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Sample records for potentiometric anion selectivity

  1. Potentiometric enzyme immunoassay using miniaturized anion-selective electrodes for detection

    PubMed Central

    Szűcs, Júlia; Pretsch, Ernö; Gyurcsányi, Róbert E.

    2010-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for prostate specific antigen (PSA) detection in human serum was developed based on the potentiometric detection of 6,8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferone (DiFMU). The assays were carried out in anti-human PSA capture-antibody modified microtiter plates (150 µl volume). After incubation in the PSA containing serum samples, β-galactosidase-labeled PSA tracer antibody was added. The β-galactosidase label catalyzed the hydrolysis of 6,8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (DiFMUG) and the resulting DiFMU− anion was detected by potentiometric microelectrodes with anion-exchanger membrane. The selectivity of the anion-exchanger electrode is governed by the lipophilicity of the anions in the sample. Since DiFMU− is much more lipophilic (log P = 1.83) than any of the inorganic anions normally present in the working buffers and occurs in its anionic form at the physiological pH (pKa = 4.19), it was chosen as the species to be detected. The potentiometric ELISA-based method detects PSA in serum with a linear concentration range of 0.1–50 ng/mL. These results confirm the applicability of potentiometric detection in diagnostic PSA assays. Owing to simple methodology and low cost, potentiometric immunoassays seem to offer a feasible alternative to the development of in vitro diagnostic platforms. PMID:20448926

  2. The potentiometric behavior of polymer-supported metallophthalocyanines used as anion-selective electrodes.

    PubMed

    Arvand, M; Pourhabib, A; Shemshadi, R; Giahi, M

    2007-02-01

    Liquid polymer membrane electrodes based on nickel and manganese phthalocyanines were examined for use as anion-selective electrodes. The electrodes were prepared by incorporating the ionophores into plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membranes, which were directly coated onto the surfaces of graphite electrodes. The resulting electrodes demonstrate near-Nernstian responses over a wide linear range of perchlorate anion (5 x 10(-7) to 1 x 10(-1) M). The electrodes have a fast response time, submicromolar detection limits (5 x 10(-7) M perchlorate), and could be used over a wide pH range of 3.5-10. The influences of lipophilic cationic and anionic additives on the response properties of the electrodes were investigated. The proposed sensors revealed high selectivity for perchlorate over a number of common inorganic and organic anions. The highest selectivity was observed for the electrode based on manganese phthalocyanine in the presence of the lipophilic anionic additive sodium tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate. Application of the electrodes to determine perchlorate in tap water and human urine is also reported.

  3. Dysprosium selective potentiometric membrane sensor.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Hassan Ali; Faridbod, Farnoush; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza

    2013-03-01

    A novel Dy(III) ion-selective PVC membrane sensor was made using a new synthesized organic compound, 3,4-diamino-N'-((pyridin-2-yl)methylene)benzohydrazide (L) as an excellent sensing element. The electrode showed a Nernstian slope of 19.8 ± 0.6 mV per decade in a wide concentration range of 1.0 × 10(-6)-1.0 × 10(-2) mol L(-1), a detection limit of 5.5 × 10(-7) mol L(-1), a short conditioning time, a fast response time (<10s), and high selectivity towards Dy(III) ion in contrast to other cations. The proposed sensor was successfully used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Dy(III) ions with EDTA. The membrane sensor was also applied to the F(-) ion indirect determination of some mouth washing solutions and to the Dy(3+) determination in binary mixtures.

  4. Anion selectivity in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Wright, E M; Diamond, J M

    1977-01-01

    As background for appreciating the still-unsolved problems of monovalent anion selectivity, we summarize the facts and intepretations that seem reasonably well established. In section II we saw that specific effects of monovalent anions on biological and physical systems define qualitative patterns, in that only certain sequences of anion effects are observed. For example, the 4 halides can be permitted on paper as 4! = 24 sequences, yet only 5 of these sequences have been observed in nature as potency sequences. In addition, there are quantitative regularities in anion potency that permit the construction of so-called empirical selectivity isotherms (Figs. 4 and 13). That is, a given potency sequence is found to be associated with only a certain modest range of selectivity ratios. The sequences and isotherms apply to effects with a nonequilibrium component (e.g., permeability and conductance sequences) as well as to purely equilibrium effects. Since students of cation selectivity have had difficulty accepting this conclusion, we discuss the reasons why it is not as paradoxical as it at first seems. In sections III and IV we develop four theoretical models to account for the observed anion potency sequences as sequences of equilibrium binding energies. Two of these models involve calculation of electrostatic binding energies between anions and monopolar or dipolar cationic sites, assuming anions as well as sites to be rigid and nonpolarizable. The other two models use thermochemically measured binding energies between anions and thealkali cations or occasionally alkaline-earth cations, which in fact approximate rigid, nonpolarizable spheres. All four models consider the anion selectivity pattern of a given cationic site to be determined by anion differences in the balance between hydration energies and ion-site binding energies. Site differences in anion selectivity pattern are attributed to site differences in radius, charge, coordination number, or dipole length

  5. Potentiometric determination of pantoprazole using an ion-selective sensor based on polypyrrole doped films.

    PubMed

    Noronha, Bárbara V; Bindewald, Eduardo H; de Oliveira, Michelle C; Papi, Maurício A P; Bergamini, Márcio F; Marcolino-Jr, Luiz H

    2014-10-01

    The present work reports for the first time the use of polypyrrole (PPy) doped film for development of a potentiometric disposable sensor for determination of pantoprazole (PTZ), a drug used for ulcer treatment. Selective potentiometric response has been found by using a membrane of PPy doped with PTZ anions prepared under galvanostatic conditions at graphite pencil electrode (GPEM/PPy-PTZ) surface. Potentiometric response has been influenced for conditions adopted in polymerization and measurement step. After optimization of experimental (e.g. pH and time of conditioning) and instrumental parameters (e.g. current density and electrical charge) a linear analytical curve from 1.0 × 10(-5) to 1.1 × 10(-2) mol L(-1) with a slope of calibration of the 57.6 mV dec(-1) and limit of detection (LOD) of 6.9 × 10(-6) mol L(-1) was obtained. The determination of the PTZ content in pharmaceutical samples using the proposed methodology and official method recommended by Brazilian Pharmacopeia are in agreement at the 95% confidence level and within an acceptable range of error.

  6. Potentiometric Sensors Based on Fluorous Membranes Doped with Highly Selective Ionophores for Carbonate

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li D.; Mandal, Debaprasad; Pozzi, Gianluca; Gladysz, John A.; Bühlmann, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Manganese(III) complexes of three fluorophilic salen derivatives were used to prepare ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) with ionophore-doped fluorous sensing membranes. Because of their extremely low polarity and polarizability, fluorous media are not only chemically very inert but also solvate potentially interfering ions poorly, resulting in a much improved discrimination of such ions. Indeed, the new ISEs exhibited selectivities for CO32− that exceed those of previously reported ISEs based on non-fluorous membranes by several orders of magnitude. In particular, the interference from chloride and salicylate was reduced by two and six orders of magnitude, respectively. To achieve this, the selectivities of these ISEs were fine-tuned by addition of non-coordinating hydrophobic ions (i.e., ionic sites) into the sensing membranes. Stability constants of the anion–ionophore complexes were determined from the dependence of the potentiometric selectivities on the charge sign of the ionic sites and the molar ratio of ionic sites and the ionophore. For this purpose, a previously introduced fluorophilic tetraphenylborate and a novel fluorophilic cation with a bis(triphenylphosphoranylidene)ammonium group, (Rf6(CH2)3)3PN+P(Rf6(CH2)3)3, were utilized. The optimum CO32− selectivities were found for sensing membranes composed of anionic sites and ionophore in a 1:4 molar ratio, which results in the formation of 2:1 complexes with CO32− with stability constants up to 4.1 × 1015. As predicted by established theory, the site-to-ionophore ratios that provide optimum potentiometric selectivity depend on the stoichiometries of the complexes of both the primary and the interfering ions. However, the ionophores used in this study give examples of charges and stoichiometries previously neither explicitly predicted by theory nor shown by experiment. The exceptional selectivity of fluorous membranes doped with these carbonate ionophores suggests their use not only for

  7. Simultaneous Analysis of Monovalent Anions and Cations with a Sub-Microliter Dead-Volume Flow-Through Potentiometric Detector for Ion Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dumanli, Rukiye; Attar, Azade; Erci, Vildan; Isildak, Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    A microliter dead-volume flow-through cell as a potentiometric detector is described in this article for sensitive, selective and simultaneous detection of common monovalent anions and cations in single column ion chromatography for the first time. The detection cell consisted of less selective anion- and cation-selective composite membrane electrodes together with a solid-state composite matrix reference electrode. The simultaneous separation and sensitive detection of sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), ammonium (NH4 (+)), chloride (Cl(-)) and nitrate (NO3 (-)) in a single run was achieved by using 98% 1.5 mM MgSO4 and 2% acetonitrile eluent with a mixed-bed ion-exchange separation column without suppressor column system. The separation and simultaneous detection of the anions and cations were completed in 6 min at the eluent flow-rate of 0.8 mL/min. Detection limits, at S/N = 3, were ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 µM for the anions and 0.3 to 3.0 µM for the cations, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of monovalent anions and cations in several environmental and biological samples.

  8. [Characteristics of ion selective electrodes with hetero-poly anion sites].

    PubMed

    Nie, L H; Ma, W L; Xiang, X C; Yao, S Z

    1989-01-01

    Drug ion-selective electrodes made with hetero-poly anion as exchange site exhibit better performances than the respective electrodes of conventional tetraphenylboron type, yielding low detection limits and fast responses. Functions of propantheline, berberine, dibazol, thiamine, streptomycin, moroxydine, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, erythromycin, carbetapentane, benzydamine, tetramisole and trifluoperazine electrodes are reported. The electrodes can be used in potentiometric determinations of the respective drugs in aqueous solutions, urine and mixture of water and organic solvents.

  9. Cyclen-based bismacrocycles for biological anion recognition. A potentiometric and NMR study of AMP, ADP and ATP nucleotide complexation.

    PubMed

    Delépine, Anne-Sophie; Tripier, Raphaël; Handel, Henri

    2008-05-21

    The behaviour of two cyclen-based bismacrocycles linked by aromatic spacers as receptors of adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) anions is explored. The two bismacrocycles differ from one another by the nature of their spacers, which are respectively 1,3-dimethylbenzene (BMC), or 2,6-dimethylpyridine (BPyC). Potentiometric investigations supported by (1)H and (31)P NMR measurements were performed over a wide pH range to characterize and understand the driving forces implicated in the supramolecular assemblies. A comparison is also carried out with the results presented in this work and those obtained previously with these two ligands and inorganic phosphates. The comparison exhibits the importance of pi-stacking capability of the organic anions in the binding and hydrogen-bonding network. For BPyC, NMR studies highlight two coordination schemes depending on the protonation of the nitrogen atom of the pyridinyl spacer, which acts in acidic media as a supplementary anchoring point.

  10. Tattoo-based potentiometric ion-selective sensors for epidermal pH monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bandodkar, Amay J; Hung, Vinci W S; Jia, Wenzhao; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Windmiller, Joshua R; Martinez, Alexandra G; Ramírez, Julian; Chan, Garrett; Kerman, Kagan; Wang, Joseph

    2013-01-07

    This article presents the fabrication and characterization of novel tattoo-based solid-contact ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) for non-invasive potentiometric monitoring of epidermal pH levels. The new fabrication approach combines commercially available temporary transfer tattoo paper with conventional screen printing and solid-contact polymer ISE methodologies. The resulting tattoo-based potentiometric sensors exhibit rapid and sensitive response to a wide range of pH changes with no carry-over effects. Furthermore, the tattoo ISE sensors endure repetitive mechanical deformation, which is a key requirement of wearable and epidermal sensors. The flexible and conformal nature of the tattoo sensors enable them to be mounted on nearly any exposed skin surface for real-time pH monitoring of the human perspiration, as illustrated from the response during a strenuous physical activity. The resulting tattoo-based ISE sensors offer considerable promise as wearable potentiometric sensors suitable for diverse applications.

  11. Potentiometric titration of bisarenechromium compounds with an ion-selective electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Gur'ev, I.A.; Gur'eva, Z.M.; Sankova, E.V.; Sirotkin, N.I.

    1986-06-10

    A liquid-membrane ion-selective electrode was developed for determining bisbenzene-chromium and its electrochemical and analytical characteristics studied. Methods have also been developed for determining bisarenechromium compounds in the industrial product and its waste waters by potentiometric titration with sodium tetraphenylborate solution.

  12. Anion conductance selectivity mechanism of the CFTR chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Linsdell, Paul

    2016-04-01

    All ion channels are able to discriminate between substrate ions to some extent, a process that involves specific interactions between permeant anions and the so-called selectivity filter within the channel pore. In the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion-selective channel, both anion relative permeability and anion relative conductance are dependent on anion free energy of hydration--anions that are relatively easily dehydrated tend to show both high permeability and low conductance. In the present work, patch clamp recording was used to investigate the relative conductance of different anions in CFTR, and the effect of mutations within the channel pore. In constitutively-active E1371Q-CFTR channels, the anion conductance sequence was Cl(-) > NO3(-) > Br(-) > formate > SCN(-) > I(-). A mutation that disrupts anion binding in the inner vestibule of the pore (K95Q) disrupted anion conductance selectivity, such that anions with different permeabilities showed almost indistinguishable conductances. Conversely, a mutation at the putative narrowest pore region that is known to disrupt anion permeability selectivity (F337A) had minimal effects on anion relative conductance. Ion competition experiments confirmed that relatively tight binding of permeant anions resulted in relatively low conductance. These results suggest that the relative affinity of ion binding in the inner vestibule of the pore controls the relative conductance of different permeant anions in CFTR, and that the pore has two physically distinct anion selectivity filters that act in series to control anion conductance selectivity and anion permeability selectivity respectively.

  13. Miniaturized graphite sensors doped with metal-bathophenanthroline complexes for the selective potentiometric determination of uric acid in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Hassan, S S; Rizk, N M

    1997-08-01

    Miniaturized poly(vinyl chloride) matrix membrane sensors in an all-solid-state graphite support, responsive to urate anion, were developed. The membranes incorporate lipophilic ion-pair complexes of urate anion with ruthenium(III), iron(II), nickel(II) and copper(I) bathophenanthroline (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) counter cations. The sensors demonstrate a near-Nernstian response to urate over the concentration range 1 x 10(-2)-1 x 10(-5) mol l-1 and have micromolar detection limits and good selectivity properties. The response is virtually unaffected by pH changes in the range 7-10 and the response times are 5-10 s in aqueous solutions and in human serum and urine samples. A flow injection detector incorporating an iron(II) bathophenanthroline-urate graphite sensor was used for continuous monitoring of uric acid. The minimum detectable concentration was approximately 8 micrograms ml-1 and the sample throughput was approximately 120 h-1. Direct potentiometric determination of uric acid in the static and hydrodynamic modes of operation over the range 15 micrograms ml-1-1.5 mg ml-1 showed average recoveries of 98.7 and 97.8% with RSDs of 0.6 and 0.7%, respectively. Application of the method to the determination of uric acid in human serum and urine gave results that compared favourably with those obtained by the standard spectrophotometric method.

  14. Nanoparticle-induced potentiometric biosensing of NADH at copper ion-selective electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chumbimuni-Torres, Karin Y; Wang, Joseph

    2009-08-01

    We demonstrate the first example of using potentiometry at ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) for probing in real-time monitoring of biometallization processes. A copper ISE is used for real-time monitoring of the NADH-mediated reduction of copper in the presence of gold nanoparticle seeds. Such potentiometric detection of NADH is not susceptible to surface fouling common with analogous amperometric measurements of this co-factor. Biosensing of ethanol is illustrated in the presence of alcohol dehydrogenase and NAD(+), along with potentiometric detection of the NADH product at the copper ISE. The concept can be readily expanded to the monitoring of various biometallization processes in connection to different enzymatic transformations and ISE, and used for ultrasensitive detection of bioaffinity interactions in connection to common enzyme tags.

  15. Sulfadiazine-selective determination in aquaculture environment: selective potentiometric transduction by neutral or charged ionophores.

    PubMed

    Almeida, S A A; Heitor, A M; Montenegro, M C B S M; Sales, M G F

    2011-09-15

    Solid-contact sensors for the selective screening of sulfadiazine (SDZ) in aquaculture waters are reported. Sensor surfaces were made from PVC membranes doped with tetraphenylporphyrin-manganese(III) chloride, α-cyclodextrin, β-cyclodextrin, or γ-cyclodextrin ionophores that were dispersed in plasticizer. Some membranes also presented a positive or a negatively charged additive. Phorphyrin-based sensors relied on a charged carrier mechanism. They exhibited a near-Nernstian response with slopes of 52 mV decade(-1) and detection limits of 3.91×10(-5) mol L(-1). The addition of cationic lipophilic compounds to the membrane originated Nernstian behaviours, with slopes ranging 59.7-62.0 mV decade(-1) and wider linear ranges. Cyclodextrin-based sensors acted as neutral carriers. In general, sensors with positively charged additives showed an improved potentiometric performance when compared to those without additive. Some SDZ selective membranes displayed higher slopes and extended linear concentration ranges with an increasing amount of additive (always <100% ionophore). The sensors were independent from the pH of test solutions within 2-7. The sensors displayed fast response, always <15s. In general, a good discriminating ability was found in real sample environment. The sensors were successfully applied to the fast screening of SDZ in real waters samples from aquaculture fish farms. The method offered the advantages of simplicity, accuracy, and automation feasibility. The sensing membrane may contribute to the development of small devices allowing in locus measurements of sulfadiazine or parent-drugs.

  16. New molecularly-imprinted polymer for carnitine and its application as ionophore in potentiometric selective membranes.

    PubMed

    Moret, Joséphine; Moreira, Felismina T C; Almeida, Sofia A A; Sales, M Goreti F

    2014-10-01

    Carnitine (CRT) is a biological metabolite found in urine that contributes in assessingseveral disease conditions, including cancer. Novel quick screening procedures for CRT are therefore fundamental. This work proposes a novel potentiometric device where molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were used as ionophores. The host-tailored sites were imprinted on a polymeric network assembled by radical polymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) and trimethylpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM). Non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) were produced as control by removing the template from the reaction media. The selective membrane was prepared by dispersing MIP or NIP particles in plasticizer and poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, and casting this mixture over a solid contact support made of graphite. The composition of the selective membrane was investigated with regard to kind/amount of sensory material (MIP or NIP), and the need for a lipophilic additive. Overall, MIP sensors with additive exhibited the best performance, with near-Nernstian response down to ~1×10(-4)mol L(-1), at pH5, and a detection limit of ~8×10(-5)mol L(-1). Suitable selectivity was found for all membranes, assessed by the matched potential method against some of the most common species in urine (urea, sodium, creatinine, sulfate, fructose and hemoglobin). CRT selective membranes including MIP materials were applied successfully to the potentiometric determination of CRT in urine samples.

  17. Studies on the potentiometric thallium(III)-selective carbon paste electrode and its possible applications.

    PubMed

    Vytras, K; Khaled, E; Jezková, J; Hassan, H N; Barsoum, B N

    2000-05-01

    Construction, performance characteristics and applications of a carbon paste thallium(III) ion-selective electrode are described. The electrode, which is based on ion-associate compounds formed between cetylpyridinium and chlorothallate(III) complexes dissolved in tricresyl phosphate as pasting liquid, showed near-Nernstian response over the concentration range of 5.8 x 10(-6) - 2.9 x 10(-3) mol/L. Potentiometric titrations of thallium(III) with cetylpyridinium chloride were affected by higher concentrations of excess halides, probably due to the formation of higher halogenothallates.

  18. Tripodal Receptors for Cation and Anion Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Nuriman; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David N.

    2006-01-01

    This review discusses different types of artificial tripodal receptors for the selective recognition and sensing of cations and anions. Examples on the relationship between structure and selectivity towards cations and anions are described. Furthermore, their applications as potentiometric ion sensing are emphasised, along with their potential applications in optical sensors or optodes.

  19. Potentiometric Cr(VI) selective electrode based on novel ionophore-immobilized PVC membranes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Woo; Minoura, Norihiko; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2005-06-15

    For the determination of Cr(VI) concentrations with a potentiometric ion-selective electrode (ISE), ionophore-immobilized membranes were prepared by ultraviolet (UV)-induced graft polymerization followed by chemical treatment. Novel ionophores comprising various amine structures were immobilized onto poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrixes, and these were examined to determine Cr(VI) selectively. Of the three ionophores examined in this study, the membranes with N,N,N,N-tetrakis(3-aminopropyl)-1,4-butanediamine (DABAm4) exhibited the highest Cr(VI) ion selectivity in both extraction and potentiometry experiments. The plasticizer in the membrane was optimized as 1.0ml o-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE)/g PVC to form diffusible channels. The potentiometric studies revealed that the performance of DABAm4-immobilized PVC was equivalent to that of mobile ionophores in supported liquid membranes (SLMs). A reproducible response of Cr(VI) was attained within a response time of 1s in the range of 2.16x10(-6) to 0.1M, using the membrane prepared in this study. The selectivity for the Cr(VI) ion against the other interfering ions was compared reasonably between a solvent extraction and potentiometry. The long-term response of the Cr(VI) ISE showed slight deterioration over a continuous operation for 6 months, while the detection limit slightly decreased due to the leaching-out of the plasticizer. The ISE along with the DABAm4 immobilized membrane showed a higher Cr(VI) ion selectivity and more stable response under long-term usage than ISEs with typical SLMs.

  20. An Ion-selective Electrode for Anion Perchlorate in Thick-film Technology

    PubMed Central

    Segui, María Jesús; Lizondo-Sabater, Josefa; Martínez-Máñez, Ramon; Sancenon, Félix; Soto, Juan; Garcia-Breijo, Eduardo; Gil, Luis

    2006-01-01

    The ionophore 1,4,7,10,13-penta(n-octyl)-1,4,7,10,13-pentaazacyclopentadecane (L1) was used for the development of miniaturised perchlorate-selective electrodes in thick-film technology. Different PVC membranes containing L1 and the plasticizers o-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate (DOS) and dibutyl sebacate (DBS) were prepared and placed on a graphite working electrode manufactured by using thick film serigraphic technology. The perchlorate selective electrode containing DBS as plasticizer showed a potentiometric Nernstian response of -57 mV per decade in a range of perchlorate concentration from 1 × 10-4 to 1 × 10-1 M with a detection limit of 5 × 10-5 M. The ion selective electrodes containing DBP and NPOE as plasticizers exhibit a working range from 6.3 × 10-5 to 1 × 10-1 M and 7.4 × 10-5 to 1 × 10-1 M for perchlorate, respectively, with a detection limit of ca. 2.2 × 10-5 M. For all three electrodes a response time of ca. 5 s was found. The prepared electrodes do not show appreciable decay of the slope for at least 25 days. Potentiometric selectivity coefficients (log KpotClO4-,X-) with respect to the primary anion perchlorate were evaluated using the fixed interference method. These coefficients are of the order of 10-1.7 or smaller, indicating the relatively poor interference of the different anions studied.

  1. An efficient ab initio DFT and PCM assessment of the potentiometric selectivity of a salophen type Schiff base.

    PubMed

    Demir, Serkan; Yilmaz, Hakan; Dilimulati, Maowulidan; Andaç, Müberra

    2014-06-01

    As a neutral carrier component for the preparation of a potentiometric membrane sensor, the affinity and selectivity of the salophen type Schiff base ligand obtained by 1:2 condensation of 2.3-diaminopyridine with salicylaldehyde toward a series of common cations has been fully examined by DFT/B3LYP and integral equation formalism polarizable continum model (IEF-PCM or only given with PCM as default input in the computations) in combination with the experimental data. Both the potentiometric measurements and DFT calculations have exhibited that the ionophore shows appreciable selectivity for Cu(2+) ion over other cations. Four different approaches where the last three are the modified version of each other have been evaluated and compared with potentiometric data. Based upon the results of comparison among the approaches suggested to verify the selective behavior of ionophore toward Cu(2+), PCM implemented approach having a whole computational groundwork has given well-matched results with the observed data and with the method augmented with experimental hydration energies. The foremost interferences were detected by determining potentiometric selectivity coefficients for each metal ion relative to Cu(2+) and compared to the results obtained by the DFT calculations.

  2. Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman-James, K.; Wilson, G.; Moyer, B. A.

    2004-12-11

    This project involves the design and synthesis of receptors for oxoanions of environmental importance, including emphasis on high level and low activity waste. Target anions have included primarily oxoanions and a study of the basic concepts behind selective binding of target anions. A primary target has been sulfate because of its deleterious influence on the vitrification of tank wastes

  3. Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman-James, Kristen

    2004-12-01

    This project have focuses on the basic chemical aspects of anion receptor design of functional pH independent systems, with the ultimate goal of targeting the selective binding of sulfate, as well as design of separations strategies for selective and efficient removal of targeted anions. Key findings include: (1) the first synthetic sulfate-selective anion-binding agents; (2) simple, structure-based methods for modifying the intrinsic anion selectivity of a given class of anion receptors; and (3) the first system capable of extracting sulfate anion from acidic, nitrate-containing aqueous media. Areas probed during the last funding period include: the design, synthesis, and physical and structural characterization of receptors and investigation of anion and dual ion pair extraction using lipophilic amide receptors for anion binding. A new collaboration has been added to the project in addition to the one with Dr. Bruce Moyer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with Professor Jonathan Sessler at the University of Texas at Austin.

  4. Computational prediction and experimental selectivity coefficients for hydroxyzine and cetirizine molecularly imprinted polymer based potentiometric sensors.

