Science.gov

Sample records for potentials partial waves

  1. Two-dimensional stationary Schroedinger equation via the {partial_derivative}-dressing method: New exactly solvable potentials, wave functions, and their physical interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrovsky, V. G.; Topovsky, A. V.; Basalaev, M. Yu.

    2010-09-15

    The classes of exactly solvable multiline soliton potentials and corresponding wave functions of two-dimensional stationary Schroedinger equation via {partial_derivative}-dressing method are constructed and their physical interpretation is discussed.

  2. Pseudopotential Method for Higher Partial Wave Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Idziaszek, Zbigniew; Calarco, Tommaso

    2006-01-13

    We present a zero-range pseudopotential applicable for all partial wave interactions between neutral atoms. For p and d waves, we derive effective pseudopotentials, which are useful for problems involving anisotropic external potentials. Finally, we consider two nontrivial applications of the p-wave pseudopotential: we solve analytically the problem of two interacting spin-polarized fermions confined in a harmonic trap, and we analyze the scattering of p-wave interacting particles in a quasi-two-dimensional system.

  3. Partial Wave Dispersion Relations: Application to Electron-Atom Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temkin, A.; Drachman, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    In this Letter we propose the use of partial wave dispersion relations (DR's) as the way of solving the long-standing problem of correctly incorporating exchange in a valid DR for electron-atom scattering. In particular a method is given for effectively calculating the contribution of the discontinuity and/or poles of the partial wave amplitude which occur in the negative E plane. The method is successfully tested in three cases: (i) the analytically solvable exponential potential, (ii) the Hartree potential, and (iii) the S-wave exchange approximation for electron-hydrogen scattering.

  4. Waving potential in graphene.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Zhang, Zhuhua; Li, Xuemei; Yu, Jin; Zhou, Jianxin; Chen, Yaqing; Guo, Wanlin

    2014-05-06

    Nanoscale materials offer much promise in the pursuit of high-efficient energy conversion technology owing to their exceptional sensitivity to external stimulus. In particular, experiments have demonstrated that flowing water over carbon nanotubes can generate electric voltages. However, the reported flow-induced voltages are in wide discrepancy and the proposed mechanisms remain conflictive. Here we find that moving a liquid-gas boundary along a piece of graphene can induce a waving potential of up to 0.1 V. The potential is proportional to the moving velocity and the graphene length inserted into ionic solutions, but sharply decreases with increasing graphene layers and vanishes in other materials. This waving potential arises from charge transfer in graphene driven by a moving boundary of an electric double layer between graphene and ionic solutions. The results reveal a unique electrokinetic phenomenon and open prospects for functional sensors, such as tsunami monitors.

  5. Superconformal partial waves in Grassmannian field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doobary, Reza; Heslop, Paul

    2015-12-01

    We derive superconformal partial waves for all scalar four-point functions on a super Grassmannian space Gr( m| n, 2 m|2 n) for all m, n. This family of four-point functions includes those of all (arbitrary weight) half BPS operators in both N=4 SYM ( m = n = 2) and in N = 2 superconformal field theories in four dimensions ( m = 2 , n = 1) on analytic superspace. It also includes four-point functions of all (arbitrary dimension) scalar fields in non-supersymmetric conformal field theories ( m = 2 , n = 0) on Minkowski space, as well as those of a certain class of representations of the compact SU(2 n) coset spaces. As an application we then specialise to N=4 SYM and use these results to perform a detailed superconformal partial wave analysis of the four-point functions of arbitrary weight half BPS operators. We discuss the non-trivial separation of protected and unprotected sectors for the <2222>, <2233> and <3333> cases in an SU( N) gauge theory at finite N. The <2233> correlator predicts a non-trivial protected twist four sector for <3333> which we can completely determine using the knowledge that there is precisely one such protected twist four operator for each spin.

  6. Partial Wave Analysis of Coupled Photonic Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Kirk A.; Smith, David D.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The very high quality factors sustained by microcavity optical resonators are relevant to applications in wavelength filtering, routing, switching, modulation, and multiplexing/demultiplexing. Increases in the density of photonic elements require that attention be paid to how electromagnetic (EM) coupling modifies their optical properties. This is especially true when cavity resonances are involved, in which case, their characteristics may be fundamentally altered. Understanding the optical properties of microcavities that are near or in contact with photonic elements---such as other microcavities, nanostructures, couplers, and substrates---can be expected to advance our understanding of the roles that these structures may play in VLSI photonics, biosensors and similar device technologies. Wc present results from recent theoretical studies of the effects of inter- and intracavity coupling on optical resonances in compound spherical particles. Concentrically stratified spheres and bispheres constituted from homogeneous and stratified spheres are subjects of this investigation. A new formulation is introduced for the absorption of light in an arbitrary layer of a multilayered sphere, which is based on multiple reflections of the spherical partial waves of the Lorenz-Mie solution for scattering by a sphere. Absorption efficiencies, which can be used to profile cavity resonances and to infer fluorescence yields or the onset of nonlinear optical processes in the microcavities, are presented. Splitting of resonances in these multisphere systems is paid particular attention, and consequences for photonic device development and possible performance enhancements through carefully designed architectures that exploit EM coupling are considered.

  7. Direct Calculation of the Scattering Amplitude Without Partial Wave Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shertzer, J.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Two new developments in scattering theory are reported. We show, in a practical way, how one can calculate the full scattering amplitude without invoking a partial wave expansion. First, the integral expression for the scattering amplitude f(theta) is simplified by an analytic integration over the azimuthal angle. Second, the full scattering wavefunction which appears in the integral expression for f(theta) is obtained by solving the Schrodinger equation with the finite element method (FEM). As an example, we calculate electron scattering from the Hartree potential. With minimal computational effort, we obtain accurate and stable results for the scattering amplitude.

  8. The Thomas and Effimov Effects for General Partial Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, James; Macek, Joseph

    2006-05-01

    Description of the two-body interactions between particles is a fundamental step in modeling many-body systems. Because s-wave scattering dominates at ultra-cold temperatures, zero-range potentials (ZRPs) have been a popular way to describe the two-body interactions. Recent experiments enhance higher partial waves and this has led to interest in extending the zero-range model beyond l=0Stock:2005. In this work we use a ZRP model to examine three body systems. Of particular importance in these systems is the Thomas effect, which is the divergence of the wave function when all three particles are close together. The Thomas effect is known for spin zero particles when l=0. In addition there is the Effimov effect, in which there are an infinite number of three body bound states if the zero-range potential boundary conditions separate in hyperspherical coordinates as the scattering length al->∞. We show that the Effimov effect occurs for not only the well-known l=0 case, but for spin 1/2 fermions via the l=1 pseudopotential of ref. [1] This research is supported by Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02-02ER15283 [1] Ren'e Stock, Andrew Silberfarb, Eric. L. Bolda, and Ivan H. Deutsch, Phys Rev. Lett. 94 023202 (2005)

  9. ALFVEN WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Terradas, J.; Carbonell, M. E-mail: joseluis.ballester@uib.es E-mail: marc.carbonell@uib.es

    2013-04-20

    Alfven waves are a particular class of magnetohydrodynamic waves relevant in many astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of Alfven waves is affected by the interaction between ionized and neutral species. Here we study Alfven waves in a partially ionized plasma from the theoretical point of view using the two-fluid description. We consider that the plasma is composed of an ion-electron fluid and a neutral fluid, which interact by means of particle collisions. To keep our investigation as general as possible, we take the neutral-ion collision frequency and the ionization degree as free parameters. First, we perform a normal mode analysis. We find the modification due to neutral-ion collisions of the wave frequencies and study the temporal and spatial attenuation of the waves. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoff values of the wavelength that constrain the existence of oscillatory standing waves in weakly ionized plasmas. Later, we go beyond the normal mode approach and solve the initial-value problem in order to study the time-dependent evolution of the wave perturbations in the two fluids. An application to Alfven waves in the low solar atmospheric plasma is performed and the implication of partial ionization for the energy flux is discussed.

  10. MAGNETOACOUSTIC WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, Roberto; Ballester, Jose Luis; Carbonell, Marc E-mail: joseluis.ballester@uib.es

    2013-11-01

    Compressible disturbances propagate in a plasma in the form of magnetoacoustic waves driven by both gas pressure and magnetic forces. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of ionized and neutral species are coupled due to ion-neutral collisions. As a consequence, magnetoacoustic waves propagating through a partially ionized medium are affected by ion-neutral coupling. The degree to which the behavior of the classic waves is modified depends on the physical properties of the various species and on the relative value of the wave frequency compared to the ion-neutral collision frequency. Here, we perform a comprehensive theoretical investigation of magnetoacoustic wave propagation in a partially ionized plasma using the two-fluid formalism. We consider an extensive range of values for the collision frequency, ionization ratio, and plasma β, so that the results are applicable to a wide variety of astrophysical plasmas. We determine the modification of the wave frequencies and study the frictional damping due to ion-neutral collisions. Approximate analytic expressions for the frequencies are given in the limit case of strongly coupled ions and neutrals, while numerically obtained dispersion diagrams are provided for arbitrary collision frequencies. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoffs in the dispersion diagrams that constrain wave propagation for certain combinations of parameters. A specific application to propagation of compressible waves in the solar chromosphere is given.

  11. Correlations of πN partial waves for multireaction analyses

    DOE PAGES

    Doring, M.; Revier, J.; Ronchen, D.; ...

    2016-06-15

    In the search for missing baryonic resonances, many analyses include data from a variety of pion- and photon-induced reactions. For elastic πN scattering, however, usually the partial waves of the SAID (Scattering Analysis Interactive Database) or other groups are fitted, instead of data. We provide the partial-wave covariance matrices needed to perform correlated χ2 fits, in which the obtained χ2 equals the actual χ2 up to nonlinear and normalization corrections. For any analysis relying on partial waves extracted from elastic pion scattering, this is a prerequisite to assess the significance of resonance signals and to assign any uncertainty on results.more » Lastly, the influence of systematic errors is also considered.« less

  12. Wave optics simulation approach for partial spatially coherent beams.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xifeng; Voelz, David

    2006-08-07

    A numerical wave optics approach for simulating a partial spatially coherent beam is presented. The approach involves the application of a sequence of random phase screens to an initial beam field and the summation of the intensity results after propagation. The relationship between the screen parameters and the spatial coherence function for the beam is developed and the approach is verified by comparing results with analytic formulations for a Gaussian Schell-model beam. The approach can be used for modeling applications such as free space optical laser links that utilize partially coherent beams.

  13. Impact of Plunging Breaking Wave on a Partially Submerged Cube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, A.; Ikeda, C. M.; Duncan, J. H.

    2012-11-01

    The impact of a plunging breaking wave on a partially submerged rigid cube (L = 30 . 5 cm) is studied experimentally in a wave tank that is 14.8 m long, 1.15 m wide and 2.2 m high with a water depth of 0.91 m. A single repeatable plunging breaker is generated from a dispersively focused wave packet (average frequency of 1.14 Hz) that is created with a programmable wave maker. The water surface profiles at the vertical center plane of the cube are measured with a cinematic LIF technique. The cube is centered in the width of the tank and mounted from above with the front face oriented with its normal in the vertical long center plane of the tank and tilted at angles of 0 and 20 degrees downward relative to horizontal. For the range of horizontal cube positions used here, during the wave impact, the water free surface forms a circular arc between the water contact point on the front face of the cube and the wave crest. As the wave impact continues, this arc converges to a point and a fast-moving vertical jet is formed. The effect of the submergence and tilt angle of the cube on the jet formation are explored. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  14. Analysis of non linear partially standing waves from 3D velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drevard, D.; Rey, V.; Svendsen, Ib; Fraunie, P.

    2003-04-01

    Surface gravity waves in the ocean exhibit an energy spectrum distributed in both frequency and direction of propagation. Wave data collection is of great importance in coastal zones for engineering and scientific studies. In particular, partially standing waves measurements near coastal structures and steep or barred beaches may be a requirement, for instance for morphodynamic studies. The aim of the present study is the analysis of partially standing surface waves icluding non-linear effects. According to 1st order Stokes theory, synchronous measurements of horizontal and vertical velocity components allow calculation of rate of standing waves (Drevard et al, 2003). In the present study, it is demonstrated that for deep water conditions, partially standing 2nd order Stokes waves induced velocity field is still represented by the 1st order solution for the velocity potential contrary to the surface elevation which exhibits harmonic components. For intermediate water depth, harmonic components appear not only in the surface elevation but also in the velocity fields, but their weight remains much smaller, because of the vertical decreasing wave induced motion. For irregular waves, the influence of the spectrum width on the non-linear effects in the analysis is discussed. Keywords: Wave measurements ; reflection ; non-linear effects Acknowledgements: This work was initiated during the stay of Prof. Ib Svendsen, as invited Professor, at LSEET in autumn 2002. This study is carried out in the framework of the Scientific French National Programmes PNEC ART7 and PATOM. Their financial supports are acknowledged References: Drevard, D., Meuret, A., Rey, V. Piazzola, J. And Dolle, A.. (2002). "Partially reflected waves measurements using Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV)", Submitted to ISOPE 03, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 2003.

  15. Complex space source theory of partially coherent light wave.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, S R

    2010-07-01

    The complex space source theory is used to derive a general integral expression for the vector potential that generates the extended full Gaussian wave in terms of the input value of the vector potential of the corresponding paraxial beam. The vector potential and the fields are assumed to fluctuate on a time scale that is large compared to the wave period. The Poynting vector in the propagation direction averaged over a wave period is expressed in terms of the cross-spectral density of the fluctuating vector potential across the input plane. The Schell model is assumed for the cross-spectral density. The radiation intensity distribution and the power radiated are determined. The effect of spatial coherence on the radiation intensity distribution and the radiated power are investigated for different values of the physical parameters. Illustrative numerical results are provided to bring out the effect of spatial coherence on the propagation characteristics of the fluctuating light wave.

  16. A Potential Cost Effective Liquefaction Mitigation Countermeasure: Induced Partial Saturation

    SciTech Connect

    Bian Hanbing; Jia Yun; Shahrour, Isam

    2008-07-08

    This work is devoted to illustrate the potential liquefaction mitigation countermeasure: Induced Partial Saturation. Firstly the potential liquefaction mitigation method is briefly introduced. Then the numerical model for partially saturated sandy soil is presented. At last the dynamic responses of liquefiable free filed with different water saturation is given. It shows that the induced partial saturation is efficiency for preventing the liquefaction.

  17. Properties of Baryons from Bonn-Gatchina Partial Wave Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantsev, Andrey

    The recent results from the Bonn-Gatchinal partial wave analysis are reported. The analysis includes a large number of new pseudoscalar meson photoproduction data taken with polarized beam and target. The analysis also includes the information about photoproduction of vector mesons, which reveals resonant signals at masses above 2 GeV. The impact of the new data on spectrum of baryons and their properties is discussed.

  18. Impact of plunging breaking waves on a partially submerged cube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, A.; Ikeda, C.; Duncan, J. H.

    2013-11-01

    The impact of a deep-water plunging breaking wave on a partially submerged cube is studied experimentally in a tank that is 14.8 m long and 1.2 m wide with a water depth of 0.91 m. The breakers are created from dispersively focused wave packets generated by a programmable wave maker. The water surface profile in the vertical center plane of the cube is measured using a cinematic laser-induced fluorescence technique with movie frame rates ranging from 300 to 4,500 Hz. The pressure distribution on the front face of the cube is measured with 24 fast-response sensors simultaneously with the wave profile measurements. The cube is positioned vertically at three heights relative to the mean water level and horizontally at a distance from the wave maker where a strong vertical water jet is formed. The portion of the water surface between the contact point on the front face of the cube and the wave crest is fitted with a circular arc and the radius and vertical position of the fitted circle is tracked during the impact. The vertical acceleration of the contact point reaches more than 50 times the acceleration of gravity and the pressure distribution just below the free surface shows a localized high-pressure region with a very high vertical pressure gradient. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research under grant N000141110095.

  19. Partial siamese twin as potential organ donor

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Rakesh; Maheshwari, Ruchir; Srivastava, Aneesh; Sharma, Raj K.

    2010-01-01

    During evaluation of a partial Siamese twin for removal of nonviable parasitic part in an 8-year-old male child, a fully functional kidney was found. The functional status of the extra kidney was found to be within acceptable limits for the purpose of transplant, which was subsequently done in a 24-year-old patient with end-stage renal disease. The recipient is healthy 19 months after the surgery. The possibility of using organs from a partial Siamese twin makes this a unique case report. PMID:20877612

  20. Potential changes of wave steepness and occurrence of rogue waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitner-Gregersen, Elzbieta M.; Toffoli, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Wave steepness is an important characteristic of a sea state. It is also well established that wave steepness is one of the parameter responsible for generation of abnormal waves called also freak or rogue waves. The study investigates changes of wave steepness in the past and future wave climate in the North Atlantic. The fifth assessment report IPCC (2013) uses four scenarios for future greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere called Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP). Two of these scenarios RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 have been selected to project future wave conditions in the North Atlantic. RCP 4.5 is believed to achieve the political target of a maximum global mean temperature increase of 2° C while RPC 8.5 is close to 'business as usual' and expected to give a temperature increase of 4° C or more. The analysis includes total sea, wind sea and swell. Potential changes of wave steepness for these wave systems are shown and compared with wave steepness derived from historical data. Three historical data sets with different wave model resolutions are used. The investigations show also changes in the mean wind direction as well as in the relative direction between wind sea and swell. Consequences of wave steepness changes for statistics of surface elevation and generation of rogue waves are demonstrated. Uncertainties associated with wave steepness projections are discussed.

  1. Wave Energy Potential in the Latvian EEZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beriņš, J.; Beriņš, J.; Kalnačs, J.; Kalnačs, A.

    2016-06-01

    The present article deals with one of the alternative forms of energy - sea wave energy potential in the Latvian Exclusice Economic Zone (EEZ). Results have been achieved using a new method - VEVPP. Calculations have been performed using the data on wave parameters over the past five years (2010-2014). We have also considered wave energy potential in the Gulf of Riga. The conclusions have been drawn on the recommended methodology for the sea wave potential and power calculations for wave-power plant pre-design stage.

  2. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED FILAMENT THREAD

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L. E-mail: ramon.oliver@uib.es

    2009-07-10

    Oscillations and propagating waves are commonly seen in high-resolution observations of filament threads, i.e., the fine-structures of solar filaments/prominences. Since the temperature of prominences is typically of the order of 10{sup 4} K, the prominence plasma is only partially ionized. In this paper, we study the effect of neutrals on the wave propagation in a filament thread modeled as a partially ionized homogeneous magnetic flux tube embedded in an homogeneous and fully ionized coronal plasma. Ohmic and ambipolar magnetic diffusion are considered in the basic resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. We numerically compute the eigenfrequencies of kink, slow, and Alfven linear MHD modes and obtain analytical approximations in some cases. We find that the existence of propagating modes is constrained by the presence of critical values of the longitudinal wavenumber. In particular, the lower and upper frequency cutoffs of kink and Alfven waves owe their existence to magnetic diffusion parallel and perpendicular to magnetic field lines, respectively. The slow mode only has a lower frequency cutoff, which is caused by perpendicular magnetic diffusion and is significantly affected by the ionization degree. In addition, ion-neutral collision is the most efficient damping mechanism for short wavelengths, while ohmic diffusion dominates in the long-wavelength regime.

  3. Shear Wave Generation by Decoupled and Partially Coupled Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, G. E.; Xu, H.; Stevens, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Decoupling is a means of evading detection by detonation of an explosion within a large cavity, which reduces the amplitude of the seismic waves. Such explosions are however still detectable with the current global seismic network, so their discrimination is important. A fully decoupled explosion detonated in the center of a spherical cavity will be a purely compressional seismic source, and so its discrimination should be straightforward. In practice however, decoupled explosions generate S waves, often identical to and sometimes even larger (relative to P) than S waves from comparable tamped explosions. If the source were purely compressional, the S waves must be the result of conversion from P and/or Rg. Asymmetries however, such as asphericity of the cavity or offset or asymmetry of the explosion, can lead to the direct generation of S waves even from a fully decoupled explosion. Fracturing or asymmetry of the nonlinear region about the cavity of a partially decoupled explosion could also result in direct generation of S waves. Most historical decoupling data have been studied extensively, but usually with the goal of quantifying P-wave decoupling. We identify S waves in the historical records, identify observations that can be used to distinguish their genesis, and model the observations to test the proposed mechanisms. Travel times and a bubble pulse peak in the P but not S spectra of water-filled cavity explosions in salt at the Soviet Azgir test site indicate that the S is generated at the source. The observed nearfield S radiation pattern of the US decoupled explosion Sterling is matched by source modeling that includes the flat floor (due to melted and recrystallized salt) of the cavity. The similarity of the Sterling coda waveforms with distance indicates their source is at or very near the cavity. Calculations of the extent and orientation of fracturing by both the Azgir and Sterling explosions predict minimal effects on the resulting waveforms. Both

  4. Laboratory monitoring of P-waves in partially saturated sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrière, J.; Bordes, C.; Brito, D.; Sénéchal, P.; Perroud, H.

    2011-12-01

    Seismic data depends on a variety of hydrogeological properties of the prospected porous media such as porosity, permeability and fluid saturation. We have performed a laboratory experiment in the kiloHertz range in order to analyze the role of partial saturation on direct propagating P-waves phase velocity and attenuation. The experiment consists of a sand-filled tank 107 cm x 34 cm x 35cm equipped with accelerometers and water capacitance probes. The P-waves seismic propagation is generated by hitting a steel ball on a granite plate on the one lateral side of the container. Several imbibition/drainage cycles are performed between the water residual saturation and the gas residual saturation. The laboratory seismic data are processed by two Continuous Wavelet Transforms using one real mother wavelet (Mexican hat) and one complex (Morlet) to recover velocity and attenuation as a function of frequency. Phase velocity of direct P-wave decreases with an increase of water content and is quite consistent with the low frequency limit of the Biot's theory both for imbibition and drainage. The interpretation of the P-waves attenuation needs to go beyond the macroscopic fluid flow of Biot's theory and to introduce a viscoelastic contribution linked to the grain to grain overall losses which are described by a constant Q-model. A strong hysteresis between imbibition and drainage is observed and explained by introducing an effective permeability depending on water and gas relative permeabilities (Van Genuchten model).

  5. Treatment of Ion-Atom Collisions Using a Partial-Wave Expansion of the Projectile Wavefunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, T. G.; Foster, M.; Colgan, J.; Madison, D. H.

    2009-01-01

    We present calculations of ion-atom collisions using a partial-wave expansion of the projectile wavefunction. Most calculations of ion-atom collisions have typically used classical or plane-wave approximations for the projectile wavefunction, since partial-wave expansions are expected to require prohibitively large numbers of terms to converge…

  6. Baryon Spectroscopy Through Partial-Wave Analysis and Meson Photoproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, D. Mark

    2016-09-08

    The principal goal of this project is the experimental and phenomenological study of baryon spectroscopy. The PI's group consists of himself and three graduate students. This final report summarizes research activities by the PI's group during the period 03/01/2015 to 08/14/2016. During this period, the PI co-authored 11 published journal papers and one proceedings article and presented three invited talks. The PI's general interest is the investigation of the baryon resonance spectrum up to masses of ~ 2 GeV. More detail is given on two research projects: Neutral Kaon Photoproduction and Partial-Wave Analyses of γp → η p, γn → η n, and γp → K⁺ Λ.

  7. Search for Higher Flavor Multiplets in Partial Wave Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Yakov Azimov; Richard Arndt; I.I. Strakovsky; Ron Workman; K. Goeke

    2005-04-01

    The possible existence of higher multi-quark flavor multiplets of baryons is investigated. We argue that the S-matrix should have poles with any quantum numbers, including those which are exotic. This argument provides a novel justification for the existence of hadrons with arbitrary exotic structure. Though it does not constitute a proof, there are still no theoretical arguments against exotics. We then consider KN and piN scattering. Conventional and modified partial-wave analyses provide several sets of candidates for correlated pairs (Theta1, Delta), each of which could label a related 27-plet. Properties of the pairs (masses, mass orderings, spin-parity quantum numbers) do not quite correspond to the current theoretical expectations. Decay widths of the candidates are either wider or narrower than expected. Possible reasons for such disagreements are briefly discussed.

  8. Conditions for invariant spectrum of light generated by scattering of partially coherent wave from quasi-homogeneous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Wu, Pinghui; Chang, Liping

    2016-02-01

    Within the first-order Born approximation, the spectrum of light generated by the scattering of a partially coherent wave from a quasi-homogeneous (QH) medium is derived. In particular, the partially coherent incident wave is produced by Young's pinholes. It is shown that the spectrum of the scattered field is identical to the spectrum of incident plane waves if the Fourier transform of the normalized correlation coefficient (NCC) of the scattering potential satisfies a certain scaling law. The scaling law is valid when the medium size is sufficiently small compared with the space between Young' pinholes. Furthermore, comparisons are made between our conditions with the previous results.

  9. Deuteron wave function and OPE potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righi, S.; Rosa-Clot, M.

    1987-06-01

    The deuteron wave function is calculated integrating from outside the Schredinger equation using as input its asymptotic behaviour. Some potentials are tested and the one pion exchange potential (OPEP) is shown to be the main responsible of the wave function structure up to distances of about 1 fm. The relevance of the short range part of the potential is analyzed and it is shown that a substantial enhancement of the OPEP central part is needed in the deuteron channel.

  10. Wave power potential in Malaysian territorial waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmida Mohd Nasir, Nor; Maulud, Khairul Nizam Abdul

    2016-06-01

    Up until today, Malaysia has used renewable energy technology such as biomass, solar and hydro energy for power generation and co-generation in palm oil industries and also for the generation of electricity, yet, we are still far behind other countries which have started to optimize waves for similar production. Wave power is a renewable energy (RE) transported by ocean waves. It is very eco-friendly and is easily reachable. This paper presents an assessment of wave power potential in Malaysian territorial waters including waters of Sabah and Sarawak. In this research, data from Malaysia Meteorology Department (MetMalaysia) is used and is supported by a satellite imaginary obtained from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Malaysia Remote Sensing Agency (ARSM) within the time range of the year 1992 until 2007. There were two types of analyses conducted which were mask analysis and comparative analysis. Mask analysis of a research area is the analysis conducted to filter restricted and sensitive areas. Meanwhile, comparative analysis is an analysis conducted to determine the most potential area for wave power generation. Four comparative analyses which have been carried out were wave power analysis, comparative analysis of wave energy power with the sea topography, hot-spot area analysis and comparative analysis of wave energy with the wind speed. These four analyses underwent clipping processes using Geographic Information System (GIS) to obtain the final result. At the end of this research, the most suitable area to develop a wave energy converter was found, which is in the waters of Terengganu and Sarawak. Besides that, it was concluded that the average potential energy that can be generated in Malaysian territorial waters is between 2.8kW/m to 8.6kW/m.

  11. H-He elastic scattering at low energies: Contribution of nonzero partial waves

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Prabal K.; Ghosh, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports the nonzero partial wave elastic cross sections together with s-wave results for the scattering of an antihydrogen atom off a gaseous helium target at thermal energies (up to 10{sup -2} a.u.). We have used a nonadiabatic atomic orbital method having different basis sets to investigate the system. The consideration of all the significant partial waves (up to J=24) reduces the oscillatory nature present in the individual partial wave cross section. The added elastic cross section is almost constant up to 10{sup -7} a.u. and then decreases steadily and very slowly with increasing energy.

  12. Mechanical Surface Waves Accompany Action Potential Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machta, Benjamin; El Hady, Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    The action potential (AP) is the basic mechanism by which information is transmitted along neuronal axons. Although the excitable nature of axons is understood to be primarily electrical, many experimental studies have shown that a mechanical displacement of the axonal membrane co-propagates with the electrical signal. While the experimental evidence for co-propagating mechanical waves is diverse and compelling, there is no consensus for their physical underpinnings. We present a model in which these mechanical displacements arise from the driving of mechanical surface waves, in which potential energy is stored in elastic deformations of the neuronal membrane and cytoskeleton while kinetic energy is stored in the movement of the axoplasmic fluid. In our model these surface waves are driven by the traveling wave of electrical depolarization that characterizes the AP, altering the electrostatic forces across the membrane as it passes. Our model allows us to predict the shape of the displacement that should accompany any traveling wave of voltage, including the well-characterized AP. We expect our model to serve as a framework for understanding the physical origins and possible functional roles of these AWs in neurobiology. See Arxiv/1407.7600

  13. Wave Directional Characteristics on a Partially Sheltered Coast.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    California Sea Grant Program, IMR Ref. 78-102. Pawka, S. S., V. Hsiao, 0. H. Shemdin , and D. L. Inman, 1978, "Comparison of wave directional spectra...Pawka, S. S., S. V. Hsiao, 0. H. Shemdin , and D. L. Inman, 1980, "Com- parisons between wave directional spectra from SAR and pressure sensor arrays...effects of wave induced airflow, are under 77 active investigation (Evans and Shemdin ,1980). Previous ground truth experiments, reported in Mcleish et al

  14. Analytical expressions for partial wave two-body Coulomb transition matrices at ground-state energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharchenko, V. F.

    2016-11-01

    Leaning upon the Fock method of the stereographic projection of the three-dimensional momentum space onto the four-dimensional unit sphere the possibility of the analytical solving of the Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation for the partial wave two-body Coulomb transition matrix at the ground bound state energy has been studied. In this case new expressions for the partial p-, d- and f-wave two-body Coulomb transition matrices have been obtained in the simple analytical form. The developed approach can also be extended to determine analytically the partial wave Coulomb transition matrices at the energies of excited bound states.

  15. Development of Partial-Charge Potential for GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fei; Devanathan, Ram; Oda, Takuji; Weber, William J.

    2006-09-01

    Partial-charged potentials for GaN are systematically developed that describes a wide range of structural properties, where the reference data for fitting the potential parameters are taken from ab initial calculations or experiments. The present potential model provides a good fit to different structural geometries and high pressure phases of GaN. The high-pressure transition from wurtzite to rock-salt structure is correctly described yielding the phase transition pressure of about 55 GPa, and the calculated volume change at the transition is in good agreement with experimental data. The results are compared with those obtained by ab initio simulations.

  16. Amplitude reconstruction from complete photoproduction experiments and truncated partial-wave expansions

    DOE PAGES

    Workman, R. L.; Tiator, L.; Wunderlich, Y.; ...

    2017-01-19

    Here, we compare the methods of amplitude reconstruction, for a complete experiment and a truncated partial-wave analysis, applied to the photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons. The approach is pedagogical, showing in detail how the amplitude reconstruction (observables measured at a single energy and angle) is related to a truncated partial-wave analysis (observables measured at a single energy and a number of angles).

  17. SAID Partial Wave Analyses from CNS DAC (Center for Nuclear Studies Data Analysis Center)

    DOE Data Explorer

    George Washington University (GW) has one of the largest university-based nuclear-physics groups in the nation. Many of the current and future projects are geared to Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) at Newport News, VA. JLab is the world's premier electron accelerator for nuclear physics, and GW is one of the charter members of the governing body of JLab, the Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA). The George Washington Data Analysis Center (DAC) was created in 1998 by an agreement among the Department of Energy, Jefferson Lab, and the GW Center for Nuclear Studies.The activities of the DAC fall into four distinct categories: 1) Performing partial-wave analyses of fundamental two- and three-body reactions; 2) Maintenance of databases associated with these reactions; 3) Development of software to disseminate DAC results (as well as the results of competing model-independent analyses and potential approaches); and 4) Phenomenological and theoretical investigations which bridge the gap between theory and experiment; in particular, the extraction of N* and D * hadronic and electromagnetic couplings. Partial Wave Analyses (and the associated databases) available at GW are: Pion-Nucleon, Kaon-Nucleon, Nucleon-Nucleon, Pion Photoproduction, Pion Electroproduction, Kaon Photoproduction, Eta Photoproduction, Eta-Prime Photoproduction, Pion-Deuteron (elastic), and Pion-Deuteron to Proton+Proton. [Taken from http://www.gwu.edu/~ndl/dac.htm">http://www.gwu.edu/~ndl/dac.htm

  18. Partial reflections of radio waves from the lower ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, D. J.; Tanenbaum, S. B.

    1972-01-01

    The addition of phase difference measurements to partial reflection experiments is discussed, and some advantages of measuring electron density this way are pointed out. The additional information obtained reduces the requirement for an accurate predetermination of collision frequency. Calculations are also made to estimate the errors expected in partial-reflection experiments due to the assumption of Fresnel reflection and to the neglect of coupling between modes. In both cases, the errors are found to be of the same order as known errors in the measurements due to current instrumental limitations.

  19. Extracting scattering phase shifts in higher partial waves from lattice QCD calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Luu, Thomas; Savage, Martin J.

    2011-06-01

    Lüscher’s method is routinely used to determine meson-meson, meson-baryon, and baryon-baryon s-wave scattering amplitudes below inelastic thresholds from lattice QCD calculations—presently at unphysical light-quark masses. In this work we review the formalism and develop the requisite expressions to extract phase shifts describing meson-meson scattering in partial waves with angular momentum l≤6 and l=9. The implications of the underlying cubic symmetry, and strategies for extracting the phase shifts from lattice QCD calculations, are presented, along with a discussion of the signal-to-noise problem that afflicts the higher partial waves.

  20. Treatment of ion-atom collisions using a partial-wave expansion of the projectile wavefunction

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, M; Colgan, J; Wong, T G; Madison, D H

    2008-01-01

    We present calculations of ion-atom collisions using a partial-wave expansion of the projectile wavefunction. Most calculations of ion-atom collisions have typically used classical or plane-wave approximations for the projectile wavefunction, since partial-wave expansions are expected to require prohibitively large numbers of terms to converge scattering quantities. Here we show that such calculations are possible using modern high-performance computing. We demonstrate the utility of our method by examining elastic scattering of protons by hydrogen and helium atoms, problems familiar to undergraduate students of atomic scattering. Application to ionization of helium using partial-wave expansions of the projectile wavefunction, which has long been desirable in heavy-ion collision physics, is thus quite feasible.

  1. Shock-wave structure in a partially ionized gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, C. S.; Huang, A. B.

    1974-01-01

    The structure of a steady plane shock in a partially ionized gas has been investigated using the Boltzmann equation with a kinetic model as the governing equation and the discrete ordinate method as a tool. The effects of the electric field induced by the charge separation on the shock structure have also been studied. Although the three species of an ionized gas travel with approximately the same macroscopic velocity, the individual distribution functions are found to be very different. In a strong shock the atom distribution function may have double peaks, while the ion distribution function has only one peak. Electrons are heated up much earlier than ions and atoms in a partially ionized gas. Because the interactions of electrons with atoms and with ions are different, the ion temperature can be different from the atom temperature.

  2. Broadening the potential bandwidth of piezoelectric transducers by partial depolarization

    SciTech Connect

    Hariti, Sid Ahmed; Hole, Stephane; Lewiner, Jacques

    2001-06-18

    Elastic waves are used more and more in a nondestructive way to probe the physical properties of materials. The resolution of the images or the accuracy of the measurements is directly associated with the ultrasonic signal bandwidth and amplitude a system can generate or detect. The authors propose a technique to broaden the potential bandwidth of piezoelectric generators and sensors, which is based on utilizing a nonuniformly-polarized piezoelectric material. Both simulated and experimental responses are shown. They are in good agreement and exhibit a useful bandwidth over several natural harmonics of the piezoelectric transducer. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Evaluation of partial widths and branching ratios from resonance wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Goldzak, Tamar; Gilary, Ido; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2010-11-15

    A quantum system in a given resonance state has different open channels for decay. Partial widths are the decay rates of the resonance (metastable) state into the different open channels. Here we present a rigorous derivation of the partial widths from the solution of a time-dependent Schroedinger equation with outgoing boundary conditions. We show that the sum of the partial widths obtained from the resonance wave function is equal to the total width. The difference with respect to previous studies on partial widths and branching ratios is discussed.

  4. Direct Calculation of the Scattering Amplitude Without Partial Wave Decomposition. III; Inclusion of Correlation Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shertzer, Janine; Temkin, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    In the first two papers in this series, we developed a method for studying electron-hydrogen scattering that does not use partial wave analysis. We constructed an ansatz for the wave function in both the static and static exchange approximations and calculated the full scattering amplitude. Here we go beyond the static exchange approximation, and include correlation in the wave function via a modified polarized orbital. This correlation function provides a significant improvement over the static exchange approximation: the resultant elastic scattering amplitudes are in very good agreement with fully converged partial wave calculations for electron-hydrogen scattering. A fully variational modification of this approach is discussed in the conclusion of the article Popular summary of Direct calculation of the scattering amplitude without partial wave expansion. III ....." by J. Shertzer and A. Temkin. In this paper we continue the development of In this paper we continue the development of a new approach to the way in which researchers have traditionally used to calculate the scattering cross section of (low-energy) electrons from atoms. The basic mathematical problem is to solve the Schroedinger Equation (SE) corresponding the above physical process. Traditionally it was always the case that the SE was reduced to a sequence of one-dimensional (ordinary) differential equations - called partial waves which were solved and from the solutions "phase shifts" were extracted, from which the scattering cross section was calculated.

  5. New results on the Roper resonance and the P11 partial wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarantsev, A. V.; Fuchs, M.; Kotulla, M.; Thoma, U.; Ahrens, J.; Annand, J. R. M.; Anisovich, A. V.; Anton, G.; Bantes, R.; Bartholomy, O.; Beck, R.; Beloglazov, Yu.; Castelijns, R.; Crede, V.; Ehmanns, A.; Ernst, J.; Fabry, I.; Flemming, H.; Fösel, A.; Funke, Chr.; Gothe, R.; Gridnev, A.; Gutz, E.; Höffgen, St.; Horn, I.; Hößl, J.; Hornidge, D.; Janssen, S.; Junkersfeld, J.; Kalinowsky, H.; Klein, F.; Klempt, E.; Koch, H.; Konrad, M.; Kopf, B.; Krusche, B.; Langheinrich, J.; Löhner, H.; Lopatin, I.; Lotz, J.; McGeorge, J. C.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Matthäy, H.; Menze, D.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Metag, V.; Nikonov, V. A.; Novinski, D.; Novotny, R.; Ostrick, M.; van Pee, H.; Pfeiffer, M.; Radkov, A.; Rosner, G.; Rost, M.; Schmidt, C.; Schoch, B.; Suft, G.; Sumachev, V.; Szczepanek, T.; Walther, D.; Watts, D. P.; Weinheimer, Chr.; CB-ELSA; A2-TAPS Collaborations

    2008-01-01

    Properties of the Roper resonance, the first scalar excitation of the nucleon, are determined. Pole positions and residues of the P11 partial wave are studied in a combined analysis of pion- and photo-induced reactions. We find the Roper pole at { (1371 ± 7) - i (92 ± 10) } MeV and an elasticity of 0.61 ± 0.03. The largest decay coupling is found for the Nσ (σ = (ππ)-S-wave). The analysis is based on new data on γp → pπ0π0 for photons in the energy range from the two-pion threshold to 820 MeV from TAPS at Mainz and from 0.4 to 1.3 GeV from Crystal Barrel at Bonn and includes further data from other experiments. The partial wave analysis excludes the possibility that the Roper resonance is split into two states with different partial decay widths.

  6. New results on the Roper resonance and the P partial wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cb-Elsa; A2-Taps Collaborations; Sarantsev, A. V.; Fuchs, M.; Kotulla, M.; Thoma, U.; Ahrens, J.; Annand, J. R. M.; Anisovich, A. V.; Anton, G.; Bantes, R.; Bartholomy, O.; Beck, R.; Beloglazov, Yu.; Castelijns, R.; Crede, V.; Ehmanns, A.; Ernst, J.; Fabry, I.; Flemming, H.; Fösel, A.; Funke, Chr.; Gothe, R.; Gridnev, A.; Gutz, E.; Höffgen, St.; Horn, I.; Hößl, J.; Hornidge, D.; Janssen, S.; Junkersfeld, J.; Kalinowsky, H.; Klein, F.; Klempt, E.; Koch, H.; Konrad, M.; Kopf, B.; Krusche, B.; Langheinrich, J.; Löhner, H.; Lopatin, I.; Lotz, J.; McGeorge, J. C.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Matthäy, H.; Menze, D.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Metag, V.; Nikonov, V. A.; Novinski, D.; Novotny, R.; Ostrick, M.; van Pee, H.; Pfeiffer, M.; Radkov, A.; Rosner, G.; Rost, M.; Schmidt, C.; Schoch, B.; Suft, G.; Sumachev, V.; Szczepanek, T.; Walther, D.; Watts, D. P.; Weinheimer, Chr.

    2008-01-01

    Properties of the Roper resonance, the first scalar excitation of the nucleon, are determined. Pole positions and residues of the P partial wave are studied in a combined analysis of pion- and photo-induced reactions. We find the Roper pole at {(1371±7)-i(92±10)} MeV and an elasticity of 0.61±0.03. The largest decay coupling is found for the Nσ (σ=(ππ)-S-wave). The analysis is based on new data on γp→pππ for photons in the energy range from the two-pion threshold to 820 MeV from TAPS at Mainz and from 0.4 to 1.3 GeV from Crystal Barrel at Bonn and includes further data from other experiments. The partial wave analysis excludes the possibility that the Roper resonance is split into two states with different partial decay widths.

  7. On the partial wave method for self energy calculations for non-hydrogenic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagelstein, Peter L.

    1994-07-01

    A method for computing the self-energy correction for highly-ionized and high-Z many electron atoms is proposed and developed. The method is based on a partical wave analysis, and is immediately applicable to general potentials and many-electron wavefunctions. In this work we discuss the general approach, develop a formalism amenable to practical anal- ysis, provide the angular momentum reduction for arbitrary one-electron orbitals, and describe the computation of the twdimensional integrals and their kernels required for the partial wave analysis. Analytical results allowing for a practical renormalization scheme are discussed. This work is exploratory and developmental, and the present document provides a status report of our eforts. To date we have obtained numerical evidence that the method successfully handles the renormalization, and we report on significant progress in numerical methods for evaluating and approximating the two-dimensional integrals which occur in the method. We believe that this method can ultimately achieve an accuracy which is competitive with that of modern Brown's method calculations. The methods discussed within this work for approximating the two-dimensional radial matrix eIements including the full retarded couIomb interaction can be applied to other relativistic atomic physics calculations as a practical way to obtain improvements over the coulomb and Breit approximations.

  8. Calculation of the Full Scattering Amplitude without Partial Wave Decomposition. 2; Inclusion of Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shertzer, Janine; Temkin, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    The development of a practical method of accurately calculating the full scattering amplitude, without making a partial wave decomposition is continued. The method is developed in the context of electron-hydrogen scattering, and here exchange is dealt with by considering e-H scattering in the static exchange approximation. The Schroedinger equation in this approximation can be simplified to a set of coupled integro-differential equations. The equations are solved numerically for the full scattering wave function. The scattering amplitude can most accurately be calculated from an integral expression for the amplitude; that integral can be formally simplified, and then evaluated using the numerically determined wave function. The results are essentially identical to converged partial wave results.

  9. Partial-wave analysis of nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Workman, Ron L.; Briscoe, William J.; Strakovsky, Igor I.

    2016-12-01

    Energy-dependent and single-energy fits to the existing nucleon-nucleon database have been updated to incorporate recent measurements. The fits cover a region from threshold to 3 GeV, in the laboratory kinetic energy, for proton-proton scattering, with an upper limit of 1.3 GeV for neutron-proton scattering. Experiments carried out at the COSY-WASA and COSY-ANKE facilities have had a significant impact on the partial-wave solutions. Results are discussed in terms of both partial-wave and direct reconstruction amplitudes.

  10. Simulation of waves of partial discharges in a chain of gas inclusions located in condensed dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupershtokh, A. L.; Karpov, D. I.

    2016-10-01

    A stochastic model of partial discharges inside gas inclusions in condensed dielectrics was developed. The possibility of a "relay-race" wave propagation mechanism of partial discharges in a linear chain of gas inclusions is shown. The lattice Boltzmann method is successfully implemented for three-dimensional computer simulations of flows of dielectric fluid with bubbles. Growth and elongation of bubbles in a liquid dielectric under the action of a strong electric field are simulated. The physical model of propagation of partial discharges along a chain of gas bubbles in a liquid is formulated.

  11. Attenuation measurements of ultrasonic P-wave and S-wave in partially frozen unconsolidated sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, J.; Suzuki, M.; Kato, Y.; Rokugawa, S.; Kato, A.

    2012-12-01

    Seismic attenuation which controls both the amplitude decay of seismic waves and the accompanying frequency change is a signature of the wave-rock interaction. Seismic attenuation in rocks is a highly variable parameter, which depends on the confining pressure, porosity, degree of fluid saturation, and fluid type. Although seismic attenuation has been widely used to estimate physical conditions and rock properties in various fields, the loss mechanisms responsible for seismic attenuation often are unclear and controversial. To elucidate a plausible mechanism for seismic attenuation, the joint use of both P- and S-waves will provide more helpful information because these two types of waves respond differently to fluid and solid combinations. We have conducted ultrasonic P- and S-wave transmission measurements to examine the influence of ice-brine coexisting system grown in the pore space of unconsolidated sands on ultrasonic P- and S-waves. We observed the variations of a transmitted wave with a frequency content of 100-1000 kHz , changing its temperature from 20°C to -15°C. We use not only impulse-type signals but also sweep-type signals to prevent from the spectral leakage effect caused by the effect of windowing. We concern with attenuation at ultrasonic frequencies of 500-1000 kHz for P-waves and 100-400 kHz for S-waves. Our observation of the variation of the Poisson's ratio and the ratio of P- to S-wave attenuation with changing temperature indicates the possibilities of the joint use of both P- and S-waves to elucidate a plausible mechanism for seismic attenuation.

  12. Partial denture metal framework may harbor potentially pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes, Luciano Angelo de Souza; Gomes, Sabrina Carvalho; Silva, Alecsandro Moura

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to characterize and compare bacterial diversity on the removable partial denture (RPD) framework over time. MATERIALS AND METHODS This descriptive pilot study included five women who were rehabilitated with free-end mandibular RPD. The biofilm on T-bar clasps were collected 1 week (t1) and 4 months (t2) after the RPD was inserted (t0). Bacterial 16S rDNA was extracted and PCR amplified. Amplicons were cloned; clones were submitted to cycle sequencing, and sequences were compared with GenBank (98% similarity). RESULTS A total of 180 sequences with more than 499 bp were obtained. Two phylogenetic trees with 84 (t1) and 96 (t2) clones represented the bacteria biofilm at the RPD. About 93% of the obtained phylotypes fell into 25 known species for t1 and 17 for t2, which were grouped in 5 phyla: Firmicutes (t1=82%; t2=60%), Actinobacteria (t1=5%; t2=10%), Bacteroidetes (t1=2%; t2=6%), Proteobacteria (t1=10%; t2=15%) and Fusobacteria (t1=1%; t2=8%). The libraries also include 3 novel phylotypes for t1 and 11 for t2. Library t2 differs from t1 (P=.004); t1 is a subset of the t2 (P=.052). Periodontal pathogens, such as F. nucleatum, were more prevalent in t2. CONCLUSION The biofilm composition of the RPD metal clasps changed along time after RPD wearing. The RPD framework may act as a reservoir for potentially pathogenic bacteria and the RPD wearers may benefit from regular follow-up visits and strategies on prosthesis-related oral health instructions. PMID:26816577

  13. Extension of the Temkin-Poet model to L>0 partial waves: The generalized exchange approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temkin, A.; Shertzer, J.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1998-02-01

    The Temkin-Poet (TP) model of electron-hydrogen scattering is here generalized to L>0 partial waves in such a way as to be a clear generalization of the exchange approximation (EA). This generalized exchange approximation (GEA) leads to a pair of coupled partial differential equations (PDE's). Boundary conditions are formulated, and the PDE's are solved by a finite element method program adapted from a previous partial wave calculation of the full problem [Shertzer and Botero, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3673 (1994)]. Calculations are carried out for 1,3P and 1,3D partial waves in the elastic region. Phase shifts are bounded from below, as is rigorously required, by exchange approximate phase shifts. But the GEA can yield resonances: in the elastic region, in addition to the 1S resonance of the TP model, there is a 3P resonance whose position and width are in close proximity to the lowest 3P resonance of the full theory. The GEA distinguishes between singlet and triplet scattering for all L, and it contains inelastic and ionization channels in the appropriate energy regions. It is expected that the GEA will have its greatest utility in the ionization domain, as a nontrivial test of the many recent methods being developed.

  14. MR imaging of heterogeneity in partially frozen brine and their effect on ultrasonic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, O.; Matsushima, J.; Suzuki, M.

    2012-12-01

    Methane hydrate bearing sediment possesses unique seismic wave propagation properties. Both high seismic wave velocity and high wave attenuation are observed in methane hydrate bearing sediment. We used brine with salinity 2% in analogous to methane hydrate for conducting laboratory waveform measurement and characterization by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. When brine undergoes freezing, only pure water freezes into ice and salt remains in solution with successively increasing salinity and decreasing freezing point of the solution. Unfrozen brine is enclosed inside micro pores in ice, with exhibiting solid-liquid coexisting system. We used conventional pulse transmission technique to measure compressional wave velocity in partially frozen brine when brine is subjected cooling down to -12oC. Waveform measurement shows sudden increase in compressional wave velocity at temperature -3oC. Below -3oC, velocity increases slightly. Largest wave attenuation is observed at around -3oC. We conducted MRI experiment by using instrument Varian Unity Inova 4.7T. T1 weighted and diffusion weighted (DW) MR images were prepared by applying magnetic field gradient of 0.3 gauss/cm. We observe the spatial distribution of pores, microstructures and heterogeneity in partially frozen brine sample slices. Two dimensional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps are prepared from DW images with b-values 0 and 81 s/mm2 respectively. We estimate porosity quantitatively from each MR slices at temperature -3, -5, -7 and -12oC by using image analysis technique. Gassmann equation is applied to calculate compressional wave velocity from the porosity data and compared with the measured velocity obtained by waveform analysis technique. The NMR results show the existence of high and low mobility unfrozen brine in the pore space. MR imaging shows the heterogeneously distributed porosity values within a single slice with low porosity and high

  15. PARTIAL REFLECTION AND TRAPPING OF A FAST-MODE WAVE IN SOLAR CORONAL ARCADE LOOPS

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Pankaj; Innes, D. E.

    2015-04-20

    We report on the first direct observation of a fast-mode wave propagating along and perpendicular to cool (171 Å) arcade loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). The wave was associated with an impulsive/compact flare near the edge of a sunspot. The EUV wavefront expanded radially outward from the flare center and decelerated in the corona from 1060 to 760 km s{sup −1} within ∼3–4 minutes. Part of the EUV wave propagated along a large-scale arcade of cool loops and was partially reflected back to the flare site. The phase speed of the wave was about 1450 km s{sup −1}, which is interpreted as a fast-mode wave. A second overlying loop arcade, orientated perpendicular to the cool arcade, is heated and becomes visible in the AIA hot channels. These hot loops sway in time with the EUV wave, as it propagated to and fro along the lower loop arcade. We suggest that an impulsive energy release at one of the footpoints of the arcade loops causes the onset of an EUV shock wave that propagates along and perpendicular to the magnetic field.

  16. Raman rogue waves in a partially mode-locked fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Runge, Antoine F J; Aguergaray, Claude; Broderick, Neil G R; Erkintalo, Miro

    2014-01-15

    We report on an experimental study of spectral fluctuations induced by intracavity Raman conversion in a passively partially mode-locked, all-normal dispersion fiber laser. Specifically, we use dispersive Fourier transformation to measure single-shot spectra of Raman-induced noise-like pulses, demonstrating that for low cavity gain values Raman emission is sporadic and follows rogue-wave-like probability distributions, while a saturated regime with Gaussian statistics is obtained for high pump powers. Our experiments further reveal intracavity rogue waves originating from cascaded Raman dynamics.

  17. The Construction of Implicit and Explicit Solitary Wave Solutions of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    solution of the Korteweg-de Vries equation ( KdV ), working our way up to the derivation of the multi-soliton solution of the sine-Gordon equation (sG...SOLITARY WAVE SOLUTIONS OF NONLINEAR PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS j DiS~~Uj~l. _’UDistribution/Willy Hereman AvaiiLi -itY Codes Technical Summary Report...Key Words: soliton theory, solitary waves, coupled KdV , evolution equations , direct methods, Harry Dym, sine-Gordon Mathematics Department, University

  18. Novel wave power analysis linking pressure-flow waves, wave potential, and the forward and backward components of hydraulic power.

    PubMed

    Mynard, Jonathan P; Smolich, Joseph J

    2016-04-15

    Wave intensity analysis provides detailed insights into factors influencing hemodynamics. However, wave intensity is not a conserved quantity, so it is sensitive to diameter variations and is not distributed among branches of a junction. Moreover, the fundamental relation between waves and hydraulic power is unclear. We, therefore, propose an alternative to wave intensity called "wave power," calculated via incremental changes in pressure and flow (dPdQ) and a novel time-domain separation of hydraulic pressure power and kinetic power into forward and backward wave-related components (ΠP±and ΠQ±). Wave power has several useful properties:1) it is obtained directly from flow measurements, without requiring further calculation of velocity;2) it is a quasi-conserved quantity that may be used to study the relative distribution of waves at junctions; and3) it has the units of power (Watts). We also uncover a simple relationship between wave power and changes in ΠP±and show that wave reflection reduces transmitted power. Absolute values of ΠP±represent wave potential, a recently introduced concept that unifies steady and pulsatile aspects of hemodynamics. We show that wave potential represents the hydraulic energy potential stored in a compliant pressurized vessel, with spatial gradients producing waves that transfer this energy. These techniques and principles are verified numerically and also experimentally with pressure/flow measurements in all branches of a central bifurcation in sheep, under a wide range of hemodynamic conditions. The proposed "wave power analysis," encompassing wave power, wave potential, and wave separation of hydraulic power provides a potent time-domain approach for analyzing hemodynamics.

  19. Space-time analogy for partially coherent plane-wave-type pulses.

    PubMed

    Lancis, Jesús; Torres-Company, Víctor; Silvestre, Enrique; Andrés, Pedro

    2005-11-15

    In this Letter we extend the well-known space-time duality to partially coherent wave fields and, as a limit case, to incoherent sources. We show that there is a general analogy between the paraxial diffraction of quasi-monochromatic beams of limited spatial coherence and the temporal distortion of partially coherent plane-wave pulses in parabolic dispersive media. Next, coherence-dependent effects in the propagation of Gaussian Schell-model pulses are retrieved from that of their spatial counterpart, the Gaussian Schell-model beam. Finally, the last result allows us to present a source linewidth analysis in an optical fiber communication system operating around the 1.55 microm wavelength window.

  20. Calculation of the Full Scattering Amplitude without Partial Wave Decomposition II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shertzer, J.; Temkin, A.

    2003-01-01

    As is well known, the full scattering amplitude can be expressed as an integral involving the complete scattering wave function. We have shown that the integral can be simplified and used in a practical way. Initial application to electron-hydrogen scattering without exchange was highly successful. The Schrodinger equation (SE) can be reduced to a 2d partial differential equation (pde), and was solved using the finite element method. We have now included exchange by solving the resultant SE, in the static exchange approximation. The resultant equation can be reduced to a pair of coupled pde's, to which the finite element method can still be applied. The resultant scattering amplitudes, both singlet and triplet, as a function of angle can be calculated for various energies. The results are in excellent agreement with converged partial wave results.

  1. Calculation of the Full Scattering Amplitude without Partial Wave Decomposition II: Inclusion of Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shertzer, Janine; Temkin, A.

    2003-01-01

    As is well known, the full scattering amplitude can be expressed as an integral involving the complete scattering wave function. We have shown that the integral can be simplified and used in a practical way. Initial application to electron-hydrogen scattering without exchange was highly successful. The Schrodinger equation (SE), which can be reduced to a 2d partial differential equation (pde), was solved using the finite element method. We have now included exchange by solving the resultant SE, in the static exchange approximation, which is reducible to a pair of coupled pde's. The resultant scattering amplitudes, both singlet and triplet, calculated as a function of energy are in excellent agreement with converged partial wave results.

  2. Non-partial wave treatment of reactive and non-reactive scattering Coupled integral equation formalism.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, E. F.; Kouri, D. J.

    1971-01-01

    Coupled integral equations are derived for the full scattering amplitudes for both reactive and nonreactive channels. The equations do not involve any partial wave expansion and are obtained using channel operators for reactive and nonreactive collisions. These coupled integral equations are similar in nature to equations derived for purely nonreactive collisions of structureless particles. Using numerical quadrature techniques, these equations may be reduced to simultaneous algebraic equations which may then be solved.

  3. A Rosetta Stone relating conventions in photo-meson partial wave analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandorfi, A. M.; Dey, B.; Sarantsev, A.; Tiator, L.; Workman, R.

    2012-04-01

    A new generation of complete experiments in pseudoscalar meson photo-production is being pursued at several laboratories. While new data are emerging, there is some confusion regarding definitions of asymmetries and the conventions used in partial wave analyses (PWA). We present expressions for constructing asymmetries as coordinate-system independent ratios of cross sections, along with the names used for these ratios by different PWA groups.

  4. A Rosetta Stone Relating Conventions In Photo-Meson Partial Wave Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Sandorfi, B. Dey, A. Sarantsev, L. Tiator, R. Workman

    2012-04-01

    A new generation of complete experiments in pseudoscalar meson photo-production is being pursued at several laboratories. While new data are emerging, there is some confusion regarding definitions of asymmetries and the conventions used in partial wave analyses (PWA). We present expressions for constructing asymmetries as coordinate-system independent ratios of cross sections, along with the names used for these ratios by different PWA groups.

  5. The Potential for Ambient Plasma Wave Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James H.; Williams, George J.

    2016-01-01

    A truly robust space exploration program will need to make use of in-situ resources as much as possible to make the endeavor affordable. Most space propulsion concepts are saddled with one fundamental burden; the propellant needed to produce momentum. The most advanced propulsion systems currently in use utilize electric and/or magnetic fields to accelerate ionized propellant. However, significant planetary exploration missions in the coming decades, such as the now canceled Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, are restricted by propellant mass and propulsion system lifetimes, using even the most optimistic projections of performance. These electric propulsion vehicles are inherently limited in flexibility at their final destination, due to propulsion system wear, propellant requirements, and the relatively low acceleration of the vehicle. A few concepts are able to utilize the environment around them to produce thrust: Solar or magnetic sails and, with certain restrictions, electrodynamic tethers. These concepts focus primarily on using the solar wind or ambient magnetic fields to generate thrust. Technically immature, quasi-propellantless alternatives lack either the sensitivity or the power to provide significant maneuvering. An additional resource to be considered is the ambient plasma and magnetic fields in solar and planetary magnetospheres. These environments, such as those around the Sun or Jupiter, have been shown to host a variety of plasma waves. Plasma wave propulsion takes advantage of an observed astrophysical and terrestrial phenomenon: Alfven waves. These are waves that propagate in the plasma and magnetic fields around and between planets and stars. The generation of Alfven waves in ambient magnetic and plasma fields to generate thrust is proposed as a truly propellantless propulsion system which may enable an entirely new matrix of exploration missions. Alfven waves are well known, transverse electromagnetic waves that propagate in magnetized plasmas at

  6. Acoustic radiation force expansions in terms of partial wave phase shifts for scattering: Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, Philip L.; Zhang, Likun

    2016-11-01

    When evaluating radiation forces on spheres in soundfields (with or without orbital-angular momentum) the interpretation of analytical results is greatly simplified by retaining the use of s-function notation for partial-wave coefficients imported into acoustics from quantum scattering theory in the 1970s. This facilitates easy interpretation of various efficiency factors. For situations in which dissipation is negligible, each partial-wave s-function becomes characterized by a single parameter: a phase shift allowing for all possible situations. These phase shifts are associated with scattering by plane traveling waves and the incident wavefield of interest is separately parameterized. (When considering outcomes, the method of fabricating symmetric objects having a desirable set of phase shifts becomes a separate issue.) The existence of negative radiation force "islands" for beams reported in 2006 by Marston is manifested. This approach and consideration of conservation theorems illustrate the unphysical nature of various claims made by other researchers. This approach is also directly relevant to objects in standing waves. Supported by ONR.

  7. HEATING OF THE PARTIALLY IONIZED SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE BY WAVES IN MAGNETIC STRUCTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Shelyag, S.; Przybylski, D.; Khomenko, E.; Vicente, A. de

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we show a “proof of concept” of the heating mechanism of the solar chromosphere due to wave dissipation caused by the effects of partial ionization. Numerical modeling of non-linear wave propagation in a magnetic flux tube, embedded in the solar atmosphere, is performed by solving a system of single-fluid quasi-MHD equations, which take into account the ambipolar term from the generalized Ohm’s law. It is shown that perturbations caused by magnetic waves can be effectively dissipated due to ambipolar diffusion. The energy input by this mechanism is continuous and shown to be more efficient than dissipation of static currents, ultimately leading to chromospheric temperature increase in magnetic structures.

  8. Heating of the Partially Ionized Solar Chromosphere by Waves in Magnetic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelyag, S.; Khomenko, E.; de Vicente, A.; Przybylski, D.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we show a “proof of concept” of the heating mechanism of the solar chromosphere due to wave dissipation caused by the effects of partial ionization. Numerical modeling of non-linear wave propagation in a magnetic flux tube, embedded in the solar atmosphere, is performed by solving a system of single-fluid quasi-MHD equations, which take into account the ambipolar term from the generalized Ohm’s law. It is shown that perturbations caused by magnetic waves can be effectively dissipated due to ambipolar diffusion. The energy input by this mechanism is continuous and shown to be more efficient than dissipation of static currents, ultimately leading to chromospheric temperature increase in magnetic structures.

  9. The scattering potential of partial derivative wavefields in 3-D elastic orthorhombic media: an inversion prospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Ju-Won; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2016-09-01

    Multiparameter full waveform inversion (FWI) applied to an elastic orthorhombic model description of the subsurface requires in theory a nine-parameter representation of each pixel of the model. Even with optimal acquisition on the Earth surface that includes large offsets, full azimuth, and multicomponent sensors, the potential for trade-off between the elastic orthorhombic parameters are large. The first step to understanding such trade-off is analysing the scattering potential of each parameter, and specifically, its scattering radiation patterns. We investigate such radiation patterns for diffraction and for scattering from a horizontal reflector considering a background isotropic model. The radiation patterns show considerable potential for trade-off between the parameters and the potentially limited resolution in their recovery. The radiation patterns of C11, C22, and C33 are well separated so that we expect to recover these parameters with limited trade-offs. However, the resolution of their recovery represented by recovered range of model wavenumbers varies between these parameters. We can only invert for the short wavelength components (reflection) of C33 while we can mainly invert for the long wavelength components (transmission) of the elastic coefficients C11 and C22 if we have large enough offsets. The elastic coefficients C13, C23, and C12 suffer from strong trade-offs with C55, C44, and C66, respectively. The trade-offs between C13 and C55, as well as C23 and C44, can be partially mitigated if we acquire P-SV and SV-SV waves. However, to reduce the trade-offs between C12 and C66, we require credible SH-SH waves. The analytical radiation patterns of the elastic constants are supported by numerical gradients of these parameters.

