Are Electron Partial Waves Real
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yenen, O.; McLaughlin, K. W.
2005-05-01
Experiments determining the partial wave content of electrons are uncommon. The standard approach to partial wave expansion of the wavefunction of electrons often ignores their spin. In this non-relativistic approximation the partial waves are labeled by their orbital angular momentum quantum number, e.g. d-waves. As our previous work has shown, this non-relativistic approximation usually fails for photoelectrons. Partial waves should be further specified by their total angular momentum. With d-waves for example, one would need to distinguish between d3/2 and d5/2 partial waves. Although energetically degenerate, fully relativistic d3/2 and d5/2 partial waves of photoelectrons have fundamentally different angular distributions. Using experimental and theoretical methods we have developed, we obtain partial wave probabilities of photoelectrons from polarization measurements of ionic fluorescence. We found that for selected states of the residual ion, there are energy regions where the photoelectron is in a single partial wave with predictable angular distributions.
Dubrovsky, V. G.; Topovsky, A. V.; Basalaev, M. Yu.
2010-09-15
The classes of exactly solvable multiline soliton potentials and corresponding wave functions of two-dimensional stationary Schroedinger equation via {partial_derivative}-dressing method are constructed and their physical interpretation is discussed.
Pseudopotential Method for Higher Partial Wave Scattering
Idziaszek, Zbigniew; Calarco, Tommaso
2006-01-13
We present a zero-range pseudopotential applicable for all partial wave interactions between neutral atoms. For p and d waves, we derive effective pseudopotentials, which are useful for problems involving anisotropic external potentials. Finally, we consider two nontrivial applications of the p-wave pseudopotential: we solve analytically the problem of two interacting spin-polarized fermions confined in a harmonic trap, and we analyze the scattering of p-wave interacting particles in a quasi-two-dimensional system.
Partial Wave Dispersion Relations: Application to Electron-Atom Scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Temkin, A.; Drachman, Richard J.
1999-01-01
In this Letter we propose the use of partial wave dispersion relations (DR's) as the way of solving the long-standing problem of correctly incorporating exchange in a valid DR for electron-atom scattering. In particular a method is given for effectively calculating the contribution of the discontinuity and/or poles of the partial wave amplitude which occur in the negative E plane. The method is successfully tested in three cases: (i) the analytically solvable exponential potential, (ii) the Hartree potential, and (iii) the S-wave exchange approximation for electron-hydrogen scattering.
Partial wave analysis using graphics processing units
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berger, Niklaus; Beijiang, Liu; Jike, Wang
2010-04-01
Partial wave analysis is an important tool for determining resonance properties in hadron spectroscopy. For large data samples however, the un-binned likelihood fits employed are computationally very expensive. At the Beijing Spectrometer (BES) III experiment, an increase in statistics compared to earlier experiments of up to two orders of magnitude is expected. In order to allow for a timely analysis of these datasets, additional computing power with short turnover times has to be made available. It turns out that graphics processing units (GPUs) originally developed for 3D computer games have an architecture of massively parallel single instruction multiple data floating point units that is almost ideally suited for the algorithms employed in partial wave analysis. We have implemented a framework for tensor manipulation and partial wave fits called GPUPWA. The user writes a program in pure C++ whilst the GPUPWA classes handle computations on the GPU, memory transfers, caching and other technical details. In conjunction with a recent graphics processor, the framework provides a speed-up of the partial wave fit by more than two orders of magnitude compared to legacy FORTRAN code.
Numerical method for wave forces acting on partially perforated caisson
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Feng; Tang, Xiao-cheng; Jin, Zhao; Zhang, Li; Chen, Hong-zhou
2015-04-01
The perforated caisson is widely applied to practical engineering because of its great advantages in effectively wave energy consumption and cost reduction. The attentions of many scientists were paid to the fluid-structure interaction between wave and perforated caisson studies, but until now, most concerns have been put on theoretical analysis and experimental model set up. In this paper, interaction between the wave and the partial perforated caisson in a 2D numerical wave flume is investigated by means of the renewed SPH algorithm, and the mathematical equations are in the form of SPH numerical approximation based on Navier-Stokes equations. The validity of the SPH mathematical method is examined and the simulated results are compared with the results of theoretical models, meanwhile the complex hydrodynamic characteristics when the water particles flow in or out of a wave absorbing chamber are analyzed and the wave pressure distribution of the perforated caisson is also addressed here. The relationship between the ratio of total horizontal force acting on caisson under regular waves and its influence factors is examined. The data show that the numerical calculation of the ratio of total horizontal force meets the empirical regression equation very well. The simulations of SPH about the wave nonlinearity and breaking are briefly depicted in the paper, suggesting that the advantages and great potentiality of the SPH method is significant compared with traditional methods.
Partial Wave Analysis of Coupled Photonic Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fuller, Kirk A.; Smith, David D.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The very high quality factors sustained by microcavity optical resonators are relevant to applications in wavelength filtering, routing, switching, modulation, and multiplexing/demultiplexing. Increases in the density of photonic elements require that attention be paid to how electromagnetic (EM) coupling modifies their optical properties. This is especially true when cavity resonances are involved, in which case, their characteristics may be fundamentally altered. Understanding the optical properties of microcavities that are near or in contact with photonic elements---such as other microcavities, nanostructures, couplers, and substrates---can be expected to advance our understanding of the roles that these structures may play in VLSI photonics, biosensors and similar device technologies. Wc present results from recent theoretical studies of the effects of inter- and intracavity coupling on optical resonances in compound spherical particles. Concentrically stratified spheres and bispheres constituted from homogeneous and stratified spheres are subjects of this investigation. A new formulation is introduced for the absorption of light in an arbitrary layer of a multilayered sphere, which is based on multiple reflections of the spherical partial waves of the Lorenz-Mie solution for scattering by a sphere. Absorption efficiencies, which can be used to profile cavity resonances and to infer fluorescence yields or the onset of nonlinear optical processes in the microcavities, are presented. Splitting of resonances in these multisphere systems is paid particular attention, and consequences for photonic device development and possible performance enhancements through carefully designed architectures that exploit EM coupling are considered.
Direct Calculation of the Scattering Amplitude Without Partial Wave Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shertzer, J.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Two new developments in scattering theory are reported. We show, in a practical way, how one can calculate the full scattering amplitude without invoking a partial wave expansion. First, the integral expression for the scattering amplitude f(theta) is simplified by an analytic integration over the azimuthal angle. Second, the full scattering wavefunction which appears in the integral expression for f(theta) is obtained by solving the Schrodinger equation with the finite element method (FEM). As an example, we calculate electron scattering from the Hartree potential. With minimal computational effort, we obtain accurate and stable results for the scattering amplitude.
Seismoelectric wave propagation numerical modelling in partially saturated materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warden, S.; Garambois, S.; Jouniaux, L.; Brito, D.; Sailhac, P.; Bordes, C.
2013-09-01
To better understand and interpret seismoelectric measurements acquired over vadose environments, both the existing theory and the wave propagation modelling programmes, available for saturated materials, should be extended to partial saturation conditions. We propose here an extension of Pride's equations aiming to take into account partially saturated materials, in the case of a water-air mixture. This new set of equations was incorporated into an existing seismoelectric wave propagation modelling code, originally designed for stratified saturated media. This extension concerns both the mechanical part, using a generalization of the Biot-Gassmann theory, and the electromagnetic part, for which dielectric permittivity and electrical conductivity were expressed against water saturation. The dynamic seismoelectric coupling was written as a function of the streaming potential coefficient, which depends on saturation, using four different relations derived from recent laboratory or theoretical studies. In a second part, this extended programme was used to synthesize the seismoelectric response for a layered medium consisting of a partially saturated sand overburden on top of a saturated sandstone half-space. Subsequent analysis of the modelled amplitudes suggests that the typically very weak interface response (IR) may be best recovered when the shallow layer exhibits low saturation. We also use our programme to compute the seismoelectric response of a capillary fringe between a vadose sand overburden and a saturated sand half-space. Our first modelling results suggest that the study of the seismoelectric IR may help to detect a sharp saturation contrast better than a smooth saturation transition. In our example, a saturation contrast of 50 per cent between a fully saturated sand half-space and a partially saturated shallow sand layer yields a stronger IR than a stepwise decrease in saturation.
Holographic conformal partial waves as gravitational open Wilson networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhatta, Atanu; Raman, Prashanth; Suryanarayana, Nemani V.
2016-06-01
We propose a method to holographically compute the conformal partial waves in any decomposition of correlation functions of primary operators in conformal field theories using open Wilson network operators in the holographic gravitational dual. The Wilson operators are the gravitational ones where gravity is written as a gauge theory in the first order Hilbert-Palatini formalism. We apply this method to compute the global conformal blocks and partial waves in 2d CFTs reproducing many of the known results.
ALFVEN WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA
Soler, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Terradas, J.; Carbonell, M. E-mail: joseluis.ballester@uib.es E-mail: marc.carbonell@uib.es
2013-04-20
Alfven waves are a particular class of magnetohydrodynamic waves relevant in many astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of Alfven waves is affected by the interaction between ionized and neutral species. Here we study Alfven waves in a partially ionized plasma from the theoretical point of view using the two-fluid description. We consider that the plasma is composed of an ion-electron fluid and a neutral fluid, which interact by means of particle collisions. To keep our investigation as general as possible, we take the neutral-ion collision frequency and the ionization degree as free parameters. First, we perform a normal mode analysis. We find the modification due to neutral-ion collisions of the wave frequencies and study the temporal and spatial attenuation of the waves. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoff values of the wavelength that constrain the existence of oscillatory standing waves in weakly ionized plasmas. Later, we go beyond the normal mode approach and solve the initial-value problem in order to study the time-dependent evolution of the wave perturbations in the two fluids. An application to Alfven waves in the low solar atmospheric plasma is performed and the implication of partial ionization for the energy flux is discussed.
MAGNETOACOUSTIC WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA
Soler, Roberto; Ballester, Jose Luis; Carbonell, Marc E-mail: joseluis.ballester@uib.es
2013-11-01
Compressible disturbances propagate in a plasma in the form of magnetoacoustic waves driven by both gas pressure and magnetic forces. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of ionized and neutral species are coupled due to ion-neutral collisions. As a consequence, magnetoacoustic waves propagating through a partially ionized medium are affected by ion-neutral coupling. The degree to which the behavior of the classic waves is modified depends on the physical properties of the various species and on the relative value of the wave frequency compared to the ion-neutral collision frequency. Here, we perform a comprehensive theoretical investigation of magnetoacoustic wave propagation in a partially ionized plasma using the two-fluid formalism. We consider an extensive range of values for the collision frequency, ionization ratio, and plasma β, so that the results are applicable to a wide variety of astrophysical plasmas. We determine the modification of the wave frequencies and study the frictional damping due to ion-neutral collisions. Approximate analytic expressions for the frequencies are given in the limit case of strongly coupled ions and neutrals, while numerically obtained dispersion diagrams are provided for arbitrary collision frequencies. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoffs in the dispersion diagrams that constrain wave propagation for certain combinations of parameters. A specific application to propagation of compressible waves in the solar chromosphere is given.
Lee, Jong-In; Kim, Young-Taek; Shin, Sungwon
2014-01-01
This study presents wave height distribution in terms of stem wave evolution phenomena on partially perforated wall structures through three-dimensional laboratory experiments. The plain and partially perforated walls were tested to understand their effects on the stem wave evolution under the monochromatic and random wave cases with the various wave conditions, incident angle (from 10 to 40 degrees), and configurations of front and side walls. The partially perforated wall reduced the relative wave heights more effectively compared to the plain wall structure. Partially perforated walls with side walls showed a better performance in terms of wave height reduction compared to the structure without the side wall. Moreover, the relative wave heights along the wall were relatively small when the relative chamber width is large, within the range of the chamber width in this study. The wave spectra showed a frequency dependency of the wave energy dissipation. In most cases, the existence of side wall is a more important factor than the porosity of the front wall in terms of the wave height reduction even if the partially perforated wall was still effective compared to the plain wall. PMID:25254260
Lee, Jong-In; Kim, Young-Taek; Shin, Sungwon
2014-01-01
This study presents wave height distribution in terms of stem wave evolution phenomena on partially perforated wall structures through three-dimensional laboratory experiments. The plain and partially perforated walls were tested to understand their effects on the stem wave evolution under the monochromatic and random wave cases with the various wave conditions, incident angle (from 10 to 40 degrees), and configurations of front and side walls. The partially perforated wall reduced the relative wave heights more effectively compared to the plain wall structure. Partially perforated walls with side walls showed a better performance in terms of wave height reduction compared to the structure without the side wall. Moreover, the relative wave heights along the wall were relatively small when the relative chamber width is large, within the range of the chamber width in this study. The wave spectra showed a frequency dependency of the wave energy dissipation. In most cases, the existence of side wall is a more important factor than the porosity of the front wall in terms of the wave height reduction even if the partially perforated wall was still effective compared to the plain wall. PMID:25254260
Correlations of πN partial waves for multireaction analyses
Doring, M.; Revier, J.; Ronchen, D.; Workman, R. L.
2016-06-15
In the search for missing baryonic resonances, many analyses include data from a variety of pion- and photon-induced reactions. For elastic πN scattering, however, usually the partial waves of the SAID (Scattering Analysis Interactive Database) or other groups are fitted, instead of data. We provide the partial-wave covariance matrices needed to perform correlated χ2 fits, in which the obtained χ2 equals the actual χ2 up to nonlinear and normalization corrections. For any analysis relying on partial waves extracted from elastic pion scattering, this is a prerequisite to assess the significance of resonance signals and to assign any uncertainty on results.more » Lastly, the influence of systematic errors is also considered.« less
Correlations of π N partial waves for multireaction analyses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Döring, M.; Revier, J.; Rönchen, D.; Workman, R. L.
2016-06-01
In the search for missing baryonic resonances, many analyses include data from a variety of pion- and photon-induced reactions. For elastic π N scattering, however, usually the partial waves of the SAID (Scattering Analysis Interactive Database) or other groups are fitted, instead of data. We provide the partial-wave covariance matrices needed to perform correlated χ2 fits, in which the obtained χ2 equals the actual χ2 up to nonlinear and normalization corrections. For any analysis relying on partial waves extracted from elastic pion scattering, this is a prerequisite to assess the significance of resonance signals and to assign any uncertainty on results. The influence of systematic errors is also considered.
SLAC three-body partial wave analysis system
Aston, D.; Lasinski, T.A.; Sinervo, P.K.
1985-10-01
We present a heuristic description of the SLAC-LBL three-meson partial wave model, and describe how we have implemented it at SLAC. The discussion details the assumptions of the model and the analysis, and emphasizes the methods we have used to prepare and fit the data. 28 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.
Kullback relative entropy and characterization of partially polarized optical waves.
Réfrégier, Philippe; Goudail, François
2006-03-01
Different properties of partially polarized light are discussed using the Kullback relative entropy, which provides a physically meaningful measure of proximity between probability density functions (PDFs). For optical waves with a Gaussian PDF, the standard degree of polarization is a simple function of the Kullback relative entropy between the considered optical light and a totally depolarized light of the same intensity. It is shown that the Kullback relative entropies between different PDFs allow one to define other properties such as a degree of anisotropy and a degree of non-Gaussianity. It is also demonstrated that, in dimension three, the Kullback relative entropy between a partially polarized light and a totally depolarized light can lead to natural definitions of two degrees of polarization needed to characterize the polarization state. These analyses enlighten the physical meaning of partial polarization of light waves in terms of a measure of disorder provided by the Shannon entropy. PMID:16539066
A Potential Cost Effective Liquefaction Mitigation Countermeasure: Induced Partial Saturation
Bian Hanbing; Jia Yun; Shahrour, Isam
2008-07-08
This work is devoted to illustrate the potential liquefaction mitigation countermeasure: Induced Partial Saturation. Firstly the potential liquefaction mitigation method is briefly introduced. Then the numerical model for partially saturated sandy soil is presented. At last the dynamic responses of liquefiable free filed with different water saturation is given. It shows that the induced partial saturation is efficiency for preventing the liquefaction.
Calculation of the Scattering Amplitude Without Partial Wave Expansion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shertzer, J.; Temkin, Aaron; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Two developments in the direct calculation of the angular differential scattering amplitude have been implemented: (a) The integral expansion of the scattering amplitude is simplified by analytically integration over the azimuthal angle. (b) The resulting integral as a function of scattering angle is calculated by using the numerically generated wave function from a finite element method calculation. Results for electron-hydrogen scattering in the static approximation will be shown to be as accurate as a partial wave expansion with as many l's as is necessary for convergence at the incident energy being calculated.
Analysis of non linear partially standing waves from 3D velocity measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drevard, D.; Rey, V.; Svendsen, Ib; Fraunie, P.
2003-04-01
Surface gravity waves in the ocean exhibit an energy spectrum distributed in both frequency and direction of propagation. Wave data collection is of great importance in coastal zones for engineering and scientific studies. In particular, partially standing waves measurements near coastal structures and steep or barred beaches may be a requirement, for instance for morphodynamic studies. The aim of the present study is the analysis of partially standing surface waves icluding non-linear effects. According to 1st order Stokes theory, synchronous measurements of horizontal and vertical velocity components allow calculation of rate of standing waves (Drevard et al, 2003). In the present study, it is demonstrated that for deep water conditions, partially standing 2nd order Stokes waves induced velocity field is still represented by the 1st order solution for the velocity potential contrary to the surface elevation which exhibits harmonic components. For intermediate water depth, harmonic components appear not only in the surface elevation but also in the velocity fields, but their weight remains much smaller, because of the vertical decreasing wave induced motion. For irregular waves, the influence of the spectrum width on the non-linear effects in the analysis is discussed. Keywords: Wave measurements ; reflection ; non-linear effects Acknowledgements: This work was initiated during the stay of Prof. Ib Svendsen, as invited Professor, at LSEET in autumn 2002. This study is carried out in the framework of the Scientific French National Programmes PNEC ART7 and PATOM. Their financial supports are acknowledged References: Drevard, D., Meuret, A., Rey, V. Piazzola, J. And Dolle, A.. (2002). "Partially reflected waves measurements using Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV)", Submitted to ISOPE 03, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 2003.
Partial-wave analysis for elastic p{sup 13}C scattering at astrophysical energies
Dubovichenko, S. B.
2012-03-15
A standard partial-wave analysis was performed on the basis of known measurements of differential cross sections for elastic p{sup 13}C scattering at energies in the range 250-750 keV. This analysis revealed that, in the energy range being considered, it is sufficient to take into account the {sup 3}S{sub 1} wave alone. A potential for the triplet {sup 3}S{sub 1}-wave state of the p{sup 13}C system in the region of the J{sup p}T = 1{sup -1} resonance at 0.55 MeV was constructed on the basis of the phase shifts obtained from the aforementioned partial-wave analysis.
Partial siamese twin as potential organ donor
Kapoor, Rakesh; Maheshwari, Ruchir; Srivastava, Aneesh; Sharma, Raj K.
2010-01-01
During evaluation of a partial Siamese twin for removal of nonviable parasitic part in an 8-year-old male child, a fully functional kidney was found. The functional status of the extra kidney was found to be within acceptable limits for the purpose of transplant, which was subsequently done in a 24-year-old patient with end-stage renal disease. The recipient is healthy 19 months after the surgery. The possibility of using organs from a partial Siamese twin makes this a unique case report. PMID:20877612
Wave interaction with a partially reflecting vertical wall protected by a submerged porous bar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Yang; Liu, Yong; Li, Huajun
2016-08-01
This study gives an analytical solution for wave interaction with a partially reflecting vertical wall protected by a submerged porous bar based on linear potential theory. The whole study domain is divided into multiple sub-regions in relation to the structures. The velocity potential in each sub-region is written as a series solution by the separation of variables. A partially reflecting boundary condition is used to describe the partial reflection of a vertical wall. Unknown expansion coefficients in the series solutions are determined by matching velocity potentials among different sub-regions. The analytical solution is verified by an independently developed multi-domain boundary element method (BEM) solution and experimental data. The wave run-up and wave force on the partially reflecting vertical wall are estimated and examined, which can be effectively reduced by the submerged porous bar. The horizontal space between the vertical wall and the submerged porous bar is a key factor, which affects the sheltering function of the porous bar. The wave resonance between the porous bar and the vertical wall may disappear when the vertical wall has a low reflection coefficient. The present analytical solution may be used to determine the optimum parameters of structures at a preliminary engineering design stage.
Wave Dispersion and Attenuation in Partially Saturated Sandstones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nie, Jian-Xin; Yang, Ding-Hui; Yang, Hui-Zhu
2004-03-01
We investigate the wave dispersion and attenuation in partially water-saturated sandstones based on the improved Biot/squirt (BISQ) model in which the saturation is introduced. Numerical experiments indicate that the phase velocity of the fast P-wave decreases as the saturation increases in the low-frequency range (102-104 Hz), and reaches the minimum at the full-saturation state. The behaviour of the phase velocity varying with the saturation in the high-frequency range (104-106 Hz), however, is opposite to that in the low-frequency range. The peak value of P-wave attenuation increases with increasing saturation, and is the maximum at the fully saturated state. Numerical models and experiments show that the improved BISQ model is better than the traditional Gassmann-Biot model.
Wave Energy Potential in the Latvian EEZ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beriņš, J.; Beriņš, J.; Kalnačs, J.; Kalnačs, A.
2016-06-01
The present article deals with one of the alternative forms of energy - sea wave energy potential in the Latvian Exclusice Economic Zone (EEZ). Results have been achieved using a new method - VEVPP. Calculations have been performed using the data on wave parameters over the past five years (2010-2014). We have also considered wave energy potential in the Gulf of Riga. The conclusions have been drawn on the recommended methodology for the sea wave potential and power calculations for wave-power plant pre-design stage.
Laboratory monitoring of P-waves in partially saturated sand
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrière, J.; Bordes, C.; Brito, D.; Sénéchal, P.; Perroud, H.
2011-12-01
Seismic data depends on a variety of hydrogeological properties of the prospected porous media such as porosity, permeability and fluid saturation. We have performed a laboratory experiment in the kiloHertz range in order to analyze the role of partial saturation on direct propagating P-waves phase velocity and attenuation. The experiment consists of a sand-filled tank 107 cm x 34 cm x 35cm equipped with accelerometers and water capacitance probes. The P-waves seismic propagation is generated by hitting a steel ball on a granite plate on the one lateral side of the container. Several imbibition/drainage cycles are performed between the water residual saturation and the gas residual saturation. The laboratory seismic data are processed by two Continuous Wavelet Transforms using one real mother wavelet (Mexican hat) and one complex (Morlet) to recover velocity and attenuation as a function of frequency. Phase velocity of direct P-wave decreases with an increase of water content and is quite consistent with the low frequency limit of the Biot's theory both for imbibition and drainage. The interpretation of the P-waves attenuation needs to go beyond the macroscopic fluid flow of Biot's theory and to introduce a viscoelastic contribution linked to the grain to grain overall losses which are described by a constant Q-model. A strong hysteresis between imbibition and drainage is observed and explained by introducing an effective permeability depending on water and gas relative permeabilities (Van Genuchten model).
Potential changes of wave steepness and occurrence of rogue waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bitner-Gregersen, Elzbieta M.; Toffoli, Alessandro
2015-04-01
Wave steepness is an important characteristic of a sea state. It is also well established that wave steepness is one of the parameter responsible for generation of abnormal waves called also freak or rogue waves. The study investigates changes of wave steepness in the past and future wave climate in the North Atlantic. The fifth assessment report IPCC (2013) uses four scenarios for future greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere called Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP). Two of these scenarios RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 have been selected to project future wave conditions in the North Atlantic. RCP 4.5 is believed to achieve the political target of a maximum global mean temperature increase of 2° C while RPC 8.5 is close to 'business as usual' and expected to give a temperature increase of 4° C or more. The analysis includes total sea, wind sea and swell. Potential changes of wave steepness for these wave systems are shown and compared with wave steepness derived from historical data. Three historical data sets with different wave model resolutions are used. The investigations show also changes in the mean wind direction as well as in the relative direction between wind sea and swell. Consequences of wave steepness changes for statistics of surface elevation and generation of rogue waves are demonstrated. Uncertainties associated with wave steepness projections are discussed.
A New Pion-Nucleon Partial Wave Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadler, Michael; Watson, Shon; Stahov, Jugoslav
2006-10-01
Existing determinations of the masses, widths and decay modes of low-lying excited states of the nucleon, as compiled in the Review of Particle Physics, are determined from energy-independent partial wave analyses of pion-nucleon scattering data. For the N*(1440) and most other resonances under 2 GeV, the analyses cited are the Karlsruhe-Helsinki, Carnegie Mellon-Berkeley and Kent State analyses, the latter of which used the elastic amplitudes from the other two. The data included in these analyses were published before 1980. Other analyses, notably the recent ones from George Washington University and the Pittsburgh-Argonne group, are ``not used for averages, fits, limits, etc.'' Complete sets of measurements (differential cross sections, analyzing powers and spin rotation parameters) have been measured in the N*(1440) resonance region since 1980, culminating in the Crystal Ball program at BNL to measure all-neutral final states (charge exchange, multiple pi-zero final states, and inverse photoproduction). A new partial wave analysis of the Karlsruhe-Helsinki type has been started by Abilene Christian University, University of Tuzla, and Rudjer Boskovic Institute. The analysis is constrained by fixed-t and interior hyperbolic dispersion relations. Comparisons of the new analysis to modern experimental data and to previous analyses will be presented.
Scattering of acoustic evanescent waves by circular cylinders: Partial wave series solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marston, Philip L.
2002-05-01
Evanescent acoustical waves occur in a variety of situations such as when sound is incident on a fluid interface beyond the critical angle and when flexural waves on a plate are subsonic with respect to the surrounding fluid. The scattering by circular cylinders at normal incidence was calculated to give insight into the consequences on the scattering of the evanescence of the incident wave. To analyze the scattering, it is necessary to express the incident wave using a modified expansion involving cylindrical functions. For plane evanescent waves, the expansion becomes a double summation with products of modified and ordinary Bessel functions. The resulting modified series is found for the scattering by a fluid cylinder in an unbounded medium. The perfectly soft and rigid cases are also examined. Unlike the case of an ordinary incident wave, the counterpropagating partial waves of the same angular order have unequal magnitudes when the incident wave is evanescent. This is a consequence of the exponential dependence of the incident wave amplitude on the transverse coordinate. The associated exponential dependence of the scattering on the location of a scatterer was previously demonstrated [T. J. Matula and P. L. Marston, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 93, 1192-1195 (1993)].
Search for Higher Flavor Multiplets in Partial Wave Analyses
Yakov Azimov; Richard Arndt; I.I. Strakovsky; Ron Workman; K. Goeke
2005-04-01
The possible existence of higher multi-quark flavor multiplets of baryons is investigated. We argue that the S-matrix should have poles with any quantum numbers, including those which are exotic. This argument provides a novel justification for the existence of hadrons with arbitrary exotic structure. Though it does not constitute a proof, there are still no theoretical arguments against exotics. We then consider KN and piN scattering. Conventional and modified partial-wave analyses provide several sets of candidates for correlated pairs (Theta1, Delta), each of which could label a related 27-plet. Properties of the pairs (masses, mass orderings, spin-parity quantum numbers) do not quite correspond to the current theoretical expectations. Decay widths of the candidates are either wider or narrower than expected. Possible reasons for such disagreements are briefly discussed.
Treatment of Ion-Atom Collisions Using a Partial-Wave Expansion of the Projectile Wavefunction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wong, T. G.; Foster, M.; Colgan, J.; Madison, D. H.
2009-01-01
We present calculations of ion-atom collisions using a partial-wave expansion of the projectile wavefunction. Most calculations of ion-atom collisions have typically used classical or plane-wave approximations for the projectile wavefunction, since partial-wave expansions are expected to require prohibitively large numbers of terms to converge…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jia; Wu, Pinghui; Chang, Liping
2016-02-01
Within the first-order Born approximation, the spectrum of light generated by the scattering of a partially coherent wave from a quasi-homogeneous (QH) medium is derived. In particular, the partially coherent incident wave is produced by Young's pinholes. It is shown that the spectrum of the scattered field is identical to the spectrum of incident plane waves if the Fourier transform of the normalized correlation coefficient (NCC) of the scattering potential satisfies a certain scaling law. The scaling law is valid when the medium size is sufficiently small compared with the space between Young' pinholes. Furthermore, comparisons are made between our conditions with the previous results.
Potential wells for classical acoustic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shi; Lin, ShuYu; Mo, RunYang; Fu, ZhiQiang
2014-01-01
The acceleration theorem of Bloch waves is utilized to construct random potential wells for classical acoustic waves in systems composed of alternating `cavities' and `couplers'. One prominent advantage of this method is these `cavities' and `couplers' are all monolayer structures. It allows forming more compact classical potential wells, which leads to the miniaturization of acoustic devices. We systematically investigate properties of harmonic, tangent, hyperbolic function, and square classical potential wells in quasi-periodic superlattices. Results show these classical potential wells are analogues of quantum potential wells. Thus some technologies and concepts in quantum potential well fields may be generalized to classical acoustic wave fields. In addition, some abnormal cases regarding forming classical potential wells are also found.
Mechanical surface waves accompany action potential propagation.
El Hady, Ahmed; Machta, Benjamin B
2015-01-01
Many diverse studies have shown that a mechanical displacement of the axonal membrane accompanies the electrical pulse defining the action potential (AP). We present a model for these mechanical displacements as arising from the driving of surface wave modes in which potential energy is stored in elastic properties of the neuronal membrane and cytoskeleton while kinetic energy is carried by the axoplasmic fluid. In our model, these surface waves are driven by the travelling wave of electrical depolarization characterizing the AP, altering compressive electrostatic forces across the membrane. This driving leads to co-propagating mechanical displacements, which we term Action Waves (AWs). Our model allows us to estimate the shape of the AW that accompanies any travelling wave of voltage, making predictions that are in agreement with results from several experimental systems. Our model can serve as a framework for understanding the physical origins and possible functional roles of these AWs. PMID:25819404
Mechanical surface waves accompany action potential propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Hady, Ahmed; Machta, Benjamin B.
2015-03-01
Many diverse studies have shown that a mechanical displacement of the axonal membrane accompanies the electrical pulse defining the action potential (AP). We present a model for these mechanical displacements as arising from the driving of surface wave modes in which potential energy is stored in elastic properties of the neuronal membrane and cytoskeleton while kinetic energy is carried by the axoplasmic fluid. In our model, these surface waves are driven by the travelling wave of electrical depolarization characterizing the AP, altering compressive electrostatic forces across the membrane. This driving leads to co-propagating mechanical displacements, which we term Action Waves (AWs). Our model allows us to estimate the shape of the AW that accompanies any travelling wave of voltage, making predictions that are in agreement with results from several experimental systems. Our model can serve as a framework for understanding the physical origins and possible functional roles of these AWs.
Applicability of Parallel Computing to Partial Wave Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruger, Justin; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Weygand, Dennis; CLAS Collaboration
2013-10-01
Bound states of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) give insights into the nature of confinement, a key element of the strong interaction. States may be identified from weak signals extracted from the analysis of high statistics data from reactions with many final state particles. One of the best tools for the analysis of these reactions is Partial Wave Analysis (PWA). PWA transforms an ensemble of experimental data from a large acceptance detector from free particle eigenstates to angular momentum eigenstates. The PWA program must be fast enough to deal with the large amounts of data available currently, as processing time scales with the number of events. The scope of this research is to study the applicability and scalability of Intel's Xeon Phi using the Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture when applied to the existing PWA code at Jefferson Laboratory. An algorithm was developed for the Xeon Phi and scaled across 240 available threads, giving parallel functionality to the PWA which was originally written serially. This scaling can make the fitting process fifteen times faster. Supported by the US Department of Energy.
Wave power potential in Malaysian territorial waters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asmida Mohd Nasir, Nor; Maulud, Khairul Nizam Abdul
2016-06-01
Up until today, Malaysia has used renewable energy technology such as biomass, solar and hydro energy for power generation and co-generation in palm oil industries and also for the generation of electricity, yet, we are still far behind other countries which have started to optimize waves for similar production. Wave power is a renewable energy (RE) transported by ocean waves. It is very eco-friendly and is easily reachable. This paper presents an assessment of wave power potential in Malaysian territorial waters including waters of Sabah and Sarawak. In this research, data from Malaysia Meteorology Department (MetMalaysia) is used and is supported by a satellite imaginary obtained from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Malaysia Remote Sensing Agency (ARSM) within the time range of the year 1992 until 2007. There were two types of analyses conducted which were mask analysis and comparative analysis. Mask analysis of a research area is the analysis conducted to filter restricted and sensitive areas. Meanwhile, comparative analysis is an analysis conducted to determine the most potential area for wave power generation. Four comparative analyses which have been carried out were wave power analysis, comparative analysis of wave energy power with the sea topography, hot-spot area analysis and comparative analysis of wave energy with the wind speed. These four analyses underwent clipping processes using Geographic Information System (GIS) to obtain the final result. At the end of this research, the most suitable area to develop a wave energy converter was found, which is in the waters of Terengganu and Sarawak. Besides that, it was concluded that the average potential energy that can be generated in Malaysian territorial waters is between 2.8kW/m to 8.6kW/m.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Shangguo; Tan, Shina
2014-03-01
It is well-known that cold atoms near s-wave Feshbach resonances have universal properties that are insensitive to the short-range details of the interaction. What is less known is that atoms near higher partial wave Feshbach resonances also have remarkable universal properties. We will illustrate this with a single atom interacting resonantly with two fixed static centers. At a Feshbach resonance point with orbital angular momentum L >= 1 , we find 2 L + 1 shallow bound states whose energies behave like 1 /R 2 L + 1 when the distance R between the two centers is large. This sheds additional light on the fundamental question whether Efimov effect exists for higher partial wave resonances. The effects of nonresonant partial-wave channels and the shape parameters in the effective range expansions enter as correction terms. Near p-wave and higher partial wave resonances, the energies can be described by a simple universal formula in terms of a parameter called ``proximity parameter.'' We will also discuss modifications of the low energy physics due to the long range Van der Waals potential. We gratefully acknowledge support by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1068511 and by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.
Development of Partial-Charge Potential for GaN
Gao, Fei; Devanathan, Ram; Oda, Takuji; Weber, William J.
2006-09-01
Partial-charged potentials for GaN are systematically developed that describes a wide range of structural properties, where the reference data for fitting the potential parameters are taken from ab initial calculations or experiments. The present potential model provides a good fit to different structural geometries and high pressure phases of GaN. The high-pressure transition from wurtzite to rock-salt structure is correctly described yielding the phase transition pressure of about 55 GPa, and the calculated volume change at the transition is in good agreement with experimental data. The results are compared with those obtained by ab initio simulations.
Mechanical Surface Waves Accompany Action Potential Propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Machta, Benjamin; El Hady, Ahmed
2015-03-01
The action potential (AP) is the basic mechanism by which information is transmitted along neuronal axons. Although the excitable nature of axons is understood to be primarily electrical, many experimental studies have shown that a mechanical displacement of the axonal membrane co-propagates with the electrical signal. While the experimental evidence for co-propagating mechanical waves is diverse and compelling, there is no consensus for their physical underpinnings. We present a model in which these mechanical displacements arise from the driving of mechanical surface waves, in which potential energy is stored in elastic deformations of the neuronal membrane and cytoskeleton while kinetic energy is stored in the movement of the axoplasmic fluid. In our model these surface waves are driven by the traveling wave of electrical depolarization that characterizes the AP, altering the electrostatic forces across the membrane as it passes. Our model allows us to predict the shape of the displacement that should accompany any traveling wave of voltage, including the well-characterized AP. We expect our model to serve as a framework for understanding the physical origins and possible functional roles of these AWs in neurobiology. See Arxiv/1407.7600
Topological States in Partially-PT-Symmetric Azimuthal Potentials.
Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Konotop, Vladimir V; Torner, Lluis
2015-11-01
We introduce partially-parity-time (pPT)-symmetric azimuthal potentials composed from individual PT-symmetric cells located on a ring, where two azimuthal directions are nonequivalent in a sense that in such potential excitations carrying topological dislocations exhibit different dynamics for different directions of energy circulation in the initial field distribution. Such nonconservative ratchetlike structures support rich families of stable vortex solitons in cubic nonlinear media, whose properties depend on the sign of the topological charge due to the nonequivalence of azimuthal directions. In contrast, oppositely charged vortex solitons remain equivalent in similar fully-PT-symmetric potentials. The vortex solitons in the pPT- and PT-symmetric potentials are shown to feature qualitatively different internal current distributions, which are described by different discrete rotation symmetries of the intensity profiles. PMID:26588383
Mughab, S.F.
1985-01-01
A long standing discrepancy between measurements and calculations of the sign of the incoherent scattering length is attributed to two sources: (1) spin dependence of the potential scattering radius and (2) identification of additional s-wave resonances at higher neutron energies. Detailed examination of the reaction /sup 27/Al (n vector,..gamma..) /sup 28/Al induced by thermal neutrons revealed that R/sub +/ - R/sub -/ = 0.32 +- 0.10 fm. Also shape fit analysis of the total cross section showed the presence of s-wave resonances at neutron energies 280, 386, 422, 491, 523, and 615 keV. One interesting outcome is the demonstration of the admixture of s- and d-wave partial waves in these resonances and the presence of a large d-wave neutron strength in the above energy region.
Heating of ions by low-frequency Alfven waves in partially ionized plasmas
Dong Chuanfei; Paty, Carol S.
2011-03-15
In the solar atmosphere, the chromospheric and coronal plasmas are much hotter than the visible photosphere. The heating of the solar atmosphere, including the partially ionized chromosphere and corona, remains largely unknown. In this letter, we demonstrate that the ions can be substantially heated by Alfven waves with very low frequencies in partially ionized low-beta plasmas. This differs from other Alfven wave related heating mechanisms such as ion-neutral collisional damping of Alfven waves and heating described by previous work on resonant Alfven wave heating. We find that the nonresonant Alfven wave heating is less efficient in partially ionized plasmas than when there are no ion-neutral collisions, and the heating efficiency depends on the ratio of the ion-neutral collision frequency to the ion gyrofrequency.
SAID Partial Wave Analyses from CNS DAC (Center for Nuclear Studies Data Analysis Center)
George Washington University (GW) has one of the largest university-based nuclear-physics groups in the nation. Many of the current and future projects are geared to Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) at Newport News, VA. JLab is the world's premier electron accelerator for nuclear physics, and GW is one of the charter members of the governing body of JLab, the Southeastern Universities Research Association (SURA). The George Washington Data Analysis Center (DAC) was created in 1998 by an agreement among the Department of Energy, Jefferson Lab, and the GW Center for Nuclear Studies.The activities of the DAC fall into four distinct categories: 1) Performing partial-wave analyses of fundamental two- and three-body reactions; 2) Maintenance of databases associated with these reactions; 3) Development of software to disseminate DAC results (as well as the results of competing model-independent analyses and potential approaches); and 4) Phenomenological and theoretical investigations which bridge the gap between theory and experiment; in particular, the extraction of N* and D * hadronic and electromagnetic couplings. Partial Wave Analyses (and the associated databases) available at GW are: Pion-Nucleon, Kaon-Nucleon, Nucleon-Nucleon, Pion Photoproduction, Pion Electroproduction, Kaon Photoproduction, Eta Photoproduction, Eta-Prime Photoproduction, Pion-Deuteron (elastic), and Pion-Deuteron to Proton+Proton. [Taken from http://www.gwu.edu/~ndl/dac.htm">http://www.gwu.edu/~ndl/dac.htm
Partial reflections of radio waves from the lower ionosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Connolly, D. J.; Tanenbaum, S. B.
1972-01-01
The addition of phase difference measurements to partial reflection experiments is discussed, and some advantages of measuring electron density this way are pointed out. The additional information obtained reduces the requirement for an accurate predetermination of collision frequency. Calculations are also made to estimate the errors expected in partial-reflection experiments due to the assumption of Fresnel reflection and to the neglect of coupling between modes. In both cases, the errors are found to be of the same order as known errors in the measurements due to current instrumental limitations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuruoğlu, Zeki C.
2014-01-01
Recently there has been a growing interest in computational methods for quantum scattering equations that avoid the traditional decomposition of wave functions and scattering amplitudes into partial waves. The aim of the present work is to show that the weighted-residual approach in combination with local basis functions give rise to convenient computational schemes for the solution of the multi-variable integral equations without the partial wave expansion. The weighted-residual approach provides a unifying framework for various variational and degenerate-kernel methods for integral equations of scattering theory. Using a direct-product basis of localized quadratic interpolation polynomials, Galerkin, collocation and Schwinger variational realizations of the weighted-residual approach have been implemented for a model potential. It is demonstrated that, for a given expansion basis, Schwinger variational method exhibits better convergence with basis size than Galerkin and collocation methods. A novel hybrid-collocation method is implemented with promising results as well.
Study on the electromagnetic waves propagation characteristics in partially ionized plasma slabs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhi-Bin; Li, Bo-Wen; Nie, Qiu-Yue; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Kong, Fan-Rong
2016-05-01
Propagation characteristics of electromagnetic (EM) waves in partially ionized plasma slabs are studied in this paper. Such features are significant to applications in plasma antennas, blackout of re-entry flying vehicles, wave energy injection to plasmas, and etc. We in this paper developed a theoretical model of EM wave propagation perpendicular to a plasma slab with a one-dimensional density inhomogeneity along propagation direction to investigate essential characteristics of EM wave propagation in nonuniform plasmas. Particularly, the EM wave propagation in sub-wavelength plasma slabs, where the geometric optics approximation fails, is studied and in comparison with thicker slabs where the geometric optics approximation applies. The influences of both plasma and collisional frequencies, as well as the width of the plasma slab, on the EM wave propagation characteristics are discussed. The results can help the further understanding of propagation behaviours of EM waves in nonuniform plasma, and applications of the interactions between EM waves and plasmas.
Shock-wave structure in a partially ionized gas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lu, C. S.; Huang, A. B.
1974-01-01
The structure of a steady plane shock in a partially ionized gas has been investigated using the Boltzmann equation with a kinetic model as the governing equation and the discrete ordinate method as a tool. The effects of the electric field induced by the charge separation on the shock structure have also been studied. Although the three species of an ionized gas travel with approximately the same macroscopic velocity, the individual distribution functions are found to be very different. In a strong shock the atom distribution function may have double peaks, while the ion distribution function has only one peak. Electrons are heated up much earlier than ions and atoms in a partially ionized gas. Because the interactions of electrons with atoms and with ions are different, the ion temperature can be different from the atom temperature.
Treatment of ion-atom collisions using a partial-wave expansion of the projectile wavefunction
Foster, M; Colgan, J; Wong, T G; Madison, D H
2008-01-01
We present calculations of ion-atom collisions using a partial-wave expansion of the projectile wavefunction. Most calculations of ion-atom collisions have typically used classical or plane-wave approximations for the projectile wavefunction, since partial-wave expansions are expected to require prohibitively large numbers of terms to converge scattering quantities. Here we show that such calculations are possible using modern high-performance computing. We demonstrate the utility of our method by examining elastic scattering of protons by hydrogen and helium atoms, problems familiar to undergraduate students of atomic scattering. Application to ionization of helium using partial-wave expansions of the projectile wavefunction, which has long been desirable in heavy-ion collision physics, is thus quite feasible.
An algorithm for the calculation of the partial wave expansion of the Coulomb-distorted plane wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hornyak, I.; Kruppa, A. T.
2015-12-01
The partial wave expansion of the Coulomb-distorted plane wave is determined by the help of the complex generalized hypergeometric function 2F2(a , a ; a + l + 1 , a - l ; z) . An algorithm for the calculation of 2F2(a , a ; a + l + 1 , a - l ; z) is created and it is implemented as a FORTRAN-90 code. The code is fast and its accuracy is 14 significant decimal digits.
Evaluation of partial widths and branching ratios from resonance wave functions
Goldzak, Tamar; Gilary, Ido; Moiseyev, Nimrod
2010-11-15
A quantum system in a given resonance state has different open channels for decay. Partial widths are the decay rates of the resonance (metastable) state into the different open channels. Here we present a rigorous derivation of the partial widths from the solution of a time-dependent Schroedinger equation with outgoing boundary conditions. We show that the sum of the partial widths obtained from the resonance wave function is equal to the total width. The difference with respect to previous studies on partial widths and branching ratios is discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shertzer, Janine; Temkin, Aaron
2007-01-01
In the first two papers in this series, we developed a method for studying electron-hydrogen scattering that does not use partial wave analysis. We constructed an ansatz for the wave function in both the static and static exchange approximations and calculated the full scattering amplitude. Here we go beyond the static exchange approximation, and include correlation in the wave function via a modified polarized orbital. This correlation function provides a significant improvement over the static exchange approximation: the resultant elastic scattering amplitudes are in very good agreement with fully converged partial wave calculations for electron-hydrogen scattering. A fully variational modification of this approach is discussed in the conclusion of the article Popular summary of Direct calculation of the scattering amplitude without partial wave expansion. III ....." by J. Shertzer and A. Temkin. In this paper we continue the development of In this paper we continue the development of a new approach to the way in which researchers have traditionally used to calculate the scattering cross section of (low-energy) electrons from atoms. The basic mathematical problem is to solve the Schroedinger Equation (SE) corresponding the above physical process. Traditionally it was always the case that the SE was reduced to a sequence of one-dimensional (ordinary) differential equations - called partial waves which were solved and from the solutions "phase shifts" were extracted, from which the scattering cross section was calculated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Shangguo; Tan, Shina
2013-06-01
It is well-known that cold atoms near s-wave Feshbach resonances have universal properties that are insensitive to the short-range details of the interaction. What is less known is that atoms near higher partial-wave Feshbach resonances also have remarkable universal properties. We illustrate this with a single atom interacting resonantly with two fixed static centers. At a Feshbach resonance point with orbital angular momentum L≥1, we find 2L+1 shallow bound states whose energies behave like 1/R2L+1 when the distance R between the two centers is large. We then compute corrections to the binding energies due to other parameters in the effective range expansions. For completeness we also compute the binding energies near s-wave Feshbach resonances, taking into account the corrections. Afterwards we turn to the bound states at large but finite scattering volumes. For p-wave and higher partial-wave resonances we derive a simple formula for the energies in terms of a parameter called “proximity parameter.” These results are applicable to a free atom interacting resonantly with two atoms that are localized to two lattice sites of an optical lattice, and to one light atom interacting with two heavy ones in free space. Modifications of the low energy physics due to the long range van der Waals potential are also discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shertzer, Janine; Temkin, Aaron
2004-01-01
The development of a practical method of accurately calculating the full scattering amplitude, without making a partial wave decomposition is continued. The method is developed in the context of electron-hydrogen scattering, and here exchange is dealt with by considering e-H scattering in the static exchange approximation. The Schroedinger equation in this approximation can be simplified to a set of coupled integro-differential equations. The equations are solved numerically for the full scattering wave function. The scattering amplitude can most accurately be calculated from an integral expression for the amplitude; that integral can be formally simplified, and then evaluated using the numerically determined wave function. The results are essentially identical to converged partial wave results.
Partial denture metal framework may harbor potentially pathogenic bacteria
Bernardes, Luciano Angelo de Souza; Gomes, Sabrina Carvalho; Silva, Alecsandro Moura
2015-01-01
PURPOSE The aim of this study was to characterize and compare bacterial diversity on the removable partial denture (RPD) framework over time. MATERIALS AND METHODS This descriptive pilot study included five women who were rehabilitated with free-end mandibular RPD. The biofilm on T-bar clasps were collected 1 week (t1) and 4 months (t2) after the RPD was inserted (t0). Bacterial 16S rDNA was extracted and PCR amplified. Amplicons were cloned; clones were submitted to cycle sequencing, and sequences were compared with GenBank (98% similarity). RESULTS A total of 180 sequences with more than 499 bp were obtained. Two phylogenetic trees with 84 (t1) and 96 (t2) clones represented the bacteria biofilm at the RPD. About 93% of the obtained phylotypes fell into 25 known species for t1 and 17 for t2, which were grouped in 5 phyla: Firmicutes (t1=82%; t2=60%), Actinobacteria (t1=5%; t2=10%), Bacteroidetes (t1=2%; t2=6%), Proteobacteria (t1=10%; t2=15%) and Fusobacteria (t1=1%; t2=8%). The libraries also include 3 novel phylotypes for t1 and 11 for t2. Library t2 differs from t1 (P=.004); t1 is a subset of the t2 (P=.052). Periodontal pathogens, such as F. nucleatum, were more prevalent in t2. CONCLUSION The biofilm composition of the RPD metal clasps changed along time after RPD wearing. The RPD framework may act as a reservoir for potentially pathogenic bacteria and the RPD wearers may benefit from regular follow-up visits and strategies on prosthesis-related oral health instructions. PMID:26816577
A poroelastic model for ultrasonic wave attenuation in partially frozen brines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsushima, Jun; Nibe, Takao; Suzuki, Makoto; Kato, Yoshibumi; Rokugawa, Shuichi
2011-02-01
Although there are many possible mechanisms for the intrinsic seismic attenuation in composite materials that include fluids, relative motion between solids and fluids during seismic wave propagation is one of the most important attenuation mechanisms. In our previous study, we conducted ultrasonic wave transmission measurements on an ice-brine coexisting system to examine the influence on ultrasonic waves of the unfrozen brine in the pore microstructure of ice. In order to elucidate the physical mechanism responsible for ultrasonic wave attenuation in the frequency range of 350-600kHz, measured at different temperatures in partially frozen brines, we employed a poroelastic model based on the Biot theory to describe the propagation of ultrasonic waves through partially frozen brines. By assuming that the solid phase is ice and the liquid phase is the unfrozen brine, fluid properties measured by a pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance technique were used to calculate porosities at different temperatures. The computed intrinsic attenuation at 500kHz cannot completely predict the measured attenuation results from the experimental study in an ice-brine coexisting system, which suggests that other attenuation mechanisms such as the squirt-flow mechanism and wave scattering effect should be taken into account.
Partial Antisymmetry and Approximate Primitive Wave Functions for Interacting Electronic Groups.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vergenz, Robert Allan
The partial antisymmetry (PA) theorem of W. H. Adams (Chem. Phys. Letters, 68, 511 (1979)) shows that if one can determine an N-electron eigenfunction of a certain non-linear operator, then one can use the eigenfunction, without using full antisymmetry (FA), to calculate an eigenvalue of the Schrodinger Hamiltonian for the system. The operator neither depends on nor commutes with the antisymmetrizer, but involves partial antisymmetrizers. This work provides an initial numerical test of a new approach to calculating approximate interatomic interaction energies based on the PA theorem. Interaction energies were calculated for X ^1Sigma^{+}_ {rm g} Ne_2, Li_2 and Na_2, X^1Sigma^{+} LiNa, X^2Sigma^{+} _{rm g} Li_2 ^{+}, x ^7Sigma ^{+}_{rm u} N_2, x ^3Sigma ^{+}_{rm u} Li_2 and Na_2, x ^3Sigma^{+} LiNa and ionic and covalent configurations of X ^1Sigma^{+} LiF, all at several internuclear distances. Spin-coupled products of single determinants approximated the atomic wave functions, and accurate HF atomic bases were used. Three methods were used: the conventional method based on FA, the PA approach, and a method based on a hybrid set of assumptions. Results were compared with accurate potential curves from the literature. In nine cases of the eleven, including both bonding and repulsive interactions, the PA approximation gave results that were better or roughly the same as those using FA. In these cases there is thus no penalty exacted for the use of PA, though it is shown to be easier to use.
Simultaneous observations of gravity waves in auroras and partial reflection radar data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roldugin, Valentin; Cherniakov, Sergey; Roldugin, Aleksey
2016-07-01
Some events of wave-like patterns of night sky intensity were revealed from the obtained data of the all-sky camera at the observatory "Lovozero" (67.97 N, 35.02 E). Their wave-lengths were about several tens kilometers and their time periods were about 15-30 minutes. We consider the wave-like structures as manifestation of acoustic-gravity waves. Two cases (28 January 2012 and 26 February 2012) were compared with the data of the partial reflection radar at the observatory "Tumanny" (69.0 N, 35.7 E). At these cases peaks of reflection intensity took place at 80-90 km, and the intensity on these altitudes oscillated with periods which were similar to the luminous ones.
Mixing of partial waves near B*B̄^{*} threshold in e⁺e⁻ annihilation
Li, Xin; Voloshin, M. B.
2013-05-31
We consider the production of B*B̄^{*} meson pairs in e⁺e⁻ annihilation near the threshold. The rescattering due to pion exchange between the mesons results in a mixing between three partial wave amplitudes: two P-wave amplitudes with the total spin of the meson pair S=0 and S=2 and an F-wave amplitude. The mixing due to pion exchange with a low momentum transfer is calculable up to c.m. energy E≈15–20 MeV above the threshold. We find that the P–F mixing is numerically quite small in this energy range, while the mixing of the two P-wave amplitudes is rapidly changing with energy and can reach of order one at such low energies.
Mixing of partial waves near B*B̄* threshold in e⁺e⁻ annihilation
Li, Xin; Voloshin, M. B.
2013-05-31
We consider the production of B*B̄* meson pairs in e⁺e⁻ annihilation near the threshold. The rescattering due to pion exchange between the mesons results in a mixing between three partial wave amplitudes: two P-wave amplitudes with the total spin of the meson pair S=0 and S=2 and an F-wave amplitude. The mixing due to pion exchange with a low momentum transfer is calculable up to c.m. energy E≈15–20 MeV above the threshold. We find that the P–F mixing is numerically quite small in this energy range, while the mixing of the two P-wave amplitudes is rapidly changing with energy andmore » can reach of order one at such low energies.« less
Raman rogue waves in a partially mode-locked fiber laser.
Runge, Antoine F J; Aguergaray, Claude; Broderick, Neil G R; Erkintalo, Miro
2014-01-15
We report on an experimental study of spectral fluctuations induced by intracavity Raman conversion in a passively partially mode-locked, all-normal dispersion fiber laser. Specifically, we use dispersive Fourier transformation to measure single-shot spectra of Raman-induced noise-like pulses, demonstrating that for low cavity gain values Raman emission is sporadic and follows rogue-wave-like probability distributions, while a saturated regime with Gaussian statistics is obtained for high pump powers. Our experiments further reveal intracavity rogue waves originating from cascaded Raman dynamics. PMID:24562136
Partial Reflection and Trapping of a Fast-mode Wave in Solar Coronal Arcade Loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Pankaj; Innes, D. E.
2015-04-01
We report on the first direct observation of a fast-mode wave propagating along and perpendicular to cool (171 Å) arcade loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). The wave was associated with an impulsive/compact flare near the edge of a sunspot. The EUV wavefront expanded radially outward from the flare center and decelerated in the corona from 1060 to 760 km s-1 within ˜3-4 minutes. Part of the EUV wave propagated along a large-scale arcade of cool loops and was partially reflected back to the flare site. The phase speed of the wave was about 1450 km s-1, which is interpreted as a fast-mode wave. A second overlying loop arcade, orientated perpendicular to the cool arcade, is heated and becomes visible in the AIA hot channels. These hot loops sway in time with the EUV wave, as it propagated to and fro along the lower loop arcade. We suggest that an impulsive energy release at one of the footpoints of the arcade loops causes the onset of an EUV shock wave that propagates along and perpendicular to the magnetic field.
Trapped internal waves over undular topography in a partially mixed estuary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pietrzak, J.; Labeur, R. J.
The flow of a stratified fluid over small-scale topographic features in an estuary may generate significant internal wave activity. Lee waves and upstream influence generated at isolated topographic features have received considerable attention during the past few decades. Field surveys of a partially mixed estuary, the Rotterdam Waterway, in 1987, also showed a plethora of internal wave activity generated by isolated topography, banks and groynes. Additionally it revealed a spectacular series of resonant internal waves trapped above low-amplitude bed waves. The internal waves reached amplitudes of 3-4 m in an estuary with a mean depth of 16 m. The waves were observed during the decreasing flood tide and are thought to make a significant contribution to turbulence production and mixing. However, while stationary linear and finite amplitude theories can be used to explain the presence of these waves, it is important to further investigate their time-dependent and non-linear behaviour. With the development of advanced non-hydrostatic models it now becomes possible to further investigate these waves through numerical experimentation. This is the focus of the work presented here. The non-hydrostatic finite element numerical model FINEL3D developed by Labeur was used in the experiments presented here. The model has been shown to work well in a number of stratified flow investigations. Here, we first show that the model reproduces the field data and for idealised stationary flow scenarios that the results are in agreement with the resonant response predicted by linear theory. Then we explore the effects of non-linearity and time dependence and consider the importance of resonant internal waves for turbulence production in stratified coastal environments.
Calculation of the Full Scattering Amplitude without Partial Wave Decomposition II
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shertzer, J.; Temkin, A.
2003-01-01
As is well known, the full scattering amplitude can be expressed as an integral involving the complete scattering wave function. We have shown that the integral can be simplified and used in a practical way. Initial application to electron-hydrogen scattering without exchange was highly successful. The Schrodinger equation (SE) can be reduced to a 2d partial differential equation (pde), and was solved using the finite element method. We have now included exchange by solving the resultant SE, in the static exchange approximation. The resultant equation can be reduced to a pair of coupled pde's, to which the finite element method can still be applied. The resultant scattering amplitudes, both singlet and triplet, as a function of angle can be calculated for various energies. The results are in excellent agreement with converged partial wave results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shertzer, Janine; Temkin, A.
2003-01-01
As is well known, the full scattering amplitude can be expressed as an integral involving the complete scattering wave function. We have shown that the integral can be simplified and used in a practical way. Initial application to electron-hydrogen scattering without exchange was highly successful. The Schrodinger equation (SE), which can be reduced to a 2d partial differential equation (pde), was solved using the finite element method. We have now included exchange by solving the resultant SE, in the static exchange approximation, which is reducible to a pair of coupled pde's. The resultant scattering amplitudes, both singlet and triplet, calculated as a function of energy are in excellent agreement with converged partial wave results.
A Rosetta Stone Relating Conventions In Photo-Meson Partial Wave Analyses
A.M. Sandorfi, B. Dey, A. Sarantsev, L. Tiator, R. Workman
2012-04-01
A new generation of complete experiments in pseudoscalar meson photo-production is being pursued at several laboratories. While new data are emerging, there is some confusion regarding definitions of asymmetries and the conventions used in partial wave analyses (PWA). We present expressions for constructing asymmetries as coordinate-system independent ratios of cross sections, along with the names used for these ratios by different PWA groups.
O (p6) extension of the large-NC partial wave dispersion relations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Z. H.; Sanz-Cillero, J. J.; Zheng, H. Q.
2008-04-01
Continuing our previous work [Z.H. Guo, J.J. Sanz-Cillero, H.Q. Zheng, JHEP 0706 (2007) 030], large-NC techniques and partial wave dispersion relations are used to discuss ππ scattering amplitudes. We get a set of predictions for O (p6) low-energy chiral perturbation theory couplings. They are provided in terms of the masses and decay widths of scalar and vector mesons.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hayes, E. F.; Kouri, D. J.
1971-01-01
Coupled integral equations are derived for the full scattering amplitudes for both reactive and nonreactive channels. The equations do not involve any partial wave expansion and are obtained using channel operators for reactive and nonreactive collisions. These coupled integral equations are similar in nature to equations derived for purely nonreactive collisions of structureless particles. Using numerical quadrature techniques, these equations may be reduced to simultaneous algebraic equations which may then be solved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, Ju-Won; Alkhalifah, Tariq
2016-07-01
Multi-parameter full waveform inversion (FWI) applied to an elastic orthorhombic model description of the subsurface requires in theory a nine-parameter representation of each pixel of the model. Even with optimal acquisition on the Earth surface that includes large offsets, full azimuth, and multi component sensors, the potential for tradeoff between the elastic orthorhombic parameters are large. The first step to understanding such trade-off is analysing the scattering potential of each parameter, and specifically, its scattering radiation patterns. We investigate such radiation patterns for diffraction and for scattering from a horizontal reflector considering a background isotropic model. The radiation patterns show considerable potential for trade-off between the parameters and the potentially limited resolution in their recovery. The radiation patterns of C11, C22 and C33 are well separated so that we expect to recover these parameters with limited trade-offs. However, the resolution of their recovery represented by recovered range of model wavenumbers varies between these parameters. We can only invert for the short wavelength components (reflection) of C33 while we can mainly invert for the long wavelength components (transmission) of the elastic coefficients C11 and C22 if we have large enough offsets. The elastic coefficients C13, C23 and C12 suffer from strong trade-offs with C55, C44 and C66, respectively. The trade-offs between C13 and C55, as well as C23 and C44, can be partially mitigated if we acquire P-SV and SV-SV waves. However, to reduce the trade-offs between C12 and C66, we require credible SH-SH waves. The analytical radiation patterns of the elastic constants are supported by numerical gradients of these parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, Ju-Won; Alkhalifah, Tariq
2016-09-01
Multiparameter full waveform inversion (FWI) applied to an elastic orthorhombic model description of the subsurface requires in theory a nine-parameter representation of each pixel of the model. Even with optimal acquisition on the Earth surface that includes large offsets, full azimuth, and multicomponent sensors, the potential for trade-off between the elastic orthorhombic parameters are large. The first step to understanding such trade-off is analysing the scattering potential of each parameter, and specifically, its scattering radiation patterns. We investigate such radiation patterns for diffraction and for scattering from a horizontal reflector considering a background isotropic model. The radiation patterns show considerable potential for trade-off between the parameters and the potentially limited resolution in their recovery. The radiation patterns of C11, C22, and C33 are well separated so that we expect to recover these parameters with limited trade-offs. However, the resolution of their recovery represented by recovered range of model wavenumbers varies between these parameters. We can only invert for the short wavelength components (reflection) of C33 while we can mainly invert for the long wavelength components (transmission) of the elastic coefficients C11 and C22 if we have large enough offsets. The elastic coefficients C13, C23, and C12 suffer from strong trade-offs with C55, C44, and C66, respectively. The trade-offs between C13 and C55, as well as C23 and C44, can be partially mitigated if we acquire P-SV and SV-SV waves. However, to reduce the trade-offs between C12 and C66, we require credible SH-SH waves. The analytical radiation patterns of the elastic constants are supported by numerical gradients of these parameters.
