thermocline below the Kuroshio.

  2. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum from two different Japanese prefectures, Okinawa and Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Aita, Junya; Masatani, Tatsunori; Suzuki, Moemi; Nitta, Yoshiki; Tamayose, Genta; Iso, Takehiro; Suganuma, Keisuke; Fujiwara, Takashi; Matsuyama, Keita; Niikura, Tadamasa; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Itagaki, Tadashi; Zakimi, Satoshi; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2015-04-01

    Infectious diarrhea is the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal calves. Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the main pathogens associated with calf diarrhea. Although diarrhea is a symptom of infection with various pathogens, investigations to detect the types of pathogens have never been performed in Japan. This study investigated the prevalence of four major diarrhea-causing pathogens in calves: C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli K99). Commercial immunochromatography testing of all four pathogens and molecular analysis of C. parvum with diarrhea in calves from southernmost Okinawa and northernmost Hokkaido, Japan, were conducted. The frequencies of C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and E. coli (K99) in Okinawa were 50%, 28%, 2.3%, and 4.7%, respectively. Watery fecal stools were significantly correlated with C. parvum (p<0.05). In oocyst calculations for C. parvum, no significant difference was observed between the single-infection cases and the mixed-infection cases with rotavirus. Interestingly, molecular analyses targeting small subunit ribosomal RNA as well as glycoprotein 60 (GP60) genes revealed that the C. parvum nucleotide sequences from the two prefectures were identical, indicating that C. parvum with a uniform characteristic is distributed throughout Japan. GP60 subtyping analysis identified C. parvum from Okinawa and Hokkaido as belonging to the IIaA15G2R1 subtype, a known zoonotic subtype. Hence, control of cryptosporidiosis is important not only for pre-weaned calves, but also for human health.

  3. Okinawa: an exception to the social gradient of life expectancy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Cockerham, W C; Yamori, Y

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines why the social gradient of life expectancy does not apply in Japan when Okinawa is considered. The social gradient thesis links differences in longevity to social rank, with people and populations in higher status hierarchical positions having lower mortality and longer life expectancies than those beneath them in the social scale. Japan has been cited as a major example of this thesis in that Japanese life expectancy improved dramatically as Japan rose to the top echelon of nations in economic rank in the late 20th century. Thus it follows that Japan's most affluent and leading prefectures should be the major catalysts behind the nation's rise in life expectancy as well to the number one position in the world. However, this is not the case as life expectancy in Okinawa, Japan's poorest prefecture, exceeds that of Japan as a whole. We find that the social gradient of life expectancy does not apply at the prefectural level and question its validity for geographical areas. We suggest that healthy lifestyles, especially diet and the social support of family and friends, are more important than sense of hierarchy for longevity in Okinawa.

  4. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum from two different Japanese prefectures, Okinawa and Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Aita, Junya; Masatani, Tatsunori; Suzuki, Moemi; Nitta, Yoshiki; Tamayose, Genta; Iso, Takehiro; Suganuma, Keisuke; Fujiwara, Takashi; Matsuyama, Keita; Niikura, Tadamasa; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Itagaki, Tadashi; Zakimi, Satoshi; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2015-04-01

    Infectious diarrhea is the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal calves. Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the main pathogens associated with calf diarrhea. Although diarrhea is a symptom of infection with various pathogens, investigations to detect the types of pathogens have never been performed in Japan. This study investigated the prevalence of four major diarrhea-causing pathogens in calves: C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli K99). Commercial immunochromatography testing of all four pathogens and molecular analysis of C. parvum with diarrhea in calves from southernmost Okinawa and northernmost Hokkaido, Japan, were conducted. The frequencies of C. parvum, rotavirus, coronavirus, and E. coli (K99) in Okinawa were 50%, 28%, 2.3%, and 4.7%, respectively. Watery fecal stools were significantly correlated with C. parvum (p<0.05). In oocyst calculations for C. parvum, no significant difference was observed between the single-infection cases and the mixed-infection cases with rotavirus. Interestingly, molecular analyses targeting small subunit ribosomal RNA as well as glycoprotein 60 (GP60) genes revealed that the C. parvum nucleotide sequences from the two prefectures were identical, indicating that C. parvum with a uniform characteristic is distributed throughout Japan. GP60 subtyping analysis identified C. parvum from Okinawa and Hokkaido as belonging to the IIaA15G2R1 subtype, a known zoonotic subtype. Hence, control of cryptosporidiosis is important not only for pre-weaned calves, but also for human health. PMID:25481361

  5. Massively parallel sequencing of single cells by epicPCR links functional genes with phylogenetic markers.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Sarah J; Tamminen, Manu V; Preheim, Sarah P; Guo, Mira T; Briggs, Adrian W; Brito, Ilana L; A Weitz, David; Pitkänen, Leena K; Vigneault, Francois; Juhani Virta, Marko P; Alm, Eric J

    2016-02-01

    Many microbial communities are characterized by high genetic diversity. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing can determine community members, and metagenomics can determine the functional diversity, but resolving the functional role of individual cells in high throughput remains an unsolved challenge. Here, we describe epicPCR (Emulsion, Paired Isolation and Concatenation PCR), a new technique that links functional genes and phylogenetic markers in uncultured single cells, providing a throughput of hundreds of thousands of cells with costs comparable to one genomic library preparation. We demonstrate the utility of our technique in a natural environment by profiling a sulfate-reducing community in a freshwater lake, revealing both known sulfate reducers and discovering new putative sulfate reducers. Our method is adaptable to any conserved genetic trait and translates genetic associations from diverse microbial samples into a sequencing library that answers targeted ecological questions. Potential applications include identifying functional community members, tracing horizontal gene transfer networks and mapping ecological interactions between microbial cells. PMID:26394010

  6. Massively parallel sequencing of single cells by epicPCR links functional genes with phylogenetic markers

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Sarah J; Tamminen, Manu V; Preheim, Sarah P; Guo, Mira T; Briggs, Adrian W; Brito, Ilana L; A Weitz, David; Pitkänen, Leena K; Vigneault, Francois; Virta, Marko PJuhani; Alm, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Many microbial communities are characterized by high genetic diversity. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing can determine community members, and metagenomics can determine the functional diversity, but resolving the functional role of individual cells in high throughput remains an unsolved challenge. Here, we describe epicPCR (Emulsion, Paired Isolation and Concatenation PCR), a new technique that links functional genes and phylogenetic markers in uncultured single cells, providing a throughput of hundreds of thousands of cells with costs comparable to one genomic library preparation. We demonstrate the utility of our technique in a natural environment by profiling a sulfate-reducing community in a freshwater lake, revealing both known sulfate reducers and discovering new putative sulfate reducers. Our method is adaptable to any conserved genetic trait and translates genetic associations from diverse microbial samples into a sequencing library that answers targeted ecological questions. Potential applications include identifying functional community members, tracing horizontal gene transfer networks and mapping ecological interactions between microbial cells. PMID:26394010

  7. Massively parallel sequencing of single cells by epicPCR links functional genes with phylogenetic markers.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Sarah J; Tamminen, Manu V; Preheim, Sarah P; Guo, Mira T; Briggs, Adrian W; Brito, Ilana L; A Weitz, David; Pitkänen, Leena K; Vigneault, Francois; Juhani Virta, Marko P; Alm, Eric J

    2016-02-01

    Many microbial communities are characterized by high genetic diversity. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing can determine community members, and metagenomics can determine the functional diversity, but resolving the functional role of individual cells in high throughput remains an unsolved challenge. Here, we describe epicPCR (Emulsion, Paired Isolation and Concatenation PCR), a new technique that links functional genes and phylogenetic markers in uncultured single cells, providing a throughput of hundreds of thousands of cells with costs comparable to one genomic library preparation. We demonstrate the utility of our technique in a natural environment by profiling a sulfate-reducing community in a freshwater lake, revealing both known sulfate reducers and discovering new putative sulfate reducers. Our method is adaptable to any conserved genetic trait and translates genetic associations from diverse microbial samples into a sequencing library that answers targeted ecological questions. Potential applications include identifying functional community members, tracing horizontal gene transfer networks and mapping ecological interactions between microbial cells.

  8. 75 FR 65985 - Safety Zone: Epic Roasthouse Private Party Firework Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: Epic Roasthouse Private Party Firework... Roasthouse Private Party. This safety zone is established to ensure the safety of participants and spectators... in effect during the event. Basis and Purpose The Epic Roasthouse Private Party is scheduled to...

  9. Correspondence and Contradiction in Ancient Greek Society and Education: Homer's Epic Poetry and Plato's Early Dialogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichel, Betty A.

    1983-01-01

    Homer's epic poetry illustrates correspondence between society's needs and the values stressed in education, while Socrates' thought uncovers contradictions between social and educational values and seeks a new form of correspondence. Examples from the Epics and Plato's early dialogues trace changing educational attitudes among the Classical…

  10. An Evaluation of OCLC's EPIC as a Resource for Subject Access to Videos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Joseph W.

    1992-01-01

    An examination of OCLC's EPIC service and standard video reference tools revealed that EPIC was more comprehensive in finding video titles on the popular or specialized topics of bonsai, genealogy, karate, and holography, because of its keyword searching ability on the massive OCLC database. (11 references) (EA)

  11. Possible food sources of macrozoobenthos in the manko mangrove ecosystem, okinawa (Japan): a stable isotope analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Wardiatno, Yusli; Mardiansyah; Prartono, Tri; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2015-04-01

    Identifying potential food sources in mangrove ecosystems is complex because of the multifarious inputs from both land and sea. This study, which was conducted in the Manko mangrove ecosystem of Okinawa, Japan, determined the composition of the stable isotopes δ(13)C and δ(15)N in primary producers and macrozoobenthos to estimate the potential food sources assimilated and to elucidate the target trophic levels of the macrozoobenthos. We measured the two stable isotope signatures of three gastropods (Cerithidea sp., Cassidula mustelina, Peronia verruculata), two crabs (Grapsidae sp., Uca sp.), mangrove tree (Kandelia candel) leaves, and sediment from the mangrove ecosystem. The respective carbon and nitrogen isotope signature results were as follows: -22.4‰ and 8.6‰ for Cerithidea sp., -25.06‰ and 8‰ for C. mustelina, -22.58‰ and 8‰ for P. verruculata, -24.3‰ and 10.6‰ for unidentified Grapsidae, -21.87 ‰ and 11.5 ‰ for Uca sp., -29.81‰ and 11‰ for K. candel, and -24.23‰ and 7.2‰ for the sediment. The stable isotope assimilation signatures of the macrozoobenthos indicated sediment as their food source. Considering the trophic levels, the stable isotope values may also indicate that the five macrozoobenthos species were secondary or higher consumers.

  12. Possible Food Sources of Macrozoobenthos in the Manko Mangrove Ecosystem, Okinawa (Japan): A Stable Isotope Analysis Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wardiatno, Yusli; Mardiansyah; Prartono, Tri; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Identifying potential food sources in mangrove ecosystems is complex because of the multifarious inputs from both land and sea. This study, which was conducted in the Manko mangrove ecosystem of Okinawa, Japan, determined the composition of the stable isotopes δ13C and δ15N in primary producers and macrozoobenthos to estimate the potential food sources assimilated and to elucidate the target trophic levels of the macrozoobenthos. We measured the two stable isotope signatures of three gastropods (Cerithidea sp., Cassidula mustelina, Peronia verruculata), two crabs (Grapsidae sp., Uca sp.), mangrove tree (Kandelia candel) leaves, and sediment from the mangrove ecosystem. The respective carbon and nitrogen isotope signature results were as follows: −22.4‰ and 8.6‰ for Cerithidea sp., −25.06‰ and 8‰ for C. mustelina, −22.58‰ and 8‰ for P. verruculata, −24.3‰ and 10.6‰ for unidentified Grapsidae, −21.87 ‰ and 11.5 ‰ for Uca sp., −29.81‰ and 11‰ for K. candel, and −24.23‰ and 7.2‰ for the sediment. The stable isotope assimilation signatures of the macrozoobenthos indicated sediment as their food source. Considering the trophic levels, the stable isotope values may also indicate that the five macrozoobenthos species were secondary or higher consumers. PMID:26019747

  13. Perfusion Electronic Record Documentation Using Epic Systems Software

    PubMed Central

    Steffens, Thomas G.; Gunser, John M.; Saviello, George M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This paper describes the design and use of Epic Systems software for documentation of perfusion activities as part of the patient electronic medical record. The University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics adapted the Anesthesia software module and developed an integrated perfusion/anesthesia record for the documentation of cardiac and non-cardiac surgical procedures. This project involved multiple committees, approvals, and training to successfully implement. This article will describe our documentation options, concepts, design, challenges, training, and implementation during our initial experience. PMID:26834288

  14. EPICS Input Output Controller (IOC) Record Reference Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.B.; Kraimer, M.R.

    1994-12-01

    This manual describes all supported EPICS record types. The first chapter gives introduction and describes the field summary table. The second chapter describes the fields in database common, i.e. the fields that are present in every record type. The third chapter describes the input and output field that are common to many record types and have the same usage wherever they are used. Following the third chapter is a separate chapter for each record type containing a description of all the fields for that record type except those in database common.

  15. EPICS and WANs: Tradeoffs between Isolation, Security, Robustness, and Transparency

    SciTech Connect

    J. Hill; K. Furukawa; S. Hunt; A. Johnson; R. Lange; J. Sage; E. Williams

    2003-10-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS)[1] was originally designed for use in local area networks (LANs). Today, the system is routinely deployed into complex wide area networks (WANs) using specialized configuration options and proxy gateways. There are advantages to the current approach including robustness and control over isolation and security. However, some important features are missing including WAN transparent configuration, resource location monitoring, detection of name space collisions during installation, and wildcard queries into the resource attribute space. The paper discusses these issues in detail exploring the relative tradeoffs between different solutions and including our plans for future enhancements.

  16. Oceanic And Terrestrial Controls On Chlorophyll -a Abundance Around The Island Of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikema, T.; Bryant, R. G.; Bigg, G. R.

    2007-12-01

    This research aims to understand key factors affecting ocean surface chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) blooms at a range of scales (both regional and near the coastal zone) around the Island of Okinawa in the western Pacific. The study region is characterised by both the actions of the Kuroshio Current (which brings warm water) and the Asian Monsoon (which provides moist southwest winds in summer and dry northern winds in winter). Due to these influences, Okinawa has a subtropical climate, with a rainy season in the summer months (MJ), and prevailing northerly winds in winter (NDJ). In order to better understand factors which may influence the timing and magnitude of Chl-a blooms in the vicinity of Okinawa, we applied empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to a time series of AVHRR (monthly mean SST from 1985-2006) and SeaWIFS (monthly mean Chl-a from 1998 to 2006) data over two different spatial scales: domain 1 (D1) - a region of the ocean southeast of Kuroshio, and domain 2 (D2) - a sub-region near coastline focused on Okinawa itself. The first EOF mode of SST in regions D1 and D2 (which accounted for more than 90 % in each domain) showed a clear radiation-driven annual cycle: high SST in summer and low SST in winter. The first EOF mode of Chl-a in D1 (which accounted for 51 %) also demonstrated an annual cycle, but in this instance one that mirrored that of SST (i.e. low Chl-a in summer and high Chl-a in winter). The first mode Chl-a EOF in D2 (accounting for 63 % of the total variance) also has a similar annual cycle, displaying a significant correlation (r=0.75, p<0.001) with northerly wind magnitudes, lagged by 2 months, suggesting that the winter monsoon is a major control on the observed Chl-a bloom. However, extreme events such as typhoons can also cause a Chl-a bloom around the coast. As a result of further analysis of daily Chl-a data along the western coastline of Okinawa, it was found that some of the peaks of Chl-a were closely correlated with river

  17. Microbial diversity in the deep-sea sediments of Iheya North and Iheya Ridge, Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Sun, Qing-lei; Zeng, Zhi-gang; Chen, Shuai; Sun, Li

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed the bacterial and archaeal diversities of the deep-sea sediments in Iheya North and Iheya Ridge, Okinawa Trough, using the high-throughput sequencing technology of Illumina MiSeq 2500 platform. Four samples (IN1, IN2, IR1 and IR2) were used in this study, of which IN1 and IN2 were located at regions close to and distant, respectively, from the active hydrothermal vents in Iheya North, while IR1 and IR2 were located at regions close to and distant, respectively, from the active hydrothermal vents in Iheya Ridge. The four samples were rich in different metal elements. Sequence analysis based on the V3-V4 regions of 16S rDNA gene obtained 170,363 taxon tags, including 122,920 bacterial tags and 47,433 archaeal tags, which cover 31 phyla, 50 classes, 59 orders, 87 families, and 138 genera. Overall, the microbial communities in all samples were dominated by bacteria, in which Proteobacteria was the largest phylum, followed by Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and Nitrospirae, which together accounted for 64.6% of the total taxon tags. In contrast to the high bacterial diversities, the archaeal diversity was low and dominated by Thaumarchaeota, which accounted for 22.9% of the total taxon tags. Comparative analysis showed that (i) IN2 and IR2 exhibited more microbial richness than IN1 and IR1, (ii) IR1 and IR2 exhibited higher microbial diversities than IN1 and IN2, (iii) samples from Iheya Ridge and Iheya North fell into two groups based on principle component analysis. Furthermore, microbes potentially involved in sulfur, nitrogen, and metal metabolism and cycling were detected in all samples. These results provide for the first time a comparative picture of the microbial diversities in the sediments of Iheya North and Iheya Ridge and indicate that geological features and distance from active hydrothermal vents likely play important roles in the shaping of microbial community structure.

  18. Measurement of high turbidity water behavior by ADCP at Izena Caldera in Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuta, S.; Arai, R.; Yamazaki, T.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrothermal processes associated with spreading centers of plate-tectonics form hydrothermal activities and the resulted seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) deposits. Given that the SMS deposits found in the western Pacific have been considered to be potential sources of gold, silver, copper, zinc, and lead, there is a strong possibility that they will be mined near future. In order to take measures against environmental impacts during the mining of SMS deposits, it is important to measure components of hydrothermal origin with high temporal and spatial resolution on site, and to understand the mass circulation and transfer systems around the mining area. The Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) is effective tool for measurement of current field in water column in general. In addition, it is also useful for detection of turbidity profile in the water column simultaneously, applying an acoustic propagation model to the data. Izena Caldera, which is 3 km in short, 6 km in long axes and is generically from1,600 m to 1,700 m in depth, is located at the northwest of Okinawa Island. There both attractive SMS deposits and active hydrothermal vent systems have been confirmed. Because of the active vent systems and a bowl-like geographical structure, a quite unique mass circulation and transfer background condition is expected in Izena Caldera. The mining operation will add plenty of suspended materials into the background condition. For a primary understanding of the background condition, the authors analyzed the ADCP data and found two high-turbidity water zones in Izena Caldera and their behavior relationships with the current structure. The vertical downward current affects one of the high-turbidity zones around 1,220 m in depth. The current velocity against north-south direction and east-west direction affects the other high-turbidity zone 1,550 m in depth. Also the zones are recognized the higher synchronization with the lumi-solar diurnal tide, about 24 hours. The

  19. Satellite Observations of the Epic California Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Famiglietti, J. S.; Thomas, B. F.; Reager, J. T., II; Castle, S. L.; David, C. H.; Thomas, A. C.; Andreadis, K.; Argus, D. F.; Behrangi, A.; Farr, T.; Fisher, J. B.; Landerer, F. W.; Lo, M. H.; Molotch, N. P.; Painter, T. H.; Rodell, M.; Schimel, D.; Swenson, S. C.; Watkins, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    As California enters its third year of drought, questions of future water sustainability are inevitable. Snowpack, soil moisture, streamflow, reservoir and groundwater levels are at record lows. Mandatory water restrictions are being implemented, statewide fines for wasting water have been authorized, and billions of dollars and tens of thousands of jobs have been lost. Enhanced monitoring and modeling of the state's dwindling water supplies can help manage what remains while looking forward to a post-drought, sustainable water future. Here we demonstrate the role of satellite observations in comprehensive drought characterization and monitoring. In particular we highlight changing water supply, declining groundwater and reservoir levels, agricultural and urban stress. Potential contributions to water management will be discussed.

  20. Anaplasma marginale infection in a Japanese Black cow 13 years after eradication of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ooshiro, Mamoru; Zakimi, Satoshi; Matsukawa, Yoshimasa; Yafuso, Makoto; Katagiri, Yoshito; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2009-03-23

    In October 2007, a 15-year-old Japanese Black cow on Ishigaki Island, Okinawa, Japan, was diagnosed with Anaplasma marginale infection based on clinical symptoms, blood examination, smear observation, 16S rRNA and groEL gene sequence analysis, and the result of a CF test. The cow was introduced into the farm from mainland Japan as a calf in 1993, one year before the eradication of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, the main vector of A. marginale in Okinawa Prefecture. It is possible that the cow was first infected with A. marginale as a calf in Ishigaki Island and had been persistently infected since then. This is the first reported clinical case of A. marginale infection of cattle since the eradication of R. microplus in Okinawa Prefecture. Additional analysis of major surface protein 1alpha amino acid sequences revealed that the A. marginale Okinawa strain presented four new repeat forms which were not seen in other strains. This indicates that the Okinawa strain may be a unique geographical variant of A. marginale.

  1. Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) Flight Experiment-Reflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.

    1997-01-01

    The Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) is a flight experiment to demonstrate and validate in a microgravity environment the Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) concept which was selected for the use aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for oxygen (O2) generation. It also is to investigate the impact of microgravity on electrochemical cell performance. Electrochemical cells are important to the space program because they provide an efficient means of generating O2 and hydrogen (H2) in space. Oxygen and H2 are essential not only for the survival of humans in space but also for the efficient and economical operation of various space systems. Electrochemical cells can reduce the mass, volume and logistical penalties associated with resupply and storage by generating and/or consuming these gases in space. An initial flight of the EPICS was conducted aboard STS-69 from September 7 to 8, 1995. A temperature sensor characteristics shift and a missing line of software code resulted in only partial success of this initial flight. Based on the review and recommendations of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) review team a reflight activity was initiated to obtain the remaining desired results, not achieved during the initial flight.

  2. JBluIce-EPICS control system for macromolecular crystallography.

    SciTech Connect

    Stepanov, S.; Makarov, O.; Hilgart, M.; Pothineni, S.; Urakhchin, A.; Devarapalli, S.; Yoder, D.; Becker, M.; Ogata, C.; Sanishvili, R.; Nagarajan, V.; Smith, J. L.; Fischetti, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    The trio of macromolecular crystallography beamlines constructed by the General Medicine and Cancer Institutes Collaborative Access Team (GM/CA-CAT) in Sector 23 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) have been in growing demand owing to their outstanding beam quality and capacity to measure data from crystals of only a few micrometres in size. To take full advantage of the state-of-the-art mechanical and optical design of these beamlines, a significant effort has been devoted to designing fast, convenient, intuitive and robust beamline controls that could easily accommodate new beamline developments. The GM/CA-CAT beamline controls are based on the power of EPICS for distributed hardware control, the rich Java graphical user interface of Eclipse RCP and the task-oriented philosophy as well as the look and feel of the successful SSRL BluIce graphical user interface for crystallography. These beamline controls feature a minimum number of software layers, the wide use of plug-ins that can be written in any language and unified motion controls that allow on-the-fly scanning and optimization of any beamline component. This paper describes the ways in which BluIce was combined with EPICS and converted into the Java-based JBluIce, discusses the solutions aimed at streamlining and speeding up operations and gives an overview of the tools that are provided by this new open-source control system for facilitating crystallographic experiments, especially in the field of microcrystallography.

  3. Data acquisition system for KOMAC beam monitoring using EPICS middleware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Gi

    2015-10-01

    The beam diagnostics instrument used to measure the beam properties is one of the important devices for the 100-MeV proton linear accelerator of the KOrea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC). A data acquisition system (DAQ) is required to collect the output beam signals conditioned in the analog front-end circuitry of a beam loss monitor (BLM) and a beam position monitor (BPM). The electrical beam signal must be digitized, and the sampling has to be synchronized to a global timing system that produces a pulse signal for the pulsed beam operation. The digitized data must be accessible by the experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS)-based control system, which manages all accelerator control. An input output controller (IOC), which runs Linux on a central process unit (CPU) module with a peripheral component interconnect (PCI) express-based Analog-to-digital converter (ADC) card, has been adopted to satisfy the requirements. An associated Linux driver and EPICS device support module have also been developed. The IOC meets the requirements, and the development and maintenance of software for the IOC is very efficient. In this paper, the details of the DAQ system for the BLM and the BPM with the introduction of the KOMAC beam-diagnostics devices, along with the performance, are described.

  4. Physical activity in the EPIC-Italy centers.

    PubMed

    Salvini, Simonetta; Saieva, Calogero; Ciardullo, Anna Vittoria; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Assedi, Melania; Berrino, Franco; Pala, Valeria; Frasca, Graziella; Tumino, Rosario; Veglia, Fabrizio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico

    2003-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition offers the opportunity to explore patterns of physical activity in a large series of healthy adults enrolled in the different local cohorts of the Italian section of the European EPIC project. Physical activity is considered one of the means by which chronic disease could be prevented. Subjects in the EPIC study completed a life-style questionnaire, with a section dedicated to the assessment of physical activity at work and during leisure time. Time spent in the various activities was transformed into an index of physical activity (physical activity level, PAL) and an activity index that includes intense activity (PAL; intense activity included). Quintiles of these indexes were computed in order to observe the distribution of subject characteristics according to levels of physical activity. In general, the population was characterized by low levels of physical activity at work, with more than 50% of the sample reporting sedentary occupations. During leisure time, only a small percentage of subjects compensated for the inactivity at work by engaging in energy-consuming activities. In particular, organized fitness activities were reported by a small percentage of people, whereas walking was the most common sort of physical activity. Specific types of activity seemed to characterize subjects in the different areas of the country, reflecting local traditions or specific living situations. Detailed information about physical activity habits, together with a description of other characteristics, could help in designing physical activity promotion programs in different Italian populations and age groups.

  5. Screening of medicinal and edible plants in Okinawa, Japan, for enhanced proliferative and collagen synthesis activities in NB1RGB human skin fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Asikin, Yonathan; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

    2012-01-01

    To identify plants with bioactive potential for skin care, methanol extracts of 56 plant parts from 47 medical and edible plants cultivated in Okinawa were tested for their proliferative effects on NB1RGB skin fibroblast cells. Extracts from six plants, Bischofia javanica, Colocasia esculenta, Melaleuca alternifolia, Piper angustifolia, Jasminum sambac, and Curcuma longa, showed higher NB1RGB cell proliferation activity (>10%) than the control, at various concentrations. Among the six extracts, only the C. longa extract caused an increase in collagen synthesis in NB1RGB cells, as compared to treatment with the positive control, ascorbic acid (AsA). Expression of the collagen synthesis marker, transforming growth factor-β1, was higher after treatment with the C. longa extract than with AsA. PMID:23221723

  6. Assessment of Spacecraft Systems Integration Using the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Mandell, Myron J.; Gardner, Barbara M.; Kauffman, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    SAIC is currently developing the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code 'EPIC', an interactive computer tool that allows the construction of a 3-D spacecraft model, and the assessment of interactions between its subsystems and the plume from an electric thruster. EPIC unites different computer tools to address the complexity associated with the interaction processes. This paper describes the overall architecture and capability of EPIC including the physics and algorithms that comprise its various components. Results from selected modeling efforts of different spacecraft-thruster systems are also presented.

  7. Monitoring commercial conventional facilities control with the APS control system: The Metasys-to-EPICS interface

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocki, G.J.; Seaver, C.L.; Kowalkowski, J.B.

    1995-12-31

    As controls needs at the Advanced Photon Source matured from an installation phase to an operational phase, the need to monitor the existing conventional facilities control system with the EPICS-based accelerator control system was realized. This existing conventional facilities control network is based on a proprietary system from Johnson Controls called Metasys. Initially read-only monitoring of the Metasys parameters will be provided; however, the ability for possible future expansion to full control is available. This paper describes a method of using commercially available hardware and existing EPICS software as a bridge between the Metasys and EPICS control systems.

  8. EPIC 2.0: a second youth for XMM-Newton's workhorse.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molendi, S.

    2016-06-01

    While much has been achieved with the EPIC experiment on board XMM-Newton, in several areas, we can get even more. In this presentation I will discuss results we have recently obtained, including those from an "all archive" analysis of the EPIC background. I will show how these, along with others, can be used to improve measures of diffuse low surface brightness sources. I will also illustrate how the work we are doing on EPIC is contributing to the design of experiments on the next Large European X-ray mission: Athena.

  9. [Identification and characterization of Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus isolated in Okinawa, Japan].

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Ayano; Tokashiki, Yoshino T; Nakasone, Isamu; Kisanuki, Kyoko; Nago, Tamami T; Yamane, Nobuhisa

    2010-09-01

    We experienced hospital-acquired infection in March 2008 that three nurses became infected with Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Accordingly, we performed the retrospective study to determine the prevalence of PVL-positive S. aureus in Okinawa. A total of 731 clinical isolates, consisting of 600 MRSA and 131 methicillin-susceptible isolates in Okinawa, were included. Of the isolates, 16 were positive for PVL gene (lukS-PV-lukF-PV). All the PVL-positive isolates were MRSA, and the first appeared in March 2008. The isolates from the University Hospital were characterized as staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec type IVa. Through the analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), 16 PVL-positive MRSA isolates were divided in three groups. One isolate (the first group) from the other hospital was less similar (< 40% similarity) when compared with the remaining 15 isolates from the University Hospital. The second group consisted of two respective paired isolates from the same department wards, and those were very similar with each other, indicating possible patient-to-patient transmission. The 11 isolates were characterized as the third group with >80% similarity. The DiversiLab system (bioMérieux) based on repetitive-sequence-based PCR typing demonstrated that the isolates of the third group were similar and indistinguishable with the strains of USA300 clone. However, the first and second groups were not determinable which USA clone was the origin. With these, we could conclude that the PVL-positive MRSA close to USA300 clone first appeared in Okinawa in 2008 and is now becoming prevalent multi-focally. Also, person-to-person transmission is already likely in a hospital setting.

  10. A survey of junior high school students' sleep habit and lifestyle in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, M; Taira, K; Tanaka, H; Yamakawa, K; Toguchi, H; Kadekaru, H; Yamamoto, Y; Uezu, E; Shirakawa, S

    2001-06-01

    A survey was made of the sleep and lifestyle activity patterns of 3754 students from 14 different junior high schools on Okinawa Island. The survey showed that bedtimes became progressively and significantly later as students ascended to higher grades, resulting in adolescent sleep debt. The later adolescents retired to sleep, there appeared significantly greater numbers suffering from insufficient sleep, who found difficulty in waking up, who arose later in the mornings, and who failed to eat breakfast. The study indicated that along with later bedtimes, staying up late resulted in deterioration of sleep health, poor dietary habits and feeling ill, contributing to sleepiness during class. PMID:11422845

  11. Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) Survey for SMS exploration in Izena Cauldron, Okinawa-Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Eiichi; Murakami, Fumitoshi; Tsukahara, Hitoshi; Mizohata, Shigeharu; Tara, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    In 2014, the Japanese government started the Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP), which includes 'New-generation Offshore Exploration Techniques' as an area of interest. We proposed the Vertical Cable Seismic (VCS) survey technique for this program, especially for the exploration of Seafloor Massive Sulfides (SMS). VCS is a reflection seismic method that uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by various acoustic sources. This method is useful to delineate detailed structures in a spatially-limited area below the seabed in the deep sea where conventional surface seismic is not effective. We have been developing an autonomous VCS system with the financial support of the Japanese government since 2009. We have carried out several VCS surveys and completed our VCS system. Izena Cauldron, Okinawa Trough is one of the most promising SMS areas around Japan. There are two high potential areas, the north and south mound. We carried out the first VCS survey around the north mound in 2011 and the second survey around the south mound in 2013 respectively. The first VCS survey in Izena Cauldron was carried out using a GI gun in September, 2011, with the objective of surveying the large-scale and deeper structure of the hydrothermal system. The water depth was 1,500-1,600m. Four VCS systems were deployed. The shooting lines covered an area of 9 km x 9 km with a shooting interval of about 25m and line spacing of 200m to 400m. In the second survey, we used a high-voltage sparker. The objective is to explore very shallow parts to delineate very thin SMS deposits. The survey area was about 4 km x 4km with a 12.5 m shooting interval and 100m to 200m line spacing. Three VCS systems were deployed in this survey. The result of the first GI gun VCS survey was a 3D PSDM volume of the subsurface structure. It extends 2,000m horizontally and down to 1,500m in depth. Further, by re-processing the data with a

  12. An EPIC view of absorbed HMXBs in the Scutum Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodaghee, Arash

    2009-10-01

    Observations are proposed for 5 new unclassified gamma-ray sources in the Scutum Arm. Each source will be targeted by EPIC PN and MOS cameras for 25 ks providing us with: a refined position that will facilitate optical/IR identification; spectral characteristics including the slope of the power law in X-rays and the photoelectric absorption; and timing characteristics in the case of Galactic XRBs. The targets lie within 5degs of the plane of the Milky Way, towards the tangent to the Scutum Arm, and are expected to be Galactic in origin. The main objective is to elucidate the nature of these sources. An additional benefit is that we will have a more complete sample of high-energy emitters in the Scutum Arm to compare with absorbed HMXBs in the Norma Arm.

  13. Using EPICS enabled industrial hardware for upgrading control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorkland, Eric A; Veeramani, Arun; Debelle, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with National Instruments (NI) and Cosy lab to implement EPICS Input Output Controller (IOC) software that runs directly on NI CompactRIO Real Time Controller (RTC) and communicates with NI LabVIEW through a shared memory interface. In this presentation, we will discuss our current progress in upgrading the control system at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Centre (LANSCE) and what we have learned about integrating CompactRIO into large experimental physics facilities. We will also discuss the implications of using Channel Access Server for LabVIEW which will enable more commercial hardware platforms to be used in upgrading existing facilities or in commissioning new ones.

  14. JBluIce–EPICS control system for macromolecular crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Stepanov, Sergey; Makarov, Oleg; Hilgart, Mark; Pothineni, Sudhir Babu; Urakhchin, Alex; Devarapalli, Satish; Yoder, Derek; Becker, Michael; Ogata, Craig; Sanishvili, Ruslan; Venugopalan, Nagarajan; Smith, Janet L.; Fischetti, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    The trio of macromolecular crystallography beamlines constructed by the General Medicine and Cancer Institutes Collaborative Access Team (GM/CA-CAT) in Sector 23 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) have been in growing demand owing to their outstanding beam quality and capacity to measure data from crystals of only a few micrometres in size. To take full advantage of the state-of-the-art mechanical and optical design of these beamlines, a significant effort has been devoted to designing fast, convenient, intuitive and robust beamline controls that could easily accommodate new beamline developments. The GM/CA-CAT beamline controls are based on the power of EPICS for distributed hardware control, the rich Java graphical user interface of Eclipse RCP and the task-oriented philosophy as well as the look and feel of the successful SSRL BluIce graphical user interface for crystallography. These beamline controls feature a minimum number of software layers, the wide use of plug-ins that can be written in any language and unified motion controls that allow on-the-fly scanning and optimization of any beamline com­ponent. This paper describes the ways in which BluIce was combined with EPICS and converted into the Java-based JBluIce, discusses the solutions aimed at streamlining and speeding up operations and gives an overview of the tools that are provided by this new open-source control system for facilitating crystallo­graphic experiments, especially in the field of microcrystallo­graphy. PMID:21358048

  15. Neutron Source Facility Training Simulator Based on EPICS

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Young Soo; Wei, Thomas Y.; Vilim, Richard B.; Grelle, Austin L.; Dworzanski, Pawel L.; Gohar, Yousry

    2015-01-01

    A plant operator training simulator is developed for training the plant operators as well as for design verification of plant control system (PCS) and plant protection system (PPS) for the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology Neutron Source Facility. The simulator provides the operator interface for the whole plant including the sub-critical assembly coolant loop, target coolant loop, secondary coolant loop, and other facility systems. The operator interface is implemented based on Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), which is a comprehensive software development platform for distributed control systems. Since its development at Argonne National Laboratory, it has been widely adopted in the experimental physics community, e.g. for control of accelerator facilities. This work is the first implementation for a nuclear facility. The main parts of the operator interface are the plant control panel and plant protection panel. The development involved implementation of process variable database, sequence logic, and graphical user interface (GUI) for the PCS and PPS utilizing EPICS and related software tools, e.g. sequencer for sequence logic, and control system studio (CSS-BOY) for graphical use interface. For functional verification of the PCS and PPS, a plant model is interfaced, which is a physics-based model of the facility coolant loops implemented as a numerical computer code. The training simulator is tested and demonstrated its effectiveness in various plant operation sequences, e.g. start-up, shut-down, maintenance, and refueling. It was also tested for verification of the plant protection system under various trip conditions.

  16. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Biofuel Crops and Parameterization in the EPIC Biogeochemical Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes year 1 field measurements of N2O fluxes and crop yields which are used to parameterize the EPIC biogeochemical model for the corresponding field site. Initial model simulations are also presented.

  17. Dietary lipids and geriatric depression scale score among elders: the EPIC-Greece cohort.

    PubMed

    Kyrozis, A; Psaltopoulou, T; Stathopoulos, P; Trichopoulos, D; Vassilopoulos, D; Trichopoulou, A

    2009-05-01

    In a prospective epidemiological investigation aiming to identify dietary lipids potentially associated with affective state and depression, 610 healthy men and women aged 60 years or older, participating in the EPIC-Greece cohort and residing in the Attika region had dietary, sociodemographic, anthropometric, medical and lifestyle variables ascertained at enrollment. Six to 13 years later, affective state was evaluated through the 15-point geriatric depression scale (GDS) score along with cognitive function and medical variables. In multivariate linear regression analysis, while adjusting for potential confounders, GDS score was negatively associated with dietary intake of monounsaturated lipids (MUFA) and their main source, olive oil, and positively associated with intake of polyunsaturated lipids (PUFA) and one of their principal sources, seed oils. Intake of calories, total lipids, fish and seafood or saturated lipids did not exhibit significant association with GDS. Potential non-linearities were assessed by quantile multivariate regression analysis: The median GDS score was positively associated with PUFA and seed oils intake, while other lipid groups showed no appreciable associations. The 90th percentile of the GDS score (towards the high end) exhibited significant negative associations with MUFA and olive oil, weaker positive associations with PUFA and seed oils and no appreciable association with other lipid group dietary intakes. We conclude that among Attika elders, lower intake of seed oils and higher intake of olive oil prospectively predict a healthier affective state. Olive oil intake, in particular, predicts a lower chance of scoring in the highest part of the GDS. PMID:18952225

  18. Dietary lipids and geriatric depression scale score among elders: the EPIC-Greece cohort.

    PubMed

    Kyrozis, A; Psaltopoulou, T; Stathopoulos, P; Trichopoulos, D; Vassilopoulos, D; Trichopoulou, A

    2009-05-01

    In a prospective epidemiological investigation aiming to identify dietary lipids potentially associated with affective state and depression, 610 healthy men and women aged 60 years or older, participating in the EPIC-Greece cohort and residing in the Attika region had dietary, sociodemographic, anthropometric, medical and lifestyle variables ascertained at enrollment. Six to 13 years later, affective state was evaluated through the 15-point geriatric depression scale (GDS) score along with cognitive function and medical variables. In multivariate linear regression analysis, while adjusting for potential confounders, GDS score was negatively associated with dietary intake of monounsaturated lipids (MUFA) and their main source, olive oil, and positively associated with intake of polyunsaturated lipids (PUFA) and one of their principal sources, seed oils. Intake of calories, total lipids, fish and seafood or saturated lipids did not exhibit significant association with GDS. Potential non-linearities were assessed by quantile multivariate regression analysis: The median GDS score was positively associated with PUFA and seed oils intake, while other lipid groups showed no appreciable associations. The 90th percentile of the GDS score (towards the high end) exhibited significant negative associations with MUFA and olive oil, weaker positive associations with PUFA and seed oils and no appreciable association with other lipid group dietary intakes. We conclude that among Attika elders, lower intake of seed oils and higher intake of olive oil prospectively predict a healthier affective state. Olive oil intake, in particular, predicts a lower chance of scoring in the highest part of the GDS.

  19. Reproductive traits of the Ryukyu long-furred rat (Diplothrix legata) on Okinawa-jima Island.

    PubMed

    Okano, Tsukasa; Nakata, Katsuhi; Nakaya, Yumiko; Nagamine, Takashi; Onuma, Manabu

    2015-06-01

    The Ryukyu long-furred rat, Diplothrix legata, is a large rodent distributed only on Amami-ohshima Island, Tokuno-shima Island and Okinawa-jima Island, Japan. This animal is endangered as a result of deforestation, predation by introduced carnivores and mortality caused by vehicles. We performed theriogenological examinations of 32 male and 25 female Ryukyu long-furred rats carcasses collected from wild populations on northern Okinawa-jima Island from December 2005 to September 2013. Adult males had remarkably large preputial glands. Seminiferous diameter of adult was significantly small (136 ± 28 µm, n=8) from April to August. Numerous spermatozoa were observed from September through February, and seminiferous diameter was significantly large (216 ± 27 µm, n=12) during this time in adults; testes length changed in a similar pattern. These findings indicate that the mating season may occur from September through February. Size (body length) at sexual maturity was estimated to be >560 mm in both sexes. From observation of corpora lutea and placental scars, litter size was estimated to range from 2 to 12 (average=6, n=4). These results provide fundamental knowledge that will be beneficial for in situ and ex situ conservation of this rare species.

  20. Genetic diversity of Theileria orientalis in tick vectors detected in Hokkaido and Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Naoaki; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Ota, Naomi; Igarashi, Ikuo; Nakamura, Yukio; Yamashina, Hidenari; Matsui, Shirou; Fukumoto, Natsuko; Hata, Hiroshi; Kondo, Seiji; Oshiro, Mamoru; Zakimi, Satoshi; Kuroda, Yasuhiro; Kojima, Naoya; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated the possible tick vectors that can transmit Theileria orientalis in eastern Hokkaido, Japan. Questing ticks collected from three different districts, Taiki, Otofuke, and Shin-Hidaka, of Hokkaido included Ixodes persulcatus, Haemaphysalis megaspinosa, Haemaphysalis douglasi, and Ixodes ovatus, while all the ticks collected from Yonaguni island of Okinawa were identified as Haemaphysalis longicornis. When the ticks were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for T. orientalis, the parasite was commonly detected among all tick species. Genotype-specific PCR assays revealed that all tick species in Hokkaido were predominantly detected with type 2, while ticks collected from Okinawa (H. longicornis) were predominantly detected with type 1. Consistent with the genetic diversity of T. orientalis in ticks, genotyping PCR assays from cattle grazed in the same Hokkaido sampling locations identified type 2 as the most prevalent genotype. This study provides the first identification of I. persulcatus, H. megaspinosa, H. douglasi, and I. ovatus as possible tick vectors of T. orientalis, and finds that the variety of vectors apparently capable of transmitting T. orientalis is wider in Japan than expected. The authors suggest that tick control strategies should be modified in Hokkaido based on the seasonal activities of ticks identified in the present study.

  1. Estimation of radon emanation coefficient for representative soils in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiroma, Y; Hosoda, M; Ishikawa, T; Sahoo, S K; Tokonami, S; Furukawa, M

    2015-11-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) emanation coefficients for the representative soils distributed in Okinawa Island, Japan, have been estimated empirically. Arithmetic means of the emanation coefficients for dry and moist conditions were calculated to be 0.19 and 0.29, respectively. In Okinawa, the soils are traditionally classified into three types, namely the dark red soils, the residual regosols and the red and yellow soils. The dark red soils have relatively high coefficients. The residual regosols and the red and yellow soils have relatively low coefficients. To investigate the variable factor of the emanation coefficients, analyses of radioactive elements and physical properties have also been performed on the soils. For the dark red soils, the contents of the fine particle and the (226)Ra are relatively higher than those for the other soils. Based on these results, it is suggested that the variation in the radon emanation coefficient is mainly regulated by the (226)Ra concentration, the particle sizes and the water contents of the soils.

  2. Characteristics of radon and thoron exhalation rates in Okinawa, subtropical region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiroma, Y; Kina, S; Fujitani, T; Hosoda, M; Sorimachi, A; Ishikawa, T; Sahoo, S K; Tokonami, S; Furukawa, M

    2012-11-01

    Radon and thoron exhalation rates from the ground surface were estimated in three islands of Okinawa Prefecture, a subtropical region of Japan. In situ measurements of the exhalation rates were conducted at a total of 88 points using an accumulation technique with a ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. The radon and thoron exhalation rates were calculated to be 1-137 (arithmetic mean: 21) mBq m(-2) s(-1) and 32-6244 (1801) mBq m(-2) s(-1), respectively. In the surface soil samples collected at 53 measurement points, (238)U and (232)Th series concentrations were estimated to be 17.9-254.0 (64.0) Bq kg(-1) dry and 17.8-136.1 (58.8) Bq kg(-1) dry, respectively. The maximum rates and concentrations were observed in the dark red soil area. Recent studies strongly suggest that the base material of the soils may be the eolian dust derived from the southeastern part of China, a high background radiation area. The eolian dust is, therefore, considered to be an enhancer for the radon and thoron exhalations in Okinawa.

  3. Geological Structures of the South Okinawa Trough based on Seismic Reflection Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, M.; Liu, C.; Teng, L. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Southern Okinawa Trough (SOT) located offshore northeastern Taiwan is an extensional basin north of the Ryukyu Island Arc that opens toward Taiwan. In order to better understand the geological processes in the Southern Okinawa Trough, we collect all the available multi-channel seismic reflection data, reprocess some of them to improve the data quality, and interpret 22 seismic reflection profiles. A structural map, which shows the distribution of fault structures and submarine volcanoes in the study area, is compiled with the aid of seismic sequence analysis. We found that normal faults developed in both the northern and southern flanks of the SOT, and also in the axial area where volcanic extrusions are abundant, suggesting that the SOT is presently undergoing active extension. Some deeply rooted compressional structures are observed below the younger normal faults, which may indicate that the area offshore northern Taiwan was once in a convergent tectonic environment. We use seismic and bathymetry data to discuss the fault activities and related tectonic processes, also examine the volcanic activities and their geological environment.

  4. Estimation of radon emanation coefficient for representative soils in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiroma, Y; Hosoda, M; Ishikawa, T; Sahoo, S K; Tokonami, S; Furukawa, M

    2015-11-01

    Radon ((222)Rn) emanation coefficients for the representative soils distributed in Okinawa Island, Japan, have been estimated empirically. Arithmetic means of the emanation coefficients for dry and moist conditions were calculated to be 0.19 and 0.29, respectively. In Okinawa, the soils are traditionally classified into three types, namely the dark red soils, the residual regosols and the red and yellow soils. The dark red soils have relatively high coefficients. The residual regosols and the red and yellow soils have relatively low coefficients. To investigate the variable factor of the emanation coefficients, analyses of radioactive elements and physical properties have also been performed on the soils. For the dark red soils, the contents of the fine particle and the (226)Ra are relatively higher than those for the other soils. Based on these results, it is suggested that the variation in the radon emanation coefficient is mainly regulated by the (226)Ra concentration, the particle sizes and the water contents of the soils. PMID:25920788

  5. Reproductive traits of the Ryukyu long-furred rat (Diplothrix legata) on Okinawa-jima Island.

    PubMed

    Okano, Tsukasa; Nakata, Katsuhi; Nakaya, Yumiko; Nagamine, Takashi; Onuma, Manabu

    2015-06-01

    The Ryukyu long-furred rat, Diplothrix legata, is a large rodent distributed only on Amami-ohshima Island, Tokuno-shima Island and Okinawa-jima Island, Japan. This animal is endangered as a result of deforestation, predation by introduced carnivores and mortality caused by vehicles. We performed theriogenological examinations of 32 male and 25 female Ryukyu long-furred rats carcasses collected from wild populations on northern Okinawa-jima Island from December 2005 to September 2013. Adult males had remarkably large preputial glands. Seminiferous diameter of adult was significantly small (136 ± 28 µm, n=8) from April to August. Numerous spermatozoa were observed from September through February, and seminiferous diameter was significantly large (216 ± 27 µm, n=12) during this time in adults; testes length changed in a similar pattern. These findings indicate that the mating season may occur from September through February. Size (body length) at sexual maturity was estimated to be >560 mm in both sexes. From observation of corpora lutea and placental scars, litter size was estimated to range from 2 to 12 (average=6, n=4). These results provide fundamental knowledge that will be beneficial for in situ and ex situ conservation of this rare species. PMID:25649850

  6. An autonomous observation and control system based on EPICS and RTS2 for Antarctic telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guang-yu; Wang, Jian; Tang, Peng-yi; Jia, Ming-hao; Chen, Jie; Dong, Shu-cheng; Jiang, Fengxin; Wu, Wen-qing; Liu, Jia-jing; Zhang, Hong-fei

    2016-01-01

    For unattended telescopes in Antarctic, the remote operation, autonomous observation and control are essential. An EPICS-(Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) and RTS2-(Remote Telescope System, 2nd Version) based autonomous observation and control system with remoted operation is introduced in this paper. EPICS is a set of open source software tools, libraries and applications developed collaboratively and used worldwide to create distributed soft real-time control systems for scientific instruments while RTS2 is an open source environment for control of a fully autonomous observatory. Using the advantage of EPICS and RTS2, respectively, a combined integrated software framework for autonomous observation and control is established that use RTS2 to fulfil the function of astronomical observation and use EPICS to fulfil the device control of telescope. A command and status interface for EPICS and RTS2 is designed to make the EPICS IOC (Input/Output Controller) components integrate to RTS2 directly. For the specification and requirement of control system of telescope in Antarctic, core components named Executor and Auto-focus for autonomous observation is designed and implemented with remote operation user interface based on browser-server mode. The whole system including the telescope is tested in Lijiang Observatory in Yunnan Province for practical observation to complete the autonomous observation and control, including telescope control, camera control, dome control, weather information acquisition with the local and remote operation.

  7. Litarcturus kexueiae sp. nov., a new deep-sea isopod from the Okinawa Trough (Crustacea, Isopoda, Valvifera, Antarcturidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenliang; Sha, Zhongli

    2015-09-11

    A new species of the genus Litarcturus Brandt, 1990, L. kexueiae sp. nov., collected from deep sea of the Okinawa Trough, is described and illustrated. It is readily distinguished from the other seven species of the genus by bearing long supraocular spines about as long as the head and posterolateral pleotelsonic spines overreaching the pleotelson apex.

  8. The new SCOS-based EGSE of the EPIC flight-spare on-ground cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Palombara, Nicola; Abbey, Anthony; Insinga, Fernando; Calderon-Riano, Pedro; Casale, Mauro; Kirsch, Marcus; Martin, James; Munoz, Ramon; Palazzo, Maddalena; Poletti, Mauro; Sembay, Steve; Vallejo, Juan C.; Villa, Gabriele

    2014-07-01

    The XMM-Newton observatory, launched by the European Space Agency in 1999, is still one of the scientific community's most important high-energy astrophysics missions. After almost 15 years in orbit its instruments continue to operate smoothly with a performance close to the immediate post-launch status. The competition for the observing time remains very high with ESA reporting a very healthy over-subscription factor. Due to the efficient use of spacecraft consumables XMM-Newton could potentially be operated into the next decade. However, since the mission was originally planned for 10 years, progressive ageing and/or failures of the on-board instrumentation can be expected. Dealing with them could require substantial changes of the on-board operating software, and of the command and telemetry database, which could potentially have unforeseen consequences for the on-board equipment. In order to avoid this risk, it is essential to test these changes on ground, before their upload. To this aim, two flight-spare cameras of the EPIC experiment (one MOS and one PN) are available on-ground. Originally they were operated through an Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) system which was developed over 15 years ago to support the test campaigns up to the launch. The EGSE used a specialized command language running on now obsolete workstations. ESA and the EPIC Consortium, therefore, decided to replace it with new equipment in order to fully reproduce on-ground the on-board configuration and to operate the cameras with SCOS2000, the same Mission Control System used by ESA to control the spacecraft. This was a demanding task, since it required both the recovery of the detailed knowledge of the original EGSE and the adjustment of SCOS for this special use. Recently this work has been completed by replacing the EGSE of one of the two cameras, which is now ready to be used by ESA. Here we describe the scope and purpose of this activity, the problems faced during its

  9. Microbial community in a sediment-hosted CO2 lake of the southern Okinawa Trough hydrothermal system.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Fumio; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Tsunogai, Urumu; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Nakamura, Ko-Ichi; Treude, Tina; Ohkubo, Satoru; Nakaseama, Miwako; Gena, Kaul; Chiba, Hitoshi; Hirayama, Hisako; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken; Jørgensen, Bo B; Horikoshi, Koki; Boetius, Antje

    2006-09-19

    Increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere are expected to cause climatic change with negative effects on the earth's ecosystems and human society. Consequently, a variety of CO2 disposal options are discussed, including injection into the deep ocean. Because the dissolution of CO2 in seawater will decrease ambient pH considerably, negative consequences for deep-water ecosystems have been predicted. Hence, ecosystems associated with natural CO2 reservoirs in the deep sea, and the dynamics of gaseous, liquid, and solid CO2 in such environments, are of great interest to science and society. We report here a biogeochemical and microbiological characterization of a microbial community inhabiting deep-sea sediments overlying a natural CO2 lake at the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field, southern Okinawa Trough. We found high abundances (>10(9) cm(-3)) of microbial cells in sediment pavements above the CO2 lake, decreasing to strikingly low cell numbers (10(7) cm(-3)) at the liquid CO2/CO2-hydrate interface. The key groups in these sediments were as follows: (i) the anaerobic methanotrophic archaea ANME-2c and the Eel-2 group of Deltaproteobacteria and (ii) sulfur-metabolizing chemolithotrophs within the Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria. The detection of functional genes related to one-carbon assimilation and the presence of highly 13C-depleted archaeal and bacterial lipid biomarkers suggest that microorganisms assimilating CO2 and/or CH4 dominate the liquid CO2 and CO2-hydrate-bearing sediments. Clearly, the Yonaguni Knoll is an exceptional natural laboratory for the study of consequences of CO2 disposal as well as of natural CO2 reservoirs as potential microbial habitats on early Earth and other celestial bodies.

  10. Molecular isotopic evidence for anaerobic oxidation of methane in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environment in Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, M.; Takai, K.; Inagaki, F.

    2003-04-01

    Large amount of methane in anoxic marine sediments as well as cold seeps and hydrothermal vents is recycled through for an anoxic oxidation of methane processes. Now that combined results of field and laboratory studies revealed that microbiological activity associated with syntrophic consortium of archaea performing reversed methanogenesis and sulfate-reducing bacteria is significant roles in methane recycling, anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). In this study, we examined the diversity of archaeal and bacterial assemblages of AOM using compound-specific stable carbon isotopic and phylogenetic analyses. "Iheya North" in Okinawa Trough is sediment-rich, back arc type hydrothermal system (27^o47'N, 126^o53'E). Sediment samples were collected from three sites where are "bubbling sites", yellow-colored microbial mats are formed with continuous bubbling from the seafloor bottom, vent mussel's colonies site together with slowly venting and simmering, and control site off 100 m distance from thermal vent. This subsea floor structure has important effect in the microbial ecosystem and interaction between their activity and geochemical processes in the subseafloor habitats. Culture-independent, molecular biological analysis clearly indicated the presence of thermophilic methanogens in deeper area having higher temperatures and potential activity of AMOs consortium in the shallower area. AMO is composed with sulfate-reducing bacterial components (Desulfosarcina spp.) and anoxic methane oxidizing archaea (ANME-2). These results were consistent with the results of compound-specific carbon analysis of archaeal biomarkers. They showed extremely depleted 13C contents (-80 ppm ˜ -100 ppm), which also appeared to be capable of directly oxidizing methane.

  11. Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC): Recent Enhancements and Goals for Future Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Barbara M.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Davis, Victoria A.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    2007-01-01

    The Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC) is the leading interactive computer tool for assessing the effects of electric thruster plumes on spacecraft subsystems. EPIC, developed by SAIC under the sponsorship of the Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, has three primary modules. One is PlumeTool, which calculates plumes of electrostatic thrusters and Hall-effect thrusters by modeling the primary ion beam as well as elastic scattering and charge-exchange of beam ions with thruster-generated neutrals. ObjectToolkit is a 3-D object definition and spacecraft surface modeling tool developed for use with several SEE Program codes. The main EPIC interface integrates the thruster plume into the 3-D geometry of the spacecraft and calculates interactions and effects of the plume with the spacecraft. Effects modeled include erosion of surfaces due to sputtering, re-deposition of sputtered materials, surface heating, torque on the spacecraft, and changes in surface properties due to erosion and deposition. In support of Prometheus I (JIMO), a number of new capabilities and enhancements were made to existing EPIC models. Enhancements to EPIC include adding the ability to scale and view individual plume components, to import a neutral plume associated with a thruster (to model a grid erosion plume, for example), and to calculate the plume from new initial beam conditions. Unfortunately, changes in program direction have left a number of desired enhancements undone. Variable gridding over a surface and resputtering of deposited materials, including multiple bounces and sticking coefficients, would significantly enhance the erosion/deposition model. Other modifications such as improving the heating model and the PlumeTool neutral plume model, enabling time dependent surface interactions, and including EM1 and optical effects would enable EPIC to better serve the aerospace engineer and electric propulsion systems integrator

  12. Orbit and Atmospheric Composition of the Warm Sub-Saturn EPIC-2037b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petigura, Erik; Deck, Katherine; Benneke, Bjoern; Knutson, Heather; Deming, Drake; Werner, Michael; Livingston, John; Crossfield, Ian

    2015-10-01

    We propose a joint Spitzer/HST proposal to observe transits of two warm, sub-Saturn sized planets orbiting EPIC-203771098 (EPIC-2037 hereafter), a bright G dwarf observed by K2. EPIC-2037b and c are 5.7±0.6 and 7.6±0.8 Earth-radii. Sine the two planets are close to the 2:1 mean-motion resonance, transit timing variations (TTVs) are expected to be large (several hours). Our proposed Spitzer transit observations will yield precise transit times for EPIC-2037b and c. We will model the TTVs to constrain the eccentricities of EPIC-2037b and c which are linked to the formation pathway for this system. EPIC-2037b and c have low densities of 0.4 g/cc and 0.2 g/cc, respectively. Their large size and low surface gravities make these planets favorable targets for transmission spectroscopy by Spitzer, HST, and JWST. In addition to their favorable observability, the planets have low equilibrium temperatures of ~710 K and ~560 K, respectively. These temperatures have not been well-explored in previous studies with transmission spectroscopy. While over a dozen HST+Spitzer transmission spectra have been published in the literature, only GJ1214b, GJ346b, HAT-P-11b, and HAT-P-12b have comparable temperatures. While Spitzer can detect wavelength-dependent variation in transit depth, the Spitzer measurements alone cannot discriminate between various atmospheric compositions. Therefore we propose to use HST/WFC3 to probe the atmosphere of EPIC-2037b. The HST transmission spectrum will probe water vapor in the atmosphere, which reflects the planet?s oxygen abundance, a proxy for the planet?s heavy element enrichment.

  13. Back-arc rifting at a continental margin: A case study from the Okinawa trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, R.; Kaiho, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Nakanishi, A.; Fujie, G.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Okinawa trough, a back-arc basin formed behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system, southwest Japan, represents an active rifting zone associated with extension of the continental lithosphere. The basin is located at the southeastern margin of the Eurasian plate and characterized by axial rift valleys with over 1.0 km depth and ~100 km width. Previous studies suggest that the early rifting phase started late Miocene and crustal extension is currently active at a full rate of 30 to 50 mm/yr. Within the basin, numerous active hydrothermal vents are observed, suggesting that the crustal rifting enhances melt/heat transfer from the deep mantle up to the seafloor. However, internal structure beneath the back-arc basin and its relation to the rifting system are little documented. Complex regional tectonic setting, such as active collision in Taiwan to the west, oblique subduction of the Philippine Sea slab, and changing spreading rate along the rift axis, may also have significant influences on the thermal structure and flow within the mantle wedge, but their relative roles in controlling the rifting mode and magmatic supply are still poorly understood. As a step toward filling this gap in knowledge, we started a new 7-year project that consists of four two-dimensional active-source seismic experiments and extensive passive-source seismic observations along the Ryukyu arc. In 2013, active-source seismic data were collected on the first line that crosses the southernmost part of the Ryukyu arc-trench and Okinawa trough at 124-125°E. For refraction/wide-angle reflection analyses, a total of 60 ocean bottom seismographs were deployed with approximately 6 km spacing on a ~390-km-long profile. On the same line, multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection profiling was also carried out. Seismic velocity models obtained by first arrival tomography show that beneath the volcanic arc a thick layer (~10 km) of the middle crust with Vp = 6.0-6.8 km/s is developed, a typical feature in the

  14. Time Variation of Fluid Chemistry at Iheya North Seafloor Hydrothermal System, mid-Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, H.; Ishibashi, J.; Kataoka, S.; Umeki, Y.; Kouzuma, F.; Nakayama, N.; Tsunogai, U.

    2002-12-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal system at Iheya North, mid-Okinawa Trough, was discovered by the deep tow camera system in 1995. It is located at 27°47.2"N, 126°63.9"E and water depth of 1000m. The first fluid samples were collected by "Shinkai 2000" in 1996. Since then, fluid samples have been collected almost every year till 2002. Iheya North seafloor hydrothermal system extends about 200m in NS and 150m in EW directions. There are at least 9 hydrothermal vents in the area. Some of them are several tens meters high sulfide chimney emitting hydrothermal fluid from their top and side wall. The maximum temperature measured was 311°C at the center part of this field. The temperatures of venting fluids at the peripheral parts of the system are lower than that at the central part. The chemical compositions of hydrothermal fluids have spatial and time variations. Before 1999, salinities of hydrothermal fluids tend to be lower at the peripheral part of the system. The relationships between K and Cl concentrations lie on a single line originating from the origin. It means that the phase separation of the hydrothermal fluids under the seafloor influences the spatial variation of the hydrothermal fluids in this system. The line indicates that the chemistry of the hydrothermal fluid is K-rich compared to those of the sediment-starved mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal fluids. It means that the fluids are reacted with hot acidic rock of the mid-Okinawa Trough. High concentrations of other components, such as NH4 and Li, indicate that the fluid is also reacted with the sediment of the mid-Okinawa Trough. After 2000, there were large decreases in salinities of the hydrothermal fluids in the southern part of this system. Hydrothermal fluid of one of the vent in southern part of the system becomes almost zero salinity. This sudden change in salinity indicates the big change in sub-seafloor hydrology in this hydrothermal system. When the hydrothermal system was aged and the path way of the

  15. Geochemistry of hydrothermal fluids at the Hatoma Knoll in Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toki, T.; Shinjo, R.; Ishibashi, J.; Tsunogai, U.; Sano, Y.; Takahata, N.; Yamanaka, T.; Kawagucci, S.; Ueno, Y.; Nunoura, T.; Takai, K.