    PubMed

    Azimi, Abolfazl; Javanbakht, Mehran

    2014-02-17

    In spite of the increasing usages number of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in many scientific applications, the theoretical aspects of participating intra molecular forces are not fully understood. This work investigates effects of the electrostatic force, the Mulliken charge and the role of cavity's backbone atoms on the selectivity of MIPs. Moreover, charge distribution, which is a computational parameter, was proposed for the prediction of the selectivity coefficients of MIP-based sensors. In the computational approaches and experimental study, methacrylic acid (MAA) was chosen as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross linker for hydroxyzine and cetirizine imprinted polymers. Ab initio, DFT B3LYP method was carried out on molecular optimization. With regard to results obtained from molecules optimization and hydrogen bonding properties, possible configurations of 1:n (n≤5) template/monomer complexes were designed and optimized. The binding energy for each complex in gas phase was calculated. Depending on the most stable configuration, hydroxyzine and cetirizine imprinted polymer models were designed. The calculations including the porogen were also investigated. The theoretical charge distributions for the template and some potential interfering molecules were calculated. The results showed a correlation between the selectivity coefficients and the theoretical charge distributions. The results surprisingly show that charge distribution based model was able to predict the selectivity coefficients of MIP based potentiometric sensors.

  5. Potentiometric Response Characteristics of Membrane-Based Cs + -Selective Electrodes Containing Ionophore-Functionalized Polymeric Microspheres

    DOE PAGES

    Peper, Shane; Gonczy, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Csmore » + -selective solvent polymeric membrane-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) were developed by doping ethylene glycol-functionalized cross-linked polystyrene microspheres (P-EG) into a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix containing sodium tetrakis-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl) borate (TFPB) as the ion exchanger. A systematic study examining the effects of the membrane plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DOS), 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), and 2-fluorophenyl nitrophenyl ether (FPNPE) on the potentiometric response and selectivity of the corresponding electrodes was performed. Under certain conditions, P-EG-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) containing TFPB and plasticized with NPOE exhibited a super-Nernstian response between 1 × 10 − 3 and 1 × 10 − 4  M+ , a response characteristic not observed in analogous membranes plasticized with either DOS or FPNPE. Additionally, the performance of P-EG-based ISEs was compared to electrodes based on two mobile ionophores, a neutral lipophilic ethylene glycol derivative (ethylene glycol monooctadecyl ether (U-EG)) and a charged metallacarborane ionophore, sodium bis(dicarbollyl)cobaltate(III) (CC). In general, P-EG-based electrodes plasticized with FPNPE yielded the best performance, with a linear range from 10 -1 –10 -5  M+ , a conventional lower detection limit of 8.1 × 10 − 6  M+ , and a response slope of 57.7 mV/decade. The pH response of P-EG ISEs containing TFPB was evaluated for membranes plasticized with either NPOE or FPNPE. In both cases, the electrodes remained stable throughout the pH range 3–12, with only slight proton interference observed below pH 3.« less

  6. Highly selective and sensitized spectrophotometric determination of iron (III) following potentiometric study.

    PubMed

    Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Rajabi, Hamid Reza

    2007-09-01

    A simple, selective and sensitized spectrophotometric method for determination of trace amounts of Fe3+ ion in tap and waste water solutions has been described. The spectrophotometric determination of Fe3+ ion using Ferron in the presence of N,N-Dodecytrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) has been carried out. The Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range of 0.05-2.6 microg mL(-1) of Fe3+ ion with the relative standard deviation (RSD %) <0.2% and the molar absorptivity of complexes in pH 3.5 is 3.8 x 10(3) L mol(-1) cm(-1). Potentiometric pH titration has been used for prediction of protonation constants of ferron, and evaluating its stoichiometry and respective stability constant with Fe3+ ion. As it is obvious the most likely species of ferron alone and its complexes are LH (log = 7.64), LH2 (logK = 10.52), LH3 (logK = 11.74) and ML2 (logbeta = 23.68), ML3 (logbeta = 23.68), ML3H (logbeta = 23.68), ML3H2 (logbta = 23.68) and ML(OH)2 (logbeta = 23.68) respectively.

  7. Ion-selective electrodes in potentiometric titrations; a new method for processing and evaluating titration data.

    PubMed

    Granholm, Kim; Sokalski, Tomasz; Lewenstam, Andrzej; Ivaska, Ari

    2015-08-12

    A new method to convert the potential of an ion-selective electrode to concentration or activity in potentiometric titration is proposed. The advantage of this method is that the electrode standard potential and the slope of the calibration curve do not have to be known. Instead two activities on the titration curve have to be estimated e.g. the starting activity before the titration begins and the activity at the end of the titration in the presence of large excess of titrant. This new method is beneficial when the analyte is in a complexed matrix or in a harsh environment which affects the properties of the electrode and the traditional calibration procedure with standard solutions cannot be used. The new method was implemented both in a method of linearization based on the Grans's plot and in determination of the stability constant of a complex and the concentration of the complexing ligand in the sample. The new method gave accurate results when using titrations data from experiments with samples of known composition and with real industrial harsh black liquor sample. A complexometric titration model was also developed.

  8. Bacteriological analysis of water by potentiometric measurement of lipoic acid reduction: preliminary assays for selective detection of indicator organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Charriere, G; Jouenne, T; Lemeland, J F; Selegny, E; Junter, G A

    1984-01-01

    The practical task of adapting an original potentiometric technique to the bacteriological analysis of water is discussed. Various laboratory strains of organisms belonging to the usual aquatic flora were inoculated one by one in a minimal lactose broth supplied with lipoic (thioctic) acid. The time evolution of the redox potential of the cultures was followed during incubation by combined gold versus reference electrodes. When the incubation temperature was regulated at 36 degrees C, most organisms were able to grow and to reduce the coenzyme, generating changes in the redox potential of the culture. However, very few organisms developed significant reductive activity when the temperature was increased to 41 degrees C and when the broth was provided with sodium deoxycholate. Among the fecal coliform organisms, only Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae exhibited early but reproducible potential-time responses. Positive potentiometric responses were also recorded with Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. E. coli showed rapid potentiometric signals as compared with K. pneumoniae. The time required for 100-mV shift of potential to be detected was related to the logarithm of the initial concentration of E. coli or K. pneumoniae in the culture broth. Experiments on natural surface water samples showed the the potentiometric method, associated with the selective incubation conditions, mainly detected E. coli among the bacterial flora of the tested environmental water. The calibration curve relating the time required for a 100-mV shift of potential to be detected to the number of fecal coliforms, as determined by control fecal coliform-selective plate counts, was consistent with the composite standard curve of detection times obtained with six different laboratory strains of E. coli.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6421230

  9. Highly selective direct determination of chlorate ions by using a newly developed potentiometric electrode based on modified smectite.

    PubMed

    Topcu, Cihan

    2016-12-01

    A novel polyvinyl chloride membrane chlorate (ClO3(-)) selective electrode based on modified smectite was developed for the direct determination of chlorate ions and the potentiometric performance characteristics of its were examined. The best selectivity and sensitivity for chlorate ions were obtained for the electrode membrane containing ionophore/polyvinylchloride/o-nitrophenyloctylether in composition of 12/28/60 (w/w%). The proposed electrode showed a Nernstian response toward chlorate ions at pH=7 in the concentration range of 1×10(-7)-1×10(-1)M and the limit of detection was calculated as 9×10(-8)M from the constructed response plot. The linear slope of the electrode was -61±1mVdecade(-1) for chlorate activity in the mentioned linear working range. The selectivity coefficients were calculated according to both the matched potential method and the separate solution method. The calculated selectivity coefficients showed that the electrode performed excellent selectivity for chlorate ions. The potentiometric response of electrode toward chlorate ions was found to be highly reproducible. The electrode potential was stable between pH=4-10 and it had a dynamic response time of <5s. The potentiometric behavior of the electrode in partial non-aqueous medium was also investigated and the obtained results (up to 5% (v/v) alcohol) were satisfactory. The proposed electrode was used during 15 weeks without any significant change in its potential response. Additionally, the electrode was very useful in water analysis studies such as dam water, river water, tap water, and swimming pool water where the direct determination of chlorate ions was required.

  10. Potentiometric determination of ketotifen fumarate in pharmaceutical preparations and urine using carbon paste and PVC membrane selective electrodes.

    PubMed

    Frag, Eman Y Z; Mohamed, Gehad G; Khalil, Mohamed M; Hwehy, Mohammad M A

    2011-01-01

    This study compares between unmodified carbon paste (CPE; the paste has no ion pair) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane selective electrodes that were used in potentiometric determination of ketotifen fumarate (KTF), where sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) was used as titrant. The performance characteristics of these sensors were evaluated according to IUPAC recommendations which reveal a fast, stable, and linear response for KTF over the concentration range of 10(-7) to 10(-2) mol L(-1). The electrodes show Nernstian slope value of 52.51 ± 0.20 and 51.51 ± 0.25 mV decade(-1) for CPE and PVC membrane electrodes at 30°C, respectively. The potential is nearly stable over the pH range 3.0-6.0 and 2.0-7.0 for CPE and PVC membrane electrodes, respectively. Selectivity coefficient values towards different inorganic cations, sugars, and amino acids reflect high selectivity of the prepared electrodes. The electrodes responses at different temperatures were also studied, and long operational lifetime of 12 and 5 weeks for CPE and PVC membrane electrodes, respectively, were found. These are used for determination of ketotifen fumarate using potentiometric titration, calibration, and standard addition methods in pure samples, its pharmaceutical preparations (Zaditen tablets), and biological fluid (urine). The direct potentiometric determination of KTF using the proposed sensors gave recoveries % of 98.97 ± 0.53 and 98.62 ± 0.74 with RSD 1.42 and 0.63% for CPE and PVC membrane selective electrodes, respectively. Validation of the method shows suitability of the proposed sensors for use in quality control assessment of KTF. The obtained results were in a good agreement with those obtained using the reported spectrophotometric method.

  11. Development of anion-selective membranes. [for energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacey, R. E.; Cowsar, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Methods were studied of preparing anion-exchange membranes that would have low resistance, high selectivity, and physical and chemical stability when used in acidic media in a redox energy storage system. Of the twelve systems selected for study, only the system that was based on crosslinked poly-4-vinylpyridinium chloride produced physically strong membranes when equilibrated in l M HCl. The resistivity of the best membrane was 12 ohm-cm, and the transference number for chloride ions was 0.81.

  12. Efficiency of superoxide anions in the inactivation of selected dehydrogenases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodacka, Aleksandra; Serafin, Eligiusz; Puchala, Mieczyslaw

    2010-09-01

    The most ubiquitous of the primary reactive oxygen species, formed in all aerobes, is the superoxide free radical. It is believed that the superoxide anion radical shows low reactivity and in oxidative stress it is regarded mainly as an initiator of more reactive species such as rad OH and ONOO -. In this paper, the effectiveness of inactivation of selected enzymes by radiation-generated superoxide radicals in comparison with the effectiveness of the other products of water radiolysis is examined. We investigate three enzymes: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). We show that the direct contribution of the superoxide anion radical to GAPDH and ADH inactivation is significant. The effectiveness of the superoxide anion in the inactivation of GAPDH and ADG was only 2.4 and 2.8 times smaller, respectively, in comparison with hydroxyl radical. LDH was practically not inactivated by the superoxide anion. Despite the fact that the studied dehydrogenases belong to the same class of enzymes (oxidoreductases), all have a similar molecular weight and are tetramers, their susceptibility to free-radical damage varies. The differences in the radiosensitivity of the enzymes are not determined by the basic structural parameters analyzed. A significant role in inactivation susceptibility is played by the type of amino acid residues and their localization within enzyme molecules.

  13. Septonex-tetraphenylborate screen-printed ion selective electrode for the potentiometric determination of Septonex in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gehad G; El-Shahat, M F; Al-Sabagh, A M; Migahed, M A; Ali, Tamer Awad

    2011-04-07

    A screen-printed electrode (SPE) was fabricated for the determination of 1-(ethoxycarbonyl)pentadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (Septonex) based on the use of Septonex-tetraphenylborate as the electroactive substance, and o-nitrophenyloctylether (o-NPOE) as the plasticizing agent. The electrode passes a near-Nernstian cationic slope of 59.33 ± 0.85 mV from activity between pH values of 2 to 9 with a lower detection limit of 9×10(-7) M and response time of about 5 s and exhibits an adequate shelf-life of 6 months. The method was applied for the determination of Septonex in pharmaceutical preparations. A percentage recovery of 99.88% was obtained with RSD=1.24%. The electrode was successfully applied in the determination of Septonex in laboratory-prepared samples by direct potentiometric, calibration curve and standard addition methods. Potentiometric titration of Septonex with sodium tetraphenylborate and phosphotungstic acid as a titrant was monitored with the modified screen-printed electrode as an end-point indicator electrode. Selectivity coefficients for Septonex relative to a number of potential interfering substances were determined. The sensor was highly selective for Septonex over a large number of compounds. Selectivity coefficient data for some common ions show negligible interference; however, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and iodide ions interfere significantly. The analytical usefulness of the proposed electrode was evaluated by its application in the determination of Septonex in laboratory-prepared pharmaceutical samples with satisfactory results. The results obtained with the fabricated sensor are comparable with those obtained by the British Pharmacopeia method.

  14. Potentiometric membrane sensor for the selective determination of pethidine in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Abdalla; El-Tohamy, Maha; El-Maamly, Magda; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2007-10-01

    The construction and general performance characteristics of a novel potentiometric PVC membrane sensor based on pethidine-phosphomolybdate as electroactive material for the determination of pethidine are described. This sensor exhibits fast, stable and near-Nernstain response 55.24 +/- 0.1, over the concentration range 1.10(-2)-1.10(-5)M for pethidine-phosphomolybdate over pH 2-7. No interferences are caused by many organic, inorganic cations, alkaloids and amino acids. The sensor proved useful for determining pethidine in pure forms, pharmaceutical injections and monitoring the content uniformity assay of ampoules. The designed sensor also show good accuracy for the determination of pethidine in biological fluids.

  15. A novel flow injection potentiometric graphite coated ion-selective electrode for the low level determination of uranyl ion.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Mizani, Farhang; Mousavi, Mir Fazlollah; Alizadeh, Naader; Alizadeh, Kamal; Eshghi, Hossein; Karami, Hassan

    2007-04-18

    Solution studies on the binding properties of uranyl ion toward four different recently synthesized benzo-substituted macrocyclic diamides L1-L4 revealed the occurrence of a 1:1 complexation of the ligands with UO(2)(2+) ion, with a stability order of L2>L1>L4>L3. Consequently, L2 was used as a suitable neutral ionophore for the preparation of novel polymeric membrane (PME) and coated graphite (CGE) UO(2)(2+)-selective electrodes. The electrodes exhibit a Nernstian behavior for UO(2)(2+) ions over wide concentration ranges (1.0 x 10(-6) - 1.0 x 10(-1) M for PME and 1.0 x 10(-7) - 1.0 x 10(-1) M for CGE) and very low limits of detection (8.0 x 10(-7) M for PME and 7.3 x 10(-8) M for CGE). The proposed potentiometric sensors manifest advantages of fast response and, most importantly, good selectivity with respect to many alkali, alkaline earth, transition, and heavy metal ions. The potentiometric responses of the electrodes are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 2.9-3.7. The CGE was used in flow injection potentiometry and resulted in well defined peaks for uranyl ions with stable baseline, excellent reproducibility and very high sampling rate of 170 injections per hour. The proposed FIP system was used for the determination of trace uranyl ions in real and synthetic samples.

  16. Synthetic cation-selective nanotube: Permeant cations chaperoned by anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilder, Tamsyn A.; Gordon, Dan; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2011-01-01

    The ability to design ion-selective, synthetic nanotubes which mimic biological ion channels may have significant implications for the future treatment of bacteria, diseases, and as ultrasensitive biosensors. We present the design of a synthetic nanotube made from carbon atoms that selectively allows monovalent cations to move across and rejects all anions. The cation-selective nanotube mimics some of the salient properties of biological ion channels. Before practical nanodevices are successfully fabricated it is vital that proof-of-concept computational studies are performed. With this in mind we use molecular and stochastic dynamics simulations to characterize the dynamics of ion permeation across a single-walled (10, 10), 36 Å long, carbon nanotube terminated with carboxylic acid with an effective radius of 5.08 Å. Although cations encounter a high energy barrier of 7 kT, its height is drastically reduced by a chloride ion in the nanotube. The presence of a chloride ion near the pore entrance thus enables a cation to enter the pore and, once in the pore, it is chaperoned by the resident counterion across the narrow pore. The moment the chaperoned cation transits the pore, the counterion moves back to the entrance to ferry another ion. The synthetic nanotube has a high sodium conductance of 124 pS and shows linear current-voltage and current-concentration profiles. The cation-anion selectivity ratio ranges from 8 to 25, depending on the ionic concentrations in the reservoirs.

  17. Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan L. Sessler

    2007-09-21

    The major thrust of this project, led by the University of Kansas (Prof. Kristin Bowman-James), entails an exploration of the basic determinants of anion recognition and their application to the design, synthesis, and testing of novel sulfate extractants. A key scientific inspiration for the work comes from the need, codified in simple-to-appreciate terms by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory component of the team (viz. Dr. Bruce Moyer), for chemical entities that can help in the extractive removal of species that have low solubilities in borosilicate glass. Among such species, sulfate anion, has been identified as particularly insidious. Its presence interferes with the vitrification process, thus rendering the remediation of tank waste from, e.g., the Hanford site far more difficult and expensive. The availability of effective extractants, that would allow for the separation of separating sulfate from the major competing anions in the waste, especially nitrate, could allow for pre-vitrification removal of sulfate via liquid-liquid extraction. The efforts at The University of Texas, the subject of this report, have thus concentrated on the development of new sulfate receptors. These systems are designed to increase our basic understanding of anion recognition events and set the stage for the development of viable sulfate anion extractants. In conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) members of the research team, several of these new receptors were studied as putative extractants, with two of the systems being shown to act as promising synergists for anion exchange.

  18. Perchlorate Selectivity of Anion Exchange Resins as Evaluated Using Ion-Selective Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kenji; Mitsuda, Shin'ya; Ohtake, Naomi; Murashige, Natsuki; Ohmuro, Satoshi; Yuchi, Akio

    2017-01-01

    The selectivity coefficients reported for perchlorate of the high selectivity on anion exchange resins (AXRs) have not been consistent with one another. Possible errors by the unique use of four parameters (concentrations of two anions in two phases) were experimentally verified. The concentrations of perchlorate buffered at low levels (10(-6) - 10(-4) mol L(-1)) by two forms of AXRs were successfully determined by potentiometry with a perchlorate ion-selective electrode. This gave reasonable coefficients. The coefficients for perchlorate on several AXRs were independent of the relative exchange (RE), in contrast to the previous reports. On the other hand, the coefficients for fluoride of the low selectivity that were examined for comparison decreased with an increase in RE, and the dependency was more remarkable for the resins of large exchange capacity.

  19. Molecular determinants of anion selectivity in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel pore.

    PubMed Central

    Linsdell, P; Evagelidis, A; Hanrahan, J W

    2000-01-01

    Ionic selectivity in many cation channels is achieved over a short region of the pore known as the selectivity filter, the molecular determinants of which have been identified in Ca(2+), Na(+), and K(+) channels. However, a filter controlling selectivity among different anions has not previously been identified in any Cl(-) channel. In fact, because Cl(-) channels are only weakly selective among small anions, and because their selectivity has proved so resistant to site-directed mutagenesis, the very existence of a discrete anion selectivity filter has been called into question. Here we show that mutation of a putative pore-lining phenylalanine residue, F337, in the sixth membrane-spanning region of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel, dramatically alters the relative permeabilities of different anions in the channel. Specifically, mutations that reduce the size of the amino acid side chain present at this position virtually abolish the relationship between anion permeability and hydration energy, a relationship that characterizes the anion selectivity not only of wild-type CFTR, but of most classes of Cl(-) channels. These results suggest that the pore of CFTR may indeed contain a specialized region, analogous to the selectivity filter of cation channels, at which discrimination between different permeant anions takes place. Because F337 is adjacent to another amino acid residue, T338, which also affects anion selectivity in CFTR, we suggest that selectivity is predominantly determined over a physically discrete region of the pore located near these important residues. PMID:10827976

  20. Ion-selective electrodes for potentiometric determination of ranitidine hydrochloride, applying batch and flow injection analysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Issa, Yousry M; Badawy, Sayed S; Mutair, Ali A

    2005-12-01

    New ranitidine hydrochloride (RaCl)-selective electrodes of the conventional polymer membrane type are described. They are based on incorporation of ranitidine-tetraphenylborate (Ra-TPB) ion-pair or ranitidine-phosphotungstate (RaPT) ion-associate in a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane plasticized with dioctylphthalate (DOP) or dibutylphthalate (DBP). The electrodes are fully characterized in terms of the membrane composition, solution temperature, and pH. The sensors showed fast and stable responses. Nernstian response was found over the concentration range of 2.0 x 10(-5) M to 1.0 x 10(-2) M and 1.0 x 10(-5) M to 1.0 x 10(-2) M in the case of Ra-TPB electrode and over the range of 1.03 x 10(-5) M to 1.00 x 10(-2) M and 1.0 x 10(-5) M to 1.0 x 10(-2) M in the case of Ra-PT electrode for batch and FIA systems, respectively. The electrodes exhibit good selectivity for RaCl with respect to a large number of common ions, sugars, amino acids, and components other than ranitidine hydrochloride of the investigated mixed drugs. The electrodes have been applied to the potentiometric determination of RaCl in pure solutions and in pharmaceutical preparations under batch and flow injection conditions with a lower detection limit of 1.26 x 10(-5) M and 5.62 x 10(-6) M at 25 +/- 1 degrees C. An average recovery of 100.91% and 100.42% with a relative standard deviation of 0.72% and 0.53% has been achieved.

  1. A bambusuril macrocycle that binds anions in water with high affinity and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Yawer, Mirza Arfan; Havel, Vaclav; Sindelar, Vladimir

    2015-01-02

    Synthetic receptors that function in water are important for the qualitative and quantitative detection of anions, which may act as pollutants in the environment or play important roles in biological processes. Neutral receptors are particularly appealing because they are often more selective than positively charged receptors; however, their affinity towards anions in pure water is only in range of 1-10(3)  L mol(-1) . The anion-templated synthesis of a water-soluble bambusuril derivative is shown to be an outstanding receptor for various inorganic anions in pure water, with association constants of up to 10(7)  L mol(-1) . Furthermore, the macrocycle discriminates between anions with unprecedented selectivity (up to 500 000-fold). We anticipate that the combination of remarkable affinity and selectivity of this macrocycle will enable the efficient detection and isolation of diverse anions in aqueous solutions, which is not possible with current supramolecular systems.

  2. Influence of nonionic surfactants on the potentiometric response of hydrogen ion-selective polymeric membrane electrodes.

    PubMed

    Espadas-Torre, C; Bakker, E; Barker, S; Meyerhoff, M E

    1996-05-01

    The influence of poly(ethylene oxide)-based nonionic surfactants (i.e., Triton X-100 and Brij 35) in the sample phase on the response properties of hydrogen ion-selective polymeric membrane electrodes containing mobile (lipophilic amines) or covalently bound (aminated-poly-(vinyl chloride)) hydrogen ion carriers is reported. In the presence of these nonionic surfactants, membrane electrode response toward interfering cation activity (e.g., Na+) in the sample phase is increased substantially and the pH measuring range shortened. The degree of cation interference for pH measurements is shown to correlate with the basicity of the hydrogen ion carrier doped within the membrane phase. The observed deterioration in selectivity arises from the partitioning of the surfactant into the membrane and concomitant extraction of metal cations by the surfactants in the organic phase. The effect of nonionic surfactants on pH electrodes prepared with aminated-PVC membranes is shown to be more complex, with additional large shifts in EMF values apparently arising from multidentate interactions between the surfactant molecules and the polymeric amine in the membrane, leading to a change in the apparent pKa values for the amine sites. The effects induced by nonionic surfactants on the EMF response function of hydrogen ion-selective polymeric membrane electrodes are modeled, and experimental results are shown to correlate well with theoretical predictions.

  3. Selective recognition of sulfate anions by a cyclopeptide-derived receptor in aqueous phosphate buffer.

    PubMed

    Schaly, Astrid; Belda, Raquel; García-España, Enrique; Kubik, Stefan

    2013-12-20

    A cyclopeptide-based anion receptor containing alternating 6-aminopicolinic acid and substituted (4R)-4-aminoproline subunits with appended β-alanine residues binds sulfate anions in water. Importantly, appreciable sulfate binding is even observed in phosphate buffer, hence in the presence of anions of similar structure but with a different degree of protonation. The cause for the high selectivity of this receptor is related to the mode of action of the sulfate-binding protein.

  4. Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce a.; Bostick, Debra A.; Fowler, Christopher J.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Ruas, Alexandre; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Llinares, Jose M.; Hossain, Alamgir; Kang, S. O.; Bowman-James, Kristin; Shriver, James A.; Marquez, Manuel; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2005-09-22

    The major thrust of this project led by the University of Kansas (Prof. Kristin Bowman-Jones) entails the exploration of the principles of recognition and separation of sulfate by the design, synthesis, and testing of novel sulfate extractants. A key science need for the cleanup of tank wastes at Hanford has been identified in developing methods to separate those bulk waste components that have low solubilities in borosilicate glass. Sulfate has been identified as a particularly difficult and expensive problem in that its concentration in the waste is relatively high, its solubility in glass is especially low, and it interferes with the performance of both vitrification equipment and the glass waste form. The new extractants will be synthesized by the University of Kansas and the University of Texas, Austin. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is subjecting the new extractants to experiments that will determine their properties and effectiveness in separating sulfate from the major competing anions in the waste, especially nitrate. Such experiments will entail primarily liquid-liquid extraction. Current efforts focus on exciting new systems in which the anion receptors act as synergists for anion exchange.