  10. On the turbulence generated by the potential surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benilov, A. Y.

    2012-11-01

    The turbulence (the random vortex motions) of the upper ocean is nourished by the energy and momentum of the surface waves (the potential motion). The statistical characteristics of the turbulence (turbulent kinetic energy, dissipation rate, and Reynolds stresses) depend on the state of the ocean surface waves. This paper discusses the possibilities of generating this turbulence using the vortex instability of the potential surface waves. The vortex component of fluctuations of velocity field and possibly the interaction between both the vortex and potential motions cause the vertical transport of the momentum. The Reynolds tensor is a linear function of the correlation tensor of vortex field. The initial small vortex perturbations always exist in the upper ocean because of the molecular viscosity influences, especially near the free surface, and the fluctuations of the seawater density. The horizontal inhomogeneities of the seawater density produce the vortex field even if the initial vorticity was zero and the initial flow was the potential flow. The evolution of the small initial vortex disturbances in the velocity field of potential linear surface waves is reduced to a coupled set of linear ordinary differential equations of the first order with periodic coefficients. The solution of this problem shows that the small initial vortex perturbations of potential linear surface waves always grow. The initial small vortex perturbations interacting with the potential surface wave produce the small-scale turbulence (Novikov's turbulence) that finally causes the viscous dissipation of the potential surface wave. The wave-induced turbulence can be considered as developed turbulence with a well distinguishable range of the turbulent wave numberskwhere turbulence obeys the Kolmogorov's self-similarity law.

  11. Label-free imaging of the native, living cellular nanoarchitecture using partial-wave spectroscopic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Almassalha, Luay M; Bauer, Greta M; Chandler, John E; Gladstein, Scott; Cherkezyan, Lusik; Stypula-Cyrus, Yolanda; Weinberg, Samuel; Zhang, Di; Thusgaard Ruhoff, Peder; Roy, Hemant K; Subramanian, Hariharan; Chandel, Navdeep S; Szleifer, Igal; Backman, Vadim

    2016-10-18

    The organization of chromatin is a regulator of molecular processes including transcription, replication, and DNA repair. The structures within chromatin that regulate these processes span from the nucleosomal (10-nm) to the chromosomal (>200-nm) levels, with little known about the dynamics of chromatin structure between these scales due to a lack of quantitative imaging technique in live cells. Previous work using partial-wave spectroscopic (PWS) microscopy, a quantitative imaging technique with sensitivity to macromolecular organization between 20 and 200 nm, has shown that transformation of chromatin at these length scales is a fundamental event during carcinogenesis. As the dynamics of chromatin likely play a critical regulatory role in cellular function, it is critical to develop live-cell imaging techniques that can probe the real-time temporal behavior of the chromatin nanoarchitecture. Therefore, we developed a live-cell PWS technique that allows high-throughput, label-free study of the causal relationship between nanoscale organization and molecular function in real time. In this work, we use live-cell PWS to study the change in chromatin structure due to DNA damage and expand on the link between metabolic function and the structure of higher-order chromatin. In particular, we studied the temporal changes to chromatin during UV light exposure, show that live-cell DNA-binding dyes induce damage to chromatin within seconds, and demonstrate a direct link between higher-order chromatin structure and mitochondrial membrane potential. Because biological function is tightly paired with structure, live-cell PWS is a powerful tool to study the nanoscale structure-function relationship in live cells.

  12. Label-free imaging of the native, living cellular nanoarchitecture using partial-wave spectroscopic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Almassalha, Luay M.; Bauer, Greta M.; Chandler, John E.; Gladstein, Scott; Cherkezyan, Lusik; Stypula-Cyrus, Yolanda; Weinberg, Samuel; Zhang, Di; Thusgaard Ruhoff, Peder; Roy, Hemant K.; Subramanian, Hariharan; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Szleifer, Igal; Backman, Vadim

    2016-01-01

    The organization of chromatin is a regulator of molecular processes including transcription, replication, and DNA repair. The structures within chromatin that regulate these processes span from the nucleosomal (10-nm) to the chromosomal (>200-nm) levels, with little known about the dynamics of chromatin structure between these scales due to a lack of quantitative imaging technique in live cells. Previous work using partial-wave spectroscopic (PWS) microscopy, a quantitative imaging technique with sensitivity to macromolecular organization between 20 and 200 nm, has shown that transformation of chromatin at these length scales is a fundamental event during carcinogenesis. As the dynamics of chromatin likely play a critical regulatory role in cellular function, it is critical to develop live-cell imaging techniques that can probe the real-time temporal behavior of the chromatin nanoarchitecture. Therefore, we developed a live-cell PWS technique that allows high-throughput, label-free study of the causal relationship between nanoscale organization and molecular function in real time. In this work, we use live-cell PWS to study the change in chromatin structure due to DNA damage and expand on the link between metabolic function and the structure of higher-order chromatin. In particular, we studied the temporal changes to chromatin during UV light exposure, show that live-cell DNA-binding dyes induce damage to chromatin within seconds, and demonstrate a direct link between higher-order chromatin structure and mitochondrial membrane potential. Because biological function is tightly paired with structure, live-cell PWS is a powerful tool to study the nanoscale structure–function relationship in live cells. PMID:27702891

  13. Wave packet motion in harmonic potential and computer visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuru, Hideo; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    1993-01-01

    Wave packet motions of a single electron in harmonic potentials or a magnetic field are obtained analytically. The phase of the wave function which depends on both time and space is also presented explicitly. The probability density of the electron changes its width and central position periodically. These results are visualized using computer animation techniques.

  14. Surface-wave potential for triggering tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    Source processes commonly posed to explain instances of remote dynamic triggering of tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor by surface waves include frictional failure and various modes of fluid activation. The relative potential for Love- and Rayleigh-wave dynamic stresses to trigger tectonic tremor through failure on critically stressed thrust and vertical strike-slip faults under the Coulomb-Griffith failure criteria as a function of incidence angle is anticorrelated over the 15- to 30-km-depth range that hosts tectonic tremor. Love-wave potential is high for strike-parallel incidence on low-angle reverse faults and null for strike-normal incidence; the opposite holds for Rayleigh waves. Love-wave potential is high for both strike-parallel and strike-normal incidence on vertical, strike-slip faults and minimal for ~45?? incidence angles. The opposite holds for Rayleigh waves. This pattern is consistent with documented instances of tremor triggered by Love waves incident on the Cascadia mega-thrust and the San Andreas fault (SAF) in central California resulting from shear failure on weak faults (apparent friction, ????? 0.2). However, documented instances of tremor triggered by surface waves with strike-parallel incidence along the Nankai megathrust beneath Shikoku, Japan, is associated primarily with Rayleigh waves. This is consistent with the tremor bursts resulting from mixed-mode failure (crack opening and shear failure) facilitated by near-lithostatic ambient pore pressure, low differential stress, with a moderate friction coefficient (?? ~ 0.6) on the Nankai subduction interface. Rayleigh-wave dilatational stress is relatively weak at tectonic tremor source depths and seems unlikely to contribute significantly to the triggering process, except perhaps for an indirect role on the SAF in sustaining tremor into the Rayleigh-wave coda that was initially triggered by Love waves.

  15. RESONANTLY DAMPED KINK MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED FILAMENT THREAD

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L. E-mail: ramon.oliver@uib.e

    2009-12-10

    Transverse oscillations of solar filament and prominence threads have been frequently reported. These oscillations have the common features of being of short period (2-10 minutes) and being damped after a few periods. The observations are interpreted as kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave modes, whereas resonant absorption in the Alfven continuum and ion-neutral collisions are candidates to be the damping mechanisms. Here, we study both analytically and numerically the time damping of kink MHD waves in a cylindrical, partially ionized filament thread embedded in a coronal environment. The thread model is composed of a straight and thin, homogeneous filament plasma, with a transverse inhomogeneous transitional layer where the plasma physical properties vary continuously from filament to coronal conditions. The magnetic field is homogeneous and parallel to the thread axis. We find that the kink mode is efficiently damped by resonant absorption for typical wavelengths of filament oscillations, the damping times being compatible with the observations. Partial ionization does not affect the process of resonant absorption, and the filament plasma ionization degree is only important for the damping for wavelengths much shorter than those observed. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the phenomenon of resonant absorption is studied in a partially ionized plasma.

  16. Investigation of guided wave propagation in pipes fully and partially embedded in concrete.

    PubMed

    Leinov, Eli; Lowe, Michael J S; Cawley, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The application of long-range guided-wave testing to pipes embedded in concrete results in unpredictable test-ranges. The influence of the circumferential extent of the embedding-concrete around a steel pipe on the guided wave propagation is investigated. An analytical model is used to study the axisymmetric fully embedded pipe case, while explicit finite-element and semi-analytical finite-element simulations are utilised to investigate a partially embedded pipe. Model predictions and simulations are compared with full-scale guided-wave tests. The transmission-loss of the T(0,1)-mode in an 8 in. steel pipe fully embedded over an axial length of 0.4 m is found to be in the range of 32-36 dB while it reduces by a factor of 5 when only 50% of the circumference is embedded. The transmission-loss in a fully embedded pipe is mainly due to attenuation in the embedded section while in a partially embedded pipe it depend strongly on the extent of mode-conversion at entry to the embedded-section; low loss modes with energy concentrated in the region of the circumference not-covered with concrete have been identified. The results show that in a fully embedded pipe, inspection beyond a short distance will not be possible, whereas when the concrete is debonded over a fraction of the pipe circumference, inspection of substantially longer lengths may be possible.

  17. Effects of partial sleep deprivation on slow waves during non-rapid eye movement sleep: a high density EEG investigation

    PubMed Central

    Plante, David T.; Goldstein, Michael R.; Cook, Jesse D.; Smith, Richard; Riedner, Brady A.; Rumble, Meredith E.; Jelenchick, Lauren; Roth, Andrea; Tononi, Giulio; Benca, Ruth M.; Peterson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Changes in slow waves during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in response to acute total sleep deprivation are well-established measures of sleep homeostasis. This investigation utilized high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG) to examine topographic changes in slow waves during repeated partial sleep deprivation. Methods Twenty-four participants underwent a 6-day sleep restriction protocol. Spectral and period-amplitude analyses of sleep hdEEG data were used to examine changes in slow wave energy, count, amplitude, and slope relative to baseline. Results Changes in slow wave energy were dependent on the quantity of NREM sleep utilized for analysis, with widespread increases during sleep restriction and recovery when comparing data from the first portion of the sleep period, but restricted to recovery sleep if the entire sleep episode was considered. Period-amplitude analysis was less dependent on the quantity of NREM sleep utilized, and demonstrated topographic changes in the count, amplitude, and distribution of slow waves, with frontal increases in slow wave amplitude, numbers of high-amplitude waves, and amplitude/slopes of low amplitude waves resulting from partial sleep deprivation. Conclusions Topographic changes in slow waves occur across the course of partial sleep restriction and recovery. Significance These results demonstrate a homeostatic response to partial sleep loss in humans. PMID:26596212

  18. Ionizing potential waves and high-voltage breakdown streamers.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, N. W.; Tidman, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The structure of ionizing potential waves driven by a strong electric field in a dense gas is discussed. Negative breakdown waves are found to propagate with a velocity proportional to the electric field normal to the wavefront. This causes a curved ionizing potential wavefront to focus down into a filamentary structure, and may provide the reason why breakdown in dense gases propagates in the form of a narrow leader streamer instead of a broad wavefront.

  19. Highly directive Fabry-Perot leaky-wave nanoantennas based on optical partially reflective surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lorente-Crespo, M.; Mateo-Segura, C.

    2015-05-04

    Nanoantennas enhance the conversion between highly localized electromagnetic fields and far-field radiation. Here, we investigate the response of a nano-patch partially reflective surface backed with a silver mirror to an optical source embedded at the centre of the structure. Using full wave simulations, we demonstrate a two orders of magnitude increased directivity compared to the isotropic radiator, 50% power confinement to a 13.8° width beam and a ±16 nm bandwidth. Our antenna does not rely on plasmonic phenomena thus reducing non-radiative losses and conserving source coherence.

  20. Partial wave analysis of 3 π with pion and photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackura, Andrew; Mikhasenko, Mikhail; Szczepaniak, Adam; Ketzer, Bernhard; Joint Physics Analysis Center Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    We present some results on the analysis of 3 π resonances from peripheral scattering of pions off of nuclear targets. The analysis is motivated by the recent release of the largest data set on diffractively produced three pions by the COMPASS collaboration. The model emphasizes the 3 π production process and their final state interactions which satisfy S-matrix principles. We apply our model to fit partial wave intensities and relative phases from COMPASS in the JPC =2-+ sector and search for resonances. We then discuss the extension of our formalism to photon beams to be used in the GlueX experiment.

  1. Nucleon-nucleon scattering in the 1S0 partial wave in the modified Weinberg approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparyan, A. M.; Epelbaum, E.; Gegelia, J.; Krebs, H.

    2016-03-01

    Nucleon-nucleon scattering in the 1S0 partial wave is considered in chiral effective field theory within the recently suggested renormalizable formulation based on the Kadyshevsky equation. Contact interactions are taken into account beyond the leading-order approximation. The subleading contact terms are included non-perturbatively by means of subtractive renormalization. The dependence of the phase shifts on the choice of the renormalization condition is discussed. Perturbative inclusion of the subleading contact interaction is found to be justified only very close to threshold. The low-energy theorems are reproduced significantly better compared with the leading order results.

  2. Wave optics simulation of spatially partially coherent beams: Applications to free space laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xifeng

    One of the main drawbacks that prevent the extensive application of free space laser communications is the atmospheric turbulence through which the beam must propagate. For the past four decades, much attention has been devoted to finding different methods to overcome this difficulty. A partially coherent beam (PCB) has been recognized as an effective approach to improve the performance of an atmospheric link. It has been examined carefully with most analyses considering the Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beam. However, practical PCBs may not follow GSM theory and are better examined through some numerical simulation approach such as a wave optics simulation. Consequently, an approach for modeling the spatially PCB in wave optics simulation is presented here. The approach involves the application of a sequence of random phase screens to an initial beam field and the summation of the intensity results after propagation. The relationship between the screen parameters and the spatial coherence function for the beam is developed and the approach is verified by comparing results with analytic formulations for a Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beam. A variety of simulation studies were performed for this dissertation. The propagation through turbulence of a coherent beam and a particular version of a PCB, a pseudo-partially coherent beam (PPCB), is analyzed. The beam is created with a sequence of several Gaussian random phase screens for each atmospheric realization. The average intensity profiles, the scintillation index and aperture averaging factor for a horizontal propagation scenario are examined. Comparisons between these results and their corresponding analytic results for the well-known GSM beam are also made. Cumulative probability density functions for the received irradiance are initially investigated. Following the general simulation investigations, a performance metric is proposed as a general measure for optimizing the transverse coherence length of a partial

  3. Two-nucleon higher partial-wave scattering from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkowitz, Evan; Kurth, Thorsten; Nicholson, Amy; Joó, Bálint; Rinaldi, Enrico; Strother, Mark; Vranas, Pavlos M.; Walker-Loud, André

    2017-02-01

    We present a determination of nucleon-nucleon scattering phase shifts for ℓ ≥ 0. The S, P, D and F phase shifts for both the spin-triplet and spin-singlet channels are computed with lattice Quantum ChromoDynamics. For ℓ > 0, this is the first lattice QCD calculation using the Lüscher finite-volume formalism. This required the design and implementation of novel lattice methods involving displaced sources and momentum-space cubic sinks. To demonstrate the utility of our approach, the calculations were performed in the SU (3)-flavor limit where the light quark masses have been tuned to the physical strange quark mass, corresponding to mπ =mK ≈ 800 MeV. In this work, we have assumed that only the lowest partial waves contribute to each channel, ignoring the unphysical partial wave mixing that arises within the finite-volume formalism. This assumption is only valid for sufficiently low energies; we present evidence that it holds for our study using two different channels. Two spatial volumes of V ≈(3.5 fm) 3 and V ≈(4.6 fm) 3 were used. The finite-volume spectrum is extracted from the exponential falloff of the correlation functions. Said spectrum is mapped onto the infinite volume phase shifts using the generalization of the Lüscher formalism for two-nucleon systems.

  4. Wave Modes Trapped in Rotating Nonlinear Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongyao; Pang, Wei; Malomed, Boris A.

    We study modes trapped in a rotating ring with the local strength of the nonlinearity modulated as \\cos (2θ ) , where θ is the azimuthal angle. This modulation pattern may be of three different types: self-focusing (SF), self-defocusing (SDF), and alternating SF-SDF. The model, based on the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with periodic boundary conditions, applies to the light propagation in a twisted pipe waveguide, and to a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) loaded into a toroidal trap, under the action of the rotating nonlinear pseudopotential induced by means of the Feshbach resonance in an inhomogeneous external field. This is the difference from the recently considered similar setting with the rotating linear potential. In the SF, SDF, and alternating regimes, four, three, and five different types of stable trapped modes are identified, respectively: even, odd, second-harmonic (2H), symmetry-breaking, and 2H-breaking ones. The shapes and stability of these modes, together with transitions between them, are investigated in the first rotational Brillouin zone. Ground-state modes are identified in each regime. Boundaries between symmetric and asymmetric modes are also found in an analytical form, by means of a two-mode approximation.

  5. Two-fluid modeling of magnetosonic wave propagation in the partially ionized solar chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneva, Yana; Alvarez Laguna, Alejandro; Lani, Andrea; Poedts, Stefaan

    2016-04-01

    We perform 2D two-fluid simulations to study the effects of ion-neutral interactions on the propagation of magnetosonic waves in the partially ionized solar chromosphere, where the number density of neutrals significantly exceeds the number density of protons at low heights. Thus modeling the neutral-ion interactions and studying the effect of neutrals on the ambient plasma properties becomes important for better understanding the observed emission lines and the propagation of disturbances from the photosphere to the transition region and the corona. The role of charged particles (electrons and ions) is combined within resistive MHD approach with Coulomb collisions and anisotropic heat flux determined by Braginskii's transport coefficients. The electromagnetic fields are evolved according to the full Maxwell equations, allowing for propagation of higher frequency waves neglected by the standard MHD approximation. Separate mass, momentum and energy conservation equations are considered for the neutrals and the interaction between the different fluids is determined by the chemical reactions, such as impact ionization, radiative recombination and charge exchange, provided as additional source terms. To initialize the system we consider an ideal gas equation of state with equal initial temperatures for the electrons, ions and the neutrals and different density profiles. The initial temperature and density profiles are height-dependent and follow VAL C atmospheric model for the solar chromosphere. We have searched for a chemical and collisional equilibrium between the ions and the neutrals to minimize any unphysical outflows and artificial heating induced by initial pressure imbalances. Including different magnetic field profiles brings new source of plasma heating through Ohmic dissipation. The excitation and propagation of the magnetosonic waves depends on the type of the external velocity driver. As the waves propagate through the gravitationally stratified media

  6. Partial wave analysis of scattering with the nonlocal Aharonov-Bohm effect and the anomalous cross section induced by quantum interference

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, D.-H.

    2004-05-01

    Partial wave theory of a three dimensional scattering problem for an arbitrary short range potential and a nonlocal Aharonov-Bohm magnetic flux is established. The scattering process of a 'hard sphere'-like potential and the magnetic flux is examined. An anomalous total cross section is revealed at the specific quantized magnetic flux at low energy which helps explain the composite fermion and boson model in the fractional quantum Hall effect. Since the nonlocal quantum interference of magnetic flux on the charged particles is universal, the nonlocal effect is expected to appear in a quite general potential system and will be useful in understanding some other phenomena in mesoscopic physics.

  7. Correlations of πN partial waves for multireaction analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Doring, M.; Revier, J.; Ronchen, D.; Workman, R. L.

    2016-06-15

    In the search for missing baryonic resonances, many analyses include data from a variety of pion- and photon-induced reactions. For elastic πN scattering, however, usually the partial waves of the SAID (Scattering Analysis Interactive Database) or other groups are fitted, instead of data. We provide the partial-wave covariance matrices needed to perform correlated χ2 fits, in which the obtained χ2 equals the actual χ2 up to nonlinear and normalization corrections. For any analysis relying on partial waves extracted from elastic pion scattering, this is a prerequisite to assess the significance of resonance signals and to assign any uncertainty on results. Lastly, the influence of systematic errors is also considered.

  8. A Composite Fermion Hofstadter Problem: Partially Polarized Density Wave States in the FQHE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Ganpathy

    2000-03-01

    It is well known that the 2/5 FQH state can have two translationally invariant ground states, one of which is a singlet and the other fully polarized. A quantum phase transition occurs between these two as a function of the Zeeman field. This can be simply explained in terms of the crossing of Composite Fermion Landau levels. However, recently Kukushkin et al (PRL 82, 3665 (99)) have seen plateaus of half the maximal polarization in the 2/5 fraction at intermediate Zeeman fields. Similar plateaus, which are not allowed for translationally invariant CF states, are seen in other fractions as well. I propose a class of novel partially polarized spin/charge density wave states which display the co-existence of density wave and quantum Hall order (the Hall crystal state). The physical properties of the states, including gaps and collective excitations are computed using the formalism for the FQHE developed recently by Shankar and myself (for details see Murthy and Shankar in "Composite Fermions", Olle Heinonen, Editor).

  9. X-ray standing wave analysis of nanostructures using partially coherent radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, M. K. Das, Gangadhar; Bedzyk, M. J.

    2015-09-07

    The effect of longitudinal (or temporal) coherence on total reflection assisted x-ray standing wave (TR-XSW) analysis of nanoscale materials is quantitatively demonstrated by showing how the XSW fringe visibility can be strongly damped by decreasing the spectral resolution of the incident x-ray beam. The correction for nonzero wavelength dispersion (δλ ≠ 0) of the incident x-ray wave field is accounted for in the model computations of TR-XSW assisted angle dependent fluorescence yields of the nanostructure coatings on x-ray mirror surfaces. Given examples include 90 nm diameter Au nanospheres deposited on a Si(100) surface and a 3 nm thick Zn layer trapped on top a 100 nm Langmuir-Blodgett film coating on a Au mirror surface. Present method opens up important applications, such as enabling XSW studies of large dimensioned nanostructures using conventional laboratory based partially coherent x-ray sources.

  10. Fast solution of elliptic partial differential equations using linear combinations of plane waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Jordá, José M.

    2016-02-01

    Given an arbitrary elliptic partial differential equation (PDE), a procedure for obtaining its solution is proposed based on the method of Ritz: the solution is written as a linear combination of plane waves and the coefficients are obtained by variational minimization. The PDE to be solved is cast as a system of linear equations A x =b , where the matrix A is not sparse, which prevents the straightforward application of standard iterative methods in order to solve it. This sparseness problem can be circumvented by means of a recursive bisection approach based on the fast Fourier transform, which makes it possible to implement fast versions of some stationary iterative methods (such as Gauss-Seidel) consuming O (N logN ) memory and executing an iteration in O (N log2N ) time, N being the number of plane waves used. In a similar way, fast versions of Krylov subspace methods and multigrid methods can also be implemented. These procedures are tested on Poisson's equation expressed in adaptive coordinates. It is found that the best results are obtained with the GMRES method using a multigrid preconditioner with Gauss-Seidel relaxation steps.

  11. Fast solution of elliptic partial differential equations using linear combinations of plane waves.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jordá, José M

    2016-02-01

    Given an arbitrary elliptic partial differential equation (PDE), a procedure for obtaining its solution is proposed based on the method of Ritz: the solution is written as a linear combination of plane waves and the coefficients are obtained by variational minimization. The PDE to be solved is cast as a system of linear equations Ax=b, where the matrix A is not sparse, which prevents the straightforward application of standard iterative methods in order to solve it. This sparseness problem can be circumvented by means of a recursive bisection approach based on the fast Fourier transform, which makes it possible to implement fast versions of some stationary iterative methods (such as Gauss-Seidel) consuming O(NlogN) memory and executing an iteration in O(Nlog(2)N) time, N being the number of plane waves used. In a similar way, fast versions of Krylov subspace methods and multigrid methods can also be implemented. These procedures are tested on Poisson's equation expressed in adaptive coordinates. It is found that the best results are obtained with the GMRES method using a multigrid preconditioner with Gauss-Seidel relaxation steps.

  12. How close can we get waves to wave functions, including potential?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faletič, Sergej

    2016-05-01

    In the following article we show that mechanical waves on a braced string can have the same shapes as important wave functions in introductory quantum mechanics. A braced string is a string with additional transversal springs that serve as external "potential". The aim is not to suggest teaching quantum mechanics with these analogies. Instead, the aim is to provide students with some additional relevant experience in wave mechanics before they are introduced to quantum mechanics. We show how this experience can be used in a constructivist sense as the basis for building quantum concepts. We consider energy transfer along such string and show that penetration of a wave into a region with high "potential" is not unexpected. We also consider energy transfer between two such strings and show that it can appear point-like even though the wave is an extended object. We also suggest that applying quantization of energy transfer to wave phenomena can explain some of the more difficult to accept features of quantum mechanics.

  13. Localization of a matter wave packet in a disordered potential

    SciTech Connect

    Piraud, M.; Bouyer, P.; Aspect, A.; Sanchez-Palencia, L.; Lugan, P.

    2011-03-15

    We theoretically study the Anderson localization of a matter wave packet in a one-dimensional disordered potential. We develop an analytical model which includes the initial phase-space density of the matter wave and the spectral broadening induced by the disorder. Our approach predicts a behavior of the localized density profile significantly more complex than a simple exponential decay. These results are confirmed by large-scale and long-time numerical calculations. They shed new light on recent experiments with ultracold atoms and may impact their analysis.

  14. Single-component single-partial acoustic surface waves in cubic crystals with surface distortion taken into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochko, M. S.

    2014-06-01

    The surface waves and bulk acoustic bands were studied taking into account the interaction between the nearest and next-nearest neighbors in a cubic crystal. Expressions for the dispersion relations, the frequencies at which the surface waves split off the bulk spectrum, and the parameters of the amplitude attenuation have been obtained for the crystalline systems in which the surface waves are single-component and single-partial. The calculations were conducted taking into account the discrete nature of crystal lattice for arbitrary values of the two-dimensional wave vector. The analysis has demonstrated that the results obtained in the long-wavelength limit are in full agreement with those calculated in the framework of linear nonlocal elasticity theory. The influence of an adsorbed surface monolayer on the characteristics of the surface waves was studied.

  15. Integrability and conservation laws for the nonlinear evolution equations of partially coherent waves in noninstantaneous Kerr media.

    PubMed

    Hansson, T; Lisak, M; Anderson, D

    2012-02-10

    It is shown that the evolution equations describing partially coherent wave propagation in noninstantaneous Kerr media are integrable and have an infinite number of invariants. A recursion relation for generating these invariants is presented, and it is demonstrated how to express them in the coherent density, self-consistent multimode, mutual coherence, and Wigner formalisms.

  16. Assessment of shock wave lithotripters via cavitation potential

    PubMed Central

    Iloreta, Jonathan I.; Zhou, Yufeng; Sankin, Georgy N.; Zhong, Pei; Szeri, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    A method to characterize shock wave lithotripters by examining the potential for cavitation associated with the lithotripter shock wave (LSW) has been developed. The method uses the maximum radius achieved by a bubble subjected to a LSW as a representation of the cavitation potential for that region in the lithotripter. It is found that the maximum radius is determined by the work done on a bubble by the LSW. The method is used to characterize two reflectors: an ellipsoidal reflector and an ellipsoidal reflector with an insert. The results show that the use of an insert reduced the −6 dB volume (with respect to peak positive pressure) from 1.6 to 0.4 cm3, the −6 dB volume (with respect to peak negative pressure) from 14.5 to 8.3 cm3, and reduced the volume characterized by high cavitation potential (i.e., regions characterized by bubbles with radii larger than 429 µm) from 103 to 26 cm3. Thus, the insert is an effective way to localize the potentially damaging effects of shock wave lithotripsy, and suggests an approach to optimize the shape of the reflector. PMID:19865493

  17. Direct numerical solution of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation in coordinate space without partial-wave decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuruoǧlu, Zeki C.

    2016-11-01

    Direct numerical solution of the coordinate-space integral-equation version of the two-particle Lippmann-Schwinger (LS) equation is considered without invoking the traditional partial-wave decomposition. The singular kernel of the three-dimensional LS equation in coordinate space is regularized by a subtraction technique. The resulting nonsingular integral equation is then solved via the Nystrom method employing a direct-product quadrature rule for three variables. To reduce the computational burden of discretizing three variables, advantage is taken of the fact that, for central potentials, the azimuthal angle can be integrated out, leaving a two-variable reduced integral equation. A regularization method for the kernel of the two-variable integral equation is derived from the treatment of the singularity in the three-dimensional equation. A quadrature rule constructed as the direct product of single-variable quadrature rules for radial distance and polar angle is used to discretize the two-variable integral equation. These two- and three-variable methods are tested on the Hartree potential. The results show that the Nystrom method for the coordinate-space LS equation compares favorably in terms of its ease of implementation and effectiveness with the Nystrom method for the momentum-space version of the LS equation.

  18. Prediction model of sinoatrial node field potential using high order partial least squares.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yu; Cao, Hui; Zhang, Yanbin

    2015-01-01

    High order partial least squares (HOPLS) is a novel data processing method. It is highly suitable for building prediction model which has tensor input and output. The objective of this study is to build a prediction model of the relationship between sinoatrial node field potential and high glucose using HOPLS. The three sub-signals of the sinoatrial node field potential made up the model's input. The concentration and the actuation duration of high glucose made up the model's output. The results showed that on the premise of predicting two dimensional variables, HOPLS had the same predictive ability and a lower dispersion degree compared with partial least squares (PLS).

  19. An experimental Method to Determine Photoelectron Partial Wave Probabilities and the Implications for Quantum Mechanically Complete Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yenen, Orhan

    2003-05-01

    Recent trends in AMO physics is to move from being a passive observer to an active controller of the outcome of quantum phenomena. Full controls of quantum processes require complete information about the quantum system; experiments which measure all the information allowed by quantum mechanics are called "Quantum Mechanically Complete Experiments". For example, when an isolated atom is photoionized, conservation laws limit the allowed partial waves of the photoelectron to a maximum of three. A quantum mechanically complete photoionization experiment then will have to determine all three partial wave probabilities and the two independent phases between the partial waves as a function of ionizing photon energy. From these five parameters all the quantities quantum mechanics allows one to measure can be determined for the "Residual Ion + Photoelectron" system. We have developed experimental methods [1, 2] to determine all three partial wave probabilities of photoelectrons when the residual ion is left in an excited state. Experimentally, Ar atoms are photoionized by circularly polarized synchrotron radiation produced by a unique VUV (vacuum ultraviolet) phase retarder we have installed at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley, CA. We measure the linear and circular polarization of the fine-structure-resolved fluorescent photons from the excited residual ions at specific directions. From the measurements one obtains the relativistic partial wave probabilities of the photoelectron. Our measurements highlight the significance of multielectron processes in photoionization dynamics and provide stringent tests of theory. The results indicate significant spin-dependent relativistic interactions during photoionization. [1] O. Yenen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 979 (2001). [2] K. W. McLaughlin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123003 (2002).

  20. Spreading speed and travelling wave solutions of a partially sedentary population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, Darko; Lui, Roger

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we extend the population genetics model of Weinberger (1978, Asymptotic behavior of a model in population genetics. Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations and Applications (J. Chadam ed.). Lecture Notes in Mathematics, vol. 648. New York: Springer, pp. 47-98.) to the case where a fraction of the population does not migrate after the selection process. Mathematically, we study the asymptotic behaviour of solutions to the recursion un+1 = Qg[un], where ... In the above definition of Qg, K is a probability density function and f behaves qualitatively like the Beverton-Holt function. Under some appropriate conditions on K and f, we show that for each unit vector{xi} [isin] Rd, there exists a c*g({xi}) which has an explicit formula and is the spreading speed of Qg in the direction{xi} . We also show that for each c [≥] c*g({xi}), there exists a travelling wave solution in the direction{xi} which is continuous if gf '(0) [≤] 1.

  1. Partial wave analyses of J/ψ→γππ and γππ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BES Collaboration; Ablikim, M.; Bai, J. Z.; Ban, Y.; Bian, J. G.; Cai, X.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. X.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, Jin; Chen, Y. B.; Chi, S. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cui, X. Z.; Dai, Y. S.; Diao, L. Y.; Deng, Z. Y.; Dong, Q. F.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, C. S.; Gao, Y. N.; Gu, S. D.; Gu, Y. T.; Guo, Y. N.; Guo, Y. Q.; Guo, Z. J.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; Heng, Y. K.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, T.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, X. T.; Ji, X. B.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jin, Yi; Lai, Y. F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. H.; Li, J.; Li, R. Y.; Li, S. M.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. L.; Liang, Y. F.; Liao, H. B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F.; Liu, Fang; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, Q.; Liu, R. G.; Liu, Z. A.; Lou, Y. C.; Lu, F.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, J. G.; Luo, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, X. B.; Mao, Z. P.; Mo, X. H.; Nie, J.; Olsen, S. L.; Peng, H. P.; Ping, R. G.; Qi, N. D.; Qin, H.; Qiu, J. F.; Ren, Z. Y.; Rong, G.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, L.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, D. L.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Sun, H. S.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Tan, Z. Q.; Tang, X.; Tong, G. L.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, L.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W. F.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Zheng; Wei, C. L.; Wei, D. H.; Wu, N.; Xia, X. M.; Xie, X. X.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Y.; Yan, M. L.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M. H.; Ye, Y. X.; Yi, Z. Y.; Yu, G. W.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, J. M.; Yuan, Y.; Zang, S. L.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Yu; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. Q.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. M.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Yiyun; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, D. X.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, P. P.; Zhao, W. R.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zheng, H. Q.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N. F.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, Q. M.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, B. A.; Zhuang, X. A.; Zou, B. S.

    2006-11-01

    Results are presented on J/ψ radiative decays to ππ and ππ based on a sample of 58M J/ψ events taken with the BES II detector. Partial wave analyses are carried out using the relativistic covariant tensor amplitude method in the 1.0 to 2.3GeV/cππ mass range. There are conspicuous peaks due to the f(1270) and two 0 states in the 1.45 and 1.75 GeV/c mass regions. The first 0 state has a mass of 1466±6±20MeV/c, a width of 108-11+14±25MeV/c, and a branching fraction B(J/ψ→γf(1500)→γππ)=(0.67±0.02±0.30)×10. Spin 0 is strongly preferred over spin 2. The second 0 state peaks at 1765-3+4±13MeV/c with a width of 145±8±69MeV/c. If this 0 is interpreted as coming from f(1710), the ratio of its branching fractions to ππ and KK¯ is 0.41-0.17+0.11.

  2. Calculation of scattering amplitude without partial wave analysis: Inclusion of exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temkin, Aaron; Shertzer, Janine

    2002-05-01

    In Ref. [1], a method is given for calculating the scattering amplitude f(Ω) directly. The idea is to calculate the complete wave function Ψ_k( r) numerically and use it in an integral expression for f(Ω). The original application was for electron scattering from static hydrogen without exchange. The Schrödinger equation (SE) reduces to a 2D partial differential equation (PDE), which is solved using the finite element method (FEM) [2]. The integral over dφr is done analytically, reducing the integral expression for f(Ω_k) to a 2D integral. Here we extend the method to include the effects of exchange. The SE can be reduced to a pair of 2D coupled PDE's which are again solved by the FEM. The formal expression for f(Ω) consists of two integrals, f^=fd f_e; fd is formally the same integral as the no-exchange f. We have also succeeded in reducing fe to a 2D integral. Results will be presented at the meeting. [1] J. Shertzer and A. Temkin, Phys. Rev. A 63, 062714 (2001). [2] J. Shertzer and J. Botero, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3673 (1994).

  3. Collision-induced Raman scattering from a pair of dissimilar particles: An intriguing mathematical model predicting the suppression of the odd-numbered partial waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysos, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Relying on a simple analytic two-atom model in which the anisotropy of the interaction dipole polarizability obeys an inverse power law as a function of separation, we offer mathematical and numerical evidence that, in a monoatomic gas, the free-free Raman spectrum for a collisional pair of two different isotopes, a-a', may vastly differ from that for a-a. This result is obtained even if a and a' are assumed to have the same mass and zero nuclear spin and even if a-a and a-a' are subject to the same interaction polarizability and potential. The mechanism responsible for this effect is inherent in the parity of the partial-wave rotational quantum number J: given that the contribution of each partial wave to the Raman cross section is controlled by a polarizability-transition matrix-element and that each of those matrix-elements has a radial component with a magnitude slightly smaller than that of the preceding partial wave, a deficit which disfavors the odd-numbered waves is accumulated upon summing over J. In the far high-frequency wing, this deficit tends to generate spectral intensities for a-a' about half as great as the a-a ones, a tendency which becomes all the more effective as temperature is decreased. We show for instance that, for the spectral branch ΔJ = 2, the fractional difference between the free-free differential cross sections for a-a and a-a' is /1 2 /( 1 - x2 ) 3 1 + 3 x 4 , with x = √{ E / E ' } (E (E') being the initial (final) state energy of the pair and E' - E = hcν (ν > 0)). Remarkably, this quantity is zero at ν ≈ 0 but goes to /1 2 for ν ≫ 0. For ΔJ = 0, analogous conclusions may be drawn from the expression ( 1 + /ln ( 1+x/1-x ) 2 arctan x ) - 1 .

  4. Partial wave spectroscopic microscopy can predict prostate cancer progression and mitigate over-treatment (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Di; Graff, Taylor; Crawford, Susan; Subramanian, Hariharan; Thompson, Sebastian; Derbas, Justin R.; Lyengar, Radha; Roy, Hemant K.; Brendler, Charles B.; Backman, Vadim

    2016-02-01

    Prostate Cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men. While prostate specific antigen (PSA) test has been widely used for screening PC, >60% of the PSA detected cancers are indolent, leading to unnecessary clinical interventions. An alternative approach, active surveillance (AS), also suffer from high expense, discomfort and complications associated with repeat biopsies (every 1-3 years), limiting its acceptance. Hence, a technique that can differentiate indolent from aggressive PC would attenuate the harms from over-treatment. Combining microscopy with spectroscopy, our group has developed partial wave spectroscopic (PWS) microscopy, which can quantify intracellular nanoscale organizations (e.g. chromatin structures) that are not accessible by conventional microscopy. PWS microscopy has previously been shown to predict the risk of cancer in seven different organs (N ~ 800 patients). Herein we use PWS measurement of label-free histologically-normal prostatic epithelium to distinguish indolent from aggressive PC and predict PC risk. Our results from 38 men with low-grade PC indicated that there is a significant increase in progressors compared to non-progressors (p=0.002, effect size=110%, AUC=0.80, sensitivity=88% and specificity=72%), while the baseline clinical characteristics were not significantly different. We further improved the diagnostic power by performing nuclei-specific measurements using an automated system that separates in real-time the cell nuclei from the remaining prostate epithelium. In the long term, we envision that the PWS based prognostication can be coupled with AS without any change to the current procedure to mitigate the harms caused by over-treatment.

  5. Resolving Difficulties of a Single-Channel Partial-Wave Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Brian; Manley, D. Mark

    2016-03-01

    The goal of our research is to determine better the properties of nucleon resonances using techniques of a global multichannel partial-wave analysis. Currently, many predicted resonances have not been found, while the properties of several known resonances are relatively uncertain. To resolve these issues, one must analyze many different reactions in a multichannel fit. Other groups generally approach this problem by generating an energy-dependent fit from the start. This is a fit where all channels are analyzed together. The method is powerful, but due to the complex nature of resonances, certain model-dependent assumptions have to be introduced from the start. The current work tries to resolve these issues by first generating single-energy solutions in which experimental data are analyzed in narrow energy bins. The single-energy solutions can then be used to constrain the energy-dependent solution in a comparatively unbiased manner. Our work focuses on adding three new single-energy solutions into the global fit. These reactions are γp --> ηp , γn --> ηn , and γp -->K+ Λ . During this talk, I will discuss the difficulties of this approach, our methods to overcome these difficulties, and a few preliminary results. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Medium Energy Nuclear Physics, under Award Nos. DE-FG02-01ER41194 and DE-SC0014323 and by the Kent State University Department of Physics.

  6. Correlation between intensity fluctuations induced by scattering of a partially coherent, electromagnetic wave from a quasi-homogeneous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Chang, Liping; Chen, Feinan

    2016-12-01

    Based on the first-order Born approximation, the correlation between intensity fluctuations is derived for a partially coherent, electromagnetic plane wave scattering from a spatially quasi-homogeneous medium. Young's pinholes are utilized to control the degree of coherence of the incident field. For the electromagnetic scattering case, it is shown that the CIF of the scattered field strongly depends on the degree of polarization of the incident wave, Young's pinhole parameter, effective radius and correlation length of the medium. The influences of these parameters on the CIF distributions are revealed by numerical calculations.

  7. Snake scales, partial exposure, and the Snake Detection Theory: A human event-related potentials study

    PubMed Central

    Van Strien, Jan W.; Isbell, Lynne A.

    2017-01-01

    Studies of event-related potentials in humans have established larger early posterior negativity (EPN) in response to pictures depicting snakes than to pictures depicting other creatures. Ethological research has recently shown that macaques and wild vervet monkeys respond strongly to partially exposed snake models and scale patterns on the snake skin. Here, we examined whether snake skin patterns and partially exposed snakes elicit a larger EPN in humans. In Task 1, we employed pictures with close-ups of snake skins, lizard skins, and bird plumage. In task 2, we employed pictures of partially exposed snakes, lizards, and birds. Participants watched a random rapid serial visual presentation of these pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity (225–300 ms after picture onset) at occipital and parieto-occipital electrodes. Consistent with previous studies, and with the Snake Detection Theory, the EPN was significantly larger for snake skin pictures than for lizard skin and bird plumage pictures, and for lizard skin pictures than for bird plumage pictures. Likewise, the EPN was larger for partially exposed snakes than for partially exposed lizards and birds. The results suggest that the EPN snake effect is partly driven by snake skin scale patterns which are otherwise rare in nature. PMID:28387376

  8. Wave potential and the one-dimensional windkessel as a wave-based paradigm of diastolic arterial hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Mynard, Jonathan P; Smolich, Joseph J

    2014-08-01

    Controversy exists about whether one-dimensional wave theory can explain the "self-canceling" waves that accompany the diastolic pressure decay and discharge of the arterial reservoir. Although it has been proposed that reservoir and wave effects be treated as separate phenomena, thus avoiding the issue of self-canceling waves, we have argued that reservoir effects are a phenomenological and mathematical subset of wave effects. However, a complete wave-based explanation of self-canceling diastolic expansion (pressure-decreasing) waves has not yet been advanced. These waves are present in the forward and backward components of arterial pressure and flow (P ± and Q ±, respectively), which are calculated by integrating incremental pressure and flow changes (dP ± and dQ ±, respectively). While the integration constants for this calculation have previously been considered arbitrary, we showed that physiologically meaningful constants can be obtained by identifying "undisturbed pressure" as mean circulatory pressure. Using a series of numeric experiments, absolute P ± and Q ± values were shown to represent "wave potential," gradients of which produce propagating wavefronts. With the aid of a "one-dimensional windkessel," we showed how wave theory predicts discharge of the arterial reservoir. Simulated data, along with hemodynamic recordings in seven sheep, suggested that self-canceling diastolic waves arise from repeated and diffuse reflection of the late systolic forward expansion wave throughout the arterial system and at the closed aortic valve, along with progressive leakage of wave potential from the conduit arteries. The combination of wave and wave potential concepts leads to a comprehensive one-dimensional (i.e., wave-based) explanation of arterial hemodynamics, including the diastolic pressure decay.

  9. A Partial Wave Analysis of Proton-Antiproton Annihilation Above Threshold for ΦΦ Production in the JETSET Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Marie, James John

    2006-05-01

    The JETSET experiment (PS202) conducted at CERN was designed to search for gluonic resonances in the mass range between 2.14 and 2.43 GeV/c2 using the channel, p$\\bar{p}$→ΦΦ→4K+/-. This channel is OZI suppressed, thus any observed enhancement of the cross section above a level consistent with the OZI rule could indicate possible resonating gluonic degrees of freedom. In fact, the measured cross section is two orders of magnitude larger than the OZI prediction and shows an enhancement centered near 2.2 GeV/c2 of width 50-100 MeV/c2. A partial wave analysis (PWA) has been conducted in order to search for the dominant partial waves. The formalism and methods of this PWA will be fully developed. This analysis has revealed the dominance of Jpc = 2++ together with a significant Jpc = 4++ component. Because the Φ resonance is only 4 MeV wide, the PWA is relatively insensitive to the presence of competing channels coupling to the 4K± final state. The partial wave analysis was

  10. Catching the right wave: evaluating wave energy resources and potential compatibility with existing marine and coastal uses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choong-Ki; Toft, Jodie E; Papenfus, Michael; Verutes, Gregory; Guerry, Anne D; Ruckelshaus, Marry H; Arkema, Katie K; Guannel, Gregory; Wood, Spencer A; Bernhardt, Joanna R; Tallis, Heather; Plummer, Mark L; Halpern, Benjamin S; Pinsky, Malin L; Beck, Michael W; Chan, Francis; Chan, Kai M A; Levin, Phil S; Polasky, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Many hope that ocean waves will be a source for clean, safe, reliable and affordable energy, yet wave energy conversion facilities may affect marine ecosystems through a variety of mechanisms, including competition with other human uses. We developed a decision-support tool to assist siting wave energy facilities, which allows the user to balance the need for profitability of the facilities with the need to minimize conflicts with other ocean uses. Our wave energy model quantifies harvestable wave energy and evaluates the net present value (NPV) of a wave energy facility based on a capital investment analysis. The model has a flexible framework and can be easily applied to wave energy projects at local, regional, and global scales. We applied the model and compatibility analysis on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada to provide information for ongoing marine spatial planning, including potential wave energy projects. In particular, we conducted a spatial overlap analysis with a variety of existing uses and ecological characteristics, and a quantitative compatibility analysis with commercial fisheries data. We found that wave power and harvestable wave energy gradually increase offshore as wave conditions intensify. However, areas with high economic potential for wave energy facilities were closer to cable landing points because of the cost of bringing energy ashore and thus in nearshore areas that support a number of different human uses. We show that the maximum combined economic benefit from wave energy and other uses is likely to be realized if wave energy facilities are sited in areas that maximize wave energy NPV and minimize conflict with existing ocean uses. Our tools will help decision-makers explore alternative locations for wave energy facilities by mapping expected wave energy NPV and helping to identify sites that provide maximal returns yet avoid spatial competition with existing ocean uses.

  11. Catching the Right Wave: Evaluating Wave Energy Resources and Potential Compatibility with Existing Marine and Coastal Uses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Choong-Ki; Toft, Jodie E.; Papenfus, Michael; Verutes, Gregory; Guerry, Anne D.; Ruckelshaus, Marry H.; Arkema, Katie K.; Guannel, Gregory; Wood, Spencer A.; Bernhardt, Joanna R.; Tallis, Heather; Plummer, Mark L.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Pinsky, Malin L.; Beck, Michael W.; Chan, Francis; Chan, Kai M. A.; Levin, Phil S.; Polasky, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Many hope that ocean waves will be a source for clean, safe, reliable and affordable energy, yet wave energy conversion facilities may affect marine ecosystems through a variety of mechanisms, including competition with other human uses. We developed a decision-support tool to assist siting wave energy facilities, which allows the user to balance the need for profitability of the facilities with the need to minimize conflicts with other ocean uses. Our wave energy model quantifies harvestable wave energy and evaluates the net present value (NPV) of a wave energy facility based on a capital investment analysis. The model has a flexible framework and can be easily applied to wave energy projects at local, regional, and global scales. We applied the model and compatibility analysis on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada to provide information for ongoing marine spatial planning, including potential wave energy projects. In particular, we conducted a spatial overlap analysis with a variety of existing uses and ecological characteristics, and a quantitative compatibility analysis with commercial fisheries data. We found that wave power and harvestable wave energy gradually increase offshore as wave conditions intensify. However, areas with high economic potential for wave energy facilities were closer to cable landing points because of the cost of bringing energy ashore and thus in nearshore areas that support a number of different human uses. We show that the maximum combined economic benefit from wave energy and other uses is likely to be realized if wave energy facilities are sited in areas that maximize wave energy NPV and minimize conflict with existing ocean uses. Our tools will help decision-makers explore alternative locations for wave energy facilities by mapping expected wave energy NPV and helping to identify sites that provide maximal returns yet avoid spatial competition with existing ocean uses. PMID:23144824

  12. The Propagation of Slow Wave Potentials in Pea Epicotyls.

    PubMed Central

    Stahlberg, R.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    Slow wave potentials are considered to be electric long-distance signals specific for plants, although there are conflicting ideas about a chemical, electrical, or hydraulic mode of propagation. These ideas were tested by comparing the propagation of hydraulic and electric signals in epicotyls of pea (Pisum sativum L). A hydraulic signal in the form of a defined step increase in xylem pressure (Px) was applied to the root of intact seedlings and propagated nearly instantly through the epicotyl axis while its amplitude decreased with distance from the pressure chamber. This decremental propagation was caused by a leaky xylem and created an axial Px gradient in the epicotyl. Simultaneously along the epicotyl surface, depolarizations appeared with lag times that increased acropetally with distance from the pressure chamber from 5 s to 3 min. When measured at a constant distance, the lag times increased as the size of the applied pressure steps decreased. We conclude that the Px gradient in the epicotyl caused local depolarizations with acropetally increasing lag times, which have the appearance of an electric signal propagating with a rate of 20 to 30 mm min-1. This static description of the slow wave potentials challenges its traditional classification as a propagating electric signal. PMID:12223601

  13. Three-dimensional rogue waves in nonstationary parabolic potentials.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhenya; Konotop, V V; Akhmediev, N

    2010-09-01

    Using symmetry analysis we systematically present a higher-dimensional similarity transformation reducing the (3+1) -dimensional inhomogeneous nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with variable coefficients and parabolic potential to the (1+1) -dimensional NLS equation with constant coefficients. This transformation allows us to relate certain class of localized exact solutions of the (3+1) -dimensional case to the variety of solutions of integrable NLS equation of the (1+1) -dimensional case. As an example, we illustrated our technique using two lowest-order rational solutions of the NLS equation as seeding functions to obtain rogue wavelike solutions localized in three dimensions that have complicated evolution in time including interactions between two time-dependent rogue wave solutions. The obtained three-dimensional rogue wavelike solutions may raise the possibility of relative experiments and potential applications in nonlinear optics and Bose-Einstein condensates.

  14. Three-dimensional rogue waves in nonstationary parabolic potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Zhenya; Konotop, V. V.; Akhmediev, N.

    2010-09-15

    Using symmetry analysis we systematically present a higher-dimensional similarity transformation reducing the (3+1)-dimensional inhomogeneous nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation with variable coefficients and parabolic potential to the (1+1)-dimensional NLS equation with constant coefficients. This transformation allows us to relate certain class of localized exact solutions of the (3+1)-dimensional case to the variety of solutions of integrable NLS equation of the (1+1)-dimensional case. As an example, we illustrated our technique using two lowest-order rational solutions of the NLS equation as seeding functions to obtain rogue wavelike solutions localized in three dimensions that have complicated evolution in time including interactions between two time-dependent rogue wave solutions. The obtained three-dimensional rogue wavelike solutions may raise the possibility of relative experiments and potential applications in nonlinear optics and Bose-Einstein condensates.

  15. Multi-fluid Approach to High-frequency Waves in Plasmas. II. Small-amplitude Regime in Partially Ionized Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Gómez, David; Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume

    2017-03-01

    The presence of neutral species in a plasma has been shown to greatly affect the properties of magnetohydrodynamic waves. For instance, the interaction between ions and neutrals through momentum transfer collisions causes the damping of Alfvén waves and alters their oscillation frequency and phase speed. When the collision frequencies are larger than the frequency of the waves, single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic approximations can accurately describe the effects of partial ionization, since there is a strong coupling between the various species. However, at higher frequencies, the single-fluid models are not applicable and more complex approaches are required. Here, we use a five-fluid model with three ionized and two neutral components, which takes into consideration Hall’s current and Ohm’s diffusion in addition to the friction due to collisions between different species. We apply our model to plasmas composed of hydrogen and helium, and allow the ionization degree to be arbitrary. By analyzing the corresponding dispersion relation and numerical simulations, we study the properties of small-amplitude perturbations. We discuss the effect of momentum transfer collisions on the ion-cyclotron resonances and compare the importance of magnetic resistivity, and ion–neutral and ion–ion collisions on the wave damping at various frequency ranges. Applications to partially ionized plasmas of the solar atmosphere are performed.

  16. Bohm potential effect on the propagation of electrostatic surface wave in semi-bounded quantum plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2017-02-01

    High frequency electrostatic wave propagation in a dense and semi-bounded electron quantum plasma is investigated with consideration of the Bohm potential. The dispersion relation for the surface mode of quantum plasma is derived and numerically analyzed. We found that the quantum effect enhances the frequency of the wave especially in the high wave number regime. However, the frequency of surface wave is found to be always lower than that of the bulk wave for the same quantum wave number. The group velocity of the surface wave for various quantum wave number is also obtained.

  17. Partially coherent fundamental Gaussian wave generated by a fluctuating planar current source.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, S R

    2010-06-01

    The propagation characteristics of a spatially localized electromagnetic wave produced by a planar current source of different states of spatial coherence are analyzed by the use of a Gaussian Schell-model source. A linearly polarized fundamental electromagnetic Gaussian wave with the electric field perpendicular to the direction of propagation is treated. The effects of the degree of coherence of the source distribution on the radiation intensity distribution and the total radiated power are determined.

  18. Conservation laws of wave action and potential enstrophy for Rossby waves in a stratified atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straus, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of wave energy, enstrophy, and wave motion for atmospheric Rossby waves in a variable mean flow are discussed from a theoretical and pedagogic standpoint. In the absence of mean flow gradients, the wave energy density satisfies a local conservation law, with the appropriate flow velocity being the group velocity. In the presence of mean flow variations, wave energy is not conserved, but wave action is, provided the mean flow is independent of longitude. Wave enstrophy is conserved for arbitrary variations of the mean flow. Connections with Eiiassen-Palm flux are also discussed.

  19. Conservation laws of wave action and potential enstrophy for Rossby waves in a stratified atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straus, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of wave energy, enstrophy, and wave motion for atmospheric Rossby waves in a variable mean flow are discussed from a theoretical and pedagogic standpoint. In the absence of mean flow gradients, the wave energy density satisfies a local conservation law, with the appropriate flow velocity being the group velocity. In the presence of mean flow variations, wave energy is not conserved, but wave action is, provided the mean flow is independent of longitude. Wave enstrophy is conserved for arbitrary variations of the mean flow. Connections with Eliassen-Palm flux are also discussed.

  20. Free films of a partially wetting liquid under the influence of a propagating MHz surface acoustic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, Gennady; Manor, Ofer

    2016-07-01

    We use both theory and experiment to study the response of thin and free films of a partially wetting liquid to a MHz vibration, propagating in the solid substrate in the form of a Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW). We generalise the previous theory for the response of a thin fully wetting liquid film to a SAW by including the presence of a small but finite three phase contact angle between the liquid and the solid. The SAW in the solid invokes a convective drift of mass in the liquid and leaks sound waves. The dynamics of a film that is too thin to support the accumulation of the sound wave leakage is governed by a balance between the drift and capillary stress alone. We use theory to demonstrate that a partially wetting liquid film, supporting a weak capillary stress, will spread along the path of the SAW. A partially wetting film, supporting an appreciable capillary stress, will however undergo a concurrent dynamic wetting and dewetting at the front and the rear, respectively, such that the film will displace, rather than spread, along the path of the SAW. The result of the theory for a weak capillary stress is in agreement with the previous experimental and theoretical studies on the response of thin silicon oil films to a propagating SAW. No corresponding previous results exist for the case of an appreciable capillary stress. We thus complement the large capillary limit of our theory by undertaking an experimental procedure where we explore the response of films of water and a surfactant solutions to a MHz SAW, which is found to be in qualitative agreement with the theory at this limit.

  1. Effect of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Treatment on Deep Partial-Thickness Burn Injury in Rats: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kamelger, Florian Stefan; Jeschke, Johannes; Piza-Katzer, Hildegunde

    2014-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) enhances tissue vascularization and neoangiogenesis. Recent animal studies showed improved soft tissue regeneration using ESWT. In most cases, deep partial-thickness burns require skin grafting; the outcome is often unsatisfactory in function and aesthetic appearance. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of ESWT on skin regeneration after deep partial-thickness burns. Under general anesthesia, two standardized deep partial-thickness burns were induced on the back of 30 male Wistar rats. Immediately after the burn, ESWT was given to rats of group 1 (N = 15), but not to group 2 (N = 15). On days 5, 10, and 15, five rats of each group were analyzed. Reepithelialization rate was defined, perfusion units were measured, and histological analysis was performed. Digital photography was used for visual documentation. A wound score system was used. ESWT enhanced the percentage of wound closure in group 1 as compared to group 2 (P < 0.05). The reepithelialization rate was improved significantly on day 15 (P < 0.05). The wound score showed a significant increase in the ESWT group. ESWT improves skin regeneration of deep partial-thickness burns in rats. It may be a suitable and cost effective treatment alternative in this type of burn wounds in the future. PMID:25431664

  2. Assessing the standard Molybdenum projector augmented wave VASP potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Mattsson, Ann E.

    2014-07-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) based Equation of State (EOS) construction is a prominent part of Sandia’s capabilities to support engineering sciences. This capability is based on augmenting experimental data with information gained from computational investigations, especially in those parts of the phase space where experimental data is hard, dangerous, or expensive to obtain. A key part of the success of the Sandia approach is the fundamental science work supporting the computational capability. Not only does this work enhance the capability to perform highly accurate calculations but it also provides crucial insight into the limitations of the computational tools, providing high confidence in the results even where results cannot be, or have not yet been, validated by experimental data. This report concerns the key ingredient of projector augmented-wave (PAW) potentials for use in pseudo-potential computational codes. Using the tools discussed in SAND2012-7389 we assess the standard Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP) PAWs for Molybdenum.

  3. Resolution of quaternary mixtures of cadaverine, histamine, putrescine and tyramine by the square wave voltammetry and partial least squares method.

    PubMed

    Henao-Escobar, W; Domínguez-Renedo, O; Alonso-Lomillo, M A; Arcos-Martínez, M J

    2015-10-01

    This work presents the simultaneous determination of cadaverine, histamine, putrescine and tyramine by square wave voltammetry using a boron-doped diamond electrode. A multivariate calibration method based on partial least square regressions has allowed the resolution of the very high overlapped voltammetric signals obtained for the analyzed biogenic amines. Prediction errors lower than 9% have been obtained when concentration of quaternary mixtures were calculated. The developed procedure has been applied in the analysis of ham samples, which results are in good agreement with those obtained using the standard HPLC method.

  4. Cut-off wavenumber of Alfvén waves in partially ionized plasmas of the solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Carbonell, M.; Ballester, J. L.; Khodachenko, M. L.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Alfvén wave dynamics in partially ionized plasmas of the solar atmosphere shows that there is indeed a cut-off wavenumber, i.e. the Alfvén waves with wavenumbers higher than the cut-off value are evanescent. The cut-off wavenumber appears in single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) approximation but it is absent in a multi-fluid approach. Up to now, an explanation for the existence of the cut-off wavenumber is still missing. Aims: The aim of this paper is to point out the reason for the appearance of a cut-off wavenumber in single-fluid MHD. Methods: Beginning with three-fluid equations (with electrons, protons and neutral hydrogen atoms), we performed consecutive approximations until we obtained the usual single-fluid description. We solved the dispersion relation of linear Alfvén waves at each step and sought the approximation responsible of the cut-off wavenumber appearance. Results: We have found that neglecting inertial terms significantly reduces the real part of the Alfvén frequency although it never becomes zero. Therefore, the cut-off wavenumber does not exist at this stage. However, when the inertial terms together with the Hall term in the induction equation are neglected, the real part of the Alfvén frequency becomes zero. Conclusions: The appearance of a cut-off wavenumber, when Alfvén waves in partially ionized regions of the solar atmosphere are studied, is the result of neglecting inertial and Hall terms, therefore it has no physical origin.

  5. On the transmission of partial information: inferences from movement-related brain potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osman, A.; Bashore, T. R.; Coles, M. G.; Donchin, E.; Meyer, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Results are reported from a new paradigm that uses movement-related brain potentials to detect response preparation based on partial information. The paradigm uses a hybrid choice-reaction go/nogo procedure in which decisions about response hand and whether to respond are based on separate stimulus attributes. A lateral asymmetry in the movement-related brain potential was found on nogo trials without overt movement. The direction of this asymmetry depended primarily on the signaled response hand rather than on properties of the stimulus. When the asymmetry first appeared was influenced by the time required to select the signaled hand, and when it began to differ on go and nogo trials was influenced by the time to decide whether to respond. These findings indicate that both stimulus attributes were processed in parallel and that the asymmetry reflected preparation of the response hand that began before the go/nogo decision was completed.

  6. On the Partial-Wave Analysis of Mesonic Resonances Decaying to Multiparticle Final States Produced by Polarized Photons

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, Carlos W.; Weygand, Dennis P.

    2014-04-01

    Meson spectroscopy is going through a revival with the advent of high statistics experiments and new advances in the theoretical predictions. The Constituent Quark Model (CQM) is finally being expanded considering more basic principles of field theory and using discrete calculations of Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). These new calculations are approaching predictive power for the spectrum of hadronic resonances and decay modes. It will be the task of the new experiments to extract the meson spectrum from the data and compare with those predictions. The goal of this report is to describe one particular technique for extracting resonance information from multiparticle final states. The technique described here, partial wave analysis based on the helicity formalism, has been used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) using pion beams, and Jefferson Laboratory (Jlab) using photon beams. In particular this report broaden this technique to include production experiments using linearly polarized real photons or quasi-real photons. This article is of a didactical nature. We describe the process of analysis, detailing assumptions and formalisms, and is directed towards people interested in starting partial wave analysis.

  7. Wave simulation in partially frozen porous media with fractal freezing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcione, José M.; Santos, Juan E.; Ravazzoli, Claudia L.; Helle, Hans B.

    2003-12-01

    A recent article [J. M. Carcione and G. Seriani, J. Comput. Phys. 170, 676 (2001)] proposes a modeling algorithm for wave simulation in a three-phase porous medium composed of sand grains, ice, and water. The differential equations hold for uniform water (ice) content. Here, we obtain the variable-porosity differential equations by using the analogy with the two-phase case and the complementary energy theorem. The displacements of the rock and ice frames and the variation of fluid content are the generalized coordinates, and the stress components and fluid pressure are the generalized forces. We simulate wave propagation in a frozen porous medium with fractal variations of porosity and, therefore, realistic freezing conditions.

  8. Analysis of Shear Wave Generation by Decoupled and Partially Coupled Explosions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-31

    solution for the seismic waves generated by an explosion in an arbitrarily prestressed elastic medium. In this paper, we generalize the solution to allow... prestress does not change, but will be non-zero for a tamped explosion with tectonic strain release. The third integral therefore represents the...response of the medium to a change in prestress , the second integral represents the response of the medium to the applied stress from the explosion, and

  9. Lipolytic Potential of Aspergillus japonicus LAB01: Production, Partial Purification, and Characterisation of an Extracellular Lipase

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Lívia Tereza Andrade; Oliveira, Jamil S.; dos Santos, Vera L.; Regis, Wiliam C. B.; Santoro, Marcelo M.; Resende, Rodrigo R.

    2014-01-01

    Lipolytic potential of Aspergillus japonicus LAB01 was investigated by describing the catalytic properties and stability of a secreted extracellular lipase. Enzyme production was considered high under room temperature after 4 days using sunflower oil and a combination of casein with sodium nitrate. Lipase was partially purified by 3.9-fold, resulting in a 44.2% yield using ammonium sulphate precipitation (60%) quantified with Superose 12 HR gel filtration chromatography. The activity of the enzyme was maximised at pH 8.5, and the enzyme demonstrated stability under alkaline conditions. The optimum temperature was found to be 45°C, and the enzyme was stable for up to 100 minutes, with more than 80% of initial activity remaining after incubation at this temperature. Partially purified enzyme showed reasonable stability with triton X-100 and was activated in the presence of organic solvents (toluene, hexane, and methanol). Among the tested ions, only Cu2+, Ni2+, and Al3+ showed inhibitory effects. Substrate specificity of the lipase was higher for C14 among various p-nitrophenyl esters assayed. The KM and Vmax values of the purified enzyme for p-nitrophenyl palmitate were 0.13 mM and 12.58 umol/(L·min), respectively. These features render a novel biocatalyst for industrial applications. PMID:25530954

  10. Potential Geomorphic Consequences of Wave Climate Alterations along Cuspate Coastlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J.; Moore, L. J.; Ells, K. D.; Murray, A.