Plateau Waves of Intracranial Pressure and Partial Pressure of Cerebral Oxygen.
Lang, Erhard W; Kasprowicz, Magdalena; Smielewski, Peter; Pickard, John; Czosnyka, Marek
2016-01-01
This study investigates 55 intracranial pressure (ICP) plateau waves recorded in 20 patients after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) with a focus on a moving correlation coefficient between mean arterial pressure (ABP) and ICP, called PRx, which serves as a marker of cerebrovascular reactivity, and a moving correlation coefficient between ABP and cerebral partial pressure of oxygen (pbtO2), called ORx, which serves as a marker for cerebral oxygen reactivity. ICP and ICPamplitude increased significantly during the plateau waves, whereas CPP and pbtO2 decreased significantly. ABP, ABP amplitude, and heart rate remained unchanged. In 73 % of plateau waves PRx increased during the wave. ORx showed an increase during and a decrease after the plateau waves, which was not statistically significant. Our data show profound cerebral vasoparalysis on top of the wave and, to a lesser extent, impairment of cerebral oxygen reactivity. The different behavior of the indices may be due to the different latencies of the cerebral blood flow and oxygen level control mechanisms. While cerebrovascular reactivity is a rapidly reacting mechanism, cerebral oxygen reactivity is slower. PMID:27165902
Using a partial-wave method for sound-mean-flow scattering problems.
Berthet, R; Coste, C
2003-03-01
We present a semianalytical method, based on a partial-wave expansion and valid in the short wavelength limit for small Mach number flows, to analyze sound-vortical-flow interactions. It is more powerful than ray-tracing methods because it gives both amplitude and phase of the sound wave, and because it is less restrictive on the smallness of the wavelength. In contrast with the Born approximation approach, this method allows the computation of the sound field in the whole interaction domain (including the near field), and preserves energy conservation. Vortical flows with finite circulation are amenable to our analysis, which gives a satisfactory description of wave front dislocation by vorticity, in good agreement with direct numerical simulations. We extend previous versions of this method to the case of smooth vorticity profiles which are observed in aeroacoustics experiments. PMID:12689176
Heating of the Partially Ionized Solar Chromosphere by Waves in Magnetic Structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shelyag, S.; Khomenko, E.; de Vicente, A.; Przybylski, D.
2016-03-01
In this paper, we show a “proof of concept” of the heating mechanism of the solar chromosphere due to wave dissipation caused by the effects of partial ionization. Numerical modeling of non-linear wave propagation in a magnetic flux tube, embedded in the solar atmosphere, is performed by solving a system of single-fluid quasi-MHD equations, which take into account the ambipolar term from the generalized Ohm’s law. It is shown that perturbations caused by magnetic waves can be effectively dissipated due to ambipolar diffusion. The energy input by this mechanism is continuous and shown to be more efficient than dissipation of static currents, ultimately leading to chromospheric temperature increase in magnetic structures.
Mynard, Jonathan P; Smolich, Joseph J
2016-04-15
Wave intensity analysis provides detailed insights into factors influencing hemodynamics. However, wave intensity is not a conserved quantity, so it is sensitive to diameter variations and is not distributed among branches of a junction. Moreover, the fundamental relation between waves and hydraulic power is unclear. We, therefore, propose an alternative to wave intensity called "wave power," calculated via incremental changes in pressure and flow (dPdQ) and a novel time-domain separation of hydraulic pressure power and kinetic power into forward and backward wave-related components (ΠP±and ΠQ±). Wave power has several useful properties:1) it is obtained directly from flow measurements, without requiring further calculation of velocity;2) it is a quasi-conserved quantity that may be used to study the relative distribution of waves at junctions; and3) it has the units of power (Watts). We also uncover a simple relationship between wave power and changes in ΠP±and show that wave reflection reduces transmitted power. Absolute values of ΠP±represent wave potential, a recently introduced concept that unifies steady and pulsatile aspects of hemodynamics. We show that wave potential represents the hydraulic energy potential stored in a compliant pressurized vessel, with spatial gradients producing waves that transfer this energy. These techniques and principles are verified numerically and also experimentally with pressure/flow measurements in all branches of a central bifurcation in sheep, under a wide range of hemodynamic conditions. The proposed "wave power analysis," encompassing wave power, wave potential, and wave separation of hydraulic power provides a potent time-domain approach for analyzing hemodynamics. PMID:26873972
The Potential for Ambient Plasma Wave Propulsion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gilland, James H.; Williams, George J.
2016-01-01
A truly robust space exploration program will need to make use of in-situ resources as much as possible to make the endeavor affordable. Most space propulsion concepts are saddled with one fundamental burden; the propellant needed to produce momentum. The most advanced propulsion systems currently in use utilize electric and/or magnetic fields to accelerate ionized propellant. However, significant planetary exploration missions in the coming decades, such as the now canceled Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, are restricted by propellant mass and propulsion system lifetimes, using even the most optimistic projections of performance. These electric propulsion vehicles are inherently limited in flexibility at their final destination, due to propulsion system wear, propellant requirements, and the relatively low acceleration of the vehicle. A few concepts are able to utilize the environment around them to produce thrust: Solar or magnetic sails and, with certain restrictions, electrodynamic tethers. These concepts focus primarily on using the solar wind or ambient magnetic fields to generate thrust. Technically immature, quasi-propellantless alternatives lack either the sensitivity or the power to provide significant maneuvering. An additional resource to be considered is the ambient plasma and magnetic fields in solar and planetary magnetospheres. These environments, such as those around the Sun or Jupiter, have been shown to host a variety of plasma waves. Plasma wave propulsion takes advantage of an observed astrophysical and terrestrial phenomenon: Alfven waves. These are waves that propagate in the plasma and magnetic fields around and between planets and stars. The generation of Alfven waves in ambient magnetic and plasma fields to generate thrust is proposed as a truly propellantless propulsion system which may enable an entirely new matrix of exploration missions. Alfven waves are well known, transverse electromagnetic waves that propagate in magnetized plasmas at
Oblique wave-free potentials for water waves in constant finite depth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maiti, Rajdeep; Basu, Uma; Mandal, B. N.
2015-06-01
In this paper, a method to construct oblique wave-free potentials in the linearised theory of water waves for water with uniform finite depth is presented in a systematic manner. The water has either a free surface or an ice-cover modelled as a thin elastic plate. For the case of free surface, the effect of surface tension may be neglected or taken into account. Here, the wave-free potentials are singular solutions of the modified Helmholtz equation, having singularity at a point in the fluid region and they satisfy the conditions at the upper surface and the bottom of water region and decay rapidly away from the point of singularity. These are useful in obtaining solutions to oblique water wave problems involving bodies with circular cross-sections such as long horizontal cylinders submerged or half-immersed in water of uniform finite depth with a free surface or an ice-cover modelled as a floating elastic plate. Finally, the forms of the upper surface related to the wave-free potentials constructed here are depicted graphically in a number of figures to visualize the wave motion. The results for non-oblique wave-free potentials and the upper surface wave-free potentials are obtained. The wave-free potentials constructed here will be useful in the mathematical study of water wave problems involving infinitely long horizontal cylinders, either half-immersed or completely immersed in water.
Universal potential-barrier penetration by initially confined wave packets
Granot, Er'el; Marchewka, Avi
2007-07-15
The dynamics of an initially sharp-boundary wave packet in the presence of an arbitrary potential barrier is investigated. It is shown that the penetration through the barrier is universal in the sense that it depends only on the values of the wave function and its derivatives at the boundary. The dependence on the derivatives vanishes at long distances from the barrier, where the dynamics is governed solely by the initial value of the wave function at the boundary.
Electromagnetic waves in dusty magnetoplasmas using two-potential theory
Zubia, K.; Jamil, M.; Salimullah, M.
2009-09-15
The low-frequency long wavelength electromagnetic waves, viz., shear Alfven waves in a cold dusty plasma, have been examined employing two-potential theory and plasma fluid model. The presence of the unmagnetized dust particles and magnetized plasma components gives rise to a new ion-dust lower hybrid cutoff frequency for the electromagnetic shear Alfven wave propagation. The importance and relevance of the present work to the space dusty plasma environments are also pointed out.
ALFVEN SIMPLE WAVES: EULER POTENTIALS AND MAGNETIC HELICITY
Webb, G. M.; Hu, Q.; Dasgupta, B.; Zank, G. P.; Roberts, D. A.
2010-12-20
The magnetic helicity characteristics of fully nonlinear, multi-dimensional Alfven simple waves are investigated, by using relative helicity formulae and also by using an approach involving poloidal and toroidal decomposition of the magnetic field and magnetic vector potential. Different methods to calculate the magnetic vector potential are used, including the homotopy and Biot-Savart formulae. Two basic Alfven modes are identified: (1) the plane one-dimensional Alfven simple wave given in standard texts, in which the Alfven wave propagates along the z-axis with wave phase {psi} = k{sub 0}(z - {lambda}t), where k{sub 0} is the wave number and {lambda} is the group velocity of the wave and (2) the generalized Barnes simple Alfven wave in which the wave normal n moves in a circle in the xy-plane perpendicular to the mean field, which is directed along the z-axis. The plane Alfven wave (1) is analogous to the slab Alfven mode and the generalized Barnes solution (2) is analogous to the two-dimensional mode in Alfvenic, incompressible turbulence. The helicity characteristics of these two basic Alfven modes are distinct. The helicity characteristics of more general multi-dimensional simple Alfven waves are also investigated. Applications to nonlinear Alfvenic fluctuations and structures observed in the solar wind are discussed.
Wave packet motion in harmonic potential and computer visualization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tsuru, Hideo; Kobayashi, Takeshi
1993-01-01
Wave packet motions of a single electron in harmonic potentials or a magnetic field are obtained analytically. The phase of the wave function which depends on both time and space is also presented explicitly. The probability density of the electron changes its width and central position periodically. These results are visualized using computer animation techniques.
Highly directive Fabry-Perot leaky-wave nanoantennas based on optical partially reflective surfaces
Lorente-Crespo, M.; Mateo-Segura, C.
2015-05-04
Nanoantennas enhance the conversion between highly localized electromagnetic fields and far-field radiation. Here, we investigate the response of a nano-patch partially reflective surface backed with a silver mirror to an optical source embedded at the centre of the structure. Using full wave simulations, we demonstrate a two orders of magnitude increased directivity compared to the isotropic radiator, 50% power confinement to a 13.8° width beam and a ±16 nm bandwidth. Our antenna does not rely on plasmonic phenomena thus reducing non-radiative losses and conserving source coherence.
Partial-wave analysis of all nucleon-nucleon scattering data below 350 MeV
Stoks, V.G.J.; Klomp, R.A.M.; Rentmeester, M.C.M.; de Swart, J.J. )
1993-08-01
We present a multienergy partial-wave analysis of all [ital NN] scattering data below [ital T][sub lab]=350 MeV, published in a regular physics journal between 1955 and 1992. After careful examination, our final database consists of 1787 [ital pp] and 2514 [ital np] scattering data. Our fit to these data results in [chi][sup 2]/[ital N][sub df]=1.08, with [ital N][sub df]=3945 the total number of degrees of freedom. All phase shifts and mixing parameters can be determined accurately.
Ionizing potential waves and high-voltage breakdown streamers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albright, N. W.; Tidman, D. A.
1972-01-01
The structure of ionizing potential waves driven by a strong electric field in a dense gas is discussed. Negative breakdown waves are found to propagate with a velocity proportional to the electric field normal to the wavefront. This causes a curved ionizing potential wavefront to focus down into a filamentary structure, and may provide the reason why breakdown in dense gases propagates in the form of a narrow leader streamer instead of a broad wavefront.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salvat, Francesc; Jablonski, Aleksander; Powell, Cedric J.
2005-01-01
The FORTRAN 77 code system ELSEPA for the calculation of elastic scattering of electrons and positrons by atoms, positive ions and molecules is presented. These codes perform relativistic (Dirac) partial-wave calculations for scattering by a local central interaction potential V(r). For atoms and ions, the static-field approximation is adopted, with the potential set equal to the electrostatic interaction energy between the projectile and the target, plus an approximate local exchange interaction when the projectile is an electron. For projectiles with kinetic energies up to 10 keV, the potential may optionally include a semiempirical correlation-polarization potential to describe the effect of the target charge polarizability. Also, for projectiles with energies less than 1 MeV, an imaginary absorptive potential can be introduced to account for the depletion of the projectile wave function caused by open inelastic channels. Molecular cross sections are calculated by means of a single-scattering independent-atom approximation in which the electron density of a bound atom is approximated by that of the free neutral atom. Elastic scattering by individual atoms in solids is described by means of a muffin-tin model potential. Partial-wave calculations are feasible on modest personal computers for energies up to about 5 MeV. The ELSEPA code also implements approximate factorization methods that allow the fast calculation of elastic cross sections for much higher energies. The interaction model adopted in the calculations is defined by the user by combining the different options offered by the code. The nuclear charge distribution can be selected among four analytical models (point nucleus, uniformly charged sphere, Fermi's distribution and Helm's uniform-uniform distribution). The atomic electron density is handled in numerical form. The distribution package includes data files with electronic densities of neutral atoms of the elements hydrogen to lawrencium ( Z=1
Solution of the Bethe-Goldstone equation without partial wave decomposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, Larz
Nucleon-nucleon scattering is a most fundamental process in nuclear physics. From the theoretical standpoint, its description in momentum space involves the solution of an integral equation in three dimensions, which is typically accomplished with the help of a partial wave expansion of the scattering amplitude. It is the purpose of this work to present a method for solving the nucleon-nucleon scattering equation without the use of such expansion. After verifying the accuracy of our numerical tools by comparing with existing solutions of the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude in free space, we proceed to apply the method to the equation describing scattering of two nucleons in the nuclear medium, known as the Bethe-Goldstone equation. An important feature of this equation is the presence of the so-called "Pauli blocking operator", which prevents scattering of two fermions into occupied states, as required by the Pauli principle. In standard solution methods based on partial wave expansions, it is necessary to apply an approximation to this operator, which involves averaging over angular variables and is therefore known as the "spherical approximation". In our method, this approximation can be avoided. Thus, a focal point of this study is a comparison of Pauli blocking effects calculated in the (angle-dependent) three-dimensional formalism as compared to the usual spherical approximation. We present results for nucleon-nucleon amplitudes and observables and discuss their implications.
Two-atom energy spectrum in a harmonic trap near a Feshbach resonance at higher partial waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Akira; Liang, Yi; Bhaduri, Rajat K.
2009-09-01
Two atoms in an optical lattice may be made to interact strongly at higher partial waves near a Feshbach resonance. These atoms, under appropriate constraints, could be bosonic or fermionic. The universal l=2 energy spectrum for such a system, with a caveat, is presented in this paper and checked with the spectrum obtained by direct numerical integration of the Schrödinger equation. The results reported here extend those of Yip for p -wave resonance [S.-K. Yip, Phys. Rev. A 78, 013612 (2008)], while exploring the limitations of a universal expression for the spectrum for the higher partial waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Dilip
2015-07-01
There is a large class of problems in the field of fluid structure interaction where higher-order boundary conditions arise for a second-order partial differential equation. Various methods are being used to tackle these kind of mixed boundary-value problems associated with the Laplace's equation (or Helmholtz equation) arising in the study of waves propagating through solids or fluids. One of the widely used methods in wave structure interaction is the multipole expansion method. This expansion involves a general combination of a regular wave, a wave source, a wave dipole and a regular wave-free part. The wave-free part can be further expanded in terms of wave-free multipoles which are termed as wave-free potentials. These are singular solutions of Laplace's equation or two-dimensional Helmholz equation. Construction of these wave-free potentials and multipoles are presented here in a systematic manner for a number of situations such as two-dimensional non-oblique and oblique waves, three dimensional waves in two-layer fluid with free surface condition with higher order partial derivative are considered. In particular, these are obtained taking into account of the effect of the presence of surface tension at the free surface and also in the presence of an ice-cover modelled as a thin elastic plate. Also for limiting case, it can be shown that the multipoles and wave-free potential functions go over to the single layer multipoles and wave-free potential.
Two-fluid modeling of magnetosonic wave propagation in the partially ionized solar chromosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maneva, Yana; Alvarez Laguna, Alejandro; Lani, Andrea; Poedts, Stefaan
2016-04-01
We perform 2D two-fluid simulations to study the effects of ion-neutral interactions on the propagation of magnetosonic waves in the partially ionized solar chromosphere, where the number density of neutrals significantly exceeds the number density of protons at low heights. Thus modeling the neutral-ion interactions and studying the effect of neutrals on the ambient plasma properties becomes important for better understanding the observed emission lines and the propagation of disturbances from the photosphere to the transition region and the corona. The role of charged particles (electrons and ions) is combined within resistive MHD approach with Coulomb collisions and anisotropic heat flux determined by Braginskii's transport coefficients. The electromagnetic fields are evolved according to the full Maxwell equations, allowing for propagation of higher frequency waves neglected by the standard MHD approximation. Separate mass, momentum and energy conservation equations are considered for the neutrals and the interaction between the different fluids is determined by the chemical reactions, such as impact ionization, radiative recombination and charge exchange, provided as additional source terms. To initialize the system we consider an ideal gas equation of state with equal initial temperatures for the electrons, ions and the neutrals and different density profiles. The initial temperature and density profiles are height-dependent and follow VAL C atmospheric model for the solar chromosphere. We have searched for a chemical and collisional equilibrium between the ions and the neutrals to minimize any unphysical outflows and artificial heating induced by initial pressure imbalances. Including different magnetic field profiles brings new source of plasma heating through Ohmic dissipation. The excitation and propagation of the magnetosonic waves depends on the type of the external velocity driver. As the waves propagate through the gravitationally stratified media
PyPWA: A partial-wave/amplitude analysis software framework
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salgado, Carlos
2016-05-01
The PyPWA project aims to develop a software framework for Partial Wave and Amplitude Analysis of data; providing the user with software tools to identify resonances from multi-particle final states in photoproduction. Most of the code is written in Python. The software is divided into two main branches: one general-shell where amplitude's parameters (or any parametric model) are to be estimated from the data. This branch also includes software to produce simulated data-sets using the fitted amplitudes. A second branch contains a specific realization of the isobar model (with room to include Deck-type and other isobar model extensions) to perform PWA with an interface into the computer resources at Jefferson Lab. We are currently implementing parallelism and vectorization using the Intel's Xeon Phi family of coprocessors.
Partial-wave decomposition of the finite-range effective tensor interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davesne, D.; Becker, P.; Pastore, A.; Navarro, J.
2016-06-01
We perform a detailed analysis of the properties of the finite-range tensor term associated with the Gogny and M3Y effective interactions. In particular, by using a partial-wave decomposition of the equation of state of symmetric nuclear matter, we show how we can extract their tensor parameters directly from microscopic results based on bare nucleon-nucleon interactions. Furthermore, we show that the zero-range limit of both finite-range interactions has the form of the next-to-next-to-next-leading-order (N3LO) Skyrme pseudopotential, which thus constitutes a reliable approximation in the density range relevant for finite nuclei. Finally, we use Brueckner-Hartree-Fock results to fix the tensor parameters for the three effective interactions.
Partial wave analysis of the reaction gamma p -> p omega$ and the search for nucleon resonances
M. Williams, D. Applegate, M. Bellis, C.A. Meyer
2009-12-01
An event-based partial wave analysis (PWA) of the reaction gamma p -> p omega has been performed on a high-statistics dataset obtained using the CLAS at Jefferson Lab for center-of-mass energies from threshold up to 2.4 GeV. This analysis benefits from access to the world's first high precision spin density matrix element measurements, available to the event-based PWA through the decay distribution of omega-> pi+ pi - pi0. The data confirm the dominance of the t-channel pi0 exchange amplitude in the forward direction. The dominant resonance contributions are consistent with the previously identified states F[15](1680) and D[13](1700) near threshold, as well as the G[17](2190) at higher energies. Suggestive evidence for the presence of a J(P)=5/2(+) state around 2 GeV, a "missing" state, has also been found. Evidence for other states is inconclusive.
Fast solution of elliptic partial differential equations using linear combinations of plane waves.
Pérez-Jordá, José M
2016-02-01
Given an arbitrary elliptic partial differential equation (PDE), a procedure for obtaining its solution is proposed based on the method of Ritz: the solution is written as a linear combination of plane waves and the coefficients are obtained by variational minimization. The PDE to be solved is cast as a system of linear equations Ax=b, where the matrix A is not sparse, which prevents the straightforward application of standard iterative methods in order to solve it. This sparseness problem can be circumvented by means of a recursive bisection approach based on the fast Fourier transform, which makes it possible to implement fast versions of some stationary iterative methods (such as Gauss-Seidel) consuming O(NlogN) memory and executing an iteration in O(Nlog(2)N) time, N being the number of plane waves used. In a similar way, fast versions of Krylov subspace methods and multigrid methods can also be implemented. These procedures are tested on Poisson's equation expressed in adaptive coordinates. It is found that the best results are obtained with the GMRES method using a multigrid preconditioner with Gauss-Seidel relaxation steps. PMID:26986436
X-ray standing wave analysis of nanostructures using partially coherent radiation
Tiwari, M. K. Das, Gangadhar; Bedzyk, M. J.
2015-09-07
The effect of longitudinal (or temporal) coherence on total reflection assisted x-ray standing wave (TR-XSW) analysis of nanoscale materials is quantitatively demonstrated by showing how the XSW fringe visibility can be strongly damped by decreasing the spectral resolution of the incident x-ray beam. The correction for nonzero wavelength dispersion (δλ ≠ 0) of the incident x-ray wave field is accounted for in the model computations of TR-XSW assisted angle dependent fluorescence yields of the nanostructure coatings on x-ray mirror surfaces. Given examples include 90 nm diameter Au nanospheres deposited on a Si(100) surface and a 3 nm thick Zn layer trapped on top a 100 nm Langmuir-Blodgett film coating on a Au mirror surface. Present method opens up important applications, such as enabling XSW studies of large dimensioned nanostructures using conventional laboratory based partially coherent x-ray sources.
Fast solution of elliptic partial differential equations using linear combinations of plane waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pérez-Jordá, José M.
2016-02-01
Given an arbitrary elliptic partial differential equation (PDE), a procedure for obtaining its solution is proposed based on the method of Ritz: the solution is written as a linear combination of plane waves and the coefficients are obtained by variational minimization. The PDE to be solved is cast as a system of linear equations A x =b , where the matrix A is not sparse, which prevents the straightforward application of standard iterative methods in order to solve it. This sparseness problem can be circumvented by means of a recursive bisection approach based on the fast Fourier transform, which makes it possible to implement fast versions of some stationary iterative methods (such as Gauss-Seidel) consuming O (N logN ) memory and executing an iteration in O (N log2N ) time, N being the number of plane waves used. In a similar way, fast versions of Krylov subspace methods and multigrid methods can also be implemented. These procedures are tested on Poisson's equation expressed in adaptive coordinates. It is found that the best results are obtained with the GMRES method using a multigrid preconditioner with Gauss-Seidel relaxation steps.
Localization of wave packets in one-dimensional random potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valdes, Juan Pablo Ramírez; Wellens, Thomas
2016-06-01
We study the expansion of an initially strongly confined wave packet in a one-dimensional weak random potential with short correlation length. At long times, the expansion of the wave packet comes to a halt due to destructive interferences leading to Anderson localization. We develop an analytical description for the disorder-averaged localized density profile. For this purpose, we employ the diagrammatic method of Berezinskii which we extend to the case of wave packets, present an analytical expression of the Lyapunov exponent which is valid for small as well as for high energies, and, finally, develop a self-consistent Born approximation in order to analytically calculate the energy distribution of our wave packet. By comparison with numerical simulations, we show that our theory describes well the complete localized density profile, not only in the tails but also in the center.
Are seismic wave velocities and anisotropies reliable proxies for partial melts?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Amicia; Torvela, Taija; Lloyd, Geoffrey; Walker, Andrew
2015-04-01
Partial melts and their segregation weaken mineral crystallographic alignment, resulting in a decrease in seismic anisotropy (AV). Furthermore, introduction of melt induces a drop in seismic wave velocities, especially for shear (Vs) but also compressional (Vp) waves, although some solid-state processes can also lead to velocity drops. Thus, decreases in AV and/or V are often used to infer the presence and even the amount of melt in both the crust and mantle, for example via the Vp/Vs ratio. However, evidence is accumulating that the relationship between melt fraction and seismic properties is not straight-forward. We consider how varying melt fraction (f) might affect crustal seismic properties. Our modelling approach is based on electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) patterns from granulite facies sheared migmatites. The CPO data are used to model the seismic properties of rocks with different solid/melt proportions. Subsequently, melt was simulated via an isotropic elastic stiffness matrix and combined mathematically with the CPO-derived seismic properties, and seismic properties then recalculated to take into account the presence of melt. These melt models, therefore, predict changes in seismic properties at different f. The models show that low (c. f < 0.15) and high (0.7 < f < 1) values affect seismic properties much more than the 'crystal mush' part (0.1 < f < 0.7): velocities (V) and anisotropies (AV) for both low and high f drop rapidly but 'plateau' at intermediate f. Our results imply that V and, especially, AV may not be reliable proxies for the amount of crustal melt present. Seismic wave behaviour in crystal-supported (0.1 < f < 0.7) material may be controlled by the solid rather than the melt phase.
Blankleider, B.; Afnan, I.R.
1985-04-01
The polarization observables of the reactions parrow parrow ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/d, parrowp ..-->.. darrow..pi../sup +/, and ..pi..darrow ..-->.. ..pi..darrow are investigated. Expressions relating these observables directly to (LSJ) partial wave amplitudes are derived and tabulations of the partial wave contributions are given for some of the observables. Examples are given of how such tabulations can be useful for optimizing the connection between theory and experiment and in suggesting possible new experiments. All observables are also calculated numerically using a unitary few-body model of the NN-..pi..NN system to generate the amplitudes. Sensitivity to the choice of P/sub 11/ interaction is investigated.
Diffractive theorems for the wave equation with inverse square potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qian, Randy Zhigang
This dissertation investigates the phenomenon of diffraction resulting from the addition of an inverse square potential term to the wave operator. In particular, it explicitly establishes the existence of diffraction for the solution to the wave operator with an inverse square potential in 2-dimensional euclidean space and proves a propagation of smoothness result in two more general settings. Chapter 2 establishes diffraction in the fundamental solutions to the wave operator plus inverse square potential with a Dirac Delta initial condition in 2-dimensional euclidean space. Following methods as described by Cheeger and Taylor, we separate variables, apply spectral transforms to each variable, and employ contour deformation techniques to establish an explicit form for diffractive front in the fundamental solution. Chapter 3 proves a propagation of smoothness result for a related wave operator with potential, where instead of a constant, we put a smooth bounded function in the numerator of the potential. Microlocal energy estimates are used following the basic propagation methods of Duistermaat and Hormander, and employing the heavy refinements due to Melrose, Vasy, and Wunsch to handle propagation through the radial point at the origin. The potential term is estimated using Hardy's Inequality. Chapter 4 extends the propagation of smoothness result to conic manifolds with an inverse square potential concentrated at their boundary. We state a product decomposition theorem for the conic metric due to Melrose and Wunsch, then use the resulting coordinates to deploy our argument from Chapter 3. New terms with dependence on distance to the boundary arise, and we show how to bound them.
How close can we get waves to wave functions, including potential?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faletič, Sergej
2016-05-01
In the following article we show that mechanical waves on a braced string can have the same shapes as important wave functions in introductory quantum mechanics. A braced string is a string with additional transversal springs that serve as external "potential". The aim is not to suggest teaching quantum mechanics with these analogies. Instead, the aim is to provide students with some additional relevant experience in wave mechanics before they are introduced to quantum mechanics. We show how this experience can be used in a constructivist sense as the basis for building quantum concepts. We consider energy transfer along such string and show that penetration of a wave into a region with high "potential" is not unexpected. We also consider energy transfer between two such strings and show that it can appear point-like even though the wave is an extended object. We also suggest that applying quantization of energy transfer to wave phenomena can explain some of the more difficult to accept features of quantum mechanics.
Fully and partially coherent pathways in multiply enhanced odd-order wave-mixing spectroscopy.
Mathew, Nathan A; Yurs, Lena A; Block, Stephen B; Pakoulev, Andrei V; Kornau, Kathryn M; Sibert, Edwin L; Wright, John C
2010-01-21
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy relies on using multiple excitation pulses to create multiple quantum coherences that provide great specificity for chemical measurements. Coherent multidimensional spectroscopy (CMDS) is the optical analogue of NMR. Current CMDS methods use three excitation pulses and phase matching to create zero, single, and double quantum coherences. In order to create higher order multiple quantum coherences, the number of interactions must be increased by raising the excitation intensities high enough to create Rabi frequencies that are comparable to the dephasing rates of vibrational coherences. The higher Rabi frequencies create multiple, odd-order coherence pathways. The coherence pathways that involve intermediate populations are partially coherent and are sensitive to population relaxation effects. Pathways that are fully coherent involve only coherences and measure the direct coupling between excited quantum states. The fully coherent pathways are related to the multiple quantum coherences created in multiple pulse NMR methods such as heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC) spectroscopy with the important difference that HMQC NMR methods have a defined number of interactions and avoid dynamic Stark effects whereas the multiply enhanced odd-order wave-mixing pathways do not. The difference arises because CMDS methods use phase matching to define the interactions and at high intensities, multiple pathways obey the same phase matching conditions. The multiple pathways correspond to the pathways created by dynamic Stark effects. This paper uses rhodium dicarbonyl chelate (RDC) as a model to demonstrate the characteristics of multiply enhanced odd-order wave-mixing (MEOW) methods. Dynamic Stark effects excite vibrational ladders on the symmetric and asymmetric CO stretch modes and create a series of multiple quantum coherences and populations using partially and fully coherent pathways. Vibrational quantum states up to v = 6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackson, I.; Faul, U. H.; Fitz Gerald, J. D.
2001-12-01
The frequency-dependent mechanical behaviour expected of Earth materials at high temperature places a special premium on laboratory measurements of wave speeds and attenuation at seismic frequencies. The symposium in honour of Mervyn Paterson provides a welcome opportunity to acknowledge his vital role in the design of the specialised equipment for this purpose described by Jackson and Paterson (PEPI 45: 349-367, 1987; Pageoph 141: 445-466, 1993). This instrument allows the study of low-strain high-temperature viscoelastic behaviour through the application of torsional forced oscillation/ microcreep techniques within the P-T environment (200 MPa, 1600 K) provided by an internally heated gas apparatus. Application of these techniques to fine-grained synthetic olivine polycrystals is beginning to provide a robust basis for the understanding of seismic wave attenuation (and dispersion) in the upper mantle under sub-solidus conditions. More recently, we have begun to explore the effects of partial melting through the fabrication, characterisation and mechanical testing of a suite of fine-grained olivine polycrystals containing up to 4% basaltic melt. The most striking effect of the added melt is the appearance of a melt-related dissipation peak superimposed upon the dissipation background characteristic of melt-free materials - which varies monotonically with period and temperature. The melt-related dissipation peak is adequately modelled as a Gaussian in log X, where X = To exp(E/RT). The melt-related dissipation peak sweeps across the seismic band from period To > 100 s to To < 1 s as temperature increases across the range 1300 - 1600 K producing pronounced systematic changes in the frequency dependence of 1/Q, that may be seismologically observable. >http://rses.anu.adu.au/petrophysics/PetroHome.html
Potential of shock waves to remove calculus and biofilm.
Müller, Philipp; Guggenheim, Bernhard; Attin, Thomas; Marlinghaus, Ernst; Schmidlin, Patrick R
2011-12-01
Effective calculus and biofilm removal is essential to treat periodontitis. Sonic and ultrasonic technologies are used in several scaler applications. This was the first feasibility study to assess the potential of a shock wave device to remove calculus and biofilms and to kill bacteria. Ten extracted teeth with visible subgingival calculus were treated with either shock waves for 1 min at an energy output of 0.4 mJ/mm(2) at 3 Hz or a magnetostrictive ultrasonic scaler at medium power setting for 1 min, which served as a control. Calculus was determined before and after treatment planimetrically using a custom-made software using a grey scale threshold. In a second experiment, multispecies biofilms were formed on saliva-preconditioned bovine enamel discs during 64.5 h. They were subsequently treated with shock waves or the ultrasonic scaler (N = 6/group) using identical settings. Biofilm detachment and bactericidal effects were then assessed. Limited efficiency of the shock wave therapy in terms of calculus removal was observed: only 5% of the calculus was removed as compared to 100% when ultrasound was used (P ≤ 0.0001). However, shock waves were able to significantly reduce adherent bacteria by three orders of magnitude (P ≤ 0.0001). The extent of biofilm removal by the ultrasonic device was statistically similar. Only limited bactericidal effects were observed using both methods. Within the limitations of this preliminary study, the shock wave device was not able to reliably remove calculus but had the potential to remove biofilms by three log steps. To increase the efficacy, technical improvements are still required. This novel noninvasive intervention, however, merits further investigation. PMID:20821262
Partial wave analysis of the Dirac fermions scattered from Schwarzschild black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cotăescu, Ion I.; Crucean, Cosmin; Sporea, Ciprian A.
2016-03-01
Asymptotic analytic solutions of the Dirac equation, giving the scattering modes (of the continuous energy spectrum, E>mc^2) in Schwarzschild's chart and Cartesian gauge, are used for building the partial wave analysis of Dirac fermions scattered by black holes. In this framework, the analytic expressions of the differential cross section and induced polarization degree are derived in terms of scattering angle, mass of the black hole, and energy and mass of the fermion. Moreover, the closed form of the absorption cross section due to the scattering modes is derived showing that in the high-energy limit this tends to the event horizon area regardless of the fermion mass (including zero). A graphical study presents the differential cross section analyzing the forward/backward scattering (known also as glory scattering) and the polarization degree as functions of scattering angle. The graphical analysis shows the presence of oscillations in scattering intensity around forward/backward directions, phenomena known as spiral scattering. The energy dependence of the differential cross section is also established by using analytical and graphical methods.
Assessment of shock wave lithotripters via cavitation potential
Iloreta, Jonathan I.; Zhou, Yufeng; Sankin, Georgy N.; Zhong, Pei; Szeri, Andrew J.
2008-01-01
A method to characterize shock wave lithotripters by examining the potential for cavitation associated with the lithotripter shock wave (LSW) has been developed. The method uses the maximum radius achieved by a bubble subjected to a LSW as a representation of the cavitation potential for that region in the lithotripter. It is found that the maximum radius is determined by the work done on a bubble by the LSW. The method is used to characterize two reflectors: an ellipsoidal reflector and an ellipsoidal reflector with an insert. The results show that the use of an insert reduced the −6 dB volume (with respect to peak positive pressure) from 1.6 to 0.4 cm3, the −6 dB volume (with respect to peak negative pressure) from 14.5 to 8.3 cm3, and reduced the volume characterized by high cavitation potential (i.e., regions characterized by bubbles with radii larger than 429 µm) from 103 to 26 cm3. Thus, the insert is an effective way to localize the potentially damaging effects of shock wave lithotripsy, and suggests an approach to optimize the shape of the reflector. PMID:19865493
Brady, James P; Kinaev, Irina; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A
2016-05-15
Assessment of heavy metal bioavailability in sediments is complex because of the number of partial extraction methods available for the assessment and the general lack of certified reference materials. This study evaluates five different extraction methodologies to ascertain the relative strengths and weaknesses of each method. The results are then compared to previously published work to ascertain the most effective partial extraction technique, which was established to dilute (0.75-1M) nitric acid solutions. These results imply that single reagent; weak acid extractions provide a better assessment of potentially bioavailable metals than the chelating agents used in sequential extraction methods. PMID:27036084
WATERWAVES: wave particles dynamics on a complex triatomic potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taioli, Simone; Tennyson, Jonathan
2006-07-01
The WATERWAVES program suite performs complex scattering calculations by propagating a wave packet in a complex, full-dimensional potential for non-rotating ( J=0) but vibrating triatomic molecules. Potential energy and decay probability surfaces must be provided. Expectation values of geometric quantities can be calculated, which are useful for following the wave packet motion. The programs use a local complex potential approximation (LCP) for the Hamiltonian and Jacobi coordinates. The bottleneck of the calculation is the application of each term of the Hamiltonian to the wave packet. To solve this problem the programs use a different representation for each term: normalized associated Legendre polynomials PjK(x) as a functional basis for the angular kinetic term and an evenly spaced grid for the radial kinetic term yielding a fully point-wise representation of the wave functions. The potential term is treated using an efficient Discrete Variable Representation (DVR) being diagonal in the coordinate representation. The radial kinetic term uses a fast Fourier transform (FFT) to obtain an operator which is diagonal in the momentum space. To avoid artificial reflection at the boundaries of the grid a complex absorbing potential is included for calculating continuum quantities. Asymptotic analysis is performed to obtain scattering observables such as cross sections and other dynamical properties. Program summaryProgram title: WATERWAVES Catalogue identifier:ADXT_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXT_v1_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Freely available from CPC Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer(s) for which the program has been designed: PC Operating system(s) for which the program has been designed: Linux RAM required to execute with typical data: case dependent: test run requires 976 024 kB No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:11
Hadzimehmedovic, M.; Osmanovic, H.; Stahov, J.; Ceci, S.; Svarc, A.
2011-09-15
Each and every energy-dependent partial-wave analysis is parametrizing the pole positions in a procedure defined by the way the continuous energy dependence is implemented. These pole positions are, henceforth, inherently model dependent. To reduce this model dependence, we use only one, coupled-channel, unitary, fully analytic method based on the isobar approximation to extract the pole positions from each available member of the worldwide collection of partial-wave amplitudes, which are understood as nothing more but a good energy-dependent representation of genuine experimental numbers assembled in a form of partial-wave data. In that way, the model dependence related to the different assumptions on the analytic form of the partial-wave amplitudes is avoided, and the true confidence limit for the existence of a particular resonant state, at least in one model, is established. The way the method works and first results are demonstrated for the S{sub 11} partial wave.
Resolving Difficulties of a Single-Channel Partial-Wave Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunt, Brian; Manley, D. Mark
2016-03-01
The goal of our research is to determine better the properties of nucleon resonances using techniques of a global multichannel partial-wave analysis. Currently, many predicted resonances have not been found, while the properties of several known resonances are relatively uncertain. To resolve these issues, one must analyze many different reactions in a multichannel fit. Other groups generally approach this problem by generating an energy-dependent fit from the start. This is a fit where all channels are analyzed together. The method is powerful, but due to the complex nature of resonances, certain model-dependent assumptions have to be introduced from the start. The current work tries to resolve these issues by first generating single-energy solutions in which experimental data are analyzed in narrow energy bins. The single-energy solutions can then be used to constrain the energy-dependent solution in a comparatively unbiased manner. Our work focuses on adding three new single-energy solutions into the global fit. These reactions are γp --> ηp , γn --> ηn , and γp -->K+ Λ . During this talk, I will discuss the difficulties of this approach, our methods to overcome these difficulties, and a few preliminary results. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Medium Energy Nuclear Physics, under Award Nos. DE-FG02-01ER41194 and DE-SC0014323 and by the Kent State University Department of Physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Di; Graff, Taylor; Crawford, Susan; Subramanian, Hariharan; Thompson, Sebastian; Derbas, Justin R.; Lyengar, Radha; Roy, Hemant K.; Brendler, Charles B.; Backman, Vadim
2016-02-01
Prostate Cancer (PC) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men. While prostate specific antigen (PSA) test has been widely used for screening PC, >60% of the PSA detected cancers are indolent, leading to unnecessary clinical interventions. An alternative approach, active surveillance (AS), also suffer from high expense, discomfort and complications associated with repeat biopsies (every 1-3 years), limiting its acceptance. Hence, a technique that can differentiate indolent from aggressive PC would attenuate the harms from over-treatment. Combining microscopy with spectroscopy, our group has developed partial wave spectroscopic (PWS) microscopy, which can quantify intracellular nanoscale organizations (e.g. chromatin structures) that are not accessible by conventional microscopy. PWS microscopy has previously been shown to predict the risk of cancer in seven different organs (N ~ 800 patients). Herein we use PWS measurement of label-free histologically-normal prostatic epithelium to distinguish indolent from aggressive PC and predict PC risk. Our results from 38 men with low-grade PC indicated that there is a significant increase in progressors compared to non-progressors (p=0.002, effect size=110%, AUC=0.80, sensitivity=88% and specificity=72%), while the baseline clinical characteristics were not significantly different. We further improved the diagnostic power by performing nuclei-specific measurements using an automated system that separates in real-time the cell nuclei from the remaining prostate epithelium. In the long term, we envision that the PWS based prognostication can be coupled with AS without any change to the current procedure to mitigate the harms caused by over-treatment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chrysos, Michael
2016-03-01
Relying on a simple analytic two-atom model in which the anisotropy of the interaction dipole polarizability obeys an inverse power law as a function of separation, we offer mathematical and numerical evidence that, in a monoatomic gas, the free-free Raman spectrum for a collisional pair of two different isotopes, a-a', may vastly differ from that for a-a. This result is obtained even if a and a' are assumed to have the same mass and zero nuclear spin and even if a-a and a-a' are subject to the same interaction polarizability and potential. The mechanism responsible for this effect is inherent in the parity of the partial-wave rotational quantum number J: given that the contribution of each partial wave to the Raman cross section is controlled by a polarizability-transition matrix-element and that each of those matrix-elements has a radial component with a magnitude slightly smaller than that of the preceding partial wave, a deficit which disfavors the odd-numbered waves is accumulated upon summing over J. In the far high-frequency wing, this deficit tends to generate spectral intensities for a-a' about half as great as the a-a ones, a tendency which becomes all the more effective as temperature is decreased. We show for instance that, for the spectral branch ΔJ = 2, the fractional difference between the free-free differential cross sections for a-a and a-a' is /1 2 /( 1 - x2 ) 3 1 + 3 x 4 , with x = √{ E / E ' } (E (E') being the initial (final) state energy of the pair and E' - E = hcν (ν > 0)). Remarkably, this quantity is zero at ν ≈ 0 but goes to /1 2 for ν ≫ 0. For ΔJ = 0, analogous conclusions may be drawn from the expression ( 1 + /ln ( 1+x/1-x ) 2 arctan x ) - 1 .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albers, Bettina
2016-06-01
It is well known that the capillary pressure curve of partially saturated soils exhibits a hysteresis. For the same degree of saturation it has different values depending on the initial state of the soil, thus for drying of a wet soil or wetting of a dry soil. The influence of these different values of the capillary pressure on the propagation of sound waves is studied by use of a linear hyperbolic model. Even if the model does not contain a hysteresis operator, the effect of hysteresis in the capillary pressure curve is accounted for. In order to obtain the limits of phase speeds and attenuations for the two processes the correspondent values for main drying and main wetting are inserted into the model separately. This is done for two examples of soils, namely for Del Monte sand and for a silt loam both filled by an air-water mixture. The wave analysis reveals four waves: one transversal wave and three longitudinal waves. The waves which are driven by the immiscible pore fluids are influenced by the hysteresis in the capillary pressure curve while the waves which are mainly driven by the solid are not.
Das, J.N.; Paul, S.; Chakrabarti, K.
2003-04-01
Hyperspherical partial-wave theory has been applied here in a new way in the calculation of the triple differential cross sections for the ionization of hydrogen atoms by electron impact at low energies for various equal-energy-sharing kinematic conditions. The agreement of the cross section results with the recent absolute measurements of [J. Roeder, M. Baertschy, and I. Bray, Phys. Rev. A 45, 2951 (2002)] and with the latest theoretical results of the ECS and CCC calculations [J. Roeder, M. Baertschy, and I. Bray, Phys. Rev. A (to be published)] for different kinematic conditions at 17.6 eV is very encouraging. The other calculated results, for relatively higher energies, are also generally satisfactory, particularly for large {theta}{sub ab} geometries. In view of the present results, together with the fact that it is capable of describing unequal-energy-sharing kinematics [J. N. Das, J. Phys. B 35, 1165 (2002)], it may be said that the hyperspherical partial-wave theory is quite appropriate for the description of ionization events of electron-hydrogen-type systems. It is also clear that the present approach in the implementation of the hyperspherical partial-wave theory is very appropriate.
Shebloski, Barbara; Conger, Katherine J; Widaman, Keith F
2005-12-01
This study examined reciprocal links between parental differential treatment, siblings' perception of partiality, and self-worth with 3 waves of data from 384 adolescent sibling dyads. Results suggest that birth-order status was significantly associated with self-worth and perception of maternal and paternal differential treatment. There was a consistent across-time effect of self-worth on perception of parental partiality for later born siblings, but not earlier born siblings, and a consistent effect of differential treatment on perception of partiality for earlier born but not later born siblings. The results contribute new insight into the associations between perception of differential parenting and adolescents' adjustment and the role of birth order. PMID:16402879
Theory of wave propagation in partially saturated double-porosity rocks: a triple-layer patchy model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Weitao; Ba, Jing; Carcione, José M.
2016-04-01
Wave-induced local fluid flow is known as a key mechanism to explain the intrinsic wave dissipation in fluid-saturated rocks. Understanding the relationship between the acoustic properties of rocks and fluid patch distributions is important to interpret the observed seismic wave phenomena. A triple-layer patchy (TLP) model is proposed to describe the P-wave dissipation process in a double-porosity media saturated with two immiscible fluids. The double-porosity rock consists of a solid matrix with unique host porosity and inclusions which contain the second type of pores. Two immiscible fluids are considered in concentric spherical patches, where the inner pocket and the outer sphere are saturated with different fluids. The kinetic and dissipation energy functions of local fluid flow (LFF) in the inner pocket are formulated through oscillations in spherical coordinates. The wave propagation equations of the TLP model are based on Biot's theory and the corresponding Lagrangian equations. The P-wave dispersion and attenuation caused by the Biot friction mechanism and the local fluid flow (related to the pore structure and the fluid distribution) are obtained by a plane-wave analysis from the Christoffel equations. Numerical examples and laboratory measurements indicate that P-wave dispersion and attenuation are significantly influenced by the spatial distributions of both, the solid heterogeneity and the fluid saturation distribution. The TLP model is in reasonably good agreement with White's and Johnson's models. However, differences in phase velocity suggest that the heterogeneities associated with double-porosity and dual-fluid distribution should be taken into account when describing the P-wave dispersion and attenuation in partially saturated rocks.
Potential of surface acoustic wave biosensors for early sepsis diagnosis.
Csete, Marie; Hunt, William D
2013-08-01
Early diagnosis of sepsis is a difficult problem for intensivists and new biomarkers for early diagnosis have been difficult to come by. Here we discuss the potential of adapting a technology from the electronics industry, surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors, for diagnosis of multiple markers of sepsis in real time, using non-invasive assays of exhaled breath condensate. The principles and advantages of the SAW technology are reviewed as well as a proposed plan for adapting this flexible technology to early sepsis detection. PMID:23471596
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Ildefonse, Benoit; Bagdassarov, Nickolai S.
2005-12-01
Torsion oscillatory deformation experiments have been performed at high temperatures (600-1170°C) and over a wide range of low frequencies (20-2.10-3 Hz) on fine-grained gabbronorite samples from the Oman ophiolite in order to determine the shear wave attenuation as a function of temperature and melt fraction. The specimens have a small and uniform grain size (0.25-0.3 mm) and do not contain secondary, hydrated minerals. Measurements of internal friction (Q-1) were performed using a forced oscillatory torsion apparatus at small strains (~10-7), and with increasing small temperature steps to reduce thermal microcracking. The general dependence of Q-1 to frequency is Q-1~ω-α, where ω is the angular velocity of forced oscillations and α is an empirical exponent. Below the melting temperature (~1050°C), α has average values of ~0.15 at low frequency (<=0.5 Hz) and 0.06 at higher frequency. Above the melting temperature, α has average values of ~0.22 at low frequency and -0.02 at higher frequency. This frequency dependence of Q-1 is attributed to a viscoelastic behaviour due to the diffusion controlled grain boundary sliding, and partially to the squirt flow of the melt-phase wetting grain boundaries. The onset of melting is associated with a markedly higher Q-1 and a stronger dependence of Q-1 on temperature. The melt-related mechanical dissipation process could be a melt squirt flow. The characteristic frequency for the melt squirt flow is ωm~ 0.15-300 Hz when the melt pocket aspect ratio is ~10-3-10-2. Around the melting temperature the internal friction can be approximated by an experimental power law Q-1=A.[ω-1.d-1. exp(-Ea/RT)]α with α~ 0.08, A= 34.72s-αμm-α and Ea~ 873 kJmol-1.
Tanabe, Tadao; Ragam, Srinivasa; Oyama, Yutaka
2009-11-01
We constructed a high resolution terahertz (THz) spectroscopic system with an automatic scanning control using a continuous wave (cw) THz wave generator based on difference frequency generation method by excitation of phonon-polariton mode in GaP. The pump and signals lasers were compact, tunable external cavity laser, and distributed feedback (DFB) lasers, respectively. The generated THz waves were tuned automatically by changing the temperature of the DFB laser using a system control. We present the water vapor transmission characteristics of the THz wave and also absorption spectrum of a white polyethylene in the frequency range of 1.97-2.45 THz. The spectroscopic measurements performed at an output power level of 2 nW, which was obtained with a 15-mm-long GaP crystal at 2 THz. The advantage of this cw THz spectrometer is wide frequency tuning range (0.7-4.42 THz) with an estimated linewidth of full width at quarter maximum <8 MHz and this system has a potential application in high resolution spectroscopy. PMID:19947715
Malysz, J; Richardson, D; Farraway, L; Christen, M O; Huizinga, J D
1995-10-01
Intrinsic electrical activities in various isolated segments of the mouse small intestine were recorded (i) to characterize action potential generation and (ii) to obtain a profile on the ion channels involved in initiating the slow wave type action potentials (slow waves). Gradients in slow wave frequency, resting membrane potential, and occurrence of spiking activity were found, with the proximal intestine exhibiting the highest frequency, the most hyperpolarized cell membrane, and the greatest occurrence of spikes. The slow waves were only partially sensitive to L-type calcium channel blockers. Nifedipine, verapamil, and pinaverium bromide abolished spikes that occurred on the plateau phase of the slow waves in all tissues. The activity that remained in the presence of L-type calcium channel blockers, the upstroke potential, retained a similar amplitude to the original slow wave and was of identical frequency. The upstroke potential was not sensitive to a reduction in extracellular chloride or to the sodium channel blockers tetrodotoxin and mexiletine. Abolishment of the Na+ gradient by removal of 120 mM extracellular Na+ reduced the upstroke potential frequency by 13 - 18% and its amplitude by 50 - 70% in the ileum. The amplitude was similarly reduced by Ni2+ (up to 5 mM), and by flufenamic acid (100 mu M), a nonspecific cation and chloride channel blocker. Gadolinium, a nonspecific blocker of cation and stretch-activated channels, had no effect. Throughout these pharmacological manipulations, a robust oscillation remained at 5 - 10 mV. This oscillation likely reflects pacemaker activity. It was rapidly abolished by removal of extracellular calcium but not affected by L-type calcium channel blockers. In summary, the mouse small intestine has been established as a model for research into slow wave generation and electrical pacemaker activity. The upstroke part of the slow wave has two components, the pacemaker component involves a non-L-type calcium channel
Transport of waves in disordered waveguides: A potential model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mello, P. A.; Yépez, M.; Froufe-Pérez, L. S.; Sáenz, J. J.
2007-12-01
We study the statistical properties of wave transport in a disordered waveguide. We first derive the properties of a “building block” (BB) of length δL starting from a potential model consisting of thin potential slices. We then find a diffusion equation-in the space of transfer matrices that describe our system-which governs the evolution with the length L of the disordered waveguide of the transport properties of interest. The latter depend only on the mean free paths and on no other property of the slice distribution. The universality that arises demonstrates the existence of a generalized central-limit theorem. We have developed a numerical simulation in which the universal statistical properties of the BB found analytically are first implemented numerically, and then the various BBs are combined to construct the full waveguide. The reported results thus obtained are in good agreement with microscopic calculations, for both bulk and surface disorder.
The Propagation of Slow Wave Potentials in Pea Epicotyls.
Stahlberg, R.; Cosgrove, D. J.
1997-01-01
Slow wave potentials are considered to be electric long-distance signals specific for plants, although there are conflicting ideas about a chemical, electrical, or hydraulic mode of propagation. These ideas were tested by comparing the propagation of hydraulic and electric signals in epicotyls of pea (Pisum sativum L). A hydraulic signal in the form of a defined step increase in xylem pressure (Px) was applied to the root of intact seedlings and propagated nearly instantly through the epicotyl axis while its amplitude decreased with distance from the pressure chamber. This decremental propagation was caused by a leaky xylem and created an axial Px gradient in the epicotyl. Simultaneously along the epicotyl surface, depolarizations appeared with lag times that increased acropetally with distance from the pressure chamber from 5 s to 3 min. When measured at a constant distance, the lag times increased as the size of the applied pressure steps decreased. We conclude that the Px gradient in the epicotyl caused local depolarizations with acropetally increasing lag times, which have the appearance of an electric signal propagating with a rate of 20 to 30 mm min-1. This static description of the slow wave potentials challenges its traditional classification as a propagating electric signal. PMID:12223601
Mynard, Jonathan P; Smolich, Joseph J
2014-08-01
Controversy exists about whether one-dimensional wave theory can explain the "self-canceling" waves that accompany the diastolic pressure decay and discharge of the arterial reservoir. Although it has been proposed that reservoir and wave effects be treated as separate phenomena, thus avoiding the issue of self-canceling waves, we have argued that reservoir effects are a phenomenological and mathematical subset of wave effects. However, a complete wave-based explanation of self-canceling diastolic expansion (pressure-decreasing) waves has not yet been advanced. These waves are present in the forward and backward components of arterial pressure and flow (P ± and Q ±, respectively), which are calculated by integrating incremental pressure and flow changes (dP ± and dQ ±, respectively). While the integration constants for this calculation have previously been considered arbitrary, we showed that physiologically meaningful constants can be obtained by identifying "undisturbed pressure" as mean circulatory pressure. Using a series of numeric experiments, absolute P ± and Q ± values were shown to represent "wave potential," gradients of which produce propagating wavefronts. With the aid of a "one-dimensional windkessel," we showed how wave theory predicts discharge of the arterial reservoir. Simulated data, along with hemodynamic recordings in seven sheep, suggested that self-canceling diastolic waves arise from repeated and diffuse reflection of the late systolic forward expansion wave throughout the arterial system and at the closed aortic valve, along with progressive leakage of wave potential from the conduit arteries. The combination of wave and wave potential concepts leads to a comprehensive one-dimensional (i.e., wave-based) explanation of arterial hemodynamics, including the diastolic pressure decay. PMID:24878775
Kim, Choong-Ki; Toft, Jodie E; Papenfus, Michael; Verutes, Gregory; Guerry, Anne D; Ruckelshaus, Marry H; Arkema, Katie K; Guannel, Gregory; Wood, Spencer A; Bernhardt, Joanna R; Tallis, Heather; Plummer, Mark L; Halpern, Benjamin S; Pinsky, Malin L; Beck, Michael W; Chan, Francis; Chan, Kai M A; Levin, Phil S; Polasky, Stephen
2012-01-01
Many hope that ocean waves will be a source for clean, safe, reliable and affordable energy, yet wave energy conversion facilities may affect marine ecosystems through a variety of mechanisms, including competition with other human uses. We developed a decision-support tool to assist siting wave energy facilities, which allows the user to balance the need for profitability of the facilities with the need to minimize conflicts with other ocean uses. Our wave energy model quantifies harvestable wave energy and evaluates the net present value (NPV) of a wave energy facility based on a capital investment analysis. The model has a flexible framework and can be easily applied to wave energy projects at local, regional, and global scales. We applied the model and compatibility analysis on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada to provide information for ongoing marine spatial planning, including potential wave energy projects. In particular, we conducted a spatial overlap analysis with a variety of existing uses and ecological characteristics, and a quantitative compatibility analysis with commercial fisheries data. We found that wave power and harvestable wave energy gradually increase offshore as wave conditions intensify. However, areas with high economic potential for wave energy facilities were closer to cable landing points because of the cost of bringing energy ashore and thus in nearshore areas that support a number of different human uses. We show that the maximum combined economic benefit from wave energy and other uses is likely to be realized if wave energy facilities are sited in areas that maximize wave energy NPV and minimize conflict with existing ocean uses. Our tools will help decision-makers explore alternative locations for wave energy facilities by mapping expected wave energy NPV and helping to identify sites that provide maximal returns yet avoid spatial competition with existing ocean uses. PMID:23144824
Kim, Choong-Ki; Toft, Jodie E.; Papenfus, Michael; Verutes, Gregory; Guerry, Anne D.; Ruckelshaus, Marry H.; Arkema, Katie K.; Guannel, Gregory; Wood, Spencer A.; Bernhardt, Joanna R.; Tallis, Heather; Plummer, Mark L.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Pinsky, Malin L.; Beck, Michael W.; Chan, Francis; Chan, Kai M. A.; Levin, Phil S.; Polasky, Stephen
2012-01-01
Many hope that ocean waves will be a source for clean, safe, reliable and affordable energy, yet wave energy conversion facilities may affect marine ecosystems through a variety of mechanisms, including competition with other human uses. We developed a decision-support tool to assist siting wave energy facilities, which allows the user to balance the need for profitability of the facilities with the need to minimize conflicts with other ocean uses. Our wave energy model quantifies harvestable wave energy and evaluates the net present value (NPV) of a wave energy facility based on a capital investment analysis. The model has a flexible framework and can be easily applied to wave energy projects at local, regional, and global scales. We applied the model and compatibility analysis on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada to provide information for ongoing marine spatial planning, including potential wave energy projects. In particular, we conducted a spatial overlap analysis with a variety of existing uses and ecological characteristics, and a quantitative compatibility analysis with commercial fisheries data. We found that wave power and harvestable wave energy gradually increase offshore as wave conditions intensify. However, areas with high economic potential for wave energy facilities were closer to cable landing points because of the cost of bringing energy ashore and thus in nearshore areas that support a number of different human uses. We show that the maximum combined economic benefit from wave energy and other uses is likely to be realized if wave energy facilities are sited in areas that maximize wave energy NPV and minimize conflict with existing ocean uses. Our tools will help decision-makers explore alternative locations for wave energy facilities by mapping expected wave energy NPV and helping to identify sites that provide maximal returns yet avoid spatial competition with existing ocean uses. PMID:23144824
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Chuan-Fu; Buterin, Sergey
2016-03-01
The inverse spectral problem of determining a spherically symmetric wave speed v is considered in a bounded spherical region of radius b. A uniqueness theorem for the potential q of the derived Sturm-Liouville problem B (q) is presented from the data involving fractions of the eigenvalues of the problem B (q) on a finite interval and knowledge of q over a corresponding fraction of the interval. The methods employed rest on Weyl-function techniques and properties of zeros of a class of entire functions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Wang; Li, Yi; Wu, Congjun
2016-08-01
We systematically generalize the exotic 3He -B phase, which not only exhibits unconventional symmetry but is also isotropic and topologically nontrivial, to arbitrary partial-wave channels with multicomponent fermions. The concrete example with four-component fermions is illustrated including the isotropic f -, p -, and d -wave pairings in the spin septet, triplet, and quintet channels, respectively. The odd partial-wave channel pairings are topologically nontrivial, while pairings in even partial-wave channels are topologically trivial. The topological index reaches the largest value of N2 in the p -wave channel (N is half of the fermion component number). The surface spectra exhibit multiple linear and even high order Dirac cones. Applications to multiorbital condensed matter systems and multicomponent ultracold large spin fermion systems are discussed.
Yang, Wang; Li, Yi; Wu, Congjun
2016-08-12
We systematically generalize the exotic ^{3}He-B phase, which not only exhibits unconventional symmetry but is also isotropic and topologically nontrivial, to arbitrary partial-wave channels with multicomponent fermions. The concrete example with four-component fermions is illustrated including the isotropic f-, p-, and d-wave pairings in the spin septet, triplet, and quintet channels, respectively. The odd partial-wave channel pairings are topologically nontrivial, while pairings in even partial-wave channels are topologically trivial. The topological index reaches the largest value of N^{2} in the p-wave channel (N is half of the fermion component number). The surface spectra exhibit multiple linear and even high order Dirac cones. Applications to multiorbital condensed matter systems and multicomponent ultracold large spin fermion systems are discussed. PMID:27563972
On the transmission of partial information: inferences from movement-related brain potentials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Osman, A.; Bashore, T. R.; Coles, M. G.; Donchin, E.; Meyer, D. E.