    2012-12-01

    Hatoma knoll is a caldera volcano which exists in the southern part of Okinawa Trough, and the hydrothermal field was discovered in the caldera in 1999. A lava dome exists in the center part of the caldera, and clear smokers up to 324.5°C, benthic organism colony and liquid CO2, and CO2 hydrate have been observed around the dome. Since 2000, the investigation cruise (NT00-06, YK07-04, NT07-12, NT08-13, and NT09-10) by "Shinkai2000", "Shinkai6500" and the "HYPER-DOLPHIN 3K" has been carried out. Hydrothermal fluid samples were taken from the hydrothermal system, and chemical and isotopic compositions of the hydrothermal fluid samples were investigated. The chemical composition of hydrothermal fluid has high pH compared with the hydrothermal fluid in the mid-ocean ridge, and ammonium concentration is high, suggesting that the sediments covered the Okinawa Trough contribute to the chemical composition of hydrothermal fluid. The end-members of hydrothermal fluid show a variation, but the ratios of the end-members are consistent with each other, suggesting that the hydrothermal system has a single source and subcritical phase separation occurs below the seafloor. The equilibrium temperature with the quartz based on Si concentration was 350-400°C at 1-2 km below the seafloor. CO2 concentration in hydrothermal fluid showed the high-level value in the hydrothermal system in the world. The origin of the abundant CO2 is the carbonate on the subducting plate and the sediment in the Okinawa Trough based on the carbon isotope and the helium isotope. Methane is also the high-level concentration in the hydrothermal system in the world. Most of methane is generated through methanogenesis based on the carbon isotope ratio. Sr isotopic ratio in the hydrothermal fluid suggests the influence of sediment. However, the knoll surface was covered by rhyolite, the influence of sediment would occur in the recharge zone of the hydrothermal system. The methane would be microbially produced

  16. Investigating the Impact of EPIC Professional Development on Perspectives Charter School Principals. An Evaluation of the EPIC Professional Learning Model. Evaluation Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Kay; Pereira-Leon, Maura; Honeyford, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In 2009-10, New Leaders for New Schools partnered with the Perspectives Charter School Network in Chicago to pilot an innovative leadership development program for principals. The program is part of the Effective Practice Incentive Community (EPIC) initiative, which was created by New Leaders in 2006 to identify, reward, and share effective…

  17. The EPIC-MOS Particle-Induced Background Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, K. D.; Snowden, S. L.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a method for constructing a spectrum of the particle-induced instrumental background of the XMM-Newton EPIC MOS detectors that can be used for observations of the diffuse background and extended sources that fill a significant fraction of the instrument field of view. The strength and spectrum of the particle-induced background, that is, the background due to the interaction of particles with the detector and the detector surroundings, is temporally variable as well as spatially variable over individual chips. Our method uses a combination of the filter-wheel-closed data and a database of unexposed-region data to construct a spectrum of the "quiescent" background. We show that, using this method of background subtraction, the differences between independent observations of the same region of "blank sky" are consistent with the statistical uncertainties except when there is clear evidence of solar wind charge exchange emission. We use the blank sky observations to show that contamination by SWCX emission is a strong function of the solar wind proton flux, and that observations through the flanks of the magnetosheath appear to be contaminated only at much higher solar wind fluxes. We have also developed a spectral model of the residual soft proton flares, which allows their effects to be removed to a substantial degree during spectral fitting.

  18. Anthropometry and the Risk of Lung Cancer in EPIC.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Nikmah Utami; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Kampman, Ellen; Steffen, Annika; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Klinaki, Eleni; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Peeters, Petra H; Vermeulen, Roel; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Torhild Gram, Inger; Huerta, José María; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, José Ramón; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mikael; Grankvist, Kjell; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Cross, Amanda J; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Fanidi, Anouar; Muller, David; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2016-07-15

    The associations of body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric measurements with lung cancer were examined in 348,108 participants in the European Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) between 1992 and 2010. The study population included 2,400 case patients with incident lung cancer, and the average length of follow-up was 11 years. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models in which we modeled smoking variables with cubic splines. Overall, there was a significant inverse association between BMI (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and the risk of lung cancer after adjustment for smoking and other confounders (for BMI of 30.0-34.9 versus 18.5-25.0, hazard ratio = 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.84). The strength of the association declined with increasing follow-up time. Conversely, after adjustment for BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio were significantly positively associated with lung cancer risk (for the highest category of waist circumference vs. the lowest, hazard ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.50). Given the decline of the inverse association between BMI and lung cancer over time, the association is likely at least partly due to weight loss resulting from preclinical lung cancer that was present at baseline. Residual confounding by smoking could also have influenced our findings. PMID:27370791

  19. The application of epic3 guidelines: the complexity of practice.

    PubMed

    Cole, Mark

    Healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) is a major patient safety concern and is associated with morbidity, mortality and increased healthcare costs. Prevention and control requires a multi-modal approach, but the individual's accountability and rigorous application of standard infection prevention and control behaviours is at its core. The third instalment of the epic3 guidance ( Loveday et al, 2014a ) provided the evidence and advanced the importance of hand-hygiene behaviour, the use of non-sterile gloves and environmental cleanliness. This discussion considers some of the recommendations made in these areas of practice and some of the underlying complexities. Producing guidelines based on the best available evidence and transforming them into policies can be a useful adjunct to communicating the necessary standards. However, policies often erase the complexity of implementation. To strive for the best possible standard is an understandable and laudable objective, but organisations need to be mindful of the difficulties and obstacles that stand in their way, particularly in an era where the philosophy of 'zero tolerance' is gaining popularity. PMID:26419710

  20. OPTIMIZING BRAIN CONNECTIVITY NETWORKS FOR DISEASE CLASSIFICATION USING EPIC.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Gautam; Joshi, Shantanu H; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-05-01

    We propose a method to adaptively select an optimal cortical segmentation for brain connectivity analysis that maximizes feature-based disease classification performance. In standard structural connectivity analysis, the cortex is typically subdivided (parcellated) into N anatomical regions. White matter fiber pathways from tractography are used to compute an N × N matrix, which represents the pairwise connectivity between those regions. We optimize this representation by sampling over the space of possible region combinations and represent each configuration as a set partition of the N anatomical regions. Each partition is assigned a score using accuracy from a support vector machine (SVM) classifier of connectivity matrices in a group of patients and controls. We then define a high-dimensional optimization problem using simulated annealing to identify an optimal partition for maximum classification accuracy. We evaluate the results separately on test data using cross-validation. Specifically, we demonstrate results on the ADNI-2 dataset, where we optimally parcellate the cortex to yield an 85% classification accuracy using connectivity information alone. We refer to our method as evolving partitions to improve connectomics (EPIC).

  1. Chemical enrichment in the hot intra-cluster medium seen with XMM-Newton/EPIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mernier, F.; de Plaa, J.; Pinto, C.; Kaastra, J.; Kosec, P.; Zhang, Y.; Mao, J.; Werner, N.

    2016-06-01

    The intra-cluster medium (ICM), permeating the large gravitational potential well of galaxy clusters and groups, is rich in metals, which can be detected via their emission lines in the soft X-ray band. These heavy elements (typically from O to Ni) have been synthesized by Type Ia (SNIa) and core-collapse (SNcc) supernovae within the galaxy members, and continuously enrich the ICM since the cosmic star formation peak (z ≃ 2-3). Because the predicted chemical yields of supernovae depend on either their explosion mechanisms (SNIa) or the initial mass and metallicity of their progenitors (SNcc), measuring the abundances in the ICM can help to constrain supernovae models. In this study, we use XMM-Newton/EPIC to measure the abundances of 9 elements (Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe and Ni) in a sample of 44 cool-core galaxy clusters, groups and ellipticals (the CHEERS catalog). Combining these results with the O and Ne abundances measured using RGS, we establish an average X/Fe abundance pattern in the ICM, and we determine the best-fit SNIa and SNcc models, as well as the relative fraction of SNIa/SNcc responsible for the enrichment.

  2. The Calibration of the DSCOVR EPIC Multiple Visible Channel Instrument Using MODIS and VIIRS as a Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haney, Conor; Doeling, David; Minnis, Patrick; Bhatt, Rajendra; Scarino, Benjamin; Gopalan, Arun

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), launched on 11 February 2015, is a satellite positioned near the Lagrange-1 (L1) point, carrying several instruments that monitor space weather, and Earth-view sensors designed for climate studies. The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard DSCOVR continuously views the sun-illuminated portion of the Earth with spectral coverage in the UV, VIS, and NIR bands. Although the EPIC instrument does not have any onboard calibration abilities, its constant view of the sunlit Earth disk provides a unique opportunity for simultaneous viewing with several other satellite instruments. This arrangement allows the EPIC sensor to be inter-calibrated using other well-characterized satellite instrument reference standards. Two such instruments with onboard calibration are MODIS, flown on Aqua and Terra, and VIIRS, onboard Suomi-NPP. The MODIS and VIIRS reference calibrations will be transferred to the EPIC instrument using both all-sky ocean and deep convective clouds (DCC) ray-matched EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS radiance pairs. An automated navigation correction routine was developed to more accurately align the EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS granules. The automated navigation correction routine dramatically reduced the uncertainty of the resulting calibration gain based on the EPIC and MODIS/VIIRS radiance pairs. The SCIAMACHY-based spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) applied to the MODIS/ VIIRS radiances were found to successfully adjust the reference radiances to the spectral response of the specific EPIC channel for over-lapping spectral channels. The SBAF was also found to be effective for the non-overlapping EPIC channel 10. Lastly, both ray-matching techniques found no discernable trends for EPIC channel 7 over the year of publically released EPIC data.

  3. Effects of causeway construction on environment and biota of subtropical tidal flats in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Reimer, James Davis; Yang, Sung-Yin; White, Kristine N; Asami, Ryuji; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Hongo, Chuki; Ito, Shingo; Kawamura, Iori; Maeda, Isshu; Mizuyama, Masaru; Obuchi, Masami; Sakamaki, Takashi; Tachihara, Katsunori; Tamura, Maiko; Tanahara, Akira; Yamaguchi, Aika; Jenke-Kodama, Holger

    2015-05-15

    Okinawa, Japan is known for its high marine biodiversity, yet little work has been performed on examining impacts of numerous large-scale coastal development projects on its marine ecosystems. Here, we examine apparent impacts of the construction of the Kaichu-Doro causeway, which was built over 40 years ago. The causeway is a 4.75 km long embankment that divides a large tidal flat and has only two points of water exchange along its entire length. We employed quadrats, transects, sampling, visual surveys, and microbial community analyses combined with environmental, water quality data, and 1m cores, at five stations of two paired sites each (one on each side of Kaichu-Doro) to investigate how the environment and biota have changed since the Kaichu-Doro was built. Results indicate reduction in water flow, and site S1 was particularly heavily impacted by poor water quality, with low diversity and disturbed biotic communities.

  4. Effects of causeway construction on environment and biota of subtropical tidal flats in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Reimer, James Davis; Yang, Sung-Yin; White, Kristine N; Asami, Ryuji; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Hongo, Chuki; Ito, Shingo; Kawamura, Iori; Maeda, Isshu; Mizuyama, Masaru; Obuchi, Masami; Sakamaki, Takashi; Tachihara, Katsunori; Tamura, Maiko; Tanahara, Akira; Yamaguchi, Aika; Jenke-Kodama, Holger

    2015-05-15

    Okinawa, Japan is known for its high marine biodiversity, yet little work has been performed on examining impacts of numerous large-scale coastal development projects on its marine ecosystems. Here, we examine apparent impacts of the construction of the Kaichu-Doro causeway, which was built over 40 years ago. The causeway is a 4.75 km long embankment that divides a large tidal flat and has only two points of water exchange along its entire length. We employed quadrats, transects, sampling, visual surveys, and microbial community analyses combined with environmental, water quality data, and 1m cores, at five stations of two paired sites each (one on each side of Kaichu-Doro) to investigate how the environment and biota have changed since the Kaichu-Doro was built. Results indicate reduction in water flow, and site S1 was particularly heavily impacted by poor water quality, with low diversity and disturbed biotic communities. PMID:25865345

  5. Medical school hotline: A History of the University of Hawai'i Postgraduate Medical Education Program at Okinawa Chubu Hospital, 1966-2012.

    PubMed

    Maeshiro, Masao; Izutsu, Satoru; Connolly, Kathleen Kihmm

    2014-06-01

    The University of Hawai'i (UH) has been collaborating with Okinawa Prefectural Chubu Hospital for over 46 years. This collaboration started as a post-World War II effort to increase the physician workforce. At the initiation of the US Army and State Department, the University of Hawai'i was recruited, in cooperation with the government of the Ryukyus and USCAR, to initiate a US style postgraduate clinical training program. The Postgraduate Medical Training Program of University of Hawai'i at Okinawa Chubu Hospital introduced a style of training similar to that in the US by offering a rotating internship. The initial contract had UH establish and run the Postgraduate Medical Training Program of University of Hawaii at Okinawa Central Hospital. After Okinawa's reversion to Japan, under a new contract, UH physicians participated as consultants by providing lectures at "grand rounds" and guidance to faculty, staff, and students. To date, 895 physicians have completed the University of Hawai'i Postgraduate Medical Training Program with 74 currently training. Approximately 662 (74%) of the trainees have remained in Okinawa Prefecture to practice medicine. As a result, the program has enhanced the physician workforce for the islands of Okinawa and neighbor archipelagos of Miyako and Yaeyama Islands.

  6. Dissemination of panton-valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Mine, Yoshiko; Nakasone, Isamu; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Utani, Atsushi; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Uezato, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kenzo

    2013-01-01

    Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a pore-forming cytotoxin that is produced by Staphylococcus aureus closely associated with skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTI). PVL-positive S. aureus strains have been identified worldwide, including in the USA; however, few studies have reported the presence of these strains in Japan. In this study, we prospectively investigated the prevalence of PVL in S. aureus strains from outpatients presenting with SSTI in Okinawa and characterized the PVL-positive S. aureus strains by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). From 2008-2010, 499 clinical samples were obtained from 497 people. S. aureus was identified in 274 samples, and 36% (99 of 274) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Seventeen (6.2%) PVL-positive S. aureus strains were detected by PCR, and 12 of the 17 PVL-positive strains were MRSA. Most PVL-positive S. aureus caused furuncles or carbuncles. Nine of the 17 PVL-positive isolates had an ST8 MRSA genotype and most harbored SCCmec type IVa and the arcA gene of the arginine catabolic mobile element, which is identical to the USA300 clone prevalent in the USA. PVL-positive S. aureus strains were more likely to be resistant to erythromycin (65%) and levofloxacin (53%). PVL-positive S. aureus strains have emerged and are spreading as a causative pathogen for SSTI in Okinawa.

  7. Spectroscopic characteristics and organic carbon contents in the aerosols collected in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, H. J.; Kasaba, T.

    2015-12-01

    Organics in the atmospheric aerosols occupy 20 to 70% of the total mass. Since the proportion of organics is so large that it's important to understand their detailed characteristics. Polymeric compounds called HUmic-Like Substance (HULIS) are known to be present in the atmospheric aerosols. Biomass burning can be a source of HULIS. In this study, atmospheric aerosols were collected at Cape Hedo, a northern tip of Okinawa Island, and we characterized overall features of the organics collected in different seasons. In Okinawa, continental air mass prevails in spring, fall and winter, while maritime air mass from Pacific Ocean prevails in summer. Thus, it is relatively straightforward to identify sources of organics in different seasons. We measured total organic carbon (TOC) and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) concentrations, and absorbance and fluorescence intensity for the aerosol samples collected during Nov 2012 and July 2014 (n=90). As a result, TOC and WSOC showed almost the same trend, higher concentrations when continental air mass prevailed in fall and winter, while lower concentrations in summer. Percentages of WSOC in TOC accounted for 33-44%. Absorption efficiency, absorbance per 1 ppm organic carbon concentration, of the samples showed higher values in winter and fall, and lower values in summer. Fluorescence efficiency, normalized fluorescence with quinine sulfate per 1 ppm organic carbon concentration, were also different, it is likely that different types of organics were present in the aerosols from different seasons. We are also planning to measure HULIS in the aerosols and will be discussed a link between their contribution and trans-boundary air pollution in Asia.

  8. Deepwater redox changes in the southern Okinawa Trough since the last glacial maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Yanguang; Yang, Shouye; Li, Chao; Shi, Xuefa; Liu, Jihua; Bi, Lei

    2015-06-01

    In this study, rare earth element (REE) was treated as a paleo-redox proxy to investigate the changes of depositional environment in the southern Okinawa Trough since the last glacial maximum. The acid-leachable fraction (leachate) of the sediments recovered from the ODP Site 1202B is dominated by biogenic and authigenic components while detrital contamination is minor. The significant enrichment of middle REE suggests a large contribution from authigenic Mn oxyhydroxides and cerium (Ce) anomaly can indicate deepwater redox change. The REE parameters including Ce anomaly in the leachate exhibit remarkable and abrupt changes in the early Holocene (∼9.5 ka) and during LGM (∼20 ka). An increase of Ce anomaly at 28-22 ka implies the suboxic deepwater condition probably caused by increased primary productivity. Weak positive Ce anomalies during the last glacial maximum and deglaciation suggest an oxic depositional environment responding to the enhanced deepwater ventilation with the advection of the North Pacific Intermediate Water and/or South China Sea Intermediate Water into the trough. A decrease of Ce anomaly in the early Holocene might be caused by the intrusion and strengthening of the Kuroshio Current in the trough that enhanced the water stratification and induced a gradual development of suboxic depositional condition. Furthermore, an abrupt change of chemical composition at ca. 4 ka probably indicates a decrease of dissolved oxygen in deepwater and a weakening of ventilation in the Okinawa Trough. This study suggests that REE proxy can provide new insights into the linkage among surface current, deepwater circulation and sediment record in the continental margin where terrigenous input dominates.

  9. Origin of hydrothermal fluid methane in sediment-associated Okinawa Trough fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawagucci, S.

    2012-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal fields in the sediment-associated Okinawa Trough and their fluid chemistry have been investigated over two decades. In sediment-associated hydrothermal systems including all the Okinawa Trough fields, hydrothermal fluids are characterized by abundant methane. Historically, most of this methane has been thought to originate thermogenically. However, recent works, related to the TAIGA project, have revealed remarkable compositional and isotopic variation of the hydrothermal fluid methane among the sediment-associated hydrothermal fields [1-3], suggesting multiple origins of methane other than thermochemical hydrocarbon generation. For example, 13C-depleted methane in the Iheya-North field implies its biogenic origin [2] while 13C-enriched methane in the Minami-Ensei field is probably derived from thermochemical process. Interpreting the imprinted chemical information in venting fluid methane (13C/12C, D/H) with the related chemistry ([H2], [C2+], 87Sr/86Sr, etc.) is an excellent way not only to reveal geochemical origin of methane in high-temperature fluid but also to deduce the subseafloor processes occurring within the whole hydrothermal fluid circulation [1]. The geochemical origins of the hydrothermal fluid methane and their relevance to the magnitude and geographical distribution of the entire subseafloor fluid circulation in the sediment-associated hydrothermal system are discussed. [1] Kawagucci, S. et. al., Chemical Geology, doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2012.05.003, 2012. [2] Kawagucci, S. et al., Geochemical Journal, 45, 109-124, 2011. [3] Kawagucci, S. et al., Geochemical Journal, 44, 507-518, 2010.

  10. The study of active submarine volcanoes and hydrothermal vents in the Southernmost Part of Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.; Tsai, C.; Lee, C.

    2004-12-01

    The study area is located in the Southernmost Part of Okinawa Trough (SPOT), which is a back-arc basin formed by extension of Eurasian plate. Previous research indicated two extensional stages in SPOT area. Many normal-fault structures were come into existence during both extensional processes. The SPOT is presently in an activity tectonic episode. Therefore, the area becomes a frequent earthquake and abundant magmatism. The purpose of this study is to discuss which relationship between tectonics, submarine volcanoes and hydrothermal vents in SPOT area. The investigations are continued from 1998 to 2004, we have found at least twelve active hydrothermal vents in study area. Compare the locations hydrothermal vents with fault systems, we find both of them have highly correlated. We can distinguish them into two shapes, pyramidal shape and non-pyramidal shape. According to plumes height, we are able to divide these vents into two groups near east longitude 122.5° . East of this longitude, the hydrothermal plumes are more powerful and west of it are the weaker. This is closely related to the present extensional axis (N80° E) of the southern part of the Okinawa Trough. This can be explained the reason of why the more powerful vents coming out of the east group. The east group is associated with the present back-arc spreading system. West of 122.5° , the spreading system are in a primary stage. The andesitic volcanic island, the Turtle Island, is a result of N60° E extensional tectonism with a lot of faults. Besides the pyramidal shape, this can be proved indirectly. The vents located in the west side were occurred from previous extensional faults and are weaker than the eastern. Therefore, we suggest that if last the extension keeps going on, the hydrothermal vents located at the west side of the longitude 122.5° will be intensified.

  11. Carbonate system at Iheya North in Okinawa Trough~IODP drilling and post drilling environment~

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, T.; Hatta, M.; Sunamura, M.; Fukuba, T.; Suzue, T.; Kimoto, H.; Okamura, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Iheya North hydrothermal field in middle Okinawa Trough is covered with thick hemipelagic and volcanic sediment. Geochemical characteristics of Okinawa Trough is to provide abundant of CO2, CH4, NH4, H2, and H2S which originated from magmatic gases, sedimentary organic matters. On this hydrothermal field, a scientific drilling by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 was conducted to investigate metabolically diverse subseafloor microbial ecosystem and their physical and chemical settings. To clarify the spatial distribution of physical condition beneath seafloor around the hydrothermal filed, we focus on the carbonate species analysis to reconstruct in-situ pH, which regulate the diversities of microbial community and mineral composition. We developed the small sample volume dissolved total inorganic carbon (DIC) analyzer and conducted the onboard analysis for the interstitial water during IODP Exp.331. Total alkalinity, boron, phosphate, and ammonium also analyzed for thermodynamic calculation. In this presentation, we represent the spatial distribution of pH beneath the Iheya North hydrothermal field. In addition, we developed a 128 bottles multiple water sampler (ANEMONE) for post drilling environmental monitoring. ANEMONE sampler was deployed on the manned submersible Shinkai 6500 with other chemical sensors (CTD, turbidity, pH, ORP, and H2S), and collected the hydrothermal plume samples every 5 minutes during YK12-05 cruise by R/V Yokosuka (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, JAMSTEC). DIC concentration of plume samples collected by ANEMONE sampler were analyzed just after submersible retrieve, and nutrients, manganese, density, and total cell counts determination were conducted onshore analysis. Based on these results, we describe the spatial distribution of DIC and carbonate system on Iheya North hydrothermal field (interstitial water, hydrothermal fluid, and hydrothermal plume).

  12. Rifting Process and Geomorphic Development of the Okinawa Tough, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Arai, K.; Inoue, T.; Matsumoto, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Ryukyu Island Arc extends from Kyushu to Taiwan, a distance of 1,200 km, along the Ryukyu Trench where the Philippine Sea Plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian Plate. The Okinawa Trough, a back arc basin has formed behind the Ryukyu Island Arc in late Pliocene to early Pleistocene. The research cruises of GH11 (from 14 July to 15 August, 2011) and GH12 (from 20 to 30 July, 2012) were carried out around the Okinawa Trough. More than 3,600 miles multi channel high-resolution seismic profiles were acquired during these cruises by the GI-gun (Generator 250 cu inch and Injector 105 cu. inch) systems with 16ch digital streamer cable. As a result, two unconformities and three depositional sequence divided by the unconformities are recognized in the trough. The lower and the midlle sequence are tilted and blocked by many normal faults, on the other hand the upper one is not tilted and shows the pattern of onlap fill. From this result, the upper sequence started to deposit after start of the rifting. Additionally, internal reflection of the upper sequence shows the cyclic activities of the rifting. The position of the rifting axis was revealed based on dip of the normal faults. As a result, rifting axis shows echelon arrangement and the displacement of the faults are varied with the segment of the arrangement. The location of the segment boundaries is correlated with geometrical boundary of the adjacent slope. Steep slope with incised valley is distributed in southwestern part where the displacement of the normal fault is large, on the other hand, gentle slope without incised valley is distributed in northeastern part where the displacement is small. This difference of the displacement strongly controls the geometry of the adjacent slope.

  13. A molecular epidemiology project on diet and cancer: the EPIC-Italy Prospective Study. Design and baseline characteristics of participants.

    PubMed

    Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Saieva, Calogero; Salvini, Simonetta; Ceroti, Marco; Pala, Valeria; Sieri, Sabina; Frasca, Graziella; Giurdanella, Maria Concetta; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Fiorini, Laura; Celentano, Egidio; Galasso, Rocco; Decarli, Adriano; Krogh, Vittorio

    2003-01-01

    EPIC-Italy is the Italian section of a larger project known as EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition), a prospective study on diet and cancer carried out in 10 European countries. In the period 1993-1998, EPIC-Italy completed the recruitment of 47,749 volunteers (15,171 men, 32,578 women, aged 35-65 years) in 4 different areas covered by cancer registries: Varese (12,083 volunteers) and Turin (10,604) in the Northern part of the country; Florence (13,597) and Ragusa (6,403) in Central and Southern Italy, respectively. An associate center in Naples enrolled 5,062 women. Detailed information for each individual volunteer about diet and life-style habits, anthropometric measurements and a blood sample was collected, after signing an informed consent form. A food frequency questionnaire specifically developed for the Italian dietary pattern was tested in a pilot phase. A computerized data base with the dietary and life-style information of each participant was completed. Blood samples were processed in the same day of collection, aliquoted (RBC, WBC, serum and plasma) and stored in liquid nitrogen containers. Follow-up procedures were validated and implemented for the identification of newly diagnosed cancer cases. Cancer incidence was related to dietary habits and biochemical markers of food consumption and individual susceptibility in order to test the role of diet-related exposure in the etiology of cancer and its interaction with other environmental or genetic determinants. The comparability of information in a prospective study design is much higher than in other studies. The availability of such a large biological bank linked to individual data on dietary and life-style exposures also provides the unique opportunity of evaluating the role of selected genotypes involved in the metabolism of chemical compounds and DNA repair, potentially related to the risk of cancer, in residents of geographic areas of Italy characterized by specific

  14. Dietary patterns among older Europeans: the EPIC-Elderly study.

    PubMed

    Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Ferrari, Pietro; Overvad, Kim; Hundborg, Heidi H; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Kesse, Emmanuelle; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Nagel, Gabriele; Boffetta, Paolo; Boeing, Heiner; Hoffmann, Kurt; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Baibas, Nikos; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Norat, Teresa; Slimani, Nadia; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Ocké, Marga C; Peeters, Petra H; van Rossum, Caroline T; Quirós, José-Ramón; Sánchez, Maria-José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Berglund, Göran; Wirfält, Elisabet; Hallmans, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Spencer, Elizabeth A; Roddam, Andrew W; Riboli, Elio; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2005-07-01

    Overall dietary patterns have been associated with health and longevity. We used principal component (PC) and cluster analyses to identify the prevailing dietary patterns of 99 744 participants, aged 60 years or older, living in nine European countries and participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Elderly cohort) and to examine their socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates. Two PC were identified: PC1 reflects a 'vegetable-based' diet with an emphasis on foods of plant origin, rice, pasta and other grain rather than on margarine, potatoes and non-alcoholic beverages. PC2 indicates a 'sweet- and fat-dominated' diet with a preference for sweets, added fat and dairy products but not meat, alcohol, bread and eggs. PC1 was associated with a younger age, a higher level of education, physical activity, a higher BMI, a lower waist:hip ratio and never and past smoking. PC2 was associated with older age, less education, never having smoked, a lower BMI and waist:hip ratio and lower levels of physical activity. Elderly individuals in southern Europe scored positively on PC1 and about zero on PC2, whereas the elderly in northern Europe scored negatively on PC1 and variably on PC2. The results of cluster analysis were compatible with the indicated dietary patterns. 'Vegetable-based' and a 'sweet- and fat-dominated' diets are prevalent among the elderly across Europe, and there is a north-south gradient regarding their dietary choices. Our study contributes to the identification of groups of elderly who are likely to have different prospects for long-term disease occurrence and survival.

  15. Dispersal of hydrothermal plumes in the near field of natural CO2 seeps in the Okinawa Trough using primordial helium-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buss, A.; Walter, M.; Mertens, C.; Sültenfuss, J.; Nakamura, K.; Rehder, G. J.; Rhein, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Okinawa Trough back-arc basin in the west Pacific Ocean is one of the two known hydrothermal active areas where venting of liquid CO2 bubbles has been observed. During the RV Sonne cruise SO-196 in March 2008 two hydrothermal vent sites in the southern Okinawa Trough were investigated: Hatoma Knoll and Yonaguni Knoll IV. Data were collected to characterise the dispersal of the hydrothermal plume and hence the spreading of CO2 in the water column. The data set consists of CTD casts with additional sensors for redox potential and pH as well as velocity measurements with a lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler (LADCP) and water samples to determine helium isotope concentrations. The dispersal of the hydrothermal plumes at the two vent sites was analysed using primordial helium as a conservative tracer for hydrothermal venting and anomalies in the redox potential and pH as an indicator of plume characteristics. The relation between the measured decrease in pH and δ3He showed a good correlation in the density ranges of the plumes at Hatoma Knoll as well as at Yonaguni Knoll IV. The heat fluxes from both vent sites were estimated through the maximum rise height of the plume and the background stratification. The vent site Hatoma Knoll lies in the middle of the caldera of a submarine volcano. One non-buoyant plume with a maximum rise height of 140 m above the seafloor has been identified. The vent site emitted a total heat flux of about 80 MW. The excess of δ3He in the water column agrees well with the maximum rise height of the plume, thus indicating a plume that had risen almost undisturbed. The vent site Yonaguni Knoll IV is located in a valley between a group of seamounts. Two non-buoyant plumes have been identified, with maximum rise heights of 230 m and 270 m above the seafloor. The total heat flux from the vent site was about 540 MW. An excess of δ3He has been found up to 600 m above the seafloor which could be caused by strong vertical mixing, but also

  16. Impacts of Long-Range Transport of Metals from East Asia in Bulk Aerosols Collected at the Okinawa Archipelago, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Sotaro; S, Yuka; I, Moriaki; N, Fumiya; H, Daishi; A, Takemitsu; T, Akira

    2010-05-01

    Economy of East Asia has been growing rapidly, and atmospheric aerosols discharged from this region have been transported to Japan. Okinawa island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km of south Korea. Its location in Asian is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air mass which has been affected by anthropogenic activities. Therefore, Okinawa region is suitable area for studying impacts of air pollutants from East Asia. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using the same type of high volume air samplers at Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We determined the concentrations of acid-digested metals using atomic absorption spectrometer and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of metals in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island during June, 2008 to June 2009. We also determined 'background' concentration of metals in Okinawa archipelago. We then compare each chemical component among CHAAMS, Kume island and Minami-Daitou island to elucidate the influence of the transport processes and distances from Asian continent on metal concentrations.

  17. In-orbit performance of the EPIC-MOS detectors on XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sembay, Steven; Abbey, Anthony; Altieri, Bruno; Ambrosi, Richard; Baskill, Darren; Ferrando, Philippe; Mukerjee, Kallol; Read, Andrew M.; Turner, Martin J. L.

    2004-10-01

    XMM-Newton was launched into space on a highly eccentric 48 hour orbit on December 10th 1999. XMM-Newton is now in its fifth year of operation and has been an outstanding success, observing the Cosmos with imaging, spectroscopy and timing capabilities in the X-ray and optical wavebands. The EPIC-MOS CCD X-ray detectors comprise two out of three of the focal plane instruments on XMM-Newton. In this paper we discuss key aspects of the current status and performance history of the charge transfer ineffiency (CTI), energy resolution and spectral redistribution function (rmf) of EPIC-MOS in its fifth year of operation.

  18. Exploring fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Guang-Hua; Xu, Xin-Ya; Nong, Xu-Hua; Wang, Jie; Amin, Muhammad; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigated the fungal diversity in four different deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1). A total of 40,297 fungal ITS1 sequences clustered into 420 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 97% sequence similarity and 170 taxa were recovered from these sediments. Most ITS1 sequences (78%) belonged to the phylum Ascomycota, followed by Basidiomycota (17.3%), Zygomycota (1.5%) and Chytridiomycota (0.8%), and a small proportion (2.4%) belonged to unassigned fungal phyla. Compared with previous studies on fungal diversity of sediments from deep-sea environments by culture-dependent approach and clone library analysis, the present result suggested that Illumina sequencing had been dramatically accelerating the discovery of fungal community of deep-sea sediments. Furthermore, our results revealed that Sordariomycetes was the most diverse and abundant fungal class in this study, challenging the traditional view that the diversity of Sordariomycetes phylotypes was low in the deep-sea environments. In addition, more than 12 taxa accounted for 21.5% sequences were found to be rarely reported as deep-sea fungi, suggesting the deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough harbored a plethora of different fungal communities compared with other deep-sea environments. To our knowledge, this study is the first exploration of the fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing.

  19. Extremely low genetic variability within and among locations of the greenfish holothurian Stichopus chloronotus Brandt, 1835 in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Takama, Okuto; Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Reimer, James D.

    2016-01-01

    The greenfish sea cucumber Stichopus chloronotus is an economically and ecologically important sea cucumber species throughout its range. This species is widely distributed, inhabiting coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Our study evaluated population genetic structure and levels of genetic diversity in southern Japan. A total of 180 individuals were collected from eight locations from Okinawa and Okinoerabu Islands and sequenced using mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA (16S) and nuclear histone H3 (H3) gene. Only three 16S haplotypes were detected (518 bp) with haplotype diversity ranging from 0 to 0.56 and nucleotide diversity from 0 to 0.1%. H3 showed no variation among the studied locations. It is plausible that such results could be due to a shift to asexual reproduction. Additionally, the presence of the species on the east coast of Okinawa could only be detected in one location and all individuals consisted of a single haplotype. Genetic differences between the east and west coasts of Okinawa have been noticed in other coral reef organisms, and attributed to either ecological or biogeographical historical differences between the coasts due to differing levels of isolation during Pleistocene ice ages. Results from the present study should inform management and conservation policies of S. chloronotus in southern Japan. PMID:27703841

  20. Fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk: updated information from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Miller, Anthony B; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Büchner, Frederike L; Vineis, Paolo; Agudo, Antonio; Gram, Inger T; Janson, Lars; Krogh, Vittorio; Overvad, Kim; Rasmuson, Torgny; Schulz, Mandy; Pischon, Tobias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Nieters, Alexandra; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Amiano, Pilar; Barricarte, Aurelio; Martinez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Quirós, Ramón; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Touvier, Mathilde; Peeters, Petra H M; Berglund, Göran; Hallmans, Göran; Lund, Eiliv; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Autier, Philippe; Boffetta, Paolo; Slimani, Nadia; Riboli, Elio

    2007-09-01

    The association of fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer incidence was evaluated using the most recent data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), applying a refined statistical approach (calibration) to account for measurement error potentially introduced by using food frequency questionnaire data. Between 1992 and 2000, detailed information on diet and life-style of 478,590 individuals participating in EPIC was collected. During a median follow-up of 6.4 years, 1,126 lung cancer cases were observed. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were applied for statistical evaluation. In the whole study population, fruit consumption was significantly inversely associated with lung cancer risk while no association was found for vegetable consumption. In current smokers, however, lung cancer risk significantly decreased with higher vegetable consumption; this association became more pronounced after calibration, the hazard ratio (HR) being 0.78 (95% CI 0.62-0.98) per 100 g increase in daily vegetable consumption. In comparison, the HR per 100 g fruit was 0.92 (0.85-0.99) in the entire cohort and 0.90 (0.81-0.99) in smokers. Exclusion of cases diagnosed during the first 2 years of follow-up strengthened these associations, the HR being 0.71 (0.55-0.94) for vegetables (smokers) and 0.86 (0.78-0.95) for fruit (entire cohort). Cancer incidence decreased with higher consumption of apples and pears (entire cohort) as well as root vegetables (smokers). In addition to an overall inverse association with fruit intake, the results of this evaluation add evidence for a significant inverse association of vegetable consumption and lung cancer incidence in smokers.

  1. The 2005 Ilan earthquake doublet and seismic crisis in northeastern Taiwan: evidence for dyke intrusion associated with on-land propagation of the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Kuang-Yin; Chen, Yue-Gau; Wu, Yih-Min; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Kuo, Yu-Ting; Wang, Yu; Chang, Chien-Hsin; Lin, Kuan-Chuan

    2009-11-01

    Northern Taiwan underwent mountain building in the early stage of the Taiwan orogeny but is currently subjected to post-collisional crustal extension. It may be related to gravitational collapse or to the rifting of the Okinawa Trough, which lies offshore northeastern Taiwan. The Ilan Plain, northeastern Taiwan, which is bounded by the normal fault systems and filled up with thick Pliocene-Pleistocene sedimentary sequences, formed under such an extension environment. Over there on 2005 March 5 two earthquakes with about the same magnitude (ML = 5.9) occurred within 68 s and produced intense aftershocks activity according to the records of Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network of Taiwan. We relocated the earthquake sequence by the three-dimension earthquake location algorithm with the newly published 3-D Vp and Vp/Vs velocity model, and determined the first-polarity focal mechanisms of the earthquake doublet. One major cluster of aftershocks which trends E-W and dips steeply to the south can be identified and picked up as a potential fault plane. The focal mechanisms of the two main shocks are both classified as normal type by first-polarity but strike-slip by centroid moment tensor inversion; however two methods both yield consistent E-W strike. Static coseismic deformation was additionally determined from Global Positioning System (GPS) daily solutions at a set of continuous GPS stations and from strong-motion seismographs. These data show NW-SE extension at high angle to the fault plane, which cannot be explained from a simple strike-slip double-couple mechanism. On the other hand, the small vertical displacements and steep fault plane cannot be explained from a simple normal event as well. We present from elastic dislocation modelling that the geodetic data are best explained by significant component of tensile source with centimetre-scale of opening on a 15-km-long fault extending from 1 to 13 km depth. We therefore interpret the crisis as the result of dyke

  2. Evaluation of nutrient sources for the sponges inhabited around seafloor hydrothermal fields in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagashio, H.; Yamanaka, T.; Watanabe, H.; Yamagami, S.; Ise, Y.; Makita, H.

    2012-12-01

    Since discovery of seafloor hydrothermal vents, the dense and endemic animal communities inhabited around the hot vents have been the most impressive feature for many scientists. Such animals have been known as chemosynthesis-based species and studied many investigators. On the other hand, some benthic animals found on abyssal plain have been observed slightly high density at the adjacent area to active vent sites. It implies that those opportunistic benthoses may also rely on the chemosynthetic primary production and the hydrothermal chemosynthetic ecosystem may extend widely rather than previous expectation. In that case, it is an interesting issue how the dense sponge community is sustained around the hydrothermal fields. For clarifying the issue isotope geochemical study has been performed to evaluate food sources of the sponges and some other animals obtained from the deep seafloor in the Okinawa Trough. Stable isotope analysis for carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur of the sample organisms obtained from the Izena Hole, where active hydrothermal emission has been observed, show significant low d13C and d34S values for the sponge samples. Those results suggest plausible contribution of sulfur oxidizing bacteria as food source for the sponges because such low d13C and d34S values are often observed for thioautotrophic chemosynthesis-based animals. The sulfur isotopic ratios of the sponges are almost comparable with the ratio reported hydrogen sulfide emitted from the vents, implying that the source of sulfur for sulfur oxidizing bacteria is magmatic and/or hydrothermal in origin. On the other hand, the sponge sample obtained from the Tarama Knoll ,where active hydrothermal emission were not found yet, shows similar isotopic characteristics observed for the sponges from the Izena Hole. It may also imply the importance of sulfur oxidizing bacteria as food source for the sponge at the Tarama Knoll. Turbid water was often observed during dive studies by the ROV around the

  3. Underground dams for irrigation supplies in coastal limestone aquifer, Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasumoto, J.; Nakano, T.; Nawa, N.

    2011-12-01

    The use of underground dams to store water in regions with arid or tropical climates is a method that has received considerable attention in the last few decades. And now, for the tropical and subtropical islands that are highly vulnerable to climate change underground dams have been attracting attention again as a method of groundwater management. Okinawa Prefecture is Japan's southernmost prefecture, which consists of hundreds of islands in a chain over 1,000 km long, called the Ryukyu Islands which extend southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan. The national irrigation project of the Ryukyu Islands has been carried out, and several underground dams have been constructed. The Komesu and Giiza underground dams are first full scale underground dam facilities constructed for irrigation in Japan. The Komesu underground dam is a salt-water proof type. It prevents salt-water intrusion and provides storage fresh-water for irrigation in coastal limestone aquifer. Giiza underground dam is a dam up type for storage of fresh-water. These groundwater reservoirs are located in the coastal region of southern part of Okinawa (main island), where Ryukyu limestone is extensively distributed. We studied the behaviour of groundwater flow, saltwater intrusion and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) in groundwater in this region by using observation data of groundwater and springs through long term (from 1993 to 2010) monitoring. And, a groundwater flow and salt-water intrusion analysis have been conducted with three dimensional numerical model applied to these dam reservoir areas. The MODFLOW-NWT with SWI code and PEST was used to simulate the complex groundwater flow patterns. Through the comparison with simulation and observed data, it was concluded that the cut off wall of underground dams effectively stores the groundwater and prevents the salt-water intrusion in the reservoir areas. The observed groundwater levels at the reservoir areas were almost reproduced by the numerical model, but there

  4. Bottom water oxygenation changes in the northern Okinawa Trough since the last 88ka: Controlled by local hydrology and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jianjun; Shi, Xuefa; Zhu, Aimei; Bai, Yazhi; Selvaraj, Kandasamy

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved oxygen content in oceanic bottom water is closely related to the surface organic carbon export and subsurface water stratification, regulating the biogeochemical cycles of some key nutrients and trace elements in intermediate and deep water columns. Further, the rate of organic carbon flux to sediments and bottom water oxygen concentration together determine the intensity of reducing conditions in sediments. In this study, we obtain high-resolution geochemical elements (TOC, TN, TS, CaCO3, Cd, U, Mn and Mo) in a radiocarbon (14C) and δ18O dated, sediment core CSH1 collected from the northern Okinawa Trough to reconstruct the history of bottom water redox conditions over 88 ka. Our data revealed the presence of hypoxic bottom water in the northern Okinawa Trough during late MIS5a-early MIS4, Last Glacial Maximum, and the early Last Deglacial intervals. During the Holocene and the early MIS5a, the dissolved oxygen content in bottom water has increased with decreasing water stratification, which was probably caused by the increased upwelling from the bottom in tandem with the climbing of Kuroshio Current and subdued freshwater effect in the northern Okinawa Trough. The reasons that caused the change of dissolved oxygen content in bottom water in the northern Okinawa Trough varied during different periods. The main factors are related to sea level, strengths of East Asian monsoon and the Kuroshio Current, and the shift of Westerly Jet Axis. The semi-closed topography in the northern Okinawa Trough provides a space framework for the presence of anoxia, while the sea level together with the Kuroshio Current, the East Asian monsoon and the Westerly Jet Axis seems to affect the strength of water stratification and the nutrient supply; thereby, regulating the dissolved oxygen exchange between surface and bottom waters. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant No.:40906035,40710069004) and by basic scientific fund for

  5. Microbial Community in a Sediment-Hosted CO2 Lake of the Southern Okinawa Trough Hydrothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, F.; Kuypers, M. M.; Tsunogai, U.; Ishibashi, J.; Nakamura, K.; Treude, T.; Ohkubo, S.; Nakaseama, M.; Gena, K.; Chiba, H.; Hirayama, H.; Nunoura, T.; Takai, K.; Jorgensen, B. B.; Horikoshi, K.; Boetius, A.

    2006-12-01

    One-carbon assimilating (micro-)organisms play an important role for global carbon cycling; however, the increasing level of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere has exceeded the capacity of natural biological feedback, hence as greenhouse gasses it is expected to cause climacteric change with negative effects on the earth's ecosystems and human society. To reduce CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, a variety of options have been discussed, including a disposal of CO2 into the deep ocean. However, the impact of CO2 disposal on deep-sea ecosystems as well as of the consequent microbiological feedback remains largely unknown. At the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field, southern Okinawa Trough, we observed a natural liquid CO2 lake in sediments overlying elemental sulfur and CO2 hydrates at a water depth of 1380m. The liquid CO2 droplets were composed of 85% CO2 and 14% methane with hydrogen below the detection limit. We found high abundances (>109 cm-3) of microbial cells in sediment pavements above the CO2 lake, decreasing to strikingly low cell numbers (10&^{7} cm-3) at the liquid CO2/CO2-hydrate interface. Molecular ecological study based on the sequences of 16S rRNA genes showed that the key groups in these sediments were: (i) the anaerobic methanotrophic archaea ANME-2c and the Eel-2 group of Deltaproteobacteria, and (ii) sulfur-metabolizing chemolithotrophs within the Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria. The detection of functional genes (mcrA, cbbL) related to one- carbon assimilation as well as the presence of highly 13C-depleted archaeal and bacterial lipid biomarkers suggest that microorganisms assimilating CO2 and/or methane dominate the liquid CO2 and CO2-hydrate-bearing sediments. We propose that the Yonaguni Knoll is an exceptional natural laboratory for the study of consequences of CO2 disposal as well as of natural CO2 reservoirs as potential microbial habitats on early Earth and other celestial bodies.

  6. Hydrographic changes in the northern Okinawa Trough over the last 88 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xuefa; Zou, Jianjun; Wu, Yonghua

    2015-04-01

    The surface hydrographic conditions of the northern Okinawa Trough are influenced strongly by fluctuations of the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) and the Kuroshio. However, the high-resolution records of past surface hydrographic condition remain scarce in the northern Okinawa Trough (OT) on orbital and millennial time scales. In this study, we applied a multiproxy (planktonic foraminiferal species, δ18O, alkenone sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity (SSS)) reconstruction from sediment core CSH1, which is located at the main axis of the Tsushima Warm Current, a branch of the Kuroshio, in the northern OT since the last 88 ka. The relative abundances of the warm-water planktonic foraminiferal species related to the Kuroshio are high during MIS 1 and MIS 5.1, while cold-water species related to East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) and subarctic water mass are high during MIS 2. Alkenone SST measured from core CSH1 ranges between 21 and 25 ℃, with higher values during interglacials (MIS 1, 3.3, 5.1) and interstadials and lower values during glacials and Heinrich (H)/stadial events. The CSH1 SSS appears to be mainly controlled by the local river runoff and the Kuroshio, while the DOT change seems to be closely related to the strength of the Kuroshio and the latitudinal shift of the subarctic frontal zone. Our records suggest that, during MIS 1 and MIS 5.1, while global sea level was high, the Kuroshio was dominant; while during MIS 2, MIS 3 and MIS 4, with a low sea level, stronger EAWM and a more southerly subarctic front played important roles in governing the hydrographic characteristics in the OT. The hydrographic records, such as SST, SSS and DOT, show regional responses corresponding mainly to the global sea level, the Kuroshio, EAWM and subarctic front, factors which are consistently invoked in the interpretations of other regional records from the OT. Acknowledgements. This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41476056

  7. Chemical Analysis of Fractionated Halogens in Atmospheric Aerosols Collected in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuhako, A.; Miyagi, Y.; Somada, Y.; Azechi, S.; Handa, D.; Oshiro, Y.; Murayama, H.; Arakaki, T.

    2013-12-01

    Halogens (Cl, Br and I) play important roles in the atmosphere, e.g. ozone depletion by Br during spring in Polar Regions. Sources of halogens in atmospheric aerosols are mainly from ocean. But, for example, when we analyzed Br- with ion chromatography, its concentrations were almost always below the detection limit, which is also much lower than the estimated concentrations from sodium ion concentrations. We hypothesized that portions of halogens are escaped to the atmosphere, similar to chlorine loss, changed their chemical forms to such as BrO3- and IO3-, and/or even formed precipitates. There was few reported data so far about fractionated halogen concentrations in atmospheric aerosols. Thus, purpose of this study was to determine halogen concentrations in different fractions; free ion, water-soluble chemically transformed ions and precipitates using the authentic aerosols. Moreover, we analyzed seasonal variation for each fraction. Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected at Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) of Okinawa, Japan during January 2010 and August 2013. A high volume air sampler was used for collecting total particulate matters on quartz filters on a weekly basis. Ultrapure water was used to extract water-soluble factions of halogens. The extracted solutions were filtered with the membrane filter and used for chemical analysis with ion chromatography and ICP-MS. Moreover, the total halogens in aerosols were obtained after digesting aerosols with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) using the microwave and analysis with ICP-MS. For Cl, water-soluble Cl- accounted for about 70% of the estimates with Na content. No other forms of water-soluble Cl were found. About 30% of Cl was assumed volatilized to the gas-phase. For Br, water-soluble Br accounted for about 43% of the estimates with Na content, and within the 43%, about 10% of Br was not in the form of Br-. About 46% of Br was assumed volatilized to the gas-phase. For I

  8. High-resolution imaging of the Okinawa Trough deep-tow sonar WADATSUMI exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okino, K.; Tokuyama, H.; Takeuchi, A.; Sibuet, J. C.; Lee, C. S.

    2003-04-01

    High-resolution deep-tow side scan sonar data collected in the Okinawa Trough reveal details of the volcanic and tectonic features occurring along an active backarc rift zone, including an active hydrothermal vent site. Our new system, the deep-tow vector sidescan sonar WADATSUMI, is a 100 kHz system, which provides not only high-resolution backscattering images but also phase bathymetry. The system also includes a 3-6 kHz chirp sonar to investigate sub-bottom structure. The swath width for this survey is 1 km for a towing altitude of 100 to 350 m. The pixel size of the collected images is 50 cm. The towfish positioning is based on the ISBL (inverted short baseline) system, in which the signal transmitted from the ship is received at the towfish and all information is sent to the onboard control unit using co-axial cable. Four MAPRs (Miniature Autonomous Plume Recorder / provided by NOAA) were also equipped on the deep-tow system to detect hydrothermal activity using its thermometer and nephelometer. The Okinawa Trough, located between Japan and Taiwan, is an incipient backarc basin formed by extension within continental lithosphere behind the Ryukyu trench-arc system. The continuous formation of new oceanic crust has not yet occurred, however, crustal thinning and rifting is ongoing and many normal faults have developed. The southwestern part of the trough is most active and contains many interesting features, such as numerous volcanoes crossing the rift zone, high heat flow, and active hydrothermal site. The WADATSUMI images revealed the detailed volcanic and tectonic structure of the axial rift and a hydrothermal site. In the western area seafloor is dominated by volcanic construction, including hummocks, sheet flows, and blocky lava terrains. Small volcanic cones with crater pits are aligned along an E-W direction, which may constitute an elongated volcanic ridge within the graben. On the other hand, the eastern part of the survey area is a sedimented, deep

  9. Liquid CO2 venting on the seafloor: Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal system, Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konno, U.; Tsunogai, U.; Nakagawa, F.; Nakaseama, M.; Ishibashi, J.; Nunoura, T.; Nakamura, K.

    2006-12-01

    In 2000, an active hydrothermal site, venting high-temperature fluid up to 300 oC, was discovered by Shinkai 6500 on the top of Yonaguni Knoll IV during YK 00-06 cruise in Okinawa Trough. During the subsequent subseafloor survey using Shinkai 6500 in 2003 (YK03-05), vents of liquid CO2 droplets were found at the site. Similar liquid CO2 droplets had previously been found at the active hydrothermal sites at JADE hydrothermal field, Okinawa Trough, during the extensive seafloor survey using submersibles in 1989 [Sakai et al., 1990]. Besides, similar liquid CO2 venting has also been recognized in NW Eifuku hydrothermal site on Izu-Bonin- Mariana arc. It thus appears that liquid CO2 venting might be usual phenomenon in some submarine arc volcanoes. The detailed relation between seafloor venting liquid CO2 and the surrounding high-temperature hydrothermal fluid, however, was not clarified in their studies. Furthermore, no definite evidence was obtained for the presence of CO2-hydrate in the subsurface. In this study, in order to discuss the subseafloor processes responsible for producing liquid CO2 at the Yonaguni Knoll IV site, as well as the possibility of the occurrence of solid CO2-hydrate within the sediments, we determined the chemical and isotopic compositions of the liquid CO2 found on the site, as well as those in hydrothermal fluid venting from the surrounding chimneys. In consequence, the ^13C of both CO2 and CH4 in the liquid CO2 almost coincide with those in the hydrothermal fluid, suggesting that the liquid CO2 must be derived from the hydrothermal fluid. While showing homogeneous ^13C, the hydrothermal fluids exhibit wide variation in gas contents. Active phase separation must be taking place within the conduits. Besides, H2-depletion in the liquid CO2 suggests formation of solid CO2-hydrate must also precede the venting of liquid CO2. In conclusion, liquid CO2 must be produced through following subseafloor processes: phase separation of hydrothermal

  10. Long-Range Transport of Perchlorate Observed in the Atmospheric Aerosols Collected at Okinawa Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, D.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Nakama, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.; Oomori, T.; Miyagi, T.; Kadena, H.; Ishizaki, T.; Nakama, F.

    2007-12-01

    The study of perchlorate has become quite active in the U.S. in the last several years. Perchlorate has been recognized as a new environmental pollutant and it attracted much attention quickly in the world. The health concern about perchlorate stems from the fact that it displaces iodide in the thyroid gland, while iodine-containing thyroid hormones are essential for proper neural development from the fetal stage through the first years of life. In this study, we determined the concentrations of perchlorate ion present in the atmospheric aerosols collected in Okinawa Island, Japan. We then examined the relationships between the perchlorate concentrations and the environmental parameters and the climatic conditions peculiar to Okinawa. Bulk aerosol samples were collected on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler at Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS). Each sampling duration was one week. The quartz filters with aerosols were stirred with Milli-Q pure water for three hours before perchlorate ion was extracted. The extracted perchlorate ion concentrations were determined by ion chromatography (ICS-2000, DIONEX). The mean perchlorate concentration for the samples collected at CHAAMS was 1.83 ng/m3, and the minimum was 0.18 ng/m3. The samples collected during November 21-27, 2005, January 23-30, 2006 and April 24-01, 2006 had highest perchlorate concentrations. For these three samples, we performed back trajectory analysis, and found that the air mass for the three samples arrived from the Asian continent. A relatively strong correlation (r2 = 0.55) was found between perchlorate and nss-sulfate concentrations for the CHAAMS samples. Furthermore, we analyzed perchlorate in the soils and the fertilizers used for sugar cane farming around the CHAAMS area. The Milli-Q extract of the soil and the fertilizers did not contain any detectable levels of perchlorate ions. Therefore, it was suggested that perchlorate found in the atmospheric

  11. Warrior Mothers as Heroines and Other Healing Imagery in the Finnish National Epic of "Kalevala."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiltunen, Sirkku M. Sky

    2001-01-01

    Examines mother imagery from the Finnish mythological epic "Kalevala," and describes how they offer healing imagery for understanding and acceptance of one's own mother and subsequently one's self. Offers background to the "Kalevala" itself, its language and to warriors, shamans, and sages in general. Examines seven mother metaphors found in the…

  12. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Anindya; Bhole, R. B.; Nandy, Partha P.; Yadav, R. C.; Pal, Sarbajit; Roy, Amitava

    2015-03-01

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A set of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system.

  13. The Epic Poem "Raol de Cambrai" and Student Analysis of the French Feudal Aristocracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, Kenneth G.

    1980-01-01

    Suggests how college history teachers can help students understand the French aristocracy and its role in medieval society by using a twelfth century epic. "Raol de Cambrai" gives students a sense that the poem's action could have happened to real people. A content analysis of the poem's action and characters is included. (DB)

  14. Theological presuppositions of the evolutionary epic: From Robert Chambers to E. O. Wilson.

    PubMed

    Megill, Allan

    2016-08-01

    We can trace the "evolutionary epic" (named by E. O. Wilson, 1978) back to earlier writers, beginning with Robert Chambers (1844). Its basic elements are: fixation on seeing human history as rooted in biology; an aspiration toward telling the whole history of humankind (in its essential features); and insistence on the overall coherence of the projected narrative. The claim to coherence depends on assuming either that the universe possesses an "embedded rationality," or that it is guided by divine purpose. This article proposes the term "idealism" to refer to these two assumptions taken together, for in practice they were closely linked. Nietzsche (1881) was perhaps the first thinker to point out the evolutionary epic's dependence on such an idealism, and he also pointed out that the assumptions of embedded rationality and of divine purpose are closely connected. Darwin's theory of descent with modification (1859) was sharply inconsistent with these assumptions: he was not an "idealist" in the sense indicated here, and not a proponent of the evolutionary epic. Proclaiming his "materialism," Wilson (1978) failed to acknowledge that the epic depends on idealist assumptions; other adherents of the genre (M. Dowd, L. Rue) resurrect (knowingly or not) its theological roots. PMID:26775028

  15. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Anindya Bhole, R. B.; Nandy, Partha P.; Yadav, R. C.; Pal, Sarbajit; Roy, Amitava

    2015-03-15

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A set of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system.

  16. The True Lion King of Africa: The Epic History of Sundiata, King of Old Mali.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterno, Domenica R.

    David Wisniewski's 1992 picture book version of the African epic of "Sundiata, Lion King of Mali" and the actual historical account of the 13th century Lion King, Sundiata, are both badly served by Disney's "The Lion King." Disney has been praised for using African animals as story characters; for using the African landscape as a story setting;…

  17. 78 FR 69363 - Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit, California, Heavenly Mountain Resort Epic Discovery Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ...The Epic Discovery Project is intended to enhance summer activities in response to the USDA Forest Service Ski Area Recreational Opportunity Enhancement Act of 2011. Heavenly Mountain Resort (Heavenly) proposes to improve year-round, recreation opportunities within the developed portions of the ski area on National Forest System lands using existing facilities and infrastructure to meet the......

  18. Modeling Soil Organic Carbon in a Semiarid Region of Kazakhstan Using EPIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inappropriate land use and soil mismanagement produced wide-scale soil and environmental degradation to the short-grass steppe ecosystem in the semiarid region of Kazakhstan. We used the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model to study long-term impacts of land use changes and soil mana...

  19. Theological presuppositions of the evolutionary epic: From Robert Chambers to E. O. Wilson.

    PubMed

    Megill, Allan

    2016-08-01

    We can trace the "evolutionary epic" (named by E. O. Wilson, 1978) back to earlier writers, beginning with Robert Chambers (1844). Its basic elements are: fixation on seeing human history as rooted in biology; an aspiration toward telling the whole history of humankind (in its essential features); and insistence on the overall coherence of the projected narrative. The claim to coherence depends on assuming either that the universe possesses an "embedded rationality," or that it is guided by divine purpose. This article proposes the term "idealism" to refer to these two assumptions taken together, for in practice they were closely linked. Nietzsche (1881) was perhaps the first thinker to point out the evolutionary epic's dependence on such an idealism, and he also pointed out that the assumptions of embedded rationality and of divine purpose are closely connected. Darwin's theory of descent with modification (1859) was sharply inconsistent with these assumptions: he was not an "idealist" in the sense indicated here, and not a proponent of the evolutionary epic. Proclaiming his "materialism," Wilson (1978) failed to acknowledge that the epic depends on idealist assumptions; other adherents of the genre (M. Dowd, L. Rue) resurrect (knowingly or not) its theological roots.

  20. DIGITAL IMAGE ANALYSIS REPORTS: THE CONVERSION OF EPIC'S TRADITIONAL SITE CHARACTERIZATION PRODUCT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past several years EPIC has been exploring the practicality and cost-effectiveness of providing its traditional hard-copy report product in digital form. This conversion has a number of practical uses including- 1) compatibility for use as data layers in a GIS; 2) transp...

  1. Reliability and Validity of the Evidence-Based Practice Confidence (EPIC) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salbach, Nancy M.; Jaglal, Susan B.; Williams, Jack I.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The reliability, minimal detectable change (MDC), and construct validity of the evidence-based practice confidence (EPIC) scale were evaluated among physical therapists (PTs) in clinical practice. Methods: A longitudinal mail survey was conducted. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were estimated using Cronbach's alpha…

  2. Estimating plant available water for general crop simulations in ALMANAC/APEX/EPIC/SWAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Process-based simulation models ALMANAC/APEX/EPIC/SWAT contain generalized plant growth subroutines to predict biomass and crop yield. Environmental constraints typically restrict plant growth and yield. Water stress is often an important limiting factor; it is calculated as the sum of water use f...

  3. Measuring School and Teacher Effectiveness in EPIC Charter School Consortium--Year 2. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potamites, Liz; Booker, Kevin; Chaplin, Duncan; Isenberg, Eric

    2009-01-01

    New Leaders for New Schools, a nonprofit organization committed to training school principals, heads the Effective Practices Incentive Community (EPIC), an initiative that offers financial awards to effective educators. Through this initiative, New Leaders offers financial awards to educators in two urban school districts and a consortium of…

  4. A calibration procedure to improve global rice yield simulations with EPIC

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Wei; Balkovic, Juraj; van der Velde, M.; Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Skalsky, Rastislav; Lin, Erda; Mueller, Nathan; Obersteiner, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Crop models are increasingly used to assess impacts of climate change/variability and management practices on productivity and environmental performance of alternative cropping systems. Calibration is an important procedure to improve reliability of model simulations, especially for large area applications. However, global-scale crop model calibration has rarely been exercised due to limited data availability and expensive computing cost. Here we present a simple approach to calibrate Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model for a global implementation of rice. We identify four parameters (potential heat unit – PHU, planting density – PD, harvest index – HI, and biomass energy ratio – BER) and calibrate them regionally to capture the spatial pattern of reported rice yield in 2000. Model performance is assessed by comparing simulated outputs with independent FAO national data. The comparison demonstrates that the global calibration scheme performs satisfactorily in reproducing the spatial pattern of rice yield, particularly in main rice production areas. Spatial agreement increases substantially when more parameters are selected and calibrated, but with varying efficiencies. Among the parameters, PHU and HI exhibit the highest efficiencies in increasing the spatial agreement. Simulations with different calibration strategies generate a pronounced discrepancy of 5–35% in mean yields across latitude bands, and a small to moderate difference in estimated yield variability and yield changing trend for the period of 1981–2000. Present calibration has little effects in improving simulated yield variability and trends at both regional and global levels, suggesting further works are needed to reproduce temporal variability of reported yields. This study highlights the importance of crop models’ calibration, and presents the possibility of a transparent and consistent up scaling approach for global crop simulations given current availability of

  5. Insights into life-history traits of Munidopsis spp. (Anomura: Munidopsidae) from hydrothermal vent fields in the Okinawa Trough, in comparison with the existing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masako; Chen, Chong; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    Squat lobsters in the genus Munidopsis are commonly found at, and near, hydrothermal vents. However, the reproductive traits of most Munidopsis spp. are unknown. This study examined the reproductive features of two Munidopsis species sampled from hydrothermal vent fields in the southern Okinawa Trough in February 2014. Three ovigerous females were collected: two Munidopsis ryukyuensis at Irabu Knoll (1661-1675 m depth) and one M. longispinosa at Hatoma Knoll (1482 m depth). Carapace sizes and egg volumes were measured and compared with those of other Munidopsis species. The ovigerous M. ryukyuensis specimens had postorbital carapace lengths of 10.3 and 11.8 mm, without the rostrum, and carapace widths of 8.6 and 9.7 mm. Mean egg volumes of M. ryukyuensis and M. longispinosa were ~4 mm3. These results are consistent with early sexual maturity in M. ryukyuensis and lecithotrophic development in both species, as described in other species of the genus. These life-history traits may enable these vent species to maximize their reproductive and dispersive potential.