    2012-12-01

    While much attention has been given to the effects of sea level rise on coastal environments, changes in wave climate (in response to predicted increases in tropical storm intensity) may also significantly impact coastal areas in the future. Characterized by rapid alongshore shifts in shoreline orientation, cuspate coastlines are particularly sensitive to changes in wave climate and thus represent the best type of coastline for detecting initial responses to changing wave conditions. Previous work indicates that Cape Hatteras and Cape Lookout, NC have become increasingly asymmetric in response to an increase in Atlantic summer wave heights identified by Komar and Allen (2007). Here, we contrast historic and recent patterns of erosion and accretion for areas surrounding Cape Fear, NC and Fishing Point, VA to determine if a similar coastline response can be detected for a location heavily impacted by shoreline stabilization efforts and a location experiencing a less-pronounced trend of increasing wave energy, respectively. We obtained shorelines from NOAA, the USGS, and the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and used the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) to calculate shoreline change rates for historic (pre-1975) and recent (post-1975) time periods. The 1975 breakpoint was chosen to correspond with the timing of reported increases in hurricane-generated (summer) wave heights. Initial results suggest that the influence of shoreline stabilization efforts (primarily beach nourishment, one jetty and a few groins) has overwhelmed any wave-climate change response that may otherwise have been detectable surrounding Cape Fear, NC. Preliminary results for Fishing Point, VA indicate no discernible wave-climate related trend in shoreline change, suggesting that wave climate changes have not been of a significant magnitude to significantly influence patterns of erosion and accretion along this stretch of coastline. Coastline Evolution Model (CEM) simulations

  11. Immunomodulatory potential of partially hydrolyzed β-lactoglobulin and large synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Adel-Patient, Karine; Nutten, Sophie; Bernard, Hervé; Fritsché, Rodolphe; Ah-Leung, Sandrine; Meziti, Narimane; Prioult, Guénolée; Mercenier, Annick; Wal, Jean-Michel

    2012-10-31

    The immunomodulatory potential of fragments derived from the cow's milk allergen bovine β-lactoglobulin (BLG) was assessed in a mouse model of oral tolerance (OT) [Adel-Patient, K.; Wavrin, S.; Bernard, H.; Meziti, N.; Ah-Leung, S.; Wal, J. M. Oral tolerance and Treg cells are induced in BALB/c mice after gavage with bovine β-lactoglobulin. Allergy 2011, 66 (10), 1312-1321]. Native BLG (nBLG) and chemically denatured BLG (lacking S-S bridges, dBLG), products resulting from their hydrolysis using cyanogen bromide (CNBr) and some synthetic peptides, were produced and precisely characterized. CNBr hydrolysates correspond to pools of peptides of various sizes that are still associated by S-S bridges when derived from nBLG. nBLG, dBLG, and CNBr hydrolysate of nBLG efficiently prevented further sensitization. CNBr hydrolysate of dBLG was less efficient, suggesting that the association by S-S bridges of peptides increased their immunomodulatory potential. Conversely, synthetic peptides were inefficient even if covering 50% of the BLG sequence, demonstrating that the immunomodulatory potential requires the presence of all derived fragments of BLG and further supporting the use of partially hydrolyzed milk proteins to favor OT induction in infants with a risk of atopy.

  12. The effect of coal bed dewatering and partial oxidation on biogenic methane potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Elizabeth J.P.; Harris, Steve H.; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Orem, William H.; Clark, Arthur C.; Corum, Margo D.; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Voytek, Mary A.

    2013-01-01

    Coal formation dewatering at a site in the Powder River Basin was associated with enhanced potential for secondary biogenic methane determined by using a bioassay. We hypothesized that dewatering can stimulate microbial activity and increase the bioavailability of coal. We analyzed one dewatered and two water-saturated coals to examine possible ways in which dewatering influences coal bed natural gas biogenesis by looking at differences with respect to the native coal microbial community, coal-methane organic intermediates, and residual coal oxidation potential. Microbial biomass did not increase in response to dewatering. Small Subunit rRNA sequences retrieved from all coals sampled represented members from genera known to be aerobic, anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic. A Bray Curtis similarity analysis indicated that the microbial communities in water-saturated coals were more similar to each other than to the dewatered coal, suggesting an effect of dewatering. There was a higher incidence of long chain and volatile fatty acid intermediates in incubations of the dewatered coal compared to the water-saturated coals, and this could either be due to differences in microbial enzymatic activities or to chemical oxidation of the coal associated with O2 exposure. Dilute H2O2 treatment of two fractions of structural coal (kerogen and bitumen + kerogen) was used as a proxy for chemical oxidation by O2. The dewatered coal had a low residual oxidation potential compared to the water-saturated coals. Oxidation with 5% H2O2 did increase the bioavailability of structural coal, and the increase in residual oxidation potential in the water saturated coals was approximately equivalent to the higher methanogenic potential measured in the dewatered coal. Evidence from this study supports the idea that coal bed dewatering could stimulate biogenic methanogenesis through partial oxidation of the structural organics in coal once anaerobic conditions are restored.

  13. Potential effects of translatory waves on estimation of peak flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hjalmarson, H.W.; Phillips, J.V.

    1997-01-01

    During the afternoon of August 19, 1971, an intense thunderstorm a few miles southwest of Wikieup, Arizona, produced one of the largest known flood peaks for a 49.2-square-km drainage basin. Initial computations of the peak discharge assumed stable flow conditions and a four-section slope area measurement indicated that discharge was 2,082 m3/s. Recent findings based on free-surface instability characteristics at the site suggest that gravitational forces exceeded boundary retarding forces, and flow in the wide sand channel was unstable. Computations for roll or translatory waves indicate that waves crashed into the highway bridge at velocities of as much as 12.5 m/s. The close agreement of free surface instability results, translatory wave computations, estimates of the steady flow on which the translatory waves traveled, and an eyewitness account of the translatory waves suggest the total peak discharge could have been 2,742 m3/s or 32% greater than the published discharge. The occurrence of translatory waves in natural channels may be more common than previously thought, and instability criteria should be considered for hydraulic analysis of flow in steep smooth channels.

  14. Multidimensional partial differential equation systems: Generating new systems via conservation laws, potentials, gauges, subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheviakov, Alexei F.; Bluman, George W.

    2010-10-01

    For many systems of partial differential equations (PDEs), including nonlinear ones, one can construct nonlocally related PDE systems. In recent years, such nonlocally related systems have proven to be useful in applications. In particular, they have yielded systematically nonlocal symmetries, nonlocal conservation laws, noninvertible linearizations, and new exact solutions for many different PDE systems of interest. However, the overwhelming majority of new results and theoretical understanding pertain only to PDE systems with two independent variables. The situation for PDE systems with more than two independent variables turns out to be much more complicated due to gauge freedom relating potential variables. The current paper, together with the companion paper [A. F. Cheviakov and G. W. Bluman, J. Math. Phys. 51, 103522 (2010)], synthesizes and systematically extends known results for nonlocally related systems arising for multidimensional PDE systems, i.e., for PDE systems with three or more independent variables. The presented framework includes potential systems arising from lower-degree conservation laws of a given PDE system. Nonlocally related multidimensional PDE systems are discussed in terms of their construction, properties, and applications.

  15. Improved Two-Dimensional Millimeter-Wave Imaging for Concealed Weapon Detection Through Partial Fourier Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farsaei, Amir Ashkan; Mokhtari-Koushyar, Farzad; Javad Seyed-Talebi, Seyed Mohammad; Kavehvash, Zahra; Shabany, Mahdi

    2016-03-01

    Active millimeter-wave imaging based on synthetic aperture focusing offers certain unique and practical advantages in nondestructive testing applications. Traditionally, the imaging for this purpose is performed through a long procedure of raster scanning with a single antenna across a two-dimensional grid, leading to a slow, bulky, and expensive scanning platform. In this paper, an improved bistatic structure based on radial compressive sensing is proposed, where one fixed transmitter antenna and a linear array of receiving antennas are used. The main contributions of this paper are (a) reducing the scanning time, (b) improving the output quality, and (c) designing an inexpensive setup. These improvements are the result of the underlying proposed simpler scanning structure and faster reconstruction process.

  16. Magnetic and elastic wave anisotropy in partially molten rocks: insight from experimental melting of synthetic quartz-mica schist (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almqvist, B.; Misra, S.; Biedermann, A. R.; Mainprice, D.

    2013-12-01

    We studied the magnetic and elastic wave speed anisotropy of a synthetically prepared quartz-mica schist, prior to, during and after experimental melting. The synthetic rock was manufactured from a mixture of powders with equal volumes of quartz and muscovite. The powders were initially compacted with 200 MPa uniaxial stress at room temperature and sealed in a stainless steel canister. Subsequently the sealed canister was isostatically pressed at 180 MPa and 580 °C for 24 hours. This produced a solid medium with ~25 % porosity. Mica developed a preferred grain-shape alignment due to the initial compaction with differential load, where mica flakes tend to orient perpendicular to the applied stress and hence define a synthetic foliation plane. In the last stage we used a Paterson gas-medium apparatus, to pressurize and heat the specimens up to 300 MPa and 750 °C for a six hour duration. This stage initially compacted the rock, followed by generation of melt, and finally crystallization of new minerals from the melt. Elastic wave speed measurements were performed in situ at pressure and temperature, with a transducer assembly mounted next to the sample. Magnetic measurements were performed before and after the partial melt experiments. Anisotropy was measured in low- and high-field, using a susceptibility bridge and torsion magnetometer, respectively. Additionally we performed measurements of hysteresis, isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and susceptibility as a function of temperature, to investigate the magnetic properties of the rock. The elastic wave speed, before the melting-stage of the experiment, exhibits a distinct anisotropy with velocities parallel to the foliation being about 15 % higher than normal to the foliation plane. Measurements of the magnetic anisotropy in the bulk sample show that anisotropy is originating from the preferred orientation of muscovite, with a prominent flattening fabric. In contrast, specimens that underwent partial melting

  17. Habituation and recovery of a slow negative wave of the event-related brain potential.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Heinz

    2002-03-01

    This study is concerned with the question of whether the late, slow negative wave 2 (SNW2) component of the event-related brain potential is a component of the orienting response (OR). As habituation of the SNW2 would be an argument for such a link with the OR, it was investigated using a variant of the classical repetition/change paradigm. Results supported major claims to be made for a component of the OR: the amplitude of the vertex SNW2 exhibited roughly the typical exponential decline with repeated stimulations (six numeric verbal stimuli presented seriatim in an ascending order) and responded incrementally to a change, at least in a narrow time slot, i.e. it exhibited partial recovery to an out-of-sequence stimulus. These findings were accompanied by similar effects on an exemplary OR component, the skin conductance response, and on such possible components of the OR as heart rate deceleration and the vertex P3 of the event-related brain potential. In so far as OR components should behave in comparable fashion in response to orienting stimuli, it is thus reasonable to suppose that the SNW2 relates to the OR.

  18. The potential for very high-frequency gravitational wave detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruise, A. M.

    2012-05-01

    The science case for observing gravitational waves at frequencies in the millihertz-kilohertz range using LIGO, VIRGO, GEO600 or LISA is very strong and the first results are expected at these frequencies. However, as gravitational wave astronomy progresses beyond the first detections, other frequency bands may be worth exploring. Early predictions of gravitational wave emission from discrete sources at very much higher frequencies (megahertz and above) have been published and more recent studies of cosmological signals from inflation, Kaluza-Klein modes from gravitational interactions in brane worlds and plasma instabilities surrounding violent astrophysical events, are all possible sources. This communication examines current observational possibilities and the detector technology required to make meaningful observations at these frequencies.

  19. Physical optics solution for the scattering of a partially-coherent wave from a statistically rough material surface.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Milo W; Basu, Santasri; Spencer, Mark F; Cusumano, Salvatore J; Fiorino, Steven T

    2013-03-25

    The scattering of a partially-coherent wave from a statistically rough material surface is investigated via derivation of the scattered field cross-spectral density function. Two forms of the cross-spectral density are derived using the physical optics approximation. The first is applicable to smooth-to-moderately rough surfaces and is a complicated expression of source and surface parameters. Physical insight is gleaned from its analytical form and presented in this work. The second form of the cross-spectral density function is applicable to very rough surfaces and is remarkably physical. Its form is discussed at length and closed-form expressions are derived for the angular spectral degree of coherence and spectral density radii. Furthermore, it is found that, under certain circumstances, the cross-spectral density function maintains a Gaussian Schell-model form. This is consistent with published results applicable only in the paraxial regime. Lastly, the closed-form cross-spectral density functions derived here are rigorously validated with scatterometer measurements and full-wave electromagnetic and physical optics simulations. Good agreement is noted between the analytical predictions and the measured and simulated results.

  20. Partial melt in the upper-middle crust of the northwest Himalaya revealed by Rayleigh wave dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Warren B.; Klemperer, Simon L.; Rai, Shyam S.; Lawrence, Jesse F.

    2009-11-01

    Seismic shear-wave velocities are sensitive to the partial melts that should be present in the Himalayan orogen if low-viscosity channel flow is active at the present day. We analyzed regional earthquakes in the western Himalaya and Tibet recorded on 16 broadband seismometers deployed across the NW Indian Himalaya, from the Indian platform to the Karakoram Range. We used a multiple filter technique to calculate the group velocity dispersion of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves, and then inverted the dispersion records to obtain separate one-dimensional shear-wave velocity models for five geologic provinces: the Tibetan plateau, Ladakh arc complex, Indus Tsangpo suture zone, Tethyan Himalaya, and Himalayan thrust belt. Our velocity models show a low-velocity layer (LVL) with 7-17% velocity reduction centered at ~ 30 km depth and apparently continuous from the Tethyan Himalaya to the Tibetan plateau. This LVL shows good spatial correspondence with observations of low resistivity from magnetotelluric studies along the same profile. Of the possible explanations for low velocity and low resistivity in the mid-crust, only the presence of melts or aqueous fluids (or both) satisfactorily explains both sets of observations. Elevated heat flow observed in the NW Himalaya implies that if aqueous fluids are present in the mid-crust, then the mid-crust is well above its solidus. Comparison of our results with laboratory measurements and theoretical models suggests 3-7% melt is present in a channel in the upper-middle crust of the NW Himalaya at the present day, and the physical conditions to enable active channel flow may be present.

  1. Quantization of wave equations and hermitian structures in partial differential varieties.

    PubMed

    Paneitz, S M; Segal, I E

    1980-12-01

    Sufficiently close to 0, the solution variety of a nonlinear relativistic wave equation-e.g., of the form squarevarphi + m(2)varphi + gvarphi(p) = 0-admits a canonical Lorentz-invariant hermitian structure, uniquely determined by the consideration that the action of the differential scattering transformation in each tangent space be unitary. Similar results apply to linear time-dependent equations or to equations in a curved asymptotically flat space-time. A close relation of the Riemannian structure to the determination of vacuum expectation values is developed and illustrated by an explicit determination of a perturbative 2-point function for the case of interaction arising from curvature. The theory underlying these developments is in part a generalization of that of M. G. Krein and collaborators concerning stability of differential equations in Hilbert space and in part a precise relation between the unitarization of given symplectic linear actions and their full probabilistic quantization. The unique causal structure in the infinite symplectic group is instrumental in these developments.

  2. Quantization of wave equations and hermitian structures in partial differential varieties

    PubMed Central

    Paneitz, S. M.; Segal, I. E.

    1980-01-01

    Sufficiently close to 0, the solution variety of a nonlinear relativistic wave equation—e.g., of the form □ϕ + m2ϕ + gϕp = 0—admits a canonical Lorentz-invariant hermitian structure, uniquely determined by the consideration that the action of the differential scattering transformation in each tangent space be unitary. Similar results apply to linear time-dependent equations or to equations in a curved asymptotically flat space-time. A close relation of the Riemannian structure to the determination of vacuum expectation values is developed and illustrated by an explicit determination of a perturbative 2-point function for the case of interaction arising from curvature. The theory underlying these developments is in part a generalization of that of M. G. Krein and collaborators concerning stability of differential equations in Hilbert space and in part a precise relation between the unitarization of given symplectic linear actions and their full probabilistic quantization. The unique causal structure in the infinite symplectic group is instrumental in these developments. PMID:16592923

  3. Off-shell Jost solutions for Coulomb and Coulomb-like interactions in all partial waves

    SciTech Connect

    Laha, U.; Bhoi, J.

    2013-01-15

    By exploiting the theory of ordinary differential equations, with judicious use of boundary conditions, interacting Green's functions and their integral transforms together with certain properties of higher transcendental functions, useful analytical expressions for the off-shell Jost solutions for motion in Coulomb and Coulomb-nuclear potentials are derived in maximal reduced form through different approaches to the problem in the representation space. The exact analytical expressions for the off-shell Jost solutions for Coulomb and Coulomb-like potentials are believed to be useful for the description of the charged particle scattering/reaction processes.

  4. Analysis of partial-reflection data from the solar eclipse of 10 Jul. 1972. [ground-based experiment using vertical incident radio waves partially reflected from D region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bean, T. A.; Bowhill, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    Partial-reflection data collected for the eclipse of July 10, 1972 as well as for July 9 and 11, 1972, are analyzed to determine eclipse effects on D-region electron densities. The partial-reflection experiment was set up to collect data using an on-line PDP-15 computer and DECtape storage. The electron-density profiles show good agreement with results from other eclipses. The partial-reflection programs were changed after the eclipse data collection to improve the operation of the partial-reflection system. These changes were mainly due to expanded computer hardware and have simplified the operations of the system considerably.

  5. Ranolazine, a partial fatty acid oxidation inhibitor, its potential benefit in angina and other cardiovascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Bharti; Subramanian, L

    2007-01-01

    Chronic Angina resistant to medical treatment with hemodynamically acting agents is a major problem in clinical setup. For such patients, large number of clinical trials have documented the beneficial effect of Ranolazine. It acts as an anti-anginal agent that controls myocardial ischemia through intracellular metabolic changes. Ranolazine is a partial fatty acid oxidation inhibitor which shifts cardiac energy metabolism from fatty acid oxidation to glucose oxidation. Since the oxidation of glucose requires less oxygen than the oxidation of fatty acids, ranolazine can help maintain myocardial function in times of ischemia. In addition, ranolazine has minimal effect on blood pressure and heart rate. Ranolazine, by inhibiting cellular ionic channels, prolongs the corrected QT interval. However, ranolazine has not yet been associated with any incidences of ventricular arrhythmia. Other possible mechanism by which Ranolazine could act is by reducing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and improves reperfusion mechanical function. Ranolazine has been approved by US FDA for the treatment of chronic angina pectoris in combination with amlodipine, beta-blockers or nitrates in patients who do not show adequate response to other anti-anginals. Ranolazine is a metabolic modulator that is being developed by CV Therapeutics (CVT), under license from Roche (formerly Syntex), as a potential treatment for angina. Ranolazine is available as brand name 'Ranexa' as extended release oral tablets. This review focuses on the clinical effects, the mechanism of actions, drug interactions and beneficial effects of Ranolazine in chronic angina and other cardiometabolic disorders.

  6. GHG Mitigation Potential, Costs and Benefits in Global Forests: ADynamic Partial Equilibrium Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant; Makundi, Willy; Dale, Larry; Chan, Peter; Andrasko, Kenneth

    2005-03-22

    This paper reports on the global potential for carbonsequestration in forest plantations, and the reduction of carbonemissions from deforestation, in response to six carbon price scenariosfrom 2000 to 2100. These carbon price scenarios cover a range typicallyseen in global integrated assessment models. The world forest sector wasdisaggregated into tenregions, four largely temperate, developedregions: the European Union, Oceania, Russia, and the United States; andsix developing, mostly tropical, regions: Africa, Central America, China,India, Rest of Asia, and South America. Three mitigation options -- long-and short-rotation forestry, and the reduction of deforestation -- wereanalyzed using a global dynamic partial equilibrium model (GCOMAP). Keyfindings of this work are that cumulative carbon gain ranges from 50.9 to113.2 Gt C by 2100, higher carbon prices early lead to earlier carbongain and vice versa, and avoided deforestation accounts for 51 to 78percent of modeled carbon gains by 2100. The estimated present value ofcumulative welfare change in the sector ranges from a decline of $158billion to a gain of $81 billion by 2100. The decline is associated witha decrease in deforestation.

  7. Root water potential integrates discrete soil physical properties to influence ABA signalling during partial rootzone drying.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Ian C; Egea, Gregorio; Watts, Chris W; Whalley, W Richard

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the influence of different growing substrates (two mineral, two organic) on root xylem ABA concentration ([ABA](root)) and the contribution of the drying root system to total sap flow during partial rootzone drying (PRD), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) shoots were grafted onto the root systems of two plants grown in separate pots. Sap flow through each hypocotyl was measured below the graft union when one pot ('wet') was watered and other ('dry') was not. Each substrate gave unique relationships between dry pot matric potential (Psi(soil)), volumetric water content ((v)) or penetrometer resistance (Q) and either the fraction of photoperiod sap flow from roots in drying soil or [ABA](root). However, decreased relative sap flow, and increased [ABA](root), from roots in drying soil varied with root water potential (Psi(root)) more similarly across a range of substrates. The gradient between Psi(soil) and Psi(root) was greater in substrates with high sand or peat proportions, which may have contributed to a more sensitive response of [ABA](root) to Psi(soil) in these substrates. Whole plant transpiration was most closely correlated with the mean Psi(soil) of both pots, and then with detached leaf xylem ABA concentration. Although Psi(root) best predicted decreased relative sap flow, and increased [ABA](root), from roots in drying soil across a range of substrates, the inaccessibility of this variable in field studies requires a better understanding of how measurable soil variables (Psi(soil), (v), Q) affect Psi(root).

  8. Identification of BRCA1 missense substitutions that confer partial functional activity: potential moderate risk variants?

    PubMed Central

    Lovelock, Paul K; Spurdle, Amanda B; Mok, Myth TS; Farrugia, Daniel J; Lakhani, Sunil R; Healey, Sue; Arnold, Stephen; Buchanan, Daniel; Investigators, kConFab; Couch, Fergus J; Henderson, Beric R; Goldgar, David E; Tavtigian, Sean V; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Brown, Melissa A

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Many of the DNA sequence variants identified in the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 remain unclassified in terms of their potential pathogenicity. Both multifactorial likelihood analysis and functional approaches have been proposed as a means to elucidate likely clinical significance of such variants, but analysis of the comparative value of these methods for classifying all sequence variants has been limited. Methods We have compared the results from multifactorial likelihood analysis with those from several functional analyses for the four BRCA1 sequence variants A1708E, G1738R, R1699Q, and A1708V. Results Our results show that multifactorial likelihood analysis, which incorporates sequence conservation, co-inheritance, segregation, and tumour immunohistochemical analysis, may improve classification of variants. For A1708E, previously shown to be functionally compromised, analysis of oestrogen receptor, cytokeratin 5/6, and cytokeratin 14 tumour expression data significantly strengthened the prediction of pathogenicity, giving a posterior probability of pathogenicity of 99%. For G1738R, shown to be functionally defective in this study, immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed previous findings of inconsistent 'BRCA1-like' phenotypes for the two tumours studied, and the posterior probability for this variant was 96%. The posterior probabilities of R1699Q and A1708V were 54% and 69%, respectively, only moderately suggestive of increased risk. Interestingly, results from functional analyses suggest that both of these variants have only partial functional activity. R1699Q was defective in foci formation in response to DNA damage and displayed intermediate transcriptional transactivation activity but showed no evidence for centrosome amplification. In contrast, A1708V displayed an intermediate transcriptional transactivation activity and a normal foci formation response in response to DNA damage but induced centrosome amplification. Conclusion

  9. Electromagnetic waves in a model with Chern-Simons potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pis'mak, D. Yu.; Pis'mak, Yu. M.; Wegner, F. J.

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the appearance of Chern-Simons terms in electrodynamics at the surface or interface of materials. The requirement of locality, gauge invariance, and renormalizability in this model is imposed. Scattering and reflection of electromagnetic waves in three different homogeneous layers of media is determined. Snell's law is preserved. However, the transmission and reflection coefficient depend on the strength of the Chern-Simons interaction (connected with Hall conductance), and parallel and perpendicular components are mixed.

  10. Surface-wave potential for triggering tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor-corrected

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Source processes commonly posed to explain instances of remote dynamic triggering of tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor by surface waves include frictional failure and various modes of fluid activation. The relative potential for Love- and Rayleigh-wave dynamic stresses to trigger tectonic tremor through failure on critically stressed thrust and vertical strike-slip faults under the Coulomb-Griffith failure criteria as a function of incidence angle are anticorrelated over the 15- to 30-km-depth range that hosts tectonic tremor. Love-wave potential is high for strike-parallel incidence on low-angle reverse faults and null for strike-normal incidence; the opposite holds for Rayleigh waves. Love-wave potential is high for both strike-parallel and strike-normal incidence on vertical, strike-slip faults and minimal for ~45° incidence angles. The opposite holds for Rayleigh waves. This pattern is consistent with documented instances of tremor triggered by Love waves incident on the Cascadia megathrust and the San Andreas fault (SAF) in central California resulting from shear failure on weak faults (apparent friction is μ* ≤ 0:2). Documented instances of tremor triggered by surface waves with strike-parallel incidence along the Nankai megathrust beneath Shikoku, Japan, however, are associated primarily with Rayleigh waves. This is consistent with the tremor bursts resulting from mixed-mode failure (crack opening and shear failure) facilitated by near-lithostatic ambient pore pressure, low differential stress, with a moderate friction coefficient (μ ~ 0:6) on the Nankai subduction interface. Rayleigh-wave dilatational stress is relatively weak at tectonic tremor source depths and seems unlikely to contribute significantly to the triggering process, except perhaps for an indirect role on the SAF in sustaining tremor into the Rayleigh-wave coda that was initially triggered by Love waves.

  11. Converged cross-section results for double photoionization of helium atoms in hyperspherical partial wave theory at 6 eV above threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Das, J.N.; Paul, S.; Chakrabarti, K.

    2004-04-01

    Here we report a set of converged cross-section results for double photoionization of helium atoms obtained in the hyperspherical partial wave theory for equal energy sharing kinematics at 6 eV energy above threshold. The calculated cross section results are generally in excellent agreement with the absolute measured results of Doerner et al. [Phys. Rev. 57, 1074 (1998)].

  12. Partial MHC/neuroantigen peptide constructs: a potential neuroimmune-based treatment for methamphetamine addiction.

    PubMed

    Loftis, Jennifer M; Wilhelm, Clare J; Vandenbark, Arthur A; Huckans, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Relapse rates following current methamphetamine abuse treatments are very high (∼40-60%), and the neuropsychiatric impairments (e.g., cognitive deficits, mood disorders) that arise and persist during remission from methamphetamine addiction likely contribute to these high relapse rates. Pharmacotherapeutic development of medications to treat addiction has focused on neurotransmitter systems with only limited success, and there are no Food and Drug Administration approved pharmacotherapies for methamphetamine addiction. A growing literature shows that methamphetamine alters peripheral and central immune functions and that immune factors such as cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules play a role in the development and persistence of methamphetamine induced neuronal injury and neuropsychiatric impairments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a new immunotherapy, partial MHC/neuroantigen peptide construct (RTL551; pI-A(b)/mMOG-35-55), in treating learning and memory impairments induced by repeated methamphetamine exposure. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to two different methamphetamine treatment regimens (using repeated doses of 4 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg, s.c.). Cognitive performance was assessed using the Morris water maze and CNS cytokine levels were measured by multiplex assay. Immunotherapy with RTL551 improved the memory impairments induced by repeated methamphetamine exposure in both mouse models of chronic methamphetamine addiction. Treatment with RTL551 also attenuated the methamphetamine induced increases in hypothalamic interleukin-2 (IL-2) levels. Collectively, these initial results indicate that neuroimmune targeted therapies, and specifically RTL551, may have potential as treatments for methamphetamine-induced neuropsychiatric impairments.

  13. Single-Trial Visual Evoked Potential Extraction Using Partial Least-Squares-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Kristina Yanti, Duma; Zuki Yusoff, Mohd; Sagayan Asirvadam, Vijanth

    2016-01-01

    A single-trial extraction of a visual evoked potential (VEP) signal based on the partial least-squares (PLS) regression method has been proposed in this paper. This paper has focused on the extraction and estimation of the latencies of P100, P200, P300, N75, and N135 in the artificial electroencephalograph (EEG) signal. The real EEG signal obtained from the hospital was only concentrated on the P100. The performance of the PLS has been evaluated mainly on the basis of latency error rate of the peaks for the artificial EEG signal, and the mean peak detection and standard deviation for the real EEG signal. The simulation results show that the proposed PLS algorithm is capable of reconstructing the EEG signal into its desired shape of the ideal VEP. For P100, the proposed PLS algorithm is able to provide comparable results to the generalized eigenvalue decomposition (GEVD) algorithm, which alters (prewhitens) the EEG input signal using the prestimulation EEG signal. It has also shown better performance for later peaks (P200 and P300). The PLS outperformed not only in positive peaks but also in N75. In P100, the PLS was comparable with the GEVD although N135 was better estimated by GEVD. The proposed PLS algorithm is comparable to GEVD given that PLS does not alter the EEG input signal. The PLS algorithm gives the best estimate to multitrial ensemble averaging. This research offers benefits such as avoiding patient's fatigue during VEP test measurement in the hospital, in BCI applications and in EEG-fMRI integration.

  14. Thermoacoustical wave generation and propagation in the cornea: the potential for damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Alvin K.; Bargeron, C. Brent; Brady, Samuel L.; Denning, Adam W.; Page, Leland M.; McCally, Russell L.

    2007-02-01

    Carbon dioxide lasers are used in numerous applications that involve human exposure to the radiation that can produce ocular injury. The objective of this study is to show that the thermal gradient produced in the eye by the radiation from an 80 ns CO II laser pulse can generate a thermoacoustical tensile pressure wave with large enough magnitude to rupture the epithelial layer of the cornea. A Gaussian-shaped temperature distribution will be employed. It is assumed that the corneal tissue is inhomogeneous, with the density and wave velocity varying slowly in space. Under these conditions, the acoustical wave equation is decoupled into two first-order partial differential equations, one that propagates energy into the eye from the point of thermoacoustical wave generation, and the other toward the front of the eye. These equations are solved numerically using the Lax-Wendroff numerical method. A compressional wave generated in the epithelial tissue of the cornea due to the thermal gradient of the laser arrives at the air-tear layer interface with a pressure amplitude of ~6600 Pa. When this wave is reflected back into the eye, the resulting tensile pressure wave has a tensile strength of approximately 4.6 x 10 8 Pa/m just inside of the epithelial layer of the cornea. This is an order of magnitude larger than what is necessary to produce cellular damage to the cornea.

  15. Fictitious domain decomposition methods for a class of partially axisymmetric problems: Application to the scattering of acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetmaniuk, Ulrich Ladislas

    Fast solvers are often designed for problems posed on simple domains. Unfortunately, engineering applications deal with arbitrary domains. To allow the use of fast solvers, fictitious domain methods have been developed. They usually define an auxiliary problem on a rectangle or a parallelepiped. In aerospace and military applications, many scatterers are composed of one major axisymmetric component and a few features. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to define, for the scattering of acoustic waves, fictitious domain methods which exploit such local axisymmetry. The original exterior problem is first approximated by introducing an absorbing boundary condition on an artificial boundary. A family of absorbing conditions is reviewed. For some simple scatterers, numerical experiments on the position of the artificial boundary reveal that the error induced by the absorbing condition is bounded, as the wave number increases, when the artificial boundary is fixed. Then, for a class of partially axisymmetric scatterers, the truncated computational domain is embedded into an axisymmetric domain. Helmholtz problems are formulated inside this axisymmetric domain and inside each feature. Lagrange multipliers are introduced at the interfaces between the features and the axisymmetric domain to enforce a set of carefully constructed constraints. This formulation is analyzed at the continuous level and is shown to be equivalent to the original one. For the Helmholtz equation defined over the axisymmetric domain, the solution is approximated by truncated Fourier series and finite elements. Properties of this discretization method for the Helmholtz equation are also analyzed on a two-dimensional model problem. Numerical experiments are performed to illustrate the analytical results. For the auxiliary problem inside each feature, classical finite elements are used to approximate the solution. The constraints are enforced pointwise. The resulting algebraic system is solved either

  16. Continuity Conditions on Schrodinger Wave Functions at Discontinuities of the Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, David

    1979-01-01

    Several standard arguments which attempt to show that the wave function and its derivative must be continuous across jump discontinuities of the potential are reviewed and their defects discussed. (Author/HM)

  17. The sea surface currents as a potential factor in the estimation and monitoring of wave energy potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zodiatis, George; Galanis, George; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Stylianoy, Stavros; Liakatas, Aristotelis

    2015-04-01

    The use of wave energy as an alternative renewable is receiving attention the last years under the shadow of the economic crisis in Europe and in the light of the promising corresponding potential especially for countries with extended coastline. Monitoring and studying the corresponding resources is further supported by a number of critical advantages of wave energy compared to other renewable forms, like the reduced variability and the easier adaptation to the general grid, especially when is jointly approached with wind power. Within the framework, a number of countries worldwide have launched research and development projects and a significant number of corresponding studies have been presented the last decades. However, in most of them the impact of wave-sea surface currents interaction on the wave energy potential has not been taken into account neglecting in this way a factor of potential importance. The present work aims at filling this gap for a sea area with increased scientific and economic interest, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Based on a combination of high resolution numerical modeling approach with advanced statistical tools, a detailed analysis is proposed for the quantification of the impact of sea surface currents, which produced from downscaling the MyOcean-FO regional data, to wave energy potential. The results although spatially sensitive, as expected, prove beyond any doubt that the wave- sea surface currents interaction should be taken into account for similar resource analysis and site selection approaches since the percentage of impact to the available wave power may reach or even exceed 20% at selected areas.

  18. Physics-based RF/microwave characterization of wave interactions within electrical connectors with partial insertion faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokgöz, Çaǧatay; Dardona, Sameh

    2016-09-01

    Electrical failures in avionics systems may result from connector faults. If fault precursors are not detected in advance, they may lead to hard failures such as open and short circuits that could ultimately result in fire or loss of flight critical systems. Therefore, It is crucial to detect, locate, and characterize fault precursors for timely preventive maintenance and mitigation before hard failures occur. In this paper, a physics-based connector model consisting of multiple coaxial line sections with different characteristic impedances and lengths is proposed. Method of Moments (MoM) analyses were performed using commercial electromagnetic simulation software, FEKO, for transverse electric and magnetic (TEM) wave propagation through a connector. The physical parameters of the connector were optimized to match the measured S parameters for multiple insertion depths. The proposed models represent the connector for multiple insertion depths by varying only two length parameters at a time while other parameters are fixed. Insertion depth-dependent resonant frequency shifts observed during measurement are also captured by the model over the full range of fully inserted to barely touching contacts. Hence, the models provide accurate representations of the connector and properly detect precursors to partial insertion faults.

  19. Partial wave analysis of the reaction {gamma}p{yields}p{omega} and the search for nucleon resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.; Applegate, D.; Bellis, M.; Meyer, C. A.; Dey, B; Dickson, R.; Krahn, Z.; McCracken, M. E.; Moriya, K.; Schumacher, R. A.; Adhikari, K. P.; Careccia, S. L.; Dodge, G. E.; Guler, N.; Klein, A.; Mayer, M.; Nepali, C. S.; Niroula, M. R.; Seraydaryan, H.; Tkachenko, S.

    2009-12-15

    An event-based partial wave analysis (PWA) of the reaction {gamma}p{yields}p{omega} has been performed on a high-statistics dataset obtained using the CLAS at Jefferson Lab for center-of-mass energies from threshold up to 2.4 GeV. This analysis benefits from access to the world's first high-precision spin-density matrix element measurements, available to the event-based PWA through the decay distribution of {omega}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}. The data confirm the dominance of the t-channel {pi}{sup 0} exchange amplitude in the forward direction. The dominant resonance contributions are consistent with the previously identified states F{sub 15}(1680) and D{sub 13}(1700) near threshold, as well as the G{sub 17}(2190) at higher energies. Suggestive evidence for the presence of a J{sup P}=5/2{sup +} state around 2 GeV, a ''missing'' state, has also been found. Evidence for other states is inconclusive.

  20. Partial wave analysis of the reaction γp→pω and the search for nucleon resonances

    DOE PAGES

    Williams, M.; Applegate, D.; Bellis, M.; ...

    2009-12-30

    We performed an event-based partial wave analysis (PWA) of the reaction γ p -> p ω on a high-statistics dataset obtained using the CLAS at Jefferson Lab for center-of-mass energies from threshold up to 2.4 GeV. This analysis benefits from access to the world's first high precision spin density matrix element measurements, available to the event-based PWA through the decay distribution of omega-> π+ π - π0. The data confirm the dominance of the t-channel π0 exchange amplitude in the forward direction. The dominant resonance contributions are consistent with the previously identified states F[15](1680) and D[13](1700) near threshold, as wellmore » as the G[17](2190) at higher energies. Suggestive evidence for the presence of a J(P)=5/2+ state around 2 GeV, a "missing" state, has also been found. Evidence for other states is inconclusive.« less

  1. Potential hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures in legacy plutonium oxide packages at Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Veirs, Douglas K.

    2014-07-07

    An approach to estimate the maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures within sealed containers is described and applied to a set of packages containing high-purity plutonium dioxide. The approach uses experimentally determined maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures and scales the experimentally determined pressures to the relevant packaged material properties. The important material properties are the specific wattage and specific surface area (SSA). Important results from the experimental determination of maximum partial pressures are (1) the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is stoichiometric, and (2) the maximum pressures increase with increasing initial rates of production. The material properties that influence the rates are the material specific wattage and the SSA. The unusual properties of these materials, high specific wattage and high SSA, result in higher predicted maximum pressures than typical plutonium dioxide in storage. The pressures are well within the deflagration range for mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.

  2. Tandem shock waves in medicine and biology: a review of potential applications and successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukes, P.; Fernández, F.; Gutiérrez-Aceves, J.; Fernández, E.; Alvarez, U. M.; Sunka, P.; Loske, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Shock waves have been established as a safe and effective treatment for a wide range of diseases. Research groups worldwide are working on improving shock wave technology and developing new applications of shock waves to medicine and biology. The passage of a shock wave through soft tissue, fluids, and suspensions containing cells may result in acoustic cavitation i.e., the expansion and violent collapse of microbubbles, which generates secondary shock waves and the emission of microjets of fluid. Cavitation has been recognized as a significant phenomenon that produces both desirable and undesirable biomedical effects. Several studies have shown that cavitation can be controlled by emitting two shock waves that can be delayed by tenths or hundreds of microseconds. These dual-pulse pressure pulses, which are known as tandem shock waves, have been shown to enhance in vitro and in vivo urinary stone fragmentation, cause significant cytotoxic effects in tumor cells, delay tumor growth, enhance the bactericidal effect of shock waves and significantly increase the efficiency of genetic transformations in bacteria and fungi. This article provides an overview of the basic physical principles, methodologies, achievements and potential uses of tandem shock waves to improve biomedical applications.

  3. A catalogue of potentially bright close binary gravitational wave sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbink, Ronald F.

    1985-01-01

    This is a current print-out of results of a survey, undertaken in the spring of 1985, to identify those known binary stars which might produce significant gravitational wave amplitudes at earth, either dimensionless strain amplitudes exceeding a threshold h = 10(exp -21), or energy fluxes exceeding F = 10(exp -12) erg cm(exp -2) s(exp -1). All real or putative binaries brighter than a certain limiting magnitude (calculated as a function of primary spectral type, orbital period, orbital eccentricity, and bandpass) are included. All double degenerate binaries and Wolf-Rayet binaries with known or suspected orbital periods have also been included. The catalog consists of two parts: a listing of objects in ascending order of Right Ascension (Equinox B1950), followed by an index, listing of objects by identification number according to all major stellar catalogs. The object listing is a print-out of the spreadsheets on which the catalog is currently maintained. It should be noted that the use of this spreadsheet program imposes some limitations on the display of entries. Text entries which exceed the cell size may appear in truncated form, or may run into adjacent columns. Greek characters are not available; they are represented here by the first two or three letters of their Roman names, the first letter appearing as a capital or lower-case letter according to whether the capital or lower-case Greek character is represented. Neither superscripts nor subscripts are available; they appear here in normal position and type-face. The index provides the Right Ascension and Declination of objects sorted by catalogue number.

  4. Phase-matched four wave mixing and quantum beam splitting of matter waves in a periodic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hilligsoee, Karen Marie; Moelmer, Klaus

    2005-04-01

    We show that the dispersion properties imposed by an external periodic potential ensure both energy and quasimomentum conservation such that correlated pairs of atoms can be generated by four wave mixing from a Bose-Einstein condensate moving in an optical lattice potential. In our numerical solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, a condensate with initial quasimomentum k{sub 0} is transferred almost completely (>95%) into a pair of correlated atomic components with quasimomenta k{sub 1} and k{sub 2}, if the system is seeded with a smaller number of atoms with the appropriate quasimomentum k{sub 1}.

  5. The impact of sea surface currents in wave power potential modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zodiatis, George; Galanis, George; Kallos, George; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Kalogeri, Christina; Liakatas, Aristotelis; Stylianou, Stavros

    2015-11-01

    The impact of sea surface currents to the estimation and modeling of wave energy potential over an area of increased economic interest, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, is investigated in this work. High-resolution atmospheric, wave, and circulation models, the latter downscaled from the regional Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) of the Copernicus marine service (former MyOcean regional MFS system), are utilized towards this goal. The modeled data are analyzed by means of a variety of statistical tools measuring the potential changes not only in the main wave characteristics, but also in the general distribution of the wave energy and the wave parameters that mainly affect it, when using sea surface currents as a forcing to the wave models. The obtained results prove that the impact of the sea surface currents is quite significant in wave energy-related modeling, as well as temporally and spatially dependent. These facts are revealing the necessity of the utilization of the sea surface currents characteristics in renewable energy studies in conjunction with their meteo-ocean forecasting counterparts.

  6. Gravitational wave hotspots: Ranking potential locations of single-source gravitational wave emission

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Joseph; Polin, Abigail; Lommen, Andrea; Christy, B; Stappers, Ben; Finn, Lee Samuel; Jenet, F. A.

    2014-03-20

    The steadily improving sensitivity of pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) suggests that gravitational waves (GWs) from supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) systems in the nearby universe will be detectable sometime during the next decade. Currently, PTAs assume an equal probability of detection from every sky position, but as evidence grows for a non-isotropic distribution of sources, is there a most likely sky position for a detectable single source of GWs? In this paper, a collection of Galactic catalogs is used to calculate various metrics related to the detectability of a single GW source resolvable above a GW background, assuming that every galaxy has the same probability of containing an SMBHB. Our analyses of these data reveal small probabilities that one of these sources is currently in the PTA band, but as sensitivity is improved regions of consistent probability density are found in predictable locations, specifically around local galaxy clusters.

  7. Dynamical Control of Matter-Wave Tunneling in Periodic Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lignier, H.; Sias, C.; Ciampini, D.; Singh, Y.; Zenesini, A.; Morsch, O.; Arimondo, E.

    2007-11-01

    We report on measurements of dynamical suppression of interwell tunneling of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a strongly driven optical lattice. The strong driving is a sinusoidal shaking of the lattice corresponding to a time-varying linear potential, and the tunneling is measured by letting the BEC freely expand in the lattice. The measured tunneling rate is reduced and, for certain values of the shaking parameter, completely suppressed. Our results are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we have verified that, in general, the strong shaking does not destroy the phase coherence of the BEC, opening up the possibility of realizing quantum phase transitions by using the shaking strength as the control parameter.

  8. Electromagnetic wave emitting products and "Kikoh" potentiate human leukocyte functions.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Y; Iizawa, O; Ishimoto, K; Jiang, X; Kanoh, T

    1993-09-01

    Tourmaline (electric stone, a type of granite stone), common granite stone, ceramic disks, hot spring water and human palmar energy (called "Kikoh" in Japan and China), all which emit electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared region (wavelength 4-14 microns). These materials were thus examined for effects on human leukocyte activity and on lipid peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. It was revealed that these materials significantly increased intracellular calcium ion concentration, phagocytosis, and generation of reactive oxygen species in neutrophils, and the blastogenetic response of lymphocytes to mitogens. Chemotactic activity by neutrophils was also enhanced by exposure to tourmaline and the palm of "Kikohshi" i.e., a person who heals professionally by the laying on of hands. Despite the increase in reactive oxygen species generated by neutrophils, lipid peroxidation from unsaturated fatty acid was markedly inhibited by these four materials. The results suggest that materials emitting electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared range, which are widely used in Japan for cosmetic, therapeutic, and preservative purposes, appear capable of potentiating leukocyte functions without promoting oxidative injury.

  9. Electromagnetic wave emitting products and ``Kikoh'' potentiate human leukocyte functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, Yukie; Iizawa, Osamu; Ishimoto, Koichi; Jiang, Xiaoxia; Kanoh, Tadashi

    1993-09-01

    Tourmaline (electric stone, a type of granite stone), common granite stone, ceramic disks, hot spring water and human palmar energy (called “Kikoh” in Japan and China), all which emit electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared region (wavelength 4 14 µm). These materials were thus examined for effects on human leukocyte activity and on lipid peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. It was revealed that these materials significantly increased intracellular calcium ion concentration, phagocytosis, and generation of reactive oxygen species in neutrophils, and the blastogenetic response of lymphocytes to mitogens. Chemotactic activity by neutrophils was also enhanced by exposure to tourmaline and the palm of “Kikohshi” i.e., a person who heals professionally by the laying on of hands. Despite the increase in reactive oxygen species generated by neutrophils, lipid peroxidation from unsaturated fatty acid was markedly inhibited by these four materials. The results suggest that materials emitting electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared range, which are widely used in Japan for cosmetic, therapeutic, and preservative purposes, appear capable of potentiating leukocyte functions without promoting oxidative injury.

  10. Accurate quantum wave packet calculations for the F + HCl → Cl + HF reaction on the ground 1(2)A' potential energy surface.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Niyazi; Kłos, Jacek; Alexander, Millard H

    2012-03-14

    We present converged exact quantum wave packet calculations of reaction probabilities, integral cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients for the title reaction. Calculations have been carried out on the ground 1(2)A' global adiabatic potential energy surface of Deskevich et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 224303 (2006)]. Converged wave packet reaction probabilities at selected values of the total angular momentum up to a partial wave of J = 140 with the HCl reagent initially selected in the v = 0, j = 0-16 rovibrational states have been obtained for the collision energy range from threshold up to 0.8 eV. The present calculations confirm an important enhancement of reactivity with rotational excitation of the HCl molecule. First, accurate integral cross sections and rate constants have been calculated and compared with the available experimental data.

  11. Some Exact Results for the Schroedinger Wave Equation with a Time Dependent Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The time dependent Schroedinger equation with a time dependent delta function potential is solved exactly for many special cases. In all other cases the problem can be reduced to an integral equation of the Volterra type. It is shown that by knowing the wave function at the origin, one may derive the wave function everywhere. Thus, the problem is reduced from a PDE in two variables to an integral equation in one. These results are used to compare adiabatic versus sudden changes in the potential. It is shown that adiabatic changes in the p otential lead to conservation of the normalization of the probability density.

  12. Potential of ion cyclotron resonance frequency current drive via fast waves in DEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakov, Ye O.; Van Eester, D.; Wauters, T.; Lerche, E.; Ongena, J.

    2015-02-01

    For the continuous operation of future tokamak-reactors like DEMO, non-inductively driven toroidal plasma current is needed. Bootstrap current, due to the pressure gradient, and current driven by auxiliary heating systems are currently considered as the two main options. This paper addresses the current drive (CD) potential of the ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating system in DEMO-like plasmas. Fast wave CD scenarios are evaluated for both the standard midplane launch and an alternative case of exciting the waves from the top of the machine. Optimal ICRF frequencies and parallel wave numbers are identified to maximize the CD efficiency. Limitations of the high frequency ICRF CD operation are discussed. A simplified analytical method to estimate the fast wave CD efficiency is presented, complemented with the discussion of its dependencies on plasma parameters. The calculated CD efficiency for the ICRF system is shown to be similar to those for the negative neutral beam injection and electron cyclotron resonance heating.

  13. Potential to kinetic energy conversion in wave number domain for the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, H.-J.; Vincent, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary results of a wave number study conducted for the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) using FGGE data for the period January 10-27, 1979 are reported. In particular, three variables (geomagnetic height, z, vertical p-velocity, omega, and temperature, T) and one energy conversion quantity, omega-alpha (where alpha is the specific volume), are shown. It is demonstrated that wave number 4 plays an important role in the conversion from available potential energy to kinetic energy in the Southern Hemisphere tropics, particularly in the vicinity of the SPCZ. It is therefore suggested that the development and movement of wave number 4 waves be carefully monitored in making forecasts for the South Pacific region.

  14. Partial Testing Can Potentiate Learning of Tested and Untested Material from Multimedia Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Carole L.; Soderstrom, Nicholas C.; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon

    2015-01-01

    Test-potentiated learning occurs when testing renders a subsequent study period more effective than it would have been without an intervening test. We examined whether testing only a subset of material from a multimedia lesson would potentiate the restudy of both tested and untested material. In Experiments 1a and 1b, participants studied a…

  15. On Floating Potential of Emissive Probes in a Partially-Magnetized Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Kraus, Brian

    2016-10-01

    We compare measurements of plasma potential in a cross-field Penning discharge from two probes: swept biased Langmuir probe and floating emissive probe. The plasma potential was deduced from the first derivative of the Langmuir probe characteristic. In previous studies, the emissive and swept biased probes were placed at the channel exit of a Hall thruster (HT). Measurements showed that the emissive probe floats below the plasma potential, in agreement with conventional theories. However, recent measurements in the Penning discharge indicate a floating potential of a strongly-emitting hot probe above the plasma potential. In both probe applications, xenon plasmas have magnetized electrons and non-magnetized ions with similar plasma densities (1010 - 1011 cm-3) . Though their electron temperatures differ by an order of magnitude (Penning 5 eV, HT 50 eV), this difference cannot explain the difference in measurement values of the hot floating potential because both temperatures are much higher than the emitting wire. In this work, we investigate how the ion velocity and other plasma parameters affect this discrepancy between probe measurements of the plasma potential. This work was supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  16. Scaling laws of reflection coefficients of quantum waves at a Cantor-like potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Ogawana, Taichi

    2017-03-01

    We reconsider a one-dimensional scattering problem in the Schrödinger equation with a Cantor-like potential. The reflection coefficient obeys a scaling law for sufficiently large wave number k . The scaling law is expressed with a universal function characterized by a multifractal.

  17. The Potential Energy Density in Transverse String Waves Depends Critically on Longitudinal Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The question of the correct formula for the potential energy density in transverse waves on a taut string continues to attract attention (e.g. Burko 2010 "Eur. J. Phys." 31 L71), and at least three different formulae can be found in the literature, with the classic text by Morse and Feshbach ("Methods of Theoretical Physics" pp 126-127) stating…

  18. Scattering of quantum wave packets by shallow potential islands: a quantum lens.

    PubMed

    Goussev, Arseni; Richter, Klaus

    2013-05-01

    We consider the problem of quantum scattering of a localized wave packet by a weak Gaussian potential in two spatial dimensions. We show that, under certain conditions, this problem bears close analogy with that of focusing (or defocusing) of light rays by a thin optical lens: Quantum interference between straight paths yields the same lens equation as for refracted rays in classical optics.

  19. Identification of wave energy potential with floating oscillating water column technology in Pulau Baai Beach, Bengkulu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alifdini, I.; Sugianto, D. N.; Andrawina, Y. O.; Widodo, A. B.

    2017-02-01

    Pulau Baai is a beach which is located in Bengkulu, Indonesia. This location has swell waves which is beneficial for wave energy, because it directly faces the Indian Ocean. Floating Oscillating Water Column (OWC) is a prototype used to generate electricity from wave energy. The objective of this research is to identify how much electricity can be generated from floating OWC. This research used a quantitative method by processing wind data (speed and direction) from ogimet.com in 2000-2016. The wind speed rate for wave energy potential of this location is above 5.14 m/s. Wind data is converted to significant wave height and periods data by Sverdrup, Munk, and Bretschneider (SMB) method. Significant wave height rate of this location is 0.06 – 5.33 meters. Assuming that this power plant uses 3 chambers of floating OWC, the power output of OWC is 1.9 GW/year. Thus, suppose each residents’ house uses 1300 watt, this power plant can be used for 1,461,538 residents per year.

  20. Matter-wave exact periodic solutions in optical lattices with periodic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changfu; Zhu, Aijun

    2013-10-01

    Some special matter-wave periodic solutions for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with periodic potential in the multidimensional optical lattices, are obtained through restricting parameters and some balance conditions between the optical potentials and interaction energies. The results show that the same type of periodic solutions in the same dimension possesses the same norm but different phases and they are all bounded. Especially, the numerics shows that two class (2+1)-dimensional periodic solutions are stable.

  1. Four-wave mixing microscopy: a high potential nonlinear imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehmke, Tobias; Knebl, Andreas; Heisterkamp, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    In this work we present non-resonant four-wave mixing microscopy as an additional contrast mechanism in nonlinear microscopy. The setup for this technique was based on a commercially available multiphoton microscope setup equipped with a titanium:sapphire-laser and an optical parametric oscillator as light sources. Fundamental system characteristics with respect to the spatio-temporal pulse overlap and the influence of aberrations on the process are presented. Experiments regarding the directionality of the four-wave mixing signal performed on fresh porcine meat showed an average ratio of the backward to forward signal mean intensity of 0.16 +/- 0.01. Nevertheless, structural information is comparable for both detection modalities. This highlights the potential of four-wave mixing microscopy for in vivo applications. Furthermore, results on porcine meat show the additional contrast generated by four-wave mixing. In summary, the results show a great potential of non-resonant four-wave mixing microscopy as label-free imaging modality in the biomedical sciences.

  2. Potential of using cerium oxide nanoparticles for protecting healthy tissue during accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI)

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Zi; Mainali, Madan Kumar; Sinha, Neeharika; Strack, Guinevere; Altundal, Yucel; Hao, Yao; Winningham, Thomas Andrew; Sajo, Erno; Celli, Jonathan; Ngwa, Wilfred

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using cerium oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) as radical scavengers during accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) to protect normal tissue. We hypothesize that CONPs can be slowly released from the routinely used APBI balloon applicators—via a degradable coating—and protect the normal tissue on the border of the lumpectomy cavity over the duration of APBI. To assess the feasibility of this approach, we analytically calculated the initial concentration of CONPs required to protect normal breast tissue from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the time required for the particles to diffuse to various distances from the lumpectomy wall. Given that cerium has a high atomic number, we took into account the possible inadvertent dose enhancement that could occur due to the photoelectric interactions with radiotherapy photons. To protect against a typical MammoSite treatment fraction of 3.4 Gy, 5 ng-g−1 of CONPs is required to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide. Using 2 nm sized NPs, with an initial concentration of 1 mg-g−1, we found that 2–10 days of diffusion is required to obtain desired concentrations of CONPs in regions 1–2 cm away from the lumpectomy wall. The resultant dose enhancement factor (DEF) is less than 1.01 under such conditions. Our results predict that CONPs can be employed for radioprotection during APBI using a new design in which balloon applicators are coated with the NPs for sustained/controlled in-situ release from within the lumpectomy cavity. PMID:27053452

  3. Potential of using cerium oxide nanoparticles for protecting healthy tissue during accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI).

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Zi; Mainali, Madan Kumar; Sinha, Neeharika; Strack, Guinevere; Altundal, Yucel; Hao, Yao; Winningham, Thomas Andrew; Sajo, Erno; Celli, Jonathan; Ngwa, Wilfred

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using cerium oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) as radical scavengers during accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) to protect normal tissue. We hypothesize that CONPs can be slowly released from the routinely used APBI balloon applicators-via a degradable coating-and protect the normal tissue on the border of the lumpectomy cavity over the duration of APBI. To assess the feasibility of this approach, we analytically calculated the initial concentration of CONPs required to protect normal breast tissue from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the time required for the particles to diffuse to various distances from the lumpectomy wall. Given that cerium has a high atomic number, we took into account the possible inadvertent dose enhancement that could occur due to the photoelectric interactions with radiotherapy photons. To protect against a typical MammoSite treatment fraction of 3.4Gy, 5ng·g(-1) of CONPs is required to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide. Using 2nm sized NPs, with an initial concentration of 1mg·g(-1), we found that 2-10days of diffusion is required to obtain desired concentrations of CONPs in regions 1-2cm away from the lumpectomy wall. The resultant dose enhancement factor (DEF) is less than 1.01 under such conditions. Our results predict that CONPs can be employed for radioprotection during APBI using a new design in which balloon applicators are coated with the NPs for sustained/controlled in-situ release from within the lumpectomy cavity.

  4. Propagation of matter-wave solitons in periodic and random nonlinear potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullaev, Fatkhulla Kh.; Garnier, Josselin

    2005-12-15

    We study the motion of bright matter-wave solitons in nonlinear potentials, produced by periodic or random spatial variations of the atomic scattering length. We obtain analytical results for the soliton motion, the radiation of matter wave, and the radiative soliton decay in such configurations of the Bose-Einstein condensate. The stable regimes of propagation are analyzed. The results are in remarkable agreement with the numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with periodic or random spatial variations of the mean field interactions.

  5. Ambipolar potential effect on a drift-wave mode in a tandem-mirror plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Mase, A.; Jeong, J.H.; Itakura, A.; Ishii, K.; Inutake, M.; Miyoshi, S. )

    1990-05-07

    The {bold k}-{omega} spectra of low-frequency waves which exist in a tandem-mirror plasma are observed by using the Fraunhofer-diffraction method. The observed dispersion relations are in good agreement with those of drift waves including a Doppler shift due to {bold E}{times}{bold B} rotation velocity. The fluctuation level is observed to depend sensitively on the radial profile of a plasma potential. It has a maximum value when a slightly negative electric field is formed, and decreases with increase in an electric field regardless of its sign.

  6. The asymmetric Hubbard model with a confining potential: The partial filling case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Valencia, J.; Franco, R.; Figueira, M. S.

    We investigate the one-dimensional asymmetric Hubbard model with a confining potential, which may describe the ground state of two species of fermionic atoms trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice. We use White's density matrix renormalization group and the global electronic density considered is n=0.8. The fermion density profiles and their variance were computed. We observe coexistence of insulating and metallic regions in the system. The effective confinement region is different for each kind of fermionic atom.

  7. Matter-wave solitons with the minimum number of particles in two-dimensional quasiperiodic potentials.

    PubMed

    Burlak, Gennadiy; Malomed, Boris A

    2012-05-01

    We report results of systematic numerical studies of two-dimensional matter-wave soliton families supported by an external potential, in a vicinity of the junction between stable and unstable branches of the families, where the norm of the solution attains a minimum, facilitating the creation of the soliton. The model is based on the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the self-attractive condensate loaded into a quasiperiodic (QP) optical lattice (OL). The same model applies to spatial optical solitons in QP photonic crystals. Dynamical properties and stability of the solitons are analyzed with respect to variations of the depth and wave number of the OL. In particular, it is found that the single-peak solitons are stable or not in exact accordance with the Vakhitov-Kolokolov (VK) criterion, while double-peak solitons, which are found if the OL wave number is small enough, are always unstable against splitting.

  8. Partial Charges in Periodic Systems: Improving Electrostatic Potential (ESP) Fitting via Total Dipole Fluctuations and Multiframe Approaches.

    PubMed

    Gabrieli, Andrea; Sant, Marco; Demontis, Pierfranco; Suffritti, Giuseppe B

    2015-08-11

    Two major improvements to the state-of-the-art Repeating Electrostatic Potential Extracted Atomic (REPEAT) method, for generating accurate partial charges for molecular simulations of periodic structures, are here developed. The first, D-REPEAT, consists in the simultaneous fit of the electrostatic potential (ESP), together with the total dipole fluctuations (TDF) of the framework. The second, M-REPEAT, allows the fit of multiple ESP configurations at once. When both techniques are fused into one, DM-REPEAT method, the resulting charges become remarkably stable over a large set of fitting regions, giving a robust and physically sound solution to the buried atoms problem. The method capabilities are extensively studied in ZIF-8 framework, and subsequently applied to IRMOF-1 and ITQ-29 crystal structures. To our knowledge, this is the first time that this approach is proposed in the context of periodic systems.

  9. ENSO-Related Variability in Wave Climate Drives Greater Erosion Potential on Central Pacific Atolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramante, J. F.; Ashton, A. D.; Donnelly, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) modulates atmospheric circulation across the equatorial Pacific over a periodic time scale of 2-7 years. Despite the importance of this climate mode in forcing storm generation and trade wind variability, its impact on the wave climate incident on central Pacific atolls has not been addressed. We used the NOAA Wavewatch III CFSR reanalysis hindcasts (1979-2007) to examine the influence of ENSO on sediment mobility and transport at Kwajalein Atoll (8.8°N, 167.7°E). We found that during El Nino event years, easterly trade winds incident on the atoll weakened by 4% compared to normal years and 17% relative to La Nina event years. Despite this decrease in wind strength, significant wave heights incident on the atoll were 3-4% greater during El Nino event years. Using machine learning to partition these waves revealed that the greater El Nino wave heights originated mainly from greater storm winds near the atoll. The southeastern shift in tropical cyclone genesis location during El Nino years forced these storm winds and contributed to the 7% and 16% increases in annual wave energy relative to normal and La Nina years, respectively. Using nested SWAN and XBeach models we determined that the additional wave energy during El Nino event years significantly increased potential sediment mobility at Kwajalein Atoll and led to greater net offshore transport on its most populous island. The larger storm waves likely deplete ocean-facing beaches and reef flats of sediment, but increase the supply of sediment to the atoll lagoon across open reef platforms that are not supporting islands. We discuss further explicit modelling of storms passing over the atoll to elucidate the confounding role of storm surge on the net erosional/depositional effects of these waves. Extrapolating our results to recent Wavewatch III forecasts leads us to conclude that climate change-linked increases in wave height and storm wave energy will increase erosion on

  10. Bent waveguides for matter-waves: supersymmetric potentials and reflectionless geometries

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Adolfo del; Boshier, Malcolm G.; Saxena, Avadh

    2014-01-01

    Non-zero curvature in a waveguide leads to the appearance of an attractive quantum potential which crucially affects the dynamics in matter-wave circuits. Using methods of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, pairs of bent waveguides are found whose geometry-induced potentials share the same scattering properties. As a result, reflectionless waveguides, dual to the straight waveguide, are identified. Strictly isospectral waveguides are also found by modulating the depth of the trapping potential. Numerical simulations are used to demonstrate the efficiency of these approaches in tailoring and controlling curvature-induced quantum-mechanical effects. PMID:24919423

  11. Applying Chemical Potential and Partial Pressure Concepts to Understand the Spontaneous Mixing of Helium and Air in a Helium-Inflated Balloon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jee-Yon Lee; Hee-Soo Yoo; Jong Sook Park; Kwang-Jin Hwang; Jin Seog Kim

    2005-01-01

    The spontaneous mixing of helium and air in a helium-inflated balloon is described in an experiment in which the partial pressure of the gases in the balloon are determined from the mole factions and the total pressure measured in the balloon. The results described provide a model for teaching concepts of partial pressure, chemical potential, and…

  12. The role of internal waves in larval fish interactions with potential predators and prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Adam T.; Cowen, Robert K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Tang, Dorothy

    2014-09-01

    Tidally driven internal wave packets in coastal environments have the potential to influence patchiness of larval fishes, prey, and gelatinous predators. We used the In Situ Ichthyoplankton Imaging System (ISIIS) to synoptically sample larval fishes, copepods, and planktonic predators (ctenophores, hydromedusae, chaetognaths, and polychaetes) across these predictable features in the summer near Stellwagen Bank, Massachusetts, USA. Full water column profiles and fixed depth transects (∼10 m depth) were used to quantify vertical and horizontal components of the fish and invertebrate distributions during stable and vertically mixed conditions associated with tidally generated internal waves. Larval fishes, consisting mostly of Urophycis spp., Merluccius bilinearis, and Labridae, were concentrated near the surface, with larger sizes generally occupying greater depths. During stable water column conditions, copepods formed a near surface thin layer several meters above the chlorophyll-a maximum that was absent when internal waves were propagating. In contrast, ctenophores and other predators were much more abundant at depth, but concentrations near 10 m increased immediately after the internal hydraulic jump mixed the water column. During the propagation of internal waves, the fine-scale abundance of larval fishes was more correlated with the abundance of gelatinous predators and less correlated with copepods compared to the stable conditions. Vertical oscillations caused by the internal hydraulic jump can disperse patches of zooplankton and force surface dwelling larval fishes into deeper water where probability of predator contact is increased, creating conditions potentially less favorable for larval fish growth and survival on short time scales.