1992-01-01
Results are reported from a new paradigm that uses movement-related brain potentials to detect response preparation based on partial information. The paradigm uses a hybrid choice-reaction go/nogo procedure in which decisions about response hand and whether to respond are based on separate stimulus attributes. A lateral asymmetry in the movement-related brain potential was found on nogo trials without overt movement. The direction of this asymmetry depended primarily on the signaled response hand rather than on properties of the stimulus. When the asymmetry first appeared was influenced by the time required to select the signaled hand, and when it began to differ on go and nogo trials was influenced by the time to decide whether to respond. These findings indicate that both stimulus attributes were processed in parallel and that the asymmetry reflected preparation of the response hand that began before the go/nogo decision was completed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altshuler, Gennady; Manor, Ofer
2016-07-01
We use both theory and experiment to study the response of thin and free films of a partially wetting liquid to a MHz vibration, propagating in the solid substrate in the form of a Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW). We generalise the previous theory for the response of a thin fully wetting liquid film to a SAW by including the presence of a small but finite three phase contact angle between the liquid and the solid. The SAW in the solid invokes a convective drift of mass in the liquid and leaks sound waves. The dynamics of a film that is too thin to support the accumulation of the sound wave leakage is governed by a balance between the drift and capillary stress alone. We use theory to demonstrate that a partially wetting liquid film, supporting a weak capillary stress, will spread along the path of the SAW. A partially wetting film, supporting an appreciable capillary stress, will however undergo a concurrent dynamic wetting and dewetting at the front and the rear, respectively, such that the film will displace, rather than spread, along the path of the SAW. The result of the theory for a weak capillary stress is in agreement with the previous experimental and theoretical studies on the response of thin silicon oil films to a propagating SAW. No corresponding previous results exist for the case of an appreciable capillary stress. We thus complement the large capillary limit of our theory by undertaking an experimental procedure where we explore the response of films of water and a surfactant solutions to a MHz SAW, which is found to be in qualitative agreement with the theory at this limit.
Henao-Escobar, W; Domínguez-Renedo, O; Alonso-Lomillo, M A; Arcos-Martínez, M J
2015-10-01
This work presents the simultaneous determination of cadaverine, histamine, putrescine and tyramine by square wave voltammetry using a boron-doped diamond electrode. A multivariate calibration method based on partial least square regressions has allowed the resolution of the very high overlapped voltammetric signals obtained for the analyzed biogenic amines. Prediction errors lower than 9% have been obtained when concentration of quaternary mixtures were calculated. The developed procedure has been applied in the analysis of ham samples, which results are in good agreement with those obtained using the standard HPLC method. PMID:26078134
Conservation laws of wave action and potential enstrophy for Rossby waves in a stratified atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Straus, D. M.
1983-01-01
The evolution of wave energy, enstrophy, and wave motion for atmospheric Rossby waves in a variable mean flow are discussed from a theoretical and pedagogic standpoint. In the absence of mean flow gradients, the wave energy density satisfies a local conservation law, with the appropriate flow velocity being the group velocity. In the presence of mean flow variations, wave energy is not conserved, but wave action is, provided the mean flow is independent of longitude. Wave enstrophy is conserved for arbitrary variations of the mean flow. Connections with Eiiassen-Palm flux are also discussed.
Conservation laws of wave action and potential enstrophy for Rossby waves in a stratified atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Straus, D. M.
1983-01-01
The evolution of wave energy, enstrophy, and wave motion for atmospheric Rossby waves in a variable mean flow are discussed from a theoretical and pedagogic standpoint. In the absence of mean flow gradients, the wave energy density satisfies a local conservation law, with the appropriate flow velocity being the group velocity. In the presence of mean flow variations, wave energy is not conserved, but wave action is, provided the mean flow is independent of longitude. Wave enstrophy is conserved for arbitrary variations of the mean flow. Connections with Eliassen-Palm flux are also discussed.
Souza, Lívia Tereza Andrade; Oliveira, Jamil S.; dos Santos, Vera L.; Regis, Wiliam C. B.; Santoro, Marcelo M.; Resende, Rodrigo R.
2014-01-01
Lipolytic potential of Aspergillus japonicus LAB01 was investigated by describing the catalytic properties and stability of a secreted extracellular lipase. Enzyme production was considered high under room temperature after 4 days using sunflower oil and a combination of casein with sodium nitrate. Lipase was partially purified by 3.9-fold, resulting in a 44.2% yield using ammonium sulphate precipitation (60%) quantified with Superose 12 HR gel filtration chromatography. The activity of the enzyme was maximised at pH 8.5, and the enzyme demonstrated stability under alkaline conditions. The optimum temperature was found to be 45°C, and the enzyme was stable for up to 100 minutes, with more than 80% of initial activity remaining after incubation at this temperature. Partially purified enzyme showed reasonable stability with triton X-100 and was activated in the presence of organic solvents (toluene, hexane, and methanol). Among the tested ions, only Cu2+, Ni2+, and Al3+ showed inhibitory effects. Substrate specificity of the lipase was higher for C14 among various p-nitrophenyl esters assayed. The KM and Vmax values of the purified enzyme for p-nitrophenyl palmitate were 0.13 mM and 12.58 umol/(L·min), respectively. These features render a novel biocatalyst for industrial applications. PMID:25530954
Partial adenosine A1 receptor agonism: a potential new therapeutic strategy for heart failure.
Greene, Stephen J; Sabbah, Hani N; Butler, Javed; Voors, Adriaan A; Albrecht-Küpper, Barbara E; Düngen, Hans-Dirk; Dinh, Wilfried; Gheorghiade, Mihai
2016-01-01
Heart failure (HF) represents a global public health and economic problem associated with unacceptable rates of death, hospitalization, and healthcare expenditure. Despite available therapy, HF carries a prognosis comparable to many forms of cancer with a 5-year survival rate of ~50%. The current treatment paradigm for HF with reduced ejection fraction (EF) centers on blocking maladaptive neurohormonal activation and decreasing cardiac workload with therapies that concurrently lower blood pressure and heart rate. Continued development of hemodynamically active medications for stepwise addition to existing therapies carries the risk of limited tolerability and safety. Moreover, this treatment paradigm has thus far failed for HF with preserved EF. Accordingly, development of hemodynamically neutral HF therapies targeting primary cardiac pathologies must be considered. In this context, a partial adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) agonist holds promise as a potentially hemodynamically neutral therapy for HF that could simultaneous improve cardiomyocyte energetics, calcium homeostasis, cardiac structure and function, and long-term clinical outcomes when added to background therapies. In this review, we describe the physiology and pathophysiology of HF as it relates to adenosine agonism, examine the existing body of evidence and biologic rationale for modulation of adenosine A1R activity, and review the current state of drug development of a partial A1R agonist for the treatment of HF. PMID:26701329
Salgado, Carlos W.; Weygand, Dennis P.
2014-04-01
Meson spectroscopy is going through a revival with the advent of high statistics experiments and new advances in the theoretical predictions. The Constituent Quark Model (CQM) is finally being expanded considering more basic principles of field theory and using discrete calculations of Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). These new calculations are approaching predictive power for the spectrum of hadronic resonances and decay modes. It will be the task of the new experiments to extract the meson spectrum from the data and compare with those predictions. The goal of this report is to describe one particular technique for extracting resonance information from multiparticle final states. The technique described here, partial wave analysis based on the helicity formalism, has been used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) using pion beams, and Jefferson Laboratory (Jlab) using photon beams. In particular this report broaden this technique to include production experiments using linearly polarized real photons or quasi-real photons. This article is of a didactical nature. We describe the process of analysis, detailing assumptions and formalisms, and is directed towards people interested in starting partial wave analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salgado, Carlos W.; Weygand, Dennis P.
2014-04-01
Meson spectroscopy is going through a revival with the advent of high statistics experiments and new advances in the theoretical predictions. The Constituent Quark Model (CQM) is finally being expanded considering more basic principles of field theory and using discrete calculations of Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). These new calculations are approaching predictive power for the spectrum of hadronic resonances and decay modes. It will be the task of the new experiments to extract the meson spectrum from the data and compare with those predictions. The goal of this report is to describe one particular technique for extracting resonance information from multiparticle final states. The technique described here, partial wave analysis based on the helicity formalism, has been used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) using pion beams, and Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) using photon beams. In particular this report broadens this technique to include production experiments using linearly polarized real photons or quasi-real photons. This article is of a didactical nature. We describe the process of analysis, detailing assumptions and formalisms, and is directed towards people interested in starting partial wave analysis.
Chrysos, Michael
2016-03-21
Relying on a simple analytic two-atom model in which the anisotropy of the interaction dipole polarizability obeys an inverse power law as a function of separation, we offer mathematical and numerical evidence that, in a monoatomic gas, the free-free Raman spectrum for a collisional pair of two different isotopes, a-a', may vastly differ from that for a-a. This result is obtained even if a and a' are assumed to have the same mass and zero nuclear spin and even if a-a and a-a' are subject to the same interaction polarizability and potential. The mechanism responsible for this effect is inherent in the parity of the partial-wave rotational quantum number J: given that the contribution of each partial wave to the Raman cross section is controlled by a polarizability-transition matrix-element and that each of those matrix-elements has a radial component with a magnitude slightly smaller than that of the preceding partial wave, a deficit which disfavors the odd-numbered waves is accumulated upon summing over J. In the far high-frequency wing, this deficit tends to generate spectral intensities for a-a' about half as great as the a-a ones, a tendency which becomes all the more effective as temperature is decreased. We show for instance that, for the spectral branch ΔJ = 2, the fractional difference between the free-free differential cross sections for a-a and a-a' is 12(1-x(2))(3)1+3x(4), with x=√[E/E(')] (E (E') being the initial (final) state energy of the pair and E' - E = hcν (ν > 0)). Remarkably, this quantity is zero at ν ≈ 0 but goes to 12 for ν ≫ 0. For ΔJ = 0, analogous conclusions may be drawn from the expression (1+ln(1+x1-x)2arctanx)(-1). PMID:27004860
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakayama, M.; Kawakata, H.; Doi, I.; Takahashi, N.
2015-12-01
Recently, landslides due to heavy rain and/or earthquakes have been increasing and severe damage occurred in Japan in some cases (e.g., Chigira et al., 2013, Geomorph.). One of the principle factors activating landslides is groundwater. Continuous measurements of moisture in soil and/or pore pressure are performed to investigate the groundwater behavior. However, such measurements give information on only local behavior of the groundwater. To monitor the state of target slope, it is better to measure signals affected by the behavior of groundwater in a widely surrounding region. The elastic waves propagating through the medium under the target slope are one of candidates of such signals. In this study, we measure propagating waves through a sand soil made in laboratory, injecting water into it from the bottom. We investigate the characteristics of the propagating waves. We drop sand particles in a container (750 mm long, 300 mm wide and 400 mm high) freely and made a sand soil. The sand soil consists of two layers. One is made of larger sand particles (0.2-0.4 mm in diameter) and the other is made of smaller sand particles (0.05-0.2 mm in diameter). The dry density of these sand layers is about 1.45 g/cm3. We install a shaker for generating elastic waves, accelerometers and pore pressure gauges in the sand soil. We apply small voltage steps repeatedly, and we continuously measure elastic waves propagating through the sand soil at a sampling rate of 51.2 ksps for a period including the water injection period. We estimate the spatio-temporal variation in the maximum cross-correlation coefficients and the corresponding time lags, using template waveforms recorded in the initial period as references. The coefficient for the waveforms recorded at the accelerometer attached to the tip of the shaker is almost stable in high values with a slight decrease down to 0.94 in the period when the sand particles around the shaker are considered to become wet. On the other hand
The effect of coal bed dewatering and partial oxidation on biogenic methane potential
Jones, Elizabeth J.P.; Harris, Steve H.; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Orem, William H.; Clark, Arthur C.; Corum, Margo D.; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Voytek, Mary A.
2013-01-01
Coal formation dewatering at a site in the Powder River Basin was associated with enhanced potential for secondary biogenic methane determined by using a bioassay. We hypothesized that dewatering can stimulate microbial activity and increase the bioavailability of coal. We analyzed one dewatered and two water-saturated coals to examine possible ways in which dewatering influences coal bed natural gas biogenesis by looking at differences with respect to the native coal microbial community, coal-methane organic intermediates, and residual coal oxidation potential. Microbial biomass did not increase in response to dewatering. Small Subunit rRNA sequences retrieved from all coals sampled represented members from genera known to be aerobic, anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic. A Bray Curtis similarity analysis indicated that the microbial communities in water-saturated coals were more similar to each other than to the dewatered coal, suggesting an effect of dewatering. There was a higher incidence of long chain and volatile fatty acid intermediates in incubations of the dewatered coal compared to the water-saturated coals, and this could either be due to differences in microbial enzymatic activities or to chemical oxidation of the coal associated with O2 exposure. Dilute H2O2 treatment of two fractions of structural coal (kerogen and bitumen + kerogen) was used as a proxy for chemical oxidation by O2. The dewatered coal had a low residual oxidation potential compared to the water-saturated coals. Oxidation with 5% H2O2 did increase the bioavailability of structural coal, and the increase in residual oxidation potential in the water saturated coals was approximately equivalent to the higher methanogenic potential measured in the dewatered coal. Evidence from this study supports the idea that coal bed dewatering could stimulate biogenic methanogenesis through partial oxidation of the structural organics in coal once anaerobic conditions are restored.
Observation of Nonspreading Wave Packets in an Imaginary Potential
Stuetzle, R.; Goebel, M.C.; Hoerner, Th.; Kierig, E.; Mourachko, I.; Oberthaler, M.K.; Efremov, M.A.; Fedorov, M.V.; Yakovlev, V.P.; Leeuwen, K.A.H. van; Schleich, W.P.
2005-09-09
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a method to prepare a nonspreading atomic wave packet. Our technique relies on a spatially modulated absorption constantly chiseling away from an initially broad de Broglie wave. The resulting contraction is balanced by dispersion due to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. This quantum evolution results in the formation of a nonspreading wave packet of Gaussian form with a spatially quadratic phase. Experimentally, we confirm these predictions by observing the evolution of the momentum distribution. Moreover, by employing interferometric techniques, we measure the predicted quadratic phase across the wave packet. Nonspreading wave packets of this kind also exist in two space dimensions and we can control their amplitude and phase using optical elements.
Partial wave analysis of J/ψ-->γ(K+K- π0)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
BES Collaboration; Bai, J. Z.; Bian, J. G.; Chai, Z. W.; Chen, G. P.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Chen, Y. Q.; Cheng, B. S.; Cui, X. Z.; Ding, H. L.; Dong, L. Y.; Du, Z. Z.; Feng, S.; Gao, C. S.; Gao, M. L.; Gao, S. Q.; Gu, J. H.; Gu, S. D.; Gu, W. X.; Gu, Y. F.; Guo, Y. N.; Guo, Z. J.; Han, S. W.; Han, Y.; He, J.; He, J. T.; He, M.; Hu, G. Y.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. L.; Hu, Q. H.; Hu, T.; Hu, X. Q.; Huang, J. D.; Huang, Y. Z.; Jiang, C. H.; Jin, Y.; Ke, Z. J.; Lai, Y. F.; Lang, P. F.; Li, C. G.; Li, D.; Li, H. B.; Li, J.; Li, P. Q.; Li, R. B.; Li, W.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. H.; Li, X. N.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. H.; Liu, R. G.; Liu, Y.; Lu, F.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, J. Y.; Lu, L. C.; Luo, C. H.; Ma, A. M.; Ma, E. C.; Ma, J. M.; Mao, H. S.; Mao, Z. P.; Meng, X. C.; Nie, J.; Qi, N. D.; Qi, X. R.; Qian, C. D.; Qiu, J. F.; Qu, Y. H.; Que, Y. K.; Rong, G.; Shao, Y. Y.; Shen, B. W.; Shen, D. L.; Shen, H.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, H. Z.; Song, X. F.; Sun, F.; Sun, H. S.; Tang, S. Q.; Tong, G. L.; Wang, F.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, L. Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, Meng; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T. J.; Wang, Y. Y.; Wei, C. L.; Wu, Y. G.; Xi, D. M.; Xia, X. M.; Xie, P. P.; Xie, Y.; Xie, Y. H.; Xiong, W. J.; Xu, C. C.; Xu, G. F.; Xue, S. T.; Yan, J.; Yan, W. G.; Yang, C. M.; Yang, C. Y.; Yang, J.; Yang, X. F.; Ye, M. H.; Ye, S. W.; Ye, Y. X.; Yi, K.; Yu, C. S.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, Y. H.; Yu, Z. Q.; Yu, Z. T.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, Dehong; Zhang, H. L.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, L. S.; Zhang, Q. J.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Zhao, D. X.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, M.; Zhao, W. R.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, L. S.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhou, G. P.; Zhou, H. S.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, Q. M.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhuang, B. A.; Bugg, D. V.; Sarantsev, A. V.; Zou, B. S.
1998-11-01
BES data on J/ψ-->γ(K+K-π0) display a strong peak in the K+K-π0 mass spectrum at 1450 MeV. This peak and a corresponding one in J/ψ-->γ(ηπ+π-) at ~1400 MeV may be fitted well by η(1440) with dominant decays to K*(890)K, using an s-dependent width in the Breit-Wigner amplitude. A broad background is also required in KK0 (where K0 stands for the Kπ S-wave) and also in ηππ, but is probably not resonant in this mass range.
The potential of SAR directional spectra in operational wave forecasting
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beal, R. C.; Gerling, T. W.; Irvine, D. E.
1983-01-01
Digitally processed Seasat SAR ocean wave imagery, when digitally transformed, smoothed, and corrected for known instrument biases, can accurately track multiple (at least three) wave systems in the open ocean, across major currents, and into shallow water. Furthermore, the relative backscatterer of the digitally processed SAR image, when sampled within a single pass and along a constant range, responds to the local wind through a simple power law relationship. The results indicate that SAR spectra, if obtained from a low altitude satellite, could be an important supplement to global winds and non-directional wave heights obtained through other methods.
On-shell coupled-channel approach to proton-hydrogen collisions without partial-wave expansion
Kadyrov, A. S.; Bray, I.; Stelbovics, A. T.
2006-01-15
A fully quantal approach to proton collisions with hydrogen based on the atomic-orbital close-coupling method is presented. The method leads to a system of coupled three-dimensional momentum-space integral equations for the scattering amplitudes. These equations are reduced to two-dimensional ones using an on-shell approximation. Furthermore, by considering the symmetry of the problem, we demonstrate that these can be reduced to just one dimension. The resulting equations are solved without partial-wave expansion. Cross sections for electron transfer in proton collisions with the ground state of atomic hydrogen are calculated and shown to agree well with experiment over a wide energy range.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farsaei, Amir Ashkan; Mokhtari-Koushyar, Farzad; Javad Seyed-Talebi, Seyed Mohammad; Kavehvash, Zahra; Shabany, Mahdi
2016-03-01
Active millimeter-wave imaging based on synthetic aperture focusing offers certain unique and practical advantages in nondestructive testing applications. Traditionally, the imaging for this purpose is performed through a long procedure of raster scanning with a single antenna across a two-dimensional grid, leading to a slow, bulky, and expensive scanning platform. In this paper, an improved bistatic structure based on radial compressive sensing is proposed, where one fixed transmitter antenna and a linear array of receiving antennas are used. The main contributions of this paper are (a) reducing the scanning time, (b) improving the output quality, and (c) designing an inexpensive setup. These improvements are the result of the underlying proposed simpler scanning structure and faster reconstruction process.
Effects of partial liquid/gas saturation on extensional wave attenuation in Berea sandstone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, C.-S.; Batzle, M. L.; Smith, B. J.
1992-07-01
Extensional wave attenuation measurements on Berea sandstone were made during increasing (imbibition) and decreasing (drainage) brine saturations. Measurements on samples with both open-pore and closed-pore surfaces were made using the resonant-bar technique. The frequency dependence was examined using the forced-deformation method. The attenuation was found to be dependent on saturation history as well as degree of saturation and boundary flow conditions. The sample with open-pore surface had a larger attenuation which peaked at greater brine saturations than the sample with closed-pore surface. During drainage, the attenuation reached a maximum at about 90% brine saturation as opposed to about 97% brine saturation during imbibition. The variation of the size and number of air pockets within the rock can account for this discrepancy. The magnitude of the attenuation peak value decreases substantially with decreasing frequency to the extent that no attenuation peak with saturation was apparent at seismic frequencies, say, below 100 Hz.
Potential effects of translatory waves on estimation of peak flows
Hjalmarson, H.W.; Phillips, J.V.
1997-01-01
During the afternoon of August 19, 1971, an intense thunderstorm a few miles southwest of Wikieup, Arizona, produced one of the largest known flood peaks for a 49.2-square-km drainage basin. Initial computations of the peak discharge assumed stable flow conditions and a four-section slope area measurement indicated that discharge was 2,082 m3/s. Recent findings based on free-surface instability characteristics at the site suggest that gravitational forces exceeded boundary retarding forces, and flow in the wide sand channel was unstable. Computations for roll or translatory waves indicate that waves crashed into the highway bridge at velocities of as much as 12.5 m/s. The close agreement of free surface instability results, translatory wave computations, estimates of the steady flow on which the translatory waves traveled, and an eyewitness account of the translatory waves suggest the total peak discharge could have been 2,742 m3/s or 32% greater than the published discharge. The occurrence of translatory waves in natural channels may be more common than previously thought, and instability criteria should be considered for hydraulic analysis of flow in steep smooth channels.
Potential role of kinetic Alfvén waves and whistler waves in solar wind plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nandal, P.; Yadav, N.; Sharma, R. P.; Goldstein, M. L.
2016-07-01
Spacecraft observations indicate the signatures of highly oblique kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) and whistler waves in the solar wind plasma. In the present work, we explore the possible role of KAWs and whistler waves in the observed solar wind magnetic turbulent spectrum. The nonlinear spatial evolution of KAW is studied including the effects of the ponderomotive force which results in intense localized structures due to the background density modification. Weak quasi-transverse whistler wave propagating through these localized structures also gets localized in the form of small-scale localized structures. We present numerically calculated magnetic power spectra for both KAW as well as for whistler wave. Our obtained results demonstrate the important role that KAWs and whistler waves play in the energy cascading from larger to smaller scales. The relevance of these results to recent spacecraft observations is also pointed out.
Sathaye, Jayant; Makundi, Willy; Dale, Larry; Chan, Peter; Andrasko, Kenneth
2005-03-22
This paper reports on the global potential for carbonsequestration in forest plantations, and the reduction of carbonemissions from deforestation, in response to six carbon price scenariosfrom 2000 to 2100. These carbon price scenarios cover a range typicallyseen in global integrated assessment models. The world forest sector wasdisaggregated into tenregions, four largely temperate, developedregions: the European Union, Oceania, Russia, and the United States; andsix developing, mostly tropical, regions: Africa, Central America, China,India, Rest of Asia, and South America. Three mitigation options -- long-and short-rotation forestry, and the reduction of deforestation -- wereanalyzed using a global dynamic partial equilibrium model (GCOMAP). Keyfindings of this work are that cumulative carbon gain ranges from 50.9 to113.2 Gt C by 2100, higher carbon prices early lead to earlier carbongain and vice versa, and avoided deforestation accounts for 51 to 78percent of modeled carbon gains by 2100. The estimated present value ofcumulative welfare change in the sector ranges from a decline of $158billion to a gain of $81 billion by 2100. The decline is associated witha decrease in deforestation.
Dodd, Ian C; Egea, Gregorio; Watts, Chris W; Whalley, W Richard
2010-08-01
To investigate the influence of different growing substrates (two mineral, two organic) on root xylem ABA concentration ([ABA](root)) and the contribution of the drying root system to total sap flow during partial rootzone drying (PRD), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) shoots were grafted onto the root systems of two plants grown in separate pots. Sap flow through each hypocotyl was measured below the graft union when one pot ('wet') was watered and other ('dry') was not. Each substrate gave unique relationships between dry pot matric potential (Psi(soil)), volumetric water content ((v)) or penetrometer resistance (Q) and either the fraction of photoperiod sap flow from roots in drying soil or [ABA](root). However, decreased relative sap flow, and increased [ABA](root), from roots in drying soil varied with root water potential (Psi(root)) more similarly across a range of substrates. The gradient between Psi(soil) and Psi(root) was greater in substrates with high sand or peat proportions, which may have contributed to a more sensitive response of [ABA](root) to Psi(soil) in these substrates. Whole plant transpiration was most closely correlated with the mean Psi(soil) of both pots, and then with detached leaf xylem ABA concentration. Although Psi(root) best predicted decreased relative sap flow, and increased [ABA](root), from roots in drying soil across a range of substrates, the inaccessibility of this variable in field studies requires a better understanding of how measurable soil variables (Psi(soil), (v), Q) affect Psi(root). PMID:20591896
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bean, T. A.; Bowhill, S. A.
1973-01-01
Partial-reflection data collected for the eclipse of July 10, 1972 as well as for July 9 and 11, 1972, are analyzed to determine eclipse effects on D-region electron densities. The partial-reflection experiment was set up to collect data using an on-line PDP-15 computer and DECtape storage. The electron-density profiles show good agreement with results from other eclipses. The partial-reflection programs were changed after the eclipse data collection to improve the operation of the partial-reflection system. These changes were mainly due to expanded computer hardware and have simplified the operations of the system considerably.
Off-shell Jost solutions for Coulomb and Coulomb-like interactions in all partial waves
Laha, U.; Bhoi, J.
2013-01-15
By exploiting the theory of ordinary differential equations, with judicious use of boundary conditions, interacting Green's functions and their integral transforms together with certain properties of higher transcendental functions, useful analytical expressions for the off-shell Jost solutions for motion in Coulomb and Coulomb-nuclear potentials are derived in maximal reduced form through different approaches to the problem in the representation space. The exact analytical expressions for the off-shell Jost solutions for Coulomb and Coulomb-like potentials are believed to be useful for the description of the charged particle scattering/reaction processes.
Quantization of wave equations and hermitian structures in partial differential varieties
Paneitz, S. M.; Segal, I. E.
1980-01-01
Sufficiently close to 0, the solution variety of a nonlinear relativistic wave equation—e.g., of the form □ϕ + m2ϕ + gϕp = 0—admits a canonical Lorentz-invariant hermitian structure, uniquely determined by the consideration that the action of the differential scattering transformation in each tangent space be unitary. Similar results apply to linear time-dependent equations or to equations in a curved asymptotically flat space-time. A close relation of the Riemannian structure to the determination of vacuum expectation values is developed and illustrated by an explicit determination of a perturbative 2-point function for the case of interaction arising from curvature. The theory underlying these developments is in part a generalization of that of M. G. Krein and collaborators concerning stability of differential equations in Hilbert space and in part a precise relation between the unitarization of given symplectic linear actions and their full probabilistic quantization. The unique causal structure in the infinite symplectic group is instrumental in these developments. PMID:16592923
Lovelock, Paul K; Spurdle, Amanda B; Mok, Myth TS; Farrugia, Daniel J; Lakhani, Sunil R; Healey, Sue; Arnold, Stephen; Buchanan, Daniel; Investigators, kConFab; Couch, Fergus J; Henderson, Beric R; Goldgar, David E; Tavtigian, Sean V; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Brown, Melissa A
2007-01-01
Introduction Many of the DNA sequence variants identified in the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 remain unclassified in terms of their potential pathogenicity. Both multifactorial likelihood analysis and functional approaches have been proposed as a means to elucidate likely clinical significance of such variants, but analysis of the comparative value of these methods for classifying all sequence variants has been limited. Methods We have compared the results from multifactorial likelihood analysis with those from several functional analyses for the four BRCA1 sequence variants A1708E, G1738R, R1699Q, and A1708V. Results Our results show that multifactorial likelihood analysis, which incorporates sequence conservation, co-inheritance, segregation, and tumour immunohistochemical analysis, may improve classification of variants. For A1708E, previously shown to be functionally compromised, analysis of oestrogen receptor, cytokeratin 5/6, and cytokeratin 14 tumour expression data significantly strengthened the prediction of pathogenicity, giving a posterior probability of pathogenicity of 99%. For G1738R, shown to be functionally defective in this study, immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed previous findings of inconsistent 'BRCA1-like' phenotypes for the two tumours studied, and the posterior probability for this variant was 96%. The posterior probabilities of R1699Q and A1708V were 54% and 69%, respectively, only moderately suggestive of increased risk. Interestingly, results from functional analyses suggest that both of these variants have only partial functional activity. R1699Q was defective in foci formation in response to DNA damage and displayed intermediate transcriptional transactivation activity but showed no evidence for centrosome amplification. In contrast, A1708V displayed an intermediate transcriptional transactivation activity and a normal foci formation response in response to DNA damage but induced centrosome amplification. Conclusion
The potential for very high-frequency gravitational wave detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cruise, A. M.
2012-05-01
The science case for observing gravitational waves at frequencies in the millihertz-kilohertz range using LIGO, VIRGO, GEO600 or LISA is very strong and the first results are expected at these frequencies. However, as gravitational wave astronomy progresses beyond the first detections, other frequency bands may be worth exploring. Early predictions of gravitational wave emission from discrete sources at very much higher frequencies (megahertz and above) have been published and more recent studies of cosmological signals from inflation, Kaluza-Klein modes from gravitational interactions in brane worlds and plasma instabilities surrounding violent astrophysical events, are all possible sources. This communication examines current observational possibilities and the detector technology required to make meaningful observations at these frequencies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, S.; Nasim, M. H.; Murtaza, G.
2003-11-01
The expressions for the Debye and the wake potential are derived by incorporating dust-charge fluctuations of a single projectile, as well as of an array of dust grain projectiles, propagating through a partially ionized dusty plasma with a constant velocity. Numerically, the effects of the dust-charge fluctuations and the dust-neutral collisions on the electrostatic potential for a single, three, six and ten projectiles are examined. The dust-charge relaxation rate modifies the shape of the Debye as well as the wake potential. For smaller values of the relaxation rates a potential well is formed instead of Debye potential.
Spach, M S; Barr, R C; Lanning, C F; Tucek, P C
1977-02-01
Epicardial and body surface QRS-T wave potential distributions were measured during normal and ectopic sequences in intact chimpanzees. Epicardial potential distributions were used because they provide a comprehensive picture of total cardiac electrical activity for relating heart and body surface events during both ventricular activation and repolarization. When the epicardial potential gradients existed over a distance greater than that to the recording points on the body surface, e.g., as occurred during the overlap of terminal ventricular activation and early repolarization, the epicardial events were mirrored well on the anterior chest surface. However, when the recording points were at a distance greater than that over which the epicardial potential gradients existed, the details of the epicardial events disappeared and their effect was to produce distinct changes in the low-level potentials over broad distant areas. The major manifestations on the body surface of selective epicardial events frequently were changes in the distant low-level potential areas while there was no change in the pattern near the maximum or minimum. The ST-T wave body surface distributions were as useful as the QRS patterns for localizing the ventricular ectopic foci presented. A direct experimental basis is provided for explaining T wave notches which occurred during normal and ectopic beats and resembled U waves. It should be possible to achieve as precise an understanding of ST-T waves on the basis of epicardial potential distributions as has thus far been achieved for QRS on the basis of isochrones. PMID:832342
Loftis, Jennifer M.; Wilhelm, Clare J.; Vandenbark, Arthur A.; Huckans, Marilyn
2013-01-01
Relapse rates following current methamphetamine abuse treatments are very high (∼40–60%), and the neuropsychiatric impairments (e.g., cognitive deficits, mood disorders) that arise and persist during remission from methamphetamine addiction likely contribute to these high relapse rates. Pharmacotherapeutic development of medications to treat addiction has focused on neurotransmitter systems with only limited success, and there are no Food and Drug Administration approved pharmacotherapies for methamphetamine addiction. A growing literature shows that methamphetamine alters peripheral and central immune functions and that immune factors such as cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules play a role in the development and persistence of methamphetamine induced neuronal injury and neuropsychiatric impairments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a new immunotherapy, partial MHC/neuroantigen peptide construct (RTL551; pI-Ab/mMOG-35-55), in treating learning and memory impairments induced by repeated methamphetamine exposure. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to two different methamphetamine treatment regimens (using repeated doses of 4 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg, s.c.). Cognitive performance was assessed using the Morris water maze and CNS cytokine levels were measured by multiplex assay. Immunotherapy with RTL551 improved the memory impairments induced by repeated methamphetamine exposure in both mouse models of chronic methamphetamine addiction. Treatment with RTL551 also attenuated the methamphetamine induced increases in hypothalamic interleukin-2 (IL-2) levels. Collectively, these initial results indicate that neuroimmune targeted therapies, and specifically RTL551, may have potential as treatments for methamphetamine-induced neuropsychiatric impairments. PMID:23460798
Estimation and Monitoring of Wind/Wave energy potential in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zodiatis, George; Galanis, George; Galanis, George; Emmanouil, George; Emmanouil, George; Hayes, Dan; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Georgiou, Georgios; Kalogeri, Christina; Kallos, George
2013-04-01
Τhe adaptation and use of innovative methodologies for the exploitation of renewable energy marine resources is one of the main issues today for the environmental science community. Within this framework, the exploitation of wind and wave energy potential for coastal and island states seems to be one of the promising solutions and highly interesting from research and technological point of view. In this work, the activities of two projects focusing on the study of wind/wave energy over the area of Eastern Mediterranean Sea are presented. The "Integrated High Resolution System for Monitoring and Quantifying the Wave Energy Potential in the EEZ of Cyprus" (Ewave project) focuses on the estimation, monitoring and forecasting of the wave energy potential over the Levantine Basin with special emphasis to the Exclusive Economical Zone of Cyprus, while the "Development and application of new mathematical and physical models for Monitoring the wind and Sea wave Energy Potential" (MOSEP project) is a platform for developing new mathematical algorithms for the estimation of the wave energy over the Aegean Sea. In both projects, high resolution digital atlases of sea wave/wind climatological characteristics and the distribution of the wind and wave energy potential are developed for the coastal and offshore areas of the East Mediterranean sea . Moreover, new models for the prediction and quantification of wave energy in short and long forecast horizons are proposed. Statistical results concerning the probability density functions of the wind speed, the significant wave height, as well as the energy potential will be presented for selected sea areas in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, while test case studies in certain regions favor to wind/wave renewable energy will be discussed.
Detection and analysis of coherent groups in three-dimensional fully-nonlinear potential wave fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanina, E. V.; Suslov, S. A.; Chalikov, D.; Babanin, A. V.
2016-07-01
We investigate the emergence of coherent groups in three-dimensional fully-nonlinear potential deep water waves whose initial spectrum is assumed to be of the JONSWAP type with directional distribution given by cos nθ, where n is the integer varying from 1 to 16. The analysis is based on the results of long-term wave simulations performed using a numerical solution of a three-dimensional Laplace equation for the velocity potential subject to nonlinear kinematic and dynamic boundary conditions at the free surface. The main characteristics of wave groups such as their average velocity, maximum group wave height, lifetime and length are analysed. The statistics of extreme waves occurring in the detected groups are discussed. Spatial and temporal scale characteristics of wave groups are compared to the previous results.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pei, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chung, Chia-Ying; Chou, Shi-Wei; Wong, Alice M. K.; Tang, Simon F. T.
2004-01-01
Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) were investigated in an oddball paradigm to verify electrophysiological evidence of music expectation, which is a key component of artistic presentation. The non-target condition consisted of four-chord harmonic chord sequences, while the target condition was manifested by a partially violating third chord…
Das, J.N.; Paul, S.; Chakrabarti, K.
2004-04-01
Here we report a set of converged cross-section results for double photoionization of helium atoms obtained in the hyperspherical partial wave theory for equal energy sharing kinematics at 6 eV energy above threshold. The calculated cross section results are generally in excellent agreement with the absolute measured results of Doerner et al. [Phys. Rev. 57, 1074 (1998)].
Potential hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures in legacy plutonium oxide packages at Oak Ridge
Veirs, Douglas K.
2014-07-07
An approach to estimate the maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures within sealed containers is described and applied to a set of packages containing high-purity plutonium dioxide. The approach uses experimentally determined maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures and scales the experimentally determined pressures to the relevant packaged material properties. The important material properties are the specific wattage and specific surface area (SSA). Important results from the experimental determination of maximum partial pressures are (1) the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is stoichiometric, and (2) the maximum pressures increase with increasing initial rates of production. The material properties that influence the rates are the material specific wattage and the SSA. The unusual properties of these materials, high specific wattage and high SSA, result in higher predicted maximum pressures than typical plutonium dioxide in storage. The pressures are well within the deflagration range for mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.
Supergravities with positive definite potentials and AdSpp-waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerimo, Johannes
Ten-dimensional superstring theory (or the conjectured nonperturbative M-theory in eleven dimensions) is the most promising candidate for a consistent quantum theory of gravity capable of unifying all known forces of nature. An important question concerning these fundamental theories is how they compactify to lower dimensions and how to obtain a real four dimensional world? In this dissertation we present new avenues for M/string theory to reduce to lower dimensions as well as to four dimensions. For example, we show that by performing a generalized Kaluza-Klein R reduction on the low-energy field theory of the heterotic string, the resulting lower dimensional theory compactifies spontaneously on S3 to give rise to (Minkowski)6 spacetime. Furthermore, a generalized reduction of M-theory on K3 x R compactifies spontaneously on S2 to give rise to a (Minkowski)4 spacetime. The generalized Kaluza-Klein reduction gauges the Cremmer-Julia type global symmetry and the homogeneous rescaling symmetry of the supergravity equations of motion by giving the higher dimensional fields an additional dependence on the circle coordinate. We apply the generalized reduction scheme to half-maximal supergravities which are obtained from the heterotic string (or the NS-NS sector of the type-II string) compactified on a (10 - D)-dimensional torus truncated to the pure supergravity multiplet. This gives rise to new gauged supergravities in diverse dimensions with supersymmetric Minkowski x sphere vacua. Since two large extra dimensions have received much attention recently, we make a detailed study of the gauged D = 6, N = (1,1) supergravity. In particular, we show that this theory allows for a consistent sphere reduction on S2 to give rise to D = 4, N = 2 supergravity coupled to a vector multiplet which can further be truncated to N = 1 supergravity with a chiral multiplet. We also investigate pp-waves in AdS backgrounds, i.e. pp-waves as solutions of gauged supergravities with AdS vacua
Partial wave analysis of the reaction {gamma}p{yields}p{omega} and the search for nucleon resonances
Williams, M.; Applegate, D.; Bellis, M.; Meyer, C. A.; Dey, B; Dickson, R.; Krahn, Z.; McCracken, M. E.; Moriya, K.; Schumacher, R. A.; Adhikari, K. P.; Careccia, S. L.; Dodge, G. E.; Guler, N.; Klein, A.; Mayer, M.; Nepali, C. S.; Niroula, M. R.; Seraydaryan, H.; Tkachenko, S.
2009-12-15
An event-based partial wave analysis (PWA) of the reaction {gamma}p{yields}p{omega} has been performed on a high-statistics dataset obtained using the CLAS at Jefferson Lab for center-of-mass energies from threshold up to 2.4 GeV. This analysis benefits from access to the world's first high-precision spin-density matrix element measurements, available to the event-based PWA through the decay distribution of {omega}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}. The data confirm the dominance of the t-channel {pi}{sup 0} exchange amplitude in the forward direction. The dominant resonance contributions are consistent with the previously identified states F{sub 15}(1680) and D{sub 13}(1700) near threshold, as well as the G{sub 17}(2190) at higher energies. Suggestive evidence for the presence of a J{sup P}=5/2{sup +} state around 2 GeV, a ''missing'' state, has also been found. Evidence for other states is inconclusive.
Partial wave analysis of the reaction γp→pω and the search for nucleon resonances
Williams, M.; Applegate, D.; Bellis, M.; Meyer, C. A.; Adhikari, K. P.; Anghinolfi, M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; et al
2009-12-30
We performed an event-based partial wave analysis (PWA) of the reaction γ p -> p ω on a high-statistics dataset obtained using the CLAS at Jefferson Lab for center-of-mass energies from threshold up to 2.4 GeV. This analysis benefits from access to the world's first high precision spin density matrix element measurements, available to the event-based PWA through the decay distribution of omega-> π+ π - π0. The data confirm the dominance of the t-channel π0 exchange amplitude in the forward direction. The dominant resonance contributions are consistent with the previously identified states F[15](1680) and D[13](1700) near threshold, as wellmore » as the G[17](2190) at higher energies. Suggestive evidence for the presence of a J(P)=5/2+ state around 2 GeV, a "missing" state, has also been found. Evidence for other states is inconclusive.« less
Partial wave analysis of the reaction γp→pω and the search for nucleon resonances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, M.; Applegate, D.; Bellis, M.; Meyer, C. A.; Adhikari, K. P.; Anghinolfi, M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Berman, B. L.; Biselli, A. S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Careccia, S. L.; Carman, D. S.; Cole, P. L.; Collins, P.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Daniel, A.; de Vita, R.; de Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Dey, B.; Dhamija, S.; Dickson, R.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Dupre, R.; Alaoui, A. El; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fradi, A.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Garçon, M.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Hassall, N.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jawalkar, S. S.; Jo, H. S.; Johnstone, J. R.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Krahn, Z.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kuznetsov, V.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; Mayer, M.; McAndrew, J.; McCracken, M. E.; McKinnon, B.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Moreno, B.; Moriya, K.; Morrison, B.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nepali, C. S.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Niroula, M. R.; Niyazov, R. A.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paris, M.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Pereira, S. Anefalos; Perrin, Y.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salamanca, J.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, E. S.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vineyard, M. F.; Voutier, E.; Watts, D. P.; Weygand, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.
2009-12-01
An event-based partial wave analysis (PWA) of the reaction γp→pω has been performed on a high-statistics dataset obtained using the CLAS at Jefferson Lab for center-of-mass energies from threshold up to 2.4 GeV. This analysis benefits from access to the world’s first high-precision spin-density matrix element measurements, available to the event-based PWA through the decay distribution of ω→π+π-π0. The data confirm the dominance of the t-channel π0 exchange amplitude in the forward direction. The dominant resonance contributions are consistent with the previously identified states F15(1680) and D13(1700) near threshold, as well as the G17(2190) at higher energies. Suggestive evidence for the presence of a JP=5/2+ state around 2 GeV, a “missing” state, has also been found. Evidence for other states is inconclusive.
Estimation and Monitoring of Wind-Wave energy potential over the Greek seas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emmanouil, G.; Galanis, G.; Zodiatis, G.; Kalogeri, C.
2013-12-01
The exploitation of renewable energy resources is today on the top of the interest for the environmental and political community. In particular, wind and wave energy seems to be promising solutions with great potential from research and technological point of view. This kind of energy is mostly a matter of coastal and island countries, like Greece. In this work, the first results of a project whose main target is the development of an integrated, high resolution system for quantifying and monitoring the energy potential from wind and sea waves in the region of Eastern Mediterranean Sea, with special emphasis to the Greek area, are presented. More specifically, the models for the estimation of the energy potential, from wind and waves over sea areas, will be discussed. Moreover, atmospheric and sea wave numerical models used for the simulation of the environmental parameters that directly affect the wind-wave energy potential will be evaluated. Based on these tools, high resolution maps for the coastal and offshore areas of Greece will be produced, in which sea wave and wind climatological characteristics as well as the relevant distribution of the wave energy potential will be monitoring.
Evolution of a wave packet scattered by a one-dimensional potential
Khachatrian, A Zh; Alexanyan, Al G; Khoetsyan, V A; Alexanyan, N A
2013-06-30
We consider the evolution of a wave packet that is made up of a group of the wave functions describing the stationary scattering process and tunnels through a one-dimensional potential of arbitrary form. As the main characteristics of the time difference of the tunnelling process, use is made of the propagation speed of the wave-packet maximum. We show that the known Hartman formula for the tunnelling time corresponds to the wave packet with a wavenumber-uniform spectral composition in the case, when the phase and transmission coefficient modulus dispersions are taken into account only in the linear approximation. The amplitude of the main peak of the transmitted wave intensity is proven to be independent of the tunnelling time and is determined by the transmission coefficient of the spectral component at the carrier frequency and the spectral width of the wave packet. In the limit of an infinitely wide potential barrier the amplitude of the wave-packet maximum is shown to tend to zero slower than the tunnelling time tends to its asymptotic value, i.e., indeed we deal with the paradox of an infinitely large propagation speed of a wave disturbance through the barrier. (propagation of wave fronts)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soper, A. K.
2005-09-01
Neutron and x-ray diffraction are widely used to measure the structure of liquids and disordered solids. Using techniques such as isotope substitution or anomalous dispersion or combining neutron and x-ray data, it is sometimes possible to invert the total diffraction patterns from these materials into a set of partial structure factors, which describe the correlations between specific atom types in the material. However, even in situations where the matrix for performing this inversion appears well determined, there are significant uncertainties in the process and it is rarely possible to achieve a unique set of partial structure factors in practice. Based on the much earlier method of F. G. Edwards and J. E. Enderby [J. Phys. C 8, 3483 (1975)] and extending the reverse Monte Carlo method of McGreevy [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13, R877 (2001)] and others, a modified approach is developed here that allows possible atomic distribution functions, which are consistent with the measured data to be explored. The basis of the present approach is that any solution to the inversion process must be derivable from a distribution of nonoverlapping atoms or molecules as in the physical system under investigation. Solutions to the problem of inverting the measured differential cross sections to partial structure factors are then extracted assuming different levels of confidence in the data, confidence being represented by a feedback factor on a scale of 0-1. These different solutions serve to identify where ambiguities exist in the derived partial structure factors, particularly when a particular partial structure factor contributes only weakly to the total diffraction pattern. The method is illustrated using some old diffraction data on molten zinc chloride that have significant uncertainties associated with them, but that have been used extensively as the basis for a number of computer simulations of this material.
Discrete potential waves in the photoreceptors of a gastropod mollusc, Hermissenda crassicornis.
Takeda, T
1982-01-01
Intracellular recording of dark adapted photoreceptors of Hermissenda crassicornis (Opisthobranchia, Gastropoda, Mollusca) revealed the occurrence of depolarizing waves even after blockade of synaptic transmission and postsynaptic potentials by application of low Ca2+ and high Mg2+ solution. Dim illumination increased the frequency of depolarizing waves. These observations show that Hermissenda photoreceptors have discrete waves which have been demonstrated mainly in arthropod photoreceptors. An histogram of intervals between successive discrete waves under continuous dim illumination was exponential, which is characteristic of a Poisson process. Frequency of discrete waves increased linearly depending on numbers of incident photons to the eye. Comparison of probabilities of eliciting a response to brief dim flashes of various intensities to theoretical Poisson sum curves, together with statistical analysis, indicate that the absorption of single photon is sufficient to evoke a discrete wave. PMID:7101766
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zodiatis, George; Galanis, George; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Stylianoy, Stavros; Liakatas, Aristotelis
2015-04-01
The use of wave energy as an alternative renewable is receiving attention the last years under the shadow of the economic crisis in Europe and in the light of the promising corresponding potential especially for countries with extended coastline. Monitoring and studying the corresponding resources is further supported by a number of critical advantages of wave energy compared to other renewable forms, like the reduced variability and the easier adaptation to the general grid, especially when is jointly approached with wind power. Within the framework, a number of countries worldwide have launched research and development projects and a significant number of corresponding studies have been presented the last decades. However, in most of them the impact of wave-sea surface currents interaction on the wave energy potential has not been taken into account neglecting in this way a factor of potential importance. The present work aims at filling this gap for a sea area with increased scientific and economic interest, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Based on a combination of high resolution numerical modeling approach with advanced statistical tools, a detailed analysis is proposed for the quantification of the impact of sea surface currents, which produced from downscaling the MyOcean-FO regional data, to wave energy potential. The results although spatially sensitive, as expected, prove beyond any doubt that the wave- sea surface currents interaction should be taken into account for similar resource analysis and site selection approaches since the percentage of impact to the available wave power may reach or even exceed 20% at selected areas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Luchuan
2015-04-01
A Global Sensitivity Analysis Method on Maximum Tsunami Wave Heights to Potential Seismic Source Parameters Luchuan Ren, Jianwei Tian, Mingli Hong Institute of Disaster Prevention, Sanhe, Heibei Province, 065201, P.R. China It is obvious that the uncertainties of the maximum tsunami wave heights in offshore area are partly from uncertainties of the potential seismic tsunami source parameters. A global sensitivity analysis method on the maximum tsunami wave heights to the potential seismic source parameters is put forward in this paper. The tsunami wave heights are calculated by COMCOT ( the Cornell Multi-grid Coupled Tsunami Model), on the assumption that an earthquake with magnitude MW8.0 occurred at the northern fault segment along the Manila Trench and triggered a tsunami in the South China Sea. We select the simulated results of maximum tsunami wave heights at specific sites in offshore area to verify the validity of the method proposed in this paper. For ranking importance order of the uncertainties of potential seismic source parameters (the earthquake's magnitude, the focal depth, the strike angle, dip angle and slip angle etc..) in generating uncertainties of the maximum tsunami wave heights, we chose Morris method to analyze the sensitivity of the maximum tsunami wave heights to the aforementioned parameters, and give several qualitative descriptions of nonlinear or linear effects of them on the maximum tsunami wave heights. We quantitatively analyze the sensitivity of the maximum tsunami wave heights to these parameters and the interaction effects among these parameters on the maximum tsunami wave heights by means of the extended FAST method afterward. The results shows that the maximum tsunami wave heights are very sensitive to the earthquake magnitude, followed successively by the epicenter location, the strike angle and dip angle, the interactions effect between the sensitive parameters are very obvious at specific site in offshore area, and there
Tandem shock waves in medicine and biology: a review of potential applications and successes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lukes, P.; Fernández, F.; Gutiérrez-Aceves, J.; Fernández, E.; Alvarez, U. M.; Sunka, P.; Loske, A. M.
2016-01-01
Shock waves have been established as a safe and effective treatment for a wide range of diseases. Research groups worldwide are working on improving shock wave technology and developing new applications of shock waves to medicine and biology. The passage of a shock wave through soft tissue, fluids, and suspensions containing cells may result in acoustic cavitation i.e., the expansion and violent collapse of microbubbles, which generates secondary shock waves and the emission of microjets of fluid. Cavitation has been recognized as a significant phenomenon that produces both desirable and undesirable biomedical effects. Several studies have shown that cavitation can be controlled by emitting two shock waves that can be delayed by tenths or hundreds of microseconds. These dual-pulse pressure pulses, which are known as tandem shock waves, have been shown to enhance in vitro and in vivo urinary stone fragmentation, cause significant cytotoxic effects in tumor cells, delay tumor growth, enhance the bactericidal effect of shock waves and significantly increase the efficiency of genetic transformations in bacteria and fungi. This article provides an overview of the basic physical principles, methodologies, achievements and potential uses of tandem shock waves to improve biomedical applications.
A catalogue of potentially bright close binary gravitational wave sources
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Webbink, Ronald F.
1985-01-01
This is a current print-out of results of a survey, undertaken in the spring of 1985, to identify those known binary stars which might produce significant gravitational wave amplitudes at earth, either dimensionless strain amplitudes exceeding a threshold h = 10(exp -21), or energy fluxes exceeding F = 10(exp -12) erg cm(exp -2) s(exp -1). All real or putative binaries brighter than a certain limiting magnitude (calculated as a function of primary spectral type, orbital period, orbital eccentricity, and bandpass) are included. All double degenerate binaries and Wolf-Rayet binaries with known or suspected orbital periods have also been included. The catalog consists of two parts: a listing of objects in ascending order of Right Ascension (Equinox B1950), followed by an index, listing of objects by identification number according to all major stellar catalogs. The object listing is a print-out of the spreadsheets on which the catalog is currently maintained. It should be noted that the use of this spreadsheet program imposes some limitations on the display of entries. Text entries which exceed the cell size may appear in truncated form, or may run into adjacent columns. Greek characters are not available; they are represented here by the first two or three letters of their Roman names, the first letter appearing as a capital or lower-case letter according to whether the capital or lower-case Greek character is represented. Neither superscripts nor subscripts are available; they appear here in normal position and type-face. The index provides the Right Ascension and Declination of objects sorted by catalogue number.
He, Ping; Sun, Hua; Jian, Xi-Xian; Chen, Qiao-Hong; Chen, Dong-Lin; Liu, Geng-Tao; Wang, Feng-Peng
2012-01-01
A series of new bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids was partially synthesized from tetrandrine and fangchinoline and evaluated for their ability to reverse P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. All the test compounds increased the intracellular accumulation rate of rhodamine 123 in MDR cells (Bel7402 and HCT8), and most exhibited more potent MDR-reversing activity relative to the reference compound verapamil. Compounds 8, 10, 13, and 14 enhanced intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin in Bel7402 and HCT8 cells. PMID:22587798
Acoustic Solitary Waves and Sagdeev Potential Triple Roots
Hellberg, M. A.; Baluku, T. K.; Verheest, F.
2010-12-14
Both KdV theory and the standard pseudopotential theory require that solitons and double layers be explicitly super-acoustic, with the pseudopotential {psi}({phi},M) having a maximum at the origin. Recent studies of a variety of different three-component plasmas have shown that they may support finite amplitude solitons at the true acoustic speed of the plasma configuration, M{sub s}. These are associated with triple roots of the Sagdeev potential, and the usual soliton condition is replaced by {psi}''(0,M){<=}0. Sagdeev potentials for speeds marginally greater than M{sub s} then represent solitons of both polarities, one whose amplitude vanishes at M{sub s}(KdV-like), while the other is necessarily finite at M{sub s}('nonKdV-like'). Such coexistence regions have been observed to be linked to a critical plasma compositional parameter value for which {psi}'''(0,M{sub s}) = 0.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boshier, Malcolm; Ryu, Changhyun; Blackburn, Paul; Blinova, Alina; Henderson, Kevin
2014-05-01
The painted potential is a time-averaged optical dipole potential which is able to create arbitrary and dynamic two dimensional potentials for Bose Einstein condensates (BECs). This poster reports three recent experiments using this technique. First, we have realized the dc atom SQUID geometry of a BEC in a toroidal trap with two Josephson junctions. We observe Josephson effects, measure the critical current of the junctions, and find dynamic behavior that is in good agreement with the simple Josephson equations for a tunnel junction with the ideal sinusoidal current-phase relation expected for the parameters of the experiment. Second, we have used free expansion of a rotating toroidal BEC to create matter wave Bessel beams, which are of interest because perfect Bessel beams (plane waves with amplitude profiles described by Bessel functions) propagate without diffraction. Third, we have realized the basic circuit elements necessary to create complex matter wave circuits. We launch BECs at arbitrary velocity along straight waveguides, propagate them around curved waveguides and stadium-shaped waveguide traps, and split them coherently at y-junctions that can also act as switches. Supported by LANL/LDRD.
Exploring Classically Chaotic Potentials with a Matter Wave Quantum Probe
Gattobigio, G. L.; Couvert, A.; Georgeot, B.; Guery-Odelin, D.
2011-12-16
We study an experimental setup in which a quantum probe, provided by a quasimonomode guided atom laser, interacts with a static localized attractive potential whose characteristic parameters are tunable. In this system, classical mechanics predicts a transition from regular to chaotic behavior as a result of the coupling between the different degrees of freedom. Our experimental results display a clear signature of this transition. On the basis of extensive numerical simulations, we discuss the quantum versus classical physics predictions in this context. This system opens new possibilities for investigating quantum scattering, provides a new testing ground for classical and quantum chaos, and enables us to revisit the quantum-classical correspondence.
The impact of sea surface currents in wave power potential modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zodiatis, George; Galanis, George; Kallos, George; Nikolaidis, Andreas; Kalogeri, Christina; Liakatas, Aristotelis; Stylianou, Stavros
2015-11-01
The impact of sea surface currents to the estimation and modeling of wave energy potential over an area of increased economic interest, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, is investigated in this work. High-resolution atmospheric, wave, and circulation models, the latter downscaled from the regional Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) of the Copernicus marine service (former MyOcean regional MFS system), are utilized towards this goal. The modeled data are analyzed by means of a variety of statistical tools measuring the potential changes not only in the main wave characteristics, but also in the general distribution of the wave energy and the wave parameters that mainly affect it, when using sea surface currents as a forcing to the wave models. The obtained results prove that the impact of the sea surface currents is quite significant in wave energy-related modeling, as well as temporally and spatially dependent. These facts are revealing the necessity of the utilization of the sea surface currents characteristics in renewable energy studies in conjunction with their meteo-ocean forecasting counterparts.
Simon, Joseph; Polin, Abigail; Lommen, Andrea; Christy, B; Stappers, Ben; Finn, Lee Samuel; Jenet, F. A.
2014-03-20
The steadily improving sensitivity of pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) suggests that gravitational waves (GWs) from supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) systems in the nearby universe will be detectable sometime during the next decade. Currently, PTAs assume an equal probability of detection from every sky position, but as evidence grows for a non-isotropic distribution of sources, is there a most likely sky position for a detectable single source of GWs? In this paper, a collection of Galactic catalogs is used to calculate various metrics related to the detectability of a single GW source resolvable above a GW background, assuming that every galaxy has the same probability of containing an SMBHB. Our analyses of these data reveal small probabilities that one of these sources is currently in the PTA band, but as sensitivity is improved regions of consistent probability density are found in predictable locations, specifically around local galaxy clusters.
Partial Testing Can Potentiate Learning of Tested and Untested Material from Multimedia Lessons
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yue, Carole L.; Soderstrom, Nicholas C.; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon
2015-01-01
Test-potentiated learning occurs when testing renders a subsequent study period more effective than it would have been without an intervening test. We examined whether testing only a subset of material from a multimedia lesson would potentiate the restudy of both tested and untested material. In Experiments 1a and 1b, participants studied a…
Matter-wave solitons in radially periodic potentials.
Baizakov, Bakhtiyor B; Malomed, Boris A; Salerno, Mario
2006-12-01
We investigate two-dimensional (2D) states in Bose-Einstein condensates with self-attraction or self-repulsion, trapped in an axially symmetric optical-lattice potential periodic along the radius. The states trapped both in the central potential well and in remote circular troughs are studied. In the repulsive mode, a new soliton species is found, in the form of radial gap solitons. The latter solitons are completely stable if they carry zero vorticity (l=0) , while with l not equal 0 they develop a weak azimuthal modulation, which makes them rotating patterns, that persist indefinitely long. In addition, annular gap solitons may support stable azimuthal dark-soliton pairs on their crests. In remote troughs of the attractive model, stable localized states may assume a ringlike shape with weak azimuthal modulation, or shrink into solitons strongly localized in the azimuthal direction, which is explained in the framework of an averaged 1D equation with the cyclic azimuthal coordinate. Numerical simulations of the attractive model also reveal stable necklacelike patterns, built of several strongly localized peaks. Dynamics of strongly localized solitons circulating in the troughs is studied too. While the solitons with sufficiently small velocities are completely stable, fast solitons gradually decay, due to the leakage of matter into the adjacent trough, under the action of the centrifugal force. Investigation of head-on collisions between strongly localized solitons traveling in circular troughs shows that collisions between in-phase solitons in a common trough lead to collapse, while pi-out-of-phase solitons bounce many times, but eventually merge into a single one, without collapsing. In-phase solitons colliding in adjacent circular troughs also tend to merge into a single soliton. PMID:17280170
Electromagnetic wave emitting products and "Kikoh" potentiate human leukocyte functions.
Niwa, Y; Iizawa, O; Ishimoto, K; Jiang, X; Kanoh, T
1993-09-01
Tourmaline (electric stone, a type of granite stone), common granite stone, ceramic disks, hot spring water and human palmar energy (called "Kikoh" in Japan and China), all which emit electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared region (wavelength 4-14 microns). These materials were thus examined for effects on human leukocyte activity and on lipid peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. It was revealed that these materials significantly increased intracellular calcium ion concentration, phagocytosis, and generation of reactive oxygen species in neutrophils, and the blastogenetic response of lymphocytes to mitogens. Chemotactic activity by neutrophils was also enhanced by exposure to tourmaline and the palm of "Kikohshi" i.e., a person who heals professionally by the laying on of hands. Despite the increase in reactive oxygen species generated by neutrophils, lipid peroxidation from unsaturated fatty acid was markedly inhibited by these four materials. The results suggest that materials emitting electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared range, which are widely used in Japan for cosmetic, therapeutic, and preservative purposes, appear capable of potentiating leukocyte functions without promoting oxidative injury. PMID:8406976
Physics of Partially Ionized Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishan, Vinod
2016-05-01
Figures; Preface; 1. Partially ionized plasmas here and everywhere; 2. Multifluid description of partially ionized plasmas; 3. Equilibrium of partially ionized plasmas; 4. Waves in partially ionized plasmas; 5. Advanced topics in partially ionized plasmas; 6. Research problems in partially ionized plasmas; Supplementary matter; Index.
Cooper, J S; Kiiveri, H; Hubble, L J; Chow, E; Webster, M S; Müller, K-H; Sosa-Pintos, A; Bendavid, A; Raguse, B; Wieczorek, L
2015-05-01
Partially selective gold nanoparticle sensors have the sensitivity and selectivity to discriminate and quantify benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene and naphthalene (BTEXN) at concentrations relevant to the US Environmental Protection Agency. In this paper we demonstrate that gold nanoparticle chemiresistors can do so in the presence of 16 other hydrocarbons and that they did not reduce the discriminating power of the array. A two-level full factorial designed experiment was performed on unary, binary, ternary, quaternary, quinary combinations of BTEXN analytes with and without the possibly interfering hydrocarbons. The nominal component concentration of the mixtures was 100 μg L(-1), equivalent to approximately 100 parts per billion (ppb). Concentrations predicted with the random forests method had an average root mean square error of 10-20% of the component concentrations. This level of accuracy was achieved regardless of whether or not the 16 possibly interfering hydrocarbons were present. This work shows that the sensitivity and selectivity of gold nanoparticles chemiresistor sensors towards BTEXN analytes are not unduly affected by the other hydrocarbons that are expected to be present at a petroleum remediation site. PMID:25768651
Some Exact Results for the Schroedinger Wave Equation with a Time Dependent Potential
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, Joel
2009-01-01
The time dependent Schroedinger equation with a time dependent delta function potential is solved exactly for many special cases. In all other cases the problem can be reduced to an integral equation of the Volterra type. It is shown that by knowing the wave function at the origin, one may derive the wave function everywhere. Thus, the problem is reduced from a PDE in two variables to an integral equation in one. These results are used to compare adiabatic versus sudden changes in the potential. It is shown that adiabatic changes in the p otential lead to conservation of the normalization of the probability density.