  5. Highly selective electrode for potentiometric analysis of methadone in biological fluids and pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Ardeshiri, Moslem; Jalali, Fahimeh

    2016-06-01

    In order to develop a fast and simple procedure for methadone analysis in biological fluids, a graphite paste electrode (GPE) was modified with the ion-pair of methadone-phosphotungstic acid, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Optimized composition of the electrode with respect to graphite powder:paraffin oil:MWCNTs:ion pair, was 58:30:8:4 (w/w%). The electrode showed a near-Nernstian slope of 58.9 ± 0.3 mV/decade for methadone in a wide linear range of 1.0 × 10(-8)-4.6 × 10(-3)M, with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10(-8)M. The electrode response was independent of pH in the range of 5-11, with a fast response time (~4s) at 25 °C. The sensor showed high selectivity and was successfully applied to the determination of sub-micromolar concentrations of methadone in human blood serum and urine samples, with recoveries in the range of 95-99.8%. The average recovery of methadone from tablets (5 mg/tablet) by using the proposed method was 98%. The life time of the modified electrode was more than 5 months, due to the characteristic of GPE which can be cut off and fresh electrode surface be available. A titration procedure was performed for methadone analysis by using phosphotungstic acid, as titrating agent, which showed an accurate end point and 1:1 stoichiometry for the ion-pair formed (methadone:phosphotungstic acid). The simple and rapid procedure as well as excellent detection limit and selectivity are some of the advantages of the proposed sensor for methadone.

  6. New Gel-Like Polymers as Selective Weak-Base Anion Exchangers

    PubMed Central

    Gierczyk, Błażej; Cegłowski, Michał; Zalas, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    A group of new anion exchangers, based on polyamine podands and of excellent ion-binding capacity, were synthesized. The materials were obtained in reactions between various poly(ethyleneamines) with glycidyl derivatives of cyclotetrasiloxane. The final polymeric, strongly cross-linked materials form gel-like solids. Their structures and interactions with anions adsorbed were studied by spectroscopic methods (CP-MAS NMR, FR-IR, UV-Vis). The sorption isotherms and kinetic parameters were determined for 29 anions. Materials studied show high ion capacity and selectivity towards some important anions, e.g., selenate(VI) or perrhenate. PMID:25946220

  7. Schiff's Bases and Crown Ethers as Supramolecular Sensing Materials in the Construction of Potentiometric Membrane Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Faridbod, Farnoush; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Norouzi, Parviz; Riahi, Siavash

    2008-01-01

    Ionophore incorporated PVC membrane sensors are well-established analytical tools routinely used for the selective and direct measurement of a wide variety of different ions in complex biological and environmental samples. Potentiometric sensors have some outstanding advantages including simple design and operation, wide linear dynamic range, relatively fast response and rational selectivity. The vital component of such plasticized PVC members is the ionophore involved, defining the selectivity of the electrodes' complex formation. Molecular recognition causes the formation of many different supramolecules. Different types of supramolecules, like calixarenes, cyclodextrins and podands, have been used as a sensing material in the construction of ion selective sensors. Schiff's bases and crown ethers, which feature prominently in supramolecular chemistry, can be used as sensing materials in the construction of potentiometric ion selective electrodes. Up to now, more than 200 potentiometric membrane sensors for cations and anions based on Schiff's bases and crown ethers have been reported. In this review cation binding and anion complexes will be described. Liquid membrane sensors based on Schiff's bases and crown ethers will then be discussed. PMID:27879786

  8. A potentiometric rhodamine-B based membrane sensor for the selective determination of chromium ions in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Saad S M; El-Shahawi, M S; Othman, A M; Mosaad, M A

    2005-06-01

    The construction and performance characteristics of a novel chromate ion-selective membrane sensor are described and used for determining chromium(III) and chromium(VI) ions. The sensor is based on the use of a rhodamine-B chromate ion-associate complex as an electroactive material in a poly(vinyl chloride) membrane plasticized with o-nitrophenyloctyl ether as a solvent mediator. In a phosphate buffer solution of pH 6 - 7, the sensor displays a stable, reproducible and linear potential response over the concentration range of 1 x 10(-1) - 5 x 10(-6) mol l(-1) with an anionic Nernstian slope of 30.8 +/- 0.5 mV decade(-1) and a detection limit of 1 x 10(-6) mol l(-1) Cr(VI). High selectivity for Cr(VI) is offered over many common anions (e.g., I-, Br-, Cl-, IO4-, CN-, acetate, oxalate, citrate, sulfate, phosphate, thiosulfate, selenite, nitrate) and cations (e.g., Ag+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Fe2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Al3+, Cr3+). The sensor is used for determining Cr(VI) and/or Cr(III) ions in separate or mixed solutions after the oxidation of Cr(III) into Cr(VI) with H2O2. As low as 0.2 microg ml(-1) of chromium is determined with a precision of +/-1.2%. The chromium contents of some wastewater samples were accurately assessed, and the results agreed fairly well with data obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry.

  9. Mimicking the cell membrane: bio-inspired simultaneous functions with monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Huimin; Tang, Kaini; Jin, Yali; Pan, Jiefeng; der Bruggen, Bart Van; Shen, Jiangnan; Gao, Congjie

    2016-11-17

    A new bio-inspired method was applied in this study to simultaneously improve the monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membranes (AEMs). Three-layer architecture was developed by deposition of polydopamine (PDA) and electro-deposition of N-O-sulfonic acid benzyl chitosan (NSBC). The innermost and outermost layers were PDA with different deposition time. The middle layer was prepared by NSBC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that PDA and NSBC were successfully modified on the surfaces of AEMs. The contact angle of the membranes indicated an improved hydrophilicity of the modified membranes. A series of electrodialysis experiments in which Cl(-)/SO4(2-) separation was studied, demonstrating the monovalent anion selectivity of the samples. The Cl(-)/SO4(2-) permselectivity of the modified membranes can reach up to 2.20, higher than that of the commercial membrane (only 0.78) during 90 minutes in electrodialysis (ED). The increase value of the resistance of the membranes was also measured to evaluate the antifouling properties. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used as the fouling material in the ED process and the membrane area resistance of modified membrane increase value of was only 0.08 Ωcm(2) 30 minutes later.

  10. Mimicking the cell membrane: bio-inspired simultaneous functions with monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membrane

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Huimin; Tang, Kaini; Jin, Yali; Pan, Jiefeng; der Bruggen, Bart Van; Shen, Jiangnan; Gao, Congjie

    2016-01-01

    A new bio-inspired method was applied in this study to simultaneously improve the monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membranes (AEMs). Three-layer architecture was developed by deposition of polydopamine (PDA) and electro-deposition of N-O-sulfonic acid benzyl chitosan (NSBC). The innermost and outermost layers were PDA with different deposition time. The middle layer was prepared by NSBC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that PDA and NSBC were successfully modified on the surfaces of AEMs. The contact angle of the membranes indicated an improved hydrophilicity of the modified membranes. A series of electrodialysis experiments in which Cl−/SO42− separation was studied, demonstrating the monovalent anion selectivity of the samples. The Cl−/SO42− permselectivity of the modified membranes can reach up to 2.20, higher than that of the commercial membrane (only 0.78) during 90 minutes in electrodialysis (ED). The increase value of the resistance of the membranes was also measured to evaluate the antifouling properties. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used as the fouling material in the ED process and the membrane area resistance of modified membrane increase value of was only 0.08 Ωcm2 30 minutes later. PMID:27853255

  11. Mimicking the cell membrane: bio-inspired simultaneous functions with monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Huimin; Tang, Kaini; Jin, Yali; Pan, Jiefeng; der Bruggen, Bart Van; Shen, Jiangnan; Gao, Congjie

    2016-11-01

    A new bio-inspired method was applied in this study to simultaneously improve the monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membranes (AEMs). Three-layer architecture was developed by deposition of polydopamine (PDA) and electro-deposition of N-O-sulfonic acid benzyl chitosan (NSBC). The innermost and outermost layers were PDA with different deposition time. The middle layer was prepared by NSBC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that PDA and NSBC were successfully modified on the surfaces of AEMs. The contact angle of the membranes indicated an improved hydrophilicity of the modified membranes. A series of electrodialysis experiments in which Cl‑/SO42‑ separation was studied, demonstrating the monovalent anion selectivity of the samples. The Cl‑/SO42‑ permselectivity of the modified membranes can reach up to 2.20, higher than that of the commercial membrane (only 0.78) during 90 minutes in electrodialysis (ED). The increase value of the resistance of the membranes was also measured to evaluate the antifouling properties. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used as the fouling material in the ED process and the membrane area resistance of modified membrane increase value of was only 0.08 Ωcm2 30 minutes later.

  12. Anion effect on selectivity in solvent extraction of alkali metal salts by crown ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Hankins, M.G.; Bartsch, R.A.; Olsher, U.

    1995-11-01

    The influence of the co-extracted anion upon competitive solvent extraction of five alkali metal cations from aqueous solutions into organic diluents by the cis-syn-cis and cis-anti-cis isomers of dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 has been assessed. The anions are bromide, chloride, iodide, nitrate, perchlorate, and thiocyanate and the organic diluents are chloroform and 1-octanol. The extraction efficiency is markedly influenced by the identity of the anion and exhibits some correlation with the inverse of the hydration enthalpy of the anion. Although potassium is the best exctracted cation with all anions, the selectivities for potassium over lithium, sodium, rubidium, and cesium are strongly affected by anion variation in chloroform, but not in 1-octanol. The selectivity ordering in chloroform does not correlate with the hydration enthalpy or softness parameter for the anion. Instead it appears to result from variation of the dimensional structure and the availability of specific binding sites in the anion. 21 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  13. Selected boron, aluminum, and gallium trihalide and trihydride anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzeski, Jakub; Czapla, Marcin; Skurski, Piotr; Simons, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Ab initio methods with flexible orbital basis sets are used to examine the electron binding strengths of tri-fluorides, tri-chlorides, and tri-hydrides of B, Al, and Ga. The adiabatic electron affinities are found to increase with increasing atomic number of the central atom. For any given central atom M (M = B, Al, Ga), the adiabatic and vertical electronic stability for MCl3 is larger than that of the corresponding MF3. The tri-hydrides have quite different electron binding strengths than the corresponding tri-halides. BH3 has a very small EA (ca. 0.02 eV) and its anion is planar whereas the tri-halide anions and AlH3- and GaH3- are non-planar. AlH3 and GaH3 have considerably smaller EAs (ca. 0.3 eV) than the Al and Ga tri-halides (0.9-1.8 eV). In all, these anions provide species whose electron binding strengths span a considerable range (0.3-1.8 eV).

  14. High CO2 solubility, permeability and selectivity in ionic liquids with the tetracyanoborate anion

    SciTech Connect

    Mahurin, SM; Hillesheim, PC; Yeary, JS; Jiang, DE; Dai, S

    2012-01-01

    Five different ionic liquids containing the tetracyanoborate anion were synthesized and evaluated for CO2 separation performance. Measured CO2 solubility values were exceptionally high compared to analogous ionic liquids with different anions and ranged from 0.128 mol L-1 atm(-1) to 0.148 mol L-1 atm(-1). In addition, CO2 permeability and CO2/N-2 selectivity values were measured using a supported ionic liquid membrane architecture and the separations performance of the ionic liquid membranes exceeded the Robeson upper bound. These results establish the distinct potential of ionic liquids with the tetracyanoborate, [B(CN)(4)], anion for the separation of CO2.

  15. High CO2 Solubility, Permeability and Selectivity in Ionic Liquids with the Tetracyanoborate Anion

    SciTech Connect

    Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Hillesheim, Patrick C; Yeary, Joshua S; Jiang, Deen; Dai, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Five different ionic liquids containing the tetracyanoborate anion were synthesized and evaluated for CO2 separation performance. Measured CO2 solubility values were exceptionally high compared to analogous ionic liquids with different anions and ranged from 0.128 mol L-1 atm-1 to 0.148 mol L-1 atm-1. In addition, CO2 permeability and CO2/N2 selectivity values were measured using a supported ionic liquid membrane architecture and the separations performance of the ionic liquid membranes exceeded the Robeson upper bound. These results establish the distinct potential of the tetracyanoborate, [B(CN)4], anion for the separation of CO2.

  16. Salmonella typhimurium contains an anion-selective outer membrane porin induced by phosphate starvation.

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, K; Benz, R; Brass, J; Boos, W

    1985-01-01

    A mutant of Salmonella typhimurium was selected that is constitutive for the pho regulon. It exhibited constitutive glycerol-3-phosphate transport activity and synthesized a new outer membrane porin. Upon measurement of porin activity in black lipid films, it exhibited anion selectivity. It therefore appears analogous to the Escherichia coli PhoE porin. Images PMID:2981826

  17. Investigations of new potentiometric gas sensing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, Hyoung-Sik

    1992-01-01

    Research concerning the development of new and/or improved potentiometric gas sensing systems is described. Studies relating to the development of reversible potentiometric oxygen sensors based on polymeric and metallic film electrodes are presented. In addition, the design and analytical utility of a novel differential ion-selective membrane electrode-based potentiometric gas sensing cell with enhanced sensitivity is documented. The performance of a reversible potentiometric oxygen gas sensor based on a polymeric membrane doped with cobalt-complexes is described. For such sensors, the potentiometric oxygen response is attributed to a mixed potential originating from the underlying platinum electrode surface as well as the Co(II)-tetren doped film. This leads to a short term oxygen response of nearly the theoretical slope value of 118 mV/decade, below 10% O[sub 2]. In the presence of the Co(II)-tetren/PVC film, an analytically useful response is observed for approx. 6-8 days. Thin films of metallic copper, electrochemically deposited on platinum and sputtered on a single crystal silicon wafer, are also examined for reversible potentiometric oxygen sensing. The long-term reversibility and potentiometric stability of such copper film-based sensors is enhanced (up to one month) by preventing the formation of cuprous oxide on the surfaces via the application of an external non-polarizing cathodic current through the working electrode, or by specifically using sputtered copper films that have [100] crystal structures as determined by X-ray diffraction. Finally, the development and application of a differential ion-selective membrane electrode-based potentiometric gas sensing cell is described. The prospects of fabricating differential detection arrangements for CO[sub 2], NO[sub 2], and SO[sub 2], NH[sub 3] are also discussed.

  18. Schiff's Bases and Crown Ethers as Supramolecular Sensing Materials in the Construction of Potentiometric Membrane Sensors.

    PubMed

    Faridbod, Farnoush; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Norouzi, Parviz; Riahi, Siavash

    2008-03-11

    Ionophore incorporated PVC membrane sensors are well-established analyticaltools routinely used for the selective and direct measurement of a wide variety of differentions in complex biological and environmental samples. Potentiometric sensors have someoutstanding advantages including simple design and operation, wide linear dynamic range,relatively fast response and rational selectivity. The vital component of such plasticizedPVC members is the ionophore involved, defining the selectivity of the electrodes' complexformation. Molecular recognition causes the formation of many different supramolecules.Different types of supramolecules, like calixarenes, cyclodextrins and podands, have beenused as a sensing material in the construction of ion selective sensors. Schiff's bases andcrown ethers, which feature prominently in supramolecular chemistry, can be used assensing materials in the construction of potentiometric ion selective electrodes. Up to now,more than 200 potentiometric membrane sensors for cations and anions based on Schiff's bases and crown ethers have been reported. In this review cation binding and anioncomplexes will be described. Liquid membrane sensors based on Schiff's bases and crownethers will then be discussed.

  19. Bifunctional anion-exchange resins with improved selectivity and exchange kinetics

    DOEpatents

    Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Brown, Gilbert M.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed herein are a class of anion exchange resins containing two different exchange sites with improved selectivity and sorptive capability for chemical species in solution, such as heptavalent technetium (as pertechnetate anion, TcO.sub.4.sup.-). The resins are prepared by first reacting haloalkylated crosslinked copolymer beads with a large tertiary amine in a solvent in which the resin beads can swell, followed by reaction with a second, smaller, tertiary amine to more fully complete the functionalization of the resin. The resins have enhanced selectivity, capacity, and exchange kinetics.

  20. Bifunctional anion-exchange resins with improved selectivity and exchange kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandratos, S.D.; Brown, G.M.; Bonnesen, P.V.; Moyer, B.A.

    2000-05-09

    Disclosed herein are a class of anion exchange resins containing two different exchange sites with improved selectivity and sorptive capability for chemical species in solution, such as heptavalent technetium as pertechnetate anion, TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}. The resins are prepared by first reacting haloalkylated crosslinked copolymer beads with a large tertiary amine in a solvent in which the resin beads can swell, followed by reaction with a second, smaller, tertiary amine to more fully complete the functionalization of the resin. The resins have enhanced selectivity, capacity, and exchange kinetics.

  1. Construction and performance characterization of screen printed and carbon paste ion selective electrodes for potentiometric determination of naphazoline hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Frag, Eman Y Z; Mohamed, Gehad G; El-Dien, F A Nour; Mohamed, Marwa E

    2011-01-21

    This paper describes the development of screen-printed (SPE) and carbon paste (CPE) sensors for the rapid and sensitive quantification of naphazoline hydrochloride (NPZ) in pharmaceutical formulations. This work compares the electroactivity of conventional carbon paste and screen-printed carbon paste electrodes towards potentiometric titration of NPZ. The repeatability and accuracy of measurements performed in the analysis of these pharmaceutical matrices using new screen printed sensors were evaluated. The influence of the electrode composition, conditioning time of the electrode and pH of the test solution, on the electrode performance were investigated. The drug electrode showed Nernstain responses in the concentration range from 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-2) mol L(-1) with slopes of 57.5 ± 1.3 and 55.9 ± 1.6 mV per decade for SPE and CPE, respectively, and was found to be very precise and usable within the pH range 3-8. These sensors exhibited a fast response time (about 3 s for both SPE and CPE, respectively), a low detection limit (3.5 × 10(-6) and 1.5 × 10(-6) M for SPE and CPE, respectively), a long lifetime (3 and 2 months for SPE and CPE, respectively) and good stability. The selectivity of the electrode toward a large number of inorganic cations, sugars and amino acids was tested. It was applied to potentiometric determination of NPZ in pure state and pharmaceutical preparation under batch conditions. The percentage recovery values for the assay of NPZ in tablets (relative standard deviations ≤0.3% for n = 4) were compared well with those obtained by the official method.

  2. Incorporating β-cyclodextrin with ZnO nanorods: a potentiometric strategy for selectivity and detection of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Elhag, Sami; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2014-01-17

    We describe a chemical sensor based on a simple synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods (ZNRs) for the detection of dopamine molecules by a potentiometric approach. The polar nature of dopamine leads to a change of surface charges on the ZNR surface via metal ligand bond formation which results in a measurable electrical signal. ZNRs were grown on a gold-coated glass substrate by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method. Polymeric membranes incorporating β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and potassium tetrakis (4-chlorophenyl) borate was immobilized on the ZNR surface. The fabricated electrodes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The grown ZNRs were well aligned and exhibited good crystal quality. The present sensor system displays a stable potential response for the detection of dopamine in 10(-2) mol·L(-1) acetic acid/sodium acetate buffer solution at pH 5.45 within a wide concentration range of 1 × 10(-6) M(-1) × 10(-1) M, with sensitivity of 49 mV/decade. The electrode shows a good response time (less than 10 s) and excellent repeatability. This finding can contribute to routine analysis in laboratories studying the neuropharmacology of catecholamines. Moreover, the metal-ligand bonds can be further exploited to detect DA receptors, and for bio-imaging applications.

  3. Selective total encapsulation of the sulfate anion by neutral nano-jars.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Isurika R; Surmann, Stuart A; Urech, Alexander A; Poulsen, Alexander M; Mezei, Gellert

    2012-07-11

    Nano-sized toroidal copper(II)-hydroxide/pyrazolate assemblies, lined by H-bond donors on the inside and hydrophobic on the outside, selectively extract sulfate from mixtures with nitrate or perchlorate. Tetrabutylammonium "lids" seal the "nano-jars" and render the encapsulated sulfate anion completely buried and inaccessible, so that it is not precipitated by Ba(2+) ions.

  4. A new highly selective fluorescent turn-on chemosensor for cyanide anion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yabin; Shi, Wei; Hui, Yonghai; Sun, Xinhua; Xu, Linxian; Feng, Lei; Xie, Zhengfeng

    2015-05-01

    A new simple molecule, 2-((2-phenyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methylene)malononitrile (M1), was synthesized successfully by the Knoevenagel condensation reaction between 2-phenyl-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxaldehyde and malononitrile. The receptor M1 is highly sensitive and selective to cyanide anion due to the nucleophilic addition of cyanide anion with M1. Distinct changes on UV-vis and fluorescence spectra can be detected with the addition of cyanide anion to the DMSO solution of M1. Optical properties of M1 were scarcely affected by the addition of other common background anions (F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), SCN(-), OH(-), CO4(2-), H2PO4(-), SO4(2-), HSO4(-), AcO(-), and NO3(-)) under the same condition. The detection limit of CN(-) reaches ~1.43 μM by M1 and the presence of background anions brought very slight interference for the detection of CN(-).

  5. Conformation-Selective Resonant Photoelectron Spectroscopy via Dipole-Bound States of Cold Anions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dao-Ling; Liu, Hong-Tao; Ning, Chuan-Gang; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2015-06-18

    Molecular conformation is important in chemistry and biochemistry. Conformers connected by low energy barriers can only be observed at low temperatures and are difficult to be separated. Here we report a new method to obtain conformation-selective spectroscopic information about dipolar molecular radicals via dipole-bound excited states of the corresponding anions cooled in a cryogenic ion trap. We observed two conformers of cold 3-hydroxyphenoxide anions [m-HO(C6H4)O(-)] in high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy and measured different electron affinities, 18,850(8) and 18,917(5) cm(-1), for the syn and anti 3-hydroxyphenoxy radicals, respectively. We also observed dipole-bound excited states for m-HO(C6H4)O(-) with different binding energies for the two conformers due to the different dipole moments of the corresponding 3-hydroxyphenoxy radicals. Excitations to selected vibrational levels of the dipole-bound states result in conformation-selective photoelectron spectra. This method should be applicable to conformation-selective spectroscopic studies of any anions with dipolar neutral cores.

  6. Simultaneous Deposition of Mass Selected Anions and Cations: Improvements in Ion Delivery for Matrix Isolation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, Michael E.; Moore, David T.

    2016-06-01

    A focus of the research in our group has been to develop improved methods for ion delivery in matrix isolation experiments. We have previously reported a method to co-deposit low energy, mass selected metal anions and a rare gas counter cation.a A modification allowing for mass selection of both the anion and cation will be discussed. Results from preliminary experiments of mass selected, low energy Cu- and SF5+ will also be highlighted. To our knowledge, these experiments are the first time two mass selected beams of ions have been simultaneously deposited into a cryogenic matrix. Co-deposition of the ions into an argon matrix doped with 0.02% CO at 20K resulted in the observation of bands assigned to SF5+ and anionic copper carbonyl complexes, Cu(CO)n- (n=1-3). Upon irradiation of the matrix with a narrow band, blue LED, the copper carbonyl complexes are converted to the neutral analogues, while the fate of the photodetached electrons can be directly tracked, as a decrease of the SF5+ band and a growth of the neutral SF5 band are observed. aLudwig, R. M.; Moore, D. T.; J. Chem. Phys. 139, 244202 (2013).

  7. Selectivity control in synergistic liquid-liquid anion exchange of univalent anions via structure-specific cooperativity between quaternary ammonium cations and anion receptors.

    PubMed

    Borman, Christopher J; Bonnesen, Peter V; Moyer, Bruce A

    2012-10-02

    Two anion receptors enhance liquid-liquid anion exchange when added to quaternary alkylammonium chloride anion exchangers, but with a striking dependence on the structure of the alkylammonium cation that suggests a supramolecular cooperative effect. Two anion receptors were investigated, meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole (C4P) and the bisthiourea tweezer 1,1'-(propane-1,3-diyl)bis(3-(4-sec-butylphenyl)thiourea (BTU). Whereas synergism is comparatively weak when either methyltri(C(8,10))alkylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) or tetraheptylammonium chloride is used with the BTU receptor, synergism between C4P and Aliquat 336 is so pronounced that anion exchange prefers chloride over more extractable nitrate and trifluoroacetate, effectively overcoming the ubiquitous Hofmeister bias. A thermochemical analysis of synergistic anion exchange has been provided for the first time, resulting in the estimation of binding constants for C4P with the ion pairs of A336(+) with Cl(-), Br(-), OAc(F3)(-), NO(3)(-), and I(-).

  8. Interaction of vitamin B1 with bovine serum albumin investigation using vitamin B1-selective electrode: potentiometric and molecular modeling study.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Khorsandi, Khatereh

    2016-09-01

    Vitamin B1 or thiamin is one of the B vitamins. All B vitamins help the body to convert food (carbohydrates) into fuel (glucose), which produces energy. The B vitamins are necessary for healthy skin, eyes, hair, and liver. It also could help the nervous system function properly, and is necessary for brain functions. Drug interactions with protein can affect the distribution of the drug and eliminate the drug in living systems. In this study, the binding of thiamine hydrochloride (vitamin B1) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was evaluated using a new proposed vitamin B1 (thiamine)-selective membrane electrode under various experimental conditions, such as pH, ionic strength, and protein concentration; in addition molecular modeling was applied as well. The binding isotherms plotted based on potentiometric data and analyzed using the Wyman binding potential concept. The apparent binding constant was determined and used for the calculation of intrinsic Gibbs free energy of binding. According to the electrochemical and molecular docking results, it can be concluded that the hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen binding are major interactions between BSA and vitamin B1.