  13. Dynamical localization of matter-wave solitons in managed barrier potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullaev, Fatkhulla Kh.; Garnier, Josselin

    2007-03-15

    The bright matter-wave soliton propagation through a barrier with a rapidly oscillating position is investigated. The averaged-over rapid oscillations Gross-Pitaevskii equation is derived, where the effective potential has the form of a finite well. Dynamical trapping and quantum tunneling of the soliton in the effective finite well are investigated. The analytical predictions for the effective soliton dynamics is confirmed by numerical simulations of the full Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  14. Conditioning effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation evoking motor-evoked potential on V-wave response.

    PubMed

    Grosprêtre, Sidney; Martin, Alain

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the collision responsible for the volitional V-wave evoked by supramaximal electrical stimulation of the motor nerve during voluntary contraction. V-wave was conditioned by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the motor cortex at several inter-stimuli intervals (ISI) during weak voluntary plantar flexions (n = 10) and at rest for flexor carpi radialis muscle (FCR; n = 6). Conditioning stimulations were induced by TMS with intensity eliciting maximal motor-evoked potential (MEPmax). ISIs used were ranging from -20 to +20 msec depending on muscles tested. The results showed that, for triceps surae muscles, conditioning TMS increased the V-wave amplitude (~ +250%) and the associated mechanical response (~ +30%) during weak voluntary plantar flexion (10% of the maximal voluntary contraction -MVC) for ISIs ranging from +6 to +18 msec. Similar effect was observed at rest for the FCR with ISI ranging from +6 to +12 msec. When the level of force was increased from 10 to 50% MVC or the conditioning TMS intensity was reduced to elicit responses of 50% of MEPmax, a significant decrease in the conditioned V-wave amplitude was observed for the triceps surae muscles, linearly correlated to the changes in MEP amplitude. The slope of this correlation, as well as the electro-mechanical efficiency, was closed to the identity line, indicating that V-wave impact at muscle level seems to be similar to the impact of cortical stimulation. All these results suggest that change in V-wave amplitude is a great index to reflect changes in cortical neural drive addressed to spinal motoneurons.

  15. Efficient antisymmetrization algorithm for the partially correlated wave functions in the free complement-local Schrödinger equation method

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

    2013-07-28

    We propose here fast antisymmetrization procedures for the partially correlated wave functions that appear in the free complement-local Schrödinger equation (FC-LSE) method. Pre-analysis of the correlation diagram, referred to as dot analysis, combined with the determinant update technique based on the Laplace expansion, drastically reduces the orders of the antisymmetrization computations. When the complement functions include only up to single-correlated terms, the order of computations is O(N{sup 3}), which is the same as the non-correlated case. Similar acceleration is obtained for general correlated functions as a result of dot analysis. This algorithm has been successfully used in our laboratory in actual FC-LSE calculations for accurately solving the many-electron Schrödinger equations of atoms and molecules. The proposed method is general and applicable to the sampling-type methodology of other partially correlated wave functions like those in the quantum Monte Carlo and modern Hylleraas-type methods.

  16. Efficient antisymmetrization algorithm for the partially correlated wave functions in the free complement-local Schrödinger equation method.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

    2013-07-28

    We propose here fast antisymmetrization procedures for the partially correlated wave functions that appear in the free complement-local Schrödinger equation (FC-LSE) method. Pre-analysis of the correlation diagram, referred to as dot analysis, combined with the determinant update technique based on the Laplace expansion, drastically reduces the orders of the antisymmetrization computations. When the complement functions include only up to single-correlated terms, the order of computations is O(N(3)), which is the same as the non-correlated case. Similar acceleration is obtained for general correlated functions as a result of dot analysis. This algorithm has been successfully used in our laboratory in actual FC-LSE calculations for accurately solving the many-electron Schrödinger equations of atoms and molecules. The proposed method is general and applicable to the sampling-type methodology of other partially correlated wave functions like those in the quantum Monte Carlo and modern Hylleraas-type methods.

  17. Pore-scale modeling of vapor transport in partially saturated capillary tube with variable area using chemical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addassi, Mouadh; Schreyer, Lynn; Johannesson, Björn; Lin, Hai

    2016-09-01

    Here we illustrate the usefulness of using the chemical potential as the primary unknown by modeling isothermal vapor transport through a partially saturated cylindrically symmetric capillary tube of variable cross-sectional area using a single equation. There are no fitting parameters and the numerical solutions to the equation are compared with experimental results with excellent agreement. We demonstrate that isothermal vapor transport can be accurately modeled without modeling the details of the contact angle, microscale temperature fluctuations, or pressure fluctuations using a modification of the Fick-Jacobs equation. We thus conclude that for a single, axisymmetric pore, the enhancement factor depends upon relative humidity boundary conditions at the liquid bridge interfaces, distance between liquid bridges, and bridge lengths.

  18. Coherent and dissipative wave packet dynamics in cyclic model systems with four equivalent potential minima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brackhagen, O.; Kühn, O.; Manz, J.; May, V.; Meyer, R.

    1994-06-01

    The dynamics of cyclic systems with four equivalent potential minima is studied here from two different points of view. The solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation provides insight into the coherent wave packet motion. The resulting reaction mechanism involves relocalization between opposite, not neighboring potential minima. The inclusion of an environment within a density matrix description leads to dissipation and therefore to a transition from coherent to incoherent dynamics. The theoretical considerations are applied to a simple model of the cyclic motion of a proton in a molecular framework.

  19. Perceptrons with Hebbian Learning Based on Wave Ensembles in Spatially Patterned Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa-Ortega, T.; Liew, T. C. H.

    2015-03-01

    A general scheme to realize a perceptron for hardware neural networks is presented, where multiple interconnections are achieved by a superposition of Schrödinger waves. Spatially patterned potentials process information by coupling different points of reciprocal space. The necessary potential shape is obtained from the Hebbian learning rule, either through exact calculation or construction from a superposition of known optical inputs. This allows implementation in a wide range of compact optical systems, including (1) any nonlinear optical system, (2) optical systems patterned by optical lithography, and (3) exciton-polariton systems with phonon or nuclear spin interactions.

  20. Potentiality of semiconducting diamond as the base material of millimeter-wave and terahertz IMPATT devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharyya, Aritra; Banerjee, Suranjana; Banerjee, J. P.

    2014-03-01

    An attempt is made in this paper to explore the potentiality of semiconducting type-IIb diamond as the base material of double-drift region (DDR) impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT) devices operating at both millimetre-wave (mm-wave) and terahertz (THz) frequencies. A rigorous large-signal (L-S) simulation based on the non-sinusoidal voltage excitation (NSVE) model developed earlier by the authors is used in this study. At first, a simulation study based on avalanche response time reveals that the upper cut-off frequency for DDR diamond IMPATTs is 1.5 THz, while the same for conventional DDR Si IMPATTs is much smaller, i.e. 0.5 THz. The L-S simulation results show that the DDR diamond IMPATT device delivers a peak RF power of 7.79 W with an 18.17% conversion efficiency at 94 GHz; while at 1.5 THz, the peak power output and conversion efficiency decrease to 6.19 mW and 8.17% respectively, taking 50% voltage modulation. A comparative study of DDR IMPATTs based on diamond and Si shows that the former excels over the later as regards high frequency and high power performance at both mm-wave and THz frequency bands. The effect of band to band tunneling on the L-S properties of DDR diamond and Si IMPATTs has also been studied at different mm-wave and THz frequencies.

  1. NON-WKB MODELS OF THE FIRST IONIZATION POTENTIAL EFFECT: THE ROLE OF SLOW MODE WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Laming, J. Martin

    2012-01-10

    A model for element abundance fractionation between the solar chromosphere and corona is further developed. The ponderomotive force due to Alfven waves propagating through or reflecting from the chromosphere in solar conditions generally accelerates chromospheric ions, but not neutrals, into the corona. This gives rise to what has become known as the first ionization potential effect. We incorporate new physical processes into the model. The chromospheric ionization balance is improved and the effect of different approximations is discussed. We also treat the parametric generation of slow mode waves by the parallel propagating Alfven waves. This is also an effect of the ponderomotive force, arising from the periodic variation of the magnetic pressure driving an acoustic mode, which adds to the background longitudinal pressure. This can have subtle effects on the fractionation, rendering it quasi-mass independent in the lower regions of the chromosphere. We also briefly discuss the change in the fractionation with Alfven wave frequency, relative to the frequency of the overlying coronal loop resonance.

  2. Adaptive denoising and multiscale detection of the V wave in brainstem auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Popescu, M; Papadimitriou, S; Karamitsos, D; Bezerianos, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a wavelet-transform-based system for the V wave identification in brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP). The system combines signal denoising and rule-based localization modules. The signal denoising module has the potential of effective noise reduction after signal averaging. It analyses adaptively the evolution of the wavelet transform maxima across scales. The singularities of the signal create wavelet maxima with different properties from those of the induced noise. A non-linear filtering process implemented with a neural network extracts out the noise-induced maxima. The filtered wavelet details are subsequently analysed by the rule-based localization module for the automatic identification of the V wave. In the first phase, it implements a set of statistical observations as well as heuristic criteria used by human experts in order to classify the IV-V complex. At the second phase, using a multiscale focusing algorithm, the IV and V waves are positioned on the BAEP signal. Our experiments revealed that the system provides accurate results even for signals exhibiting unclear IV-V complexes.

  3. Wave-turbulence description of interacting particles: Klein-Gordon model with a Mexican-hat potential.

    PubMed

    Gallet, Basile; Nazarenko, Sergey; Dubrulle, Bérengère

    2015-07-01

    In field theory, particles are waves or excitations that propagate on the fundamental state. In experiments or cosmological models, one typically wants to compute the out-of-equilibrium evolution of a given initial distribution of such waves. Wave turbulence deals with out-of-equilibrium ensembles of weakly nonlinear waves, and is therefore well suited to address this problem. As an example, we consider the complex Klein-Gordon equation with a Mexican-hat potential. This simple equation displays two kinds of excitations around the fundamental state: massive particles and massless Goldstone bosons. The former are waves with a nonzero frequency for vanishing wave number, whereas the latter obey an acoustic dispersion relation. Using wave-turbulence theory, we derive wave kinetic equations that govern the coupled evolution of the spectra of massive and massless waves. We first consider the thermodynamic solutions to these equations and study the wave condensation transition, which is the classical equivalent of Bose-Einstein condensation. We then focus on nonlocal interactions in wave-number space: we study the decay of an ensemble of massive particles into massless ones. Under rather general conditions, these massless particles accumulate at low wave number. We study the dynamics of waves coexisting with such a strong condensate, and we compute rigorously a nonlocal Kolmogorov-Zakharov solution, where particles are transferred nonlocally to the condensate, while energy cascades towards large wave numbers through local interactions. This nonlocal cascading state constitutes the intermediate asymptotics between the initial distribution of waves and the thermodynamic state reached in the long-time limit.

  4. Fear extinction memory consolidation requires potentiation of pontine-wave activity during REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Datta, Subimal; O'Malley, Matthew W

    2013-03-06

    Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation within multiple memory systems including contextual fear extinction memory, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this process. Here, we show that fear extinction training in rats, which extinguished conditioned fear, increased both slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep. Surprisingly, 24 h later, during memory testing, only 57% of the fear-extinguished animals retained fear extinction memory. We found that these animals exhibited an increase in phasic pontine-wave (P-wave) activity during post-training REM sleep, which was absent in the 43% of animals that failed to retain fear extinction memory. The results of this study provide evidence that brainstem activation, specifically potentiation of phasic P-wave activity, during post-training REM sleep is critical for consolidation of fear extinction memory. The results of this study also suggest that, contrary to the popular hypothesis of sleep and memory, increased sleep after training alone does not guarantee consolidation and/or retention of fear extinction memory. Rather, the potentiation of specific sleep-dependent physiological events may be a more accurate predictor for successful consolidation of fear extinction memory. Identification of this unique mechanism will significantly improve our present understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the sleep-dependent regulation of emotional memory. Additionally, this discovery may also initiate development of a new, more targeted treatment method for clinical disorders of fear and anxiety in humans that is more efficacious than existing methods such as exposure therapy that incorporate only fear extinction.

  5. Fear Extinction Memory Consolidation Requires Potentiation of Pontine-Wave Activity during REM Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Subimal; O'Malley, Matthew W .

    2013-01-01

    Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation within multiple memory systems including contextual fear extinction memory, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this process. Here, we show that fear extinction training in rats, which extinguished conditioned fear, increased both slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep. Surprisingly, 24 h later, during memory testing, only 57% of the fear-extinguished animals retained fear extinction memory. We found that these animals exhibited an increase in phasic pontine-wave (P-wave) activity during post-training REM sleep, which was absent in the 43% of animals that failed to retain fear extinction memory. The results of this study provide evidence that brainstem activation, specifically potentiation of phasic P-wave activity, during post-training REM sleep is critical for consolidation of fear extinction memory. The results of this study also suggest that, contrary to the popular hypothesis of sleep and memory, increased sleep after training alone does not guarantee consolidation and/or retention of fear extinction memory. Rather, the potentiation of specific sleep-dependent physiological events may be a more accurate predictor for successful consolidation of fear extinction memory. Identification of this unique mechanism will significantly improve our present understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the sleep-dependent regulation of emotional memory. Additionally, this discovery may also initiate development of a new, more targeted treatment method for clinical disorders of fear and anxiety in humans that is more efficacious than existing methods such as exposure therapy that incorporate only fear extinction. PMID:23467372

  6. Partial-Discharge Tests of Multiwinding High-Voltage Transformers for Space TWTAs (Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifiers).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-23

    6420 5697 26898 0 0 10:18:30 1.06 4420 18019 11092 0 0 10:20:07 1.06 3420 14879 1115 0 0 10:21:4 1.06 2700 5674 0 0 0 10:23:21 1.08 2300 5739 1264 0 0...for Detection and Measurement of Discharge (Corona) Pulses in Evaluation of Insulation Systems," ASTM D1868-73. 5. R. J. Densley, "Partial Discharge...under Direct-Voltage Conditions," Ch. 11 in Engineering Dielectrics, Vol. 1: Corona Measurement and Interpretation, ASTM 669, eds. R. Bartnikas and E. J

  7. Phylogeography, Salinity Adaptations and Metabolic Potential of the Candidate Division KB1 Bacteria Based on a Partial Single Cell Genome

    PubMed Central

    Nigro, Lisa M.; Hyde, Andrew S.; MacGregor, Barbara J.; Teske, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basins and other hypersaline environments contain abundant and diverse microbial life that has adapted to these extreme conditions. The bacterial Candidate Division KB1 represents one of several uncultured groups that have been consistently observed in hypersaline microbial diversity studies. Here we report the phylogeography of KB1, its phylogenetic relationships to Candidate Division OP1 Bacteria, and its potential metabolic and osmotic stress adaptations based on a partial single cell amplified genome of KB1 from Orca Basin, the largest hypersaline seafloor brine basin in the Gulf of Mexico. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis – previously developed based on 14C incorporation experiments with mixed-species enrichments from Mediterranean seafloor brines – that KB1 has adapted its proteins to elevated intracellular salinity, but at the same time KB1 apparently imports glycine betaine; this compatible solute is potentially not limited to osmoregulation but could also serve as a carbon and energy source. PMID:27597842

  8. Quantum reflection of bright solitary matter waves from a narrow attractive potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchant, A. L.; Billam, T. P.; Yu, M. M. H.; Rakonjac, A.; Helm, J. L.; Polo, J.; Weiss, C.; Gardiner, S. A.; Cornish, S. L.

    2016-02-01

    We report the observation of quantum reflection from a narrow attractive potential using bright solitary matter waves formed from a 85Rb Bose-Einstein condensate. We create the attractive potential using a tightly focused, red-detuned laser beam, and observe reflection of up to 25% of the atoms, along with the confinement of atoms at the position of the beam. We show that the observed reflected fraction is much larger than theoretical predictions for a simple Gaussian potential well. A more detailed model of bright soliton propagation, accounting for the generic presence of small subsidiary intensity maxima in the red-detuned beam, suggests that these small intensity maxima are the cause of this enhanced reflection.

  9. Bloch-like waves in random-walk potentials based on supersymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sunkyu; Piao, Xianji; Hong, Jiho; Park, Namkyoo

    2015-01-01

    Bloch's theorem was a major milestone that established the principle of bandgaps in crystals. Although it was once believed that bandgaps could form only under conditions of periodicity and long-range correlations for Bloch's theorem, this restriction was disproven by the discoveries of amorphous media and quasicrystals. While network and liquid models have been suggested for the interpretation of Bloch-like waves in disordered media, these approaches based on searching for random networks with bandgaps have failed in the deterministic creation of bandgaps. Here we reveal a deterministic pathway to bandgaps in random-walk potentials by applying the notion of supersymmetry to the wave equation. Inspired by isospectrality, we follow a methodology in contrast to previous methods: we transform order into disorder while preserving bandgaps. Our approach enables the formation of bandgaps in extremely disordered potentials analogous to Brownian motion, and also allows the tuning of correlations while maintaining identical bandgaps, thereby creating a family of potentials with ‘Bloch-like eigenstates'. PMID:26373616

  10. Brivaracetam: review of its pharmacology and potential use as adjunctive therapy in patients with partial onset seizures

    PubMed Central

    Mumoli, Laura; Palleria, Caterina; Gasparini, Sara; Citraro, Rita; Labate, Angelo; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Gambardella, Antonio; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Russo, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Brivaracetam (BRV), a high-affinity synaptic vesicle protein 2A ligand, reported to be 10–30-fold more potent than levetiracetam (LEV), is highly effective in a wide range of experimental models of focal and generalized seizures. BRV and LEV similarly bind to synaptic vesicle protein 2A, while differentiating for other pharmacological effects; in fact, BRV does not inhibit high voltage Ca2+ channels and AMPA receptors as LEV. Furthermore, BRV apparently exhibits inhibitory activity on neuronal voltage-gated sodium channels playing a role as a partial antagonist. BRV is currently waiting for approval both in the United States and the European Union as adjunctive therapy for patients with partial seizures. In patients with photosensitive epilepsy, BRV showed a dose-dependent effect in suppressing or attenuating the photoparoxysmal response. In well-controlled trials conducted to date, adjunctive BRV demonstrated efficacy and good tolerability in patients with focal epilepsy. BRV has a linear pharmacokinetic profile. BRV is extensively metabolized and excreted by urine (only 8%–11% unchanged). The metabolites of BRV are inactive, and hydrolysis of the acetamide group is the mainly involved metabolic pathway; hepatic impairment probably requires dose adjustment. BRV does not seem to influence other antiepileptic drug plasma levels. Six clinical trials have so far been completed indicating that BRV is effective in controlling seizures when used at doses between 50 and 200 mg/d. The drug is generally well-tolerated with only mild-to-moderate side effects; this is confirmed by the low discontinuation rate observed in these clinical studies. The most common side effects are related to central nervous system and include fatigue, dizziness, and somnolence; these apparently disappear during treatment. In this review, we analyzed BRV, focusing on the current evidences from experimental animal models to clinical studies with particular interest on potential use in clinical

  11. Networks of triboelectric nanogenerators for harvesting water wave energy: a potential approach toward blue energy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Yang, Jin; Li, Zhaoling; Fan, Xing; Zi, Yunlong; Jing, Qingshen; Guo, Hengyu; Wen, Zhen; Pradel, Ken C; Niu, Simiao; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-03-24

    With 70% of the earth's surface covered with water, wave energy is abundant and has the potential to be one of the most environmentally benign forms of electric energy. However, owing to lack of effective technology, water wave energy harvesting is almost unexplored as an energy source. Here, we report a network design made of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) for large-scale harvesting of kinetic water energy. Relying on surface charging effect between the conventional polymers and very thin layer of metal as electrodes for each TENG, the TENG networks (TENG-NW) that naturally float on the water surface convert the slow, random, and high-force oscillatory wave energy into electricity. On the basis of the measured output of a single TENG, the TENG-NW is expected to give an average power output of 1.15 MW from 1 km(2) surface area. Given the compelling features, such as being lightweight, extremely cost-effective, environmentally friendly, easily implemented, and capable of floating on the water surface, the TENG-NW renders an innovative and effective approach toward large-scale blue energy harvesting from the ocean.

  12. Variety of the Wave Change in Compound Muscle Action Potential in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Muramoto, Akio; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Kenyu; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Tsushima, Mikito; Matsumoto, Akiyuki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Morozumi, Masayoshi; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Animal study. Purpose To review the present warning point criteria of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and investigate new criteria for spinal surgery safety using an animal model. Overview of Literature Little is known about correlation palesis and amplitude of spinal cord monitoring. Methods After laminectomy of the tenth thoracic spinal lamina, 2-140 g force was delivered to the spinal cord with a tension gage to create a bilateral contusion injury. The study morphology change of the CMAP wave and locomotor scale were evaluated for one month. Results Four different types of wave morphology changes were observed: no change, amplitude decrease only, morphology change only, and amplitude and morphology change. Amplitude and morphology changed simultaneously and significantly as the injury force increased (p<0.05) Locomotor scale in the amplitude and morphology group worsened more than the other groups. Conclusions Amplitude and morphology change of the CMAP wave exists and could be the key of the alarm point in CMAP. PMID:26713129

  13. Tunnelling time of a gaussian wave packet through two potential barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrillo, Vittoria; Olkhovsky, Vladislav

    2005-09-01

    The resonant and non-resonant dynamies of a Gaussian quantum wave packet travelling through a double barrier system is studied as a function of the initial characteristics of the spectrum and of the parameters of the potential. The behaviour of the tunnelling time shows that there are situations where the Hartman effect occurs, while, when the resonances are dominant, and in particular for b>π/Δk (b being the inter-barrier distance and Δk the spectrum width), the tunnelling time becomes very large and the Hartman effect does not take place.

  14. Polarization, transverse shifts, and angular momentum conservation laws in partial reflection and refraction of an electromagnetic wave packet.

    PubMed

    Bliokh, K Yu; Bliokh, Yu P

    2007-06-01

    We present a solution to the problem of partial reflection and refraction of a polarized paraxial Gaussian beam at the interface between two transparent media. The Fedorov-Imbert transverse shifts of the centers of gravity of the reflected and refracted beams are calculated. Our results differ in the general case from those derived previously by other authors. In particular, they obey general conservation law for the beams' total angular momentum but do not obey one-particle conservation laws for individual photons, which have been proposed by [Onoda Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083901 (2004)]. We ascertain that these circumstances relate to the artificial model accepted in the literature for the polarized beam; this model does not fit to real beams. The present paper resolves the recent controversy and confirms the results of our previous paper [Bliokh Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 073903 (2006)]. In addition, a diffraction effect of angular transverse shifts of the reflected and refracted beams is described.

  15. Composite Fermion Hofstadter Problem: Partially Polarized Density Wave States in the ν = 2/5 Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Ganpathy

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that the ν = 2/5 state is unpolarized at zero Zeeman energy, while it is fully polarized at large Zeeman energies. A novel state with a charge/spin density wave order for composite fermions is proposed to exist at intermediate values of the Zeeman coupling for ν = 2/5. This state has half the maximum possible polarization, and can be extended to other incompressible fractions. A Hartree-Fock calculation based on the new approach for all fractional quantum Hall states developed by R. Shankar and the author is used to demonstrate the stability of this state to single-particle excitations and to compute gaps. A very recent experiment shows direct evidence for this state.

  16. Composite fermion hofstadter problem: partially polarized density wave states in the nu = 2/5 fractional quantum hall effect

    PubMed

    Murthy

    2000-01-10

    It is well known that the nu = 2/5 state is unpolarized at zero Zeeman energy, while it is fully polarized at large Zeeman energies. A novel state with a charge/spin density wave order for composite fermions is proposed to exist at intermediate values of the Zeeman coupling for nu = 2/5. This state has half the maximum possible polarization, and can be extended to other incompressible fractions. A Hartree-Fock calculation based on the new approach for all fractional quantum Hall states developed by R. Shankar and the author is used to demonstrate the stability of this state to single-particle excitations and to compute gaps. A very recent experiment shows direct evidence for this state.

  17. Nitrous oxide reduction genetic potential from the microbial community of an intermittently aerated partial nitritation SBR treating mature landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Gabarró, J; Hernández-Del Amo, E; Gich, F; Ruscalleda, M; Balaguer, M D; Colprim, J

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates the microbial community dynamics in an intermittently aerated partial nitritation (PN) SBR treating landfill leachate, with emphasis to the nosZ encoding gene. PN was successfully achieved and high effluent stability and suitability for a later anammox reactor was ensured. Anoxic feedings allowed denitrifying activity in the reactor. The influent composition influenced the mixed liquor suspended solids concentration leading to variations of specific operational rates. The bacterial community was low diverse due to the stringent conditions in the reactor, and was mostly enriched by members of Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes as determined by 16S rRNA sequencing from excised DGGE melting types. The qPCR analysis for nitrogen cycle-related enzymes (amoA, nirS, nirK and nosZ) demonstrated high amoA enrichment but being nirS the most relatively abundant gene. nosZ was also enriched from the seed sludge. Linear correlation was found mostly between nirS and the organic specific rates. Finally, Bacteroidetes sequenced in this study by 16S rRNA DGGE were not sequenced for nosZ DGGE, indicating that not all denitrifiers deal with complete denitrification. However, nosZ encoding gene bacteria was found during the whole experiment indicating the genetic potential to reduce N2O.

  18. Potential Impacts of Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies on Aquatic Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Čada, Glenn F.

    2007-04-01

    A new generation of hydropower technologies, the kinetic hydro and wave energy conversion devices, offers the possibility of generating electricity from the movements of water, without the need for dams and diversions. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 encouraged the development of these sources of renewable energy in the United States, and there is growing interest in deploying them globally. The technologies that would extract electricity from free-flowing streams, estuaries, and oceans have not been widely tested. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy convened a workshop to (1) identify the varieties of hydrokinetic energy and wave energy conversion devices and their stages of development, (2) identify where these technologies can best operate, (3) identify the potential environmental issues associated with these technologies and possible mitigation measures, and (4) develop a list of research needs and/or practical solutions to address unresolved environmental issues. The article reviews the results of that workshop, focusing on potential effects on freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems, and we describe recent national and international developments.

  19. Nonlinear wave dynamics near phase transition in PT-symmetric localized potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Sean; Yang, Jianke

    2016-09-01

    Nonlinear wave propagation in parity-time symmetric localized potentials is investigated analytically near a phase-transition point where a pair of real eigenvalues of the potential coalesce and bifurcate into the complex plane. Necessary conditions for a phase transition to occur are derived based on a generalization of the Krein signature. Using the multi-scale perturbation analysis, a reduced nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) is derived for the amplitude of localized solutions near phase transition. Above the phase transition, this ODE predicts a family of stable solitons not bifurcating from linear (infinitesimal) modes under a certain sign of nonlinearity. In addition, it predicts periodically-oscillating nonlinear modes away from solitons. Under the opposite sign of nonlinearity, it predicts unbounded growth of solutions. Below the phase transition, solution dynamics is predicted as well. All analytical results are compared to direct computations of the full system and good agreement is observed.

  20. Interacting particles in a periodically moving potential: traveling wave and transport.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Rakesh; Chatterjee, Sakuntala; Pradhan, Punyabrata; Manna, S S

    2014-02-01

    We study a system of interacting particles in a periodically moving external potential, within the simplest possible description of paradigmatic symmetric exclusion process on a ring. The model describes diffusion of hardcore particles where the diffusion dynamics is locally modified at a uniformly moving defect site, mimicking the effect of the periodically moving external potential. The model, though simple, exhibits remarkably rich features in particle transport, such as polarity reversal and double peaks in particle current upon variation of defect velocity and particle density. By tuning these variables, the most efficient transport can be achieved in either direction along the ring. These features can be understood in terms of a traveling density wave propagating in the system. Our results could be experimentally tested, e.g., in a system of colloidal particles driven by a moving optical tweezer.

  1. Polarization, transverse shifts, and angular momentum conservation laws in partial reflection and refraction of an electromagnetic wave packet

    SciTech Connect

    Bliokh, K. Yu.; Bliokh, Yu. P.

    2007-06-15

    We present a solution to the problem of partial reflection and refraction of a polarized paraxial Gaussian beam at the interface between two transparent media. The Fedorov-Imbert transverse shifts of the centers of gravity of the reflected and refracted beams are calculated. Our results differ in the general case from those derived previously by other authors. In particular, they obey general conservation law for the beams' total angular momentum but do not obey one-particle conservation laws for individual photons, which have been proposed by [Onoda et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083901 (2004)]. We ascertain that these circumstances relate to the artificial model accepted in the literature for the polarized beam; this model does not fit to real beams. The present paper resolves the recent controversy and confirms the results of our previous paper [Bliokh et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 073903 (2006)]. In addition, a diffraction effect of angular transverse shifts of the reflected and refracted beams is described.

  2. Potential Misidentification of Love-Wave Phase Velocity Based on Three-Component Ambient Seismic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zongbo; Xia, Jianghai; Luo, Yinhe; Cheng, Feng; Pan, Yudi

    2016-04-01

    People have calculated Rayleigh-wave phase velocities from vertical component of ambient seismic noise for several years. Recently, researchers started to extract Love waves from transverse component recordings of ambient noise, where "transverse" is defined as the direction perpendicular to a great-circle path or a line in small scale through observation sensors. Most researches assumed Rayleigh waves could be negligible, but Rayleigh waves can exist in the transverse component when Rayleigh waves propagate in other directions besides radial direction. In study of data acquired in western Junggar Basin near Karamay city, China, after processing the transverse component recordings of ambient noise, we obtain two energy trends, which are distinguished with Rayleigh-wave and Love-wave phase velocities, in the frequency-velocity domain using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). Rayleigh waves could be also extracted from the transverse component data. Because Rayleigh-wave and Love-wave phase velocities are close in high frequencies (>0.1 Hz), two kinds of surface waves might be merged in the frequency-velocity domain. Rayleigh-wave phase velocities may be misidentified as Love-wave phase velocities. To get accurate surface-wave phase velocities from the transverse component data using seismic interferometry in investigating the shallow geology, our results suggest using MASW to calculate real Love-wave phase velocities.

  3. Partial recovery of alcohol dependence-related deficits in sleep evoked potentials following 12 months of abstinence.

    PubMed

    Colrain, Ian M; Padilla, Mayra L; Baker, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    Stimuli presented during sleep can produce an evoked EEG delta wave referred to as a K-complex. These responses occur when large numbers of cortical cells burst fire in a synchronized manner. Large amplitude synchronized scalp responses require that the CNS contain large numbers of healthy neurons that are interconnected with highly functional white matter pathways. The P2, N550, and P900 components of the evoked K-complex are sensitive measures of normal healthy brain aging, showing a decrease in amplitude with age. N550 and P900 amplitudes are also reduced in recently detoxified alcoholics, most dramatically over frontal scalp regions. The present study tested the hypothesis that the amplitude of K-complex related evoked potential components would increase with prolonged abstinence. Fifteen alcoholics (12 men) were studied twice, separated by a 12 month period, during which time they were followed with monthly phone calls. Subjects were aged between 38 and 60 years at their first study. They had on average a 29.3 ± 6.7 year drinking history and had been abstinent for between 54 and 405 days at initial testing. Evoked K-complexes were identified in the EEG and averaged to enable measurement of the P2, N550 and P900 peaks. Data were collected from seven scalp sites (FP1, FP2, Fz, FCz, Cz, CPz, and Pz). N550 and P900 amplitudes were significantly higher after 12 months of abstinence and an improvement of at least 5 μV occurred in 12 of the 15 subjects. N550 and P900 also showed highly significant site by night interactions with the largest increases occurring over prefrontal and frontal sites. The data indicate that the sleep evoked response may provide a sensitive marker of brain recovery with abstinence from alcohol.

  4. Effect of Bohm quantum potential in the propagation of ion-acoustic waves in degenerate plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M. M.; Hossen, M. A.; Rafat, A.; Mamun, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    A theoretical investigation has been carried out on the propagation of the ion-acoustic (IA) waves in a relativistic degenerate plasma containing relativistic degenerate electron and positron fluids in the presence of inertial non-relativistic light ion fluid. The Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV), modified K-dV (mK-dV), and mixed mK-dV (mmK-dV) equations are derived by adopting the reductive perturbation method. In order to analyze the basic features (phase speed, amplitude, width, etc.) of the IA solitary waves (SWs), the SWs solutions of the K-dV, mK-dV, and mmK-dV are numerically analyzed. It is found that the degenerate pressure, inclusion of the new phenomena like the Fermi temperatures and quantum mechanical effects (arising due to the quantum diffraction) of both electrons and positrons, number densities, etc., of the plasma species remarkably change the basic characteristics of the IA SWs which are found to be formed either with positive or negative potential. The implication of our results in explaining different nonlinear phenomena in astrophysical compact objects, e.g., white dwarfs, neutron stars, etc., and laboratory plasmas like intense laser-solid matter interaction experiments, etc., are mentioned.

  5. Form factors and the s-wave component of the two-pion-exchange three-nucleon potential

    SciTech Connect

    Robilotta, M.R.; Isidro Filho, M.P.; Coelho, H.T.; Das, T.K.

    1985-02-01

    We argue that the straightforward introduction of ..pi..N form factors into the s-wave component of the two-pion-exchange three-nucleon potential based on chiral symmetry is not free of problems. These can be avoided by means of a redefinition of the potential which considers its physical content.

  6. Reconstruction of multiple gastric electrical wave fronts using potential-based inverse methods.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H K; Pullan, A J; Cheng, L K

    2012-08-21

    One approach for non-invasively characterizing gastric electrical activity, commonly used in the field of electrocardiography, involves solving an inverse problem whereby electrical potentials on the stomach surface are directly reconstructed from dense potential measurements on the skin surface. To investigate this problem, an anatomically realistic torso model and an electrical stomach model were used to simulate potentials on stomach and skin surfaces arising from normal gastric electrical activity. The effectiveness of the Greensite-Tikhonov or the Tikhonov inverse methods were compared under the presence of 10% Gaussian noise with either 84 or 204 body surface electrodes. The stability and accuracy of the Greensite-Tikhonov method were further investigated by introducing varying levels of Gaussian signal noise or by increasing or decreasing the size of the stomach by 10%. Results showed that the reconstructed solutions were able to represent the presence of propagating multiple wave fronts and the Greensite-Tikhonov method with 204 electrodes performed best (correlation coefficients of activation time: 90%; pacemaker localization error: 3 cm). The Greensite-Tikhonov method was stable with Gaussian noise levels up to 20% and 10% change in stomach size. The use of 204 rather than 84 body surface electrodes improved the performance; however, for all investigated cases, the Greensite-Tikhonov method outperformed the Tikhonov method.

  7. Reconstruction of multiple gastric electrical wave fronts using potential-based inverse methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H. K.; Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K.

    2012-08-01

    One approach for non-invasively characterizing gastric electrical activity, commonly used in the field of electrocardiography, involves solving an inverse problem whereby electrical potentials on the stomach surface are directly reconstructed from dense potential measurements on the skin surface. To investigate this problem, an anatomically realistic torso model and an electrical stomach model were used to simulate potentials on stomach and skin surfaces arising from normal gastric electrical activity. The effectiveness of the Greensite-Tikhonov or the Tikhonov inverse methods were compared under the presence of 10% Gaussian noise with either 84 or 204 body surface electrodes. The stability and accuracy of the Greensite-Tikhonov method were further investigated by introducing varying levels of Gaussian signal noise or by increasing or decreasing the size of the stomach by 10%. Results showed that the reconstructed solutions were able to represent the presence of propagating multiple wave fronts and the Greensite-Tikhonov method with 204 electrodes performed best (correlation coefficients of activation time: 90%; pacemaker localization error: 3 cm). The Greensite-Tikhonov method was stable with Gaussian noise levels up to 20% and 10% change in stomach size. The use of 204 rather than 84 body surface electrodes improved the performance; however, for all investigated cases, the Greensite-Tikhonov method outperformed the Tikhonov method.

  8. Compound chondrule formation in the shock-wave heating model: Three-dimensional hydrodynamics simulation of the disruption of a partially-molten dust particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Seiji; Miura, Hitoshi; Nakamoto, Taishi

    2009-11-01

    We carried out three-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations of the disruption of a partially-molten dust particle exposed to high-speed gas flow to examine the compound chondrule formation due to mutual collisions between the fragments (fragment-collision model; [Miura, H., Yasuda, S., Nakamoto, T., 2008a. Icarus194, 811-821]). In the shock-wave heating model, which is one of the most plausible models for chondrule formation, the gas friction heats and melts the surface of the cm-sized dust particle (parent particle) and then the strong gas ram pressure causes the disruption of the molten surface layer. The hydrodynamics simulation shows details of the disruptive motion of the molten surface, production of many fragments and their trajectories parting from the parent particle, and mutual collisions among them. In our simulation, we identified 32 isolated fragments extracted from the parent particle. The size distribution of the fragments was similar to that obtained from the aerodynamic experiment in which a liquid layer was attached to a solid core and it was exposed to a gas flow. We detected 12 collisions between the fragments, which may result in the compound chondrule formation. We also analyzed the paths of all the fragments in detail and found the importance of the shadow effect in which a fragment extracted later blocks the gas flow toward a fragment extracted earlier. We examined the collision velocity and impact parameter of each collision and found that 11 collisions should result in coalescence. It means that the ratio of coalescent bodies to single bodies formed in this disruption of a parent particle is R=11/(32-11)=0.52. We concluded that compound chondrule formation can occur just after the disruption of a cm-sized molten dust particle in shock-wave heating.

  9. Partially supervised P300 speller adaptation for eventual stimulus timing optimization: target confidence is superior to error-related potential score as an uncertain label

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyl, Timothy; Yin, Erwei; Keightley, Michelle; Chau, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Error-related potentials (ErrPs) have the potential to guide classifier adaptation in BCI spellers, for addressing non-stationary performance as well as for online optimization of system parameters, by providing imperfect or partial labels. However, the usefulness of ErrP-based labels for BCI adaptation has not been established in comparison to other partially supervised methods. Our objective is to make this comparison by retraining a two-step P300 speller on a subset of confident online trials using naïve labels taken from speller output, where confidence is determined either by (i) ErrP scores, (ii) posterior target scores derived from the P300 potential, or (iii) a hybrid of these scores. We further wish to evaluate the ability of partially supervised adaptation and retraining methods to adjust to a new stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA), a necessary step towards online SOA optimization. Approach. Eleven consenting able-bodied adults attended three online spelling sessions on separate days with feedback in which SOAs were set at 160 ms (sessions 1 and 2) and 80 ms (session 3). A post hoc offline analysis and a simulated online analysis were performed on sessions two and three to compare multiple adaptation methods. Area under the curve (AUC) and symbols spelled per minute (SPM) were the primary outcome measures. Main results. Retraining using supervised labels confirmed improvements of 0.9 percentage points (session 2, p < 0.01) and 1.9 percentage points (session 3, p < 0.05) in AUC using same-day training data over using data from a previous day, which supports classifier adaptation in general. Significance. Using posterior target score alone as a confidence measure resulted in the highest SPM of the partially supervised methods, indicating that ErrPs are not necessary to boost the performance of partially supervised adaptive classification. Partial supervision significantly improved SPM at a novel SOA, showing promise for eventual online SOA

  10. Current status of a coupled-channel partial wave analysis using data from CLAS at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    M. Bellis, Z. Krahn, M. McCracken, C. Meyer and M. Williams

    2009-04-01

    The non-strange baryon spectrum has been mapped out predominantly by studying N π elastic scattering with phase-shift analysis as the tool of choice. While there has been much success with these experimental techniques, the results have fueled debates in the community, most notably regarding the missing baryons problem. Theoretical solutions to this discrepancy appeal to a diquark-system within the baryons or a coupling to states other than N π. The CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab has turned out high-statistics, photoproduction datasets which are optimal for resolving these issues. However, new analytical techniques may be required to deal with this rich physics sector. The baryon resonances are photoproduced off liquid hydrogen and the CLAS detector allows us to measure a variety of final states. We will have access to nπ +, pπ 0, pπ + π −, pω,pη, pη′, ΛK + and ΣK + final states. A robust software package has been developed that allows for the fitting of these states individually and in a coupled-channel mode. We make use of flexible C++ based tools that allow fast and general calculations of amplitudes based on a covariant tensor formalism. New techniques have been applied to background subtraction which brings an added level of consistency to the analysis. Polarization information from other experiments is incorporated at fit time to help distinguish potentially ambiguous physics processes by using information outside of the CLAS datasets. Some of these channels have more mature analysis (pω,ΛK +) and the preliminary measuremen will be shown as well as an overview of the analysis tools.

  11. Effect Of Electromagnetic Waves Emitted From Mobile Phone On Brain Stem Auditory Evoked Potential In Adult Males.

    PubMed

    Singh, K

    2015-01-01

    Mobile phone (MP) is commonly used communication tool. Electromagnetic waves (EMWs) emitted from MP may have potential health hazards. So, it was planned to study the effect of electromagnetic waves (EMWs) emitted from the mobile phone on brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) in male subjects in the age group of 20-40 years. BAEPs were recorded using standard method of 10-20 system of electrode placement and sound click stimuli of specified intensity, duration and frequency.Right ear was exposed to EMW emitted from MP for about 10 min. On comparison of before and after exposure to MP in right ear (found to be dominating ear), there was significant increase in latency of II, III (p < 0.05) and V (p < 0.001) wave, amplitude of I-Ia wave (p < 0.05) and decrease in IPL of III-V wave (P < 0.05) after exposure to MP. But no significant change was found in waves of BAEP in left ear before vs after MP. On comparison of right (having exposure routinely as found to be dominating ear) and left ears (not exposed to MP), before exposure to MP, IPL of IIl-V wave and amplitude of V-Va is more (< 0.001) in right ear compared to more latency of III and IV wave (< 0.001) in left ear. After exposure to MP, the amplitude of V-Va was (p < 0.05) more in right ear compared to left ear. In conclusion, EMWs emitted from MP affects the auditory potential.

  12. Energy spectrometry of electrons ejected from dynamic quantum dots driven up a potential slope by a surface acoustic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Christopher; Benesh, Matthew; Son, Seok-Kyun; Kataoka, Masaya; Barnes, Crispin; McNeil, Robert; Griffiths, Jon; Jones, Geb; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David

    2013-03-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure generate an electrostatic wave which propagates at the sound velocity. This potential wave is capable of collecting electrons from a 2D electron gas (2DEG) and transporting them through a depleted channel. The SAW minima form a continuous series of dynamic quantum dots, each transporting a controllable number of electrons along the channel. The confinement of the electrons in each dot increases as the potential rises along the channel, ejecting electrons one-by-one back into the 2DEG above the Fermi energy. These electrons can travel several microns before thermalising. We measure their energy spectrum using a variable potential barrier upstream as the channel is squeezed by split gates, and correlate this with the SAW-driven current along the channel. Now at RWTH Aachen

  13. Partial wave analysis of the reaction p (3.5 GeV) + p → pK+ Λ to search for the " ppK-" bound state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agakishiev, G.; Arnold, O.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Göbel, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kunz, T.; Kurepin, A.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michel, J.; Müntz, C.; Münzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.; Sarantsev, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    Employing the Bonn-Gatchina partial wave analysis framework (PWA), we have analyzed HADES data of the reaction p (3.5 GeV) + p → pK+ Λ. This reaction might contain information about the kaonic cluster " ppK-" (with quantum numbers JP =0- and total isospin I = 1 / 2) via its decay into pΛ. Due to interference effects in our coherent description of the data, a hypothetical K ‾ NN (or, specifically " ppK-") cluster signal need not necessarily show up as a pronounced feature (e.g. a peak) in an invariant mass spectrum like pΛ. Our PWA analysis includes a variety of resonant and non-resonant intermediate states and delivers a good description of our data (various angular distributions and two-hadron invariant mass spectra) without a contribution of a K ‾ NN cluster. At a confidence level of CLs = 95% such a cluster cannot contribute more than 2-12% to the total cross section with a pK+ Λ final state, which translates into a production cross-section between 0.7 μb and 4.2 μb, respectively. The range of the upper limit depends on the assumed cluster mass, width and production process.

  14. Partial wave analysis of the reaction p(3.5 GeV) + p → pK+ Λ to search for the "ppK–" bound state

    DOE PAGES

    Agakishiev, G.; Arnold, O.; Belver, D.; ...

    2015-01-26

    Employing the Bonn–Gatchina partial wave analysis framework (PWA), we have analyzed HADES data of the reaction p(3.5GeV) + p → pK+Λ. This reaction might contain information about the kaonic cluster “ppK-” (with quantum numbers JP=0- and total isospin I =1/2) via its decay into pΛ. Due to interference effects in our coherent description of the data, a hypothetical K ¯NN (or, specifically “ppK-”) cluster signal need not necessarily show up as a pronounced feature (e.g. a peak) in an invariant mass spectrum like pΛ. Our PWA analysis includes a variety of resonant and non-resonant intermediate states and delivers a goodmore » description of our data (various angular distributions and two-hadron invariant mass spectra) without a contribution of a K ¯NN cluster. At a confidence level of CLs=95% such a cluster cannot contribute more than 2–12% to the total cross section with a pK+ Λ final state, which translates into a production cross-section between 0.7 μb and 4.2 μb, respectively. The range of the upper limit depends on the assumed cluster mass, width and production process.« less

  15. Comparison of interatomic potentials of water via structure factors reconstructed from simulated partial radial distribution functions: a reverse Monte Carlo based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinczinger, Zsuzsanna; Jóvári, Pál; Pusztai, László

    2017-01-01

    Neutron- and x-ray weighted total structure factors of liquid water have been calculated on the basis of the intermolecular parts of partial radial distribution functions resulting from various computer simulations. The approach includes reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modelling of these partials, using realistic flexible molecules, and the calculation of experimental diffraction data, including the intramolecular contributions, from the RMC particle configurations. The procedure has been applied to ten sets of intermolecular partial radial distribution functions obtained from various computer simulations, including one set from an ab initio molecular dynamics, of water. It is found that modern polarizable water potentials, such as SWM4-DP and BK3 are the most successful in reproducing measured diffraction data.

  16. Continuous-wave infrared optical nerve stimulation for potential diagnostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozburun, Serhat; Cilip, Christopher M.; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Burnett, Arthur L.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2010-09-01

    Optical nerve stimulation using infrared laser radiation has recently been developed as a potential alternative to electrical nerve stimulation. However, recent studies have focused primarily on pulsed delivery of the laser radiation and at relatively low pulse rates. The objective of this study is to demonstrate faster optical stimulation of the prostate cavernous nerves using continuous-wave (cw) infrared laser radiation for potential diagnostic applications. A thulium fiber laser (λ=1870 nm) is used for noncontact optical stimulation of the rat prostate cavernous nerves in vivo. Optical nerve stimulation, as measured by an intracavernous pressure (ICP) response in the penis, is achieved with the laser operating in either cw mode, or with a 5-ms pulse duration at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 100 Hz. Successful optical stimulation is observed to be primarily dependent on a threshold nerve temperature (42 to 45 °C), rather than an incident fluence, as previously reported. cw optical nerve stimulation provides a significantly faster ICP response time using a lower power (and also less expensive) laser than pulsed stimulation. cw optical nerve stimulation may therefore represent an alternative mode of stimulation for intraoperative diagnostic applications where a rapid response is critical, such as identification of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery.

  17. Ab initio treatment of noncollinear magnets with the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, Ph.; Förster, F.; Nordström, L.; Bihlmayer, G.; Blügel, S.

    2004-01-01

    The massively parallelized full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave bulk and film program FLEUR for first-principles calculations in the context of density functional theory was adapted to allow calculations of materials with complex magnetic structures—i.e., with noncollinear spin arrangements and incommensurate spin spirals. The method developed makes no shape approximation to the charge density and works with the continuous vector magnetization density in the interstitial and vacuum region and a collinear magnetization density in the spheres. We give an account of the implementation. Important technical aspects, such as the formulation of a constrained local moment method in a full-potential method that works with a vector magnetization density to deal with specific preselected nonstationary-state spin configurations, the inclusion of the generalized gradient approximation in a noncollinear framework, and the spin-relaxation method are discussed. The significance and validity of different approximations are investigated. We present examples to the various strategies to explore the magnetic ground state, metastable states, and magnetic phase diagrams by relaxation of spin arrangements or by performing calculations for constraint spin configurations to invest the functional dependence of the total energy and magnetic moment with respect to external parameters.

  18. Rich eight-branch spectrum of the oblique propagating longitudinal waves in partially spin-polarized electron-positron-ion plasmas.

    PubMed

    Andreev, Pavel A; Iqbal, Z

    2016-03-01

    We consider the separate spin evolution of electrons and positrons in electron-positron and electron-positron-ion plasmas. We consider the oblique propagating longitudinal waves in these systems. Working in a regime of high-density n(0) ∼ 10(27) cm(-3) and high-magnetic-field B(0)=10(10) G, we report the presence of the spin-electron acoustic waves and their dispersion dependencies. In electron-positron plasmas, similarly to the electron-ion plasmas, we find one spin-electron acoustic wave (SEAW) at the propagation parallel or perpendicular to the external field and two spin-electron acoustic waves at the oblique propagation. At the parallel or perpendicular propagation of the longitudinal waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas, we find four branches: the Langmuir wave, the positron-acoustic wave, and a pair of waves having spin nature, they are the SEAW and the wave discovered in this paper, called the spin-electron-positron acoustic wave (SEPAW). At the oblique propagation we find eight longitudinal waves: the Langmuir wave, the Trivelpiece--Gould wave, a pair of positron-acoustic waves, a pair of SEAWs, and a pair of SEPAWs. Thus, for the first time, we report the existence of the second positron-acoustic wave existing at the oblique propagation and the existence of SEPAWs.

  19. An integral formulation for wave propagation on weakly non-uniform potential flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, Simone; Astley, R. Jeremy; Sinayoko, Samuel; Gabard, Gwénaël; Tournour, Michel

    2016-12-01

    An integral formulation for acoustic radiation in moving flows is presented. It is based on a potential formulation for acoustic radiation on weakly non-uniform subsonic mean flows. This work is motivated by the absence of suitable kernels for wave propagation on non-uniform flow. The integral solution is formulated using a Green's function obtained by combining the Taylor and Lorentz transformations. Although most conventional approaches based on either transform solve the Helmholtz problem in a transformed domain, the current Green's function and associated integral equation are derived in the physical space. A dimensional error analysis is developed to identify the limitations of the current formulation. Numerical applications are performed to assess the accuracy of the integral solution. It is tested as a means of extrapolating a numerical solution available on the outer boundary of a domain to the far field, and as a means of solving scattering problems by rigid surfaces in non-uniform flows. The results show that the error associated with the physical model deteriorates with increasing frequency and mean flow Mach number. However, the error is generated only in the domain where mean flow non-uniformities are significant and is constant in regions where the flow is uniform.

  20. Radio frequency radiation of millimeter wave length: potential occupational safety issues relating to surface heating.

    PubMed

    Ryan, K L; D'Andrea, J A; Jauchem, J R; Mason, P A

    2000-02-01

    Currently, technology is being developed that makes use of the millimeter wave (MMW) range (30-300 GHz) of the radio frequency region of the electromagnetic spectrum. As more and more systems come on line and are used in everyday applications, the possibility of inadvertent exposure of personnel to MMWs increases. To date, there has been no published discussion regarding the health effects of MMWs; this review attempts to fill that void. Because of the shallow depth of penetration, the energy and, therefore, heat associated with MMWs will be deposited within the first 1-2 mm of human skin. MMWs have been used in states of the former Soviet Union to provide therapeutic benefit in a number of diverse disease states, including skin disorders, gastric ulcers, heart disease and cancer. Conversely, the possibility exists that hazards might be associated with accidental overexposure to MMWs. This review attempts to critically analyze the likelihood of such acute effects as burn and eye damage, as well as potential long-term effects, including cancer.

  1. Potential Functional Embedding Theory at the Correlated Wave Function Level. 2. Error Sources and Performance Tests.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jin; Yu, Kuang; Libisch, Florian; Dieterich, Johannes M; Carter, Emily A

    2017-03-14

    Quantum mechanical embedding theories partition a complex system into multiple spatial regions that can use different electronic structure methods within each, to optimize trade-offs between accuracy and cost. The present work incorporates accurate but expensive correlated wave function (CW) methods for a subsystem containing the phenomenon or feature of greatest interest, while self-consistently capturing quantum effects of the surroundings using fast but less accurate density functional theory (DFT) approximations. We recently proposed two embedding methods [for a review, see: Acc. Chem. Res. 2014 , 47 , 2768 ]: density functional embedding theory (DFET) and potential functional embedding theory (PFET). DFET provides a fast but non-self-consistent density-based embedding scheme, whereas PFET offers a more rigorous theoretical framework to perform fully self-consistent, variational CW/DFT calculations [as defined in part 1, CW/DFT means subsystem 1(2) is treated with CW(DFT) methods]. When originally presented, PFET was only tested at the DFT/DFT level of theory as a proof of principle within a planewave (PW) basis. Part 1 of this two-part series demonstrated that PFET can be made to work well with mixed Gaussian type orbital (GTO)/PW bases, as long as optimized GTO bases and consistent electron-ion potentials are employed throughout. Here in part 2 we conduct the first PFET calculations at the CW/DFT level and compare them to DFET and full CW benchmarks. We test the performance of PFET at the CW/DFT level for a variety of types of interactions (hydrogen bonding, metallic, and ionic). By introducing an intermediate CW/DFT embedding scheme denoted DFET/PFET, we show how PFET remedies different types of errors in DFET, serving as a more robust type of embedding theory.

  2. Transport and localization of waves in ladder-shaped lattices with locally PT -symmetric potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Ba Phi; Kim, Kihong

    2016-12-01

    We study numerically the transport and localization properties of waves in ordered and disordered ladder-shaped lattices with local PT symmetry. Using a transfer matrix method, we calculate the transmittance and the reflectance for the individual channels and the Lyapunov exponent for the whole system. In the absence of disorder, we find that when the gain or loss parameter ρ is smaller than the interchain coupling parameter tv, the transmittance and the reflectance are periodic functions of the system size, whereas when ρ is larger than tv, the transmittance is found to be an exponentially decaying function while the reflectance attains a saturation value in the thermodynamic limit. For a fixed system size, there appear perfect transmission resonances in each individual channel at several values of the gain or loss strength smaller than tv. A singular behavior of the transmittance is also found to appear at various values of ρ for a given system size. When disorder is inserted into the on-site potentials, these behaviors are changed substantially due to the interplay between disorder and the gain or loss effect. When ρ is smaller than tv, we find that the presence of locally PT -symmetric potentials suppresses Anderson localization, as compared to the localization in the corresponding Hermitian system. When ρ is larger than tv, we find that localization becomes more pronounced at higher gain or loss strengths. We also find that the phenomenon of anomalous localization occurs in disordered locally PT -symmetric systems precisely at the spectral positions E =0 and E =±√{tv2-ρ2 } . The anomaly at the band center manifests as a sharp peak, contrary to the conventional cases, whereas the anomalies at E =±√{tv2-ρ2 } manifest as sharp dips.

  3. Marker vaccine potential of a foot-and-mouth disease virus with a partial VP1 G-H loop deletion.

    PubMed

    Fowler, V L; Knowles, N J; Paton, D J; Barnett, P V

    2010-04-26

    Previous work in cattle and pigs demonstrated that protection against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) could be achieved following vaccination with chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccines, in which the VP1 G-H loop had been substituted with that from another serotype. This indicated that the VP1 G-H loop may not be essential for the protection of natural hosts against FMDV. If this could be substantiated there would be potential to develop FMD marker vaccines, characterised by the absence of this region. Here, we investigate the serological responses to vaccination with a virus with a partial VP1 G-H loop deletion in order to determine the likelihood of achieving protection and the potential of this virus as a marker vaccine. Inactivated, oil adjuvanted, vaccines, consisting of chemically inactivated virus with or without a partially deleted VP1 G-H loop, were used to immunise cattle. Serum was collected on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 and antibody titres calculated using the virus neutralisation test (VNT) to estimate the likelihood of protection. We predict a good likelihood that cattle vaccinated with a vaccine characterised by a partial VP1 G-H loop would be protected against challenge with the same virus containing the VP1 G-H loop. We also present evidence on the potential of such a construct to act as a marker vaccine, when used in conjunction with a novel serological test.

  4. Inverse problem of the multislice method in retrieving projected complex potentials from the exit-wave function.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fang; Jin, Chuanhong

    2014-03-01

    We proposed a new algorithm that retrieves the projected potentials from the EW of object. This algorithm is based on the traditional multislice method which involves the convolution operation in calculation. The retrieved potential is complex including both the electrostatic and absorptive components. Tests with the simulated exit waves of a 200 K InP crystal prove the algorithm effective for objects in wide thickness range. For thick specimen where dynamical electron diffraction prevails, the retrieved potential could present structure and chemical information of object by completely mapping an atom's scattering potential during interaction with incident electrons.

  5. Relationship between Electron Affinity and Half-Wave Reduction Potential: A Theoretical Study on Cyclic Electron-Acceptor Compounds.

    PubMed

    Calbo, Joaquín; Viruela, Rafael; Ortí, Enrique; Aragó, Juan

    2016-12-05

    A high-level ab initio protocol to compute accurate electron affinities and half-wave reduction potentials is presented and applied for a series of electron-acceptor compounds with potential interest in organic electronics and redox flow batteries. The comprehensive comparison between the theoretical and experimental electron affinities not only proves the reliability of the theoretical G3(MP2) approach employed but also calls into question certain experimental measurements, which need to be revised. By using the thermodynamic cycle for the one-electron attachment reaction A+e(-) →A(-) , theoretical estimates for the first half-wave reduction potential have been computed along the series of electron-acceptor systems investigated, with maximum deviations from experiment of only 0.2 V. The precise inspection of the terms contributing to the half-wave reduction potential shows that the difference in the free energy of solvation between the neutral and the anionic species (ΔΔGsolv ) plays a crucial role in accurately estimating the electron-acceptor properties in solution, and thus it cannot be considered constant even in a family of related compounds. This term, which can be used to explain the occasional lack of correlation between electron affinities and reduction potentials, is rationalized by the (de)localization of the additional electron involved in the reduction process along the π-conjugated chemical structure.

  6. Potential of human serum albumin as chiral selector of basic drugs in affinity electrokinetic chromatography-partial filling technique.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Gómez, Maria A; Villanueva-Camañas, R M; Sagrado, Salvador; Medina-Hernández, Maria J

    2006-11-01

    The enantiomeric resolution of compounds using HSA by means of affinity EKC (AEKC)-partial filling technique is the result of a delicate balance between different experimental variables such as protein concentration, running pH (background electrophoretic buffer (BGE), protein, and compound solutions), and plug length. In this paper, the possibility of using HSA as chiral selector for enantioseparation of 28 basic drugs using this methodology is studied. The effect of the physicochemical parameters, the structural properties of compounds, and compound-HSA protein binding percentages over their chiral resolution with HSA is outlined. Based on the results obtained, a decision tree is proposed for the "a priori" prediction of the capability of HSA for enantioseparation of basic drugs in AEKC. The results obtained indicated that enantioresolution of basic compounds with HSA depends on the hydrophobicity, polarity, and molar volume of compounds.

  7. InfiniCharges: A tool for generating partial charges via the simultaneous fit of multiframe electrostatic potential (ESP) and total dipole fluctuations (TDF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sant, Marco; Gabrieli, Andrea; Demontis, Pierfranco; Suffritti, Giuseppe B.

    2016-03-01

    The InfiniCharges computer program, for generating reliable partial charges for molecular simulations in periodic systems, is here presented. This tool is an efficient implementation of the recently developed DM-REPEAT method, where the stability of the resulting charges, over a large set of fitting regions, is obtained through the simultaneous fit of multiple electrostatic potential (ESP) configurations together with the total dipole fluctuations (TDF). Besides DM-REPEAT, the program can also perform standard REPEAT fit and its multiframe extension (M-REPEAT), with the possibility to restrain the charges to an arbitrary value. Finally, the code is employed to generate partial charges for ZIF-90, a microporous material of the metal organic frameworks (MOFs) family, and an extensive analysis of the results is carried out.

  8. Wave Energy Potential in the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin. An Integrated 10-year Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    under the warnings of the scientific commu- nity for global warming, ocean acidification , the open questions relevant to climate change mitigation and...the present work, is also used in the CYCOFOS-Cyprus coastal ocean forecasting system [73] providing operational 3- hourly wave forecasts for four and...of Mediterranean Sea with emphasis to wave applications [24,56,57,72,74], over the Atlantic Ocean for oil spill modeling [33], for the Adriatic Sea

  9. Inverse spectral results for Schrödinger operators on the unit interval with partial information given on the potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amour, L.; Faupin, J.; Raoux, T.

    2009-03-01

    We pursue the analysis of the Schrödinger operator on the unit interval in inverse spectral theory initiated in the work of Amour and Raoux ["Inverse spectral results for Schrödinger operators on the unit interval with potentials in Lp spaces," Inverse Probl. 23, 2367 (2007)]. While the potentials in the work of Amour and Raoux belong to L1 with their difference in Lp (1≤p<∞), we consider here potentials in Wk,1 spaces having their difference in Wk,p, where 1≤p≤+∞, k ɛ{0,1,2}. It is proved that two potentials in Wk,1([0,1]) being equal on [a,1] are also equal on [0,1] if their difference belongs to Wk,p([0,a]) and if the number of their common eigenvalues is sufficiently high. Naturally, this number decreases as the parameter a decreases and as the parameters k and p increase.