Potential to kinetic energy conversion in wave number domain for the Southern Hemisphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, H.-J.; Vincent, D. G.
1984-01-01
Preliminary results of a wave number study conducted for the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) using FGGE data for the period January 10-27, 1979 are reported. In particular, three variables (geomagnetic height, z, vertical p-velocity, omega, and temperature, T) and one energy conversion quantity, omega-alpha (where alpha is the specific volume), are shown. It is demonstrated that wave number 4 plays an important role in the conversion from available potential energy to kinetic energy in the Southern Hemisphere tropics, particularly in the vicinity of the SPCZ. It is therefore suggested that the development and movement of wave number 4 waves be carefully monitored in making forecasts for the South Pacific region.
Ouyang, Zi; Mainali, Madan Kumar; Sinha, Neeharika; Strack, Guinevere; Altundal, Yucel; Hao, Yao; Winningham, Thomas Andrew; Sajo, Erno; Celli, Jonathan; Ngwa, Wilfred
2016-01-01
The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using cerium oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) as radical scavengers during accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) to protect normal tissue. We hypothesize that CONPs can be slowly released from the routinely used APBI balloon applicators—via a degradable coating—and protect the normal tissue on the border of the lumpectomy cavity over the duration of APBI. To assess the feasibility of this approach, we analytically calculated the initial concentration of CONPs required to protect normal breast tissue from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the time required for the particles to diffuse to various distances from the lumpectomy wall. Given that cerium has a high atomic number, we took into account the possible inadvertent dose enhancement that could occur due to the photoelectric interactions with radiotherapy photons. To protect against a typical MammoSite treatment fraction of 3.4 Gy, 5 ng-g−1 of CONPs is required to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide. Using 2 nm sized NPs, with an initial concentration of 1 mg-g−1, we found that 2–10 days of diffusion is required to obtain desired concentrations of CONPs in regions 1–2 cm away from the lumpectomy wall. The resultant dose enhancement factor (DEF) is less than 1.01 under such conditions. Our results predict that CONPs can be employed for radioprotection during APBI using a new design in which balloon applicators are coated with the NPs for sustained/controlled in-situ release from within the lumpectomy cavity. PMID:27053452
Ouyang, Zi; Mainali, Madan Kumar; Sinha, Neeharika; Strack, Guinevere; Altundal, Yucel; Hao, Yao; Winningham, Thomas Andrew; Sajo, Erno; Celli, Jonathan; Ngwa, Wilfred
2016-04-01
The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using cerium oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) as radical scavengers during accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) to protect normal tissue. We hypothesize that CONPs can be slowly released from the routinely used APBI balloon applicators-via a degradable coating-and protect the normal tissue on the border of the lumpectomy cavity over the duration of APBI. To assess the feasibility of this approach, we analytically calculated the initial concentration of CONPs required to protect normal breast tissue from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the time required for the particles to diffuse to various distances from the lumpectomy wall. Given that cerium has a high atomic number, we took into account the possible inadvertent dose enhancement that could occur due to the photoelectric interactions with radiotherapy photons. To protect against a typical MammoSite treatment fraction of 3.4Gy, 5ng·g(-1) of CONPs is required to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide. Using 2nm sized NPs, with an initial concentration of 1mg·g(-1), we found that 2-10days of diffusion is required to obtain desired concentrations of CONPs in regions 1-2cm away from the lumpectomy wall. The resultant dose enhancement factor (DEF) is less than 1.01 under such conditions. Our results predict that CONPs can be employed for radioprotection during APBI using a new design in which balloon applicators are coated with the NPs for sustained/controlled in-situ release from within the lumpectomy cavity. PMID:27053452
Time-Averaged Adiabatic Potentials: Versatile Matter-Wave Guides and Atom Traps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lesanovsky, Igor; von Klitzing, Wolf
2007-08-01
We demonstrate a novel class of trapping potentials, time-averaged adiabatic potentials (TAAP), which allows the generation of a large variety of traps for quantum gases and matter-wave guides for atom interferometers. Examples include stacks of pancakes, rows of cigars, and multiple rings or sickles. The traps can be coupled through controllable tunneling barriers or merged altogether. We present analytical expressions for pancake-, cigar-, and ring-shaped traps. The ring geometry is of particular interest for guided matter-wave interferometry as it provides a perfectly smooth waveguide of widely tunable diameter and thus adjustable sensitivity of the interferometer. The flexibility of the TAAP would make possible the use of Bose-Einstein condensates as coherent matter waves in large-area atom interferometers.
Time-averaged adiabatic potentials: versatile matter-wave guides and atom traps.
Lesanovsky, Igor; von Klitzing, Wolf
2007-08-24
We demonstrate a novel class of trapping potentials, time-averaged adiabatic potentials (TAAP), which allows the generation of a large variety of traps for quantum gases and matter-wave guides for atom interferometers. Examples include stacks of pancakes, rows of cigars, and multiple rings or sickles. The traps can be coupled through controllable tunneling barriers or merged altogether. We present analytical expressions for pancake-, cigar-, and ring-shaped traps. The ring geometry is of particular interest for guided matter-wave interferometry as it provides a perfectly smooth waveguide of widely tunable diameter and thus adjustable sensitivity of the interferometer. The flexibility of the TAAP would make possible the use of Bose-Einstein condensates as coherent matter waves in large-area atom interferometers. PMID:17930945
Time-Averaged Adiabatic Potentials: Versatile Matter-Wave Guides and Atom Traps
Lesanovsky, Igor; Klitzing, Wolf von
2007-08-24
We demonstrate a novel class of trapping potentials, time-averaged adiabatic potentials (TAAP), which allows the generation of a large variety of traps for quantum gases and matter-wave guides for atom interferometers. Examples include stacks of pancakes, rows of cigars, and multiple rings or sickles. The traps can be coupled through controllable tunneling barriers or merged altogether. We present analytical expressions for pancake-, cigar-, and ring-shaped traps. The ring geometry is of particular interest for guided matter-wave interferometry as it provides a perfectly smooth waveguide of widely tunable diameter and thus adjustable sensitivity of the interferometer. The flexibility of the TAAP would make possible the use of Bose-Einstein condensates as coherent matter waves in large-area atom interferometers.
Nigro, Lisa M; Hyde, Andrew S; MacGregor, Barbara J; Teske, Andreas
2016-01-01
Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basins and other hypersaline environments contain abundant and diverse microbial life that has adapted to these extreme conditions. The bacterial Candidate Division KB1 represents one of several uncultured groups that have been consistently observed in hypersaline microbial diversity studies. Here we report the phylogeography of KB1, its phylogenetic relationships to Candidate Division OP1 Bacteria, and its potential metabolic and osmotic stress adaptations based on a partial single cell amplified genome of KB1 from Orca Basin, the largest hypersaline seafloor brine basin in the Gulf of Mexico. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis - previously developed based on (14)C incorporation experiments with mixed-species enrichments from Mediterranean seafloor brines - that KB1 has adapted its proteins to elevated intracellular salinity, but at the same time KB1 apparently imports glycine betaine; this compatible solute is potentially not limited to osmoregulation but could also serve as a carbon and energy source. PMID:27597842
The Potential Energy Density in Transverse String Waves Depends Critically on Longitudinal Motion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rowland, David R.
2011-01-01
The question of the correct formula for the potential energy density in transverse waves on a taut string continues to attract attention (e.g. Burko 2010 "Eur. J. Phys." 31 L71), and at least three different formulae can be found in the literature, with the classic text by Morse and Feshbach ("Methods of Theoretical Physics" pp 126-127) stating…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jee-Yon Lee; Hee-Soo Yoo; Jong Sook Park; Kwang-Jin Hwang; Jin Seog Kim
2005-01-01
The spontaneous mixing of helium and air in a helium-inflated balloon is described in an experiment in which the partial pressure of the gases in the balloon are determined from the mole factions and the total pressure measured in the balloon. The results described provide a model for teaching concepts of partial pressure, chemical potential, and…
González-Ibarra, Joaquín; Milewski, Sławomir; Villagómez-Castro, Julio C; Cano-Canchola, Carmen; López-Romero, Everardo
2010-02-01
The first committed step of the biosynthetic pathway leading to uridine-5'-diphospho-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) is catalyzed by glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (GlcN-6-P synthase), an enzyme proposed as a potential antifungal chemotherapy target. Here, we describe the purification and biochemical characterization of the native enzyme from the dimorphic pathogenic fungus Sporothrix schenckii. The availability of the pure protein facilitated its biochemical characterization. The enzyme exhibited subunit and native molecular masses of 79 and 350+/-5 kDa, respectively, suggesting a homotetrameric structure. Isoelectric point was 6.26 and K(m) values for fructose-6-phosphate and L-glutamine were 1.12+/-0.3 and 2.2+/-0.7 mM, respectively. Inhibition of activity by UDP-GlcNAc was enhanced by Glc-6-P and phosphorylation stimulated GlcN-6-P synthase activity without affecting the enzyme sensitivity to the aminosugar. A glutamine analogue, FMDP [N(3)-(4-methoxyfumaroyl)-L-2,3-diaminopropanoic acid] was a more potent inhibitor of activity than ADMP (2-Amino-2-deoxy-D-mannitol-6-phosphate) but the latter was a stronger inhibitor of growth in two culture media. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the purification and biochemical characterization of a non-recombinant GlcN-6-P synthase from a true dimorphic fungus. Inhibition of enzyme activity and fungal growth by specific inhibitors of GlcN-6-P synthase strongly reinforces the role of this enzyme as a potential target for antifungal chemotherapy. PMID:19353425
Four-wave mixing microscopy: a high potential nonlinear imaging method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ehmke, Tobias; Knebl, Andreas; Heisterkamp, Alexander
2015-03-01
In this work we present non-resonant four-wave mixing microscopy as an additional contrast mechanism in nonlinear microscopy. The setup for this technique was based on a commercially available multiphoton microscope setup equipped with a titanium:sapphire-laser and an optical parametric oscillator as light sources. Fundamental system characteristics with respect to the spatio-temporal pulse overlap and the influence of aberrations on the process are presented. Experiments regarding the directionality of the four-wave mixing signal performed on fresh porcine meat showed an average ratio of the backward to forward signal mean intensity of 0.16 +/- 0.01. Nevertheless, structural information is comparable for both detection modalities. This highlights the potential of four-wave mixing microscopy for in vivo applications. Furthermore, results on porcine meat show the additional contrast generated by four-wave mixing. In summary, the results show a great potential of non-resonant four-wave mixing microscopy as label-free imaging modality in the biomedical sciences.
Kato Smoothing and Strichartz Estimates for Wave Equations with Magnetic Potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Ancona, Piero
2015-04-01
Let H be a selfadjoint operator and A a closed operator on a Hilbert space . If A is H-(super)smooth in the sense of Kato-Yajima, we prove that is -(super)smooth. This allows us to include wave and Klein-Gordon equations in the abstract theory at the same level of generality as Schrödinger equations. We give a few applications and in particular, based on the resolvent estimates of Erdogan, Goldberg and Schlag (Forum Mathematicum 21:687-722, 2009), we prove Strichartz estimates for wave equations perturbed with large magnetic potentials on , n ≥ 3.
Quantum mechanics of lattice gas automata: One-particle plane waves and potentials
Meyer, D.A.
1997-05-01
Classical lattice gas automata effectively simulate physical processes, such as diffusion and fluid flow (in certain parameter regimes), despite their simplicity at the microscale. Motivated by current interest in quantum computation we recently defined {ital quantum} lattice gas automata; in this paper we initiate a project to analyze which physical processes these models can effectively simulate. Studying the single particle sector of a one-dimensional quantum lattice gas we find discrete analogs of plane waves and wave packets, and then investigate their behavior in the presence of inhomogeneous potentials. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Selection of the divergence waves on a model viscoelastic coating under a potential flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reutov, V. P.; Rybushkina, G. V.
2008-09-01
The paper is concerned with the established regimes of generation of the divergence (quasistatic) waves on a model viscoelastic coating under a potential flow of an incompressible liquid. Parameters of the effective coating that consists of a strongly damped flexible plate supported by an extended spring foundation are evaluated using the condition of modeling the deformation of the viscoelastic layer of a rubberlike material in the available experiments. The local nonlinearity due to the dependence of a stiffness coefficient of the spring foundation on surface displacement is taken into account together with the generalized Karman nonlinearity. The system of equations and boundary conditions of the problem are simplified and reduced to the dimensionless form in the limit of large losses in the plate. The perturbed potential flow is found to be quasistationary. A system of coupled equations describing the resonant and nonresonant (energetic) interactions of multiple harmonics of the surface displacement is derived for weak bending of the surface and small perturbation of flow velocity potential. Conditions for the selection of the period of the established waves are elucidated in this approximation. For the description of large amplitude divergence waves observed experimentally, the numerical procedure is elaborated based on the usage of an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system following the surface bending. The onset of the essentially nonsinusoidal large amplitude divergence waves and the selection of their period are simulated numerically.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luna, D.; Alexander, P.; de la Torre, A.
2013-09-01
The application of the Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) method to the atmosphere enables the determination of height profiles of temperature, among other variables. From these measurements, gravity wave activity is usually quantified by calculating the potential energy through the integration of the ratio of perturbation and background temperatures between two given altitudes in each profile. The uncertainty in the estimation of wave activity depends on the systematic biases and random errors of the measured temperature, but also on additional factors like the selected vertical integration layer and the separation method between background and perturbation temperatures. In this study, the contributions of different parameters and variables to the uncertainty in the calculation of gravity wave potential energy in the lower stratosphere are investigated and quantified. In particular, a Monte Carlo method is used to evaluate the uncertainty that results from different GPS RO temperature error distributions. In addition, our analysis shows that RO data above 30 km height becomes dubious for gravity waves potential energy calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elboudali, F.; Joulakian, B.
2001-12-01
The (e, 2e) ionization of diatomic lithium Li2 by fast electrons is studied by applying, for the slow ejected electron, an asymptotically exact partial-wave description, which takes into account the diatomic nature of the problem. The ionization is considered as a vertical transition from the lowest vibrational and rotational level of the fundamental electronic state 1Σg+ of Li2 to the fundamental 2Σg+ state of Li2+. After verification of the procedure on the (e, 2e) ionization of diatomic hydrogen H2 for which experimental and theoretical results exist we present the particularities and favourable directions for Li2 targets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scott, Richard
2010-05-01
Propagation of planetary-scale Rossby waves within the stratosphere, and hence the location of wave-induced zonal mean momentum forcing and the resulting Brewer-Dobson circulation, is dynamically determined by the distribution of zonal mean potential vorticity. Steep potential vorticity gradients at the vortex edge act both as a wave-guide for upward propagating waves, as well as increasing the resilience of the vortex edge to wave breaking. Further, the potential vorticity distribution imposes a dynamical constraint on the possible latitudinal extent of wavebreaking, and suggests the importance of breaking planetary-scale waves in the stratospheric surf zone for the driving of tropical upwelling in the lowermost stratosphere. Using simple numerical experiments we examine the effect of the potential vorticity distribution on planetary wave propagation and breaking. In these experiments, the potential vorticity distribution may either be varied directly or implicitly through the effect of finite horizontal resolution, which acts to limit the extent to which wave breaking may steepen potential vorticity gradients at the vortex edge. Details of individual wave breaking events and the secondary circulations they induce are highly sensitive to the potential vorticity distribution, and, in particular, to horizontal resolution. However, in long, forced-dissipative integrations, bulk quantities such as the total time-average tropical upwelling in the lowermost stratosphere appear relatively insensitive to horizontal resolution.
[The cervical somatosensory evoked potential and its relation to F-wave activity].
Strenge, H
1989-06-01
In 6 healthy volunteers aged 18-25 years cervical somatosensory evoked potentials (CEPs) were recorded following stimulation of the right median nerve at the wrist. At the same time the antidromically elicited individual F-waves evoked by any single impulse were recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. By means of selective averaging of the neck responses it could be shown that there was a close relationship between an F-wave-activity of 120-150 microV/stimulus or more during the trial and the appearance or the enhancement of a negative peak occurring 0.5-1.4 ms after the main CEP component N13. An F-wave-activity of more than 224 microV/stimulus regularly resulted in a total change of the CEP configuration. PMID:2503360
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burlak, Gennadiy; Malomed, Boris A.
2012-05-01
We report results of systematic numerical studies of two-dimensional matter-wave soliton families supported by an external potential, in a vicinity of the junction between stable and unstable branches of the families, where the norm of the solution attains a minimum, facilitating the creation of the soliton. The model is based on the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the self-attractive condensate loaded into a quasiperiodic (QP) optical lattice (OL). The same model applies to spatial optical solitons in QP photonic crystals. Dynamical properties and stability of the solitons are analyzed with respect to variations of the depth and wave number of the OL. In particular, it is found that the single-peak solitons are stable or not in exact accordance with the Vakhitov-Kolokolov (VK) criterion, while double-peak solitons, which are found if the OL wave number is small enough, are always unstable against splitting.
Bent waveguides for matter-waves: supersymmetric potentials and reflectionless geometries
Campo, Adolfo del; Boshier, Malcolm G.; Saxena, Avadh
2014-01-01
Non-zero curvature in a waveguide leads to the appearance of an attractive quantum potential which crucially affects the dynamics in matter-wave circuits. Using methods of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, pairs of bent waveguides are found whose geometry-induced potentials share the same scattering properties. As a result, reflectionless waveguides, dual to the straight waveguide, are identified. Strictly isospectral waveguides are also found by modulating the depth of the trapping potential. Numerical simulations are used to demonstrate the efficiency of these approaches in tailoring and controlling curvature-induced quantum-mechanical effects. PMID:24919423
Hammani, Kamal; Finot, Christophe; Millot, Guy
2009-04-15
We present experimental and theoretical results showing efficient emergence of rogue wavelike extreme intensity spikes during the fiber-based induced-modulational instability process driven by a partially incoherent pump. In particular, we show that the rogue event probability can be easily controlled by adjusting the pump-signal detuning. PMID:19370096
ENSO-Related Variability in Wave Climate Drives Greater Erosion Potential on Central Pacific Atolls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bramante, J. F.; Ashton, A. D.; Donnelly, J. P.
2015-12-01
The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) modulates atmospheric circulation across the equatorial Pacific over a periodic time scale of 2-7 years. Despite the importance of this climate mode in forcing storm generation and trade wind variability, its impact on the wave climate incident on central Pacific atolls has not been addressed. We used the NOAA Wavewatch III CFSR reanalysis hindcasts (1979-2007) to examine the influence of ENSO on sediment mobility and transport at Kwajalein Atoll (8.8°N, 167.7°E). We found that during El Nino event years, easterly trade winds incident on the atoll weakened by 4% compared to normal years and 17% relative to La Nina event years. Despite this decrease in wind strength, significant wave heights incident on the atoll were 3-4% greater during El Nino event years. Using machine learning to partition these waves revealed that the greater El Nino wave heights originated mainly from greater storm winds near the atoll. The southeastern shift in tropical cyclone genesis location during El Nino years forced these storm winds and contributed to the 7% and 16% increases in annual wave energy relative to normal and La Nina years, respectively. Using nested SWAN and XBeach models we determined that the additional wave energy during El Nino event years significantly increased potential sediment mobility at Kwajalein Atoll and led to greater net offshore transport on its most populous island. The larger storm waves likely deplete ocean-facing beaches and reef flats of sediment, but increase the supply of sediment to the atoll lagoon across open reef platforms that are not supporting islands. We discuss further explicit modelling of storms passing over the atoll to elucidate the confounding role of storm surge on the net erosional/depositional effects of these waves. Extrapolating our results to recent Wavewatch III forecasts leads us to conclude that climate change-linked increases in wave height and storm wave energy will increase erosion on
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faletič, Sergej
2015-05-01
Interviews with students suggest that even though they understand the formalism and the formal nature of quantum theory, they still often desire a mental picture of what the equations describe and some tangible experience with the wavefunctions. Here we discuss a mechanical wave system capable of reproducing correctly a mechanical equivalent of a quantum system in a potential, and the resulting waveforms in principle of any form. We have successfully reproduced the finite potential well, the potential barrier and the parabolic potential. We believe that these mechanical waveforms can provide a valuable experience base for introductory students to start from. We aim to show that mechanical systems that are described with the same mathematics as quantum mechanical, indeed behave in the same way. We believe that even if treated purely as a wave phenomenon, the system provides much insight into wave mechanics. This can be especially useful for physics teachers and others who often need to resort to concepts and experience rather than mathematics when explaining physical phenomena.
The role of internal waves in larval fish interactions with potential predators and prey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greer, Adam T.; Cowen, Robert K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Tang, Dorothy
2014-09-01
Tidally driven internal wave packets in coastal environments have the potential to influence patchiness of larval fishes, prey, and gelatinous predators. We used the In Situ Ichthyoplankton Imaging System (ISIIS) to synoptically sample larval fishes, copepods, and planktonic predators (ctenophores, hydromedusae, chaetognaths, and polychaetes) across these predictable features in the summer near Stellwagen Bank, Massachusetts, USA. Full water column profiles and fixed depth transects (∼10 m depth) were used to quantify vertical and horizontal components of the fish and invertebrate distributions during stable and vertically mixed conditions associated with tidally generated internal waves. Larval fishes, consisting mostly of Urophycis spp., Merluccius bilinearis, and Labridae, were concentrated near the surface, with larger sizes generally occupying greater depths. During stable water column conditions, copepods formed a near surface thin layer several meters above the chlorophyll-a maximum that was absent when internal waves were propagating. In contrast, ctenophores and other predators were much more abundant at depth, but concentrations near 10 m increased immediately after the internal hydraulic jump mixed the water column. During the propagation of internal waves, the fine-scale abundance of larval fishes was more correlated with the abundance of gelatinous predators and less correlated with copepods compared to the stable conditions. Vertical oscillations caused by the internal hydraulic jump can disperse patches of zooplankton and force surface dwelling larval fishes into deeper water where probability of predator contact is increased, creating conditions potentially less favorable for larval fish growth and survival on short time scales.
Transmission and Reflection of Wave Packets by Asymmetric Semi-Harmonic Potential Barriers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaimes-Nájera, A.
2016-03-01
We study the scattering of a particle by a square barrier potential that has a parabolic hole in between. The barrier is parameterized in such a form that the hole can be partially or completely removed. This can be also chosen to be symmetric or asymmetric with respect to the hole. Some expressions for the phase time are given and the time spent by the particle in the interaction zone of the barrier is calculated. It is shown that the related time delay depends on the symmetry operations that one can do on the potential.
Simple model potential and model wave functions for (H-alkali)+ and (alkali-alkali)+ ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patil, S. H.; Tang, K. T.
2000-07-01
A simple model potential is proposed to describe the interaction of a valence electron with the alkali core, which incorporates the correct asymptotic behavior in terms of dipolar polarizabilities, and the short-range exchange effects in terms of a hard core adjusted to give the correct energy for the valence electron. Based on this potential, simple wave functions are developed to describe the (H-alkali)+ and (alkali-alkali)+ ions. These wave functions exhibit some important structures of the ions, and provide a universal description of the properties of all (H-alkali)+ and (alkali-alkali)+ ions, in particular, the equilibrium separations of the nuclei and the corresponding dissociation energies. They also allow us to calculate the dipolar polarizabilities of Li2+, Na2+, K2+, Rb2+, and Cs2+.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Toncich, S. S.; Collin, R. E.; Bhasin, K. B.
1993-01-01
A technique for a full wave characterization of microstrip open end discontinuities fabricated on uniaxial anisotropic substrates using potential theory is presented. The substrate to be analyzed is enclosed in a cutoff waveguide, with the anisotropic axis aligned perpendicular to the air-dielectric interface. A full description of the sources on the microstrip line is included with edge conditions built in. Extention to other discontinuities is discussed.
Grosprêtre, Sidney; Martin, Alain
2014-12-01
The aim of this study was to examine the collision responsible for the volitional V-wave evoked by supramaximal electrical stimulation of the motor nerve during voluntary contraction. V-wave was conditioned by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the motor cortex at several inter-stimuli intervals (ISI) during weak voluntary plantar flexions (n = 10) and at rest for flexor carpi radialis muscle (FCR; n = 6). Conditioning stimulations were induced by TMS with intensity eliciting maximal motor-evoked potential (MEPmax). ISIs used were ranging from -20 to +20 msec depending on muscles tested. The results showed that, for triceps surae muscles, conditioning TMS increased the V-wave amplitude (~ +250%) and the associated mechanical response (~ +30%) during weak voluntary plantar flexion (10% of the maximal voluntary contraction -MVC) for ISIs ranging from +6 to +18 msec. Similar effect was observed at rest for the FCR with ISI ranging from +6 to +12 msec. When the level of force was increased from 10 to 50% MVC or the conditioning TMS intensity was reduced to elicit responses of 50% of MEPmax, a significant decrease in the conditioned V-wave amplitude was observed for the triceps surae muscles, linearly correlated to the changes in MEP amplitude. The slope of this correlation, as well as the electro-mechanical efficiency, was closed to the identity line, indicating that V-wave impact at muscle level seems to be similar to the impact of cortical stimulation. All these results suggest that change in V-wave amplitude is a great index to reflect changes in cortical neural drive addressed to spinal motoneurons. PMID:25501438
External and internal waves in stream-potential pressure-coordinate dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zirk, Marko; Rõõm, Rein
2014-05-01
In stream-potential dynamics pressure coordinate velocity -→v = {dx/dt,dy/dt,dp/dt} = {vx,vy,vp} = {u,v,ω } is presented in terms of 4D stream-potential {ψ0,ψx,ψy,ψp} -→v = downtriangleψ0 + downtriangle× -→ψ leftrightarrow vi = Giαδαψ0 + ɛαβγδβψγ, with diagonal metric tensor with main elements G11 = G22 = 1, G33 = p2/H2 (H = RT/g is the height scale). Vector potential -→ ψ is further expressed via horizontal curl and divergence of the stream function ω = δxψy - δyψx ≠¡ dp/dt, Ξ = δxψx + δyψy. The wave-vector components in linearized stream-potential dynamics are the scalar flow potential ψ0, surface pressure fluctuation p's, horizontal divergence Ξ and curl ω of the fluctuative part -→ψ' of complete vector potential -→ψ = -→ψ + -→ψ' . Equations for ψ0 and p's form the external wave subsystem δp' δ« ps dξ0 - -→- p2 δ2 -s+ downtriangle2 ψ0dp = 0, -+gH downtriangle2(p's/ps) = A0(ψ ,ω,Ξ), L0ψ0 = ξ0, L0 =-2 -2+downtriangle2, δt 0 dt H δp (1) while the equations for Ξ, ω and temperature fluctuation T' form the internal wave subsystem d-→ξ -→ -→- dT ' Tiω ( ) ( p2 δ2 ) p2 -dt = A (ψ,ω,Ξ), -dt = -p-+Q, L0Ξ = δp p2ξp/H2 , H2- δp2 + downtriangle2 ω = H2-(δyξx - δxξy) (2) with Ti = (R/cp)T - pδpT. In these equations 0 -→ α -→ -→ i iαβ ξ = downtriangle · v = δαv , ξ = downtriangle ×v leftrightarrow ξ = ɛ δαvβ are the 3D divergence and curl of velocity. In the presentation equation systems (1) and (2) are solved both analytically and numerically. Interaction of external waves with stationary internal orographic waves is investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brajanovski, Miroslav; Müller, Tobias M.; Parra, Jorge O.
2010-08-01
In this work we interpret the data showing unusually strong velocity dispersion of P-waves (up to 30%) and attenuation in a relatively narrow frequency range. The cross-hole and VSP data were measured in a reservoir, which is in the porous zone of the Silurian Kankakee Limestone Formation formed by vertical fractures within a porous matrix saturated by oil, and gas patches. Such a medium exhibits significant attenuation due to wave-induced fluid flow across the interfaces between different types of inclusions (fractures, fluid patches) and background. Other models of intrinsic attenuation (in particular squirt flow models) cannot explain the amount of observed dispersion when using realistic rock properties. In order to interpret data in a satisfactory way we develop a superposition model for fractured porous rocks accounting also for the patchy saturation effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deta, U. A.; Suparmi, Cari, Husein, A. S.; Yuliani, H.; Khaled, I. K. A.; Luqman, H.; Supriyanto
2014-09-01
The Energy Spectra and Wave Function of Schrodinger equation in D-Dimensions for trigonometric Rosen-Morse potential were investigated analitically using Nikiforov-Uvarov method. This potential captures the essential traits of the quark-gluon dynamics of Quantum Chromodynamics. The approximate energy spectra are given in the close form and the corresponding approximate wave function for arbitary l-state (l ≠ 0) in D-dimensions are formulated in the form of diferential polynomials. The wave function of this potential unnormalizable for general case. The wave function of this potential unnormalizable for general case. The existence of extra dimensions (centrifugal factor) and this potential increase the energy spectra of system.
Deta, U. A.; Suparmi,; Cari,; Husein, A. S.; Yuliani, H.; Khaled, I. K. A.; Luqman, H.; Supriyanto
2014-09-30
The Energy Spectra and Wave Function of Schrodinger equation in D-Dimensions for trigonometric Rosen-Morse potential were investigated analytically using Nikiforov-Uvarov method. This potential captures the essential traits of the quark-gluon dynamics of Quantum Chromodynamics. The approximate energy spectra are given in the close form and the corresponding approximate wave function for arbitrary l-state (l ≠ 0) in D-dimensions are formulated in the form of differential polynomials. The wave function of this potential unnormalizable for general case. The wave function of this potential unnormalizable for general case. The existence of extra dimensions (centrifugal factor) and this potential increase the energy spectra of system.
Nigro, Lisa M.; Hyde, Andrew S.; MacGregor, Barbara J.; Teske, Andreas
2016-01-01
Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basins and other hypersaline environments contain abundant and diverse microbial life that has adapted to these extreme conditions. The bacterial Candidate Division KB1 represents one of several uncultured groups that have been consistently observed in hypersaline microbial diversity studies. Here we report the phylogeography of KB1, its phylogenetic relationships to Candidate Division OP1 Bacteria, and its potential metabolic and osmotic stress adaptations based on a partial single cell amplified genome of KB1 from Orca Basin, the largest hypersaline seafloor brine basin in the Gulf of Mexico. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis – previously developed based on 14C incorporation experiments with mixed-species enrichments from Mediterranean seafloor brines – that KB1 has adapted its proteins to elevated intracellular salinity, but at the same time KB1 apparently imports glycine betaine; this compatible solute is potentially not limited to osmoregulation but could also serve as a carbon and energy source. PMID:27597842
Fritsche, H M; Aziz, A; Eder, F; Otto, W; Denzinger, S; Wieland, W F; May, M; Hofstädter, F; Hartmann, A; Burger, M
2012-12-01
Incidental prostate cancer is often found in cystoprostatectomy specimens. The presence of a clinically significant tumour has an impact on follow-up strategies. In prostatectomy specimen for prostate cancer, whole-mount sections improve diagnostic accuracy. The present study compares detection of incidental prostate cancer in complete to routine processing. We included 295 consecutive patients who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy. Between 01/1995 and 12/2003 (period I), specimens of 129 patients were partially processed, whereas between 01/2004 and 03/2009 (period II), specimens of 166 patients were completely processed. Incidental prostate cancer was detected overall in 91 (30.8 %) patients. Prostate cancer was detected in 24 (18.6 %) patients in period 1 and in 67 (40.4 %) patients in period 2 (p < 0.001). Potentially clinically significant prostate cancer was detected in 12 (9.2 %) and 29 (17.5 %) patients, respectively (p = 0.044). Complete embedding and processing of cystoprostatectomy specimen yield significantly more potentially clinically relevant prostate cancers. The present data suggest that notably in younger men the specimens should be completely processed. PMID:23052374
Thajeb, P
1996-08-01
Magnetic motor-evoked potential (MEP) study of patients with the syndrome of delayed posthemiplegic hemidystonia, hemiatrophy, and partial or hemi-seizures ('4-hemi' syndrome) has not been described. Among 35 patients investigated for posthemiplegic movement disorders from February 1988 to January 1995, seven showed '4-hemi' syndrome. Clinical work-up, magnetic resonance images (MRI) and/or computed tomography (CT) were performed in all. Transcranial MEP studies were done in five patients. The remote causes of '4-hemi' syndrome were neonatal stroke, trauma, and encephalitis in infancy. The dystonia may occur as long as a decade after the initial insult. MRI or CT showed destructive lesion in the contralateral putamen (five patients), caudate (four), thalamus (five), and atrophy of the contralateral hemisphere (five). Other associations were porencephalic cyst. Wallerian degeneration, and asymmetric compensatory ventriculomegaly. MEP showed abnormalities in the affected upper limbs in four of five patients. The abnormalities were reduced amplitude of the compound muscle action potential following cortical stimulations with or without temporal dispersion, and with or without prolongation of its latency. The peripheral motor conductions following cervical stimulations were normal. MEP abnormalities may not be related to the hemiatrophy and the size of brain lesion per se. The hemidystonia is static after the second decade of life, and it is often difficult to treat. PMID:8884090
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabovich, A. M.; Li, Mai Suan; Pekala, M.; Szymczak, H.; Voitenko, A. I.
2005-03-01
We consider tunnelling between a metal partially gapped by charge density waves (CDWM) and an ordinary metal (M) or a ferromagnet (FM) separated by an insulator (I) in an external magnetic field H. Zeeman paramagnetic splitting is assumed to dominate in the CDWM over orbital magnetic effects. The quasiparticle tunnel current J and relevant differential conductance G are calculated as functions of the bias voltage V. The peaks of G(V), originating from the electron density of states singularities near the charge density wave gap edges, were shown to be split in the magnetic field, each peak having a predominant spin polarization. This effect is analogous to the H-induced splitting of G(V) peaks obtained by Tedrow and Meservey for junctions between normal metals and superconductors (S). Thus, it is possible to electrically measure the polarization of current carriers in such a set-up, although the behaviours of G(V) in the two cases are substantially different. The use of M-I-CDWM junctions instead of M-I-S ones has certain advantages. The absence of the Meissner effect, which weakens the constraints upon the junction geometry and electrode materials, comprises the main benefit. The other advantage is the larger energy range of the charge density wave gaps in comparison to that for superconductors' gaps, so that larger Hs may be applied.
Perceptrons with Hebbian Learning Based on Wave Ensembles in Spatially Patterned Potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Espinosa-Ortega, T.; Liew, T. C. H.
2015-03-01
A general scheme to realize a perceptron for hardware neural networks is presented, where multiple interconnections are achieved by a superposition of Schrödinger waves. Spatially patterned potentials process information by coupling different points of reciprocal space. The necessary potential shape is obtained from the Hebbian learning rule, either through exact calculation or construction from a superposition of known optical inputs. This allows implementation in a wide range of compact optical systems, including (1) any nonlinear optical system, (2) optical systems patterned by optical lithography, and (3) exciton-polariton systems with phonon or nuclear spin interactions.
Perceptrons with Hebbian learning based on wave ensembles in spatially patterned potentials.
Espinosa-Ortega, T; Liew, T C H
2015-03-20
A general scheme to realize a perceptron for hardware neural networks is presented, where multiple interconnections are achieved by a superposition of Schrödinger waves. Spatially patterned potentials process information by coupling different points of reciprocal space. The necessary potential shape is obtained from the Hebbian learning rule, either through exact calculation or construction from a superposition of known optical inputs. This allows implementation in a wide range of compact optical systems, including (1) any nonlinear optical system, (2) optical systems patterned by optical lithography, and (3) exciton-polariton systems with phonon or nuclear spin interactions. PMID:25839313
Efficient calculation of potential energy surfaces for the generation of vibrational wave functions.
Rauhut, Guntram
2004-11-15
An automatic procedure for the generation of potential energy surfaces based on high level ab initio calculations is described. It allows us to determine the vibrational wave functions for molecules of up to ten atoms. Speedups in computer time of about four orders of magnitude in comparison to standard implementations were achieved. Effects due to introduced approximations--within the computation of the potential--on fundamental modes obtained from vibrational self-consistent field and vibrational configuration interaction calculations are discussed. Benchmark calculations are provided for formaldehyde and 1,2,5-oxadiazole (furazan). PMID:15538851
Laboratory study of spiky potential structures associated with multi-harmonic shear-driven EIC waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merlino, Robert; Ganguli, Guru; Kim, Su-Hyun
2015-11-01
A ubiquitous feature of electric fields observed in the Earth's auroral region is their spiky, repetitive nature, and appearance as either unipolar or bipolar pulses. They have been observed on a number of satellites including S3-3, Polar, Viking, and FAST. These spiky structures have been associated with regions of upward ion flows with transverse shear, and multi-harmonic electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) waves. The occurrence of these spiky structures has been attributed to various nonlinear processes, e.g., solitary waves. We will present results of a laboratory experiment performed in a double-ended Q machine, in which spiky potential waveforms were observed in association with coherent multi-harmonic EIC waves in a current-less plasma having a region of parallel ion flow with transverse shear. The spiky waveforms are shown to result from the linear superposition of phase-coherent EIC waves. Work at UI supported by NSF and DOE, work at NRL supported by ONR.
NON-WKB MODELS OF THE FIRST IONIZATION POTENTIAL EFFECT: THE ROLE OF SLOW MODE WAVES
Laming, J. Martin
2012-01-10
A model for element abundance fractionation between the solar chromosphere and corona is further developed. The ponderomotive force due to Alfven waves propagating through or reflecting from the chromosphere in solar conditions generally accelerates chromospheric ions, but not neutrals, into the corona. This gives rise to what has become known as the first ionization potential effect. We incorporate new physical processes into the model. The chromospheric ionization balance is improved and the effect of different approximations is discussed. We also treat the parametric generation of slow mode waves by the parallel propagating Alfven waves. This is also an effect of the ponderomotive force, arising from the periodic variation of the magnetic pressure driving an acoustic mode, which adds to the background longitudinal pressure. This can have subtle effects on the fractionation, rendering it quasi-mass independent in the lower regions of the chromosphere. We also briefly discuss the change in the fractionation with Alfven wave frequency, relative to the frequency of the overlying coronal loop resonance.
Mumoli, Laura; Palleria, Caterina; Gasparini, Sara; Citraro, Rita; Labate, Angelo; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Gambardella, Antonio; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Russo, Emilio
2015-01-01
Brivaracetam (BRV), a high-affinity synaptic vesicle protein 2A ligand, reported to be 10–30-fold more potent than levetiracetam (LEV), is highly effective in a wide range of experimental models of focal and generalized seizures. BRV and LEV similarly bind to synaptic vesicle protein 2A, while differentiating for other pharmacological effects; in fact, BRV does not inhibit high voltage Ca2+ channels and AMPA receptors as LEV. Furthermore, BRV apparently exhibits inhibitory activity on neuronal voltage-gated sodium channels playing a role as a partial antagonist. BRV is currently waiting for approval both in the United States and the European Union as adjunctive therapy for patients with partial seizures. In patients with photosensitive epilepsy, BRV showed a dose-dependent effect in suppressing or attenuating the photoparoxysmal response. In well-controlled trials conducted to date, adjunctive BRV demonstrated efficacy and good tolerability in patients with focal epilepsy. BRV has a linear pharmacokinetic profile. BRV is extensively metabolized and excreted by urine (only 8%–11% unchanged). The metabolites of BRV are inactive, and hydrolysis of the acetamide group is the mainly involved metabolic pathway; hepatic impairment probably requires dose adjustment. BRV does not seem to influence other antiepileptic drug plasma levels. Six clinical trials have so far been completed indicating that BRV is effective in controlling seizures when used at doses between 50 and 200 mg/d. The drug is generally well-tolerated with only mild-to-moderate side effects; this is confirmed by the low discontinuation rate observed in these clinical studies. The most common side effects are related to central nervous system and include fatigue, dizziness, and somnolence; these apparently disappear during treatment. In this review, we analyzed BRV, focusing on the current evidences from experimental animal models to clinical studies with particular interest on potential use in clinical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elsayed, A.; Haran, S.
2010-03-01
Soil liquefaction in Northeast Arkansas (NEA) is expected to result in substantial damage during seismic events. Insitu shear wave velocity (Vs) profile of the subsurface, to a depth of at least 30-meters (according to the International Building Code or IBC), is necessary for determining the "Site Class", which is subsequently used in the structural analysis of buildings, and can be used as a screening tool to evaluate the depth and thickness of potentially liquefiable soil layers. Shear wave velocity profiles at 3 sites in Craighead County, AR were determined utilizing simplified equipment by means of a non-invasive technique. The results indicated good agreement with previous work performed by other researchers. These profiles were used to evaluate the liquefaction resistance at these sites using the simplified procedure by Seed and Idriss (Vs approach). The liquefaction resistance was also evaluated using the Standard Penetration Test (SPT approach) results from the geotechnical investigations that were conducted by others. The equipment and procedure should allow governmental agencies and engineering professional to determine the shear wave velocity profiles of the upper soil zones at relatively low cost. These profiles can aid different agencies in mapping areas of interest and assessing seismic hazard potential during planning future development or evaluating current facilities.
Evolution and Instability of Galactic Gas Disks inresponse to A Spiral Density-wave Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Chi; Yen, D. C.; Wang, H. H.
2006-12-01
We revisit the classic problem of the response of the gas in a galactic disk to an imposed spiral density-wave potential of stellar origin. The results show the distinct difference between waves generated by resonance excitation and forced oscillation. To avoid the confusion of mixing these two types of waves, we systematically reduce the strength of the spiral potential or the force near the primary Lindblad resonances. So we can study the original problem of shock formation and star formation problem formulated by Roberts (1969). For the cases without self-gravitation of the gas disk, in addition to the primary doubly periodic shocks, the presence of the branch-like structures which correspond to the ultra-harmonic resonances is pronounced. On the other hand, once the self-gravitation is included, unlike the work of Chakrabarti et al. (2003), the sub-structures associated with the ultra-harmonics are not necessarily enhanced by the self-gravity. Their growth may be deteriorated by the growth of the primary shocks. Sub-structures other than those identified with the ultra-harmonics may result from shear instability of Rayleigh's kind or gravitational instability of Toomre's kind. They are responsible for the branches, feathers or chaotic sub-structures observed in nearby galaxies in far infra-red. The work is in parts supported by a grant from National Science Council, Taiwan NSC95-2752-M-001-009-PAE.
Potential Hazards of Tsunami Waves along the Chinese coast in the next 100 years
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Y.; Yuen, D. A.; Sevre, E. O.; Shi, Y.
2007-12-01
In the next 100 years the Chinese coast faces potentially non-negligible danger from tsunamogenic earthquakes originating at the neighboring subducting plate boundaries in the Phillipines and the Ryukyu Islands. There are significant differences in the bottom bathymetry between the South China Sea bordering the southern province of Guangdong and the East China Sea and Yellow Sea adjacent to the provinces of Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Shandong. We have found that the linear shallow-water equations can be used to predict with good enough accuracy the travel time of tsunami waves in the South China Sea, but the nonlinear shallow-water equations must be used for the shallower seas next to the northern Chinese provinces. There are some differences in the travel time predictions between the linear and nonlinear theories for the Yellow Sea region. This difference is enough to make a difference in terms of warning. We will use our newly developed probability method, called the probabilistic forecast of tsunami hazards ( PFTH ) for predicting the danger of tsunami waves with a certain height of around 2 meters to impinge on the cities along the Chinese coast in the next century.We have used the Gutenberg-Richter relationship applied locally to each locale for evaluating the probability of the seismic risk for large earthquakes, greater than magnitude 7. We have only included the frequency of shallow large earthquakes to take place . For the southern cities of Hong Kong and Macau, we found that the probability of a 2 meter wave to hit these ports is around 10 % in the next century. Cities in Taiwan are less vulnerable than the large coastal cities on the Chinese mainland. The probability results for the northern cities of Shanghai and Qingdao are around a few per cent for smaller wave heights like one meter or so. But even these smaller waves can be damaging --
Kato Smoothing and Strichartz Estimates for Wave Equations with Magnetic Potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Ancona, Piero
2014-09-01
Let H be a selfadjoint operator and A a closed operator on a Hilbert space {{H}} . If A is H-(super)smooth in the sense of Kato-Yajima, we prove that {AH^{-1/4}} is {√{H}} -(super)smooth. This allows us to include wave and Klein-Gordon equations in the abstract theory at the same level of generality as Schrödinger equations. We give a few applications and in particular, based on the resolvent estimates of Erdogan, Goldberg and Schlag (Forum Mathematicum 21:687-722, 2009), we prove Strichartz estimates for wave equations perturbed with large magnetic potentials on {{R}n} , n ≥ 3.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borja, R. I.; White, J. A.; Liu, X.; Wu, W.
2010-12-01
Rainfall weakens an earth slope and triggers mass movement. Relevant triggering mechanisms are complex and include reduction of capillary pressure due to increased saturation and frictional drag on the sediment induced by fluid flow. Physics-based continuum models utilizing modern computational tools are useful for understanding the mechanisms of deformation in partially saturated slopes; however, they do not provide a scalar indicator called "factor of safety" that measures the potential of a given slope for mass movement. In the present work we employ sequential calculations consisting of a physics-based finite element modeling that couples solid deformation with fluid flow to quantify the stress and deformation fields in a steep hillside slope subjected to rainfall infiltration. This is followed by a limit equilibrium calculation based on the method of slices that evaluates the desired factor of safety. The field condition investigated is similar to the steep experimental catchment CB1 near Coos Bay, Oregon, which failed as a large debris flow from heavy rainfall. We find the pore pressure variation to be a strong link between the continuum and limit-equilibrium solutions: for the same pore pressure variation within the slope, the continuum and limit-equilibrium solutions consistently predicted the same scarp zone for a given slope. Material parameters such as the effective cohesion and friction angle of the sediment tend to influence the timing of failure, but not the failure mechanism itself. Slope topography and rainfall history impact the slope failure mechanism to a great extent.
Gabarró, J; Hernández-Del Amo, E; Gich, F; Ruscalleda, M; Balaguer, M D; Colprim, J
2013-12-01
This study investigates the microbial community dynamics in an intermittently aerated partial nitritation (PN) SBR treating landfill leachate, with emphasis to the nosZ encoding gene. PN was successfully achieved and high effluent stability and suitability for a later anammox reactor was ensured. Anoxic feedings allowed denitrifying activity in the reactor. The influent composition influenced the mixed liquor suspended solids concentration leading to variations of specific operational rates. The bacterial community was low diverse due to the stringent conditions in the reactor, and was mostly enriched by members of Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes as determined by 16S rRNA sequencing from excised DGGE melting types. The qPCR analysis for nitrogen cycle-related enzymes (amoA, nirS, nirK and nosZ) demonstrated high amoA enrichment but being nirS the most relatively abundant gene. nosZ was also enriched from the seed sludge. Linear correlation was found mostly between nirS and the organic specific rates. Finally, Bacteroidetes sequenced in this study by 16S rRNA DGGE were not sequenced for nosZ DGGE, indicating that not all denitrifiers deal with complete denitrification. However, nosZ encoding gene bacteria was found during the whole experiment indicating the genetic potential to reduce N2O. PMID:24183561
Datta, Subimal; O'Malley, Matthew W
2013-03-01
Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation within multiple memory systems including contextual fear extinction memory, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this process. Here, we show that fear extinction training in rats, which extinguished conditioned fear, increased both slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep. Surprisingly, 24 h later, during memory testing, only 57% of the fear-extinguished animals retained fear extinction memory. We found that these animals exhibited an increase in phasic pontine-wave (P-wave) activity during post-training REM sleep, which was absent in the 43% of animals that failed to retain fear extinction memory. The results of this study provide evidence that brainstem activation, specifically potentiation of phasic P-wave activity, during post-training REM sleep is critical for consolidation of fear extinction memory. The results of this study also suggest that, contrary to the popular hypothesis of sleep and memory, increased sleep after training alone does not guarantee consolidation and/or retention of fear extinction memory. Rather, the potentiation of specific sleep-dependent physiological events may be a more accurate predictor for successful consolidation of fear extinction memory. Identification of this unique mechanism will significantly improve our present understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the sleep-dependent regulation of emotional memory. Additionally, this discovery may also initiate development of a new, more targeted treatment method for clinical disorders of fear and anxiety in humans that is more efficacious than existing methods such as exposure therapy that incorporate only fear extinction. PMID:23467372
Fear Extinction Memory Consolidation Requires Potentiation of Pontine-Wave Activity during REM Sleep
Datta, Subimal; O'Malley, Matthew W .
2013-01-01
Sleep plays an important role in memory consolidation within multiple memory systems including contextual fear extinction memory, but little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this process. Here, we show that fear extinction training in rats, which extinguished conditioned fear, increased both slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep. Surprisingly, 24 h later, during memory testing, only 57% of the fear-extinguished animals retained fear extinction memory. We found that these animals exhibited an increase in phasic pontine-wave (P-wave) activity during post-training REM sleep, which was absent in the 43% of animals that failed to retain fear extinction memory. The results of this study provide evidence that brainstem activation, specifically potentiation of phasic P-wave activity, during post-training REM sleep is critical for consolidation of fear extinction memory. The results of this study also suggest that, contrary to the popular hypothesis of sleep and memory, increased sleep after training alone does not guarantee consolidation and/or retention of fear extinction memory. Rather, the potentiation of specific sleep-dependent physiological events may be a more accurate predictor for successful consolidation of fear extinction memory. Identification of this unique mechanism will significantly improve our present understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the sleep-dependent regulation of emotional memory. Additionally, this discovery may also initiate development of a new, more targeted treatment method for clinical disorders of fear and anxiety in humans that is more efficacious than existing methods such as exposure therapy that incorporate only fear extinction. PMID:23467372
Bliokh, K Yu; Bliokh, Yu P
2007-06-01
We present a solution to the problem of partial reflection and refraction of a polarized paraxial Gaussian beam at the interface between two transparent media. The Fedorov-Imbert transverse shifts of the centers of gravity of the reflected and refracted beams are calculated. Our results differ in the general case from those derived previously by other authors. In particular, they obey general conservation law for the beams' total angular momentum but do not obey one-particle conservation laws for individual photons, which have been proposed by [Onoda Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083901 (2004)]. We ascertain that these circumstances relate to the artificial model accepted in the literature for the polarized beam; this model does not fit to real beams. The present paper resolves the recent controversy and confirms the results of our previous paper [Bliokh Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 073903 (2006)]. In addition, a diffraction effect of angular transverse shifts of the reflected and refracted beams is described. PMID:17677378
Bashir, Samina; Ali, Shakir; Khan, Farah
2015-01-01
The present study was designed to assess the potential of supplementation of diet with Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum, L.) oil (FXO), on obesity-related inflammation and reversal of obesity-induced insulin resistance. Swiss Albino mice, C57bl/6 mice and co-culture of 3T3-L1 adipocytes - RAW 264.7 macrophages to mimick obese adipose tissue environment were used for the study. Oral gavage of FXO at concentrations of 4, 8 or 16 mg/kg body weight (bwt) for 4 weeks or high-fat diet (HFD, 60% energy as fat) supplemented with dietary FXO (4, 8 or 16 mg/kg bwt) was given to the mice. FXO was characterised using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. FXO supplemented HFD-fed mice (4 mg/kg bwt exhibited reduced adiposity index, serum glucose levels and triglycerides (8 and 16 mg/kg bwt) and improvement in insulin sensitisation (4, 8 and 16 mg/kg bwt) when compared with HFD mice. The co-culture showed a dose-dependent shift in cytokines towards anti-inflammatory (IL-4) state, with a decrease in pro-inflammatory TNF-α (p < 0.05). For immunomodulatory studies a dose-dependent increase (p < 0.05) was observed in antigen-specific levels of Th2 (IL-4) cytokine, serum anti-ova IgG1 and IgE levels. Suppression in anti-ova IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3 and antigen-specific Th1 cytokines like TNF-α and IFN-γ significantly (p < 0.05) was observed at 16 mg/kg bwt dosage. The results indicate that FXO exhibits an anti-inflammatory immunomodulatory potential and may partially relieve symptoms of obesity-associated insulin resistance. PMID:26107745
Gallet, Basile; Nazarenko, Sergey; Dubrulle, Bérengère
2015-07-01
In field theory, particles are waves or excitations that propagate on the fundamental state. In experiments or cosmological models, one typically wants to compute the out-of-equilibrium evolution of a given initial distribution of such waves. Wave turbulence deals with out-of-equilibrium ensembles of weakly nonlinear waves, and is therefore well suited to address this problem. As an example, we consider the complex Klein-Gordon equation with a Mexican-hat potential. This simple equation displays two kinds of excitations around the fundamental state: massive particles and massless Goldstone bosons. The former are waves with a nonzero frequency for vanishing wave number, whereas the latter obey an acoustic dispersion relation. Using wave-turbulence theory, we derive wave kinetic equations that govern the coupled evolution of the spectra of massive and massless waves. We first consider the thermodynamic solutions to these equations and study the wave condensation transition, which is the classical equivalent of Bose-Einstein condensation. We then focus on nonlocal interactions in wave-number space: we study the decay of an ensemble of massive particles into massless ones. Under rather general conditions, these massless particles accumulate at low wave number. We study the dynamics of waves coexisting with such a strong condensate, and we compute rigorously a nonlocal Kolmogorov-Zakharov solution, where particles are transferred nonlocally to the condensate, while energy cascades towards large wave numbers through local interactions. This nonlocal cascading state constitutes the intermediate asymptotics between the initial distribution of waves and the thermodynamic state reached in the long-time limit. PMID:26274249
Quantum reflection of bright solitary matter waves from a narrow attractive potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marchant, A. L.; Billam, T. P.; Yu, M. M. H.; Rakonjac, A.; Helm, J. L.; Polo, J.; Weiss, C.; Gardiner, S. A.; Cornish, S. L.
2016-02-01
We report the observation of quantum reflection from a narrow attractive potential using bright solitary matter waves formed from a 85Rb Bose-Einstein condensate. We create the attractive potential using a tightly focused, red-detuned laser beam, and observe reflection of up to 25% of the atoms, along with the confinement of atoms at the position of the beam. We show that the observed reflected fraction is much larger than theoretical predictions for a simple Gaussian potential well. A more detailed model of bright soliton propagation, accounting for the generic presence of small subsidiary intensity maxima in the red-detuned beam, suggests that these small intensity maxima are the cause of this enhanced reflection.
Signal reconstruction of the slow wave and spike potential from electrogastrogram.
Qin, Shujia; Ding, Wei; Miao, Lei; Xi, Ning; Li, Hongyi; Yang, Chunmin
2015-01-01
The gastric slow wave and the spike potential can correspondingly represent the rhythm and the intensity of stomach motility. Because of the filtering effect of biological tissue, electrogastrogram (EGG) cannot measure the spike potential on the abdominal surface in the time domain. Thus, currently the parameters of EGG adopted by clinical applications are only the characteristics of the slow wave, such as the dominant frequency, the dominant power and the instability coefficients. The limitation of excluding the spike potential analyses hinders EGG from being a diagnosis to comprehensively reveal the motility status of the stomach. To overcome this defect, this paper a) presents an EGG reconstruction method utilizing the specified signal components decomposed by the discrete wavelet packet transform, and b) obtains a frequency band for the human gastric spike potential through fasting and postprandial cutaneous EGG experiments for twenty-five human volunteers. The results indicate the lower bound of the human gastric spike potential frequency is 0.96±0.20 Hz (58±12 cpm), and the upper bound is 1.17±0.23 Hz (70±14 cpm), both of which have not been reported before to the best of our knowledge. As an auxiliary validation of the proposed method, synchronous serosa-surface EGG acquisitions are carried out for two dogs. The frequency band results for the gastric spike potential of the two dogs are respectively 0.83-0.90 Hz (50-54 cpm) and 1.05-1.32 Hz (63-79 cpm). They lie in the reference range 50-80 cpm proposed in previous literature, showing the feasibility of the reconstruction method in this paper. PMID:26405915
Bloch-like waves in random-walk potentials based on supersymmetry
Yu, Sunkyu; Piao, Xianji; Hong, Jiho; Park, Namkyoo
2015-01-01
Bloch's theorem was a major milestone that established the principle of bandgaps in crystals. Although it was once believed that bandgaps could form only under conditions of periodicity and long-range correlations for Bloch's theorem, this restriction was disproven by the discoveries of amorphous media and quasicrystals. While network and liquid models have been suggested for the interpretation of Bloch-like waves in disordered media, these approaches based on searching for random networks with bandgaps have failed in the deterministic creation of bandgaps. Here we reveal a deterministic pathway to bandgaps in random-walk potentials by applying the notion of supersymmetry to the wave equation. Inspired by isospectrality, we follow a methodology in contrast to previous methods: we transform order into disorder while preserving bandgaps. Our approach enables the formation of bandgaps in extremely disordered potentials analogous to Brownian motion, and also allows the tuning of correlations while maintaining identical bandgaps, thereby creating a family of potentials with ‘Bloch-like eigenstates'. PMID:26373616
Schönberger, Jan; Draguhn, Andreas; Both, Martin
2014-01-01
The mammalian hippocampus expresses highly organized patterns of neuronal activity which form a neuronal correlate of spatial memories. These memory-encoding neuronal ensembles form on top of different network oscillations which entrain neurons in a state- and experience-dependent manner. The mechanisms underlying activation, timing and selection of participating neurons are incompletely understood. Here we studied the synaptic mechanisms underlying one prominent network pattern called sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-R) which are involved in memory consolidation during sleep. We recorded SPW-R with extracellular electrodes along the different layers of area CA1 in mouse hippocampal slices. Contribution of glutamatergic excitation and GABAergic inhibition, respectively, was probed by local application of receptor antagonists into s. radiatum, pyramidale and oriens. Laminar profiles of field potentials show that GABAergic potentials contribute substantially to sharp waves and superimposed ripple oscillations in s. pyramidale. Inhibitory inputs to s. pyramidale and s. oriens are crucial for action potential timing by ripple oscillations, as revealed by multiunit-recordings in the pyramidal cell layer. Glutamatergic afferents, on the other hand, contribute to sharp waves in s. radiatum where they also evoke a fast oscillation at ~200 Hz. Surprisingly, field ripples in s. radiatum are slightly slower than ripples in s. pyramidale, resulting in a systematic shift between dendritic and somatic oscillations. This complex interplay between dendritic excitation and perisomatic inhibition may be responsible for the precise timing of discharge probability during the time course of SPW-R. Together, our data illustrate a complementary role of spatially confined excitatory and inhibitory transmission during highly ordered network patterns in the hippocampus. PMID:25202239
Efficient calculation of potential energy surfaces for the generation of vibrational wave functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rauhut, Guntram
2004-11-01
An automatic procedure for the generation of potential energy surfaces based on high level ab initio calculations is described. It allows us to determine the vibrational wave functions for molecules of up to ten atoms. Speedups in computer time of about four orders of magnitude in comparison to standard implementations were achieved. Effects due to introduced approximations—within the computation of the potential—on fundamental modes obtained from vibrational self-consistent field and vibrational configuration interaction calculations are discussed. Benchmark calculations are provided for formaldehyde and 1,2,5-oxadiazole (furazan).
Chen, Jun; Yang, Jin; Li, Zhaoling; Fan, Xing; Zi, Yunlong; Jing, Qingshen; Guo, Hengyu; Wen, Zhen; Pradel, Ken C; Niu, Simiao; Wang, Zhong Lin
2015-03-24
With 70% of the earth's surface covered with water, wave energy is abundant and has the potential to be one of the most environmentally benign forms of electric energy. However, owing to lack of effective technology, water wave energy harvesting is almost unexplored as an energy source. Here, we report a network design made of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) for large-scale harvesting of kinetic water energy. Relying on surface charging effect between the conventional polymers and very thin layer of metal as electrodes for each TENG, the TENG networks (TENG-NW) that naturally float on the water surface convert the slow, random, and high-force oscillatory wave energy into electricity. On the basis of the measured output of a single TENG, the TENG-NW is expected to give an average power output of 1.15 MW from 1 km(2) surface area. Given the compelling features, such as being lightweight, extremely cost-effective, environmentally friendly, easily implemented, and capable of floating on the water surface, the TENG-NW renders an innovative and effective approach toward large-scale blue energy harvesting from the ocean. PMID:25719956
Variety of the Wave Change in Compound Muscle Action Potential in an Animal Model
Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Muramoto, Akio; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Kenyu; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Tsushima, Mikito; Matsumoto, Akiyuki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Morozumi, Masayoshi; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki
2015-01-01
Study Design Animal study. Purpose To review the present warning point criteria of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and investigate new criteria for spinal surgery safety using an animal model. Overview of Literature Little is known about correlation palesis and amplitude of spinal cord monitoring. Methods After laminectomy of the tenth thoracic spinal lamina, 2-140 g force was delivered to the spinal cord with a tension gage to create a bilateral contusion injury. The study morphology change of the CMAP wave and locomotor scale were evaluated for one month. Results Four different types of wave morphology changes were observed: no change, amplitude decrease only, morphology change only, and amplitude and morphology change. Amplitude and morphology changed simultaneously and significantly as the injury force increased (p<0.05) Locomotor scale in the amplitude and morphology group worsened more than the other groups. Conclusions Amplitude and morphology change of the CMAP wave exists and could be the key of the alarm point in CMAP. PMID:26713129
Analysis of synoptic scale controlling factors in the distribution of gravity wave potential energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Shih-Sian; Pan, C. J.; Das, Uma; Lai, H. C.