  6. Endocrine disrupter nonylphenol and bisphenol A contamination in Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands, Japan--within coral reefs and adjacent river mouths.

    PubMed

    Kawahata, Hodaka; Ohta, Hidekazu; Inoue, Mayuri; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2004-06-01

    Certain chemicals possess the potential to modulate endocrine systems, and thereby interfere with reproduction and developmental processes in the wild. We analyzed endocrine disrupters nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) levels at various sites in Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands, Japan. River-water samples showed undetectable to low concentrations of NP and BPA at most of the sites investigated. However, an appreciable amount of BPA was detected in sediments at one coral reef site. In addition, significant numbers of river sediment samples showed appreciable amounts of NP and BPA. Most of the sampling sites for this study are located within a distance of 1 km from the coral reefs, which are under influence of river-waters to a variable extent. Therefore, influence of endocrine disrupters may have already begun on adjacent coral reefs. Both endocrine disrupters were positively correlated with human population densities, but not with the contents of red soil generated by farm land reformation. Therefore, it is concluded that NP and BPA pollution is a consequence of human waste discharge, both domestic and industrial, and not by agricultural activities.

  7. Experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS) input/output controller (IOC) application developer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Kraimer, M.R.

    1994-05-01

    This document describes the core software that resides in an Input/Output Controller (IOC), one of the major components of EPICS. The plan of the book is: EPICS overview, IOC test facilities, general purpose features, database locking - scanning - and processing, static database access, runtime database access, database scanning, record and device support, device support library, IOC database configuration, IOC initialization, and database structures. Other than the first chapter this document describes only core IOC software. Thus it does not describe other EPICS tools such as the sequencer. It also does not describe Channel Access, a major IOC component.

  8. Nutrient Patterns and Their Food Sources in an International Study Setting: Report from the EPIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Moskal, Aurelie; Pisa, Pedro T.; Ferrari, Pietro; Byrnes, Graham; Freisling, Heinz; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Nailler, Laura; Wendt, Andrea; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Dahm, Christina C.; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Quirós, Jose R.; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta Castaño, José M.; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lentjes, Marleen A.; Key, Timothy J.; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ocké, Marga C.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Ericson, Ulrika; Drake, Isabel; Nilsson, Lena M.; Winkvist, Anna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Hjartåker, Anette; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Background Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR) data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N = 477,312). Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N = 34,436) provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC) 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores. Conclusion/Significance The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs

  9. Gametogenesis and fecundity of Acropora tenella (Brook 1892) in a mesophotic coral ecosystem in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetia, Rian; Sinniger, Frederic; Harii, Saki

    2016-03-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems (below 30-40 m depth) host a large diversity of zooxanthellate coral communities and may play an important role in the ecology and conservation of coral reefs. Investigating the reproductive biology of mesophotic corals is important to understand their life history traits. Despite an increase in research on mesophotic corals in the last decade, their reproductive biology is still poorly understood. Here, gametogenesis and fecundity of the Indo-Pacific mesophotic coral , Acropora tenella, were examined in an upper mesophotic reef (40 m depth) in Okinawa, Japan for the first time. Acropora tenella is a hermaphrodite with a single annual gametogenic cycle, and both oogenesis and spermatogenesis occurring for 11-12 and 5-6 months, respectively. Timing of spawning of this species was similar to other shallow Acropora spp. in the region. However, colonies had longer gametogenic cycles and less synchronous gamete maturation compared to shallow acroporids with spawning extended over consecutive months. Both the polyp fecundity (number of eggs per polyp) and gonad index (defined as the number of eggs per square centimeter) of A. tenella were lower than most acroporids. Our findings contribute to understanding of the life history of corals on mesophotic reefs and suggest that the reproductive biology of upper mesophotic corals is similar to that of shallow-water corals.

  10. Unique chemistry of the hydrothermal solution in the mid-Okinawa Trough Backarc Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, H.; Gamo, T.; Kim, E.S.; Shitashima, K.; Yanagisawa, F.; Tsutsumi, M.; Ishibashi, J.; Sano, Y.; Wakita, H. ); Tanaka, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Naganuma, T.; Mitsuzawa, K. )

    1990-11-01

    Submarine hydrothermal fluids from JADE and CLAM sites in the mid-Okinawa Trough Backarc Basin are highly enriched in CO{sub 2}, K, Li, NH{sub 4}, CH{sub 4} and titration alkalinity compared to MOR fluids so far studied, while their H{sub 2}S and {sup 3}He contents are similar. The He and C isotropic ratios as well as these chemical features indicate that the hydrothermal systems are controlled by reaction between seawater and CO{sub 2}-rich intermediate to acid volcanic rocks of island-arc type, with strong influence of organic matter and are consistent with its initial stage of rifting on a continental plate margin. While the endmember JADE fluid is nearly devoid of Mg and SO{sub 4}, the CLAM fluid has definite concentrations of Mg (upper limit 22 {plus minus} 5 mM) and, most interestingly of {sup 34}S-enriched SO{sub 4} (upper limit 10 {plus minus} 2 mM, {delta}{sup 34}S = 27 to 39{per thousand}).

  11. Vapor-rich Hydrothermal Fluid Migration Within Pumiceous Sediment in the Iheya North Knoll, Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, J.; Suzuki, R.; Hamasaki, H.; Yamanaka, T.; Chiba, H.; Tsunogai, U.; Ijiri, A.; Nakagawa, S.; Nunoura, T.; Takai, K.; Kinoshita, M.; Ashi, J.

    2007-12-01

    The newly developed ROV NSS (Navigable Sampling System) enabled pin-point piston core sampling from the active hydrothermal field. In the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the mid-Okinawa Trough (27°47.5'N, 126°53.8'E, depth = 1000m), animal colonies are observed not only around the central mound structure (named as NBC) which discharges vigrously high temperature (T=311°C) clear fluid, but also as Calyptogena colony at 200m east from the NBC mound and as tube-worm colony at 250m southeast from the NBC mound. During Leg 3 of KY05-14 cruise (R/V Kaiyo of JAMSTEC) in Jan. 2005, fourn piston cores were successfully recovered with length from 65cm to 250cm. Surface sediments from the Calyptogena colony and the tube-worm colony were revealed as mainly composed of pumiceous sediment. Pore fluids from the Calyptogena Field showed unusual chemistry characterized as very low salinity (Cl=420mM), low Mg concentration, significantly lower Na/Cl ratio than seawater and high methane concentration, which suggests contribution of a vapor-rich hydrothermal component migrating within the pumice layer from the activity center. Moreover, decrease of SO4 accompanied by increase of alkalinity is notable even less than one meter depth below the seafloor. In situ sulfate reduction in the surface sediment caused by entrainment of the hydrothermal component would be a source of hydrogen sulfide that supports Calyptogena colony.

  12. Geochemical characteristics of hydrothermal sediments from Iheya North Knoll in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qiannan; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Fuqing; Wang, Bing; Luan, Zhendong; Chen, Chang'an; Yan, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Thirty sediment subsamples were recovered from the Iheya North hydrothermal field (with an average of 38 m away from the hydrothermal vent) in the middle Okinawa Trough. Samples were obtained by the ROV (Remote Operated Vehicle) Faxian during the virgin cruise of the R/V Kexue in 2014 with the application of push cores. The chemical compositions of the sediments show that the hydrothermal sediments near the hydrothermal vent are mainly composed of SO3, ZnO and Fe2O3. Moreover, the hydrothermal sediments are also highly enriched in Pb, As, Sb, Hg, Se, Ag, Ba, Mo and Cd comparing with previous analysis results. On the other hand, the concentrations of Sr, Hg and Ag in studied sediments are strongly and positively correlated, these elements can be used as an hydrothermal indicator. In addition, a factor analysis of the sediments suggested that the sediments were mainly influenced by hydrothermal origin, and terrestrial and biogenic input are limited in studied area. It is also suggested that different stages of crystallization were involved in the formation of hydrothermal chimney from factor analysis.

  13. Hydrothermal circulation in an anisotropic sedimentary basin: Application to the Okinawa back arc basin

    SciTech Connect

    Genthon, P.; Rabinowicz, M. ); Foucher, J.P.; Sibuet, J.C. )

    1990-11-10

    The authors explore the pattern of two-dimensional convection in an highly anisotropical porous medium. This physical situation is relevant to passive margin sedimentary basins consisting of interbedded coarse-grained pervious and shale matrix. They show that permeability anisotropies of the order of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 4} allow for long convective cells, of aspect ratio greater than 10, but that a combination of this parameter with a slight slope of the order of a few percent of the sedimentary layers is required to stabilize these long cells. As an example, they present the Okinawa basin, an active submarine back arc basin, with a sedimentary thickness of about 2 km and a heat flow profile across this basin, varying from 32 to 232 mWm{sup {minus}2} over a distance of 30 km. It is shown that this heat flow variation is difficult to explain with conductive mechanisms only but is well reproduced by different convective models relying on permeability anisotropy plus slope. Although the insufficient thermal and structural constraints did not allow them to build a unique model, the whole set of possible fits to the heat flow data may restrict the mean hydraulic parameters of the basin. A vertical permeability of a few tens of milidarcy and an anisotropy greater than 100 are required to produce the expected stable and active large-scale circulation. It is suggested in conclusion that this type of circulation might be active in oil- or oil-forming element migration.

  14. Pyrococcus horikoshii sp. nov., a hyperthermophilic archaeon isolated from a hydrothermal vent at the Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    González, J M; Masuchi, Y; Robb, F T; Ammerman, J W; Maeder, D L; Yanagibayashi, M; Tamaoka, J; Kato, C

    1998-05-01

    A hyperthermophilic, anaerobic archaeon was isolated from hydrothermal fluid samples obtained at the Okinawa Trough vents in the NE Pacific Ocean, at a depth of 1395m. The strain is obligately heterotrophic, and utilizes complex proteinaceous media (peptone, tryptone, or yeast extract), or a 21-amino-acid mixture supplemented with vitamins, as growth substrates. Sulfur greatly enhances growth. The cells are irregular cocci with a tuft of flagella, growing optimally at 98 degrees C (maximum growth temperature 102 degrees C), but capable of prolonged survival at 105 degrees C. Optimum growth was at pH 7 (range 5-8) and NaCl concentration 2.4% (range 1%-5%). Tryptophan was required for growth, in contrast to the closely related strains Pyrococcus furiosus and P. abyssi. Thin sections of the cell, viewed by transmission electron microscopy, revealed a periplasmic space similar in appearance to the envelope of P. furiosus. The predominant cell membrane component was tetraether lipid, with minor amounts of diether lipids. Treatment of the cells by mild osmotic shock released an extract that contained a Zn(2+)-dependent alkaline phosphatase. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences encoding 16S rRNA and glutamate dehydrogenase places the isolate with certainty within the genus Pyrococcus although there is relatively low DNA-DNA hybridization (< 63%) with described species of this genus. Based on the reported results, we propose a new species, to be named Pyrococcus horikoshii sp.nov.

  15. Vertical Cable Seismic Survey for SMS Exploration in Izena Cauldron, Okinawa-Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Mizohata, S.; Tara, K.

    2014-12-01

    The VCS survey is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by seismic sources. Because the VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed it for the SMS survey tool development program started by Japanese government. In 2010, we manufactured the autonomous VCS data acquisition systems. Through several experimental surveys, our VCS is successfully completed. In 2011 and 2013, we carried out the two VCS surveys using GI gun and high-voltage sparker respectively in the Izena Cauldron, Okinawa Trough, which is one of the most promising SMS areas around Japan. Because seismic survey is not proven to be effective for SMS exploration, no seismic surveys have been conducted there so far. Our strategy for SMS exploration consists of two stages. In the first stage, we carried out VCS survey with the lower frequency GI gun (but higher compared to the convebtional oil/gas exploration) and explored deeper (up to 1,500m) structure to obtain the fault system of hydrothermal flow. Next, using a high frequency (about 1 kHz higher) and high-voltage sparker, we explored very shallow (up to 200m) part to delineate the very thin SMS deposits. These two VCS dataset have been processed with 3D Prestack Depth Migration. These results are consistent with geological information from the borehole drilled nearby and give useful information to SMS exploration.

  16. Helium Isotopes of Fluids from Submarine Volcanoes in the South-Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsin Kao, Li; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Wen, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Ai-Ti; Lee, Hsiao-Fen

    2014-05-01

    Many active submarine volcanoes have been found in southern Okinawa Trough. Water column samples from the hydrothermal plumes above venting volcanoes were collected during the OR2-1897 and -1984 cruises. Meanwhile, diving at shallower depths were conducted several times to collect the water samples near the venting sites. In total, 122 water samples from various depths in the offshore area of NE Taiwan were collected for dissolved gases and helium isotopes measurement. The dissolved gases of water column samples show that the CO2 concentration and the alkalinity increase with depth and become higher at the bottom, while the result of O2 concentration shows a reverse pattern. The 3He/4He ratios near the vicinity of active Kueishantao volcano show highest value, up to 5.5 RA, where RA is the atmospheric ratios of 1.39 x 10-6. The plot of 3He/4He and 3He/20Ne ratios suggests that there may be different sources in this region. Furthermore, we will estimate the helium flux from the venting volcanoes in this area.

  17. Characterization of fatty acid composition in healthy and bleached corals from Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachok, Zainudin; Mfilinge, Prosper; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2006-11-01

    Under bleaching conditions, corals lose their symbiotic zooxanthellae, and thus, the ability to synthesize fatty acids (FAs) from photosynthetically derived carbon. This study investigated the lipid content and FA composition in healthy and bleached corals from the Odo reef flat in Okinawa, southern Japan, following a bleaching event. It was hypothesized that the FA composition and abundance would change as algae are lost or die, and possibly microbial abundance would increase in corals as a consequence of bleaching. The lipid content and FA composition of three healthy coral species ( Pavona frondifera, Acropora pulchra, and Goniastrea aspera) and of partially bleached and completely bleached colonies of P. frondifera were examined. The FA composition did not differ among healthy corals, but differed significantly among healthy, partially bleached, and completely bleached specimens of P. frondifera. Completely bleached corals contained significantly lower lipid and total FA content, as well as lower relative amounts of polyunsaturated FAs and higher relative amounts of saturated FAs, than healthy and partially bleached corals. Furthermore, there was a significantly higher relative concentration of monounsaturated FAs and odd-numbered branched FAs in completely bleached corals, indicating an increase in bacterial colonization in the bleached corals.

  18. Skeletal structure and progression of growth anomalies in Porites australiensis in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Naoko; Nakano, Yoshikatsu; Yamashiro, Hideyuki; Hidaka, Michio

    2012-01-24

    Growth anomalies (GAs), one of the diseases recently reported for scleractinian corals, are characterized by an abnormal skeletal structure and reduced zooxanthella density. The pathological characteristics of GAs were studied in colonies of Porites australiensis on a reef in Kayo, Okinawa, Japan. Corallites in the GA region lost the skeletal architecture characteristic of P. australiensis, and polyp density had decreased in the GAs due to enlargement of both calices and the coenosteum. The gross productivity of isolated GA samples was lower than in healthy samples and decreased to almost 0 within 11 d after isolation. However, when GA samples were brought into contact with healthy-looking samples from the same colony, they fused and both the GA and healthy regions grew. Healthy samples fused with GA samples grew more slowly than those fused with healthy samples. For in situ GAs surrounded by healthy tissue, tissue death usually started at the center of the GA, probably due to a deficiency in the translocated energy supply from the surrounding tissue. The total area of the GA region and the dead area increased at a rate of 5.3 ± 2.9 cm2 yr-1. These results suggest that GA regions are maintained by energy supplies from surrounding healthy tissues and that GAs may have a negative impact on host corals.

  19. Association of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Forouhi, Nita G.; Schulze, Matthias B.; Zheng, Jusheng; Ye, Zheng; Kröger, Janine; Wang, Laura Yun; Summerhill, Keith; Griffin, Julian L.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Affret, Aurélie; Amiano, Pilar; Boeing, Heiner; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Scalbert, Augustin; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; Riboli, Elio

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations. Methods and Findings Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography among 12,132 incident T2D cases and 15,919 subcohort participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study across eight European countries. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. We also systematically reviewed published prospective studies on circulating PUFAs and T2D risk and pooled the quantitative evidence for comparison with results from EPIC-InterAct. In EPIC-InterAct, among long-chain n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with T2D (HR per standard deviation [SD] 0.93; 95% CI 0.88–0.98), but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were not significantly associated. Among n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA) (0.80; 95% CI 0.77–0.83) and eicosadienoic acid (EDA) (0.89; 95% CI 0.85–0.94) were inversely related, and arachidonic acid (AA) was not significantly associated, while significant positive associations were observed with γ-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-GLA, docosatetraenoic acid (DTA), and docosapentaenoic acid (n6-DPA), with HRs between 1.13 to 1.46 per SD. These findings from EPIC-InterAct were broadly similar to comparative findings from summary estimates from up to nine studies including between 71 to 2,499 T2D cases. Limitations included potential residual confounding and the inability to distinguish between dietary and metabolic influences on plasma phospholipid PUFAs. Conclusions These large-scale findings suggest an important inverse association of circulating plant-origin n-3 PUFA (ALA) but no convincing association of marine-derived n3 PUFAs (EPA and DHA) with T2D. Moreover, they

  20. Epidemiologic study of influenza infection in Okinawa, Japan, from 2001 to 2007: changing patterns of seasonality and prevalence of amantadine-resistant influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasushi; Taira, Katsuya; Saito, Reiko; Nidaira, Minoru; Okano, Shou; Zaraket, Hassan; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2009-03-01

    To clarify seasonal influenza patterns and the prevalence of amantadine-resistant influenza A viruses in Okinawa, located at the southern extremity of Japan in a subtropical climate, we conducted a laboratory-based study of influenza virus infections from 2001 to 2007. The annual outbreaks tended to show two peaks in Okinawa, in summer and winter, although the main islands of Japan, located in a temperate climate area, showed only winter influenza activity. Epidemic types and subtypes in Okinawa mostly matched those on the main islands of Japan in winter and those in Taiwan in summer. Rates of amantadine resistance dramatically increased, from 7.3% in the November 2002-to-March 2003 season to 90.0% in summer 2005, and a similarly high rate of resistance continued for the rest of the study period. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin gene of A/H3N2 isolates collected from 2002 to 2007 revealed a monophyletic lineage that was divided into four period groups. Each group included amantadine-sensitive and -resistant viruses within independent clusters. In the November 2005-to-March 2006 season, all of the amantadine-resistant viruses were clustered in clade N, with dual (position 193 and 225) amino acid mutations in their HA1 subunits. In 2005, clade N amantadine-resistant viruses existed in Okinawa several months before the circulation of this clade on the main islands of Japan. In conclusion, surveillance in Okinawa to monitor influenza virus circulation is important for elucidating the dynamics of virus transmission in a border area between temperate and subtropical areas, as Okinawa is one of the best sentinel points in Japan.

  1. Prevalence and clinical features of human papillomavirus in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in Okinawa, southern Japan.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zeyi; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Matayoshi, Sen; Kiyuna, Asanori; Yamashita, Yukashi; Maeda, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Mikio

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies from Okinawa, a subtropical island in southern Japan, demonstrated a higher prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral carcinoma and a higher incidence of oral and pharyngeal carcinoma than those for mainland Japan. The present study aims to investigate epidemiologic and clinical features of HPV in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in Okinawa. A total of 150 DNA samples from 150 Okinawan patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) were screened for HPV sequences by PCR using three consensus primer sets, and HPV types were determined by direct sequencing. The samples were consisted of 46 cases from the hypopharynx, 44 from the oropharynx, 16 from the larynx, 25 from the oral cavity, 10 from the maxillary sinus, and 9 from the nasopharynx. HPV DNA was detected in 45 (30.0%) HNSCCs, and HPV-16 was identified in 86.7% of positive specimens. The highest prevalence of the HPV sequence was found in oropharyngeal carcinomas (50.0%), especially in tonsillar cancer (63.6%). Multivariate analysis showed that oropharyngeal carcinoma (P = 0.002; OR = 5.34; 95% CI = 1.83-15.58), oral cavity carcinoma (P = 0.012; OR = 4.94; 95% CI = 1.43-17.10), and histological poor differentiation (P = 0.011; OR = 4.25; 95% CI = 1.39-13.04) each independently increased the prevalence of HPV infection. The present study reveals that patients with HNSCC, e.g., oropharyngeal and oral cavity carcinomas, in Okinawa have relatively high HPV-16 positive rates and low HPV-18 positive rates comparing with mainland Japan.

  2. Statistical evaluation of the flux cross-calibration of the XMM-Newton EPIC cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, S.; Saxton, R. D.; Read, A. M.; Sembay, S.

    2009-03-01

    Context: The second XMM-Newton serendipitous source catalogue, 2XMM, provides the ideal data base for performing a statistical evaluation of the flux cross-calibration of the XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging Cameras (EPIC). Aims: We aim to evaluate the status of the relative flux calibration of the EPIC cameras on board the XMM-Newton observatory (MOS1, MOS2, and pn) and investigate the dependence of the calibration on energy (from 0.2 to 12.0 keV), position of the sources in the field of view of the X-ray detectors, and lifetime of the mission. Methods: We compiled the distribution of flux percentage differences for large samples of "good quality" objects detected with at least two of the EPIC cameras. The mean offset of the fluxes and dispersion of the distributions was then found by Gaussian fitting. Count rate to flux conversion was performed with a fixed spectral model. The impact on the results of varying this model was investigated. Results: Excellent agreement was found between the two EPIC MOS cameras to better than 4% over the entire energy range where the EPIC cameras are best calibrated (0.2-12.0 keV). We found that MOS cameras register 7-9% higher flux than EPIC pn below 4.5 keV and a 10-13% flux excess at the highest energies (⪆4.5 keV). No evolution of the flux ratios is seen with time, except at the lowest energies (⪉0.5 keV), where we found a strong decrease in the MOS to pn flux ratio with time. This effect is known to be due to a gradually degrading MOS redistribution function. The flux ratios show some dependence on distance from the optical axis in the sense that the MOS to pn flux excess increases with off-axis angle. Furthermore, in the 4.5-12.0 keV band there is a strong dependence of the MOS to pn excess flux on the azimuthal-angle. These results strongly suggest that the calibration of the Reflection Grating Array (RGA) blocking factors is incorrect at high energies. Finally, we recommend ways to improve the calculation of fluxes in

  3. Vibrio ishigakensis sp. nov., in Halioticoli clade isolated from seawater in Okinawa coral reef area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Al-Saari, Nurhidayu; Rohul Amin, A K M; Sato, Kazumichi; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hargreaves, Paulo Iiboshi; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

    2016-07-01

    Five novel strains showing non-motile, alginolytic, halophilic and fermentative features were isolated from seawater samples off Okinawa in coral reef areas. These strains were characterized by an advanced polyphasic taxonomy including genome based taxonomy using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and in silico DNA-DNA similarity (in silico DDH). Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates could be assigned to the genus Vibrio, however they were not allocated into any distinct cluster with known Vibrionaceae species. MLSA based on eight protein-coding genes (gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA) showed the vibrios formed an outskirt branch of Halioticoli clade. The experimental DNA-DNA hybridization data revealed that the five strains were in the range of being defined as conspecific but separate from nine Halioticoli clade species. The G+C contents of the Vibrio ishigakensis strains were 47.3-49.1mol%. Both Amino Acid Identity and Average Nucleotide Identity of the strain C1(T) against Vibrio ezurae HDS1-1(T), Vibrio gallicus HT2-1(T), Vibrio halioticoli IAM 14596(T), Vibrio neonatus HDD3-1(T) and Vibrio superstes G3-29(T) showed less than 95% similarity. The genome-based taxonomic approach by means of in silico DDH values also supports the V. ishigakensis strains being distinct from the other known Halioticoli clade species. Sixteen traits (growth temperature range, DNase and lipase production, indole production, and assimilation of 10 carbon compounds) distinguished these strains from Halioticoli clade species. The names V. ishigakensis sp. nov. is proposed for the species of Halioticoli clade, with C1(T) as the type strain (JCM 19231(T)=LMG 28703(T)).

  4. Seasonal variations of biogenic secondary organic aerosol tracers in Cape Hedo, Okinawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Fu, Pingqing

    2016-04-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) substantially contributes to particulate organic matter affecting the regional and global air quality and the climate. Total suspended particle (TSP) samples were collected in October 2009 to February 2012 on a weekly basis at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, Japan in the western North Pacific Rim, an outflow region of Asian aerosols and precursors. The TSP samples were analyzed for SOA tracers derived from biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Total isoprene-SOA tracers showed a maximum in summer (2.12 ± 2.02 ng m-3) and minimum in winter (1.16 ± 0.92 ng m-3). This seasonality is mainly controlled by isoprene emission from the local subtropical forest, followed by regional scale emission of isoprene from the surrounding seas and long-range transported air masses. Total monoterpene-SOA tracers peaked in March (3.38 ± 2.03 ng m-3) followed by October (2.95 ± 1.62 ng m-3). In contrast, sesquiterpene-SOA tracer, β-caryophyllinic acid, showed winter maximum (1.63 ± 1.18 ng m-3) and summer minimum (0.20 ± 0.46 ng m-3). The variations of the monoterpene- and sesquiterpene-SOA tracers are likely related to the continental outflow of oxidation products of BVOC. Using a tracer-based method, we estimated the total biogenic SOC of 0.25-157 ng m-3 (mean 35.8 ng m-3) that accounts for 0.01-9.8% (mean 2.7%) of aerosol organic carbon. Our study suggests that SOA formation in the western North Pacific Rim is involved with not only local but also regional emissions followed by long-range atmospheric transport.

  5. Vibrio ishigakensis sp. nov., in Halioticoli clade isolated from seawater in Okinawa coral reef area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Al-Saari, Nurhidayu; Rohul Amin, A K M; Sato, Kazumichi; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Hargreaves, Paulo Iiboshi; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

    2016-07-01

    Five novel strains showing non-motile, alginolytic, halophilic and fermentative features were isolated from seawater samples off Okinawa in coral reef areas. These strains were characterized by an advanced polyphasic taxonomy including genome based taxonomy using multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and in silico DNA-DNA similarity (in silico DDH). Phylogenetic analyses on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates could be assigned to the genus Vibrio, however they were not allocated into any distinct cluster with known Vibrionaceae species. MLSA based on eight protein-coding genes (gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA) showed the vibrios formed an outskirt branch of Halioticoli clade. The experimental DNA-DNA hybridization data revealed that the five strains were in the range of being defined as conspecific but separate from nine Halioticoli clade species. The G+C contents of the Vibrio ishigakensis strains were 47.3-49.1mol%. Both Amino Acid Identity and Average Nucleotide Identity of the strain C1(T) against Vibrio ezurae HDS1-1(T), Vibrio gallicus HT2-1(T), Vibrio halioticoli IAM 14596(T), Vibrio neonatus HDD3-1(T) and Vibrio superstes G3-29(T) showed less than 95% similarity. The genome-based taxonomic approach by means of in silico DDH values also supports the V. ishigakensis strains being distinct from the other known Halioticoli clade species. Sixteen traits (growth temperature range, DNase and lipase production, indole production, and assimilation of 10 carbon compounds) distinguished these strains from Halioticoli clade species. The names V. ishigakensis sp. nov. is proposed for the species of Halioticoli clade, with C1(T) as the type strain (JCM 19231(T)=LMG 28703(T)). PMID:27262360

  6. Experimental study on hydrothermal alteration of dacite collected from the Hatoma knoll, Okinawa Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Y.; Shibuya, T.; Yoshizaki, M.; Nozaki, T.; Suzuki, K.; Takai, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a back-arc basin located between the southern part of Japan offshore and Taiwan North. Hemipelagic sediments supplied from the continents covered at the bottom of the trough. Vigorous hydrothermal activity exists with rifting. The Hatoma Knoll (the depth 1500 m) is one of the active hydrothermal fields located in the southern part of the trough. The measured highest temperature of the vent fluid was 301 °C. The rocks were sampled by manned research submersible ship "Shinkai 2000" in 2000. During the dive program, 25 hydrothermal fluid samples were collected and their chemical compositions were analyzed (Nakano et al., 2001). As a result, it was revealed that the compositions of the hydrothermal vent fluids are strongly influenced by the dacitic rock presumably in a reaction zone. In this presentation, we will show the results of experimental study on hydrothermal alteration dacite sample collected from the Hatoma Knoll. The sample was obtained near the hydrothermal area with ROV "Hyper-Dolphin" during the NT11-20 cruise in 2011. The experiment simulating water/rock reaction was conducted at 300 °C and 325 bars for more than 2,200 hours using the dacite sample and synthetic seawater. The reaction cell is made of a gold tube with a titanium head, which is pressurized in an autoclave. The chemical components of reacted fluid and altered dacite were measured with pH meter, ion chromatograph, ICP-AES, gas chromatograph, and XRD. We also observed thin section of the samples before and after the experiment under microscope. The major element concentrations of the reacted fluid were comparable with those of the natural hydrothermal fluids in the Hatoma Knoll in an order of magnitude except for Mn. As a result of XRD analysis, there was no significant difference in mineral assemblage between the starting material and the experimental product.

  7. Helium-3 flux at the Mid-Okinawa Trough, SW Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Tefang F.; Yang, Tsanyao F.; Takahata, Naoto; Shirai, Kotaro; Pinti, Daniele L.; Sano, Yuji

    2010-05-01

    Helium-3 is the most important isotopic signature of mantle-derived materials and its flux at the Earth surface may provide constrains on the source of the terrestrial heat flow as well as the mass balance of atmospheric helium. However, the direct observation of helium-3 flux in the ocean floor is not well documented and restricted to the Mid Ocean Ridges (MOR). We present here the ocean-floor helium-3 flux estimated from vertical profiles of 3He/20Ne ratios measured in pore water from deep-sea sediments at the Mid-Okinawa Trough subduction zone, SW Japan. Fluxes were calculated by assuming a constant 20Ne content with varying depth and a pure diffusive regime. Resulting helium-3 fluxes vary from 1.6 atom/cm2sec at the site close to the hydrothermal area of the Izena Cauldron to 0.57 atom/cm2sec at the control site, 13 km ENE from the cauldron. These values are smaller than the 3He flux of 4 atom/cm2sec measured at the East Pacific Rise, suggesting the 3He flux at subduction zone is lower than that at MOR. These values are about 20% of the Mid-Ocean Ridge 3He flux, supporting the never-proven hypothesis that the total volcanic output in subduction zones is a quarter of that in the ocean-ridge magmatism. On the other hand, the estimated 4He flux by using observed 4He/20Ne gradient is ranging from 3.3x105 to 4.8x105 atom/cm2sec, larger than those between 2x103 and 3.6x105atom/cm2sec measured worldwide in ocean floors.

  8. Helium isotopes and mineralogy of hydrothermal ores from the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooki, M.; Takahata, N.; Sano, Y.; Kagoshima, T.; Ishibashi, J.

    2012-12-01

    It is known that 3He/4He ratio of the typical mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) is 8±1.5 times higher than the atmospheric ratio, representative of the upper mantle. Similar high ratios have been observed in volcanic geothermal systems of subduction zones. To understand the origin of submarine hydrothermal fluids, we have measured helium isotopic ratios of fluid inclusions in hydrothermal ore deposits from the Okinawa Trough. Hydrothermal ore samples were collected during NT11-20 expedition using ROV Hyper-Dolphin(JAMSTEC), from Minami-Ensei Knoll, Yoron Knoll and Hatoma Knoll. Approximately 1 g of the ore sample picked up and put it in a stainless-steel crusher with a stainless-steel ball. Each ore sample was baked at approximately 200 degrees for 12 hours under vacuum to remove water and atmospheric components absorbed on surface. When the crusher was shaken up and down, the minerals in ores were crushed by the stainless-steel ball. Thus, gases in fluid inclusions were introduced into a vacuum line. These gases were purified, and helium-4 (4He) intensity and 3He/4He ratio were measured by a noble gas mass spectrometer, 4He/20Ne ratio and gas abundance (helium and neon) were measured by a quadrupole-based mass spectrometric system. Measured 3He/4He ratios of the most samples display obviously higher values than the atmospheric ratio (5~8Ratm). These values are slightly lower than or the same as that of MORB ratio. Conversely, measured 4He/20Ne ratios of samples show closer values to atmosphere than MORB. We discuss the fluid sources of Minami-Ensei Knoll, Yoron Knoll and Hatoma Knoll based on the helium isotopes as well as mineralogical features of hydrothermal ore samples.

  9. Use of microbial analysis to evaluate denitrification in the karstic aquifer of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasumoto, J.

    2014-12-01

    Denitrification, a microbial process in the nitrogen cycle, is a facultative respiratory pathway in which nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide (N2O), successively, are reduced to nitrogen gas (N2). This study explores the use of microbial analysis to evaluate the processes involved in nitrate attenuation in groundwater. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is used to identify denitrifiers based only on their 16SrRNA gene sequences, and Real-Time PCR analysis is used to quantify nitrite reducing genes (nirK and nirS), this suggest that a new methods for detecting denitrification activity by comparing the gene dosage that has been detected by RT-PCR and the value of the δ15NNO3- and δ18ONO3-. This study focuses on a zone of significant NO3- attenuation occurring at underground dam catchment area in the karstic Ryukyu limestone aquifer, which is located southern part of Okinawa, Japan. As a result of microbial analysis, the bacteria were detected at all observation points which have been reported to have denitrification ability. And it has been confirmed that the bacteria has a gene nirS which is related to denitrification. In addition, many bacteria related to denitrification have been extracted from suspended solids more than from groundwater in the aquifer. And, the correlation was high between nirK /nirS gene dosage that has been detected by RT-PCR and the value of the δ15N and δ18O; therefore, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of using Real-Time PCR analysis for providing insights into the processes affecting nitrate attenuation in ground water.

  10. HPC-EPIC for High Resolution Simulations of Environmental and Sustainability Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dali; Post, Wilfred M; Kang, Shujiang; Nichols, Dr Jeff A

    2011-01-01

    Multiple concerns over the impact of wide scale changes in land management have motivated comprehensive analyses of environmental sustainability of food and biofuel production. These call for high-resolution land management tools that enable comprehensive analyses of natural resources for decision-making. The agroecosystem simulation models with the most biophysical detail are point models, which often have a user interface that allows users to provide inputs and examine results for agricultural field scale analyses. These are not able to meet the needs of high-resolution regional or national simulations. We describe an efficient computational approach for deployment of the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model at high-resolution spatial scales using high performance computing (HPC) techniques. We developed an integrated procedure for executing the millions of simulations required for high-resolution, regional studies, and also address building databases for model initialization, model forcing data, and model outputs. We first ported EPIC from Windows to an HPC platform and validated output from both platforms. We then developed methods of packaging simulations for efficient, unattended parallel execution on the HPC cluster. The job queuing system, Portable Batch System (PBS) is employed to control job submission. Simulation outputs are extracted to PostgreSQL database for analysis. In a case study covering four counties in central Wisconsin using HPC-EPIC, we finished over 140 K simulations in a total of 10 h on an HPC cluster using 20 nodes. This is a speedup of 40 times. More nodes could be used to achieve larger speedups. The HPC-EPIC model developed in this study is anticipated to provide information useful for high-resolution land use management and decision making. The framework for high-performance computing can be extended to other traditional, point-based biophysical simulation models.

  11. Modeling Seasons in the Outer Solar System: Enabling EPIC to Roar on 1 Watt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Timothy E.; Sussman, M. G.; Greathouse, T. K.; Chanover, N. J.

    2012-10-01

    We describe solutions to key technical problems that arise in GCMs when modeling the circulations of Uranus and Neptune, and provide an update to the EPIC model radiative transfer (RT) package, with application to seasonal forcing of Saturn and Uranus. The primary challenges in ice-giant circulation modeling stem from the low value of the solar insolation ( 1 Wm-2), which results in slow ( 10-3 ms-1) meridional-plane circulations that are coupled to fast ( 102 ms-1) zonal winds. Computational modes that are negligible for inner solar-system atmospheric modeling because of high insolation are not negligible for Uranus and Neptune, and hence must be reduced or eliminated. We describe a new, high-order hyperviscosity algorithm that is non-dimensional, efficient, and has well-behaved boundary conditions at the poles. A 12th-order application to Uranus permits EPIC to run for multiple Uranus years without degrading the 11th-order zonal-wind model of Sromovsky et al. (2009). Additional EPIC (Ver. 5.0) improvements include a runtime RT package based on the Greathouse et al. (2010 EGU) Saturn seasonal model that employs our fast and accurate DISORT c_twostr rewrite, a pressure vertical-coordinate option, a dynamic convective adjustment scheme which incorporates improvements to the turbulent Prandtl number by Zilitinkevich et al. (2007), and an accurate analemma, or Sun-in-sky position as a function of time and location on the planet, for Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. These improvements make EPIC a versatile tool for dynamic 3D modeling of stratospheric temperatures and hydrocarbon distributions. This research is funded by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program, Grant NNX08AEG4G.

  12. Association between socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and utilization of colonoscopy in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Silke; Friedrich, Susanne; Haug, Ulrike; Rohrmann, Sabine; Becker, Nikolaus; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to describe the utilization of colonoscopy and its association with sociodemographic characteristics within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heidelberg cohort study. We included 15 014 study participants (43% men) of the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort recruited between 1994 and 1998. At baseline recruitment, as well as in the 3-yearly follow-up surveys, study participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, socioeconomic background variables, health status, and use of medications and medical services, including colonoscopy examinations. The present analyses focused on participants who completed the question on colonoscopy examination in all follow-up rounds. Our results show that by the end of the fourth follow-up round, more than half of all participants of the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort had had a colonoscopy. Colonoscopy was associated with some socioeconomic and demographic characteristics: a positive association with vocational training level as well as overall socioeconomic status level [International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) classification]. A negative association was found for household size and employment status. Colonoscopy usage increased steeply within the subgroup of participants older than 55 years of age and decreased again within the subgroup of participants older than 75 years of age. Organized colorectal cancer screening should include a written invitation system, to overcome the problem of sociodemographic-related differential awareness of and attendance at colonoscopy examinations. Also, the high proportion of prescreened individuals should be taken into account to avoid unnecessary re-examinations.

  13. Extended Magnetohydrodynamics with Embedded Particle-in-Cell (XMHD-EPIC) Simulations of Magnetospheric Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Gabor; Gombosi, Tamas; Jia, Xianzhe; Welling, Daniel; Chen, Yuxi; Haiducek, John; Jordanova, Vania; Peng, Ivy Bo; Markidis, Stefano; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    We have recently developed a new modeling capability to embed the implicit Particle-in-Cell (PIC) model iPIC3D into the BATS-R-US extended magnetohydrodynamic model. The PIC domain can cover the regions where kinetic effects are most important, such as reconnection sites. The BATS-R-US code with its block-adaptive grid can efficiently handle the rest of the computational domain where the MHD or Hall MHD description is sufficient. The current implementation of the MHD-EPIC model allows two-way coupled simulations in two and three dimensions with multiple embedded PIC regions. The MHD and PIC grids can have different grid resolutions and grid structures. The MHD variables and the moments of the PIC distribution functions are interpolated and message passed in an efficient manner through the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF). Both BATS-R-US and iPIC3D are massively parallel codes fully integrated into, run by and coupled through the SWMF. We have successfully applied the MHD-EPIC code to model Ganymede's and Mercury's magnetospheres. We compared our results with Galileo and MESSENGER magnetic observations, respectively, and found good overall agreement. We will report our progress on modeling the Earth magnetosphere with MHD-EPIC with the goal of providing direct comparison with and global context for the MMS observations.

  14. Organic tracers of primary biological aerosol particles at subtropical Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kunwar, Bhagawati

    2015-06-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) play an important role in affecting atmospheric physical and chemical properties. Aerosol samples were collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa Island, Japan, from October 2009 to February 2012 and analyzed for five primary saccharides and four sugar alcohols as PBAP tracers. We detected high levels of sucrose in spring when blossoming of plants happens and prolifically emits pollen to the air. Concentrations of glucose, fructose, and trehalose showed levels higher than the other saccharides in spring in 2010. In comparison, primary saccharide levels were mutually comparable in spring, summer, and autumn in 2011, indicating the interannual variability of their local production in subtropical forests, which is driven by local temperature and radiation. High trehalose events were found to be associated with Asian dust outflows, indicating that Asian dust also contributes to PBAPs at Okinawa. Sugar alcohols peaked in summer and correlated with local precipitation and temperature, indicating high microbial activities. Positive matrix factorization analysis confirmed that the PBAPs are mainly derived from local vegetation, pollen, and fungal spores. A higher contribution of PBAP tracers to water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was found in summer (14.9%). The annual mean ambient loadings of fungal spores and PBAPs were estimated as 0.49 µg m-3 and 4.12 µg m-3, respectively, using the tracer method. We report, for the first time, year-round biomarkers of PBAP and soil dust and their contributions to WSOC in the subtropical outflow region of the Asian continent.

  15. The risk of human T cell leukemia virus and viral hepatitis infection among US Marines stationed in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Brodine, S K; Hyams, K C; Molgaard, C A; Ito, S I; Thomas, R J; Roberts, C R; Golbeck, A L; Oldfield, E C; Blattner, W A

    1995-03-01

    The prevalence and incidence of human T cell leukemia virus type I/II (HTLV-I/II) and hepatitis A, B, and C virus infection were determined among US Marines stationed in Okinawa, Japan. Of 2875 personnel, 2 (0.07%) had antibody to HTLV-I/II. After 1-3 years, no HTLV seroconversions were observed, although 23% reported sexual contact with Okinawans. Of 1010 hepatitis-tested marines, 121 (12%) had antibody to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV), 26 (2.6%) had antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and 2 (0.2%) had antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV). On follow-up, 1 subject seroconverted to anti-HAV, 8 to anti-HBc, and none to anti-HCV. Most marines with recent hepatitis B infection were young, single, and enlisted and had been on short deployments to other countries in Southeast Asia. Marines stationed in Okinawa are not at high risk for HTLV infection but are at increased risk for hepatitis B infection and should be considered for vaccination. PMID:7876620

  16. A study of ambient seismic noise on the seafloor of the Okinawa trough and the Bashi Channel south of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.; Kuo, B.; Wang, C.

    2013-12-01

    Since September. 2006, the Institute of Earth Sciences, Acadmia Sinica (IES-AS) has begun deployment of Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) in the waters around Taiwan in collaboration with the National Sun Yat-sen University and the Taiwan Ocean Research Institute. So far there are three kinds of OBSs with different bandwidth that have been deployed and analyzed: 120 s - 50 Hz for WHOI designed broadband OBS, 60 s - 50 Hz for Lobster, KUM, and 20 s - 45 Hz for Yardbird-20s designed by IES (Lin et al., 2012). We have analyzed noise levels for these OBSs deployed in the Okinawa trough to the NE of Taiwan and, the Bashi channel south of Taiwan, and the Huatung basin east of Tawian. The early results had very few samples in the Okinawa trough and the Huatung basin ( Lin et al., 2010). This poster presents new results offshore southern Taiwan and increases the samples in previously studied regions. References: Ching-Ren Lin, Chai-ChangWang, Po-Chi Chen, Hsu-Kuang Chang, Jia-Pu Jang, Ban-Yuan Kuo (2012), OBS development and data analysis in Taiwan. 2012 AGU Fall Meeting. Lin, C.R., B. Y. Kuo, W. T. Liang, W. C. Chi, Y. C. Huang, J. Collins and C. Y. Wang (2010), Ambient Noise and Teleseismic Signals Recorded by Ocean-Bottom Seismometers Offshore Eastern Taiwan. Terr. Atmos. Ocea Sci., 21, No. 5, 743-75510.

  17. Fate of liquid CO2 discharged from the hydrothermal area in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitashima, K.; Maeda, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal systems are suitable for the on-site field analysis of a high CO2 environment in the ocean. Hydrothermal fluids are highly enriched in CO2 and show lower pH (about pH2-3) relative to seawater. The observation of the hydrothermal CO2 would provide the opportunity for understanding the physic-chemical behavior and diffusion process of CO2 in the ocean. Furthermore, the information on the hydrothermal ecosystem in the high CO2 environment is important for an environment impact assessment of the CO2 ocean sequestration. The observation of behavior of natural CO2 droplets (8-10?, 0.5ml) was carried out in the deep-sea hydrothermal system at the Okinawa Trough. The natural CO2 droplet contains CO2 of 95-98%, H2S of 2-3% and other gas species. The rising CO2 droplets were tracked by an ROV, and depth, temperature, salinity, pH and pCO2 in seawater near the CO2 droplets were measured during their ascent by using CTD and in-situ pH/pCO2 sensor. The behavior of the rising CO2 droplets was observed with an HDTV camera on an ROV. Mapping survey (400m X 400m, 3 layers) of low pH distribution was performed on the natural CO2 venting area by the grid navigation of the ROV that installed a pH/pCO2 sensor. The droplet size and the rise rate of CO2 droplets decreased during their ascent in water column (from 1470m to 900m depth). The CO2 droplets dissolved gradually and became small CO2 clathrate while rising, and the rising clathrate materials were found to disappear at 918m depth (552m above the bottom). Although the pH just above the sea floor CO2 vents showed pH 5, the pH depression in seawater surrounding the rising CO2 droplets was not observed. The results of pH mapping survey showed only localized pH depression at the CO2 venting site.

  18. ESR dating of barite in sea-floor hydrothermal sulfide deposits at Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, T.; Toyoda, S.; Uchida, A.; Ishibashi, J.; Nakai, S.; Takamasa, A.

    2013-12-01

    The temporal change of submarine hydrothermal activities has been an important issue in the aspect of the evolution of hydrothermal systems which is related with ore formation and biological systems sustained by the chemical species arising from hydrothermal activities (Macdonald et al., 1980). With this aspect, Okumura et al. (2010) made the first practical application of ESR (electron spin resonance) dating technique to a sample of submarine hydrothermal barite to obtain preliminary ages, while Kasuya et al. (1991) first pointed out that barite can be used for ESR dating. ESR is a method to observe radicals having unpaired electrons. As natural radiation creates unpaired electrons in minerals, the age is deduced by dividing the natural radiation dose (obtained from the amount of unpaired electrons) by the dose rate which is estimated by the amount of environmental radioactive elements. The samples were taken by the research cruises, NT12-10 and NT11-20 and NT12-06 operated by JAMSTEC from Hatoma, Yoron, Izena, North Iheya, and Yonaguni IV Knolls of Okinawa Trough. The blocks of sulfide deposits were cut into pieces, and about 2.0g was crushed. The samples were soaked in 12M hydrochloric acid, left for approximately 24 hours. Then, 13M nitric acid was added. Finally, after rinsing in distilled water, the sample was filtered and dried. Impurities were removed by handpicking. A X-ray diffraction study was made to confirm that the grains are pure barite. After γ-ray irradiation at Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, they were measured at room temperature with an ESR spectrometer (JES-PX2300) with a microwave power of 1mW, and the magnetic field modulation amplitude of 0.1mT. The equivalent natural radiation doses were obtained from the increase of ESR signal intensity of SO3- by irradiation. The bulk Ra concentration was measured by the low background pure Ge gamma ray spectrometer. Assuming that Ra is populated only in barite

  19. Geochemical Evidence for Recent Hydrothermal Alteration of Marine Sediments in Mid-Okinawa Trough, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, A.; Abe, G.; Yamaguchi, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that submarine hydrothermal system supports diverse microbial life. Bio-essential metals supporting such microbial communities were released from basalts by high-temperature water-rock interaction in deeper part of the oceanic crust and carried by submarine fluid flow. Its total quantity in global hydrothermal settings has been estimated to be on the order of ~1019 g/yr, which is surprisingly on the same order of the total river flows (Urabe et al., 2011). Therefore, it is important to explore how submarine river system works, i.e., to understand mechanism and extent of elemental transport, which should lead to understanding of the roles of hydrothermal circulation in oceanic crust in controlling elemental budget in the global ocean and geochemical conditions to support deep hot biosphere.  We performed REE analysis of marine sediments influenced by submarine hydrothermal activity in Mid-Okinawa Trough. The sediment samples used in this study are from IODP site at Iheya North region and JADE site at Izena region. The samples show alternation between volcanic and clastic sediments. Hydrothermal fluids of this area contain elevated concentrations of volatile components such as H2, CO2, CH4, NH4+, and H2S, supporting diverse chemoautotrophic microbial community (Nakagawa et al., 2005). The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of hydrothermal activity on the REE signature of the sediments. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the samples show relative enrichment of light over heavy REEs, weak positive Ce anomalies, and variable degrees of negative Eu anomalies. The REE patterns suggest the sediments source was mainly basalt, suggesting insignificant input of continental materials. Negative Eu anomalies found in the IODP site become more pronounced with increasing depth, suggesting progressive increase of hydrothermal alteration where Eu was reductively dissolved into fluids by decomposition of feldspars. Contrary, at the JADE site

  20. Developing Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC) markers for population genetic studies in three Aedes disease vectors.

    PubMed

    White, Vanessa Linley; Endersby, Nancy Margaret; Chan, Janice; Hoffmann, Ary Anthony; Weeks, Andrew Raymond

    2015-03-01

    Aedes aegypti, Aedes notoscriptus, and Aedes albopictus are important vectors of many arboviruses implicated in human disease such as dengue fever. Genetic markers applied across vector species can provide important information on population structure, gene flow, insecticide resistance, and taxonomy, however, robust microsatellite markers have proven difficult to develop in these species and mosquitoes generally. Here we consider the utility and transferability of 15 Ribosome protein (Rp) Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC) markers for population genetic studies in these 3 Aedes species. Rp EPIC markers designed for Ae. aegypti also successfully amplified populations of the sister species, Ae. albopictus, as well as the distantly related species, Ae. notoscriptus. High SNP and good indel diversity in sequenced alleles plus support for amplification of the same regions across populations and species were additional benefits of these markers. These findings point to the general value of EPIC markers in mosquito population studies.

  1. Interface between shamanism and psychiatry in Miyako Islands, Okinawa, Japan: a viewpoint from medical and psychiatric anthropology.

    PubMed

    Shimoji, A

    1991-12-01

    This study is the first report regarding the borderland between psychiatry and shamanism in Miyako Islands, Okinawa, Japan. Folk healing practices are still flourishing on the islands. Most mentally ill persons we examined admitted to having consulted shamans. Although there is a need to assess the positive and negative effects of shamanistic practices on Miyako Islands' health care system as a whole, this report indicates the urgent need to come to terms with the interaction between shamanism and psychiatry on a multidimensional level. We describe here psychotic illness attributed to kandaari. These cases underline the importance of understanding "the explanatory model" (Kleinman 1979) of people as regards the causes and the effective healing of illness. From the viewpoint of medical and psychiatric anthropology, aspects of the treatment of such patients in the biocultural context are described. PMID:1813672

  2. A new species of the palaemonid shrimp genus Palaemonella Dana, 1852 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Yusuke

    2015-06-03

    The palaemonid shrimp genus Palaemonella Dana, 1852 is currently represented by 21 formally described species worldwide, of which 17 species are known from the Indo-West Pacific. In this study, a new species, P. okunoi, is described and illustrated on the basis of two ovigerous female specimens collected from coastal waters in Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, at depths of 5-30 m. The new species closely resembles P. hachijo Okuno, 1999, but the shorter rostrum, more anteriorly located postrostral teeth on the carapace, the presence of a pair of submedian teeth on the fourth thoracic sternite and the less slender pereopods distinguish P. okunoi n. sp. from P. hachijo. The discovery of the present new species raises the number of Japanese species of Palaemonella to eight. An updated key to the Indo-West Pacific species of the genus is presented.

  3. Sesquiterpene Hydroquinones with Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibitory Activities from a Dysidea sp. Marine Sponge Collected in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Abdjul, Delfly B; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Ukai, Kazuyo; Namikoshi, Michio

    2016-07-22

    Three new sesquiterpene hydroquinones, avapyran (1), 17-O-acetylavarol (2), and 17-O-acetylneoavarol (3), were isolated from a Dysidea sp. marine sponge collected in Okinawa together with five known congeners: avarol (4), neoavarol (5), 20-O-acetylavarol (6), 20-O-acetylneoavarol (7), and 3'-aminoavarone (8). The structures of 1-3 were assigned on the basis of their spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-3 inhibited the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B with IC50 values of 11, 9.5, and 6.5 μM, respectively, while known compounds 4-8 gave IC50 values of 12, >32, 10, 8.6, and 18 μM, respectively. In a preliminary investigation on structure-activity relationships, six ester and methoxy derivatives (9-14) were prepared from 4 and 5.

  4. Faulting and hydration of the upper crust of the SW Okinawa Trough during continental rifting: Evidence from seafloor compliance inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ban-Yuan; Crawford, Wayne C.; Webb, Spahr C.; Lin, Ching-Ren; Yu, Tai-Chieh; Chen, Liwen

    2015-06-01

    The elastic response of seafloor to ocean gravity wave loading, or seafloor compliance, provides a constraint on the elastic properties of the crust. We measured seafloor compliance at three ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) sites around Taiwan—two in the southwestern (SW) Okinawa Trough and one on the Ryukyu arc—and performed inversion for crustal structures beneath them. Models best fitting the data demonstrate a decrease in upper crustal shear velocity and an increase in the compressional/shear velocity ratio from the arc site to the trough sites with increasing amount of back-arc extension. This variation suggests that the upper continental crust is highly faulted and hydrated during rifting of the Eurasian lithosphere.

  5. A new genus and species of octocoral with aragonite calcium-carbonate skeleton (Octocorallia, Helioporacea) from Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yu; Reimer, James Davis

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species of octocoral with a calcium-carbonate skeleton, Naniporakamurai sp. n., is described from a shallow coral reef in Okinawa, Japan. Contrary to most octocorals, the skeleton is composed of crystalline aragonite as in blue coral Heliopora. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of sequences of mtMutS, COI, and ITS1-5.8s-ITS2-28S region suggest Nanipora gen. n. specimens should be included in order Helioporacea. Based on morphological results compared with other Helioporacea including the genus Epiphaxum (family Lithotelestidae), we establish the new genus Nanipora within Lithotelestidae. This is the first time that a close molecular phylogenetic relationship between Heliopora and a related genus within Helioporacea has been revealed.

  6. Concentration of organic sun-blocking agents in seawater of beaches and coral reefs of Okinawa Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Yutaka; Kameda, Yutaka

    2013-12-15

    The concentration of UV filters (UVFs) and UV light stabilizers (UVLSs) were measured in seawater and river water collected from sites at four beaches, two reefs, and one river on Okinawa Island, Japan. UVFs and/or UVLSs of 8-10 types were detected in beaches samples and 6-9 types were detected in reef samples. The total UVF concentrations at the beach sites were highest either in July or August with a maximum of 1.4 μg L(-1). The concentrations at the reef sites did not show peaks in summer and the maximum values were close to 10 ng L(-1). The detected UVF profiles reflected the ingredients of sunscreens used in each region. The highest UVLS concentrations at the reefs were observed not only in summer but also in June and September. The UVLS concentrations at the reefs were similar to or even higher than that at the beaches or in the river.

  7. Sesquiterpene Hydroquinones with Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibitory Activities from a Dysidea sp. Marine Sponge Collected in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Abdjul, Delfly B; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Ukai, Kazuyo; Namikoshi, Michio

    2016-07-22

    Three new sesquiterpene hydroquinones, avapyran (1), 17-O-acetylavarol (2), and 17-O-acetylneoavarol (3), were isolated from a Dysidea sp. marine sponge collected in Okinawa together with five known congeners: avarol (4), neoavarol (5), 20-O-acetylavarol (6), 20-O-acetylneoavarol (7), and 3'-aminoavarone (8). The structures of 1-3 were assigned on the basis of their spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-3 inhibited the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B with IC50 values of 11, 9.5, and 6.5 μM, respectively, while known compounds 4-8 gave IC50 values of 12, >32, 10, 8.6, and 18 μM, respectively. In a preliminary investigation on structure-activity relationships, six ester and methoxy derivatives (9-14) were prepared from 4 and 5. PMID:27336796

  8. A new genus and species of octocoral with aragonite calcium-carbonate skeleton (Octocorallia, Helioporacea) from Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Yu; Reimer, James Davis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of octocoral with a calcium-carbonate skeleton, Nanipora kamurai sp. n., is described from a shallow coral reef in Okinawa, Japan. Contrary to most octocorals, the skeleton is composed of crystalline aragonite as in blue coral Heliopora. The results of molecular phylogenetic analyses of sequences of mtMutS, COI, and ITS1-5.8s-ITS2-28S region suggest Nanipora gen. n. specimens should be included in order Helioporacea. Based on morphological results compared with other Helioporacea including the genus Epiphaxum (family Lithotelestidae), we establish the new genus Nanipora within Lithotelestidae. This is the first time that a close molecular phylogenetic relationship between Heliopora and a related genus within Helioporacea has been revealed. PMID:26257549

  9. Venting of carbon dioxide-rich fluid and hydrate formation in mid-okinawa trough backarc basin.

    PubMed

    Sakai, H; Gamo, T; Kim, E S; Tsutsumi, M; Tanaka, T; Ishibashi, J; Wakita, H; Yamano, M; Oomori, T

    1990-06-01

    Carbon dioxide-rich fluid bubbles, containing approximately 86 percent CO(2), 3 percent H(2)S, and 11 percent residual gas (CH(4) + H(2)), were observed to emerge from the sea floor at 1335- to 1550-m depth in the JADE hydrothermal field, mid-Okinawa Trough. Upon contact with seawater at 3.8 degrees C, gas hydrate immediately formed on the surface of the bubbles and these hydrates coalesced to form pipes standing on the sediments. Chemical composition and carbon, sulfur, and helium isotopic ratios indicate that the CO(2)-rich fluid was derived from the same magmatic source as dissolved gases in 320 degrees C hydrothermal solution emitted from a nearby black smoker chimney. The CO(2)-rich fluid phase may be separated by subsurface boiling of hydrothermal solutions or by leaching of CO(2)-rich fluid inclusion during posteruption interaction between pore water and volcanogenic sediments.

  10. Hydrothermal fluid flow system around the Iheya North Knoll in the mid-Okinawa trough based on seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Takeshi; Takai, Ken; Oiwane, Hisashi; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Masaki, Yuka; Kumagai, Hidenori; Kinoshita, Masataka; Yamamoto, Fujio; Okano, Tadashi; Kuramoto, Shin'ichi

    2012-02-01

    Seismic reflection data around the Iheya North Knoll hydrothermal field provide insights into geological structures that control subseafloor hydrothermal fluid flow in the sediment-covered continental backarc basin of the mid-Okinawa Trough. We identified the seismic expression of widespread porous volcaniclastic pumiceous deposits and intrusions as a result of silicic arc volcanism. The porous and permeable volcanic deposits are distributed in an area extending updip from the thick succession of the deep trough to the seafloor at the hydrothermal field. Their regional structure focuses the flow of hydrothermal fluids derived from the surrounding trough-fill sediments and directs them to the vents of the hydrothermal field. The high concentrations of CH4 and NH4 in the fluids of the hydrothermal field are likely derived from the interaction of migrating fluids with trough-fill sediments.

  11. A new species of the genus Tegastes (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Tegastidae) from hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Back, Jinwook; Huys, Rony; Lee, Wonchoel

    2010-08-01

    We describe a new species, Tegastes okinawaensis, from 583-711 meter-deep hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough, Japan. This species is clearly distinguishable from its congeners by four combined characters, namely 1) the last three abdominal somites are depressed inwardly towards the body, 2) there is sexual dimorphism in the number of setae of P3 and P4, 3) the male antennule is 9-segmented, with the 7th segment formed by incomplete fusion of two segments, and 4) the caudal rami are small with a distorted quadrangular shape. Additionally, the species is easily distinguishable from its congeners by the distal endopodal segment of P4, which is armed with six setae - this character has never been reported in previous descriptions of congeners. This report is the first of a species in the genus Tegastes living at ocean depths of greater than 580 m in the northwestern Pacific.

  12. A new species of the palaemonid shrimp genus Palaemonella Dana, 1852 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    The palaemonid shrimp genus Palaemonella Dana, 1852 is currently represented by 21 formally described species worldwide, of which 17 species are known from the Indo-West Pacific. In this study, a new species, P. okunoi, is described and illustrated on the basis of two ovigerous female specimens collected from coastal waters in Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, at depths of 5-30 m. The new species closely resembles P. hachijo Okuno, 1999, but the shorter rostrum, more anteriorly located postrostral teeth on the carapace, the presence of a pair of submedian teeth on the fourth thoracic sternite and the less slender pereopods distinguish P. okunoi n. sp. from P. hachijo. The discovery of the present new species raises the number of Japanese species of Palaemonella to eight. An updated key to the Indo-West Pacific species of the genus is presented. PMID:26249444

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: K2 EPIC stellar properties for 138600 targets (Huber+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, D.; Bryson, S. T.; Haas, M. R.; Barclay, T.; Barentsen, G.; Howell, S. B.; Sharma, S.; Stello, D.; Thompson, S. E.