  10. Molecular wave function and effective adiabatic potentials calculated by extended multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree-Fock method

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Tsuyoshi; Ide, Yoshihiro; Yamanouchi, Kaoru

    2015-12-31

    We first calculate the ground-state molecular wave function of 1D model H{sub 2} molecule by solving the coupled equations of motion formulated in the extended multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) method by the imaginary time propagation. From the comparisons with the results obtained by the Born-Huang (BH) expansion method as well as with the exact wave function, we observe that the memory size required in the extended MCTDHF method is about two orders of magnitude smaller than in the BH expansion method to achieve the same accuracy for the total energy. Second, in order to provide a theoretical means to understand dynamical behavior of the wave function, we propose to define effective adiabatic potential functions and compare them with the conventional adiabatic electronic potentials, although the notion of the adiabatic potentials is not used in the extended MCTDHF approach. From the comparison, we conclude that by calculating the effective potentials we may be able to predict the energy differences among electronic states even for a time-dependent system, e.g., time-dependent excitation energies, which would be difficult to be estimated within the BH expansion approach.

  11. Partial sleep deprivation does not alter processes involved in semantic word priming: event-related potential evidence.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Paniz; Muller-Gass, Alexandra; Campbell, Kenneth

    2015-03-01

    Sleep deprivation has generally been observed to have a detrimental effect on tasks that require sustained attention for successful performance. It might however be possible to counter these effects by altering cognitive strategies. A recent semantic word priming study indicated that subjects used an effortful predictive-expectancy search of semantic memory following normal sleep, but changed to an automatic, effortless strategy following total sleep deprivation. Partial sleep deprivation occurs much more frequently than total sleep deprivation. The present study therefore employed a similar priming task following either 4h of sleep or following normal sleep. The purpose of the study was to determine whether partial sleep deprivation would also lead to a shift in cognitive strategy to compensate for an inability to sustain attention and effortful processing necessary for using the predicative expectancy strategy. Sixteen subjects were presented with word pairs, a prime and a target that were either strongly semantically associated (cat...dog), weakly associated (cow...barn) or not associated (apple...road). The subject's task was to determine if the target word was semantically associated to the prime. A strong priming effect was observed in both conditions. RTs were slower, accuracy lower, and N400 larger to unassociated targets, independent of the amount of sleep. The overall N400 did not differ as a function of sleep. The scalp distribution of the N400 was also similar following both normal sleep and sleep loss. There was thus little evidence of a difference in the processing of the target stimulus as a function of the amount sleep. Similarly, ERPs in the period between the onset of the prime and the subsequent target also did not differ between the normal sleep and sleep loss conditions. In contrast to total sleep deprivation, subjects therefore appeared to use a common predictive expectancy strategy in both conditions. This strategy does however require an

  12. Ex vivo comparison of the tissue effects of six laser wavelengths for potential use in laser supported partial nephrectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoder, Wael Y.; Zilinberg, Katja; Waidelich, Raphaela; Stief, Christian G.; Becker, Armin J.; Pangratz, Thomas; Hennig, Georg; Sroka, Ronald

    2012-06-01

    Laparoscopic/robotic partial nephrectomy (LPN) is increasingly considered for small renal tumors (RT). This demands new compatible surgical tools for RT-resection, such as lasers, to optimize cutting and coagulation. This work aims to characterize ex vivo handling requirements for six medically approved laser devices emitting different light wavelengths (940, 1064, 1318, 1470, 1940, and 2010 nm) amenable for LPN. Incisions were made by laser fibers driven by a computer-controlled stepping motor allowing precise linear movement with a preset velocity at a fixed fiber-tip distance to tissue. Optical parameters were measured on 200 μm tissue slices. Cutting quality depended on power output, fiber velocity and fiber-tip distance to tissue. Contact manner is suitable for cutting while a noncontact manner (5 mm distance) induces coagulation. Ablation threshold differs for each wavelength. Ablation depth is proportional to power output (within limit) while axial and superficial coagulation remains mostly constant. Increased fiber velocity compromises the coagulation quality. Optical parameters of porcine kidney tissue demonstrate that renal absorption coefficient follows water absorption in the 2 μm region while for other spectral regions (900 to 1500 and 1 μm) the tissue effects are influenced by other chromophores and scattering. Tissue color changes demonstrate dependencies on irradiance, scan velocity, and wavelength. Current results clearly demonstrate that surgeons considering laser-assisted RT excisions should be aware of the mentioned technical parameters (power output, fiber velocity and fiber-tip tissue-distance) rather than wavelength only.

  13. Ex vivo comparison of the tissue effects of six laser wavelengths for potential use in laser supported partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Khoder, Wael Y; Zilinberg, Katja; Waidelich, Raphaela; Stief, Christian G; Becker, Armin J; Pangratz, Thomas; Hennig, Georg; Sroka, Ronald

    2012-06-01

    Laparoscopic/robotic partial nephrectomy (LPN) is increasingly considered for small renal tumors (RT). This demands new compatible surgical tools for RT-resection, such as lasers, to optimize cutting and coagulation. This work aims to characterize ex vivo handling requirements for six medically approved laser devices emitting different light wavelengths (940, 1064, 1318, 1470, 1940, and 2010 nm) amenable for LPN. Incisions were made by laser fibers driven by a computer-controlled stepping motor allowing precise linear movement with a preset velocity at a fixed fiber-tip distance to tissue. Optical parameters were measured on 200 μm tissue slices. Cutting quality depended on power output, fiber velocity and fiber-tip distance to tissue. Contact manner is suitable for cutting while a noncontact manner (5 mm distance) induces coagulation. Ablation threshold differs for each wavelength. Ablation depth is proportional to power output (within limit) while axial and superficial coagulation remains mostly constant. Increased fiber velocity compromises the coagulation quality. Optical parameters of porcine kidney tissue demonstrate that renal absorption coefficient follows water absorption in the 2 μm region while for other spectral regions (900 to 1500 and 1 μm) the tissue effects are influenced by other chromophores and scattering. Tissue color changes demonstrate dependencies on irradiance, scan velocity, and wavelength. Current results clearly demonstrate that surgeons considering laser-assisted RT excisions should be aware of the mentioned technical parameters (power output, fiber velocity and fiber-tip tissue-distance) rather than wavelength only.

  14. Intersubgenomic heterosis in seed yield potential observed in a new type of Brassica napus introgressed with partial Brassica rapa genome.

    PubMed

    Qian, W; Chen, X; Fu, D; Zou, J; Meng, J

    2005-05-01

    This paper reports the observation on the intersubgenomic heterosis for seed yield among hybrids between natural Brassica napus (A(n)A(n)C(n)C(n)) and a new type of B. napus with introgressions of genomic components of Brassica rapa (A(r)A(r)). This B. napus was selected from the progeny of B. napus x B. rapa and (B. napus x B. rapa) x B. rapa based on extensive phenotypic and cytological observation. Among the 129 studied partial intersubgenomic hybrids, which were obtained by randomly crossing 13 lines of the new type of B. napus in F(3) or BC(1)F(3) to 27 cultivars of B. napus from different regions as tester lines, about 90% of combinations exceeded the yield of their respective tester lines, whereas about 75% and 25% of combinations surpassed two elite Chinese cultivars, respectively. This strong heterosis was further confirmed by reevaluating 2 out of the 129 combinations in a successive year and by surveying hybrids between 20 lines of the new type of B. napus in BC(1)F(5) and its parental B. napus in two locations. Some DNA segments from B. rapa were identified with significant effects on seed yield and yield components of the new type of B. napus in BC(1)F(5) and intersubgenomic hybrids in positive or negative direction. It seems that the genomic components introgressed from B. rapa contributed to improvement of seed yield of rapeseed.

  15. Gaussian solitary waves and compactons in Fermi–Pasta–Ulam lattices with Hertzian potentials

    PubMed Central

    James, Guillaume; Pelinovsky, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    We consider a class of fully nonlinear Fermi–Pasta–Ulam (FPU) lattices, consisting of a chain of particles coupled by fractional power nonlinearities of order α>1. This class of systems incorporates a classical Hertzian model describing acoustic wave propagation in chains of touching beads in the absence of precompression. We analyse the propagation of localized waves when α is close to unity. Solutions varying slowly in space and time are searched with an appropriate scaling, and two asymptotic models of the chain of particles are derived consistently. The first one is a logarithmic Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation and possesses linearly orbitally stable Gaussian solitary wave solutions. The second model consists of a generalized KdV equation with Hölder-continuous fractional power nonlinearity and admits compacton solutions, i.e. solitary waves with compact support. When , we numerically establish the asymptotically Gaussian shape of exact FPU solitary waves with near-sonic speed and analytically check the pointwise convergence of compactons towards the limiting Gaussian profile. PMID:24808748

  16. Simulation Of Wave Function And Probability Density Of Modified Poschl Teller Potential Derived Using Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angraini, Lily Maysari; Suparmi, Variani, Viska Inda

    2010-12-01

    SUSY quantum mechanics can be applied to solve Schrodinger equation for high dimensional system that can be reduced into one dimensional system and represented in lowering and raising operators. Lowering and raising operators can be obtained using relationship between original Hamiltonian equation and the (super) potential equation. In this paper SUSY quantum mechanics is used as a method to obtain the wave function and the energy level of the Modified Poschl Teller potential. The graph of wave function equation and probability density is simulated by using Delphi 7.0 programming language. Finally, the expectation value of quantum mechanics operator could be calculated analytically using integral form or probability density graph resulted by the programming.

  17. Simulation Of Wave Function And Probability Density Of Modified Poschl Teller Potential Derived Using Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Angraini, Lily Maysari; Suparmi,; Variani, Viska Inda

    2010-12-23

    SUSY quantum mechanics can be applied to solve Schrodinger equation for high dimensional system that can be reduced into one dimensional system and represented in lowering and raising operators. Lowering and raising operators can be obtained using relationship between original Hamiltonian equation and the (super) potential equation. In this paper SUSY quantum mechanics is used as a method to obtain the wave function and the energy level of the Modified Poschl Teller potential. The graph of wave function equation and probability density is simulated by using Delphi 7.0 programming language. Finally, the expectation value of quantum mechanics operator could be calculated analytically using integral form or probability density graph resulted by the programming.

  18. Dynamics of zero-energy nonspreading non-Gaussian wave packets for a class of central potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Makowski, Adam J. Pepłowski, Piotr

    2013-10-15

    Zero-energy wave packets, coherent states, are constructed in such a way that they retain their shape during the time evolution for a large class of central potentials. The packets are not of the Gaussian type with −r{sup 2} dependence but, instead, their shape is determined by −r{sup 1/(μ+1/2)} with −1/2<μ<1/2. A very close quantum–classical correspondence is also shown, i.e., the well localized states travel along suitable classical trajectories. -- Highlights: •Central potentials are considered. •Nonspreading, non-Gaussian wave packets are constructed. •Time evolution of the zero-energy packets is studied. •Quantum–classical correspondence is discussed.

  19. Dynamics of nonautonomous discrete rogue wave solutions for an Ablowitz-Musslimani equation with P T -symmetric potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fajun

    2017-02-01

    Starting from a discrete spectral problem, we derive a hierarchy of nonlinear discrete equations which include the Ablowitz-Ladik (AL) equation. We analytically study the discrete rogue-wave (DRW) solutions of AL equation with three free parameters. The trajectories of peaks and depressions of profiles for the first- and second-order DRWs are produced by means of analytical and numerical methods. In particular, we study the solutions with dispersion in parity-time ( P T ) symmetric potential for Ablowitz-Musslimani equation. And we consider the non-autonomous DRW solutions, parameters controlling and their interactions with variable coefficients, and predict the long-living rogue wave solutions. Our results might provide useful information for potential applications of synthetic P T symmetric systems in nonlinear optics and condensed matter physics.

  20. Dynamics of zero-energy nonspreading non-Gaussian wave packets for a class of central potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, Adam J.; Pepłowski, Piotr

    2013-10-01

    Zero-energy wave packets, coherent states, are constructed in such a way that they retain their shape during the time evolution for a large class of central potentials. The packets are not of the Gaussian type with -r2 dependence but, instead, their shape is determined by -r with -1/2<μ<1/2. A very close quantum-classical correspondence is also shown, i.e., the well localized states travel along suitable classical trajectories.

  1. Effects of endothelin-1 on the membrane potential and slow waves in circular smooth muscle of rat gastric antrum.

    PubMed

    Imaeda, Kenro; Kato, Takashi; Okayama, Naotsuka; Imai, Seiji; Sasaki, Makoto; Kataoka, Hiromi; Nakazawa, Takahiro; Ohara, Hirotaka; Kito, Yoshihiko; Itoh, Makoto

    2004-10-01

    Electrophysiological effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on circular smooth muscle of rat gastric antrum were investigated by using intracellular membrane potential recording techniques. ET-1 (10 nM) caused an initial hyperpolarization of the membrane which was followed by a sustained depolarization. ET-1 also increased the frequency but not the amplitude of slow waves. In the presence of the endothelin type A (ETA) receptor antagonist, BQ123 (1 microM), ET-1 (10 nM) depolarized the membrane and increased the frequency of slow waves, but without the initial hyperpolarization. The selective endothelin type B (ETB) receptor agonist, sarafotoxin S6c (10 nM), also depolarized the membrane and increased the frequency of slow waves. In the presence of the ETB receptor antagonist, BQ788 (1 microM), ET-1 (10 nM) hyperpolarized the membrane. However, in the presence of BQ788, ET-1 caused neither the depolarization nor the increase in the frequency of the slow waves. The ET-1-induced hyperpolarization was completely abolished by apamin (0.1 microM). In the presence of apamin, ET-1 depolarized the membrane and increased the frequency of slow waves. The ET-1-induced depolarization was significantly attenuated by 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS, 0.3 mM). The increase of the frequency by ET-1 was observed both in the presence and absence of DIDS. These results suggest that, ET-1 hyperpolarizes the membrane by the activation of Ca2+-activated K+ channels via ETA receptors, and depolarizes the membrane by the activation of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels via ETB receptors. ET-1 also appears to increase the frequency of slow waves via ETB receptors, however this mechanism would seem to be independent of membrane depolarization.

  2. Potential Impact of Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Breast on Patient Selection for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehr, Marietta; Wolfgarten, Matthias; Stoelzle, Marco; Leutner, Claudia; Hoeller, Tobias; Schrading, Simone; Kuhl, Christiane; Schild, Hans; Kuhn, Walther; Braun, Michael

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) after breast-conserving therapy is currently under investigation in prospective randomized studies. Multifocality and multicentricity are exclusion criteria for APBI. Preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect ipsilateral and contralateral invasive tumor foci or ductal carcinoma in situ in addition to conventional diagnostic methods (clinical examination, mammography, and ultrasonography). The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the impact of preoperative MRI on patient selection for APBI. Methods and Materials: From 2002 to 2007, a total of 579 consecutive, nonselected patients with newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer received preoperative breast MRI in addition to conventional imaging studies at the Bonn University Breast Cancer Center. In retrospect, 113 patients would have met the criteria for APBI using conventional imaging workup (clinical tumor size {<=}3 cm; negative axillary lymph node status; unifocal disease; no evidence of distant metastases; no invasive lobular carcinoma, ductal and lobular carcinoma in situ, or Paget's disease). We analyzed the amount of additional ipsilateral and contralateral tumor foci detected by MRI. Results: MRI detected additional tumor foci in 8.8% of patients eligible for APBI (11 tumor foci in 10 of 113 patients), either ipsilateral (n = 7, 6.2%) or contralateral (n = 4, 3.5%). In 1 patient, MRI helped detect additional tumor focus both ipsilaterally and contralaterally. Conclusions: Preoperative breast MRI is able to identify additional tumor foci in a clinically relevant number of cases in this highly selected group of patients with low-risk disease and may be useful in selecting patients for APBI.

  3. A novel partial agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) recruits PPARgamma-coactivator-1alpha, prevents triglyceride accumulation, and potentiates insulin signaling in vitro.

    PubMed

    Burgermeister, Elke; Schnoebelen, Astride; Flament, Angele; Benz, Jörg; Stihle, Martine; Gsell, Bernard; Rufer, Arne; Ruf, Armin; Kuhn, Bernd; Märki, Hans Peter; Mizrahi, Jacques; Sebokova, Elena; Niesor, Eric; Meyer, Markus

    2006-04-01

    Partial agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), also termed selective PPARgamma modulators, are expected to uncouple insulin sensitization from triglyceride (TG) storage in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. These agents shall thus avoid adverse effects, such as body weight gain, exerted by full agonists such as thiazolidinediones. In this context, we describe the identification and characterization of the isoquinoline derivative PA-082, a prototype of a novel class of non-thiazolidinedione partial PPARgamma ligands. In a cocrystal with PPARgamma it was bound within the ligand-binding pocket without direct contact to helix 12. The compound displayed partial agonism in biochemical and cell-based transactivation assays and caused preferential recruitment of PPARgamma-coactivator-1alpha (PGC1alpha) to the receptor, a feature shared with other selective PPARgamma modulators. It antagonized rosiglitazone-driven transactivation and TG accumulation during de novo adipogenic differentiation of murine C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells. The latter effect was mimicked by overexpression of wild-type PGC1alpha but not its LXXLL-deficient mutant. Despite failing to promote TG loading, PA-082 induced mRNAs of genes encoding components of insulin signaling and adipogenic differentiation pathways. It potentiated glucose uptake and inhibited the negative cross-talk of TNFalpha on protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation in mature adipocytes and HepG2 human hepatoma cells. PGC1alpha is a key regulator of energy expenditure and down-regulated in diabetics. We thus propose that selective recruitment of PGC1alpha to favorable PPARgamma-target genes provides a possible molecular mechanism whereby partial PPARgamma agonists dissociate TG accumulation from insulin signaling.

  4. Local Left Ventricular Epicardial J Waves and Late Potentials in Brugada Syndrome Patients with Inferolateral Early Repolarization Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Nagase, Satoshi; Tanaka, Masamichi; Morita, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Koji; Wada, Tadashi; Murakami, Masato; Nishii, Nobuhiro; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Ito, Hiroshi; Ohe, Tohru; Kusano, Kengo F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Brugada syndrome (BrS) is characterized by J-point or ST-segment elevation on electrocardiograms (ECGs) and increased risk of ventricular fibrillation (VF). In BrS, epicardial depolarization abnormality with delayed potential on the right ventricular outflow tract is reportedly the predominant mechanism underlying VF. Yet VF occurrence is also associated with early repolarization (ER) pattern in the inferolateral ECG leads, which may represent the inferior and/or left lateral ventricular myocardium. The aim of this study was to examine epicardial electrograms recorded directly at the left ventricle (LV) in BrS patients after VF episodes. Methods: In 12 BrS patients who had experienced VF episodes and 17 control subjects, a multipolar catheter was introduced into the left lateral coronary vein for unipolar and bipolar electrogram recordings at the LV epicardium. Both inferior and lateral ER patterns on ECG were observed in three BrS patients and six control subjects. Results: In the epicardium, prominent J waves were detected using unipolar recording, and potentials after the QRS complex were detected using bipolar recording in three of the 12 BrS patients. These three patients also showed both inferior and lateral ER patterns on ECG. Neither prominent J waves nor potentials after the QRS complex were recorded at the endocardium of the LV in any of these three patients; nor were they seen at the epicardium in any of the control subjects. These features were accentuated on pilsicainide administration (n = 2) but diminished on constant atrial pacing (n = 3) and isoproterenol administration (n = 1). The J waves observed through unipolar recording coincided with the potentials after QRS complex observed through bipolar recording and with the inferolateral ER patterns on ECG. Conclusions: We recorded prominent J waves in unipolar electrogram and potentials after QRS complex in bipolar electrogram at the LV epicardium in BrS patients with global ER pattern

  5. Local Left Ventricular Epicardial J Waves and Late Potentials in Brugada Syndrome Patients with Inferolateral Early Repolarization Pattern.

    PubMed

    Nagase, Satoshi; Tanaka, Masamichi; Morita, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Koji; Wada, Tadashi; Murakami, Masato; Nishii, Nobuhiro; Nakamura, Kazufumi; Ito, Hiroshi; Ohe, Tohru; Kusano, Kengo F

    2017-01-01

    Background: Brugada syndrome (BrS) is characterized by J-point or ST-segment elevation on electrocardiograms (ECGs) and increased risk of ventricular fibrillation (VF). In BrS, epicardial depolarization abnormality with delayed potential on the right ventricular outflow tract is reportedly the predominant mechanism underlying VF. Yet VF occurrence is also associated with early repolarization (ER) pattern in the inferolateral ECG leads, which may represent the inferior and/or left lateral ventricular myocardium. The aim of this study was to examine epicardial electrograms recorded directly at the left ventricle (LV) in BrS patients after VF episodes. Methods: In 12 BrS patients who had experienced VF episodes and 17 control subjects, a multipolar catheter was introduced into the left lateral coronary vein for unipolar and bipolar electrogram recordings at the LV epicardium. Both inferior and lateral ER patterns on ECG were observed in three BrS patients and six control subjects. Results: In the epicardium, prominent J waves were detected using unipolar recording, and potentials after the QRS complex were detected using bipolar recording in three of the 12 BrS patients. These three patients also showed both inferior and lateral ER patterns on ECG. Neither prominent J waves nor potentials after the QRS complex were recorded at the endocardium of the LV in any of these three patients; nor were they seen at the epicardium in any of the control subjects. These features were accentuated on pilsicainide administration (n = 2) but diminished on constant atrial pacing (n = 3) and isoproterenol administration (n = 1). The J waves observed through unipolar recording coincided with the potentials after QRS complex observed through bipolar recording and with the inferolateral ER patterns on ECG. Conclusions: We recorded prominent J waves in unipolar electrogram and potentials after QRS complex in bipolar electrogram at the LV epicardium in BrS patients with global ER pattern

  6. Different Brain Wave Patterns and Cortical Control Abilities in Relation to Different Creative Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ying-Han; Tseng, Chao-Yuan; Tsai, Arthur Chih-Hsin; Huang, Andrew Chih-Wei; Lin, Wei-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary understanding of brain functions provides a way to probe into the mystery of creativity. However, the prior evidence regarding the relationship between creativity and brain wave patterns reveals inconsistent conclusions. One possible reason might be that the means of selecting creative individuals in the past has varied in each study.…

  7. Focused tandem shock waves in water and their potential application in cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukes, P.; Sunka, P.; Hoffer, P.; Stelmashuk, V.; Pouckova, P.; Zadinova, M.; Zeman, J.; Dibdiak, L.; Kolarova, H.; Tomankova, K.; Binder, S.; Benes, J.

    2014-01-01

    The generator of two focused successive (tandem) shock waves (FTSW) in water produced by underwater multichannel electrical discharges at two composite electrodes, with a time delay between the first and second shock waves of 10 s, was developed. It produces, at the focus, a strong shock wave with a peak positive pressure of up to 80 MPa, followed by a tensile wave with a peak negative pressure of up to MPa, thus generating at the focus a large amount of cavitation. Biological effects of FTSW were demonstrated in vitro on hemolysis of erythrocytes and cell viability of human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells as well as on tumor growth delay ex vivo and in vivo experiments performed with B16 melanoma, T-lymphoma, and R5-28 sarcoma cell lines. It was demonstrated in vivo that FTSW can enhance antitumor effects of chemotherapeutic drugs, such as cisplatin, most likely due to increased permeability of the membrane of cancer cells induced by FTSW. Synergetic cytotoxicity of FTSW with sonosensitive porphyrin-based drug Photosan on tumor growth was observed, possibly due to the cavitation-induced sonodynamic effect of FTSW.

  8. Automatic guided wave PPM communication system for potential SHM of flooding members in sub-sea oilrigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijarez, Rito; Gaydecki, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    An automatic guided wave pulse position modulation system, using steel tubes as the communication channel, for detecting flooding in the hollow sub-sea structures of newly built offshore oilrigs is presented. Underwater close visual inspections (CVI) are normally conducted during swim-round surveys in pre-selected areas or areas suspected of damage. An acceptable alternative to CVI is a non-destructive testing (NDT) technique called flood member detection (FMD). Usually, this NDT technique employs ultrasound or x-rays to detect the presence of seawater in the tubular structures, requiring divers or remote operating vehicles (ROVs). The field-proven FMD technique, integrated within the concept of structural health monitoring, offers an alternative to these traditional inspection methods. The system employs two smart sensors and modulators, which transmit 40 kHz guided wave pulses, and a digital signal processing demodulator, which performs automatic detection of guided wave energy packets. Experiments were performed in dry conditions, inside and outside the laboratory; in the former using a steel tube 1.5 m×0.27 m×2 mm, and in the latter using a tubular steel heliport structure approximately 15 m×15 m in area and the base deck of an oilrig under construction. Results confirm that, although there was significant dispersion of the transmitted pulses, the system successfully distinguished automatically guided wave encoded information that could potentially be used in sub-sea oilrigs.

  9. The progressive wave pump: numerical multiphysics investigation of a novel pump concept with potential to ventricular assist device application.

    PubMed

    Perschall, Markus; Drevet, Jean Baptiste; Schenkel, Torsten; Oertel, Herbert

    2012-09-01

    This article describes the numerical fluid-structure interaction (FSI) validation of a new pumping concept and the possibility for application of a further developed type, as an implantable ventricular assist device (VAD). The novel principle of the so-called progressive wave pump is based on the interaction of an elastic membrane actuated by forced excitation with a surrounding fluid and the pump housing. By applying forced vibrations to one end of the membrane, a transversal wave builds up and progresses to the far end generating both a positive pressure gradient and flow rate. Among others, two axisymmetric geometrical configurations are possible, namely the discoidal and the tubular design. The first one has been built as a physical prototype and is experimentally investigated. In addition, a corresponding numerical FSI model is set up and validated against the experimental findings. Based on this validated numerical method, further numerical investigations are conducted focusing on the development of a tubular progressive wave pump concept with regard to its potential for application as a VAD in the future. To address VAD-relevant issues such as size, hydraulic performance, and blood trauma, corresponding numerical simulations involving macroscopic blood trauma models have been performed. Although being still in an early phase of development, the results are promising and indicate that the wave pump concept in its present state is feasible and can be further developed and investigated as a new type of blood pump.

  10. Muscle afferent potential (`A-wave') in the surface electromyogram of a phasic stretch reflex in normal humans

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Alex. M.; Michie, Patricia T.; Glue, Leonard C. T.

    1972-01-01

    The experiments reported in this paper tested the hypothesis that the afferent potential elicited by a tendon tap in an isometrically recorded phasic stretch reflex can be detected in the surface EMG of normal humans when appropriate techniques are used. These techniques involved (1) training the subjects to relax mentally and physically so that the EMG was silent before and immediately after the diphasic MAP which reflects a highly synchronous discharge of afferent impulses from low threshold muscle stretch receptors after a tendon tap, and (2) using a data retrieval computer to summate stimulus-locked potentials in the EMG over a series of 16 samples using taps of uniform peak force and duration on the Achilles tendon to elicit the tendon jerk in the calf muscles. A discrete, diphasic potential (`A-wave') was recorded from EMG electrodes placed on the surface of the skin over the medial gastrocnemius muscle. The `A-wave' afferent potential had the opposite polarity to the corresponding efferent MAP. Under control conditions of relaxation the `A-wave' had a latency after the onset of the tap of 2 msec, the peak to peak amplitude was of the order of 5 μV and the duration was in the range of 6 to 10 msec. Further experiments were conducted to show that the `A-wave' (1) was not an artefact of the instrumentation used, (2) had a threshold at low intensities of stimulation, and (3) could be reliably augmented by using a Jendrassik manoeuvre compared with the potential observed during control (relaxation) conditions. The results support the conclusion that the `A-wave' emanates from the pool of muscle spindles which discharges impulses along group Ia nerve fibres in response to the phasic stretch stimulus because the primary ending of the spindles is known to initiate the stretch reflex and the spindles can be sensitized by fusimotor impulses so that their threshold is lowered as a result of a Jendrassik manoeuvre. The finding has important implications for the

  11. CFTR potentiators partially restore channel function to A561E-CFTR, a cystic fibrosis mutant with a similar mechanism of dysfunction as F508del-CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiting; Liu, Jia; Loizidou, Avgi; Bugeja, Luc A; Warner, Ross; Hawley, Bethan R; Cai, Zhiwei; Toye, Ashley M; Sheppard, David N; Li, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel causes the genetic disease cystic fibrosis (CF). Towards the development of transformational drug therapies for CF, we investigated the channel function and action of CFTR potentiators on A561E, a CF mutation found frequently in Portugal. Like the most common CF mutation F508del, A561E causes a temperature-sensitive folding defect that prevents CFTR delivery to the cell membrane and is associated with severe disease. Experimental Approach Using baby hamster kidney cells expressing recombinant CFTR, we investigated CFTR expression by cell surface biotinylation, and function and pharmacology with the iodide efflux and patch-clamp techniques. Key Results Low temperature incubation delivered a small proportion of A561E-CFTR protein to the cell surface. Like F508del-CFTR, low temperature-rescued A561E-CFTR exhibited a severe gating defect characterized by brief channel openings separated by prolonged channel closures. A561E-CFTR also exhibited thermoinstability, losing function more quickly than F508del-CFTR in cell-free membrane patches and intact cells. Using the iodide efflux assay, CFTR potentiators, including genistein and the clinically approved small-molecule ivacaftor, partially restored function to A561E-CFTR. Interestingly, ivacaftor restored wild-type levels of channel activity (as measured by open probability) to single A561E- and F508del-CFTR Cl− channels. However, it accentuated the thermoinstability of both mutants in cell-free membrane patches. Conclusions and Implications Like F508del-CFTR, A561E-CFTR perturbs protein processing, thermostability and channel gating. CFTR potentiators partially restore channel function to low temperature-rescued A561E-CFTR. Transformational drug therapy for A561E-CFTR is likely to require CFTR correctors, CFTR potentiators and special attention to thermostability. PMID:24902474

  12. Neural mechanisms underlying immediate and final action goals in object use reflected by slow wave brain potentials.

    PubMed

    van Schie, Hein T; Bekkering, Harold

    2007-05-07

    Event-related brain potentials were used to study the neural mechanisms underlying goal-directed object use distinguishing between processes supporting immediate and final action goals during action planning and execution. Subjects performed a grasping and transportation task in which actions were cued either with the immediate action goal (the part of the object to grasp) or with the final action goal of the movement (the end position for transportation). Slow wave potentials dissociated between processes supporting immediate and final goals: reaching for the object was accompanied by the development of a parietal-occipital slow wave that peaked in congruency with the grasping event, whereas transport of the object towards the final goal location was found accompanied by slow wave components developing over left frontal regions with a peak towards the movement end. Source localization of cueing differences indicated activation centered around the parieto-occipital sulcus during reaching of the immediate action goal, followed by enhanced activation in the anterior prefrontal cortex during transport to the final action goal. These results suggest the existence of separate neural controllers for immediate and final action goals during the execution of goal-directed actions with objects.

  13. Variational approach to studying solitary waves in the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with complex potentials.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Franz G; Cooper, Fred; Arévalo, Edward; Khare, Avinash; Saxena, Avadh; Bishop, A R

    2016-09-01

    We discuss the behavior of solitary wave solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) as they interact with complex potentials, using a four-parameter variational approximation based on a dissipation functional formulation of the dynamics. We concentrate on spatially periodic potentials with the periods of the real and imaginary part being either the same or different. Our results for the time evolution of the collective coordinates of our variational ansatz are in good agreement with direct numerical simulation of the NLSE. We compare our method with a collective coordinate approach of Kominis and give examples where the two methods give qualitatively different answers. In our variational approach, we are able to give analytic results for the small oscillation frequency of the solitary wave oscillating parameters which agree with the numerical solution of the collective coordinate equations. We also verify that instabilities set in when the slope dp(t)/dv(t) becomes negative when plotted parametrically as a function of time, where p(t) is the momentum of the solitary wave and v(t) the velocity.

  14. Potential damage to DC superconducting magnets due to the high frequency electromagnetic waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental data are presented in support of the hypothesis that a dc superconducting magnet coil does not behave strictly as an inductor, but as a complicated electrodynamic device capable of supporting electromagnetic waves. Travel times of nanosecond pulses and evidence of sinusoidal standing waves were observed on a prototype four-layer solenoidal coil at room temperature. Ringing observed during switching transients appears as a sequence of multiple reflected square pulses whose durations are related to the layer lengths. With sinusoidal excitation of the coil, the voltage amplitude between a pair of points on the coil exhibits maxima at those frequencies such that the distance between these points is an odd multiple of half wavelength in free space. Evidence indicates that any disturbance, such as that resulting from switching or sudden fault, initiates multiple reflections between layers, thus raising the possibility for sufficiently high voltages to cause breakdown.

  15. Coupled wave-packets for non-adiabatic molecular dynamics: a generalization of Gaussian wave-packet dynamics to multiple potential energy surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    White, Alexander James; Tretiak, Sergei; Mozyrsky, Dima V.

    2016-04-25

    Accurate simulation of the non-adiabatic dynamics of molecules in excited electronic states is key to understanding molecular photo-physical processes. Here we present a novel method, based on a semiclassical approximation, that is as efficient as the commonly used mean field Ehrenfest or ad hoc surface hopping methods and properly accounts for interference and decoherence effects. This novel method is an extension of Heller's thawed Gaussian wave-packet dynamics that includes coupling between potential energy surfaces. By studying several standard test problems we demonstrate that the accuracy of the method can be systematically improved while maintaining high efficiency. The method is suitable for investigating the role of quantum coherence in the non-adiabatic dynamics of many-atom molecules.

  16. Coupled wave-packets for non-adiabatic molecular dynamics: a generalization of Gaussian wave-packet dynamics to multiple potential energy surfaces

    DOE PAGES

    White, Alexander James; Tretiak, Sergei; Mozyrsky, Dima V.

    2016-04-25

    Accurate simulation of the non-adiabatic dynamics of molecules in excited electronic states is key to understanding molecular photo-physical processes. Here we present a novel method, based on a semiclassical approximation, that is as efficient as the commonly used mean field Ehrenfest or ad hoc surface hopping methods and properly accounts for interference and decoherence effects. This novel method is an extension of Heller's thawed Gaussian wave-packet dynamics that includes coupling between potential energy surfaces. By studying several standard test problems we demonstrate that the accuracy of the method can be systematically improved while maintaining high efficiency. The method is suitablemore » for investigating the role of quantum coherence in the non-adiabatic dynamics of many-atom molecules.« less

  17. The potential of advanced ground-based gravitational wave detectors to detect generic deviations from general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narikawa, Tatsuya; Tagoshi, Hideyuki

    2016-09-01

    We discuss the potential of advanced ground-based gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO, Virgo, and KAGRA to detect generic deviations of gravitational waveforms from the predictions of general relativity. We use the parameterized post-Einsteinian formalism to characterize the deviations, and assess what magnitude of deviations are detectable by using an approximate decision scheme based on Bayesian statistics. We find that there exist detectable regions of the parameterized post-Einsteinian parameters for different binary masses from the observation of a single gravitational wave event. The regions are not excluded by currently existing binary pulsar observations for the parameterized post-Einsteinian parameters at higher post-Newtonian order. We also find that neglect of orbital eccentricity or tidal deformation effects do not cause a significant bias on the detectable region of generic deviations from general relativity.

  18. Interaction between blast wave and reticulated foam: assessing the potential for auditory protection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilgeroth, J. M.; Nguyen, T.-T. N.; Proud, W. G.

    2014-05-01

    Injuries to the tympanic membrane (ear drum) are particularly common in individuals subjected to blast overpressure such as military personnel engaged in conflict. Here, the interaction between blast wave and reticulated foams of varying density and thickness has been investigated using shock tube apparatus. The degree of mitigation afforded by the foam samples is discussed in relation to an injury threshold which has been suggested by others for the tympanic membrane.

  19. Eruption cyclicity at silicic volcanoes potentially caused by magmatic gas waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaut, Chloé; Ricard, Yanick; Bercovici, David; Sparks, R. Steve J.

    2013-10-01

    Eruptions at active silicic volcanoes are often cyclical. For example, at the Soufrière Hills volcano in Montserrat, Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, and Sakurajima in Japan, episodes of intense activity alternate with repose intervals over periods between several hours and a day. Abrupt changes in eruption rates have been explained with the motion of a plug of magma that alternatively sticks or slides along the wall of the volcanic conduit. However, it is unclear how the static friction that prevents the plug from sliding is periodically overcome. Here we use two-phase flow equations to model a gas-rich, viscous magma ascending through a volcanic conduit. Our analyses indicate that magma compaction yields ascending waves comprised of low- and high-porosity bands. However, magma ascent to lower pressures also causes gas expansion. We find that the competition between magma compaction and gas expansion naturally selects pressurized gas waves with specific periods. At the surface, these waves can induce cyclical eruptive behaviour with periods between 1 and 100 hours, which compares well to the observations from Soufrière Hills, Mount Pinatubo and Sakurajima. We find that the period is insensitive to volcano structure, but increases weakly with magma viscosity. We conclude that observations of a shift to a longer eruption cycle imply an increase in magma viscosity and thereby enhanced volcanic hazard.

  20. Activated Fps/Fes partially rescues the in vivo developmental potential of Flk1-deficient vascular progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Jody J; Ema, Masatsugu; Haigh, Katharina; Gertsenstein, Marina; Greer, Peter; Rossant, Janet; Nagy, Andras; Wagner, Erwin F

    2004-02-01

    Relatively little is known about the modulators of the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)/Flk1 signaling cascade. To functionally characterize this pathway, VEGF-A stimulation of endothelial cells was performed. VEGF-A-mediated Flk1 activation resulted in increased translocation of the endogenous Fps/Fes cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase to the plasma membrane and increased tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting a role for Fps/Fes in VEGF-A/Flk1 signaling events. Addition of a myristoylation consensus sequence to Fps/Fes resulted in VEGF-A-independent membrane localization of Fps/Fes in endothelial cells. Expression of the activated Fps/Fes protein in Flk1-deficient embryonic stem (ES) cells rescued their contribution to the developing vascular endothelium in vivo by using ES cell-derived chimeras. Activated Fps/Fes contributed to this rescue event by restoring the migratory potential to Flk1 null progenitors, which is required for movement of hemangioblasts from the primitive streak region into the yolk sac proper. Activated Fps/Fes in the presence of Flk1 increased the number of hemangioblast colonies in vitro and increased the number of mesodermal progenitors in vivo. These results suggest that Fps/Fes may act synergistically with Flk1 to modulate hemangioblast differentiation into the endothelium. We have also demonstrated that activated Fps/Fes causes hemangioma formation in vivo, independently of Flk1, as a result of increasing vascular progenitor density.

  1. Production and Partial Characterization of α-Amylase Enzyme from Bacillus sp. BCC 01-50 and Potential Applications

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Abdul Sattar; Khushk, Imrana; Ali, Chaudhry Haider; Lashari, Safia; Bhutto, Muhammad Aqeel; Mangrio, Ghulam Sughra; Lu, Changrui

    2017-01-01

    Amylase is an industrially important enzyme and applied in many industrial processes such as saccharification of starchy materials, food, pharmaceutical, detergent, and textile industries. This research work deals with the optimization of fermentation conditions for α-amylase production from thermophilic bacterial strain Bacillus sp. BCC 01-50 and characterization of crude amylase. The time profile of bacterial growth and amylase production was investigated in synthetic medium and maximum enzyme titer was observed after 60 h. In addition, effects of different carbon sources were tested as a substrate for amylase production and molasses was found to be the best. Various organic and inorganic compounds, potassium nitrate, ammonium chloride, sodium nitrate, urea, yeast extract, tryptone, beef extract, and peptone, were used and beef extract was found to be the best among the nitrogen sources used. Temperature, pH, agitation speed, and size of inoculum were also optimized. Highest enzyme activity was obtained when the strain was cultured in molasses medium for 60 h in shaking incubator (150 rpm) at 50°C and pH 8. Crude amylase showed maximal activity at pH 9 and 65°C. Enzyme remained stable in alkaline pH range 9-10 and 60–70°C. Crude amylase showed great potential for its application in detergent industry and saccharification of starchy materials. PMID:28168200

  2. Algebro-Geometric Solutions with Characteristics of a Nonlinear Partial Differential Equation with Three-Potential Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Feng; Feng, Bin-Lu; Rui, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xiang-Zhi

    2015-07-01

    With the help of a simple Lie algebra, an isospectral Lax pair, whose feature presents decomposition of element (1, 2) into a linear combination in the temporal Lax matrix, is introduced for which a new integrable hierarchy of evolution equations is obtained, whose Hamiltonian structure is also derived from the trace identity in which contains a constant γ to be determined. In the paper, we obtain a general formula for computing the constant γ. The reduced equations of the obtained hierarchy are the generalized nonlinear heat equation containing three-potential functions, the mKdV equation and a generalized linear KdV equation. The algebro-geometric solutions (also called finite band solutions) of the generalized nonlinear heat equation are obtained by the use of theory on algebraic curves. Finally, two kinds of gauge transformations of the spatial isospectral problem are produced. Supported by the Innovation Team of Jiangsu Province hosted by China University of Mining and Technology (2014) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11371361, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2013XK03) as well as the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province under Grant No. ZR2013AL016

  3. Production and Partial Characterization of α-Amylase Enzyme from Bacillus sp. BCC 01-50 and Potential Applications.

    PubMed

    Simair, Altaf Ahmed; Qureshi, Abdul Sattar; Khushk, Imrana; Ali, Chaudhry Haider; Lashari, Safia; Bhutto, Muhammad Aqeel; Mangrio, Ghulam Sughra; Lu, Changrui

    2017-01-01

    Amylase is an industrially important enzyme and applied in many industrial processes such as saccharification of starchy materials, food, pharmaceutical, detergent, and textile industries. This research work deals with the optimization of fermentation conditions for α-amylase production from thermophilic bacterial strain Bacillus sp. BCC 01-50 and characterization of crude amylase. The time profile of bacterial growth and amylase production was investigated in synthetic medium and maximum enzyme titer was observed after 60 h. In addition, effects of different carbon sources were tested as a substrate for amylase production and molasses was found to be the best. Various organic and inorganic compounds, potassium nitrate, ammonium chloride, sodium nitrate, urea, yeast extract, tryptone, beef extract, and peptone, were used and beef extract was found to be the best among the nitrogen sources used. Temperature, pH, agitation speed, and size of inoculum were also optimized. Highest enzyme activity was obtained when the strain was cultured in molasses medium for 60 h in shaking incubator (150 rpm) at 50°C and pH 8. Crude amylase showed maximal activity at pH 9 and 65°C. Enzyme remained stable in alkaline pH range 9-10 and 60-70°C. Crude amylase showed great potential for its application in detergent industry and saccharification of starchy materials.

  4. Genistein decreases cellular redox potential, partially suppresses cell growth in HL‑60 leukemia cells and sensitizes cells to γ‑radiation‑induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Jin Sik; Lee, Jae Ha; Cho, Eun Wie

    2014-12-01

    Various mechanisms have been proposed to underlie the cellular activity of genistein, based on biological experiments and epidemiological studies. The present study demonstrated that genistein inhibited the expression of cytoplasmic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP)‑dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (cICDH), thus increasing levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human promyeloid leukemia HL‑60 cells. In genistein‑treated cells, the cellular redox potential (GSH/GSSG) was significantly decreased. This decrease in redox potential was caused by significant downregulation of the cICDH gene, generating the reducing equivalents (NADPH) for maintenance of cellular redox potential and cellular ROS level, which may regulate cell growth and cell death. Genistein‑induced ROS partially induced rapid transition into the G2/M phase by upregulation of p21wap1/cip1 and apoptotic cell death. Treatment of cells with N‑acetylcysteine, a well‑known antioxidant (ROS scavenger), not only partially restored cell growth and inhibited cell cycle arrest in G2/M, but also prevented apoptotic cell death. By contrast, normal lymphocytes did not significantly progress into the G2/M phase and radiation‑induced cell death was inhibited by genistein treatment. Therefore, genistein and γ‑irradiation together synergistically cause cell death in leukemia cells, however, genistein has a radioprotective effect in normal human lymphocytes. In conclusion, it was suggested that genistein selectively functions, not as an antioxidant, but as a pro‑oxidant in HL‑60 cells. This property can increase ionizing radiation‑induced cell cycle arrest and sensitivity to apoptotic cell death in human promyeloid leukemia HL‑60 cells, but does not cause significant damage to normal cells.

  5. Partial Purification and Characterization of a Bacteriocin DT24 Produced by Probiotic Vaginal Lactobacillus brevis DT24 and Determination of its Anti-Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Potential.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Disha; Jena, Prasant Kumar; Patel, Jignesh Kumar; Seshadri, Sriram

    2013-06-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance has increased the interest for finding new antimicrobials in the past decade. Probiotic Lactic acid bacteria producing antimicrobial proteins like bacteriocin can be excellent agents for development as novel therapeutic agents and complement to conventional antibiotic therapy. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli, most causative agent of Urinary tract infection, has developed resistance to various antibiotics. In the present investigation, antibacterial substance like bacteriocin (Bacteriocin DT24) produced by probiotic Lactobacillus brevis DT24 from vaginal sample of healthy Indian woman was partially purified and characterized. It was efficiently working against various pathogens, that is, Uropathogenic E. coli, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial peptide was relatively heat resistant and also active over a broad range of pH 2-10. It has been partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography and checked on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bacteriocin DT24 was approximately 7-kDa protein. The peptide is inactivated by proteolytic enzymes, trypsin and lipase but not when treated with catalase, α-amylase and pepsin. It showed bacteriostatic mode of action against uropathogenic E. coli. Such characteristics indicate that this bacteriocin-producing probiotic may be a potential candidate for alternative agents to control urinary tract infections and other pathogens.

  6. Interlace properties for the real and imaginary parts of the wave functions of complex-valued potentials with real spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaimes-Nájera, Alfonso; Rosas-Ortiz, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Some general properties of the wave functions of complex-valued potentials with real spectrum are studied. The main results are presented in a series of lemmas, corollaries and theorems that are satisfied by the zeros of the real and imaginary parts of the wave functions on the real line. In particular, it is shown that such zeros interlace so that the corresponding probability densities ρ(x) are never null. We find that the profile of the imaginary part VI(x) of a given complex-valued potential determines the number and distribution of the maxima and minima of the related probability densities. Our conjecture is that VI(x) must be continuous in R, and that its integral over all the real line must be equal to zero in order to get control on the distribution of the maxima and minima of ρ(x) . The applicability of these results is shown by solving the eigenvalue equation of different complex potentials, these last being either PT-symmetric or not invariant under the PT-transformation.

  7. Generation of matter-wave solitons of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a time-dependent complicated potential

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamadou, Alidou; Wamba, Etienne; Kofane, Timoleon C.; Doka, Serge Y.; Ekogo, Thierry B.

    2011-08-15

    We examine the generation of bright matter-wave solitons in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation describing Bose-Einstein condensates with a time-dependent complex potential, which is composed of a repulsive parabolic background potential and a gravitational field. By performing a modified lens-type transformation, an explicit expression for the growth rate of a purely growing modulational instability is presented and analyzed. We point out the effects of the gravitational field, as well as of the parameter related to the feeding or loss of atoms in the condensate, on the instability growth rate. It is evident from numerical simulations that the feeding with atoms and the magnetic trap have opposite effects on the dynamics of the system. It is shown that the feeding or loss parameter can be well used to control the instability domain. Our study shows that the gravitational field changes the condensate trail of the soliton trains during the propagation. We also perform a numerical analysis to solve the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a time-dependent complicated potential. The numerical results on the effect of both the gravitational field and the parameter of feeding or loss of atoms in the condensate agree well with predictions of the linear stability analysis. Another result of the present work is the modification of the background wave function in the Thomas-Fermi approximation during the numerical simulations.

  8. SSR591813, a novel selective and partial alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor agonist with potential as an aid to smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, C; Bergis, O E; Galli, F; Lochead, A W; Jegham, S; Biton, B; Leonardon, J; Avenet, P; Sgard, F; Besnard, F; Graham, D; Coste, A; Oblin, A; Curet, O; Voltz, C; Gardes, A; Caille, D; Perrault, G; George, P; Soubrie, P; Scatton, B

    2003-07-01

    (5aS,8S,10aR)-5a,6,9,10-Tetrahydro,7H,11H-8,10a-methanopyrido[2',3':5,6]pyrano[2,3-d]azepine (SSR591813) is a novel compound that binds with high affinity to the rat and human alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes (Ki = 107 and 36 nM, respectively) and displays selectivity for the alpha4beta2 nAChR (Ki, human alpha3beta4 > 1000, alpha3beta2 = 116; alpha1beta1deltagamma > 6000 nM and rat alpha7 > 6000 nM). Electrophysiological experiments indicate that SSR591813 is a partial agonist at the human alpha4beta2 nAChR subtype (EC50 = 1.3 micro M, IA =19% compared with the full agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium). In vivo findings from microdialysis and drug discrimination studies confirm the partial intrinsic activity of SSR591813. The drug increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens shell (30 mg/kg i.p.) and generalizes to nicotine or amphetamine (10-20 mg/kg i.p.) in rats, with an efficacy approximately 2-fold lower than that of nicotine. Pretreatment with SSR591813 (10 mg/kg i.p.) reduces the dopamine-releasing and discriminative effects of nicotine. SSR591813 shows activity in animal models of nicotine dependence at doses devoid of unwanted side effects typically observed with nicotine (hypothermia and cardiovascular effects). The compound (10 mg/kg i.p.) also prevents withdrawal signs precipitated by mecamylamine in nicotine-dependent rats and partially blocks the discriminative cue of an acute precipitated withdrawal. SSR591813 (20 mg/kg i.p.) reduces i.v. nicotine self-administration and antagonizes nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization in rats. The present results confirm important role for alpha4beta2 nAChRs in mediating nicotine dependence and suggest that SSR591813, a partial agonist at this particular nAChR subtype, may have therapeutic potential in the clinical management of smoking cessation.

  9. Scattering States of l-Wave Schrödinger Equation with Modified Rosen—Morse Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen-Li; Shi, Yan-Wei; Wei, Gao-Feng

    2016-08-01

    Within a Pekeris-type approximation to the centrifugal term, we examine the approximately analytical scattering state solutions of the l-wave Schrödinger equation with the modified Rosen—Morse potential. The calculation formula of phase shifts is derived, and the corresponding bound state energy levels are also obtained from the poles of the scattering amplitude. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11405128, and Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China under Grant No. 15JK2093

  10. Shear-wave velocity-based probabilistic and deterministic assessment of seismic soil liquefaction potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, R.; Moss, R.E.S.; Thompson, E.M.; Seed, R.B.; Cetin, K.O.; Der Kiureghian, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Tokimatsu, K.

    2013-01-01

    Shear-wave velocity (Vs) offers a means to determine the seismic resistance of soil to liquefaction by a fundamental soil property. This paper presents the results of an 11-year international project to gather new Vs site data and develop probabilistic correlations for seismic soil liquefaction occurrence. Toward that objective, shear-wave velocity test sites were identified, and measurements made for 301 new liquefaction field case histories in China, Japan, Taiwan, Greece, and the United States over a decade. The majority of these new case histories reoccupy those previously investigated by penetration testing. These new data are combined with previously published case histories to build a global catalog of 422 case histories of Vs liquefaction performance. Bayesian regression and structural reliability methods facilitate a probabilistic treatment of the Vs catalog for performance-based engineering applications. Where possible, uncertainties of the variables comprising both the seismic demand and the soil capacity were estimated and included in the analysis, resulting in greatly reduced overall model uncertainty relative to previous studies. The presented data set and probabilistic analysis also help resolve the ancillary issues of adjustment for soil fines content and magnitude scaling factors.

  11. Potential applicability of stress wave velocity method on pavement base materials as a non-destructive testing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahedi, Masrur

    Aggregates derived from natural sources have been used traditionally as the pavement base materials. But in recent times, the extraction of these natural aggregates has become more labor intensive and costly due to resource depletion and environmental concerns. Thus, the uses of recycled aggregates as the supplementary of natural aggregates are increasing considerably in pavement construction. Use of recycled aggregates such as recycled crushed concrete (RCA) and recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) reduces the rate of natural resource depletion, construction debris and cost. Although recycled aggregates could be used as a viable alternative of conventional base materials, strength characteristics and product variability limit their utility to a great extent. Hence, their applicability is needed to be evaluated extensively based on strength, stiffness and cost factors. But for extensive evaluation, traditionally practiced test methods are proven to be unreasonable in terms of time, cost, reliability and applicability. On the other hand, rapid non-destructive methods have the potential to be less time consuming and inexpensive along with the low variability of test results; therefore improving the reliability of estimated performance of the pavement. In this research work, the experimental program was designed to assess the potential application of stress wave velocity method as a non-destructive test in evaluating recycled base materials. Different combinations of cement treated recycled concrete aggregate (RAP) and recycled crushed concrete (RCA) were used to evaluate the applicability of stress wave velocity method. It was found that, stress wave velocity method is excellent in characterizing the strength and stiffness properties of cement treated base materials. Statistical models, based on P-wave velocity were derived for predicting the modulus of elasticity and compressive strength of different combinations of cement treated RAP, Grade-1 and Grade-2 materials. Two

  12. Scientific Potential of Decigo Pathfinder and Testing GR with Space-Borne Gravitational Wave Interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Kent

    2013-01-01

    Deci-Hertz Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (DECIGO) Pathfinder (DPF) has an ability to detect gravitational waves (GWs) from galactic intermediate mass black hole binaries. If the signal is detected, it would be possible to determine parameters of the binary components. Furthermore, by using future space-borne GW interferometers, it would be possible to test alternative theories of gravity in the strong field regime. In this review paper, we first explain how the detectors like DPF and DECIGO/BBO work and discuss the expected event rates. Then, we review how the observed gravitational waveforms from precessing compact binaries with slightly eccentric orbits can be calculated both in general relativity and in alternative theories of gravity. For the latter, we focus on Brans-Dicke (BD) and massive gravity (MG) theories. After reviewing these theories, we show the results of the parameter estimation with DPF using the Fisher analysis. We also discuss a possible joint search of DPF and ground-based interferometers. Then, we show the results of testing alternative theories of gravity using future space-borne interferometers. DECIGO/BBO would be able to place 4-5 orders of magnitude stronger constraint on BD theory than the solar system experiment. This is still 1-2 orders of magnitude stronger than the future solar system mission such as ASTROD I. On the other hand, LISA should be able to put four orders of magnitude more stringent constraint on the mass of the graviton than the current solar system bound. DPF may be able to place comparable constraint on the MG theories as the solar system bound. We also discuss the prospects of using eLISA and ASTROD-GW in testing alternative theories of gravity. The bounds using eLISA are similar to the LISA ones, but ASTROD-GW performs the best in constraining MG theories among all the GW detectors considered in this paper.

  13. High order numerical simulation of the transmission and scattering of waves using the method of difference potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvinsky, M.; Tsynkov, S.; Turkel, E.

    2013-06-01

    The method of difference potentials generalizes the method of Calderon's operators from PDEs to arbitrary difference equations and systems. It offers several key advantages, such as the capability of handling boundaries/interfaces that are not aligned with the discretization grid, variable coefficients, and nonstandard boundary conditions. In doing so, the complexity of the algorithm remains comparable to that of an ordinary finite difference scheme on a regular structured grid. Previously, we have applied the method of difference potentials to solving several variable coefficient interior Helmholtz problems with fourth and sixth order accuracy. We have employed compact finite difference schemes as a core discretization methodology. Those schemes enable high order accuracy on narrow stencils and hence require only as many boundary conditions as needed for the underlying differential equation itself. Numerical experiments corroborate the high order accuracy of our method for variable coefficients, regular grids, and non-conforming boundaries. In the current paper, we extend the previously developed methodology to exterior problems. We present a complete theoretical analysis of the algorithm, as well as the results of a series of numerical simulations. Specifically, we study the scattering of time-harmonic waves about smooth shapes, subject to various boundary conditions. We also solve the transmission/scattering problems, in which not only do the waves scatter off a given shape but also propagate through the interface and travel across the heterogeneous medium inside. In all the cases, our methodology guarantees high order accuracy for regular grids and non-conforming boundaries and interfaces.

  14. Amplification of a fast wave by extracting both the kinetic energy and electrostatic potential energy of a large-orbit relativistic electron beam in a coaxial electrostatic wiggler

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shichang

    2010-05-15

    Nonlinear model and simulation technique of the interaction and energy transfer between a fast wave and a large-orbit relativistic electron beam in a coaxial electrostatic wiggler are presented. Unlike the situations in a magnetostatic-wiggler free-electron laser (MWFEL) and in an electron cyclotron maser (ECM), the electrostatic potential of the electrons plays an important role and participates in the energy exchange between the wave and the electron beam. Compared to MWFEL and ECM, the coaxial electrostatic-wiggler configuration has a distinguishing peculiarity that besides the electron-beam's kinetic energy, its electrostatic potential energy can be effectively transferred to the fast wave. Simulation shows that wave could be amplified with ultrahigh gain by extracting both the kinetic energy and electrostatic potential energy of the electron beam.

  15. s-wave scattering for deep potentials with attractive tails falling off faster than -1/r{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Tim-Oliver; Kaiser, Alexander; Friedrich, Harald

    2011-09-15

    For potentials with attractive tails, as occur in typical atomic interactions, we present a simple formula for the s-wave phase shift {delta}{sub 0}. It exposes a universal dependence of {delta}{sub 0}(E) on the potential tail and the influence of effects specific to a given potential, which enter via the scattering length a, or equivalently, the noninteger part {Delta}{sub th} of the threshold quantum number n{sub th}. The formula accurately reproduces {delta}{sub 0}(E) from threshold up to the semiclassical regime, far beyond the validity of the effective-range expansion. We derive the tail functions occurring in the formula for {delta}{sub 0}(E) and demonstrate the validity of the formula for attractive potential tails proportional to 1/r{sup 6} or to 1/r{sup 4}, and also for a mixed potential tail consisting of a 1/r{sup 4} term together with a non-negligible 1/r{sup 6} contribution.

  16. Coupled vibrations of a partially fluid-filled cylindrical container with an internal body including the effect of free surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askari, E.; Daneshmand, F.; Amabili, M.

    2011-10-01

    Internal bodies (baffles) are used as damping devices to suppress the fluid sloshing motion in fluid-structure interaction systems. An analytical method is developed in the present article to investigate the effects of a rigid internal body on bulging and sloshing frequencies and modes of a cylindrical container partially filled with a fluid. The internal body is a thin-walled and open-ended cylindrical shell that is coaxially and partially submerged inside the container. The interaction between the fluid and the structure is taken into account to calculate the sloshing and bulging frequencies and modes of the coupled system using the Rayleigh quotient, Ritz expansion and Galerkin method. It is shown that the present formulation is an appropriate and new approach to tackle the problem with good accuracy. The effects of fluid level, number of nodal diameters, internal body radius and submergence ratio on the dynamic characteristics of the coupled system are also investigated.

  17. Measured and calculated elastic wave speeds in partially equilibrated mafic granulite xenoliths: Implications for the properties of an underplated lower continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnick, Roberta L.; Jackson, Ian

    1995-06-01

    Ultrasonic compressional wave velocities measured at 1.0 GPa and room temperature are compared with calculated velocities (based on single-crystal data and modal mineralogy) for a suite of mafic granulite xenoliths from the Chudleigh volcanic province, north Queensland, Australia. The xenoliths have nearly constant major element compositions but widely variable modal mineralogy, reflecting recrystallization under variable pressure-temperature conditions at depth in the continental crust (20-45 km). They thus provide an excellent opportunity to investigate velocity variation with depth in a mafic lower crust. Measured P wave velocities, corrected for the decompression-induced breakdown of garnet, range from 6.9 to 7.6 km/sec and correlate with derivation depth. These velocities are 5-12% lower than the calculated velocities (7.5-8.0 km/sec), apparently as a result of grain boundary alteration as well as irreversible changes that occurred in the xenoliths during rapid decompression. Calculated P wave velocities are similar to those estimated by Furlong and Fountain (1986) and Sobolev and Babeyko (1989) for mafic granulites formed through basaltic underplating of the continental crust. Depending upon in situ temperature, P wave velocities in the deepest samples may be interpreted as crustal (e.g., 7.3-7.6 km/sec, if heat flow is high) or mantle (7.7-7.8 km/sec, in areas of low heat flow). The range of velocities in the xenolith suite is larger than predicted for a fully equilibrated underplated basaltic layer, highlighting the importance of kinetic effects in determining the ultimate velocity profile of magmatically underplated crust. Comparison of our results with seismic profiles illustrates that the lower crust rarely reaches such high velocities, suggesting quartz-bearing rocks (country rocks?) are present within magmatically underplated layers of the deep crust.

  18. Stress formulation in the all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasako, Naoyuki; Oguchi, Tamio

    2012-02-01

    Stress formulation in the linearlized augmented plane wave (LAPW) method has been proposed in 2002 [1] as an extension of the force formulation in the LAPW method [2]. However, pressure calculations only for Al and Si were reported in Ref.[1] and even now stress calculations have not yet been fully established in the LAPW method. In order to make it possible to efficiently relax lattice shape and atomic positions simultaneously and to precisely evaluate the elastic constants in the LAPW method, we reformulate stress formula in the LAPW method with the Soler-Williams representation [3]. Validity of the formulation is tested by comparing the pressure obtained as the trace of stress tensor with that estimated from total energies for a wide variety of material systems. Results show that pressure is estimated within the accuracy of less than 0.1 GPa. Calculations of the shear elastic constant show that the shear components of the stress tensor are also precisely computed with the present formulation [4].[4pt] [1] T. Thonhauser et al., Solid State Commun. 124, 275 (2002).[0pt] [2] R. Yu et al., Phys. Rev. B 43, 6411 (1991).[0pt] [3] J. M. Soler and A. R. Williams, Phys. Rev. B 40, 1560 (1989).[0pt] [4] N. Nagasako and T. Oguchi, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 80, 024701 (2011).

  19. Lorentz-covariant quantum 4-potential and orbital angular momentum for the transverse confinement of matter waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducharme, R.; da Paz, I. G.

    2016-08-01

    In two recent papers exact Hermite-Gaussian solutions to relativistic wave equations were obtained for both electromagnetic and particle beams. The solutions for particle beams correspond to those of the Schrödinger equation in the nonrelativistic limit. Here, it will be shown that each beam particle has additional 4-momentum resulting from transverse localization compared to a free particle traveling in the same direction as the beam with the same speed. This will be referred to as the quantum 4-potential term since it will be shown to play an analogous role in relativistic Hamiltonian quantum mechanics as the Bohm potential in the nonrelativistic quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Low-order localization effects include orbital angular momentum, Gouy phase, and beam spreading. Toward a more systematic approach for calculating localization effects at all orders, it will be shown that both the electromagnetic and quantum 4-potentials couple into the canonical 4-momentum of a particle in a similar way. This offers the prospect that traditional methods used to calculate the affect of an electromagnetic field on a particle can now be adapted to take localization effects into account. The prospects for measuring higher order quantum 4-potential related effects experimentally are also discussed alongside some questions to challenge the quantum information and quantum field theorists.

  20. A Parsimonious Model of the Rabbit Action Potential Elucidates the Minimal Physiological Requirements for Alternans and Spiral Wave Breakup

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the underlying mechanisms of fatal cardiac arrhythmias requires a tight integration of electrophysiological experiments, models, and theory. Existing models of transmembrane action potential (AP) are complex (resulting in over parameterization) and varied (leading to dissimilar predictions). Thus, simpler models are needed to elucidate the “minimal physiological requirements” to reproduce significant observable phenomena using as few parameters as possible. Moreover, models have been derived from experimental studies from a variety of species under a range of environmental conditions (for example, all existing rabbit AP models incorporate a formulation of the rapid sodium current, INa, based on 30 year old data from chick embryo cell aggregates). Here we develop a simple “parsimonious” rabbit AP model that is mathematically identifiable (i.e., not over parameterized) by combining a novel Hodgkin-Huxley formulation of INa with a phenomenological model of repolarization similar to the voltage dependent, time-independent rectifying outward potassium current (IK). The model was calibrated using the following experimental data sets measured from the same species (rabbit) under physiological conditions: dynamic current-voltage (I-V) relationships during the AP upstroke; rapid recovery of AP excitability during the relative refractory period; and steady-state INa inactivation via voltage clamp. Simulations reproduced several important “emergent” phenomena including cellular alternans at rates > 250 bpm as observed in rabbit myocytes, reentrant spiral waves as observed on the surface of the rabbit heart, and spiral wave breakup. Model variants were studied which elucidated the minimal requirements for alternans and spiral wave break up, namely the kinetics of INa inactivation and the non-linear rectification of IK.The simplicity of the model, and the fact that its parameters have physiological meaning, make it ideal for engendering generalizable

  1. L2 discretization of Sturmian wave functions for Coulomb-like potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frapiccini, A. L.; Gonzalez, V. Y.; Randazzo, J. M.; Colavecchia, F. D.; Gasaneo, G.