2015-12-01
In the past years, global morphology and climatology of gravity waves have been widely studied and the effects of topography and convection systems have been evaluated, but the complete gravity wave distribution could not be explained by these effects. To find the missing controlling factors, a series of synoptic scale analyses is performed in the present study to investigate relationships between synoptic scale factors and potential energy (Ep) associated with gravity waves. Global distribution of Ep during a 12-year period from 2002 to 2013 is derived using temperature profiles retrieved from observations of Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument onboard the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. Synoptic scale factors obtained from ECMWF Interim reanalysis data are employed to investigate the correlation between synoptic systems and Ep. It is found that Ep values are high around extratropical cyclones over mid-latitudes (30-60°) and around the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over low-latitudes (10-30°). Ep values are low around subtropical highs over both mid- and low-latitudes. This is the first time that a synoptic scale analysis of Ep distribution is performed, and the influence of synoptic scale factors on Ep confirmed.
Bliokh, K. Yu.; Bliokh, Yu. P.
2007-06-15
We present a solution to the problem of partial reflection and refraction of a polarized paraxial Gaussian beam at the interface between two transparent media. The Fedorov-Imbert transverse shifts of the centers of gravity of the reflected and refracted beams are calculated. Our results differ in the general case from those derived previously by other authors. In particular, they obey general conservation law for the beams' total angular momentum but do not obey one-particle conservation laws for individual photons, which have been proposed by [Onoda et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 083901 (2004)]. We ascertain that these circumstances relate to the artificial model accepted in the literature for the polarized beam; this model does not fit to real beams. The present paper resolves the recent controversy and confirms the results of our previous paper [Bliokh et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 073903 (2006)]. In addition, a diffraction effect of angular transverse shifts of the reflected and refracted beams is described.
Energies and wave functions for a soft-core Coulomb potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, Richard L.; Saad, Nasser; Sen, K. D.; Ciftci, Hakan
2009-09-01
For the family of model soft-core Coulomb potentials represented by V(r)=-[Z/(rq+βq)1/q] , with the parameters Z>0,β>0,q≥1 , it is shown analytically that the potentials and eigenvalues, Eνℓ , are monotonic in each parameter. The potential envelope method is applied to obtain approximate analytic estimates in terms of the known exact spectra for pure power potentials. For the case q=1 , the asymptotic iteration method is used to find exact analytic results for the eigenvalues Eνℓ and corresponding wave functions, expressed in terms of Z and β . A proof is presented establishing the general concavity of the scaled electron density near the nucleus resulting from the truncated potentials for all q . Based on an analysis of extensive numerical calculations, it is conjectured that the crossing between the pair of states [(ν,ℓ),(ν',ℓ')] is given by the conditions ν'≥(ν+1) and ℓ'≥(ℓ+3) . The significance of these results for the interaction of intense laser field with an atom is pointed out. Differences in the observed level-crossing effects between the soft-core potentials and the hydrogen atom confined inside an impenetrable sphere are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marino, Raffaele; Rosenberg, Duane; Herbert, Corentin; Pouquet, Annick
2015-11-01
The interplay between waves and eddies in stably stratified rotating flows is investigated by means of world-class direct numerical simulations using up to 30723 grid points. Strikingly, we find that the shift from vortex- to wave-dominated dynamics occurs at a wave number k R which does not depend on the Reynolds number, suggesting that the partition of energy between wave and vortical modes is not sensitive to the development of turbulence at the smaller scales. We also show that k R is comparable to the wave number at which exchanges between kinetic and potential modes stabilize at close to equipartition, emphasizing the role of potential energy, as conjectured in the atmosphere and the oceans. Moreover, k R varies as the inverse of the Froude number as explained by the scaling prediction proposed, consistently with recent observations and modeling of the Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere and of the ocean.
Nonlinear wave dynamics near phase transition in PT-symmetric localized potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nixon, Sean; Yang, Jianke
2016-09-01
Nonlinear wave propagation in parity-time symmetric localized potentials is investigated analytically near a phase-transition point where a pair of real eigenvalues of the potential coalesce and bifurcate into the complex plane. Necessary conditions for a phase transition to occur are derived based on a generalization of the Krein signature. Using the multi-scale perturbation analysis, a reduced nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) is derived for the amplitude of localized solutions near phase transition. Above the phase transition, this ODE predicts a family of stable solitons not bifurcating from linear (infinitesimal) modes under a certain sign of nonlinearity. In addition, it predicts periodically-oscillating nonlinear modes away from solitons. Under the opposite sign of nonlinearity, it predicts unbounded growth of solutions. Below the phase transition, solution dynamics is predicted as well. All analytical results are compared to direct computations of the full system and good agreement is observed.
Potential Impacts of Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies on Aquatic Environments
Čada, Glenn F.
2007-04-01
A new generation of hydropower technologies, the kinetic hydro and wave energy conversion devices, offers the possibility of generating electricity from the movements of water, without the need for dams and diversions. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 encouraged the development of these sources of renewable energy in the United States, and there is growing interest in deploying them globally. The technologies that would extract electricity from free-flowing streams, estuaries, and oceans have not been widely tested. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy convened a workshop to (1) identify the varieties of hydrokinetic energy and wave energy conversion devices and their stages of development, (2) identify where these technologies can best operate, (3) identify the potential environmental issues associated with these technologies and possible mitigation measures, and (4) develop a list of research needs and/or practical solutions to address unresolved environmental issues. The article reviews the results of that workshop, focusing on potential effects on freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems, and we describe recent national and international developments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Zongbo; Xia, Jianghai; Luo, Yinhe; Cheng, Feng; Pan, Yudi
2016-04-01
People have calculated Rayleigh-wave phase velocities from vertical component of ambient seismic noise for several years. Recently, researchers started to extract Love waves from transverse component recordings of ambient noise, where "transverse" is defined as the direction perpendicular to a great-circle path or a line in small scale through observation sensors. Most researches assumed Rayleigh waves could be negligible, but Rayleigh waves can exist in the transverse component when Rayleigh waves propagate in other directions besides radial direction. In study of data acquired in western Junggar Basin near Karamay city, China, after processing the transverse component recordings of ambient noise, we obtain two energy trends, which are distinguished with Rayleigh-wave and Love-wave phase velocities, in the frequency-velocity domain using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). Rayleigh waves could be also extracted from the transverse component data. Because Rayleigh-wave and Love-wave phase velocities are close in high frequencies (>0.1 Hz), two kinds of surface waves might be merged in the frequency-velocity domain. Rayleigh-wave phase velocities may be misidentified as Love-wave phase velocities. To get accurate surface-wave phase velocities from the transverse component data using seismic interferometry in investigating the shallow geology, our results suggest using MASW to calculate real Love-wave phase velocities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeyl, Timothy; Yin, Erwei; Keightley, Michelle; Chau, Tom
2016-04-01
Objective. Error-related potentials (ErrPs) have the potential to guide classifier adaptation in BCI spellers, for addressing non-stationary performance as well as for online optimization of system parameters, by providing imperfect or partial labels. However, the usefulness of ErrP-based labels for BCI adaptation has not been established in comparison to other partially supervised methods. Our objective is to make this comparison by retraining a two-step P300 speller on a subset of confident online trials using naïve labels taken from speller output, where confidence is determined either by (i) ErrP scores, (ii) posterior target scores derived from the P300 potential, or (iii) a hybrid of these scores. We further wish to evaluate the ability of partially supervised adaptation and retraining methods to adjust to a new stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA), a necessary step towards online SOA optimization. Approach. Eleven consenting able-bodied adults attended three online spelling sessions on separate days with feedback in which SOAs were set at 160 ms (sessions 1 and 2) and 80 ms (session 3). A post hoc offline analysis and a simulated online analysis were performed on sessions two and three to compare multiple adaptation methods. Area under the curve (AUC) and symbols spelled per minute (SPM) were the primary outcome measures. Main results. Retraining using supervised labels confirmed improvements of 0.9 percentage points (session 2, p < 0.01) and 1.9 percentage points (session 3, p < 0.05) in AUC using same-day training data over using data from a previous day, which supports classifier adaptation in general. Significance. Using posterior target score alone as a confidence measure resulted in the highest SPM of the partially supervised methods, indicating that ErrPs are not necessary to boost the performance of partially supervised adaptive classification. Partial supervision significantly improved SPM at a novel SOA, showing promise for eventual online SOA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gourdol, L.; Hissler, C.; Pfister, L.
2012-04-01
The Luxembourg sandstone aquifer is of major relevance for the national supply of drinking water in Luxembourg. The city of Luxembourg (20% of the country's population) gets almost 2/3 of its drinking water from this aquifer. As a consequence, the study of both the groundwater hydrochemistry, as well as its spatial and temporal variations, are considered as of highest priority. Since 2005, a monitoring network has been implemented by the Water Department of Luxembourg City, with a view to a more sustainable management of this strategic water resource. The data collected to date forms a large and complex dataset, describing spatial and temporal variations of many hydrochemical parameters. The data treatment issue is tightly connected to this kind of water monitoring programs and complex databases. Standard multivariate statistical techniques, such as principal components analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, have been widely used as unbiased methods for extracting meaningful information from groundwater quality data and are now classically used in many hydrogeological studies, in particular to characterize temporal or spatial hydrochemical variations induced by natural and anthropogenic factors. But these classical multivariate methods deal with two-way matrices, usually parameters/sites or parameters/time, while often the dataset resulting from qualitative water monitoring programs should be seen as a datacube parameters/sites/time. Three-way matrices, such as the one we propose here, are difficult to handle and to analyse by classical multivariate statistical tools and thus should be treated with approaches dealing with three-way data structures. One possible analysis approach consists in the use of partial triadic analysis (PTA). The PTA was previously used with success in many ecological studies but never to date in the domain of hydrogeology. Applied to the dataset of the Luxembourg Sandstone aquifer, the PTA appears as a new promising statistical
Potential health effects of standing waves generated by low frequency noise.
Ziaran, Stanislav
2013-01-01
The main aim is to present the available updated knowledge regarding the potential health effects of standing waves generated by low frequency noise (LFN) from an open window in a moving car where the negative effects of LFN induced by heating components and/or heating, ventilation and air-conditioning are assessed. Furthermore, the assessment of noise in chosen enclosed spaces, such as rooms, offices, and classrooms, or other LFN sources and their effect on the human being were investigated. These types of noise are responsible for disturbance during relaxation, sleep, mental work, education, and concentration, which may reflect negatively on the comfort and health of the population and on the mental state of people such as scientific staff and students. The assessment points out the most exposed areas, and analyzes the conditions of standing wave generation in these rooms caused by outdoor and/or indoor sources. Measurements were made for three different enclosed spaces (office, flat, and passenger car) and sources (traffic specific noise at intersections, noise induced by pipe vibration, and aerodynamic noise) and their operating conditions. For the detection of LFN, the A-weighted sound pressure level and vibration were measured and a fast Fourier transform analysis was used. The LFN sources are specified and the direct effects on the human are reported. Finally, this paper suggests the possibilities for the assessment of LFN and some possible measures that can be taken to prevent or reduce them. PMID:23771422
Current status of a coupled-channel partial wave analysis using data from CLAS at Jefferson Lab
M. Bellis, Z. Krahn, M. McCracken, C. Meyer and M. Williams
2009-04-01
The non-strange baryon spectrum has been mapped out predominantly by studying N π elastic scattering with phase-shift analysis as the tool of choice. While there has been much success with these experimental techniques, the results have fueled debates in the community, most notably regarding the missing baryons problem. Theoretical solutions to this discrepancy appeal to a diquark-system within the baryons or a coupling to states other than N π. The CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab has turned out high-statistics, photoproduction datasets which are optimal for resolving these issues. However, new analytical techniques may be required to deal with this rich physics sector. The baryon resonances are photoproduced off liquid hydrogen and the CLAS detector allows us to measure a variety of final states. We will have access to nπ +, pπ 0, pπ + π −, pω,pη, pη′, ΛK + and ΣK + final states. A robust software package has been developed that allows for the fitting of these states individually and in a coupled-channel mode. We make use of flexible C++ based tools that allow fast and general calculations of amplitudes based on a covariant tensor formalism. New techniques have been applied to background subtraction which brings an added level of consistency to the analysis. Polarization information from other experiments is incorporated at fit time to help distinguish potentially ambiguous physics processes by using information outside of the CLAS datasets. Some of these channels have more mature analysis (pω,ΛK +) and the preliminary measuremen will be shown as well as an overview of the analysis tools.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Min-Cang
2013-11-01
The arbitrary l-wave solutions to the Schrödinger equation for the deformed hyperbolic Eckart potential is investigated analytically by using the Nikiforov—Uvarov method. The centrifugal term is treated with the improved Greene and Aldrich approximation scheme. The wave functions are expressed in terms of the Jacobi polynomial or the hypergeometric function. The discrete spectrum is obtained and it is shown that the deformed hyperbolic Eckart potential is a shape-invariant potential and the bound state energy is independent of the deformation parameter q.
Form factors and the s-wave component of the two-pion-exchange three-nucleon potential
Robilotta, M.R.; Isidro Filho, M.P.; Coelho, H.T.; Das, T.K.
1985-02-01
We argue that the straightforward introduction of ..pi..N form factors into the s-wave component of the two-pion-exchange three-nucleon potential based on chiral symmetry is not free of problems. These can be avoided by means of a redefinition of the potential which considers its physical content.
Reconstruction of multiple gastric electrical wave fronts using potential-based inverse methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, J. H. K.; Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K.
2012-08-01
One approach for non-invasively characterizing gastric electrical activity, commonly used in the field of electrocardiography, involves solving an inverse problem whereby electrical potentials on the stomach surface are directly reconstructed from dense potential measurements on the skin surface. To investigate this problem, an anatomically realistic torso model and an electrical stomach model were used to simulate potentials on stomach and skin surfaces arising from normal gastric electrical activity. The effectiveness of the Greensite-Tikhonov or the Tikhonov inverse methods were compared under the presence of 10% Gaussian noise with either 84 or 204 body surface electrodes. The stability and accuracy of the Greensite-Tikhonov method were further investigated by introducing varying levels of Gaussian signal noise or by increasing or decreasing the size of the stomach by 10%. Results showed that the reconstructed solutions were able to represent the presence of propagating multiple wave fronts and the Greensite-Tikhonov method with 204 electrodes performed best (correlation coefficients of activation time: 90%; pacemaker localization error: 3 cm). The Greensite-Tikhonov method was stable with Gaussian noise levels up to 20% and 10% change in stomach size. The use of 204 rather than 84 body surface electrodes improved the performance; however, for all investigated cases, the Greensite-Tikhonov method outperformed the Tikhonov method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valbuena, M. A.; Avila, J.; Pantin, V.; Drouard, S.; Guyot, H.; Asensio, M. C.
2006-05-01
Low dimensional (LD) metallic oxides have been a subject of continuous interest in the last two decades, mainly due to the electronic instabilities that they present at low temperatures. In particular, charge density waves (CDW) instabilities associated with a strong electron-phonon interaction have been found in Molybdenum metallic oxides such as KMo 6O 17 purple bronze. We report an angle resolved photoemission (ARPES) study from room temperature (RT) to T ˜40 K well below the Peierls transition temperature for this material, with CDW transition temperature TCDW ˜120 K. We have focused on photoemission spectra along ΓM high symmetry direction as well as photoemission measurements were taken as a function of temperature at one representative kF point in the Brillouin zone in order to look for the characteristic gap opening after the phase transition. We found out a pseudogap opening and a decrease in the density of states near the Fermi energy, EF, consistent with the partial removal of the nested portions of the Fermi surface (FS) at temperature below the CDW transition. In order to elucidate possible Fermi liquid (FL) or non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behaviour we have compared the ARPES data with that one reported on quasi-1D K 0.3MoO 3 blue bronze.
Partial wave analysis of the reaction p(3.5 GeV) + p → pK+ Λ to search for the "ppK–" bound state
Agakishiev, G.; Arnold, O.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; et al
2015-01-26
Employing the Bonn–Gatchina partial wave analysis framework (PWA), we have analyzed HADES data of the reaction p(3.5GeV) + p → pK+Λ. This reaction might contain information about the kaonic cluster “ppK-” (with quantum numbers JP=0- and total isospin I =1/2) via its decay into pΛ. Due to interference effects in our coherent description of the data, a hypothetical K ¯NN (or, specifically “ppK-”) cluster signal need not necessarily show up as a pronounced feature (e.g. a peak) in an invariant mass spectrum like pΛ. Our PWA analysis includes a variety of resonant and non-resonant intermediate states and delivers a goodmore » description of our data (various angular distributions and two-hadron invariant mass spectra) without a contribution of a K ¯NN cluster. At a confidence level of CLs=95% such a cluster cannot contribute more than 2–12% to the total cross section with a pK+ Λ final state, which translates into a production cross-section between 0.7 μb and 4.2 μb, respectively. The range of the upper limit depends on the assumed cluster mass, width and production process.« less
Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S; Bhethanabotla, Venkat R
2009-03-01
We develop a 3-D finite element model of a focused surface acoustic wave (F-SAW) device based on LiNbO(3) to analyze the wave generation and propagation characteristics for devices operating at MHz frequencies with varying applied input voltages. We compare the F-SAW device to a conventional SAW device with similar substrate dimensions and transducer finger periodicity. SAW devices with concentrically shaped focused interdigital transducer fingers (F-IDTs) are found to excite waves with high intensity and high beam-width compression ratio, confined to a small localized area. F-SAW devices are more sensitive to amplitude variations at regions close to the focal point than conventional SAW devices having uniform IDT configuration. We compute F-SAW induced streaming forces and velocity fields by applying a successive approximation technique to the Navier-Stokes equation (Nyborg's theory). The maximum streaming force obtained at the focal point varies as the square of the applied input voltage. Computed streaming velocities at the focal point in F-SAW devices are at least an order of magnitude higher than those in conventional SAW devices. Simulated frequency response indicates higher insertion losses in F-SAW devices than in conventional devices, reflecting their greater utility as actuators than as sensors. Our simulation findings suggest that F-SAW devices can be utilized effectively for actuation in microfluidic applications involving diffusion limited transport processes. PMID:19411221
Singh, K
2015-01-01
Mobile phone (MP) is commonly used communication tool. Electromagnetic waves (EMWs) emitted from MP may have potential health hazards. So, it was planned to study the effect of electromagnetic waves (EMWs) emitted from the mobile phone on brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) in male subjects in the age group of 20-40 years. BAEPs were recorded using standard method of 10-20 system of electrode placement and sound click stimuli of specified intensity, duration and frequency.Right ear was exposed to EMW emitted from MP for about 10 min. On comparison of before and after exposure to MP in right ear (found to be dominating ear), there was significant increase in latency of II, III (p < 0.05) and V (p < 0.001) wave, amplitude of I-Ia wave (p < 0.05) and decrease in IPL of III-V wave (P < 0.05) after exposure to MP. But no significant change was found in waves of BAEP in left ear before vs after MP. On comparison of right (having exposure routinely as found to be dominating ear) and left ears (not exposed to MP), before exposure to MP, IPL of IIl-V wave and amplitude of V-Va is more (< 0.001) in right ear compared to more latency of III and IV wave (< 0.001) in left ear. After exposure to MP, the amplitude of V-Va was (p < 0.05) more in right ear compared to left ear. In conclusion, EMWs emitted from MP affects the auditory potential. PMID:27530007
Continuous-wave infrared optical nerve stimulation for potential diagnostic applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tozburun, Serhat; Cilip, Christopher M.; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Burnett, Arthur L.; Fried, Nathaniel M.
2010-09-01
Optical nerve stimulation using infrared laser radiation has recently been developed as a potential alternative to electrical nerve stimulation. However, recent studies have focused primarily on pulsed delivery of the laser radiation and at relatively low pulse rates. The objective of this study is to demonstrate faster optical stimulation of the prostate cavernous nerves using continuous-wave (cw) infrared laser radiation for potential diagnostic applications. A thulium fiber laser (λ=1870 nm) is used for noncontact optical stimulation of the rat prostate cavernous nerves in vivo. Optical nerve stimulation, as measured by an intracavernous pressure (ICP) response in the penis, is achieved with the laser operating in either cw mode, or with a 5-ms pulse duration at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 100 Hz. Successful optical stimulation is observed to be primarily dependent on a threshold nerve temperature (42 to 45 °C), rather than an incident fluence, as previously reported. cw optical nerve stimulation provides a significantly faster ICP response time using a lower power (and also less expensive) laser than pulsed stimulation. cw optical nerve stimulation may therefore represent an alternative mode of stimulation for intraoperative diagnostic applications where a rapid response is critical, such as identification of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Jun; Donovan, E.; Ni, B.; Yue, C.; Jiang, F.; Angelopoulos, V.
2014-10-01
Ion precipitation mechanisms are usually energy dependent and contingent upon magnetospheric/ionospheric locations. Therefore, the pattern of energy-latitude dependence of ion precipitation boundaries seen by low Earth orbit satellites can be implicative of the mechanism(s) underlying the precipitation. The pitch angle scattering of ions led by the field line curvature, a well-recognized mechanism of ion precipitation in the central plasma sheet (CPS), leads to one common pattern of energy-latitude dispersion, in that the ion precipitation flux diminishes at higher (lower) latitudes for protons with lower (higher) energies. In this study, we introduce one other systematically existing pattern of energy-latitude dispersion of ion precipitation, in that the lower energy ion precipitation extends to lower latitude than the higher-energy ion precipitation. Via investigating such a "reversed" energy-latitude dispersion pattern, we explore possible mechanisms of ion precipitation other than the field line curvature scattering. We demonstrate via theories and simulations that the H-band electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave is capable of preferentially scattering keV protons in the CPS and potentially leads to the reversed energy-latitude dispersion of proton precipitation. We then present detailed event analyses and provide support to a linkage between the EMIC waves in the equatorial CPS and ion precipitation events with reversed energy-latitude dispersion. We also discuss the role of ion acceleration in the topside ionosphere which, together with the CPS ion population, may result in a variety of energy-latitude distributions of the overall ion precipitation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreev, Pavel A.; Iqbal, Z.
2016-03-01
We consider the separate spin evolution of electrons and positrons in electron-positron and electron-positron-ion plasmas. We consider the oblique propagating longitudinal waves in these systems. Working in a regime of high-density n0˜1027cm-3 and high-magnetic-field B0=1010 G, we report the presence of the spin-electron acoustic waves and their dispersion dependencies. In electron-positron plasmas, similarly to the electron-ion plasmas, we find one spin-electron acoustic wave (SEAW) at the propagation parallel or perpendicular to the external field and two spin-electron acoustic waves at the oblique propagation. At the parallel or perpendicular propagation of the longitudinal waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas, we find four branches: the Langmuir wave, the positron-acoustic wave, and a pair of waves having spin nature, they are the SEAW and the wave discovered in this paper, called the spin-electron-positron acoustic wave (SEPAW). At the oblique propagation we find eight longitudinal waves: the Langmuir wave, the Trivelpiece--Gould wave, a pair of positron-acoustic waves, a pair of SEAWs, and a pair of SEPAWs. Thus, for the first time, we report the existence of the second positron-acoustic wave existing at the oblique propagation and the existence of SEPAWs.
Marker vaccine potential of a foot-and-mouth disease virus with a partial VP1 G-H loop deletion.
Fowler, V L; Knowles, N J; Paton, D J; Barnett, P V
2010-04-26
Previous work in cattle and pigs demonstrated that protection against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) could be achieved following vaccination with chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccines, in which the VP1 G-H loop had been substituted with that from another serotype. This indicated that the VP1 G-H loop may not be essential for the protection of natural hosts against FMDV. If this could be substantiated there would be potential to develop FMD marker vaccines, characterised by the absence of this region. Here, we investigate the serological responses to vaccination with a virus with a partial VP1 G-H loop deletion in order to determine the likelihood of achieving protection and the potential of this virus as a marker vaccine. Inactivated, oil adjuvanted, vaccines, consisting of chemically inactivated virus with or without a partially deleted VP1 G-H loop, were used to immunise cattle. Serum was collected on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 and antibody titres calculated using the virus neutralisation test (VNT) to estimate the likelihood of protection. We predict a good likelihood that cattle vaccinated with a vaccine characterised by a partial VP1 G-H loop would be protected against challenge with the same virus containing the VP1 G-H loop. We also present evidence on the potential of such a construct to act as a marker vaccine, when used in conjunction with a novel serological test. PMID:20199761
Internal Solitary Wave Tunnelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutherland, Bruce; Keating, Scott; Shrivistava, Ishita
2013-11-01
In a two-layer fluid, solitary waves of depression (elevation) propagate in a shallow upper (lower) layer. The transition from depressed to elevated is known to occur as a solitary wave of depression passes over a bottom slope. If impacting a coastline the shoaling waves deposit some energy and partially reflect. Here we consider what happens if a solitary wave passes over a sill or the shoulder of an island. Specifically, through lock-release laboratory experiments, we examine the evolution of a solitary wave of depression incident upon a submerged thin vertical barrier and triangular submarine topography. From the measured interface displacement, we determine the available potential energy associated with the wave. The method of Hilbert transforms is used to subdivide the displacement signal into rightward- and leftward-propagating disturbances, from which we measure the available potential energy of the transmitted and reflected waves. These are used to measure the relative transmission, reflection and deposition of energy in terms of the barrier height and slope, the relative depths of the ambient fluid and the amplitude of the incident wave. Implications for internal wave scattering around Dongsha Atoll in the South China Sea are discussed. Research performed while visiting the University of Alberta under the UARE program.
Photoelectron wave function in photoionization: plane wave or Coulomb wave?
Gozem, Samer; Gunina, Anastasia O; Ichino, Takatoshi; Osborn, David L; Stanton, John F; Krylov, Anna I
2015-11-19
The calculation of absolute total cross sections requires accurate wave functions of the photoelectron and of the initial and final states of the system. The essential information contained in the latter two can be condensed into a Dyson orbital. We employ correlated Dyson orbitals and test approximate treatments of the photoelectron wave function, that is, plane and Coulomb waves, by comparing computed and experimental photoionization and photodetachment spectra. We find that in anions, a plane wave treatment of the photoelectron provides a good description of photodetachment spectra. For photoionization of neutral atoms or molecules with one heavy atom, the photoelectron wave function must be treated as a Coulomb wave to account for the interaction of the photoelectron with the +1 charge of the ionized core. For larger molecules, the best agreement with experiment is often achieved by using a Coulomb wave with a partial (effective) charge smaller than unity. This likely derives from the fact that the effective charge at the centroid of the Dyson orbital, which serves as the origin of the spherical wave expansion, is smaller than the total charge of a polyatomic cation. The results suggest that accurate molecular photoionization cross sections can be computed with a modified central potential model that accounts for the nonspherical charge distribution of the core by adjusting the charge in the center of the expansion. PMID:26509428
Schneider, E.; Maltsev, A.; Sadiki, A.; Janicka, J.
2008-03-15
In this work the potential of two combustion modeling approaches (BML and G-equation based models) for partially premixed flames in combustion systems of various complexities is investigated using URANS computations. The first configuration consists of a nonconfined swirled premixed methane/air flame (swirl number 0.75) exhibiting partially premixed effects due to coflowing. The system is studied either in the isothermal case or in the reacting mode and for different thermal powers. The second configuration represents a model GT combustion chamber and features the main properties of real GT combustors: a confined swirled flow with multiple recirculation zones and reattachment points, resulting in a partially premixed methane/air aerodynamically stabilized flame and an additional diffusion flame formed by the fuel and oxidizer not consumed in the premixed flame. This makes it possible to subject the modeling to variation of different parameters, such as confinement, Re-number or flame power, or adiabatic or nonadiabatic conditions. For this purpose an extended Bray-Moss-Libby model and a G-equation-based approach, both coupled to the mixture fraction transport equation to account for partially premixed effects, are used following the so-called conditional progress variable approach (CPVA). The radiation effects are also taken into account. To account for the turbulence-chemistry interaction, a (multivariate) presumed PDF approach is applied. The results are compared with LDV, Raman, and PLIF measurements. Beyond a pure validation, the URANS is used to capture the presence of the precessing vortex core and to analyze the performance of different modeling strategies of partially premixed combustion in capturing the expansion ratio, species formation conditioned on the flame front, and flame front stabilization. It appears that the combustion models used are able to achieve plausible results in the complex combustion systems under study, while the BML-based model
Local Field Potentials Encode Place Cell Ensemble Activation during Hippocampal Sharp Wave Ripples.
Taxidis, Jiannis; Anastassiou, Costas A; Diba, Kamran; Koch, Christof
2015-08-01
Whether the activation of spiking cell ensembles can be encoded in the local field potential (LFP) remains unclear. We address this question by combining in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the rat hippocampus with realistic biophysical modeling, and explore the LFP of place cell sequence spiking ("replays") during sharp wave ripples. We show that multi-site perisomatic LFP amplitudes, in the ∼150-200 Hz frequency band, reliably reflect spatial constellations of spiking cells, embedded within non-spiking populations, and encode activation of local place cell ensembles during in vivo replays. We find spatiotemporal patterns in the LFP, which remain consistent between sequence replays, in conjunction with the ordered activation of place cell ensembles. Clustering such patterns provides an efficient segregation of replay events from non-replay-associated ripples. This work demonstrates how spatiotemporal ensemble spiking is encoded extracellularly, providing a window for efficient, LFP-based detection and monitoring of structured population activity in vivo. PMID:26247865
Bedynek, Julius L.; Galioto, Frank M.; Leon, Donald F.
2000-01-01
We report the cases of 2 patients whose tricuspid aortic valves were found to have partial commissural fusion. Both patients experienced complications that were probably related to this abnormality: bacterial endocarditis in 1 instance and a lacunar stroke in the other. In order to illustrate the similarity of physical findings, we also describe the case of a 3rd patient, who had a typical bicuspid aortic valve. Tricuspid aortic valve with partial commissural fusion has been described in autopsy series and has been predicted to cause an ejection sound, but we could find no previously published description of this lesion in living patients. We wish to alert others to the possible presence of aortic commissural fusion, to its potential for serious and likely preventable sequelae, and to the ability of carefully performed transthoracic high-resolution digital echocardiography to demonstrate this condition when its characteristics are found on physical examination. PMID:10928509
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sant, Marco; Gabrieli, Andrea; Demontis, Pierfranco; Suffritti, Giuseppe B.
2016-03-01
The InfiniCharges computer program, for generating reliable partial charges for molecular simulations in periodic systems, is here presented. This tool is an efficient implementation of the recently developed DM-REPEAT method, where the stability of the resulting charges, over a large set of fitting regions, is obtained through the simultaneous fit of multiple electrostatic potential (ESP) configurations together with the total dipole fluctuations (TDF). Besides DM-REPEAT, the program can also perform standard REPEAT fit and its multiframe extension (M-REPEAT), with the possibility to restrain the charges to an arbitrary value. Finally, the code is employed to generate partial charges for ZIF-90, a microporous material of the metal organic frameworks (MOFs) family, and an extensive analysis of the results is carried out.
Kuehr, Marietta; Wolfgarten, Matthias; Stoelzle, Marco; Leutner, Claudia; Hoeller, Tobias; Schrading, Simone; Kuhl, Christiane; Schild, Hans; Kuhn, Walther; Braun, Michael
2011-11-15
Purpose: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) after breast-conserving therapy is currently under investigation in prospective randomized studies. Multifocality and multicentricity are exclusion criteria for APBI. Preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect ipsilateral and contralateral invasive tumor foci or ductal carcinoma in situ in addition to conventional diagnostic methods (clinical examination, mammography, and ultrasonography). The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the impact of preoperative MRI on patient selection for APBI. Methods and Materials: From 2002 to 2007, a total of 579 consecutive, nonselected patients with newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer received preoperative breast MRI in addition to conventional imaging studies at the Bonn University Breast Cancer Center. In retrospect, 113 patients would have met the criteria for APBI using conventional imaging workup (clinical tumor size {<=}3 cm; negative axillary lymph node status; unifocal disease; no evidence of distant metastases; no invasive lobular carcinoma, ductal and lobular carcinoma in situ, or Paget's disease). We analyzed the amount of additional ipsilateral and contralateral tumor foci detected by MRI. Results: MRI detected additional tumor foci in 8.8% of patients eligible for APBI (11 tumor foci in 10 of 113 patients), either ipsilateral (n = 7, 6.2%) or contralateral (n = 4, 3.5%). In 1 patient, MRI helped detect additional tumor focus both ipsilaterally and contralaterally. Conclusions: Preoperative breast MRI is able to identify additional tumor foci in a clinically relevant number of cases in this highly selected group of patients with low-risk disease and may be useful in selecting patients for APBI.
Jastrzębska-Więsek, Magdalena; Siwek, Agata; Partyka, Anna; Antkiewicz-Michaluk, Lucyna; Michaluk, Jerzy; Romańska, Irena; Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Wesołowska, Anna
2016-08-01
It was shown that 5-HT6 receptor agonists can exert pharmacological activity due to various modifications in monoamines' level and metabolism activity in rats' brain structures. This finding was correlated with antidepressant- or anxiolytic-like properties of these compounds. The study was designed to establish a possible mechanism of the antidepressant-like activity of the partial 5-HT6 receptor agonist EMD386088 (5-chloro-2-methyl-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridinyl)-1H-indole hydrochloride) in rats. The concentrations of monoamines (dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), and serotonin (5-HT)) and the rate of their metabolism were measured ex vivo in the brain structures (hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, striatum) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The rats were killed after the forced swim test (FST); the collected tissue samples were used to ex vivo experiments. The potency of EMD386088 to blockade dopamine transporter (DAT) was tested in a functional in vitro study. FST was used to assess the involvement of D1- and D2-like receptor subfamilies in antidepressant-like properties of EMD386088. Neurochemical data from ex vivo experiments showed that antiimmobility activity of EMD386088 may be connected with the activation of dopaminergic system, while neither noradrenergic nor serotonergic ones are involved in its effect. EMD386088 also possesses a significant affinity for DAT which may be a mechanism in the abovementioned effect. Behavioral data seem to confirm the importance of dopaminergic system activation in antidepressant-like activity of EMD386088, since this effect, observed in the FST, was abolished by the preferential D1- and D2-like receptor subfamily antagonists SCH23390 and sulpiride, respectively. Dopaminergic system is involved in antidepressant-like activity of EMD386088. PMID:27106213
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Lin-Hui
2015-09-01
Although the supercell method has been widely used for surface calculations, it only works well with short-ranged potentials, but meets difficulty when the potential decays very slowly into the vacuum. Unfortunately, the exact exchange-correlation potential of the density functional theory is asymptotically long ranged, and therefore is not easily handled by use of supercells. This paper illustrates that the authentic slab geometry, another technique for surface calculations, is not affected by this issue: It works equally well with both short- and long-ranged potentials, with the computational cost and the convergence speed being essentially the same. Using the asymptotically long-ranged Becke-Roussel'89 exchange potential as an example, we have calculated six surfaces of various types. We found that accurate potential values can be obtained even in extremely low density regions of more than 100 Å away from the surface. This high performance allows us to explore the asymptotic region, and prove with clean numerical evidence that the Becke-Roussel'89 potential satisfies the correct asymptotic behavior for slab surfaces, as it does for finite systems. Our finding further implies that the Slater component of the exact exchange optimized effective potential is responsible for the asymptotic behavior, not only for jellium slabs, but for slabs of any type. The Becke-Roussel'89 potential may therefore be used to build asymptotically correct model exchange potentials applicable to both finite systems and slab surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kato, Tsuyoshi; Ide, Yoshihiro; Yamanouchi, Kaoru
2015-12-01
We first calculate the ground-state molecular wave function of 1D model H2 molecule by solving the coupled equations of motion formulated in the extended multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) method by the imaginary time propagation. From the comparisons with the results obtained by the Born-Huang (BH) expansion method as well as with the exact wave function, we observe that the memory size required in the extended MCTDHF method is about two orders of magnitude smaller than in the BH expansion method to achieve the same accuracy for the total energy. Second, in order to provide a theoretical means to understand dynamical behavior of the wave function, we propose to define effective adiabatic potential functions and compare them with the conventional adiabatic electronic potentials, although the notion of the adiabatic potentials is not used in the extended MCTDHF approach. From the comparison, we conclude that by calculating the effective potentials we may be able to predict the energy differences among electronic states even for a time-dependent system, e.g., time-dependent excitation energies, which would be difficult to be estimated within the BH expansion approach.
Kato, Tsuyoshi; Ide, Yoshihiro; Yamanouchi, Kaoru
2015-12-31
We first calculate the ground-state molecular wave function of 1D model H{sub 2} molecule by solving the coupled equations of motion formulated in the extended multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) method by the imaginary time propagation. From the comparisons with the results obtained by the Born-Huang (BH) expansion method as well as with the exact wave function, we observe that the memory size required in the extended MCTDHF method is about two orders of magnitude smaller than in the BH expansion method to achieve the same accuracy for the total energy. Second, in order to provide a theoretical means to understand dynamical behavior of the wave function, we propose to define effective adiabatic potential functions and compare them with the conventional adiabatic electronic potentials, although the notion of the adiabatic potentials is not used in the extended MCTDHF approach. From the comparison, we conclude that by calculating the effective potentials we may be able to predict the energy differences among electronic states even for a time-dependent system, e.g., time-dependent excitation energies, which would be difficult to be estimated within the BH expansion approach.
Plane waves in noncommutative fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdalla, M. C. B.; Holender, L.; Santos, M. A.; Vancea, I. V.
2013-08-01
We study the dynamics of the noncommutative fluid in the Snyder space perturbatively at the first order in powers of the noncommutative parameter. The linearized noncommutative fluid dynamics is described by a system of coupled linear partial differential equations in which the variables are the fluid density and the fluid potentials. We show that these equations admit a set of solutions that are monochromatic plane waves for the fluid density and two of the potentials and a linear function for the third potential. The energy-momentum tensor of the plane waves is calculated.
Wang, Yiting; Liu, Jia; Loizidou, Avgi; Bugeja, Luc A; Warner, Ross; Hawley, Bethan R; Cai, Zhiwei; Toye, Ashley M; Sheppard, David N; Li, Hongyu
2014-01-01
Background and Purpose Dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel causes the genetic disease cystic fibrosis (CF). Towards the development of transformational drug therapies for CF, we investigated the channel function and action of CFTR potentiators on A561E, a CF mutation found frequently in Portugal. Like the most common CF mutation F508del, A561E causes a temperature-sensitive folding defect that prevents CFTR delivery to the cell membrane and is associated with severe disease. Experimental Approach Using baby hamster kidney cells expressing recombinant CFTR, we investigated CFTR expression by cell surface biotinylation, and function and pharmacology with the iodide efflux and patch-clamp techniques. Key Results Low temperature incubation delivered a small proportion of A561E-CFTR protein to the cell surface. Like F508del-CFTR, low temperature-rescued A561E-CFTR exhibited a severe gating defect characterized by brief channel openings separated by prolonged channel closures. A561E-CFTR also exhibited thermoinstability, losing function more quickly than F508del-CFTR in cell-free membrane patches and intact cells. Using the iodide efflux assay, CFTR potentiators, including genistein and the clinically approved small-molecule ivacaftor, partially restored function to A561E-CFTR. Interestingly, ivacaftor restored wild-type levels of channel activity (as measured by open probability) to single A561E- and F508del-CFTR Cl− channels. However, it accentuated the thermoinstability of both mutants in cell-free membrane patches. Conclusions and Implications Like F508del-CFTR, A561E-CFTR perturbs protein processing, thermostability and channel gating. CFTR potentiators partially restore channel function to low temperature-rescued A561E-CFTR. Transformational drug therapy for A561E-CFTR is likely to require CFTR correctors, CFTR potentiators and special attention to thermostability. PMID:24902474
Gaussian solitary waves and compactons in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattices with Hertzian potentials.
James, Guillaume; Pelinovsky, Dmitry
2014-05-01
We consider a class of fully nonlinear Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) lattices, consisting of a chain of particles coupled by fractional power nonlinearities of order α>1. This class of systems incorporates a classical Hertzian model describing acoustic wave propagation in chains of touching beads in the absence of precompression. We analyse the propagation of localized waves when α is close to unity. Solutions varying slowly in space and time are searched with an appropriate scaling, and two asymptotic models of the chain of particles are derived consistently. The first one is a logarithmic Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation and possesses linearly orbitally stable Gaussian solitary wave solutions. The second model consists of a generalized KdV equation with Hölder-continuous fractional power nonlinearity and admits compacton solutions, i.e. solitary waves with compact support. When [Formula: see text], we numerically establish the asymptotically Gaussian shape of exact FPU solitary waves with near-sonic speed and analytically check the pointwise convergence of compactons towards the limiting Gaussian profile. PMID:24808748
Gaussian solitary waves and compactons in Fermi–Pasta–Ulam lattices with Hertzian potentials
James, Guillaume; Pelinovsky, Dmitry
2014-01-01
We consider a class of fully nonlinear Fermi–Pasta–Ulam (FPU) lattices, consisting of a chain of particles coupled by fractional power nonlinearities of order α>1. This class of systems incorporates a classical Hertzian model describing acoustic wave propagation in chains of touching beads in the absence of precompression. We analyse the propagation of localized waves when α is close to unity. Solutions varying slowly in space and time are searched with an appropriate scaling, and two asymptotic models of the chain of particles are derived consistently. The first one is a logarithmic Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation and possesses linearly orbitally stable Gaussian solitary wave solutions. The second model consists of a generalized KdV equation with Hölder-continuous fractional power nonlinearity and admits compacton solutions, i.e. solitary waves with compact support. When , we numerically establish the asymptotically Gaussian shape of exact FPU solitary waves with near-sonic speed and analytically check the pointwise convergence of compactons towards the limiting Gaussian profile. PMID:24808748
Ultrasonic Guided Wave Focus Inspection Potential of Bare and Coated Pipes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mu, J.; Hua, J.; Rose, J. L.
2010-02-01
Ultrasonic guided waves in elastic bare pipes are studied from a theoretical point of view. Dispersion curves of both axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric waves are presented. The parameters of 4-channel focusing are calculated by a phased array focusing algorithm. Experimentally four defects are detected in a cased pipe inspection. The defect probability of detection is highly improved by applying the phased array focusing technique. Guided wave dispersion curves in coated pipes are calculated using a 1-D Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) technique. This theoretically driven hybrid SAFE method has perfectly tackled the guided wave problem in coated pipes, including dispersion curves (phase velocity dispersion curves and attenuation dispersion curves) and wave structures. The time delays and amplitudes of the 8-channel focusing in an 8 in sch40 coated pipe are calculated by the SAFE algorithm and input to the FEM simulation in ABAQUS®. Focusing performance is improved up to 67% by applying the coated pipe parameters compared with the bare pipe parameters.
Dynamics of zero-energy nonspreading non-Gaussian wave packets for a class of central potentials
Makowski, Adam J. Pepłowski, Piotr
2013-10-15
Zero-energy wave packets, coherent states, are constructed in such a way that they retain their shape during the time evolution for a large class of central potentials. The packets are not of the Gaussian type with −r{sup 2} dependence but, instead, their shape is determined by −r{sup 1/(μ+1/2)} with −1/2<μ<1/2. A very close quantum–classical correspondence is also shown, i.e., the well localized states travel along suitable classical trajectories. -- Highlights: •Central potentials are considered. •Nonspreading, non-Gaussian wave packets are constructed. •Time evolution of the zero-energy packets is studied. •Quantum–classical correspondence is discussed.
Angraini, Lily Maysari; Suparmi,; Variani, Viska Inda
2010-12-23
SUSY quantum mechanics can be applied to solve Schrodinger equation for high dimensional system that can be reduced into one dimensional system and represented in lowering and raising operators. Lowering and raising operators can be obtained using relationship between original Hamiltonian equation and the (super) potential equation. In this paper SUSY quantum mechanics is used as a method to obtain the wave function and the energy level of the Modified Poschl Teller potential. The graph of wave function equation and probability density is simulated by using Delphi 7.0 programming language. Finally, the expectation value of quantum mechanics operator could be calculated analytically using integral form or probability density graph resulted by the programming.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angraini, Lily Maysari; Suparmi, Variani, Viska Inda
2010-12-01
SUSY quantum mechanics can be applied to solve Schrodinger equation for high dimensional system that can be reduced into one dimensional system and represented in lowering and raising operators. Lowering and raising operators can be obtained using relationship between original Hamiltonian equation and the (super) potential equation. In this paper SUSY quantum mechanics is used as a method to obtain the wave function and the energy level of the Modified Poschl Teller potential. The graph of wave function equation and probability density is simulated by using Delphi 7.0 programming language. Finally, the expectation value of quantum mechanics operator could be calculated analytically using integral form or probability density graph resulted by the programming.
Fort, Alexandra; Collette, Boris; Bueno, Mercedes; Deleurence, Philippe; Bonnard, Arnaud
2013-01-01
Rear-end collisions represent about 30% of all car crashes and generate a significant economic cost for society. Driver inattention has been identified as the most important contributing factor in rear-end collisions. One possible countermeasure is the use of systems that warn drivers of potential collisions. Nevertheless, because of technical constraints, the conception of perfect warning systems is difficult to achieve and technical literature shows that these kinds of systems can be prone to false alerts or misses. The main objective of this study is to assess the impact of such a warning system on the processing of a relevant driving visual cue while taking into account the reliability of the system and the attentional state of the participants. For this, we designed a laboratory experiment during which we recorded behavioral data and brain activity (event related potential, ERP) following the detection of a visual target. Three warning conditions were designed: (1) no alert was presented before the visual target; (2) an auditory alert was presented before each target; (3) an alert was presented before the target in 70% of the trials (15% only had the alert without the target, and 15% only had the target without the alert). In addition, participants had to perform this visual detection task either alone (simple task) or with a concurrent problem-solving task (dual task). Behavioral and electrophysiological data contribute to revealing (1) that there is a behavioral gain induced by the alert and (2) that this gain is at least linked with a time-saving aspect at both the sensory and cognitive stages of neural information processing. Nevertheless, this impact depends on the attentional states of the participant and on the reliability of the alert. PMID:22742776
s-wave scattering for deep potentials with attractive tails falling off faster than -1/r2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Tim-Oliver; Kaiser, Alexander; Friedrich, Harald
2011-09-01
For potentials with attractive tails, as occur in typical atomic interactions, we present a simple formula for the s-wave phase shift δ0. It exposes a universal dependence of δ0(E) on the potential tail and the influence of effects specific to a given potential, which enter via the scattering length a, or equivalently, the noninteger part Δth of the threshold quantum number nth. The formula accurately reproduces δ0(E) from threshold up to the semiclassical regime, far beyond the validity of the effective-range expansion. We derive the tail functions occurring in the formula for δ0(E) and demonstrate the validity of the formula for attractive potential tails proportional to 1/r6 or to 1/r4, and also for a mixed potential tail consisting of a 1/r4 term together with a non-negligible 1/r6 contribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yu-Feng; Feng, Bin-Lu; Rui, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xiang-Zhi
2015-07-01
With the help of a simple Lie algebra, an isospectral Lax pair, whose feature presents decomposition of element (1, 2) into a linear combination in the temporal Lax matrix, is introduced for which a new integrable hierarchy of evolution equations is obtained, whose Hamiltonian structure is also derived from the trace identity in which contains a constant γ to be determined. In the paper, we obtain a general formula for computing the constant γ. The reduced equations of the obtained hierarchy are the generalized nonlinear heat equation containing three-potential functions, the mKdV equation and a generalized linear KdV equation. The algebro-geometric solutions (also called finite band solutions) of the generalized nonlinear heat equation are obtained by the use of theory on algebraic curves. Finally, two kinds of gauge transformations of the spatial isospectral problem are produced. Supported by the Innovation Team of Jiangsu Province hosted by China University of Mining and Technology (2014) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11371361, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2013XK03) as well as the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province under Grant No. ZR2013AL016
Focused tandem shock waves in water and their potential application in cancer treatment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lukes, P.; Sunka, P.; Hoffer, P.; Stelmashuk, V.; Pouckova, P.; Zadinova, M.; Zeman, J.; Dibdiak, L.; Kolarova, H.; Tomankova, K.; Binder, S.; Benes, J.
2014-01-01
The generator of two focused successive (tandem) shock waves (FTSW) in water produced by underwater multichannel electrical discharges at two composite electrodes, with a time delay between the first and second shock waves of 10 s, was developed. It produces, at the focus, a strong shock wave with a peak positive pressure of up to 80 MPa, followed by a tensile wave with a peak negative pressure of up to MPa, thus generating at the focus a large amount of cavitation. Biological effects of FTSW were demonstrated in vitro on hemolysis of erythrocytes and cell viability of human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells as well as on tumor growth delay ex vivo and in vivo experiments performed with B16 melanoma, T-lymphoma, and R5-28 sarcoma cell lines. It was demonstrated in vivo that FTSW can enhance antitumor effects of chemotherapeutic drugs, such as cisplatin, most likely due to increased permeability of the membrane of cancer cells induced by FTSW. Synergetic cytotoxicity of FTSW with sonosensitive porphyrin-based drug Photosan on tumor growth was observed, possibly due to the cavitation-induced sonodynamic effect of FTSW.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Li, Ying-Han; Tseng, Chao-Yuan; Tsai, Arthur Chih-Hsin; Huang, Andrew Chih-Wei; Lin, Wei-Lun
2016-01-01
Contemporary understanding of brain functions provides a way to probe into the mystery of creativity. However, the prior evidence regarding the relationship between creativity and brain wave patterns reveals inconsistent conclusions. One possible reason might be that the means of selecting creative individuals in the past has varied in each study.…
The Consequences of Alfven Waves and Parallel Potential Drops in the Auroral Zone
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schriver, David
2003-01-01
The goal of this research is to examine the causes of field-aligned plasma acceleration in the auroral zone using satellite data and numerical simulations. A primary question to be addressed is what causes the field-aligned acceleration of electrons (leading to precipitation) and ions (leading to upwelling ions) in the auroral zone. Data from the Fast Auroral SnapshoT (FAST) and Polar satellites is used when the two satellites are in approximate magnetic conjunction and are in the auroral region. FAST is at relatively low altitudes and samples plasma in the midst of the auroral acceleration region while Polar is at much higher altitudes and can measure plasmas and waves propagating towards the Earth. Polar can determine the sources of energy streaming earthward from the magnetotail, either in the form of field-aligned currents, electromagnetic waves or kinetic particle energy, that ultimately leads to the acceleration of plasma in the auroral zone. After identifying and examining several events, numerical simulations are run that bridges the spatial region between the two satellites. The code is a one-dimensional, long system length particle in cell simulation that has been developed to model the auroral region. A main goal of this research project is to include Alfven waves in the simulation to examine how these waves can accelerate plasma in the auroral zone.
Scattering of a matter-wave single soliton and a two-soliton molecule by an attractive potential
Al-Marzoug, S. M.; Al-Amoudi, S. M.; Al Khawaja, U.; Bahlouli, H.; Baizakov, B. B.
2011-02-15
Scattering of a matter-wave single soliton and two-soliton molecule incident on the modified Poeschl-Teller potential well has been studied by means of a collective coordinate approach and numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Despite the attractive nature of the potential we observe total reflection of solitons in particular ranges of parameters, which is the signature of quantum behavior displayed by the matter-wave soliton. For other particular sets of parameters unscathed transmission of solitons and molecules through the potential well has been identified. A specific feature of this process is that the soliton passing through the potential well overtakes the freely propagating counterpart; i.e., its mean position appears to have been advanced in time. An array of such potentials makes the 'time advance' effect even more pronounced, so that scattered solitons move well ahead of nonscattered ones, fully preserving their initial shape and velocity. A possible application of the obtained results is pointed out.
Clarke, Alex. M.; Michie, Patricia T.; Glue, Leonard C. T.
1972-01-01
The experiments reported in this paper tested the hypothesis that the afferent potential elicited by a tendon tap in an isometrically recorded phasic stretch reflex can be detected in the surface EMG of normal humans when appropriate techniques are used. These techniques involved (1) training the subjects to relax mentally and physically so that the EMG was silent before and immediately after the diphasic MAP which reflects a highly synchronous discharge of afferent impulses from low threshold muscle stretch receptors after a tendon tap, and (2) using a data retrieval computer to summate stimulus-locked potentials in the EMG over a series of 16 samples using taps of uniform peak force and duration on the Achilles tendon to elicit the tendon jerk in the calf muscles. A discrete, diphasic potential (`A-wave') was recorded from EMG electrodes placed on the surface of the skin over the medial gastrocnemius muscle. The `A-wave' afferent potential had the opposite polarity to the corresponding efferent MAP. Under control conditions of relaxation the `A-wave' had a latency after the onset of the tap of 2 msec, the peak to peak amplitude was of the order of 5 μV and the duration was in the range of 6 to 10 msec. Further experiments were conducted to show that the `A-wave' (1) was not an artefact of the instrumentation used, (2) had a threshold at low intensities of stimulation, and (3) could be reliably augmented by using a Jendrassik manoeuvre compared with the potential observed during control (relaxation) conditions. The results support the conclusion that the `A-wave' emanates from the pool of muscle spindles which discharges impulses along group Ia nerve fibres in response to the phasic stretch stimulus because the primary ending of the spindles is known to initiate the stretch reflex and the spindles can be sensitized by fusimotor impulses so that their threshold is lowered as a result of a Jendrassik manoeuvre. The finding has important implications for the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mijarez, Rito; Gaydecki, Patrick
2013-05-01
An automatic guided wave pulse position modulation system, using steel tubes as the communication channel, for detecting flooding in the hollow sub-sea structures of newly built offshore oilrigs is presented. Underwater close visual inspections (CVI) are normally conducted during swim-round surveys in pre-selected areas or areas suspected of damage. An acceptable alternative to CVI is a non-destructive testing (NDT) technique called flood member detection (FMD). Usually, this NDT technique employs ultrasound or x-rays to detect the presence of seawater in the tubular structures, requiring divers or remote operating vehicles (ROVs). The field-proven FMD technique, integrated within the concept of structural health monitoring, offers an alternative to these traditional inspection methods. The system employs two smart sensors and modulators, which transmit 40 kHz guided wave pulses, and a digital signal processing demodulator, which performs automatic detection of guided wave energy packets. Experiments were performed in dry conditions, inside and outside the laboratory; in the former using a steel tube 1.5 m×0.27 m×2 mm, and in the latter using a tubular steel heliport structure approximately 15 m×15 m in area and the base deck of an oilrig under construction. Results confirm that, although there was significant dispersion of the transmitted pulses, the system successfully distinguished automatically guided wave encoded information that could potentially be used in sub-sea oilrigs.
Trivedi, Disha; Jena, Prasant Kumar; Patel, Jignesh Kumar; Seshadri, Sriram
2013-06-01
The emergence of antibiotic resistance has increased the interest for finding new antimicrobials in the past decade. Probiotic Lactic acid bacteria producing antimicrobial proteins like bacteriocin can be excellent agents for development as novel therapeutic agents and complement to conventional antibiotic therapy. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli, most causative agent of Urinary tract infection, has developed resistance to various antibiotics. In the present investigation, antibacterial substance like bacteriocin (Bacteriocin DT24) produced by probiotic Lactobacillus brevis DT24 from vaginal sample of healthy Indian woman was partially purified and characterized. It was efficiently working against various pathogens, that is, Uropathogenic E. coli, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial peptide was relatively heat resistant and also active over a broad range of pH 2-10. It has been partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography and checked on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bacteriocin DT24 was approximately 7-kDa protein. The peptide is inactivated by proteolytic enzymes, trypsin and lipase but not when treated with catalase, α-amylase and pepsin. It showed bacteriostatic mode of action against uropathogenic E. coli. Such characteristics indicate that this bacteriocin-producing probiotic may be a potential candidate for alternative agents to control urinary tract infections and other pathogens. PMID:26782739
Cohen, C; Bergis, O E; Galli, F; Lochead, A W; Jegham, S; Biton, B; Leonardon, J; Avenet, P; Sgard, F; Besnard, F; Graham, D; Coste, A; Oblin, A; Curet, O; Voltz, C; Gardes, A; Caille, D; Perrault, G; George, P; Soubrie, P; Scatton, B
2003-07-01
(5aS,8S,10aR)-5a,6,9,10-Tetrahydro,7H,11H-8,10a-methanopyrido[2',3':5,6]pyrano[2,3-d]azepine (SSR591813) is a novel compound that binds with high affinity to the rat and human alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes (Ki = 107 and 36 nM, respectively) and displays selectivity for the alpha4beta2 nAChR (Ki, human alpha3beta4 > 1000, alpha3beta2 = 116; alpha1beta1deltagamma > 6000 nM and rat alpha7 > 6000 nM). Electrophysiological experiments indicate that SSR591813 is a partial agonist at the human alpha4beta2 nAChR subtype (EC50 = 1.3 micro M, IA =19% compared with the full agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenyl-piperazinium). In vivo findings from microdialysis and drug discrimination studies confirm the partial intrinsic activity of SSR591813. The drug increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens shell (30 mg/kg i.p.) and generalizes to nicotine or amphetamine (10-20 mg/kg i.p.) in rats, with an efficacy approximately 2-fold lower than that of nicotine. Pretreatment with SSR591813 (10 mg/kg i.p.) reduces the dopamine-releasing and discriminative effects of nicotine. SSR591813 shows activity in animal models of nicotine dependence at doses devoid of unwanted side effects typically observed with nicotine (hypothermia and cardiovascular effects). The compound (10 mg/kg i.p.) also prevents withdrawal signs precipitated by mecamylamine in nicotine-dependent rats and partially blocks the discriminative cue of an acute precipitated withdrawal. SSR591813 (20 mg/kg i.p.) reduces i.v. nicotine self-administration and antagonizes nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization in rats. The present results confirm important role for alpha4beta2 nAChRs in mediating nicotine dependence and suggest that SSR591813, a partial agonist at this particular nAChR subtype, may have therapeutic potential in the clinical management of smoking cessation. PMID:12682217
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozhevnikov, V. A.; Sherman, S. G.
2008-11-01
The partial-wave inelasticity parameters of the amplitude for elastic pion-nucleon scattering are determined with the aid of the phenomenological amplitude for inelastic π N → ππ N processes in the energy range extending to the threshold for the production of two pions. The resulting inelasticity parameters are compared with their counterparts derived from modern partial-wave analyses. The largest inelastic-scattering cross section in the P11 wave is in excellent agreement with the analogous value from the analysis performed at the George Washington University in 2006. For other waves, however, the present results differ in the majority of cases from respective values given by partial-wave analyses (the distinctions are especially large for the isospin-3/2 amplitudes).
Potential damage to DC superconducting magnets due to the high frequency electromagnetic waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gabriel, G. J.
1977-01-01
Experimental data are presented in support of the hypothesis that a dc superconducting magnet coil does not behave strictly as an inductor, but as a complicated electrodynamic device capable of supporting electromagnetic waves. Travel times of nanosecond pulses and evidence of sinusoidal standing waves were observed on a prototype four-layer solenoidal coil at room temperature. Ringing observed during switching transients appears as a sequence of multiple reflected square pulses whose durations are related to the layer lengths. With sinusoidal excitation of the coil, the voltage amplitude between a pair of points on the coil exhibits maxima at those frequencies such that the distance between these points is an odd multiple of half wavelength in free space. Evidence indicates that any disturbance, such as that resulting from switching or sudden fault, initiates multiple reflections between layers, thus raising the possibility for sufficiently high voltages to cause breakdown.
Ding, Cai-Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Liu, W. M.; Zhao, Dun; Luo, Hong-Gang
2011-11-15
We investigate exact matter-wave soliton pairs of two-component heteronuclear atomic Bose-Einstein condensates with tunable interactions and harmonic potentials by using a combination of the homogeneous balance principle and the F-expansion technique. Our results show that exact matter-wave soliton pairs are asymmetric where their existence requires some restrictive conditions corresponding to experimentally controllable interactions and harmonic potential parameters. In contrast to homonuclear systems, the potentials for two components in heteronuclear systems are different, which is due to the mass of two components being unequal. Considering two explicit situations of the interaction parameters, we further explore the collision dynamics of the soliton pairs with opposite velocities by synchronously controlling the interaction and potential parameters. The collision dynamics occur during and after the simultaneous evaporative cooling of two condensates. The results show that collisions are elastic and that the solitons after the collision can keep their identities. In addition, we find that the amplitudes of the soliton pairs periodically grow with time during the cooling process and, for the same initial conditions, the collision time of the soliton pair without gain is delayed compared with that with gain. We also discuss how to observe these new phenomena in future experiments.
Strenge, H; Soyka, D; Tackmann, W
1982-01-01
Pattern shift visual evoked potentials (VEPs), cervical and cortical somatosensory evoked responses (SEPs) and motor conduction velocities studied by F-wave latency measurements were investigated in two family members with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HN-PP). In both cases in VEPs and SEP conduction times N13-N20 were normal. A bilateral pathological increase of latencies of early SEP components, N9-N13 transit times and F-wave latencies revealed a lesion in the proximal parts of the median nerves close to the spinal cord in the older patient. These abnormalities emphasize the close relationship of HN-PP with hereditary polyradiculopathy (Mayer 1975). PMID:6174708
Eruption cyclicity at silicic volcanoes potentially caused by magmatic gas waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michaut, Chloé; Ricard, Yanick; Bercovici, David; Sparks, R. Steve J.
2013-10-01
Eruptions at active silicic volcanoes are often cyclical. For example, at the Soufrière Hills volcano in Montserrat, Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, and Sakurajima in Japan, episodes of intense activity alternate with repose intervals over periods between several hours and a day. Abrupt changes in eruption rates have been explained with the motion of a plug of magma that alternatively sticks or slides along the wall of the volcanic conduit. However, it is unclear how the static friction that prevents the plug from sliding is periodically overcome. Here we use two-phase flow equations to model a gas-rich, viscous magma ascending through a volcanic conduit. Our analyses indicate that magma compaction yields ascending waves comprised of low- and high-porosity bands. However, magma ascent to lower pressures also causes gas expansion. We find that the competition between magma compaction and gas expansion naturally selects pressurized gas waves with specific periods. At the surface, these waves can induce cyclical eruptive behaviour with periods between 1 and 100 hours, which compares well to the observations from Soufrière Hills, Mount Pinatubo and Sakurajima. We find that the period is insensitive to volcano structure, but increases weakly with magma viscosity. We conclude that observations of a shift to a longer eruption cycle imply an increase in magma viscosity and thereby enhanced volcanic hazard.