    2016-06-01

    The K2 Mission uses the Kepler spacecraft to obtain high-precision photometry over ~80 day campaigns in the ecliptic plane. The Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC) provides coordinates, photometry, and kinematics based on a federation of all-sky catalogs to support target selection and target management for the K2 mission. We describe the construction of the EPIC, as well as modifications and shortcomings of the catalog. Kepler magnitudes (Kp) are shown to be accurate to ~0.1mag for the Kepler field, and the EPIC is typically complete to Kp~17 (Kp~19 for campaigns covered by Sloan Digital Sky Survey). We furthermore classify 138600 targets in Campaigns 1-8 (~88% of the full target sample) using colors, proper motions, spectroscopy, parallaxes, and galactic population synthesis models, with typical uncertainties for G-type stars of ~3% in Teff, ~0.3dex in logg~40% in radius, ~10% in mass, and ~40% in distance. Our results show that stars targeted by K2 are dominated by K-M dwarfs (~41% of all selected targets), F-G dwarfs (~36%), and K giants (~21%), consistent with key K2 science programs to search for transiting exoplanets and galactic archeology studies using oscillating red giants. However, we find significant variation of the fraction of cool dwarfs with galactic latitude, indicating a target selection bias due to interstellar reddening and increased contamination by giant stars near the galactic plane. We discuss possible systematic errors in the derived stellar properties, and differences with published classifications for K2 exoplanet host stars. (1 data file).

  14. Implementation of Epic Beaker Clinical Pathology at an academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Krasowski, Matthew D.; Wilford, Joseph D.; Howard, Wanita; Dane, Susan K.; Davis, Scott R.; Karandikar, Nitin J.; Blau, John L.; Ford, Bradley A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epic Beaker Clinical Pathology (CP) is a relatively new laboratory information system (LIS) operating within the Epic suite of software applications. To date, there have not been any publications describing implementation of Beaker CP. In this report, we describe our experience in implementing Beaker CP version 2012 at a state academic medical center with a go-live of August 2014 and a subsequent upgrade to Beaker version 2014 in May 2015. The implementation of Beaker CP was concurrent with implementations of Epic modules for revenue cycle, patient scheduling, and patient registration. Methods: Our analysis covers approximately 3 years of time (2 years preimplementation of Beaker CP and roughly 1 year after) using data summarized from pre- and post-implementation meetings, debriefings, and the closure document for the project. Results: We summarize positive aspects of, and key factors leading to, a successful implementation of Beaker CP. The early inclusion of subject matter experts in the design and validation of Beaker workflows was very helpful. Since Beaker CP does not directly interface with laboratory instrumentation, the clinical laboratories spent extensive preimplementation effort establishing middleware interfaces. Immediate challenges postimplementation included bar code scanning and nursing adaptation to Beaker CP specimen collection. The most substantial changes in laboratory workflow occurred with microbiology orders. This posed a considerable challenge with microbiology orders from the operating rooms and required intensive interventions in the weeks following go-live. In postimplementation surveys, pathology staff, informatics staff, and end-users expressed satisfaction with the new LIS. Conclusions: Beaker CP can serve as an effective LIS for an academic medical center. Careful planning and preparation aid the transition to this LIS. PMID:26955505

  15. Spatial and temporal variation in the soil CO2 efflux in a subtropical broadleaved forest in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuho; Terasawa, Kei; Taniguchi, Shingo; Takashima, Atsushi; Katayama, Ayumi; Ohashi, Mizue

    2016-04-01

    Soil CO2 efflux (Rs) is a major component of the carbon emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. The spatiotemporal variation in Rs and its dependency on biotic and abiotic factors have been clarified in various ecosystems. It is thought that subtropical ecosystem RS values are slightly higher than those of temperate ecosystems, but much smaller than those of tropical ecosystems (Bond-Lamberty & Thomson, 2010), but compared with temperate and tropical ecosystems there are limited relevant data. This study examined spatial (within stand-scale) and temporal (hourly to seasonal) variation in Rs in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest on Okinawa Island, Japan. We measured Rs using a closed dynamic chamber at 60 locations within a 0.15-ha plot once a month in 2013 and 2014. In addition, Rs was measured continuously using automated chambers at two locations within the same plot in 2015. The annual average Rs value (5.5 μmol m‑2 s‑1) obtained from the monthly manual measurements was comparable with values reported for tropical rainforests and larger than those for temperate forests. At our site, Rs showed clear seasonal variation depending on soil temperature, unlike in tropical rainforests, which lack seasonality. The spatial variation in Rs was positively correlated with the ratio of litter cover area per unit soil area, which was larger on the ridge and smaller on the slope. We propose that the amount of litter, as a material for heterotrophic respiration, largely characterises the spatial variation in Rs at this site, with a relatively small contribution from autotrophic respiration by plant roots. The results clarify that Rs values in subtropical forests in Okinawa have characteristics between those of temperate forests (seasonality) and tropical rainforests (large Rs).

  16. Springtime variations of organic and inorganic constituents in submicron aerosols (PM1.0) from Cape Hedo, Okinawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunwar, Bhagawati; Torii, K.; Zhu, Chunmao; Fu, Pingqing; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2016-04-01

    During the spring season with enhanced Asian outflow, we collected submicron aerosol (PM1.0) samples at Cape Hedo, Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim. We analyzed the filter samples for diacids, oxoacids, pyruvic acid, α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids to better understand the sources and atmospheric processes in the outflow regions of Asian pollutants. Molecular distributions of diacids show a predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic (C3) and succinic (C4) acids. Total diacids strongly correlated with secondary source tracers such as SO42- (r = 0.87), NH4+ (0.90) and methanesulfonate (MSA-) (0.84), suggesting that diacids are secondarily formed from their precursor compounds. We also found good correlations among C2, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in the Okinawa aerosols, suggesting that diacids are mainly derived from anthropogenic sources. However, a weak correlation of diacids with levoglucosan, a biomass burning tracer, suggests that biomass buring is not the main source of diacids, rather diacids are secondarily formed by photochemical oxidation of organic precursors derived from fossil fuel combustion. We found a strong correlation (r = 0.98) between inorganic nitrogen (NO3-N + NH4-N) and total nitrogen (TN), to which organic nitrogen (ON) contributed 23%. Fatty acids were characterized by even carbon number predominance, suggesting that they are derived from biogenic sources. The higher abundances of short chain fatty acids (C20) further suggest that fatty acids are largely derived from marine phytoplankton during spring bloom.

  17. Spatial and temporal variation in the soil CO2 efflux in a subtropical broadleaved forest in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuho; Terasawa, Kei; Taniguchi, Shingo; Takashima, Atsushi; Katayama, Ayumi; Ohashi, Mizue

    2016-04-01

    Soil CO2 efflux (Rs) is a major component of the carbon emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. The spatiotemporal variation in Rs and its dependency on biotic and abiotic factors have been clarified in various ecosystems. It is thought that subtropical ecosystem RS values are slightly higher than those of temperate ecosystems, but much smaller than those of tropical ecosystems (Bond-Lamberty & Thomson, 2010), but compared with temperate and tropical ecosystems there are limited relevant data. This study examined spatial (within stand-scale) and temporal (hourly to seasonal) variation in Rs in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest on Okinawa Island, Japan. We measured Rs using a closed dynamic chamber at 60 locations within a 0.15-ha plot once a month in 2013 and 2014. In addition, Rs was measured continuously using automated chambers at two locations within the same plot in 2015. The annual average Rs value (5.5 μmol m-2 s-1) obtained from the monthly manual measurements was comparable with values reported for tropical rainforests and larger than those for temperate forests. At our site, Rs showed clear seasonal variation depending on soil temperature, unlike in tropical rainforests, which lack seasonality. The spatial variation in Rs was positively correlated with the ratio of litter cover area per unit soil area, which was larger on the ridge and smaller on the slope. We propose that the amount of litter, as a material for heterotrophic respiration, largely characterises the spatial variation in Rs at this site, with a relatively small contribution from autotrophic respiration by plant roots. The results clarify that Rs values in subtropical forests in Okinawa have characteristics between those of temperate forests (seasonality) and tropical rainforests (large Rs).

  18. Effect of biomass burning over the western North Pacific Rim: wintertime maxima of anhydrosugars in ambient aerosols from Okinawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, C.; Kawamura, K.

    2014-10-01

    Biomass burning (BB) largely modifies the chemical compositions of atmospheric aerosols on the globe. We collected aerosol samples (TSP) at Cape Hedo, subtropical Okinawa Island from October 2009 to February 2012 to study anhydrosugars as BB tracers. Levoglucosan was detected as the dominant anhydrosugar followed by its isomers, mannosan and galactosan. We found a clear seasonal trend of levoglucosan and mannosan with winter maxima and summer minima. Positive correlation was found between levoglucosan and nss-K+ (r = 0.38, p < 0.001); the latter is another BB tracer. The analyses of air mass trajectories and fire spots demonstrated that the seasonal variations of anhydrsosugsars are caused by a long-range transport of BB emissions from the Asian continent. We found winter maxima of anhydrosugars, which may be associated with open burning and domestic heating and cooking in north and northeast China, Mongolia and Russia and with the enhanced westerly. The monthly averaged levoglucosan/mannosan ratios were lower (2.1-4.8) in May-June and higher (13.3-13.9) in November-December. The lower values may be associated with softwood burning in north China, Korea and southwest Japan whereas the higher values are probably caused by agriculture waste burning of maize straw in the North China Plain. Anhydrosugars comprised 0.22% of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and 0.13% of organic carbon (OC). The highest values to WSOC (0.37%) and OC (0.25%) were found in winter, again indicating an important BB contribution to Okinawa aerosols in winter. This study provides useful information to better understand the effect of East Asian biomass burning on the air quality in the western North Pacific Rim.

  19. Effect of biomass burning over the western North Pacific Rim: wintertime maxima of anhydrosugars in ambient aerosols from Okinawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, C.; Kawamura, K.; Kunwar, B.

    2015-02-01

    Biomass burning (BB) largely modifies the chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols on the globe. We collected aerosol samples (TSP) at Cape Hedo, on subtropical Okinawa Island, from October 2009 to February 2012 to study anhydrosugars as BB tracers. Levoglucosan was detected as the dominant anhydrosugar followed by its isomers, mannosan and galactosan. We found a clear seasonal trend of levoglucosan and mannosan with winter maxima and summer minima. Positive correlation was found between levoglucosan and nss-K+ (r = 0.38, p < 0.001); the latter is another BB tracer. The analyses of air mass trajectories and fire spots demonstrated that the seasonal variations of anhydrosugars are caused by long-range transport of BB emissions from the Asian continent. We found winter maxima of anhydrosugars, which may be associated with open burning and domestic heating and cooking in northern and northeastern China, Mongolia and Russia and with the enhanced westerly winds. The monthly averaged levoglucosan / mannosan ratios were lower (2.1-4.8) in May-June and higher (13.3-13.9) in November-December. The lower values may be associated with softwood burning in northern China, Korea and southwestern Japan whereas the higher values are probably caused by agricultural waste burning of maize straw in the North China Plain. Anhydrosugars comprised 0.22% of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and 0.13% of organic carbon (OC). The highest values to WSOC (0.37%) and OC (0.25%) were found in winter, again indicating an important BB contribution to Okinawa aerosols in winter. This study provides useful information to better understand the effect of East Asian biomass burning on the air quality in the western North Pacific Rim.

  20. Petrology and Geochemistry of Hydrothermally Altered Volcanic Rocks in the Iheya North Hydrothermal Field, Middle Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Iheya North hydrothermal field is located in the middle Okinawa Trough, a young and actively spreading back-arc basin extending behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system in the southeastern margin of the East China Sea. In this hydrothermal field, two scientific drilling expeditions (IODP Exp 331 and SIP CK14-04) were conducted using a deep-sea drilling vessel "Chikyu," and samples from a total of 27 holes were taken. Through these expeditions, Kuroko-type volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits (VMS), hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks, and pumiceous and pelagic sediments were recovered. The recovered core provided important information about the relationship between hydrothermal activity, alteration, and ore mineralization. Whole-rock major element composition and trace element (TE) patterns of pumices were very similar to those of rhyolites in the middle Okinawa Trough (RMO). However, pumices were relatively enriched in chalcophile elements Sr and Nb, which suggest incipient mineralization. Volcanic rock generally demonstrated strong silicification and was greenish pale gray in color. Regardless of severe alteration, some rock displayed major element composition broadly similar to the RMO. Alteration was evidenced by an increase in the content of SiO2 and MgO, and decrease in Al2O3, Na2O, and K2O content. The most striking geochemical feature of altered volcanic rock was the discordance between texture and the degree of modification of TEs. Some samples showed decussate texture occupied by petal-like quartz with severe silicification, but no prominent disturbance of concentration and patterns of TEs were observed. In contrast, samples with well-preserved igneous porphyritic texture showed very low TE content and modification of TE patterns. These results suggest that the modification of texture and composition of TEs, as well as silicification, do not occur by a uniform process, but several processes. This may reflect the differences in temperature and the

  1. Contrasting behavior of tungsten and molybdenum in the Okinawa Trough, the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Sohrin, Yoshiki; Matsui, Masakazu; Nakayama, Eiichiro

    1999-10-01

    By using catalytic current polarography and high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, W and Mo in seawater were determined in the Okinawa Trough, a backarc rift, and in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea. Mo was distributed conservatively throughout the study area, and its salinity-normalized concentration was 104 {+-} 6 nM (n = 105). W was also uniformly distributed south of the Kuroshio Current (56 {+-} 7 pM, n = 51). Anomalous high concentrations of W (maximum 254 pM) were found in the Iheya Graben in the middle Okinawa Trough ({gt}1,000 m depth), which were probably supplied by hydrothermal activity. The concentrations of Mo and W in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea showed linear correlation with salinity (26 {lt} S {lt} 35). The Mo data can be explained by mixing of seawater and river water of the Changjiang (Mo = 10 nM; Qu et al., 1993). However, the values of W extrapolated to S = 0 were largely different between two cruises (1,200 pM in May-June 1987 and 540 pM in June 1994) and much higher than the reported concentrations of 160 pM for world rivers by Turekian (1969) and 30 pM for unpolluted Japanese rivers by Sohrin et al. (1989). Moreover, significantly high W was observed in the bottom water at stations near the Changjiang River estuary and the western Yellow Sea. While these data may suggest that W is released from the anoxic sediments of the continental shelf, more data are needed to elucidate the mechanism controlling the distribution of W.

  2. Seismic observed structure of Natsushima 86-2 knoll in Iheya small-ridges of mid-Okinawa Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, Fumihiko; Tsuji, Takeshi; Kumagai, Hidenori; Takai, Ken

    2013-04-01

    Iheya small ridges are the group of the ENE-WSW elongated rod-shaped knolls at the central axis of mid-Okinawa trough back-arc extensional basin. The basin has been actively stretching more than 1000 km long at 250 km west of the convergent boundary between Philippine oceanic lithosphere and Eurasian continental counterpart since ~2 Ma (Hsu et al., 2001). Natsushima 86-2 knoll is the westernmost one of the Iheya small ridges which height is 600 m from the 1600 m depth seafloor. Multiple hydrothermal sites have been reported for these 25 years in the mid-Okinawa Trough region while previously well-studied Calyptogena site (Tanaka et al., 1989; Gamo et al., 1991) is just at the northeastern extension of the knoll. Five profiles of single-channel seismic reflection survey were obtained in Natsushima 86-2 knoll during YK-12-16 cruise in order to find structure controlling hydrothermal activity. Every profile makes the cross-section of the knoll. The source of the reflection was 150 cubic inches G-I gun with 10 seconds interval. As a result of the interpretation for seismic profiles, it is fair to conclude that the knoll has possible volcanic origin and relatively new structure. Natsushima 86-2 knoll is positioned on the normal faulted stratified deposits which are dipping from the both sides of the knoll. The surface of the knoll shows mostly low amplitude reflection which can be interpreted as pumices or other high porosity materials which is consistent with the past dredging retrieval by Kimura et al. (1987). Bend and fading of the stratified reflection approximately 100 m beneath the Calyptogena site indicates shallow intrusion of magmatic body has responsible with the formation of the hydrothermal site.

  3. Episodes of volcanic activity and their environmental effects in the Okinawa Trough during the last 150 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tiegang; Zhao, Jingtao; Li, Anchun

    2005-12-01

    A piston core Z14-6 was used in this study. The core, 896 cm long, was collected from eastern slope of the Okinawa Trough (27°07'N, 127°27'E, water depth 739m). The δ18O and δ13C values of the sediment bearing planktonic foraminifera G. sacculifer and N. dutertrei were determined; and the abundance of volcanic glass was analyzed. The volcanic glass content high occurred in early stage of polar ice-sheet growth period, or the beginning of cold climate periods corresponding to Milankovitch cycles (Peak I, II and V are corresponding to the beginnings of oxygen isotopic stages 2, 4 and 6, and Peak III and IV are matching oxygen isotopic stage 5b 5d.). It might be possible that volcanic episodes and climate changes were responding to orbital forcing in the Okinawa Trough in late Quaternary. The δ18O difference between N. dutertrei and G. sacculifer shows no clear correlation to the volcanic glass content high, which suggests that the volcanic eruptions did not influence the structure of upper water column. However, the low δ13C difference between G. sacculifer and N. dutertrei is coeval with the volcanic glass high or sub-high content. This fact suggests that volcanic eruptions might influence the reduction in vertical nutritional gradient and carbon cycle process in upper water column. A possible mechanism is that huge quantity of ash and dust had weakened the light intensity, resulting in photosynthesis reduction, productivity decrease, and biological pumping.

  4. Étalonnage de l'instrument EPIC(XMM). I. Banc d'essai synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, Marty

    A testing system has been developed at the Institut d'astrophysique spatiale with the Orsay synchrotron facility, in order to perform a full calibration of the EPIC spectro-imaging instrument, which is due to be launched on board the XMM satellite the 21st of January 2000. Dealing with one of the most advanced devices among X-rays detectors using CCD technology, the challenge has been to find the more accurate techniques (cryogenics, high energy optics…) and real-time operating systems (multitask computer environment) to achieve our calibration purposes.

  5. Diurnal Cycle of Convection in the East Pacific ITCZ during EPIC-2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccippio, Dennis J.; Petersen, Walter A.; Cifelli, Robert; Rutledge, Steven A.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the last three weeks of September 2001, the EPIC-2001 intensive field campaign focused on studies of deep convection in the ITCZ over the Mexican warm pool region (10N, 95W) of the East Pacific. This study focuses on the pronounced observed diurnal cycle of environmental and convective parameters within the experiment domain. Data from three primary sources are examined: the R/V Ronald H. Brown C-band weather radar, 4-hourly soundings from the Brown and the Global Atmospherics, Inc. National Lightning Detection Network (long range product). Satellite data from TRMM, GOES and OV-1 are also used. The domain boundary layer shows a robust daily evolution of moist enthalpy (as reflect by equivalent potential temperature, theta-e, or wet bulb potential temperature, theta-w), with contributions from changes in both dry and moist entropy. Peak theta-w is found after local nightfall; the average diurnal range of theta-w is approximately 1 deg C. A composite diurnal cycle of convective properties was derived from the C-band volume scans, sampled continuously through the experiment at 10 minute updates. Products derived from the volumetric data include a surface PPI, 15 and 30 dBZ echo top height, vertically integrated liquid, and 6 km (mixed phase region) reflectivity CAPPIs. For almost all products, the parameter means showed virtually no diurnal cycle. However, for the upper-level products, the parameter spectra showed a clear peak in the occurrence of deep/vigorous convection (the "tail end of the distribution") between 7-9 UTC (1-3 AM local), while overall frequency of occurrence peaked later, from 12-15 UTC (6-9 AM local). This represents a daily "outbreak" of isolated deep cells a couple of hours after sunset and subsequent growth, organization and decay through the nighttime hours. The coherence of the diurnal cycle of the convective spectrum is impressive given the wide variety of convective organization observed during the experiment, and given the modulation

  6. Incorporation of a PbSe Array Based Spectrograph into EPICS using LabView at the JLab FEL Facility

    SciTech Connect

    D. Hardy; S.V. Benson; Michelle D. Shinn; S. Zhang

    2005-08-21

    A real-time spectrograph with a 1Hz update rate was designed and installed at the JLab FEL facility using a Cal Sensors PbSe array and a Roper Scientific SpectraPro 300 monochrometer. This paper describes the implementation of EPICS channel access on a remote PC running LabView with modification of vendor supplied LabView VI's to allow display of FEL light spectra in real-time on a remote workstation. This allows PC based diagnostics to be used in EPICS.

  7. EPIC: A C++ Service Oriented Inter-process Messaging Framework and its Usage in the PFS Reduction Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, C.; Chabaud, P.-Y.

    2015-09-01

    We present EPIC: a C++ library for managing inter process communication in the Prime Focus Spectrograph Data Reduction Pipeline (PFS/DRP). The aim of EPIC is to provide a consistent framework for building distributed softwares that can be efficiently used in various kind of astronomical data processing pipeline. The Prime Focus Spectrograph multi-fiber system will allow more than 2000 simultaneous spectral observations of astronomical targets at the same time, leading the need of a high throughput system for processing data reduction of each observations. This framework provide a load balanced, messages and services oriented system, where nodes communicate with each other using a set of C++ APIs.

  8. A new solitary free-living species of the genus Sphenopus (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae) from Okinawa-jima Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takuma; Reimer, James Davis

    2016-01-01

    A new species of free-living solitary zoantharian is described from Okinawa, Japan. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. occurs on silty seafloors in Kin Bay and Oura Bay on the east coast of Okinawa-jima Island. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. is easily distinguished from other Sphenopus species by its small polyp size and slender shape, although there were relatively few differences between Sphenopus exilis sp. n. and Sphenopus marsupialis in the molecular phylogenetic analyses. Currently, very little is known about the ecology and diversity of Sphenopus species. Thus, reviewing each species carefully via combined morphological and molecular analyses by using newly obtained specimens from type localities is required to clearly understand and distinguish the species within the genus Sphenopus.

  9. A new solitary free-living species of the genus Sphenopus (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae) from Okinawa-jima Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takuma; Reimer, James Davis

    2016-01-01

    A new species of free-living solitary zoantharian is described from Okinawa, Japan. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. occurs on silty seafloors in Kin Bay and Oura Bay on the east coast of Okinawa-jima Island. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. is easily distinguished from other Sphenopus species by its small polyp size and slender shape, although there were relatively few differences between Sphenopus exilis sp. n. and Sphenopus marsupialis in the molecular phylogenetic analyses. Currently, very little is known about the ecology and diversity of Sphenopus species. Thus, reviewing each species carefully via combined morphological and molecular analyses by using newly obtained specimens from type localities is required to clearly understand and distinguish the species within the genus Sphenopus. PMID:27551219

  10. A new solitary free-living species of the genus Sphenopus (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae) from Okinawa-jima Island, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Takuma; Reimer, James Davis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of free-living solitary zoantharian is described from Okinawa, Japan. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. occurs on silty seafloors in Kin Bay and Oura Bay on the east coast of Okinawa-jima Island. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. is easily distinguished from other Sphenopus species by its small polyp size and slender shape, although there were relatively few differences between Sphenopus exilis sp. n. and Sphenopus marsupialis in the molecular phylogenetic analyses. Currently, very little is known about the ecology and diversity of Sphenopus species. Thus, reviewing each species carefully via combined morphological and molecular analyses by using newly obtained specimens from type localities is required to clearly understand and distinguish the species within the genus Sphenopus. PMID:27551219

  11. Species-specific responses of corals to bleaching events on anthropogenically turbid reefs on Okinawa Island, Japan, over a 15-year period (1995-2009).

    PubMed

    Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya

    2013-01-01

    Coral bleaching, triggered by elevated sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) has caused a decline in coral cover and changes in the abundances of corals on reefs worldwide. Coral decline can be exacerbated by the effects of local stressors like turbidity, yet some reefs with a natural history of turbidity can support healthy and resilient coral communities. However, little is known about responses of coral communities to bleaching events on anthropogenically turbid reefs as a result of recent (post World War II) terrestrial runoff. Analysis of region-scale coral cover and species abundance at 17-20 sites on the turbid reefs of Okinawa Island (total of 79 species, 30 genera, and 13 families) from 1995 to 2009 indicates that coral cover decreased drastically, from 24.4% to 7.5% (1.1%/year), subsequent to bleaching events in 1998 and 2001. This dramatic decrease in coral cover corresponded to the demise of Acropora species (e.g., A. digitifera) by 2009, when Acropora had mostly disappeared from turbid reefs on Okinawa Island. In contrast, Merulinidae species (e.g., Dipsastraea pallida/speciosa/favus) and Porites species (e.g., P. lutea/australiensis), which are characterized by tolerance to thermal stress, survived on turbid reefs of Okinawa Island throughout the period. Our results suggest that high turbidity, influenced by recent terrestrial runoff, could have caused a reduction in resilience of Acropora species to severe thermal stress events, because the corals could not have adapted to a relatively recent decline in water quality. The coral reef ecosystems of Okinawa Island will be severely impoverished if Acropora species fail to recover.

  12. Probathylepadidae, a new family of Scalpelliformes (Thoracica: Cirripedia: Crustacea), for Probathylepas faxian gen. nov., sp. nov., from a hydrothermal vent in the Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xian-Qiu; Sha, Zhong-Li

    2015-10-21

    A new pedunculate barnacle, Probathylepas faxian gen. and sp. nov., is described from a hydrothermal vent in the Okinawa Trough. A new scalpelliform family, Probathylepadidae, is also proposed for the new genus and species. Probathylepadidae differs from all other five families of the order Scalpelliformes by the capitulum bearing eight primal plates and two whorls of imbricating supplementary plates, and the peduncle being without scales. The relationships between the species of the new family and sessile barnacles are also discussed.

  13. Species-Specific Responses of Corals to Bleaching Events on Anthropogenically Turbid Reefs on Okinawa Island, Japan, over a 15-year Period (1995–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya

    2013-01-01

    Coral bleaching, triggered by elevated sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) has caused a decline in coral cover and changes in the abundances of corals on reefs worldwide. Coral decline can be exacerbated by the effects of local stressors like turbidity, yet some reefs with a natural history of turbidity can support healthy and resilient coral communities. However, little is known about responses of coral communities to bleaching events on anthropogenically turbid reefs as a result of recent (post World War II) terrestrial runoff. Analysis of region-scale coral cover and species abundance at 17–20 sites on the turbid reefs of Okinawa Island (total of 79 species, 30 genera, and 13 families) from 1995 to 2009 indicates that coral cover decreased drastically, from 24.4% to 7.5% (1.1%/year), subsequent to bleaching events in 1998 and 2001. This dramatic decrease in coral cover corresponded to the demise of Acropora species (e.g., A. digitifera) by 2009, when Acropora had mostly disappeared from turbid reefs on Okinawa Island. In contrast, Merulinidae species (e.g., Dipsastraea pallida/speciosa/favus) and Porites species (e.g., P. lutea/australiensis), which are characterized by tolerance to thermal stress, survived on turbid reefs of Okinawa Island throughout the period. Our results suggest that high turbidity, influenced by recent terrestrial runoff, could have caused a reduction in resilience of Acropora species to severe thermal stress events, because the corals could not have adapted to a relatively recent decline in water quality. The coral reef ecosystems of Okinawa Island will be severely impoverished if Acropora species fail to recover. PMID:23565291

  14. Probathylepadidae, a new family of Scalpelliformes (Thoracica: Cirripedia: Crustacea), for Probathylepas faxian gen. nov., sp. nov., from a hydrothermal vent in the Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xian-Qiu; Sha, Zhong-Li

    2015-01-01

    A new pedunculate barnacle, Probathylepas faxian gen. and sp. nov., is described from a hydrothermal vent in the Okinawa Trough. A new scalpelliform family, Probathylepadidae, is also proposed for the new genus and species. Probathylepadidae differs from all other five families of the order Scalpelliformes by the capitulum bearing eight primal plates and two whorls of imbricating supplementary plates, and the peduncle being without scales. The relationships between the species of the new family and sessile barnacles are also discussed. PMID:26624398

  15. Characterization of patients with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma in Okinawa, Japan: a retrospective analysis of a large cohort.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Yukiko; Fukushima, Takuya; Nomura, Shogo; Tomoyose, Takeaki; Nakachi, Sawako; Morichika, Kazuho; Tedokon, Iori; Tamaki, Keita; Shimabukuro, Natsuki; Taira, Naoya; Miyagi, Takashi; Karimata, Kaori; Ohama, Masayo; Yamanoha, Atsushi; Tamaki, Kazumitsu; Hayashi, Masaki; Arakaki, Hitoshi; Uchihara, Jun-Nosuke; Ohshiro, Kazuiku; Asakura, Yoshitaka; Kuba-Miyara, Megumi; Karube, Kennosuke; Masuzaki, Hiroaki

    2016-10-01

    Okinawa Prefecture, located in the subtropics, is an area of endemic adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) in Japan. We retrospectively analyzed 659 patients with aggressive ATL in seven institutions in Okinawa between 2002 and 2011. The median patient age was 68 years. More patients were aged ≥90 years (2.6 %), in this study, than in a nationwide survey (<1 %). The median survival time (MST) of the entire cohort was 6.5 months. Of the 217 patients who had a clinical status similar to that stated in the eligibility criteria of JCOG9801 (a randomized phase III study comparing VCAP-AMP-VECP with CHOP-14), 147 who received the CHOP regimen had a poorer MST than those in the CHOP-14 arm of JCOG9801 (8 vs 11 months). The prevalence of strongyloidiasis in the ATL patients was much higher (12.4 %) than in the historical cohort who visited the University of the Ryukyus Hospital (3.4 %). Furthermore, strongyloidiasis may be associated with ATL-related deaths. These findings suggest that, compared with other areas in Japan, in Okinawa, the proportion of patients aged ≥90 years with clinical features of aggressive ATL is higher, outcomes are poorer, and the disease is associated with a higher prevalence of strongyloidiasis.

  16. 75 FR 12230 - Black Oak Energy, L.L.C., EPIC Merchant Energy, LP, SESCO Enterprises, LLC v. PJM Interconnection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Black Oak Energy, L.L.C., EPIC Merchant Energy, LP, SESCO Enterprises, LLC v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing March 8, 2010. Take notice that on March 1, 2010, PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. filed a report of refund pursuant to the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  17. “Nitrogen Budgets for the Mississippi River Basin using the linked EPIC-CMAQ-NEWS Models”

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation on the results from the 3 linked models, EPIC (USDA), CMAQ and NEWS to analyze a scenario of increased corn production related to biofuels together with Clean Air Act emission reductions across the US and the resultant effect on nitrogen loading to the Gulf of Mexico...

  18. Intrarectal Amifostine During External Beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer Produces Significant Improvements in Quality of Life Measured by EPIC Score

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, Nicole L.; Menard, Cynthia; Soule, Benjamin P.; Albert, Paul S.; Guion, Peter; Smith, Sharon; Godette, Denise; Crouse, Nancy S.; Sciuto, Linda C.; Cooley-Zgela, Theresa; Camphausen, Kevin; Coleman, C. Norman; Singh, Anurag K. E-mail: singan@mail.nih.gov

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether intrarectal amifostine limits symptoms of radiation proctitis, measured by using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity score and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) score. Methods and Materials: Patients with localized prostate cancer received amifostine as a rectal suspension 30-45 minutes before daily three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. The first 18 patients received 1 g of amifostine, and the next 12 patients received 2 g. Toxicity was assessed at baseline, during treatment, and at follow-up visits by using RTOG grading and the EPIC Quality of Life (QoL) 50-item questionnaire. The Bowel Function subset of the bowel domain (EPIC-BF), which targets symptom severity, and the Bowel Bother subset of the bowel domain (EPIC-BB), which assesses QoL, were evaluated and compared with the RTOG GI toxicity score. Results: Median follow-up was 30 months (range, 18-36 months). Overall, EPIC-BF and EPIC-BB scores both tracked closely with the RTOG GI toxicity score. Seven weeks after the start of radiation therapy, the incidence of RTOG Grade 2 toxicity was 33% in the 1-g group (6/18 patients) compared with 0% (0/12 patients) in the 2-g group and trended toward statistical significance (p = 0.06). A significant difference between amifostine groups was observed using the EPIC-BF score at 7 weeks (p = 0.04). A difference in EPIC-BB scores between dose groups was evident at 7 weeks (p = 0.07) and was significant at 12 months (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Higher doses of amifostine produced significant improvements in acute and late bowel QoL (up to 1 year after therapy), measured using the EPIC score.

  19. Development and application of the EPIC model for carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel studies

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Mcgill, William B.; Williams, J.R.

    2012-06-01

    This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the EPIC model in relation to carbon cycle, greenhouse-gas mitigation, and biofuel applications. From its original capabilities and purpose (i.e., quantify the impacts or erosion on soil productivity), the EPIC model has evolved into a comprehensive terrestrial ecosystem model for simulating with more or less process-level detail many ecosystem processes such as weather, hydrology, plant growth and development, carbon cycle (including erosion), nutrient cycling, greenhouse-gas emissions, and the most complete set of manipulations that can be implemented on a parcel of land (e.g. tillage, harvest, fertilization, irrigation, drainage, liming, burning, pesticide application). The chapter also provides details and examples of the latest efforts in model development such as the coupled carbon-nitrogen model, a microbial denitrification model with feedback to the carbon decomposition model, updates on calculation of ecosystem carbon balances, and carbon emissions from fossil fuels. The chapter has included examples of applications of the EPIC model in soil carbon sequestration, net ecosystem carbon balance, and biofuel studies. Finally, the chapter provides the reader with an update on upcoming improvements in EPIC such as the additions of modules for simulating biochar amendments, sorption of soluble C in subsoil horizons, nitrification including the release of N2O, and the formation and consumption of methane in soils. Completion of these model development activities will render an EPIC model with one of the most complete representation of biogeochemical processes and capable of simulating the dynamic feedback of soils to climate and management in terms not only of transient processes (e.g., soil water content, heterotrophic respiration, N2O emissions) but also of fundamental soil properties (e.g. soil depth, soil organic matter, soil bulk density, water limits).

  20. Observations of transits of K2 exoplanet discoveries EPIC 203371098b&c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Michael; Gorjian, Varoujan; Beichmani, Charles; Akeson, Rachel; Ciardi, Dave; Christiansen, Jessie; Crossfield, Ian; Petigura, Erik; Krick, Jessica

    2015-08-01

    We request DDT time to observe transits of two super-Neptune planets orbiting a bright G star, EPIC 203371098. Erik Petigura has brought to our attention a particularly interesting K2 discovery that consists of two sub-Saturn-sized planets (5.9 RE and 7.8 RE) orbiting EPIC-203371098, a bright G star (K = 9.2). The orbital periods of the planets are 20.9 d and 42.4 d, respectively. The planets have sizes between that of Neptune and Saturn; sizes not represented among the Solar System planets. Due to the brightness of the host star, this system is an ideal laboratory to study this new class of planets. Over the past two months, our team has conducted radial velocity (RV) follow up of EPIC-203371098 with Keck/HIRES. Our preliminary measurements suggest these planets have low densities, ~0.6 g/cc and ~0.4 g/cc, respectively. Low planet masses translate into larger atmospheric scale heights, which sets the amplitude of the features in planet transmission spectra. The apparent commensurability of their orbits suggest that this is a resonant system where transit timing variations may be particularly large. Our Spitzer observations, compared with the previous K2 first epoch observations, can provide initial evidence for TTVs and set the stage for future campaigns from Spitzer and other telescopes which will independently determine the planetary masses; they will also pin down the ephemerides of these interesting planets - including the hard to capture orbital eccentricity - for possible JWST study.It is important to carry out these observations in the upcoming apparition of this star in the October-December time frame because multiple observations are required for accurate studies of TTVs, and to prevent secular errors in timing from building up to a point where the system is hard to recover. The size of these planets and the brightness of the star shows us that we will achieve S/N>20 per transit on each planet.We will propose to observe one transit of each planet

  1. Structural and functional diversity of microbial communities beneath the hydrothermal vent at the Iheya North field of the Mid-Okinawa Trough (IODP Expedition 331)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagawa, K.; Nunoura, T.; Kawagucci, S.; Hirai, M.; Sunamura, M.; Breuker, A.; Brandt, L.; House, C. H.; McAllister, S. M.; Moyer, C. L.; Takai, K.

    2012-12-01

    Complex and diverse microbial communities in deep-sea hydrothermal fluids are apparently different from those in ambient seawater, some of which are predicted to migrate along hydrothermal vein from "subvent biosphere". Subseafloor environment just beneath active hydrothermal vent has been expected to be one of the most conceivable habitats for metabolically active and diverse microbial community. We conducted the scientific ocean drilling (IODP Expedition 331) for the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough in Sept. 2010, and collected core samples from the subseafloor biosphere beneath the hydrothermal vent. IODP Site C0014 was located 450 m east off the main hydrothermal vent. Temperature exceeded the limit of life at the depth of approximately 40 m below the seafloor. Both microscopy and quantitative PCR analyses successfully detected microbial populations in the shallower zone above 15 mbsf. However, the cultivation attempts of (hyper-)thermophiles were unsuccessful all over the depth. Culture-independent molecular biological experiments showed that microbial community composition distinctly changed with depth, possibly because of physicochemical conditions such as methane, sulfate and temperature. Microbial activities of methanogenesis and anaerobic methane oxidation were in accordance with the geochemical profiles of methane and sulfate. These results indicated the presence of functionally active subseafloor microbial communities but those were different from expected members in subvent biosphere. Site C0017 located 1.6 km east off the hydrothermal vent is a potential seawater recharge zone of the hydrothermal system, where seawater penetrates into the oceanic crust. The lithostratigraphy consists of characteristic coarse angular pumiceous gravel, lying above and below hemipelagic mud, in which high permeability may allow entrainment of seawater. As is the case with sedimentary subsurface environments, uncultivated archaeal groups were

  2. Molecular diversity and distribution pattern of ciliates in sediments from deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough and adjacent sea areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Feng; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-10-01

    In comparison with the macrobenthos and prokaryotes, patterns of diversity and distribution of microbial eukaryotes in deep-sea hydrothermal vents are poorly known. The widely used high-throughput sequencing of 18S rDNA has revealed a high diversity of microeukaryotes yielded from both living organisms and buried DNA in marine sediments. More recently, cDNA surveys have been utilized to uncover the diversity of active organisms. However, both methods have never been used to evaluate the diversity of ciliates in hydrothermal vents. By using high-throughput DNA and cDNA sequencing of 18S rDNA, we evaluated the molecular diversity of ciliates, a representative group of microbial eukaryotes, from the sediments of deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough and compared it with that of an adjacent deep-sea area about 15 km away and that of an offshore area of the Yellow Sea about 500 km away. The results of DNA sequencing showed that Spirotrichea and Oligohymenophorea were the most diverse and abundant groups in all the three habitats. The proportion of sequences of Oligohymenophorea was the highest in the hydrothermal vents whereas Spirotrichea was the most diverse group at all three habitats. Plagiopyleans were found only in the hydrothermal vents but with low diversity and abundance. By contrast, the cDNA sequencing showed that Plagiopylea was the most diverse and most abundant group in the hydrothermal vents, followed by Spirotrichea in terms of diversity and Oligohymenophorea in terms of relative abundance. A novel group of ciliates, distinctly separate from the 12 known classes, was detected in the hydrothermal vents, indicating undescribed, possibly highly divergent ciliates may inhabit this environment. Statistical analyses showed that: (i) the three habitats differed significantly from one another in terms of diversity of both the rare and the total ciliate taxa, and; (ii) the adjacent deep sea was more similar to the offshore area than to the

  3. Intraspecific variations in carbon-isotope and oxygen-isotope compositions of a brachiopod Basiliola lucida collected off Okinawa-jima, southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayanagi, Hideko; Asami, Ryuji; Abe, Osamu; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Keiichi; Iryu, Yasufumi

    2013-08-01

    This study presents intraspecific variations in carbon-isotope (δ13C) and oxygen-isotope (δ18O) compositions of nine specimens of a subtropical brachiopod, Basiliola lucida, collected west of Okinawa-jima, Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan. The δ13C values of samples collected along the maximum growth axis (ontogenetic samples) from two modern and seven older (pre-1945 cal AD) shells show no seasonal changes. The modern shells, which were collected from comparable depths, have similar δ13C values that fall within the range of calcite precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater (equilibrium calcite) (δ13CEC values), and their mean δ13C values are ˜1.1-1.6‰ less than those from the older shells. This decrease in δ13C values is similar in magnitude to the decreases in atmospheric CO2 and the oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon at the sea surface in recent years (13C Suess effect), suggesting that the effect can even be detected at water depths of 200-300 m in the subtropical northwestern Pacific Ocean. The δ18O values fluctuate within a narrow range (0.26-0.41‰) with no seasonal changes, and they exhibit small (0.14-0.51‰) offsets from those of equilibrium calcite (δ18OEC values). A statistically significant negative linear relationship is established between seawater temperature and mean δ18O values of the nine shells, but the slope (-0.31‰/°C) is steeper than those of equilibrium calcite (-0.23‰/°C) and other calcareous organisms (-0.15‰ to -0.26‰/°C). The cross-plots of the δ13C and δ18O values suggest that the degree of the vital effect varies among individuals in this species. The δ13C and δ18O values of B. lucida are potentially useful for reconstructing the δ13C and δ18O evolution of ancient oceans, because both values show small intraspecific variations, the former is identical to the δ13CEC values, and the latter shows small within-shell variations and small, nearly constant offsets from the δ18OEC values.

  4. Current status of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis in Okinawa prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakama, Rika; Shingaki, Aoi; Miyazato, Hiroko; Higa, Rikako; Nagamoto, Chota; Hamamoto, Kouta; Ueda, Shuhei; Hachiman, Teruyuki; Touma, Yuki; Miyagi, Kazufumi; Kawahara, Ryuji; Toyosato, Takehiko; Hirai, Itaru

    2016-05-01

    Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) are distributed worldwide. In this study, 114 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were isolated by analyzing 1672 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae collected from an Okinawa prefectural hospital in Japan between June 2013 and July 2014. The overall prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae was 6.8%; the prevalence of different bacterial species among the ESBL-producing isolates was as follows: 11.5% Escherichia coli (90 of 783 isolates), 6.2% Klebsiella pneumoniae (19 of 307 isolates), and 11.1% Proteus mirabilis (5 of 45 isolates). The ESBL types blaCTX-M-1, -3, -15, -2, -14, -27, and mutants of blaSHV-1 were detected. Among them, blaCTX-M-15 (33.3%), blaCTX-M-14 (27.8%) and blaCTX-M-27 (33.3%) were dominant in the E. coli isolates, whereas a blaSHV mutant which possessed four mutations (Tyr7Phe, Leu35Gln, Gly238Ser and Glu240Lys) in the amino acid sequence of SHV-1 dominated in the K. pneumoniae isolates (11 of 19, 57.9%). The pandemic E. coli ST131 clone was found to constitute 3.3% of the overall examined isolates and 62.2% of the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. Our results suggest that the genetic combination of blaCTX-M, and blaSHV and antibiotics-resistant profile were different from that in other regions such as other areas of Japan, Asia, Europe, and North America, especially in the ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates and in the E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 isolates possessing blaCTX-M-15 (40.7% of the E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 isolates). Taken together, our results indicate that the ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Okinawa, Japan, might be of a unique nature. PMID:26898665

  5. Current status of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis in Okinawa prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakama, Rika; Shingaki, Aoi; Miyazato, Hiroko; Higa, Rikako; Nagamoto, Chota; Hamamoto, Kouta; Ueda, Shuhei; Hachiman, Teruyuki; Touma, Yuki; Miyagi, Kazufumi; Kawahara, Ryuji; Toyosato, Takehiko; Hirai, Itaru

    2016-05-01

    Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) are distributed worldwide. In this study, 114 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were isolated by analyzing 1672 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae collected from an Okinawa prefectural hospital in Japan between June 2013 and July 2014. The overall prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae was 6.8%; the prevalence of different bacterial species among the ESBL-producing isolates was as follows: 11.5% Escherichia coli (90 of 783 isolates), 6.2% Klebsiella pneumoniae (19 of 307 isolates), and 11.1% Proteus mirabilis (5 of 45 isolates). The ESBL types blaCTX-M-1, -3, -15, -2, -14, -27, and mutants of blaSHV-1 were detected. Among them, blaCTX-M-15 (33.3%), blaCTX-M-14 (27.8%) and blaCTX-M-27 (33.3%) were dominant in the E. coli isolates, whereas a blaSHV mutant which possessed four mutations (Tyr7Phe, Leu35Gln, Gly238Ser and Glu240Lys) in the amino acid sequence of SHV-1 dominated in the K. pneumoniae isolates (11 of 19, 57.9%). The pandemic E. coli ST131 clone was found to constitute 3.3% of the overall examined isolates and 62.2% of the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. Our results suggest that the genetic combination of blaCTX-M, and blaSHV and antibiotics-resistant profile were different from that in other regions such as other areas of Japan, Asia, Europe, and North America, especially in the ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates and in the E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 isolates possessing blaCTX-M-15 (40.7% of the E. coli B2-O25b-ST131 isolates). Taken together, our results indicate that the ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Okinawa, Japan, might be of a unique nature.

  6. Behavior of Particulate Mercury in the Bulk Atmospheric Aerosols Simultaneously Collected at 2 Sites in Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Azechi, S.; Somada, Y.; Oshiro, Y.; Tsuhako, A.; Murayama, H.; Tanahara, A.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury is toxic to animals. Mercury is emitted to the atmosphere mainly from two sources; natural and anthropogenic sources. Natural sources include volcanic eruption, forest fire and so on. Anthropogenic sources include fossil fuel combustion, metal and cement production and so on. There are three forms of mercury in the atmosphere: gaseous elemental mercury, reactive gaseous mercury and particulate mercury. Gaseous elemental mercury is the most abundant form in the atmosphere, and has long atmospheric lifetime, ca. a few years. This study focuses on particulate mercury, which has a relatively short lifetime, ca. a few days, in the atmosphere because it reflects characteristics of nearby emission sources. Objectives of this study were to elucidate the behavior of particulate mercury in aerosols and to understand relationships between mercury and other metals and water-soluble anions. Aerosol samples were collected at two sites; Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Jan.2008-Nov.2012), northern tip of Okinawa island, and University of the Ryukyus (UR, Jan.2008-Nov.2012), central and more populated area of Okinawa island. They were collected by using identical high-volume air samplers on quartz filters. Concentrations of particulate mercury in aerosols were determined by using a MA-3000 (Nippon Instruments Corporation). The results showed that particulate Hg concentrations were mostly higher for the aerosols collected at UR site than those at CHAAMS site, suggesting locally emitted Hg. Samples collected at UR showed clear seasonal variation, the lowest in summer and the highest winter. On the other hand, the CHAAMS samples showed lower concentration in winter and higher concentration in summer, but the difference was relatively small. Both UR and CHAAMS samples had similar concentration levels in summer season. Back trajectory analysis showed that particulate Hg at CHAAMS site during summer was not from Asian continent. Since samples

  7. What is the constraint on formation of oil-starved hydrothermal systems in the sediment-rich Okinawa Trough, southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, T.; Akashi, H.; Mitsunari, T.

    2012-12-01

    Petroleum generation associated with seafloor hydrothermal systems was first identified at the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California in 1978 (Simoneit et al., 1979). Since the first discovery, hydrothermal petroleums have been discovered at other seafloor hydrothermal fields, Escanaba Trough, Middle Valley, and the Red Sea, where thick sedimentary layer overlay the active spreading center. Simoneit (1990) suggested that hydrothermal petroleum can be occurred any hydrothermal systems as a result of interaction between hot hydrothermal fluid and organic mater in the sedimentary layer. In the middle Okinawa Trough, where typical sediment-hosted hydrothermal systems distribute, occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum has not been found. In 2010 IODP Exp. 331 had been performed, and then five sites were drilled at the Iheya North hydrothermal system. However, hydrothermal petroleum generation has not been reported even at that time. On the other hand, significant hydrothermal petroleum generation has been observed at a shallow-seafloor hydrothermal system in the Kagoshima Bay, north extension of Okinawa Trough (Yamanaka et al., 1999). It is an interesting subject why hydrothermal petroleum can not be found in the Okinawa Trough. So we considered what is the most critical constraint on occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum based on comparison with the well known hydrothermal fields occurred hydrothermal petroleum. Three major control factors for petroleum generation at seafloor hydrothermal systems are expected; (i) temperature, (ii) elapsed time, (iii) type of sediment. High temperature is essential for maturation of organic matter, but under extremely high temperature condition pyrolysis to gaseous hydrocarbon and other low-molecular weight product may be prevailed. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) and methane concentrations may reflect the temperature condition, because methane generation may continue under extreme condition but DOM, especially low-molecular weight organic acid

  8. EPICS Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sherry

    2005-01-01

    With a satisfying "Whoompf!" the air cannon sends a tennis ball the length of the school gym. The successful launch is met with cheers from the science club members and their partners--college engineering students from a local university. This air cannon activity was one of many learning opportunities that grew out of a partnership between the…

  9. Cultural Trauma and Christian Identity in the Late Medieval Heroic Epic, The Siege of Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines scenes of violence in the late medieval poem The Siege of Jerusalem in order to reveal the ways in which trauma is used as the grounds upon which Christian/Jewish difference is established. In particular, I argue that this poem serves as an example of a widespread element in Christian chivalric identity, namely the need to manage the repetitive invocation of Christ's crucifixion (ritually repeated through liturgical and poetic invocation) as a means of asserting both the bodily and psychic integrity of the Christian subject in contrast to the violently abjected figure of the Jewish body. The failure of The Siege protagonist, Wespasian, to navigate the cultural trauma of the crucifixion is contrasted to the successful management of trauma by the martial hero, Tancred, in Tasso's epic, Gerusalemme Liberata, illustrating the range of imaginative possibilities for understanding trauma in pre-modern war literature.

  10. Implementation of an EPICS IOC on an Embedded Soft Core Processor Using Field Programmable Gate Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Curry; Alicia Hofler; Hai Dong; Trent Allison; J. Hovater; Kelly Mahoney

    2005-09-20

    At Jefferson Lab, we have been evaluating soft core processors running an EPICS IOC over {mu}Clinux on our custom hardware. A soft core processor is a flexible CPU architecture that is configured in the FPGA as opposed to a hard core processor which is fixed in silicon. Combined with an on-board Ethernet port, the technology incorporates the IOC and digital control hardware within a single FPGA. By eliminating the general purpose computer IOC, the designer is no longer tied to a specific platform, e.g. PC, VME, or VXI, to serve as the intermediary between the high level controls and the field hardware. This paper will discuss the design and development process as well as specific applications for JLab's next generation low-level RF controls and Machine Protection Systems.

  11. HPC-EPIC for High Resolution Simulations of Environmental and Sustainability Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Jeffrey A.; Kang, Shujiang; Post, W. M.; Wang, Dali; Bandaru, Varaprasad; Manowitz, David H.; Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2011-11-01

    Multiple concerns over the impact of wide scale changes in land management have motivated comprehensive analyses of environmental sustainability of food and biofuel production. These call for high-resolution, spatial-temporal information of lands using tools that enable comprehensive analyses of natural resources for decision-making. Most agroecosystem simulation models are point models with a user interface that allows users to provide inputs and examine results for agricultural field scale analyses, and they aren’t able to meet the needs of the regional and national simulation with high spatial resolutions. We describe an efficient computational approach over deployment of the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model at high-resolution scales using a high performance computing (HPC) technique in this study. We concentrate on an integrated procedure for executing millions of simulations required, but also address building databases for model initialization and forcing the simulations, and post-processing model outputs.

  12. 2014 consensus statement from the first Economics of Physical Inactivity Consensus (EPIC) conference (Vancouver).

    PubMed

    Davis, Jennifer C; Verhagen, Evert; Bryan, Stirling; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Borland, Jeff; Buchner, David; Hendriks, Marike R C; Weiler, Richard; Morrow, James R; van Mechelen, Willem; Blair, Steven N; Pratt, Mike; Windt, Johann; al-Tunaiji, Hashel; Macri, Erin; Khan, Karim M

    2014-06-01

    This article describes major topics discussed from the 'Economics of Physical Inactivity Consensus Workshop' (EPIC), held in Vancouver, Canada, in April 2011. Specifically, we (1) detail existing evidence on effective physical inactivity prevention strategies; (2) introduce economic evaluation and its role in health policy decisions; (3) discuss key challenges in establishing and building health economic evaluation evidence (including accurate and reliable costs and clinical outcome measurement) and (4) provide insight into interpretation of economic evaluations in this critically important field. We found that most methodological challenges are related to (1) accurately and objectively valuing outcomes; (2) determining meaningful clinically important differences in objective measures of physical inactivity; (3) estimating investment and disinvestment costs and (4) addressing barriers to implementation. We propose that guidelines specific for economic evaluations of physical inactivity intervention studies are developed to ensure that related costs and effects are robustly, consistently and accurately measured. This will also facilitate comparisons among future economic evidence.

  13. The peculiar dipping events in the disk-bearing young-stellar object EPIC 204278916

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaringi, S.; Manara, C. F.; Barenfeld, S. A.; Groot, P. J.; Isella, A.; Kenworthy, M. A.; Knigge, C.; Maccarone, T. J.; Ricci, L.; Ansdell, M.

    2016-08-01

    EPIC 204278916 has been serendipitously discovered from its K2 light curve which displays irregular dimmings of up to 65% for ≈25 consecutive days out of 78.8 days of observations. For the remaining duration of the observations, the variability is highly periodic and attributed to stellar rotation. The star is a young, low-mass (M-type) pre-main-sequence star with clear evidence of a resolved tilted disk from ALMA observations. We examine the K2 light curve in detail and hypothesise that the irregular dimmings are caused by either a warped inner-disk edge or transiting cometary-like objects in either circular or eccentric orbits. The explanations discussed here are particularly relevant for other recently discovered young objects with similar absorption dips.

  14. Pb-210 fluxes and sedimentation rates on the lower continental slope between Taiwan and the South Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Y.; Chang, W. C.

    1995-03-01

    Pb-210 and Ra-226 have been measured on 11 cores taken from the continental slope between northern Taiwan and the western South Okinawa Trough. Ra-226 activities generally fall between 0.5 and 2 dpm g -1. Pb-210 activities are widely variable in these cores: negligible excess Pb-210 (or no Pb-210 flux) is observed on the upper and middle slope while large excess Pb-210 values (50-90 dpm g -1) are present on the lower slope. Sedimentation rates estimated from the excess Pb-210 profiles of the cores range from 0.09 to 0.52 cm y -1 (0.08 - 0.42 g cm -2 y -1) for the lower slope and decrease toward the deeper (eastern) slope. Excess Pb-210 inventories and the Pb-210 fluxes calculated from the lower slope are 320-840 dpm cm -2 and 10-26 dpm cm -2 y -1 , respectively, assuming a steady-state input at each site for the past 100 years. Atmospheric input of Pb-210 and local production from Ra-226 do not account for the observed fluxes. Two alternative explanations are proposed: (1) boundary scavenging coupled with the Kuroshio water flowing through the area; or (2) downslope transport of high Pb-210 activity fine-grained particles from the shelf and upper/middle slope to the lower slope where they are deposited.

  15. Entamoeba marina n. sp.; a New Species of Entamoeba Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment of Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiratori, Takashi; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro

    2016-05-01

    The genus Entamoeba includes anaerobic lobose amoebae, most of which are parasites of various vertebrates and invertebrates. We report a new Entamoeba species, E. marina n. sp. that was isolated from a sample of tidal flat sediment collected at Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan. Trophozoites of E. marina were 12.8-32.1 μm in length and 6.8-15.9 μm in width, whereas the cysts were 8.9-15.8 μm in diam. and contained four nuclei. The E. marina cells contained a rounded nucleus with a small centric karyosome and uniformly arranged peripheral chromatin. Although E. marina is morphologically indistinguishable from other tetranucleated cyst-forming Entamoeba species, E. marina can be distinguished from them based on the combination of molecular phylogenetic analyses using SSU rDNA gene and the difference of collection sites. Therefore, we propose E. marina as a new species of the genus Entamoeba.

  16. Effect of Okinawa Propolis on PAK1 Activity, Caenorhabditis elegans Longevity, Melanogenesis, and Growth of Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Taira, Nozomi; Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Be Tu, Pham Thi; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2016-07-13

    Propolis from different areas has been reported to inhibit oncogenic/aging kinase PAK1, which is responsible for a variety of conditions, including cancer, longevity, and melanogenesis. Here, a crude extract of Okinawa propolis (OP) was tested against PAK1 activity, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) longevity, melanogenesis, and growth of cancer cells. We found that OP blocks PAK1 and exhibits anticancer activity in the A549 cell (human lung cancer cell) line with IC50 values of 6 μg/mL and 12 μg/mL, respectively. Most interestingly, OP (1 μg/mL) significantly reduces reproduction and prolongs the lifespan of C. elegans by activating the HSP-16.2 gene, as shown in the PAK1-deficient strain. Furthermore, OP inhibits melanogenesis in a melanoma cell line (B16F10) by downregulating intracellular tyrosinase activity with an IC50 of 30 μg/mL. Our results suggest that OP demonstrated a life span extending effect, C. elegans, anticancer, and antimelanogenic effects via PAK1 inactivation; therefore, this can be a potent natural medicinal supplement against PAK1-dependent diseases.

  17. A new sponge-inhabiting Loxosomella (Entoprocta: Loxosomatidae) from Okinawa Island, Japan, with special focus on foot structure.

    PubMed

    Iseto, Tohru; Sugiyama, Nagisa; Hirose, Euichi

    2008-11-01

    Abstract A new solitary entoproct, Loxosomella plakorticola sp. nov., was found on a sponge, Plakortis sp., on a coral reef slope on the western coast of Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. This species has a medium-sized body (up to about 1.2 mm), slender proportion (the stalk is 0.83-1.76 times longer than the calyx), a slug-like foot with a foot gland and foot groove, and 14 to 18 tentacles. Small black pigment granules are visible only in the living stage in the calyx, stalk, and buds. This is the first report of a commensal loxosomatid from the Ryukyu Archipelago and the second species inhabiting sponges reported from Japan. Detailed morphological observations indicate that this species attaches to sponges by narrowing the foot groove; the sponge surface is pinched in the deepest part of the groove, which is free of the cuticle layer but covered by microvilli of epidermal cells. The accessory cells lining the foot groove have long been believed to be gland cells, but they are not gland cells in ultrastructure, at least in this species.

  18. Livestock wastes as a source of estrogens and their effects on wildlife of Manko tidal flat, Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Yutaka; Takemura, Akihiro; Fujii, Haruhiko; Takahira, Kaneshi; Nakanishi, Yasuhiro

    2003-01-01

    The Manko tidal flat in the southern part of Okinawa Island is an important visiting and wintering area for migratory birds and was added to the Ramsar Convention Register of Wetlands in 1999. This area used to be an inlet extending to the inner part of Naha Port, but recent reclamation projects have restricted its connection to the East China Sea. As is typical in rural regions of subtropical islands, the inhabitants in the Manko basin raise livestock, especially pigs, without employing sufficient waste treatment methods. As sewage treatment works are considered to be one of the main sources of environmental estrogens in urban areas, the significance of livestock farming as a source of estrogens in rural area is examined in this study. In the present study, total estrogenic activities in water and sediment samples from the Manko tidal flat and its basin were measured using a recombinant yeast screen method. Estrogenic activities (equivalent to 17beta-estradiol, E2) were around 10 ng l(-1) in water samples and more than 10 microg kg(-1) in some sediment samples. In addition, the concentrations of estrone (E1) and E2 in water samples measured using LC/MS/MS indicated a high contribution of environmental estrogens from livestock wastes.

  19. Characteristics of the cultivable bacteria from sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents in Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-lei; Wang, Ming-qing; Sun, Li

    2015-12-01

    In this study, different culture-dependent methods were used to examine the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in the sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents (named HV1 and HV2) located at Iheya Ridge and Iheya North in Okinawa Trough. The two vents differed in morphology, with HV1 exhibiting diffuse flows while HV2 being a black smoker with a chimney-like structure. A total of 213 isolates were identified by near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Of these isolates, 128 were from HV1 and 85 were from HV2. The bacterial community structures were, in large parts, similar between HV1 and HV2. Nevertheless, differences between HV1 and HV2 were observed in one phylum, one class, 4 orders, 10 families, and 20 genera. Bioactivity analysis revealed that 25 isolates belonging to 9 different genera exhibited extracellular protease activities, 21 isolates from 11 genera exhibited extracellular lipase activities, and 13 isolates of 8 genera displayed antimicrobial activities. This is the first observation of a large population of bacteria with extracellular bioactivities existing in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Taken together, the results of this study provide new insights into the characteristics of the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems.

  20. Tombs, tunnels, and terraces a cultural resources survey of a former ammunition supply point in Okinawa, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Verhaaren, B. T.; Levenson, J. B.; Komine, G.

    2000-02-09

    U.S. forces serving at military bases on foreign soil are obligated to act as good stewards of the cultural and natural resources under their control. However, cultural resources management presents special challenges at U.S. bases in other countries where cultural properties laws differ in emphasis and detail from those in the United States and issues of land ownership and occupancy are not always clear. Where status of forces agreements (SOFAs) exist, environmental governing standards bridge the gap between U.S. and host nation cultural priorities. In Japan, the Department of Defense Japan Environmental Governing Standards (JEGS) fill this function. Under Criteria 12-4.2 and 12-4.3 of the JEGS, U.S. Forces Japan commit themselves to inventory and protect cultural properties found on the lands they control or use. Cultural properties include archaeological sites, tombs, historic buildings, and shrines. Natural monuments, such as landscape features or plant and animal species, may also be designated as cultural properties. As part of this commitment, in February 1999 a cultural resources inventory was conducted in Area 1, part of Kadena Air Base (AB), Okinawa, Japan. Area 1, the former U.S. army Ammunition Supply Point 1, is currently used primarily for training exercises and recreational paint ball.