  9. The Underpotential Deposition of Copper on Pt(311): Site Selective Deposition and Anion Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-14

    AD-A278 022 OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH CONTRACT N00014-84-k-0656/PP0002 R & T Code 4133034 Technical Report #36 The Underpotential Deposition of Copper...Include Security Clauffication) The Underpotential Deposition of Copper on Pt(311): Site Selective Deposition and Anion Effects 𔃼 OERSONAL AUTHOR(S...Alacant, Spain ABSTRACT The underpotential deposition of copper on Pt(31 1)=Pt[2(111 )x(100)] stepped surfaces has been studied and the results are compared

  10. Anion selective optodes: development of a fluorescent fiber optic sensor for the determination of nitrite activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Susan L. R.; Shortreed, Michael R.; Kopelman, Raoul

    1996-12-01

    The response of state of the art anion optodes often cannot be described in a thermodynamically exact manner because the ionic strength within the membrane phase of such optodes changes during the course of a titration. Incorporating lipophilic charge sites in the anion optode membranes provides a constant ionic strength in the membrane phase, the ability to measure anion activities, and a more thermodynamically describable system. This configuration has been used to create a micrometer-sized nitrite-selective optode. Recent elucidation of the many biological roles of nitric oxide (NO) has spurred interest in sensitive and selective detection of this molecule. In biological systems NO is converted to NO2- within 30 sec and the biological concentration of NO2- is normally on the micromolar level. The optode we have prepared contains a selective vitamin B12 derivative ionophore, a fluorescent chromoionophore (ETH 2439 or ETH 5350), and lipophilic charge sites. These components are entrapped in a highly plasticized PVC matrix which is placed on the distal end of the fiber. Sensor characteristics such as limit of detection and reversibility are presented.

  11. Selection and evaluation of adsorbents for the removal of anionic surfactants from laundry rinsing water.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Natasja; van der Ham, Louis G J; Euverink, Gert-Jan W; de Haan, André B

    2007-10-01

    Low-cost adsorbents were tested to remove anionic surfactants from laundry rinsing water to allow re-use of water. Adsorbents were selected corresponding to the different surfactant adsorption mechanisms. Equilibrium adsorption studies of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) show that ionic interaction results in a high maximum adsorption capacity on positively charged adsorbents of 0.6-1.7 gLAS/g. Non-ionic interactions, such as hydrophobic interactions of LAS with non-ionic resins or activated carbons, result in a lower adsorption capacity of 0.02-0.6 gLAS/g. Negatively charged materials, such as cation exchange resins or bentonite clay, have negligible adsorption capacities for LAS. Similar results are obtained for alpha olefin sulfonate (AOS). Cost comparison of different adsorbents shows that an inorganic anion exchange material (layered double hydroxide) and activated carbons are the most cost-effective materials in terms of the amount of surfactant adsorbed per dollar worth of adsorbent.

  12. Further analysis of counterion permeation through anion-selective glycine receptor channels.

    PubMed

    Barry, Peter H; Sugiharto, Silas; Lewis, Trevor M; Moorhouse, Andrew J

    2010-01-01

    The functional role of ion channels, which allow counterion permeation, depends critically on their relative anion-cation relative selectivity. From whole-cell patch clamp reversal potential measurements under dilution potential conditions, we have already shown that anion-cation permeabilities of anion-selective wild-type (WT) and mutant (with larger pore diameter) glycine receptor (GlyR) channels in the presence of Li(+), Na(+) and Cs(+) counterions, were inversely correlated with the equivalent hydration diameter of the counterion, with chloride-cation permeability increasing as counterion equivalent hydration diameter increased with respect to the channel minimum pore diameter. Corrected for liquid junction potentials (LJPs; using ion activities), the previous chloride-cation permeabilities for the alkali cations were 23.4 (Li(+)), 10.9 (Na(+)) and 5.0 (Cs(+)) for the smaller WT channel. Further analysis to incorporate an initial offset potential correction, to fully allow for slight differences between internal cell composition and external control salt solution, changed the above permeability ratios to 30.6 (Li(+)), 11.8 (Na(+)) and 5.0 (Cs(+)), adding enhanced support for the inverse correlation between anion-to-counterion permeability ratio and equivalent hydrated counterion diameter relative to channel pore diameter (erroneously ignoring LJPs reduces each permeability ratio to about 4). Also, new direct measurements of LJPs (for NaCl and LiCl salt dilutions) using a 3M KCl-agar reference salt bridge (with freshly-cut end for each solution composition change) have shown excellent agreement with calculated LJPs (using ion activities), validating calculated LJP values. We continue to suggest that counterion cations permeate with chloride ions as neutral pairs.

  13. Permian potentiometric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Devary, J.L.

    1983-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was requested to analyze potentiometric data from the Wolfcamp Formation of the Permian System to evaluate the recommendations by the University of Texas/Bureau of Economic Geology (UT/BEG) that additional geohydrologic boreholes be drilled into the Wolfcamp. The UT/BEG recommended that two stratigraphic and two geohydrologic borings be drilled into the Permian System during FY83 and that several shallow hydrologic tests be made in the Dockum Formation. A geostatistical technique known as kriging was applied to objectively evaluate these geohydrologic borehole recommendations. The Deaf Smith County location appears to be an excellent choice for a borehole. No high quality potentiometric data are available from Deaf Smith County and a borehole location immediately upgradient from the candidate repository site is needed. Adding this borehole location to the potentiometric data base will significantly reduce field data uncertainty near the location being studied. The Swisher County location does not appear to be the best choice. High quality data values H2206 and H2360 are located immediately upgradient from the proposed repository site. The best placement of additional geohydrological boreholes in the Wolfcamp Formation depends strongly upon the proposed repository location. The variability of the potentiometric data causes estimation errors to rapidly increase away from locations of field measurements. Suggested locations for additional boreholes for the Deaf Smith investigations are in northwest Randall or central Potter Counties. Ideal borehole locations for the Swisher county studies appear to be in southeast Randall and Armstrong Counties.

  14. Biomimetic ion nanochannels as a highly selective sequential sensor for zinc ions followed by phosphate anions.

    PubMed

    Han, Cuiping; Su, Haiyan; Sun, Zhongyue; Wen, Long; Tian, Demei; Xu, Kai; Hu, Junfeng; Wang, Aming; Li, Haibing; Jiang, Lei

    2013-07-08

    A novel biomimetic ion-responsive multi-nanochannel system is constructed by covalently immobilizing a metal-chelating ligand, 2,2'-dipicolylamine (DPA), in polyporous nanochannels prepared in a polymeric membrane. The DPA-modified multi-nanochannels show specific recognition of zinc ions over other common metal ions, and the zinc-ion-chelated nanochannels can be used as secondary sensors for HPO4(2-) anions. The immobilized DPA molecules act as specific-receptor binding sites for zinc ions, which leads to the highly selective zinc-ion response through monitoring of ionic current signatures. The chelated zinc ions can be used as secondary recognition elements for the capture of HPO4(2-) anions, thereby fabricating a sensing nanodevice for HPO4(2-) anions. The success of the DPA immobilization and ion-responsive events is confirmed by measurement of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle (CA), and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the systems. The proposed nanochannel sensing devices display remarkable specificity, high sensitivity, and wide dynamic range. In addition, control experiments performed in complex matrices suggest that this sensing system has great potential applications in chemical sensing, biotechnology, and many other fields.

  15. Plasticizer-free polymer containing a covalently immobilized Ca2+-selective ionophore for potentiometric and optical sensors.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yu; Peper, Shane; Radu, Aleksandar; Ceresa, Alan; Bakker, Eric

    2003-07-01

    A derivative of a known Ca2+-selective ionophore, ETH 129, was synthesized to contain a polymerizable acrylic moiety (AU-1) and covalently grafted into a methyl methacrylate-co-decyl methacrylate polymer matrix. The polymer containing AU-1 was prepared via a simple one-step homogeneous polymerization method. It exhibited mechanical properties suitable for the fabrication of plasticizer-free ion-selective membrane electrodes and bulk optode films by solvent-casting and spin-coating techniques, respectively. The segmented sandwich membrane technique was utilized to assess the binding constant of free and covalently bound ionophores to calcium and to study their diffusion coefficients in the membrane phase. Diffusion was greatly diminished for the bound ionophore. This was confirmed in ion-selective electrode membranes containing no calcium ions in the inner solution, which should normally show apparent super-Nernstian response slopes in dilute calcium solutions. The response slope was Nernstian down to submicromolar concentration levels, indicating slow mass transport of calcium in the membrane. Optical-sensing films with the new copolymer matrix, unblended and blended with PVC-DOS, also confirmed that covalently bound ionophores are fully functional for maintaining selective ion extraction and binding properties of the sensing membrane.

  16. Anion exchange selectivity of surfactant modified clinoptilolite-rich tuff for environmental remediation.

    PubMed

    de Gennaro, Bruno; Catalanotti, Lilia; Bowman, Robert S; Mercurio, Mariano

    2014-09-15

    Lately, the functionalization of industrial minerals with high technological properties, such as natural zeolites, is shaping as a promising approach in environmental sphere. In fact, under the specific conditions, the surface functionalization via adsorption of cationic surfactants reverses the surface charge of the mineral, enabling zeolites to simultaneously interact either with organic contaminants or inorganic anions. This aspect allows zeolites to be used in the remediation of contaminated fluids. The present research shed new light on some still not fully understood aspects concerning exchange kinetics such as anion-exchange mechanisms and selectivity of surface modified minerals. For this purpose the mineralogical characterization and the surface properties evaluation (X Ray Powder Diffraction, chemical analysis, thermal analysis, ECEC and AEC) of a clinoptilolite-rich tuff were performed, and the anion exchange isotherms of the sample, modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride or bromide (HDTMA-Cl/-Br), were determined. Ion-exchange equilibrium data of uni-uni valent reaction were obtained by solutions containing Br(-), Cl(-), NO3(-) or ClO4(-). Liquid phase was analysed via high performance liquid chromatography. Thermodynamic quantities (Ka and ΔG(0)) were determined and compared with the Hofmeister series. The value of the ECEC, calculated in batch conditions, was about 137 mmol/kg, in good agreement with that evaluated in dynamic conditions, while the AEC data were different for the SMNZ-Br and -Cl samples, amounting to 137 and 106 mmol/kg, respectively, thus indicating a different compactness of the bilayer formed in the two cases. Moreover, the anion isotherm results and the mathematical evaluation of the thermodynamic parameters, demonstrated the good affinity of SMNZ-Br towards chloride, nitrate and perchlorate, and of SMNZ-Cl for nitrate and perchlorate, also endorsing the possibility of using the same thermodynamic approach developed to

  17. A Single-Pore Residue Renders the Arabidopsis Root Anion Channel SLAH2 Highly Nitrate Selective[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Maierhofer, Tobias; Lind, Christof; Hüttl, Stefanie; Scherzer, Sönke; Papenfuß, Melanie; Simon, Judy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A.S.; Ache, Peter; Rennenberg, Heinz; Hedrich, Rainer; Müller, Thomas D.; Geiger, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to animal cells, plants use nitrate as a major source of nitrogen. Following the uptake of nitrate, this major macronutrient is fed into the vasculature for long-distance transport. The Arabidopsis thaliana shoot expresses the anion channel SLOW ANION CHANNEL1 (SLAC1) and its homolog SLAC1 HOMOLOGOUS3 (SLAH3), which prefer nitrate as substrate but cannot exclude chloride ions. By contrast, we identified SLAH2 as a nitrate-specific channel that is impermeable for chloride. To understand the molecular basis for nitrate selection in the SLAH2 channel, SLAC1 and SLAH2 were modeled to the structure of HiTehA, a distantly related bacterial member. Structure-guided site-directed mutations converted SLAC1 into a SLAH2-like nitrate-specific anion channel and vice versa. Our findings indicate that two pore-occluding phenylalanines constrict the pore. The selectivity filter of SLAC/SLAH anion channels is determined by the polarity of pore-lining residues located on alpha helix 3. Changing the polar character of a single amino acid side chain (Ser-228) to a nonpolar residue turned the nitrate-selective SLAH2 into a chloride/nitrate-permeable anion channel. Thus, the molecular basis of the anion specificity of SLAC/SLAH anion channels seems to be determined by the presence and constellation of polar side chains that act in concert with the two pore-occluding phenylalanines. PMID:24938289

  18. Potentiometric surface and water-level difference maps of selected confined aquifers in Southern Maryland and Maryland’s Eastern Shore, 1975-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Andrew W.; Andreasen, David C.; Curtin, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    The potentiometric surface maps show water levels ranging from 165 feet above sea level to 199 feet below sea level. Water levels have declined by as much as 113 feet in the Aquia aquifer since 1982, 81 feet in the Magothy aquifer since 1975, and 61 and 95 feet in the Upper Patapsco and Lower Patapsco aquifer systems, respectively, since 1990.

  19. Selectivity control in micellar electrokinetic chromatography of small peptides using mixed fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon anionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Ye, B; Hadjmohammadi, M; Khaledi, M G

    1995-02-10

    Electrophoretic mobilities and capacity factors for a group of Trp-containing small peptides were determined by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) using mixtures of a fluorocarbon anionic surfactant, lithium perfluorooctane sulfonate, and a hydrocarbon anionic surfactant, lithium dodecyl sulfate. Upon mixing these two surfactants, which have different microenvironments and interactive characteristics, greater control over migration of solutes is achieved. The changes in the composition of mixed micelles such as the mole fraction of the surfactants result in different solute-micelle binding as well as migration times of the micelles (tmc). Consequently, capacity factor, selectivity and elution window (tmc/t0) change with the composition of the mixed micellar system. Another characteristic of the mixtures of fluorocarbon-hydrocarbon surfactants is the possibility of forming two different types of micelles which offers an additional partitioning process for each solute in the MEKC system. Such a unique phenomenon offers a higher degree of selectivity control. This mixed MEKC system is quite effective for the separation of small peptides. It provides an alternative to the free-solution capillary zone electrophoresis system for the separation of charged solutes with nearly identical electrophoretic mobility.

  20. Reactivity of aluminum cluster anions with ammonia: selective etching of Al11(-) and Al12(-).

    PubMed

    Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Gantefoer, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg; Tenorio, Francisco J; Martinez, Ana

    2009-11-14

    Reactivity of aluminum cluster anions toward ammonia was studied via mass spectrometry. Highly selective etching of Al(11)(-) and Al(12)(-) was observed at low concentrations of ammonia. However, at sufficiently high concentrations of ammonia, all other sizes of aluminum cluster anions, except for Al(13)(-), were also observed to deplete. The disappearance of Al(11)(-) and Al(12)(-) was accompanied by concurrent production of Al(11)NH(3)(-) and Al(12)NH(3)(-) species, respectively. Theoretical simulations of the photoelectron spectrum of Al(11)NH(3)(-) showed conclusively that its ammonia moiety is chemisorbed without dissociation, although in the case of Al(12)NH(3)(-), dissociation of the ammonia moiety could not be excluded. Moreover, since differences in calculated Al(n)(-) + NH(3) (n=9-12) reaction energies were not able to explain the observed selective etching of Al(11)(-) and Al(12)(-), we concluded that thermodynamics plays only a minor role in determining the observed reactivity pattern, and that kinetics is the more influential factor. In particular, the conversion from the physisorbed Al(n)(-)(NH(3)) to chemisorbed Al(n)NH(3)(-) species is proposed as the likely rate-limiting step.

  1. Anion effect controlling the selectivity in the zinc-catalysed copolymerisation of CO2 and cyclohexene oxide

    PubMed Central

    Elmas, Sait; Subhani, Muhammad Afzal; Leitner, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Summary The choice of the anion has a surprisingly strong effect on the incorporation of CO2 into the polymer obtained during the zinc-catalysed copolymerisation of CO2 and cyclohexene oxide. The product span ranges from polyethercarbonates, where short polyether sequences alternate with carbonate linkages, to polycarbonates with a strictly alternating sequence of the repeating units. Herein, we report on the influence of the coordination ability of the anion on the selectivity and kinetics of the copolymerisation reaction. PMID:25670991

  2. DNA lesions derived from the site selective oxidation of Guanine by carbonate radical anions.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Avrum; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Shafirovich, Vladimir

    2003-12-01

    Carbonate radical anions are potentially important oxidants of nucleic acids in physiological environments. However, the mechanisms of action are poorly understood, and the end products of oxidation of DNA by carbonate radicals have not been characterized. These oxidation pathways were explored in this work, starting from the laser pulse-induced generation of the primary radical species to the identification of the stable oxidative modifications (lesions). The cascade of events was initiated by utilizing 308 nm XeCl excimer laser pulses to generate carbonate radical anions on submicrosecond time scales. This laser flash photolysis method involved the photodissociation of persulfate to sulfate radical anions and the one electron oxidation of bicarbonate anions by the sulfate radicals to yield the carbonate radical anions. The latter were monitored by their characteristic transient absorption band at 600 nm. The rate constants of reactions of carbonate radicals with oligonucleotides increase in the ascending order: 5'-d(CCATCCTACC) [(5.7 +/- 0.6) x 10(6) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)] < 5'-d(TATAACGTTATA), self-complementary duplex [(1.4 +/- 0.2) x 10(7) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)] < 5'-d(CCATCGCTACC [(2.4 +/- 0.3) x 10(7) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)] < 5'-d(CCATC[8-oxo-G]CTACC) [(3.2 +/- 0.4) x 10(8) M(-)(1) s(-)(1)], where 8-oxo-G is 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine, the product of a two electron oxidation of guanine. This remarkable enhancement of the rate constants is correlated with the presence of either G or 8-oxo-G bases in the oligonucleotides. The rate constant for the oxidation of G in a single-stranded oligonuclotide is faster by a factor of approximately 2 than in the double-stranded form. The site selective oxidation of G and 8-oxo-G residues by carbonate radicals results in the formation of unique end products, the diastereomeric spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) lesions, the products of a four electron oxidation of guanine. These lesions, formed in high yields (40-60%), were isolated by reversed phase

  3. Water table in the surficial aquifer and potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer in selected well fields, west-central Florida, May 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, C.B.; Mills, L.R.

    1977-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer (sand) and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer (limestone) in a 1,200-square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are prepared each May and September to coincide with seasonal low and high ground-water levels. The mapped area contains nine producing well fields which supplied 92.8 million gallons on May 12, 1976 to municipalities along the Gulf Coast. This pumpage came from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in the State of Florida. The effect of well-field withdrawals is shown on the maps as cones of depression in both the potentiometric and water-table surfaces. The May 1976 maps indicate that water levels have declined below sea level in some areas. The decline results from reduced recharge during the dry spring combined with an increase in pumpage for lawn irrigation.

  4. Water table in the surficial aquifer and potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer in selected well fields, west-central Florida, September 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Paul D.; Mills, L.R.

    1977-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Florida aquifer in a 1200 square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U. S. Geological Survey. Maps are prepared on the basis of water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with seasonal low levels, and in September, when levels are high. The mapped area contains nine producing well fields which supplied 67.2 million gallons on September 8, 1976, to municipalities along the Gulf Coast. The water is from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in Florida. The effect of localized withdrawal of ground water is shown on the maps as cones of depression in both the potentiometric and water-table surfaces. The September 1976 maps show the seasonal rise in water levels from the low levels of the previous May.

  5. Potentiometric Surfaces and Changes in Groundwater Levels in Selected Bedrock Aquifers in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, March-August 2008 and 1988-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanocki, Christopher A.; Langer, Susan K.; Menard, Jason C.

    2008-01-01

    This report depicts potentiometric surfaces and groundwater- level changes in three aquifers that underlie the seven-county Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. Approximately 350 groundwater levels were measured in wells from the three aquifers-the Prairie du Chien-Jordan, the Franconia-Ironton-Galesville, and the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifers-in March and August of 2008. The report presents maps, associated data tables, and 22 geographic information system datasets. The maps presented in this report show the potentiometric surfaces in March and August of 2008 for all three aquifers, groundwater-level changes from March to August 2008 for each aquifer, and revised potentiometric-surface contours for the winter of 1988-89 for the Prairie du Chien-Jordan and the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifers, and the estimated long-term (winter of 1988-89 to March 2008) groundwater-level changes for the Prairie du Chien-Jordan and Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifers. This report documents the methods used to construct the maps and provides a context for the period of the measurements. Although withdrawal demand is increasing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan area, particularly in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer, year-to-year changes in withdrawals can be substantial, and the relation between potentiometric surfaces in the major aquifers and year-to-year withdrawals is not well established. The estimated long-term (19-year) groundwater-level changes for the Prairie du Chien-Jordan and Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifers have not been large based on data and maps produced during this study, despite the large seasonal fluctuations shown by the March and August 2008 synoptic measurements.

  6. Beer classification by means of a potentiometric electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Cetó, Xavier; Gutiérrez-Capitán, Manuel; Calvo, Daniel; del Valle, Manel

    2013-12-01

    In this work, an electronic tongue (ET) system based on an array of potentiometric ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) for the discrimination of different commercial beer types is presented. The array was formed by 21 ISEs combining both cationic and anionic sensors with others with generic response. For this purpose beer samples were analyzed with the ET without any pretreatment rather than the smooth agitation of the samples with a magnetic stirrer in order to reduce the foaming of samples, which could interfere into the measurements. Then, the obtained responses were evaluated using two different pattern recognition methods, principal component analysis (PCA), which allowed identifying some initial patterns, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) in order to achieve the correct recognition of sample varieties (81.9% accuracy). In the case of LDA, a stepwise inclusion method for variable selection based on Mahalanobis distance criteria was used to select the most discriminating variables. In this respect, the results showed that the use of supervised pattern recognition methods such as LDA is a good alternative for the resolution of complex identification situations. In addition, in order to show an ET quantitative application, beer alcohol content was predicted from the array data employing an artificial neural network model (root mean square error for testing subset was 0.131 abv).

  7. Data on heavy metals and selected anions in the Persian popular herbal distillates.

    PubMed

    Keshtkar, Mozhgan; Dobaradaran, Sina; Soleimani, Farshid; Karbasdehi, Vahid Noroozi; Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad; Mirahmadi, Roghayeh; Ghasemi, Fatemeh Faraji

    2016-09-01

    In this data article, we determined the concentration levels of heavy metals including Pb, Co, Cd, Mn, Mg, Fe and Cu as well as selected anions including [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] in the most used and popular herbal distillates in Iran. It is well known that heavy metals may pose a serious health hazard due to their bioaccumulation throughout the trophic chain ("Heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb) content in two fish species of Persian Gulf in Bushehr Port, Iran" (Dobaradaran et al., 2013) [1]; "Comparative investigation of heavy metal, trace, and macro element contents in commercially valuable fish species harvested off from the Persian Gulf" (Abadi et al., 2015) [2]) as well as some other environmental pollutions, "Assessment of sediment quality based on acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals in heavily industrialized area of Asaluyeh, Persian Gulf: concentrations, spatial distributions, and sediment bioavailability/toxicity" (Arfaeinia et al., 2016) [3]. The concentration levels of heavy metals and anions in herbal distillates samples were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, Varian AA240, Australia) and a spectrophotometer (M501 Single Beam Scanning UV/VIS, UK) respectively.

  8. Molecular tectonics. Selective exchange of cations in porous anionic hydrogen-bonded networks built from derivatives of tetraphenylborate.

    PubMed

    Malek, Nadia; Maris, Thierry; Simard, Michel; Wuest, James D

    2005-04-27

    Tetraphenylmethanes with multiple hydrogen-bonding sites are known to associate to form robust porous supramolecular networks. Analogous anionic networks can be built from the corresponding tetraphenylborates. Crystallization of the tetraphenylphosphonium salt of tetraphenylborate 2 produces an anionic network in which 74% of the volume is available for including cations and neutral guests. Other salts of anion 2 with diverse cations crystallize consistently to form the same network, whereas a neutral analogue of anion 2, tetraphenylmethane 1, produces an uncharged network that is far less open. Cations can be exchanged in single crystals of salts of tetraphenylborate 2 with retention of crystallinity and with selectivities similar to those observed in typical zeolites. Together, these observations provide new strategies for making ordered molecular materials by design, and they reveal that constructing such materials from charged subunits offers special advantages.

  9. A potentiometric non-enzymatic glucose sensor using a molecularly imprinted layer bonded on a conducting polymer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Min; Moon, Jong-Min; Lee, Won-Chul; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Choi, Cheol Soo; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2017-05-15

    A non-enzymatic potentiometric glucose sensor for the determination of glucose in the micomolar level in saliva was developed based on a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) binding on a conducting polymer layer. A MIP containing acrylamide, and aminophenyl boronic acid, as a host molecule to glucose, was immobilized on benzoic acid-functionalized poly(terthiophene) (pTBA) by the amide bond formation onto a gold nanoparticles deposited-screen printed carbon electrode (pTBA/AuNPs/SPCE). Aromatic boronic acid was incorporated into the MIP layer to stably capture glucose and create a potentiometric signal through the changed pKa value of polymer film by the formation of boronate anion-glucose complex with generation of H(+) ions by the cis-diol reaction. Reversible binding and extraction of glucose on the sensor surface was observed using a quartz crystal microbalance. Each layer of the sensor probe was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The potentiometric response at the optimized conditions exhibited a wide linear dynamic range of 3.2×10(-7) to 1.0×10(-3)M, with a detection limit of 1.9 (±0.15)×10(-7)M. The sensor probe revealed an excellent selectivity and sensitivity for glucose compared to other saccharides. In addition, the reliability of the proposed glucose sensor was evaluated in physiological fluid samples of saliva and finger prick blood.