A survey of electron Bernstein wave heating and current drive potential for spherical tokamaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Urban, Jakub; Decker, Joan; Peysson, Yves; Preinhaelter, Josef; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Taylor, Gary; Vahala, Linda; Vahala, George
2011-08-01
The electron Bernstein wave (EBW) is typically the only wave in the electron cyclotron (EC) range that can be applied in spherical tokamaks for heating and current drive (H&CD). Spherical tokamaks (STs) operate generally in high-β regimes, in which the usual EC O- and X-modes are cut off. In this case, EBWs seem to be the only option that can provide features similar to the EC waves—controllable localized H&CD that can be used for core plasma heating as well as for accurate plasma stabilization. The EBW is a quasi-electrostatic wave that can be excited by mode conversion from a suitably launched O- or X-mode; its propagation further inside the plasma is strongly influenced by the plasma parameters. These rather awkward properties make its application somewhat more difficult. In this paper we perform an extensive numerical study of EBW H&CD performance in four typical ST plasmas (NSTX L- and H-mode, MAST Upgrade, NHTX). Coupled ray-tracing (AMR) and Fokker-Planck (LUKE) codes are employed to simulate EBWs of varying frequencies and launch conditions, which are the fundamental EBW parameters that can be chosen and controlled. Our results indicate that an efficient and universal EBW H&CD system is indeed viable. In particular, power can be deposited and current reasonably efficiently driven across the whole plasma radius. Such a system could be controlled by a suitably chosen launching antenna vertical position and would also be sufficiently robust.
Relic Gravitational Waves and Their Detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grishchuk, Leonid P.
The range of expected amplitudes and spectral slopes of relic (squeezed) gravitational waves, predicted by theory and partially supported by observations, is within the reach of sensitive gravity-wave detectors. In the most favorable case, the detection of relic gravitational waves can be achieved by the cross-correlation of outputs of the initial laser interferometers in LIGO, VIRGO, GEO600. In the more realistic case, the sensitivity of advanced ground-based and space-based laser interferometers will be needed. The specific statistical signature of relic gravitational waves, associated with the phenomenon of squeezing, is a potential reserve for further improvement of the signal to noise ratio.
Potential damage to dc superconducting magnets due to high frequency electromagnetic waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gabriel, G. J.; Burkhart, J. A.
1977-01-01
Studies of a d.c. superconducting magnet coil indicate that the large coil behaves as a straight waveguide structure. Voltages between layers within the coil sometimes exceeded those recorded at terminals where protective resistors are located. Protection of magnet coils against these excessive voltages could be accomplished by impedance matching throughout the coil system. The wave phenomenon associated with superconducting magnetic coils may create an instability capable of converting the energy of a quiescent d.c. superconducting coil into dissipative a.c. energy, even in cases when dielectric breakdown does not take place.
Mohamadou, Alidou; Wamba, Etienne; Kofane, Timoleon C.; Doka, Serge Y.; Ekogo, Thierry B.
2011-08-15
We examine the generation of bright matter-wave solitons in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation describing Bose-Einstein condensates with a time-dependent complex potential, which is composed of a repulsive parabolic background potential and a gravitational field. By performing a modified lens-type transformation, an explicit expression for the growth rate of a purely growing modulational instability is presented and analyzed. We point out the effects of the gravitational field, as well as of the parameter related to the feeding or loss of atoms in the condensate, on the instability growth rate. It is evident from numerical simulations that the feeding with atoms and the magnetic trap have opposite effects on the dynamics of the system. It is shown that the feeding or loss parameter can be well used to control the instability domain. Our study shows that the gravitational field changes the condensate trail of the soliton trains during the propagation. We also perform a numerical analysis to solve the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a time-dependent complicated potential. The numerical results on the effect of both the gravitational field and the parameter of feeding or loss of atoms in the condensate agree well with predictions of the linear stability analysis. Another result of the present work is the modification of the background wave function in the Thomas-Fermi approximation during the numerical simulations.
Scattering States of l-Wave Schrödinger Equation with Modified Rosen—Morse Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Wen-Li; Shi, Yan-Wei; Wei, Gao-Feng
2016-08-01
Within a Pekeris-type approximation to the centrifugal term, we examine the approximately analytical scattering state solutions of the l-wave Schrödinger equation with the modified Rosen—Morse potential. The calculation formula of phase shifts is derived, and the corresponding bound state energy levels are also obtained from the poles of the scattering amplitude. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11405128, and Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China under Grant No. 15JK2093
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaslavsky, A.
2015-02-01
In situ observation of dust grains from various origins is routinely performed by space missions equipped with radio instruments. These measurements consist in observations of voltage pulses or their spectral signature. It has for long been proposed that one of the mechanisms able to produce these pulses is the collection by the spacecraft of electric charges generated by impact ionization. Here for the first time, a complete theoretical model of how pulses are generated by charge collection is proposed. In the solar wind at 1 AU, the pulses are shown to be shaped by local plasma and photoelectron parameters. However, the situation can be different in hotter or denser plasma environments. We use the data provided by the STEREO/WAVES (S/WAVES) radio instrument onboard the twin STEREO spacecraft to validate our model. We find that the observations indeed strongly support the theory. The proposed model is an important step forward, since it makes it possible to reproduce the shape, timescales, and amplitudes of pulses generated by dust impacts in various space environments. Such a model can be used to infer the dust detection abilities of radio instruments onboard different spacecraft and can help the design of dust detection optimized radio instruments for future missions.
Kayen, R.; Moss, R.E.S.; Thompson, E.M.; Seed, R.B.; Cetin, K.O.; Der Kiureghian, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Tokimatsu, K.
2013-01-01
Shear-wave velocity (Vs) offers a means to determine the seismic resistance of soil to liquefaction by a fundamental soil property. This paper presents the results of an 11-year international project to gather new Vs site data and develop probabilistic correlations for seismic soil liquefaction occurrence. Toward that objective, shear-wave velocity test sites were identified, and measurements made for 301 new liquefaction field case histories in China, Japan, Taiwan, Greece, and the United States over a decade. The majority of these new case histories reoccupy those previously investigated by penetration testing. These new data are combined with previously published case histories to build a global catalog of 422 case histories of Vs liquefaction performance. Bayesian regression and structural reliability methods facilitate a probabilistic treatment of the Vs catalog for performance-based engineering applications. Where possible, uncertainties of the variables comprising both the seismic demand and the soil capacity were estimated and included in the analysis, resulting in greatly reduced overall model uncertainty relative to previous studies. The presented data set and probabilistic analysis also help resolve the ancillary issues of adjustment for soil fines content and magnitude scaling factors.
Dzierba, A.R.; Mitchell, R.; Scott, E.; Shepherd, M.R.; Smith, P.; Swat, M.; Teige, S.; Szczepaniak, A.P.; Denisov, S.P.; Dorofeev, V.; Kachaev, I.; Lipaev, V.; Popov, A.V.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Bodyagin, V.A.; Demianov, A.
2006-04-01
A partial wave analysis (PWA) of the {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} systems produced in the reaction {pi}{sup -}p{yields}(3{pi}){sup -}p at 18 GeV/c was carried out using an isobar model assumption. This analysis is based on 3.0 M {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} events and 2.6 M {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} events and shows production of the a{sub 1}(1260), a{sub 2}(1320), {pi}{sub 2}(1670), and a{sub 4}(2040) resonances. Results of detailed studies of the stability of partial wave fits are presented. An earlier analysis of 250 K {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} events from the same experiment showed possible evidence for a J{sup PC}=1{sup -+} exotic meson with a mass of {approx}1.6 GeV/c{sup 2} decaying into {rho}{pi}. In this analysis of a higher statistics sample of the (3{pi}){sup -} system in two charged modes we find no evidence of an exotic meson.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahedi, Masrur
Aggregates derived from natural sources have been used traditionally as the pavement base materials. But in recent times, the extraction of these natural aggregates has become more labor intensive and costly due to resource depletion and environmental concerns. Thus, the uses of recycled aggregates as the supplementary of natural aggregates are increasing considerably in pavement construction. Use of recycled aggregates such as recycled crushed concrete (RCA) and recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) reduces the rate of natural resource depletion, construction debris and cost. Although recycled aggregates could be used as a viable alternative of conventional base materials, strength characteristics and product variability limit their utility to a great extent. Hence, their applicability is needed to be evaluated extensively based on strength, stiffness and cost factors. But for extensive evaluation, traditionally practiced test methods are proven to be unreasonable in terms of time, cost, reliability and applicability. On the other hand, rapid non-destructive methods have the potential to be less time consuming and inexpensive along with the low variability of test results; therefore improving the reliability of estimated performance of the pavement. In this research work, the experimental program was designed to assess the potential application of stress wave velocity method as a non-destructive test in evaluating recycled base materials. Different combinations of cement treated recycled concrete aggregate (RAP) and recycled crushed concrete (RCA) were used to evaluate the applicability of stress wave velocity method. It was found that, stress wave velocity method is excellent in characterizing the strength and stiffness properties of cement treated base materials. Statistical models, based on P-wave velocity were derived for predicting the modulus of elasticity and compressive strength of different combinations of cement treated RAP, Grade-1 and Grade-2 materials. Two
Non-Hermitian quantum mechanics: wave packet propagation on autoionizing potential energy surfaces.
Moiseyev, N; Scheit, S; Cederbaum, L S
2004-07-01
The correspondence between the time-dependent and time-independent molecular dynamic formalisms is shown for autoionizing processes. We demonstrate that the definition of the inner product in non-Hermitian quantum mechanics plays a key role in the proof. When the final state of the process is dissociative, it is technically favorable to introduce a complex absorbing potential into the calculations. The conditions which this potential should fulfill are briefly discussed. An illustrative numerical example is presented involving three potential energy surfaces. PMID:15260598
Srinivasan, Ramesh; Bibi, F. Alouani; Nunez, Paul L.
2007-01-01
Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) are used in cognitive and clinical studies of brain function because of excellent signal-to-noise ratios and relative immunity to artifacts. SSVEPs also provide a means to characterize preferred frequencies of neocortical dynamic processes. In this study, SSVEPs were recorded with 110 electrodes while subjects viewed random dot patterns flickered between 3 and 30 Hz. Peaks in SSVEP power were observed at delta (3 Hz), lower alpha (7 and 8 Hz), and upper alpha band (12 and 13 Hz) frequencies; the spatial distribution of SSVEP power is also strongly dependent on the input frequency suggesting cortical resonances. We characterized the cortical sources that generate SSVEPs at different input frequencies by applying surface Laplacians and spatial spectral analysis. Laplacian SSVEPs recorded are sensitive to small changes (1–2 Hz) in the input frequency at occipital and parietal electrodes indicating distinct local sources. At 10 Hz, local source activity occurs in multiple cortical regions; Laplacian SSVEPs are also observed in lateral frontal electrodes. Laplacian SSVEPs are negligible at many frontal electrodes that elicit strong potential SSVEPs at delta, lower alpha, and upper alpha bands. One-dimensional (anterior-posterior) spatial spectra indicate that distinct large-scale source distributions contribute SSVEP power in these frequency bands. In the upper alpha band, spatial spectra indicate the presence of long-wavelength (> 15 cm) traveling waves propagating from occipital to prefrontal electrodes. In the delta and lower alpha band, spatial spectra indicate that long-wavelength source distributions over posterior and anterior regions form standing-wave patterns. These results suggest that the SSVEP is generated by both (relatively stationary) localized sources and distributed sources that exhibit characteristics of wave phenomena. PMID:16544207
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oberhardt, Tobias; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jianmin; Jacobs, Laurence J.
2016-02-01
This research investigates the modeling of randomly distributed surface-breaking microcracks and the dependency of higher harmonic generation in Rayleigh surface waves on microcrack density. The microcrack model is based on micromechanical considerations of rough surface contact. An effective stress-strain relationship is derived to describe the nonlinear behavior of a single microcrack and implemented into a finite-element model via a hyperelastic constitutive law. Finite-element simulations of nonlinear wave propagation in a solid with distributed surface microcracks are performed for a range of microcrack densities. The evolution of fundamental and second harmonic amplitudes along the propagation distance is studied and the acoustic nonlinearity parameter is calculated. The results show that the nonlinearity parameter increases with crack density. While, for small crack densities (dilute concentration of microcracks) a proportionality between crack density and acoustic nonlinearity is observed, this is not valid for higher crack densities, as the microcracks start to interact.
Tran, Thai T H; Chang, Yan-Ru; Hoang, Tuan K A; Kuo, Ming-Yu; Su, Yuhlong O
2016-07-21
In this study, the electrochemical behavior of free base and zinc meso-substituted porphyrins is examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and density functional theory (DFT). The results show that the half-wave oxidation potential splitting of the two oxidation states (ΔE= second E1/2 - first E1/2) of tetraphenylporphyrin (H2TPP) and its zinc complex (ZnTPP) are higher than those of porphyrins and their zinc complexes with meso-substituted five-membered heterocylic rings. The ΔE values follow the trend of TPP > T(3'-thienyl)P > T(3'-furyl)P > T(2'-thienyl)P for both meso-porphyrins and their respective zinc complexes. By employing DFT calculations, we have found that the trend of ΔE values is consistent with that of highest spin density (HSD) distribution and HOMO-LUMO energy gaps of cationic radicals as well as the π-conjugation between central porphyrin and meso-substituted rings. Also, they exhibit the better resonance between the porphyrin ring with meso-substituted rings as moving from porphyrins and their zinc complexes with phenyl rings to five-membered heterocyclic rings. A good agreement between calculated and experimental results indicates that cationic radicals, especially their spin density distribution, do play an important role in half-wave oxidation potential splitting of meso-porphyrins and their zinc complexes. PMID:27379447
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudnick, Roberta L.; Jackson, Ian
1995-06-01
Ultrasonic compressional wave velocities measured at 1.0 GPa and room temperature are compared with calculated velocities (based on single-crystal data and modal mineralogy) for a suite of mafic granulite xenoliths from the Chudleigh volcanic province, north Queensland, Australia. The xenoliths have nearly constant major element compositions but widely variable modal mineralogy, reflecting recrystallization under variable pressure-temperature conditions at depth in the continental crust (20-45 km). They thus provide an excellent opportunity to investigate velocity variation with depth in a mafic lower crust. Measured P wave velocities, corrected for the decompression-induced breakdown of garnet, range from 6.9 to 7.6 km/sec and correlate with derivation depth. These velocities are 5-12% lower than the calculated velocities (7.5-8.0 km/sec), apparently as a result of grain boundary alteration as well as irreversible changes that occurred in the xenoliths during rapid decompression. Calculated P wave velocities are similar to those estimated by Furlong and Fountain (1986) and Sobolev and Babeyko (1989) for mafic granulites formed through basaltic underplating of the continental crust. Depending upon in situ temperature, P wave velocities in the deepest samples may be interpreted as crustal (e.g., 7.3-7.6 km/sec, if heat flow is high) or mantle (7.7-7.8 km/sec, in areas of low heat flow). The range of velocities in the xenolith suite is larger than predicted for a fully equilibrated underplated basaltic layer, highlighting the importance of kinetic effects in determining the ultimate velocity profile of magmatically underplated crust. Comparison of our results with seismic profiles illustrates that the lower crust rarely reaches such high velocities, suggesting quartz-bearing rocks (country rocks?) are present within magmatically underplated layers of the deep crust.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cristofani, Edison; Friederich, Fabian; Wohnsiedler, Sabine; Matheis, Carsten; Jonuscheit, Joachim; Vandewal, Marijke; Beigang, René
2014-03-01
The sub-terahertz (THz) frequency band has proved to be a noteworthy option for nondestructive testing (NDT) of nonmetal aeronautics materials. Composite structures or laminates can be inspected for foreign objects (water or debris), delaminations, debonds, etc., using sub-THz sensors during the manufacturing process or maintenance. Given the harmless radiation to the human body of this frequency band, no special security measures are needed for operation. Moreover, the frequency-modulated continuous-wave sensor used in this study offers a very light, compact, inexpensive, and high-performing solution. An automated two-dimensional scanner carrying three sensors partially covering the 70- to 320-GHz band is operated, using two complementary measurement approaches: conventional focused imaging, where focusing lenses are used; and synthetic aperture (SA) or unfocused wide-beam imaging, for which lenses are no longer needed. Conventional focused imagery offers finer spatial resolutions but imagery is depth-limited due to the beam waist effect, whereas SA measurements allow imaging of thicker samples with depth-independent but coarser spatial resolutions. The present work is a compendium of a much larger study and describes the key technical aspects of the proposed imaging techniques and reports on results obtained from human-made samples (A-sandwich, C-sandwich, solid laminates) which include diverse defects and damages typically encountered in aeronautics multilayered structures. We conclude with a grading of the achieved results in comparison with measurements performed by other NDT techniques on the same samples.
Non-Gaussian wave packet dynamics in anharmonic potential: Cumulant expansion treatment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toutounji, Mohamad
2015-03-01
This manuscript utilizes cumulant expansion as an alternative algebraic approach to evaluating integrals and solving a system of nonlinear differential equations for probing anharmonic dynamics in condensed phase systems using Morse oscillator. These integrals and differential equations become harder to solve as the anharmonicity of the system goes beyond that of Morse oscillator description. This algebraic approach becomes critically important in case of Morse oscillator as it tends to exhibit divergent dynamics and numerical uncertainties at low temperatures. The autocorrelation function is calculated algebraically and compared to the exact one for they match perfectly. It is also compared to the approximate autocorrelation function using the differential equations technique reported in Toutounji (2014) for weak and strong electron-phonon coupling cases. It is found that the present cumulant method is more efficient, and easier to use, than the exact expression. Deviation between the approximate autocorrelation function and the exact autocorrelation function starts to arise as the electron-phonon coupling strength increases. The autocorrelation function obtained using cumulants identically matches the exact autocorrelation function, thereby surpassing the approach presented in Toutounji (2014). The advantage of the present methodology is its applicability to various types of electron-phonon coupling cases. Additionally, the herein approach only uses algebraic techniques, thereby avoiding both the divergence integral and solving a set of linear first- and second-order partial differential equations as was done in previous work. Model calculations are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the herein work.
Hu, Zhongdong; Yang, Ailin; Su, Guozhu; Zhao, Yunfang; Wang, Ying; Chai, Xingyun; Tu, Pengfei
2016-01-01
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cause of malignancy-related mortality worldwide. It is urgently needed to develop potential drugs with good efficacy and low toxicity for HCC treatment. The anti-tumor effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has received increasing attention worldwide. Trametes robiniophila Murr. (Huaier) has been used in TCM for approximately 1,600 years. Clinically, Huaier has satisfactory therapeutic effects in cancer treatment, especially in HCC. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effect of Huaier remain ill defined. Herein we have demonstrated that Huaier dramatically inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cell line SKHEP-1. Importantly, Huaier restrained the metastatic capability of SKHEP-1 cells. Mechanistically, down-regulation of Lamin B1 and up-regulation of Nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) were at least partially responsible for the inhibitory effect of Huaier on the proliferative and invasive capacity of SKHEP-1 cells. Our finding provided new insights into mechanisms of anti-HCC effect of Huaier and suggested a new scientific basis for clinical medication. PMID:27503760
Hu, Zhongdong; Yang, Ailin; Su, Guozhu; Zhao, Yunfang; Wang, Ying; Chai, Xingyun; Tu, Pengfei
2016-01-01
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cause of malignancy-related mortality worldwide. It is urgently needed to develop potential drugs with good efficacy and low toxicity for HCC treatment. The anti-tumor effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has received increasing attention worldwide. Trametes robiniophila Murr. (Huaier) has been used in TCM for approximately 1,600 years. Clinically, Huaier has satisfactory therapeutic effects in cancer treatment, especially in HCC. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer effect of Huaier remain ill defined. Herein we have demonstrated that Huaier dramatically inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cell line SKHEP-1. Importantly, Huaier restrained the metastatic capability of SKHEP-1 cells. Mechanistically, down-regulation of Lamin B1 and up-regulation of Nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) were at least partially responsible for the inhibitory effect of Huaier on the proliferative and invasive capacity of SKHEP-1 cells. Our finding provided new insights into mechanisms of anti-HCC effect of Huaier and suggested a new scientific basis for clinical medication. PMID:27503760
Kao, Jim . E-mail: kao@lanl.gov; Flicker, Dawn; Ide, Kayo; Ghil, Michael
2006-05-20
This paper builds upon our recent data assimilation work with the extended Kalman filter (EKF) method [J. Kao, D. Flicker, R. Henninger, S. Frey, M. Ghil, K. Ide, Data assimilation with an extended Kalman filter for an impact-produced shock-wave study, J. Comp. Phys. 196 (2004) 705-723.]. The purpose is to test the capability of EKF in optimizing a model's physical parameters. The problem is to simulate the evolution of a shock produced through a high-speed flyer plate. In the earlier work, we have showed that the EKF allows one to estimate the evolving state of the shock wave from a single pressure measurement, assuming that all model parameters are known. In the present paper, we show that imperfectly known model parameters can also be estimated accordingly, along with the evolving model state, from the same single measurement. The model parameter optimization using the EKF can be achieved through a simple modification of the original EKF formalism by including the model parameters into an augmented state variable vector. While the regular state variables are governed by both deterministic and stochastic forcing mechanisms, the parameters are only subject to the latter. The optimally estimated model parameters are thus obtained through a unified assimilation operation. We show that improving the accuracy of the model parameters also improves the state estimate. The time variation of the optimized model parameters results from blending the data and the corresponding values generated from the model and lies within a small range, of less than 2%, from the parameter values of the original model. The solution computed with the optimized parameters performs considerably better and has a smaller total variance than its counterpart using the original time-constant parameters. These results indicate that the model parameters play a dominant role in the performance of the shock-wave hydrodynamic code at hand.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ducharme, R.; da Paz, I. G.
2016-08-01
In two recent papers exact Hermite-Gaussian solutions to relativistic wave equations were obtained for both electromagnetic and particle beams. The solutions for particle beams correspond to those of the Schrödinger equation in the nonrelativistic limit. Here, it will be shown that each beam particle has additional 4-momentum resulting from transverse localization compared to a free particle traveling in the same direction as the beam with the same speed. This will be referred to as the quantum 4-potential term since it will be shown to play an analogous role in relativistic Hamiltonian quantum mechanics as the Bohm potential in the nonrelativistic quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Low-order localization effects include orbital angular momentum, Gouy phase, and beam spreading. Toward a more systematic approach for calculating localization effects at all orders, it will be shown that both the electromagnetic and quantum 4-potentials couple into the canonical 4-momentum of a particle in a similar way. This offers the prospect that traditional methods used to calculate the affect of an electromagnetic field on a particle can now be adapted to take localization effects into account. The prospects for measuring higher order quantum 4-potential related effects experimentally are also discussed alongside some questions to challenge the quantum information and quantum field theorists.
Livingstone, E F; DeLisa, J A; Halar, E M
1984-11-01
Mid-humerus cadaver determinations of ulnar F-wave, C7 spinal somatosensory evoked potential (SEP), and modified C8 root stimulation (RS) were performed bilaterally on 20 normal subjects to standardize technique and obtain normal values for the segment from mid-humerus to cervical spine. Our cadaver study shows that the best position for upper extremity measurement of mid-humerus-cervical spine distance is at 60 degrees of shoulder abduction, 45 degrees of internal rotation, and at the distance of 35cm, measured by caliper. Using this position and distance the following normal values were obtained: 1) Mid-humerus F-wave minimal, maximal, and mean latencies, and minimal nerve conduction velocity (NCV) were 21.8 +/- 1.2msec, 22.3 +/- 1.2msec, 22.3 +/- 1.1msec, and 59.7 +/- 2.4m/sec, respectively. Latency difference between minimal and maximal F-wave was 1.4 +/- 0.4msec. 2) Cervical spine SEP was 5.1 +/- 0.4msec, with left to right difference of less than 0.9msec. 3) C8 RS and mid-humerus ulnar nerve (UN) pick-up latency and NCV were 4.9 +/- 0.2msec and 71.4 +/- 2.2m/sec, whereas C8 root pick-up and mid-humerus UN stimulation latency and NCV were 5.2 +/- 0.4msec and 66.9 +/- 5.2m/sec, respectively. To evaluate proximal nerve conductivity through the thoracic outlet, the sequential use of the three modified techniques for 35cm mid-humerus-cervical spine distance is recommended. PMID:6497620
Rao, V.S.; Skinner, G.B. )
1989-03-09
Very dilute mixtures of CD{sub 2}CHCH{sub 3}, CH{sub 2}CDCH{sub 3}, and CH{sub 2}CHCD{sub 3} were pyrolyzed at 1500-1800 K behind incident shock waves at an average pressure of 0.42 atm and behind reflected waves at 2.8 atm. Analysis for H and D using resonance absorption spectroscopy showed that propene dissociates partly by formation of hydrogen atoms and allyl radicals, (1), and partly by formation of vinyl and methyl radicals, (2). Both of these unimolecular dissociation reactions of propene are in the intermediate falloff region at our pressures and temperatures. For (1) we find k{sub 1} = 3.5 {times} 10{sup 12} exp(-75 kcal/RT) s{sup {minus}1} at 0.42 atm and k{sub 1} = 3.6 {times} 10{sup 13} exp(-80 kcal/RT) s{sup {minus}1} at 2.8 atm. For (2) we find k{sub 2} = 8.2 {times} 10{sup 12} exp(-80 kcal/RT) s{sup {minus}1} at 0.42 atm and k{sub 2} = 2.3 {times} 10{sup 13} exp(-80 kcal/RT) s{sup {minus}1} at 2.8 atm. Estimated uncertainties are factors of 1.5 in (1) and 2 in (2).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okubo, Kan; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Takayama, Masakazu; Takeuchi, Nobunao
We have observed the co-seismic electromagnetic phenomena such as earth potential difference (EPD) variation in many observation sites of both Miyagi and Akita Prefectures. So far, in any earthquakes we observed clear signals of the EPD variation. However, the amplitude of observed EPD signals are very different at each site. To explain this difference, firstly we assumed the EPD generation mechanism to be the streaming potential. Secondarily, the underground circumstance is modeled as the composer of groundwater table, capillary tubes and fine tubes. The model how EPD variation signals appear is postulated to explain the observed data. The relative position of the ground water table against the buried electrodes is examined to explain the observed data. The groundwater table may be very sensitive to the appearance of the EPD variation. If electrodes were buried a few meters below the ground surface, we could observe the EPD signals in the case of shallow groundwater table.
Du Chaohai; Liu Pukun
2009-10-15
The problem of spurious oscillations induced by absolute instabilities is the most challenging one that hinders the development of the millimeter-wave gyrotron traveling-wave amplifiers (gyro-TWTs). A spurious oscillation exists as a high order axial mode (HOAM) in the interaction circuit. This paper is devoted to demonstrating the complicated steady states of these HOAMs and exploring corresponding techniques to stabilize these potential multi-steady-state absolute instabilities. The stability-oriented design principle is conveyed in a start-to-end design flow of a Ka-band TE{sub 11} mode gyro-TWT. Strong magnetic tapering near the downstream port, which is capable of cutting short the effective interaction circuit of a spurious oscillation and simultaneously boosting the amplification performance, is for the first time proposed to further improve the system stability. It is also found that an ideal prebunched electron beam in the linear stage is the necessary condition to efficient amplification in the nonlinear stage, suggesting that it is feasible to design a stable prebunching stage to replace the distributed-loss-loaded linear stage. The stability-oriented design principle provides more explicit reference for future design of a zero-drive stable gyro-TWT.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nabok, Dmitrii; Gulans, Andris; Draxl, Claudia
2016-07-01
The G W approach of many-body perturbation theory has become a common tool for calculating the electronic structure of materials. However, with increasing number of published results, discrepancies between the values obtained by different methods and codes become more and more apparent. For a test set of small- and wide-gap semiconductors, we demonstrate how to reach the numerically best electronic structure within the framework of the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FLAPW) method. We first evaluate the impact of local orbitals in the Kohn-Sham eigenvalue spectrum of the underlying starting point. The role of the basis-set quality is then further analyzed when calculating the G0W0 quasiparticle energies. Our results, computed with the exciting code, are compared to those obtained using the projector-augmented plane-wave formalism, finding overall good agreement between both methods. We also provide data produced with a typical FLAPW basis set as a benchmark for other G0W0 implementations.
2011-01-01
Introduction About 3% of people will be diagnosed with epilepsy during their lifetime, but about 70% of people with epilepsy eventually go into remission. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of starting antiepileptic drug treatment following a single seizure? What are the effects of drug monotherapy in people with partial epilepsy? What are the effects of additional drug treatments in people with drug-resistant partial epilepsy? What is the risk of relapse in people in remission when withdrawing antiepileptic drugs? What are the effects of behavioural and psychological treatments for people with epilepsy? What are the effects of surgery in people with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 83 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antiepileptic drugs after a single seizure; monotherapy for partial epilepsy using carbamazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, phenytoin, sodium valproate, or topiramate; addition of second-line drugs for drug-resistant partial epilepsy (allopurinol, eslicarbazepine, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, losigamone, oxcarbazepine, retigabine, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin, or zonisamide); antiepileptic drug withdrawal for people with partial or
Pilot-wave dynamics in a harmonic potential: Quantization and stability of circular orbits.
Labousse, M; Oza, A U; Perrard, S; Bush, J W M
2016-03-01
We present the results of a theoretical investigation of the dynamics of a droplet walking on a vibrating fluid bath under the influence of a harmonic potential. The walking droplet's horizontal motion is described by an integro-differential trajectory equation, which is found to admit steady orbital solutions. Predictions for the dependence of the orbital radius and frequency on the strength of the radial harmonic force field agree favorably with experimental data. The orbital quantization is rationalized through an analysis of the orbital solutions. The predicted dependence of the orbital stability on system parameters is compared with experimental data and the limitations of the model are discussed. PMID:27078462
Pilot-wave dynamics in a harmonic potential: Quantization and stability of circular orbits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Labousse, M.; Oza, A. U.; Perrard, S.; Bush, J. W. M.
2016-03-01
We present the results of a theoretical investigation of the dynamics of a droplet walking on a vibrating fluid bath under the influence of a harmonic potential. The walking droplet's horizontal motion is described by an integro-differential trajectory equation, which is found to admit steady orbital solutions. Predictions for the dependence of the orbital radius and frequency on the strength of the radial harmonic force field agree favorably with experimental data. The orbital quantization is rationalized through an analysis of the orbital solutions. The predicted dependence of the orbital stability on system parameters is compared with experimental data and the limitations of the model are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molinari, Vincenzo; Mostacci, Domiziano
2015-10-01
He-4 is known to become superfluid at very low temperatures. This effect is now generally accepted to be connected with BEC (Bose-Einstein Condensation). The dispersion relation of pressure waves in superfluid He-4 has been determined at 1.1 °K by Yarnell et al., and exhibits a non monotonic behavior-with a maximum and a minimum-usually explained in terms of excitations called rotons, introduced by Landau. In the present work an attempt is made to describe the phenomenon within the Bohmian interpretation of QM. To this end, the effects of the intermolecular potential, taken to be essentially of the Lennard-Jones type modified to account for molecule finiteness, are included as a Vlasov-type self-consistent field. A dispersion relation is found, that is in quite good agreement with Yarnell's curve.
Pąchalska, Maria; Kropotov, Iurii D.; Mańko, Grzegorz; Lipowska, Małgorzata; Rasmus, Anna; Łukaszewska, Beata; Bogdanowicz, Marta; Mirski, Andrzej
2012-01-01
Summary Background We hypothesized that there would be a good response to relative beta training, applied to regulate the dynamics of brain function in a patient with benign partial epilepsy with Rolandic Spikes (BPERS), associated with neuropsychiatric deficits resembling the symptoms of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Case Report The patient, E.Z., age 9.3, was suffering from neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive dysfunction, especially attention deficits, and behavioral changes, rendering him unable to function independently in school and in many situations of everyday life. He was treated for epilepsy, but only slight progress was made. The patient took part in 20 sessions of relative beta training combined with behavioral training. We used standardized neuropsychological testing, as well as ERPs before the experiment and after the completion of the neurotherapy program. Neuropsychological testing at baseline showed multiple cognitive deficits. Over the course of neurotherapy, E.Z.’s verbal and non-verbal IQ increased significantly. His cognitive functions also improved, including immediate and delayed logical and visual recall on the WMS-III, maintaining attention on the WMS-III, and executive functions, but remained below norms. Physiologically, the patient showed substantial changes after neurotherapy, including fewer spikes and an increased P300 NOGO component. Conclusions The cognitive deficits characteristic for ADHD in a child with BPERS may be unresponsive to antiepileptic treatment, but are reversible after a carefully selected neurotherapy program, combined with antiepileptic treatment. Event Related Potentials (ERPs) in the GO/NOGO task can be used to assess functional brain changes induced by neurotherapeutical programs. PMID:23111748
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Feng-Jiao; Ding, Jian-Wen; Yan, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Deng-Long
2009-05-01
Taking into account both gain/loss and time-dependent atomic scattering length, this paper analytically derives an exact bright solitary wave in a cigar-shaped attractive condensate in the presence of an expulsive parabolic potential. Due to the balance of the scattering length and gain/loss, the bright solitary wave is shown to have constant amplitude. Especially, it is found that the bright solitary wave is accelerated by expulsive force, whose velocity can be modulated by changing the axial and transverse angular frequencies. The results are in good agreement with the experimental observations by Khaykovich et al (2002 Science 296 1290).
Pelosi, L; Holly, M; Slade, T; Hayward, M; Barrett, G; Blumhardt, L D
1992-01-01
The inter-subject wave form variability of auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by digit probe identification in a memory-scanning task (Sternberg paradigm) and the effects of reaction time (RT) and task difficulty were studied in 26 healthy subjects. The response wave forms were compared with the performance of psychological tests of intelligence and memory. ERPs to 1-digit sets consisted of a sequence of waves identified as P100, N170, P250, N290, P400, P560 and N640. The major inter-subject difference in the response wave form was either the presence or absence of the late parietal positive wave P560. This wave occurred significantly more often in responses associated with larger memory sets and slow RT, suggesting that its presence reflects subjective difficulty in performing a task. With increasing set size, the P400 showed variable effects in different subjects, ranging from relative preservation of amplitude, through attenuation, to replacement or overlap by a broad surface-negative wave. This predominantly 'negative-going' effect of increasing task difficulty on the P400 was significantly correlated with scores of psychological tests; the greater the amplitude difference between the responses to easy and more difficult tasks, the better the scores, suggesting that these wave form changes reflect a more effective cognitive processing mechanism. PMID:1378004
The potential impact of scatterometry on oceanography - A wave forecasting case
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cane, M. A.; Cardone, V. J.
1981-01-01
A series of observing system simulation experiments have been performed in order to assess the potential impact of marine surface wind data on numerical weather prediction. In addition to conventional data, the experiments simulated the time-continuous assimilation of remotely sensed marine surface wind or temperature sounding data. The wind data were fabricated directly for model grid points intercepted by a Seasat-1 scatterometer swath and were assimilated into the lowest active level (945 mb) of the model using a localized successive correction method. It is shown that Seasat wind data can greatly improve numerical weather forecasts due to better definition of specific features. The case of the QE II storm is examined.
Potential Spacecraft-to-Spacecraft Radio Observations with EJSM: Wave of the Future? (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marouf, E. A.; Tortora, P.; Asmar, S. W.; Folkner, W. M.; Hinson, D.; Iess, L.; Linscott, I. R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Mueller-Wodarg, I. C.
2010-12-01
Future active radio observations of planetary and satellite atmospheres and surfaces could significantly benefit form the presence of two or more spacecraft in orbit around a target object. Traditionally, radio occultation and bistatic surface scattering experiments have been conducted using a single spacecraft operating in the Downlink (DL) configuration, with the spacecraft transmitting and at least one Earth-based station receiving. The configuration has the advantage of using powerful ground-based receivers for down-conversion, digitization, and digital recording of large bandwidth data for later off-line processing and analysis. It has the disadvantage of an available free-space signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) limited by the relatively small carrier power (10-20 W) a spacecraft can practically transmit. Recent technological advances in designing small-mass and small-power spacecraft-based digital receivers capable of on-board signal processing could open the door for significant performance improvement compared with the DL configuration. For example, with two spacecraft in orbit instead of one, the smaller distance D between the two spacecraft compared with the distance to Earth can boost achievable free-space SNR by one to three orders of magnitude, depending on D. In addition, richer variability in observation geometry can be captured using spacecraft-to-spacecraft (SC-to-SC) radio occultations and surface scattering. By their nature, traditional DL occultations are confined to the morning and evening terminators. Availability of on-board processing capability also opens the door for conducting Uplink (UL) occultation and bistatic observations, where very large power (> 20 kW) can be transmitted from an Earth-based station, potentially boasting achievable free-space SNR by orders of magnitude, comparable to the SC-to-SC case and much higher than the DL case. The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) will likely be the first planetary mission to benefit from the
Odd and even partial waves of ηπ- and η‧π- in π- p →η (‧)π- p at 191 GeV / c
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adolph, C.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, M. G.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E. R.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hahne, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F. H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Höppner, Ch.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Jörg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuß, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krämer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nunes, A. S.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peshekhonov, D. V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Rocco, E.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Rychter, A.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlüter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Virius, M.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.
2015-01-01
Exclusive production of ηπ- and η‧π- has been studied with a 191 GeV / cπ- beam impinging on a hydrogen target at COMPASS (CERN). Partial-wave analyses reveal different odd/even angular momentum (L) characteristics in the inspected invariant mass range up to 3 GeV /c2. A striking similarity between the two systems is observed for the L = 2 , 4 , 6 intensities (scaled by kinematical factors) and the relative phases. The known resonances a2 (1320) and a4 (2040) are in line with this similarity. In contrast, a strong enhancement of η‧π- over ηπ- is found for the L = 1 , 3 , 5 waves, which carry non- q q bar quantum numbers. The L = 1 intensity peaks at 1.7 GeV /c2 in η‧π- and at 1.4 GeV /c2 in ηπ-, the corresponding phase motions with respect to L = 2 are different.
Transport and selective chaining of bidisperse particles in a travelling wave potential.
Tierno, Pietro; Straube, Arthur V
2016-05-01
We combine experiments, theory and numerical simulation to investigate the dynamics of a binary suspension of paramagnetic colloidal particles dispersed in water and transported above a stripe-patterned magnetic garnet film. The substrate generates a one-dimensional periodic energy landscape above its surface. The application of an elliptically polarized rotating magnetic field causes the landscape to translate, inducing direct transport of paramagnetic particles placed above the film. The ellipticity of the applied field can be used to control and tune the interparticle interactions, from net repulsive to net attractive. When considering particles of two distinct sizes, we find that, depending on their elevation above the surface of the magnetic substrate, the particles feel effectively different potentials, resulting in different mobilities. We exploit this feature to induce selective chaining for certain values of the applied field parameters. In particular, when driving two types of particles, we force only one type to condense into travelling parallel chains. These chains confine the movement of the other non-chaining particles within narrow colloidal channels. This phenomenon is explained by considering the balance of pairwise magnetic forces between the particles and their individual coupling with the travelling landscape. PMID:27194527
Anderson localization of matter waves in 3D anisotropic disordered potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piraud, Marie
2016-05-01
We study quantum transport and Anderson localization of matterwaves in 3 dimensional correlated disorder, focusing on the effects of the anisotropy. Indeed, understanding the anisotropy effects is fundamental for experiments with ultracold atoms as well as for several other systems, such as electrons in MOSFETs, light in biological medium, liquid crystals. A major challenge is to understand whether the anisotropy of the diffusion tensor is altered by the interference terms at the origin of Anderson localization. In particular, its anisotropy at the mobility edge remains to be investigated. So far, all theoretical analysis have assumed - more or less implicitly - that the anisotropy of the diffusion tensor is preserved by interference effects, and have focussed on the vanishing of diffusion as a whole. In this talk, I will start by presenting the usual description of matterwave transport in disordered medium. I will then present our method to go beyond the standard self-consistent theory, which includes in particular the full anisotropic structure of the spectral function. It thus avoids the infrared divergence of the usual self-consistent theory and, most importantly, does not make any assumption on the anisotropy of the renormalized diffusion tensor when including quantum interference terms. Using a generic model of disorder with elongated correlations, we find that the diffusion tensor is strongly affected by the quantum interference terms and that the anisotropy strongly diminishes in the vicinity of the mobility edge. Our work paves the way to further investigation with speckle potentials, which are directly relevant to ultracold-atom experiments. It will permit comparison with previous predictions for the mobility edge and shed new light on ongoing experiments in the field of ultracold atoms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kengne, Emmanuel; Shehou, Abdourahman; Lakhssassi, Ahmed
2016-03-01
We investigate the dynamics of matter-wave solitons in the one-dimensional (1-D) Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation describing Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with time-dependent scattering length in varying trapping potentials with feeding/loss term. By performing a modified lens-type transformation, we reduce the GP equation into a classical nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with distributed coefficients and find its integrable condition. Under the integrable condition, we apply the generalized Jacobian elliptic function method (GJEFM) and present exact analytical solutions which describe the propagation of a bright and dark solitons in BECs. Their stability is examined using analytic method. The obtained exact solutions show that the amplitude of bright and dark solitons depends on the scattering length, while their motion and the total number of BEC atoms depend on the external trapping potential. Our results also shown that the loss of atoms can dominate the aggregation of atoms by the attractive interaction, and thus the peak density can decrease in time despite that the strength of the attractive interaction is increased.
Duncan, G; Pynsent, P B
1979-01-01
1. Simultaneous intracellular (Vi) and extracellular (Ve) recordings have been made from photoreceptor cells in the retina of the cephalopod Sepiola atlantica. 2. The depolarization of the distal (rhodopsin containing) membrane (Vm) was derived from the Vi and Ve records. 3. All three potentials had very similar time courses in response to short flashes of low intensity but the Vi and Vm responses were much greater in amplitude. 4. At high intensities the amplitudes of Vi and Ve were similar but the wave forms were quite different and it was postulated that a voltage-sensitive potassium conductance change in the proximal membranes of the cell was mainly reponsible for the observed differences. 5. The wave forms of the three responses following long (500 msec) flashes were quite different at all intensities tested. At high intensities there was a slow sag phase in the Vi response, that was mirrored by a slow rise phase in the Ve responses. The reconstructed Vm response was flat during this period of change in the other two responses. 6. The recoveries to the base line of all responses following both long and short flashes were similar in that at high intensities they consisted of at least two phases. The fast phase had a time constant less than 1 sec and the slow component had a time constant of greater than 10 sec. 7. The maximum rates of change of voltage (dV/dt) in both short and long flash responses were linear over a much wider range of intensity values than were the response amplitudes and the rates continued to increase after the peak response amplitude had saturated. 8. The characteristics of the cephalopod responses were compared with those from vertebrate rods and cones and several marked similarities were found. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 9 PMID:469714
Sandell, Linda J.; Zhang, Bo; Wright, Rick W.; Brophy, Robert H.
2016-01-01
Objectives (i) To provide baseline knowledge of gene expression in macroscopically normal articular cartilage, (ii) to test the hypothesis that age, body-mass-index (BMI), and sex are associated with cartilage RNA transcriptome, and (iii) to predict individuals at potential risk for developing “pre-osteoarthritis” (OA) based on screening of genetic risk-alleles associated with OA and gene transcripts differentially expressed between normal and OA cartilage. Design Healthy-appearing cartilage was obtained from the medial femoral notch of 12 knees with a meniscus tear undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. Cartilage had no radiographic, magnetic-resonance-imaging or arthroscopic evidence for degeneration. RNA was subjected to Affymetrix microarrays followed by validation of selected transcripts by microfluidic digital polymerase-chain-reaction. The underlying biological processes were explored computationally. Transcriptome-wide gene expression was probed for association with known OA genetic risk-alleles assembled from published literature and for comparison with gene transcripts differentially expressed between healthy and OA cartilage from other studies. Results We generated a list of 27,641 gene transcripts in healthy cartilage. Several gene transcripts representing numerous biological processes were correlated with age and BMI and differentially expressed by sex. Based on disease-specific Ingenuity Pathways Analysis, gene transcripts associated with aging were enriched for bone/cartilage disease while the gene expression profile associated with BMI was enriched for growth-plate calcification and OA. When segregated by genetic risk-alleles, two clusters of study patients emerged, one cluster containing transcripts predicted by risk studies. When segregated by OA-associated gene transcripts, three clusters of study patients emerged, one of which is remarkably similar to gene expression pattern in OA. Conclusions Our study provides a list of gene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ullmann, Clemens V.; Campbell, Hamish J.; Frei, Robert; Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Korte, Christoph
2013-11-01
The preservation potential and trends of alteration of many isotopic systems (e.g. Li, Mg, Ca) that are measured in fossil carbonates are little explored, yet extensive paleoenvironmental interpretations have been made on the basis of these records. Here we present a geochemical dataset for a Late Jurassic (˜153 Ma) belemnite (Belemnopsis sp.) from New Zealand that has been partially overprinted by alteration. We report the physical pathways and settings of alteration, the resulting elemental and isotopic trends including δ7Li values and Li/Ca ratios, and assess whether remnants of the primary shell composition have been preserved or can be extrapolated from the measured values. The δ18O and δ13C values as well as Sr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios were analysed along two profiles. In addition, 6 samples were analysed for 87Sr/86Sr, Sr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios. Five samples from the same specimen and 2 from the surrounding sediment were analysed for δ7Li values, Li/Ca, Sr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios and are compared to results for 6 other Late Jurassic belemnite rostra (Belemnopsis sp. andHibolithes sp.) from the same region. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios are lower (less radiogenic) in the most altered part of the rostrum, whereas δ7Li values become more positive with progressive alteration. The direction and magnitude of the trends in the geochemical record indicate that one main phase of alteration that occurred in the Late Cretaceous caused most of the diagenetic signature in the calcite. Despite relatively deep burial, down to 4 km, and thus elevated temperatures, this diagenetic signature has subsequently been preserved even for the highly mobile element lithium, suggesting that primary lithium-isotope values can be maintained over geological timescales, at least in thick macrofossil shells. Our best δ7Li estimate for pristine Late Jurassic (˜155-148 Ma) belemnites is +27 ± 1‰, which points to a Late Jurassic seawater δ7Li of ˜29-32‰, compatible with the modern value of 31‰.
Izzati, Wan Akmal; Adzis, Zuraimy; Shafanizam, Mohd
2014-01-01
Polymer nanocomposites have recently been attracting attention among researchers in electrical insulating applications from energy storage to power delivery. However, partial discharge has always been a predecessor to major faults and problems in this field. In addition, there is a lot more to explore, as neither the partial discharge characteristic in nanocomposites nor their electrical properties are clearly understood. By adding a small amount of weight percentage (wt%) of nanofillers, the physical, mechanical, and electrical properties of polymers can be greatly enhanced. For instance, nanofillers in nanocomposites such as silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3) and titania (TiO2) play a big role in providing a good approach to increasing the dielectric breakdown strength and partial discharge resistance of nanocomposites. Such polymer nanocomposites will be reviewed thoroughly in this paper, with the different experimental and analytical techniques used in previous studies. This paper also provides an academic review about partial discharge in polymer nanocomposites used as electrical insulating material from previous research, covering aspects of preparation, characteristics of the nanocomposite based on experimental works, application in power systems, methods and techniques of experiment and analysis, and future trends. PMID:24558326
Izzati, Wan Akmal; Arief, Yanuar Z; Adzis, Zuraimy; Shafanizam, Mohd
2014-01-01
Polymer nanocomposites have recently been attracting attention among researchers in electrical insulating applications from energy storage to power delivery. However, partial discharge has always been a predecessor to major faults and problems in this field. In addition, there is a lot more to explore, as neither the partial discharge characteristic in nanocomposites nor their electrical properties are clearly understood. By adding a small amount of weight percentage (wt%) of nanofillers, the physical, mechanical, and electrical properties of polymers can be greatly enhanced. For instance, nanofillers in nanocomposites such as silica (SiO2), alumina (Al2O3) and titania (TiO2) play a big role in providing a good approach to increasing the dielectric breakdown strength and partial discharge resistance of nanocomposites. Such polymer nanocomposites will be reviewed thoroughly in this paper, with the different experimental and analytical techniques used in previous studies. This paper also provides an academic review about partial discharge in polymer nanocomposites used as electrical insulating material from previous research, covering aspects of preparation, characteristics of the nanocomposite based on experimental works, application in power systems, methods and techniques of experiment and analysis, and future trends. PMID:24558326
Oxygen partial pressure sensor
Dees, D.W.
1994-09-06
A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.
Oxygen partial pressure sensor
Dees, Dennis W.
1994-01-01
A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saleeby, J.; Le Pourhiet, L.
2012-12-01
runs is a chain of events that initiates with the basal thermal perturbation and load of the arclogite root inducing Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability within the peridotitic lithosphere, as well as the development of a lower crustal channel along the eastern margin of root, which draws lower crust into the eastern Sierra region from the adjacent Basin and Range. These lead to a lithospheric break-off event that corresponds to the ca. 10 Ma inception of the Sierra Nevada microplate, and which further promotes the east to west delamination of the arclogite root. Initial topography is shown to influence the asymmetry of delamination. Much of our model experimentation consists of testing the influence of crustal rheology on model results. We find that a relatively weak crust for the entire microplate best reproduces rock uplift and tectonic subsidence observations, as well as the timing and source characteristics of observed volcanism. We apply the findings of our 2-D models to 3-D relationships across the southern Sierra region in order to elucidate the time transgressive patterns in uplift, subsidence, volcanism and shallow thermal anomalies in relation to the 3-D delamination of the root, and the production of the higher Vp core of the anomaly. These relations suggest a significant compositional component to the core area of the anomaly (deformed arclogite slab), while the peridotitic envelope produces a broad thermally-induced wave-speed anomaly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexander, M. J.; Sherwood, S.; Mahoney, M. J.; Bui, P.
2003-12-01
Gravity waves are known to affect cloud formation via the temperature perturbations they cause, and these effects can be significant in conditions that are otherwise marginal for cloud formation. Cirrus clouds near the tropopause can form in the cold phases of gravity waves. The ER-2 aircraft observations during the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign provide a unique set for gravity wave analysis. For the first time, data from both the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) and Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) were obtained together from the ER-2 platform, with flight paths near convection. Analyses of MTP and MMS data can be combined to provide the full set of gravity wave parameters needed to model their origin, propagation, and eventual fate. This wave analysis requires long, constant-level flight paths. First a wavelet analysis in horizontal wavenumber is performed along the flight path direction for measurements of temperature and horizontal wind. From this, the strongest wave modes are identified, and the vertical wavenumber estimated from the MTP data for these modes. Linear wave theory is then employed to compute the propagation directions and intrinsic frequencies for these strongest wave modes. The results of this analysis thus provide the full three-dimensional propagation characteristics for the dominant gravity wave modes in the data. We subsequently use these results to examine their role in cirrus cloud formation at lower altitudes, and compare the results to in situ measurements made from the WB-57F aircraft platform.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mentink-Vigier, Frédéric; Binet, Laurent; Vignoles, Gerard; Gourier, Didier; Vezin, Hervé
2010-11-01
The hyperfine interactions of the unpaired electron with eight surrounding G69a and G71a nuclei in Ti-doped β-Ga2O3 were analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopies. They are dominated by strong isotropic hyperfine couplings due to a direct Fermi contact interaction with Ga nuclei in octahedral sites of rutile-type chains oriented along b axis, revealing a large anisotropic spatial extension of the electron wave function. Titanium in β-Ga2O3 is thus best described as a diffuse (Ti4+-e-) pair rather than as a localized Ti3+ . Both electron and G69a nuclear spin Rabi oscillations could be observed by pulsed EPR and pulsed ENDOR, respectively. The electron spin decoherence time is about 1μs (at 4 K) and an upper bound of 520μs (at 8 K) is estimated for the nuclear decoherence time. Thus, β-Ga2O3:Ti appears to be a potential spin-bus system for quantum information processing with a large nuclear spin quantum register.
Baczewski, Andrew David; Vikram, Melapudi; Shanker, Balasubramaniam; Kempel, Leo
2010-08-27
Diffusion, lossy wave, and Klein–Gordon equations find numerous applications in practical problems across a range of diverse disciplines. The temporal dependence of all three Green’s functions are characterized by an infinite tail. This implies that the cost complexity of the spatio-temporal convolutions, associated with evaluating the potentials, scales as O(Ns2Nt2), where Ns and Nt are the number of spatial and temporal degrees of freedom, respectively. In this paper, we discuss two new methods to rapidly evaluate these spatio-temporal convolutions by exploiting their block-Toeplitz nature within the framework of accelerated Cartesian expansions (ACE). The first scheme identifies a convolution relation inmore » time amongst ACE harmonics and the fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used for efficient evaluation of these convolutions. The second method exploits the rank deficiency of the ACE translation operators with respect to time and develops a recursive numerical compression scheme for the efficient representation and evaluation of temporal convolutions. It is shown that the cost of both methods scales as O(NsNtlog2Nt). Furthermore, several numerical results are presented for the diffusion equation to validate the accuracy and efficacy of the fast algorithms developed here.« less
Baczewski, Andrew David; Vikram, Melapudi; Shanker, Balasubramaniam; Kempel, Leo
2010-08-27
Diffusion, lossy wave, and Klein–Gordon equations find numerous applications in practical problems across a range of diverse disciplines. The temporal dependence of all three Green’s functions are characterized by an infinite tail. This implies that the cost complexity of the spatio-temporal convolutions, associated with evaluating the potentials, scales as O(N_{s}^{2}N_{t}^{2}), where N_{s} and N_{t} are the number of spatial and temporal degrees of freedom, respectively. In this paper, we discuss two new methods to rapidly evaluate these spatio-temporal convolutions by exploiting their block-Toeplitz nature within the framework of accelerated Cartesian expansions (ACE). The first scheme identifies a convolution relation in time amongst ACE harmonics and the fast Fourier transform (FFT) is used for efficient evaluation of these convolutions. The second method exploits the rank deficiency of the ACE translation operators with respect to time and develops a recursive numerical compression scheme for the efficient representation and evaluation of temporal convolutions. It is shown that the cost of both methods scales as O(N_{s}N_{t}log^{2}N_{t}). Furthermore, several numerical results are presented for the diffusion equation to validate the accuracy and efficacy of the fast algorithms developed here.
Castro, L. B.; Castro, A. S. de
2010-03-15
It is shown that the paper 'Wave functions for a Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau particle in a time-dependent potential' by Merad and Bensaid [J. Math. Phys. 48, 073515 (2007)] is not correct in using inadvertently a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian in a formalism that does require Hermitian Hamiltonians.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Straton, Jack C.
1989-01-01
The class of integrals containing the product of N 1s hydrogenic orbitals and M Coulomb or Yukawa potentials with m plane waves is investigated analytically. The results obtained by Straton (1989) are extended and generalized. It is shown that the dimensionality of the entire class can be reduced from 3m to M+N-1.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Kyoung-Rok; Koo, Weoncheol; Kim, Moo-Hyun
2013-12-01
A floating Oscillating Water Column (OWC) wave energy converter, a Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB), was simulated using a state-of-the-art, two-dimensional, fully-nonlinear Numerical Wave Tank (NWT) technique. The hydrodynamic performance of the floating OWC device was evaluated in the time domain. The acceleration potential method, with a full-updated kernel matrix calculation associated with a mode decomposition scheme, was implemented to obtain accurate estimates of the hydrodynamic force and displacement of a freely floating BBDB. The developed NWT was based on the potential theory and the boundary element method with constant panels on the boundaries. The mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian (MEL) approach was employed to capture the nonlinear free surfaces inside the chamber that interacted with a pneumatic pressure, induced by the time-varying airflow velocity at the air duct. A special viscous damping was applied to the chamber free surface to represent the viscous energy loss due to the BBDB's shape and motions. The viscous damping coefficient was properly selected using a comparison of the experimental data. The calculated surface elevation, inside and outside the chamber, with a tuned viscous damping correlated reasonably well with the experimental data for various incident wave conditions. The conservation of the total wave energy in the computational domain was confirmed over the entire range of wave frequencies.
Dunkerton, T.J. )
1991-02-20
Eastward and westward traveling waves were observed by the Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) during the northern winter 1978-1979. Eastward waves were prevalent in early winter and were involved in a minor Canadian warming in December 1978. A large westward traveling wave, as described by previous authors, was observed in January 1979 during a series of minor warmings. By comparing these two events, it is shown that in both cases the superposition of traveling and quasi-stationary waves led to constructive interference that was responsible for the warmings. However, there was significant asymmetry between eastward and westward traveling components. Eastward disturbances were confined mostly within the polar vortex, whereas quasi-stationary and westward traveling components propagated to the vortex periphery and beyond, into the tropics and mid-latitude mesosphere. This behavior is consistent with Rossby wave propagation and indicates that the location and magnitude of planetary wave breaking is sensitive to the frequency spectrum entering the middle atmosphere. However, this asymmetry is also a signature of the nonlinear critical layer as it projects onto the frequency spectrum. Both interpretations are shown to be valid during wave events observed by LIMS. A local Eulerian analysis of potential vorticity (PV) transport indicates that adiabatic, geostrophic advection by the resolvable scales of motion explains qualitatively (but not quantitatively) the observed potential vorticity tendencies in the LIMS northern hemisphere winter. In particular, calculated advection explains the eastward rotation of the main vortex, intrusion of low PV air into the polar cap, and formation of high PV filaments at the vortex periphery.
Shivakumar, Srividya; Karmali, Anika Nayak; Ruhimbana, Charles
2014-01-01
A new alkalophilic low-molecular-mass chitinase of 14 kD from the potent biocontrol agent Bacillus subtilis JN032305 was partially purified and enzymology of the chitinase was studied. The enzyme showed optimal pH of 9.0 and temperature of 50°C. The enzyme was found stable during the 60-min incubation at 50 °C. The chitinase was inhibited by group specific agents like IAA, DAN, TLCK, and SDS and metal ions Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Ba(2+), and Hg(2+), whereas Zn(2+) did not show significant inhibitory effect against the chitinase. PMSF partially inhibited the enzyme. Substrates specificity tests indicated that the enzyme showed 75% of relative activity on glycol chitin, 58% on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), 33% on chitin flakes, and 166% laminarin compared to that on colloidal chitin. The enzyme also hydrolyzed 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminide, indicating its chitobiase activity. The chitinase of this study has broad specificity, which could hydrolyze not only the glycosidic bond in GlcNAc-GlcNAc but also that of related carbohydrates with glycosidic linkages. The partially purified chitinase not only showed antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, two potent phytopathogens of chilli, but also increased the germination of chilli seeds when infected with the two potent phytopathogenic fungi. PMID:24499366
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawakata, H.; Yoshimitsu, N.; Nakatani, M.; Philipp, J.; Doi, I.; Naoi, M. M.; Ward, T.; Visser, V.; Morema, G.; Khambule, S.; Masakale, T.; Milev, A.; Durrheim, R. J.; Ribeiro, L.; Ward, M.; Ogasawara, H.
2011-12-01
It gives us important information about earthquake processes to monitor transmitted waves across a fault with a high potential for earthquake generation. In laboratory experiments, the decreases in elastic wave speed (e.g., Yoshimitsu et al., 2009) and attenuation parameter Q (Yoshimitsu and Kawakata, 2011) have been found prior to the faulting. In South African gold mines, we can specify a fault with a high potential for mining induced earthquakes of relatively large magnitude based on mining plans. In addition, the seismic line can be set at the depth of a few kilometers, so that the transmitted waves propagate through only hard rock. Hence, we started to monitor transmitted waves across a fault that has a high potential for an M˜2 earthquake at about 1 km deep in the Ezulwini gold mine. We installed a piezoelectric transmitter as a wave source about 20 m away from the fault in the hanging wall. Three accelerometers of 3-component were also installed in alignment with the transmitter; one is about 7 m away from the fault in the hanging wall, and the other two are about 7 m and 13 m away from the fault in the footwall, respectively. Then, the total length of our seismic line is ˜ 33 m long. The frequency response of accelerometers is within ±3 dB from 1 Hz to 10 kHz. For 10 minutes from midnight everyday, when there is no blasting, the elastic waves are transmitted every 0.05 seconds, and the received waves are recorded at 400 ksps on 14bit. Transmitted signals can be clearly recognized in stacked waveforms of all channels, although signal-to-noise ratios are high enough only in a frequency range from 3 kHz up to 10 kHz. The waveforms of three components are rotated so that one component (radial component) is parallel to the seismic line. Then, P waves are dominant in radial components for two sites in the footwall. On the other hand, at the nearest site in the hanging wall, near field term and/or intermediate term seem to be included. In addition to the
Analytical treatment of bosonic d-wave scattering in isotropic harmonic waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giannakeas, P.; Melezhik, V. S.; Schmelcher, P.
2012-04-01
We analyze d-wave resonances in atom-atom scattering in the presence of harmonic confinement by employing a higher-partial-wave pseudopotential. Analytical results for the scattering amplitude and transmission are obtained and compared to corresponding numerical ones, which employ the Lennard-Jones potential. Qualitative agreement is observed for weak confinement. For strong confinement the pseudopotential does not capture the s- and d-wave interference phenomena, yielding an asymmetric Fano profile for the transmission resonance.