  1. Characteristics of the cultivable bacteria from sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents in Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-lei; Wang, Ming-qing; Sun, Li

    2015-12-01

    In this study, different culture-dependent methods were used to examine the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in the sediments associated with two deep-sea hydrothermal vents (named HV1 and HV2) located at Iheya Ridge and Iheya North in Okinawa Trough. The two vents differed in morphology, with HV1 exhibiting diffuse flows while HV2 being a black smoker with a chimney-like structure. A total of 213 isolates were identified by near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Of these isolates, 128 were from HV1 and 85 were from HV2. The bacterial community structures were, in large parts, similar between HV1 and HV2. Nevertheless, differences between HV1 and HV2 were observed in one phylum, one class, 4 orders, 10 families, and 20 genera. Bioactivity analysis revealed that 25 isolates belonging to 9 different genera exhibited extracellular protease activities, 21 isolates from 11 genera exhibited extracellular lipase activities, and 13 isolates of 8 genera displayed antimicrobial activities. This is the first observation of a large population of bacteria with extracellular bioactivities existing in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Taken together, the results of this study provide new insights into the characteristics of the cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems. PMID:26410427

  2. Comparison of drug sensitivity and genotypes of clinically isolated strains of levofloxacin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae obtained from Okinawa Island, the Japanese main island and Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, Satoko; Fujita, Jiro; Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao; Haranaga, Shusaku; Nakasone, Isamu; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Uno, Tsukasa

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae is increasing worldwide. In the present study, a comparison of drug sensitivity and genotypes of clinically isolated strains of levofloxacin (LVFX)-resistant S. pneumoniae obtained from Hong Kong, Okinawa Island and the Japanese main island (Honshu) was performed. MICs of quinolones (LVFX, tosufloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin and sitafloxacin (STFX)) and other antibiotics (penicillin G, cefcapene, cefditoren, clarithromycin and azithromycin) were determined by a microdilution broth method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute Standards. The quinolone-resistance determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE of these strains were analyzed by PCR-based sequencing. All 40 strains tested had more than one amino-acid substitution in the QRDRs of gyrA, gyrB, parC or parE. Although there seemed to be some clonality in strains obtained from Hong Kong, there was no clonality in strains obtained from Okinawa and Japan. Strains obtained from Hong Kong, Okinawa Island and the Japanese main island were genetically different by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. The range of MIC values of STFX against isolates resistant to LVFX (MIC 4-32 mg l(-1)) was 0.12-0.5 mg l(-1), and MIC(80) values of STFX against LVFX-resistant isolates were 0.25 mg l(-1). This study suggests that LVFX-resistant S. pneumoniae is similar in all three locations and STFX is potent against LVFX-resistant S. pneumoniae with multiple mutations in QRDRs of gyrase A and topoisomerase IV.

  3. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of ambient aerosols collected from Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim, an outflow region of Asian dusts and pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunwar, Bhagawati; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Zhu, Chunmao

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope ratios were measured for total carbon (TC) and nitrogen (TN), respectively, in aerosol (TSP) samples collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, an outflow region of Asian pollutants, during 2009-2010. The averaged δ13C and δ15N ratios are -22.2‰ and +12.5‰, respectively. The δ13C values are similar in both spring (-22.5‰) and winter (-22.5‰), suggesting the similar sources and/or source regions. We found that δ13C from Okinawa aerosols are ca. 2‰ higher than those reported from Chinese megacities probably due to photochemical aging of organic aerosols. A strong correlation (r = 0.81) was found between nss-Ca and TSP, suggesting that springtime aerosols are influenced from Asian dusts. However, carbonates in the Asian dusts were titrated with acidic species such as sulfuric acid and oxalic acid during atmospheric transport although two samples suggested the presence of remaining carbonate. No correlations were found between δ13C and tracer compounds (levoglucosan, elemental carbon, oxalic acid, and Na+). During winter and spring, coal burning is significant source in China. Based on isotopic mass balance, contribution of coal burning origin particles to total aerosol carbon was estimated as ca. 97% in winter, which is probably associated with the high emissions in China. Contribution of NO3- to TN was on average 45% whereas that of NH4+ was 18%. These results suggest that vehicular exhaust is an important source of TN in Okinawa aerosols. Concentration of water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) is higher in summer, suggesting that WSON is more emitted from the ocean in warmer season whereas inorganic nitrogen is more emitted in winter and spring from pollution sources in the Asian continent.

  4. Meso-γ-scale convective systems observed by a 443-MHz wind-profiling radar with RASS in the Okinawa subtropical region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikami, Aya; Kawabata, Takuya; Satoh, Shinsuke; Furumoto, Jun-Ichi; Nagai, Seiji; Murayama, Yasuhiro; Tsuda, Toshitaka

    2011-06-01

    We observed a meso-γ-scale convective system in July 2007 using a 443-MHz wind profiler radar (WPR) with a radio acoustic sounding system (RASS) at the NICT Ogimi observatory in Okinawa, Japan. We analyzed the virtual temperature, Tv, the Brunt-Vaisala frequency squared, N2, and three components of wind velocity profiles from the WPR-RASS data. We also employed a non-hydrostatic meso-scale (NHM) numerical model. Although the island of Okinawa was covered with a Pacific high-pressure system from 21-26 July, the atmospheric condition was convectively unstable below about 5 km. A number of convective clouds generally appeared from 11:00-18:00 in local time (i.e., Japan Standard Time; JST) with a typical horizontal scale of 10 km and temporal scale of 40-60 min. We focused on the convective system that passed over the Ogimi radar site on 23rd and 25th July. Just before rain occurred on these days, a low N2 region extended upward to 2.0 km, and this characteristics is also commonly seen around a convective cloud in the NHM model. The cloud water content from the NHM model indicated that the cloud top height correlates with the low N2 structure. Before the convective system was generated, N2 decreased below an altitude of about 1 km, because air with low Tv intruded at 1-3 km, and the surface temperature increased due to solar radiation. The sea-breeze from both the east and west coasts of Okinawa collided to force the convergence below 1 km. Thus, the synergetic effects of the low static stability and convergence seemed to trigger the generation of a convective system, which eventually grew to 11 km over the radar site.

  5. Contrast-enhanced microCT (EPIC-µCT) ex vivo applied to the mouse and human jaw joint

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, L; Lin, A S; Langenbach, G E J; Koolstra, J H; Guldberg, R E; Everts, V

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is susceptive to the development of osteoarthritis (OA). More detailed knowledge of its development is essential to improve our insight into TMJ-OA. It is imperative to have a standardized reliable three-dimensional (3D) imaging method that allows for detailed assessment of both bone and cartilage in healthy and diseased joints. We aimed to determine the applicability of a contrast-enhanced microCT (µCT) technique for ex vivo research of mouse and human TMJs. Methods: Equilibrium partitioning of an ionic contrast agent via µCT (EPIC-µCT) was previously applied for cartilage assessment in the knee joint. The method was ex vivo, applied to the mouse TMJ and adapted for the human TMJ. Results: EPIC-µCT (30-min immersion time) was applied to mouse mandibular condyles, and 3D imaging revealed an average cartilage thickness of 110 ± 16 µm. These measurements via EPIC-µCT were similar to the histomorphometric measures (113 ± 19 µm). For human healthy OA-affected TMJ samples, the protocol was adjusted to an immersion time of 1 h. 3D imaging revealed a significant thicker cartilage layer in joints with early signs of OA compared with healthy joints (414.2 ± 122.6 and 239.7 ± 50.5 µm, respectively). A subsequent significant thinner layer was found in human joints with late signs of OA (197.4 ± 159.7 µm). Conclusions: The EPIC-µCT technique is effective for the ex vivo assessment of 3D cartilage morphology in the mouse as well as human TMJ and allows bone–cartilage interaction research in TMJ-OA. PMID:24353248

  6. The tug-of-war between the West Philippine Sea and South China Sea Tropical Waters and Intermediate Waters in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. T. A.

    2015-12-01

    It has been known that Kuroshio subsurface waters are the major source of nutrients to the East China Sea continental shelf, a major fishing ground. It has also been known that subsurface waters that upwell onto the shelf are heavily affected by the South China Sea (SCS) Tropical Water and the SCS Intermediate Water which contain more nutrients than the tropical (Smax) and intermediate (Smin) waters from the West Philippine Sea (WPS). A front has been found to separate the tropical and intermediate waters from the SCS and WPS. The reported front in the Okinawa Trough, however, was identified based only on one-time data from a single cross-section in the central Okinawa Trough. Here historical hydrographic data between Mar. 1950 and Dec. 2011 in the Okinawa Trough and its neighborhood are analyzed. A vertical front tilted toward the west is found in all seasons in all years across the World Ocean Circulation Repeated Lines PR 18 and 19 as well as at the PN cross-section in the central Okinawa Trough. The front at the Smax level (sigma theta=24.6-24.9) shows large seasonal and interannual variations. In winter during normal and La Niña periods the presence of the SCS Tropical Water is the most prominent. It is the weakest in autumn during normal periods and in spring during La Nina periods. Yet during El Niño periods the SCS Tropical Water is the most prominent in spring and it becomes the weakest in winter. As for intermediate waters (Smin at sigma theta= 26.7-26.9) the WPS Intermediate Water and SCS Intermediate Water show much weaker seasonality compared with tropical waters although during normal periods in winter the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is slightly larger than during other times. During El Niño periods the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is the smallest but in spring it is much strengthened. On the other hand, the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is the smallest in spring, and the largest in winter during La Niña periods.

  7. The Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC): A Member of the NASA Space Environment and Effects Program (SEE) Toolset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Mandell, Myron J.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Davis, D. A.; Gardner, Barbara M.; Minor, Jody

    2003-01-01

    Science Applications International Corporation is currently developing the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code, EPIC, as part of a project sponsored by the Space Environments and Effects Program at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Now in its second year of development, EPIC is an interactive computer toolset that allows the construction of a 3-D spacecraft model, and the assessment of a variety of interactions between its subsystems and the plume from an electric thruster. This paper reports on the progress of EPZC including the recently added ability to exchange results the NASA Charging Analyzer Program, Nascap-2k. The capability greatly enhances EPIC's range of applicability. Expansion of the toolset's various physics models proceeds in parallel with the overall development of the software. Also presented are recent upgrades of the elastic scattering algorithm in the electric propulsion Plume Tool. These upgrades are motivated by the need to assess the effects of elastically scattered ions on the SIC for ion beam energies that exceed loo0 eV. Such energy levels are expected in future high-power (>10 kW) ion propulsion systems empowered by nuclear sources.

  8. Measuring and Predicting Prostate Cancer Related Quality of Life Changes using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite for Clinical Practice (EPIC-CP)

    PubMed Central

    Chipman, Jonathan J.; Sanda, Martin G.; Dunn, Rodney L.; Wei, John T.; Litwin, Mark S.; Crociani, Catrina M.; Regan, Meredith M.; Chang, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To expand the clinical usefulness of the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite for Clinical Practice (EPIC-CP) by evaluating its responsiveness to health related quality of life (HRQOL) changes, defining the minimally important differences (MID) for an individual patient's change in each domain, and applying it to a sexual outcome prediction model. Methods In 1,201 subjects from a previously described multi-center, longitudinal cohort, we modeled each treatment group's EPIC-CP domain scores at pre-treatment, short-term, and long-term follow-up. We considered post-treatment domain score changes from pre-treatment ≥ 0.5 standard deviations (SD) clinically significant and with a p-value ≤ 0.01 as statistically significant. We determined domain MIDs using the 0.5 pooled SD of the 2, 6, 12, and 24 month post-treatment changes from pre-treatment. We recalibrated an EPIC-CP-based nomogram model predicting 2-year post-prostatectomy functional erections from that developed using EPIC-26. Results For every HRQOL domain, EPIC-CP was sensitive to similar post-treatment HRQOL changes over time as had been observed using EPIC-26. The EPIC-CP MIDs for changes in the urinary incontinence, urinary irritation/obstruction, bowel, sexual, and vitality/hormonal domains are 1.0, 1.3, 1.2, 1.6, and 1.0, respectively. The EPIC-CP-based sexual prediction model performs well (AUC=0.76) and shows robust agreement with its EPIC-26-based counterpart, with predicted probability differences between models of ≤10% for 95% of individuals and a mean difference of 0.0 (SD=0.05) across all individuals. Conclusions EPIC-CP is responsive to HRQOL changes during convalescence, and can be used to predict 2-year post-prostatectomy sexual outcomes. Its use can facilitate shared medical decision-making and patient-centered care. PMID:24076307

  9. Environmental Magnetism of Late Quaternary Sediments From the Southern Okinawa Trough: Paleoceanographic Implications and History of the Kuroshio Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, C.; Venuti, A.; Verosub, K. L.; Wei, K.

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study is to advance our understanding of the late Cenozoic environmental and paleoceanographic history of the Southern Okinawa Trough and the Kuroshio Current. Our investigation is based on the environmental magnetic record of a suite of u-channel samples that span the upper 140 m (0.42 m.y.) of ODP Site 1202. This site was drilled in the southernmost Okinawa Trough off the northeast coast of Taiwan and provides, with sedimentation rates of up to 9 m/k.y., one of the highest-resolution records of environmental and paleoceanographic change ever recovered. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained magnetite (anhysteretic remanent magnetization, ARM), magnetic grain size (ARM/k), magnetic hardness (ARM(30)/ARM(0)), and overall mineralogy (susceptibility, k) reflect fluctuations in climate, sea level, source material, and depositional environment. Eleven AMS C-14 dates of planktonic foraminifers and scaphopod samples combined with oxygen isotope stratigraphy (Wei et al., 2005) provide a relatively low- resolution, but well-defined age model. Based on the magnetic characteristics we distinguished five distinctive intervals with boundaries at 11.3, 14.3, 18.6, and 27.4 ka. From the beginning of the record at about 40 ka to 27.4 ka (MIS-3) all magnetic parameters remain remarkably constant indicating very little variation in sediment source and processes. Sea level during this time interval fluctuated at around -80 m. At 27.4 ka a significant decrease in magnetic grain size is accompanied by an increase in the amount of magnetic material. This change coincides with a drop in sea level below -80 m in the buildup to the sea level lowstand of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Sediment source during this time interval was predominantly the East China Sea (Wei, 2006; Diekmann et al., in press). MIS-2 is characterized by constantly increasing magnetic grain size and a decreasing amount of magnetic material. At 14.3 ka after melt water pulse (MWP) 1A

  10. The Y chromosome of the Okinawa spiny rat, Tokudaia muenninki, was rescued through fusion with an autosome.

    PubMed

    Murata, Chie; Yamada, Fumio; Kawauchi, Norihiro; Matsuda, Yoichi; Kuroiwa, Asato

    2012-01-01

    The genus Tokudaia comprises three species, two of which have lost their Y chromosome and have an XO/XO sex chromosome constitution. Although Tokudaia muenninki (Okinawa spiny rat) retains the Y chromosome, both sex chromosomes are unusually large. We conducted a molecular cytogenetic analysis to characterize the sex chromosomes of T. muenninki. Using cross-species fluorescence in situ hybridization (Zoo-FISH), we found that both short arms of the T. muenninki sex chromosomes were painted by probes from mouse chromosomes 11 and 16. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis was unable to detect sex-specific regions in the sex chromosomes because both sex probes highlighted the large heterochromatic blocks on the Y chromosome as well as five autosomal pairs. We then performed comparative FISH mapping using 29 mouse complementary DNA (cDNA) clones of the 22 X-linked genes and the seven genes linked to mouse chromosome 11 (whose homologue had fused to the sex chromosomes), and FISH mapping using two T. muenninki cDNA clones of the Y-linked genes. This analysis revealed that the ancestral gene order on the long arm of the X chromosome and the centromeric region of the short arm of the Y chromosome were conserved. Whereas six of the mouse chromosome 11 genes were also mapped to Xp and Yp, in addition, one gene, CBX2, was also mapped to Xp, Yp, and chromosome 14 in T. muenninki. CBX2 is the candidate gene for the novel sex determination system in the two other species of Tokudaia, which lack a Y chromosome and SRY gene. Overall, these results indicated that the Y chromosome of T. muenninki avoided a loss event, which occurred in an ancestral lineage of T. osimensis and T. tokunoshimensis, through fusion with an autosome. Despite retaining the Y chromosome, sex determination in T. muenninki might not follow the usual mammalian pattern and deserves further investigation.

  11. ITCZ and ENSO pacing on East Asian winter monsoon variation during the Holocene: Sedimentological evidence from the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xufeng; Li, Anchun; Wan, Shiming; Kao, Shuhji; Kuhn, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Deep-sea fan sediments provide an excellent geological archive for paleoenvironment reconstruction. Grain size, clay mineral and elemental (Ti, Fe, Ca) compositions were measured for a core retrieved from a submarine fan in the Okinawa Trough. Varimax-rotated Principal Component Analysis (V-PCA) on time-evolution of grain size spectrum reveals that, since the Holocene, sediment was transported mainly by the benthic nepheloid layer (33%) and upper layers (33%) which is driven by the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). The intensification of the Kuroshio Current during the Holocene, masks the fluvial signal of the summer monsoon and obstructs clay minerals derived from the Yellow River, a major contributor prior to 12 ka BP. A new grain size index (GSI), which represents the EAWM well, exhibits a negative correlation with the δ18O record in Dongge Cave, China during the Holocene when sea level was relatively steady. This anticorrelation suggests the southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The consistency among our records and rainfall records in Peru, Ti counts in the Cariaco Basin, monsoon records in Oman and the averaged summer insolation pattern at 30°N further support the ITCZ's impact on monsoon systems globally. Cross-Correlation Analyses for GSI and log(Ti/Ca) against δ18O record in Dongge Cave reveal a decoupling between the East Asian winter and summer monsoon during 5500-2500 cal yr BP, with greater complexity in the last 2500 years. This can be attributed to exacerbated ENSO mode fluctuations and possibly anthropogenic interference superimposed on insolation and ITCZ forcing.

  12. Sea surface temperature proxies (alkenones, foraminiferal Mg/Ca, and planktonic foraminiferal assemblage) and their implications in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ryoung Ah; Lee, Kyung Eun; Bae, Si Woong

    2015-12-01

    We reviewed three sea surface temperature (SST) proxies in the Okinawa Trough (OT): alkenones, planktonic foraminiferal Mg/Ca, and planktonic foraminiferal assemblages. The seasonal and vertical distribution patterns of each proxy-related organism in the water column were reviewed to confirm the applicability of each proxy. In addition, current SSTs (Japan Oceanographic Data Center dataset from 1906 to 2003) were compared with core-top sediment temperatures reconstructed using the proxies. Temperatures calculated using the alkenone unsaturation index represent annual mean SSTs, and temperatures calculated using Mg/Ca of Globigerinoides ruber capture summer to autumn (June-November) SSTs. Core-top August SSTs calculated from planktonic foraminiferal assemblages corresponded well with the observed SSTs, but core-top February temperatures were ~3.6 °C warmer than the observed SSTs. SST proxy estimates from marine sediments dating back to the late Holocene (0-3 cal ky BP) and the last glacial maximum (18-21 cal ky BP) were compared. Comparisons between proxy SST estimates show that foraminiferal assemblage-based August SSTs were the warmest. Alkenone-based temperature estimates were lower than Mg/Ca-based temperature estimates, probably because the alkenone-based temperature represents the annual mean temperature, whereas the Mg/Ca-based temperature represents the summer-autumn mean temperature. February assemblage SSTs seem to be greatly affected by the statistical technique and/or database used. These results suggest that seasonality should be considered in past SST reconstruction using alkenone and Mg/Ca in the OT. The planktonic foraminiferal assemblage technique does not appear to be promising with respect to accurately reconstructing past SSTs (especially winter) in the OT. Habitat depth may not be an issue because both alkenone producers and G. ruber live at the upper surface mixed layer in the area.

  13. Isotopic composition and speciation of sedimentary nitrogen and carbon in the Okinawa Trough over the past 30 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Li-Wei; Hsiao, Silver Sung-Yun; Ding, Xiao-Dong; Li, Dawei; Chang, Yuan-Pin; Kao, Shuh-Ji

    2015-10-01

    Total organic carbon to total nitrogen ratios (C/N) and their isotopic compositions (δ13CTOC and δ15NTN) are oft-applied proxies to discern terrigenous from marine-sourced organics and to unravel ancient environmental information. In high depositional Asian marginal seas, the inclusion of N-bearing minerals in the bulk sediment dilutes or masks signals sought after in δ15N and δ13C analyses, thus leading to incorrect and even contradictory interpretations. We used KOH-KOBr to separate operationally defined total organic matter into oxidizable (labile) and residual fractions for content and isotope measurements. In a sediment core in the Okinawa Trough, significant amounts of carbon and nitrogen existed in the residual phase, in which the C/N ratio was ~9, resembling most documented sedimentary bulk C/N ratios in the China marginal seas. The residual carbon, which was included in operationally defined total organic carbon (TOC), displayed a δ13C range (-22.7 to -18.9‰, mean -20.7‰) similar to the oft-used marine end-member. After removing the interference from the residual fraction, we found that the temporal pattern of δ13CLOC (LOC denotes labile organic carbon) was more variable. The residual nitrogen content was associated with illite, suggesting a terrestrial origin. Additionally, δ15N in the residual fraction likely reflected the climatic controls (e.g., precipitation) on lithogenic source materials. Further studies are required to explore the controlling factors for carbon and nitrogen isotopic speciation and to retrieve the information locked in the residual fraction.

  14. Isotopic measurement of speleothem inclusion water in nano-liter quantities: application to stalagmites from Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Ryu; Nakamoto, Masashi; Asami, Ryuji; Mishima, Satoru; Gibo, Masakazu; Masaka, Kosuke; Jin-Ping, Chen; Wu, Chung-Che; Chang, Yu-Wei; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2015-04-01

    Speleothem inclusion water isotopic compositions are promising new climatic proxies. The applicability, however, is limited by low water content and challenging analytical difficulties. We have developed a precise and accurate isotopic technique based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy with a low sample-amount requirement of 20-260 nL of inclusion water from only 77-286 mg of stalagmite deposits in Gyokusen Cave, Okinawa Island, Japan. The 1σ reproducibility is ±0.24permil for δ18O and ±1.8permil for δD. The small sample size requirement demonstrates that our analytical technique can offer high-resolution inclusion water-based paleoclimate reconstructions. The δ18O and δD values of inclusion water samples from the two most recently layers are within the expected range of isotopic monitoring data for drip water and rainwater at the island. Data inferred from coupled stalagmite δ18O records of coeval inclusion water and carbonate indicate that a cave temperature over the past few decades agrees with instrumental observations. Inferred temperatures at 9-10 thousand years ago (ka) and 26 ka are consistent with previous marine sediment records. Our results support the application fidelity of the proposed technique for speleothem formation deposited under oxygen isotopic equilibrium conditions. However, we observed two biased temperature at the last glacial period: an enrichment of 0.5-1permil in δ13C and δ18O on the fringe carbonate deposition can bias the derived temperature by up to -4 °C. This kinetic fractionation should be carefully evaluated to avoid misleading interpretations.

  15. IL5RA polymorphisms, smoking and eczema in Japanese women: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Y; Tanaka, K; Arakawa, M

    2015-02-01

    The present case-control study examined the relationship between IL5RA SNPs and eczema in young adult Japanese women. Cases and control subjects were selected from pregnant women who participated in the baseline survey of the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study, which is an ongoing prebirth cohort study. Cases comprised 188 women with eczema in the previous 12 months as defined according to the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), regardless of the presence of a doctor's diagnosis of atopic eczema. Control subjects comprised 1130 women without eczema as defined according to the ISAAC criteria who also had not been diagnosed with atopic eczema by a doctor. Compared with the AA genotype of IL5RA SNP rs17881144, the AT genotype, but not the TT genotype, was significantly associated with a decreased risk of eczema. The ATTAGA haplotype and the GTAGCA haplotype of rs17882210, rs3804797, rs334809, rs9831572, rs6771148 and rs17881144 were significantly associated with an increased risk of eczema. In contrast, the GCTGCA haplotype was significantly related to a decreased risk of eczema. Multiplicative interactions between IL5RA SNPs rs334809 and rs17881144 and smoking with respect to eczema were marginally significant (P = 0.07 and 0.07, respectively). This is the first study to show significant associations between IL5RA SNP rs17881144, the ATTAGA haplotype, the GTAGCA haplotype, and the GCTGCA haplotype and eczema. Smoking may modify the relationships between SNPs rs334809 and rs17881144 and eczema.

  16. Carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotopic characterization of biological samples from chemo-synthetic communities in southern Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, T.; Mizota, C.; Ishibashi, J.; Nakayama, N.; Tsunogai, U.; Morimoto, Y.; Kataoka, S.; Kosaka, A.; Maki, Y.; Fujiwara, Y.; Tsuchida, S.; Fujikura, K.

    2002-12-01

    Direct measurement of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotopic compositions of the seafloor hydrothermal bacteria involves many difficulties, mainly due to lack of suitable size of samples. In contrast, the isotopic measurements of the hydrothermal vent animals can easily be made. The animals depends mainly on bacterial primary production. Carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur budget from the bacterial source should be estimated using the stable isotopic compositions of the soft tissue constituents. The hydrothermal environment involves several types of chemoautotrophc and methanotrophic bacteria such as suspending, matting, and endosymbiosis. Each hydrothermal vent animal feeds on or harbors the bacteria according to their physiology and ecology. For example, the crustaceans, Shinkaiya and Alvinocaris, feed on bacteria and the deep-sea mussel, Bathymodiolus, harbors endosymbionts in their gill tissues. Our objectives are to make clear the sources of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur of these bacteria and the relationship between the bacteria and the geochemistry of emitting hydrothermal fluids. We studied the vent animals from two hydrothermal systems where the tectonic settings are significantly different. One is located on the volcanic front of the Ryukyu Arc and the other is located on the west edge of the Okinawa Trough back-arc basin. The former hydrothermal vent site is active in the caldera where sediment starved hydrothermal system, while the latter site is active on the thick sediment-covered small trough. The geological settings of these two hydrothermal sites would provide different geochemical environments. We will discuss how the vent animals succeed to the geochemical characteristics from the viewpoint of stable isotope geochemistry.

  17. Fracture Risk in Relation to Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Physical Activity: Results from the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Cristina; Lentjes, Marleen A. H.; Huybrechts, Inge; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and physical inactivity have been associated with bone loss and fractures, but their combined effect has scarcely been studied either in younger or older adults. Therefore, we aimed to assess the associations between physical activity, age and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status separately and in combination with the incidence of fracture risk in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort study. Baseline (1993–1998) self-reported physical activity and serum 25(OH)D concentrations at follow-up (1998–2000) were collected in 14,624 men and women (aged 42–82 y between 1998 and 2000). Fracture incidence was ascertained up to March 2015. Cox proportional hazard model was used to determine HRs of fractures by plasma 25(OH)D (<30, 30 to <50, 50 to <70, 70 to <90, >90 nmol/L), age (<65 y and >65 y) and physical activity (inactive and active) categories, by follow-up time per 20 nmol/L increase in serum 25(OH)D and to explore age-25(OH)D and physical activity-25(OH)D interactions. The age-, sex-, and month-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for all fractures (1183 fractures) by increasing vitamin D category were not significantly different. With additional adjustment for body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, supplement use and history of fractures, the fracture risk was 29% lower in those participants with 50 to 70 nmol/L compared with those in the lowest quintile (<30 nmol/L). Physical inactivity based on a single baseline assessment was not associated with fracture risk. Vitamin D status appeared inversely related to fractures in middle aged adults. In older adults, the relationship between vitamin D status and fracture risk was observed to be J-shaped. Clinical and public health practice in vitamin D supplementation could partially explain these findings, although definitive conclusions are difficult due to potential changes in exposure status over the long follow up period. PMID:27749911

  18. Convection and Easterly Wave Structure Observed in the Eastern Pacific Warm-Pool during EPIC-2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Walter A.; Cifelli, R.; Boccippio, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Fairall, C. W.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During September-October 2001, the East Pacific Investigation of Climate Processes in the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere System (EPIC-2001) ITCZ field campaign focused on studies of deep convection in the warm-pool region of the East Pacific. In addition to the TAO mooring array, observational platforms deployed during the field phase included the NOAA ship RN Ronald H. Brown, the NSF ship RN Horizon, and the NOAA P-3 and NCAR C-130 aircraft. This study combines C-band Doppler radar, rawinsonde, and surface heat flux data collected aboard the RN Brown to describe ITCZ convective structure and rainfall statistics in the eastern Pacific as a function of 3-5 day easterly wave phase. Three distinct easterly wave passages occurred during EPIC-2001. Wind and thermodynamic data reveal that the wave trough axes exhibited positively correlated U and V winds and a slight westward phase tilt with height. A relatively strong (weak) northeasterly deep tropospheric shear followed the trough (ridge) axis. Temperature and humidity perturbations exhibited mid-to upper level cooling (warming) and drying (moistening) in the northerly (trough and southerly) phase. At low levels warming (cooling) occurred in the northerly (southerly) phase with little change in the relative humidity, though mixed layer mixing ratios were larger during the northerly phase. When composited, radar, sounding, lightning and surface heat flux observations suggest the following systematic behavior as a function of wave phase: approximately zero to one quarter wavelength ahead of (behind) the wave trough in northerly (southerly) flow, larger (smaller) CAPE, lower (higher) CIN, weaker (stronger) tropospheric shear, higher (lower) conditional mean rain rates, higher (lower) lightning flash densities, and more (less) robust convective vertical structure occurred. Latent and sensible heat fluxes reached a minimum in the northerly phase and then increased through the trough, reaching a peak during the ridge phase

  19. XMM-Newton EPIC observations of 21 low-redshift PG quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porquet, D.; Reeves, J. N.; O'Brien, P.; Brinkmann, W.

    2004-07-01

    We present an X-ray spectral analysis of 21 low redshift quasars observed with XMM-Newton EPIC. All the sources are Palomar Green quasars with redshifts between 0.05 and 0.4 and have low Galactic absorption along the line-of-sight. A large majority of quasars in the sample (19/21) exhibit a significant soft excess below ˜1-1.5 keV, whilst two objects (PG 1114+445 and I Zw1) show a deficit of soft X-ray flux due to the presence of a strong warm absorber. Indeed, contrary to previous studies with ASCA and ROSAT, we find that the presence of absorption features near 0.6-1.0 keV is common in our sample. At least half of the objects appear to harbor a warm absorber, as found previously in Seyfert 1 galaxies. We find significant detections of Fe Kα emission lines in at least twelve objects, whilst there is evidence for some broadening of the line profile, compared to the EPIC-pn resolution, in five of these quasars. The determination of the nature of this broadening (e.g., Keplerian motion, a blend of lines, relativistic effects) is not possible with the present data and requires either higher S/N or higher resolution spectra. In seven objects the line is located between 6.7-7 keV, corresponding to highly ionized iron, whereas in the other five objects the line energy is consistent with 6.4 keV, i.e. corresponding to near neutral iron. The ionized lines tend to be found in the quasars with the steepest X-ray spectra. We also find a correlation between the continuum power law index Γ and the optical Hβ width, in both the soft and hard X-ray bands, whereby the steepest X-ray spectra are found in objects with narrow Hβ widths, which confirms previous ROSAT and ASCA results. The soft and hard band X-ray photon indices are also strongly correlated, i.e. the steepest soft X-ray spectra correspond the steepest hard X-ray spectra. We propose that a high accretion rate and a smaller black hole mass is likely to be the physical driver responsible for these trends, with the

  20. Marking Time:The Epic Quest to Invent the Perfect Calendar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staid, Matthew

    The arrival of the new millennium has renewed interest in the evolution of our modern calendar. Unraveling the story of this evolution requires extensive knowledge of science, history, and religion. Most of us have little understanding of how the date of Easter is determined, or why we celebrate the New Year on January 1st. In Marking Time: The Epic Quest to Invent the Perfect Calendar, Duncan Steel takes readers on a revealing, meandering trip from several millennia B.C. to the present. As the author states, “By the time you finish reading this tome…it will be clear that the calendar has had much greater effect upon human destiny than you may have fondly imagined. It's not just about numbering the days: it's about the rises and falls of empires and religions…about controlling the masses and subverting your rivals. The calendar story is one of human strife and aspirations.” And so Steel reveals how our calendar is based as much on religion and politics as it is on physical science.

  1. A good Darwinian? Winwood Reade and the making of a late Victorian evolutionary epic.

    PubMed

    Hesketh, Ian

    2015-06-01

    In 1871 the travel writer and anthropologist W. Winwood Reade (1838-1875) was inspired by his correspondence with Darwin to turn his narrow ethnological research on West African tribes into the broadest history imaginable, one that would show Darwin's great principle of natural selection at work throughout the evolutionary history of humanity, stretching back to the origins of the universe itself. But when Martyrdom of Man was published in 1872, Reade confessed that Darwin would not likely find him a very good Darwinian, as he was unable to show that natural selection was anything more than a secondary law that arranges all details. When it came to historicising humans within the sweeping history of all creation, Reade argued that the primary law was that of development, a less contentious theory of human evolution that was better suited to Reade's progressive and teleological history of life. By focussing on the extensive correspondence between Reade and Darwin, this paper reconstructs the attempt to make an explicitly Darwinian evolutionary epic in order to shed light on the moral and aesthetic demands that worked to give shape to Victorian efforts to historicise humans within a vastly expanding timeframe.

  2. Programming PLCS under EPICS at the SNS Project : Further Experiences in Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    P. A. Gurd; W. H. Strong; J. D. Creel

    2003-10-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source being built in Tennessee by a partnership of six national laboratories. The control system components for the SNS were produced by personnel at the collaborating laboratories, by vendors of the equipment, and by commercial contractors. A number of different approaches were used to provide the programming for both the programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and the input-output controllers (IOCs) which were all based on the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). For conventional facilities, both the PLCs and the IOCs were programmed under a commercial contract. The PLCs for the high power radio frequency system (HPRF) were programmed by the vendors of the equipment, while the IOCs were programmed by the collaborating laboratory. Finally, while the IOCs for the cryogenic systems were programmed at Oak Ridge, three different approaches were used to produce the PLC programming: some were programmed at Oak Ridge, some at TJNAF, and some at vendor sites. This paper discusses the status of the PLCs in the control system and the integration challenges encountered in the various approaches.

  3. Effect of climatic conditions on epidemic patterns of influenza in Okinawa, Japan, during the pandemic of 2009: surveillance of rapid antigen test results.

    PubMed

    Iha, Yoshikazu; Higa, Futoshi; Sunagawa, Satoko; Naka, Masamitsu; Cash, Haley L; Miyagi, Kazuya; Haranaga, Shusaku; Tateyama, Masao; Uno, Tsukasa; Fujita, Jiro

    2012-07-01

    Climatic conditions may have affected the incidence of influenza during the pandemic of 2009 as well as at other times. This study evaluated the effects of climatic conditions on influenza incidence in Okinawa, a subtropical region in Japan, during the 2009 pandemic using surveillance data from rapid antigen test (RAT) results. Weekly RAT results performed in four acute care hospitals in the Naha region of the Okinawa Islands from January 2007 to July 2011 were anonymously collected for surveillance of regional influenza prevalence. Intense epidemic peaks were noted in August 2009 and December 2009-January 2010 during the influenza pandemic of 2009. RAT positivity rates were lower during the pandemic period than during the pre- and post-pandemic periods. Lower ambient temperature was associated with higher influenza incidence during pre- and post-pandemic periods but not during the pandemic of 2009. Lower relative humidity was associated with higher influenza incidence during the pandemic as well as during the other two periods. The association of climatic conditions and influenza incidence was less prominent during the pandemic of 2009 than during pre- and post-pandemic periods.

  4. The tug-of-war between the West Philippine Sea and South China Sea Tropical Waters and Intermediate Waters in the Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Yeh, Ya-Ting; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Bai, Yan; He, Xianqiang; Huang, Ting-Hsuan

    2016-03-01

    Kuroshio subsurface waters are the major source of nutrients to the East China Sea continental shelf, a major fishing ground. These subsurface waters are heavily affected by the South China Sea (SCS) Tropical and Intermediate Waters which contain more nutrients than the tropical (Smax) and intermediate (Smin) waters from the West Philippine Sea (WPS). A front was found to separate these waters from the SCS and WPS. The reported front in the Okinawa Trough, however, was identified based only on one-time data from a single cross section. Here historical hydrographic data between March 1950 and December 2011 are analyzed. A vertical front tilted toward the west is found in all seasons in all years in the Okinawa Trough. In winter, the presence of the SCS Tropical Water is the most prominent. It is the weakest in autumn. As for intermediate waters (Smin), the WPS and SCS Intermediate Waters show much weaker seasonality compared with tropical waters although in summer, the WPS Intermediate Water contribution is slightly larger than during other times.

  5. Discrepancy in the degree of population differentiation between color-morph frequencies and neutral genetic loci in the damselfly Ischnura senegalensis in Okinawa Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Nobuyuki; Hironaka, Kumiko; Sawada, Kouji; Kuriwada, Takashi; Yamahira, Kazunori

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of relative contribution of natural selection and stochastic processes to population differentiation has been of great interest in evolutionary biology. In a damselfly, Ischnura senegalensis, females show color dimorphism (gynochrome vs. androchrome), and color-morph frequencies are known to greatly vary among local populations within Okinawa Island, a small island of Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. In this study, to examine the effects of natural selection and stochastic processes on the within-island variation in color-morph frequencies, we compared the degree of population differentiation at the color-morph locus with that at a mitochondrial DNA region and ten nuclear microsatellite loci. F ST values at the neutral loci were close to zero, indicating presence of sufficient gene flow (dispersal of adult individuals) between the local populations. In contrast, F ST values at the color-morph locus were significantly different from zero. These results suggest that variation in female color-morph frequencies observed among local populations in Okinawa Island has been caused by divergent selection acting on the phenotype and/or genes tightly linked with the color locus.

  6. First Comparative Analysis of the Community Structures and Carbon Metabolic Pathways of the Bacteria Associated with Alvinocaris longirostris in a Hydrothermal Vent of Okinawa Trough

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qing-lei; Zeng, Zhi-gang; Chen, Shuai; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    Alvinocaris longirostris is a species of shrimp existing in the hydrothermal fields of Okinawa Trough. To date the structure and function of the microbial community associated with A. longirostris are essentially unknown. In this study, by employment of the techniques of high through-put sequencing and clone library construction and analysis, we compared for the first time the community structures and metabolic profiles of microbes associated with the gill and gut of A. longirostris in a hydrothermal field of Okinawa Trough. Fourteen phyla were detected in the gill and gut communities, of which 11 phyla were shared by both tissues. Proteobacteria made up a substantial proportion in both tissues, while Firmicutes was abundant only in gut. Although gill and gut communities were similar in bacterial diversities, the bacterial community structures in these two tissues were significantly different. Further, we discovered for the first time the existence in the gill and gut communities of A. longirostris the genes (cbbM and aclB) encoding the key enzymes of Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle and the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle, and that both cbbM and aclB were significantly more abundant in gill than in gut. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that at least two carbon fixation pathways are present in both the gill and the gut communities of A. longirostris, and that the communities in different tissues likely differ in autotrophic productivity. PMID:27111851

  7. Photochemical Formation of Fe(II) and Peroxides in Coastal Seawater Collected around Okinawa Island, Japan - Impact of Red Soil Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, K.; Nakajima, H.; Higuchi, T.; Fujimura, H.; Arakaki, T.; Taira, H.

    2003-12-01

    In a study to elucidate the impacts of red soil pollution on the oxidizing power of seawater, photochemical formation of Fe(II) and peroxides was studied in seawaters collected around Okinawa Island, Japan. The northern part of Okinawa Island suffers from red soil pollution which is caused mainly by land development such as pineapple farming and the construction of recreational facilities. We studied photochemical formation of peroxides and Fe(II) in the same seawater samples because the reaction between HOOH and Fe(II) forms hydroxyl radical (OH radical), the most potent environmental oxidant. Photochemical formation of Fe(II) was fast and reached steady-state in 30 minutes of simulated sunlight illumination and the steady-state Fe(II) concentrations were about 80% of total iron concentrations. Photochemical formation of peroxides was relatively slow and formation kinetics varied, depending on the initial peroxide concentrations. Because photochemical formation of peroxides was faster and total iron concentrations in the red soil polluted seawater were higher, red soil polluted seawater is expected to have greater oxidizing power than seawater that is not polluted with red soil.

  8. First Comparative Analysis of the Community Structures and Carbon Metabolic Pathways of the Bacteria Associated with Alvinocaris longirostris in a Hydrothermal Vent of Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qing-Lei; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Shuai; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    Alvinocaris longirostris is a species of shrimp existing in the hydrothermal fields of Okinawa Trough. To date the structure and function of the microbial community associated with A. longirostris are essentially unknown. In this study, by employment of the techniques of high through-put sequencing and clone library construction and analysis, we compared for the first time the community structures and metabolic profiles of microbes associated with the gill and gut of A. longirostris in a hydrothermal field of Okinawa Trough. Fourteen phyla were detected in the gill and gut communities, of which 11 phyla were shared by both tissues. Proteobacteria made up a substantial proportion in both tissues, while Firmicutes was abundant only in gut. Although gill and gut communities were similar in bacterial diversities, the bacterial community structures in these two tissues were significantly different. Further, we discovered for the first time the existence in the gill and gut communities of A. longirostris the genes (cbbM and aclB) encoding the key enzymes of Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle and the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle, and that both cbbM and aclB were significantly more abundant in gill than in gut. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence that at least two carbon fixation pathways are present in both the gill and the gut communities of A. longirostris, and that the communities in different tissues likely differ in autotrophic productivity.

  9. Discrepancy in the degree of population differentiation between color-morph frequencies and neutral genetic loci in the damselfly Ischnura senegalensis in Okinawa Island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Nobuyuki; Hironaka, Kumiko; Sawada, Kouji; Kuriwada, Takashi; Yamahira, Kazunori

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of relative contribution of natural selection and stochastic processes to population differentiation has been of great interest in evolutionary biology. In a damselfly, Ischnura senegalensis, females show color dimorphism (gynochrome vs. androchrome), and color-morph frequencies are known to greatly vary among local populations within Okinawa Island, a small island of Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. In this study, to examine the effects of natural selection and stochastic processes on the within-island variation in color-morph frequencies, we compared the degree of population differentiation at the color-morph locus with that at a mitochondrial DNA region and ten nuclear microsatellite loci. F ST values at the neutral loci were close to zero, indicating presence of sufficient gene flow (dispersal of adult individuals) between the local populations. In contrast, F ST values at the color-morph locus were significantly different from zero. These results suggest that variation in female color-morph frequencies observed among local populations in Okinawa Island has been caused by divergent selection acting on the phenotype and/or genes tightly linked with the color locus. PMID:25633100

  10. Complete Genome Sequences of Eight Helicobacter pylori Strains with Different Virulence Factor Genotypes and Methylation Profiles, Isolated from Patients with Diverse Gastrointestinal Diseases on Okinawa Island, Japan, Determined Using PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time Technology.

    PubMed

    Satou, Kazuhito; Shiroma, Akino; Teruya, Kuniko; Shimoji, Makiko; Nakano, Kazuma; Juan, Ayaka; Tamotsu, Hinako; Terabayashi, Yasunobu; Aoyama, Misako; Teruya, Morimi; Suzuki, Rumiko; Matsuda, Miyuki; Sekine, Akihiro; Kinjo, Nagisa; Kinjo, Fukunori; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Hirano, Takashi

    2014-04-17

    We report the complete genome sequences of eight Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from patients with gastrointestinal diseases in Okinawa, Japan. Whole-genome sequencing and DNA methylation detection were performed using the PacBio platform. De novo assembly determined a single, complete contig for each strain. Furthermore, methylation analysis identified virulence factor genotype-dependent motifs.

  11. Rare Earth Element Compositions of Chlorite-rich Hydrothermal Sediments in the middle Okinawa Trough, East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, H.; Yang, S.; Humphris, S. E.; Cai, D.; Wang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have been used as powerful tracers in the study of hot fluid-rock reaction in hydrothermal system. However, the behavior of the REEs during interaction of hydrothermal solution with rocks remains to be clarified more quantitatively. The Okinawa Trough (OT), located in the East Asian continental margin, is characterized by thick terrigenous sediment and ubiquitous volcanic-hydrothermal activities. In this study, the sediments collected during IODP Expedition 331 to the mid-OT were determined for mineralogical and REEs as well as Nd isotopic compositions, aiming to investigate the geochemical behavior of REEs during hydrothermal processes. All samples were separated into bulk and clay-size (˂ 2 μm) fractions and pretreated by 1N HCl to remove carbonate and other unstable components. The hydrothermal sediments in the mid-OT is dominated by Mg-rich chlorite based on the XRD analysis, especially the clay-size fraction comprising pure chlorite. The clay-size samples bear different mineralogical and geochemical compositions between the upper and lower parts in this hydrothermal area. All hydrothermal samples are relatively enriched in HREEs in the residues. The upper clays have higher values of δEu and (La/Yb)N as well as LREEs concentration than the lower part, while the bulk samples have weak REE differentiation. In the 1N HCl leachates, the concentrations of REEs in the bulk samples are higher than in the clays in the lower part but LREEs are obviously enriched in the upper clays. We infer that the grain size may be an important factor controlling the behavior of REEs in the mid-OT hydrothermal system. Both bulk and clay samples show negative Eu anomalies relative to chondrite, similar as the detrital sediments and volcanic rocks. This study confirms the hypothesis that HREEs patterns are constant throughout the system compatible with higher LREEs mobility as chlorine ion complexes in acidic solutions (Mills and Elderfield 1995; Douville

  12. Hg Isotopic Compositions of Chimneys and Pelagic Sediments at Active Submarine Hydrothermal Field in the Okinawa Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, A.; Marumo, K.; Tomiyasu, T.; Yamamoto, M.; Komuro, K.

    2012-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a globally distributed and highly toxic pollutant in the environment. It is known that a submarine hydrothermal activity is one of the natural processes to emit Hg to marine environment. In order to estimate the degree to which the Hg found in the marine environment is from anthropogenic versus natural sources, it is important to characterize the Hg from the hydrothermal vents. Samples of chimneys and a ~20 cm sediment core, collected by a deep-sea remotely operated vehicle, from Iheya North hydrothermal field in Okinawa Trough, Japan, were analyzed for Hg concentrations and Hg isotopic compositions. Total Hg concentrations of chimneys range between 8.2 and 16.9 mg/kg, whereas seafloor sediment total Hg concentrations are from 3.8 to 34.8 mg/kg. Approximately 0.4 to 1.1 μg/kg of monomethyl Hg (MMHg) was detected in the top 6 cm sediment cores. Hg isotopic compositions (δ202Hg) of chimneys are between -0.30 and -0.96 ‰, whereas δ202Hg values of sediment samples range from -0.85 to -1.60 ‰. Neither chimneys nor sediment samples exhibit the significant mass independent fractionations in Hg isotopes (Δ201Hg > ± 0.10). The chimney δ202Hg values are slightly higher than the δ202Hg values of sediments. This may indicate that the heavier Hg isotopes tend to be incorporated with mercury-bearing sulfides in chimneys, and the lighter isotopes tend to be remained in the hydrothermal fluid and distributed in the surrounding sediments. Also, the sediment samples from the upper portion of cores demonstrate approximately 0.4 - 0.5 ‰ lower δ202Hg values than those from the lower part. This isotopic fractionation may be resulted from a demethylated process of MMHg by microbes. Several studies have previously demonstrated the rapid demethylation of MMHg by microbes in Hg-contaminated aquatic sediments, and range of the isotopic fractionation is similar to that of the experimentally determined isotopic fractionation of MMHg by bacterial reduction

  13. Microbial Community Stratification Controlled by the Subseafloor Fluid Flow and Geothermal Gradient at the Iheya North Hydrothermal Field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331)

    PubMed Central

    Breuker, Anja; Schippers, Axel; Nishizawa, Manabu; Ijiri, Akira; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of lithologic structure and geothermal gradient on subseafloor microbial communities were investigated at a marginal site of the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Subsurface marine sediments composed of hemipelagic muds and volcaniclastic deposits were recovered through a depth of 151 m below the seafloor at site C0017 during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331. Microbial communities inferred from 16S rRNA gene clone sequencing in low-temperature hemipelagic sediments were mainly composed of members of the Chloroflexi and deep-sea archaeal group. In contrast, 16S rRNA gene sequences of marine group I Thaumarchaeota dominated the microbial phylotype communities in the coarse-grained pumiceous gravels interbedded between the hemipelagic sediments. Based on the physical properties of sediments such as temperature and permeability, the porewater chemistry, and the microbial phylotype compositions, the shift in the physical properties of the sediments is suggested to induce a potential subseafloor recharging flow of oxygenated seawater in the permeable zone, leading to the generation of variable chemical environments and microbial communities in the subseafloor habitats. In addition, the deepest section of sediments under high-temperature conditions (∼90°C) harbored the sequences of an uncultivated archaeal lineage of hot water crenarchaeotic group IV that may be associated with the high-temperature hydrothermal fluid flow. These results indicate that the subseafloor microbial community compositions and functions at the marginal site of the hydrothermal field are highly affected by the complex fluid flow structure, such as recharging seawater and underlying hydrothermal fluids, coupled with the lithologic transition of sediments. PMID:25063666

  14. Microbial community stratification controlled by the subseafloor fluid flow and geothermal gradient at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331).

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Breuker, Anja; Schippers, Axel; Nishizawa, Manabu; Ijiri, Akira; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken

    2014-10-01

    The impacts of lithologic structure and geothermal gradient on subseafloor microbial communities were investigated at a marginal site of the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough. Subsurface marine sediments composed of hemipelagic muds and volcaniclastic deposits were recovered through a depth of 151 m below the seafloor at site C0017 during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331. Microbial communities inferred from 16S rRNA gene clone sequencing in low-temperature hemipelagic sediments were mainly composed of members of the Chloroflexi and deep-sea archaeal group. In contrast, 16S rRNA gene sequences of marine group I Thaumarchaeota dominated the microbial phylotype communities in the coarse-grained pumiceous gravels interbedded between the hemipelagic sediments. Based on the physical properties of sediments such as temperature and permeability, the porewater chemistry, and the microbial phylotype compositions, the shift in the physical properties of the sediments is suggested to induce a potential subseafloor recharging flow of oxygenated seawater in the permeable zone, leading to the generation of variable chemical environments and microbial communities in the subseafloor habitats. In addition, the deepest section of sediments under high-temperature conditions (∼90°C) harbored the sequences of an uncultivated archaeal lineage of hot water crenarchaeotic group IV that may be associated with the high-temperature hydrothermal fluid flow. These results indicate that the subseafloor microbial community compositions and functions at the marginal site of the hydrothermal field are highly affected by the complex fluid flow structure, such as recharging seawater and underlying hydrothermal fluids, coupled with the lithologic transition of sediments.

  15. Droughts, epic droughts and droughty centuries - lessons from a California paleoclimatic record: a PACLIM 2001 meeting report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettinger, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    During the early 1990s (but echoing studies by S.T. Harding at the University of California, from as early as the 1930s), several lines of paleoclimate evidence in and around the Sierra Nevada Range have provided the water community in California with some real horror stories. By studying ancient tree stumps submerged in Lake Tahoe and Tenaya Lake, stumps that were emerging from Mono Lake during its recent decline, and stumps that were exhumed in the Walker River bed during the floods of 1997, paleoclimatologists like Scott Stine of California State University, Hayward, assembled a picture of epic droughts in the central Sierra Nevada during the medieval period. These droughts had to be severe to drop water levels in the lakes and rivers low enough for the trees to grow in the first place, and then had to last for hundreds of years to explain tree-ring counts in these sizeable stumps. Worse yet, the evidence suggested at least two such epic droughts, one ending close to 1100 and the other close to 1350. These epic droughts challenged paleoclimatologists, as well as modern climatologists and hydrologists, to understand and, ultimately, to determine the likelihood that such droughts might recur in the foreseeable future. The first challenge, however, was to verify that such droughts were more than local events and as extreme as suggested. At this year’s Pacific Climate (PACLIM) Workshop, held March 18–21, 2001, at Asilomar (Pacific Grove, Calif.), special sessions brought together scientists to compare paleoclimatic reconstructions of ancient droughts and pluvial (wet) epidodes to try to determine the nature of decadal and centennial climate fluctuations in western North America, with emphasis on California. A companion session brought together modern climatologists to report on the latest explanations (and evidence) for decadal climate variations during the instrumental era of the 20th century.

  16. Dietary intake of acrylamide and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    PubMed

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Peeters, Petra H M; Freisling, Heinz; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Schock, Helena; Fortner, Renée T; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Menéndez, Virginia; Sanchez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Huerta Castaño, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Wirfält, Elisabeth; Stocks, Tanja; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Skeie, Guri; Gram, Inger T; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as "probably carcinogenic" to humans, was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. The association between dietary acrylamide intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (EOC) has been previously studied in one case-control and three prospective cohort studies which obtained inconsistent results and could not further examine histologic subtypes other than serous EOC. The present study was carried out in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) subcohort of women (n = 325,006). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between questionnaire-based acrylamide intake and EOC risk. Acrylamide was energy-adjusted using the residual method and was evaluated both as a continuous variable (per 10 μg/d) and in quintiles; when subgroups by histologic EOC subtypes were analyzed, acrylamide intake was evaluated in quartiles. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1,191 incident EOC cases were diagnosed. At baseline, the median acrylamide intake in EPIC was 21.3 μg/d. No associations and no evidence for a dose-response were observed between energy-adjusted acrylamide intake and EOC risk (HR10μg/d,1.02; 95% CI, 0.96-1.09; HRQ5vsQ1, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.76-1.23). No differences were seen when invasive EOC subtypes (582 serous, 118 endometrioid, and 79 mucinous tumors) were analyzed separately. This study did not provide evidence that acrylamide intake, based on food intake questionnaires, was associated with risk for EOC in EPIC. Additional studies with more reliable estimates of exposure based on biomarkers may be needed.

  17. ANALOG I/O MODULE TEST SYSTEM BASED ON EPICS CA PROTOCOL AND ACTIVEX CA INTERFACE

    SciTech Connect

    YENG,YHOFF,L.

    2003-10-13

    Analog input (ADC) and output (DAC) modules play a substantial role in device level control of accelerator and large experiment physics control system. In order to get the best performance some features of analog modules including linearity, accuracy, crosstalk, thermal drift and so on have to be evaluated during the preliminary design phase. Gain and offset error calibration and thermal drift compensation (if needed) may have to be done in the implementation phase as well. A natural technique for performing these tasks is to interface the analog VO modules and GPIB interface programmable test instruments with a computer, which can complete measurements or calibration automatically. A difficulty is that drivers of analog modules and test instruments usually work on totally different platforms (vxworks VS Windows). Developing new test routines and drivers for testing instruments under VxWorks (or any other RTOS) platform is not a good solution because such systems have relatively poor user interface and developing such software requires substantial effort. EPICS CA protocol and ActiveX CA interface provide another choice, a PC and LabVIEW based test system. Analog 110 module can be interfaced from LabVIEW test routines via ActiveX CA interface. Test instruments can be controlled via LabVIEW drivers, most of which are provided by instrument vendors or by National Instruments. Labview also provides extensive data analysis and process functions. Using these functions, users can generate powerful test routines very easily. Several applications built for Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) system are described in this paper.

  18. Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and Risk of Tooth Loss: The EPIC-Potsdam Study.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, T; Walter, C; Oluwagbemigun, K; Bergmann, M; Pischon, T; Pischon, N; Boeing, H

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cigarette smoking and smoking cessation and the prevalence and incidence of tooth loss in a large cohort study in Germany. We analyzed data of 23,376 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study recruited between 1994 and 1998 from the general population in Potsdam and other parts of Brandenburg, Germany, who had complete data on cigarette smoking, tooth loss, and covariates. Negative binomial regression and tooth-specific logistic regression models were fit to evaluate the association between smoking and the baseline prevalence and incidence of tooth loss during follow-up, respectively. Cigarette smoking was associated with higher prevalence of tooth loss at baseline as well as higher incidence of tooth loss during follow-up. The association between smoking and the incidence of tooth loss was stronger in men than women and stronger in younger versus older individuals. Heavy smoking (≥15 cigarettes/d) was associated with >3 times higher risk of tooth loss in men (odds ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 3.0, 4.4) and more than twice the risk of tooth loss in women (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.1, 2.9) younger than 50 y when compared with never smokers. Smoking cessation was consistently associated with a reduction in tooth loss risk, with the risk of tooth loss approaching that of never smokers after approximately 10 to 20 y of cessation.

  19. Inflammatory markers and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer by tumor subtypes: the EPIC cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ose, Jennifer; Schock, Helena; Tjonneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Baglietto, Laura; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopolou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Lagiou, Pagona; Masala, Giovanna; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; de Mesquita, H.Bas Bueno; Peeters, Petra H M; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger T; Sánchez, Soledad; Obon-Santacana, Mireia; Sànchez-Pérez, Maria-José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Castaño, José María Huerta; Ardanaz, Eva; Brändstedt, Jenny; Lundin, Eva; Idahl, Annika; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Merrit, Melissa A; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Fortner, Renée T

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests an etiologic role for inflammation in ovarian carcinogenesis and heterogeneity between tumor subtypes and anthropometric indices. Prospective studies on circulating inflammatory markers and epithelial invasive ovarian cancer (EOC) have predominantly investigated overall risk; data characterizing risk by tumor characteristics (histology, grade, stage, dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis) and anthropometric indices are sparse. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and EOC risk by tumor characteristics. A total of 754 eligible EOC cases were identified; two controls (n=1,497) were matched per case. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression to assess associations. Results CRP and IL-6 were not associated with overall EOC risk. However, consistent with prior research, CRP >10 vs. CRP ≤1 mg/L was associated with higher overall EOC risk (OR=1.67 [1.03 - 2.70]). We did not observe significant associations or heterogeneity in analyses by tumor characteristics. In analyses stratified by waist circumference, inflammatory markers were associated with higher risk among women with higher waist circumference; no association was observed for women with normal waist circumference: (e.g., IL-6: waist ≤80: ORlog2=0.97 [0.81 - 1.16]; waist >88: ORlog2=1.78 [1.28 - 2.48], pheterogeneity ≤0.01). Conclusions Our data suggest that high CRP is associated with increased risk of overall EOC, and that IL-6 and CRP may be associated with EOC risk among women with higher adiposity. Impact Our data add to global evidence that ovarian carcinogenesis may be promoted by an inflammatory milieu. PMID:25855626

  20. Laser Scanning Tomography in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study: Principal Components and Associations

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Anthony P.; Chan, Michelle P. Y.; Broadway, David C.; Garway-Heath, David F.; Luben, Robert; Yip, Jennifer L. Y.; Hayat, Shabina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To describe Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) measures, their principal components, and their associations in a British population. Methods. The European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk Eye Study is nested within a multicenter cohort study. Measurements were taken with the HRT-2 and the software subsequently updated to yield HRT-3 parameters. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify distinct components of the HRT variables. Generalized estimating equation models were used to examine associations of these components with age, sex, height, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, social class, education, alcohol intake, smoking status, axial length, IOP, and lens status. Results. Complete data were available from 10,859 eyes of 6430 participants with a mean age of 68 years. Principal components analysis identified three components with an eigenvalue greater than 1, explaining 79.9% of the variance of all the HRT measures. These were named cup, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and rim based on the factor loadings they were most correlated with. Older age was significantly associated with a greater cup (P = 0.003), smaller RNFL (P < 0.001), and smaller rim (P < 0.001). Female sex (P = 0.001), higher education (P < 0.001), and shorter axial length (P < 0.001) were associated with a greater RNFL. Lower BMI and higher IOP were associated with a greater cup (both, P < 0.001) and a smaller rim (BMI, P = 0.001; IOP, P < 0.001). Conclusions. Heidelberg Retina Tomograph measures in this cohort were largely explained by three principal components related to optic disc cup, RNFL, and rim. Associations with cup and rim were distinct to associations with RNFL, suggesting different underlying determinants. PMID:24030456

  1. Dietary Total Antioxidant Capacity and Colorectal Cancer in the Italian EPIC Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Vece, Marilena Monica; Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Sieri, Sabina; Pala, Valeria; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Frasca, Graziella; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Salvatore; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Masala, Giovanna; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Krogh, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Diet has been hypothesized as involved in colorectal cancer etiology, but few studies on the influence of total dietary antioxidant intake on colorectal cancer risk have been performed. Methods We investigated the association between colorectal cancer risk and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the diet, and also of intake of selected antioxidants, in 45,194 persons enrolled in 5 centers (Florence, Naples, Ragusa, Turin and Varese) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Italy study. TAC was estimated by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Hazard ratios (HRs) for developing colorectal cancer, and colon and rectal cancers separately, adjusted for confounders, were estimated for tertiles of TAC by Cox modeling, stratifying by center. Results Four hundred thirty-six colorectal cancers were diagnosed over a mean follow-up of 11.28 years. No significant association between dietary TAC and colorectal cancer incidence was found. However for the highest category of TAC compared to the lowest, risk of developing colon cancer was lower (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.44–0.89, P trend: 0.008). By contrast, increasing TAC intake was associated with significantly increasing risks of rectal cancer (2nd tertile HR: 2.09; 95%CI: 1.19–3.66; 3rd tertile 2.48 95%CI: 1.32–4.66; P trend 0.007). Intakes of vitamin C, vitamin E, and ß-carotene were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Conclusions Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the contrasting effects of high total antioxidant intake on risk of colon and rectal cancers. PMID:26565695

  2. Glycemic index, glycemic load and mammographic breast density: the EPIC Florence longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Masala, Giovanna; Assedi, Melania; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Ermini, Ilaria; Occhini, Daniela; Sieri, Sabina; Brighenti, Furio; Del Turco, Marco Rosselli; Ambrogetti, Daniela; Palli, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    A few studies have evaluated the association between diet and mammographic breast density (MBD) and results are inconsistent. MBD, a well-recognized risk factor for breast cancer, has been proposed as a marker of cumulative exposure to hormones and growth factors. Diets with a high glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) may increase breast cancer risk, via an effect on the insulin-like growth factor axis. We have investigated the association between carbohydrate intake, GI, GL and MBD in a prospective study. We identified a large series of women, in the frame of the EPIC-Florence cohort, with a mammogram taken five years after enrolment, when detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits and anthropometric measurements had been collected. Mammograms have been retrieved (1,668, 83%) and MBD assessed according to Wolfe's classification. We compared women with high MBD (P2+DY Wolfe's categories) with those with low MBD (N1+P1) through logistic models adjusted for age, education, body mass index, menopause, number of children, breast feeding, physical activity, non-alcohol energy, fibers, saturated fat and alcohol. A direct association between GL and high MBD emerged in the highest quintile of intake in comparison with the lowest quintile (OR = 1.73, 95%CI 1.13-2.67, p for trend = 0.048) while no association with glycemic index was evident. These results were confirmed after exclusion of women reporting to be on a diet or affected with diabetes, and when Hormone Replacement Therapy at the date of mammographic examination used to assess MBD was considered. The effect was particularly evident among leaner women, although no interaction was found. A positive association was suggested for increasing simple sugar and total carbohydrates intakes limited to the highest quintiles. In this Italian population we observed an association between glycemic load, total and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates and high MBD. These novel results warrant further investigations. PMID

  3. Diet, metabolic polymorphisms and dna adducts: the EPIC-Italy cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Palli, D; Vineis, P; Russo, A; Berrino, F; Krogh, V; Masala, G; Munnia, A; Panico, S; Taioli, E; Tumino, R; Garte, S; Peluso, M

    2000-08-01

    DNA adducts in peripheral leukocytes are considered a reliable indicator of internal dose exposure to genotoxic agents and, possibly, of cancer risk. We investigated their association with diet and other individual characteristics in healthy adults. The prospective study EPIC-Italy, a section of a larger European project, enrolled 47,749 men and women, aged 35-64 years, in 5 centres: all provided individual information about dietary and life-style habits and a blood sample. In a cross-sectional study, approximately 100 volunteers were randomly selected from each of the three main geographical study areas (Northern, Central and Southern Italy). DNA adducts and four polymorphic metabolic genotypes were determined in peripheral leukocytes by using (32)P-postlabelling technique and PCR methods. Among 309 subjects (153 men), 72.8% had detectable levels of DNA adducts (mean: 8.1 +/- 0.6 per 10(9) nucleotides). Strong negative associations emerged with the reported frequency of consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, olive oil, and the intake of antioxidants. DNA adducts were higher in subjects with GSTT1 null genotype (p = 0.05). Significant differences between study centres emerged in multivariate analyses (mean levels: 11.0, 10.0, 7.2, 6.5 and 5.2 for Florence, Naples, Turin, Varese and Ragusa, respectively). A possible opposite seasonal variation was found according to latitude: adduct levels tended to be lower in winter in Florence and the southern centres, and during summer in the two northern centres. Frequent consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables is associated with reduced levels of DNA adducts, possibly contributing to the role of diet in modulating cancer risk. PMID:10897053

  4. Diet, metabolic polymorphisms and dna adducts: the EPIC-Italy cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Palli, D; Vineis, P; Russo, A; Berrino, F; Krogh, V; Masala, G; Munnia, A; Panico, S; Taioli, E; Tumino, R; Garte, S; Peluso, M

    2000-08-01

    DNA adducts in peripheral leukocytes are considered a reliable indicator of internal dose exposure to genotoxic agents and, possibly, of cancer risk. We investigated their association with diet and other individual characteristics in healthy adults. The prospective study EPIC-Italy, a section of a larger European project, enrolled 47,749 men and women, aged 35-64 years, in 5 centres: all provided individual information about dietary and life-style habits and a blood sample. In a cross-sectional study, approximately 100 volunteers were randomly selected from each of the three main geographical study areas (Northern, Central and Southern Italy). DNA adducts and four polymorphic metabolic genotypes were determined in peripheral leukocytes by using (32)P-postlabelling technique and PCR methods. Among 309 subjects (153 men), 72.8% had detectable levels of DNA adducts (mean: 8.1 +/- 0.6 per 10(9) nucleotides). Strong negative associations emerged with the reported frequency of consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, olive oil, and the intake of antioxidants. DNA adducts were higher in subjects with GSTT1 null genotype (p = 0.05). Significant differences between study centres emerged in multivariate analyses (mean levels: 11.0, 10.0, 7.2, 6.5 and 5.2 for Florence, Naples, Turin, Varese and Ragusa, respectively). A possible opposite seasonal variation was found according to latitude: adduct levels tended to be lower in winter in Florence and the southern centres, and during summer in the two northern centres. Frequent consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables is associated with reduced levels of DNA adducts, possibly contributing to the role of diet in modulating cancer risk.