    In this work we introduce a method to construct Sturmian functions for general interaction potentials in two-body problems. We expand these Sturmians on a finite L2 space, using N Laguerre basis functions to obtain a discrete set of eigenvalues for positive and negative energies. Orthogonality and closure relations are thus rewritten for these expansions; completeness is achieved through increasing the basis size. We apply the method to the Coulomb and Herman and Skillman potential. We study the behavior of the functions obtained and their convergence for an overall range of energies. The Sturmian functions are applied to solve the Schrödinger equation for an active electron in a He-like system.

  2. Mean flow stability wave models for coherent structures in open shear flows: experimental assessment of potentials and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberleithner, Kilian; Rukes, Lothar; Paschereit, Oliver; Soria, Julio

    2014-11-01

    We report on a number of experimental and theoretical investigations of shear flow instabilities in jet flows. In these studies, linear stability analysis is employed to the time-averaged flow taken from experiments, contrasting the ``classic'' stability approach that is based on a stationary base flow. The eigenmodes of the time-averaged flow are considered as models for the nonlinearly saturated state of the instability waves. The accuracy of these models is validated through a detailed comparison with experiments. In this talk we outline the potential and limitation of these flow models for convectively and globally unstable jet flows. The first author was supported by a fellowship within the Postdoc-Program of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). The support of the Australian Research Council (ARC) and the German Research Foundation (DFG) is greatfully acknowledged.

  3. P-wave velocity structure beneath Mt. Melbourne in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica: Evidence of partial melting and volcanic magma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yongcheol; Yoo, Hyun Jae; Lee, Won Sang; Lee, Choon-Ki; Lee, Joohan; Park, Hadong; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Yeadong

    2015-12-01

    Mt. Melbourne is a late Cenozoic intraplate volcano located ∼30 km northeast of Jang Bogo Station in Antarctica. The volcano is quiescent with fumarolic activity at the summit. To monitor volcanic activity and glacial movements near Jang Bogo Station, a seismic network was installed during the 2010-11 Antarctic summer field season. The network is maintained during the summer field season every year, and the number of stations has been increased. We used continuous seismic data recorded by the network and an Italian seismic station (TNV) at Mario Zucchelli Station to develop a 3-D P-wave velocity model for the Mt. Melbourne area based on the teleseismic P-wave tomographic method. The new 3-D model presented a relative velocity structure for the lower part of the crust and upper mantle between depths of 30 and 160 km and revealed the presence of two low-velocity anomalies beneath Mt. Melbourne and the Priestley Fault. The low-velocity anomaly beneath Mt. Melbourne may be caused by the edge flow of hot mantle material at the lithospheric step between the thick East Antarctic Craton and thin Ross Sea crust. The other low-velocity anomaly along the Priestley Fault may have been beneath Mt. Melbourne and moved to the southern tip of the Deep Freeze Range, where the crustal thickness is relatively thin. The anomaly was trapped on the fault line and laterally flowed along the fault line in the northwest direction.

  4. Pilot-wave dynamics in a harmonic potential: Quantization and stability of circular orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labousse, M.; Oza, A. U.; Perrard, S.; Bush, J. W. M.

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of a theoretical investigation of the dynamics of a droplet walking on a vibrating fluid bath under the influence of a harmonic potential. The walking droplet's horizontal motion is described by an integro-differential trajectory equation, which is found to admit steady orbital solutions. Predictions for the dependence of the orbital radius and frequency on the strength of the radial harmonic force field agree favorably with experimental data. The orbital quantization is rationalized through an analysis of the orbital solutions. The predicted dependence of the orbital stability on system parameters is compared with experimental data and the limitations of the model are discussed.

  5. Pilot-wave dynamics in a harmonic potential: Quantization and stability of circular orbits.

    PubMed

    Labousse, M; Oza, A U; Perrard, S; Bush, J W M

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of a theoretical investigation of the dynamics of a droplet walking on a vibrating fluid bath under the influence of a harmonic potential. The walking droplet's horizontal motion is described by an integro-differential trajectory equation, which is found to admit steady orbital solutions. Predictions for the dependence of the orbital radius and frequency on the strength of the radial harmonic force field agree favorably with experimental data. The orbital quantization is rationalized through an analysis of the orbital solutions. The predicted dependence of the orbital stability on system parameters is compared with experimental data and the limitations of the model are discussed.

  6. Non-local Optical Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Ian

    2010-11-01

    In all direct reactions to probe the structure of exotic nuclei at FRIB, optical potentials will be needed in the entrance and exit channels. At high energies Glauber approximations may be useful, but a low energies (5 to 20 MeV/nucleon) other approaches are required. Recent work of the UNEDF project [1] has shown that reaction cross sections at these energies can be accounted for by calculating all inelastic and transfer channels reachable by one particle-hole transitions from the elastic channel. In this model space, we may also calculate the two-step dynamic polarization potential (DPP) that adds to the bare folded potential to form the complex optical potential. Our calculations of the DPP, however, show that its non-localities are very significant, as well as the partial-wave dependence of both its real and imaginary components. The Perey factors (the wave function ratio to that from an equivalent local potential) are more than 20% different from unity, especially for partial waves inside grazing. These factors combine to suggest a reexamination of the validity of local and L-independent fitted optical potentials, especially for capture reactions that are dominated by low partial waves. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. [1] G.P.A. Nobre, F.S. Dietrich, J.E. Escher, I.J. Thompson, M. Dupuis, J. Terasaki and J. Engel, submitted to Phys. Rev. Letts., 2010.

  7. Potential Spacecraft-to-Spacecraft Radio Observations with EJSM: Wave of the Future? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marouf, E. A.; Tortora, P.; Asmar, S. W.; Folkner, W. M.; Hinson, D.; Iess, L.; Linscott, I. R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Mueller-Wodarg, I. C.

    2010-12-01

    Future active radio observations of planetary and satellite atmospheres and surfaces could significantly benefit form the presence of two or more spacecraft in orbit around a target object. Traditionally, radio occultation and bistatic surface scattering experiments have been conducted using a single spacecraft operating in the Downlink (DL) configuration, with the spacecraft transmitting and at least one Earth-based station receiving. The configuration has the advantage of using powerful ground-based receivers for down-conversion, digitization, and digital recording of large bandwidth data for later off-line processing and analysis. It has the disadvantage of an available free-space signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) limited by the relatively small carrier power (10-20 W) a spacecraft can practically transmit. Recent technological advances in designing small-mass and small-power spacecraft-based digital receivers capable of on-board signal processing could open the door for significant performance improvement compared with the DL configuration. For example, with two spacecraft in orbit instead of one, the smaller distance D between the two spacecraft compared with the distance to Earth can boost achievable free-space SNR by one to three orders of magnitude, depending on D. In addition, richer variability in observation geometry can be captured using spacecraft-to-spacecraft (SC-to-SC) radio occultations and surface scattering. By their nature, traditional DL occultations are confined to the morning and evening terminators. Availability of on-board processing capability also opens the door for conducting Uplink (UL) occultation and bistatic observations, where very large power (> 20 kW) can be transmitted from an Earth-based station, potentially boasting achievable free-space SNR by orders of magnitude, comparable to the SC-to-SC case and much higher than the DL case. The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) will likely be the first planetary mission to benefit from the

  8. Resonance energies, lifetimes and complex energy potential curves from standard wave-packet calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldzak, Tamar; Gilary, Ido; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2012-05-01

    We show here for a simple model system that the wavepacket dynamics in the interaction region can be described by a superposition of the non-Hermitian exponential divergent eigenfunctions of the physical Hamiltonian. We demonstrate how it is possible to obtain the complex eigenvalues and also the corresponding resonance eigenfunctions from the propagation of the wavepacket within the framework of the standard formalism of quantum mechanics. The general results demonstrated here for a simple model can lead to two different types of computational applications: (i) for systems where one can obtain the resonance energies and lifetimes as well as their corresponding eigenfunctions it is possible to study the evolution of the physical properties solely based on the initially populated resonance states without the need to propagate the wavepacket; (ii) for molecular systems where it is quite difficult to solve the non-Hermitian time-independent Schrödinger equation and obtain molecular resonance energies and functions. For this type of problem, the methods presented here enable one to evaluate the topology of complex potential energy surfaces from the wavepacket propagation and facilitate the study of the nuclear dynamics of ionizing molecular systems.

  9. Transport and selective chaining of bidisperse particles in a travelling wave potential.

    PubMed

    Tierno, Pietro; Straube, Arthur V

    2016-05-01

    We combine experiments, theory and numerical simulation to investigate the dynamics of a binary suspension of paramagnetic colloidal particles dispersed in water and transported above a stripe-patterned magnetic garnet film. The substrate generates a one-dimensional periodic energy landscape above its surface. The application of an elliptically polarized rotating magnetic field causes the landscape to translate, inducing direct transport of paramagnetic particles placed above the film. The ellipticity of the applied field can be used to control and tune the interparticle interactions, from net repulsive to net attractive. When considering particles of two distinct sizes, we find that, depending on their elevation above the surface of the magnetic substrate, the particles feel effectively different potentials, resulting in different mobilities. We exploit this feature to induce selective chaining for certain values of the applied field parameters. In particular, when driving two types of particles, we force only one type to condense into travelling parallel chains. These chains confine the movement of the other non-chaining particles within narrow colloidal channels. This phenomenon is explained by considering the balance of pairwise magnetic forces between the particles and their individual coupling with the travelling landscape.

  10. A Waved Journal Bearing Concept-Evaluating Steady-State and Dynamic Performance with a Potential Active Control Alternative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimofte, Florin

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of the waved journal bearing concept featuring a waved inner bearing diameter for use with a compressible lubricant (gas) is presented. The performance of generic waved bearings having either three or four waves is predicted for air lubricated bearings. Steady-state performance is discussed in terms of bearing load capacity, while the dynamic performance is discussed in terms of fluid film stability and dynamic coefficients. It was found that the bearing wave amplitude has an important influence on both the steady-state and the dynamic performance of the waved journal bearing. For a fixed eccentricity ratio, the bearing steady-state load capacity and direct dynamic stiffness coefficient increase as the wave amplitude increases.

  11. Dynamics of matter-wave solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates with time-dependent scattering length and complex potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kengne, Emmanuel; Shehou, Abdourahman; Lakhssassi, Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the dynamics of matter-wave solitons in the one-dimensional (1-D) Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation describing Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with time-dependent scattering length in varying trapping potentials with feeding/loss term. By performing a modified lens-type transformation, we reduce the GP equation into a classical nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with distributed coefficients and find its integrable condition. Under the integrable condition, we apply the generalized Jacobian elliptic function method (GJEFM) and present exact analytical solutions which describe the propagation of a bright and dark solitons in BECs. Their stability is examined using analytic method. The obtained exact solutions show that the amplitude of bright and dark solitons depends on the scattering length, while their motion and the total number of BEC atoms depend on the external trapping potential. Our results also shown that the loss of atoms can dominate the aggregation of atoms by the attractive interaction, and thus the peak density can decrease in time despite that the strength of the attractive interaction is increased.

  12. Odd and even partial waves of ηπ- and η‧π- in π- p →η (‧)π- p at 191 GeV / c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, C.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, M. G.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E. R.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hahne, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F. H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Höppner, Ch.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Jörg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuß, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krämer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nunes, A. S.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peshekhonov, D. V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Rocco, E.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Rychter, A.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlüter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Virius, M.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2015-01-01

    Exclusive production of ηπ- and η‧π- has been studied with a 191 GeV / cπ- beam impinging on a hydrogen target at COMPASS (CERN). Partial-wave analyses reveal different odd/even angular momentum (L) characteristics in the inspected invariant mass range up to 3 GeV /c2. A striking similarity between the two systems is observed for the L = 2 , 4 , 6 intensities (scaled by kinematical factors) and the relative phases. The known resonances a2 (1320) and a4 (2040) are in line with this similarity. In contrast, a strong enhancement of η‧π- over ηπ- is found for the L = 1 , 3 , 5 waves, which carry non- q q bar quantum numbers. The L = 1 intensity peaks at 1.7 GeV /c2 in η‧π- and at 1.4 GeV /c2 in ηπ-, the corresponding phase motions with respect to L = 2 are different.

  13. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a partial agonist of D2 dopaminergic receptors and it potentiates dopamine-mediated prolactin secretion in lactotrophs in vitro.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, S; Palmery, M; Romanelli, L; Cheng, C Y; Silvestrini, B

    1998-01-01

    The hallucinogenic effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) have mainly been attributed to the interaction of this drug with the serotoninergic system, but it seems more likely that they are the result of the complex interactions of the drug with both the serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional actions of LSD at dopaminergic receptors using prolactin secretion by primary cultures of rat pituitary cells as a model. LSD produced a dose-dependent inhibition of prolactin secretion in vitro with an IC50 at 1.7x10(-9) M. This action was antagonized by spiperone but not by SKF83566 or cyproheptadine, which indicates that LSD has a specific effect on D2 dopaminergic receptors. The maximum inhibition of prolactin secretion achieved by LSD was lower than that by dopamine (60% versus 80%). Moreover, the fact that LSD at 10(-8)-10(-6) M antagonized the inhibitory effect of dopamine (10(-7) M) and bromocriptine (10(-11) M) suggests that LSD acts as a partial agonist at D2 receptors on lactotrophs in vitro. Interestingly, LSD at 10(-13)-10(-10) M, the concentrations which are 10-1000-fold lower than those required to induce direct inhibition on pituitary prolactin secretion, potentiated the dopamine (10(-10)-2.5x10(-9) M)-mediated prolactin secretion by pituitary cells in vitro. These results suggest that LSD not only interacts with dopaminergic receptors but also has a unique capacity for modulating dopaminergic transmission. These findings may offer new insights into the hallucinogenic effect of LSD.

  14. Second-order rogue wave breathers in the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with quadratic potential modulated by a spatially-varying diffraction coefficient.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wei-Ping; Belić, Milivoj; Zhang, Yiqi

    2015-02-09

    Nonlinear Schrödinger equation with simple quadratic potential modulated by a spatially-varying diffraction coefficient is investigated theoretically. Second-order rogue wave breather solutions of the model are constructed by using the similarity transformation. A modal quantum number is introduced, useful for classifying and controlling the solutions. From the solutions obtained, the behavior of second order Kuznetsov-Ma breathers (KMBs), Akhmediev breathers (ABs), and Peregrine solitons is analyzed in particular, by selecting different modulation frequencies and quantum modal parameter. We show how to generate interesting second order breathers and related hybrid rogue waves. The emergence of true rogue waves - single giant waves that are generated in the interaction of KMBs, ABs, and Peregrine solitons - is explicitly displayed in our analytical solutions.

  15. Partial polarizer filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A birefringent filter module comprises, in seriatum. (1) an entrance polarizer, (2) a first birefringent crystal responsive to optical energy exiting the entrance polarizer, (3) a partial polarizer responsive to optical energy exiting the first polarizer, (4) a second birefringent crystal responsive to optical energy exiting the partial polarizer, and (5) an exit polarizer. The first and second birefringent crystals have fast axes disposed + or -45 deg from the high transmitivity direction of the partial polarizer. Preferably, the second crystal has a length 1/2 that of the first crystal and the high transmitivity direction of the partial polarizer is nine times as great as the low transmitivity direction. To provide tuning, the polarizations of the energy entering the first crystal and leaving the second crystal are varied by either rotating the entrance and exit polarizers, or by sandwiching the entrance and exit polarizers between pairs of half wave plates that are rotated relative to the polarizers. A plurality of the filter modules may be cascaded.

  16. Gravity Waves in ER-2 Observations During CRYSTAL-FACE: Propagation Characteristics and Potential Role in Cirrus Cloud Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, M. J.; Sherwood, S.; Mahoney, M. J.; Bui, P.

    2003-12-01

    Gravity waves are known to affect cloud formation via the temperature perturbations they cause, and these effects can be significant in conditions that are otherwise marginal for cloud formation. Cirrus clouds near the tropopause can form in the cold phases of gravity waves. The ER-2 aircraft observations during the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign provide a unique set for gravity wave analysis. For the first time, data from both the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) and Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) were obtained together from the ER-2 platform, with flight paths near convection. Analyses of MTP and MMS data can be combined to provide the full set of gravity wave parameters needed to model their origin, propagation, and eventual fate. This wave analysis requires long, constant-level flight paths. First a wavelet analysis in horizontal wavenumber is performed along the flight path direction for measurements of temperature and horizontal wind. From this, the strongest wave modes are identified, and the vertical wavenumber estimated from the MTP data for these modes. Linear wave theory is then employed to compute the propagation directions and intrinsic frequencies for these strongest wave modes. The results of this analysis thus provide the full three-dimensional propagation characteristics for the dominant gravity wave modes in the data. We subsequently use these results to examine their role in cirrus cloud formation at lower altitudes, and compare the results to in situ measurements made from the WB-57F aircraft platform.

  17. Discordant U waves in the setting of hyperkalaemia.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Lovely; Spodick, David H

    2013-07-04

    Physiological U wave genesis occurs likely secondary to either late repolarisation of Purkinje fibres, or late repolarisation of some myocardial cells and/or delayed after depolarisation of the ventricular wall occurring during ventricular filling. Hypokalaemia has a well-known association with pathological 'U wave' which actually combines with the T wave (TU complex) and results from slowing of phase 3 of the action potential with resultant electrical interaction between the three myocardial layers. U waves usually tend to disappear in the setting of hyperkalaemia. We report an unusual case where hyperkalaemia and discordant U waves coexisted. We believe that this may have occurred as a result of partial clinical adaptation of cardiac myocytes to the long-standing effects of hyperkalaemia as the patient had underlying history of chronic kidney disease. We also discuss the possible mechanisms of the U wave genesis and the importance of different U wave morphologies encountered in the real clinical practice.

  18. Accelerated Cartesian expansion (ACE) based framework for the rapid evaluation of diffusion, lossy wave, and Klein-Gordon potentials

    DOE PAGES

    Baczewski, Andrew David; Vikram, Melapudi; Shanker, Balasubramaniam; ...

    2010-08-27

    Diffusion, lossy wave, and Klein–Gordon equations find numerous applications in practical problems across a range of diverse disciplines. The temporal dependence of all three Green’s functions are characterized by an infinite tail. This implies that the cost complexity of the spatio-temporal convolutions, associated with evaluating the potentials, scales as O(Ns2Nt2), where Ns and Nt are the number of spatial and temporal degrees of freedom, respectively. In this paper, we discuss two new methods to rapidly evaluate these spatio-temporal convolutions by exploiting their block-Toeplitz nature within the framework of accelerated Cartesian expansions (ACE). The first scheme identifies a convolution relation inmore » time amongst ACE harmonics and the fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used for efficient evaluation of these convolutions. The second method exploits the rank deficiency of the ACE translation operators with respect to time and develops a recursive numerical compression scheme for the efficient representation and evaluation of temporal convolutions. It is shown that the cost of both methods scales as O(NsNtlog2Nt). Furthermore, several numerical results are presented for the diffusion equation to validate the accuracy and efficacy of the fast algorithms developed here.« less

  19. Accelerated Cartesian expansion (ACE) based framework for the rapid evaluation of diffusion, lossy wave, and Klein-Gordon potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Baczewski, Andrew David; Vikram, Melapudi; Shanker, Balasubramaniam; Kempel, Leo

    2010-08-27

    Diffusion, lossy wave, and Klein–Gordon equations find numerous applications in practical problems across a range of diverse disciplines. The temporal dependence of all three Green’s functions are characterized by an infinite tail. This implies that the cost complexity of the spatio-temporal convolutions, associated with evaluating the potentials, scales as O(Ns2Nt2), where Ns and Nt are the number of spatial and temporal degrees of freedom, respectively. In this paper, we discuss two new methods to rapidly evaluate these spatio-temporal convolutions by exploiting their block-Toeplitz nature within the framework of accelerated Cartesian expansions (ACE). The first scheme identifies a convolution relation in time amongst ACE harmonics and the fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used for efficient evaluation of these convolutions. The second method exploits the rank deficiency of the ACE translation operators with respect to time and develops a recursive numerical compression scheme for the efficient representation and evaluation of temporal convolutions. It is shown that the cost of both methods scales as O(NsNtlog2Nt). Furthermore, several numerical results are presented for the diffusion equation to validate the accuracy and efficacy of the fast algorithms developed here.

  20. Comment on 'Wave functions for a Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau particle in a time-dependent potential' [J. Math. Phys. 48, 073515 (2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, L. B.; Castro, A. S. de

    2010-03-15

    It is shown that the paper 'Wave functions for a Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau particle in a time-dependent potential' by Merad and Bensaid [J. Math. Phys. 48, 073515 (2007)] is not correct in using inadvertently a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian in a formalism that does require Hermitian Hamiltonians.

  1. Comparison of velocity distribution functions in an argon shock wave between experiments and Monte Carlo calculations for Lennard-Jones potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Koura, Katsuhisa

    1991-12-01

    The velocity distribution functions (VDF's) in an argon normal shock wave at an upstream high Mach number 7.183 and low temperature 16 K are calculated using the null-collision direct-simulation Monte Carlo method for the Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential to compare with the experimental results of Holtz and Muntz (1983). The convolved VDF's for the LJ potential are in reasonable agreement with the measured data in early and late regions of the shock wave but significantly different in the middle region. This discrepancy cannot be explained by a possible uncertainty in the potential well depth. Moreover, the difference in the convolved VDF's between the LJ potential and the softest and hardest unrealistic molecular models with no attractive force, i.e., the Maxwell molecule and hard sphere, is much smaller than the discrepancy between the experiments and Monte Carlo calculations.

  2. Comparison of velocity distribution functions in an argon shock wave between experiments and Monte Carlo calculations for Lennard-Jones potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Koura, Katsuhisa

    1991-12-01

    The velocity distribution functions (VDF's) in an argon normal shock wave at an upstream high Mach number 7.183 and low temperature 16 K are calculated using the null-collision direct-simulation Monte Carlo method for the Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential to compare with the experimental results of Holtz and Muntz [Phys. Fluids 26, 2425 (1983)]. The convolved VDF's for the LJ potential are in reasonable agreement with the measured data in early and late regions of the shock wave but significantly different in the middle region. This discrepancy cannot be explained by a possible uncertainty in the potential well depth. Moreover, the difference in the convolved VDF's between the LJ potential and the softest and hardest unrealistic molecular models with no attractive force, i.e., the Maxwell molecule and hard sphere, is much smaller than the discrepancy between the experiments and Monte Carlo calculations.

  3. Fully nonlinear time-domain simulation of a backward bent duct buoy floating wave energy converter using an acceleration potential method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyoung-Rok; Koo, Weoncheol; Kim, Moo-Hyun

    2013-12-01

    A floating Oscillating Water Column (OWC) wave energy converter, a Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB), was simulated using a state-of-the-art, two-dimensional, fully-nonlinear Numerical Wave Tank (NWT) technique. The hydrodynamic performance of the floating OWC device was evaluated in the time domain. The acceleration potential method, with a full-updated kernel matrix calculation associated with a mode decomposition scheme, was implemented to obtain accurate estimates of the hydrodynamic force and displacement of a freely floating BBDB. The developed NWT was based on the potential theory and the boundary element method with constant panels on the boundaries. The mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian (MEL) approach was employed to capture the nonlinear free surfaces inside the chamber that interacted with a pneumatic pressure, induced by the time-varying airflow velocity at the air duct. A special viscous damping was applied to the chamber free surface to represent the viscous energy loss due to the BBDB's shape and motions. The viscous damping coefficient was properly selected using a comparison of the experimental data. The calculated surface elevation, inside and outside the chamber, with a tuned viscous damping correlated reasonably well with the experimental data for various incident wave conditions. The conservation of the total wave energy in the computational domain was confirmed over the entire range of wave frequencies.

  4. LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) observation of traveling planetary waves and potential vorticity advection in the stratosphere and mesosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Dunkerton, T.J. )

    1991-02-20

    Eastward and westward traveling waves were observed by the Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) during the northern winter 1978-1979. Eastward waves were prevalent in early winter and were involved in a minor Canadian warming in December 1978. A large westward traveling wave, as described by previous authors, was observed in January 1979 during a series of minor warmings. By comparing these two events, it is shown that in both cases the superposition of traveling and quasi-stationary waves led to constructive interference that was responsible for the warmings. However, there was significant asymmetry between eastward and westward traveling components. Eastward disturbances were confined mostly within the polar vortex, whereas quasi-stationary and westward traveling components propagated to the vortex periphery and beyond, into the tropics and mid-latitude mesosphere. This behavior is consistent with Rossby wave propagation and indicates that the location and magnitude of planetary wave breaking is sensitive to the frequency spectrum entering the middle atmosphere. However, this asymmetry is also a signature of the nonlinear critical layer as it projects onto the frequency spectrum. Both interpretations are shown to be valid during wave events observed by LIMS. A local Eulerian analysis of potential vorticity (PV) transport indicates that adiabatic, geostrophic advection by the resolvable scales of motion explains qualitatively (but not quantitatively) the observed potential vorticity tendencies in the LIMS northern hemisphere winter. In particular, calculated advection explains the eastward rotation of the main vortex, intrusion of low PV air into the polar cap, and formation of high PV filaments at the vortex periphery.

  5. Wave field synthesis, adaptive wave field synthesis and ambisonics using decentralized transformed control: Potential applications to sound field reproduction and active noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Philippe-Aubert; Berry, Alain; Woszczyk, Wieslaw

    2005-09-01

    Sound field reproduction finds applications in listening to prerecorded music or in synthesizing virtual acoustics. The objective is to recreate a sound field in a listening environment. Wave field synthesis (WFS) is a known open-loop technology which assumes that the reproduction environment is anechoic. Classical WFS, therefore, does not perform well in a real reproduction space such as room. Previous work has suggested that it is physically possible to reproduce a progressive wave field in-room situation using active control approaches. In this paper, a formulation of adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS) introduces practical possibilities for an adaptive sound field reproduction combining WFS and active control (with WFS departure penalization) with a limited number of error sensors. AWFS includes WFS and closed-loop ``Ambisonics'' as limiting cases. This leads to the modification of the multichannel filtered-reference least-mean-square (FXLMS) and the filtered-error LMS (FELMS) adaptive algorithms for AWFS. Decentralization of AWFS for sound field reproduction is introduced on the basis of sources' and sensors' radiation modes. Such decoupling may lead to decentralized control of source strength distributions and may reduce computational burden of the FXLMS and the FELMS algorithms used for AWFS. [Work funded by NSERC, NATEQ, Université de Sherbrooke and VRQ.] Ultrasound/Bioresponse to

  6. Partial Discharge Characteristics of Polymer Nanocomposite Materials in Electrical Insulation: A Review of Sample Preparation Techniques, Analysis Methods, Potential Applications, and Future Trends

    PubMed Central

    Izzati, Wan Akmal; Adzis, Zuraimy; Shafanizam, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites have recently been attracting attention among researchers in electrical insulating applications from energy storage to power delivery. However, partial discharge has always been a predecessor to major faults and problems in this field. In addition, there is a lot more to explore, as neither the partial discharge characteristic in nanocomposites nor their electrical properties are clearly understood. By adding a small amount of weight percentage (wt%) of nanofillers, the physical, mechanical, and electrical properties of polymers can be greatly enhanced. For instance, nanofillers in nanocomposites such as silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3) and titania (TiO2) play a big role in providing a good approach to increasing the dielectric breakdown strength and partial discharge resistance of nanocomposites. Such polymer nanocomposites will be reviewed thoroughly in this paper, with the different experimental and analytical techniques used in previous studies. This paper also provides an academic review about partial discharge in polymer nanocomposites used as electrical insulating material from previous research, covering aspects of preparation, characteristics of the nanocomposite based on experimental works, application in power systems, methods and techniques of experiment and analysis, and future trends. PMID:24558326

  7. Partial discharge characteristics of polymer nanocomposite materials in electrical insulation: a review of sample preparation techniques, analysis methods, potential applications, and future trends.

    PubMed

    Izzati, Wan Akmal; Arief, Yanuar Z; Adzis, Zuraimy; Shafanizam, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites have recently been attracting attention among researchers in electrical insulating applications from energy storage to power delivery. However, partial discharge has always been a predecessor to major faults and problems in this field. In addition, there is a lot more to explore, as neither the partial discharge characteristic in nanocomposites nor their electrical properties are clearly understood. By adding a small amount of weight percentage (wt%) of nanofillers, the physical, mechanical, and electrical properties of polymers can be greatly enhanced. For instance, nanofillers in nanocomposites such as silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3) and titania (TiO2) play a big role in providing a good approach to increasing the dielectric breakdown strength and partial discharge resistance of nanocomposites. Such polymer nanocomposites will be reviewed thoroughly in this paper, with the different experimental and analytical techniques used in previous studies. This paper also provides an academic review about partial discharge in polymer nanocomposites used as electrical insulating material from previous research, covering aspects of preparation, characteristics of the nanocomposite based on experimental works, application in power systems, methods and techniques of experiment and analysis, and future trends.

  8. Systems of Nonlinear Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    McKinney) Travelling wave solutions of the modified Korteweg - deVries -Burgers Equation . J. Differential Equations , 116 (1995), 448-467. 4. (with D.G...SUBTITLE Systems of Nonlinear Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations 6. AUTHOR’S) Michael Shearer PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES(S) AND...DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) This project concerns properties of wave propagation in partial differential equations that are nonlinear

  9. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  10. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dees, Dennis W.

    1994-01-01

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

  11. Free vibration, wave propagation and tension analyses of a sandwich micro/nano rod subjected to electric potential using strain gradient theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefi, Mohammad; Zenkour, Ashraf M.

    2016-11-01

    Strain gradient theory is used to study free vibration, wave propagation and tension analyses of a sandwich micro/nano rod made of piezoelectric materials under electric potential. The structure is resting on a Pasternak’s foundation medium. Love’s rod model is used for derivation of displacement field. The piezoelectric face sheets are subjected to two-dimensional electric potential including an applied voltage at top of plate and a cosine term along the thickness direction. Hamilton’s principle is used to derive governing equations of motion in terms of axial displacement and electric potential. Three distinct behaviors of the present problem including free vibration, wave propagation and tension analyses are performed. Some important numerical results are presented in detail to capture the effect of materials length scales and applied voltage on the different behaviors of microrod.

  12. Resonance activation and collision-induced-dissociation of ions using rectangular wave dipolar potentials in a digital ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fuxing; Wang, Liang; Dai, Xinhua; Fang, Xiang; Ding, Chuan-Fan

    2014-04-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of ions by resonance activation in a quadrupole ion trap is usually accomplished by resonance exciting the ions to higher kinetic energy, whereby the high kinetic energy ions collide with a bath gas, such as helium or argon, inside the trap and dissociate to fragments. A new ion activation method using a well-defined rectangular wave dipolar potential formed by dividing down the trapping rectangular waveform is developed and examined herein. The mass-selected parent ions are resonance excited to high kinetic energies by simply changing the frequency of the rectangular wave dipolar potential and dissociation proceeds. A relationship between the ion mass and the activation waveform frequency is also identified and described. This highly efficient (CID) procedure can be realized by simply changing the waveform frequency of the dipolar potential, which could certainly simplify tandem mass spectrometry analysis methods.

  13. Erratum to Dynamic stresses, Coulomb failure, and remote triggering and to Surface wave potential for triggering tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Hill (2008) and Hill (2010) contain two technical errors: (1) a missing factor of 2 for computed Love‐wave amplitudes, and (2) a sign error in the off‐diagonal elements in the Euler rotation matrix.

  14. Partial wave analysis of the reaction γppω and the search for nucleon resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.; Applegate, D.; Bellis, M.; Meyer, C. A.; Adhikari, K. P.; Anghinolfi, M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Berman, B. L.; Biselli, A. S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Careccia, S. L.; Carman, D. S.; Cole, P. L.; Collins, P.; Crede, V.; D’Angelo, A.; Daniel, A.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Dey, B.; Dhamija, S.; Dickson, R.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Dupre, R.; Alaoui, A. El; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fradi, A.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Garçon, M.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Hassall, N.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jawalkar, S. S.; Jo, H. S.; Johnstone, J. R.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Krahn, Z.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kuznetsov, V.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; Mayer, M.; McAndrew, J.; McCracken, M. E.; McKinnon, B.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Moreno, B.; Moriya, K.; Morrison, B.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nepali, C. S.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Niroula, M. R.; Niyazov, R. A.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paris, M.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Pereira, S. Anefalos; Perrin, Y.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salamanca, J.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, E. S.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vineyard, M. F.; Voutier, E.; Watts, D. P.; Weygand, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.

    2009-12-30

    We performed an event-based partial wave analysis (PWA) of the reaction γ p -> p ω on a high-statistics dataset obtained using the CLAS at Jefferson Lab for center-of-mass energies from threshold up to 2.4 GeV. This analysis benefits from access to the world's first high precision spin density matrix element measurements, available to the event-based PWA through the decay distribution of omega-> π+ π - π0. The data confirm the dominance of the t-channel π0 exchange amplitude in the forward direction. The dominant resonance contributions are consistent with the previously identified states F[15](1680) and D[13](1700) near threshold, as well as the G[17](2190) at higher energies. Suggestive evidence for the presence of a J(P)=5/2+ state around 2 GeV, a "missing" state, has also been found. Evidence for other states is inconclusive.

  15. Partial wave analysis of the reaction p(3.5 GeV) + p → pK+ Λ to search for the "ppK" bound state

    SciTech Connect

    Agakishiev, G.; Arnold, O.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Göbel, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kunz, T.; Kurepin, A.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michel, J.; Müntz, C.; Münzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.; Sarantsev, A. V.

    2015-01-26

    Employing the Bonn–Gatchina partial wave analysis framework (PWA), we have analyzed HADES data of the reaction p(3.5GeV) + p → pK+Λ. This reaction might contain information about the kaonic cluster “ppK-” (with quantum numbers JP=0- and total isospin I =1/2) via its decay into pΛ. Due to interference effects in our coherent description of the data, a hypothetical K ¯NN (or, specifically “ppK-”) cluster signal need not necessarily show up as a pronounced feature (e.g. a peak) in an invariant mass spectrum like pΛ. Our PWA analysis includes a variety of resonant and non-resonant intermediate states and delivers a good description of our data (various angular distributions and two-hadron invariant mass spectra) without a contribution of a K ¯NN cluster. At a confidence level of CLs=95% such a cluster cannot contribute more than 2–12% to the total cross section with a pK+ Λ final state, which translates into a production cross-section between 0.7 μb and 4.2 μb, respectively. The range of the upper limit depends on the assumed cluster mass, width and production process.

  16. Partial purification, characterization, and kinetic studies of a low-molecular-weight, alkali-tolerant chitinase enzyme from Bacillus subtilis JN032305, A potential biocontrol strain.

    PubMed

    Shivakumar, Srividya; Karmali, Anika Nayak; Ruhimbana, Charles

    2014-01-01

    A new alkalophilic low-molecular-mass chitinase of 14 kD from the potent biocontrol agent Bacillus subtilis JN032305 was partially purified and enzymology of the chitinase was studied. The enzyme showed optimal pH of 9.0 and temperature of 50°C. The enzyme was found stable during the 60-min incubation at 50 °C. The chitinase was inhibited by group specific agents like IAA, DAN, TLCK, and SDS and metal ions Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Ba(2+), and Hg(2+), whereas Zn(2+) did not show significant inhibitory effect against the chitinase. PMSF partially inhibited the enzyme. Substrates specificity tests indicated that the enzyme showed 75% of relative activity on glycol chitin, 58% on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), 33% on chitin flakes, and 166% laminarin compared to that on colloidal chitin. The enzyme also hydrolyzed 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminide, indicating its chitobiase activity. The chitinase of this study has broad specificity, which could hydrolyze not only the glycosidic bond in GlcNAc-GlcNAc but also that of related carbohydrates with glycosidic linkages. The partially purified chitinase not only showed antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, two potent phytopathogens of chilli, but also increased the germination of chilli seeds when infected with the two potent phytopathogenic fungi.

  17. The Formation Mechanism of Defects, Spiral Wave in the Network of Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xinyi; Ma, Jun

    2013-01-01

    A regular network of neurons is constructed by using the Morris-Lecar (ML) neuron with the ion channels being considered, and the potential mechnism of the formation of a spiral wave is investigated in detail. Several spiral waves are initiated by blocking the target wave with artificial defects and/or partial blocking (poisoning) in ion channels. Furthermore, possible conditions for spiral wave formation and the effect of partial channel blocking are discussed completely. Our results are summarized as follows. 1) The emergence of a target wave depends on the transmembrane currents with diversity, which mapped from the external forcing current and this kind of diversity is associated with spatial heterogeneity in the media. 2) Distinct spiral wave could be induced to occupy the network when the target wave is broken by partially blocking the ion channels of a fraction of neurons (local poisoned area), and these generated spiral waves are similar with the spiral waves induced by artificial defects. It is confirmed that partial channel blocking of some neurons in the network could play a similar role in breaking a target wave as do artificial defects; 3) Channel noise and additive Gaussian white noise are also considered, and it is confirmed that spiral waves are also induced in the network in the presence of noise. According to the results mentioned above, we conclude that appropriate poisoning in ion channels of neurons in the network acts as ‘defects’ on the evolution of the spatiotemporal pattern, and accounts for the emergence of a spiral wave in the network of neurons. These results could be helpful to understand the potential cause of the formation and development of spiral waves in the cortex of a neuronal system. PMID:23383179

  18. The formation mechanism of defects, spiral wave in the network of neurons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinyi; Ma, Jun

    2013-01-01

    A regular network of neurons is constructed by using the Morris-Lecar (ML) neuron with the ion channels being considered, and the potential mechnism of the formation of a spiral wave is investigated in detail. Several spiral waves are initiated by blocking the target wave with artificial defects and/or partial blocking (poisoning) in ion channels. Furthermore, possible conditions for spiral wave formation and the effect of partial channel blocking are discussed completely. Our results are summarized as follows. 1) The emergence of a target wave depends on the transmembrane currents with diversity, which mapped from the external forcing current and this kind of diversity is associated with spatial heterogeneity in the media. 2) Distinct spiral wave could be induced to occupy the network when the target wave is broken by partially blocking the ion channels of a fraction of neurons (local poisoned area), and these generated spiral waves are similar with the spiral waves induced by artificial defects. It is confirmed that partial channel blocking of some neurons in the network could play a similar role in breaking a target wave as do artificial defects; 3) Channel noise and additive Gaussian white noise are also considered, and it is confirmed that spiral waves are also induced in the network in the presence of noise. According to the results mentioned above, we conclude that appropriate poisoning in ion channels of neurons in the network acts as 'defects' on the evolution of the spatiotemporal pattern, and accounts for the emergence of a spiral wave in the network of neurons. These results could be helpful to understand the potential cause of the formation and development of spiral waves in the cortex of a neuronal system.

  19. The contribution of ventricular apicobasal and transmural repolarization patterns to the development of the T wave body surface potentials in frogs (Rana temporaria) and pike (Esox lucius).

    PubMed

    Vaykshnorayte, Marina A; Azarov, Jan E; Tsvetkova, Alena S; Vityazev, Vladimir A; Ovechkin, Alexey O; Shmakov, Dmitry N

    2011-05-01

    The study aimed at the simultaneous determination of the transmural and apicobasal differences in the repolarization timing and the comparison of the contributions of these two repolarization gradients to the development of the body surface T wave potentials in animals with the single heart ventricle (fishes and amphibians). Unipolar potentials were measured on the body surface, epicardium and in the intramural (subepicardial, Epi; midmyocardial; and subendocardial, Endo) ventricular layers of 9 pike and 8 frogs. Activation times, repolarization times and activation-recovery intervals were determined. A transmural gradient in repolarization durations in frogs (Endo>Epi, P<0.024) corresponds to the gradient in repolarization times. No significant transmural difference in repolarization duration is observed in pike that produces a repolarization sequence from Endo to Epi (Endopotential distributions during the T wave in spite of the opposite transmural repolarization patterns. The present study suggests that the apicobasal repolarization gradient provides the major contribution to the development of the T wave potentials on the body surface in pike and frogs.

  20. Geophysical techniques in detection to river embankments - A case study: To locate sites of potential leaks using surface-wave and electrical methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, C.; Liu, J.; Xu, S.; Xia, J.; ,

    2004-01-01

    Geophysical technologies are very effective in environmental, engineering and groundwater applications. Parameters of delineating nature of near-surface materials such as compressional-wave velocity, shear-wave velocity can be obtained using shallow seismic methods. Electric methods are primary approaches for investigating groundwater and detecting leakage. Both of methods are applied to detect embankment in hope of obtaining evidences of the strength and moisture inside the body. A technological experiment has done for detecting and discovering the hidden troubles in the embankment of Yangtze River, Songzi, Hubei, China in 2003. Surface-wave and DC multi-channel array resistivity sounding techniques were used to detect hidden trouble inside and under dike like pipe-seeps. This paper discusses the exploration strategy and the effect of geological characteristics. A practical approach of combining seismic and electric resistivity measurements was applied to locate potential pipe-seeps in embankment in the experiment. The method presents a potential leak factor based on the shear-wave velocity and the resistivity of the medium to evaluate anomalies. An anomaly found in a segment of embankment detected was verified, where occurred a pipe-seep during the 98' flooding.

  1. LIMS (Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere) observation of traveling planetary waves and potential vorticity advection in the stratosphere and mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkerton, Timothy J.

    1991-02-01

    Eastward and westward traveling waves were observed by the Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) during the northern winter 1978-1979. Eastward waves were prevalent in early winter and were involved in a minor Canadian warming in December 1978. A large westward traveling wave, as described by previous authors, was observed in January 1979 during a series of minor warmings. By comparing these two events, it is shown that in both cases the superposition of traveling and quasi-stationary waves led to constructive interference that was responsible for the warmings. However, there was significant asymmetry between eastward and westward traveling components. A local Eulerian analysis of potential vorticity (PV) transport indicates that adiabatic, geostrophic advection by the resolvable scales of motion explains qualitatively (but not quantitatively) the observed potential vorticity tendencies in the LIMS Northern Hemisphere winter. In particular, calculated advection explains the eastward rotation of the main vortex, intrusion of low PV air into the polar cap, and formation of high PV filaments at the vortex periphery.

  2. ULF Waves at Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E.-H.; Boardsen, S. A.; Johnson, J. R.; Slavin, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    This chapter provides a brief overview of the observed characteristics of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves at Mercury. It shows how field-aligned propagating ULF waves at Mercury can be generated by externally driven fast compressional waves (FWs) via mode conversion at the ion-ion hybrid resonance. Then, the chapter reviews the interpretation that the strong magnetic compressional waves near and its harmonics observed with 20 of Mercury's magnetic equator could be the ion Bernstein wave (IBW) mode. A recent statistical study of ULF waves at Mercury based on MESSENGER data reported the occurrence and polarization of the detected waves. The chapter further introduces the field line resonance and the electromagnetic ion Bernstein waves to explain such waves, and shows that both theories can partially explain the observations.

  3. Quench-induced correlation waves, and quantum grenades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corson, John; Bohn, John

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the wave packet dynamics of a pair of particles that undergoes a rapid change of scattering length. Such quenches have recently become experimentally feasible with fast magnetic-field ramps and optical switching in the vicinity of a Feshbach resonance. The short-range interactions are modelled in the zero-range limit, where the quench is accomplished by switching the boundary condition of the wave function at vanishing particle separation. This generates a correlation wave that propagates rapidly to nonzero particle separations. We have derived universal, analytic results for this process that lead to a simple phase-space picture of quench-induced scattering. Intuitively, the strength of the correlation wave relates to the initial contact of the system. A natural consequence is that the waves are significant when the quench dissociates, at least partially, a bound state. These waves can propagate with high energy from one lattice site to another, potentially triggering highly non-equilibrium dynamics.

  4. Environmental monitoring techniques and wave energy potential assessment: an integrated approach for planning marine energy conversion schemes in the northern Tyrrhenian sea, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanu, Sergio; Peviani, Maximo; Carli, Filippo Maria; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Piermattei, Viviana; Bonamano, Simone; Marcelli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    This work proposes a multidisciplinary approach in which wave power potential maps are used as baseline for the application of environmental monitoring techniques identified through the use of a Database for Environmental Monitoring Techniques and Equipment (DEMTE), derived in the frame of the project "Marine Renewables Infrastructure Network for Emerging Energy Technologies" (Marinet - FP7). This approach aims to standardize the monitoring of the marine environment in the event of installation, operation and decommissioning of Marine Energy Conversion Systems. The database has been obtained through the collection of techniques and instrumentation available among the partners of the consortium, in relation with all environmental marine compounds potentially affected by any impacts. Furthermore in order to plan marine energy conversion schemes, the wave potential was assessed at regional and local scales using the numerical modelling downscaling methodology. The regional scale lead to the elaboration of the Italian Wave Power Atlas, while the local scale lead to the definition of nearshore hot spots useful for the planning of devices installation along the Latium coast. The present work focus in the application of environmental monitoring techniques identified in the DEMTE, in correspondence of the hotspot derived from the wave potential maps with particular reference to the biological interaction of the devices and the management of the marine space. The obtained results are the bases for the development of standardized procedures which aims to an effective application of marine environmental monitoring techniques during the installation, operation and decommissioning of Marine Energy Conversion Systems. The present work gives a consistent contribution to overcome non-technological barriers in the concession procedures, as far as the protection of the marine environment is of concern.

  5. Compact Binary Inspiral and the Science Potential of Third-Generation Ground-Based Gravitational Wave Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Broeck, Chris; Sengupta, Anand S.

    2008-09-01

    We consider EGO as a possible third-generation ground-based gravitational wave detector and evaluate its capabilities for the detection and interpretation of compact binary inspiral signals. We identify areas of astrophysics and cosmology where EGO would have qualitative advantages, using Advanced LIGO as a benchmark for comparison.

  6. An assessment of the potential of continuous-wave ranging for measuring the distance to a highly reflective, infinite sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearn, C. P.; Bailey, M. C.; Czerner, M. J.; Dudley, K. L.; Vedeler, E.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of a continuous-wave, distance-measuring technique for measuring the distance from a spacecraft antenna to a highly ionized plasma surface is examined. The reflection coefficient angle is computed for several aperture models. It is concluded that aperture size and the presence of a nonablating dielectric cover over the antenna are critical factors.

  7. The prolonged gastrointestinal syndrome in rhesus macaques: the relationship between gastrointestinal, hematopoietic, and delayed multi-organ sequelae following acute, potentially lethal, partial-body irradiation.

    PubMed

    MacVittie, Thomas J; Bennett, Alexander; Booth, Catherine; Garofalo, Michael; Tudor, Gregory; Ward, Amanda; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Gelfond, Daniel; McFarland, Emylee; Jackson, William; Lu, Wei; Farese, Ann M

    2012-10-01

    The dose response relationship for the acute gastrointestinal syndrome following total-body irradiation prevents analysis of the full recovery and damage to the gastrointestinal system, since all animals succumb to the subsequent 100% lethal hematopoietic syndrome. A partial-body irradiation model with 5% bone marrow sparing was established to investigate the prolonged effects of high-dose radiation on the gastrointestinal system, as well as the concomitant hematopoietic syndrome and other multi-organ injury including the lung. Herein, cellular and clinical parameters link acute and delayed coincident sequelae to radiation dose and time course post-exposure. Male rhesus Macaca mulatta were exposed to partial-body irradiation with 5% bone marrow (tibiae, ankles, feet) sparing using 6 MV linear accelerator photons at a dose rate of 0.80 Gy min(-1) to midline tissue (thorax) doses in the exposure range of 9.0 to 12.5 Gy. Following irradiation, all animals were monitored for multiple organ-specific parameters for 180 d. Animals were administered medical management including administration of intravenous fluids, antiemetics, prophylactic antibiotics, blood transfusions, antidiarrheals, supplemental nutrition, and analgesics. The primary endpoint was survival at 15, 60, or 180 d post-exposure. Secondary endpoints included evaluation of dehydration, diarrhea, hematologic parameters, respiratory distress, histology of small and large intestine, lung radiographs, and mean survival time of decedents. Dose- and time-dependent mortality defined several organ-specific sequelae, with LD50/15 of 11.95 Gy, LD50/60 of 11.01 Gy, and LD50/180 of 9.73 Gy for respective acute gastrointestinal, combined hematopoietic and gastrointestinal, and multi-organ delayed injury to include the lung. This model allows analysis of concomitant multi-organ sequelae, thus providing a link between acute and delayed radiation effects. Specific and multi-organ medical countermeasures can be assessed for

  8. Potential Contribution of Antioxidant Mechanism in the Defensive Effect of Lycopene Against Partial Sciatic Nerve Ligation Induced Behavioral, Biochemical and Histopathological Modification in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Goel, R; Tyagi, N

    2016-12-01

    Neuropathic pain is a severe and unbearable condition which arises due to activation of peripheral nociceptors after tissue damage, neuropathic pain is caused from anomalous physiology of central or peripheral nervous system and it may not be related to the ongoing tissue damage or inflammation. Involvement of oxidative damage has been reported in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of lycopene to quench the free radicals produced as a result of the increased oxidative stress in neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain was induced in wistar rats by partial sciatic nerve ligation. The effect was evaluated by assessing various behavioral parameters (thermal hyperalgesia, cold hyperalgesia), biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase) as well as histopathological parameters in sciatic nerve. During the experiment group of 8 rats each was administered drugs once daily intraperitonealy (I.P.) and naïve groups, sham group and sciatic nerve ligated group were treated with vehicle for the duration of 14 days. Partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) significantly caused thermal hyperalgesia, cold hyperalgesia and oxidative damage compared to normal and sham groups. Daily administration of lycopene (25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg) and gabapentin (100 mg/kg) considerably reversed hyperalgesia, cold hyperalgesia and attenuated oxidative stress when compared to control group. There was significant histological improvement in the in the architecture of myelinated and unmyelinated fibers. The results indicated that free radical generation mechanism might be involved in PSNL induced behavior, biochemical and histopathological changes in wistar rats.

  9. Necessary conditions for accurate computations of three-body partial decay widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, E.; Jensen, A. S.; Fedorov, D. V.

    2008-09-01

    The partial width for decay of a resonance into three fragments is largely determined at distances where the energy is smaller than the effective potential producing the corresponding wave function. At short distances the many-body properties are accounted for by preformation or spectroscopic factors. We use the adiabatic expansion method combined with the WKB approximation to obtain the indispensable cluster model wave functions at intermediate and larger distances. We test the concept by deriving conditions for the minimal basis expressed in terms of partial waves and radial nodes. We compare results for different effective interactions and methods. Agreement is found with experimental values for a sufficiently large basis. We illustrate the ideas with realistic examples from α emission of C12 and two-proton emission of Ne17. Basis requirements for accurate momentum distributions are briefly discussed.

  10. Heat-Wave Effects on Oxygen, Nutrients, and Phytoplankton Can Alter Global Warming Potential of Gases Emitted from a Small Shallow Lake.

    PubMed

    Bartosiewicz, Maciej; Laurion, Isabelle; Clayer, François; Maranger, Roxane

    2016-06-21

    Increasing air temperatures may result in stronger lake stratification, potentially altering nutrient and biogenic gas cycling. We assessed the impact of climate forcing by comparing the influence of stratification on oxygen, nutrients, and global-warming potential (GWP) of greenhouse gases (the sum of CH4, CO2, and N2O in CO2 equivalents) emitted from a shallow productive lake during an average versus a heat-wave year. Strong stratification during the heat wave was accompanied by an algal bloom and chemically enhanced carbon uptake. Solar energy trapped at the surface created a colder, isolated hypolimnion, resulting in lower ebullition and overall lower GWP during the hotter-than-average year. Furthermore, the dominant CH4 emission pathway shifted from ebullition to diffusion, with CH4 being produced at surprisingly high rates from sediments (1.2-4.1 mmol m(-2) d(-1)). Accumulated gases trapped in the hypolimnion during the heat wave resulted in a peak efflux to the atmosphere during fall overturn when 70% of total emissions were released, with littoral zones acting as a hot spot. The impact of climate warming on the GWP of shallow lakes is a more complex interplay of phytoplankton dynamics, emission pathways, thermal structure, and chemical conditions, as well as seasonal and spatial variability, than previously reported.

  11. Brain wave correlates of attentional states: Event related potentials and quantitative EEG analysis during performance of cognitive and perceptual tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Frederick G.

    1993-01-01

    The increased use of automation in the cockpits of commercial planes has dramatically decreased the workload requirements of pilots, enabling them to function more efficiently and with a higher degree of safety. Unfortunately, advances in technology have led to an unexpected problem: the decreased demands on pilots have increased the probability of inducing 'hazardous states of awareness.' A hazardous state of awareness is defined as a decreased level of alertness or arousal which makes an individual less capable of reacting to unique or emergency types of situations. These states tend to be induced when an individual is not actively processing information. Under such conditions a person is likely to let his/her mind wander, either to internal states or to irrelevant external conditions. As a result, they are less capable of reacting quickly to emergency situations. Since emergencies are relatively rare, and since the high automated cockpit requires progressively decreasing levels of engagement, the probability of being seduced into a lowered state of awareness is increasing. This further decreases the readiness of the pilot to react to unique circumstances such as system failures. The HEM Lab at NASA-Langley Research Center has been studying how these states of awareness are induced and what the physiological correlates of these different states are. Specifically, they have been interested in studying electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of different states of alertness to determine if such states can be identified and, hopefully, avoided. The project worked on this summer involved analyzing the EEG and the event related potentials (ERP) data collected while subjects performed under two conditions. Each condition required subjects to perform a relatively boring vigilance task. The purpose of using these tasks was to induce a decreased state of awareness while still requiring the subject to process information. Each task involved identifying an infrequently

  12. Hierarchical partial order ranking.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-09-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritization of polluted sites is given.

  13. Computational Modeling of Causal Mechanisms of Blast Wave Induced Traumatic Brain Injury - A Potential Tool for Injury Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Bowen et al. 1968).The stand-off distance and the net weight of the explosive ( TNT equivalence ) needed to match four levels of overpressure and...wave profiles based on Bowen’s iso-damage curve (Figure 1). Table 1: Calculated stand-off distance and TNT equivalent to match the blast effect...spherical TNT . Table 1 lists the calculated weight of the spherical TNT explosive and the corresponding stand-off distance required to produce four blast

  14. THE PROLONGED GASTROINTESTINAL SYNDROME IN RHESUS MACAQUES: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GASTROINTESTINAL, HEMATOPOIETIC, AND DELAYED MULTI-ORGAN SEQUELAE FOLLOWING ACUTE, POTENTIALLY LETHAL, PARTIAL-BODY IRRADIATION

    PubMed Central

    MacVittie, Thomas J.; Bennett, Alexander; Booth, Catherine; Garofalo, Michael; Tudor, Gregory; Ward, Amanda; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Gelfond, Daniel; McFarland, Emylee; Jackson, William; Lu, Wei; Farese, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    The dose response relationship for the acute gastrointestinal syndrome following total-body irradiation prevents analysis of the full recovery and damage to the gastrointestinal system, since all animals succumb to the subsequent 100% lethal hematopoietic syndrome. A partial-body irradiation model with 5% bone marrow sparing was established to investigate the prolonged effects of high-dose radiation on the gastrointestinal system, as well as the concomitant hematopoietic syndrome and other multi-organ injury including the lung. Herein, cellular and clinical parameters link acute and delayed coincident sequelae to radiation dose and time course post-exposure. Male rhesus Macaca mulatta were exposed to partial-body irradiation with 5% bone marrow (tibiae, ankles, feet) sparing using 6 MV linear accelerator photons at a dose rate of 0.80 Gy min−1 to midline tissue (thorax) doses in the exposure range of 9.0 to 12.5 Gy. Following irradiation, all animals were monitored for multiple organ-specific parameters for 180 d. Animals were administered medical management including administration of intravenous fluids, antiemetics, prophylactic antibiotics, blood transfusions, antidiarrheals, supplemental nutrition, and analgesics. The primary endpoint was survival at 15, 60, or 180 d post-exposure. Secondary endpoints included evaluation of dehydration, diarrhea, hematologic parameters, respiratory distress, histology of small and large intestine, lung radiographs, and mean survival time of decedents. Dose- and time-dependent mortality defined several organ-specific sequelae, with LD50/15 of 11.95 Gy, LD50/60 of 11.01 Gy, and LD50/180 of 9.73 Gy for respective acute gastrointestinal, combined hematopoietic and gastrointestinal, and multi-organ delayed injury to include the lung. This model allows analysis of concomitant multi-organ sequelae, thus providing a link between acute and delayed radiation effects. Specific and multi-organ medical countermeasures can be assessed for

  15. Potential Climate Change Health Risks from Increases in Heat Waves: Abnormal Birth Outcomes and Adverse Maternal Health Conditions.

    PubMed

    Cil, Gulcan; Cameron, Trudy Ann

    2017-02-23

    We investigate the risks presented by heat waves for adverse health conditions for babies and expectant mothers when these mothers have been exposed to heat waves during gestation or during the period just prior to conception. Rather than just birth weight and gestational age, we focus on less common metrics such as abnormal conditions in the newborn (fetal distress, reliance on a ventilator, and meconium aspiration) and adverse health conditions in the mother (pregnancy-related hypertension, uterine bleeding during pregnancy, eclampsia, and incompetent cervix). We use monthly panel data for over 3,000 U.S. counties, constructed from the confidential version of the U.S. Natality Files for 1989-2008. Our models control for sociodemographic factors and include county, month, and state-by-year fixed effects to control for unobserved spatial and timewise heterogeneity in the data. Even within the United States, where there is widespread access to air conditioning, heat waves increase the fraction of babies with abnormal conditions related to maternal stress, as well as the fraction of mothers who experience pregnancy-related adverse health conditions. The scope for these risks in developing countries is likely to be even greater.

  16. Calcium ascorbate as a potential partial substitute for NaCl in dry fermented sausages: effect on colour, texture and hygienic quality at different concentrations.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, O; Astiasarán, I; Bello, J

    2001-01-01

    A control product (2.6% NaCl) and different treatments with reduced levels of salt (1, 2.3% NaCl; 2, 2.0% NaCl; 3, 1.7% NaCl; 4, 1.4% NaCl) and increased amounts of calcium ascorbate with an equivalent ionic strength to that of the control were assayed. The percentages of reduction of sodium content in relation to the control were 15, 24, 37 and 45% and the supply of calcium was 26, 33, 42 and 50% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDAs established by NRC, US) for treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Partial substitution of NaCl by calcium ascorbate caused higher acidification related with the higher lactic acid bacteria development and probably with the presence of calcium. The instrumental measurement of colour gave rise to some significant differences especially with the highest amount of calcium ascorbate (treatment 4), giving rise to significant higher a* and b* values and lower L* values in relation to the control. Treatments 2, 3 and 4 lead to products with lower hardness and gumminess values than the control. No problems related to the hygienic quality were observed.

  17. A partial exploration of the potential energy surfaces of SCN and HSCN: implications for the enzyme-mediated detoxification of cyanide.

    PubMed

    Zottola, Mark A

    2009-09-01

    Cyanide (CN) is considered to be a terrorist chemical weapon due to its ready availability in multi-kilogram quantities and multi-modal means of intoxication. The body uses the sulfur transferase enzyme rhodanese to detoxify cyanide via conversion of cyanide to thiocyanate. This paper explores the potential energy surfaces for the conversion of cyanide anion and hydrogen cyanide to thiocyanate anion and thiocyanic acid, respectively. The potential energy surface for the conversion of cyanide anion to thiocyanate shows that the formation of thiocyanate (SCN) is vastly preferred to formation of its isomer SNC. However, the potential energy surface for the conversion of hydrogen cyanide to thiocyanic acid reveals that the formation of HSCN and HNCS would be relatively equal. The failure for analytical methods to detect HNCS is rationalized by the observation that deprotonation of either HNCS or HSCN leads to the same thiocyanate anion.

  18. Indications of partial chiral symmetry restoration from pionic atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive data on strong interaction effects in pionic atoms are analyzed with a density-dependent isovector scattering amplitude suggested recently by Weise to result from a density dependence of the pion decay constant. Most of the so-called 'missing s-wave repulsion' is removed when adopting this approach, thus indicating a partial chiral symmetry restoration in dense matter. The resulting potentials describe quite well also elastic scattering of 20 MeV pions on Ca. Further tests with elastic scattering are desirable.

  19. S-wave Approach for \\varvec{nnp} and \\varvec{ppn} Systems with Phenomenological Correction for Singlet \\varvec{NN} Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahovic, B.; Suslov, V. M.; Filikhin, I.

    2017-03-01

    Three-nucleon systems are considered assuming the neutrons and protons to be distinguishable particles. The configuration space Faddeev equations within the s-wave approach are applied for studying bound state and scattering problems. The phenomenological Malfliet-Tjon MT I-III and Afnan-Tang ATS3 NN potentials are used with scaling factors chosen to reproduce the singlet nn, pp and np experimental scattering lengths. Numerical evaluation for the charge symmetry breaking energy is found to be about 50 keV for ^3H and ^3He nuclei. To determine any effects related to the nn ( pp) and np potential differences, the nd and pd breakup scattering calculations were performed at E_{lab}=4.0 and 14.1 MeV. We found the effects due to potential differences are small but noticeable. We discuss the dependence of calculated inelasticities and phase-shifts with respect to the chosen value for cutoff radius.

  20. Reductions in biomarkers of exposure (BoE) to harmful or potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes in adult smokers

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Grant; Graff, Donald W.; D’Ruiz, Carl D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Changes in fifteen urine, blood and exhaled breath BoEs of HPHCs representing classes of compounds reported by FDA to be significant contributors to smoking-associated disease risks were measured in 105 clinical-confined subjects following randomization and a five-day forced-switch from usual brand conventional combustible cigarettes to: (i) exclusive commercial e-cigarette use; (ii) dual-use of commercial e-cigarettes and the subject’s usual cigarette brand; or (iii) discontinued use of all tobacco or nicotine products. Levels of urinary biomarkers in subjects that completely substituted their usual cigarette with e-cigarettes were significantly lower (29–95%) after 5 days. Percent reductions in eight of nine urinary BoEs were indistinguishable to smokers who had quit smoking, except for nicotine equivalents, which declined by 25–40%. Dual users who halved self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes exhibited reductions (7–38%) in eight of nine urinary biomarkers, but had increase (1–20%) in nicotine equivalents. Reductions were broadly proportional to the reduced numbers of cigarettes smoked. Dual user urinary nicotine equivalents were slightly higher, but not statistically significant. After 5 days, blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75–96%) and exclusive use groups (11–83%); with dual users experiencing no significant reductions. All subjects experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO. Decreases in the cessation and exclusive groups ranged from 88–89% and 27–32% in dual users. Exhaled NO increased in the cessation and exclusive groups (46–63% respectively), whereas the dual users experienced minimal changes. Overall, smokers who completely or partially substituted conventional cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days, experienced reductions in HPHCs. PMID:27401591

  1. Nonlocal Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with wave function renormalization at finite temperature and chemical potential

    SciTech Connect

    Contrera, G. A.; Orsaria, M.; Scoccola, N. N.