  10. In-Line Acidification for Potentiometric Sensing of Nitrite in Natural Waters.

    PubMed

    Pankratova, Nadezda; Cuartero, Maria; Cherubini, Thomas; Crespo, Gaston A; Bakker, Eric

    2017-01-03

    We report on a novel approach for in-line sample acidification that results in a significant improvement in the limit of detection of potentiometric anion-selective electrodes aiming at determining nutrients in natural waters. The working principle of the developed acidification module relies on the cation-exchange process between the sample and an ion-exchange Donnan exclusion membrane in its protonated form. The resulting in-line acidification of natural waters with millimolar sodium chloride level (freshwater, drinking water, and aquarium water, as well as dechloridized seawater) decreases the pH down to ∼5. By using the acidification module, the limit of detection of nitrite-selective electrodes significantly improves by more than 2 orders of magnitude with respect to that observed at environmental pH. The originality of the proposed flow cell lies in the possibility to adjust the pH of the sample by modifying its exposure time with the membrane by varying the volumetric flow rate. Facile coupling with a detection technique of choice, miniaturized configuration and simple implementation for long-term monitoring with submersible probes for environmental analysis are possible analytical configurations. This approach was here successfully applied for the potentiometric detection of nitrite in aquarium and dechloridized seawater samples.

  11. Potentiometric surfaces of the upper glacial and Magothy aquifers and selected streamflow statistics, 1943-72, on Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaupel, Donald E.; Prince, K.R.; Koehler, A.J.; Runco, Mario

    1977-01-01

    A brief text describes the two major aquifers and the discharge pattern of major streams on Long Island. Four water-table maps for the years 1943, 1959, 1966, and 1972, an average water-table map for the period 1943-72 supplemented by five well hydrographs representing Kings, Queens, western Nassau, eastern Nassau, and Suffolk Counties, and three potentiometric- surface maps of the Magothy aquifer for the years 1959, 1966, and 1972 are included. A statistical summary of stream discharge presents average annual discharges, annual average discharges, and average 7-day, 10-year low-flow discharges for major streams.

  12. Selective Anion Exchange Resins for the Removal of Perchlorate [(CIO{sub 4}{sup -})] from Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, B.

    1999-05-20

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate a novel bifunctional anion exchange resin for the cost-effective, in situ treatment of groundwater contaminated with perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}). Both laboratory and field studies were performed to determine the selectivity and capacity of the bifunctional synthetic resins to sorb ClO{sub 4}{sup -} from simulated or actual contaminated groundwater. A number of synthetic bifunctional resins, including two commercial versions made by Purolite International and three commercially available, mono-functional resins, were tested. Initial laboratory batch and column breakthrough studies determined the best synthetic resins and the optimal conditions for the field experiment. Laboratory results indicated that the bifunctional synthetic resins, D-3696 and RO-02-119 were highly selective toward ClO{sub 4}{sup -} and performed {approx}5 times better than the best commercial nitrate resin (Purolite{reg_sign} A-520E) and more than an order of magnitude better than some nonselective commercial resins (e.g. Amberlite{reg_sign} IRA-900). The bifunctional resins were particularly effective in removing trace quantities of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} in groundwater to below the detection limit ({approx} 3 {micro}g/L). A field trial demonstrated that the bifunctional resin (D-3696) was able to treat {approx} 110,000 bed volumes of groundwater before a 10% breakthrough of ClO{sub 4}{sup -} occurred under the column flow-through conditions (running at {approx} 2 bed volumes per minute). On the other hand, the Purolite{reg_sign} A-520E resin was able to treat {approx} 23,000 bed volumes of groundwater under the same experimental conditions. No pretreatment was needed to remove either dissolved organic matter or other competing anions (such as SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} or NO{sub 3}{sup -}) in the groundwater, and the treatment process did not alter the water quality by removing or adding secondary by-products because of the high selectivity of the

  13. The major outer membrane protein of Acidovorax delafieldii is an anion-selective porin.

    PubMed

    Brunen, M; Engelhardt, H; Schmid, A; Benz, R

    1991-07-01

    The major outer membrane protein (Omp34) of Acidovorax delafieldii (formerly Pseudomonas delafieldii) was purified to homogeneity and was characterized biochemically and functionally. The polypeptide has an apparent molecular weight (Mr) of 34,000, and it forms stable oligomers at pH 9.0 in the presence of 10% octylpolyoxyethylene or 2% lithium dodecyl sulfate below 70 degrees C. The intact protein has a characteristic secondary structure composition, as revealed by Fourier transforming infrared spectroscopy (about 60% beta sheet). These features and the amino acid composition are typical for porins. The purified Omp34 is associated with 1 to 2 mol of lipopolysaccharide per mol of the monomer. Pore-forming activity was demonstrated with lipid bilayer experiments. Single-channel and selectivity measurements showed that the protein forms highly anion-selective channels. The unusual dependence of the single-channel conductance on salt concentration suggests that the porin complexes bear positive surface charges, accumulating negatively charged counterions at the pore mouth.

  14. Flow Chronopotentiometry with Ion-Selective Membranes for Cation, Anion, and Polyion Detection.

    PubMed

    Ghahraman Afshar, Majid; Crespo, Gastón A; Bakker, Eric

    2016-04-05

    We report here on the development of a chronopotentiometric readout for ion-selective electrodes that allows one to record transition times in continuous flow conditions without the necessity to stop the flow. A sample plug of 150 μL is injected into the carrier solution (0.5 mM NaCl) and subsequently transported to the detection cell (∼20 μL) at moderate flow rates (∼0.5 mL min(-1)), where a short current pulse (5s) is applied between the ionophore-based working electrode and a biocompatible and nonpolarizable Donnan exclusion anion-exchanger membrane reference/counter electrode. Flow conditions bear an influence on the thickness of the aqueous diffusion layer and result in a shift of the chronopotentiometric transition time with respect to stopped flow. Two models based on rotating disk electrodes and flow chronopotentiometry at metal-based electrodes were used to corroborate the data. The method was successfully applied to the determination of calcium, chloride, alkalinity, acidity, and protamine with a range of ion-selective membranes. Because of the limiting exposure time of ca. 20 s of the membranes with the sample, this approach is demonstrated to be useful for the detection of protamine in the therapeutic range of undiluted human blood.

  15. Optimization of the thickness of a conducting polymer, polyaniline, deposited on the surface of poly(vinyl chloride) membranes: a new way to improve their potentiometric response.

    PubMed

    Shishkanova, T V; Matejka, P; Král, V; Sedenková, I; Trchová, M; Stejskal, J

    2008-08-29

    Repeated depositions of polyaniline (PANI) have been used to control the thickness of the polymeric film deposited on poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane surface. The oxidation of aniline was carried out in a dispersion mode, i.e. in the presence of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). Two kinds of PVC were used for this purpose: a non-plasticized PVC for the study of PANI deposition and PVC, plasticized with nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), as a prototype of a liquid membrane electrode. The results of UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopies and electron microscopy showed that (1) the film thickness increased by about equal increments of approximately 40 nm after each polymerization, and (2) the interface with PVC was constituted by PANI film and adhering PANI-PVP colloidal particles. The various thicknesses of the deposited PANI films affected the potentiometric response of the NPOE/PVC membrane with and without an anion-exchanger. The potentiometric anionic response was observed with a minimal thickness of PANI film on the blank NPOE/PVC membrane. Sensitivity of the PANI film to pH occurred only with a blank NPOE/PVC membrane coated with a thick polymeric film, while it was strongly suppressed by the presence of a lipophilic anion-exchanger, tridodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDDMACl), in the membrane, regardless of the thickness of the polymer film. The thickness of the PANI film did not affect the anionic selectivity pattern of TDDMACl-based membranes to any great extent, but its presence improved and stabilized their potentiometric characteristics (sensitivity, linear-response range).

  16. Water table in the surficial aquifer and potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer in selected well fields, west-central Florida, September 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Paul D.; Mills, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    The water table in the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in a 1,200 square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are prepared on the basis of water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with seasonal low levels; and in September, when levels are high. The mapped area for this report contains nine producing wells fields which supplied 76.2 million gallons on September 21, 1977, to municipalities in the Tampa Bay area. The effect of localized withdrawal of groundwater from the Floridan aquifer is shown on the maps as cones of depression in both the potentiometric surface and water table. In September, water levels in observation wells in the Floridan aquifer were above those measured in May. These increases ranged from about 1 foot at the Eldridge-Wilde well field to about 25 feet at the Sun City well field. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Potentiometric determination of famotidine in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Magda M; Shalaby, Abdalla; Abdellatef, Hisham E; Elsaid, Heba M

    2002-06-20

    Two new potentiometric methods for determination of famotidine in pure form and in its pharmaceutical tablet form are developed. In the first method, the construction of plasticised poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix-type famotidine ion-selective membrane electrode and its use in the potentiometric determination of famotidine in pharmaceutical preparations are described. It is based on the use of the ion-associate species, formed by famotidine cation and tetraphenyl borate (TPB) counterion. The electrode exhibited a linear response for 1 x 10(-3)-1 x 10(-5) M of famotidine solutions over the pH range 1-5 with an average recovery of 99.26% and mean standard deviation of 1.12%. Common organic and inorganic cations showed negligible interference. In the second method, the conditions for the oxidimetric titration of famotidine have been studied. The method depends on using lead(IV) acetate for oxidation of the thioether contained in famotidine. The titration takes place in presence of catalytic quantities of potassium bromide (KBr). Direct potentiometric determination of 1.75 x 10(-2) M famotidine solution showed an average recovery of 100.51% with a mean standard deviation of 1.26%. The two methods have been applied successfully to commercial tablet. The results obtained reveal good percentage recoveries, which are in good agreement with those obtained by the official methods.

  18. Two different hydrogen bond donor ligands together: a selectivity improvement in organometallic {Re(CO)3} anion hosts.

    PubMed

    Ion, Laura; Nieto, Sonia; Pérez, Julio; Riera, Lucía; Riera, Víctor; Díaz, Jesús; López, Ramón; Anderson, Kirsty M; Steed, Jonathan W

    2011-09-05

    Rhenium(I) compounds [Re(CO)(3)(Hdmpz)(2)(ampy)]BAr'(4) and [Re(CO)(3)(N-MeIm)(2)(ampy)]BAr'(4) (Hdmpz = 3,5-dimethylpyrazole, N-MeIm = N-methylimidazole, ampy = 2-aminopyridine or 3-aminopyridine) have been prepared stepwise as the sole reaction products in good yields. The cationic complexes feature two different types of hydrogen bond donor ligands, and their anion binding behavior has been studied both in solution and in the solid state. Compounds with 2-ampy ligands are labile in the presence of nearly all of the anions tested. The X-ray structure of the complex [Re(CO)(3)(Hdmpz)(2)(ampy)](+) (2) shows that the 2-ampy ligand is metal-coordinated through the amino group, a fact that can be responsible for its labile character. The 3-ampy derivatives (coordinated through the pyridinic nitrogen atom) are stable toward the addition of several anions and are more selective anion hosts than their tris(pyrazole) or tris(imidazole) counterparts. This selectivity is higher for compound [Re(CO)(3)(N-MeIm)(2)(MeNA)]BAr'(4) (5·BAr'(4), MeNA = N-methylnicotinamide) that features an amido moiety, which is a better hydrogen bond donor than the amino group. Some of the receptor-anion adducts have been characterized in the solid state by X-ray diffraction, showing that both types of hydrogen bond donor ligands of the cationic receptor participate in the interaction with the anion hosts. DFT calculations suggest that coordination of the ampy ligands is more favorable through the amino group only for the cationic complex 2, as a consequence of the existence of a strong intramolecular hydrogen bond. In all other cases, the pyridinic coordination is clearly favored.

  19. Potentiometric surfaces, summer 2013 and winter 2015, and select hydrographs for the Southern High Plains aquifer, Cannon Air Force Base, Curry County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collison, Jake

    2016-04-07

    Cannon Air Force Base (Cannon AFB) is located in the High Plains physiographic region of east-central New Mexico, about 5 miles west of Clovis, New Mexico. The area surrounding Cannon AFB is primarily used for agriculture, including irrigated cropland and dairies. The Southern High Plains aquifer is the principal source of water for Cannon AFB, for the nearby town of Clovis, and for local agriculture and dairies. The Southern High Plains aquifer in the vicinity of Cannon AFB consists of three subsurface geological formations: the Chinle Formation of Triassic age, the Ogallala Formation of Tertiary age, and the Blackwater Draw Formation of Quaternary age. The Ogallala Formation is the main water-yielding formation of the Southern High Plains aquifer. Groundwater-supplied, center-pivot irrigation dominates pumping from the Southern High Plains aquifer in the area surrounding Cannon AFB, where the irrigation season typically extends from early March through October. The U.S. Geological Survey has been monitoring groundwater levels in the vicinity of Cannon AFB since 1954 and has developed general potentiometric-surface maps that show groundwater flow from northwest to southeast in the study area. While previous potentiometric-surface maps show the general direction of groundwater flow, a denser well network is needed to show details of groundwater flow at a local scale. Groundwater levels were measured in 93 wells during summer 2013 and 100 wells during winter 2015.The summer and winter potentiometric-surface maps display the presence of what is interpreted to be a groundwater trough trending from the northwest to the southeast through the study area. This groundwater trough may be the hydraulic expression of a Tertiary-age paleochannel. Groundwater north of the trough flows in a southerly direction into the trough, and groundwater south of the trough flows in an easterly direction into the trough.During the 18-month period between summer 2013 and winter 2015, changes

  20. Water table in the surficial aquifer and potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer in selected well fields, west-central Florida, May 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolansky, R.M.; Yobbi, D.K.; Mills, L.R.; Woodham, W.M.

    1979-01-01

    The water table is the surficial aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in a 1,200-square-mile area in west-central Florida are mapped semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps are prepared showing water levels measured in wells each May to coincide with seasonal low levels, and each September to coincide with seasonal high levels. The mapped area shows 16 well fields which supplied 128 million gallons to municipalities on May 15, 1979. The water is withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer, the major aquifer in Florida. Water levels were significantly higher in May 1979 than in May 1978. Heavy rains on May 7 and 8th deluged the well-field areas with 2 to 18 inches of rain. The maximum increase in water levels from May 1978 to May 1979 was more than 8 feet at the Eldridge-Wilde well field. (USGS)

  1. Potentiometric surface and water-level difference maps of selected confined aquifers in Southern Maryland and Maryland’s Eastern Shore, 1975-2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Staley, Andrew W.; Andreasen, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Key Results This report presents potentiometric-surface maps of the Aquia and Magothy aquifers and the Upper Patapsco, Lower Patapsco, and Patuxent aquifer systems using water levels measured during September 2015. Water-level difference maps are also presented for these aquifers. The water-level differences in the Aquia aquifer are shown using groundwater-level data from 1982 and 2015, while the water-level differences are shown for the Magothy aquifer using data from 1975 and 2015. Water-level difference maps for both the Upper Patapsco and Lower Patapsco aquifer systems are shown using data from 1990 and 2015. The water-level differences in the Patuxent aquifer system are shown using groundwater-level data from 2007 and 2015. The potentiometric surface maps show water levels ranging from 53 feet above sea level to 164 feet below sea level in the Aquia aquifer, from 86 feet above sea level to 106 feet below sea level in the Magothy aquifer, from 115 feet above sea level to 115 feet below sea level in the Upper Patapsco aquifer system, from 106 feet above sea level to 194 feet below sea level in the Lower Patapsco aquifer system, and from 165 feet above sea level to 171 feet below sea level in the Patuxent aquifer system. Water levels have declined by as much as 116 feet in the Aquia aquifer since 1982, 99 feet in the Magothy aquifer since 1975, 66 and 83 feet in the Upper Patapsco and Lower Patapsco aquifer systems, respectively, since 1990, and 80 feet in the Patuxent aquifer system since 2007.

  2. Charged residues distribution modulates selectivity of the open state of human isoforms of the voltage dependent anion-selective channel.

    PubMed

    Amodeo, Giuseppe Federico; Scorciapino, Mariano Andrea; Messina, Angela; De Pinto, Vito; Ceccarelli, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Voltage Dependent Anion-selective Channels (VDACs) are pore-forming proteins located in the outer mitochondrial membrane. They are responsible for the access of ions and energetic metabolites into the inner membrane transport systems. Three VDAC isoforms exist in mammalian, but their specific role is unknown. In this work we have performed extensive (overall ∼5 µs) Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of the human VDAC isoforms to detect structural and conformational variations among them, possibly related to specific functional roles of these proteins. Secondary structure analysis of the N-terminal domain shows a high similarity among the three human isoforms of VDAC but with a different plasticity. In particular, the N-terminal domain of the hVDAC1 is characterized by a higher plasticity, with a ∼20% occurrence for the 'unstructured' conformation throughout the folded segment, while hVDAC2, containing a peculiar extension of 11 amino acids at the N-terminal end, presents an additional 310-helical folded portion comprising residues 10' to 3, adhering to the barrel wall. The N-terminal sequences of hVDAC isoforms are predicted to have a low flexibility, with possible consequences in the dynamics of the human VDACs. Clear differences were found between hVDAC1 and hVDAC3 against hVDAC2: a significantly modified dynamics with possible important consequence on the voltage-gating mechanism. Charge distribution inside and at the mouth of the pore is responsible for a different preferential localization of ions with opposite charge and provide a valuable rationale for hVDAC1 and hVDAC3 having a Cl-/K+ selectivity ratio of 1.8, whereas hVDAC2 of 1.4. Our conclusion is that hVDAC isoforms, despite sharing a similar scaffold, have modified working features and a biological work is now requested to give evidence to the described dissimilarities.

  3. Identification of novel anionic phospholipid binding domains in neutral sphingomyelinase 2 with selective binding preference.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bill X; Clarke, Christopher J; Matmati, Nabil; Montefusco, David; Bartke, Nana; Hannun, Yusuf A

    2011-06-24

    Sphingolipids such as ceramide are recognized as vital regulators of many biological processes. Neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) is one of the key enzymes regulating ceramide production. It was previously shown that the enzymatic activity of nSMase2 was dependent on anionic phospholipids (APLs). In this study, the structural requirements for APL-selective binding of nSMase2 were determined and characterized. Using lipid-protein overlay assays, nSMase2 interacted specifically and directly with several APLs, including phosphatidylserine and phosphatidic acid. Lipid-protein binding studies of deletion mutants identified two discrete APL binding domains in the N terminus of nSMase2. Further, mutagenesis experiments pinpointed the core sequences and major cationic amino acids in the domains that are necessary for the cooperative activation of nSMase2 by APLs. The first domain included the first amino-terminal hydrophobic segment and Arg-33, which were essential for nSMase2 to interact with APLs. The second binding domain was comprised of the second hydrophobic segment and Arg-92 and Arg-93. Moreover, mutation of one or both domains decreased APL binding and APL-dependent catalytic activity of nSMase2. Further, mutation of both domains in nSMase2 reduced its plasma membrane localization. Finally, these binding domains are also important for the capability of nSMase2 to rescue the defects of yeast lacking the nSMase homologue, ISC1. In conclusion, these data have identified the APL binding domains of nSMase2 for the first time. The analysis of interactions between nSMase2 and APLs will contribute to our understanding of signaling pathways mediated by sphingolipid metabolites.

  4. Self-assembled tetragonal prismatic molecular cage highly selective for anionic π guests.

    PubMed

    García-Simón, Cristina; Garcia-Borràs, Marc; Gómez, Laura; Garcia-Bosch, Isaac; Osuna, Sílvia; Swart, Marcel; Luis, Josep M; Rovira, Concepció; Almeida, Manuel; Imaz, Inhar; Maspoch, Daniel; Costas, Miquel; Ribas, Xavi

    2013-01-21

    The metal-directed supramolecular synthetic approach has paved the way for the development of functional nanosized molecules. In this work, we report the preparation of the new nanocapsule 3·(CF(3)SO(3))(8) with a A(4 B(2) tetragonal prismatic geometry, where A corresponds to the dipalladium hexaazamacrocyclic complex Pd-1, and B corresponds to the tetraanionic form of palladium 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (2). The large void space of the inner cavity and the supramolecular affinity for guest molecules towards porphyrin-based hosts converts this nanoscale molecular 3D structure into a good candidate for host-guest chemistry. The interaction between this nanocage and different guest molecules has been studied by means of NMR, UV/Vis, ESI-MS, and DOSY experiments, from which highly selective molecular recognition has been found for anionic, planar-shaped π guests with association constants (K(a)) higher than 10(9) M(-1) , in front of non-interacting aromatic neutral or cationic substrates. DFT theoretical calculations provided insights to further understand this strong interaction. Nanocage 3·(CF(3)SO(3))(8) can not only strongly host one single molecule of M(dithiolene)(2) complexes (M=Au, Pt, Pd, and Ni), but also can finely tune their optical and redox properties. The very simple synthesis of both the supramolecular cage and the building blocks represents a step forward for the development of polyfunctional supramolecular nanovessels, which offer multiple applications as sensors or nanoreactors.

  5. Micromechanical potentiometric sensors

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.

    2000-01-01

    A microcantilever potentiometric sensor utilized for detecting and measuring physical and chemical parameters in a sample of media is described. The microcantilevered spring element includes at least one chemical coating on a coated region, that accumulates a surface charge in response to hydrogen ions, redox potential, or ion concentrations in a sample of the media being monitored. The accumulation of surface charge on one surface of the microcantilever, with a differing surface charge on an opposing surface, creates a mechanical stress and a deflection of the spring element. One of a multitude of deflection detection methods may include the use of a laser light source focused on the microcantilever, with a photo-sensitive detector receiving reflected laser impulses. The microcantilevered spring element is approximately 1 to 100 .mu.m long, approximately 1 to 50 .mu.m wide, and approximately 0.3 to 3.0 .mu.m thick. An accuracy of detection of deflections of the cantilever is provided in the range of 0.01 nanometers of deflection. The microcantilever apparatus and a method of detection of parameters require only microliters of a sample to be placed on, or near the spring element surface. The method is extremely sensitive to the detection of the parameters to be measured.

  6. Quaternary Ammonium Salts Immobilized on Silica Gel: Exchange Properties and Application as Potentiometric Sensor for Perchlorate Ions.

    PubMed

    de Campos, Elvio A.; da Silva Alfaya, Antonio A.; Ferrari, Rosilene T.; Costa, Creusa Maieru M.

    2001-08-01

    Ammonium chlorides immobilized on silica gel, SA(+)/Cl(-) and SE(+)/Cl(-), were obtained from silica previously modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyl]ethylenediamine, respectively. Both materials showed potential use as an anion exchanger: they are thermically stable (up to 413 K), achieve equilibrium rapidly in the presence of suitable exchanger ions, and are easily recovered. The exchange capacities observed for SA(+)/Cl(-) and SE(+)/Cl(-) are 0.70 and 1.19 mmol Cl(-) g(-1), respectively. Through the exchange isotherms and competitive Cl(-)-X(-) exchange (X(-)=F(-), Br(-), I(-), N(3)(-), NO(3)(-), SCN(-), ClO(4)(-)) it was observed that: (i) SE(+)/Cl(-) exchanges the counterion Cl(-) more easily than SA(+)/Cl(-); (ii) SA(+)/Cl(-) presents higher selectivity than SE(+)/Cl(-); and (iii) SA(+)/Cl(-) presents high affinity for ClO(4)(-). Because of these two latter properties presented by the SA(+)/Cl(-), the derivative SA(+)/ClO(4)(-) was used as a potentiometric sensor for this anion, prepared from the supported material on a mixture of graphite powder with epoxy resin. The electrode showed a nernstian behavior and a limit of response of 0.13 mmol L(-1). Potentiometric selectivity coefficients, K(pot)(A, B), were obtained for some interfering anions, and the following interference order was observed: F(-) > SCN(-) > NO(3)(-) > Br(-) > Cl(-) > CH(3)COO(-). The electrode showed fast and stable responses and was useful for approximately 200 measures. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  7. A mercury(II) selective sensor based on N,N'-bis(salicylaldehyde)-phenylenediamine as neutral carrier for potentiometric analysis in water samples.

    PubMed

    Abu-Shawish, Hazem M

    2009-08-15

    Mercuric ions in water samples were determined by a new modified carbon paste electrode based on N,N'-bis(salicylaldehyde)-phenylenediamine (salophen) as a chemical modifier. The construction, performance, and applications of mercury carbon paste electrode are described. The electrode displays a linear log[Hg(2+)] versus EMF response over a wide concentration range of 3.2 x 10(-7) to 3.2 x 10(-4) with Nernstian slope of 58.8+/-0.3 mV/decade with limit of detection 1.5 x 10(-7) over the pH range 3.8-7.8; the presence of the complex Hg(OH)(+) ion explains the slope of the response curve. The proposed sensor shows a reasonable discrimination ability towards Hg(II) in comparison to some alkali, alkaline earth transition and heavy metal ions. The modified electrode was applied as indicator electrode in potentiometric titration and successfully used to determine mercury(II) in water samples with satisfactory results.

  8. Potentiometric surface and water-level difference maps of selected confined aquifers of Southern Maryland and Maryland's Eastern Shore, 1975-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Staley, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is the principal source of freshwater supply in most of Southern Maryland and Maryland's Eastern Shore. It is also the source of freshwater supply used in the operation of the Calvert Cliffs, Chalk Point, and Morgantown power plants. Increased groundwater withdrawals over the last several decades have caused groundwater levels to decline. This report presents potentiometric surface maps of the Aquia, Magothy, upper Patapsco, lower Patapsco, and Patuxent aquifers using water levels measured during September 2011. Water-level difference maps also are presented for the first four of these aquifers. The water-level differences in the Aquia aquifer are shown using groundwater-level data from 1982 and 2011, whereas the water-level differences in the Magothy aquifer are presented using data from 1975 and 2011. Water-level difference maps in both the upper Patapsco and lower Patapsco aquifers are presented using data from 1990 and 2011. These maps show cones of depression ranging from 25 to 198 feet (ft) below sea level centered on areas of major withdrawals. Water levels have declined by as much as 112 ft in the Aquia aquifer since 1982, 85 ft in the Magothy aquifer since 1975, and 47 and 71 ft in the upper Patapsco and lower Patapsco aquifers, respectively, since 1990.