Agakishiev, G.; Arnold, O.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Cabanelas, P.; Chernenko, S.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Göbel, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kunz, T.; Kurepin, A.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michel, J.; Müntz, C.; Münzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.; Sarantsev, A. V.
2015-01-26
Employing the Bonn–Gatchina partial wave analysis framework (PWA), we have analyzed HADES data of the reaction p(3.5GeV) + p → pK^{+}Λ. This reaction might contain information about the kaonic cluster “ppK^{-}” (with quantum numbers J^{P}=0^{-} and total isospin I =1/2) via its decay into pΛ. Due to interference effects in our coherent description of the data, a hypothetical K ¯NN (or, specifically “ppK^{-}”) cluster signal need not necessarily show up as a pronounced feature (e.g. a peak) in an invariant mass spectrum like pΛ. Our PWA analysis includes a variety of resonant and non-resonant intermediate states and delivers a good description of our data (various angular distributions and two-hadron invariant mass spectra) without a contribution of a K ¯NN cluster. At a confidence level of CL_{s}=95% such a cluster cannot contribute more than 2–12% to the total cross section with a pK^{+} Λ final state, which translates into a production cross-section between 0.7 μb and 4.2 μb, respectively. The range of the upper limit depends on the assumed cluster mass, width and production process.
Partial wave analysis of the reaction $\gamma p\to p\omega $ and the search for nucleon resonances
Williams, M.; Applegate, D.; Bellis, M.; Meyer, C. A.; Adhikari, K. P.; Anghinolfi, M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Berman, B. L.; Biselli, A. S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Careccia, S. L.; Carman, D. S.; Cole, P. L.; Collins, P.; Crede, V.; D’Angelo, A.; Daniel, A.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Dey, B.; Dhamija, S.; Dickson, R.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Dupre, R.; Alaoui, A. El; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fradi, A.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Garçon, M.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Hassall, N.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jawalkar, S. S.; Jo, H. S.; Johnstone, J. R.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Krahn, Z.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kuznetsov, V.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; Mayer, M.; McAndrew, J.; McCracken, M. E.; McKinnon, B.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Moreno, B.; Moriya, K.; Morrison, B.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nepali, C. S.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Niroula, M. R.; Niyazov, R. A.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paris, M.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Pereira, S. Anefalos; Perrin, Y.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salamanca, J.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, E. S.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vineyard, M. F.; Voutier, E.; Watts, D. P.; Weygand, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.
2009-12-30
We performed an event-based partial wave analysis (PWA) of the reaction γ p -> p ω on a high-statistics dataset obtained using the CLAS at Jefferson Lab for center-of-mass energies from threshold up to 2.4 GeV. This analysis benefits from access to the world's first high precision spin density matrix element measurements, available to the event-based PWA through the decay distribution of omega-> π^{+} π^{ -} π^{0}. The data confirm the dominance of the t-channel π^{0} exchange amplitude in the forward direction. The dominant resonance contributions are consistent with the previously identified states F[15](1680) and D[13](1700) near threshold, as well as the G[17](2190) at higher energies. Suggestive evidence for the presence of a J(P)=5/2^{+} state around 2 GeV, a "missing" state, has also been found. Evidence for other states is inconclusive.
Hill, David P.
2012-01-01
Hill (2008) and Hill (2010) contain two technical errors: (1) a missing factor of 2 for computed Love‐wave amplitudes, and (2) a sign error in the off‐diagonal elements in the Euler rotation matrix.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Capps, Stephen; Lorandos, Jason; Akhidime, Eval; Bunch, Michael; Lund, Denise; Moore, Nathan; Murakawa, Kiosuke
1989-01-01
The purpose of this study is to investigate comprehensive design requirements associated with designing habitats for humans in a partial gravity environment, then to apply them to a lunar base design. Other potential sites for application include planetary surfaces such as Mars, variable-gravity research facilities, and a rotating spacecraft. Design requirements for partial gravity environments include locomotion changes in less than normal earth gravity; facility design issues, such as interior configuration, module diameter, and geometry; and volumetric requirements based on the previous as well as psychological issues involved in prolonged isolation. For application to a lunar base, it is necessary to study the exterior architecture and configuration to insure optimum circulation patterns while providing dual egress; radiation protection issues are addressed to provide a safe and healthy environment for the crew; and finally, the overall site is studied to locate all associated facilities in context with the habitat. Mission planning is not the purpose of this study; therefore, a Lockheed scenario is used as an outline for the lunar base application, which is then modified to meet the project needs. The goal of this report is to formulate facts on human reactions to partial gravity environments, derive design requirements based on these facts, and apply the requirements to a partial gravity situation which, for this study, was a lunar base.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dunkerton, Timothy J.
1991-01-01
Eastward and westward traveling waves were observed by the Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) during the northern winter 1978-1979. Eastward waves were prevalent in early winter and were involved in a minor Canadian warming in December 1978. A large westward traveling wave, as described by previous authors, was observed in January 1979 during a series of minor warmings. By comparing these two events, it is shown that in both cases the superposition of traveling and quasi-stationary waves led to constructive interference that was responsible for the warmings. However, there was significant asymmetry between eastward and westward traveling components. A local Eulerian analysis of potential vorticity (PV) transport indicates that adiabatic, geostrophic advection by the resolvable scales of motion explains qualitatively (but not quantitatively) the observed potential vorticity tendencies in the LIMS Northern Hemisphere winter. In particular, calculated advection explains the eastward rotation of the main vortex, intrusion of low PV air into the polar cap, and formation of high PV filaments at the vortex periphery.
Scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave by a Luneburg lens. II. Wave theory.
Lock, James A
2008-12-01
The partial wave scattering and interior amplitudes for the interaction of an electromagnetic plane wave with a modified Luneburg lens are derived in terms of the exterior and interior radial functions of the scalar radiation potentials evaluated at the lens surface. A Debye series decomposition of these amplitudes is also performed and discussed. The effective potential inside the lens for the transverse electric polarization is qualitatively examined, and the approximate lens size parameters of morphology-dependent resonances are determined. Finally, the physical optics model is used to calculate wave scattering in the vicinity of the ray theory orbiting condition in order to demonstrate the smoothing of ray theory discontinuities by the diffraction of scattered waves. PMID:19037389
Kaplan, F; Weigend, F; Evers, F; van Setten, M J
2015-11-10
The GW method in its most widespread variant takes, as an input, Kohn-Sham (KS) single particle energies and single particle states and yields results for the single-particle excitation energies that are significantly improved over the bare KS estimates. Fundamental shortcomings of density functional theory (DFT) when applied to excitation energies as well as artifacts introduced by approximate exchange-correlation (XC) functionals are thus reduced. At its heart lies the quasi-particle (qp) equation, whose solution yields the corrected excitation energies and qp-wave functions. We propose an efficient approximation scheme to treat this equation based on second-order perturbation theory and self-consistent iteration schemes. We thus avoid solving (large) eigenvalue problems at the expense of a residual error that is comparable to the intrinsic uncertainty of the GW truncation scheme and is, in this sense, insignificant. PMID:26574312
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scanu, Sergio; Peviani, Maximo; Carli, Filippo Maria; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Piermattei, Viviana; Bonamano, Simone; Marcelli, Marco
2015-04-01
This work proposes a multidisciplinary approach in which wave power potential maps are used as baseline for the application of environmental monitoring techniques identified through the use of a Database for Environmental Monitoring Techniques and Equipment (DEMTE), derived in the frame of the project "Marine Renewables Infrastructure Network for Emerging Energy Technologies" (Marinet - FP7). This approach aims to standardize the monitoring of the marine environment in the event of installation, operation and decommissioning of Marine Energy Conversion Systems. The database has been obtained through the collection of techniques and instrumentation available among the partners of the consortium, in relation with all environmental marine compounds potentially affected by any impacts. Furthermore in order to plan marine energy conversion schemes, the wave potential was assessed at regional and local scales using the numerical modelling downscaling methodology. The regional scale lead to the elaboration of the Italian Wave Power Atlas, while the local scale lead to the definition of nearshore hot spots useful for the planning of devices installation along the Latium coast. The present work focus in the application of environmental monitoring techniques identified in the DEMTE, in correspondence of the hotspot derived from the wave potential maps with particular reference to the biological interaction of the devices and the management of the marine space. The obtained results are the bases for the development of standardized procedures which aims to an effective application of marine environmental monitoring techniques during the installation, operation and decommissioning of Marine Energy Conversion Systems. The present work gives a consistent contribution to overcome non-technological barriers in the concession procedures, as far as the protection of the marine environment is of concern.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wiese, Michael R.
1987-01-01
Documented is an aeronautical geometry conversion package which translates wave-drag geometry into the Langley Wireframe Geometry Standard (LaWGS) format and then into a format which is used by the Supersonic Implicit Marching Potential (SIMP) program. The programs described were developed by Computer Sciences Corporation for the Advanced Vehicles Division/Advanced Concepts Branch at NASA Langley Research Center. Included also are the input and output from a benchmark test case.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, E.-H.; Boardsen, S. A.; Johnson, J. R.; Slavin, J. A.
2016-02-01
This chapter provides a brief overview of the observed characteristics of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves at Mercury. It shows how field-aligned propagating ULF waves at Mercury can be generated by externally driven fast compressional waves (FWs) via mode conversion at the ion-ion hybrid resonance. Then, the chapter reviews the interpretation that the strong magnetic compressional waves near and its harmonics observed with 20 of Mercury's magnetic equator could be the ion Bernstein wave (IBW) mode. A recent statistical study of ULF waves at Mercury based on MESSENGER data reported the occurrence and polarization of the detected waves. The chapter further introduces the field line resonance and the electromagnetic ion Bernstein waves to explain such waves, and shows that both theories can partially explain the observations.
Quench-induced correlation waves, and quantum grenades
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corson, John; Bohn, John
2016-05-01
We investigate the wave packet dynamics of a pair of particles that undergoes a rapid change of scattering length. Such quenches have recently become experimentally feasible with fast magnetic-field ramps and optical switching in the vicinity of a Feshbach resonance. The short-range interactions are modelled in the zero-range limit, where the quench is accomplished by switching the boundary condition of the wave function at vanishing particle separation. This generates a correlation wave that propagates rapidly to nonzero particle separations. We have derived universal, analytic results for this process that lead to a simple phase-space picture of quench-induced scattering. Intuitively, the strength of the correlation wave relates to the initial contact of the system. A natural consequence is that the waves are significant when the quench dissociates, at least partially, a bound state. These waves can propagate with high energy from one lattice site to another, potentially triggering highly non-equilibrium dynamics.
MacVittie, Thomas J.; Bennett, Alexander; Booth, Catherine; Garofalo, Michael; Tudor, Gregory; Ward, Amanda; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Gelfond, Daniel; McFarland, Emylee; Jackson, William; Lu, Wei; Farese, Ann M.
2014-01-01
The dose response relationship for the acute gastrointestinal syndrome following total-body irradiation prevents analysis of the full recovery and damage to the gastrointestinal system, since all animals succumb to the subsequent 100% lethal hematopoietic syndrome. A partial-body irradiation model with 5% bone marrow sparing was established to investigate the prolonged effects of high-dose radiation on the gastrointestinal system, as well as the concomitant hematopoietic syndrome and other multi-organ injury including the lung. Herein, cellular and clinical parameters link acute and delayed coincident sequelae to radiation dose and time course post-exposure. Male rhesus Macaca mulatta were exposed to partial-body irradiation with 5% bone marrow (tibiae, ankles, feet) sparing using 6 MV linear accelerator photons at a dose rate of 0.80 Gy min−1 to midline tissue (thorax) doses in the exposure range of 9.0 to 12.5 Gy. Following irradiation, all animals were monitored for multiple organ-specific parameters for 180 d. Animals were administered medical management including administration of intravenous fluids, antiemetics, prophylactic antibiotics, blood transfusions, antidiarrheals, supplemental nutrition, and analgesics. The primary endpoint was survival at 15, 60, or 180 d post-exposure. Secondary endpoints included evaluation of dehydration, diarrhea, hematologic parameters, respiratory distress, histology of small and large intestine, lung radiographs, and mean survival time of decedents. Dose- and time-dependent mortality defined several organ-specific sequelae, with LD50/15 of 11.95 Gy, LD50/60 of 11.01 Gy, and LD50/180 of 9.73 Gy for respective acute gastrointestinal, combined hematopoietic and gastrointestinal, and multi-organ delayed injury to include the lung. This model allows analysis of concomitant multi-organ sequelae, thus providing a link between acute and delayed radiation effects. Specific and multi-organ medical countermeasures can be assessed for
Polarization of almost-plane waves.
Sheppard, C J
2000-02-01
The general polarization behavior of almost-plane waves, in which the electric field varies slowly over a circular pupil, is considered, on the basis of an axial Hertz potential treatment and expansion in Zernike polynomials. The resultant modes of a circular aperture are compared with the well-known waveguide (or optical fiber) modes and Gaussian beam modes. The wave can be decomposed into partial waves of electric and magnetic types. The modes for a square pupil are also considered. The particular application of the effect on polarization of focusing the waves is discussed. Another application discussed is the Fresnel reflection from a dielectric interface, it being shown that the Fresnel reflection alters the relative strength of the electric and magnetic components. PMID:10680636
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
We have fulfilled Koch’s postulates and conducted host range tests with Septoria lepidii Desm. on five geographical accessions of hoary cress. Host range results showed the fungus specific to Lepidium spp. and damaging to hoary cress. This fungus is potentially an important biological control agent ...
O'Connell, Grant; Graff, Donald W; D'Ruiz, Carl D
2016-07-01
Changes in fifteen urine, blood and exhaled breath BoEs of HPHCs representing classes of compounds reported by FDA to be significant contributors to smoking-associated disease risks were measured in 105 clinical-confined subjects following randomization and a five-day forced-switch from usual brand conventional combustible cigarettes to: (i) exclusive commercial e-cigarette use; (ii) dual-use of commercial e-cigarettes and the subject's usual cigarette brand; or (iii) discontinued use of all tobacco or nicotine products. Levels of urinary biomarkers in subjects that completely substituted their usual cigarette with e-cigarettes were significantly lower (29-95%) after 5 days. Percent reductions in eight of nine urinary BoEs were indistinguishable to smokers who had quit smoking, except for nicotine equivalents, which declined by 25-40%. Dual users who halved self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes exhibited reductions (7-38%) in eight of nine urinary biomarkers, but had increase (1-20%) in nicotine equivalents. Reductions were broadly proportional to the reduced numbers of cigarettes smoked. Dual user urinary nicotine equivalents were slightly higher, but not statistically significant. After 5 days, blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75-96%) and exclusive use groups (11-83%); with dual users experiencing no significant reductions. All subjects experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO. Decreases in the cessation and exclusive groups ranged from 88-89% and 27-32% in dual users. Exhaled NO increased in the cessation and exclusive groups (46-63% respectively), whereas the dual users experienced minimal changes. Overall, smokers who completely or partially substituted conventional cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days, experienced reductions in HPHCs. PMID:27401591
Kim, Sung-Hoon; Jin, Seok-Joon; Karm, Myong-Hwan; Moon, Young-Jin; Jeong, Hye-Won; Kim, Jae-Won; Ha, Seung-Il; Kim, Joung-Uk
2016-08-01
Although the elicited responses of motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring are very sensitive to suppression by anesthetic agents and muscle relaxants, the use of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) during MEP monitoring is still controversial because of serious safety concerns and diagnostic accuracy. Here, we evaluated the incidence of unacceptable movement and compared false-negative MEP results between no and partial NMB during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery. We reviewed patient medical records for demographic data, anesthesia regimen, neurophysiology event logs, MEP results, and clinical outcomes. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the intraoperative use of NMB: no NMB group (n = 276) and partial NMB group (n = 409). We compared the diagnostic accuracy of MEP results to predict postoperative outcomes between both groups. Additionally, we evaluated unwanted patient movement during MEP monitoring in both groups. Of the 685 patients, 622 (90.8%) manifested no intraoperative changes in MEP and no postoperative motor deficits. Twenty patients showed postoperative neurologic deficits despite preserved intraoperative MEP. False-positive MEP results were 3.6% in the no NMB group and 3.9% in the partial NMB group (P = 1.00). False-negative MEP results were 1.1% in the no NMB group and 4.2% in the partial NMB group (P = 0.02). No spontaneous movement or spontaneous respiration was observed in either group. Propofol/remifentanil-based anesthesia without NMB decreases the stimulation intensity of MEPs, which may reduce the false-negative ratio of MEP monitoring during cerebral aneurysm surgery. Our anesthetic protocol enabled reliable intraoperative MEP recording and patient immobilization during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery. PMID:27559984
Electron acceleration by inertial Alfven waves
Thompson, B.J.; Lysak, R.L.
1996-03-01
Alfven waves reflected by the ionosphere and by inhomogeneities in the Alfven speed can develop an oscillating parallel electric field when electron inertial effects are included. These waves, which have wavelengths of the order of an Earth radius, can develop a coherent structure spanning distances of several Earth radii along geomagnetic field lines. This system has characteristic frequencies in the range of 1 Hz and can exhibit electric fields capable of accelerating electrons in several senses: via Landua resonance, bounce or transit time resonance as discussed by Andre and Eliasson or through the effective potential drop which appears when the transit time of the electrons is much smaller than the wave period, so that the electric fields appear effectively static. A time-dependent model of wave propagation is developed which represents inertial Alfven wave propagation along auroral field lines. The disturbance is modeled as it travels earthward, experiences partial reflections in regions of rapid variation, and finally reflects off a conducting ionosphere to continue propagating antiearthward. The wave experiences partial trapping by the ionospheric and the Alfven speed peaks discussed earlier by Polyakov and Rapoport and Trakhtengerts and Feldstein and later by Lysak. Results of the wave simulation and an accompanying test particle simulation are presented, which indicate that inertial Alfven waves are a possible mechanism for generating electron conic distributions and field-aligned particle precipitation. The model incorporates conservation of energy by allowing electrons to affect the wave via Landau damping, which appears to enhance the effect of the interactions which heat electron populations. 22 refs., 14 figs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Freeman, Frederick G.
1993-01-01
The increased use of automation in the cockpits of commercial planes has dramatically decreased the workload requirements of pilots, enabling them to function more efficiently and with a higher degree of safety. Unfortunately, advances in technology have led to an unexpected problem: the decreased demands on pilots have increased the probability of inducing 'hazardous states of awareness.' A hazardous state of awareness is defined as a decreased level of alertness or arousal which makes an individual less capable of reacting to unique or emergency types of situations. These states tend to be induced when an individual is not actively processing information. Under such conditions a person is likely to let his/her mind wander, either to internal states or to irrelevant external conditions. As a result, they are less capable of reacting quickly to emergency situations. Since emergencies are relatively rare, and since the high automated cockpit requires progressively decreasing levels of engagement, the probability of being seduced into a lowered state of awareness is increasing. This further decreases the readiness of the pilot to react to unique circumstances such as system failures. The HEM Lab at NASA-Langley Research Center has been studying how these states of awareness are induced and what the physiological correlates of these different states are. Specifically, they have been interested in studying electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of different states of alertness to determine if such states can be identified and, hopefully, avoided. The project worked on this summer involved analyzing the EEG and the event related potentials (ERP) data collected while subjects performed under two conditions. Each condition required subjects to perform a relatively boring vigilance task. The purpose of using these tasks was to induce a decreased state of awareness while still requiring the subject to process information. Each task involved identifying an infrequently
Bartosiewicz, Maciej; Laurion, Isabelle; Clayer, François; Maranger, Roxane
2016-06-21
Increasing air temperatures may result in stronger lake stratification, potentially altering nutrient and biogenic gas cycling. We assessed the impact of climate forcing by comparing the influence of stratification on oxygen, nutrients, and global-warming potential (GWP) of greenhouse gases (the sum of CH4, CO2, and N2O in CO2 equivalents) emitted from a shallow productive lake during an average versus a heat-wave year. Strong stratification during the heat wave was accompanied by an algal bloom and chemically enhanced carbon uptake. Solar energy trapped at the surface created a colder, isolated hypolimnion, resulting in lower ebullition and overall lower GWP during the hotter-than-average year. Furthermore, the dominant CH4 emission pathway shifted from ebullition to diffusion, with CH4 being produced at surprisingly high rates from sediments (1.2-4.1 mmol m(-2) d(-1)). Accumulated gases trapped in the hypolimnion during the heat wave resulted in a peak efflux to the atmosphere during fall overturn when 70% of total emissions were released, with littoral zones acting as a hot spot. The impact of climate warming on the GWP of shallow lakes is a more complex interplay of phytoplankton dynamics, emission pathways, thermal structure, and chemical conditions, as well as seasonal and spatial variability, than previously reported. PMID:27266257
Wave propagation in solids and fluids
Davis, J. L.
1988-01-01
The fundamental principles of mathematical analysis for wave phenomena in gases, solids, and liquids are presented in an introduction for scientists and engineers. Chapters are devoted to oscillatory phenomena, the physics of wave propagation, partial differential equations for wave propagation, transverse vibration of strings, water waves, and sound waves. Consideration is given to the dynamics of viscous and inviscid fluids, wave propagation in elastic media, and variational methods in wave phenomena. 41 refs.
Nonlinear wave propagation in constrained solids subjected to thermal loads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nucera, Claudio; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco
2014-01-01
The classical mathematical treatment governing nonlinear wave propagation in solids relies on finite strain theory. In this scenario, a system of nonlinear partial differential equations can be derived to mathematically describe nonlinear phenomena such as acoustoelasticity (wave speed dependency on quasi-static stress), wave interaction, wave distortion, and higher-harmonic generation. The present work expands the topic of nonlinear wave propagation to the case of a constrained solid subjected to thermal loads. The origin of nonlinear effects in this case is explained on the basis of the anharmonicity of interatomic potentials, and the absorption of the potential energy corresponding to the (prevented) thermal expansion. Such "residual" energy is, at least, cubic as a function of strain, hence leading to a nonlinear wave equation and higher-harmonic generation. Closed-form solutions are given for the longitudinal wave speed and the second-harmonic nonlinear parameter as a function of interatomic potential parameters and temperature increase. The model predicts a decrease in longitudinal wave speed and a corresponding increase in nonlinear parameter with increasing temperature, as a result of the thermal stresses caused by the prevented thermal expansion of the solid. Experimental measurements of the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter on a steel block under constrained thermal expansion confirm this trend. These results suggest the potential of a nonlinear ultrasonic measurement to quantify thermal stresses from prevented thermal expansion. This knowledge can be extremely useful to prevent thermal buckling of various structures, such as continuous-welded rails in hot weather.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atta-Fynn, Raymond; Ray, Asok K.
2007-04-01
Fully relativistic full-potential density functional calculations with an all-electron linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbitals method have been performed to investigate the electronic and geometric structures of atomic carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen chemisorption on the (1 0 0) surface of δ-Pu. For all chemisorption processes, the center adsorption site is found to be the most preferred site with chemisorption energies of 7.964, 7.665, and 8.335 eV for the C, N, and O adatoms, respectively. The respective optimized distances of the C, N, and O adatoms from the surface were found to be 0.26, 0.35, and 0.48 Å. The work functions and the net magnet moments, respectively, increased and decreased in all cases compared with the bare δ-Pu (1 0 0) surface. In particular, the work function shift is largest for the least preferred top site and lowest for the most preferred center site. A detailed analysis of partial charges inside the atomic spheres, charge density distributions, and the local density of states have been performed to investigate the nature of the interaction between the surface Pu atoms and the adatoms.
Contrera, G. A.; Orsaria, M.; Scoccola, N. N.
2010-09-01
We study the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter in the framework of a nonlocal SU(2) chiral quark model which includes wave function renormalization and coupling to the Polyakov loop. Both nonlocal interactions based on the frequently used exponential form factor, and on fits to the quark mass and renormalization functions obtained in lattice calculations are considered. Special attention is paid to the determination of the critical points, both in the chiral limit and at finite quark mass. In particular, we study the position of the critical end point as well as the value of the associated critical exponents for different model parametrizations.
Beklaryan, Leva A
2011-02-11
A finite difference analogue of the wave equation with potential perturbation is investigated, which simulates the behaviour of an infinite rod under the action of an external longitudinal force field. For a homogeneous rod, describing solutions of travelling wave type is equivalent to describing the full space of classical solutions to an induced one-parameter family of functional differential equations of point type, with the characteristic of the travelling wave as parameter. For an inhomogeneous rod, the space of solutions of travelling wave type is trivial, and their 'proper' extension is defined as solutions of 'quasitravelling' wave type. By contrast to the case of a homogeneous rod, describing the solutions of quasitravelling wave type is equivalent to describing the quotient of the full space of impulsive solutions to an induced one-parameter family of point-type functional differential equations by an equivalence relation connected with the definition of solutions of quasitravelling wave type. Stability of stationary solutions is analyzed. Bibliography: 9 titles.
Boehm, Marko; Alahuhta, Markus; Mulder, David W.; Peden, Erin A.; Long, Hai; Brunecky, Roman; Lunin, Vladimir V.; King, Paul W.; Ghirardi, Maria L.; Dubini, Alexandra
2015-11-03
The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains six plastidic [2Fe2S]-cluster ferredoxins (FDXs), with FDX1 as the predominant isoform under photoautotrophic growth. FDX2 is highly similar to FDX1 and has been shown to interact with specific enzymes (such as nitrite reductase), as well as to share interactors with FDX1, such as the hydrogenases (HYDA), ferredoxin:NAD(P) reductase I (FNR1), and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFR1), albeit performing at low catalytic rates. Here we report the FDX2 crystal structure solved at 1.18 Å resolution. Based on differences between the Chlorella fusca FDX1 and C. reinhardtii FDX2 structures, we generated and purified point-mutated versions of the FDX2 protein and assayed them in vitro for their ability to catalyze hydrogen and NADPH photo-production. The data show that structural differences at two amino acid positions contribute to functional differences between FDX1 and FDX2, suggesting that FDX2 might have evolved from FDX1 toward a different physiological role in the cell. Moreover, we demonstrate that the mutations affect both the midpoint potentials of the FDX and kinetics of the FNR reaction, possibly due to altered binding between FDX and FNR. An effect on H_{2} photo-production rates was also observed, although the kinetics of the reaction were not further characterized.
Boehm, Marko; Alahuhta, Markus; Mulder, David W.; Peden, Erin A.; Long, Hai; Brunecky, Roman; Lunin, Vladimir V.; King, Paul W.; Ghirardi, Maria L.; Dubini, Alexandra
2015-11-03
The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains six plastidic [2Fe2S]-cluster ferredoxins (FDXs), with FDX1 as the predominant isoform under photoautotrophic growth. FDX2 is highly similar to FDX1 and has been shown to interact with specific enzymes (such as nitrite reductase), as well as to share interactors with FDX1, such as the hydrogenases (HYDA), ferredoxin:NAD(P) reductase I (FNR1), and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFR1), albeit performing at low catalytic rates. Here we report the FDX2 crystal structure solved at 1.18 Å resolution. Based on differences between the Chlorella fusca FDX1 and C. reinhardtii FDX2 structures, we generated and purified point-mutated versions of the FDX2more » protein and assayed them in vitro for their ability to catalyze hydrogen and NADPH photo-production. The data show that structural differences at two amino acid positions contribute to functional differences between FDX1 and FDX2, suggesting that FDX2 might have evolved from FDX1 toward a different physiological role in the cell. Moreover, we demonstrate that the mutations affect both the midpoint potentials of the FDX and kinetics of the FNR reaction, possibly due to altered binding between FDX and FNR. An effect on H2 photo-production rates was also observed, although the kinetics of the reaction were not further characterized.« less
Boehm, Marko; Alahuhta, Markus; Mulder, David W; Peden, Erin A; Long, Hai; Brunecky, Roman; Lunin, Vladimir V; King, Paul W; Ghirardi, Maria L; Dubini, Alexandra
2016-04-01
The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains six plastidic [2Fe2S]-cluster ferredoxins (FDXs), with FDX1 as the predominant isoform under photoautotrophic growth. FDX2 is highly similar to FDX1 and has been shown to interact with specific enzymes (such as nitrite reductase), as well as to share interactors with FDX1, such as the hydrogenases (HYDA), ferredoxin:NAD(P) reductase I (FNR1), and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFR1), albeit performing at low catalytic rates. Here we report the FDX2 crystal structure solved at 1.18 Å resolution. Based on differences between the Chlorella fusca FDX1 and C. reinhardtii FDX2 structures, we generated and purified point-mutated versions of the FDX2 protein and assayed them in vitro for their ability to catalyze hydrogen and NADPH photo-production. The data show that structural differences at two amino acid positions contribute to functional differences between FDX1 and FDX2, suggesting that FDX2 might have evolved from FDX1 toward a different physiological role in the cell. Moreover, we demonstrate that the mutations affect both the midpoint potentials of the FDX and kinetics of the FNR reaction, possibly due to altered binding between FDX and FNR. An effect on H2 photo-production rates was also observed, although the kinetics of the reaction were not further characterized. PMID:26526668
Talebnejad, Mohammad Reza; Hosseinmenni, Saeedeh; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Mirzajani, Ali; Osroosh, Enayatollah
2016-01-01
Background: We compared the wave amplitude of visually evoked potential (VEP) between patients with esotropic and anisometropic amblyopic eyes and a normal group. Methods: The wave amplitude of VEP was documented in 2 groups of persons with amblyopia (15 with esotropia and 28 with anisometropia) and 1 group of individuals with normal visual acuity (n, 15). The amplitude of P100 was recorded monocularly with different spatial frequencies. Results: Our statistical analysis revealed that the wave amplitude in the 2 groups with amblyopia was significantly decreased compared to that in the normal group (P<0.001). There was a significant difference regarding the amplitude in high spatial frequencies in both high- and low-contrast conditions between the groups with esotropia and anisometropia and the normal group (P<0.001). There were also significant differences in large check-size stimuli and low-contrast condition between the amblyopic groups with esotropia and anisometropia and the normal group (P=0.013 and P=0.044, respectively). In large check-size stimuli and high-contrast condition, a significant difference was indicated only in the comparison between the esotropic amblyopic eyes and the normal eyes (P=0.036). Conclusion: The wave amplitude parameter of VEP was influenced by both types of amblyopia, but it seems that this parameter was more sensitive to esotropic amblyopia than anisometropic amblyopia. This outcome may reflect a non-parallel pattern of cortical responses in the comparison of the 2 types of amblyopia with each other and with the control group, which may be beneficial for the diagnosis and treatment of amblyopia. PMID:26989279
Near field and exit wave computations for electron microscopy.
Howie, A
2013-11-01
The partial wave phase shift formalism of atomic scattering is applied to compute exit wave functions for isolated Au and Si atoms under both plane wave and focused probe illumination. Connections between the far field and near field (exit) waves are clarified. This approach treats the Coulomb singularity properly though at 100 keV large numbers of phase shifts are required. In principle any form of incident wave can be handled so it may provide a means for testing traditional scattering theories used in electron microscopy. By applying the analysis to an atom embedded in a constant potential rather than free space, exit spheres of radius half the interatomic spacing can be used. PMID:23726769
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de la Torre, A.; Schmidt, T.; Wickert, J.
2006-12-01
This paper presents the first results of the global long-term potential energy and mean potential energy per unit mass associated to wave activity (WA) in the lower and middle stratosphere, obtained from Global Positioning System radio occultation (GPS-RO) temperature profiles, retrieved during the last 5 years from the CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload) satellite. We excluded temperature variations corresponding to the wavelike character of the Quasi Biennial oscillation (QBO). Possible limitations and distortions expected from our analysis are pointed out. Systematic annual and interannual features, clearly evidenced through 5 years of observations as a function of height, latitude and time are shown. We confirm some previously reported characteristics, in particular interannual requiring a sufficiently long period of observation, in addition to others not reported yet. In particular, a general stronger (weaker) wave activity is observed associated to apparent vertical wavelengths longer (shorter) than 4 km. The tropical/extratropical signatures decrease/increase with increasing altitude. At equatorial latitudes, WA interannual enhancements, related to QBO, are observed just below zonal wind zero contours corresponding to westerly shears. A significant decrease of WA is seen where the zonal wind is minimum. Both at equatorial and middle latitudes, an increased WA appears close above the TP, following its annual height oscillation and above 30 km height. At higher latitudes, a systematic annual variation of WA is observed, exhibiting stronger enhancements in winter SH respect to NH, but in SH, taking place during late winter and early spring. This enhanced WA, associated during 2002 to the stratospheric warming observed in that year, appears here as a systematic annual stratospheric feature. Its intensity increases with altitude, from 25 to 35 km. Inertio-gravity waves generated by geostrophic adjustment during the maximum of the southern polar vortex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, T.; de La Torre, A.; Beyerle, G.; Heise, S.; Wickert, J.; Rothacher, M.
Global gravity wave GW potential energy distributions are retrieved from radio occultation RO data from the German CHAMP and the US-Argentinian SAC-C satellite missions for the period May 2001 to mid-2006 The RO technique uses GPS radio signals received aboard low orbiting satellites for atmospheric limb sounding Atmospheric temperature profiles are derived with high vertical resolution The investigated altitudes cover the range from the mid-troposphere up to 35 km The specific potential energy SPE as a measure of GW activity is deduced from the temperature profile for each occultation event for different altitude ranges For extracting background temperatures and temperature perturbations a band-pass filter associated to different vertical wave lengths is used We discuss mean SPE distributions with respect to different 1 geographical regions and seasons 2 altitude intervals and 3 background wind conditions In addition to the filter technique ECMWF temperature data along the occultation path were used to determine the background temperature The derived SPE values are about twice as high as those derived with the traditional filtering of the temperature profiles The use of ECMWF temperatures as background data delivers unrealistic high SPE values for the Antarctic region 60 r S during winter which can be clearly attributed to the ECMWF analyses
New approach to folding with the Coulomb wave function
Blokhintsev, L. D.; Savin, D. A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.
2015-05-15
Due to the long-range character of the Coulomb interaction theoretical description of low-energy nuclear reactions with charged particles still remains a formidable task. One way of dealing with the problem in an integral-equation approach is to employ a screened Coulomb potential. A general approach without screening requires folding of kernels of the integral equations with the Coulomb wave. A new method of folding a function with the Coulomb partial waves is presented. The partial-wave Coulomb function both in the configuration and momentum representations is written in the form of separable series. Each term of the series is represented as a product of a factor depending only on the Coulomb parameter and a function depending on the spatial variable in the configuration space and the momentum variable if the momentum representation is used. Using a trial function, the method is demonstrated to be efficient and reliable.
Geometrical versus wave optics under gravitational waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angélil, Raymond; Saha, Prasenjit
2015-06-01
We present some new derivations of the effect of a plane gravitational wave on a light ray. A simple interpretation of the results is that a gravitational wave causes a phase modulation of electromagnetic waves. We arrive at this picture from two contrasting directions, namely, null geodesics and Maxwell's equations, or geometric and wave optics. Under geometric optics, we express the geodesic equations in Hamiltonian form and solve perturbatively for the effect of gravitational waves. We find that the well-known time-delay formula for light generalizes trivially to massive particles. We also recover, by way of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation, the phase modulation obtained under wave optics. Turning then to wave optics—rather than solving Maxwell's equations directly for the fields, as in most previous approaches—we derive a perturbed wave equation (perturbed by the gravitational wave) for the electromagnetic four-potential. From this wave equation it follows that the four-potential and the electric and magnetic fields all experience the same phase modulation. Applying such a phase modulation to a superposition of plane waves corresponding to a Gaussian wave packet leads to time delays.
Dalyander, P. Soupy; Long, Joseph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Thompson, David M.
2013-01-01
During the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, oil in the surf zone mixed with sediment in the surf zone to form heavier-than-water sediment oil agglomerates of various size, ranging from small (cm-scale) pieces (surface residual balls, SRBs) to large mats (100-m scale, surface residue mats, SR mats). Once SR mats formed in the nearshore or in the intertidal zone, they may have become buried by sand moving onshore or alongshore. To assist in locating possible sites of buried oil, wave scenarios previously developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) were used to determine the depths at which surface oil had the potential to mix with suspended sediment. For sediment to mix with floating oil and form an agglomerate of sufficient density to sink to the seafloor, either the water must be very shallow (e.g., within the swash zone) or sediment must be suspended to the water surface in sufficient concentrations to create a denser-than-sea water agglomerate. The focus of this study is to analyze suspended sediment mixing with surface oil in depths beyond the swash zone, in order to define the seaward limit of mat formation. A theoretical investigation of sediment dynamics in the nearshore zone revealed that non-breaking waves do not suspend enough sediment to the surface to form sinking sand/oil agglomerates. For this study, it was assumed that the cross-shore distribution of potential agglomerate formation is associated with the primary breaker line, and the presence of plunging breakers, over the time frame of oiling. The potential locations of submerged oil mats (SOMs) are sites where (1) possible agglomerate formation occurred, where (2) sediment accreted post-oiling and buried the SOM, and where (3) the bathymetry has not subsequently eroded to re-expose any mat that may have formed at that site. To facilitate identification of these locations, the range of water level variation over the time frame of oiling was also prescribed, which combined with the wave-breaking depth
... Jacksonian seizure; Seizure - partial (focal); Temporal lobe seizure; Epilepsy - partial seizures ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff RB, ... 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 67. ...
... Jacksonian seizure; Seizure - partial (focal); Temporal lobe seizure; Epilepsy - partial seizures ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff ... Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. ...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vranish, John M. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Zhonglei; Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Shen, Chao; Wang, Shui
2016-02-01
Frequency distribution is a vital factor in determining the contribution of whistler mode chorus to radiation belt electron dynamics. Chorus is usually considered to occur in the frequency range 0.1-0.8fce_eq (with the equatorial electron gyrofrequency fce_eq). We here report an event of intense low-frequency chorus with nearly half of wave power distributed below 0.1fce_eq observed by Van Allen Probe A on 27 August 2014. This emission propagated quasi-parallel to the magnetic field and exhibited hiss-like signatures most of the time. The low-frequency chorus can produce the rapid loss of low-energy (˜0.1 MeV) electrons, different from the normal chorus. For high-energy (≥0.5 MeV) electrons, the low-frequency chorus can yield comparable momentum diffusion to that of the normal chorus but much stronger (up to 2 orders of magnitude) pitch angle diffusion near the loss cone.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodrich, C. C.; Scudder, J. D.
1984-01-01
The adiabatic energy gain of electrons in the stationary electric and magnetic field structure of collisionless shock waves was examined analytically in reference to conditions of the earth's bow shock. The study was performed to characterize the behavior of electrons interacting with the cross-shock potential. A normal incidence frame (NIF) was adopted in order to calculate the reversible energy change across a time stationary shock, and comparisons were made with predictions made by the de Hoffman-Teller (HT) model (1950). The electron energy gain, about 20-50 eV, is demonstrated to be consistent with a 200-500 eV potential jump in the bow shock quasi-perpendicular geometry. The electrons lose energy working against the solar wind motional electric field. The reversible energy process is close to that modeled by HT, which predicts that the motional electric field vanishes and the electron energy gain from the electric potential is equated to the ion energy loss to the potential.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Lin-Hui
2015-02-01
The Kohn-Sham orbital kinetic energy density τσ(r ) =∑iwi σ|∇ψi σ(r ) | 2 is one fundamental quantity for constructing metageneralized gradient approximations (meta-GGAs) for use by density functional theory. We present a computational scheme of τσ(r ) for the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FLAPW) method. Our scheme is highly accurate and efficient and easy to implement with existing computer codes. To illustrate its performance, we construct the Becke-Johnson meta-GGA exchange potentials for Be, Ne, Mg, Ar, Ca, Zn, Kr, and Cd atoms, which are in very good agreement with the original results. For bulk solids, we construct the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential (mBJ) and confirm its capability to calculate band gaps with the reported bad convergence of the mBJ potential being substantially improved. The present computational scheme of τσ(r ) should also be valuable for developing other meta-GGAs in the FLAPW as well as in similar methods utilizing atom centered basis functions.
Li, Changtian; Zhang, Changsheng; Li, Junlai; Cao, Xiaolin; Song, Danfei
2016-07-01
2-D Shear wave elastography (SWE) imaging is widely used in clinical practice, and some researchers have applied this technique in the evaluation of neonatal brains. However, the immediate and long-term impacts of dynamic radiation force exposure on the neonatal central nervous system remain unknown. In this study, we exposed neonatal mice to 2-D SWE scanning for 10 min, 20 min and 30 min under diagnostic mode (mechanical index [MI]: 1.3; thermal index [TI]: 0.5), respectively. For the control group, the neonatal mice were sham irradiated for 30 min with the machine powered off. Their brains were collected and analyzed using histologic staining and western blot analysis at 24 h and 3 mo after the 2-D SWE scanning. The Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to assess learning and memory function of the mice at 3 mo of age. The results indicated that using 2-D SWE in evaluating brains of neonatal mice does not cause detectable histologic changes, nor does it have long-term effects on their learning and memory abilities. However, the PI3 K/AKT/mTOR pathway was disturbed when the 2-D SWE scanning lasted for more than 30 min, and the expression of p-PKCa was suppressed by 10 min or more in 2-D SWE scanning. Although these injuries may be self-repaired as the mice grow, more attention should be paid to the scanning duration when applying 2-D-SWE elastography in the assessment of neonatal brains. PMID:27112914
Hatta, Taku; Giambini, Hugo; Sukegawa, Koji; Yamanaka, Yoshiaki; Sperling, John W.; Steinmann, Scott P.; Itoi, Eiji; An, Kai-Nan
2016-01-01
The deltoid muscle plays a critical role in the biomechanics of shoulders undergoing reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). However, both pre- and postoperative assessment of the deltoid muscle quality still remains challenging. The purposes of this study were to establish a novel methodology of shear wave elastography (SWE) to quantify the mechanical properties of the deltoid muscle, and to investigate the reliability of this technique using cadaveric shoulders for the purpose of RSA. Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were obtained. The deltoid muscles were divided into 5 segments (A1, A2, M, P1 and P2) according to the muscle fiber orientation and SWE values were measured for each segment. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). To measure the response of muscle tension during RSA, the humeral shaft was osteotomized and subsequently elongated by an external fixator (intact to 15 mm elongation). SWE of the deltoid muscle was measured under each stretch condition. Intra- and inter-observer reliability of SWE measurements for all regions showed 0.761–0.963 and 0.718–0.947 for ICC(2,1). Especially, SWE measurements for segments A2 and M presented satisfactory repeatability. Elongated deltoid muscles by the external fixator showed a progressive increase in passive stiffness for all muscular segments. Especially, SWE outcomes of segments A2 and M reliably showed an exponential growth upon stretching (R2 = 0.558 and 0.593). Segmental measurements using SWE could be reliably and feasibly used to quantitatively assess the mechanical properties of the deltoid muscle, especially in the anterior and middle portions. This novel technique based on the anatomical features may provide helpful information of the deltoid muscle properties during treatment of RSA. PMID:27152934
Spatial and temporal compact equations for water waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyachenko, Alexander; Kachulin, Dmitriy; Zakharov, Vladimir
2016-04-01
A one-dimensional potential flow of an ideal incompressible fluid with a free surface in a gravity field is the Hamiltonian system with the Hamiltonian: H = 1/2intdxint-∞^η |nablaφ|^2dz + g/2ont η^2dxŗφ(x,z,t) - is the potential of the fluid, g - gravity acceleration, η(x,t) - surface profile Hamiltonian can be expanded as infinite series of steepness: {Ham4} H &=& H2 + H3 + H4 + dotsŗH2 &=& 1/2int (gη2 + ψ hat kψ) dx, ŗH3 &=& -1/2int \\{(hat kψ)2 -(ψ_x)^2}η dx,ŗH4 &=&1/2int {ψxx η2 hat kψ + ψ hat k(η hat k(η hat kψ))} dx. where hat k corresponds to the multiplication by |k| in Fourier space, ψ(x,t)= φ(x,η(x,t),t). This truncated Hamiltonian is enough for gravity waves of moderate amplitudes and can not be reduced. We have derived self-consistent compact equations, both spatial and temporal, for unidirectional water waves. Equations are written for normal complex variable c(x,t), not for ψ(x,t) and η(x,t). Hamiltonian for temporal compact equation can be written in x-space as following: {SPACE_C} H = intc^*hat V c dx + 1/2int [ i/4(c2 partial/partial x {c^*}2 - {c^*}2 partial/partial x c2)- |c|2 hat K(|c|^2) ]dx Here operator hat V in K-space is so that Vk = ω_k/k. If along with this to introduce Gardner-Zakharov-Faddeev bracket (for the analytic in the upper half-plane function) {GZF} partial^+x Leftrightarrow ikθk Hamiltonian for spatial compact equation is the following: {H24} &&H=1/gint1/ω|cω|2 dω +ŗ&+&1/2g^3int|c|^2(ddot c^*c + ddot c c^*)dt + i/g^2int |c|^2hatω(dot c c* - cdot c^*)dt. equation of motion is: {t-space} &&partial /partial xc +i/g partial^2/partial t^2c =ŗ&=& 1/2g^3partial^3/partial t3 [ partial^2/partial t^2(|c|^2c) +2 |c|^2ddot c +ddot c^*c2 ]+ŗ&+&i/g3 partial^3/partial t3 [ partial /partial t( chatω |c|^2) + dot c hatω |c|2 + c hatω(dot c c* - cdot c^*) ]. It solves the spatial Cauchy problem for surface gravity wave on the deep water. Main features of the equations are: Equations are written for
Benign idiopathic partial epilepsy and brain lesion.
Stephani, U; Doose, H
1999-03-01
A 14-year-old girl had severe head trauma from a dog bite at the age of 9 days. This resulted in extensive brain damage, tetraplegia, mental retardation, and epilepsy. The seizures were of rolandic type, and the EEG showed multifocal sharp waves. The course was benign. The initial diagnosis of a pure symptomatic epilepsy was revised after demonstrating typical benign focal sharp waves in the EEG of the healthy sister. Thus a phenocopy of a benign partial epilepsy by the brain lesion could be excluded with sufficient certainty. This observation allows the conclusion that the genetic disposition underlying the sharp-wave trait characteristic of benign partial epilepsies can be involved also in the pathogenesis of seemingly pure symptomatic epilepsies. EEG studies on siblings of such patients are needed to exclude possible phenocopies. PMID:10080522
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Welch, Kyle; Hastings-Hauss, Isaac; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer; Corwin, Eric
2013-03-01
Whether chaos in actively driven systems can be described by an effective temperature is an unresolved question in the study of nonlinear physics. We use chaotic Faraday waves to create a two-dimensional pseudo-thermal bath to investigate tunable interactions between floating particles. By vertically oscillating a liquid with an acceleration greater than g we excite the Faraday instability and create surface waves. Increasing this acceleration above some critical value causes this instability to become chaotic with fluctuations over a broad range of length scales. Particles placed on the surface are buffeted by random excitations in analogy to Brownian motion. We can change the ``temperature'' of the pseudo-thermal bath by manipulating the driving frequency and amplitude, a feature of the system we verify using real-time tracking to follow the diffusive movement of a single particle. With an eye toward creating complex self-assembling systems we use this system to measure the tunable interaction potential in two-, three-, and many-particle systems and to probe the effects of particle size, shape, symmetry, and wetting properties.
Artemyev, Anton N.; Müller, Anne D.; Demekhin, Philipp V.; Hochstuhl, David
2015-06-28
A theoretical method to study the angle-resolved multiphoton ionization of polyatomic molecules is developed. It is based on the time-dependent formulation of the Single Center (TDSC) method and consists in the propagation of single-active-electron wave packets in the effective molecular potentials in the presence of intense laser pulses. For this purpose, the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for one electron, moving in a molecular field and interacting with an arbitrary laser pulse, is solved in spherical coordinates by an efficient numerical approach. As a test, the method is applied to the one- and two-photon ionizations of a model methane-like chiral system by circularly polarized short intense high-frequency laser pulses. Thereby, we analyze the photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) in the momentum distribution. The considered model application illustrates the capability of the TDSC method to study multiphoton PECD in fixed-in-space and randomly oriented chiral molecules.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michel, N.; Stoitsov, M. V.
2008-04-01
The fast computation of the Gauss hypergeometric function F12 with all its parameters complex is a difficult task. Although the F12 function verifies numerous analytical properties involving power series expansions whose implementation is apparently immediate, their use is thwarted by instabilities induced by cancellations between very large terms. Furthermore, small areas of the complex plane, in the vicinity of z=e, are inaccessible using F12 power series linear transformations. In order to solve these problems, a generalization of R.C. Forrey's transformation theory has been developed. The latter has been successful in treating the F12 function with real parameters. As in real case transformation theory, the large canceling terms occurring in F12 analytical formulas are rigorously dealt with, but by way of a new method, directly applicable to the complex plane. Taylor series expansions are employed to enter complex areas outside the domain of validity of power series analytical formulas. The proposed algorithm, however, becomes unstable in general when |a|, |b|, |c| are moderate or large. As a physical application, the calculation of the wave functions of the analytical Pöschl-Teller-Ginocchio potential involving F12 evaluations is considered. Program summaryProgram title: hyp_2F1, PTG_wf Catalogue identifier: AEAE_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAE_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6839 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 63 334 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, Fortran 90 Computer: Intel i686 Operating system: Linux, Windows Word size: 64 bits Classification: 4.7 Nature of problem: The Gauss hypergeometric function F12, with all its parameters complex, is uniquely
Xu, Si-Liu; Cheng, Jia-Xi; Belić, Milivoj R; Hu, Zheng-Long; Zhao, Yuan
2016-05-01
We derive analytical solutions to the cubic-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation with potentials and nonlinearities depending on both propagation distance and transverse space. Among other, circle solitons and multi-peaked vortex solitons are found. These solitary waves propagate self-similarly and are characterized by three parameters, the modal numbers m and n, and the modulation depth of intensity. We find that the stable fundamental solitons with m = 0 and the low-order solitons with m = 1, n ≤ 2 can be supported with the energy eigenvalues E = 0 and E ≠ 0. However, higher-order solitons display unstable propagation over prolonged distances. The stability of solutions is examined by numerical simulations. PMID:27137617
Application of Monochromatic Ocean Wave Forecasts to Prediction of Wave-Induced Currents
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poole, L. R.
1975-01-01
Stoke's wave-induced currents are compared, for variety of wind conditions resulting in partially developed seas and for two water depths, with currents induced by average and significant monochromatic waves related to Bretschneider spectrum.
Venezian, G.; Bretschneider, C.L.
1980-08-01
This volume details a new methodology to analyze statistically the forces experienced by a structure at sea. Conventionally a wave climate is defined using a spectral function. The wave climate is described using a joint distribution of wave heights and periods (wave lengths), characterizing actual sea conditions through some measured or estimated parameters like the significant wave height, maximum spectral density, etc. Random wave heights and periods satisfying the joint distribution are then generated. Wave kinetics are obtained using linear or non-linear theory. In the case of currents a linear wave-current interaction theory of Venezian (1979) is used. The peak force experienced by the structure for each individual wave is identified. Finally, the probability of exceedance of any given peak force on the structure may be obtained. A three-parameter Longuet-Higgins type joint distribution of wave heights and periods is discussed in detail. This joint distribution was used to model sea conditions at four potential OTEC locations. A uniform cylindrical pipe of 3 m diameter, extending to a depth of 550 m was used as a sample structure. Wave-current interactions were included and forces computed using Morison's equation. The drag and virtual mass coefficients were interpolated from published data. A Fortran program CUFOR was written to execute the above procedure. Tabulated and graphic results of peak forces experienced by the structure, for each location, are presented. A listing of CUFOR is included. Considerable flexibility of structural definition has been incorporated. The program can easily be modified in the case of an alternative joint distribution or for inclusion of effects like non-linearity of waves, transverse forces and diffraction.
Kuskovsky, I.; Li, D.; Neumark, G.F.; Bondarev, V.N.; Pikhitsa, P.V.
1999-08-01
It has recently become apparent that {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} (low-concentration and low-compensation) theory for donor{endash}acceptor pair (DAP) photoluminescence (PL) is totally incapable of explaining results in highly doped and compensated material. It can be noted that such material is often of high technological interest. It has been argued, mainly qualitatively, that the discrepancies result from potential fluctuations due to random ionic charges. We here present a {ital quantitative} theory for cw DAP PL, using an approximate model. We also present data for the concentration and intensity dependence of DAP PL in heavily doped ZnSe:N, and show that the results are explained very satisfactorily by our fluctuation model. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
Bretschneider, C.L.
1980-06-01
This volume is an extension of and consists of several modifications to the earlier report by Bretschneider (April 1979) on the subject of hurricane design wind, wave and current criteria for the four potential OTEC sites. The 100-year hurricane criteria for the design of OTEC plants is included. The criteria, in addition to the maximum conditions of winds, waves and surface current, include: hurricane fields for wind speed U/sub s/ and significant wave height H/sub s/; hurricane fields for modal wave period f/sub 0//sup -1/ and maximum energy density S/sub max/ of the wave spectrum; the corresponding Ekman wind-driven surface current V/sub s/; tabulated cross-sections for U/sub s/, H/sub s/, f/sub 0//sup -1/ and S/sub max/ through max U/sub s/ and through max H/sub s/ along traverses at right angles to and along traverses parallel to the forward movement of the hurricane; most probable maximum wave height and the expected corresponding wave period, based on statistical analysis of maximum wave heights from five hurricanes; design wave spectra for maximum U/sub s/ and also maximum H/sub s/, since maximum U/sub s/ and maximum H/sub s/ do not occur simultaneously; the envelope of wave spectra through maximum U/sub s/ and through maximum H/sub s/ along traverses parallel to the forward movement of the hurricane; the above same determinations for Hurricane Camille (1969) as for the four OTEC locations; and alternative methods (suggested) for obtaining design wave spectra from the joint probability distribution functions for wave height and period given by Longuet-Higgins (1975) and C.N.E.X.O. after Arhan, et al (1976).
Teaching Modeling with Partial Differential Equations: Several Successful Approaches
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Myers, Joseph; Trubatch, David; Winkel, Brian
2008-01-01
We discuss the introduction and teaching of partial differential equations (heat and wave equations) via modeling physical phenomena, using a new approach that encompasses constructing difference equations and implementing these in a spreadsheet, numerically solving the partial differential equations using the numerical differential equation…
Langmuir wave dispersion relation in non-Maxwellian plasmas
Ouazene, M.; Annou, R.
2010-05-15
The Langmuir wave dispersion relation is derived in partially ionized plasmas, where free electrons are confined to move in a nearest neighbor ions' potential well. The equilibrium velocity distribution function experiences then, a departure from Maxwell distribution function. The effect of the non-Maxwellian character of the distribution function on the Langmuir phase and group velocities as well as the phase matching conditions and the nonlinear growth rate of decay instability is investigated. The proposed Langmuir wave dispersion relation is relevant to dense and cryogenic plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Sheng-ying; Zheng, Sen-hong; Song, Xian-liang; Luo, Shu-can
2015-06-01
Removing ethylene (C2H4) from the atmosphere of storage facilities for fruits and vegetable is one of the main challenges in their postharvest handling for maximizing their freshness, quality, and shelf life. In this study, we investigated the photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) degradation of ethylene gas by applying a pulsed direct current DC square-wave (PDCSW) potential and by using a Nafion-based PEC cell. The cell utilized a titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst or γ-irradiated TiO2 (TiO2*) loaded on activated carbon fiber (ACF) as a photoelectrode. The apparent rate constant of a pseudo-first-order reaction (K) was used to describe the PEC degradation of ethylene. Parameters of the potential applied to the PEC cell in a reactor that affect the degradation efficiency in terms of the K value were studied. These parameters were frequency, duty cycle, and voltage. Ethylene degradation by application of a constant PDCSW potential to the PEC electrode of either TiO2/ACF cell or TiO2*/ACF cell enhanced the efficiency of photocatalytic degradation and PEC degradation. Gamma irradiation of TiO2 in the electrode and the applied PDCSW potential synergistically increased the K value. Independent variables (frequency, duty cycle, and voltage) of the PEC cell fabricated from TiO2 subjected 20 kGy γ radiation were optimized to maximize the K value by using response surface methodology with quadratic rotation-orthogonal composite experimental design. Optimized conditions were as follows: 358.36 Hz frequency, 55.79% duty cycle, and 64.65 V voltage. The maximum K value attained was 4.4 × 10-4 min-1.
Partial Discharge Monitoring in Power Transformers Using Low-Cost Piezoelectric Sensors.
Castro, Bruno; Clerice, Guilherme; Ramos, Caio; Andreoli, André; Baptista, Fabricio; Campos, Fernando; Ulson, José
2016-01-01
Power transformers are crucial in an electric power system. Failures in transformers can affect the quality and cause interruptions in the power supply. Partial discharges are a phenomenon that can cause failures in the transformers if not properly monitored. Typically, the monitoring requires high-cost corrective maintenance or even interruptions of the power system. Therefore, the development of online non-invasive monitoring systems to detect partial discharges in power transformers has great relevance since it can reduce significant maintenance costs. Although commercial acoustic emission sensors have been used to monitor partial discharges in power transformers, they still represent a significant cost. In order to overcome this drawback, this paper presents a study of the feasibility of low-cost piezoelectric sensors to identify partial discharges in mineral insulating oil of power transformers. The analysis of the feasibility of the proposed low-cost sensor is performed by its comparison with a commercial acoustic emission sensor commonly used to detect partial discharges. The comparison between the responses in the time and frequency domain of both sensors was carried out and the experimental results indicate that the proposed piezoelectric sensors have great potential in the detection of acoustic waves generated by partial discharges in insulation oil, contributing for the popularization of this noninvasive technique. PMID:27517931
Characteristics of pressure waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1977-01-01
Air blast characteristics generated by most types of explosions are discussed. Data cover both negative and positive blast load phases and net transverse pressure as a function of time. The effects of partial or total confinement, atmospheric propagation, absorption of energy by ground shock or cratering, and transmission over irregular terrain on blast wave properties were also considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wright, C. J.; Hindley, N. P.; Moss, A. C.; Mitchell, N. J.
2015-07-01
Gravity waves in the terrestrial atmosphere are a vital geophysical process, acting to transport energy and momentum on a wide range of scales and to couple the various atmospheric layers. Despite the importance of these waves, the many studies to date have often exhibited very dissimilar results, and it remains unclear whether these differences are primarily instrumental or methodological. Here, we address this problem by comparing observations made by a diverse range of the most widely-used gravity wave resolving instruments in a common geographic region around the southern Andes and Drake Passage, an area known to exhibit strong wave activity. Specifically, we use data from three limb-sounding radiometers (MLS-Aura, HIRDLS and SABER), the COSMIC GPS-RO constellation, a ground-based meteor radar, the AIRS infrared nadir sounder and radiosondes to examine the gravity wave potential energy (GWPE) and vertical wavelengths (λz) of individual gravity wave packets from the lower troposphere to the edge of the lower thermosphere. Our results show important similarities and differences. Limb sounder measurements show high intercorrelation, typically > 0.80 between any instrument pair. Meteor-radar observations agree in form with the limb sounders, despite vast technical differences. AIRS and radiosonde observations tend to be uncorrelated or anticorrelated with the other datasets, suggesting very different behaviour of the wave field in the different spectral regimes accessed by each instrument. Except in spring, we see little dissipation of GWPE throughout the stratosphere and lower mesosphere. Observed GWPE for individual wave packets exhibits a log-normal distribution, with short-timescale intermittency dominating over a well-repeated monthly-median seasonal cycle. GWPE and λz exhibit strong correlations with the stratospheric winds, but not with local surface winds. Our results provide guidance for interpretation and intercomparison of such datasets in their full
Why arthroscopic partial meniscectomy?
Lyu, Shaw-Ruey
2015-09-01
"Arthroscopic Partial Meniscectomy versus Sham Surgery for a Degenerative Meniscal Tear" published in the New England Journal of Medicine on December 26, 2013 draws the conclusion that arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy provides no significant benefit over sham surgery in patients with a degenerative meniscal tear and no knee osteoarthritis. This result argues against the current practice of performing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM) in patients with a degenerative meniscal tear. Since the number of APM performed has been increasing, the information provided by this study should lead to a change in clinical care of patients with a degenerative meniscus tear. PMID:26488013
Wave-breaking onset in a High-Order Spectral model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seiffert, Betsy; Ducrozet, Guillaume
2016-04-01
We examine the implementation of a wave-breaking onset parameter into two numerical models, HOS-ocean and HOS-NWT, which are computationally efficient, open source codes that solve for highly nonlinear wave fields in the open ocean and a numerical wave tank, respectively, using the High-Order Spectral (HOS) method. Due to the assumptions of solving for potential flow, the HOS solvers assume a single-valued free surface and therefore cannot produce breaking waves. The goal of implementing a wave-breaking mechanism into the HOS models is to approximate the broken free surface as a single value. By doing this, we can increase the application range of the models including calculating more extreme sea states, which is important when predicting dynamics of offshore vessels, predicting loads on marine structures and the general physics of ocean waves, for example. In nature, a steep wave may grow to surpass some limiting threshold leading to a collapse of the water surface as a broken wave. Energy from the wave is transferred through the generation of currents and turbulence, and changes occur in the spectral distribution of energy before and after a wave breaks. To implement a wave-breaking mechanism into the HOS models, first a wave-breaking onset parameter needs to be identified, and second, a strategy for dissipating and distributing the energy after the wave has broken needs to be determined. To calculate wave breaking onset in the HOS solvers, a dynamic wave-breaking criteria is proposed, following the work of Barthelemy, et al. (submitted). The criteria assumes that if the ratio of local energy flux velocity to the local crest velocity surpasses a limiting threshold, the wave will break. Calculation of the local crest velocity is non-trivial, and therefore partial Hilbert transforms are used. When calculating this wave-breaking parameter in the HOS model, it successfully distinguishes between an "unbroken" wave and a "broken" wave, evidenced by the manifestation of
The Lockheed alternate partial polarizer universal filter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Title, A. M.