  5. EPICE-HIV: An Epidemiologic Cost-Effectiveness Model for HIV Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vandewalle, Björn; Llibre, Josep M.; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Ustianowski, Andrew; Camacho, Ricardo; Smith, Colette; Miners, Alec; Ferreira, Diana; Félix, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research was to establish a new and innovative framework for cost-effectiveness modeling of HIV-1 treatment, simultaneously considering both clinical and epidemiological outcomes. EPICE-HIV is a multi-paradigm model based on a within-host micro-simulation model for the disease progression of HIV-1 infected individuals and an agent-based sexual contact network (SCN) model for the transmission of HIV-1 infection. It includes HIV-1 viral dynamics, CD4+ T cell infection rates, and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling. Disease progression of HIV-1 infected individuals is driven by the interdependent changes in CD4+ T cell count, changes in plasma HIV-1 RNA, accumulation of resistance mutations and adherence to treatment. The two parts of the model are joined through a per-sexual-act and viral load dependent probability of disease transmission in HIV-discordant couples. Internal validity of the disease progression part of the model is assessed and external validity is demonstrated in comparison to the outcomes observed in the STaR randomized controlled clinical trial. We found that overall adherence to treatment and the resulting pattern of treatment interruptions are key drivers of HIV-1 treatment outcomes. Our model, though largely independent of efficacy data from RCT, was accurate in producing 96-week outcomes, qualitatively and quantitatively comparable to the ones observed in the STaR trial. We demonstrate that multi-paradigm micro-simulation modeling is a promising tool to generate evidence about optimal policy strategies in HIV-1 treatment, including treatment efficacy, HIV-1 transmission, and cost-effectiveness analysis. PMID:26870960

  6. EPICE-HIV: An Epidemiologic Cost-Effectiveness Model for HIV Treatment.

    PubMed

    Vandewalle, Björn; Llibre, Josep M; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Ustianowski, Andrew; Camacho, Ricardo; Smith, Colette; Miners, Alec; Ferreira, Diana; Félix, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research was to establish a new and innovative framework for cost-effectiveness modeling of HIV-1 treatment, simultaneously considering both clinical and epidemiological outcomes. EPICE-HIV is a multi-paradigm model based on a within-host micro-simulation model for the disease progression of HIV-1 infected individuals and an agent-based sexual contact network (SCN) model for the transmission of HIV-1 infection. It includes HIV-1 viral dynamics, CD4+ T cell infection rates, and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling. Disease progression of HIV-1 infected individuals is driven by the interdependent changes in CD4+ T cell count, changes in plasma HIV-1 RNA, accumulation of resistance mutations and adherence to treatment. The two parts of the model are joined through a per-sexual-act and viral load dependent probability of disease transmission in HIV-discordant couples. Internal validity of the disease progression part of the model is assessed and external validity is demonstrated in comparison to the outcomes observed in the STaR randomized controlled clinical trial. We found that overall adherence to treatment and the resulting pattern of treatment interruptions are key drivers of HIV-1 treatment outcomes. Our model, though largely independent of efficacy data from RCT, was accurate in producing 96-week outcomes, qualitatively and quantitatively comparable to the ones observed in the STaR trial. We demonstrate that multi-paradigm micro-simulation modeling is a promising tool to generate evidence about optimal policy strategies in HIV-1 treatment, including treatment efficacy, HIV-1 transmission, and cost-effectiveness analysis. PMID:26870960

  7. Long-term mortality of hospitalized pneumonia in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

    PubMed

    Myint, P K; Hawkins, K R; Clark, A B; Luben, R N; Wareham, N J; Khaw, K-T; Wilson, A M

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about cause-specific long-term mortality beyond 30 days in pneumonia. We aimed to compare the mortality of patients with hospitalized pneumonia compared to age- and sex-matched controls beyond 30 days. Participants were drawn from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk prospective population study. Hospitalized pneumonia cases were identified from record linkage (ICD-10: J12-J18). For this study we excluded people with hospitalized pneumonia who died within 30 days. Each case identified was matched to four controls and followed up until the end June 2012 (total 15 074 person-years, mean 6·1 years, range 0·08-15·2 years). Cox regression models were constructed to examine the all-cause, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality using date of pneumonia onset as baseline with binary pneumonia status as exposure. A total of 2465 men and women (503 cases, 1962 controls) [mean age (s.d.) 64·5 (8·3) years] were included in the study. Between a 30-day to 1-year period, hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were 7·3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5·4-9·9] and 5·9 (95% CI 3·5-9·7), respectively (with very few respiratory deaths within the same period) in cases compared to controls after adjusting for age, sex, asthma, smoking status, pack years, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, diabetes, physical activity, waist-to-hip ratio, prevalent cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. All outcomes assessed also showed increased risk of death in cases compared to controls after 1 year; respiratory cause of death being the most significant during that period (HR 16·4, 95% CI 8·9-30·1). Hospitalized pneumonia was associated with increased all-cause and specific-cause mortality beyond 30 days.

  8. Thermal Design and Analysis of a Multi-Stage 30K Radiative Cooling System for EPIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chui, Talso; Bock, Jamie; Holmes, Warren; Raab, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The Experimental Probe of Inflationary Cosmology (EPIC) is an implementation of the NASA Einstein Inflation Probe mission, to answer questions about the physics of Inflation in the early Universe by measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The mission relies on a passive cooling system to cool the enclosure of a telescope to 30 K; a cryocooler then cools this enclosure to 18 K and the telescope to 4 K. Subsequently, an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator further cools a large focal plane to approx.100 mK. For this mission, the telescope has an aperture of 1.4 m, and the spacecraft's symmetry axis is oriented approx. 45 degrees relative to the direction of the sun. The spacecraft will be spun at approx. 0.5 rpm around this axis, which then precesses on the sky at 1 rph. The passive system must both supply the necessary cooling power for the cryocooler and meet demanding temperature stability requirements. We describe the thermal design of a passive cooling system consisting of four V-groove radiators for shielding of solar radiation and cooling the telescope to 30 K. The design realizes loads of 20 and 68 mW at the 4 K and 18 K stages on the cooler, respectively. A lower cost option for reaching 40 K with three V-groove radiators is also described. The analysis includes radiation coupling between stages of the radiators and sunshields, and parasitic conduction in the bipod support, harnesses, and ADR leads. Dynamic effects are also estimated, including the very small variations in temperature due to the scan motion of the spacecraft.

  9. Size Distributions and Formation Pathways of Organic and Inorganic Constituents in Spring Aerosols from Okinawa Island in the Western North Pacific Rim: An Outflow Region of Asian Dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, D. K.; Lazaar, M.; Kawamura, K.; Kunwar, B.; Tachibana, E.; Boreddy, S. K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Size-segregated aerosols (9-stages) were collected at Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim in spring 2008. The samples were analyzed for diacids (C2-C12), ω-oxoacids (ωC2-ωC9), a-dicarbonyls (C2-C3), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble OC (WSOC) and major ions to understand the sources and atmospheric processes in the outflow region of Asian pollutants. The molecular distribution of diacids showed the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic and succinic acids in all the size-segregated aerosols. ω-Oxoacids showed the predominance of glyoxylic acid (ωC2) whereas glyoxal (Gly) was more abundant than methylglyoxal in all the sizes. The abundant presence of sulfate as well as phthalic and adipic acids in Okinawa aerosols suggested a significant contribution of anthropogenic sources in East Asia via long-range atmospheric transport. Diacids (C2-C5), ωC2 and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at 0.65-1.1 µm in fine mode whereas azelaic (C9) and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9) acids peaked at 3.3-4.7 µm in coarse mode. Sulfate and ammonium are enriched in fine mode whereas sodium and chloride are in coarse mode. An important mechanism for the formation of these organic species in Okinawa aerosols is probably gas phase oxidation of VOCs and subsequent in-cloud processing during long-range transport. Their characteristics size distribution implies that fine particles enriched with these organic and inorganic species could act as CCN to develop the cloud cover over the western North Pacific. The major peak of C9 and ωC9 on coarse mode suggest that they are produced by photooxidation of unsaturated fatty acids mainly derived from phytoplankton via heterogeneous reactions on sea spray particles. This study demonstrates that anthropogenic aerosols emitted from East Asia have significant influence on the compositions of organic and inorganic aerosols in the western North Pacific Rim.

  10. Tin-bearing chalcopyrite and platinum-bearing bismuthinite in the active Tiger sulfide chimney, Yonaguni Knoll IV seafloor hydrothermal system, Okinawa Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gena, K.; Kase, K.; Chiba, H.; Nakashima, K.

    2005-12-01

    The active submarine hydrothermal field at the Yonaguni Knoll IV is located in the southern Okinawa Trough, behind the Ryukyu trench-arc system, Japan. This field consists of seven active hydrothermal venting sites (Mosquito chimney, Carp Chimney, Abyss vent, Shallow Chimney, Tiger Chimney, Lion Chimney, Crystal Chimney) which are hosted by thick sediments and an underlying felsic volcanic rock of rhyolitic composition. The sulfides from the flank of the Tiger chimney consist of chalcopyrite, bismuthinite, pyrite, galena, sphalerite and gangue mineral of anhydrite which is slightly different to the mineral assemblage of sphalerite, pyrite, wurtzite, chalcopyrite, galena, tennanite-tetrahedrite series, stibnite, As-Sb-Tl-Hg-S bearing phase, bornite, covellite, nukundamite, alabandite and gangue minerals of barite, anhydrite, calcite, and rhodocrosite seen in the other chimneys in this field. Electron microprobe analysis of the chalcopyrite and bismuthinite from the flank of the Tiger chimney, indicates that the chalcopyrite and bismuthinite contain significantly high tin (0.51 to 2.40wt.% Sn, n = 16 ) and platinum (1.30 to 1.69 wt.% Pt, n = 9)respectively and are quite different to the sulfide chemistry of the other chimneys in this field The high Sn and Pt content in chalcopyrite and bismuthinite respectively, are significantly high and has never been reported previously for the submarine hydrothermal systems. The high Sn content in chalcopyrite confirms that the Sn enters the chalcopyrite as a solid solution towards stannite by the coupled substitution of Sn4+Fe2+ for Fe3+Fe3+ while the high Pt content in bismuthinite might indicate that Pt probably enters the bismuthinite by interstitial substitution of Pt2+Cu1+ for Bi3+ although very limited published data is available to verify this observation. Fluid inclusion data of anhydrite (297-313°C) and measured end-member temperature of the vent fluid (325°C) does not exceed 400°C. Previous experimental studies

  11. IODP Exp 331: Iron-oxidizing Bacteria from the Okinawa Trough Deep Subsurface Biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, C. L.; McAllister, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Communities of Fe-oxidizing Bacteria (FeOB) are common at sites of hydrothermal venting and are known to form complex communities in microbial mats, hydrothermal sediments, and borehole fluids. Studies at sites around the Pacific Ocean have found the Zetaproteobacteria to be dominant members of these FeOB communities. Preliminary culture-independent analyses indicate that borehole fluids from the deep subsurface may support several novel and distinct Zetaproteobacteria phylotypes (McAllister et al., 2011). Sampling from the deep subsurface at the Iheya North hydrothermal field has provided an opportunity to explore the microbial biodiversity of this unique subsurface habitat. Onboard enrichment experiments for FeOB were carried out at several sites over a wide range of depths as part of IODP Expedition 331. Enrichment experiments were carried out in both microaerophilic and anaerobic environments, with oxygen and nitrate as terminal electron acceptors, respectively. Although tested for the presence of FeOB from 0.23 to 42.45 meters below the seafloor (mbsf), Site C0014 showed little growth except for in the top half meter of hydrothermally unaltered, weakly oxidized sediment. Site C0015, which was diffusely venting and had a relatively low-temperature (~15°C), showed growth throughout the hole with both microaerophilic and anaerobic conditions to a depth of nine mbsf. Growth at this low-temperature site is consistent with previous studies of iron-oxidizing communities, and may correlate best with the borehole community at the Southern Mariana Trough (Kato et al., 2009). At Site C0017, a potential zone of recharge flow (down-welling of cold oxygenated seawater) was traversed from ~26 to 35 mbsf, and at the top of this zone the microaerophilic enrichment experiments showed growth. Growth in this recharge zone represents the deepest subsurface cultivation of FeOB to date, and may lend insight into the colonization of low-temperature vent systems via subsurface fluid

  12. Coffee and tea consumption, genotype-based CYP1A2 and NAT2 activity and colorectal cancer risk-results from the EPIC cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dik, Vincent K; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Van Oijen, Martijn G H; Siersema, Peter D; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Van Gils, Carla H; Van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Cauchi, Stéphane; Yengo, Loic; Froguel, Philippe; Overvad, Kim; Bech, Bodil H; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kühn, Tilman; Campa, Daniele; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Peppa, Eleni; Oikonomou, Eleni; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosaria; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Engeset, Dagrun; Braaten, Tonje; Dorronsoro, Miren; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Sánchez, María-José; Barricarte, Aurelio; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Argüelles, Marcial; Jirström, Karin; Wallström, Peter; Nilsson, Lena M; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Freisling, Heinz; Licaj, Idlir; Jenab, Mazda; Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Romaguera-Bosch, Dora; Riboli, Elio

    2014-07-15

    Coffee and tea contain numerous antimutagenic and antioxidant components and high levels of caffeine that may protect against colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated the association between coffee and tea consumption and CRC risk and studied potential effect modification by CYP1A2 and NAT2 genotypes, enzymes involved in the metabolization of caffeine. Data from 477,071 participants (70.2% female) of the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study were analyzed. At baseline (1992-2000) habitual (total, caffeinated and decaffeinated) coffee and tea consumption was assessed with dietary questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio's (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Potential effect modification by genotype-based CYP1A2 and NAT2 activity was studied in a nested case-control set of 1,252 cases and 2,175 controls. After a median follow-up of 11.6 years, 4,234 participants developed CRC (mean age 64.7 ± 8.3 years). Total coffee consumption (high vs. non/low) was not associated with CRC risk (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.95-1.18) or subsite cancers, and no significant associations were found for caffeinated (HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.97-1.26) and decaffeinated coffee (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.84-1.11) and tea (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.86-1.09). High coffee and tea consuming subjects with slow CYP1A2 or NAT2 activity had a similar CRC risk compared to non/low coffee and tea consuming subjects with a fast CYP1A2 or NAT2 activity, which suggests that caffeine metabolism does not affect the link between coffee and tea consumption and CRC risk. This study shows that coffee and tea consumption is not likely to be associated with overall CRC. PMID:24318358

  13. First records of interstitial leptocytherids (Crustacea, Ostracoda): two new species and a redescription of Callistocythere ventricostata Ruan & Hao, 1988 collected from the Okinawa Islands, southern Japan.

    PubMed

    Ha, Tran Manh; Tsukagoshi, Akira

    2015-08-21

    Two new and one known species belonging to the genus Callistocythere of the family Leptocytheridae from interstitial environments of the Okinawa Islands are fully described. Callistocythere intermedia sp. nov. is regarded as belonging to the C. japonica group, and Callistocythere ryukyuensis sp. nov. belongs to the C. minor group (these groups were established by Hanai 1957 based on carapace morphology). The redescribed Callistocythere ventricostata Ruan & Hao, 1988 clearly differs from known leptocytherid species in the morphologies of the carapace and the male copulatory organ. The habitats of C. intermedia sp. nov. and C. ryukyuensis sp. nov. are found along the shoreline zone and the mid to high tide levels of the littoral zone, respectively, and C. ventricostata is found from the shoreline to the sub-tidal zone. These species are the first global records of interstitial leptocytherids.

  14. Additional record of Rayllianassa amboinensis (de Man, 1888) from Japan, and description of a new species from Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands (Crustacea: Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae).

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Fujita, Yoshihisa; Maenosono, Tadafumi

    2014-07-14

    Two species referred to the callianassid ghost shrimp genus Rayllianassa Komai & Tachikawa, 2008 are reported herewith. Additional locality records from Japan are provided for R. amboinensis (de Man, 1888), and the synonymy of Callianassa ngochoae Sakai, 1999 with R. amboinensis is discussed. It is shown that R. amboinensis is associated with sponges or alcyonacean soft corals, representing unusual habitats for callianassids. Rayllianassa rudisulcus n. sp. is described on the basis of a single ovigerous female from shallow soft sediment in Ohura Bay, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands. The new species is distinguished from R. amboinensis by the absence of a dorsal oval on the carapace, the antennal peduncle being longer than the antennular peduncle, and the different shape of the third maxilliped. The status of Rayllianassa is also briefly discussed.

  15. Peltogasterella sensuru n. sp. (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala) from off Okinawa Island (Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan) with remarks on its single brood externae.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryuta; Hirose, Mamiko; Hirose, Euichi

    2015-09-01

    Peltogasterella sensuru n. sp. infests Pagurixus hermit crabs inhabiting rocky shores off Okinawa Island (Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan). This species is clearly distinguishable from Peltogasterella gracilis (Boschma, 1927): the stalk emerges from the middle part of the externa in the present species and P. sulcata (Lilljeborg, 1859), while the stalk in P. gracilis emerges from the posterior end of the externae. The new species differs from P. sulcata based on the morphology of the mantle aperture. Peltogasterella sensuru n. sp. repeatedly produces single brood externae that have not been previously observed in species belonging to the suborder Kentrogonida Delage, 1884. We also determined partial sequences of the COI gene and 16S rRNA gene of the new species for use as molecular markers for species identification.

  16. First records of interstitial leptocytherids (Crustacea, Ostracoda): two new species and a redescription of Callistocythere ventricostata Ruan & Hao, 1988 collected from the Okinawa Islands, southern Japan.

    PubMed

    Ha, Tran Manh; Tsukagoshi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Two new and one known species belonging to the genus Callistocythere of the family Leptocytheridae from interstitial environments of the Okinawa Islands are fully described. Callistocythere intermedia sp. nov. is regarded as belonging to the C. japonica group, and Callistocythere ryukyuensis sp. nov. belongs to the C. minor group (these groups were established by Hanai 1957 based on carapace morphology). The redescribed Callistocythere ventricostata Ruan & Hao, 1988 clearly differs from known leptocytherid species in the morphologies of the carapace and the male copulatory organ. The habitats of C. intermedia sp. nov. and C. ryukyuensis sp. nov. are found along the shoreline zone and the mid to high tide levels of the littoral zone, respectively, and C. ventricostata is found from the shoreline to the sub-tidal zone. These species are the first global records of interstitial leptocytherids. PMID:26623759

  17. Isolation and purification of the major photosynthetic antenna, fucoxanthin-Chl a/c protein, from cultured discoid germilings of the brown Alga, Cladosiphon okamuranus TOKIDA (Okinawa Mozuku).

    PubMed

    Fujii, Ritsuko; Kita, Mamiko; Iinuma, Yoshiro; Oka, Naohiro; Takaesu, Yuki; Taira, Tomonori; Iha, Masahiko; Cogdell, Richard J; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2012-03-01

    A chlorophyll c binding membrane intrinsic light-harvesting complex, the fucoxanthin-chlorophyll a/c protein (FCP), was isolated from cultured discoid germilings of an edible Japanese brown alga, Cladosiphon (C.) okamuranus TOKIDA (Okinawa Mozuku in Japanese). The discoid germiling is an ideal source of brown algal photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes in terms of its size and easiness of cultivation on a large scale. Ion-exchange chromatography was crucial for the purification of FCP from solubilized thylakoid proteins. The molecular weight of the purified FCP assembly was estimated to be ~56 kDa using blue native-PAGE. Further subunit analyses using 2D-PAGE revealed that the FCP assembled as a trimer consisting of two distinguishable subunits having molecular weights of 18.2 (H) and 17.5 (L) kDa. Fluorescence and fluorescence-excitation spectra confirmed that the purified FCP assembly was functionally intact.

  18. Additional record of Rayllianassa amboinensis (de Man, 1888) from Japan, and description of a new species from Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands (Crustacea: Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae).

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Fujita, Yoshihisa; Maenosono, Tadafumi

    2014-01-01

    Two species referred to the callianassid ghost shrimp genus Rayllianassa Komai & Tachikawa, 2008 are reported herewith. Additional locality records from Japan are provided for R. amboinensis (de Man, 1888), and the synonymy of Callianassa ngochoae Sakai, 1999 with R. amboinensis is discussed. It is shown that R. amboinensis is associated with sponges or alcyonacean soft corals, representing unusual habitats for callianassids. Rayllianassa rudisulcus n. sp. is described on the basis of a single ovigerous female from shallow soft sediment in Ohura Bay, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands. The new species is distinguished from R. amboinensis by the absence of a dorsal oval on the carapace, the antennal peduncle being longer than the antennular peduncle, and the different shape of the third maxilliped. The status of Rayllianassa is also briefly discussed. PMID:25081469

  19. Peltogasterella sensuru n. sp. (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala) from off Okinawa Island (Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan) with remarks on its single brood externae.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryuta; Hirose, Mamiko; Hirose, Euichi

    2015-09-01

    Peltogasterella sensuru n. sp. infests Pagurixus hermit crabs inhabiting rocky shores off Okinawa Island (Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan). This species is clearly distinguishable from Peltogasterella gracilis (Boschma, 1927): the stalk emerges from the middle part of the externa in the present species and P. sulcata (Lilljeborg, 1859), while the stalk in P. gracilis emerges from the posterior end of the externae. The new species differs from P. sulcata based on the morphology of the mantle aperture. Peltogasterella sensuru n. sp. repeatedly produces single brood externae that have not been previously observed in species belonging to the suborder Kentrogonida Delage, 1884. We also determined partial sequences of the COI gene and 16S rRNA gene of the new species for use as molecular markers for species identification. PMID:26249520

  20. Analyses of Heavy Metal Contents in the Bulk Atmospheric Aerosols Simultaneously Collected at Okinawa Archipelago, Japan by Using X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiro, Y.; ITOH, A.; Azechi, S.; Somada, Y.; Handa, D.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2012-12-01

    We studied heavy metal contents of bulk atmospheric aerosols using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF). The XRF method enables us to analyze heavy metal contents in the bulk aerosols rapidly without any chemical pretreatments. We used an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer that is compact and portable. We prepared several different amounts of standard reference materials (referred to "SRM", NIES No.28 of Japanese National Institute of Environmental Studies) on quartz filters for calibration curves in two different methods; 1) water-insoluble materials were collected after dispersing SRM in pure water and filtered with the quartz filters ("wet method"), and 2) SRM was dispersed in air in the plastic container and the aerosols were collected by using the low-volume air sampler ("dry method"). Good linear relationships between X-ray intensity and amount of aerosols on the filter were seen in the following 9 metals; Al, K, Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Rb, Ba, and Pb (with wet method) and 12 metals; K, Ti, Fe, Ni, Rb, Ba, Pb, Sr, Ca, Mn, Zn, and Cu (with dry method). Furthermore, we evaluated quantitative responses of XRF method by comparing with the metal contents determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after acid-digestion. We then used XRF method to determine heavy metal contents in authentic atmospheric aerosols collected in Okinawa islands, Japan. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using identical high-volume air samplers at 3 islands; Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals determined by the XRF method in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at the three islands during June 2008 to June 2010, and for CHAAMS during June 2008 to October 2012.

  1. Identification of polymorphic and off-target probe binding sites on the Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip.

    PubMed

    McCartney, Daniel L; Walker, Rosie M; Morris, Stewart W; McIntosh, Andrew M; Porteous, David J; Evans, Kathryn L

    2016-09-01

    Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation has now become a relatively inexpensive technique thanks to array-based methylation profiling technologies. The recently developed Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip interrogates methylation at over 850,000 sites across the human genome, covering 99% of RefSeq genes. This array supersedes the widely used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, which has permitted insights into the relationship between DNA methylation and a wide range of conditions and traits. Previous research has identified issues with certain probes on both the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and its predecessor, the Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip, which were predicted to affect array performance. These issues concerned probe-binding specificity and the presence of polymorphisms at target sites. Using in silico methods, we have identified probes on the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip that are predicted to (i) measure methylation at polymorphic sites and (ii) hybridise to multiple genomic regions. We intend these resources to be used for quality control procedures when analysing data derived from this platform. PMID:27330998

  2. The socio-cultural perception of death in Turkish society recorded in lament epics (1955-1975).

    PubMed

    Izgi, M Cumhur; Abdulla, Tarana; Çoban, Mustafa; Onay, Ebru; Lutz, E Elif Vatanaoglu

    This study explores the socio-cultural perception of death among Turkish people. For this reason, 210 published lament epics written by Turkish folk singers across all of Turkey concerning deaths between 1955 and 1975 were selected for analysis. These epics were published on single pages and were sold. The statistical analysis based on detailed content analysis was done at the univariate, bivariate, and multivariate levels. The results of the study provide a full picture of perception of cases of death in Turkish society. These results show Turkish society is especially sensitive to cases of death at young age and to the murdered. Further, a clear perception of the working of fate is encountered in deaths resulting from disaster and accidents; but the desire for vengeance is recorded in those laments concerning martyrs and the murdered. The statistical data show that most commonly cited reasons for death after road accidents, were a consequence of relationships with the opposite sex and from a sense of honor.

  3. Cod liver oil supplement consumption and health: cross-sectional results from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lentjes, Marleen A H; Welch, Ailsa A; Mulligan, Angela A; Luben, Robert N; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-10-01

    Supplement users (SU) make healthy lifestyle choices; on the other hand, SU report more medical conditions. We hypothesised that cod liver oil (CLO) consumers are similar to non-supplement users, since CLO use might originate from historical motives, i.e., rickets prevention, and not health consciousness. CLO consumers were studied in order to identify possible confounders, such as confounding by indication. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) investigates causes of chronic disease. The participants were 25,639 men and women, aged 40-79 years, recruited from general practices in Norfolk, East-Anglia (UK). Participants completed questionnaires and a health examination between 1993 and 1998. Supplement use was measured using 7-day diet diaries. CLO was the most common supplement used, more prevalent among women and associated with not smoking, higher physical activity level and more favourable eating habits. SU had a higher occurrence of benign growths and bone-related diseases, but CLO was negatively associated with cardiovascular-related conditions. Although the results of SU characteristics in EPIC-Norfolk are comparable with studies worldwide, the CLO group is different from SU in general. Confounding by indication takes place and will need to be taken into account when analysing prospective associations of CLO use with fracture risk and cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Epic Moon: a history of lunar exploration in the age of the telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, William P.; Dobbins, Thomas A.

    timeless. The story of mankind's endless fascination with the world of the Moon and the gallery of interesting characters who pursued the details of the lunar surface with often strange intensity is a modern-day epic. Many of the stories recounted for the first time here will still be recounted generations hence, when the Apollo explorations may seem a mere interlude in what has actually been a more sustained and more significant era of endeavour. It is possible that the names of Schroeter, Beer and Mädler, Webb and Schmidt may prove to be as memorable as those of Armstrong, Aldrin, Cernan and Schmitt.

  5. EPIC Study of Two Enigmatic Sources: The Mouse and SNR 359.1-0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlov, George

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the original proposal was to observe the Mouse pulsar wind nebula (associated with PSR J1744-2958) and the nearby supernova remnant G359.1-0.5, where the pulsar was probably born, with the XMM-Newton observatory to study the properties of these objects. SNR G359.1-0.5 was accepted as a Category C target and has not been observed. The Mouse was observed on April 27,2003 for 52 ks. The image analysis has shown that the Mouse is extended in the East-West direction, possibly along the direction of the pulsar's proper motion. The spectrum of this pulsar wind nebula can be described as an absorbed power law with the photon index GAMMA = 1.9 plus or minus 0.1, effective hydrogen column density n(sub H) = (2.6 plus or minus 0.1) x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter, and flux F = 1.8 x 10(exp -11) erg per square centimeter per second in the 1-10 keV energy range. Based on the n(sub H) value, the distance to the source is about 5 kpc, which results in the luminosity 3.7 x 10(exp 34) erg per second. We conclude that PSR J1744-2958 and the Mouse are not physically associated with G359.1-0.5, which lies at a larger distance. In addition to the Mouse, we also detected two Low-Mass X-ray Binaries, SLX 1744-299 and 1744-300, in the EPIC MOS and PN fields of view. The latter of these objects showed a Type I X-ray burst during our observation, with a rise time of 5 s and decay time of 60 s. A very strong pileup during the burst made the analysis of the burst properties unreliable. The spectral analysis of the persistent radiation from SLX 1744-299 and 1744-300 yields the hydrogen column densities of 3.2 plus or minus 0.1 and (3.6 plus or minus 0.2) x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter, respectively, which suggests that the sources are close to the Galactic center (d = 8-9 kpc). The spectra can be reasonably well fitted with a blackbody plus thin disk model, with the blackbody temperatures of 1.7 plus or minus 0.2 and 1.8 plus or minus 0.2 keV, respectively.

  6. The thin and medium filters of the EPIC camera on-board XMM-Newton: measured performance after more than 15 years of operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, Marco; Gastaldello, Fabio; Sciortino, Luisa; Agnello, Simonpietro; Buscarino, Gianpiero; Collura, Alfonso; La Palombara, Nicola; Cicero, Ugo Lo; Sartore, Nicola; Tiengo, Andrea; Varisco, Salvatore; Venezia, Anna Maria

    2016-10-01

    After more than 15 years of operation of the EPIC camera on board the XMM-Newton X-ray observatory, we have reviewed the status of its Thin and Medium filters. We have selected a set of Thin and Medium back-up filters among those still available in the EPIC consortium and have started a program to investigate their status by different laboratory measurements including: UV/VIS transmission, Raman scattering, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy. Furthermore, we have investigated the status of the EPIC flight filters by performing an analysis of the optical loading in the PN offset maps to gauge variations in the optical and UV transmission. We both investigated repeated observations of single optically bright targets and performed a statistical analysis of the extent of loading versus visual magnitude at different epochs. We report the results of the measurements conducted up to now. Most notably, we find no evidence for change in the UV/VIS transmission of the back-up filters in ground tests spanning a 2 year period and we find no evidence for change in the optical transmission of the thin filter of the EPIC-pn camera from 2002 to 2012. We point out some lessons learned for the development and calibration programs of filters for X-ray detectors in future Astronomy missions.

  7. The thin and medium filters of the EPIC camera on-board XMM-Newton: measured performance after more than 15 years of operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, Marco; Gastaldello, Fabio; Sciortino, Luisa; Agnello, Simonpietro; Buscarino, Gianpiero; Collura, Alfonso; La Palombara, Nicola; Cicero, Ugo Lo; Sartore, Nicola; Tiengo, Andrea; Varisco, Salvatore; Venezia, Anna Maria

    2016-08-01

    After more than 15 years of operation of the EPIC camera on board the XMM-Newton X-ray observatory, we have reviewed the status of its Thin and Medium filters. We have selected a set of Thin and Medium back-up filters among those still available in the EPIC consortium and have started a program to investigate their status by different laboratory measurements including: UV/VIS transmission, Raman scattering, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy. Furthermore, we have investigated the status of the EPIC flight filters by performing an analysis of the optical loading in the PN offset maps to gauge variations in the optical and UV transmission. We both investigated repeated observations of single optically bright targets and performed a statistical analysis of the extent of loading versus visual magnitude at different epochs. We report the results of the measurements conducted up to now. Most notably, we find no evidence for change in the UV/VIS transmission of the back-up filters in ground tests spanning a 2 year period and we find no evidence for change in the optical transmission of the thin filter of the EPIC-pn camera from 2002 to 2012. We point out some lessons learned for the development and calibration programs of filters for X-ray detectors in future Astronomy missions.

  8. Excerpts from "The Lewis and Clark Journals: An Epic of Discovery, the Abridgment of the Definitive Nebraska Edition": The Journey across the Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Gary E.

    2003-01-01

    This article contains excerpts from "The Lewis and Clark Journals: An Epic of Discovery, The Abridgment of the Definitive Nebraska Edition," published by the University of Nebraska Press in 2003. Editor Gary E. Moulton chose a few daily entries from the journals to highlight the expedition from May 14-October 12, 1804.

  9. PLTW and Epics-High: Curriculum Comparisons to Support Problem Solving in the Context of Engineering Design. Research in Engineering and Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Todd; Brenner, Daniel C.; Pieper, Jon T.

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study was conducted to compare two approaches to engineering design curriculum between different schools (inter-school) and between two curricular approaches, "Project Lead the Way" (PLTW) and "Engineering Projects in Community Service" (EPIC High) (inter-curricular). The researchers collected curriculum materials, including…

  10. I am Joaquin. Yo Soy Joaquin. An Epic Poem with a Chronology of People and Events in Mexican and Mexican American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Rodolfo

    Both Spanish and English versions of the epic poem "I Am Joaquin" are given in this book. "I Am Joaquin" is the first work of poetry to be published by Chicanos for Chicanos. It is a historical essay of the greatness and weakness of the Chicano people. Their psychological wounds, cultural genocide, social castration, nobility, courage,…

  11. Differentially methylated microRNAs in prediagnostic samples of subjects who developed breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC-Italy) cohort.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Francesca; Ferrero, Giulio; Polidoro, Silvia; Fiorito, Giovanni; Campanella, Gianluca; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Masala, Giovanna; Agnoli, Claudia; Frasca, Graziella; Panico, Salvatore; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Naccarati, Alessio

    2015-10-01

    The crosstalk between microRNAs (miRNAs) and other epigenetic factors may lead to novel hypotheses about carcinogenesis identifying new targets for research. Because a single miRNA can regulate multiple downstream target genes, its altered expression may potentially be a sensitive biomarker to detect early malignant transformation and improve diagnosis and prognosis. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that altered methylation of miRNA encoding genes, associated with deregulated mature miRNA expression, may be related to dietary and lifestyle factors and may contribute to cancer development. In a case-control study nested in a prospective cohort (EPIC-Italy), we analysed DNA methylation levels of miRNA encoding genes (2191 CpG probes related to 517 genes) that are present in the Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChip array in prediagnostic peripheral white blood cells of subjects who developed colorectal cancer (CRC, n = 159) or breast cancer (BC, n = 166) and matched subjects who remained clinically healthy. In the whole cohort, several differentially methylated miRNA genes were observed in association with age, sex, smoking habits and physical activity. Interestingly, in the case-control study, eight differentially methylated miRNAs were identified in subjects who went on to develop BC (miR-328, miR-675, miR-1307, miR-1286, miR-1275, miR-1910, miR-24-1 and miR-548a-1; all Bonferroni-adjusted P < 0.05). No significant associations were found with CRC. Assuming that altered methylation of miRNAs detectable in blood may be present before diagnosis, it may represent a biomarker for early detection or risk of cancer and may help to understand the cascade of events preceding tumour onset.

  12. Bulky DNA adducts, 4-aminobiphenyl-haemoglobin adducts and diet in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) prospective study.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Marco; Airoldi, Luisa; Munnia, Armelle; Colombi, Alessandro; Veglia, Fabrizio; Autrup, Herman; Dunning, Alison; Garte, Seymour; Gormally, Emmanuelle; Malaveille, Christian; Matullo, Giuseppe; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Linseisen, Jacob; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-De-Mesquita, Bas H; Peeters, Petra H; Kumle, Merethe; Agudo, Antonio; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tormo, Marìa Jose; Quiros, José Ramón; Berglund, Goran; Jarvholm, Bengt; Day, Nicholas E; Key, Timothy J; Saracci, Rodolfo; Kaaks, Rudolf; Riboli, Elio; Bingham, Shelia; Vineis, Paolo

    2008-09-01

    In contrast to some extensively examined food mutagens, for example, aflatoxins, N-nitrosamines and heterocyclic amines, some other food contaminants, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and other aromatic compounds, have received less attention. Therefore, exploring the relationships between dietary habits and the levels of biomarkers related to exposure to aromatic compounds is highly relevant. We have investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort the association between dietary items (food groups and nutrients) and aromatic DNA adducts and 4-aminobiphenyl-Hb adducts. Both types of adducts are biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and possibly of cancer risk, and were measured, respectively, in leucocytes and erythrocytes of 1086 (DNA adducts) and 190 (Hb adducts) non-smokers. An inverse, statistically significant, association has been found between DNA adduct levels and dietary fibre intake (P = 0.02), vitamin E (P = 0.04) and alcohol (P = 0.03) but not with other nutrients or food groups. Also, an inverse association between fibre and fruit intake, and BMI and 4-aminobiphenyl-Hb adducts (P = 0.03, 0.04, and 0.03 respectively) was observed. After multivariate regression analysis these inverse correlations remained statistically significant, except for the correlation adducts v. fruit intake. The present study suggests that fibre intake in the usual range can modify the level of DNA or Hb aromatic adducts, but such role seems to be quantitatively modest. Fibres could reduce the formation of DNA adducts in different manners, by diluting potential food mutagens and carcinogens in the gastrointestinal tract, by speeding their transit through the colon and by binding carcinogenic substances.

  13. Origin of central abundances in the hot intra-cluster medium. I. Individual and average abundance ratios from XMM-Newton EPIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mernier, F.; de Plaa, J.; Pinto, C.; Kaastra, J. S.; Kosec, P.; Zhang, Y.-Y.; Mao, J.; Werner, N.

    2016-08-01

    The hot intra-cluster medium (ICM) is rich in metals, which are synthesised by supernovae (SNe) explosions and accumulate over time into the deep gravitational potential well of clusters of galaxies. Since most of the elements visible in X-rays are formed by type Ia (SNIa) and/or core-collapse (SNcc) supernovae, measuring their abundances gives us direct information on the nucleosynthesis products of billions of SNe since the epoch of the star formation peak (z ~ 2-3). In this study, we use the EPIC and RGS instruments on board XMM-Newton to measure the abundances of nine elements (O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe, and Ni) from a sample of 44 nearby cool-core galaxy clusters, groups, and elliptical galaxies. We find that the Fe abundance shows a large scatter (~20-40%) over the sample, within 0.2r500 and especially 0.05r500. Unlike the absolute Fe abundance, the abundance ratios (X/Fe) are uniform over the considered temperature range (~0.6-8 keV) and with a limited scatter. In addition to an unprecedented treatment of systematic uncertainties, we provide the most accurate abundance ratios measured so far in the ICM, including Cr/Fe and Mn/Fe which we firmly detected (>4σ with MOS and pn independently). We find that Cr/Fe, Mn/Fe, and Ni/Fe differ significantly from the proto-solar values. However, the large uncertainties in the proto-solar abundances prevent us from making a robust comparison between the local and the intra-cluster chemical enrichments. We also note that, interestingly, and despite the large net exposure time (~4.5 Ms) of our dataset, no line emission feature is seen around ~3.5 keV.

  14. Dietary vitamin D intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition – the EPIC-InterAct study

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Sascha; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Beulens, Joline WJ; Buijsse, Brian; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Balkau, Beverley; Boeing, Heiner; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W; Gavrila, Diana; Grioni, Sara; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay Tee; Masters, Tilman Kühn; Mattiello, Amalia; Molina-Montes, Esther; Nilsson, Peter M; Overvad, Kim; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Saieva, Calogero; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke MW; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Sharp, Stephen J; Langenberg, Claudia; Forouhi, Nita G; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Background Prospective cohort studies have indicated that serum vitamin D levels are inversely related to risk of type 2 diabetes. However, such studies cannot determine the source of vitamin D. Therefore, we examined the association of dietary vitamin D intake with incident type 2 diabetes within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study in a heterogeneous European population including 8 countries with large geographical variation. Methods Using a case-cohort design, 11,245 incident cases of type 2 diabetes and a representative subcohort (N=15,798) were included in the analyses. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for type 2 diabetes were calculated using a Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusted for potential confounders. 24-h diet recall data from a subsample (N=2347) were used to calibrate habitual intake data derived from dietary questionnaires. Results Median follow-up time was 10.8 years. Dietary vitamin D intake was not significantly associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. HR and 95 % CIs for the highest compared to the lowest quintile of uncalibrated vitamin D intake was 1.09 (0.97-1.22), (ptrend=0.17). No associations were observed in a sex-specific analysis. The overall pooled effect [HR (95% CI)] using the continuous calibrated variable was 1.00 (0.97-1.03) per increase of 1 μg/day dietary vitamin D. Conclusion This observational study does not support an association between higher dietary vitamin D intake and type-2 diabetes incidence. This result has to be interpreted in light of the limited contribution of dietary vitamin D on the overall vitamin D status of a person. PMID:24253760

  15. The K2 Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC) and Stellar Classifications of 138,600 Targets in Campaigns 1-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Daniel; Bryson, Stephen T.; Haas, Michael R.; Barclay, Thomas; Barentsen, Geert; Howell, Steve B.; Sharma, Sanjib; Stello, Dennis; Thompson, Susan E.

    2016-05-01

    The K2 Mission uses the Kepler spacecraft to obtain high-precision photometry over ≈80 day campaigns in the ecliptic plane. The Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC) provides coordinates, photometry, and kinematics based on a federation of all-sky catalogs to support target selection and target management for the K2 mission. We describe the construction of the EPIC, as well as modifications and shortcomings of the catalog. Kepler magnitudes (Kp) are shown to be accurate to ≈0.1 mag for the Kepler field, and the EPIC is typically complete to Kp ≈ 17 (Kp ≈ 19 for campaigns covered by Sloan Digital Sky Survey). We furthermore classify 138,600 targets in Campaigns 1-8 (≈88% of the full target sample) using colors, proper motions, spectroscopy, parallaxes, and galactic population synthesis models, with typical uncertainties for G-type stars of ≈3% in {T}{{eff}}, ≈0.3 dex in {log} g, ≈40% in radius, ≈10% in mass, and ≈40% in distance. Our results show that stars targeted by K2 are dominated by K-M dwarfs (≈41% of all selected targets), F-G dwarfs (≈36%), and K giants (≈21%), consistent with key K2 science programs to search for transiting exoplanets and galactic archeology studies using oscillating red giants. However, we find significant variation of the fraction of cool dwarfs with galactic latitude, indicating a target selection bias due to interstellar reddening and increased contamination by giant stars near the galactic plane. We discuss possible systematic errors in the derived stellar properties, and differences with published classifications for K2 exoplanet host stars. The EPIC is hosted at the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST): http://archive.stsci.edu/k2/epic/search.php.

  16. Accuracy of the centenarian numbers in Okinawa and the role of the Okinawan diet on longevity: responses to Le Bourg about the article "Exploring the impact of climate on human longevity".

    PubMed

    Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R; Arai, Yasumichi; Willcox, D Craig; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Suzuki, Makoto; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2013-08-01

    This response letter addresses two points raised by le Bourg when discussing our previous paper entitled "Exploring the impact of climate on human longevity". First, the arguments explaining the accuracy of the numbers of centenarian in Okinawa are developed, and second the composition and healthfulness of the traditional Okinawan diet are described as well as the changes in dietary pattern and their impact on longevity.

  17. Droughts, epic droughts and droughty centuries - lessons from a California paleoclimatic record: a PACLIM 2001 meeting report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettinger, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    During the early 1990s (but echoing studies by S.T. Harding at the University of California, from as early as the 1930s), several lines of paleoclimate evidence in and around the Sierra Nevada Range have provided the water community in California with some real horror stories. By studying ancient tree stumps submerged in Lake Tahoe and Tenaya Lake, stumps that were emerging from Mono Lake during its recent decline, and stumps that were exhumed in the Walker River bed during the floods of 1997, paleoclimatologists like Scott Stine of California State University, Hayward, assembled a picture of epic droughts in the central Sierra Nevada during the medieval period. These droughts had to be severe to drop water levels in the lakes and rivers low enough for the trees to grow in the first place, and then had to last for hundreds of years to explain tree-ring counts in these sizeable stumps. Worse yet, the evidence suggested at least two such epic droughts, one ending close to 1100 and the other close to 1350. These epic droughts challenged paleoclimatologists, as well as modern climatologists and hydrologists, to understand and, ultimately, to determine the likelihood that such droughts might recur in the foreseeable future. The first challenge, however, was to verify that such droughts were more than local events and as extreme as suggested. At this year’s Pacific Climate (PACLIM) Workshop, held March 18–21, 2001, at Asilomar (Pacific Grove, Calif.), special sessions brought together scientists to compare paleoclimatic reconstructions of ancient droughts and pluvial (wet) epidodes to try to determine the nature of decadal and centennial climate fluctuations in western North America, with emphasis on California. A companion session brought together modern climatologists to report on the latest explanations (and evidence) for decadal climate variations during the instrumental era of the 20th century. PACLIM is an annual workshop that, since 1983, has brought together

  18. Creating an EPICS Based Test Stand Development System for a BPM Digitizer of the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-22

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is required to deliver a high quality electron beam for producing coherent X-rays. As a result, high resolution beam position monitoring is required. The Beam Position Monitor (BPM) digitizer acquires analog signals from the beam line and digitizes them to obtain beam position data. Although Matlab is currently being used to test the BPM digitizer?s functions and capability, the Controls Department at SLAC prefers to use Experimental Physics and Industrial Control Systems (EPICS). This paper discusses the transition of providing similar as well as enhanced functionalities, than those offered by Matlab, to test the digitizer. Altogether, the improved test stand development system can perform mathematical and statistical calculations with the waveform signals acquired from the digitizer and compute the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the signals. Finally, logging of meaningful data into files has been added.

  19. Program Epicshow: A computer code to allow interactive viewing of the EPIC data libraries (version 94-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D.E.

    1994-02-01

    This report discusses the following on the program EPICSHOW: The EPIC System Overview; The Epicshow code; Contents of the Data Bases; Implementing Epicshow; What is Epicshow?; Brief Instruction to the Menu Options; A Guided tour of Epicshow; Z+10, Z-10, etc.: Selecting a Target; Freeze!!!; Major, Minor, etc.: Selecting a Type of Data; Photon, Electron, etc.: Selecting a Projectile; Example Target and Projectile Output; Grids; 2 X 2; Zoom X and Show All; Points; Ratio; Lin/Log X and Y: Linear or Log Scaling; barn-1/cm:Microscopic or Macroscopic; Listing: Tabulated Output Listings; Pstscript: Postscript Output; Legend; Bigger and Smaller: Character Size; Bottoms Up and No Bottom; Interpolation of Data; Availability; Using your mouse; Size of Data Bases; Epicshow`s Standard Graphic Interface; and Postscript Output to Local Printer.

  20. A Comparative Study of Fuzzy Logic and Classical Control with EPICS[Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Johnny Tang; Hamid Shoaee

    1995-11-01

    The classical control theory which relies on the mathematical model of the underlying system has been successfully applied to the control of a large variety of simple, non-linear processes. However, it has not been as widely used with complicated, non-linear, time varying systems or with processes suffering from noisy measurements. The main idea of fuzzy control is to build a model of an expert operator who is capable of controlling the plant without thinking in terms of a mathematical model. This paper describes the application of fuzzy control to a feedback system within an EPICS environment. Comparison of the application of a modern controller and a fuzzy controller to an inverted pendulum problem is presented.

  1. Fluid intake and the risk of urothelial cell carcinomas in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Ros, Martine M; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Büchner, Frederike L; Aben, Katja K H; Kampman, Ellen; Egevad, Lars; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Kaaks, Rudolf; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Steffen; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Orfanos, Philippos; Stasinopulou, Georgia; Saieva, Calogero; Krogh, Vittorio; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H M; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Lund, Eiliv; Gram, Inger T; Chirlaque, Maria D; Barricarte, Aurelio; Rodríguez, Laudina; Molina, Esther; Gonzalez, Carlos; Dorronsoro, Miren; Manjer, Jonas; Ehrnström, Roy; Ljungberg, Börje; Allen, Naomi E; Roddam, Andrew W; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Boffetta, Paolo; Slimani, Nadia; Michaud, Dominique S; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Riboli, Elio

    2011-06-01

    Results from previous studies investigating the association between fluid intake and urothelial cell carcinomas (UCC) are inconsistent. We evaluated this association among 233,236 subjects in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), who had adequate baseline information on water and total fluid intake. During a mean follow-up of 9.3 years, 513 first primary UCC occurred. At recruitment, habitual fluid intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable hazard ratios were estimated using Cox regression stratified by age, sex and center and adjusted for energy intake, smoking status, duration of smoking and lifetime intensity of smoking. When using the lowest tertile of intake as reference, total fluid intake was not associated with risk of all UCC (HR 1.12; 95%CI 0.86-1.45, p-trend = 0.42) or with risk of prognostically high-risk UCC (HR 1.28; 95%CI 0.85-1.93, p-trend = 0.27) or prognostically low-risk UCC (HR 0.93; 95%CI 0.65-1.33, p-trend = 0.74). No associations were observed between risk of UCC and intake of water, coffee, tea and herbal tea and milk and other dairy beverages. For prognostically low-risk UCC suggestions of an inverse association with alcoholic beverages and of a positive association with soft drinks were seen. Increased risks were found for all UCC and prognostically low-risk UCC with higher intake of fruit and vegetable juices. In conclusion, total usual fluid intake is not associated with UCC risk in EPIC. The relationships observed for some fluids may be due to chance, but further investigation of the role of all types of fluid is warranted.

  2. epic3: national evidence-based guidelines for preventing healthcare-associated infections in NHS hospitals in England.

    PubMed

    Loveday, H P; Wilson, J A; Pratt, R J; Golsorkhi, M; Tingle, A; Bak, A; Browne, J; Prieto, J; Wilcox, M; UK Department of Health

    2014-01-01

    National evidence-based guidelines for preventing healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) in National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in England were originally commissioned by the Department of Health and developed during 1998-2000 by a nurse-led multi-professional team of researchers and specialist clinicians. Following extensive consultation, they were first published in January 2001(1) and updated in 2007.(2) A cardinal feature of evidence-based guidelines is that they are subject to timely review in order that new research evidence and technological advances can be identified, appraised and, if shown to be effective for the prevention of HCAI, incorporated into amended guidelines. Periodically updating the evidence base and guideline recommendations is essential in order to maintain their validity and authority. The Department of Health commissioned a review of new evidence and we have updated the evidence base for making infection prevention and control recommendations. A critical assessment of the updated evidence indicated that the epic2 guidelines published in 2007 remain robust, relevant and appropriate, but some guideline recommendations required adjustments to enhance clarity and a number of new recommendations were required. These have been clearly identified in the text. In addition, the synopses of evidence underpinning the guideline recommendations have been updated. These guidelines (epic3) provide comprehensive recommendations for preventing HCAI in hospital and other acute care settings based on the best currently available evidence. National evidence-based guidelines are broad principles of best practice that need to be integrated into local practice guidelines and audited to reduce variation in practice and maintain patient safety. Clinically effective infection prevention and control practice is an essential feature of patient protection. By incorporating these guidelines into routine daily clinical practice, patient safety can be enhanced and

  3. Psychosocial aetiology of chronic disease: a pragmatic approach to the assessment of lifetime affective morbidity in an EPIC component study

    PubMed Central

    Surtees, P; Wainwright, N; Brayne, C

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The Health and Life Experiences Questionnaire (HLEQ) was developed for use in a prospective cohort study of 25 000 men and women living in Norfolk and forms a component study of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The HLEQ includes an assessment of mood status over the life course allowing a limited capacity for the imposition of diagnostic criteria to enable eventual evaluation of mental health status for chronic disease outcomes. This paper reports estimates of HLEQ Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) prevalence and compares them with those obtained through interviewer-based methods. In addition evidence for the impact of recall, clustering or cohort effects on these estimates are examined.
PARTICIPANTS—3491 eligible respondents to EPIC in Norfolk, aged 45-74 years, recruited from the first five general practices who completed the HLEQ.
MAIN RESULTS—MDD prevalence estimates were found to be closely comparable to those obtained recently (by interview) in the UK and to those lifetime MDD rates determined through international studies. Risk of MDD onset was found to vary with age as expected from earlier studies using interviewer-based assessments. Limited evidence was found to show that the distribution of first onset MDD episodes were compressed during the immediate pre-assessment period. Results were also consistent with previous evidence demonstrating the raised risk of MDD among women and of the decline in gender differences with advancing age.
CONCLUSIONS—These results suggest that estimates of putative MDD diagnostic status, derived through the HLEQ, and of associated demographic risk are similar to those derived by more intensive and costly assessment methods. Implications for the future study of MDD both as an outcome and as a risk factor for chronic disease are discussed.


Keywords: depression; epidemiology; prevalence PMID:10715744

  4. The influence of Ryukyu subduction on magma genesis in the Northern Taiwan Volcanic Zone and Middle Okinawa Trough - Evidence from boron isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Ju-Lien; You, Chen-Feng; Wang, Kuo-Lung

    2016-09-01

    Boron (B) is an excellent geochemical tracer for investigating crustal recycling processes at convergent margins, due to its high fluid mobility under high P-T conditions, distinct elemental abundances and isotopic compositions in the mantle wedge and subducting slabs. The Northern Taiwan Volcanic Zone (NTVZ), wherein the nature of magma genesis has long been a topic of debate, is located at the rear side of the Okinawa Trough (OT), an atypical back-arc rift in the Ryukyu subduction system. In this study, B and B isotopes (δ11B) were measured in 19 volcanic rocks collected from the NTVZ and the middle Okinawa Trough (MOT) to assess the influence of the Ryukyu subduction system on magma genesis. The B concentrations in the MOT and NTVZ volcanic rocks are 5.8 to 13.6 mg/L and 2.2 to 48.6 mg/L, respectively. The large B abundances variation in the NTVZ was caused mainly by variable degrees of partial melting. The Nb/B and δ11B in the MOT have small ranges of 0.5 to 0.6 and - 2.7‰ to 0.2‰, respectively, whereas they range widely from 0.4 to 2.5 and from - 8.6‰ to 2.4‰, respectively in the NTVZ. These Nb/B values suggest that the magma contains a smaller subduction component than that normally observed in arcs, although this component is still more substantial than in a typical back-arc setting. The δ11B results indicate insignificant influence of the subducting Philippine Sea Plate at 2.6 Ma, but it becomes more substantial later in the NTVZ. The mixing proportions of sediment derived fluids in onshore volcanoes in the NTVZ imply a rather heterogeneous mantle wedge near the plate boundary, most likely due to either a heterogeneous source of slab derived fluids or more complicated mantle flow. A substantial B flux from the subducting slab in the incipient back-arc rifting in the MOT and NTVZ may reflect characteristics of a cold, steep and fast subducting slab, which may be capable of carrying volatiles efficiently into greater depth in subduction zones. The

  5. Biomarker patterns of inflammatory and metabolic pathways are associated with risk of colorectal cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Jenab, Mazda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Fedirko, Veronika; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annekatrin; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Jansen, Eugene; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Murphy, Neil; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Westhpal, Sabine; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Racine, Antoine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Agnoli, Claudia; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H; Duell, Eric J; Molina-Montes, Esther; Quirós, J Ramón; Dorronsoro, Miren; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Palmqvist, Richard; Travis, Ruth C; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Pischon, Tobias; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-04-01

    A number of biomarkers of inflammatory and metabolic pathways are individually related to higher risk of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the association between biomarker patterns and CRC incidence has not been previously evaluated. Our study investigates the association of biomarker patterns with CRC in a prospective nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). During median follow-up time of 7.0 (3.7-9.4) years, 1,260 incident CRC cases occurred and were matched to 1,260 controls using risk-set sampling. Pre-diagnostic measurements of C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), C-reactive protein (CRP), reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM), insulin-like growth factor 1, adiponectin, leptin and soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R) were used to derive biomarker patterns from principal component analysis (PCA). The relation with CRC incidence was assessed using conditional logistic regression models. We identified four biomarker patterns 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP', 'TG/C-peptide' and 'leptin/sOB-R' to explain 60 % of the overall biomarker variance. In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, the 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP' and 'leptin/sOB-R' patterns were associated with CRC risk [for the highest quartile vs the lowest, incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.69, 95 % CI 0.51-0.93, P-trend = 0.01; IRR = 1.70, 95 % CI 1.30-2.23, P-trend = 0.002; and IRR = 0.79, 95 % CI 0.58-1.07; P-trend = 0.05, respectively]. In contrast, the 'TG/C-peptide' pattern was not associated with CRC risk (IRR = 0.75, 95 % CI 0.56-1.00, P-trend = 0.24). After cases within the first 2 follow-up years were excluded, the 'ROM/CRP' pattern was no longer associated with CRC risk, suggesting potential influence of preclinical disease on these associations. By application of PCA, the study identified 'HDL-C/Adiponectin fractions', 'ROM/CRP' and 'leptin/sOB-R' as

  6. Resistance phenotypes and genotypes among multiple-antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis strains isolated between 2008 and 2012 from slaughter pigs in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matayoshi, Masanao; Kitano, Takashi; Sasaki, Tetsu; Nakamura, Masaji

    2015-06-01

    A total of 349 Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) strains, which were isolated between 2008 and 2012 from 349 pigs at two slaughterhouses in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes. All isolates were resistant to at least four antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial agents for which isolates showed a high incidence of resistance were as follows: ampicillin (100%) and streptomycin (100%), followed by gentamicin (99.7%), oxytetracycline (99.7%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (99.4%), nalidixic acid (40.1%) and oxolinic acid (40.1%). All isolates were sensitive to cefuroxime, ceftiofur, colistin, fosfomycin, enrofloxacin, orbifloxacin and danofloxacin. The predominant resistance phenotypes and genotypes were: resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (58.5%, 204/349) and blaTEM-strA-strB-aadA1-aadA2-aacC2-tet (B)-sul1-sul2-dhfrXII-dhfrXIII (36.1%, 126/349). The quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE of the quinolone-resistant isolates (n=12) showed amino acid substitutions of Ser-83→Phe or Asp-87→Tyr in GyrA and Ser-107→Ala in ParC. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance among S. Choleraesuis strains in Japan.

  7. The Okinawa study: an estimation of noise-induced hearing loss on the basis of the records of aircraft noise exposure around Kadena Air Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, K.; Matsui, T.; Ito, A.; Miyakita, T.; Osada, Y.; Yamamoto, T.

    2004-10-01

    Aircraft noise measurements were recorded at the residential areas in the vicinity of Kadena Air Base, Okinawa in 1968 and 1972 at the time of the Vietnam war. The estimated equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level LAeq for 24 h was 85 dB.The time history of sound level during 24 h was estimated from the measurement conducted in 1968, and the sound level was converted into the spectrum level at the centre frequency of the critical band of temporary threshold shift (TTS) using the results of spectrum analysis of aircraft noise operated at the airfield. With the information of spectrum level and its time history, TTS was calculated as a function of time and level change. The permanent threshold shift was also calculated by means of Robinson's method and ISO's method. The results indicate the noise exposure around Kadena Air Base was hazardous to hearing and is likely to have caused hearing loss to people living in its vicinity.

  8. Particle-induced X-ray emission analysis of elements in plasma from wild and captive sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata, Chelonia mydas, and Caretta caretta) in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Noda, Jun; Yanagisawa, Makio; Kawazu, Isao; Sera, Kouichiro; Fukui, Daisuke; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of direct determination of trace and major element concentrations in plasma samples from wild (six hawksbill, nine green, and nine loggerhead) and captive sea turtles (25 howksbill, five green, and three loggerhead) in Okinawa, Japan. The particle induced X-ray emission method allowed detection of 23 trace and major elements (Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, S, Se, Si, Sr, Ti, Y, and Zn). The wild sea turtles were found to have high concentrations of As and Pb in plasma compared with captive, but there were no significant changes in the Al and Hg concentrations. Loggerhead sea turtles were found to have significantly higher accumulation of As and Pb in plasma in comparison to other species. These findings may be useful when adjusting environmental and species-related factors in severely polluted marine ecosystems. Our results indicate that measuring the plasma As and Pb concentrations in wild sea turtles might be of help to assess the level of pollution in marine ecosystems, keeping in mind that loggerhead sea turtles had been shown to have higher levels of As and Pb in plasma.