  9. Manganese(III) Porphyrin-based Potentiometric Sensors for Diclofenac Assay in Pharmaceutical Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Vlascici, Dana; Pruneanu, Stela; Olenic, Liliana; Pogacean, Florina; Ostafe, Vasile; Chiriac, Vlad; Pica, Elena Maria; Bolundut, Liviu Calin; Nica, Luminita; Fagadar-Cosma, Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    Two manganese(III) porphyrins: manganese(III) tetraphenylporphyrin chloride and manganese(III)-tetrakis(3-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin chloride were tested as ionophores for the construction of new diclofenac–selective electrodes. The electroactive material was incorporated either in PVC or a sol–gel matrix. The effect of different plasticizers and additives (anionic and cationic) on the potentiometric response was studied. The best results were obtained for the PVC membrane plasticized with dioctylphtalate and having sodium tetraphenylborate as a lipophilic anionic additive incorporated. The sensor response was linear in the concentration range 3 × 10−6 – 1 × 10−2 M with a slope of −59.7 mV/dec diclofenac, a detection limit of 1.5 × 10−6 M and very good selectivity coefficients. It was used for the determination of diclofenac in pharmaceutical preparations, by direct potentiometry. The results were compared with those obtained by the HPLC reference method and a good agreement was found between the two methods. PMID:22163384

  10. Anionic Lanthanide MOFs as a Platform for Iron-Selective Sensing, Systematic Color Tuning, and Efficient Nanoparticle Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya-Pan; Xu, Guo-Wang; Dong, Wen-Wen; Zhao, Jun; Li, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Jian; Bu, Xianhui

    2017-02-06

    New porous anionic Ln-MOFs, namely, [Me2NH2][Ln(CPA)2(H2O)2] (Ln = Eu, Gd), have been prepared through the self-assembly of 5-(4-carboxy phenyl)picolinic acid (H2CPA) and lanthanide ions. They feature open anionic frameworks with 1-D hydrophilic channels and exchangeable dimethylamine ions. The Eu phase could detect Fe(3+) ions with high selectivity and sensitivity in either aqueous solution or biological condition. The ratios of lanthanide ions on this structure platform could be rationally tuned to not only achieve dichromatic emission colors with linear correlation but also attain three primary colors (RGB) and even white light with favorable correlated color temperature. Furthermore, the Ag(I)-exchanged phases can be readily reduced to afford Ag nanoparticles. The as-prepared Ag@Ln-MOFs composite shows highly efficient catalytic performance for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

  11. Chloride-selective electrodes based on "two-wall" aryl-extended calix[4]pyrroles: combining hydrogen bonds and anion-π interactions to achieve optimum performance.

    PubMed

    Sabek, Jad; Adriaenssens, Louis; Guinovart, Tomàs; Parra, Enrique J; Rius, F Xavier; Ballester, Pablo; Blondeau, Pascal

    2015-01-02

    The performance of chloride-selective electrodes based on "two-wall" aryl-extended calix[4]pyrroles and multiwall carbon nanotubes is presented. The calix[4]pyrrole receptors bear two phenyl groups at opposite meso-positions. When the meso-phenyl groups are decorated with strong electron-withdrawing substituents, attractive anion-π interactions may exist between the receptor's aromatic walls and the sandwiched anion. These anion-π interactions are shown to significantly affect the selectivity of the electrodes. Calix[4]pyrrole, bearing a p-nitro withdrawing group on each of the meso-phenyl rings, afforded sensors that display anti-Hofmeister behavior against the lipophilic salicylate and nitrate anions. Based on the experimental data, a series of principles that help in predicting the suitability of synthetic receptors for use as anion-specific ionophores is discussed. Finally, the sensors deliver excellent results in the direct detection of chloride in bodily fluids.

  12. A novel porous anionic metal–organic framework with pillared double-layer structure for selective adsorption of dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Shu-Nan; Han, Yi; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Cui; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Min-Jian; Xie, Ya-Bo Li, Jian-Rong

    2016-01-15

    A novel porous anionic metal–organic framework, (Me{sub 2}NH{sub 2}){sub 2}[Zn{sub 2}L{sub 1.5}bpy]·2DMF (BUT-201; H{sub 4}L=4,8-disulfonaphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid; bpy=4,4-bipyridine; DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide), with pillared double-layer structure has been synthesized through the reaction of a sulfonated carboxylic acid ligand and Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O with 4,4-bipyridine as a co-ligand. It is found that BUT-201 can rapidly adsorb cationic dyes with a smaller size such as Methylene Blue (MB) and Acriflavine Hydrochloride (AH) by substitution of guest (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}NH{sub 2}{sup +}, but has no adsorption towards the cationic dyes with a lager size such as Methylene Violet (MV), the anionic dyes like C. I. Acid Yellow 1 (AY1) and neutral dyes like C. I. Solvent Yellow 7 (SY7), respectively. The results show that the adsorption behavior of BUT-201 relates not only to the charge but also to the size/shape of dyes. Furthermore, the adsorbed dyes can be gradually released in the methanol solution of LiNO{sub 3}. - Graphical abstract: A porous anionic metal–organic framework (BUT-201) can selectively adsorb the cationic dyes by cationic guest molecule substitution, and the adsorbed dyes can be gradually released in the methanol solution of LiNO{sub 3}. - Highlights: • An anionic metal-organic framework (BUT-201) has been synthesized and characterized. • BUT-201 has a three-dimensional (3D) pillared double-layer structure. • BUT-201 can selectively and rapidly adsorb cationic dyes. • The adsorbed dyes can be gradually released in the methanol solution of LiNO{sub 3}.

  13. Engineering the electrochemical capacitive properties of graphene sheets in ionic-liquid electrolytes by correct selection of anions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Minjie; Kou, Shengzhong; Yan, Xingbin

    2014-11-01

    Graphene sheet (GS)-ionic liquid (IL) supercapacitors are receiving intense interest because their specific energy density far exceeds that of GS-aqueous electrolytes supercapacitors. The electrochemical properties of ILs mainly depend on their diverse ions, especially anions. Therefore, identifying suitable IL electrolytes for GSs is currently one of the most important tasks. The electrochemical behavior of GSs in a series of ILs composed of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium cation (EMIM(+)) with different anions is systematically studied. Combined with the formula derivation and building models, it is shown that the viscosity, ion size, and molecular weight of ILs affect the electrical conductivity of ILs, and thus, determine the electrochemical performances of GSs. Because the EMIM-dicyanamide IL has the lowest viscosity, ion size, and molecular weight, GSs in it exhibit the highest specific capacitance, smallest resistance, and best rate capability. In addition, because the tetrafluoroborate anion (BF4(-)) has the best electrochemical stability, the GS-[EMIM][BF4] supercapacitor has the widest potential window, and thus, displays the largest energy density. These results may provide valuable information for selecting appropriate ILs and designing high-performance GS-IL supercapacitors to meet different needs.

  14. A click fluorophore sensor that can distinguish Cu(II) and Hg(II) via selective anion-induced demetallation.

    PubMed

    Lau, Yu Heng; Price, Jason R; Todd, Matthew H; Rutledge, Peter J

    2011-03-01

    A cyclam-based fluorescent sensor featuring a novel triazole pendant arm has been synthesised using click chemistry. The sensor is highly responsive to both Cu(II) and Hg(II) in neutral aqueous solution and displays excellent selectivity in the presence of various competing metal ions in 50-fold excess. The addition of specific anions such as I(-) and S(2)O(3)(2-) causes a complete revival of fluorescence only in the case of Hg(II), providing a simple and effective method for distinguishing solutions containing Cu(II), Hg(II) or a mixture of both ions, even in doped seawater samples. X-ray crystal structures of both the Hg(II) sensor complex and a model Cu(II) complex show that pendant triazole coordination occurs through the central nitrogen atom (N2), providing to the best of our knowledge the first reported examples of this unusual coordination mode in macrocycles. Fluorescence, mass spectrometry and (1)H NMR experiments reveal that the mechanism of anion-induced fluorescence revival involves either displacement of pendant coordination or complete removal of the Hg(II) from the macrocycle, depending on the anion.

  15. Textile-based sampling for potentiometric determination of ions.

    PubMed

    Lisak, Grzegorz; Arnebrant, Thomas; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Bobacka, Johan

    2015-06-02

    Potentiometric sensing utilizing textile-based micro-volume sampling was applied and evaluated for the determination of clinically (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-)) and environmentally (Cd(2+), Pb(2+) and pH) relevant analytes. In this technological design, calibration solutions and samples were absorbed into textiles while the potentiometric cells (ion-selective electrodes and reference electrode) were pressed against the textile. Once the liquid, by wicking action, reached the place where the potentiometric cell was pressed onto the textile, hence closing the electric circuit, the potentiometric response was obtained. Cotton, polyamide, polyester and their blends with elastane were applied for micro-volume sampling. The textiles were found to influence the determination of pH in environmental samples with pH close to neutral and Pb(2+) at low analyte concentrations. On the other hand, textile-based micro-volume sampling was successfully applied in measurements of Na(+) using solid-contact sodium-selective electrodes utilizing all the investigated textiles for sampling. It was found that in order to extend the application of textile-based sampling toward environmental analysis of ions it will be necessary to tailor the physio-chemical properties of the textile materials. In general, textile-based sampling opens new possibilities for direct chemical analysis of small-volume samples and provide a simple and low-cost method to screen various textiles for their effects on samples to identify which textiles are the most suitable for on-body sensing.

  16. Inactivation and Anion Selectivity of Volume-regulated Anion Channels (VRACs) Depend on C-terminal Residues of the First Extracellular Loop.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Florian; Reincke, S Momsen; Voss, Felizia K; Stauber, Tobias; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2016-08-12

    Canonical volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) are crucial for cell volume regulation and have many other important roles, including tumor drug resistance and release of neurotransmitters. Although VRAC-mediated swelling-activated chloride currents (ICl,vol) have been studied for decades, exploration of the structure-function relationship of VRAC has become possible only after the recent discovery that VRACs are formed by differently composed heteromers of LRRC8 proteins. Inactivation of ICl,vol at positive potentials, a typical hallmark of VRACs, strongly varies between native cell types. Exploiting the large differences in inactivation between different LRRC8 heteromers, we now used chimeras assembled from isoforms LRRC8C and LRRC8E to uncover a highly conserved extracellular region preceding the second LRRC8 transmembrane domain as a major determinant of ICl,vol inactivation. Point mutations identified two amino acids (Lys-98 and Asp-100 in LRRC8A and equivalent residues in LRRC8C and -E), which upon charge reversal strongly altered the kinetics and voltage dependence of inactivation. Importantly, charge reversal at the first position also reduced the iodide > chloride permeability of ICl,vol This change in selectivity was stronger when both the obligatory LRRC8A subunit and the other co-expressed isoform (LRR8C or -E) carried such mutations. Hence, the C-terminal part of the first extracellular loop not only determines VRAC inactivation but might also participate in forming its outer pore. Inactivation of VRACs may involve a closure of the extracellular mouth of the permeation pathway.

  17. Stable and selective scintillating anion-exchange sensors for quantification of 99TcO4- in natural freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Seliman, Ayman F; Helariutta, Kerttuli; Wiktorowicz, Szymon J; Tenhu, Heikki; Harjula, Risto

    2013-12-01

    New dual functionality scintillating anion-exchange resins were developed for selective determination of (99)TcO4(-) in various natural freshwater samples. Stable scintillating particles were formed by preparing the vinyl monomer 2-[4-(4'-vinylbiphenylyl)]-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (vPBD), starting with the commercial organic flour TBut-PBD and its subsequent copolymerization with styrene, divinylbenzene, and p-chloromethylstyrene mixture. To integrate the radiochemical separation and radiometric detection steps within the same bead, the chloromethyl groups of the scintillating resins were subjected to amination reactions with dioctylamine (DOA) and trioctylamine (TOA). On-line quantification of (99)TcO4(-) was achieved by packing the scintillating anion-exchange resin into Teflon tubing for quantification by a flow scintillation analyzer (FSA). The two functionalized resins were selective for pertechnetate over the common anions in natural freshwaters, especially Cl(-) and SO4(2-) with up to 1000 ppm and with up to 10 ppm I(-) and Cr2O7(2-). The uptake efficiency of the TOA sensor decreased from 97.88% to 85.08% in well water and river water, respectively, while the counting efficiency was almost constant (69.50%). The DOA performance showed lower efficiency in the two water types relative to TOA. On the other hand, the DOA sensor could be regenerated by 5 M HNO3 for reuse at least four times without losing its chemical or optical performance. The detection limit was 1.45 Bq which could be achieved by loading 45 mL from well and tap water containing the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of (99)Tc (33 Bq/L).

  18. Integrated, paper-based potentiometric electronic tongue for the analysis of beer and wine.

    PubMed

    Nery, Emilia Witkowska; Kubota, Lauro T

    2016-04-28

    The following manuscript details the stages of construction of a novel paper-based electronic tongue with an integrated Ag/AgCl reference, which can operate using a minimal amount of sample (40 μL). First, we optimized the fabrication procedure of silver electrodes, testing a set of different methodologies (electroless plating, use of silver nanoparticles and commercial silver paints). Later a novel, integrated electronic tongue system was assembled with the use of readily available materials such as paper, wax, lamination sheets, bleach etc. New system was thoroughly characterized and the ion-selective potentiometric sensors presented performance close to theoretical. An electronic tongue, composed of electrodes sensitive to sodium, calcium, ammonia and a cross-sensitive, anion-selective electrode was used to analyze 34 beer samples (12 types, 19 brands). This system was able to discriminate beers from different brands, and types, indicate presence of stabilizers and antioxidants, dyes or even unmalted cereals and carbohydrates added to the fermentation wort. Samples could be classified by type of fermentation (low, high) and system was able to predict pH and in part also alcohol content of tested beers. In the next step sample volume was minimalized by the use of paper sample pads and measurement in flow conditions. In order to test the impact of this advancement a four electrode system, with cross-sensitive (anion-selective, cation-selective, Ca(2+)/Mg(2+), K(+)/Na(+)) electrodes was applied for the analysis of 11 types of wine (4 types of grapes, red/white, 3 countries). Proposed matrix was able to group wines produced from different varieties of grapes (Chardonnay, Americanas, Malbec, Merlot) using only 40 μL of sample. Apart from that, storage stability studies were performed using a multimeter, therefore showing that not only fabrication but also detection can be accomplished by means of off-the-shelf components. This manuscript not only describes new

  19. Anion selective membrane. [ion exchange resins and ion exchange membrane electrolytes for electrolytic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, S. S.; Geoffroy, R. R.; Hodgdon, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental anion permselective membranes were prepared and tested for their suitability as cell separators in a chemical redox power storage system being developed at NASA-Lewis Research Center. The goals of long-term (1000 hr) oxidative and thermal stability at 80 C in FeCl3 and CrCl3 electrolytes were met by most of the weak base and strong base amino exchange groups considered in the program. Good stability is exhibited by several of the membrane substrate resins. These are 'styrene' divinylbenzene copolymer and PVC film. At least four membrane systems produce strong flexible films with electrochemical properties (resistivity, cation transfer) superior to those of the 103QZL, the most promising commercial membrane. The physical and chemical properties of the resins are listed.

  20. Selective removal of toxic anionic dyes using a novel nanocomposite derived from cationically modified guar gum and silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Patra, Abhay Shankar; Ghorai, Soumitra; Ghosh, Shankhamala; Mandal, Barun; Pal, Sagar

    2016-01-15

    A novel nanocomposite derived from cationically modified guar gum and in-situ incorporated SiO2 NP (cat-GG/SiO2) has been developed. The cat-GG has been synthesised by grafting poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) on GG backbone. Various analyses endorse the suitability of cat-GG as well-organized template for the development of homogeneous SiO2 NPs. Dye adsorption studies predict that cat-GG/SiO2 efficiently and selectively adsorb anionic dyes (reactive blue-RB and Congo red-CR) from mixture of dye solutions. This is because of high surface area, multifunctional chelating H-bonding interactions and electrostatic interactions of cationic adsorbent with anionic dyes. Dyes adsorbed on the composite surface are desorbed reversibly using pH 10 stripping solution. Besides, cat-GG/SiO2 has been recycled efficiently with no prominent loss of dye uptake capacity, even after 4 adsorption-desorption cycles.

  1. Pitavastatin is a more sensitive and selective organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B clinical probe than rosuvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Prueksaritanont, Thomayant; Chu, Xiaoyan; Evers, Raymond; Klopfer, Stephanie O; Caro, Luzelena; Kothare, Prajakti A; Dempsey, Cynthia; Rasmussen, Scott; Houle, Robert; Chan, Grace; Cai, Xiaoxin; Valesky, Robert; Fraser, Iain P; Stoch, S Aubrey

    2014-01-01

    Aims Rosuvastatin and pitavastatin have been proposed as probe substrates for the organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B, but clinical data on their relative sensitivity and selectivity to OATP1B inhibitors are lacking. A clinical study was therefore conducted to determine their relative suitability as OATP1B probes using single oral (PO) and intravenous (IV) doses of the OATP1B inhibitor rifampicin, accompanied by a comprehensive in vitro assessment of rifampicin inhibitory potential on statin transporters. Methods The clinical study comprised of two separate panels of eight healthy subjects. In each panel, subjects were randomized to receive a single oral dose of rosuvastatin (5 mg) or pitavastatin (1 mg) administered alone, concomitantly with rifampicin (600 mg) PO or IV. The in vitro transporter studies were performed using hepatocytes and recombinant expression systems. Results Rifampicin markedly increased exposures of both statins, with greater differential increases after PO vs. IV rifampicin only for rosuvastatin. The magnitudes of the increases in area under the plasma concentration–time curve were 5.7- and 7.6-fold for pitavastatin and 4.4- and 3.3-fold for rosuvastatin, after PO and IV rifampicin, respectively. In vitro studies showed that rifampicin was an inhibitor of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, breast cancer resistance protein and multidrug resistance protein 2, but not of organic anion transporter 3. Conclusions The results indicate that pitavastatin is a more sensitive and selective and thus preferred clinical OATP1B probe substrate than rosuvastatin, and that a single IV dose of rifampicin is a more selective OATP1B inhibitor than a PO dose. PMID:24617605

  2. Potentiometric sensors using cotton yarns, carbon nanotubes and polymeric membranes.

    PubMed

    Guinovart, Tomàs; Parrilla, Marc; Crespo, Gastón A; Rius, F Xavier; Andrade, Francisco J

    2013-09-21

    A simple and generalized approach to build electrochemical sensors for wearable devices is presented. Commercial cotton yarns are first turned into electrical conductors through a simple dyeing process using a carbon nanotube ink. These conductive yarns are then partially coated with a suitable polymeric membrane to build ion-selective electrodes. Potentiometric measurements using these yarn-potentiometric sensors are demonstrated. Examples of yarns that can sense pH, K(+) and NH4(+) are presented. In all cases, these sensing yarns show limits of detection and linear ranges that are similar to those obtained with lab-made solid-state ion-selective electrodes. Through the immobilization of these sensors in a band-aid, it is shown that this approach could be easily implemented in a wearable device. Factors affecting the performance of the sensors and future potential applications are discussed.

  3. Selective removal of phosphate from wastewater using hydrated metal oxides dispersed within anionic exchange media.

    PubMed

    Acelas, Nancy Y; Martin, Benjamin D; López, Diana; Jefferson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Hydrated ferric oxide (HFeO), hydrated zirconium oxide (HZrO) and hydrated copper oxide (HCuO) were immobilized within a microporous anion exchange resin (IRA-400), forming hybrid media for enhanced phosphate removal from aqueous systems. Empirical data from batch kinetic trials fitted the pseudo second order mechanism for chemical adsorption and each media was rate limited by intraparticle diffusion overall. These models were also used to predict the adsorption rate constants and the equilibrium adsorption capacities, which ranged from 26.51 to 30.44 mgP g(-1), and from 24.15 to 27.90 mgP g(-1) of media for the calculated and experimental capacities, respectively. The phosphate adsorption behavior by the hybrid materials fit both the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms (R(2)>0.94), and the maximum adsorption capacities were 111.1 mgP g(-1) for HFeO, 91.74 mgP g(-1) for HZrO and 74.07 mgP g(-1) for HCuO. The effect of competing ions such as sulfate reduced these capacities to 18.52 mgP g(-1) for HFeO and 18.97 mgP g(-1) for HZrO. Despite this decrease, HFeO was capable of reducing the phosphate in a real wastewater matrix by 83%, and the HZrO media was able to reduce it by 86%, suggesting that such hybrid media have the potential for application at full scale.

  4. Synthesis of nano-sized arsenic-imprinted polymer and its use as As(3+) selective ionophore in a potentiometric membrane electrode: part 1.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Taher; Rashedi, Mariyam

    2014-09-16

    In this study, a new strategy was proposed for the preparation of As (III)-imprinted polymer by using arsenic (methacrylate)3 as template. Precipitation polymerization was utilized to synthesize nano-sized As (III)-imprinted polymer. Methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate were used as the functional monomer and cross-linking agent, respectively. In order to assembly functional monomers around As (III) ion, sodium arsenite and methacrylic acid were heated in the presence of hydroquinone, leading to arsenic (methacrylate)3. The nano-sized As (III) selective polymer was characterized by FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy techniques (SEM). It was demonstrated that arsenic was recognized as As(3+) by the selective cavities of the synthesized IIP. Based on the prepared polymer, the first arsenic cation selective membrane electrode was introduced. Membrane electrode was constructed by dispersion of As (III)-imprinted polymer nanoparticles in poly(vinyl chloride), plasticized with di-nonylphthalate. The IIP-modified electrode exhibited a Nernstian response (20.4±0.5 mV decade(-1)) to arsenic ion over a wide concentration range (7.0×10(-7) to 1.0×10(-1) mol L(-1)) with a lower detection limit of 5.0×10(-7) mol L(-1). Unlike this, the non-imprinted polymer (NIP)-based membrane electrode was not sensitive to arsenic in aqueous solution. The selectivity of the developed sensor to As (III) was shown to be satisfactory. The sensor was used for arsenic determination in some real samples.

  5. Anion transport and supramolecular medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gale, Philip A; Davis, Jeffery T; Quesada, Roberto

    2017-04-05

    New approaches to the transmembrane transport of anions are discussed in this review. Advances in the design of small molecule anion carriers are reviewed in addition to advances in the design of synthetic anion channels. The application of anion transporters to the potential future treatment of disease is discussed in the context of recent findings on the selectivity of anion transporters.

  6. Highly sensitive and selective difunctional ruthenium(II) complex-based chemosensor for dihydrogen phosphate anion and ferrous cation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ze-Bao; Duan, Zhi-Ming; Ma, Ying-Ying; Wang, Ke-Zhi

    2013-03-04

    The anion-interaction properties of a Ru(II) complex of [Ru(bpy)2(Htppip)](ClO4)2·H2O·DMF (RuL) {bpy =2,2'-bipyridine and Htppip =2-(4-(2,6-di(pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline} were thoroughly investigated in CH3CN and CH3CN/H2O (50:1, v/v) solutions by UV-visible absorption, emission, and (1)H NMR spectra. These analyses revealed that RuL acts as an efficient "turn on" emission sensor for H2PO4(-), and a "turn off" sensor for F(-) and OAc(-); in addition, RuL exhibited slightly disturbed emission spectra in the presence of the other anions studied (Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), NO3(-), and ClO4(-)). The cation-sensing properties of RuL were also studied in both neat CH3CN and aqueous 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid buffer (pH = 7.2)/CH3CN (71/1, v/v) solutions. RuL was found to exhibit a colorimetric sensing ability that was highly selective for Fe(2+), as evidenced by an obvious color change from pale yellow to light red-purple to the naked eye over the other cations studied (Na(+), Mg(2+), Ba(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+), and Ag(+)). To obtain insights into the possible binding modes and the sensing mechanisms, (1)H NMR spectral analysis, luminescence lifetime measurements, and density functional theoretical calculations were also performed.

  7. Potentiometric aptasensing of Listeria monocytogenes using protamine as an indicator.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jiawang; Lei, Jiahong; Ma, Xia; Gong, Jun; Qin, Wei

    2014-10-07

    Exposure to pathogens in recreational or drinking water is a serious public health concern. It is important to rapidly determine and identify trace levels of pathogens in real environmental samples. We report here on a label-free potentiometric aptasensor for rapid, sensitive, and selective detection of Listeria monocytogenes (LM), a pathogen widely distributed in the environment. An aptamer binds specifically to internalin A, a surface protein present in LM cells. The target-binding event prevents the aptamer from electrostatically interacting with protamine, which can be sensitively detected using a polycation-sensitive membrane electrode. Using this method, LM can be detected down to 10 CFU mL(-1). Coupled to an online filtration system, the bioassay has been evaluated with spiked coastal seawater samples and shows good recovery and high accuracy. This work demonstrates the possibility of developing potentiometric aptasensors for determination and identification of various bacteria in environmental samples.

  8. Paper-based potentiometric ion sensing.

    PubMed

    Lan, Wen-Jie; Zou, Xu U; Hamedi, Mahiar M; Hu, Jinbo; Parolo, Claudio; Maxwell, E Jane; Bühlmann, Philippe; Whitesides, George M

    2014-10-07

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of ion-sensing electrochemical paper-based analytical devices (EPADs) in which a miniaturized paper reference electrode is integrated with a small ion-selective paper electrode (ISPE) for potentiometric measurements. Ion-sensing EPADs use printed wax barriers to define electrochemical sample and reference zones. Single-layer EPADs for sensing of chloride ions include wax-defined sample and reference zones that each incorporate a Ag/AgCl electrode. In EPADs developed for other electrolytes (potassium, sodium, and calcium ions), a PVC-based ion-selective membrane is added to separate the sample zone from a paper indicator electrode. After the addition of a small volume (less than 10 μL) of sample and reference solutions to different zones, ion-sensing EPADs exhibit a linear response, over 3 orders of magnitude, in ranges of electrolyte concentrations that are relevant to a variety of applications, with a slope close to the theoretical value (59.2/z mV). Ion-selective EPADs provide a portable, inexpensive, and disposable way of measuring concentrations of electrolyte ions in aqueous solutions.