    2010-09-01

    We study the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter in the framework of a nonlocal SU(2) chiral quark model which includes wave function renormalization and coupling to the Polyakov loop. Both nonlocal interactions based on the frequently used exponential form factor, and on fits to the quark mass and renormalization functions obtained in lattice calculations are considered. Special attention is paid to the determination of the critical points, both in the chiral limit and at finite quark mass. In particular, we study the position of the critical end point as well as the value of the associated critical exponents for different model parametrizations.

  2. Epibatidine application in vitro blocks retinal waves without silencing all retinal ganglion cell action potentials in developing retina of the mouse and ferret.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chao; Speer, Colenso M; Wang, Guo-Yong; Chapman, Barbara; Chalupa, Leo M

    2008-12-01

    Epibatidine (EPI), a potent cholinergic agonist, disrupts acetylcholine-dependent spontaneous retinal activity. Early patch-clamp recordings in juvenile ferrets suggested that EPI blocks all retinal ganglion cell (RGC) action potentials when applied to the retina. In contrast, recent experiments on the developing mouse that relied on multielectrode array (MEA) recordings reported that EPI application decorrelates the activity of neighboring RGCs and eliminates retinal waves while preserving the spiking activity of many neurons. The different techniques used in previous studies raise the question of whether EPI has different effects on RGC activity in mouse compared with that in ferret. A resolution of this issue is essential for interpreting the results of developmental studies that relied on EPI to manipulate retinal activity. Our goal was to compare the effects of EPI on the spontaneous discharges of RGCs in mouse and ferret using 60-electrode MEA as well as patch-clamp recordings during the developmental stage when retinal waves are driven by acetylcholine in both species. We found that in both mouse and ferret EPI decorrelates RGC activity and eliminates retinal waves. However, EPI does not block all spontaneous activity in either species. Instead, our whole cell recordings reveal that EPI silences more than half of all RGCs while significantly increasing the activity of the remainder. These results have important implications for interpreting the results of previous studies that relied on this cholinergic agonist to perturb retinal activity.

  3. On the arbitrary l-wave solutions of the deformed hyperbolic manning-rosen potential including an improved approximation to the orbital centrifugal term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chun-Long; Zhang, Min-Cang

    2017-01-01

    The arbitrary l-wave solutions to the Schrödinger equation for the deformed hyperbolic Manning-Rosen potential is investigated analytically by using the Nikiforov-Uvarov method, the centrifugal term is treated with an improved Greene and Aldrich's approximation scheme. The wavefunctions depend on the deformation parameter q, which is expressed in terms of the Jocobi polynomial or the hypergeometric function. The bound state energy is obtained, and the discrete spectrum is shown to be independent of the deformation parameter q.

  4. Methane hydrate formation in partially water-saturated Ottawa sand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, W.F.; Winters, W.J.; Mason, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    Bulk properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediment strongly depend on whether hydrate forms primarily in the pore fluid, becomes a load-bearing member of the sediment matrix, or cements sediment grains. Our compressional wave speed measurements through partially water-saturated, methane hydrate-bearing Ottawa sands suggest hydrate surrounds and cements sediment grains. The three Ottawa sand packs tested in the Gas Hydrate And Sediment Test Laboratory Instrument (GHASTLI) contain 38(1)% porosity, initially with distilled water saturating 58, 31, and 16% of that pore space, respectively. From the volume of methane gas produced during hydrate dissociation, we calculated the hydrate concentration in the pore space to be 70, 37, and 20% respectively. Based on these hydrate concentrations and our measured compressional wave speeds, we used a rock physics model to differentiate between potential pore-space hydrate distributions. Model results suggest methane hydrate cements unconsolidated sediment when forming in systems containing an abundant gas phase.

  5. An evaluation of HEMT potential for millimeter-wave signal sources using interpolation and harmonic balance techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Youngwoo; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Tutt, Marcel N.

    1991-01-01

    A large-signal analysis method based on an harmonic balance technique and a 2-D cubic spline interpolation function has been developed and applied to the prediction of InP-based HEMT oscillator performance for frequencies extending up to the submillimeter-wave range. The large-signal analysis method uses a limited number of DC and small-signal S-parameter data and allows the accurate characterization of HEMT large-signal behavior. The method has been validated experimentally using load-pull measurement. Oscillation frequency, power performance, and load requirements are discussed, with an operation capability of 300 GHz predicted using state-of-the-art devices (fmax is approximately equal to 450 GHz).

  6. Potentiation of convergent synaptic inputs onto pyramidal neurons in somatosensory cortex: dependence on brain wave frequencies and NMDA receptor subunit composition.

    PubMed

    Pilli, J; Kumar, S S

    2014-07-11

    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) at layer (L)1/primary whisker motor cortex synaptic inputs are distinct from thalamic/striatal (Str) synaptic inputs onto L5 pyramidal neurons in the rat somatosensory cortex. However, the consequences of differential expression of putative GluN3A-containing triheteromeric NMDARs at L1 inputs and GluN2A-containing diheteromeric NMDARs at Str inputs on plasticity of the underlying synapses at the respective inputs remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that L1, but not Str, synapses are potentiated following delta burst stimulation (dBS). This potentiation is blocked by d-serine and/or intracellular 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) suggesting that it is subunit-specific and dependent on elevations in intracellular Ca(2+). Interestingly, ifenprodil, the GluN2B-preferring antagonist, suppresses baseline L1 responses but does not prevent induction of dBS-evoked potentiation. Unlike L1, Str synapses are maximally potentiated following theta burst stimulation (tBS) and this potentiation is blocked with BAPTA and/or the GluN2A-preferring antagonist NVP-AAM077. We show further that while dBS is both necessary and sufficient to potentiate L1 synapses, tBS is most effective in potentiating Str synapses. Our data suggest distinct potentiating paradigms for the two convergent inputs onto pyramidal neurons in the somatosensory cortex and co-dependence of synaptic potentiation on brain wave-tuned frequencies of burst stimulation and subunit composition of underlying NMDARs. A model for predicting the likelihood of enhancing synaptic efficacy is proposed based on Ca(2+) influx through these receptors and integration of EPSPs at these inputs. Together, these findings raise the possibility of input-specific enhancements of synaptic efficacy in neurons as a function of the animal's behavioral state and/or arousal in vivo.

  7. New approach to folding with the Coulomb wave function

    SciTech Connect

    Blokhintsev, L. D.; Savin, D. A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.

    2015-05-15

    Due to the long-range character of the Coulomb interaction theoretical description of low-energy nuclear reactions with charged particles still remains a formidable task. One way of dealing with the problem in an integral-equation approach is to employ a screened Coulomb potential. A general approach without screening requires folding of kernels of the integral equations with the Coulomb wave. A new method of folding a function with the Coulomb partial waves is presented. The partial-wave Coulomb function both in the configuration and momentum representations is written in the form of separable series. Each term of the series is represented as a product of a factor depending only on the Coulomb parameter and a function depending on the spatial variable in the configuration space and the momentum variable if the momentum representation is used. Using a trial function, the method is demonstrated to be efficient and reliable.

  8. Crystal Structure and Biochemical Characterization of Chlamydomonas FDX2 Reveal Two Residues that, When Mutated, Partially Confer FDX2 the Redox Potential and Catalytic Properties of FDX1

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, Marko; Alahuhta, Markus; Mulder, David W.; Peden, Erin A.; Long, Hai; Brunecky, Roman; Lunin, Vladimir V.; King, Paul W.; Ghirardi, Maria L.; Dubini, Alexandra

    2015-11-03

    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains six plastidic [2Fe2S]-cluster ferredoxins (FDXs), with FDX1 as the predominant isoform under photoautotrophic growth. FDX2 is highly similar to FDX1 and has been shown to interact with specific enzymes (such as nitrite reductase), as well as to share interactors with FDX1, such as the hydrogenases (HYDA), ferredoxin:NAD(P) reductase I (FNR1), and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFR1), albeit performing at low catalytic rates. Here we report the FDX2 crystal structure solved at 1.18 Å resolution. Based on differences between the Chlorella fusca FDX1 and C. reinhardtii FDX2 structures, we generated and purified point-mutated versions of the FDX2 protein and assayed them in vitro for their ability to catalyze hydrogen and NADPH photo-production. The data show that structural differences at two amino acid positions contribute to functional differences between FDX1 and FDX2, suggesting that FDX2 might have evolved from FDX1 toward a different physiological role in the cell. Moreover, we demonstrate that the mutations affect both the midpoint potentials of the FDX and kinetics of the FNR reaction, possibly due to altered binding between FDX and FNR. An effect on H2 photo-production rates was also observed, although the kinetics of the reaction were not further characterized.

  9. Crystal Structure and Biochemical Characterization of Chlamydomonas FDX2 Reveal Two Residues that, When Mutated, Partially Confer FDX2 the Redox Potential and Catalytic Properties of FDX1

    DOE PAGES

    Boehm, Marko; Alahuhta, Markus; Mulder, David W.; ...

    2015-11-03

    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains six plastidic [2Fe2S]-cluster ferredoxins (FDXs), with FDX1 as the predominant isoform under photoautotrophic growth. FDX2 is highly similar to FDX1 and has been shown to interact with specific enzymes (such as nitrite reductase), as well as to share interactors with FDX1, such as the hydrogenases (HYDA), ferredoxin:NAD(P) reductase I (FNR1), and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFR1), albeit performing at low catalytic rates. Here we report the FDX2 crystal structure solved at 1.18 Å resolution. Based on differences between the Chlorella fusca FDX1 and C. reinhardtii FDX2 structures, we generated and purified point-mutated versions of the FDX2more » protein and assayed them in vitro for their ability to catalyze hydrogen and NADPH photo-production. The data show that structural differences at two amino acid positions contribute to functional differences between FDX1 and FDX2, suggesting that FDX2 might have evolved from FDX1 toward a different physiological role in the cell. Moreover, we demonstrate that the mutations affect both the midpoint potentials of the FDX and kinetics of the FNR reaction, possibly due to altered binding between FDX and FNR. An effect on H2 photo-production rates was also observed, although the kinetics of the reaction were not further characterized.« less

  10. Appendix D: Use of wave scenarios to assess potential submerged oil mat (SOM) formation along the coast of Florida and Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalyander, P. Soupy; Long, Joseph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Thompson, David M.

    2013-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, oil in the surf zone mixed with sediment in the surf zone to form heavier-than-water sediment oil agglomerates of various size, ranging from small (cm-scale) pieces (surface residual balls, SRBs) to large mats (100-m scale, surface residue mats, SR mats). Once SR mats formed in the nearshore or in the intertidal zone, they may have become buried by sand moving onshore or alongshore. To assist in locating possible sites of buried oil, wave scenarios previously developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) were used to determine the depths at which surface oil had the potential to mix with suspended sediment. For sediment to mix with floating oil and form an agglomerate of sufficient density to sink to the seafloor, either the water must be very shallow (e.g., within the swash zone) or sediment must be suspended to the water surface in sufficient concentrations to create a denser-than-sea water agglomerate. The focus of this study is to analyze suspended sediment mixing with surface oil in depths beyond the swash zone, in order to define the seaward limit of mat formation. A theoretical investigation of sediment dynamics in the nearshore zone revealed that non-breaking waves do not suspend enough sediment to the surface to form sinking sand/oil agglomerates. For this study, it was assumed that the cross-shore distribution of potential agglomerate formation is associated with the primary breaker line, and the presence of plunging breakers, over the time frame of oiling. The potential locations of submerged oil mats (SOMs) are sites where (1) possible agglomerate formation occurred, where (2) sediment accreted post-oiling and buried the SOM, and where (3) the bathymetry has not subsequently eroded to re-expose any mat that may have formed at that site. To facilitate identification of these locations, the range of water level variation over the time frame of oiling was also prescribed, which combined with the wave-breaking depth

  11. Intense low-frequency chorus waves observed by Van Allen Probes: Fine structures and potential effect on radiation belt electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhonglei; Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Shen, Chao; Wang, Shui

    2016-02-01

    Frequency distribution is a vital factor in determining the contribution of whistler mode chorus to radiation belt electron dynamics. Chorus is usually considered to occur in the frequency range 0.1-0.8fce_eq (with the equatorial electron gyrofrequency fce_eq). We here report an event of intense low-frequency chorus with nearly half of wave power distributed below 0.1fce_eq observed by Van Allen Probe A on 27 August 2014. This emission propagated quasi-parallel to the magnetic field and exhibited hiss-like signatures most of the time. The low-frequency chorus can produce the rapid loss of low-energy (˜0.1 MeV) electrons, different from the normal chorus. For high-energy (≥0.5 MeV) electrons, the low-frequency chorus can yield comparable momentum diffusion to that of the normal chorus but much stronger (up to 2 orders of magnitude) pitch angle diffusion near the loss cone.

  12. Constraining early and interacting dark energy with gravitational wave standard sirens: the potential of the eLISA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprini, Chiara; Tamanini, Nicola

    2016-10-01

    We perform a forecast analysis of the capability of the eLISA space-based interferometer to constrain models of early and interacting dark energy using gravitational wave standard sirens. We employ simulated catalogues of standard sirens given by merging massive black hole binaries visible by eLISA, with an electromagnetic counterpart detectable by future telescopes. We consider three-arms mission designs with arm length of 1, 2 and 5 million km, 5 years of mission duration and the best-level low frequency noise as recently tested by the LISA Pathfinder. Standard sirens with eLISA give access to an intermediate range of redshift 1 lesssim z lesssim 8, and can therefore provide competitive constraints on models where the onset of the deviation from ΛCDM (i.e. the epoch when early dark energy starts to be non-negligible, or when the interaction with dark matter begins) occurs relatively late, at z lesssim 6. If instead early or interacting dark energy is relevant already in the pre-recombination era, current cosmological probes (especially the cosmic microwave background) are more efficient than eLISA in constraining these models, except possibly in the interacting dark energy model if the energy exchange is proportional to the energy density of dark energy.

  13. Partial polarization by quantum distinguishability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, Mayukh; Hochrainer, Armin; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Lemos, Gabriela Barreto; Zeilinger, Anton

    2017-03-01

    We establish that a connection exists between wave-particle duality of photons and partial polarization of a light beam. We perform a two-path lowest-order (single photon) interference experiment and demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that the degree of polarization of the light beam emerging from an output of the interferometer depends on path distinguishability. In our experiment, we are able to change the quantum state of the emerging photon from a pure state to a fully mixed state without any direct interaction with the photon. Although most lowest-order interference experiments can be explained by classical theory, our experiment has no genuine classical analog. Our results show that a case exists where the cause of partial polarization is beyond the scope of classical theory.

  14. The adiabatic energy change of plasma electrons and the frame dependence of the cross-shock potential at collisionless magnetosonic shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, C. C.; Scudder, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    The adiabatic energy gain of electrons in the stationary electric and magnetic field structure of collisionless shock waves was examined analytically in reference to conditions of the earth's bow shock. The study was performed to characterize the behavior of electrons interacting with the cross-shock potential. A normal incidence frame (NIF) was adopted in order to calculate the reversible energy change across a time stationary shock, and comparisons were made with predictions made by the de Hoffman-Teller (HT) model (1950). The electron energy gain, about 20-50 eV, is demonstrated to be consistent with a 200-500 eV potential jump in the bow shock quasi-perpendicular geometry. The electrons lose energy working against the solar wind motional electric field. The reversible energy process is close to that modeled by HT, which predicts that the motional electric field vanishes and the electron energy gain from the electric potential is equated to the ion energy loss to the potential.

  15. Quantified Mechanical Properties of the Deltoid Muscle Using the Shear Wave Elastography: Potential Implications for Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hatta, Taku; Giambini, Hugo; Sukegawa, Koji; Yamanaka, Yoshiaki; Sperling, John W.; Steinmann, Scott P.; Itoi, Eiji; An, Kai-Nan

    2016-01-01

    The deltoid muscle plays a critical role in the biomechanics of shoulders undergoing reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). However, both pre- and postoperative assessment of the deltoid muscle quality still remains challenging. The purposes of this study were to establish a novel methodology of shear wave elastography (SWE) to quantify the mechanical properties of the deltoid muscle, and to investigate the reliability of this technique using cadaveric shoulders for the purpose of RSA. Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were obtained. The deltoid muscles were divided into 5 segments (A1, A2, M, P1 and P2) according to the muscle fiber orientation and SWE values were measured for each segment. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). To measure the response of muscle tension during RSA, the humeral shaft was osteotomized and subsequently elongated by an external fixator (intact to 15 mm elongation). SWE of the deltoid muscle was measured under each stretch condition. Intra- and inter-observer reliability of SWE measurements for all regions showed 0.761–0.963 and 0.718–0.947 for ICC(2,1). Especially, SWE measurements for segments A2 and M presented satisfactory repeatability. Elongated deltoid muscles by the external fixator showed a progressive increase in passive stiffness for all muscular segments. Especially, SWE outcomes of segments A2 and M reliably showed an exponential growth upon stretching (R2 = 0.558 and 0.593). Segmental measurements using SWE could be reliably and feasibly used to quantitatively assess the mechanical properties of the deltoid muscle, especially in the anterior and middle portions. This novel technique based on the anatomical features may provide helpful information of the deltoid muscle properties during treatment of RSA. PMID:27152934

  16. Spatial and temporal compact equations for water waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyachenko, Alexander; Kachulin, Dmitriy; Zakharov, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    A one-dimensional potential flow of an ideal incompressible fluid with a free surface in a gravity field is the Hamiltonian system with the Hamiltonian: H = 1/2intdxint-∞^η |nablaφ|^2dz + g/2ont η^2dxŗφ(x,z,t) - is the potential of the fluid, g - gravity acceleration, η(x,t) - surface profile Hamiltonian can be expanded as infinite series of steepness: {Ham4} H &=& H2 + H3 + H4 + dotsŗH2 &=& 1/2int (gη2 + ψ hat kψ) dx, ŗH3 &=& -1/2int \\{(hat kψ)2 -(ψ_x)^2}η dx,ŗH4 &=&1/2int {ψxx η2 hat kψ + ψ hat k(η hat k(η hat kψ))} dx. where hat k corresponds to the multiplication by |k| in Fourier space, ψ(x,t)= φ(x,η(x,t),t). This truncated Hamiltonian is enough for gravity waves of moderate amplitudes and can not be reduced. We have derived self-consistent compact equations, both spatial and temporal, for unidirectional water waves. Equations are written for normal complex variable c(x,t), not for ψ(x,t) and η(x,t). Hamiltonian for temporal compact equation can be written in x-space as following: {SPACE_C} H = intc^*hat V c dx + 1/2int [ i/4(c2 partial/partial x {c^*}2 - {c^*}2 partial/partial x c2)- |c|2 hat K(|c|^2) ]dx Here operator hat V in K-space is so that Vk = ω_k/k. If along with this to introduce Gardner-Zakharov-Faddeev bracket (for the analytic in the upper half-plane function) {GZF} partial^+x Leftrightarrow ikθk Hamiltonian for spatial compact equation is the following: {H24} &&H=1/gint1/ω|cω|2 dω +ŗ&+&1/2g^3int|c|^2(ddot c^*c + ddot c c^*)dt + i/g^2int |c|^2hatω(dot c c* - cdot c^*)dt. equation of motion is: {t-space} &&partial /partial xc +i/g partial^2/partial t^2c =ŗ&=& 1/2g^3partial^3/partial t3 [ partial^2/partial t^2(|c|^2c) +2 |c|^2ddot c +ddot c^*c2 ]+ŗ&+&i/g3 partial^3/partial t3 [ partial /partial t( chatω |c|^2) + dot c hatω |c|2 + c hatω(dot c c* - cdot c^*) ]. It solves the spatial Cauchy problem for surface gravity wave on the deep water. Main features of the equations are: Equations are written for

  17. Quantum dynamics studies of gas-surface reactions and use of complex absorbing potentials in wave-packet calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jiuyuan

    1999-11-01

    In this thesis, quantum dynamics studies are conducted on gas-surface reactions and complex absorbing potentials. Through a three-dimensional model, dissociation probabilities for O2 on both (110) and (100) surfaces of copper are calculated for ground state as well as rovibrationally excited oxygen molecules. Specifically, the reason for the difference in calculated dissociation probabilities of oxygen on two surfaces is explained. Then the thermal effect of the surface on the dissociation probability is studied by a one dimensional fluctuating barrier. It is observed that the quantum mechanical tunneling probability exhibits a maximum as a function of the oscillating frequency between the low and the high frequency limits. The physical origin and process underlying this resonantlike phenomenon are proposed. In the second part of this thesis, the complex absorbing potential (CAP) is introduced and studied. Exact numerical calculation shows that use of optimized CAP significantly improves the efficiency of wavefunction absorption over that of negative imaginary potential (NIP) in scattering applications. The CAP is optimized by an efficient time-dependent propagation approach. Application to the prototype inelastic scattering of He + H2 demonstrates the accuracy and efficiency of the channel-dependent CAP for extracting state-to-state scattering information.

  18. Fast computation of the Gauss hypergeometric function with all its parameters complex with application to the Pöschl Teller Ginocchio potential wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, N.; Stoitsov, M. V.

    2008-04-01

    The fast computation of the Gauss hypergeometric function F12 with all its parameters complex is a difficult task. Although the F12 function verifies numerous analytical properties involving power series expansions whose implementation is apparently immediate, their use is thwarted by instabilities induced by cancellations between very large terms. Furthermore, small areas of the complex plane, in the vicinity of z=e, are inaccessible using F12 power series linear transformations. In order to solve these problems, a generalization of R.C. Forrey's transformation theory has been developed. The latter has been successful in treating the F12 function with real parameters. As in real case transformation theory, the large canceling terms occurring in F12 analytical formulas are rigorously dealt with, but by way of a new method, directly applicable to the complex plane. Taylor series expansions are employed to enter complex areas outside the domain of validity of power series analytical formulas. The proposed algorithm, however, becomes unstable in general when |a|, |b|, |c| are moderate or large. As a physical application, the calculation of the wave functions of the analytical Pöschl-Teller-Ginocchio potential involving F12 evaluations is considered. Program summaryProgram title: hyp_2F1, PTG_wf Catalogue identifier: AEAE_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAE_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6839 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 63 334 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, Fortran 90 Computer: Intel i686 Operating system: Linux, Windows Word size: 64 bits Classification: 4.7 Nature of problem: The Gauss hypergeometric function F12, with all its parameters complex, is uniquely

  19. Photoelectron circular dichroism in the multiphoton ionization by short laser pulses. I. Propagation of single-active-electron wave packets in chiral pseudo-potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Artemyev, Anton N.; Müller, Anne D.; Demekhin, Philipp V.; Hochstuhl, David

    2015-06-28

    A theoretical method to study the angle-resolved multiphoton ionization of polyatomic molecules is developed. It is based on the time-dependent formulation of the Single Center (TDSC) method and consists in the propagation of single-active-electron wave packets in the effective molecular potentials in the presence of intense laser pulses. For this purpose, the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for one electron, moving in a molecular field and interacting with an arbitrary laser pulse, is solved in spherical coordinates by an efficient numerical approach. As a test, the method is applied to the one- and two-photon ionizations of a model methane-like chiral system by circularly polarized short intense high-frequency laser pulses. Thereby, we analyze the photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) in the momentum distribution. The considered model application illustrates the capability of the TDSC method to study multiphoton PECD in fixed-in-space and randomly oriented chiral molecules.

  20. Dynamics of nonlinear waves in two-dimensional cubic-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation with spatially modulated nonlinearities and potentials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Si-Liu; Cheng, Jia-Xi; Belić, Milivoj R; Hu, Zheng-Long; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-05-02

    We derive analytical solutions to the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation with potentials and nonlinearities depending on both propagation distance and transverse space. Among other, circle solitons and multi-peaked vortex solitons are found. These solitary waves propagate self-similarly and are characterized by three parameters, the modal numbers m and n, and the modulation depth of intensity. We find that the stable fundamental solitons with m = 0 and the low-order solitons with m = 1, n ≤ 2 can be supported with the energy eigenvalues E = 0 and E ≠ 0. However, higher-order solitons display unstable propagation over prolonged distances. The stability of solutions is examined by numerical simulations.

  1. Photoelectron circular dichroism in the multiphoton ionization by short laser pulses. I. Propagation of single-active-electron wave packets in chiral pseudo-potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, Anton N.; Müller, Anne D.; Hochstuhl, David; Demekhin, Philipp V.

    2015-06-01

    A theoretical method to study the angle-resolved multiphoton ionization of polyatomic molecules is developed. It is based on the time-dependent formulation of the Single Center (TDSC) method and consists in the propagation of single-active-electron wave packets in the effective molecular potentials in the presence of intense laser pulses. For this purpose, the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for one electron, moving in a molecular field and interacting with an arbitrary laser pulse, is solved in spherical coordinates by an efficient numerical approach. As a test, the method is applied to the one- and two-photon ionizations of a model methane-like chiral system by circularly polarized short intense high-frequency laser pulses. Thereby, we analyze the photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) in the momentum distribution. The considered model application illustrates the capability of the TDSC method to study multiphoton PECD in fixed-in-space and randomly oriented chiral molecules.

  2. Partial (focal) seizure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jacksonian seizure; Seizure - partial (focal); Temporal lobe seizure; Epilepsy - partial seizures ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff ... Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. ...

  3. Partial tooth gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  4. Enhanced Burst-Suppression and Disruption of Local Field Potential Synchrony in a Mouse Model of Focal Cortical Dysplasia Exhibiting Spike-Wave Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Anthony J.; Zhou, Chen; Sun, Qian-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are a common cause of brain seizures and are often associated with intractable epilepsy. Here we evaluated aberrant brain neurophysiology in an in vivo mouse model of FCD induced by neonatal freeze lesions (FLs) to the right cortical hemisphere (near S1). Linear multi-electrode arrays were used to record extracellular potentials from cortical and subcortical brain regions near the FL in anesthetized mice (5–13 months old) followed by 24 h cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Results indicated that FL animals exhibit a high prevalence of spontaneous spike-wave discharges (SWDs), predominately during sleep (EEG), and an increase in the incidence of hyper-excitable burst/suppression activity under general anesthesia (extracellular recordings, 0.5%–3.0% isoflurane). Brief periods of burst activity in the local field potential (LFP) typically presented as an arrhythmic pattern of increased theta-alpha spectral peaks (4–12 Hz) on a background of low-amplitude delta activity (1–4 Hz), were associated with an increase in spontaneous spiking of cortical neurons, and were highly synchronized in control animals across recording sites in both cortical and subcortical layers (average cross-correlation values ranging from +0.73 to +1.0) with minimal phase shift between electrodes. However, in FL animals, cortical vs. subcortical burst activity was strongly out of phase with significantly lower cross-correlation values compared to controls (average values of −0.1 to +0.5, P < 0.05 between groups). In particular, a marked reduction in the level of synchronous burst activity was observed, the closer the recording electrodes were to the malformation (Pearson’s Correlation = 0.525, P < 0.05). In a subset of FL animals (3/9), burst activity also included a spike or spike-wave pattern similar to the SWDs observed in unanesthetized animals. In summary, neonatal FLs increased the hyperexcitable pattern of burst activity induced by

  5. Searching for stable Si(n)C(n) clusters: combination of stochastic potential surface search and pseudopotential plane-wave Car-Parinello simulated annealing simulations.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaofeng F; Burggraf, Larry W; Huang, Lingyu

    2013-07-22

    To find low energy Si(n)C(n) structures out of hundreds to thousands of isomers we have developed a general method to search for stable isomeric structures that combines Stochastic Potential Surface Search and Pseudopotential Plane-Wave Density Functional Theory Car-Parinello Molecular Dynamics simulated annealing (PSPW-CPMD-SA). We enhanced the Sunders stochastic search method to generate random cluster structures used as seed structures for PSPW-CPMD-SA simulations. This method ensures that each SA simulation samples a different potential surface region to find the regional minimum structure. By iterations of this automated, parallel process on a high performance computer we located hundreds to more than a thousand stable isomers for each Si(n)C(n) cluster. Among these, five to 10 of the lowest energy isomers were further optimized using B3LYP/cc-pVTZ method. We applied this method to Si(n)C(n) (n = 4-12) clusters and found the lowest energy structures, most not previously reported. By analyzing the bonding patterns of low energy structures of each Si(n)C(n) cluster, we observed that carbon segregations tend to form condensed conjugated rings while Si connects to unsaturated bonds at the periphery of the carbon segregation as single atoms or clusters when n is small and when n is large a silicon network spans over the carbon segregation region.

  6. High-temperature thermodynamics of strongly interacting s-wave and p-wave Fermi gases in a harmonic trap

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Shiguo; Li Shiqun; Drummond, Peter D.; Liu Xiaji

    2011-06-15

    We theoretically investigate the high-temperature thermodynamics of a strongly interacting trapped Fermi gas near either s-wave or p-wave Feshbach resonances, using a second-order quantum virial expansion. The second virial coefficient is calculated based on the energy spectrum of two interacting fermions in a harmonic trap. We consider both isotropic and anisotropic harmonic potentials. For the two-fermion interaction, either s-wave or p-wave, we use a pseudopotential parametrized by a scattering length and an effective range. This turns out to be the simplest way of encoding the energy dependence of the low-energy scattering amplitude or phase shift. This treatment of the pseudopotential can be easily generalized to higher partial-wave interactions. We discuss how the second virial coefficient and thermodynamics are affected by the existence of these finite-range interaction effects. The virial expansion result for a strongly interacting s-wave Fermi gas has already been proved very useful. In the case of p-wave interactions, our results for the high-temperature equation of state are applicable to future high-precision thermodynamic measurements for a spin-polarized Fermi gas near a p-wave Feshbach resonance.

  7. Teaching Modeling with Partial Differential Equations: Several Successful Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Joseph; Trubatch, David; Winkel, Brian

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the introduction and teaching of partial differential equations (heat and wave equations) via modeling physical phenomena, using a new approach that encompasses constructing difference equations and implementing these in a spreadsheet, numerically solving the partial differential equations using the numerical differential equation…

  8. Multi-instrument gravity-wave measurements over Tierra del Fuego and the Drake Passage - Part 1: Potential energies and vertical wavelengths from AIRS, COSMIC, HIRDLS, MLS-Aura, SAAMER, SABER and radiosondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, C. J.; Hindley, N. P.; Moss, A. C.; Mitchell, N. J.

    2015-07-01

    Gravity waves in the terrestrial atmosphere are a vital geophysical process, acting to transport energy and momentum on a wide range of scales and to couple the various atmospheric layers. Despite the importance of these waves, the many studies to date have often exhibited very dissimilar results, and it remains unclear whether these differences are primarily instrumental or methodological. Here, we address this problem by comparing observations made by a diverse range of the most widely-used gravity wave resolving instruments in a common geographic region around the southern Andes and Drake Passage, an area known to exhibit strong wave activity. Specifically, we use data from three limb-sounding radiometers (MLS-Aura, HIRDLS and SABER), the COSMIC GPS-RO constellation, a ground-based meteor radar, the AIRS infrared nadir sounder and radiosondes to examine the gravity wave potential energy (GWPE) and vertical wavelengths (λz) of individual gravity wave packets from the lower troposphere to the edge of the lower thermosphere. Our results show important similarities and differences. Limb sounder measurements show high intercorrelation, typically > 0.80 between any instrument pair. Meteor-radar observations agree in form with the limb sounders, despite vast technical differences. AIRS and radiosonde observations tend to be uncorrelated or anticorrelated with the other datasets, suggesting very different behaviour of the wave field in the different spectral regimes accessed by each instrument. Except in spring, we see little dissipation of GWPE throughout the stratosphere and lower mesosphere. Observed GWPE for individual wave packets exhibits a log-normal distribution, with short-timescale intermittency dominating over a well-repeated monthly-median seasonal cycle. GWPE and λz exhibit strong correlations with the stratospheric winds, but not with local surface winds. Our results provide guidance for interpretation and intercomparison of such datasets in their full

  9. Partial Discharge Monitoring in Power Transformers Using Low-Cost Piezoelectric Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Bruno; Clerice, Guilherme; Ramos, Caio; Andreoli, André; Baptista, Fabricio; Campos, Fernando; Ulson, José

    2016-01-01

    Power transformers are crucial in an electric power system. Failures in transformers can affect the quality and cause interruptions in the power supply. Partial discharges are a phenomenon that can cause failures in the transformers if not properly monitored. Typically, the monitoring requires high-cost corrective maintenance or even interruptions of the power system. Therefore, the development of online non-invasive monitoring systems to detect partial discharges in power transformers has great relevance since it can reduce significant maintenance costs. Although commercial acoustic emission sensors have been used to monitor partial discharges in power transformers, they still represent a significant cost. In order to overcome this drawback, this paper presents a study of the feasibility of low-cost piezoelectric sensors to identify partial discharges in mineral insulating oil of power transformers. The analysis of the feasibility of the proposed low-cost sensor is performed by its comparison with a commercial acoustic emission sensor commonly used to detect partial discharges. The comparison between the responses in the time and frequency domain of both sensors was carried out and the experimental results indicate that the proposed piezoelectric sensors have great potential in the detection of acoustic waves generated by partial discharges in insulation oil, contributing for the popularization of this noninvasive technique. PMID:27517931

  10. Partial Discharge Monitoring in Power Transformers Using Low-Cost Piezoelectric Sensors.

    PubMed

    Castro, Bruno; Clerice, Guilherme; Ramos, Caio; Andreoli, André; Baptista, Fabricio; Campos, Fernando; Ulson, José

    2016-08-10

    Power transformers are crucial in an electric power system. Failures in transformers can affect the quality and cause interruptions in the power supply. Partial discharges are a phenomenon that can cause failures in the transformers if not properly monitored. Typically, the monitoring requires high-cost corrective maintenance or even interruptions of the power system. Therefore, the development of online non-invasive monitoring systems to detect partial discharges in power transformers has great relevance since it can reduce significant maintenance costs. Although commercial acoustic emission sensors have been used to monitor partial discharges in power transformers, they still represent a significant cost. In order to overcome this drawback, this paper presents a study of the feasibility of low-cost piezoelectric sensors to identify partial discharges in mineral insulating oil of power transformers. The analysis of the feasibility of the proposed low-cost sensor is performed by its comparison with a commercial acoustic emission sensor commonly used to detect partial discharges. The comparison between the responses in the time and frequency domain of both sensors was carried out and the experimental results indicate that the proposed piezoelectric sensors have great potential in the detection of acoustic waves generated by partial discharges in insulation oil, contributing for the popularization of this noninvasive technique.

  11. A Full-Potential Linearized Augmented Plane-Wave Method for Calculating Transport Properties: Application to Fe/MgO/Fe Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluegel, Stefan

    2005-03-01

    In order to calculate on the basis of the single particle picture as provided by the density-functional theory (DFT), the spin-dependent tunneling through barriers and interfaces of materials with increasing chemical and structural complexity, an extention of the full-potential linearized augmented plane- wave method (FLAPW) as realized in the FLEUR code is introduced. The volume in which the electrons scatter is sandwiched between two semi-infinite leads. The leads and the scattering volume are described by an embedding Green function formalism. Different scenarios of electron transport such as sequential and coherent tunneling is formulated and will be compared. Several applications will be presented. The method is used to understand the spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope. For a three- layer heterosystem SrRuO3/SrTiO3/SrRuO3, the effect of different orbital characters of the states at the Fermi level on the tunneling conductance was investigated. The main focus is on the Fe/MgO/Fe system for which we show that very small changes at the interface can have drastic effects on the conductance.

  12. Coupled 3D Time-Dependent Wave-Packet Approach in Hyperspherical Coordinates: The D(+)+H2 Reaction on the Triple-Sheeted DMBE Potential Energy Surface.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sandip; Sahoo, Tapas; Adhikari, Satrajit; Sharma, Rahul; Varandas, António J C

    2015-12-17

    We implement a coupled three-dimensional (3D) time-dependent wave packet formalism for the 4D reactive scattering problem in hyperspherical coordinates on the accurate double many body expansion (DMBE) potential energy surface (PES) for the ground and first two singlet states (1(1)A', 2(1)A', and 3(1)A') to account for nonadiabatic processes in the D(+) + H2 reaction for both zero and nonzero values of the total angular momentum (J). As the long-range interactions in D(+) + H2 contribute significantly due to nonadiabatic effects, the convergence profiles of reaction probabilities for the reactive noncharge transfer (RNCT), nonreactive charge transfer (NRCT), and reactive charge transfer (RCT) processes are shown for different collisional energies with respect to the helicity (K) and total angular momentum (J) quantum numbers. The total and state-to-state cross sections are presented as a function of the collision energy for the initial rovibrational state v = 0, j = 0 of the diatom, and the calculated cross sections compared with other theoretical and experimental results.

  13. State-to-state quantum wave packet dynamics of the LiH + H reaction on two AB initio potential energy surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez-Carrasco, S.; González-Sánchez, L.; Roncero, O.

    2014-03-20

    The dynamics and kinetics of the LiH + H reaction have been studied by using an accurate quantum reactive time-dependent wave packet method on the ab initio ground electronic state potential energy surfaces (PES) developed earlier. Reaction probabilities for the two possible reaction channels, the LiH + H→ H{sub 2} + Li depletion process and the LiH + H→H + LiH hydrogen exchange reaction, have been calculated from 1 meV up to 1.0 eV collision energies for total angular momenta J from 0 to 80. State-to-state and total integral cross sections for the LiH-depletion and H-exchange channels of the reaction have been calculated over this collision energy range. It is found that the LiH-depletion channel is dominant in the whole range of collision energies for both PESs. Accurate total rate coefficients have been calculated on both surfaces from 100 K to 2000 K and are significantly larger than previous empirical estimates and previous J-shifting results. In addition, the present accurate calculations present noticeable differences with previous calculations using the centrifugal sudden approximation.

  14. Nonperturbative effects of the periodic potential on the field-induced spin-density wave and the sign of the quantum Hall effect in the quasi-one-dimensional conductor (TMTSF)2ClO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishigi, Keita; Hasegawa, Yasumasa

    2007-06-01

    We show that in (TMTSF)2ClO4 the field-induced spin-density wave (FISDW) with negative quantum number (N=-2) of the nesting vector is stabilized in some region in the parameters of magnetic field and the strength of the anion potential, which corresponds to the very recently observed phase diagram of (TMTSF)2ClO4 in the parameter plane of magnetic field vs cooling rate by Matsunaga [J. Phys. IV 131, 269 (2005)]. The spin-density wave is induced by the magnetic field in the quasi-one-dimensional conductors such as (TMTSF)2PF6 and (TMTSF)2ClO4 . The wave vector of the FISDW is quantized and the Hall conductivity is quantized corresponding to the quantum number (N) of the wave vector. In (TMTSF)2ClO4 , the ordering of the anion ClO4 makes the periodic potential, which has been known to drastically affect the FISDW. We study the instability to the FISDW by taking the eigenstates in the magnetic field numerically, with the periodic potential being treated nonperturbatively. We obtain the phase diagram of the quantum number N for FISDW in the quasi-one-dimensional systems in the parameter plane of magnetic field and the strength of the periodic potential, which can be controlled by the cooling rate.

  15. Spin-wave modes of ferromagnetic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, R. E.

    2016-10-01

    The spin-wave modes of ferromagnetic films have been studied for a long time experimentally as well as theoretically, either in the magnetostatic approximation or also considering the exchange interaction. A theoretical method is presented that allows one to determine with ease the exact frequency dispersion relations of dipole-exchange modes under general conditions: an obliquely applied magnetic field, and surface boundary conditions that allow for partial pinning, which may be of different origins. The method is a generalization of Green's theorem to the problem of solving the linear dynamics of ferromagnetic spin-wave modes. Convolution integral equations for the magnetization and the magnetostatic potential of the modes are derived on the surfaces of the film. For the translation-invariant film these become simple local algebraic equations at each in-plane wave vector. Eigenfrequencies result from imposing a 6 ×6 determinant to be null, and spin-wave modes follow everywhere through solving linear 6 ×6 inhomogeneous systems. An interpretation of the results is that the Green's functions represent six independent plane-wave solutions to the equations of motion, with six associated complex perpendicular wave vectors: volume modes correspond to the cases in which two of these are purely real at a given frequency. Furthermore, the convolution extinction equations enforce the boundary conditions: this is possible at specific eigenfrequencies for a given in-plane wave vector. Magnetostatic modes may also be obtained in detail. At low frequencies and for some obliquely applied magnetic fields, magnetostatic and dipole-exchange volume modes may have forward or backward character depending on the frequency range.

  16. The Lockheed alternate partial polarizer universal filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A tunable birefringent filter using an alternate partial polarizer design has been built. The filter has a transmission of 38% in polarized light. Its full width at half maximum is .09A at 5500A. It is tunable from 4500 to 8500A by means of stepping motor actuated rotating half wave plates and polarizers. Wave length commands and thermal compensation commands are generated by a PPD 11/10 minicomputer. The alternate partial polarizer universal filter is compared with the universal birefringent filter and the design techniques, construction methods, and filter performance are discussed in some detail. Based on the experience of this filter some conclusions regarding the future of birefringent filters are elaborated.

  17. S-Wave Dispersion Relations: Exact Left Hand E-Plane Discontinuity from the Born Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bessis, D.; Temkin, A.

    1999-01-01

    We show, for a superposition of Yukawa potentials, that the left hand cut discontinuity in the complex E plane of the (S-wave) scattering amplitude is given exactly, in an interval depending on n, by the discontinuity of the Born series stopped at order n. This also establishes an inverse and unexpected correspondence of the Born series at positive high energies and negative low energies. We can thus construct a viable dispersion relation (DR) for the partial (S-) wave amplitude. The high numerical precision achievable by the DR is demonstrated for the exponential potential at zero scattering energy. We also briefly discuss the extension of our results to Field Theory.

  18. Equation of state of partially ionized argon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Q. F.; Zheng, J.; Gu, Y. J.; Chen, Y. L.; Cai, L. C.

    2011-11-15

    The ionization degree, Hugoniots, and equation of state of partially ionized argon plasma were calculated by using self-consistent fluid variational theory for temperature of 6-50 kK and density of 0.05-4.0 g/cm{sup 3}. The corrections of lowering of ionization energy of fluid argon caused by the interactions among all particles of Ar, Ar{sup +}, Ar{sup 2+}, and e have been taken into consideration in terms of the correlation contributions to the chemical potential which is determined self-consistently by the free energy function. The initial density effects of gas argon under shock compression have been discussed. Comparison is performed with available shock-wave experiments and other theoretical calculations.

  19. Power from Ocean Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the utilization of surface ocean waves as a potential source of power. Simple and large-scale wave power devices and conversion systems are described. Alternative utilizations, environmental impacts, and future prospects of this alternative energy source are detailed. (BT)

  20. Partial Torus Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmedo, Oscar; Zhang, J.

    2010-05-01

    Flux ropes are now generally accepted to be the magnetic configuration of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), which may be formed prior or during solar eruptions. In this study, we model the flux rope as a current-carrying partial torus loop with its two footpoints anchored in the photosphere, and investigate its instability in the context of the torus instability (TI). Previous studies on TI have focused on the configuration of a circular torus and revealed the existence of a critical decay index. Our study reveals that the critical index is a function of the fractional number of the partial torus, defined by the ratio between the arc length of the partial torus above the photosphere and the circumference of a circular torus of equal radius. We refer to this finding the partial torus instability (PTI). It is found that a partial torus with a smaller fractional number has a smaller critical index, thus requiring a more gradually decreasing magnetic field to stabilize the flux rope. On the other hand, the partial torus with a larger fractional number has a larger critical index. In the limit of a circular torus when the fractional number approaches one, the critical index goes to a maximum value that depends on the distribution of the external magnetic field. We demonstrate that the partial torus instability helps us to understand the confinement, growth, and eventual eruption of a flux rope CME.

  1. Wave fields and spectra of Rayleigh waves in poroelastic media in the exploration seismic frequency band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Xu, Yixian; Xia, Jianghai

    2012-12-01

    A better understanding of the influences of different surface fluid drainage conditions on the propagation and attenuation of surface waves as the stipulated frequency is varied is a key issue to apply surface wave method to detect subsurface hydrological properties. Our study develops three-dimensional dynamical Green's functions in poroelastic media for Rayleigh waves of possible free surface conditions: permeable - "open pore," impermeable - "closed pore," and partially permeable boundaries. The full transient response of wave fields and spectra due to a stress impulse wavelet on the surface are investigated in the exploration seismic frequency band for typical surface drainage conditions, viscous coupling-damping, solid frame properties and porous fluid flowing configuration. Our numerical results show that, due to the slow dilatational wave - P2 wave, two types of Rayleigh waves, designated as R1 and R2 waves, exist along the surface. R1 wave possesses high energy as classic Rayleigh waves in pure elastic media for each porous materials. A surface fluid drainage condition is a significant factor to influence dispersion and attenuation, especially attenuation of R1 waves. R2 wave for closed pore and partially permeable surfaces is only observed for a low coupling-damping coefficient. The non-physical wave for partially surface conditions causes the R1 wave radiates into the R2 wave in the negative attenuation frequency range. It makes weaker R1 wave and stronger R2 wave to closed pore surface. Moreover, it is observed that wave fields and spectra of R1 wave are sensitive to frame elastic moduli change for an open pore surface, and to pore fluid flow condition change for closed pore and partially permeable surface.

  2. Potential of M-Wave Elicited by Double Pulse for Muscle Fatigue Evaluation in Intermittent Muscle Activation by Functional Electrical Stimulation for Motor Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Naoto; Watanabe, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies on application of functional electrical stimulation (FES) to motor rehabilitation have been increasing. However, muscle fatigue appears early in the course of repetitive movement production training by FES. Although M-wave variables were suggested to be reliable indices of muscle fatigue in long lasting constant electrical stimulation under the isometric condition, the ability of M-wave needs more studies under intermittent stimulation condition, because the intervals between electrical stimulations help recovery of muscle activation level. In this paper, M-waves elicited by double pulses were examined in muscle fatigue evaluation during repetitive movements considering rehabilitation training with surface electrical stimulation. M-waves were measured under the two conditions of repetitive stimulation: knee extension force production under the isometric condition and the dynamic movement condition by knee joint angle control. Amplitude of M-wave elicited by the 2nd pulse of a double pulse decreased during muscle fatigue in both measurement conditions, while the change in M-waves elicited by single pulses in a stimulation burst was not relevant to muscle fatigue in repeated activation with stimulation interval of 1 s. Fatigue index obtained from M-waves elicited by 2nd pulses was suggested to provide good estimation of muscle fatigue during repetitive movements with FES. PMID:27110556

  3. Potential of M-Wave Elicited by Double Pulse for Muscle Fatigue Evaluation in Intermittent Muscle Activation by Functional Electrical Stimulation for Motor Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Miura, Naoto; Watanabe, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies on application of functional electrical stimulation (FES) to motor rehabilitation have been increasing. However, muscle fatigue appears early in the course of repetitive movement production training by FES. Although M-wave variables were suggested to be reliable indices of muscle fatigue in long lasting constant electrical stimulation under the isometric condition, the ability of M-wave needs more studies under intermittent stimulation condition, because the intervals between electrical stimulations help recovery of muscle activation level. In this paper, M-waves elicited by double pulses were examined in muscle fatigue evaluation during repetitive movements considering rehabilitation training with surface electrical stimulation. M-waves were measured under the two conditions of repetitive stimulation: knee extension force production under the isometric condition and the dynamic movement condition by knee joint angle control. Amplitude of M-wave elicited by the 2nd pulse of a double pulse decreased during muscle fatigue in both measurement conditions, while the change in M-waves elicited by single pulses in a stimulation burst was not relevant to muscle fatigue in repeated activation with stimulation interval of 1 s. Fatigue index obtained from M-waves elicited by 2nd pulses was suggested to provide good estimation of muscle fatigue during repetitive movements with FES.

  4. Conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to channel waves in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.A.; Albright, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence for the mode conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to stratigraphically guided channel waves was discovered in data from a crosswell acoustic experiment conducted between wells penetrating thin coal strata located near Rifle, Colorado. Traveltime moveout observations show that borehole Stoneley waves, excited by a transmitter positioned at substantial distances in one well above and below a coal stratum at 2025 m depth, underwent partial conversion to a channel wave propagating away from the well through the coal. In an adjacent well the channel wave was detected at receiver locations within the coal, and borehole Stoneley waves, arising from a second partial conversion of channel waves, were detected at locations above and below the coal. The observed channel wave is inferred to be the third-higher Rayleigh mode based on comparison of the measured group velocity with theoretically derived dispersion curves. The identification of the mode conversion between borehole and stratigraphically guided waves is significant because coal penetrated by multiple wells may be detected without placing an acoustic transmitter or receiver within the waveguide. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Phase Waves in Oscillatory Chemical Reactions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    number of waves emitted from a center of heterogeneous catalysis , the rate of wave emission. the lifetime of each wave, the asymptotic wave pattern, the...A theory is presented for the effect of heterogeneity on an oscillatory chemically reactive system in a stable limit cycle such as in heterogeneous ... catalysis . A perturbation technique is developed free of secular behavior for the solution of the non-linear partial differential equations. The

  6. Full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method for one-dimensional systems: Gold nanowire and iron monowires in a gold tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokrousov, Y.; Bihlmayer, G.; Blügel, S.

    2005-07-01

    We present an implementation of the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FLAPW) method for carrying out ab initio calculations of the ground state electronic properties of (magnetic) metallic nanowires and nanotubes based on the density-functional theory (DFT). The method is truly one-dimensional, uses explicitly a wire geometry and is realized as an extension of the FLEUR code. It includes a wide variety of chiral symmetries known for tubular and other one-dimensional systems. A comparative study shows that in this geometry computations are considerably faster than the widely used supercell approach. The method was applied to some typical model structures explored in the field of nanospintronics: the gold nanowire Au(6,0), the free-standing Fe monowire, and the hybrid structure Fe@Au(6,0). Their atomic structures are determined by total energy minimization and force calculations. We calculated the magnetic properties including the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies, the band structures, and densities of states in these systems using the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) to the DFT. The results agree nicely with the data available in the literature. We found that Fe wires are ferromagnetic and are prone to a Peierls dimerization. The Fe filled gold nanotube shows a large negative spin polarization at the Fermi level, which makes this structure a possible candidate for spin-dependent transport applications in the field of spintronics. The Au tube encasing the Fe wire changes the magnetization direction of the Fe wire and increases the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy by an order of magnitude.

  7. Changes in the redox potential of the rabbit cerebral cortex accompanying episodes of ECoG arousal during slow-wave sleep.

    PubMed

    Shvets-Ténéta-Gurii, T B; Troshin, G I; Dubinin, A G

    2008-01-01

    The redox potential (E) is a useful measure of the intensity and quality of shifts in energy metabolism. Brain E depends on the ratio of the rates of processes occurred in two compartments of energy metabolism - the glycolysis compartment, in which glucose is split without oxygen, and the oxidative metabolism compartment. The present report describes recording of local changes in E using platinum electrodes implanted into several points in the cortex. In these conditions, decreases in E correspond to local increases in the rates of glycolytic processes in the tissue surrounding the electrode and are related to mitochondrial processes, while increases in E correspond to local acceleration of processes in oxidative metabolism in the tissues around the electrode. Our previous studies in rats showed that during episodes of slow-wave sleep (SWS), metabolically active points of the rat cerebral cortex show significant decreases in E, and it was suggested that these are associated with increases in the rate of glycolysis. At the same time, E showed characteristic oscillations lasting 20-40 sec with amplitudes of tens of millivolts. The experiments reported here demonstrated that slow oscillations in E developing during SWS are created by regular episodes of ECoG arousal occurring during SWS, accompanied by startling of the animal, decreases in E, and inhibition of respiration. We suggest that a homeostasis system operates during SWS to maintain the animal's level of consciousness at a particular level and that this, like any system with feedback, operates in an oscillatory fashion. The role of glycolysis in supplying energy to the cerebral cortex to support the elevated level of consciousness increases.

  8. Density-Functional Theory with Dispersion-Correcting Potentials for Methane: Bridging the Efficiency and Accuracy Gap between High-Level Wave Function and Classical Molecular Mechanics Methods.

    PubMed

    Torres, Edmanuel; DiLabio, Gino A

    2013-08-13

    Large clusters of noncovalently bonded molecules can only be efficiently modeled by classical mechanics simulations. One prominent challenge associated with this approach is obtaining force-field parameters that accurately describe noncovalent interactions. High-level correlated wave function methods, such as CCSD(T), are capable of correctly predicting noncovalent interactions, and are widely used to produce reference data. However, high-level correlated methods are generally too computationally costly to generate the critical reference data required for good force-field parameter development. In this work we present an approach to generate Lennard-Jones force-field parameters to accurately account for noncovalent interactions. We propose the use of a computational step that is intermediate to CCSD(T) and classical molecular mechanics, that can bridge the accuracy and computational efficiency gap between them, and demonstrate the efficacy of our approach with methane clusters. On the basis of CCSD(T)-level binding energy data for a small set of methane clusters, we develop methane-specific, atom-centered, dispersion-correcting potentials (DCPs) for use with the PBE0 density-functional and 6-31+G(d,p) basis sets. We then use the PBE0-DCP approach to compute a detailed map of the interaction forces associated with the removal of a single methane molecule from a cluster of eight methane molecules and use this map to optimize the Lennard-Jones parameters for methane. The quality of the binding energies obtained by the Lennard-Jones parameters we obtained is assessed on a set of methane clusters containing from 2 to 40 molecules. Our Lennard-Jones parameters, used in combination with the intramolecular parameters of the CHARMM force field, are found to closely reproduce the results of our dispersion-corrected density-functional calculations. The approach outlined can be used to develop Lennard-Jones parameters for any kind of molecular system.

  9. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  10. Twisted partially pure spinors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Rafael; Tellez, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the relationship between orthogonal complex structures and pure spinors, we define twisted partially pure spinors in order to characterize spinorially subspaces of Euclidean space endowed with a complex structure.

  11. Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan G. Siegel, Ph.D.

    2012-11-30

    exceed this initial performance estimates. In advancing the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of this type of wave energy converter from 3 to 4, we find the CycWEC to exceed our initial estimates in terms of hydrodynamic performance. Once fully developed and optimized, it has the potential to not just outperform all other WEC technologies, but to also deliver power at a lower LCOE than competing conventional renewables like wind and solar. Given the large wave power resource both domestically and internationally, this technology has the potential to lead to a large improvement in our ability to produce clean electricity at affordable cost.

  12. Partially coherent nonparaxial beams.

    PubMed

    Duan, Kailiang; Lü, Baida

    2004-04-15

    The concept of a partially coherent nonparaxial beam is proposed. A closed-form expression for the propagation of nonparaxial Gaussian Schell model (GSM) beams in free space is derived and applied to study the propagation properties of nonparaxial GSM beams. It is shown that for partially coherent nonparaxial beams a new parameter f(sigma) has to be introduced, which together with the parameter f, determines the beam nonparaxiality.

  13. PARTIAL TORUS INSTABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Olmedo, Oscar; Zhang Jie

    2010-07-20

    Flux ropes are now generally accepted to be the magnetic configuration of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which may be formed prior to or during solar eruptions. In this study, we model the flux rope as a current-carrying partial torus loop with its two footpoints anchored in the photosphere, and investigate its stability in the context of the torus instability (TI). Previous studies on TI have focused on the configuration of a circular torus and revealed the existence of a critical decay index of the overlying constraining magnetic field. Our study reveals that the critical index is a function of the fractional number of the partial torus, defined by the ratio between the arc length of the partial torus above the photosphere and the circumference of a circular torus of equal radius. We refer to this finding as the partial torus instability (PTI). It is found that a partial torus with a smaller fractional number has a smaller critical index, thus requiring a more gradually decreasing magnetic field to stabilize the flux rope. On the other hand, a partial torus with a larger fractional number has a larger critical index. In the limit of a circular torus when the fractional number approaches 1, the critical index goes to a maximum value. We demonstrate that the PTI helps us to understand the confinement, growth, and eventual eruption of a flux-rope CME.

  14. Partial Torus Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmedo, Oscar; Zhang, Jie

    2010-07-01

    Flux ropes are now generally accepted to be the magnetic configuration of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which may be formed prior to or during solar eruptions. In this study, we model the flux rope as a current-carrying partial torus loop with its two footpoints anchored in the photosphere, and investigate its stability in the context of the torus instability (TI). Previous studies on TI have focused on the configuration of a circular torus and revealed the existence of a critical decay index of the overlying constraining magnetic field. Our study reveals that the critical index is a function of the fractional number of the partial torus, defined by the ratio between the arc length of the partial torus above the photosphere and the circumference of a circular torus of equal radius. We refer to this finding as the partial torus instability (PTI). It is found that a partial torus with a smaller fractional number has a smaller critical index, thus requiring a more gradually decreasing magnetic field to stabilize the flux rope. On the other hand, a partial torus with a larger fractional number has a larger critical index. In the limit of a circular torus when the fractional number approaches 1, the critical index goes to a maximum value. We demonstrate that the PTI helps us to understand the confinement, growth, and eventual eruption of a flux-rope CME.

  15. Application of monochromatic ocean wave forecasts to prediction of wave-induced currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    The use of monochromatic wind-wave forecasts in prediction of wind-wave-induced currents was assessed. Currents were computed for selected combinations of wind conditions by using a spectrum approach which was developed by using the Bretschneider wave spectrum for partially developed wind seas. These currents were compared with currents computed by using the significant and average monochromatic wave parameters related to the Bretschneider spectrum. Results indicate that forecasts of significant wave parameters can be used to predict surface wind-wave-induced currents. Conversion of these parameters to average wave parameters can furnish reasonable estimates of subsurface current values.

  16. Introduction to Wave Turbulence Formalisms for Incoherent Optical Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picozzi, Antonio; Garnier, Josselin; Xu, Gang; Rica, Sergio

    We provide an introduction to different wave turbulence formalisms describing the propagation of partially incoherent optical waves in nonlinear media. We consider the nonlinear Schrödinger equation as a representative model accounting for a nonlocal or a noninstantaneous nonlinearity, as well as higher-order dispersion effects. We discuss the wave turbulence kinetic equation describing, e.g., wave condensation or wave thermalization through supercontinuum generation; the Vlasov formalism describing incoherent modulational instabilities and the formation of large scale incoherent localized structures in analogy with long-range gravitational systems; and the weak Langmuir turbulence formalism describing spectral incoherent solitons, as well as spectral shock or collapse singularities. Finally, recent developments and some open questions are discussed, in particular in relation with a wave turbulence formulation of laser systems and different mechanisms of breakdown of thermalization.

  17. Fluid pressure waves trigger earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Fluids-essentially meteoric water-are present everywhere in the Earth's crust, occasionally also with pressures higher than hydrostatic due to the tectonic strain imposed on impermeable undrained layers, to the impoundment of artificial lakes or to the forced injections required by oil and gas exploration and production. Experimental evidence suggests that such fluids flow along preferred paths of high diffusivity, provided by rock joints and faults. Studying the coupled poroelastic problem, we find that such flow is ruled by a nonlinear partial differential equation amenable to a Barenblatt-type solution, implying that it takes place in form of solitary pressure waves propagating at a velocity which decreases with time as v ∝ t [1/(n - 1) - 1] with n ≳ 7. According to Tresca-Von Mises criterion, these waves appear to play a major role in earthquake triggering, being also capable to account for aftershock delay without any further assumption. The measure of stress and fluid pressure inside active faults may therefore provide direct information about fault potential instability.

  18. Multi-instrument gravity-wave measurements over Tierra del Fuego and the Drake Passage - Part 1: Potential energies and vertical wavelengths from AIRS, COSMIC, HIRDLS, MLS-Aura, SAAMER, SABER and radiosondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Corwin J.; Hindley, Neil P.; Moss, Andrew C.; Mitchell, Nicholas J.

    2016-03-01

    Gravity waves in the terrestrial atmosphere are a vital geophysical process, acting to transport energy and momentum on a wide range of scales and to couple the various atmospheric layers. Despite the importance of these waves, the many studies to date have often exhibited very dissimilar results, and it remains unclear whether these differences are primarily instrumental or methodological. Here, we address this problem by comparing observations made by a diverse range of the most widely used gravity-wave-resolving instruments in a common geographic region around the southern Andes and Drake Passage, an area known to exhibit strong wave activity. Specifically, we use data from three limb-sounding radiometers (Microwave Limb Sounder, MLS-Aura; HIgh Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder, HIRDLS; Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry, SABER), the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) GPS-RO constellation, a ground-based meteor radar, the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS) infrared nadir sounder and radiosondes to examine the gravity wave potential energy (GWPE) and vertical wavelengths (λz) of individual gravity-wave packets from the lower troposphere to the edge of the lower thermosphere ( ˜ 100 km). Our results show important similarities and differences. Limb sounder measurements show high intercorrelation, typically > 0.80 between any instrument pair. Meteor radar observations agree in form with the limb sounders, despite vast technical differences. AIRS and radiosonde observations tend to be uncorrelated or anticorrelated with the other data sets, suggesting very different behaviour of the wave field in the different spectral regimes accessed by each instrument. Evidence of wave dissipation is seen, and varies strongly with season. Observed GWPE for individual wave packets exhibits a log-normal distribution, with short-timescale intermittency dominating over a well-repeated monthly-median seasonal

  19. Laparoscopic radical and partial cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Challacombe, Ben J.; Rose, Kristen; Dasgupta, Prokar

    2005-01-01

    Radical cystectomy remains the standard treatment for muscle invasive organ confined bladder carcinoma. Laparoscopic radical cystoprostatectomy (LRC) is an advanced laparoscopic procedure that places significant demands on the patient and the surgeon alike. It is a prolonged procedure which includes several technical steps and requires highly developed laparoscopic skills including intra-corporeal suturing. Here we review the development of the technique, the indications, complications and outcomes. We also examine the potential benefits of robotic-assisted LRC and explore the indications and technique of laparoscopic partial cystectomy. PMID:21206662

  20. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  1. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  2. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  3. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  4. Partially strong WW scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung Kingman; Chiang Chengwei; Yuan Tzuchiang

    2008-09-01

    What if only a light Higgs boson is discovered at the CERN LHC? Conventional wisdom tells us that the scattering of longitudinal weak gauge bosons would not grow strong at high energies. However, this is generally not true. In some composite models or general two-Higgs-doublet models, the presence of a light Higgs boson does not guarantee complete unitarization of the WW scattering. After partial unitarization by the light Higgs boson, the WW scattering becomes strongly interacting until it hits one or more heavier Higgs bosons or other strong dynamics. We analyze how LHC experiments can reveal this interesting possibility of partially strong WW scattering.

  5. Sand Waves in Tidal Channels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    example, in the Bahia Blanca Estuary (Argentina), the sand wave field terminated when the surficial sand sheet became too thin (Aliotta and Perillo... Rosa Island partially breached near the present-day location of the inlet mouth, but soon closed. It was reopened in March 1929 when the local...and Perillo, 1987) Bahia Blanca Estuary mean 11˚ max 30˚ mean 4˚ (Anthony and Leth, 2002) North Sea 2-4˚ 66 Figure 24. Sand wave

  6. Wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, Sergey

    2015-07-01

    Wave turbulence is the statistical mechanics of random waves with a broadband spectrum interacting via non-linearity. To understand its difference from non-random well-tuned coherent waves, one could compare the sound of thunder to a piece of classical music. Wave turbulence is surprisingly common and important in a great variety of physical settings, starting with the most familiar ocean waves to waves at quantum scales or to much longer waves in astrophysics. We will provide a basic overview of the wave turbulence ideas, approaches and main results emphasising the physics of the phenomena and using qualitative descriptions avoiding, whenever possible, involved mathematical derivations. In particular, dimensional analysis will be used for obtaining the key scaling solutions in wave turbulence - Kolmogorov-Zakharov (KZ) spectra.

  7. Detrecting and Locating Partial Discharges in Transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Shourbaji, A.; Richards, R.; Kisner, R. A.; Hardy, J.