  9. Multi-lineages of Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) evaluated by using whole chloroplast genome sequences and its bio-diversity in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Ryuji; Badenoch, Nathan; Miyagi, Kunimasa; Medoruma, Kaname; Osada, Toshiki; Onishi, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Shiikuwasha (Citrus depressa Hayata) is distributed from the South-west of the Japanese archipelago to Taiwan. In this study, re-sequencing against the orange (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck) chloroplast genome was applied to one superior landrace of Shiikuwasha cultivated in Oku ward, Okinawa, Japan. The chloroplast genome of the landrace was estimated to comprise 160,118 bp, including 48 indels and 71 nucleotide substitutions against the reference genome. The presumptive chloroplast indels were confirmed by subsequent experiments, and these identified multiple maternal lineages among other landraces. Some of the orange SSR markers were available for genotyping of other superior landraces and were able to distinguish among them. These molecular markers were then applied for evaluation of genetic diversity among wild and cultivated Shiikuwasha accessions. Except for Oku ward, the cultivated populations were found to have lost their genetic diversity in comparison with wild populations. Groves in Oku ward maintained, or showed even higher genetic diversity than wild accessions in the surrounding areas by the force of villagers. PMID:27795674

  10. Resistance phenotypes and genotypes among multiple-antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis strains isolated between 2008 and 2012 from slaughter pigs in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    MATAYOSHI, Masanao; KITANO, Takashi; SASAKI, Tetsu; NAKAMURA, Masaji

    2015-01-01

    A total of 349 Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) strains, which were isolated between 2008 and 2012 from 349 pigs at two slaughterhouses in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes. All isolates were resistant to at least four antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial agents for which isolates showed a high incidence of resistance were as follows: ampicillin (100%) and streptomycin (100%), followed by gentamicin (99.7%), oxytetracycline (99.7%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (99.4%), nalidixic acid (40.1%) and oxolinic acid (40.1%). All isolates were sensitive to cefuroxime, ceftiofur, colistin, fosfomycin, enrofloxacin, orbifloxacin and danofloxacin. The predominant resistance phenotypes and genotypes were: resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (58.5%, 204/349) and blaTEM-strA-strB-aadA1-aadA2-aacC2-tet (B)-sul1-sul2-dhfrXII-dhfrXIII (36.1%, 126/349). The quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE of the quinolone-resistant isolates (n=12) showed amino acid substitutions of Ser-83→Phe or Asp-87→Tyr in GyrA and Ser-107→Ala in ParC. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance among S. Choleraesuis strains in Japan. PMID:25715779

  11. Sulfurovum lithotrophicum gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel sulfur-oxidizing chemolithoautotroph within the epsilon-Proteobacteria isolated from Okinawa Trough hydrothermal sediments.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Fumio; Takai, Ken; Nealson, Kenneth H; Horikoshi, Koki

    2004-09-01

    A novel mesophilic sulfur- and thiosulfate-oxidizing bacterium, strain 42BKTT, was isolated from the gas-bubbling sediment at the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the mid-Okinawa Trough, Japan. The isolate was a Gram-negative, non-motile and coccoid to oval-shaped bacterium. Growth was observed at 10-40 degrees C (optimum 28-30 degrees C) and in the pH range 5.0-9.0 (optimum 6.5-7.0). Strain 42BKTT grew chemolithoautotrophically with elemental sulfur or thiosulfate as a sole electron donor and oxygen (optimum 5 % in gas phase) or nitrate as an electron acceptor. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 48.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the isolate belonged to the previously uncultivated Group F within the epsilon-Proteobacteria, which includes phylotypes of vent epibiont and environmental sequences from global deep-sea cold seep and hydrothermal vent fields. On the basis of the physiological and molecular characteristics of this isolate, the type species of a novel genus, Sulfurovum lithotrophicum gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is 42BKTT (= ATCC BAA-797T = JCM 12117T).

  12. Thioreductor micantisoli gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel mesophilic, sulfur-reducing chemolithoautotroph within the epsilon-Proteobacteria isolated from hydrothermal sediments in the Mid-Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Satoshi; Inagaki, Fumio; Takai, Ken; Horikoshi, Koki; Sako, Yoshihiko

    2005-03-01

    A novel mesophilic, hydrogen-oxidizing, sulfur-reducing bacterium, designated strain BKB25Ts-Y(T), was isolated from hydrothermal sediments at Iheya North in the Mid-Okinawa Trough, Japan. Cells were Gram-negative, motile rods (1.8-2.1 microm long and 0.5-0.7 microm wide). The isolate was a strictly anaerobic chemolithoautotroph capable of using molecular hydrogen as the sole energy source and carbon dioxide as the sole carbon source. Elemental sulfur and nitrate served as electron acceptors, respectively yielding hydrogen sulfide and ammonium. Growth was observed at 20-42 degrees C (optimum 32 degrees C; 3 h doubling time), pH 5.0-6.5 (optimum 6.0) and in the presence of 2.0-4.0 % NaCl (optimum 2.5 %) via respiratory S(0) reduction with H(2). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 37.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate represented the first strain for which taxonomic properties have been characterized within the previously uncultivated epsilon-Proteobacteria Group G. On the basis of the physiological and molecular properties of the novel isolate, the genus name Thioreductor gen. nov. is proposed, with Thioreductor micantisoli sp. nov. as the type species. The type strain is BKB25Ts-Y(T) (=JCM 12457(T)=DSM 16661(T)).

  13. Thermotomaculum hydrothermale gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel heterotrophic thermophile within the phylum Acidobacteria from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney in the Southern Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hiroshi; Nunoura, Takuro; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Mino, Sayaka; Toki, Tomohiro; Takai, Ken; Sako, Yoshihiko; Sawabe, Tomoo; Nakagawa, Satoshi

    2012-03-01

    A novel heterotrophic, thermophilic bacterium, designated strain AC55(T), was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney at the Hatoma Knoll in the Okinawa Trough, Japan. Cells of strain AC55(T) were non-motile, long rods (2.0- to 6.8-μm long and 0.3- to 0.6-μm wide). The strain was an obligatory anaerobic heterotroph capable of fermentative growth on complex proteinaceous substances. Elemental sulfur was reduced to hydrogen sulfide but did not stimulate growth. Growth was observed between 37 and 60°C (optimum 55°C), pH 5.5 and 8.5 (optimum pH 6.6), and in the presence of 1.5-4.5% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2.5%, w/v). Menaquinone-7 and -8 were the major respiratory quinones. The G + C content of the genomic DNA from strain AC55(T) was 51.6 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain AC55(T) was the first cultivated representative of Acidobacteria subdivision 10. Based on the physiological and phylogenetic features of the novel isolate, the genus name Thermotomaculum gen. nov. is proposed, with Thermotomaculum hydrothermale sp. nov. as the type species. The type strain is AC55(T) (=JCM 17643(T) = DSM 24660(T) = NBRC 107904(T)).

  14. Sulfurimonas autotrophica gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel sulfur-oxidizing epsilon-proteobacterium isolated from hydrothermal sediments in the Mid-Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Fumio; Takai, Ken; Kobayashi, Hideki; Nealson, Kenneth H; Horikoshi, Koki

    2003-11-01

    A novel mesophilic, sulfur- and thiosulfate-oxidizing bacterium, strain OK10(T), was isolated from deep-sea sediments at the Hatoma Knoll in the Mid-Okinawa Trough hydrothermal field. Cells of strain OK10(T) were short rods, each being motile by means of a single polar flagellum. The isolate grew at 10-40 degrees C (optimum 25 degrees C) and pH 4.5-9.0 (optimum pH 6.5). It grew chemolithoautotrophically with elemental sulfur, sulfide and thiosulfate as sole electron donors and oxygen as electron acceptor. Molecular hydrogen did not support growth. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain OK10(T) was 35.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicated that the isolate belonged to the epsilon-Proteobacteria. On the basis of its physiological and molecular characteristics, strain OK10(T) (=ATCC BAA-671(T)=JCM 11897(T)) represents the sole species of a new genus, Sulfurimonas, for which the name Sulfurimonas autotrophica is proposed.

  15. Marinitoga okinawensis sp. nov., a novel thermophilic and anaerobic heterotroph isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal field, Southern Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Nunoura, Takuro; Oida, Hanako; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Suzuki, Yohey; Takai, Ken; Horikoshi, Koki

    2007-03-01

    A novel thermophilic and sulfur-reducing heterotrophic bacterium, strain TFS10-5(T), was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal field in Yonaguni Knoll IV, Southern Okinawa Trough. Cells of strain TFS10-5(T) were motile rods, 1.5-5 microm in length and 0.5-0.8 microm in width. Strain TFS10-5(T) was an obligately anaerobic heterotroph and sulfur-reduction stimulated growth. Growth was observed between 30 and 70 degrees C (optimum at 55-60 degrees C), pH 5.0-7.4 (optimum at pH 5.5-5.8), 1.0-5.5 NaCl % (optimum at 3.0-3.5 %). The fatty acid content was C(16 : 0) (71.0 %), C(16 : 1) (6.0 %), C(18 : 0) (21.4 %) and C(18 : 1) (1.6 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 28 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain TFS10-5(T) belongs to the genus Marinitoga. Based on the physiological and phylogenetic features of the new isolate, strain TFS10-5(T) represents a novel species in the genus Marinitoga for which the name Marinitoga okinawensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TFS10-5(T) (=JCM 13303(T)=DSM 17373(T)).

  16. Archaeal diversity and distribution along thermal and geochemical gradients in hydrothermal sediments at the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field in the Southern Okinawa trough.

    PubMed

    Nunoura, Takuro; Oida, Hanako; Nakaseama, Miwako; Kosaka, Ayako; Ohkubo, Satoru B; Kikuchi, Toru; Kazama, Hiromi; Hosoi-Tanabe, Shoko; Nakamura, Ko-Ichi; Kinoshita, Masataka; Hirayama, Hisako; Inagaki, Fumio; Tsunogai, Urumu; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Takai, Ken

    2010-02-01

    A variety of archaeal lineages have been identified using culture-independent molecular phylogenetic surveys of microbial habitats occurring in deep-sea hydrothermal environments such as chimney structures, sediments, vent emissions, and chemosynthetic macrofauna. With the exception of a few taxa, most of these archaea have not yet been cultivated, and their physiological and metabolic traits remain unclear. In this study, phylogenetic diversity and distribution profiles of the archaeal genes encoding small subunit (SSU) rRNA, methyl coenzyme A (CoA) reductase subunit A, and the ammonia monooxygenase large subunit were characterized in hydrothermally influenced sediments at the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field in the Southern Okinawa Trough. Sediment cores were collected at distances of 0.5, 2, or 5 m from a vent emission (90 degrees C). A moderate temperature gradient extends both horizontally and vertically (5 to 69 degrees C), indicating the existence of moderate mixing between the hydrothermal fluid and the ambient sediment pore water. The mixing of reductive hot hydrothermal fluid and cold ambient sediment pore water establishes a wide spectrum of physical and chemical conditions in the microbial habitats that were investigated. Under these different physico-chemical conditions, variability in archaeal phylotype composition was observed. The relationship between the physical and chemical parameters and the archaeal phylotype composition provides important insight into the ecophysiological requirements of uncultivated archaeal lineages in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments, giving clues for approximating culture conditions to be used in future culturing efforts.

  17. A new genus and new species of Paguridae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura) from shallow subtidal waters in Okinawa Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    During a survey on decapod crustacean fauna of shallow coral reefs and nearby environments in Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, four specimens of a small but distinctive undescribed species of pagurid hermit crab, which could not be referred to any known genus, were collected. The new taxon, Eutrichopagurus shirakawai n. gen., n. sp., is described and illustrated herein. The new genus is characterized by the possession of 11 pairs of deeply quadriserial phyllobranchiate gills, the third maxilliped with well-developed crista dentata and one or two accessory teeth on the ischium, the presence of unpaired left gonopore in the female, the absence of paired first pleopods in the female, and the telson with prominent tuft of setae on the lateral margin of the posterior lobes; the male is unknown at present. It appears close to Trichopagurus de Saint Laurent, 1968, but the deeply quadriserial gills immediately distinguish Eutrichopagurus from Trichopagurus. The new genus is also compared with other genera characterized by the possession of 11 pairs of quadriserial phyllobranchiate gills and the lack of paired first pleopods in females. PMID:25781092

  18. Characteristics of the potential submarine landslide in the Keelung Shelf, off northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chi-Lo; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Doo, Wen-Bin; Lin, Hsiao-Shan

    2015-04-01

    In the northern margin of the westernmost Okinawa Trough, three obviously submarine canyons exist. From east to west, they are the North Mein-Hua Submarine Canyon, Mein-Hua Submarine Canyon and the Keelung Valley. Their orientations are NW-SE across the continental margin. The Okinawa Trough is a backarc basin and is under backarc extension. To better understand the extensional tectonics, we have conducted multi-channel reflection seismics, sub-bottom profilers and multi-beam bathymetry in the westernmost area. In the east, the slope of the continental margin between the Mein-Hua Submarine Canyon and the North Mei-Hua Submarine Canyon is very gentle, implying that the current risk of major slope failure is low. However, between the Keelung Valley and the Mei-Hua Submarine Canyon, the slope is rather steep and the submarine landslide hazard may exist. Our results show two general trends of fracture or faulting. The NE-SW trending faults generally follow the major orientation of the Taiwan mountain belt. Thus, these faults could be reverse faults from the former collisional thrust faults to currently post-collisional normal faults. Secondly, the E-W trending faults are consistent with the N-S extending of the Southern Okinawa Trough. It is probably associated with the offshore extension of the Kenchiao Fault or the Sanchiao Fault. These two faults could be regarded as the headwalls of the potential large submarine landslides. However, our reflection seismic profiles do not show a clear failure surface or a decollement. It could imply that the movement type of the potential submarine landslides could be of spreads.

  19. Spatial Analysis of Weather-induced Annual and Decadal Average Yield Variability as Modeled by EPIC for Rain-fed Wheat in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabarov, Nikolay; Balkovic, Juraj; Schmid, Erwin; Schwartz, Alexander; Obersteiner, Michael; Azevedo, Ligia B.

    2016-04-01

    In our analysis we evaluate the accuracy of near-term (decadal) average crop yield assessments as supported by the biophysical crop growth model EPIC. A spatial assessment of averages and variability has clear practical implications for agricultural producers and investors concerned with an estimation of the basic stochastic characteristics of a crop yield distribution. As a reliable weather projection for a time period of several years will apparently remain a challenge in the near future, we have employed the existing gridded datasets on historical weather as a best proxy for the current climate. Based on different weather inputs to EPIC, we analyzed the model runs for the rain-fed wheat for 1968-2007 employing AgGRID/GGCMI simulations using harmonized inputs and assumptions (weather datasets: GRASP and Princeton). We have explored the variability of historical ten-year yield averages in the past forty years as modeled by the EPIC model, and found that generally the ten-year average yield variability is less than 20% ((max-min)/average), whereas there are mid/low yielding areas with a higher ten-years average variability of 20-50%. The location of these spots of high variability differs between distinctive model-weather setups. Assuming that historical weather can be used as a proxy of the weather in the next ten years, a best possible EPIC-based assessment of a ten-year average yield is a range of 20% width ((max-min)/average). For some mid/low productive areas the range is up to 50% wide.

  20. Use of evidence based practices to improve survival without severe morbidity for very preterm infants: results from the EPICE population based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Manktelow, Bradley N; Piedvache, Aurelie; Cuttini, Marina; Boyle, Elaine; van Heijst, Arno; Gadzinowski, Janusz; Van Reempts, Patrick; Huusom, Lene; Weber, Tom; Schmidt, Stephan; Barros, Henrique; Dillalo, Dominico; Toome, Liis; Norman, Mikael; Blondel, Beatrice; Bonet, Mercedes; Draper, Elisabeth S; Maier, Rolf F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the implementation of four high evidence practices for the care of very preterm infants to assess their use and impact in routine clinical practice and whether they constitute a driver for reducing mortality and neonatal morbidity. Design Prospective multinational population based observational study. Setting 19 regions from 11 European countries covering 850 000 annual births participating in the EPICE (Effective Perinatal Intensive Care in Europe for very preterm births) project. Participants 7336 infants born between 24+0 and 31+6 weeks’ gestation in 2011/12 without serious congenital anomalies and surviving to neonatal admission. Main outcome measures Combined use of four evidence based practices for infants born before 28 weeks’ gestation using an “all or none” approach: delivery in a maternity unit with appropriate level of neonatal care; administration of antenatal corticosteroids; prevention of hypothermia (temperature on admission to neonatal unit ≥36°C); surfactant used within two hours of birth or early nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Infant outcomes were in-hospital mortality, severe neonatal morbidity at discharge, and a composite measure of death or severe morbidity, or both. We modelled associations using risk ratios, with propensity score weighting to account for potential confounding bias. Analyses were adjusted for clustering within delivery hospital. Results Only 58.3% (n=4275) of infants received all evidence based practices for which they were eligible. Infants with low gestational age, growth restriction, low Apgar scores, and who were born on the day of maternal admission to hospital were less likely to receive evidence based care. After adjustment, evidence based care was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (risk ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.60 to 0.87) and in-hospital mortality or severe morbidity, or both (0.82, 0.73 to 0.92), corresponding to an estimated 18% decrease

  1. A statistical framework to model the meeting-in-the-middle principle using metabolomic data: application to hepatocellular carcinoma in the EPIC study.

    PubMed

    Assi, Nada; Fages, Anne; Vineis, Paolo; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Stepien, Magdalena; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Byrnes, Graham; Boumaza, Houda; Knüppel, Sven; Kühn, Tilman; Palli, Domenico; Bamia, Christina; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Bonet, Catalina; Overvad, Kim; Johansson, Mattias; Travis, Ruth; Gunter, Marc J; Lund, Eiliv; Dossus, Laure; Elena-Herrmann, Bénédicte; Riboli, Elio; Jenab, Mazda; Viallon, Vivian; Ferrari, Pietro

    2015-11-01

    Metabolomics is a potentially powerful tool for identification of biomarkers associated with lifestyle exposures and risk of various diseases. This is the rationale of the 'meeting-in-the-middle' concept, for which an analytical framework was developed in this study. In a nested case-control study on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC), serum (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra (800 MHz) were acquired for 114 cases and 222 matched controls. Through partial least square (PLS) analysis, 21 lifestyle variables (the 'predictors', including information on diet, anthropometry and clinical characteristics) were linked to a set of 285 metabolic variables (the 'responses'). The three resulting scores were related to HCC risk by means of conditional logistic regressions. The first PLS factor was not associated with HCC risk. The second PLS metabolomic factor was positively associated with tyrosine and glucose, and was related to a significantly increased HCC risk with OR = 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.22, P = 0.02) for a 1SD change in the responses score, and a similar association was found for the corresponding lifestyle component of the factor. The third PLS lifestyle factor was associated with lifetime alcohol consumption, hepatitis and smoking, and had negative loadings on vegetables intake. Its metabolomic counterpart displayed positive loadings on ethanol, glutamate and phenylalanine. These factors were positively and statistically significantly associated with HCC risk, with 1.37 (1.05, 1.79, P = 0.02) and 1.22 (1.04, 1.44, P = 0.01), respectively. Evidence of mediation was found in both the second and third PLS factors, where the metabolomic signals mediated the relation between the lifestyle component and HCC outcome. This study devised a way to bridge lifestyle variables to HCC risk through NMR metabolomics data. This implementation of the 'meeting-in-the-middle' approach finds natural

  2. Associations of anthropometric markers with serum metabolites using a targeted metabolomics approach: results of the EPIC-potsdam study

    PubMed Central

    Bachlechner, U; Floegel, A; Steffen, A; Prehn, C; Adamski, J; Pischon, T; Boeing, H

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The metabolic consequences of type of body shape need further exploration. Whereas accumulation of body mass in the abdominal area is a well-established metabolic risk factor, accumulation in the gluteofemoral area is controversially debated. We evaluated the associations of anthropometric markers of overall body mass and body shape with 127 serum metabolites within a sub-sample of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort. Subjects/Methods: The cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 2270 participants, randomly drawn from the EPIC-Potsdam cohort. Metabolites were measured by targeted metabolomics. To select metabolites related with both waist circumference (WC) (abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat) and hip circumference (HC) (gluteofemoral fat, muscles and bone structure) correlations (r) with body mass index (BMI) as aggregating marker of body mass (lean and fat mass) were calculated. Relations with body shape were assessed by median metabolite concentrations across tertiles of WC and HC, mutually adjusted to each other. Results: Correlations revealed 23 metabolites related to BMI (r⩾I0.20 I). Metabolites showing relations with BMI were showing similar relations with HC adjusted WC (WCHC). In contrast, relations with WC adjusted HC (HCWC) were less concordant with relations of BMI and WCHC. In both sexes, metabolites with concordant relations regarding WCHC and HCWC included tyrosine, diacyl-phosphatidylcholine C38:3, C38:4, lyso-phosphatidylcholine C18:1, C18:2 and sphingomyelin C18:1; metabolites with opposite relations included isoleucine, diacyl-phosphatidylcholine C42:0, acyl–alkyl-phosphatidylcholine C34:3, C42:4, C42:5, C44:4 and C44:6. Metabolites specifically related to HCWC included acyl–alkyl-phosphatidylcholine C34:2, C36:2, C38:2 and C40:4, and were solely observed in men. Other metabolites were related to WCHC only. Conclusions: The study revealed specific metabolic

  3. Association of Ile462Val (Exon 7) polymorphism of cytochrome P450 IA1 with lung cancer in the Asian population: further evidence from a case-control study in Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, H; Wakai, K; Genka, K; Nagura, K; Igarashi, H; Nagayama, K; Ohkawa, A; Baba, S; Morris, B J; Tsugane, S; Ohno, Y; Gao, C; Li, Z; Takezaki, T; Tajima, K; Iwamasa, T

    1998-05-01

    Okinawa, a group of islands that lie between the East China Sea and the Pacific Ocean, 2000 km south of the Japanese main islands, has a different profile of diseases, ethnicities, and cultures than does the rest of Japan. We examined an Ile462Val polymorphism (CYP1A1*2 allele) of cytochrome P450 IA1 in a hospital-based case-control study of lung cancer patients (247 cases and 185 controls) in Okinawa to ascertain the association of this variant with lung cancer. In addition, the distribution of this genotype was studied in populations from different areas of Japan, including Tokyo (n = 69) and Iwate (northern part of Japan; n = 81), as well as in a Chinese group from the Jiangsu province (n = 39) and in an Australian Caucasian group (n = 146). Genotype frequency in controls was not significantly different from area to area in Japan. In Okinawa, however, the genotype encoding Val/Val was associated with a significantly higher risk of lung cancer (odds ratio = 3.32, P = 0.013), especially of squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma (odds ratio = 4.85 and 9.35, respectively). The Val-encoding allele was less frequent in the Chinese population and was rare in Australian Caucasians. Thus, this study gives support to the value of the cytochrome P450 IA1 Ile462Val polymorphism as a practical high-risk marker of lung cancer in populations, especially those in southeast Asia, in which this variant is more common.

  4. A new species of Labidocera (Copepoda, Calanoida, Pontellidae) collected from Okinawa, southwestern Japan, with establishment of five Indo-West Pacific species groups in the L. detruncata species complex

    PubMed Central

    Hirabayashi, Takeshi; Ohtsuka, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Labidocera churaumi sp. n. is described from Okinawa, southwestern Japan. The female of the new species differs from other congeners in genital compound somite with right postero-lateral and left antero-lateral processes. The male is distinguished from other congeners by the structure of the fifth leg. This new species is assigned to a newly proposed species group, the Labidocera madurae species group, within the Labidocera detruncata species complex. In this species complex five Indo-West Pacific species groups are recognized (cervi, detruncata, gangetica, madurae, and pavo) and defined on the basis of difference in sexual dimorphism. PMID:25349514

  5. A new species of Labidocera (Copepoda, Calanoida, Pontellidae) collected from Okinawa, southwestern Japan, with establishment of five Indo-West Pacific species groups in the L.detruncata species complex.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Takeshi; Ohtsuka, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Labidocerachuraumi sp. n. is described from Okinawa, southwestern Japan. The female of the new species differs from other congeners in genital compound somite with right postero-lateral and left antero-lateral processes. The male is distinguished from other congeners by the structure of the fifth leg. This new species is assigned to a newly proposed species group, the Labidoceramadurae species group, within the Labidoceradetruncata species complex. In this species complex five Indo-West Pacific species groups are recognized (cervi, detruncata, gangetica, madurae, and pavo) and defined on the basis of difference in sexual dimorphism.

  6. Urinary excretions of 34 dietary polyphenols and their associations with lifestyle factors in the EPIC cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Achaintre, David; Rothwell, Joseph A.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Assi, Nada; Ferrari, Pietro; Leitzmann, Michael; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Auffret, Aurélie; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin

    2016-01-01

    Urinary excretion of 34 dietary polyphenols and their variations according to diet and other lifestyle factors were measured by tandem mass spectrometry in 475 adult participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cross-sectional study. A single 24-hour urine sample was analysed for each subject from 4 European countries. The highest median levels were observed for phenolic acids such as 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (157 μmol/24 h), followed by 3-hydroxyphenylacetic, ferulic, vanillic and homovanillic acids (20–50 μmol/24 h). The lowest concentrations were observed for equol, apigenin and resveratrol (<0.1 μmol/24 h). Urinary polyphenols significantly varied by centre, followed by alcohol intake, sex, educational level, and energy intake. This variability is largely explained by geographical variations in the diet, as suggested by the high correlations (r > 0.5) observed between urinary polyphenols and the intake of their main food sources (e.g., resveratrol and gallic acid ethyl ester with red wine intake; caffeic, protocatechuic and ferulic acids with coffee consumption; and hesperetin and naringenin with citrus fruit intake). The large variations in urinary polyphenols observed are largely determined by food preferences. These polyphenol biomarkers should allow more accurate evaluation of the relationships between polyphenol exposure and the risk of chronic diseases in large epidemiological studies. PMID:27273479

  7. Water, from Gilgamesh Epic to Nobel Laureate Richard Feynman: a look into polywater and the memory of water.

    PubMed

    De Santo, Luca Salvatore; Bisaccia, Carmela; De Santo, Rosa Maria

    2009-01-01

    Water is a complex source of imagination, dreams and rituals, where cultural differences ebb and flow, where a plethora of meanings and interpretations interlink and wash over one another. Water has an ambivalent character as stated in most of the ancient cosmogonies and in the Epic of Gilgamesh. Water's composition was discovered by the London scientist Henry Cavendish in about 1781. Although it is an apparently simple molecule (H2O), it has a highly complex and anomalous character. The anomalous properties of water are those where the behavior of liquid water is quite different from what is found with other liquids. As often stated, life depends indeed on these anomalous properties of water. Notably there are 12 phase, 22 density, 12 material, 11 thermodynamic and 9 physical anomalies. A powerful look into the water molecule was given by Nobel Prize recipient Richard P. Feynman as published in Six easy pieces. A look into the most recent quest for more knowledge about water leads us to the concept of pathological science. The cases of "polywater" and "the memory of water" are indeed paradigmatic episodes of fraudulent research published in journals with high impact factors. In conclusion, men came out of water engineered to handle water, and water greatly affects mythology and philosophy and is a strong presence in the arts and science. PMID:20013738

  8. Urinary excretions of 34 dietary polyphenols and their associations with lifestyle factors in the EPIC cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Achaintre, David; Rothwell, Joseph A; Rinaldi, Sabina; Assi, Nada; Ferrari, Pietro; Leitzmann, Michael; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Auffret, Aurélie; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin

    2016-01-01

    Urinary excretion of 34 dietary polyphenols and their variations according to diet and other lifestyle factors were measured by tandem mass spectrometry in 475 adult participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cross-sectional study. A single 24-hour urine sample was analysed for each subject from 4 European countries. The highest median levels were observed for phenolic acids such as 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (157 μmol/24 h), followed by 3-hydroxyphenylacetic, ferulic, vanillic and homovanillic acids (20-50 μmol/24 h). The lowest concentrations were observed for equol, apigenin and resveratrol (<0.1 μmol/24 h). Urinary polyphenols significantly varied by centre, followed by alcohol intake, sex, educational level, and energy intake. This variability is largely explained by geographical variations in the diet, as suggested by the high correlations (r > 0.5) observed between urinary polyphenols and the intake of their main food sources (e.g., resveratrol and gallic acid ethyl ester with red wine intake; caffeic, protocatechuic and ferulic acids with coffee consumption; and hesperetin and naringenin with citrus fruit intake). The large variations in urinary polyphenols observed are largely determined by food preferences. These polyphenol biomarkers should allow more accurate evaluation of the relationships between polyphenol exposure and the risk of chronic diseases in large epidemiological studies. PMID:27273479

  9. Water, from Gilgamesh Epic to Nobel Laureate Richard Feynman: a look into polywater and the memory of water.

    PubMed

    De Santo, Luca Salvatore; Bisaccia, Carmela; De Santo, Rosa Maria

    2009-01-01

    Water is a complex source of imagination, dreams and rituals, where cultural differences ebb and flow, where a plethora of meanings and interpretations interlink and wash over one another. Water has an ambivalent character as stated in most of the ancient cosmogonies and in the Epic of Gilgamesh. Water's composition was discovered by the London scientist Henry Cavendish in about 1781. Although it is an apparently simple molecule (H2O), it has a highly complex and anomalous character. The anomalous properties of water are those where the behavior of liquid water is quite different from what is found with other liquids. As often stated, life depends indeed on these anomalous properties of water. Notably there are 12 phase, 22 density, 12 material, 11 thermodynamic and 9 physical anomalies. A powerful look into the water molecule was given by Nobel Prize recipient Richard P. Feynman as published in Six easy pieces. A look into the most recent quest for more knowledge about water leads us to the concept of pathological science. The cases of "polywater" and "the memory of water" are indeed paradigmatic episodes of fraudulent research published in journals with high impact factors. In conclusion, men came out of water engineered to handle water, and water greatly affects mythology and philosophy and is a strong presence in the arts and science.

  10. Explosion-induced stress changes estimated from vibrating-wire stressmeter measurements near the Mighty Epic event, Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, William L.; Kibler, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Explosion-induced compressive stress increases near an underground nuclear explosion are believed to contribute significantly to the containment of high-pressure gases within the explosion-produced cavity. These induced compressive stresses are predicted by computer calculations, but have never been adequately confirmed by field measurements, owing primarily to the unique difficulties of obtaining such field data. Vibrating-wire stressmeter measurements made near the Mighty Epic nuclear detonation, however, qualitatively indicate that within 150 meters of the working point, permanent compressive stress increases of several megapascals were present 15 weeks after the event. Additionally, stress-change magnitudes interpreted from the stressmeter data between the 75- and 260-meter range from the working point compare favorably with calculational predictions of the stress changes believed to be present shortly after detonation of the event. The measurements and calculations differ, however, with regard to the pattern of stress change radial and transverse to the explosion source. For the range of the field measurements from the working point, computer models predict the largest compressive-stress increase to be radial to the explosion source, while the field data indicate the transverse component of. stress change to be the most compressive. The significance of time-dependent modification of the initial explosion-induced stress distribution is, however, uncertain with regard to the comparison of the field measurements and theoretical predictions.

  11. JBluIce-EPICS: a fast and flexible open-source beamline control system for macromolecular crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, S.; Hilgart, M.; Makarov, O.; Pothineni, S. B.; Yoder, D.; Ogata, C.; Sanishvili, R.; Venugopalan, N.; Becker, M.; Clift, M.; Smith, J. L.; Fischetti, R. F.

    2013-03-01

    This paper overviews recent advances in the JBluIce-EPICS open-source control system designed at the macromolecular crystallography beamlines of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences and National Cancer Institute at the Advanced Photon Source (GM/CA@APS). We discuss some technical highlights of this system distinguishing it from the competition, such as reduction of software layers to only two, possibility to operate JBluIce in parallel with other beamline controls, plugin-enabled architecture where the plugins can be written in any programming language, and utilization of the whole power of the Java integrated development environment in the Graphical User Interface. Then, we demonstrate how these highlights help to make JBluIce fast, easily adaptable to new beamline developments, and intuitive for users. In particular, we discuss several recent additions to the system including a bridge between crystal rastering and data collection, automatic detection of raster polygons from optical crystal centering, background data processing, and a pathway to a fully automated pipeline from crystal screening to solving crystal structure.

  12. The association between Mediterranean Diet Score and glucokinase regulatory protein gene variation on the markers of cardiometabolic risk: an analysis in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study.

    PubMed

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Forouhi, Nita G

    2014-07-14

    Consumption of a Mediterranean diet (MD) and genetic variation in the glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) gene have been reported to be associated with TAG and glucose metabolism. It is uncertain whether there is any interaction between these factors. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to test the association of adherence to a MD and rs780094 (G>A) SNP in the GCKR gene with the markers of cardiometabolic risk, and to investigate the interaction between genetic variation and MD adherence. We studied 20 986 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study. The relative Mediterranean Diet Score (rMED: range 0-18) was used to assess MD adherence. Linear regression was used to estimate the association between the rMED, genotype and cardiometabolic continuous traits, adjusting for potential confounders. In adjusted analyses, we observed independent associations of MD adherence and genotype with cardiometabolic risk, with the highest risk group (AA genotype; lowest rMED) having higher concentrations of TAG, total cholesterol and apoB (12·5, 2·3 and 3·1%, respectively) v. those at the lowest risk (GG genotype; highest rMED). However, the associations of MD adherence with metabolic markers did not differ by genotype, with no significant gene-diet interactions for lipids or for glycated Hb. In conclusion, we found independent associations of the rMED and of the GCKR genotype with cardiometabolic profile, but found no evidence of interaction between them.

  13. Solar-, monsoon- and Kuroshio-influenced thermocline depth and sea surface salinity in the southern Okinawa Trough during the past 17,300 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Libo; Li, Jun; Zhao, Jingtao; Wei, Helong; Hu, Bangqi; Dou, Yanguang; Sun, Zhilei; Zou, Liang; Bai, Fenglong

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing millennial-scale variability in the thermocline depth (vertical mixing) and sea surface salinity (SSS) of the southern Okinawa Trough (OT) during the past 17,300 years were investigated based on foraminifer oxygen isotope records of the surface dweller Globigerinoides ruber sensu stricto and the thermocline dweller Pulleniatina obliquiloculata in the AMS 14C dated OKT-3 core. The thermocline depth is influenced by surface thermal buoyancy (heat) flux, in turn controlled by the annual mean insolation at 30°N and the strength of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). Strong insolation and weak EAWM tend to increase buoyancy gain (decrease buoyancy loss), corresponding to shallow thermocline depths, and vice versa. Regional SSS is influenced by the global ice volume, the Kuroshio Current (KC), and vertical mixing. A deep thermocline coincides with a high SSS because strong vertical mixing brings more, saltier subsurface KC water to the surface, and vice versa. Local SSS (excluding the global ice volume effect) became lower in the northern OT than in the southern OT after ~9.2 ka, implying that Changjiang diluted water had stronger influence in the northern sector. SSS show no major changes during the Bølling/Allerød and Younger Dryas events, probably because the KC disturbed the North Atlantic signals. This argues against earlier interpretations of sea surface temperature records of this core. Wavelet and spectral analyses of the Δδ18OP-G (δ18O of P. obliquiloculata minus G. ruber s.s.) and δ18Olocal records display 1,540-, 1,480-, 1,050-, 860-, 640-, and 630-year periods. These are consistent with published evidence of a pervasive periodicity of 1,500 years in global climate as well as EAWM and KC signatures, and a fundamental solar periodicity of 1,000 years and intermediary derived periodicity of 700 years.

  14. Sea surface temperature variation during the last deglaciation in the southern Okinawa Trough: Modulation of high latitude teleconnections and the Kuroshio Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jingtao; Li, Jun; Cai, Feng; Wei, Helong; Hu, Bangqi; Dou, Yanguang; Wang, Libo; Xiang, Rong; Cheng, Hongwei; Dong, Liang; Zhang, Chuanlun L.

    2015-11-01

    Three paleotemperature records (foraminiferal Mg/Ca, TEX86 and UK‧37) were generated for the past 17.3 ka in the southern Okinawa Trough (OT) using a sediment core (OKT-3) taken at a water depth of 1792 m. Temperature estimates based on the inorganic and organic indices for the OKT-3 core top sample approximated modern sea surface temperature (SST) and extended to the mixed layer (<50 m) in warmer seasons. Reconstructed SSTs from OKT-3 gradually increased towards the top of the core with lower values occurring during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1) and the Younger Dryas (YD). These values coincided with the glacial-interglacial cycles established by the Globigerinoides ruber δ18O curve. Notably, SSTs decreased during the BØlling-AllerØd (B-A) but warming occurred before and after the B-A, from approximately 16 to 14 ka and 12.5 to 10 ka. The SST cooling during the B-A corresponded to the timing of the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR), which is thought to be connected with melt water pulse 1a (MWP1a). The cooling was also concurrent with the spread of millennial-scale cold signals to the OT during the HS1 and YD periods, when widespread melt and collapse of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets occurred along with reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and a southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The last deglaciation, which began approximately 16-15 ka BP in the OT, might mark the time when the Kuroshio Current (KC) began to strengthen.

  15. Post-drilling changes in seabed landscape and megabenthos in a deep-sea hydrothermal system, the Iheya North field, Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Ryota; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Takaya, Yutaro; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Chen, Chong; Fujikura, Katsunori; Miwa, Tetsuya; Takai, Ken

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in seafloor exploitation such as mineral mining in deep-sea hydrothermal fields, but the environmental impact of anthropogenic disturbance to the seafloor is poorly known. In this study, the effect of such anthropogenic disturbance by scientific drilling operations (IODP Expedition 331) on seabed landscape and megafaunal habitation was surveyed for over 3 years using remotely operated vehicle video observation in a deep-sea hydrothermal field, the Iheya North field, in the Okinawa Trough. We focused on observations from a particular drilling site (Site C0014) where the most dynamic change of landscape and megafaunal habitation was observed among the drilling sites of IODP Exp. 331. No visible hydrothermal fluid discharge had been observed at the sedimentary seafloor at Site C0014, where Calyptogena clam colonies were known for more than 10 years, before the drilling event. After drilling commenced, the original Calyptogena colonies were completely buried by the drilling deposits. Several months after the drilling, diffusing high-temperature hydrothermal fluid began to discharge from the sedimentary subseafloor in the area of over 20 m from the drill holes, 'artificially' creating a new hydrothermal vent habitat. Widespread microbial mats developed on the seafloor with the diffusing hydrothermal fluids and the galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri endemic to vents dominated the new vent community. The previously soft, sedimentary seafloor was hardened probably due to barite/gypsum mineralization or silicification, becoming rough and undulated with many fissures after the drilling operation. Although the effects of the drilling operation on seabed landscape and megafaunal composition are probably confined to an area of maximally 30 m from the drill holes, the newly established hydrothermal vent ecosystem has already lasted 2 years and is like to continue to exist until the fluid discharge ceases and thus the ecosystem in the area has

  16. Comparison of Fe(II) Photo-Formation Characteristics Between Aqueous Humic Acid Solutions and Aqueous Extracts of Atmospheric Aerosols Collected at Okinawa Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, K.; Okada, K.; Arakaki, T.

    2007-12-01

    Photochemical cycles of Fe(III)-Fe(II) affects the oxidation and the reduction of transient species such as active oxygen species and various transition metals in the atmospheric condensed phases. Although the importance of organic ligands to iron cycling (e.g. ligand-to-metal charge transfer) is becoming clearer, the mechanism by which photochemical reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) are not well understood. Humic acid (HA) is considered as an important organic ligand for Fe(III) complexes in the environment. HA is a collection of organic compounds that exist in nature but whose structures are not well known. Commercially available HAs as received from the manufacturers contain trace amount of iron. Using this residual Fe, we investigated the photochemical formation of Fe(II) in aqueous HA solutions to elucidate the photochemical cycles of Fe(III)-Fe(II) in the atmospheric water drops. We purchased HAs from several different suppliers. We investigated the effects of pH and wavelengths on Fe(II) photo-formation using monochromatic radiations at 313, 334, 366, and 405 nm. Concentrations of photochemically formed Fe(II) were determined by ferrozine-HPLC technique, and the apparent quantum yields were determined based on the total absorbance of the HA solutions. Fe(II) photo-formation characteristics of the aqueous humic acid solutions purchased from different suppliers showed slightly different wavelength dependence. Furthermore, we compared Fe(II) photoformation characteristics observed in aqueous HA solutions with those in the aqueous extracts of atmospheric aerosols collected in Okinawa, Japan. The results showed that the apparent quantum yields of the aerosol extracts were 5-10 times higher than those of the HA solutions. Wavelength-dependence of Fe(II) photo-formation observed in the aqueous extracts of aerosols was similar to that seen in the aqueous HA solutions.

  17. Hydrogenivirga okinawensis sp. nov., a thermophilic sulfur-oxidizing chemolithoautotroph isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal field, Southern Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Nunoura, Takuro; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Suzuki, Yohey; Takai, Ken; Horikoshi, Koki

    2008-03-01

    A novel extremely thermophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, strain LS12-2(T), was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal field at the Yonaguni Knoll IV, Southern Okinawa Trough. Cells of strain LS12-2(T) were motile rods, 1.5-4.0 microm in length and 0.4-0.5 microm in width. Strain LS12-2(T) was an obligate chemolithoautotroph that could utilize elemental sulfur or thiosulfate as an electron donor and nitrate or oxygen as an electron acceptor. Growth was observed at 65-85 degrees C (optimum 70-75 degrees C), pH 5.8-8.3 (optimum pH 6.9-7.5), 1.0-4.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2.5 %) and 1.0-7.0 % O(2) in the gas phase (optimum 3.0 %). Fatty acids detected were C(16 : 0) (8.0 %), C(18 : 0) (9.0 %), C(18 : 1) (62.5 %) and C(20 : 1) (20.5 %). The genomic DNA G+C content was 51.3 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain LS12-2(T) belonged to the genus Hydrogenivirga. Based on physiological and phylogenetic characteristics of the isolate, it is proposed that this strain represents a novel species in the genus Hydrogenivirga, Hydrogenivirga okinawensis sp. nov. The type strain of Hydrogenivirga okinawensis is LS12-2(T) (=JCM 13302(T)=DSM 17378(T)).

  18. Thermococcus siculi sp. nov., a novel hyperthermophilic archaeon isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent at the Mid-Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Grote, R; Li, L; Tamaoka, J; Kato, C; Horikoshi, K; Antranikian, G

    1999-01-01

    A novel coccoid-shaped, hyperthermophilic, anaerobic archaeon, strain RG-20, was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent fluid sample taken at 1394-m depth at the Mid-Okinawa Trough (27 degrees 32.7'N, 126 degrees 58.5'E). Cells of this isolate occur singly or in pairs and are about 0.8 to 2 microm in diameter. Growth was observed at temperatures between 50 degrees and 93 degrees C, with an optimum at 85 degrees C. The pH range for growth is 5.0-9.0, with an optimum around 7.0. Strain RG-20 requires 1%-4% of NaCl for growth, and cell lysis occurs at concentrations below 1%. The newly isolated strain grows preferentially in the presence of elemental sulfur on proteinaceous substrates such as yeast extract, peptone, or tryptone, and no growth was observed on carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, alcohols, or lipids. This microorganism is resistant to streptomycin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and kanamycin at concentrations up to 150 microg/ ml, but is susceptible to rifampicin. Analysis of the hydrolyzed core lipids by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the presence of archaeol and caldarchaeol. The mol% G+C content of the DNA is 55.8. Partial sequencing of the 16S rDNA indicates that strain RG-20 belongs to the genus Thermococcus. Considering these data and on the basis of the results from DNA-DNA hybridization studies, we propose that this strain should be classified as a new species named Thermococcus siculi (si'cu.li. L. gen. n. siculi, of the deep-sea [siculum, deep-sea in literature of Ovid], referring to the location of the sample site, a deep-sea hydrothermal vent). The type strain is isolate RG-20 (DSM No. 12349).

  19. Post-drilling changes in fluid discharge pattern, mineral deposition, and fluid chemistry in the Iheya North hydrothermal field, Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Miyazaki, Junichi; Nakajima, Ryota; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Takaya, Yutaro; Kato, Yasuhiro; Shibuya, Takazo; Konno, Uta; Nakaguchi, Yuzuru; Hatada, Kenta; Hirayama, Hisako; Fujikura, Katsunori; Furushima, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Watsuji, Tomo-o.; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Takai, Ken

    2013-11-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 investigated the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Okinawa Trough. Several post-drilling underwater vehicle investigations were conducted over 2 years to identify post-drilling changes in fluid discharge pattern, mineral deposition, and fluid chemistry. Drilling-induced high-temperature hydrothermal fluid vents were identified at deep holes not only near the naturally occurring NBC hydrothermal fluid vent (Site C0016) but also at the seafloor ˜450 m distal to the NBC vent (Site C0014), where no hydrothermal fluid discharge was observed prior to drilling. A chimney structure at Hole C0016A grew rapidly at the NBC mound crest, where only small chimneys had been found before drilling. A drilling-induced diffuse hydrothermal flow region spread at Site C0014, and this area was newly colonized by the galatheid crab. From a fluid chemistry perspective, the post-drilling hydrothermal fluids were enriched in Cl relative to seawater, although this fluid chemistry was not observed during the 12 years prior to drilling. The Cl-enriched fluid reservoir underlying the subseafloor impermeable layers, observed by IODP Expedition 331, is likely source for the Cl-enriched fluids discharging from the post-drilling vents. The drilling-induced physical disturbance of subseafloor hydrogeological structures would release such fluids to the seafloor. In turn, the rapid chimney growth at the NBC mound crest may also be attributed to highly turbulent fluid flow with the enlarged artificial vent of Hole C0016A, which can contribute to the retention of the fluid-seawater mixture for a sufficiently long period to precipitate sulfide/sulfate minerals on the seafloor.

  20. Post-drilling changes in seabed landscape and megabenthos in a deep-sea hydrothermal system, the Iheya North field, Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Ryota; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Takaya, Yutaro; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Chen, Chong; Fujikura, Katsunori; Miwa, Tetsuya; Takai, Ken

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in seafloor exploitation such as mineral mining in deep-sea hydrothermal fields, but the environmental impact of anthropogenic disturbance to the seafloor is poorly known. In this study, the effect of such anthropogenic disturbance by scientific drilling operations (IODP Expedition 331) on seabed landscape and megafaunal habitation was surveyed for over 3 years using remotely operated vehicle video observation in a deep-sea hydrothermal field, the Iheya North field, in the Okinawa Trough. We focused on observations from a particular drilling site (Site C0014) where the most dynamic change of landscape and megafaunal habitation was observed among the drilling sites of IODP Exp. 331. No visible hydrothermal fluid discharge had been observed at the sedimentary seafloor at Site C0014, where Calyptogena clam colonies were known for more than 10 years, before the drilling event. After drilling commenced, the original Calyptogena colonies were completely buried by the drilling deposits. Several months after the drilling, diffusing high-temperature hydrothermal fluid began to discharge from the sedimentary subseafloor in the area of over 20 m from the drill holes, 'artificially' creating a new hydrothermal vent habitat. Widespread microbial mats developed on the seafloor with the diffusing hydrothermal fluids and the galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri endemic to vents dominated the new vent community. The previously soft, sedimentary seafloor was hardened probably due to barite/gypsum mineralization or silicification, becoming rough and undulated with many fissures after the drilling operation. Although the effects of the drilling operation on seabed landscape and megafaunal composition are probably confined to an area of maximally 30 m from the drill holes, the newly established hydrothermal vent ecosystem has already lasted 2 years and is like to continue to exist until the fluid discharge ceases and thus the ecosystem in the area has

  1. Thermosulfidibacter takaii gen. nov., sp. nov., a thermophilic, hydrogen-oxidizing, sulfur-reducing chemolithoautotroph isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal field in the Southern Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Nunoura, Takuro; Oida, Hanako; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Suzuki, Yohey

    2008-03-01

    A novel thermophilic, sulfur-reducing chemolithoautotroph, strain ABI70S6(T), was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal field at the Yonaguni Knoll IV, Southern Okinawa Trough. Cells of strain ABI70S6(T) were motile rods, 0.9-2.0 microm in length and 0.4-0.8 microm in width. Strain ABI70S6(T) was an obligately anaerobic chemolithotroph, exhibiting hydrogen oxidation coupled with sulfur reduction. Growth was observed at 55-78 degrees C (optimum, 70 degrees C), pH 5.0-7.5 (optimum, pH 5.5-6.0) and 0.5-4.5 % NaCl (optimum, 3.0 % NaCl). H(2) and elemental sulfur were utilized as electron donor and acceptor, respectively. The major fatty acids were C(16 : 0) (40.0 %) and C(20 : 1) (60.0 %). The G+C content of genomic DNA was 44.2 mol%. The physiological attributes of strain ABI70S6(T) are similar to those of species of genera within the family Desulfurobacteriaceae, most of which are thermophilic and chemolithoautotrophic sulfur reducers. However, 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between the novel isolate and type strains of all species within the family Desulfurobacteriaceae were <87 %, which is close to the similarities found between the novel isolate and members of the family Thermodesulfobacteriaceae (<85 %). Based on physiological and phylogenetic features of the novel isolate, it is proposed that it represents a novel species in a novel genus, Thermosulfidibacter takaii gen. nov., sp. nov., within the phylum Aquificae. The type strain of T. takaii is ABI70S6(T) (=JCM 13301(T)=DSM 17441(T)).

  2. Microearthquake activity around Kueishantao island, offshore northeastern Taiwan: Insights into the volcano-tectonic interactions at the tip of the southern Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinou, K. I.; Pan, C.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.

    2013-05-01

    Kueishantao is a volcanic island located offshore the northeastern coast of Taiwan and lies at the tip of the southern Okinawa Trough which is the back-arc basin of the Ryukyu subduction zone. Its last eruption occurred during the Holocene (~ 7 ka), hence Kueishantao can be considered as an active volcano. In an effort to better understand how magmatic processes may interact with the regional tectonics, a seismic network was installed in the area during early January 2008. This network consisted of 16 three-component seismometers located both on Kueishantao and the coast of northeastern Taiwan. One year of data was analyzed yielding 425 earthquakes whose P and S arrival times were manually picked and each event was located using a nonlinear probabilistic location method. In order to improve the location accuracy, the minimum 1-D velocity model for this dataset was derived and all earthquakes were relocated using this model. The results show a tight cluster of events near Kueishantao while the remaining earthquakes are scattered between the island and mainland Taiwan. The majority of hypocentral depths range between 2.5 and 10 km where the former depth coincides with the bottom of the shallow sedimentary layer and the latter with the ductile lower crust. Waveforms of the three largest events were also inverted for the determination of their deviatoric and full moment tensor. No statistically significant isotropic component was found, while two of the events can be explained by a double-couple source. The third event exhibited a low frequency content (< 10 Hz) and a large non-double-couple component suggesting fluid involvement at its source. A stress inversion of all available focal mechanisms in the area shows that fluid circulation in the upper crust generates a local stress field around Kueishantao facilitating the opening of cracks along the NW-SE direction of regional extension.

  3. Associations between serum omega-3 fatty acid levels and cognitive functions among community-dwelling octogenarians in Okinawa, Japan: The KOCOA study

    PubMed Central

    Nishihira, Junko; Tokashiki, Takashi; Higashiuesato, Yasushi; Willcox, Donald Craig; Mattek, Nora; Shinto, Lynne; Ohya, Yusuke; Dodge, Hiroko H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have found frequent consumption of fatty fish is protective against cognitive decline. However, the association between circulating omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels and cognitive functions among the oldest old is not well known. Objective To examine the association between serum PUFA levels and cognitive function among community-dwelling, non-demented elderly aged over 80 years old. Methods The data came from the Keys to Optimal Cognitive Aging (KOCOA) study; an ongoing cohort of relatively healthy volunteers aged over 80 years old, living in Okinawa, Japan. One hundred eighty five participants (mean age 84.1 ± 3.4 years) assessed in 2011 who were free from frank dementia (defined as Clinical Dementia Rating < 1.0) were used for the current cross-sectional study. We examined whether serum omega-3 PUFAs (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] and eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]), arachidonic acid (AA), EPA/AA ratio, DHA/AA ratio and DHA+EPA are associated with (1) age and (2) global cognitive function (Japanese MMSE) and executive function (Verbal Fluency Letters). Data was analyzed univariately by t-test and multivariately by cumulative logistic regression models controlling for age, gender, years of education, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Results Serum DHA levels decreased with increasing age (p = 0.04). Higher global cognitive function was associated with higher levels of serum EPA (p = 0.03) and DHA + EPA (p = 0.03) after controlling for confounders. Conclusions Higher serum EPA and DHA + EPA levels were independently associated with better scores on global cognitive function among the oldest old, free from dementia. Longitudinal follow-up studies are warranted. PMID:26890763

  4. Post-Drilling Changes in Seabed Landscape and Megabenthos in a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal System, the Iheya North Field, Okinawa Trough

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Ryota; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Takaya, Yutaro; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Chen, Chong; Fujikura, Katsunori; Miwa, Tetsuya; Takai, Ken

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in seafloor exploitation such as mineral mining in deep-sea hydrothermal fields, but the environmental impact of anthropogenic disturbance to the seafloor is poorly known. In this study, the effect of such anthropogenic disturbance by scientific drilling operations (IODP Expedition 331) on seabed landscape and megafaunal habitation was surveyed for over 3 years using remotely operated vehicle video observation in a deep-sea hydrothermal field, the Iheya North field, in the Okinawa Trough. We focused on observations from a particular drilling site (Site C0014) where the most dynamic change of landscape and megafaunal habitation was observed among the drilling sites of IODP Exp. 331. No visible hydrothermal fluid discharge had been observed at the sedimentary seafloor at Site C0014, where Calyptogena clam colonies were known for more than 10 years, before the drilling event. After drilling commenced, the original Calyptogena colonies were completely buried by the drilling deposits. Several months after the drilling, diffusing high-temperature hydrothermal fluid began to discharge from the sedimentary subseafloor in the area of over 20 m from the drill holes, ‘artificially’ creating a new hydrothermal vent habitat. Widespread microbial mats developed on the seafloor with the diffusing hydrothermal fluids and the galatheid crab Shinkaia crosnieri endemic to vents dominated the new vent community. The previously soft, sedimentary seafloor was hardened probably due to barite/gypsum mineralization or silicification, becoming rough and undulated with many fissures after the drilling operation. Although the effects of the drilling operation on seabed landscape and megafaunal composition are probably confined to an area of maximally 30 m from the drill holes, the newly established hydrothermal vent ecosystem has already lasted 2 years and is like to continue to exist until the fluid discharge ceases and thus the ecosystem in the area

  5. Extrasolar Planet Inferometric Survey (EPIcS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Michael; Baliunas, Sallie; Boden, Andrew; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Lin, Douglas N. C.; Loredo, Tom; Queloz, Didier; Shaklan, Stuart; Tremaine, Scott; Wolszczan, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of the nature of the solar system was a crowning achievement of Renaissance science. The quest to evaluate the properties of extrasolar planetary systems is central to both the intellectual understanding of our origins and the cultural understanding of humanity's place in the Universe; thus it is appropriate that the goals and objectives of NASA's breakthrough Origins program emphasize the study of planetary systems, with a focus on the search for habitable planets. We propose an ambitious research program that will use SIM - the first major mission of the Origins program - to explore planetary systems in our Galactic neighborhood. Our program is a novel two-tiered SIM survey of nearby stars that exploits the capabilities of SIM to achieve two scientific objectives: (i) to identify Earth-like planets in habitable regions around nearby Sunlike stars: and (ii) to explore the nature and evolution of planetary systems in their full variety. The first of these objectives was recently recommended by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee (the McKee-Taylor Committee) as a prerequisite for the development of the Terrestrial Planet Finder mission later in the decade. Our program combines this two-part survey with preparatory and contemporaneous research designed to maximize the scientific return from the limited and thus precious observing resources of SIM.

  6. Modeling soil carbon sequestration with EPIC and the soil conditioning index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing CO2 in the atmosphere is a concern, because of its potential to warm the planet. CO2 and other greenhouse gases act as a barrier to prevent heat escaping from the atmosphere. Prior to the industrial revolution, atmospheric CO2 concentration was about 280 parts per million (ppm). A deli...

  7. Tetrodotoxin and Its Analogues in the Pufferfish Arothron hispidus and A. nigropunctatus from the Solomon Islands: A Comparison of Their Toxin Profiles with the Same Species from Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Puilingi, Clyde Gorapava; Kudo, Yuta; Cho, Yuko; Konoki, Keiichi; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2015-08-26

    Pufferfish poisoning has not been well documented in the South Pacific, although fish and other seafood are sources of protein in these island nations. In this study, tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues in each organ of the pufferfish Arothron hispidus and A. nigropunctatus collected in the Solomon Islands were investigated using high resolution LC-MS. The toxin profiles of the same two species of pufferfish from Okinawa, Japan were also examined for comparison. TTXs concentrations were higher in the skin of both species from both regions, and relatively lower in the liver, ovary, testis, stomach, intestine, and flesh. Due to higher TTX concentrations (51.0 and 28.7 µg/g at highest) detected in the skin of the two species from the Solomon Islands (saxitoxin was <0.02 µg/g), these species should be banned from consumption. Similar results were obtained from fish collected in Okinawa, Japan: TTX in the skin of A. hispidus and A. nigropunctatus were 12.7 and 255 µg/g, respectively, at highest, and saxitoxin was also detected in the skin (2.80 µg/g at highest) and ovary of A. hispidus. TTX, 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX (with its 4-epi form), and its anhydro forms were the most abundant, and 11-oxoTTX was commonly detected in the skin.

  8. Occurrence of bovine ephemeral fever in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, in 2012 and development of a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay to detect bovine ephemeral fever virus gene.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Tsuyoshi; Shirafuji, Hiroaki; Ikemiyagi, Kazufumi; Nitta, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Moemi; Kato, Tomoko; Yanase, Tohru

    2015-04-01

    In September 2012, several cows and a calf showed decreased activity, anorexia and fever on Ishigaki Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the cases were diagnosed as bovine ephemeral fever (BEF). We isolated BEF virus (BEFV) from one of the affected cows and then determined the complete genome sequence of the G gene, which encodes a class I transmembrane glycoprotein of BEFV. The BEFV isolate in this case, ON-3/E/12, was sorted into the same cluster as other BEFV isolates in Japan, Taiwan and China obtained in 1996-2004 and was most closely related to a 2002 Chinese isolate, JT02L, according to the phylogenetic analysis of the complete G gene. Since inactivated vaccines for BEF available in Japan are considered effective against the ON-3/E/12 isolate as well as other isolates in East Asia from 1996-2004, annual vaccination should be conducted to prevent BEF in Okinawa. Additionally, in this study, we developed an RT-PCR assay to detect the BEFV gene in Japan and neighboring countries. Our assay was able to amplify target sequences in all of the tested BEFV isolates, including 18 isolates in Japan and another isolate in Australia. The assay was found to be useful also for testing RNA samples extracted from bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the detection limit of the assay was 10 copies per tube. We believe that our assay would be an important tool for the screening of BEFV infection and the diagnosis of BEF.

  9. Tetrodotoxin and Its Analogues in the Pufferfish Arothron hispidus and A. nigropunctatus from the Solomon Islands: A Comparison of Their Toxin Profiles with the Same Species from Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Puilingi, Clyde Gorapava; Kudo, Yuta; Cho, Yuko; Konoki, Keiichi; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2015-09-01

    Pufferfish poisoning has not been well documented in the South Pacific, although fish and other seafood are sources of protein in these island nations. In this study, tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues in each organ of the pufferfish Arothron hispidus and A. nigropunctatus collected in the Solomon Islands were investigated using high resolution LC-MS. The toxin profiles of the same two species of pufferfish from Okinawa, Japan were also examined for comparison. TTXs concentrations were higher in the skin of both species from both regions, and relatively lower in the liver, ovary, testis, stomach, intestine, and flesh. Due to higher TTX concentrations (51.0 and 28.7 µg/g at highest) detected in the skin of the two species from the Solomon Islands (saxitoxin was <0.02 µg/g), these species should be banned from consumption. Similar results were obtained from fish collected in Okinawa, Japan: TTX in the skin of A. hispidus and A. nigropunctatus were 12.7 and 255 µg/g, respectively, at highest, and saxitoxin was also detected in the skin (2.80 µg/g at highest) and ovary of A. hispidus. TTX, 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX (with its 4-epi form), and its anhydro forms were the most abundant, and 11-oxoTTX was commonly detected in the skin. PMID:26343722

  10. Tetrodotoxin and Its Analogues in the Pufferfish Arothron hispidus and A. nigropunctatus from the Solomon Islands: A Comparison of Their Toxin Profiles with the Same Species from Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Gorapava Puilingi, Clyde; Kudo, Yuta; Cho, Yuko; Konoki, Keiichi; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2015-01-01

    Pufferfish poisoning has not been well documented in the South Pacific, although fish and other seafood are sources of protein in these island nations. In this study, tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues in each organ of the pufferfish Arothron hispidus and A. nigropunctatus collected in the Solomon Islands were investigated using high resolution LC-MS. The toxin profiles of the same two species of pufferfish from Okinawa, Japan were also examined for comparison. TTXs concentrations were higher in the skin of both species from both regions, and relatively lower in the liver, ovary, testis, stomach, intestine, and flesh. Due to higher TTX concentrations (51.0 and 28.7 µg/g at highest) detected in the skin of the two species from the Solomon Islands (saxitoxin was <0.02 µg/g), these species should be banned from consumption. Similar results were obtained from fish collected in Okinawa, Japan: TTX in the skin of A. hispidus and A. nigropunctatus were 12.7 and 255 µg/g, respectively, at highest, and saxitoxin was also detected in the skin (2.80 µg/g at highest) and ovary of A. hispidus. TTX, 5,6,11-trideoxyTTX (with its 4-epi form), and its anhydro forms were the most abundant, and 11-oxoTTX was commonly detected in the skin. PMID:26343722

  11. Efficient Photometry In-Frame Calibration (EPIC) Gaussian Corrections for Automated Background Normalization of Rate-Tracked Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griesbach, J.; Wetterer, C.; Sydney, P.; Gerber, J.