  9. Side selective surface modification of chitin nanofibers on anionically modified cotton fabrics.

    PubMed

    Wijesena, Ruchira N; Tissera, Nadeeka; Perera, Rangana; de Silva, K M Nalin

    2014-08-30

    Chitin nanofibers have been prepared from crab shell as a chitin source using ultrasound assisted fibrillation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) study showed that the prepared nanofibers were having diameters and lengths primarily in the range of 2-20 nm and 0.3-4 μm respectively. These nanofibers were selectively grafted on one side of a 100% cotton fabric using a special apparatus. Prior to the grafting, cotton fabrics were modified with partial carboxymethylation to encourage cotton fiber nanofiber interactions. The surface modification was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) peaks at 1,594 cm(-1) and 1,735 cm(-1) due to the presence of carboxylic acid functionality in modified cotton fabrics. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of the nanofiber grafted cotton fabrics showed that nanofibers were adhered to the cotton fabrics. Elemental analysis confirmed that side selective grafting of nanofiber has taken place due to the peak at 0.394 keV which attributes to the presence of nitrogen element in chitin nanofibers. This peak was absent in the other side of the fabric which was not coated with chitin nanofibers. Amount of adhered nanofibers was seen to increase with the increase of nanofiber concentration used in grafting as confirmed by Kjeldahl analysis. A possible mechanism of cotton fiber-nanofiber interactions is introduced.

  10. Developments in the Field of Conducting and Non-conducting Polymer Based Potentiometric Membrane Sensors for Ions Over the Past Decade

    PubMed Central

    Faridbod, Farnoush; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Norouzi, Parviz

    2008-01-01

    Many research studies have been conducted on the use of conjugated polymers in the construction of chemical sensors including potentiometric, conductometric and amperometric sensors or biosensors over the last decade. The induction of conductivity on conjugated polymers by treating them with suitable oxidizing agents won Heeger, MacDiarmid and Shirakawa the 2000 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Common conjugated polymers are poly(acetylene)s, poly(pyrrole)s, poly(thiophene)s, poly(terthiophene)s, poly(aniline)s, poly(fluorine)s, poly(3-alkylthiophene)s, polytetrathiafulvalenes, poly-napthalenes, poly(p-phenylene sulfide), poly(p-phenylenevinylene)s, poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene), polyparaphenylene, polyazulene, polyparaphenylene sulfide, poly-carbazole and polydiaminonaphthalene. More than 60 sensors for inorganic cations and anions with different characteristics based on conducting polymers have been reported. There have also been reports on the application of non-conducting polymers (nCPs), i.e. PVC, in the construction of potentiometric membrane sensors for determination of more than 60 inorganic cations and anions. However, the leakage of ionophores from the membranes based on these polymers leads to relatively lower life times. In this article, we try to give an overview of Solid-Contact ISE (SCISE), Single-Piece ISE (SPISE), Conducting Polymer (CP)-Based, and also non-conducting polymer PVC-based ISEs for various ions which their difference is in the way of the polymer used with selective\\ membrane. In SCISEs and SPISEs, the plasticized PVC containing the ionophore and ionic additives govern the selectivity behavior of the electrode and the conducting polymer is responsible of ion-to-electron transducer. However, in CPISEs, the conducting polymer layer is doped with a suitable ionophore which enhances the ion selectivity of the CP while its redox response has to be suppressed. PMID:27879825

  11. Highly selective and sensitive phosphate anion sensors based on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors functionalized by ion imprinted polymer

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xiuling; Chen, Dunjun; Bin, Liu; Lu, Hai; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou

    2016-01-01

    A novel ion-imprinted electrochemical sensor based on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) was developed to detect trace amounts of phosphate anion. This sensor combined the advantages of the ion sensitivity of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs and specific recognition of ion imprinted polymers. The current response showed that the fabricated sensor is highly sensitive and selective to phosphate anions. The current change exhibited approximate linear dependence for phosphate concentration from 0.02 mg L−1 to 2 mg L−1, the sensitivity and detection limit of the sensor is 3.191 μA/mg L−1 and 1.97 μg L−1, respectively. The results indicated that this AlGaN/GaN HEMT-based electrochemical sensor has the potential applications on phosphate anion detection. PMID:27278795

  12. Effective charge measurements reveal selective and preferential accumulation of anions, but not cations, at the protein surface in dilute salt solutions

    PubMed Central

    Gokarn, Yatin R; Fesinmeyer, R Matthew; Saluja, Atul; Razinkov, Vladimir; Chase, Susan F; Laue, Thomas M; Brems, David N

    2011-01-01

    Specific-ion effects are ubiquitous in nature; however, their underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Although Hofmeister-ion effects on proteins are observed at higher (>0.3M) salt concentrations, in dilute (<0.1M) salt solutions nonspecific electrostatic screening is considered to be dominant. Here, using effective charge (Q*) measurements of hen-egg white lysozyme (HEWL) as a direct and differential measure of ion-association, we experimentally show that anions selectively and preferentially accumulate at the protein surface even at low (<100 mM) salt concentrations. At a given ion normality (50 mN), the HEWL Q* was dependent on anion, but not cation (Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, GdnH+, and Ca2+), identity. The Q* decreased in the order F− > Cl− > Br− > NO3− ∼ I− > SCN− > ClO4− ≫ SO42−, demonstrating progressively greater binding of the monovalent anions to HEWL and also show that the SO42− anion, despite being strongly hydrated, interacts directly with the HEWL surface. Under our experimental conditions, we observe a remarkable asymmetry between anions and cations in their interactions with the HEWL surface. PMID:21432935

  13. Development of novel potentiometric sensors for determination of tartrazine dye concentration in foodstuff products.

    PubMed

    Abu Shawish, Hazem M; Ghalwa, Nasser Abu; Saadeh, Salman M; El Harazeen, Heba

    2013-05-01

    Tartrazine dye Na(3)TZ in foodstuff products was determined by a new modified carbon paste electrode, encoded sensor A, and a coated silver wire electrode, encoded sensor B, based on tartrazine TZ- cetryltrimethyl ammoniumbromide CTAB as a chemical modifier TZ-CTA. The electrodes exhibit the following characteristics listed respectively: a Nernstian slope of 17.9±0.5 and 19.4±0.2 mV/decade for tartrazine ion over a wide concentration range from 4.3×10(-7) to 1.0×10(-2) and 1.1×10(-7) to 1.0×10(-2) M. The lower detection limits: 3.2×10(-7) and 5.5×10(-8) M. Short response time (5-8 s) over the pH range 3.8-7.7 and 4.2-8.1. The proposed sensors display significantly high selectivity for TZ ion over a wide variety of sugars, some anions, common organic, inorganic compounds and additives. The developed electrodes were applied to the potentiometric determination of tartrazine ion in different kinds of foodstuffs: solid jelly (strawberry and custard) powder samples and soft drink (orange) samples with satisfactory results.

  14. Protein-salt binding data from potentiometric titrations of lysozyme in aqueous solutions containing KCl

    SciTech Connect

    Engmann, J.; Blanch, H.W.; Prausnitz, J.M. |

    1997-03-01

    An existing method for potentiometric titrations of proteins was improved, tested and applied to titrations of the enzyme hen-egg-white lysozyme in aqueous solutions containing KCl at ionic strengths from 0.1 M to 2.0 M at 25 C. Information about the protein`s net charge dependence on pH and ionic strength were obtained and salt binding numbers for the system were calculated using a linkage concept. For the pH range 2.5--11.5, the net charge slightly but distinctly increases with increasing ionic strength between 0.1 M and 2.0 M. The differences are most distinct in the pH region below 5. Above pH 11.35, the net charge decreases with increasing ionic strength. Preliminary calculation of binding numbers from titration curves at 0.1 M and 1.0 M showed selective association of chloride anions and expulsion of potassium ions at low pH. Ion-binding numbers from this work will be used to evaluate thermodynamic properties and to correlate crystallization or precipitation phase-equilibrium data in terms of a model based on the integral-equation theory of fluids which is currently under development.

  15. Mitigating arsenic crisis in the developing world: role of robust, reusable and selective hybrid anion exchanger (HAIX).

    PubMed

    German, Michael; Seingheng, Hul; SenGupta, Arup K

    2014-08-01

    In trying to address the public health crisis from the lack of potable water, millions of tube wells have been installed across the world. From these tube wells, natural groundwater contamination from arsenic regularly puts at risk the health of over 100 million people in South and Southeast Asia. Although there have been many research projects, awards and publications, appropriate treatment technology has not been matched to ground level realities and water solutions have not scaled to reach millions of people. For thousands of people from Nepal to India to Cambodia, hybrid anion exchange (HAIX) resins have provided arsenic-safe water for up to nine years. Synthesis of HAIX resins has been commercialized and they are now available globally. Robust, reusable and arsenic-selective, HAIX has been in operation in rural communities over numerous cycles of exhaustion-regeneration. All necessary testing and system maintenance is organized by community-level water staff. Removed arsenic is safely stored in a scientifically and environmentally appropriate manner to prevent future hazards to animals or people. Recent installations have shown the profitability of HAIX-based arsenic treatment, with capital payback periods of only two years in ideal locations. With an appropriate implementation model, HAIX-based treatment can rapidly scale and provide arsenic-safe water to at-risk populations.

  16. Mechanistic Investigation of Solvent Extraction Based on Anion-Functionalized Ionic Liquids for Selective Separation of Rare-Earth Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiaoqi; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, solvation has been found to be a dominant mechanism in a comprehensive ionic liquid based extraction system for rare earth elements (REEs). Trioctylmethylammonium di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate ([TOMA][DEHP]), an ionic-liquid extractant, was used in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidizolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([Cnmim][NTf2], n = 4, 6, 8, 10) and 1-alkyl-3-methylimidizolium bis(perfluoroethanesulfonyl)imide ([Cnmim][BETI], n = 4, 6, 8, 10) for the separation of REEs. Surprisingly, a very similar extraction behavior was observed even as the carbon chain length on the ionic-liquid (IL) cation increased from butyl (C4) to hexyl (C6), to octyl (C8), to decyl (C10). This behavior is in sharp contrast to that exhibited by the conventional neutral extractants, whose extraction efficiencies are strongly dependent on the hydrophobicity of IL cations. Furthermore, the addition of IL cations ([Cnmim]+) or IL anions ([NTf2]- or [BETI]-) to the aqueous phase had little effect on the extraction behavior of the above extraction system, ruling out the strong involvement of the ion-exchange mechanism associated with traditional IL-based extraction systems. Results showed that the extractabilities and selectivities of REEs using [TOMA][DEHP] in [C10mim][NTf2]/[BETI] are several orders of magnitude better than those achieved using conventional organic solvent, diisopropylbenzene (DIPB). This study highlights the potential of developing a comprehensive IL-based extraction strategy for REEs separations.

  17. Enhancing electrochemical intermediate solvation through electrolyte anion selection to increase nonaqueous Li–O2 battery capacity

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Colin M.; Pande, Vikram; Khetan, Abhishek; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; McCloskey, Bryan D.

    2015-01-01

    Among the “beyond Li-ion” battery chemistries, nonaqueous Li–O2 batteries have the highest theoretical specific energy and, as a result, have attracted significant research attention over the past decade. A critical scientific challenge facing nonaqueous Li–O2 batteries is the electronically insulating nature of the primary discharge product, lithium peroxide, which passivates the battery cathode as it is formed, leading to low ultimate cell capacities. Recently, strategies to enhance solubility to circumvent this issue have been reported, but rely upon electrolyte formulations that further decrease the overall electrochemical stability of the system, thereby deleteriously affecting battery rechargeability. In this study, we report that a significant enhancement (greater than fourfold) in Li–O2 cell capacity is possible by appropriately selecting the salt anion in the electrolyte solution. Using 7Li NMR and modeling, we confirm that this improvement is a result of enhanced Li+ stability in solution, which, in turn, induces solubility of the intermediate to Li2O2 formation. Using this strategy, the challenging task of identifying an electrolyte solvent that possesses the anticorrelated properties of high intermediate solubility and solvent stability is alleviated, potentially providing a pathway to develop an electrolyte that affords both high capacity and rechargeability. We believe the model and strategy presented here will be generally useful to enhance Coulombic efficiency in many electrochemical systems (e.g., Li–S batteries) where improving intermediate stability in solution could induce desired mechanisms of product formation. PMID:26170330

  18. Self-assembled arene-ruthenium-based rectangles for the selective sensing of multi-carboxylate anions.

    PubMed

    Vajpayee, Vaishali; Song, Young Ho; Lee, Min Hyung; Kim, Hyunuk; Wang, Ming; Stang, Peter J; Chi, Ki-Whan

    2011-07-04

    Novel arene-ruthenium [2+2] metalla-rectangles 4 and 5 have been synthesized by self-assembly using dipyridyl amide ligand 3 and arene-ruthenium acceptors (arene: benzoquinone (1), naphthacenedione (2)) and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS. The solid-state structure of 5 was determined by X-ray diffraction and shows encapsulated diethyl ether molecule in the rectangular cavity of 5. The luminescent 5 was further used for anion sensing with the amidic linkage serving as a hydrogen-bond donor site for anions and the ruthenium moiety serving as a signaling unit. A UV/Vis titration study demonstrated that although 5 interacts very weakly with common monoanions as well as with flexible dicarboxylate anions such as malonate and succinate, it displays significant binding affinity (K>10(3) in MeOH) for rigid multi-carboxylate anions such as oxalate, citrate, and tartrate, exhibiting a 1:1 stoichiometry. It has been suggested that 1:1 bidentate hydrogen bonding assisted by appropriate geometrical complementarity is mainly responsible for the increased affinity of 5 towards such anions. A fluorescence titration study revealed a large fluorescence enhancement of 5 upon binding to multi-carboxylate anions, which can be attributed to the blocking of the photoinduced electron-transfer process from the arene-Ru moiety to the amidic donor in 5 as a result of hydrogen bonding between the donor and the anion.

  19. Substituent directed selectivity in anion recognition by a new class of simple osmium-pyrazole derived receptors.

    PubMed

    Das, Ankita; Mondal, Prasenjit; Dasgupta, Moumita; Kishore, Nand; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar

    2016-02-14

    The present article deals with the structurally, spectroscopically and electrochemically characterised osmium-bipyridyl derived complexes [(bpy)2Os(II)(HL1)Cl]ClO4 [1]ClO4 and [(bpy)2Os(II)(HL2)Cl]ClO4 [2]ClO4 incorporating neutral and monodentate pyrazole derivatives (HL) with one free NH function (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, HL1 = pyrazole, HL2 = 3,5-dimethylpyrazole). The crystal structures of [1]ClO4 and [2]ClO4 reveal intramolecular hydrogen bonding interactions between the free NH proton of HL and the equatorially placed Cl(-) ligand (N-HCl) with donor-acceptor distances of 3.114(7) Å and 3.153(6) Å as well as intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions between the NH proton and one of the oxygen atoms of ClO4(-) (N-HO) with donor-acceptor distances of 2.870(10) Å and 3.024(8) Å, respectively. The effect of hydrogen bonding interactions has translated into the less acidic nature of the NH proton of the coordinated HL with estimated pKa > 12. 1(+) and 2(+) exhibit reversible Os(II)/(III) and irreversible Os(III)/(IV) processes in CH3CN within ± 2.0 V versus SCE. The effect of 3,5-dimethyl substituted HL2 on 2(+) has been reflected in the appreciable lowering (40 mV) of the Os(II/III) potential, along with the further decrease in the acidity of the NH proton (pKa > 13.0) with regard to HL1 coordinated 1(+) (pKa: ∼ 12.3). The electronic spectral features of Os(ii) (1(+)/2(+)) and electrochemically generated Os(III) (1(2+)/2(2+)) derived complexes have been analysed by TD-DFT calculations. The efficacy of the 1(+) and 2(+) encompassing free NH proton towards the anion recognition process has been evaluated by different experimental investigations using a wide variety of anions. It however establishes that receptor 1(+) can recognise both F(-) and OAc(-) in acetonitrile solution, while 2(+) is exclusively selective for the F(-) ion.

  20. One-step selective electrokinetic removal of inorganic anions from small volumes and its application as sample clean-up for mass spectrometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Tubaon, Ria Marni; Haddad, Paul R; Quirino, Joselito P

    2017-03-10

    The presence of inorganic anions in a sample interferes with mass spectrometric (MS) analysis. Here, a simple method to remove these ions from a liquid sample in one-step is described. The inorganic anions present in a 50μL sample were extracted into a low pH solution inside a 200μm i.d.×33cm long capillary by the use of an electric field. The selective removal of unwanted anions and retention of target analytes was accomplished by control of the apparent electrophoretic velocities of anions and analytes at a boundary that separated the sample and extraction solution. No physical barrier (e.g., membrane) was required and with the boundary situated at the tip of the capillary, efficient removal of inorganic anions (e.g., >80% removal) and good recovery of target analytes (e.g., >80% recovery) were achieved. The time required for removal of the inorganic anions was found to depend on their initial concentrations. The removal process was investigated using different concentrations of bromide and nitrate (as potassium salts) and negatively chargeable drugs as target analytes. This micro-sample clean-up technique used no organic solvents and little consumables and was studied to the determination of 0.6μg/L arsenic and 8.3μg/L vanadium in 500mg/L sodium chloride using inductively coupled plasma MS and 50μM angiotensin I in 1000mg/L sodium chloride using electrospray ionisation MS. Micro-sample clean-up was performed for 45min at 3kV in both demonstrations. The calculated recoveries for the metals at trace levels were 110-130%, and for the peptide was 103.8%.

  1. Mechanochemical and Conventional Synthesis of Zn(II)/Cd(II) Luminescent Coordination Polymers: Dual Sensing Probe for Selective Detection of Chromate Anions and TNP in Aqueous Phase.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Bhavesh; Rachuri, Yadagiri; Bisht, Kamal Kumar; Laiya, Ridhdhi; Suresh, Eringathodi

    2017-03-06

    Isostructural Zn(II)/Cd(II) mixed ligand coordination polymers (CPs) {[M(IPA)(L)]}n (CP1 and CP2) built from isophthalic acid (H2IPA) and 3-pyridylcarboxaldehyde nicotinoylhydrazone (L) were prepared using versatile synthetic routes: viz., diffusion of precursor solutions, conventional reflux methods, and green mechanochemical (grinding) reactions. Both robust CPs synthesized by different routes were characterized by various analytical methods, and their thermal and chemical stability as well as the phase purity was established. Crystallographic studies revealed that CP1 and CP2 are isostructural frameworks and feature a double-lined two-dimensional network composed of Zn(2+)/Cd(2+) nodes connected through IPA and pillared by the Schiff base ligand L with a double-walled edge. The photoluminescent (PL) properties of CP1 and CP2 have been exploited as dual detection fluorosensors for hexavalent chromate anions (CrO4(2-)/Cr2O7(2-)) and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP) because it was observed that the emission intensity of aqueous suspensions of CPs selectively quenches by chromate anions or TNP among large pools of different anions or nitro compounds, respectively. Competitive experiments in the presence of interfering anions/other nitro compounds also revealed no major effect in the quenching efficiency, suggesting the selective detection of hexavalent chromate anions as well as TNP by the LCPs. The limits of detection by CP1 for CrO4(2-)/Cr2O7(2-) and TNP are 4 ppm/4 ppm and 28 ppb, respectively, whereas the limits of detection by CP2 for the same analytes are 1 ppm/1 ppm and 14 ppb, respectively. A probable mechanism for the quenching phenomena is also discussed.

  2. A Single P-loop Glutamate Point Mutation to either Lysine or Arginine Switches the Cation–Anion Selectivity of the CNGA2 Channel

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Wei; Moorhouse, Andrew J.; Chandra, Meenak; Pierce, Kerrie D.; Lewis, Trevor M.; Barry, Peter H.

    2006-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels play a critical role in olfactory and visual transduction. Site-directed mutagenesis and inside-out patch-clamp recordings were used to investigate ion permeation and selectivity in two mutant homomeric rat olfactory CNGA2 channels expressed in HEK293 cells. A single point mutation of the negatively charged pore loop (P-loop) glutamate (E342) to either a positively charged lysine or arginine resulted in functional channels, which consistently responded to cGMP, although the currents were generally extremely small. The concentration–response curve of the lysine mutant channel was very similar to that of wild-type (WT) channels, suggesting no major structural alteration to the mutant channels. Reversal potential measurements, during cytoplasmic NaCl dilutions, showed that the lysine and the arginine mutations switched the selectivity of the channel from cations (PCl/PNa = 0.07 [WT]) to anions (PCl/PNa = 14 [Lys] or 10 [Arg]). Relative anion permeability sequences for the two mutant channels, measured with bi-ionic substitutions, were NO3− > I− > Br− > Cl− > F− > acetate−, the same as those obtained for anion-selective GABA and glycine channels. The mutant channels also seem to have an extremely small single-channel conductance, measured using noise analysis of about 1–2 pS, compared to a WT value of about 29 pS. The results showed that it is predominantly the charge of the E342 residue in the P-loop, rather than the pore helix dipoles, which controls the cation–anion selectivity of this channel. However, the outward rectification displayed by both mutant channels in symmetrical NaCl solutions suggests that the negative ends of the pore helix dipoles may play a role in reducing the outward movement of Cl− ions through these anion-selective channels. These results have potential implications for the determinants of anion–cation selectivity in the large family of P-loop–containing channels. PMID:16533895

  3. Aggregation-Induced Emission Active Metal-Free Chemosensing Platform for Highly Selective Turn-On Sensing and Bioimaging of Pyrophosphate Anion.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, Abhijit; Mukherjee, Sandipan; Ramesh, Aiyagari; Das, Gopal

    2015-07-07

    We report the synthesis of a metal-free chemosensor for highly selective sensing of pyrophosphate (PPi) anion in physiological medium. The novel phenylbenzimidazole functionalized imine containing chemosensor (L; [2,6-bis(((4-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl)imino) methyl)-4 methyl phenol]) could sense PPi anion through "turn-on" colorimetric and fluorimetric responses in a very competitive environment. The overall sensing mechanism is based on the aggregation-induced emission (AIE) phenomenon. Moreover, a real time in-field device application was demonstrated by sensing PPi in paper strips coated with L. Interestingly, detection of intracellular PPi ions in model human cells could also be possible by fluorescence microscopic studies without any toxicity to these cells.

  4. A novel reaction-based colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent sensor for cyanide anion with a large emission shift and high selectivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaodan; Fei, Xiaoliang; Guo, Jing; Yang, Qingbiao; Li, Yaoxian; Song, Yan

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid carbazole-hemicyanine dye (Cac) has been developed as a novel colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent sensor for cyanide detection. Upon treatment with cyanide, Cac displayed a remarkable fluorescence ratiometric response, with the emission wavelength displaying a very large emission shift (214 nm). The detection of cyanide was performed via the nucleophilic addition of cyanide anion to the indolium group of the sensor, which resulted in the blocking of the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) process in the sensor, inducing a ratiometric fluorescence change and simultaneously an obvious color change. Furthermore, competitive anions did not showed any significant changes both in color and emission intensity ratio (I381/I595), indicating the high selectivity of the sensor to CN(-).

  5. Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

  6. Selective colorimetric determination of TNT partitioned between an alkaline solution and a strongly basic Dowex 1-X8 anion exchanger.