    2005-02-04

    A collaborative research between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the American Electric Power (AEP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), and the State of Ohio Energy Office (OEO) has been formed to conduct a feasibility study to detect and locate partial discharges (PDs) inside large transformers. The success of early detection of the PDs is necessary to avoid costly catastrophic failures that can occur if the process of PD is ignored. The detection method under this research is based on an innovative technology developed by ORNL researchers using optical methods to sense the acoustical energy produced by the PDs. ORNL researchers conducted experimental studies to detect PD using an optical fiber as an acoustic sensor capable of detecting acoustical disturbances at any point along its length. This technical approach also has the potential to locate the point at which the PD was sensed within the transformer. Several optical approaches were experimentally investigated, including interferometric detection of acoustical disturbances along the sensing fiber, light detection and ranging (LIDAR) techniques using frequency modulation continuous wave (FMCW), frequency modulated (FM) laser with a multimode fiber, FM laser with a single mode fiber, and amplitude modulated (AM) laser with a multimode fiber. The implementation of the optical fiber-based acoustic measurement technique would include installing a fiber inside a transformer allowing real-time detection of PDs and determining their locations. The fibers are nonconductive and very small (core plus cladding are diameters of 125 μm for single-mode fibers and 230 μm for multimode fibers). The research identified the capabilities and limitations of using optical technology to detect and locate sources of acoustical disturbances such as in PDs in large transformers. Amplitude modulation techniques showed the most promising results and deserve further research to better quantify the technique’s sensitivity

  8. Optical rogue waves.

    PubMed

    Solli, D R; Ropers, C; Koonath, P; Jalali, B

    2007-12-13

    Recent observations show that the probability of encountering an extremely large rogue wave in the open ocean is much larger than expected from ordinary wave-amplitude statistics. Although considerable effort has been directed towards understanding the physics behind these mysterious and potentially destructive events, the complete picture remains uncertain. Furthermore, rogue waves have not yet been observed in other physical systems. Here, we introduce the concept of optical rogue waves, a counterpart of the infamous rare water waves. Using a new real-time detection technique, we study a system that exposes extremely steep, large waves as rare outcomes from an almost identically prepared initial population of waves. Specifically, we report the observation of rogue waves in an optical system, based on a microstructured optical fibre, near the threshold of soliton-fission supercontinuum generation--a noise-sensitive nonlinear process in which extremely broadband radiation is generated from a narrowband input. We model the generation of these rogue waves using the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and demonstrate that they arise infrequently from initially smooth pulses owing to power transfer seeded by a small noise perturbation.

  9. Assessing wave energy effects on biodiversity: the wave hub experience.

    PubMed

    Witt, M J; Sheehan, E V; Bearhop, S; Broderick, A C; Conley, D C; Cotterell, S P; Crow, E; Grecian, W J; Halsband, C; Hodgson, D J; Hosegood, P; Inger, R; Miller, P I; Sims, D W; Thompson, R C; Vanstaen, K; Votier, S C; Attrill, M J; Godley, B J

    2012-01-28

    Marine renewable energy installations harnessing energy from wind, wave and tidal resources are likely to become a large part of the future energy mix worldwide. The potential to gather energy from waves has recently seen increasing interest, with pilot developments in several nations. Although technology to harness wave energy lags behind that of wind and tidal generation, it has the potential to contribute significantly to energy production. As wave energy technology matures and becomes more widespread, it is likely to result in further transformation of our coastal seas. Such changes are accompanied by uncertainty regarding their impacts on biodiversity. To date, impacts have not been assessed, as wave energy converters have yet to be fully developed. Therefore, there is a pressing need to build a framework of understanding regarding the potential impacts of these technologies, underpinned by methodologies that are transferable and scalable across sites to facilitate formal meta-analysis. We first review the potential positive and negative effects of wave energy generation, and then, with specific reference to our work at the Wave Hub (a wave energy test site in southwest England, UK), we set out the methodological approaches needed to assess possible effects of wave energy on biodiversity. We highlight the need for national and international research clusters to accelerate the implementation of wave energy, within a coherent understanding of potential effects-both positive and negative.

  10. Shear flow instability in a partially-ionized plasma sheath around a fast-moving vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Sotnikov, V. I.; Mudaliar, S.; Genoni, T. C.; Rose, D. V.; Oliver, B. V.; Mehlhorn, T. A.

    2011-06-15

    The stability of ion acoustic waves in a sheared-flow, partially-ionized compressible plasma sheath around a fast-moving vehicle in the upper atmosphere, is described and evaluated for different flow profiles. In a compressible plasma with shear flow, instability occurs for any velocity profile, not just for profiles with an inflection point. A second-order differential equation for the electrostatic potential of excited ion acoustic waves in the presence of electron and ion collisions with neutrals is derived and solved numerically using a shooting method with boundary conditions appropriate for a finite thickness sheath in contact with the vehicle. We consider three different velocity flow profiles and find that in all cases that neutral collisions can completely suppress the instability.

  11. Tapping of Love waves in an isotropic surface waveguide by surface-to-bulk wave transduction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuan, H.-S.; Chang, C.-P.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical study of tapping a Love wave in an isotropic microacoustic surface waveguide is given. The surface Love wave is tapped by partial transduction into a bulk wave at a discontinuity. It is shown that, by careful design of the discontinuity, the converted bulk wave power and the radiation pattern may be controlled. General formulas are derived for the calculation of these important characteristics from a relatively general surface contour deformation.

  12. Dilemmas of partial cooperation.

    PubMed

    Stark, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    Related to the often applied cooperation models of social dilemmas, we deal with scenarios in which defection dominates cooperation, but an intermediate fraction of cooperators, that is, "partial cooperation," would maximize the overall performance of a group of individuals. Of course, such a solution comes at the expense of cooperators that do not profit from the overall maximum. However, because there are mechanisms accounting for mutual benefits after repeated interactions or through evolutionary mechanisms, such situations can constitute "dilemmas" of partial cooperation. Among the 12 ordinally distinct, symmetrical 2 x 2 games, three (barely considered) variants are correspondents of such dilemmas. Whereas some previous studies investigated particular instances of such games, we here provide the unifying framework and concisely relate it to the broad literature on cooperation in social dilemmas. Complementing our argumentation, we study the evolution of partial cooperation by deriving the respective conditions under which coexistence of cooperators and defectors, that is, partial cooperation, can be a stable outcome of evolutionary dynamics in these scenarios. Finally, we discuss the relevance of such models for research on the large biodiversity and variation in cooperative efforts both in biological and social systems.

  13. Full and Partial Cloaking in Electromagnetic Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Youjun; Liu, Hongyu; Uhlmann, Gunther

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we consider two regularized transformation-optics cloaking schemes for electromagnetic (EM) waves. Both schemes are based on the blowup construction with the generating sets being, respectively, a generic curve and a planar subset. We derive sharp asymptotic estimates in assessing the cloaking performances of the two constructions in terms of the regularization parameters and the geometries of the cloaking devices. The first construction yields an approximate full-cloak, whereas the second construction yields an approximate partial-cloak. Moreover, by incorporating properly chosen conducting layers, both cloaking constructions are capable of nearly cloaking arbitrary EM contents. This work complements the existing results in Ammari et al. (SIAM J Appl Math 73:2055-2076, 2013), Bao and Liu (SIAM J Appl Math 74:724-742, 2014), Bao et al. (J Math Pure Appl (9) 101:716-733, 2014) on approximate EM cloaks with the generating set being a singular point, and it also extends Deng et al. (On regularized full- and partial-cloaks in acoustic scat- tering. Preprint, arXiv:1502.01174, 2015), Li et al. (Commun Math Phys, 335:671-712, 2015) on regularized full and partial cloaks for acoustic waves governed by the Helmholtz system to the more challenging EM case governed by the full Maxwell system.

  14. Wave energy: a Pacific perspective.

    PubMed

    Paasch, Robert; Ruehl, Kelley; Hovland, Justin; Meicke, Stephen

    2012-01-28

    This paper illustrates the status of wave energy development in Pacific rim countries by characterizing the available resource and introducing the region's current and potential future leaders in wave energy converter development. It also describes the existing licensing and permitting process as well as potential environmental concerns. Capabilities of Pacific Ocean testing facilities are described in addition to the region's vision of the future of wave energy.

  15. Vector financial rogue waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhenya

    2011-11-01

    The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black-Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields.

  16. Gravity Waves

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Gravity Waves Ripple over Marine Stratocumulus Clouds ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), a fingerprint-like gravity wave feature occurs over a deck of marine stratocumulus clouds. Similar ... that occur when a pebble is thrown into a still pond, such "gravity waves" sometimes appear when the relatively stable and stratified air ...

  17. Circular polarization of obliquely propagating whistler wave magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Bellan, P. M.

    2013-08-15

    The circular polarization of the magnetic field of obliquely propagating whistler waves is derived using a basis set associated with the wave partial differential equation. The wave energy is mainly magnetic and the wave propagation consists of this magnetic energy sloshing back and forth between two orthogonal components of magnetic field in quadrature. The wave electric field energy is small compared to the magnetic field energy.

  18. Partially coherent ultrafast spectrography

    PubMed Central

    Bourassin-Bouchet, C.; Couprie, M.-E.

    2015-01-01

    Modern ultrafast metrology relies on the postulate that the pulse to be measured is fully coherent, that is, that it can be completely described by its spectrum and spectral phase. However, synthesizing fully coherent pulses is not always possible in practice, especially in the domain of emerging ultrashort X-ray sources where temporal metrology is strongly needed. Here we demonstrate how frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), the first and one of the most widespread techniques for pulse characterization, can be adapted to measure partially coherent pulses even down to the attosecond timescale. No modification of experimental apparatuses is required; only the processing of the measurement changes. To do so, we take our inspiration from other branches of physics where partial coherence is routinely dealt with, such as quantum optics and coherent diffractive imaging. This will have important and immediate applications, such as enabling the measurement of X-ray free-electron laser pulses despite timing jitter. PMID:25744080

  19. Laparoscopic partial splenic resection.

    PubMed

    Uranüs, S; Pfeifer, J; Schauer, C; Kronberger, L; Rabl, H; Ranftl, G; Hauser, H; Bahadori, K

    1995-04-01

    Twenty domestic pigs with an average weight of 30 kg were subjected to laparoscopic partial splenic resection with the aim of determining the feasibility, reliability, and safety of this procedure. Unlike the human spleen, the pig spleen is perpendicular to the body's long axis, and it is long and slender. The parenchyma was severed through the middle third, where the organ is thickest. An 18-mm trocar with a 60-mm Endopath linear cutter was used for the resection. The tissue was removed with a 33-mm trocar. The operation was successfully concluded in all animals. No capsule tears occurred as a result of applying the stapler. Optimal hemostasis was achieved on the resected edges in all animals. Although these findings cannot be extended to human surgery without reservations, we suggest that diagnostic partial resection and minor cyst resections are ideal initial indications for this minimally invasive approach.

  20. Partially coherent ultrafast spectrography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourassin-Bouchet, C.; Couprie, M.-E.

    2015-03-01

    Modern ultrafast metrology relies on the postulate that the pulse to be measured is fully coherent, that is, that it can be completely described by its spectrum and spectral phase. However, synthesizing fully coherent pulses is not always possible in practice, especially in the domain of emerging ultrashort X-ray sources where temporal metrology is strongly needed. Here we demonstrate how frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), the first and one of the most widespread techniques for pulse characterization, can be adapted to measure partially coherent pulses even down to the attosecond timescale. No modification of experimental apparatuses is required; only the processing of the measurement changes. To do so, we take our inspiration from other branches of physics where partial coherence is routinely dealt with, such as quantum optics and coherent diffractive imaging. This will have important and immediate applications, such as enabling the measurement of X-ray free-electron laser pulses despite timing jitter.

  1. Partially integrated exhaust manifold

    SciTech Connect

    Hayman, Alan W; Baker, Rodney E

    2015-01-20

    A partially integrated manifold assembly is disclosed which improves performance, reduces cost and provides efficient packaging of engine components. The partially integrated manifold assembly includes a first leg extending from a first port and terminating at a mounting flange for an exhaust gas control valve. Multiple additional legs (depending on the total number of cylinders) are integrally formed with the cylinder head assembly and extend from the ports of the associated cylinder and terminate at an exit port flange. These additional legs are longer than the first leg such that the exit port flange is spaced apart from the mounting flange. This configuration provides increased packaging space adjacent the first leg for any valving that may be required to control the direction and destination of exhaust flow in recirculation to an EGR valve or downstream to a catalytic converter.

  2. Activated partial thromboplastin time.

    PubMed

    Ignjatovic, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is a commonly used coagulation assay that is easy to perform, is affordable, and is therefore performed in most coagulation laboratories, both clinical and research, worldwide. The APTT is based on the principle that in citrated plasma, the addition of a platelet substitute, factor XII activator, and CaCl2 allows for formation of a stable clot. The time required for the formation of a stable clot is recorded in seconds and represents the actual APTT result.

  3. The Third Wave: A Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrud, Marilyn A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Third Wave as an "information bomb... exploding in our midst, showering us with a shrapnel of images and drastically changing the way each of us perceives and acts upon our private world." Begins with a description of A. Toffler's Third Wave as an attempt to partially explain what is happening in higher education,…

  4. Does the Wave Equation Really Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstead, Donald C.; Karls, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    The wave equation is a classic partial differential equation that one encounters in an introductory course on boundary value problems or mathematical physics, which can be used to describe the vertical displacement of a vibrating string. Using a video camera and Wave-in-Motion software to record displacement data from a vibrating string or spring,…

  5. Laparoscopic partial adrenalectomy.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Y; Takami, H; Tajima, G; Sasaki, Y; Takayama, J; Kurihara, H; Niimi, M

    2002-01-01

    Since corticosteroids are indispensable hormones, partial or cortical-sparing adrenalectomies may be adopted for the surgical treatment of adrenal diseases. In this article, we describe the technique and results of these procedures. Laparoscopic partial or cortical-sparing adrenalectomy has been performed in 10 patients. Seven cases had an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and three had a pheochromocytoma. Three cases with an APA and a case with a pheochromocytoma had tumors located far from the adrenal central vein, and the vein could be preserved. Four cases with an APA and two with a pheochromocytoma had tumors located close to the adrenal central vein, and it was necessary to section the central vein to resect them. All endoscopic procedures were performed successfully. There were no postoperative complications. At follow-up, adrenal 131I-adosterol scintigrams showed the preservation of remnant adrenal function in all patients. Laparoscopic partial or cortical-sparing adrenal surgery was safely performed, and adrenal function was preserved irrespective of whether the adrenal central vein could be preserved or not. We consider this to be a useful operative technique for selected cases.

  6. Vacuum Kundt waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, David; Milson, Robert; Coley, Alan

    2013-03-01

    We discuss the invariant classification of vacuum Kundt waves using the Cartan-Karlhede algorithm and determine the upper bound on the number of iterations of the Karlhede algorithm to classify the vacuum Kundt waves (Collins (1991 Class. Quantum Grav. 8 1859-69), Machado Ramos (1996 Class. Quantum Grav. 13 1589)). By choosing a particular coordinate system we partially construct the canonical coframe used in the classification to study the functional dependence of the invariants arising at each iteration of the algorithm. We provide a new upper bound, q ⩽ 4, and show that this bound is sharp by analyzing the subclass of Kundt waves with invariant count beginning with (0, 1,…) to show that the class with invariant count (0, 1, 3, 4, 4) exists. This class of vacuum Kundt waves is shown to be unique as the only set of metrics requiring the fourth covariant derivatives of the curvature. We conclude with an invariant classification of the vacuum Kundt waves using a suite of invariants.

  7. Wave-Wave Interactions in the Stratosphere: Observations during Quiet and Active Wintertime Periods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Anne K.; Gille, John C.; Lyjak, Lawrence V.

    1984-02-01

    Using satellite data from the Nimbus 7 LIMS instrument, a previous study by Smith showed that interactions among planetary waves 1, 2 and 3 in the stratosphere were significant during January 1979. That month was characterized by an exceptionally large wave 1 amplitude in the stratosphere. The present study extends the analysis to the period November 1978-March 1979 to determine the conditions under which wave-wave interactions have a significant effect on variations in wave activity and on wave-mean flow interactions. A quantitative measure of how wave-wave interactions affect the wave activity of zonal waves 1 and 2 is obtained from the potential enstrophy budget.The results demonstrate that the relative importance of wave-wave versus wave-mean flow interactions depends on the magnitude of the eddy mean wind and potential vorticity relative to the zonal means. When the zonal mean wind is weak, a relatively small amplitude wave tends to behave nonlinearly, whereas when the mean wind is strong, only large amplitude waves are significantly nonlinear. In the 1978-79 winter, the zonal mean wind was weaker and wave-wave interactions were more important in middle and late winter than during November-December.Further evidence is presented that the vacillation between waves 1 and 2, which has been observed in the winter stratosphere of both hemispheres, is as strongly influenced by wave-wave interactions in the stratosphere as by variations in the forcing from the troposphere.

  8. ASTER Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The pattern on the right half of this image of the Bay of Bengal is the result of two opposing wave trains colliding. This ASTER sub-scene, acquired on March 29, 2000, covers an area 18 kilometers (13 miles) wide and 15 kilometers (9 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The visible and near-infrared bands highlight surface waves due to specular reflection of sunlight off of the wave faces.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels

  9. Communication modes with partially coherent fields.

    PubMed

    Martinsson, Per; Lajunen, Hanna; Friberg, Ari T

    2007-10-01

    We develop a theory for the description of partially coherent wave fields in linear optical systems in terms of the so-called communication modes. The communication modes are the singular functions and singular values of the appropriate propagation kernels. In particular, we show that optical fields of any state of coherence may be readily propagated through deterministic systems using the modal representation based on the system properties. The relation of the communication modes to the conventional coherent-mode representation is discussed, and expressions for the effective degree of coherence in the optical system are derived. The results are illustrated by numerical examples in optical near-field geometry.

  10. Computational aeroacoustics using hyperbolic wave primitives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Sanford S.

    1995-01-01

    A compact high order three-spatial point, two-time level dissipationless scheme is derived by matching amplification factors from differential and difference forms hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations. This approach has the advantage of allowing large time steps (Courant numbers of one) and imposing boundary conditions that are globally compatible with the wave operators. Solutions are presented for planar and spherical one dimensional acoustic waves and more complex wave patterns in two dimensions.

  11. ICRF-enhanced plasma potentials in the SOL of Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Ochoukov, R.; Whyte, D. G.; Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Terry, J. L.; Wukitch, S. J.; D'Ippolito, D. A.; Myra, J. R.

    2014-02-12

    We performed an extensive survey of the plasma potential in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of Ion Cyclotron Range-of Frequencies (ICRF)-heated discharges on Alcator C-Mod. Our results show that plasma potentials are enhanced in the presence of ICRF power and plasma potential values of >100 V are often observed. Such potentials are high enough to induce sputtering of high-Z molybdenum (Mo) plasma facing components by deuterium ions on C-Mod. For comparison, the plasma potential in Ohmic discharges is typically less than 10 V, well below the threshold needed to induce Mo sputtering by deuterium ions. ICRF-enhanced plasma potentials are observed in the SOL regions that both magnetically map and do not map to active ICRF antennas. Regions that magnetically map to active ICRF antennas are accessible to slow waves directly launched by the antennas and these regions experience plasma potential enhancement that is partially consistent with the slow wave rectification mechanism. One of the most defining features of the slow wave rectification is a threshold appearance of significant plasma potentials (>100 V) when the dimensionless rectification parameter Λ{sub −o} is above unity and this trend is observed experimentally. We also observe ICRF-enhanced plasma potentials >100 V in regions that do not magnetically map to the active antennas and, hence, are not accessible for slow waves launched directly by the active antennas. However, unabsorbed fast waves can reach these regions. The general trend that we observe in these 'un-mapped' regions is that the plasma potential scales with the strength of the local RF wave fields with the fast wave polarization and the highest plasma potentials are observed in discharges with the highest levels of unabsorbed ICRF power. Similarly, we find that core Mo levels scale with the level of unabsorbed ICRF power suggesting a link between plasma potentials in the SOL and the strength of the impurity source.

  12. Mathematical Methods in Wave Propagation: Part 2--Non-Linear Wave Front Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffrey, Alan

    1971-01-01

    The paper presents applications and methods of analysis for non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations. The paper is concluded by an account of wave front analysis as applied to the piston problem of gas dynamics. (JG)

  13. Partial Southwest Elevation Mill #5 West (Part 3), Partial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Partial Southwest Elevation - Mill #5 West (Part 3), Partial Southwest Elevation - Mill #5 West (with Section of Courtyard) (Parts 1 & 2) - Boott Cotton Mills, John Street at Merrimack River, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  14. Control methods for localization of nonlinear waves.

    PubMed

    Porubov, Alexey; Andrievsky, Boris

    2017-03-06

    A general form of a distributed feedback control algorithm based on the speed-gradient method is developed. The goal of the control is to achieve nonlinear wave localization. It is shown by example of the sine-Gordon equation that the generation and further stable propagation of a localized wave solution of a single nonlinear partial differential equation may be obtained independently of the initial conditions. The developed algorithm is extended to coupled nonlinear partial differential equations to obtain consistent localized wave solutions at rather arbitrary initial conditions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Horizons of cybernetical physics'.

  15. Control methods for localization of nonlinear waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porubov, Alexey; Andrievsky, Boris

    2017-03-01

    A general form of a distributed feedback control algorithm based on the speed-gradient method is developed. The goal of the control is to achieve nonlinear wave localization. It is shown by example of the sine-Gordon equation that the generation and further stable propagation of a localized wave solution of a single nonlinear partial differential equation may be obtained independently of the initial conditions. The developed algorithm is extended to coupled nonlinear partial differential equations to obtain consistent localized wave solutions at rather arbitrary initial conditions. This article is part of the themed issue 'Horizons of cybernetical physics'.

  16. Paternalism and partial autonomy.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, O

    1984-01-01

    A contrast is often drawn between standard adult capacities for autonomy, which allow informed consent to be given or withheld, and patients' reduced capacities, which demand paternalistic treatment. But patients may not be radically different from the rest of us, in that all human capacities for autonomous action are limited. An adequate account of paternalism and the role that consent and respect for persons can play in medical and other practice has to be developed within an ethical theory that does not impose an idealised picture of unlimited autonomy but allows for the variable and partial character of actual human autonomy. PMID:6520849

  17. Partial Return Yoke for MICE

    SciTech Connect

    Witte H.; Plate, S

    2013-05-03

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a large scale experiment which is presently assembled at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Didcot, UK. The purpose of MICE is to demonstrate the concept of ionization cooling experimentally. Ionization cooling is an important accelerator concept which will be essential for future HEP experiments such as a potential Muon Collider or a Neutrino Factory. The MICE experiment will house up to 18 superconducting solenoids, all of which produce a substantial amount of magnetic flux. Recently it was realized that this magnetic flux leads to a considerable stray magnetic field in the MICE hall. This is a concern as technical equipment in the MICE hall may may be compromised by this. In July 2012 a concept called partial return yoke was presented to the MICE community, which reduces the stray field in the MICE hall to a safe level. This report summarizes the general concept, engineering considerations and the expected shielding performance.

  18. Experts' Understanding of Partial Derivatives Using the Partial Derivative Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2015-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of…

  19. Magnonic band structure, complete bandgap, and collective spin wave excitation in nanoscale two-dimensional magnonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, D.; Barman, A.; Kłos, J. W.; Krawczyk, M.

    2014-01-28

    We present the observation of a complete bandgap and collective spin wave excitation in two-dimensional magnonic crystals comprised of arrays of nanoscale antidots and nanodots, respectively. Considering that the frequencies dealt with here fall in the microwave band, these findings can be used for the development of suitable magnonic metamaterials and spin wave based signal processing. We also present the application of a numerical procedure, to compute the dispersion relations of spin waves for any high symmetry direction in the first Brillouin zone. The results obtained from this procedure have been reproduced and verified by the well established plane wave method for an antidot lattice, when magnetization dynamics at antidot boundaries are pinned. The micromagnetic simulation based method can also be used to obtain iso–frequency contours of spin waves. Iso–frequency contours are analogous of the Fermi surfaces and hence, they have the potential to radicalize our understanding of spin wave dynamics. The physical origin of bands, partial and full magnonic bandgaps have been explained by plotting the spatial distribution of spin wave energy spectral density. Although, unfettered by rigid assumptions and approximations, which afflict most analytical methods used in the study of spin wave dynamics, micromagnetic simulations tend to be computationally demanding. Thus, the observation of collective spin wave excitation in the case of nanodot arrays, which can obviate the need to perform simulations, may also prove to be valuable.

  20. Is Titan Partially Differentiated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, G.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    The recent measurement of the gravity coefficients from the Radio Doppler data of the Cassini spacecraft has improved our knowledge of the interior structure of Titan (Rappaport et al. 2008 AGU, P21A-1343). The measured gravity field of Titan is dominated by near hydrostatic quadrupole components. We have used the measured gravitational coefficients, thermal models and the hydrostatic equilibrium theory to derive Titan's interior structure. The axial moment of inertia gives us an indication of the degree of the interior differentiation. The inferred axial moment of inertia, calculated using the quadrupole gravitational coefficients and the Radau-Darwin approximation, indicates that Titan is partially differentiated. If Titan is partially differentiated then the interior must avoid melting of the ice during its evolution. This suggests a relatively late formation of Titan to avoid the presence of short-lived radioisotopes (Al-26). This also suggests the onset of convection after accretion to efficiently remove the heat from the interior. The outer layer is likely composed mainly of water in solid phase. Thermal modeling indicates that water could be present also in liquid phase forming a subsurface ocean between an outer ice I shell and a high pressure ice layer. Acknowledgments: This work was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  1. On the convective properties of magnetospheric Bernstein waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Recent plasma wave observations made by the ISEE and GEOS satellites of the electrostatic cyclotron harmonic waves have been consistent with and organized very well within the theoretical framework of Bernstein waves excited in magnetospheric plasma. Attention is given to an examination of a number of effects that result simply from the convective properties of Bernstein waves in a magnetospheric plasma environment. The roles of wave trapping in plasma density depressions and partial trappings near the magnetic equator are discussed. Certain future wave observations are suggested that can improve the understanding of this magnetospheric wave phenomenon.

  2. Furnace brazing under partial vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckown, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Brazing furnace utilizing partial-vacuum technique reduces tooling requirements and produces better bond. Benefit in that partial vacuum helps to dissociate metal oxides that inhibit metal flow and eliminates heavy tooling required to hold parts together during brazing.

  3. Making waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Traveling waves propagating along surfaces play an important role for intracellular organization. Such waves can appear spontaneously in reaction-diffusion systems, but only few general criteria for their existence are known. Analyzing the dynamics of the Min proteins in Escherichia coli, Levine and Kessler (2016 New J. Phys. 18 122001) now identified a new mechanism for the emergence of traveling waves that relies on conservation laws. From their analysis one can expect traveling waves to be a generic feature of systems made of proteins that have a cytoplasmic and a membrane-bound state.

  4. Differential phase shift of partially reflected radio waves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, D. J.

    1971-01-01

    The addition of phase difference measurements to differential absorption experiments is shown to be both feasible and desirable. The phase information can provide a more sensitive measurement of electron density above about 75 km. The differential phase shift is only weakly dependent on collision frequency in this range, and so an accurate collision frequency profile is not a prerequisite. The differential phase shift and differential absorption measurements taken together can provide both electron density and collision frequency data from about 70 to 90 km.

  5. Tamm-Langmuir surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golenitskii, K. Â. Yu.; Koshelev, K. Â. L.; Bogdanov, A. Â. A.

    2016-10-01

    In this work we develop a theory of surface electromagnetic waves localized at the interface of periodic metal-dielectric structures. We have shown that the anisotropy of plasma frequency in metal layers lifts the degeneracy of plasma oscillations and opens a series of photonic band gaps. This results in appearance of surface waves with singular density of states—we refer to them as Tamm-Langmuir waves. Such naming is natural since we have found that their properties are very similar to the properties of both bulk Langmuir and surface Tamm waves. Depending on the anisotropy parameters, Tamm-Langmuir waves can be either forward or backward waves. Singular density of states and high sensitivity of the dispersion to the anisotropy of the structure makes Tamm-Langmuir waves very promising for potential applications in nanophotonics and biosensing.

  6. Coriolis-coupled wave packet dynamics of H + HLi reaction.

    PubMed

    Padmanaban, R; Mahapatra, S

    2006-05-11

    We investigated the effect of Coriolis coupling (CC) on the initial state-selected dynamics of H+HLi reaction by a time-dependent wave packet (WP) approach. Exact quantum scattering calculations were obtained by a WP propagation method based on the Chebyshev polynomial scheme and ab initio potential energy surface of the reacting system. Partial wave contributions up to the total angular momentum J=30 were found to be necessary for the scattering of HLi in its vibrational and rotational ground state up to a collision energy approximately 0.75 eV. For each J value, the projection quantum number K was varied from 0 to min (J, K(max)), with K(max)=8 until J=20 and K(max)=4 for further higher J values. This is because further higher values of K do not have much effect on the dynamics and also because one wishes to maintain the large computational overhead for each calculation within the affordable limit. The initial state-selected integral reaction cross sections and thermal rate constants were calculated by summing up the contributions from all partial waves. These were compared with our previous results on the title system, obtained within the centrifugal sudden and J-shifting approximations, to demonstrate the impact of CC on the dynamics of this system.

  7. Nonlinear lattice waves in heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laptyeva, T. V.; Ivanchenko, M. V.; Flach, S.

    2014-12-01

    We discuss recent advances in the understanding of the dynamics of nonlinear lattice waves in heterogeneous media, which enforce complete wave localization in the linear wave equation limit, especially Anderson localization for random potentials, and Aubry-André localization for quasiperiodic potentials. Additional nonlinear terms in the wave equations can either preserve the phase-coherent localization of waves, or destroy it through nonintegrability and deterministic chaos. Spreading wave packets are observed to show universal features in their dynamics which are related to properties of nonlinear diffusion equations.

  8. Controllable parabolic-cylinder optical rogue wave.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wei-Ping; Chen, Lang; Belić, Milivoj; Petrović, Nikola

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate controllable parabolic-cylinder optical rogue waves in certain inhomogeneous media. An analytical rogue wave solution of the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation with spatially modulated coefficients and an external potential in the form of modulated quadratic potential is obtained by the similarity transformation. Numerical simulations are performed for comparison with the analytical solutions and to confirm the stability of the rogue wave solution obtained. These optical rogue waves are built by the products of parabolic-cylinder functions and the basic rogue wave solution of the standard nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Such rogue waves may appear in different forms, as the hump and paw profiles.

  9. The Triton from the Reid93 Potential in the UPA

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Benjamin F.

    2012-08-20

    The Unitary Pole Approximation (UPA) is an efficient means to construct a rank-one separable potential, reproduces the deuteron and {sup 1}S{sub 0} anti-bound-state wave functions, generates a reliable estimate of the two- and three-nucleon binding energies, and yields a simple representation of the three-nucleon ground-state wave function. The Reid93 potential provides a representation of the NN scattering data comparable in fit to a partial wave analysis, and reproduces the deuteron properties as well as any contemporary potential model. From comparing the UPA and the local potential results, we can see that the UPA gives a satisfactory approximation to the local potential, suggesting that one may use the UPA three-nucleon wave function to calculate the electric dipole moment (EDM) for the {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He considering the absence of any experimental measurement at this stage, or to investigate the variation in the two- and three-nucleon binding energy as a function of the hadronic mass.

  10. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, Erlan S.; Smith, James R.; Salmon, J. Thaddeus; Monjes, Julio A.

    1991-01-01

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp.

  11. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, E.S.; Smith, J.R.; Salmon, J.T.; Monjes, J.A.

    1991-05-21

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp. 5 figures.

  12. Partial oxidation catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Krumpelt, Michael; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Doshi, Rajiv

    2000-01-01

    A two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion. The dehydrogenation portion is a group VIII metal and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure. There is also disclosed a method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

  13. Stress wave focusing transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Visuri, S.R., LLNL

    1998-05-15

    Conversion of laser radiation to mechanical energy is the fundamental process behind many medical laser procedures, particularly those involving tissue destruction and removal. Stress waves can be generated with laser radiation in several ways: creation of a plasma and subsequent launch of a shock wave, thermoelastic expansion of the target tissue, vapor bubble collapse, and ablation recoil. Thermoelastic generation of stress waves generally requires short laser pulse durations and high energy density. Thermoelastic stress waves can be formed when the laser pulse duration is shorter than the acoustic transit time of the material: {tau}{sub c} = d/c{sub s} where d = absorption depth or spot diameter, whichever is smaller, and c{sub s} = sound speed in the material. The stress wave due to thermoelastic expansion travels at the sound speed (approximately 1500 m/s in tissue) and leaves the site of irradiation well before subsequent thermal events can be initiated. These stress waves, often evolving into shock waves, can be used to disrupt tissue. Shock waves are used in ophthalmology to perform intraocular microsurgery and photodisruptive procedures as well as in lithotripsy to fragment stones. We have explored a variety of transducers that can efficiently convert optical to mechanical energy. One such class of transducers allows a shock wave to be focused within a material such that the stress magnitude can be greatly increased compared to conventional geometries. Some transducer tips could be made to operate regardless of the absorption properties of the ambient media. The size and nature of the devices enable easy delivery, potentially minimally-invasive procedures, and precise tissue- targeting while limiting thermal loading. The transducer tips may have applications in lithotripsy, ophthalmology, drug delivery, and cardiology.

  14. Partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystals for boundary layer investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, Devendra S.; Singh, Jag J.

    1992-01-01

    A new configuration termed partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal in which the liquid crystal microdroplets dispersed in a rigid polymer matrix are partially entrapped on the free surface of the thin film deposited on a glass substrate is reported. Optical transmission characteristics of the partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin film in response to an air flow induced shear stress field reveal its potential as a sensor for gas flow and boundary layer investigations.

  15. Stochastic Modeling and Generation of Partially Polarized or Partially Coherent Electromagnetic Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Brynmor; Kim, Edward; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Many new Earth remote-sensing instruments are embracing both the advantages and added complexity that result from interferometric or fully polarimetric operation. To increase instrument understanding and functionality a model of the signals these instruments measure is presented. A stochastic model is used as it recognizes the non-deterministic nature of any real-world measurements while also providing a tractable mathematical framework. A stationary, Gaussian-distributed model structure is proposed. Temporal and spectral correlation measures provide a statistical description of the physical properties of coherence and polarization-state. From this relationship the model is mathematically defined. The model is shown to be unique for any set of physical parameters. A method of realizing the model (necessary for applications such as synthetic calibration-signal generation) is given and computer simulation results are presented. The signals are constructed using the output of a multi-input multi-output linear filter system, driven with white noise.

  16. Dynamics of matter-wave condensates with time-dependent two- and three-body interactions trapped by a linear potential in the presence of atom gain or loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belobo Belobo, D.; Ben-Bolie, G. H.; Kofane, T. C.

    2014-04-01

    Bose-Einstein condensates with time varying two- and three-body interatomic interactions, confined in a linear potential and exchanging atoms with the thermal cloud are investigated. Using the extended tanh-function method with an auxiliary equation, i.e., the Lenard equation, many exact solutions describing the dynamics of matter-wave condensates are derived. An important issue is the time management of the cubic and the quintic nonlinearities by tuning the rate of exchange of atoms between the condensate and the thermal background. In addition, adjusting the strength of the linear potential, the rate of exchange of atoms, and many other free parameters allow one to control many features of the condensate such as its height, width, position, velocity, acceleration, and its direction, respectively. Full numerical solutions corroborate the analytical predictions.

  17. Nonlinear Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-15

    following surprising situation. Namely associated with the integrable nonlinear Schrodinger equations are standard numerical schemes which exhibit at...36. An Initial Boundary Value Problem for the Nonlinear Schrodinger Equations , A.S. Fokas, Physica D March 1989. 37. Evolution Theory, Periodic... gravity waves and wave excitation phenomena related to moving pressure distributions; numerical approximation and computation; nonlinear optics; and

  18. Microfluidic waves

    PubMed Central

    Utz, Marcel; Begley, Matthew R.; Haj-Hariri, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    The propagation of pressure waves in fluidic channels with elastic covers is discussed in view of applications to flow control in microfluidic devices. A theory is presented which describes pressure waves in the fluid that are coupled to bending waves in the elastic cover. At low frequencies, the lateral bending of the cover dominates over longitudinal bending, leading to propagating, non-dispersive longitudinal pressure waves in the channel. The theory addresses effects due to both the finite viscosity and compressibility of the fluid. The coupled waves propagate without dispersion, as long as the wave length is larger than the channel width. It is shown that in channels of typical microfluidic dimensions, wave velocities in the range of a few 10 m s−1 result if the channels are covered by films of a compliant material such as PDMS. The application of this principle to design microfluidic band pass filters based on standing waves is discussed. Characteristic frequencies in the range of a few kHz are readily achieved with quality factors above 30. PMID:21966667

  19. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: Superiority over laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Shiroki, Ryoichi; Fukami, Naohiko; Fukaya, Kosuke; Kusaka, Mamoru; Natsume, Takahiro; Ichihara, Takashi; Toyama, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Nephron-sparing surgery has been proven to positively impact the postoperative quality of life for the treatment of small renal tumors, possibly leading to functional improvements. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is still one of the most demanding procedures in urological surgery. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy sometimes results in extended warm ischemic time and severe complications, such as open conversion, postoperative hemorrhage and urine leakage. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy exploits the advantages offered by the da Vinci Surgical System to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, equipped with 3-D vision and a better degree in the freedom of surgical instruments. The introduction of the da Vinci Surgical System made nephron-sparing surgery, specifically robot-assisted partial nephrectomy, safe with promising results, leading to the shortening of warm ischemic time and a reduction in perioperative complications. Even for complex and challenging tumors, robotic assistance is expected to provide the benefit of minimally-invasive surgery with safe and satisfactory renal function. Warm ischemic time is the modifiable factor during robot-assisted partial nephrectomy to affect postoperative kidney function. We analyzed the predictive factors for extended warm ischemic time from our robot-assisted partial nephrectomy series. The surface area of the tumor attached to the kidney parenchyma was shown to significantly affect the extended warm ischemic time during robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. In cases with tumor-attached surface area more than 15 cm(2) , we should consider switching robot-assisted partial nephrectomy to open partial nephrectomy under cold ischemia if it is imperative. In Japan, a nationwide prospective study has been carried out to show the superiority of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in improving warm ischemic time and complications. By facilitating robotic technology, robot-assisted partial nephrectomy

  20. A complex Noether approach for variational partial differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, R.; Mahomed, F. M.

    2015-10-01

    Scalar complex partial differential equations which admit variational formulations are studied. Such a complex partial differential equation, via a complex dependent variable, splits into a system of two real partial differential equations. The decomposition of the Lagrangian of the complex partial differential equation in the real domain is shown to yield two real Lagrangians for the split system. The complex Maxwellian distribution, transonic gas flow, Maxwellian tails, dissipative wave and Klein-Gordon equations are considered. The Noether symmetries and gauge terms of the split system that correspond to both the Lagrangians are constructed by the Noether approach. In the case of coupled split systems, the same Noether symmetries are obtained. The Noether symmetries for the uncoupled split systems are different. The conserved vectors of the split system which correspond to both the Lagrangians are compared to the split conserved vectors of the complex partial differential equation for the examples. The split conserved vectors of the complex partial differential equation are the same as the conserved vectors of the split system of real partial differential equations in the case of coupled systems. Moreover a Noether-like theorem for the split system is proved which provides the Noether-like conserved quantities of the split system from knowledge of the Noether-like operators. An interesting result on the split characteristics and the conservation laws is shown as well. The Noether symmetries and gauge terms of the Lagrangian of the split system with the split Noether-like operators and gauge terms of the Lagrangian of the given complex partial differential equation are compared. Folklore suggests that the split Noether-like operators of a Lagrangian of a complex Euler-Lagrange partial differential equation are symmetries of the Lagrangian of the split system of real partial differential equations. This is not the case. They are proved to be the same if the

  1. Partially supervised speaker clustering.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hao; Chu, Stephen Mingyu; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Huang, Thomas S

    2012-05-01

    Content-based multimedia indexing, retrieval, and processing as well as multimedia databases demand the structuring of the media content (image, audio, video, text, etc.), one significant goal being to associate the identity of the content to the individual segments of the signals. In this paper, we specifically address the problem of speaker clustering, the task of assigning every speech utterance in an audio stream to its speaker. We offer a complete treatment to the idea of partially supervised speaker clustering, which refers to the use of our prior knowledge of speakers in general to assist the unsupervised speaker clustering process. By means of an independent training data set, we encode the prior knowledge at the various stages of the speaker clustering pipeline via 1) learning a speaker-discriminative acoustic feature transformation, 2) learning a universal speaker prior model, and 3) learning a discriminative speaker subspace, or equivalently, a speaker-discriminative distance metric. We study the directional scattering property of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) mean supervector representation of utterances in the high-dimensional space, and advocate exploiting this property by using the cosine distance metric instead of the euclidean distance metric for speaker clustering in the GMM mean supervector space. We propose to perform discriminant analysis based on the cosine distance metric, which leads to a novel distance metric learning algorithm—linear spherical discriminant analysis (LSDA). We show that the proposed LSDA formulation can be systematically solved within the elegant graph embedding general dimensionality reduction framework. Our speaker clustering experiments on the GALE database clearly indicate that 1) our speaker clustering methods based on the GMM mean supervector representation and vector-based distance metrics outperform traditional speaker clustering methods based on the “bag of acoustic features” representation and statistical

  2. The Microwave Spectrum of Partially Deuterated Species of Dimethyl Ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauvergnat, D.; Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Guillemin, J.-C.; Coudert, L. H.

    2011-06-01

    Dimethyl ether is a molecule of astrophysical interest spectroscopically well characterized. It is one of the simplest molecules with two methyl groups undergoing large amplitude internal rotations. Due to deuterium enrichment in the interstellar medium, one can reasonably expect that partially deuterated species of dimethyl ether might be detected. However, there are no spectroscopic results about the microwave spectrum of such species. A theoretical calculation of the rotation-torsion energy levels of the partially deuterated species of dimethyl ether has been undertaken aided by ab initio calculations. The approach accounts for the complicated torsion-rotation interactions displayed by this molecule and for the fact that deuteration leads to changes of the bidimensional internal rotation effective potential energy surface. Due to zero-point energy contributions from the 19 small amplitude vibrational modes, this surface no longer displays G36 symmetry. Rotation-torsion energy levels are computed treating the two angles of internal rotation as active coordinates and evaluating Hamiltonian matrix elements with the help of Gaussian quadrature. It is hoped that the present results will allow us to understand the microwave spectrum of the mono deuterated species CH_2DOCH_3 which has been recorded in Lille with the new sub millimeter wave spectrometer (150--950 GHz) based on harmonic generation of solid-state sources. [2] Snyder, Buhl, and Schwartz, Astrophys. J. Letters 191 (1974) L79. [3] Endres, Drouin, Pearson, Müller, Lewen, Schlemmer, and Giesen, A&A 504 (2009) 635. [4] Solomon and Woolf, Astrophys. J. Letters 180 (1973) L89. [5] Lauvergnat and Nauts, J. Chem. Phys. 116 (2002) 8560; and Light and Bačić, J. Chem. Phys. 87 (1987) 4008.

  3. Gravity waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritts, David

    1987-01-01

    Gravity waves contributed to the establishment of the thermal structure, small scale (80 to 100 km) fluctuations in velocity (50 to 80 m/sec) and density (20 to 30%, 0 to peak). Dominant gravity wave spectrum in the middle atmosphere: x-scale, less than 100 km; z-scale, greater than 10 km; t-scale, less than 2 hr. Theorists are beginning to understand middle atmosphere motions. There are two classes: Planetary waves and equatorial motions, gravity waves and tidal motions. The former give rise to variability at large scales, which may alter apparent mean structure. Effects include density and velocity fluctuations, induced mean motions, and stratospheric warmings which lead to the breakup of the polar vortex and cooling of the mesosphere. On this scale are also equatorial quasi-biennial and semi-annual oscillations. Gravity wave and tidal motions produce large rms fluctuations in density and velocity. The magnitude of the density fluctuations compared to the mean density is of the order of the vertical wavelength, which grows with height. Relative density fluctuations are less than, or of the order of 30% below the mesopause. Such motions may cause significant and variable convection, and wind shear. There is a strong seasonal variation in gravity wave amplitude. Additional observations are needed to address and quantify mean and fluctuation statistics of both density and mean velocity, variability of the mean and fluctuations, and to identify dominant gravity wave scales and sources as well as causes of variability, both temporal and geographic.

  4. Moreton Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, B. J.

    1999-01-01

    "Moreton waves," named for the observer who popularized them, are a solar phenomenon also known in scientific literature as "Moreton-Ramsey wave," "flare waves," "flare-associated waves," "MHD blast waves," "chromospheric shock fronts" and various other combinations of terms which connote violently propagating impulsive disturbances. It is unclear whether all of the observations to which these terms have been applied pertain to a single physical phenomenon: there has perhaps been some overlap between the observations and the assumed physical properties of the observed occurrence. Moreton waves are ideally observed in the wings of H alpha, and appear as semi-circular fronts propagating at speeds ranging from several hundred to over a thousand km/sec. They form an arc, or "brow shape" which can span up to 180 degrees. Extrapolating the speed and locations of the arc indicates that the phenomenon's origin intersects well with the impulsive phase of the associated H alpha flare (if the flare exhibits an impulsive phase). However, the arc may not form or may not be observable until it is tens of megameters from the flaring region, and subsequently can propagate to distances exceeding 100 megameters. The high speeds and distances of propagation, plus the associated radio and energetic particle observations, provided strong evidence of a coronal, rather than a chromospheric origin. The H alpha manifestation of the wave is assumed to be the "ground track" or "skirt" of a three-dimensional disturbance.

  5. Atmospheric Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    With its Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), half of the Ralph instrument, New Horizons captured several pictures of mesoscale gravity waves in Jupiter's equatorial atmosphere. Buoyancy waves of this type are seen frequently on Earth - for example, they can be caused when air flows over a mountain and a regular cloud pattern forms downstream. In Jupiter's case there are no mountains, but if conditions in the atmosphere are just right, it is possible to form long trains of these small waves. The source of the wave excitation seems to lie deep in Jupiter's atmosphere, below the visible cloud layers at depths corresponding to pressures 10 times that at Earth's surface. The New Horizons measurements showed that the waves move about 100 meters per second faster than surrounding clouds; this is about 25% of the speed of sound on Earth and is much greater than current models of these waves predict. Scientists can 'read' the speed and patterns these waves to learn more about activity and stability in the atmospheric layers below.

  6. Coastal circulation and potential coral-larval dispersal in Maunalua Bay, O'ahu, Hawaii—Measurements of waves, currents, temperature, and salinity, June-September 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presto, M. Katherine; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Logan, Joshua B.; Reiss, Thomas E.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a summary of fieldwork conducted in Maunalua Bay, O'ahu, Hawaii to address coral-larval dispersal and recruitment from June through September, 2010. The objectives of this study were to understand the temporal and spatial variations in currents, waves, tides, temperature, and salinity in Maunalua Bay during the summer coral-spawning season of Montipora capitata. Short-term vessel surveys and satellite-tracked drifters were deployed to measure currents during the June 2010 spawning event and to supplement the longer-term measurements of currents and water-column properties by fixed, bottom-mounted instruments deployed in Maunalua Bay. These data show that currents at the surface and just below the surface where coral larvae are found are often oriented in opposite directions due primarily to tidal and trade-winds forcing as the primary mechanisms of circulation in the bay. These data extend our understanding of coral-larvae dispersal patterns due to tidal and wind-driven currents and may be applicable to larvae of other Hawaiian corals.

  7. Removable partial denture occlusion.

    PubMed

    Ivanhoe, John R; Plummer, Kevin D

    2004-07-01

    No single occlusal morphology, scheme, or material will successfully treat all patients. Many patients have been treated, both successfully and unsuccessfully, using widely varying theories of occlusion, choices of posterior tooth form, and restorative materials. Therefore, experience has demonstrated that there is no one righ r way to restore the occlusion of all patients. Partially edentulous patients have many and varied needs. Clinicians must understand the healthy physiologic gnathostomatic system and properly diagnose what is or may become pathologic. Henderson [3] stated that the occlusion of the successfully treated patient allows the masticating mechanism to carry out its physiologic functions while the temporomandibular joints, the neuromuscular mechanism, the teeth and their supporting structures remain in a good state of health. Skills in diagnosis and treatment planning are of utmost importance in treating these patients, for whom the clinician's goals are not only an esthetic and functional restoration but also a lasting harmonious state. Perhaps this was best state by DeVan [55] more than 60 years ago in his often-quoted objective. "The patient's fundamental need is the continued meticulous restoration of what is missing, since what is lost is in a sense irretrievably lost." Because it is clear that there is no one method, no one occlusal scheme, or one material that guarantees success for all patients, recommendations for consideration when establishing or reestablishing occlusal schemes have been presented. These recommendations must be used in conjunction with other diagnostic and technical skills.

  8. Partially solidified systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The evolution of magmas is a topic of considerable importance in geology and geophysics because it affects volcanology, igneous petrology, geothermal energy sources, mantle convection, and the thermaland chemical evolution of the earth. The dynamics and evolution of magmas are strongly affected by the presence of solid crystals that occur either in suspension in liquid or as a rigid porous matrix through which liquid magma can percolate. Such systems are physically complex and difficult to model mathematically. Similar physical situations are encountered by metallurgists who study the solidification of molten alloys, and applied mathematicians have long been interested in such moving boundary problems. Clearly, it would be of mutual benefit to bring together scientists, engineers, and mathematicians with a common interest in such systems. Such a meeting is being organized as a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Advanced Research Workshop on the Structure and Dynamics of Partially Solidified Systems, to be held at Stanford University's Fallen Leaf Lodge at Tahoe, Calif., May 12-16, 1986 The invited speakers and their topics are

  9. Partial disassembly of peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Rat liver peroxisomes were subjected to a variety of procedures intended to partially disassemble or damage them; the effects were analyzed by recentrifugation into sucrose gradients, enzyme analyses, electron microscopy, and SDS PAGE. Freezing and thawing or mild sonication released some matrix proteins and produced apparently intact peroxisomal "ghosts" with crystalloid cores and some fuzzy fibrillar content. Vigorous sonication broke open the peroxisomes but the membranes remained associated with cores and fibrillar and amorphous matrix material. The density of both ghosts and more severely damaged peroxisomes was approximately 1.23. Pyrophosphate (pH 9) treatment solubilized the fibrillar content, yielding ghosts that were empty except for cores. Some matrix proteins such as catalase and thiolase readily leak from peroxisomes. Other proteins were identified that remain in mechanically damaged peroxisomes but are neither core nor membrane proteins because they can be released by pyrophosphate treatment. These constitute a class of poorly soluble matrix proteins that appear to correspond to the fibrillar material observed morphologically. All of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes are located in the matrix, but they vary greatly in how easily they leak out. Palmitoyl coenzyme A synthetase is in the membrane, based on its co-distribution with the 22-kilodalton integral membrane polypeptide. PMID:2989301

  10. Axial and transverse acoustic radiation forces on a fluid sphere placed arbitrarily in Bessel beam standing wave tweezers

    SciTech Connect

    Mitri, F.G.

    2014-03-15

    The axial and transverse radiation forces on a fluid sphere placed arbitrarily in the acoustical field of Bessel beams of standing waves are evaluated. The three-dimensional components of the time-averaged force are expressed in terms of the beam-shape coefficients of the incident field and the scattering coefficients of the fluid sphere using a partial-wave expansion (PWE) method. Examples are chosen for which the standing wave field is composed of either a zero-order (non-vortex) Bessel beam, or a first-order Bessel vortex beam. It is shown here, that both transverse and axial forces can push or pull the fluid sphere to an equilibrium position depending on the chosen size parameter ka (where k is the wave-number and a the sphere’s radius). The corresponding results are of particular importance in biophysical applications for the design of lab-on-chip devices operating with Bessel beams standing wave tweezers. Moreover, potential investigations in acoustic levitation and related applications in particle rotation in a vortex beam may benefit from the results of this study. -- Highlights: •The axial and transverse forces on a fluid sphere in acoustical Bessel beams tweezers are evaluated. •The attraction or repulsion to an equilibrium position in the standing wave field is examined. •Potential applications are in particle manipulation using standing waves.

  11. The fifth-order partial differential equation for the description of the α + β Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, Nikolay A.; Volkov, Alexandr K.

    2017-01-01

    We study a new nonlinear partial differential equation of the fifth order for the description of perturbations in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam mass chain. This fifth-order equation is an expansion of the Gardner equation for the description of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model. We use the potential of interaction between neighbouring masses with both quadratic and cubic terms. The equation is derived using the continuous limit. Unlike the previous works, we take into account higher order terms in the Taylor series expansions. We investigate the equation using the Painlevé approach. We show that the equation does not pass the Painlevé test and can not be integrated by the inverse scattering transform. We use the logistic function method and the Laurent expansion method to find travelling wave solutions of the fifth-order equation. We use the pseudospectral method for the numerical simulation of wave processes, described by the equation.

  12. Analytic wave model of Stark deceleration dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbels, Koos; Meijer, Gerard; Friedrich, Bretislav

    2006-06-15

    Stark deceleration relies on time-dependent inhomogeneous electric fields which repetitively exert a decelerating force on polar molecules. Fourier analysis reveals that such fields, generated by an array of field stages, consist of a superposition of partial waves with well-defined phase velocities. Molecules whose velocities come close to the phase velocity of a given wave get a ride from that wave. For a square-wave temporal dependence of the Stark field, the phase velocities of the waves are found to be odd-fraction multiples of a fundamental phase velocity {lambda}/{tau}, with {lambda} and {tau} the spatial and temporal periods of the field. Here we study explicitly the dynamics due to any of the waves as well as due to their mutual perturbations. We first solve the equations of motion for the case of single-wave interactions and exploit their isomorphism with those for the biased pendulum. Next we analyze the perturbations of the single-wave dynamics by other waves and find that these have no net effect on the phase stability of the acceleration or deceleration process. Finally, we find that a packet of molecules can also ride a wave which results from an interference of adjacent waves. In this case, small phase stability areas form around phase velocities that are even-fraction multiples of the fundamental velocity. A detailed comparison with classical trajectory simulations and with experiment demonstrates that the analytic 'wave model' encompasses all the longitudinal physics encountered in a Stark decelerator.

  13. Effects on humans elicited by inhaling the fragrance of essential oils: sensory test, multi-channel thermometric study and forehead surface potential wave measurement on basil and peppermint.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Tomoko; Sugawara, Yoshiaki

    2003-01-01

    The effects on humans inhaling the fragrance of essential oils were examined in terms of a sensory test, a multi-channel skin thermometer study and a portable forehead surface electroencephalographic (IBVA-EEG) measurement. The essential oils examined in this study were those of basil and peppermint, because our previous sensory test had indicated an opposite effect of these essential oils when mental work was undertaken; the inhalation of basil produced a more favorable impression after work than before work, whereas peppermint produced an unfavorable impression under these circumstances. For subjects administered basil or peppermint before and after mental work using an inhalator, a series of multi-channel skin thermometer studies and IBVA-EEG measurements were conducted. Using such paired odorants, our results showed that when compared between before and after mental work assigned to subjects: (1) the inhalation of basil, in which a favorable impression was predominant on the whole in terms of the sensory evaluation spectrum, was shown to be associated upward tendency in finger-tip skin temperature; (2) whereas these situations were opposite in the case of peppermint, in which the reversed (unfavorable) feature in sensory profiling was accompanied by a decrease in the magnitude of beta waves and a decrease in the finger-tip skin temperature both based on Welch's method, even at p < 0.01, implying a decreasing propensity of the aroused state and of the arousal response. The elucidation of such sensory and physiological endpoints of paired odorants would be of primary importance for human chemoreception science, because these are only rarely recorded during the same experiments, and this paradigm is highly informative about non-verbal responses to odorants.

  14. Trigonometric Integrals via Partial Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, H.; Fulford, M.

    2005-01-01

    Parametric differentiation is used to derive the partial fractions decompositions of certain rational functions. Those decompositions enable us to integrate some new combinations of trigonometric functions.

  15. Modeling the effect of wave-vegetation interaction on wave setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooijen, A. A.; McCall, R. T.; van Thiel de Vries, J. S. M.; van Dongeren, A. R.; Reniers, A. J. H. M.; Roelvink, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    Aquatic vegetation in the coastal zone attenuates wave energy and reduces the risk of coastal hazards, e.g., flooding. Besides the attenuation of sea-swell waves, vegetation may also affect infragravity-band (IG) waves and wave setup. To date, knowledge on the effect of vegetation on IG waves and wave setup is lacking, while they are potentially important parameters for coastal risk assessment. In this study, the storm impact model XBeach is extended with formulations for attenuation of sea-swell and IG waves, and wave setup effects in two modes: the sea-swell wave phase-resolving (nonhydrostatic) and the phase-averaged (surfbeat) mode. In surfbeat mode, a wave shape model is implemented to capture the effect of nonlinear wave-vegetation interaction processes on wave setup. Both modeling modes are verified using data from two flume experiments with mimic vegetation and show good skill in computing the sea-swell and IG wave transformation, and wave setup. In surfbeat mode, the wave setup prediction greatly improves when using the wave shape model, while in nonhydrostatic mode (nonlinear) intrawave effects are directly accounted for. Subsequently, the model is used for a range of coastal geomorphological configurations by varying bed slope and vegetation extent. The results indicate that the effect of wave-vegetation interaction on wave setup may be relevant for a range of typical coastal geomorphological configurations (e.g., relatively steep to gentle slope coasts fronted by vegetation).

  16. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the partial derivative machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. In this paper, we report on an initial study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering, and mathematics. We report on the central research question of how disciplinary experts understand partial derivatives, and how their concept images of partial derivatives differ, with a focus on experimentally measured quantities. Using the partial derivative machine (PDM), we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context without a known functional form. In particular, we investigated which representations were cued by the experts' interactions with the PDM. Whereas the physicists and engineers were quick to use measurements to find a numeric approximation for a derivative, the mathematicians repeatedly returned to speculation as to the functional form; although they were comfortable drawing qualitative conclusions about the system from measurements, they were reluctant to approximate the derivative through measurement. On a theoretical front, we found ways in which existing frameworks for the concept of derivative could be expanded to include numerical approximation.

  17. Effects of Mechano-Electric Feedback on Scroll Wave Stability in Human Ventricular Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuxuan; Gurev, Viatcheslav; Constantino, Jason; Bayer, Jason D.; Trayanova, Natalia A.

    2013-01-01

    Recruitment of stretch-activated channels, one of the mechanisms of mechano-electric feedback, has been shown to influence the stability of scroll waves, the waves that underlie reentrant arrhythmias. However, a comprehensive study to examine the effects of recruitment of stretch-activated channels with different reversal potentials and conductances on scroll wave stability has not been undertaken; the mechanisms by which stretch-activated channel opening alters scroll wave stability are also not well understood. The goals of this study were to test the hypothesis that recruitment of stretch-activated channels affects scroll wave stability differently depending on stretch-activated channel reversal potential and channel conductance, and to uncover the relevant mechanisms underlying the observed behaviors. We developed a strongly-coupled model of human ventricular electromechanics that incorporated human ventricular geometry and fiber and sheet orientation reconstructed from MR and diffusion tensor MR images. Since a wide variety of reversal potentials and channel conductances have been reported for stretch-activated channels, two reversal potentials, −60 mV and −10 mV, and a range of channel conductances (0 to 0.07 mS/µF) were implemented. Opening of stretch-activated channels with a reversal potential of −60 mV diminished scroll wave breakup for all values of conductances by flattening heterogeneously the action potential duration restitution curve. Opening of stretch-activated channels with a reversal potential of −10 mV inhibited partially scroll wave breakup at low conductance values (from 0.02 to 0.04 mS/µF) by flattening heterogeneously the conduction velocity restitution relation. For large conductance values (>0.05 mS/µF), recruitment of stretch-activated channels with a reversal potential of −10 mV did not reduce the likelihood of scroll wave breakup because Na channel inactivation in regions of large stretch led to conduction block, which

  18. Evaluation of the Tibial Nerve with Shear-Wave Elastography: A Potential Sonographic Method for the Diagnosis of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Dikici, Atilla Suleyman; Ustabasioglu, Fethi Emre; Delil, Sakir; Nalbantoglu, Mecbure; Korkmaz, Bektas; Bakan, Selim; Kula, Osman; Uzun, Nurten; Mihmanli, Ismail; Kantarci, Fatih

    2017-02-01

    Purpose To evaluate the value of shear-wave elastography (SWE) in the detection of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) of the tibial nerve. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained from all study participants. The study included 20 diabetic patients with DPN (10 men, 10 women), 20 diabetic patients without DPN (eight men, 12 women), and 20 healthy control subjects (nine men, 11 women). The tibial nerve was examined at 4 cm proximal to the medial malleolus with gray-scale ultrasonography and SWE. The nerve cross-sectional area (in square centimeters) and the mean nerve stiffness (in kilopascals) within the range of the image were recorded. Inter- and intrareader variability, differences among groups, and correlation of clinical and electrophysiologic evaluation were assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients, the Mann Whitney U test, and the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results Between diabetic patients with and diabetic patients without DPN, mean age (60 years [range, 38-79 years] vs 61 years [range, 46-75 years], respectively), mean duration of diabetes (10 years [range, 1-25 years] vs 10 years [range, 2-26 years]), and mean body mass index (31.4 kg/m(2) [range, 24.7-48.1 kg/m(2)] vs 29.8 kg/m(2) [range, 22.9-44.0 kg/m(2)]) were not significantly different. Diabetic patients without DPN had significantly higher stiffness values on the right side compared with control subjects (P < .001). Patients with DPN had much higher stiffness values on both sides compared with both diabetic patients without DPN (P < .001) and healthy control subjects (P < .001). A cutoff value of 51.0 kPa at 4 cm proximal to the medial malleolus revealed a sensitivity of 90% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 75.4%, 96.7%) and a specificity of 85.0% (95% CI: 74.9%, 91.7%). Conclusion Tibial nerve stiffness measurements appear to be highly specific in the diagnosis of established DPN. The increased stiffness in

  19. Potential Flow Forces and Moments from Selected Ship Flow Codes in a Set of Numerical Experiments. Appendix R - Minimum and Maximum Plots for 0-DOF Motion of Model 5514 in Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    1088 R– 1768 . Minimum and Maximum ofM difz for Prescribed 0-DOF Motion in Waves of Model 5514 (L = 142 m) in Waves at Heading 135◦ and Froude num- ber...R–1091 R– 1774 . Minimum and Maximum ofM difz for Prescribed 0-DOF Motion in Waves of Model 5514 (L = 142 m) in Waves at Heading 180◦ and Froude num...1/10 — — — — — — — Table R– 1768 . Minimum and Maximum of M difz for Prescribed 0-DOF Motion in Waves of Model 5514 (L = 142 m) in Waves at Heading

  20. Modulation of short waves by long waves. [ocean wave interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reece, A. M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Wave-tank experiments were performed to investigate the cyclic short-wave energy changes, related in phase to an underlying long wave, which occur during active generation of the short-wave field by wind. Measurements of time series of the short-wave slope were made by a laser-optical system, where the basic long-wave parameters were controlled and wind speeds were accurately reproducible. The short-wave slope variances were found to exhibit cyclic variations that are related to the phase of the long wave. The variations result from two combined effects: (1) the short wave frequency is varied by the long-wave orbital velocity; (2) the energy of the short waves is modulated by the actions of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic couplings that operate on the short waves in a manner related to the long-wave phase.