    Photometric processing of non-resolved Electro-Optical (EO) images has commonly required the use of dark and flat calibration frames that are obtained to correct for charge coupled device (CCD) dark (thermal) noise and CCD quantum efficiency/optical path vignetting effects respectively. It is necessary to account/calibrate for these effects so that the brightness of objects of interest (e.g. stars or resident space objects (RSOs)) may be measured in a consistent manner across the CCD field of view. Detected objects typically require further calibration using aperture photometry to compensate for sky background (shot noise). For this, annuluses are measured around each detected object whose contained pixels are used to estimate an average background level that is subtracted from the detected pixel measurements. In a new photometric calibration software tool developed for AFRL/RD, called Efficient Photometry In-Frame Calibration (EPIC), an automated background normalization technique is proposed that eliminates the requirement to capture dark and flat calibration images. The proposed technique simultaneously corrects for dark noise, shot noise, and CCD quantum efficiency/optical path vignetting effects. With this, a constant detection threshold may be applied for constant false alarm rate (CFAR) object detection without the need for aperture photometry corrections. The detected pixels may be simply summed (without further correction) for an accurate instrumental magnitude estimate. The noise distribution associated with each pixel is assumed to be sampled from a Poisson distribution. Since Poisson distributed data closely resembles Gaussian data for parameterized means greater than 10, the data may be corrected by applying bias subtraction and standard-deviation division. EPIC performs automated background normalization on rate-tracked satellite images using the following technique. A deck of approximately 50-100 images is combined by performing an independent median

  12. Investigation of dietary factors and endometrial cancer risk using a nutrient-wide association study approach in the EPIC and Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and NHSII

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Melissa A.; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Tworoger, Shelley S.; De Vivo, Immaculata; Hankinson, Susan E.; Fernandes, Judy; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tjønneland, Anne; Petersen, Kristina E.N.; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Fortner, Renée T.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B(as).; Onland-Moret, N.C. (Charlotte); Peeters, Petra H.; Gram, Inger T.; Skeie, Guri; Quirós, J. Ramón; Duell, Eric J.; Sánchez, María-José; Salmerón, D.; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chamosa, Saioa; Ericson, Ulrica; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Idahl, Annika; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Travis, Ruth C.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Patel, Chirag J.; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc J.

    2014-01-01

    Data on the role of dietary factors in endometrial cancer development are limited and inconsistent. We applied a ‘nutrient-wide association study’ approach to systematically evaluate dietary risk associations for endometrial cancer while controlling for multiple hypothesis tests using the false discovery rate (FDR) and validating the results in an independent cohort. We evaluated endometrial cancer risk associations for dietary intake of 84 foods and nutrients based on dietary questionnaires in three prospective studies, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC; N=1,303 cases) followed by validation of nine foods/nutrients (FDR≤0.10) in the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHS/NHSII; N=1,531 cases). Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In multivariate adjusted comparisons of the extreme categories of intake at baseline, coffee was inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk (EPIC, median intake 750 g/day vs 8.6, HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.97, Ptrend=0.09; NHS/NHSII, median intake 1067 g/day vs none, HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70-0.96, Ptrend=0.04). Eight other dietary factors that were associated with endometrial cancer risk in the EPIC study (total fat, monounsaturated fat, carbohydrates, phosphorus, butter, yogurt, cheese and potatoes) were not confirmed in the NHS/NHSII. Our findings suggest that coffee intake may be inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk. Further data are needed to confirm these findings and to examine the mechanisms linking coffee intake to endometrial cancer risk in order to develop improved prevention strategies. PMID:25662427

  13. Investigation of dietary factors and endometrial cancer risk using a nutrient-wide association study approach in the EPIC and Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Melissa A; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Tworoger, Shelley S; De Vivo, Immaculata; Hankinson, Susan E; Fernandes, Judy; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tjønneland, Anne; Petersen, Kristina E N; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Fortner, Renée T; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H; Gram, Inger T; Skeie, Guri; Quirós, J Ramón; Duell, Eric J; Sánchez, María-José; Salmerón, D; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chamosa, Saioa; Ericson, Ulrica; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Idahl, Annika; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Patel, Chirag J; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc J

    2015-02-01

    Data on the role of dietary factors in endometrial cancer development are limited and inconsistent. We applied a "nutrient-wide association study" approach to systematically evaluate dietary risk associations for endometrial cancer while controlling for multiple hypothesis tests using the false discovery rate (FDR) and validating the results in an independent cohort. We evaluated endometrial cancer risk associations for dietary intake of 84 foods and nutrients based on dietary questionnaires in three prospective studies, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC; N = 1,303 cases) followed by validation of nine foods/nutrients (FDR ≤ 0.10) in the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS/NHSII; N = 1,531 cases). Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). In multivariate adjusted comparisons of the extreme categories of intake at baseline, coffee was inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk (EPIC, median intake 750 g/day vs. 8.6; HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.97, Ptrend = 0.09; NHS/NHSII, median intake 1067 g/day vs. none; HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70-0.96, Ptrend = 0.04). Eight other dietary factors that were associated with endometrial cancer risk in the EPIC study (total fat, monounsaturated fat, carbohydrates, phosphorus, butter, yogurt, cheese, and potatoes) were not confirmed in the NHS/NHSII. Our findings suggest that coffee intake may be inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk. Further data are needed to confirm these findings and to examine the mechanisms linking coffee intake to endometrial cancer risk to develop improved prevention strategies. PMID:25662427

  14. Determinants of non- response to a second assessment of lifestyle factors and body weight in the EPIC-PANACEA study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper discusses whether baseline demographic, socio-economic, health variables, length of follow-up and method of contacting the participants predict non-response to the invitation for a second assessment of lifestyle factors and body weight in the European multi-center EPIC-PANACEA study. Methods Over 500.000 participants from several centers in ten European countries recruited between 1992 and 2000 were contacted 2–11 years later to update data on lifestyle and body weight. Length of follow-up as well as the method of approaching differed between the collaborating study centers. Non-responders were compared with responders using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results Overall response for the second assessment was high (81.6%). Compared to postal surveys, centers where the participants completed the questionnaire by phone attained a higher response. Response was also high in centers with a short follow-up period. Non-response was higher in participants who were male (odds ratio 1.09 (confidence interval 1.07; 1.11), aged under 40 years (1.96 (1.90; 2.02), living alone (1.40 (1.37; 1.43), less educated (1.35 (1.12; 1.19), of poorer health (1.33 (1.27; 1.39), reporting an unhealthy lifestyle and who had either a low (<18.5 kg/m2, 1.16 (1.09; 1.23)) or a high BMI (>25, 1.08 (1.06; 1.10); especially ≥30 kg/m2, 1.26 (1.23; 1.29)). Conclusions Cohort studies may enhance cohort maintenance by paying particular attention to the subgroups that are most unlikely to respond and by an active recruitment strategy using telephone interviews. PMID:23006680

  15. Macronutrient Composition of the Diet and Prospective Weight Change in Participants of the EPIC-PANACEA Study

    PubMed Central

    Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Norat, Teresa; Mouw, Traci; Romaguera, Dora; May, Anne M.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; van der A, Daphne; Agudo, Antonio; Wareham, Nicholas; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Romieu, Isabelle; Freisling, Heinz; Slimani, Nadia; Perquier, Florence; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Rodríguez, Laudina; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Crowe, Francesca L.; Orfanos, Philippos; Naska, Androniki; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Johansson, Ingeged; Hallmans, Göran; Drake, Isabel; Sonestedt, Emily; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Lund, Eiliv; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The effect of the macronutrient composition of the usual diet on long term weight maintenance remains controversial. Methods 373,803 subjects aged 25–70 years were recruited in 10 European countries (1992–2000) in the PANACEA project of the EPIC cohort. Diet was assessed at baseline using country-specific validated questionnaires and weight and height were measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up in most centers. The association between weight change after 5 years of follow-up and the iso-energetic replacement of 5% of energy from one macronutrient by 5% of energy from another macronutrient was assessed using multivariate linear mixed-models. The risk of becoming overweight or obese after 5 years was investigated using multivariate Poisson regressions stratified according to initial Body Mass Index. Results A higher proportion of energy from fat at the expense of carbohydrates was not significantly associated with weight change after 5 years. However, a higher proportion of energy from protein at the expense of fat was positively associated with weight gain. A higher proportion of energy from protein at the expense of carbohydrates was also positively associated with weight gain, especially when carbohydrates were rich in fibre. The association between percentage of energy from protein and weight change was slightly stronger in overweight participants, former smokers, participants ≥60 years old, participants underreporting their energy intake and participants with a prudent dietary pattern. Compared to diets with no more than 14% of energy from protein, diets with more than 22% of energy from protein were associated with a 23–24% higher risk of becoming overweight or obese in normal weight and overweight subjects at baseline. Conclusion Our results show that participants consuming an amount of protein above the protein intake recommended by the American Diabetes Association may experience a higher risk of becoming overweight or obese

  16. Dietary glycemic load and risk of cognitive impairment in women: findings from the EPIC-Naples cohort.

    PubMed

    Simeon, Vittorio; Chiodini, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Camilla; Brighenti, Furio; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common cause of morbidity in the elderly. The relationship between dietary habits and cognitive impairment in a female population living in the metropolitan area of Naples, in the Mediterranean part of Italy, has been evaluated in the Naples EPIC prospective cohort study. The study cohort, enrolled between 1993 and 1997, is composed of 5062 women aged 30-69 years. At time of enrolment anthropometric measures were performed and information about socio-demographic details, clinical data, lifestyle and dietary habits were collected. During 2008 and 2009, women 65 years of age or older received a telephone interview to evaluate cognitive status (TICS); the derived score was used as proxy of cognitive impairment. Analyses were carried out on 1514 participants. Linear regression model showed negative association between TICS score and, respectively, age at baseline (β = -.31, 95% CI -.34, -.24), body mass index (BMI) (β = -.08, 95% CI -.16, -.01), and glycemic load (GL) (β = -.02, 95% CI -.03, -.01), whereas education level (β = 0.62, 95% CI .56, .69) showed positive association. A logistic regression model, used to evaluate determinants of the low cognitive score (TICS score ≤ 15, 1st tertile), confirmed association for previous variables [age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.08, 1.15); BMI (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.001, 1.07); GL (OR 1.005, 95% CI 1.001, 1.011); education level (OR .82, 95% CI .79, .84)] with, in addition, type II diabetes (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.014, 3.4). This study indicates that GL may play a role in determining risk of cognitive impairment, besides age, BMI, education and diabetes.

  17. Degree of urbanization and mammographic density in Dutch breast cancer screening participants: results from the EPIC-NL cohort.

    PubMed

    Emaus, Marleen J; Bakker, Marije F; Beelen, Rob M J; Veldhuis, Wouter B; Peeters, Petra H M; van Gils, Carla H

    2014-12-01

    It has been observed that women living in urban areas have a higher mammographic density (MD) compared to women living in rural areas. This association might be explained by regional differences in reproductive and lifestyle factors or perhaps by variation in exposure to ambient air pollution as air pollution particles have been described to show estrogenic activity. We investigated the association between degree of urbanization and MD, and aimed to unravel the underlying etiology. 2,543 EPIC-NL participants were studied, and general linear models were used. Urbanization was categorized into five categories according to the number of addresses/km(2). Information on reproductive and lifestyle factors was obtained from the recruitment questionnaire. Air pollution exposure was estimated using land-use regression models. MD was expressed as percent density (PD) and dense area (DA), and was quantified using Cumulus. Women living in extremely urbanized areas had a higher PD (21.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 20.5-22.3%) compared to women living in not urbanized areas (16.1, 95% CI 14.5-17.8%, P trend < 0.01).The association persisted after adjustment for reproductive and lifestyle factors as well as for individual exposure to air pollution (adjusted PDextremely_urbanized = 22.1%, 95% CI 18.0-26.5% versus adjusted PDnot_urbanized = 16.9%, 95% CI 13.0-21.2, P trend < 0.01).The results for DA showed close similarity to the results for PD. We found evidence that degree of urbanization is associated with MD. The association could not be explained by differences in reproductive and lifestyle factors or by variation in air pollution exposure.

  18. Interleukin-6 g.-174G>C promoter polymorphism is associated with obesity in the EPIC-Potsdam Study.

    PubMed

    Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Möhlig, Matthias; Spranger, Joachim; Hoffmann, Kurt; Rodrigues, Fabio U S; Sharma, Arya M; Klaus, Susanne; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Boeing, Heiner

    2006-01-01

    Homozygosity for the interleukin-6 (IL-6) g.-174G>C promoter polymorphism has recently been associated with indices of overweight. Homozygous subjects were observed to have reduced energy expenditure, suggesting that lower IL-6 gene transcription, caused by the IL-6 g.-174G>C promoter polymorphism, may be associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of this polymorphism with long-term weight gain. For 334 normal weight (20 < BMI < or = 25 kg/m2) and 334 obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) subjects matched by age and sex originating from the population-based EPIC-Potsdam Study, recalled weight change from age 25 to study enrollment was determined, the IL-6 g.-174G>C promoter polymorphism was defined, and plasma concentrations of IL-6 and C-reactive protein were measured. The IL-6 g.-174G>C promoter polymorphism was significantly associated with obesity (chi2 = 7,34, p = 0.026). Odds ratios for subjects with GC and CC genotypes for obesity were 1.19 (95% CI: 0.84 to 1.68; p = 0.323) and 1.91 (95% CI: 1.19 to 3.08; p = 0.007), respectively. Recalled weight change from age 25 years to study enrollment differed significantly according to genotype (p = 0.044) and was most pronounced in subjects with the CC genotype, suggesting that the IL-6 g.-174G>C promoter polymorphism is a susceptibility or modifying locus for common obesity and weight gain.

  19. Physical Activity, Bone Health, and Obesity in Peri-/Pre- and Postmenopausal Women: Results from the EPIC-Potsdam Study.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Juliane; di Giuseppe, Romina; Wientzek, Angelika; Kroke, Anja; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia

    2015-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) is suggested to increase the peak bone mass and to minimize age-related bone loss, and thereby to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. However, the relation between PA and bone health considering the obesity status is unclear so far. The present study examines the association between PA levels and calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), particularly under consideration of obesity. Data from a population-based sample of 6776 German women from the EPIC-Potsdam cohort were analyzed. Calibrated PA data were used. Statistical analyses were stratified by menopausal and obesity status. Multiple linear regression was used to model the relationship between PA and BUA levels after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, education, alcohol and calcium intake, and hormone use. Peri-/premenopausal had higher BUA levels (112.39 ± 10.05 dB/MHz) compared to postmenopausal women (106.44 ± 9.95 dB/MHz). In both groups, BUA levels were higher in the fourth compared to the lowest quartile of PA (p for trend < 0.05). In women with BMI < 30, but not BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2), PA remained positively associated with BUA levels (p for interaction = 0.03). However, when waist circumference higher than 88 cm or body fat percentage (BF%) measures above the median were used to define obesity, a significant positive relationship was also observed in women with BMI < 30 kg/m(2) but with higher waist circumference or BF%. In conclusion, our results strengthen the hypothesis that PA has a positive influence on BUA levels, though dependent on weight. PMID:26108649

  20. Mediterranean Diet and Type 2 Diabetes Risk in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the association between adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, across European countries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We established a case-cohort study including 11,994 incident type 2 diabetic case subjects and a stratified subcohort of 15,798 participants selected from a total cohort of 340,234 participants with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up, from eight European cohorts participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The relative Mediterranean diet score (rMED) (score range 0–18) was used to assess adherence to MDP on the basis of reported consumption of nine dietary components characteristic of the Mediterranean diet. Cox proportional hazards regression, modified for the case-cohort design, was used to estimate the association between rMED and risk of type 2 diabetes, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS The multiple adjusted hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes among individuals with medium (rMED 7–10 points) and high adherence to MDP (rMED 11–18 points) were 0.93 (95% CI 0.86–1.01) and 0.88 (0.79–0.97), respectively, compared with individuals with low adherence to MDP (0–6 points) (P for trend 0.013). The association between rMED and type 2 diabetes was attenuated in people <50 years of age, in obese participants, and when the alcohol, meat, and olive oil components were excluded from the score. CONCLUSIONS In this large prospective study, adherence to the MDP, as defined by rMED, was associated with a small reduction in the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in this European population. PMID:21788627

  1. Post-drilling hydrothermal vent and associated biological activities seen through artificial hydrothermal vents in the Iheya North field, Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, K.; Kawagucci, S.; Miyazaki, J.; Watsuji, T.; Ishibashi, J.; Yamamoto, H.; Nozaki, T.; Kashiwabara, T.; Shibuya, T.

    2012-12-01

    In 2010, IODP Expedition 331 was conducted in the Iheya North Field, the Okinawa Trough and drilled several sites in hydrothermally active subseafloor. In addition, during the IODP Expedition 331, four new hydrothermal vents were created. These post-drilling artificial hydrothermal vents provide excellent opportunities to investigate the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the previously unexplored subseafloor hydrothermal fluid reservoirs, and to monitor and estimate how the anthropogenic drilling behaviors affect the deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem. We were very much interested in the difference of hydrothermal fluid chemistry between the natural hydrothermal vents and the artificial hydrothermal vents. The IODP porewater chemistry of the cores pointed to the density-driven stratification of the phase-separated hydrothermal fluids and the natural vent fluids were likely derived only from the shallower vapor-enriched phases. However, the artificial hydrothermal vents had deeper fluid sources in the subseafloor hydrothermal fluid reservoirs composed of vapor-lost (Cl-enriched) phases. The fluids from the artificial hydrothermal vents were sampled by ROV at 5, 12 and 18 months after the IODP expedition. The artificial hydrothermal vent fluids were slightly enriched with Cl as compared to the natural hydrothermal vent fluids. Thus, the artificial hydrothermal vents successfully entrained the previously unexplored subseafloor hydrothermal fluids. The newly created hydrothermal vents also hosted the very quickly grown, enormous chimney structures, of which mineral compositions were highly variable among the vents. However, the quickly grown C0016B and C0016D vent chimneys were found to be typical Kuroko ore even though the chimney growth rates in the artificial vents were extremely faster than those in the natural vents. In addition, the IODP drilling operation not only created new hydrothermal vents by deep drilling but also induced the

  2. Implication for horizontally-elongated fluid flow inferred from heat flow measurements in the Iheya-North hydrothermal field, Okinawa Trough back-arc basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Yuka; Kinoshita, Masataka; Kawada, Yoshifumi

    2010-05-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a back-arc basin located in the southwestern part of Japan. It is considered to be in the initial stage of rifting of continental crust, and the activity generates volcanic edifices in this area, accompanied by hydrothermal circulation. The Iheya-North is one of the most active hydrothermal fields among them. As a proposed drilling site for the Integrated ocean Drilling Program, extensive geophysical surveys have been carried out including single-channel seismic imaging, and precise side-scan sonar imaging by using autonomous underwater vehicle 'Urashima' of Japan Agency for Marine-Science and Technology. In the recent few years, we have measured heat flow in and around the Iheya-North hydrothermal field to understand the spatial of hydrothermal circulation in detail. 78 measurements show that heat flow is higher than 10 W/m2 with in 0.5 km of the hydrothermal vent complex, that it gradually decrease eastward to < 1 W/m2, and that very low heat flow around 0.01 W/m2 is observed at 1.5 km east from the hydrothermal field. The average heat flow outside of Iheya-North is ~0.1 W/m2. The low heat flow to the east is most likely caused by an inward flow of seawater into the formation. Seismic and side-scan sonar images as well as piston core samples suggest an impermeable sediment layer to a few hundreds meters below the seafloor in this area. This sediment layer should work as a hydrological barrier to suppress flow through the seafloor, whereas seawater can penetrate into the formation at 1.5 km east of the hydrothermal field, where sidescan images suggest coars sediments on the seafloor. We infer that the hydrothermal circulation within the Iheya-North involves one with a horizontally-elongated scale (~1.5 km horizontal vs. ~a few hundreds meters vertical). We performed numerical calculations of fluid flow and heat transportation to give constraints on the depth of hydrothermal circulation, the magnitude of darcy velocity, and the permeability at

  3. Structure of a seafloor hydrothermal system in volcanic sediment: distribution of hydrothermal clay minerals, at the Iheya North Knoll, Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Y.; Ishibashi, J.; Faure, K.; Uehara, S.

    2012-12-01

    Detailed investigation of clay minerals in hydrothermal fields provides fundamental information for understanding the physical and geochemical conditions within a hydrothermal system. Moreover, stable isotope geochemistry of clay minerals provides constraints on formation temperature. We investigated the distribution of clay minerals by XRD and TEM-EDS in a seafloor hydrothermal field at Iheya North Knoll in the Okinawa Trough, using cored sediment obtained from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331. The chemical composition and isotope values of the representative clay minerals were analyzed to obtain information on the hydrothermal system beneath the seafloor. Vertically, two different clay mineral facies are present. The boundary between the facies was identified at 6 mbsf (meters below the seafloor) at Site C0013 (100 m east of hydrothermal mound) and at 23 mbsf at Site C0014 (450 m east of the mound). In the lower facies (6 - 28 mbsf and 45 mbsf at Site C0013, 23 - 114 mbsf at Site C0014), Mg-chlorite and/or Mg-chlorite-smectite mixed layer minerals are dominant. They are associated with sericite in deeper parts (45 mbsf at Site C0013 and 38 - 114 mbsf at Site C0014). The δ18O values of the clays range from +1.5 to +4.7 ‰ (VSMOW) and the formation temperatures of the Mg-chlorite are estimated to be 230 - 300 °C, assuming a value from 0 to +1.5 ‰ for δ18Owater. The original sediment in the Iheya North Knoll is considered to have been volcanic of felsic chemical composition, so alteration to Mg-rich chlorite would require supply of substantial amount of Mg. Abundant formation of Mg-chlorite is attributed to mixing of hydrothermal fluid and seawater. In the upper facies at both sites, Al-rich clay minerals (kaolinite and montmorillonite) dominate. The δ18O values of clays range between +9.6 and +13.3 ‰ and formation temperatures are estimated to range between 120 - 160 °C. As kaolinite formation is favorable under acidic

  4. THE XMM-NEWTON/EPIC X-RAY LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS OF WR 6

    SciTech Connect

    Ignace, R.; Gayley, K. G.; Hamann, W.-R.; Oskinova, L. M.; Huenemoerder, D. P.; Pollock, A. M. T.; McFall, M.

    2013-09-20

    We obtained four pointings of over 100 ks each of the well-studied Wolf-Rayet star WR 6 with the XMM-Newton satellite. With a first paper emphasizing the results of spectral analysis, this follow-up highlights the X-ray variability clearly detected in all four pointings. However, phased light curves fail to confirm obvious cyclic behavior on the well-established 3.766 day period widely found at longer wavelengths. The data are of such quality that we were able to conduct a search for event clustering in the arrival times of X-ray photons. However, we fail to detect any such clustering. One possibility is that X-rays are generated in a stationary shock structure. In this context we favor a corotating interaction region (CIR) and present a phenomenological model for X-rays from a CIR structure. We show that a CIR has the potential to account simultaneously for the X-ray variability and constraints provided by the spectral analysis. Ultimately, the viability of the CIR model will require both intermittent long-term X-ray monitoring of WR 6 and better physical models of CIR X-ray production at large radii in stellar winds.

  5. Application of a XMM-Newton EPIC Monte Carlo to Analysis And Interpretation of Data for Abell 1689, RXJ0658-55 And the Centaurus Clusters of Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Karl E.; Peterson, J.R.; Madejski, G.M.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-04-17

    We propose a new Monte Carlo method to study extended X-ray sources with the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) aboard XMM Newton. The Smoothed Particle Inference (SPI) technique, described in a companion paper, is applied here to the EPIC data for the clusters of galaxies Abell 1689, Centaurus and RXJ 0658-55 (the ''bullet cluster''). We aim to show the advantages of this method of simultaneous spectral-spatial modeling over traditional X-ray spectral analysis. In Abell 1689 we confirm our earlier findings about structure in temperature distribution and produce a high resolution temperature map. We also confirm our findings about velocity structure within the gas. In the bullet cluster, RXJ 0658-55, we produce the highest resolution temperature map ever to be published of this cluster allowing us to trace what looks like the motion of the bullet in the cluster. We even detect a south to north temperature gradient within the bullet itself. In the Centaurus cluster we detect, by dividing up the luminosity of the cluster in bands of gas temperatures, a striking feature to the north-east of the cluster core. We hypothesize that this feature is caused by a subcluster left over from a substantial merger that slightly displaced the core. We conclude that our method is very powerful in determining the spatial distributions of plasma temperatures and very useful for systematic studies in cluster structure.

  6. Fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake in relation to cancer risk: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Kathryn E; Appleby, Paul N; Key, Timothy J

    2014-07-01

    Fruit, vegetables, and certain components of plant foods, such as fiber, have long been thought to protect against cancer. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) is a prospective cohort that includes >500,000 participants from 10 European countries and has made a substantial contribution to knowledge in this research area. The purpose of this article is to summarize the findings published thus far from the EPIC study on the associations between fruit, vegetable, or fiber consumption and the risk of cancer at 14 different sites. The risk of cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract was inversely associated with fruit intake but was not associated with vegetable intake. The risk of colorectal cancer was inversely associated with intakes of total fruit and vegetables and total fiber, and the risk of liver cancer was also inversely associated with the intake of total fiber. The risk of cancer of the lung was inversely associated with fruit intake but was not associated with vegetable intake; this association with fruit intake was restricted to smokers and might be influenced by residual confounding due to smoking. There was a borderline inverse association of fiber intake with breast cancer risk. For the other 9 cancer sites studied (stomach, biliary tract, pancreas, cervix, endometrium, prostate, kidney, bladder, and lymphoma) there were no reported significant associations of risk with intakes of total fruit, vegetables, or fiber.

  7. Evaluation of the Impact of Implementing the Emergency Medical Services Traumatic Brain Injury Guidelines in Arizona: The Excellence in Prehospital Injury Care (EPIC) Study Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Spaite, Daniel W.; Bobrow, Bentley J.; Stolz, Uwe; Sherrill, Duane; Chikani, Vatsal; Barnhart, Bruce; Sotelo, Michael; Gaither, Joshua B.; Viscusi, Chad; Adelson, P. David; Denninghoff, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) exacts a great toll on society. Fortunately, there is growing evidence that the management of TBI in the early minutes after injury may significantly reduce morbidity and mortality. In response, evidence-based prehospital and in-hospital TBI treatment guidelines have been established by authoritative bodies. However, no large studies have yet evaluated the effectiveness of implementing these guidelines in the prehospital setting. This article describes the background, design, implementation, emergency medical services (EMS) treatment protocols, and statistical analysis of a prospective, controlled (before/after), statewide study designed to evaluate the effect of implementing the EMS TBI guidelines—the Excellence in Prehospital Injury Care (EPIC) study (NIH/NINDS R01NS071049, “EPIC”; and 3R01NS071049-S1, “EPIC4Kids”). The specific aim of the study is to test the hypothesis that statewide implementation of the international adult and pediatric EMS TBI guidelines will significantly reduce mortality and improve nonmortality outcomes in patients with moderate or severe TBI. Furthermore, it will specifically evaluate the effect of guideline implementation on outcomes in the subgroup of patients who are intubated in the field. Over the course of the entire study (~9 years), it is estimated that approximately 25,000 patients will be enrolled. PMID:25112451

  8. Fruit and vegetable intake and cause-specific mortality in the EPIC study.

    PubMed

    Leenders, Max; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Ferrari, Pietro; Siersema, Peter D; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Kaaks, Rudolf; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Peeters, Petra H M; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Engeset, Dagrun; Braaten, Tonje; Redondo, Maria Luisa; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta, José-María; Ardanaz, Eva; Drake, Isabel; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Ingegerd; Winkvist, Anna; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick J; Key, Timothy J; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Johansson, Mattias; Licaj, Idlir; Gunter, Marc J; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2014-09-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower overall mortality. The aim of this study was to identify causes of death through which this association is established. More than 450,000 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study were included, of which 25,682 were reported deceased after 13 years of follow-up. Information on lifestyle, diet and vital status was collected through questionnaires and population registries. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for death from specific causes were calculated from Cox regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. Participants reporting consumption of more than 569 g/day of fruits and vegetables had lower risks of death from diseases of the circulatory (HR for upper fourth 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.93), respiratory (HR for upper fourth 0.73, 95% CI 0.59-0.91) and digestive system (HR for upper fourth 0.60, 95% CI 0.46-0.79) when compared with participants consuming less than 249 g/day. In contrast, a positive association with death from diseases of the nervous system was observed. Inverse associations were generally observed for vegetable, but not for fruit consumption. Associations were more pronounced for raw vegetable consumption, when compared with cooked vegetable consumption. Raw vegetable consumption was additionally inversely associated with death from neoplasms and mental and behavioral disorders. The lower risk of death associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables may be derived from inverse associations with diseases of the circulatory, respiratory and digestive system, and may depend on the preparation of vegetables and lifestyle factors.

  9. The Association of Multiple Biomarkers of Iron Metabolism and Type 2 Diabetes - the EPIC-InterAct Study

    PubMed Central

    Podmore, Clara; Meidtner, Karina; Schulze, Matthias B; Scott, Robert A; Ramond, Anna; Butterworth, Adam S; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Danesh, John; Arriola, Larraitz; Barricarte, Aurelio; Boeing, Heiner; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Cross, Amanda J; Dahm, Christina C; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W; Gavrila, Diana; Grioni, Sara; Gunter, Marc J; Gusto, Gaelle; Jakszyn, Paula; Katzke, Verena; Key, Timothy J; Kühn, Tilman; Mattiello, Amalia; Nilsson, Peter M; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke MW; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Feskens, Edith JM; Forouhi, Nita G; Sharp, Stephen J; Riboli, Elio; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Observational studies show an association between ferritin and type 2 diabetes (T2D), suggesting a role of high iron stores for T2D development. However, ferritin is influenced by factors other than iron stores, which is less the case for other biomarkers of iron metabolism. We investigate associations of ferritin, transferrin saturation (TSAT), serum iron and transferrin with T2D incidence, to clarify the role of iron in the pathogenesis of T2D. Research and Design Methods The EPIC-InterAct study includes 12,403 incident T2D cases and a representative sub-cohort of 16,154 individuals from a European cohort with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. We studied the prospective association of ferritin, TSAT, serum iron and transferrin with incident T2D in 11,052 cases and a random sub-cohort of 15,182 individuals and assessed whether these associations differed by subgroups of the population. Results Higher levels of ferritin and transferrin were associated with a higher risk of T2D [HR in men and women, respectively: 1.07 (95% CI: 1.01; 1.12) and 1.12 (1.05; 1.19) per 100 μg/L higher ferritin level; 1.11 (1.00; 1.24) and 1.22 (1.12; 1.33) per 0.5 g/L higher transferrin level] after adjustment for age, centre, BMI, physical activity, smoking status, education, hsCRP, ALT and GGT. Elevated TSAT (≥45% versus <45%) was associated with a lower risk of T2D in women [0.68 (0.54; 0.86)] but was not statistically significantly associated in men [0.90 (0.75; 1.08)]. Serum iron was not associated with T2D. The association of ferritin with T2D was stronger among leaner individuals (pinteraction<0.01). Conclusions The pattern of association of TSAT and transferrin with T2D suggests that the underlying relationship between iron stores and T2D is more complex than the simple link suggested by the association of ferritin with T2D. PMID:26861925

  10. EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the 6th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, Bankoku Shinryoukan, Okinawa, Japan, 20-24 June 2005 Proceedings of the 6th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, Bankoku Shinryoukan, Okinawa, Japan, 20-24 June 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mio, N.

    2006-04-01

    This issue is published as the Proceedings of the 6th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves, held on 20-24 June 2005 at Bankoku Shinryoukan in Okinawa, Japan. Since the first Amaldi conference was held in Frascati in 1994, eleven years have passed and the scale of the conference has grown with the increasing activity in the field of gravitational waves. As the centenary celebration of Einstein's 'miracle year', 2005 was called 'World Year of Physics'. Among his breakthroughs published in 1905, the special theory of relativity is recognized as the most significant revolution in physics, completely changing our views concerning time and space. Ten years later, Einstein proposed the general theory of relativity, by which he predicted the existence of gravitational waves (GWs). At that time, it was only a dream to observe a GW because its effect was so small. Efforts to detect GWs, pioneered by Weber, have continued for almost 40 years, yet their detection remained a dream. However, the presentations at this conference have convinced us that it is no longer a dream. The GW detector projects have made extraordinary advances; in particular, the significant sensitivity improvement of LIGO and the completion of the VIRGO detector mark the beginning of the new era of GW physics. Firm developments in theories and source estimations were also reported. In particular, the data analysis session was very active and various discussions were held. Elaborate experimental techniques were presented, some of them already achieving the requirements for the next generation of detectors, such as Advanced LIGO and LCGT. In addition to the earth-based detectors, many presentations concerning space detectors were contributed; they indicated that space would become the new stage for GW physics and astronomy. This issue brings together the papers which were presented at this exciting conference. The proceedings comprise two volumes; the largest part is published as a volume of

  11. Environmental studies on natural halogen compounds. I Estimation of biomass of the acorn wormPtychodera flava Eschscholtz (Hemichordata: Enteropneusta) and excretion rate of metabolites at Kattore Bay, Kohama Island, Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Higa, T; Sakemi, S

    1983-04-01

    In order to study the environmental significance of the acorn wormPtychodera flava, which excretes a copious amount of halogenated metabolites, the biomass and the excretion rate were estimated at Kattore Bay, Kohama Island, Okinawa. The habitat, which extends over 1 km(2), could be divided into two areas: zone A, 3.0 × 10(5)m(2), density 95.6/m(2); and zone B, 7.2 × 10(5) m(2), density 48.8/m(2), according to the densities. The total population was estimated to be 6.4 × 10(7) ± 2.0 × 10(7) individuals or 93.0 ± 28.9 tons. These worms daily excrete about 480 tons of fecal sand which was estimated to contain 43 kg of the material extractable with organic solvents. The material contained halogenated metabolites which showed antimicrobial activity. PMID:24407456

  12. New records of the squat lobster genus Munida Leach, 1820 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Munididae) from deep-water off Okinawa Islands, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Higashiji, Takuo

    2016-05-11

    Two species of the squat lobster genus Munida Leach, 1820, M. pollioculus n. sp. and M. zebra Macpherson, 1994, are recorded from deep-waters off Okinawa Islands, the Ryukyu Islands, at depths of 1000 m and 495 m, respectively. The new species closely resembles M. clevai Macpherson, 1999 and M. microps Alcock, 1894, but it differs from the latter two in the absence of a proximal spine on the mesial margin of the cheliped dactylus and the more stout dactylus of the second pereopod. Munida zebra is first recorded from the Northwest Pacific, as well as Japanese waters, with its geographical range extended to the north from the previously known southwestern Pacific localities.

  13. New records of the squat lobster genus Munida Leach, 1820 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Munididae) from deep-water off Okinawa Islands, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Higashiji, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    Two species of the squat lobster genus Munida Leach, 1820, M. pollioculus n. sp. and M. zebra Macpherson, 1994, are recorded from deep-waters off Okinawa Islands, the Ryukyu Islands, at depths of 1000 m and 495 m, respectively. The new species closely resembles M. clevai Macpherson, 1999 and M. microps Alcock, 1894, but it differs from the latter two in the absence of a proximal spine on the mesial margin of the cheliped dactylus and the more stout dactylus of the second pereopod. Munida zebra is first recorded from the Northwest Pacific, as well as Japanese waters, with its geographical range extended to the north from the previously known southwestern Pacific localities. PMID:27394885

  14. Environmental studies on natural halogen compounds. I Estimation of biomass of the acorn wormPtychodera flava Eschscholtz (Hemichordata: Enteropneusta) and excretion rate of metabolites at Kattore Bay, Kohama Island, Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Higa, T; Sakemi, S

    1983-04-01

    In order to study the environmental significance of the acorn wormPtychodera flava, which excretes a copious amount of halogenated metabolites, the biomass and the excretion rate were estimated at Kattore Bay, Kohama Island, Okinawa. The habitat, which extends over 1 km(2), could be divided into two areas: zone A, 3.0 × 10(5)m(2), density 95.6/m(2); and zone B, 7.2 × 10(5) m(2), density 48.8/m(2), according to the densities. The total population was estimated to be 6.4 × 10(7) ± 2.0 × 10(7) individuals or 93.0 ± 28.9 tons. These worms daily excrete about 480 tons of fecal sand which was estimated to contain 43 kg of the material extractable with organic solvents. The material contained halogenated metabolites which showed antimicrobial activity.

  15. The mechanism of formation of the seafloor massive sulfide ore body beneath the seafloor at HAKUREI Site in Izena Caldera, Middle Okinawa Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizumi, R.; Urabe, T.

    2012-12-01

    The first seafloor hydrothermal activity in northwest Pacific was found at the northeastern rim of the Izena Caldera (Jade Site), Middle Okinawa Trough in 1988 (Halbach et al.,1989). The tectonic setting of the sulfide occurrence, even though small in amount, is similar to that of Kuroko deposits which are the volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits found in volcano-sedimentary units in northern Japan. Later, large seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) ore bodies were discovered above and beneath the seafloor in the central part of the Izena Caldera (HAKUREI Site). The ore reserve is estimated to be 5million tons based on some 100 short (<20 meters), dense drillings (Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC), 2011), and is regarded as the biggest "proven" SMS deposit in the world. It is worthy to note that the HAKUREI ore deposit can be divided into Ore A (Upper ore bodies) and the Ore B (Lower ore bodies) which are separated by silt and pumice-rich sedimentary layer of a few meter in thickness. The Upper ore bodies are composed of sulfide "mounds" and "chimneys", which are commonly observed in hydrothermal areas. However, the nature of the Lower ore bodies remain uninvestigated. We conducted two research cruises at the HAKUREI site in 2011: TAIGA11 cruise of Exploration Vessel Hakurei-Maru NO.2 (JOGMEC) with Benthic Multicoreing System (BMS) and NT11-15 cruise of R/V Natshushima with ROV Hyper Dolphin (JAMSTEC). In the former cruise, a core (H-1) 5.4m in length was drilled to intersect both the Upper and Lower ore bodies which are separated by sediment using BMS. While, in latter cruise, volcanic rocks (aphyric rhyolite) and sulfide ores (Upper ore) were collected using Hyper Dolphin. The obtained sulfide ores were served for examination with the ore microscopy, electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) and heating stage for fluid inclusions in barite in ore. Sphalerite and galena dominate at upper part of the Lower ore, while chalcopyrite and covellite

  16. An Epic Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubroy, Tashni-Ann

    2015-01-01

    For some students, intellectual curiosity and leadership are innate. For many, it must be nurtured. The Shaw University Honors College is an academic center of encouragement, interaction, and care for a diverse population of students. Many of them would otherwise never conceive of the marvelous opportunities and experiences they share during their…

  17. Insulin-like growth factor I and risk of epithelial invasive ovarian cancer by tumour characteristics: results from the EPIC cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ose, J; Fortner, R T; Schock, H; Peeters, P H; Onland-Moret, N C; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Weiderpass, E; Gram, I T; Overvad, K; Tjonneland, A; Dossus, L; Fournier, A; Baglietto, L; Trichopoulou, A; Benetou, V; Trichopoulos, D; Boeing, H; Masala, G; Krogh, V; Matiello, A; Tumino, R; Popovic, M; Obón-Santacana, M; Larrañaga, N; Ardanaz, E; Sánchez, M-J; Menéndez, V; Chirlaque, M-D; Travis, R C; Khaw, K-T; Brändstedt, J; Idahl, A; Lundin, E; Rinaldi, S; Kuhn, E; Romieu, I; Gunter, M J; Merritt, M A; Riboli, E; Kaaks, R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prospective studies on insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk are inconclusive. Data suggest risk associations vary by tumour characteristics. Methods: We conducted a nested case–control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate IGF-I concentrations and EOC risk by tumour characteristics (n=565 cases). Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate associations. Results: We observed no association between IGF-I and EOC overall or by tumour characteristics. Conclusions: In the largest prospective study to date was no association between IGF-I and EOC risk. Pre-diagnostic serum IGF-I concentrations may not influence EOC risk. PMID:25349976

  18. Estimated dietary intakes of flavonols, flavanones and flavones in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) 24 hour dietary recall cohort.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Fedirko, Veronika; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Ericson, Ulrica; Amiano, Pilar; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Dilis, Vardis; Naska, Androniki; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Cassidy, Aedin; Overvad, Kim; Peeters, Petra H M; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María-José; Quirós, J Ramón; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Johansson, Gerd; Johansson, Ingegerd; Drake, Isabel; Crowe, Francesca L; Barricarte, Aurelio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Rossum, Caroline T M; Norat, Teresa; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Touillaud, Marina; Salvini, Simonetta; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas; Boeing, Heiner; Förster, Jana; Riboli, Elio; González, Carlos A

    2011-12-01

    Flavonols, flavanones and flavones (FLAV) are sub-classes of flavonoids that exert cardioprotective and anti-carcinogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. We aimed to estimate the FLAV dietary intake, their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. FLAV intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven study centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on FLAV was compiled using data from US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded using recipes, estimations and flavonoid retention factors in order to increase its correspondence with the 24 h dietary recall. Our results showed that the highest FLAV-consuming centre was the UK health-conscious group, with 130·9 and 97·0 mg/d for men and women, respectively. The lowest FLAV intakes were 36·8 mg/d in men from Umeå and 37·2 mg/d in women from Malmö (Sweden). The flavanone sub-class was the main contributor to the total FLAV intake ranging from 46·6 to 52·9 % depending on the region. Flavonols ranged from 38·5 to 47·3 % and flavones from 5·8 to 8·6 %. FLAV intake was higher in women, non-smokers, increased with level of education and physical activity. The major food sources were citrus fruits and citrus-based juices (especially for flavanones), tea, wine, other fruits and some vegetables. We concluded that the present study shows heterogeneity in intake of these three sub-classes of flavonoids across European regions and highlights differences by sex and other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.

  19. Acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adducts and epithelial ovarian cancer: a nested case-control study in non-smoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort

    PubMed Central

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Travis, Ruth C.; Freisling, Heinz; Ferrari, Pietro; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fortner, Renée T.; Ose, Jennifer; Boeing, Heiner; Menéndez, Virginia; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Chamosa, Saioa; Huerta Castaño, José María; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Merritt, Melissa A.; Gunter, Marc J.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Papatesta, Eleni-Maria; Klinaki, Eleni; Saieva, Calogero; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Vesper, Hubert W.; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    Background Acrylamide was classified as ‘probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A)’ by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fourth cause of cancer mortality in women. Five epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between EOC risk and dietary acrylamide intake assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and one nested case-control study evaluated hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and its metabolite glycidamide (HbGA) and EOC risk; the results of these studies were inconsistent. Methods A nested case-control study in non-smoking postmenopausal women (334 cases, 417 controls) was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between HbAA, HbGA, HbAA+HbGA, and HbGA/HbAA and EOC and invasive serous EOC risk. Results No overall associations were observed between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure analyzed in quintiles and EOC risk; however, positive associations were observed between some middle quintiles of HbGA and HbAA+HbGA. Elevated but non-statistically significant ORs for serous EOC were observed for HbGA and HbAA+HbGA (ORQ5vsQ1:1.91, 95%CI:0.96-3.81 and ORQ5vsQ1:1.90, 95%CI:0.94-3.83, respectively); however, no linear dose-response trends were observed. Conclusion This EPIC nested case-control study failed to observe a clear association between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure and the risk of EOC or invasive serous EOC. Impact It is unlikely that dietary acrylamide exposure increases ovarian cancer risk; however, additional studies with larger sample size should be performed to exclude any possible association with EOC risk. PMID:26376083

  20. Acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adduct levels and endometrial cancer risk: A nested case-control study in nonsmoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort.

    PubMed

    Obón-Santacana, Mireia; Freisling, Heinz; Peeters, Petra H; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Ferrari, Pietro; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Baglietto, Laura; Turzanski-Fortner, Renee; Katzke, Verena A; Boeing, Heiner; Quirós, J Ramón; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Larrañaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Gunter, Marc J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Naska, Androniki; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Fiano, Valentina; Galassom, Rocco; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Vesper, Hubert; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2016-03-01

    Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by IARC as "probably carcinogenic to humans," was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. Four prospective studies have evaluated the association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer (EC) risk with inconsistent results. The purpose of this nested case-control study, based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, was to evaluate, for the first time, the association between hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and glycidamide (HbGA) and the risk of developing EC in non-smoking postmenopausal women. Hemoglobin adducts were measured in red blood cells by HPLC/MS/MS. Four exposure variables were evaluated: HbAA, HbGA, their sum (HbAA+HbGA), and their ratio (HbGA/HbAA). The association between hemoglobin adducts and EC was evaluated using unconditional multivariable logistic regression models, and included 383 EC cases (171 were type-I EC), and 385 controls. Exposure variables were analyzed in quintiles based on control distributions. None of the biomarker variables had an effect on overall EC (HRHbAA;Q5vsQ1 : 0.84, 95%CI: 0.49-1.48; HRHbGA;Q5vsQ1 : 0.94, 95%CI: 0.54-1.63) or type-I EC risk. Additionally, none of the subgroups investigated (BMI < 25 vs. ≥25 kg m(-2) , alcohol drinkers vs. never drinkers, oral contraceptive users vs. non-users) demonstrated effect measure modification. Hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide or glycidamide were not associated with EC or type-I EC risk in 768 nonsmoking postmenopausal women from the EPIC cohort.

  1. PREFACE: MEM11: The 6th International Workshop on Mechanical-Electromagnetic Properties of Composite Superconductors (Okinawa, Japan, 5-7 December 2011) MEM11: The 6th International Workshop on Mechanical-Electromagnetic Properties of Composite Superconductors (Okinawa, Japan, 5-7 December 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaji, Satoshi; Osamura, Kozo; Hampshire, Damian

    2012-05-01

    The effect of stress and strain on the electromagnetic properties of superconducting composite conductors is one of the key issues for the practical application of superconductivity. To discuss these subjects thoroughly, the International Workshop on Mechanical-Electromagnetic Properties of Composite Superconductors (MEM) has been held regularly since 2001. The 6th workshop (MEM11) was held in Okinawa, Japan in 2011, which was the centennial of the discovery of superconductivity by Professor Kamerlingh Onnes, as well as the 25th anniversary of the discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS). Although it was originally planned that MEM11 be held in Mito, the workshop venue was changed because of the serious disaster in the north of Japan on 11 March 2011. Sixty five scientists participated in this specialized workshop. Fifty six papers were presented in the following six sessions: (1) Intrinsic strain effects on low temperature superconductors (LTS) and HTS, (2) The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), (3) Strain evaluation by quantum beams, (4) Flux pinning properties of HTS, (5) Standardization and the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) and (6) High field magnets. Several large topics were presented and discussed at the workshop: the important progress in methods for non-invasive measurements of the local strain exerted on the superconducting components in superconducting wires and cables using quantum beam techniques. This approach provides powerful tools for investigating the effect of strain in composite superconductors; the intrinsic strain effects in LTS and HTS in the reversible strain region. Recently, it has become easier to determine quantitatively the strain dependence of critical current when the local strain is measured directly, and the mechanical and electromagnetic properties of the superconductors used in the ITER tokamak. This was a major topic at the workshop since the superconducting

  2. Dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids, benzoic acid, α-dicarbonyls, WSOC, OC, and ions in spring aerosols from Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim: size distributions and formation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Dhananjay K.; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Lazaar, Manuel; Kunwar, Bhagawati; Boreddy, Suresh K. R.

    2016-04-01

    Size-segregated aerosols (nine stages from < 0.43 to > 11.3 µm in diameter) were collected at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, in spring 2008 and analyzed for water-soluble diacids (C2-C12), ω-oxoacids (ωC2-ωC9), pyruvic acid, benzoic acid, and α-dicarbonyls (C2-C3) as well as water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic carbon (OC), and major ions (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, and MSA-). In all the size-segregated aerosols, oxalic acid (C2) was found to be the most abundant species, followed by malonic and succinic acids, whereas glyoxylic acid (ωC2) was the dominant oxoacid and glyoxal (Gly) was more abundant than methylglyoxal. Diacids (C2-C5), ωC2, and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at fine mode (0.65-1.1 µm) whereas azelaic (C9) and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9) acids peaked at coarse mode (3.3-4.7 µm). Sulfate and ammonium were enriched in fine mode, whereas sodium and chloride were in coarse mode. Strong correlations of C2-C5 diacids, ωC2 and Gly with sulfate were observed in fine mode (r = 0.86-0.99), indicating a commonality in their secondary formation. Their significant correlations with liquid water content in fine mode (r = 0.82-0.95) further suggest an importance of the aqueous-phase production in Okinawa aerosols. They may also have been directly emitted from biomass burning in fine mode as supported by strong correlations with potassium (r = 0.85-0.96), which is a tracer of biomass burning. Bimodal size distributions of longer-chain diacid (C9) and oxoacid (ωC9) with a major peak in the coarse mode suggest that they were emitted from the sea surface microlayers and/or produced by heterogeneous oxidation of biogenic unsaturated fatty acids on sea salt particles.

  3. Validation of self diagnosis of high blood pressure in a sample of the Spanish EPIC cohort: overall agreement and predictive values

    PubMed Central

    Tormo, M; Navarro, C; Chirlaque, M; Barber, X; the, E

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—High blood pressure is a variable related to several chronic conditions whose repeated measurement in large cohort studies is often not feasible having to rely on the self reporting of the subjects. The aim of the study is to validate such self diagnosis in a sample of members from the Spanish EPIC cohort study.
DESIGN—Comparison of high blood pressure self diagnosis with the information provided by the personal medical record drawn from the primary health centre of reference for such population.
SETTING—A small town near the EPIC-Murcia centre, one of five Spanish EPIC centres located in the south east, where inclusion in the cohort was offered to the general population.
PARTICIPANTS—The agreement between self reported high blood pressure status and data from medical records was measured in a representative sample of men and women (n= 248) aged 30-69 years. Medical records were studied for a diagnosis of high blood pressure, an anti-hypertensive pharmacological treatment or subject's inclusion in a hypertension control programme run in the medical centre only for hypertensive people (definite high blood pressure cases). As well, in the absence of such a diagnosis, medical annotations of systolic or diastolic high blood pressure⩾ 140/90 mm Hg (possible high blood pressure cases) were considered. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and κ scores were calculated for all, definite and possible high blood pressure cases. Variables associated with the probability of having a true positive or negative self report of high blood pressure were also tested.
MAIN RESULTS—As expected, sensitivity was higher among definite cases (72.7%) than among possible cases (31.6%). Accordingly, the agreement between self report and medical record was higher for definite cases (κ = 0.65) than for possible (κ = 0.29) cases leading to a moderate overall agreement for all cases (κ = 0.58; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.69). Having

  4. Differences in the prospective association between individual plasma phospholipid saturated fatty acids and incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Forouhi, Nita G; Koulman, Albert; Sharp, Stephen J; Imamura, Fumiaki; Kröger, Janine; Schulze, Matthias B; Crowe, Francesca L; Huerta, José María; Guevara, Marcela; Beulens, Joline WJ; van Woudenbergh, Geertruida J; Wang, Laura; Summerhill, Keith; Griffin, Julian L; Feskens, Edith JM; Amiano, Pilar; Boeing, Heiner; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dartois, Laureen; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W; Gonzalez, Carlos; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Mattiello, Amalia; Nilsson, Peter M; Overvad, Kim; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Quirós, J Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Roswall, Nina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez, María-José; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke MW; Tjonneland, Anne; Tormo, Maria-José; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Langenberg, Claudia; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Conflicting evidence exists regarding the association between saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and type 2 diabetes. In this longitudinal case-cohort study, we aimed to investigate the prospective associations between objectively measured individual plasma phospholipid SFAs and incident type 2 diabetes in EPIC-InterAct participants. Methods The EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study includes 12 403 people with incident type 2 diabetes and a representative subcohort of 16 154 individuals who were selected from a cohort of 340 234 European participants with 3·99 million person-years of follow-up (the EPIC study). Incident type 2 diabetes was ascertained until Dec 31, 2007, by a review of several sources of evidence. Gas chromatography was used to measure the distribution of fatty acids in plasma phospholipids (mol%); samples from people with type 2 diabetes and subcohort participants were processed in a random order by centre, and laboratory staff were masked to participant characteristics. We estimated country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for associations per SD of each SFA with incident type 2 diabetes using Prentice-weighted Cox regression, which is weighted for case-cohort sampling, and pooled our findings using random-effects meta-analysis. Findings SFAs accounted for 46% of total plasma phospholipid fatty acids. In adjusted analyses, different individual SFAs were associated with incident type 2 diabetes in opposing directions. Even-chain SFAs that were measured (14:0 [myristic acid], 16:0 [palmitic acid], and 18:0 [stearic acid]) were positively associated with incident type 2 diabetes (HR [95% CI] per SD difference: myristic acid 1·15 [95% CI 1·09–1·22], palmitic acid 1·26 [1·15–1·37], and stearic acid 1·06 [1·00–1·13]). By contrast, measured odd-chain SFAs (15:0 [pentadecanoic acid] and 17:0 [heptadecanoic acid]) were inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes (HR [95% CI] per 1 SD difference: 0·79 [0·73–0·85] for

  5. Molecular evolution of VP3, VP1, 3C(pro) and 3D(pol) coding regions in coxsackievirus group A type 24 variant isolates from acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in 2011 in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nidaira, Minoru; Kuba, Yumani; Saitoh, Mika; Taira, Katsuya; Maeshiro, Noriyuki; Mahoe, Yoko; Kyan, Hisako; Takara, Taketoshi; Okano, Sho; Kudaka, Jun; Yoshida, Hiromu; Oishi, Kazunori; Kimura, Hirokazu

    2014-04-01

    A large acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) outbreak occurred in 2011 in Okinawa Prefecture in Japan. Ten strains of coxsackievirus group A type 24 variant (CA24v) were isolated from patients with AHC and full sequence analysis of the VP3, VP1, 3C(pro) and 3D(pol) coding regions performed. To assess time-scale evolution, phylogenetic analysis was performed using the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method. In addition, similarity plots were constructed and pairwise distance (p-distance) and positive pressure analyses performed. A phylogenetic tree based on the VP1 coding region showed that the present strains belong to genotype 4 (G4). In addition, the present strains could have divided in about 2010 from the same lineages detected in other countries such as China, India and Australia. The mean rates of molecular evolution of four coding regions were estimated at about 6.15 to 7.86 × 10(-3) substitutions/site/year. Similarity plot analyses suggested that nucleotide similarities between the present strains and a prototype strain (EH24/70 strain) were 0.77-0.94. The p-distance of the present strains was relatively short (<0.01). Only one positive selected site (L25H) was identified in the VP1 protein. These findings suggest that the present CA24v strains causing AHC are genetically related to other AHC strains with rapid evolution and emerged in around 2010.

  6. The first microbiological contamination assessment by deep-sea drilling and coring by the D/V Chikyu at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (IODP Expedition 331)

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Nunoura, Takuro; McAllister, Sean M.; Hirai, Miho; Breuker, Anja; Brandt, Leah; House, Christopher H.; Moyer, Craig L.; Birrien, Jean-Louis; Aoike, Kan; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Mottl, Michael J.; Takai, Ken

    2013-01-01

    During the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 at the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the Mid-Okinawa Trough by the D/V Chikyu, we conducted microbiological contamination tests of the drilling and coring operations. The contamination from the drilling mud fluids was assessed using both perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT) and fluorescent microsphere beads. PFT infiltration was detected from the periphery of almost all whole round cores (WRCs). By contrast, fluorescent microspheres were not detected in hydrothermally active core samples, possibly due to thermal decomposition of the microspheres under high-temperature conditions. Microbial contamination from drilling mud fluids to the core interior subsamples was further characterized by molecular-based evaluation. The microbial 16S rRNA gene phylotype compositions in the drilling mud fluids were mainly composed of sequences of Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and not archaeal sequences. The phylotypes that displayed more than 97% similarity to the sequences obtained from the drilling mud fluids were defined as possible contaminants in this study and were detected as minor components of the bacterial phylotype compositions in 13 of 37 core samples. The degree of microbiological contamination was consistent with that determined by the PFT and/or microsphere assessments. This study suggests a constructive approach for evaluation and eliminating microbial contamination during riser-less drilling and coring operations by the D/V Chikyu. PMID:24265628

  7. Long-term changes in sediment type and cavernicolous bivalve assemblages in Daidokutsu submarine cave, Okinawa Islands: evidence from a new core extending over the past 7,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, N.; Kitamura, A.; Ohmori, A.; Morishima, Y.; Toyofuku, T.; Ohashi, S.

    2009-12-01

    We analyzed sediments and cavernicolous bivalve assemblages within cored sediments recovered from the Daidokutsu submarine limestone cave, which occurs in Pleistocene limestone on the fore-reef slope of Ie Island, off Okinawa, Japan. We found sand-sized brown grains within sediments aged 7,000-6,000 cal BP, and identified the grains as debris derived from a red soil layer developed in coastal zones around the Island. Temporal changes in the abundance of the debris suggest that water flow in the cave weakened at about 6,500 cal BP. Temporal changes in the cavernicolous bivalve assemblages indicate that the environmental conditions of the innermost cave area have gradually spread to the cave entrance over the past 5,000 years. These findings indicate that the filling of cavities within the reefal foundations of the cave has continued over time, resulting in a progressive decrease in the flux of water between the interior and exterior parts of the cave during at least the past 6,500 years. This indicates, in turn, a long-term decline in the functioning of the cryptic community within the reef as a source of the nutrients that support coral reef growth. Our findings regarding the distribution of debris from the red soil layer strongly support the occurrence of a mid-Holocene high-energy window, which represents a period of high wave energy prior to the formation of a reefal barrier.

  8. The first microbiological contamination assessment by deep-sea drilling and coring by the D/V Chikyu at the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (IODP Expedition 331).

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Katsunori; Nunoura, Takuro; McAllister, Sean M; Hirai, Miho; Breuker, Anja; Brandt, Leah; House, Christopher H; Moyer, Craig L; Birrien, Jean-Louis; Aoike, Kan; Sunamura, Michinari; Urabe, Tetsuro; Mottl, Michael J; Takai, Ken

    2013-01-01

    During the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 at the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the Mid-Okinawa Trough by the D/V Chikyu, we conducted microbiological contamination tests of the drilling and coring operations. The contamination from the drilling mud fluids was assessed using both perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT) and fluorescent microsphere beads. PFT infiltration was detected from the periphery of almost all whole round cores (WRCs). By contrast, fluorescent microspheres were not detected in hydrothermally active core samples, possibly due to thermal decomposition of the microspheres under high-temperature conditions. Microbial contamination from drilling mud fluids to the core interior subsamples was further characterized by molecular-based evaluation. The microbial 16S rRNA gene phylotype compositions in the drilling mud fluids were mainly composed of sequences of Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and not archaeal sequences. The phylotypes that displayed more than 97% similarity to the sequences obtained from the drilling mud fluids were defined as possible contaminants in this study and were detected as minor components of the bacterial phylotype compositions in 13 of 37 core samples. The degree of microbiological contamination was consistent with that determined by the PFT and/or microsphere assessments. This study suggests a constructive approach for evaluation and eliminating microbial contamination during riser-less drilling and coring operations by the D/V Chikyu.

  9. The Broad Iron K-alpha line of Cygnus X-1 as Seen by XMM-Newton in the EPIC-pn Modified Timing Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duro, Refiz; Dauser, Thomas; Wilms, Jorn; Pottschmidt, Katja; Nowak, Michael A.; Fritz, Sonja; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Kirsch, Marcus G. F.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Staubert, Rudiger

    2011-01-01

    We present the analysis of the broadened, flourescent iron K(alpha) line in simultaneous XMM-Newton and RXTE data from the black hole Cygnus X-I. The XMM-Newton data were taken in a modified version of the Timing Mode of the EPIC-pn camera. In this mode the lower energy threshold of the instrument is increased to 2.8 keV to avoid telemetry drop outs due to the brightness of the source, while at the same time preserving the signal to noise ratio in the Fe K(alpha) band. We find that the best-fit spectrum consists of the sum of an exponentially cut-off power-law and relativistically smeared, ionized reflection. The shape of the broadened Fe K(alpha) feature is due to strong Compton broadening combined with relativistic broadening. Assuming a standard, thin accretion disk, the black hole is close to maximally rotating. Key words. X-rays: binaries - black hole physics - gravitation

  10. Evidence of Spin and Energy Extraction in a Galactic Black Hole Candidate: The XMM-NEWTON/EPIC SPECTRUM of XTE 11650-500

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. M.; Fabian, A. C.; Wunands, R.; Reynolds, C. S.; Ehle, M.; Freyberg, M. J.; VanDerKlis, M.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Sanchez-Fernandez, C.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    We observed the Galactic black hole candidate XTE J1650-500 early in its fall of 2001 outburst with the XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging pn Camera (EPIC-pn). The observed spectrum is consistent with the source having been in the very high state. We h d a broad, skewed Fe Kar emission line that suggests the primary in this system may be a Kerr black hole and that indicates a steep disk emissivity profile that is hard to explain in terms of a standard accretion disk model. These results are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to those from an XMM-Newton observation of the Seyfert galaxy MCG -6-30-15. The steep emissivity in MCG -6-30-15 may be explained by the extraction and dissipation of rotational energy from a black hole with nearly maximal angular momentum or from material in the plunging region via magnetic connections to the inner accretion disk. If this process is at work in both sources, an exotic but fundamental general relativistic prediction may be confirmed across a factor of l0(exp 6) in black hole mass. We discuss these results in terms of the accretion flow geometry in stellar-mass black holes and the variety of enigmatic phenomena often observed in the very high state.

  11. An LED-based UV-B irradiation system for tiny organisms: System description and demonstration experiment to determine the hatchability of eggs from four Tetranychus spider mite species from Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takeshi; Yoshioka, Yoshio; Tsarsitalidou, Olga; Ntalia, Vivi; Ohno, Suguru; Ohyama, Katsumi; Kitashima, Yasuki; Gotoh, Tetsuo; Takeda, Makio; Koveos, Dimitris S

    2014-03-01

    We developed a computer-based system for controlling the photoperiod and irradiance of UV-B and white light from a 5×5 light-emitting diode (LED) matrix (100×100mm). In this system, the LED matrix was installed in each of four irradiation boxes and controlled by pulse-width modulators so that each box can independently emit UV-B and white light at irradiances of up to 1.5 and 4.0Wm(-2), respectively, or a combination of both light types. We used this system to examine the hatchabilities of the eggs of four Tetranychus spider mite species (T. urticae, T. kanzawai, T. piercei and T. okinawanus) collected from Okinawa Island under UV-B irradiation alone or simultaneous irradiation with white light for 12hd(-1) at 25°C. Although no eggs of any species hatched under the UV-B irradiation, even when the irradiance was as low as 0.02Wm(-2), the hatchabilities increased to >90% under simultaneous irradiation with 4.0Wm(-2) white light. At 0.06Wm(-2) UV-B, T. okinawanus eggs hatched (15% hatchability) under simultaneous irradiation with white light, whereas other species showed hatchabilities <1%. These results suggest that photolyases activated by white light may reduce UV-B-induced DNA damage in spider mite eggs and that the greater UV-B tolerance of T. okinawanus may explain its dominance on plants in seashore environments, which have a higher risk of exposure to reflected UV-B even on the undersurface of leaves. Our system will be useful for further examination of photophysiological responses of tiny organisms because of its ability to precisely control radiation conditions.

  12. Dicarboxylic acids, oxoacids, benzoic acid, α-dicarbonyls, WSOC, OC, and ions in spring aerosols from Okinawa Island in the wester