1976-01-01
A tunable birefringent filter using an alternate partial polarizer design has been built. The filter has a transmission of 38% in polarized light. Its full width at half maximum is .09A at 5500A. It is tunable from 4500 to 8500A by means of stepping motor actuated rotating half wave plates and polarizers. Wave length commands and thermal compensation commands are generated by a PPD 11/10 minicomputer. The alternate partial polarizer universal filter is compared with the universal birefringent filter and the design techniques, construction methods, and filter performance are discussed in some detail. Based on the experience of this filter some conclusions regarding the future of birefringent filters are elaborated.
Ghosh, Sandip; Sahoo, Tapas; Adhikari, Satrajit; Sharma, Rahul; Varandas, António J C
2015-12-17
We implement a coupled three-dimensional (3D) time-dependent wave packet formalism for the 4D reactive scattering problem in hyperspherical coordinates on the accurate double many body expansion (DMBE) potential energy surface (PES) for the ground and first two singlet states (1(1)A', 2(1)A', and 3(1)A') to account for nonadiabatic processes in the D(+) + H2 reaction for both zero and nonzero values of the total angular momentum (J). As the long-range interactions in D(+) + H2 contribute significantly due to nonadiabatic effects, the convergence profiles of reaction probabilities for the reactive noncharge transfer (RNCT), nonreactive charge transfer (NRCT), and reactive charge transfer (RCT) processes are shown for different collisional energies with respect to the helicity (K) and total angular momentum (J) quantum numbers. The total and state-to-state cross sections are presented as a function of the collision energy for the initial rovibrational state v = 0, j = 0 of the diatom, and the calculated cross sections compared with other theoretical and experimental results. PMID:26436891
Artemyev, Anton N; Müller, Anne D; Hochstuhl, David; Demekhin, Philipp V
2015-06-28
A theoretical method to study the angle-resolved multiphoton ionization of polyatomic molecules is developed. It is based on the time-dependent formulation of the Single Center (TDSC) method and consists in the propagation of single-active-electron wave packets in the effective molecular potentials in the presence of intense laser pulses. For this purpose, the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for one electron, moving in a molecular field and interacting with an arbitrary laser pulse, is solved in spherical coordinates by an efficient numerical approach. As a test, the method is applied to the one- and two-photon ionizations of a model methane-like chiral system by circularly polarized short intense high-frequency laser pulses. Thereby, we analyze the photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) in the momentum distribution. The considered model application illustrates the capability of the TDSC method to study multiphoton PECD in fixed-in-space and randomly oriented chiral molecules. PMID:26133408
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LEVY, C.; Mangeney, A.; Hibert, C.; Bonilla, F.; Calder, E. S.; Smith, P. J.; Cole, P. D.
2013-12-01
Seismic signals associated with rockfalls can provide important information on the characteristics of the source (volume, duration, location). As such, seismic data from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano were used to evidence a scaling law between the energy dissipated as seismic waves and the duration of granular flows (Hilbert et al., 2011, doi:10.1029/2011JF002038). This study was completed by analytical analysis and numerical simulations showing that a similar scaling law exists between the loss of potential energy of an event and the duration of its propagation phase. Thus, this previous study shows that the coefficient of this scaling law is a strong indicator of the effect of topography on the flow dynamics. Morever, this study was used to estimate the volumes of granular flows using seismic records and to constitute databases of rockfall characteristics (volume, location, and occurrence time) in order to study the relationship between rockfall activity and processes related to volcanic activity. Our study aims to test whether a similar scaling law can be observed at the Soufiere Hills Volcano (Montserrat Island, Lesser Antilles) despite differences of settings: -at Piton de la Fournaise, most rockfalls propagate from one side of the Dolomieu crater to its center, whereas at the Soufière Hills volcano, they spread from the dome to the sea shore. -the properties of constituting rocks is quite different. The Piton de la Fournaise is a shield volcano, whereas the Soufrière is an andesitic volcano. The signal processing developed for the data of Piton de la Fournaise was applied to the seismic data of a 3 days crisis with 200 rockfalls and pyroclastic flows at the Soufière Hills volcano. A similar scaling law between seismic energy and potential energy was found. This result suggests that such study could be relevant at a more general level. Later on, the computation of the seismic energy was enhanced using frequency dependent parameters (anelastic
2010-01-01
Background Emotional stimuli are preferentially processed compared to neutral ones. Measuring the magnetic resonance blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response or EEG event-related potentials, this has also been demonstrated for emotional versus neutral words. However, it is currently unclear whether emotion effects in word processing can also be detected with other measures such as EEG steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) or optical brain imaging techniques. In the present study, we simultaneously performed SSVEP measurements and near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy (DWS), a new optical technique for the non-invasive measurement of brain function, to measure brain responses to neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant nouns flickering at a frequency of 7.5 Hz. Results The power of the SSVEP signal was significantly modulated by the words' emotional content at occipital electrodes, showing reduced SSVEP power during stimulation with pleasant compared to neutral nouns. By contrast, the DWS signal measured over the visual cortex showed significant differences between stimulation with flickering words and baseline periods, but no modulation in response to the words' emotional significance. Conclusions This study is the first investigation of brain responses to emotional words using simultaneous measurements of SSVEPs and DWS. Emotional modulation of word processing was detected with EEG SSVEPs, but not by DWS. SSVEP power for emotional, specifically pleasant, compared to neutral words was reduced, which contrasts with previous results obtained when presenting emotional pictures. This appears to reflect processing differences between symbolic and pictorial emotional stimuli. While pictures prompt sustained perceptual processing, decoding the significance of emotional words requires more internal associative processing. Reasons for an absence of emotion effects in the DWS signal are discussed. PMID:20663220
Partial knee replacement - slideshow
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series To use the sharing features on ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...
Most people recover quickly and have much less pain than they did before surgery. People who have a partial knee replacement recover faster than those who have a total knee replacement. Many people are able to walk ...
Twisted partially pure spinors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrera, Rafael; Tellez, Ivan
2016-08-01
Motivated by the relationship between orthogonal complex structures and pure spinors, we define twisted partially pure spinors in order to characterize spinorially subspaces of Euclidean space endowed with a complex structure.
Olmedo, Oscar; Zhang Jie
2010-07-20
Flux ropes are now generally accepted to be the magnetic configuration of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which may be formed prior to or during solar eruptions. In this study, we model the flux rope as a current-carrying partial torus loop with its two footpoints anchored in the photosphere, and investigate its stability in the context of the torus instability (TI). Previous studies on TI have focused on the configuration of a circular torus and revealed the existence of a critical decay index of the overlying constraining magnetic field. Our study reveals that the critical index is a function of the fractional number of the partial torus, defined by the ratio between the arc length of the partial torus above the photosphere and the circumference of a circular torus of equal radius. We refer to this finding as the partial torus instability (PTI). It is found that a partial torus with a smaller fractional number has a smaller critical index, thus requiring a more gradually decreasing magnetic field to stabilize the flux rope. On the other hand, a partial torus with a larger fractional number has a larger critical index. In the limit of a circular torus when the fractional number approaches 1, the critical index goes to a maximum value. We demonstrate that the PTI helps us to understand the confinement, growth, and eventual eruption of a flux-rope CME.
Predictive GW calculations using plane waves and pseudopotentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klimeš, Jiří; Kaltak, Merzuk; Kresse, Georg
2014-08-01
We derive a finite-basis-set correction for quasiparticle (QP) energies in the GW approximation and many-body correlation energies in the random phase approximation. Since the correction requires only knowledge of the ground-state density distribution, it is straightforward to implement in any plane-wave code and significantly improves convergence at negligible computational cost. The expression also indicates that QP energies might converge to the wrong value using the projector augmented wave (PAW) method since the overlap densities of occupied orbitals and high-energy, plane-wave-like orbitals are inaccurately described. The error is shown to be related to the incompleteness of the partial waves inside the atomic spheres. It can be avoided by adopting norm-conserving partial waves. G0W0 and GW0 results based on such norm-conserving PAW potentials are presented for a large set of semiconductors and insulators. Accurate extrapolation procedures to the infinite-basis-set limit and infinite-k-point limit are discussed in detail.
Miura, Naoto; Watanabe, Takashi
2016-01-01
Clinical studies on application of functional electrical stimulation (FES) to motor rehabilitation have been increasing. However, muscle fatigue appears early in the course of repetitive movement production training by FES. Although M-wave variables were suggested to be reliable indices of muscle fatigue in long lasting constant electrical stimulation under the isometric condition, the ability of M-wave needs more studies under intermittent stimulation condition, because the intervals between electrical stimulations help recovery of muscle activation level. In this paper, M-waves elicited by double pulses were examined in muscle fatigue evaluation during repetitive movements considering rehabilitation training with surface electrical stimulation. M-waves were measured under the two conditions of repetitive stimulation: knee extension force production under the isometric condition and the dynamic movement condition by knee joint angle control. Amplitude of M-wave elicited by the 2nd pulse of a double pulse decreased during muscle fatigue in both measurement conditions, while the change in M-waves elicited by single pulses in a stimulation burst was not relevant to muscle fatigue in repeated activation with stimulation interval of 1 s. Fatigue index obtained from M-waves elicited by 2nd pulses was suggested to provide good estimation of muscle fatigue during repetitive movements with FES. PMID:27110556
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Newman, J. N.
1979-01-01
Discussed is the utilization of surface ocean waves as a potential source of power. Simple and large-scale wave power devices and conversion systems are described. Alternative utilizations, environmental impacts, and future prospects of this alternative energy source are detailed. (BT)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elghariani, Ali; Zoltowski, Michael D.
2012-05-01
In this paper, partial spread OFDM system has been presented and its performance has been studied when different detection techniques are employed, such as minimum mean square error (MMSE), grouped Maximum Likelihood (ML) and approximated integer quadratic programming (IQP) techniques . The performance study also includes applying two different spreading matrices, Hadamard and Vandermonde. Extensive computer simulation have been implemented and important results show that partial spread OFDM system improves the BER performance and the frequency diversity of OFDM compared to both non spread and full spread systems. The results from this paper also show that partial spreading technique combined with suboptimal detector could be a better solution for applications that require low receiver complexity and high information detectability.
Methanol partial oxidation reformer
Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.
1999-08-17
A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.
Methanol partial oxidation reformer
Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael
1999-01-01
A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.
Methanol partial oxidation reformer
Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael
2001-01-01
A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.
Methanol partial oxidation reformer
Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.
1999-08-24
A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.
Conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to channel waves in coal
Johnson, P.A.; Albright, J.N.
1987-01-01
Evidence for the mode conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to stratigraphically guided channel waves was discovered in data from a crosswell acoustic experiment conducted between wells penetrating thin coal strata located near Rifle, Colorado. Traveltime moveout observations show that borehole Stoneley waves, excited by a transmitter positioned at substantial distances in one well above and below a coal stratum at 2025 m depth, underwent partial conversion to a channel wave propagating away from the well through the coal. In an adjacent well the channel wave was detected at receiver locations within the coal, and borehole Stoneley waves, arising from a second partial conversion of channel waves, were detected at locations above and below the coal. The observed channel wave is inferred to be the third-higher Rayleigh mode based on comparison of the measured group velocity with theoretically derived dispersion curves. The identification of the mode conversion between borehole and stratigraphically guided waves is significant because coal penetrated by multiple wells may be detected without placing an acoustic transmitter or receiver within the waveguide. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.
Electromagnetic wave scattering by Schwarzschild black holes.
Crispino, Luís C B; Dolan, Sam R; Oliveira, Ednilton S
2009-06-12
We analyze the scattering of a planar monochromatic electromagnetic wave incident upon a Schwarzschild black hole. We obtain accurate numerical results from the partial wave method for the electromagnetic scattering cross section and show that they are in excellent agreement with analytical approximations. The scattering of electromagnetic waves is compared with the scattering of scalar, spinor, and gravitational waves. We present a unified picture of the scattering of all massless fields for the first time. PMID:19658920
Elastic epsilon/sup + -/-He scattering with the use of the model-potential method
Khan, P.; Datta, S.K.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Ghosh, A.S.
1984-06-01
A model-potential method has been used to evaluate the elastic e/sup + -/-He scattering at the low-incident energies. The potential contains one parameter to include the effect of short-range correlation. The results for the elastic e/sup + -/-He scattering have been obtained using the same parameter. Two model exchange potentials, one for s wave and the other for higher partial waves, have been employed. The present results are in good agreement with the measured values and refined theoretical predictions.
Partial Participation Revisited.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferguson, Dianne L.; Baumgart, Diane
1991-01-01
This article reanalyzes the principle of partial participation in integrated educational programing for students with severe or profound disabilities. The article presents four "error patterns" in how the concept has been used, some reasons why such error patterns have occurred, and strategies for avoiding these errors. (Author/JDD)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coco, G.; Guza, R. T.; Garnier, R.; Lomonaco, P.; Lopez De San Roman Blanco, B.; Dalrymple, R. A.; Xu, M.
2014-12-01
Edge waves, gravity waves trapped close to the shoreline by refraction, can in some cases form a standing wave pattern with alongshore periodic sequence of high and low runup. Nonlinear mechanisms for generation of edge waves by monochromatic waves incident on a planar beach from deep water have been elaborated theoretically and in the lab. Edge waves have been long considered a potential source for alongshore periodic morphological patterns in the swash (e.g., beach cusps), and edge-wave based predictions of cusp spacing compare qualitatively well with many field observations. We will discuss the extension of lab observations and numerical modeling to include incident waves with significant frequency and directional bandwidth. Laboratory experiments were performed at the Cantabria Coastal and Ocean Basin. The large rectangular basin (25 m cross-shore by 32 m alongshore) was heavily instrumented, had reflective sidewalls, and a steep concrete beach (slope 1:5) with a constant depth (1m) section between the wavemaker and beach. With monochromatic, normally incident waves we observed the expected, previously described subharmonic observations. Edge wave vertical heights at the shoreline reached 80cm, and edge wave uprushes exceeded the sloping beach freeboard. When frequency and frequency-directional spread are increased, the excited edge wave character changes substantially. In some cases, subharmonic excitation is suppressed completely. In other cases, edge waves are excited intermittently and unpredictably. The spatially and temporally steady forcing required for strong, persistent subharmonic instability is lacking with even modestly spread (direction and frequency) incident waves. An SPH numerical model is capable of reproducing aspects of the observations. It seems unlikely to us that subhamonic edge waves alone are responsible for most cusp formation on natural beaches. The steady incident wave forcing needed to initiate subharmonic growth, and to maintain
Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter
Stefan G. Siegel, Ph.D.
2012-11-30
exceed this initial performance estimates. In advancing the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of this type of wave energy converter from 3 to 4, we find the CycWEC to exceed our initial estimates in terms of hydrodynamic performance. Once fully developed and optimized, it has the potential to not just outperform all other WEC technologies, but to also deliver power at a lower LCOE than competing conventional renewables like wind and solar. Given the large wave power resource both domestically and internationally, this technology has the potential to lead to a large improvement in our ability to produce clean electricity at affordable cost.
Detrecting and Locating Partial Discharges in Transformers
Shourbaji, A.; Richards, R.; Kisner, R. A.; Hardy, J.
2005-02-04
A collaborative research between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the American Electric Power (AEP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), and the State of Ohio Energy Office (OEO) has been formed to conduct a feasibility study to detect and locate partial discharges (PDs) inside large transformers. The success of early detection of the PDs is necessary to avoid costly catastrophic failures that can occur if the process of PD is ignored. The detection method under this research is based on an innovative technology developed by ORNL researchers using optical methods to sense the acoustical energy produced by the PDs. ORNL researchers conducted experimental studies to detect PD using an optical fiber as an acoustic sensor capable of detecting acoustical disturbances at any point along its length. This technical approach also has the potential to locate the point at which the PD was sensed within the transformer. Several optical approaches were experimentally investigated, including interferometric detection of acoustical disturbances along the sensing fiber, light detection and ranging (LIDAR) techniques using frequency modulation continuous wave (FMCW), frequency modulated (FM) laser with a multimode fiber, FM laser with a single mode fiber, and amplitude modulated (AM) laser with a multimode fiber. The implementation of the optical fiber-based acoustic measurement technique would include installing a fiber inside a transformer allowing real-time detection of PDs and determining their locations. The fibers are nonconductive and very small (core plus cladding are diameters of 125 μm for single-mode fibers and 230 μm for multimode fibers). The research identified the capabilities and limitations of using optical technology to detect and locate sources of acoustical disturbances such as in PDs in large transformers. Amplitude modulation techniques showed the most promising results and deserve further research to better quantify the technique’s sensitivity
A new fifth parameter for transverse isotropy II: partial derivatives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawakatsu, Hitoshi
2016-07-01
Kawakatsu et al. and Kawakatsu introduced a new fifth parameter, ηκ, to describe transverse isotropy (TI). Considering that ηκ characterizes the incidence angle dependence of body wave phase velocities for TI models, its relevance for body wave seismology is obvious. Here, we derive expressions for partial derivatives (sensitivity kernels) of surface wave phase velocity and normal mode eigenfrequency for the new set of five parameters. The partial derivative for ηκ is about twice as large as that for the conventional η, indicating that ηκ should be more readily resolved. While partial derivatives for S velocities are not so changed, those for P velocities are significantly modified; the sensitivity for anisotropic P velocities is greatly reduced. In contrary to the suggestion by Dziewonski & Anderson and Anderson & Dziewonski, there is not much control on the anisotropic P velocities. On the other hand, the significance of ηκ for long-period seismology has become clear.
Application of monochromatic ocean wave forecasts to prediction of wave-induced currents
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poole, L. R.
1975-01-01
The use of monochromatic wind-wave forecasts in prediction of wind-wave-induced currents was assessed. Currents were computed for selected combinations of wind conditions by using a spectrum approach which was developed by using the Bretschneider wave spectrum for partially developed wind seas. These currents were compared with currents computed by using the significant and average monochromatic wave parameters related to the Bretschneider spectrum. Results indicate that forecasts of significant wave parameters can be used to predict surface wind-wave-induced currents. Conversion of these parameters to average wave parameters can furnish reasonable estimates of subsurface current values.
Fluid pressure waves trigger earthquakes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea
2015-03-01
Fluids-essentially meteoric water-are present everywhere in the Earth's crust, occasionally also with pressures higher than hydrostatic due to the tectonic strain imposed on impermeable undrained layers, to the impoundment of artificial lakes or to the forced injections required by oil and gas exploration and production. Experimental evidence suggests that such fluids flow along preferred paths of high diffusivity, provided by rock joints and faults. Studying the coupled poroelastic problem, we find that such flow is ruled by a nonlinear partial differential equation amenable to a Barenblatt-type solution, implying that it takes place in form of solitary pressure waves propagating at a velocity which decreases with time as v ∝ t [1/(n - 1) - 1] with n ≳ 7. According to Tresca-Von Mises criterion, these waves appear to play a major role in earthquake triggering, being also capable to account for aftershock delay without any further assumption. The measure of stress and fluid pressure inside active faults may therefore provide direct information about fault potential instability.
Shear flow instability in a partially-ionized plasma sheath around a fast-moving vehicle
Sotnikov, V. I.; Mudaliar, S.; Genoni, T. C.; Rose, D. V.; Oliver, B. V.; Mehlhorn, T. A.
2011-06-15
The stability of ion acoustic waves in a sheared-flow, partially-ionized compressible plasma sheath around a fast-moving vehicle in the upper atmosphere, is described and evaluated for different flow profiles. In a compressible plasma with shear flow, instability occurs for any velocity profile, not just for profiles with an inflection point. A second-order differential equation for the electrostatic potential of excited ion acoustic waves in the presence of electron and ion collisions with neutrals is derived and solved numerically using a shooting method with boundary conditions appropriate for a finite thickness sheath in contact with the vehicle. We consider three different velocity flow profiles and find that in all cases that neutral collisions can completely suppress the instability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wright, Corwin J.; Hindley, Neil P.; Moss, Andrew C.; Mitchell, Nicholas J.
2016-03-01
Gravity waves in the terrestrial atmosphere are a vital geophysical process, acting to transport energy and momentum on a wide range of scales and to couple the various atmospheric layers. Despite the importance of these waves, the many studies to date have often exhibited very dissimilar results, and it remains unclear whether these differences are primarily instrumental or methodological. Here, we address this problem by comparing observations made by a diverse range of the most widely used gravity-wave-resolving instruments in a common geographic region around the southern Andes and Drake Passage, an area known to exhibit strong wave activity. Specifically, we use data from three limb-sounding radiometers (Microwave Limb Sounder, MLS-Aura; HIgh Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder, HIRDLS; Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry, SABER), the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) GPS-RO constellation, a ground-based meteor radar, the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS) infrared nadir sounder and radiosondes to examine the gravity wave potential energy (GWPE) and vertical wavelengths (λz) of individual gravity-wave packets from the lower troposphere to the edge of the lower thermosphere ( ˜ 100 km). Our results show important similarities and differences. Limb sounder measurements show high intercorrelation, typically > 0.80 between any instrument pair. Meteor radar observations agree in form with the limb sounders, despite vast technical differences. AIRS and radiosonde observations tend to be uncorrelated or anticorrelated with the other data sets, suggesting very different behaviour of the wave field in the different spectral regimes accessed by each instrument. Evidence of wave dissipation is seen, and varies strongly with season. Observed GWPE for individual wave packets exhibits a log-normal distribution, with short-timescale intermittency dominating over a well-repeated monthly-median seasonal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, H. R.; Ray, A. K.
2006-06-01
Full-potential linearized-augmented-plane-wave calculations indicate that the antiferromagnetic state including spin-orbit coupling effect is the ground state of bulk δ-Pu with a lattice constant of 8.66 a.u. and a bulk modulus of 32.8 GPa. It is found that spin-polarization and spin-orbit coupling effects play competing roles in the localization to delocalization behavior of 5f electrons. The optimized lattice constants of δ-Pu bulk are used to calculate the electronic structure properties of δ-Pu(1 1 1) films up to seven layers at six theoretical levels, namely non-spin-polarized-no-spin-orbit-coupling (NSP-NSO), non-spin-polarized-spin-orbit-coupling (NSP-SO), spin-polarized-no-spin-orbit-coupling (SP-NSO), spin-polarized-spin-orbit-coupling (SP-SO), antiferromagnetic-no-spin-orbit-coupling (AFM-NSO), and antiferromagnetic-spin-orbit-coupling (AFM-SO). For the δ-Pu(1 1 1) films also, AFM-SO is found to be the ground state. For the films, surface energy rapidly converges and the semi-infinite surface energy is predicted to be 1.16 J/m 2. On the other hand, the magnetic moments show an oscillating behavior, gradually approaching the bulk value of zero with increase in the number of layers. It is also predicted that the work function of δ-Pu(1 1 1) films at the AFM-SO ground state is approximately 3.41 eV, and the work function shows some oscillations when the number of layers is less than five, while it becomes relatively stable when the number of layers is greater than five. This suggests that a 3-layer film might be sufficient for computations of, for example, adsorption energies while a 5-layer film may be necessary for precise computations of, for example, adsorbate-induced work function shifts. The calculated results are compared with other experimental and theoretical results in the literature and the agreements between them are excellent, given the complexity of the physical systems and different computational formalisms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehner, M.; Jungen, M.
2015-02-01
A three-dimensional wave packet method, based on Lanczos tridiagonalization of the Hamiltonian, is introduced and applied to the three-particle predissociation of rotating D3 and H3 3{{ }2}{{A}\\prime } (2sa1\\prime ). The time-dependent propagation calculations on the (diabatic) ground state potential energy surfaces include the non-adiabatic transition from the excited initial state. Results for the eight lowest vibrational levels are presented as Dalitz plots and compared to momentum correlation measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kouzakov, Konstantin A.; Popov, Yuri V.; Shablov, Vladimir L.
2010-01-01
The solutions analytically derived by W. Glöckle, J. Golak, R. Skibiński, and H. Witala [Phys. Rev. C 79, 044003 (2009)] for the three-dimensional wave function and on-shell t matrix in the case of scattering on a sharply cut-off Coulomb potential appear to be fallacious if finite values of a cut-off radius are concerned. And the analysis carried out for an infinite cut-off radius limit is incomplete.
Partially coherent ultrafast spectrography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourassin-Bouchet, C.; Couprie, M.-E.
2015-03-01
Modern ultrafast metrology relies on the postulate that the pulse to be measured is fully coherent, that is, that it can be completely described by its spectrum and spectral phase. However, synthesizing fully coherent pulses is not always possible in practice, especially in the domain of emerging ultrashort X-ray sources where temporal metrology is strongly needed. Here we demonstrate how frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), the first and one of the most widespread techniques for pulse characterization, can be adapted to measure partially coherent pulses even down to the attosecond timescale. No modification of experimental apparatuses is required; only the processing of the measurement changes. To do so, we take our inspiration from other branches of physics where partial coherence is routinely dealt with, such as quantum optics and coherent diffractive imaging. This will have important and immediate applications, such as enabling the measurement of X-ray free-electron laser pulses despite timing jitter.
Partially integrated exhaust manifold
Hayman, Alan W; Baker, Rodney E
2015-01-20
A partially integrated manifold assembly is disclosed which improves performance, reduces cost and provides efficient packaging of engine components. The partially integrated manifold assembly includes a first leg extending from a first port and terminating at a mounting flange for an exhaust gas control valve. Multiple additional legs (depending on the total number of cylinders) are integrally formed with the cylinder head assembly and extend from the ports of the associated cylinder and terminate at an exit port flange. These additional legs are longer than the first leg such that the exit port flange is spaced apart from the mounting flange. This configuration provides increased packaging space adjacent the first leg for any valving that may be required to control the direction and destination of exhaust flow in recirculation to an EGR valve or downstream to a catalytic converter.
Partially coherent ultrafast spectrography
Bourassin-Bouchet, C.; Couprie, M.-E.
2015-01-01
Modern ultrafast metrology relies on the postulate that the pulse to be measured is fully coherent, that is, that it can be completely described by its spectrum and spectral phase. However, synthesizing fully coherent pulses is not always possible in practice, especially in the domain of emerging ultrashort X-ray sources where temporal metrology is strongly needed. Here we demonstrate how frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), the first and one of the most widespread techniques for pulse characterization, can be adapted to measure partially coherent pulses even down to the attosecond timescale. No modification of experimental apparatuses is required; only the processing of the measurement changes. To do so, we take our inspiration from other branches of physics where partial coherence is routinely dealt with, such as quantum optics and coherent diffractive imaging. This will have important and immediate applications, such as enabling the measurement of X-ray free-electron laser pulses despite timing jitter. PMID:25744080
Partial quantum logics revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vetterlein, Thomas
2011-01-01
Partial Boolean algebras (PBAs) were introduced by Kochen and Specker as an algebraic model reflecting the mutual relationships among quantum-physical yes-no tests. The fact that not all pairs of tests are compatible was taken into special account. In this paper, we review PBAs from two sides. First, we generalise the concept, taking into account also those yes-no tests which are based on unsharp measurements. Namely, we introduce partial MV-algebras, and we define a corresponding logic. Second, we turn to the representation theory of PBAs. In analogy to the case of orthomodular lattices, we give conditions for a PBA to be isomorphic to the PBA of closed subspaces of a complex Hilbert space. Hereby, we do not restrict ourselves to purely algebraic statements; we rather give preference to conditions involving automorphisms of a PBA. We conclude by outlining a critical view on the logico-algebraic approach to the foundational problem of quantum physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nath, D.; Sridharan, S.; Sathishkumar, S.; Gurubaran, S.; Chen, W.
2013-03-01
The relation between intrusions of stratospheric air into the upper troposphere and deep convection at equator during the stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) event of 2009 is examined using the ERA-interim reanalysis and NOAA outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data sets. There is an intrusion of potential vorticity (PV) equatorward and westward, when the amplitude of planetary wave of zonal wavenumber 2 at 10 hPa decreases drastically and polar stratospheric temperature increases simultaneously at 60°N. As a special case, the PV intrudes as narrow tongue at longitudes near 60°E (Indian ocean sector) even to latitudes less than 20°N during the SSW, whereas PV normally intrudes near 210°E (eastern Pacific) to equatorial latitudes. Decrease in OLR is observed east of these PV intrusions. Vertical velocity is largely upward at all pressure levels. As the PV intrusion can have profound influence on tropospheric convection and the latent heat release due to equatorial convection is an important source mechanism for the generation of gravity waves, we examined gravity wave activity in the daily radiosonde observations of winds and temperature at Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E). It is observed that the potential energy per unit mass, estimated from the gravity wave temperature perturbations has considerably enhanced in relation with the deep convection. The predominant direction of propagation of the gravity waves is westward prior to the SSW, as a response to the active convection over Indonesia, turns to eastward during and after the SSW, as a response to the PV intrusion induced convection over west of India.
Norrman, Andreas; Setälä, Tero; Friberg, Ari T
2011-03-01
We consider partial spatial coherence and partial polarization of purely evanescent optical fields generated in total internal reflection at an interface of two dielectric (lossless) media. Making use of the electromagnetic degree of coherence, we show that, in such fields, the coherence length can be notably shorter than the light's vacuum wavelength, especially at a high-index-contrast interface. Physical explanation for this behavior, analogous to the generation of incoherent light in a multimode laser, is provided. We also analyze the degree of polarization by using a recent three-dimensional formulation and show that the field may be partially polarized at a subwavelength distance from the surface even though it is fully polarized farther away. The degree of polarization can assume values unattainable by beamlike fields, indicating that electromagnetic evanescent waves generally are genuine three-dimensional fields. The results can find applications in near-field optics and nanophotonics. PMID:21383821
New wave effects in nonstationary plasma
Schmit, P. F.; Fisch, N. J.
2013-05-15
Through particle-in-cell simulations and analytics, a host of interesting and novel wave effects in nonstationary plasma are examined. In particular, Langmuir waves serve as a model system to explore wave dynamics in plasmas undergoing compression, expansion, and charge recombination. The entire wave life-cycle is explored, including wave excitation, adiabatic evolution and action conservation, nonadiabatic evolution and resonant wave-particle effects, collisional dissipation, and potential laboratory applications of the aforementioned phenomenology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazarenko, Sergey
2015-07-01
Wave turbulence is the statistical mechanics of random waves with a broadband spectrum interacting via non-linearity. To understand its difference from non-random well-tuned coherent waves, one could compare the sound of thunder to a piece of classical music. Wave turbulence is surprisingly common and important in a great variety of physical settings, starting with the most familiar ocean waves to waves at quantum scales or to much longer waves in astrophysics. We will provide a basic overview of the wave turbulence ideas, approaches and main results emphasising the physics of the phenomena and using qualitative descriptions avoiding, whenever possible, involved mathematical derivations. In particular, dimensional analysis will be used for obtaining the key scaling solutions in wave turbulence - Kolmogorov-Zakharov (KZ) spectra.
Solli, D R; Ropers, C; Koonath, P; Jalali, B
2007-12-13
Recent observations show that the probability of encountering an extremely large rogue wave in the open ocean is much larger than expected from ordinary wave-amplitude statistics. Although considerable effort has been directed towards understanding the physics behind these mysterious and potentially destructive events, the complete picture remains uncertain. Furthermore, rogue waves have not yet been observed in other physical systems. Here, we introduce the concept of optical rogue waves, a counterpart of the infamous rare water waves. Using a new real-time detection technique, we study a system that exposes extremely steep, large waves as rare outcomes from an almost identically prepared initial population of waves. Specifically, we report the observation of rogue waves in an optical system, based on a microstructured optical fibre, near the threshold of soliton-fission supercontinuum generation--a noise-sensitive nonlinear process in which extremely broadband radiation is generated from a narrowband input. We model the generation of these rogue waves using the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and demonstrate that they arise infrequently from initially smooth pulses owing to power transfer seeded by a small noise perturbation. PMID:18075587
Tapping of Love waves in an isotropic surface waveguide by surface-to-bulk wave transduction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tuan, H.-S.; Chang, C.-P.
1972-01-01
A theoretical study of tapping a Love wave in an isotropic microacoustic surface waveguide is given. The surface Love wave is tapped by partial transduction into a bulk wave at a discontinuity. It is shown that, by careful design of the discontinuity, the converted bulk wave power and the radiation pattern may be controlled. General formulas are derived for the calculation of these important characteristics from a relatively general surface contour deformation.
Witte H.; Plate, S
2013-05-03
The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a large scale experiment which is presently assembled at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Didcot, UK. The purpose of MICE is to demonstrate the concept of ionization cooling experimentally. Ionization cooling is an important accelerator concept which will be essential for future HEP experiments such as a potential Muon Collider or a Neutrino Factory. The MICE experiment will house up to 18 superconducting solenoids, all of which produce a substantial amount of magnetic flux. Recently it was realized that this magnetic flux leads to a considerable stray magnetic field in the MICE hall. This is a concern as technical equipment in the MICE hall may may be compromised by this. In July 2012 a concept called partial return yoke was presented to the MICE community, which reduces the stray field in the MICE hall to a safe level. This report summarizes the general concept, engineering considerations and the expected shielding performance.
General classification of partially polarized partially coherent beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinez-Herrero, Rosario; Piquero, Gemma; Mejias, Pedro M.
2003-05-01
The behavior of the so-called generalized degree of polarization of partially coherent partially polarized beams upon free propagation is investigated. On the basis of this parameter a general classification scheme of partially polarized beams is proposed. The results are applied to certain classes of fields of special interest.
Experts' Understanding of Partial Derivatives Using the Partial Derivative Machine
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.
2015-01-01
Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of…
Electron Signatures and Alfven Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Andersson, Laila; Ivchenko, N.; Clemmons, J.; Namgaladze, A. A.; Gustavsson, B.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Eliasson, L.; Yurik, R. Y.
2000-01-01
The electron signatures which appear together with Alfven waves observed by the Freja satellite in the auroral region are reported. Precipitating electrons are detected both with and just before the wave. The observed Alfven waves must therefore be capable of accelerating electrons to higher energies than the local phase velocity of these waves in order for the electrons to move in advance of the wave. The characteristics of such electrons suggest electrons moving infront of the wave have characteristics of origin from warmer and lower density plasma while the electrons moving with the wave have characteristics of cooler and denser plasma. The pitch angle distribution of the electrons moving with the wave indicates that there is continuous acceleration of new particles by the wave, i.e. a propagating Alfven wave is the source of these electrons . A simple model of a propagating source is made to model the electrons that are moving in advance of the wave. Depending on whether accelerated electrons leave the wave above or below the altitude where the Alfven wave has the highest phase velocity, the detected electron signatures will be different; electron dispersion or potential drop like, respectively. It is shown that the Alfven wave acceleration can create electron signatures similar to inverted-V structures.
Wave energy: a Pacific perspective.
Paasch, Robert; Ruehl, Kelley; Hovland, Justin; Meicke, Stephen
2012-01-28
This paper illustrates the status of wave energy development in Pacific rim countries by characterizing the available resource and introducing the region's current and potential future leaders in wave energy converter development. It also describes the existing licensing and permitting process as well as potential environmental concerns. Capabilities of Pacific Ocean testing facilities are described in addition to the region's vision of the future of wave energy. PMID:22184673
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Groenenboom, P. H. L.
The phenomenon of wave propagation is encountered frequently in a variety of engineering disciplines. It has been realized that for a growing number of problems the solution can only be obtained by discretization of the boundary. Advantages of the Boundary Element Method (BEM) over domain-type methods are related to the reduction of the number of space dimensions and of the modelling effort. It is demonstrated how the BEM can be applied to wave propagation phenomena by establishing the fundamental relationships. A numerical solution procedure is also suggested. In connection with a discussion of the retarded potential formulation, it is shown how the wave propagation problem can be cast into a Boundary Integral Formulation (BIF). The wave propagation problem in the BIF can be solved by time-successive evaluation of the boundary integrals. The example of pressure wave propagation following a sodium-water reaction in a Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactor steam generator is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Zhenya
2011-11-01
The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black-Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields.
Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...
Atmospheric Science Data Center
2013-04-19
article title: Gravity Waves Ripple over Marine Stratocumulus Clouds ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), a fingerprint-like gravity wave feature occurs over a deck of marine stratocumulus clouds. Similar ... that occur when a pebble is thrown into a still pond, such "gravity waves" sometimes appear when the relatively stable and stratified air ...
The Third Wave: A Position Paper.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dyrud, Marilyn A.
2000-01-01
Describes the Third Wave as an "information bomb... exploding in our midst, showering us with a shrapnel of images and drastically changing the way each of us perceives and acts upon our private world." Begins with a description of A. Toffler's Third Wave as an attempt to partially explain what is happening in higher education, especially distance…
Does the Wave Equation Really Work?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Armstead, Donald C.; Karls, Michael A.
2006-01-01
The wave equation is a classic partial differential equation that one encounters in an introductory course on boundary value problems or mathematical physics, which can be used to describe the vertical displacement of a vibrating string. Using a video camera and Wave-in-Motion software to record displacement data from a vibrating string or spring,…
Rainbow-shift mechanism behind discrete optical-potential ambiguities
Brandan, M.E. ); McVoy, K.W. )
1991-03-01
Some years ago, Drisko {ital et} {ital al}. suggested that the discrete ambiguity often encountered for elastic scattering optical potentials could be understood as being due to the interior or small-{ital l} {ital S}-matrix elements for two equivalent'' potentials differing in phase by 2{pi}, {ital l}-by-{ital l}. We point out that the {ital absence} of this phase change for peripheral partial waves is equally essential, and suggest that a deeper understanding of the ambiguity may be achieved by viewing it as a consequence of a farside interference between interior and peripheral partial waves. It is this interference which produces the broad Airy maxima'' of a nuclear rainbow, and we show that a Drisko-type phase-shift increment {delta}{sub {ital l}}{r arrow}({delta}{sub {ital l}}+{pi}) for low-{ital l} phases relative to the high-{ital l} ones is exactly what is needed to shift a farside rainbow pattern by one Airy maximum, thus providing an equivalent rainbow-shift'' interpretation of the discrete ambiguity. The physical importance of both interpretations lies in the fact that the existence of discrete ambiguities (as well as of nuclear rainbows) is explicit evidence for low-{ital l} transparency in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The essential role played by low partial waves explains why peripheral reactions have generally not proven helpful in resolving this ambiguity.
ICRF-enhanced plasma potentials in the SOL of Alcator C-Mod
Ochoukov, R.; Whyte, D. G.; Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Terry, J. L.; Wukitch, S. J.; D'Ippolito, D. A.; Myra, J. R.
2014-02-12
We performed an extensive survey of the plasma potential in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of Ion Cyclotron Range-of Frequencies (ICRF)-heated discharges on Alcator C-Mod. Our results show that plasma potentials are enhanced in the presence of ICRF power and plasma potential values of >100 V are often observed. Such potentials are high enough to induce sputtering of high-Z molybdenum (Mo) plasma facing components by deuterium ions on C-Mod. For comparison, the plasma potential in Ohmic discharges is typically less than 10 V, well below the threshold needed to induce Mo sputtering by deuterium ions. ICRF-enhanced plasma potentials are observed in the SOL regions that both magnetically map and do not map to active ICRF antennas. Regions that magnetically map to active ICRF antennas are accessible to slow waves directly launched by the antennas and these regions experience plasma potential enhancement that is partially consistent with the slow wave rectification mechanism. One of the most defining features of the slow wave rectification is a threshold appearance of significant plasma potentials (>100 V) when the dimensionless rectification parameter Λ{sub −o} is above unity and this trend is observed experimentally. We also observe ICRF-enhanced plasma potentials >100 V in regions that do not magnetically map to the active antennas and, hence, are not accessible for slow waves launched directly by the active antennas. However, unabsorbed fast waves can reach these regions. The general trend that we observe in these 'un-mapped' regions is that the plasma potential scales with the strength of the local RF wave fields with the fast wave polarization and the highest plasma potentials are observed in discharges with the highest levels of unabsorbed ICRF power. Similarly, we find that core Mo levels scale with the level of unabsorbed ICRF power suggesting a link between plasma potentials in the SOL and the strength of the impurity source.
Wu, Tsung-Tsong; Hsu, Jin-Chen; Sun, Jia-Hong
2011-10-01
In the past two decades, phononic crystals (PCs) which consist of periodically arranged media have attracted considerable interest because of the existence of complete frequency band gaps and maneuverable band structures. Recently, Lamb waves in thin plates with PC structures have started to receive increasing attention for their potential applications in filters, resonators, and waveguides. This paper presents a review of recent works related to phononic plate waves which have recently been published by the authors and coworkers. Theoretical and experimental studies of Lamb waves in 2-D PC plate structures are covered. On the theoretical side, analyses of Lamb waves in 2-D PC plates using the plane wave expansion (PWE) method, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, and finite-element (FE) method are addressed. These methods were applied to study the complete band gaps of Lamb waves, characteristics of the propagating and localized wave modes, and behavior of anomalous refraction, called negative refraction, in the PC plates. The theoretical analyses demonstrated the effects of PC-based negative refraction, lens, waveguides, and resonant cavities. We also discuss the influences of geometrical parameters on the guiding and resonance efficiency and on the frequencies of waveguide and cavity modes. On the experimental side, the design and fabrication of a silicon-based Lamb wave resonator which utilizes PC plates as reflective gratings to form the resonant cavity are discussed. The measured results showed significant improvement of the insertion losses and quality factors of the resonators when the PCs were applied. PMID:21989878
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McNutt, David; Milson, Robert; Coley, Alan
2013-03-01
We discuss the invariant classification of vacuum Kundt waves using the Cartan-Karlhede algorithm and determine the upper bound on the number of iterations of the Karlhede algorithm to classify the vacuum Kundt waves (Collins (1991 Class. Quantum Grav. 8 1859-69), Machado Ramos (1996 Class. Quantum Grav. 13 1589)). By choosing a particular coordinate system we partially construct the canonical coframe used in the classification to study the functional dependence of the invariants arising at each iteration of the algorithm. We provide a new upper bound, q ⩽ 4, and show that this bound is sharp by analyzing the subclass of Kundt waves with invariant count beginning with (0, 1,…) to show that the class with invariant count (0, 1, 3, 4, 4) exists. This class of vacuum Kundt waves is shown to be unique as the only set of metrics requiring the fourth covariant derivatives of the curvature. We conclude with an invariant classification of the vacuum Kundt waves using a suite of invariants.
An oxygen pressure sensor using surface acoustic wave devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leighty, Bradley D.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Oglesby, Donald M.
1993-01-01
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) piezoelectric devices are finding widespread applications in many arenas, particularly in the area of chemical sensing. We have developed an oxygen pressure sensor based on coating a SAW device with an oxygen binding agent which can be tailored to provide variable sensitivity. The coating is prepared by dissolving an oxygen binding agent in a toluene solution of a copolymer which is then sprayed onto the surface of the SAW device. Experimental data shows the feasibility of tailoring sensors to measure the partial pressure of oxygen from 2.6 to 67 KPa (20 to 500 torr). Potential applications of this technology are discussed.
Broadband surface-wave transformation cloak.
Xu, Su; Xu, Hongyi; Gao, Hanhong; Jiang, Yuyu; Yu, Faxin; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin; Chen, Hongsheng; Sun, Handong; Zhang, Baile
2015-06-23
Guiding surface electromagnetic waves around disorder without disturbing the wave amplitude or phase is in great demand for modern photonic and plasmonic devices, but is fundamentally difficult to realize because light momentum must be conserved in a scattering event. A partial realization has been achieved by exploiting topological electromagnetic surface states, but this approach is limited to narrow-band light transmission and subject to phase disturbances in the presence of disorder. Recent advances in transformation optics apply principles of general relativity to curve the space for light, allowing one to match the momentum and phase of light around any disorder as if that disorder were not there. This feature has been exploited in the development of invisibility cloaks. An ideal invisibility cloak, however, would require the phase velocity of light being guided around the cloaked object to exceed the vacuum speed of light--a feat potentially achievable only over an extremely narrow band. In this work, we theoretically and experimentally show that the bottlenecks encountered in previous studies can be overcome. We introduce a class of cloaks capable of remarkable broadband surface electromagnetic waves guidance around ultrasharp corners and bumps with no perceptible changes in amplitude and phase. These cloaks consist of specifically designed nonmagnetic metamaterials and achieve nearly ideal transmission efficiency over a broadband frequency range from 0(+) to 6 GHz. This work provides strong support for the application of transformation optics to plasmonic circuits and could pave the way toward high-performance, large-scale integrated photonic circuits. PMID:26056299
Broadband surface-wave transformation cloak
Xu, Su; Xu, Hongyi; Gao, Hanhong; Jiang, Yuyu; Yu, Faxin; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin; Chen, Hongsheng; Sun, Handong; Zhang, Baile
2015-01-01
Guiding surface electromagnetic waves around disorder without disturbing the wave amplitude or phase is in great demand for modern photonic and plasmonic devices, but is fundamentally difficult to realize because light momentum must be conserved in a scattering event. A partial realization has been achieved by exploiting topological electromagnetic surface states, but this approach is limited to narrow-band light transmission and subject to phase disturbances in the presence of disorder. Recent advances in transformation optics apply principles of general relativity to curve the space for light, allowing one to match the momentum and phase of light around any disorder as if that disorder were not there. This feature has been exploited in the development of invisibility cloaks. An ideal invisibility cloak, however, would require the phase velocity of light being guided around the cloaked object to exceed the vacuum speed of light—a feat potentially achievable only over an extremely narrow band. In this work, we theoretically and experimentally show that the bottlenecks encountered in previous studies can be overcome. We introduce a class of cloaks capable of remarkable broadband surface electromagnetic waves guidance around ultrasharp corners and bumps with no perceptible changes in amplitude and phase. These cloaks consist of specifically designed nonmagnetic metamaterials and achieve nearly ideal transmission efficiency over a broadband frequency range from 0+ to 6 GHz. This work provides strong support for the application of transformation optics to plasmonic circuits and could pave the way toward high-performance, large-scale integrated photonic circuits. PMID:26056299
Partially segmented deformable mirror
Bliss, Erlan S.; Smith, James R.; Salmon, J. Thaddeus; Monjes, Julio A.
1991-01-01
A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp.
Partially segmented deformable mirror
Bliss, E.S.; Smith, J.R.; Salmon, J.T.; Monjes, J.A.
1991-05-21
A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp. 5 figures.
Krumpelt, Michael; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Doshi, Rajiv
2000-01-01
A two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion. The dehydrogenation portion is a group VIII metal and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure. There is also disclosed a method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.
Partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystals for boundary layer investigations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parmar, Devendra S.; Singh, Jag J.
1992-01-01
A new configuration termed partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal in which the liquid crystal microdroplets dispersed in a rigid polymer matrix are partially entrapped on the free surface of the thin film deposited on a glass substrate is reported. Optical transmission characteristics of the partially exposed polymer dispersed liquid crystal thin film in response to an air flow induced shear stress field reveal its potential as a sensor for gas flow and boundary layer investigations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
The pattern on the right half of this image of the Bay of Bengal is the result of two opposing wave trains colliding. This ASTER sub-scene, acquired on March 29, 2000, covers an area 18 kilometers (13 miles) wide and 15 kilometers (9 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The visible and near-infrared bands highlight surface waves due to specular reflection of sunlight off of the wave faces.
Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels
Differential phase shift of partially reflected radio waves.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Connolly, D. J.
1971-01-01
The addition of phase difference measurements to differential absorption experiments is shown to be both feasible and desirable. The phase information can provide a more sensitive measurement of electron density above about 75 km. The differential phase shift is only weakly dependent on collision frequency in this range, and so an accurate collision frequency profile is not a prerequisite. The differential phase shift and differential absorption measurements taken together can provide both electron density and collision frequency data from about 70 to 90 km.
Langley, Philip; Caldwell, Jane
2016-01-01
The atrial T wave (Ta wave) is the body surface manifestation of atrial repolarisation and, unlike the P wave (atrial depolarisation), is little recognised. We report the case of a patient with shifting pacemaker which clearly demonstrates the effect of the Ta wave on ST segment and T wave. A simple conceptual model is used to explain the observed phenomenon. The case serves as a reminder of this often forgotten ECG wave and its potential effects on other ECG features. PMID:27215648
Incremental fusion of partial biometric information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abboud, Ali J.; Jassim, Sabah A.
2012-06-01
Existing face recognition schemes are mostly based on extracting biometric feature vectors either from whole face images, or from a fixed facial region (e.g., eyes, nose, and mouth). Extreme variation in quality conditions between biometric enrolment and verification stages badly affects the performance of face recognition systems. Such problems have partly motivated several investigations into the use of partial facial features for face recognition. Nevertheless, partial face recognition is potentially useful in several applications, for instance, it used in forensics for detectives to identify individuals after some accidents such as fire or explosion. In this paper, we propose a scheme to fuse the biometric information of partial face images incrementally based on their recognition accuracy (or discriminative power) ranks. Such fusion scheme uses the optimal ratio of full/partial face images in each different quality condition. We found that such scheme is also useful for full face images to enhance authentication accuracy significantly. Nevertheless, it reduces the required storage requirements and processing time of the biometric system. Our experiments show that the required ratio of full/partial facial images to achieve optimal performance varies from (5%) to (80%) according to the quality conditions whereas the authentication accuracy improves significantly for low quality biometric samples.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, Brynmor; Kim, Edward; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Many new Earth remote-sensing instruments are embracing both the advantages and added complexity that result from interferometric or fully polarimetric operation. To increase instrument understanding and functionality a model of the signals these instruments measure is presented. A stochastic model is used as it recognizes the non-deterministic nature of any real-world measurements while also providing a tractable mathematical framework. A stationary, Gaussian-distributed model structure is proposed. Temporal and spectral correlation measures provide a statistical description of the physical properties of coherence and polarization-state. From this relationship the model is mathematically defined. The model is shown to be unique for any set of physical parameters. A method of realizing the model (necessary for applications such as synthetic calibration-signal generation) is given and computer simulation results are presented. The signals are constructed using the output of a multi-input multi-output linear filter system, driven with white noise.
Partially supervised speaker clustering.
Tang, Hao; Chu, Stephen Mingyu; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Huang, Thomas S
2012-05-01
Content-based multimedia indexing, retrieval, and processing as well as multimedia databases demand the structuring of the media content (image, audio, video, text, etc.), one significant goal being to associate the identity of the content to the individual segments of the signals. In this paper, we specifically address the problem of speaker clustering, the task of assigning every speech utterance in an audio stream to its speaker. We offer a complete treatment to the idea of partially supervised speaker clustering, which refers to the use of our prior knowledge of speakers in general to assist the unsupervised speaker clustering process. By means of an independent training data set, we encode the prior knowledge at the various stages of the speaker clustering pipeline via 1) learning a speaker-discriminative acoustic feature transformation, 2) learning a universal speaker prior model, and 3) learning a discriminative speaker subspace, or equivalently, a speaker-discriminative distance metric. We study the directional scattering property of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) mean supervector representation of utterances in the high-dimensional space, and advocate exploiting this property by using the cosine distance metric instead of the euclidean distance metric for speaker clustering in the GMM mean supervector space. We propose to perform discriminant analysis based on the cosine distance metric, which leads to a novel distance metric learning algorithm—linear spherical discriminant analysis (LSDA). We show that the proposed LSDA formulation can be systematically solved within the elegant graph embedding general dimensionality reduction framework. Our speaker clustering experiments on the GALE database clearly indicate that 1) our speaker clustering methods based on the GMM mean supervector representation and vector-based distance metrics outperform traditional speaker clustering methods based on the “bag of acoustic features” representation and statistical
A complex Noether approach for variational partial differential equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naz, R.; Mahomed, F. M.
2015-10-01
Scalar complex partial differential equations which admit variational formulations are studied. Such a complex partial differential equation, via a complex dependent variable, splits into a system of two real partial differential equations. The decomposition of the Lagrangian of the complex partial differential equation in the real domain is shown to yield two real Lagrangians for the split system. The complex Maxwellian distribution, transonic gas flow, Maxwellian tails, dissipative wave and Klein-Gordon equations are considered. The Noether symmetries and gauge terms of the split system that correspond to both the Lagrangians are constructed by the Noether approach. In the case of coupled split systems, the same Noether symmetries are obtained. The Noether symmetries for the uncoupled split systems are different. The conserved vectors of the split system which correspond to both the Lagrangians are compared to the split conserved vectors of the complex partial differential equation for the examples. The split conserved vectors of the complex partial differential equation are the same as the conserved vectors of the split system of real partial differential equations in the case of coupled systems. Moreover a Noether-like theorem for the split system is proved which provides the Noether-like conserved quantities of the split system from knowledge of the Noether-like operators. An interesting result on the split characteristics and the conservation laws is shown as well. The Noether symmetries and gauge terms of the Lagrangian of the split system with the split Noether-like operators and gauge terms of the Lagrangian of the given complex partial differential equation are compared. Folklore suggests that the split Noether-like operators of a Lagrangian of a complex Euler-Lagrange partial differential equation are symmetries of the Lagrangian of the split system of real partial differential equations. This is not the case. They are proved to be the same if the
Kumar, D.; Barman, A.; Kłos, J. W.; Krawczyk, M.
2014-01-28
We present the observation of a complete bandgap and collective spin wave excitation in two-dimensional magnonic crystals comprised of arrays of nanoscale antidots and nanodots, respectively. Considering that the frequencies dealt with here fall in the microwave band, these findings can be used for the development of suitable magnonic metamaterials and spin wave based signal processing. We also present the application of a numerical procedure, to compute the dispersion relations of spin waves for any high symmetry direction in the first Brillouin zone. The results obtained from this procedure have been reproduced and verified by the well established plane wave method for an antidot lattice, when magnetization dynamics at antidot boundaries are pinned. The micromagnetic simulation based method can also be used to obtain iso–frequency contours of spin waves. Iso–frequency contours are analogous of the Fermi surfaces and hence, they have the potential to radicalize our understanding of spin wave dynamics. The physical origin of bands, partial and full magnonic bandgaps have been explained by plotting the spatial distribution of spin wave energy spectral density. Although, unfettered by rigid assumptions and approximations, which afflict most analytical methods used in the study of spin wave dynamics, micromagnetic simulations tend to be computationally demanding. Thus, the observation of collective spin wave excitation in the case of nanodot arrays, which can obviate the need to perform simulations, may also prove to be valuable.
Scheme For Finite-Difference Computations Of Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, Sanford
1992-01-01
Compact algorithms generating and solving finite-difference approximations of partial differential equations for propagation of waves obtained by new method. Based on concept of discrete dispersion relation. Used in wave propagation to relate frequency to wavelength and is key measure of wave fidelity.
Nevzorova, Y A; Tolba, R; Trautwein, C; Liedtke, C
2015-04-01
The surgical procedure of two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PH) in rodents was first described more than 80 years ago by Higgins and Anderson. Nevertheless, this technique is still a state-of-the-art method for the community of liver researchers as it allows the in-depth analysis of signalling pathways involved in liver regeneration and hepatocarcinogenesis. The importance of PH as a key method in experimental hepatology has even increased in the last decade due to the increasing availability of genetically-modified mouse strains. Here, we propose a standard operating procedure (SOP) for the implementation of PH in mice, which is based on our experience of more than 10 years. In particular, the SOP offers all relevant background information on the PH model and provides comprehensive guidelines for planning and performing PH experiments. We provide established recommendations regarding optimal age and gender of animals, use of appropriate anaesthesia and biometric calculation of the experiments. We finally present an easy-to-follow step-by-step description of the complete surgical procedure including required materials, critical steps and postoperative management. This SOP especially takes into account the latest changes in animal welfare rules in the European Union but is still in agreement with current international regulations. In summary, this article provides comprehensive information for the legal application, design and implementation of PH experiments. PMID:25835741
Partial covariate adjusted regression
Şentürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V.
2008-01-01
Covariate adjusted regression (CAR) is a recently proposed adjustment method for regression analysis where both the response and predictors are not directly observed (Şentürk and Müller, 2005). The available data has been distorted by unknown functions of an observable confounding covariate. CAR provides consistent estimators for the coefficients of the regression between the variables of interest, adjusted for the confounder. We develop a broader class of partial covariate adjusted regression (PCAR) models to accommodate both distorted and undistorted (adjusted/unadjusted) predictors. The PCAR model allows for unadjusted predictors, such as age, gender and demographic variables, which are common in the analysis of biomedical and epidemiological data. The available estimation and inference procedures for CAR are shown to be invalid for the proposed PCAR model. We propose new estimators and develop new inference tools for the more general PCAR setting. In particular, we establish the asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators and propose consistent estimators of their asymptotic variances. Finite sample properties of the proposed estimators are investigated using simulation studies and the method is also illustrated with a Pima Indians diabetes data set. PMID:20126296
The Triton from the Reid93 Potential in the UPA
Gibson, Benjamin F.
2012-08-20
The Unitary Pole Approximation (UPA) is an efficient means to construct a rank-one separable potential, reproduces the deuteron and {sup 1}S{sub 0} anti-bound-state wave functions, generates a reliable estimate of the two- and three-nucleon binding energies, and yields a simple representation of the three-nucleon ground-state wave function. The Reid93 potential provides a representation of the NN scattering data comparable in fit to a partial wave analysis, and reproduces the deuteron properties as well as any contemporary potential model. From comparing the UPA and the local potential results, we can see that the UPA gives a satisfactory approximation to the local potential, suggesting that one may use the UPA three-nucleon wave function to calculate the electric dipole moment (EDM) for the {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He considering the absence of any experimental measurement at this stage, or to investigate the variation in the two- and three-nucleon binding energy as a function of the hadronic mass.
The Microwave Spectrum of Partially Deuterated Species of Dimethyl Ether
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lauvergnat, D.; Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Guillemin, J.-C.; Coudert, L. H.
2011-06-01
Dimethyl ether is a molecule of astrophysical interest spectroscopically well characterized. It is one of the simplest molecules with two methyl groups undergoing large amplitude internal rotations. Due to deuterium enrichment in the interstellar medium, one can reasonably expect that partially deuterated species of dimethyl ether might be detected. However, there are no spectroscopic results about the microwave spectrum of such species. A theoretical calculation of the rotation-torsion energy levels of the partially deuterated species of dimethyl ether has been undertaken aided by ab initio calculations. The approach accounts for the complicated torsion-rotation interactions displayed by this molecule and for the fact that deuteration leads to changes of the bidimensional internal rotation effective potential energy surface. Due to zero-point energy contributions from the 19 small amplitude vibrational modes, this surface no longer displays G36 symmetry. Rotation-torsion energy levels are computed treating the two angles of internal rotation as active coordinates and evaluating Hamiltonian matrix elements with the help of Gaussian quadrature. It is hoped that the present results will allow us to understand the microwave spectrum of the mono deuterated species CH_2DOCH_3 which has been recorded in Lille with the new sub millimeter wave spectrometer (150--950 GHz) based on harmonic generation of solid-state sources. [2] Snyder, Buhl, and Schwartz, Astrophys. J. Letters 191 (1974) L79. [3] Endres, Drouin, Pearson, Müller, Lewen, Schlemmer, and Giesen, A&A 504 (2009) 635. [4] Solomon and Woolf, Astrophys. J. Letters 180 (1973) L89. [5] Lauvergnat and Nauts, J. Chem. Phys. 116 (2002) 8560; and Light and Bačić, J. Chem. Phys. 87 (1987) 4008.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marston, Philip L.
2003-04-01
The coupling of sound to buried targets can be associated with acoustic evanescent waves when the sea bottom is smooth. To understand the excitation of guided waves on buried fluid cylinders and shells by acoustic evanescent waves and the associated target resonances, the two-dimensional partial wave series for the scattering is found for normal incidence in an unbounded medium. The shell formulation uses the simplifications of thin-shell dynamics. The expansion of the incident wave becomes a double summation with products of modified and ordinary Bessel functions [P. L. Marston, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 2378 (2002)]. Unlike the case of an ordinary incident wave, the counterpropagating partial waves of the same angular order have unequal magnitudes when the incident wave is evanescent. This is a consequence of the exponential dependence of the incident wave amplitude on depth. Some consequences of this imbalance of partial-wave amplitudes are given by modifying previous ray theory for the scattering [P. L. Marston and N. H. Sun, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 97, 777-783 (1995)]. The exponential dependence of the scattering on the location of a scatterer was previously demonstrated in air [T. J. Matula and P. L. Marston, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 93, 1192-1195 (1993)].
Partial lipodystrophy in coeliac disease.
O'Mahony, D; O'Mahony, S; Whelton, M J; McKiernan, J
1990-01-01
The association of coeliac disease and partial lipodystrophy is described. The patient also had deficiencies of serum IgA and C3 complement (the latter associated with partial lipodystrophy). In addition, there was subclinical dermatitis herpetiformis confirmed by skin biopsy. The facial wasting of fully developed partial lipodystrophy may be misinterpreted as a sign of malabsorption but the facial, upper limb, and truncal lipodystrophy contrasts with normal pelvic and lower limb appearances. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2379878
Belobo Belobo, D; Ben-Bolie, G H; Kofane, T C
2014-04-01
Bose-Einstein condensates with time varying two- and three-body interatomic interactions, confined in a linear potential and exchanging atoms with the thermal cloud are investigated. Using the extended tanh-function method with an auxiliary equation, i.e., the Lenard equation, many exact solutions describing the dynamics of matter-wave condensates are derived. An important issue is the time management of the cubic and the quintic nonlinearities by tuning the rate of exchange of atoms between the condensate and the thermal background. In addition, adjusting the strength of the linear potential, the rate of exchange of atoms, and many other free parameters allow one to control many features of the condensate such as its height, width, position, velocity, acceleration, and its direction, respectively. Full numerical solutions corroborate the analytical predictions. PMID:24827319