    PubMed

    Uzer, Ayşem; Erçağ, Erol; Apak, Reşat

    2008-01-30

    The Meisenheimer anions formed from TNT in KOH solutions in alcohol or acetone were used in screening tests for TNT among possible nitro-explosives. The same reaction was used for the spectrophotometric assay of TNT in soil by CRREL (Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory of the U.S. Army) method, also known as Jenkins' method, but the color stability was too dependent on the solution composition and the water tolerance was low, necessitating complete drying of soil samples (which may cause partial analyte decomposition) prior to analysis. This study reports the development of a colorimetric method based on the solid phase extraction (SPE) of the Meisenheimer anion formed from TNT and aqueous NaOH into a strongly basic anion exchange resin Dowex 1-X8 (OH(-) form). The orange-red color that developed both in the solid resin and solution phases was persistent for at least 1h. The resin was let to swell in alcohol, washed first with 1M aqueous NaOH, and then with H(2)O before use. To 5 mL of 4-400 ppm TNT solutions in 1:1 (v/v) acetone-water, 0.5 mL of 5% NaOH was added, diluted to 50 mL with 1:1 acetone-water, and the resulting solutions (containing the orange-red Meisenheimer anion of TNT) were agitated at room temperature with 0.9 g resin for < or =50 min. TNT exhibited a reasonably constant distribution coefficient between the resin and aqueous phases. The absorbance of the filtered solutions was measured against a reagent blank at 500nm. The TNT-loaded resins were regenerated with 1M HCl containing sodium sulfite. The calibration line of filtrate absorbance versus analytical concentration was linear over two orders of magnitude between 0.4 and 40 ppm TNT in final solution. Unlike Jenkins' method, the method was tolerant to 100-fold (by mass) of common soil anions like sulfate, nitrate, and chloride. The basic advantages of the developed colorimetric method over the similar CRREL/Jenkins' method may be summarized as color stability, water and common ion

  7. Polymeric Optical Sensors for Selective and Sensitive Nitrite Detection Using Cobalt(III) Corrole and Rh(III) Porphyrin as Ionophores

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Si; Wo, Yaqi; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Cobalt(III) 5, 10, 15-tris(4-tert-butylphenyl) corrole with a triphenylphosphine axial ligand and rhodium(III) 5,10,15,20-tetra(p-tert-butylphenyl)porphyrin are incorporated into plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) films to fabricate nitrite-selective bulk optodes via absorbance measurements. The resulting films yield sensitive, fast and fully reversible response toward nitrite with significantly enhanced nitrite selectivity over other anions including lipophilic anions such as thiocyanate and perchlorate. The selectivity patterns differ greatly from the Hofmeister series based on anion lipophilicity and are consistent with selectivity obtained with potentiometric sensors based on the same ionophores. The optical nitrite sensors are shown to be useful for detecting rates of emission of nitric oxide (NO) from NO releasing polymers containing S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine. PMID:25150700

  8. Silica-based monolithic columns with mixed-mode reversed-phase/weak anion-exchange selectivity principle for high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Raquel; Lubda, Dieter; Leitner, Alexander; Bicker, Wolfgang; Maier, Norbert M; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Lindner, Wolfgang

    2006-05-01

    This article describes the synthesis, chromatographic characterization, and performance evaluation of analytical (100 x 4.6 mm id) and semipreparative (100 x 10 mm id) monolithic silica columns with mixed-mode RP/weak anion-exchange (RP/WAX) surface modification. The monolithic RP/WAX columns were obtained by immobilization of N-(10-undecenoyl)-3-aminoquinuclidine onto thiol-modified monolithic silica columns (Chromolith) by a radical addition reaction. Their chromatographic characterization by Engelhardt and Tanaka tests revealed slightly lower hydrophobic selectivities than C-8 phases, as well as higher polarity and also improved shape selectivity than RP-18e silica rods. The surface modification enabled separation by both RP and anion-exchange chromatography principles, and thus showed complementary selectivities to the RP-18e monoliths. The mixed-mode monoliths have been tested for the separation of peptides and turned out to be particularly useful for hydrophilic acidic peptides, which are usually insufficiently retained on RP-18e monolithic columns. Compared to a corresponding particulate RP/WAX column (5 microm, 10 nm pore diameter), the analytical RP/WAX monolith caused lower system pressure drops and showed, as expected, higher efficiency (e.g. by a factor of about 2.5 lower C-term for a tetrapeptide). The upscaling from the analytical to semipreparative column dimension was also successful.

  9. Potentiometric perchlorate determination at nanomolar concentrations in vegetables.

    PubMed

    Leoterio, Dilmo M S; Paim, Ana Paula S; Belian, Mônica F; Galembeck, André; Lavorante, André F; Pinto, Edgar; Amorim, Célia G; Araújo, Alberto N; Montenegro, Maria C B S M

    2017-07-15

    In this work, an expeditious method based on the multi-commutated flow-analysis concept with potentiometric detection is proposed to perform determinations of the emergent contaminant perchlorate in vegetable matrices down to nanomolar concentration. To accomplish the task, a tubular shaped potentiometric sensor selective to perchlorate ion was constructed with a PVC membrane containing 12mmol/kg of the polyamine bisnaphthalimidopropyl-4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane and 2-nitrophenyl phenyl ether 68% (w/w) as plasticizer casted on a conductive epoxy resin. Under optimal flow conditions, the sensor responded linearly in the concentration range of 6.3×10(-7)-1.0×10(-3)mol/L perchlorate. In order to extend the determinations to lower concentrations (4.6(±1.3)×10(-10)mol/L perchlorate), a column packed with 70mg of sodium 2,5,8,11,14-pentaoxa-1-silacyclotetradecane-polymer was coupled to the flow-system thus enabling prior pre-concentration of the perchlorate. The proposed procedure provides a simpler alternative for the determination of perchlorate in foods, nowadays only allowed by sophisticated and expensive equipment and laborious methods.

  10. Dynamic chemistry of anion recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Custelcean, Radu

    2012-01-01

    In the past 40 years, anion recognition by synthetic receptors has grown into a rich and vibrant research topic, developing into a distinct branch of Supramolecular Chemistry. Traditional anion receptors comprise organic scaffolds functionalized with complementary binding groups that are assembled by multistep organic synthesis. Recently, a new approach to anion receptors has emerged, in which the host is dynamically self-assembled in the presence of the anionic guest, via reversible bond formation between functional building units. While coordination bonds were initially employed for the self-assembly of the anion hosts, more recent studies demonstrated that reversible covalent bonds can serve the same purpose. In both cases, due to their labile connections, the molecular constituents have the ability to assemble, dissociate, and recombine continuously, thereby creating a dynamic combinatorial library (DCL) of receptors. The anionic guests, through specific molecular recognition, may then amplify (express) the formation of a particular structure among all possible combinations (real or virtual) by shifting the equilibria involved towards the most optimal receptor. This approach is not limited to solution self-assembly, but is equally applicable to crystallization, where the fittest anion-binding crystal may be selected. Finally, the pros and cons of employing dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) vs molecular design for developing anion receptors, and the implications of both approaches to selective anion separations, will be discussed.

  11. A novel porous anionic metal-organic framework with pillared double-layer structure for selective adsorption of dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Shu-Nan; Han, Yi; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Cui; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Min-Jian; Xie, Ya-Bo; Li, Jian-Rong

    2016-01-01

    A novel porous anionic metal-organic framework, (Me2NH2)2[Zn2L1.5bpy]·2DMF (BUT-201; H4L=4,8-disulfonaphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid; bpy=4,4-bipyridine; DMF=N,N-dimethylformamide), with pillared double-layer structure has been synthesized through the reaction of a sulfonated carboxylic acid ligand and Zn(NO3)2·6H2O with 4,4-bipyridine as a co-ligand. It is found that BUT-201 can rapidly adsorb cationic dyes with a smaller size such as Methylene Blue (MB) and Acriflavine Hydrochloride (AH) by substitution of guest (CH3)2NH2+, but has no adsorption towards the cationic dyes with a lager size such as Methylene Violet (MV), the anionic dyes like C. I. Acid Yellow 1 (AY1) and neutral dyes like C. I. Solvent Yellow 7 (SY7), respectively. The results show that the adsorption behavior of BUT-201 relates not only to the charge but also to the size/shape of dyes. Furthermore, the adsorbed dyes can be gradually released in the methanol solution of LiNO3.

  12. Reactivity of aluminum cluster anions with ammonia: Selective etching of Al{sub 11}{sup -} and Al{sub 12}{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Grubisic, Andrej; Li Xiang; Gantefoer, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H.; Schnoeckel, Hansgeorg; Tenorio, Francisco J.; Martinez, Ana

    2009-11-14

    Reactivity of aluminum cluster anions toward ammonia was studied via mass spectrometry. Highly selective etching of Al{sub 11}{sup -} and Al{sub 12}{sup -} was observed at low concentrations of ammonia. However, at sufficiently high concentrations of ammonia, all other sizes of aluminum cluster anions, except for Al{sub 13}{sup -}, were also observed to deplete. The disappearance of Al{sub 11}{sup -} and Al{sub 12}{sup -} was accompanied by concurrent production of Al{sub 11}NH{sub 3}{sup -} and Al{sub 12}NH{sub 3}{sup -} species, respectively. Theoretical simulations of the photoelectron spectrum of Al{sub 11}NH{sub 3}{sup -} showed conclusively that its ammonia moiety is chemisorbed without dissociation, although in the case of Al{sub 12}NH{sub 3}{sup -}, dissociation of the ammonia moiety could not be excluded. Moreover, since differences in calculated Al{sub n}{sup -}+NH{sub 3} (n=9-12) reaction energies were not able to explain the observed selective etching of Al{sub 11}{sup -} and Al{sub 12}{sup -}, we concluded that thermodynamics plays only a minor role in determining the observed reactivity pattern, and that kinetics is the more influential factor. In particular, the conversion from the physisorbed Al{sub n}{sup -}(NH{sub 3}) to chemisorbed Al{sub n}NH{sub 3}{sup -} species is proposed as the likely rate-limiting step.

  13. Non-pore lining amino acid side chains influence anion selectivity of the human CFTR Cl− channel expressed in mammalian cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Linsdell, Paul; Zheng, Shu-Xian; Hanrahan, John W

    1998-01-01

    The effects of individually mutating two adjacent threonine residues in the sixth membrane-spanning region (TM6) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel on permeation properties were examined using patch clamp recording from mammalian cell lines stably expressing human CFTR.A number of mutations of T338 significantly affected the permeation properties of the channel. Increases and decreases in single channel conductance were observed for different mutants. Anion selectivity was strongly affected, with no two channel variants sharing the same selectivity sequence. Several mutations led to strong inward rectification of the macroscopic current-voltage relationship. The effects of these mutations on permeation properties were correlated with the size of the amino acid side chain substituted, rather than its chemical nature.Most mutations of T339 resulted in a lack of functional channel expression and apparent misprocessing of the protein. One mutant, T339V, was characterized in detail; its permeation properties were significantly altered, although these effects were not as strong as for T338 mutations.These results suggest an important role for T338 in controlling the permeation properties of the CFTR Cl− channel. It is suggested that mutation of this residue alters the interaction between permeating anions and the channel pore via an indirect effect on the orientation of the TM6 helix. PMID:9729613

  14. In situ SIMS analysis and reactions of surfaces prepared by soft landing of mass-selected cations and anions using an ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zongxiu; Li, Guangtao; Goodwin, Michael P; Gao, Liang; Cyriac, Jobin; Cooks, R Graham

    2009-06-01

    Mass-selected polyatomic cations and anions, produced by electrosonic spray ionization (ESSI), were deposited onto polycrystalline Au or fluorinated self-assembled monolayer (FSAM) surfaces by soft landing (SL), using a rectilinear ion trap (RIT) mass spectrometer. Protonated and deprotonated molecules, as well as intact cations and anions generated from such molecules as peptides, inorganic catalysts, and fluorescent dyes, were soft-landed onto the surfaces. Analysis of the modified surfaces was performed in situ by Cs(+) secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) using the same RIT mass analyzer to characterize the sputtered ions as that used to mass select the primary ions for SL. Soft-landing times as short as 30 s provided surfaces that yielded good quality SIMS spectra. Chemical reactions of the surfaces modified by SL were generated in an attached reaction chamber into which the surface was transferred under vacuum. For example, a surface on which protonated triethanolamine had been soft landed was silylated using vapor-phase chlorotrimethylsilane before being returned still under vacuum to the preparation chamber where SIMS analysis revealed the silyloxy functionalization. SL and vapor-phase reactions are complementary methods of surface modification and in situ surface analysis by SIMS is a simple way to characterize the products produced by either technique.

  15. A Three-Dimensional Origami Paper-Based Device for Potentiometric Biosensing.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jiawang; Li, Bowei; Chen, Lingxin; Qin, Wei

    2016-10-10

    Current paper-based potentiometric ion-sensing platforms are planar devices used for clinically relevant ions. These devices, however, have not been designed for the potentiometric biosensing of proteins or small molecule analytes. A three-dimensional origami paper-based device, in which a solid-contact ion-selective electrode is integrated with an all-solid-state reference electrode, is described for the first time. The device is made by impregnation of paper with appropriate bioreceptors and reporting reagents on different zones. By folding and unfolding the paper structures, versatile potentiometric bioassays can be performed. A USB-controlled miniaturized electrochemical detector can be used for simple and in situ measurements. Using butyrylcholinesterase as a model enzyme, the device has been successfully applied to the detection of enzyme activities and organophosphate pesticides involved in the enzymatic system as inhibitors. The proposed 3D origami paper device allows the potentiometric biosensing of proteins and small molecules in a simple, portable, and cost-effective way.

  16. Concentration-related response potentiometric titrations to study the interaction of small molecules with large biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Hamidi-Asl, Ezat; Daems, Devin; De Wael, Karolien; Van Camp, Guy; Nagels, Luc J

    2014-12-16

    In the present paper, the utility of a special potentiometric titration approach for recognition and calculation of biomolecule/small-molecule interactions is reported. This approach is fast, sensitive, reproducible, and inexpensive in comparison to the other methods for the determination of the association constant values (Ka) and the interaction energies (ΔG). The potentiometric titration measurement is based on the use of a classical polymeric membrane indicator electrode in a solution of the small-molecule ligand. The biomolecule is used as a titrant. The potential is measured versus a reference electrode and transformed into a concentration-related signal over the entire concentration interval, also at low concentrations, where the millivolt (y-axis) versus log canalyte (x-axis) potentiometric calibration curve is not linear. In the procedure, Ka is calculated for the interaction of cocaine with a cocaine binding aptamer and with an anticocaine antibody. To study the selectivity and cross-reactivity, other oligonucleotides and aptamers are tested, as well as other small ligand molecules such as tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl)borate, metergoline, lidocaine, and bromhexine. The calculated Ka compared favorably to the value reported in the literature using surface plasmon resonance. The potentiometric titration approach called "concentration-related response potentiometry" is used to study molecular interaction for seven macromolecular target molecules and four small-molecule ligands.

  17. Nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes with humic acid anions and their derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabova, I.N.

    2008-01-15

    Complexation of Ni(II) and Cu(II) in aqueous solutions with anions of humic acids, extracted from naturally oxidized coal, and with their hydroxymethyl derivatives is studied spectrophotometrically and potentiometrically. The complexation stoichiometry and the stability constants of the complexes are determined.

  18. A 1D anionic lanthanide coordination polymer as an adsorbent material for the selective uptake of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Du, Pei-Yao; Li, Hui; Fu, Xin; Gu, Wen; Liu, Xin

    2015-08-14

    A 1D anionic lanthanide coordination polymer {[(CH(3))(2)NH(2)] [(H(2)abtc)(2)Ho(H(2)O)]}n () (H(4)abtc = 3,3',5,5'-azobenzene-tetracarboxylic acid) has been synthesized under hydrothermal reaction conditions. The protonated [(CH(3))(2)NH(2)](+) is generated from decomposed DMA during the reaction, and balances the negative charge of the framework. The as-obtained samples were characterized using single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction and TGA. Interestingly, 1 can selectively capture cationic dye molecules from mixtures of dye molecules containing different charges in aqueous solutions. Furthermore, 1 exhibits a different adsorption efficiency toward different cationic dyes (crystal violet, rhodamine B, safranine T and methylene blue). Among the studied dyes, methylene blue has a higher adsorption efficiency in comparison to the others. Thus, complex 1 could serve as a good candidate material for the selective removal of cationic dyes during the treatment of wastewater.

  19. A novel, fast responding, low noise potentiometric sensor containing a carbon-based polymeric membrane for measuring surfactants in industrial and environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Samardžić, Mirela; Galović, Olivera; Hajduković, Mateja; Sak-Bosnar, Milan

    2017-01-01

    A new high-sensitivity potentiometric sensor for anionic surfactants was fabricated using the dimethyldioctadecylammonium-tetraphenylborate (DDA-TPB) ion associate as an ionophore that was incorporated into a liquid PVC membrane. Carbon powder was used for immobilization of the ionophore in the membrane, thus significantly reducing its ohmic resistance and reducing its signal drift. The sensor exhibits a sub-Nernstian response for both dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS) and dodecyl sulfate (DS) in H2O (55.3 and 58.5mV/decade of activity, respectively) in a range between 3.2×10(-7) and 4.6×10(-3)M for DS and 2.5×10(-7) and 1.2×10(-3)M for DBS. The sensor also exhibited a sub-Nernstian response for DS and DBS in 10mM Na2SO4 (55.4 and 57.7mV/decade of activity, respectively) between 2.5×10(-7) and 4.6×10(-3)M for DS and 1.5×10(-7) and 8.8×10(-4)M for DBS. The detection limits for DS and DBS in H2O were 2.5×10(-7) and 2.0×10(-7) M and in 10mM Na2SO4 the detection limits were 2.5×10(-7) and 1.2×10(-7) M, respectively. The response time of the sensor was less than 5s for changes at higher concentration levels (above 1×10(-4)M) in both water and 10mM Na2SO4. At lower concentrations (below 1×10(-5)M) the response times were 8 and 6s in water and 10mM Na2SO4, respectively. The signal drift of the sensor was 1.2mV/hour. The new carbon-based sensor exhibited excellent selectivity performance for DS over almost all of the anions commonly present in commercial formulations and it was successfully employed as an end-point detector in potentiometric titrations of anionic surfactants in a pH range from 3 to 12. Three-component mixtures containing sodium alkanesulfonate (C10, C12 and C14) were successfully differentially titrated.

  20. Novel simple process for tocopherols selective recovery from vegetable oils by adsorption and desorption with an anion-exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Hiromori, Kousuke; Shibasaki-Kitakawa, Naomi; Nakashima, Kazunori; Yonemoto, Toshikuni

    2016-03-01

    A novel and simple low-temperature process was used to recover tocopherols from a deodorizer distillate, which is a by-product of edible oil refining. The process consists of three operations: the esterification of free fatty acids with a cation-exchange resin catalyst, the adsorption of tocopherols onto an anion-exchange resin, and tocopherol desorption from the resin. No degradation of tocopherols occurred during these processes. In the tocopherol-rich fraction, no impurities such as sterols or glycerides were present. These impurities are commonly found in the product of the conventional process. This novel process improves the overall recovery ratio and the mass fraction of the product (75.9% and 51.0wt%) compared with those in the conventional process (50% and 35wt%).

  1. Selective recognition of sulfate anions in a 95% ethanol solvent with a simple neutral salicylaldehyde dansyl hydrazine Schiff base tuned by Brønsted-Lowry acid-base reaction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Gao-Ning; Zhang, Jing-Li; Jia, Cang; Fan, Wei-Zhen; Lin, Li-Rong

    2014-07-15

    A new Schiff base compound, 5-(dimethylamino)-N'-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)naphthalene-1-sulfonohydrazide (R), has been synthesized, characterized, and employed as a selective fluorescence receptor for the recognition of sulfate anions. UV-vis absorption, fluorescence emission, (1)H NMR spectra and DFT calculation studies on the system have been carried out to determine the nature of the interactions between R and anions. The results reveal that the deprotonation of the phenol without the need of a strong base leads to the formation of a hydrogen-bonding complex with a -SO2-NH- group, which is responsible for the spectra changes. The deprotonation process for the selectivity recognition of sulfate can be tuned by the Brønsted-Lowry acid-base reaction in nonaqueous solutions, revealing that suitable phenolic hydroxyl acidity is the key factor for anion recognition selectivity.

  2. Selective recognition of sulfate anions in a 95% ethanol solvent with a simple neutral salicylaldehyde dansyl hydrazine Schiff base tuned by Brønsted-Lowry acid-base reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Gao-Ning; Zhang, Jing-Li; Jia, Cang; Fan, Wei-Zhen; Lin, Li-Rong

    2014-07-01

    A new Schiff base compound, 5-(dimethylamino)-N‧-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)naphthalene-1-sulfonohydrazide (R), has been synthesized, characterized, and employed as a selective fluorescence receptor for the recognition of sulfate anions. UV-vis absorption, fluorescence emission, 1H NMR spectra and DFT calculation studies on the system have been carried out to determine the nature of the interactions between R and anions. The results reveal that the deprotonation of the phenol without the need of a strong base leads to the formation of a hydrogen-bonding complex with a sbnd SO2sbnd NHsbnd group, which is responsible for the spectra changes. The deprotonation process for the selectivity recognition of sulfate can be tuned by the Brønsted-Lowry acid-base reaction in nonaqueous solutions, revealing that suitable phenolic hydroxyl acidity is the key factor for anion recognition selectivity.

  3. Potentiometric strip cell based on carbon nanotubes as transducer layer: toward low-cost decentralized measurements.

    PubMed

    Rius-Ruiz, F Xavier; Crespo, Gastón A; Bejarano-Nosas, Diego; Blondeau, Pascal; Riu, Jordi; Rius, F Xavier

    2011-11-15

    In this study, we developed a potentiometric planar strip cell based on single-walled carbon nanotubes that aims to exploit the attributes of solid-contact ion-selective electrodes for decentralized measurements. That is, the ion-selective and reference electrodes have been simultaneously miniaturized onto a plastic planar substrate by screen-printing and drop-casting techniques, obtaining disposable strip cells with satisfactory performance characteristics (i.e., the sensitivity is 57.4 ± 1.3 mV/dec, the response time is ≤30 s within the linear range from log a(K+) = -5 to -2, and the limit of detection is -6.5), no need of maintenance during long dry storage, quick signal stabilization, and light insensitivity in short-term measurements. We also show how the new potentiometric strip cell makes it possible to perform decentralized and rapid determinations of ions in real samples, such as saliva or beverages.

  4. Potentiometric detection and removal of copper using porphyrins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Copper is an essential trace element with a great importance in industry, environment and biological systems. The great advantage of ion-selective sensors in comparison with other proposed techniques is that they are measuring the free metal ion activity which is responsible for their toxicity. Porphyrins are known to be among the best ionophores in formulation of ion-selective sensors. Results A symmetrically substituted meso-porphyrin, namely: 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-allyloxyphenyl)porphyrin (TAPP) was used in the construction of a new copper selective-sensor and was also tested for the removal of copper from waste waters. The potentiometric response characteristics (slope and selectivity) of copper-selective electrodes based on TAPP in o-nitrophenyloctylether (o-NPOE), dioctyl phtalate (DOP) and dioctyl sebacate (DOS) plasticized with poly(vinyl chloride) membranes are compared. Conclusions The best results were obtained for the membrane plasticized with DOP. The sensor has linear response in the range 1x10-7 – 1x10-1 M with 28.4 ± 0.4 mV/decade near-Nernstian slope towards copper ions and presents good selectivity. Due to its chelating nature, the same porphyrin was also tested for the retention of copper from synthetic copper samples, showing a maximum adsorption capacity of 280 mg/g. PMID:23829792

  5. Louisiana Ground-Water Map No. 13: Hydrogeology and Potentiometric Surface of the Sparta Aquifer in Northern Louisiana, October 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brantly, Jeffrey A.; Seanor, Ronald C.; McCoy, Kaycee L.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the thickness and areal extent of the Sparta aquifer, identifies sands within the fresh-water extent of the aquifer, and presents data and a map that illustrate the generalized potentiometric surface (water levels) during October 1996. The report includes a detailed geophysical log, structure contour maps, hydrogeologic sections, and hydrographs of water levels in selected wells. The potentiometric surface-map can be used for determining direction of ground-water flow, hydraulic gradients, and the effects of withdrawals on the aquifer.

  6. Louisiana Ground-Water Map No.13: Hydrogeology and Potentiometric Surface of the Sparta Aquifer in Northern Louisiana, October 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brantly, Jeffrey A.; Seanor, Ronald C.; McCoy, Kaycee L.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the thickness and areal extent of the Sparta aquifer, identifies sands within the fresh-water extent of the aquifer, and presents data and a map that illustrate the generalized potentiometric surface (water levels) during October 1996. The report includes a detailed geophysical log, structure contour maps, hydrogeologic sections, and hydrographs of water levels in selected wells. The potentiometric surface-map can be used for determining direction of ground-water flow, hydraulic gradients, and the effects of withdrawals on the aquifer.

  7. Development of a micro-potentiometric sensor for the microchip analysis of alkali ions.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Adelina; Mawatari, Kazuma; Takahashi, Hiroko; Tanaka, Yo; Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2009-12-01

    This paper reports on the development of a micro-potentiometric sensor based on external microelectrodes introduced into a microchip. We miniaturized reference and ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) and embedded them into a plastic (PDMS) microchip; the miniaturization of ISE was attained by using a monolithic capillary-based membrane. This sensor was applied to the detection of alkali ions (Na+, K+ and NH4+) in a microflow on the microg/L level.

  8. Potentiometric detection of chemical vapors using molecularly imprinted polymers as receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Rongning; Chen, Lusi; Qin, Wei

    2015-07-01

    Ion-selective electrode (ISE) based potentiometric gas sensors have shown to be promising analytical tools for detection of chemical vapors. However, such sensors are only capable of detecting those vapors which can be converted into ionic species in solution. This paper describes for the first time a polymer membrane ISE based potentiometric sensing system for sensitive and selective determination of neutral vapors in the gas phase. A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) is incorporated into the ISE membrane and used as the receptor for selective adsorption of the analyte vapor from the gas phase into the sensing membrane phase. An indicator ion with a structure similar to that of the vapor molecule is employed to indicate the change in the MIP binding sites in the membrane induced by the molecular recognition of the vapor. The toluene vapor is used as a model and benzoic acid is chosen as its indicator. Coupled to an apparatus manifold for preparation of vapor samples, the proposed ISE can be utilized to determine volatile toluene in the gas phase and allows potentiometric detection down to parts per million levels. This work demonstrates the possibility of developing a general sensing principle for detection of neutral vapors using ISEs.

  9. Potentiometric detection of chemical vapors using molecularly imprinted polymers as receptors

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Rongning; Chen, Lusi; Qin, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Ion-selective electrode (ISE) based potentiometric gas sensors have shown to be promising analytical tools for detection of chemical vapors. However, such sensors are only capable of detecting those vapors which can be converted into ionic species in solution. This paper describes for the first time a polymer membrane ISE based potentiometric sensing system for sensitive and selective determination of neutral vapors in the gas phase. A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) is incorporated into the ISE membrane and used as the receptor for selective adsorption of the analyte vapor from the gas phase into the sensing membrane phase. An indicator ion with a structure similar to that of the vapor molecule is employed to indicate the change in the MIP binding sites in the membrane induced by the molecular recognition of the vapor. The toluene vapor is used as a model and benzoic acid is chosen as its indicator. Coupled to an apparatus manifold for preparation of vapor samples, the proposed ISE can be utilized to determine volatile toluene in the gas phase and allows potentiometric detection down to parts per million levels. This work demonstrates the possibility of developing a general sensing principle for detection of neutral vapors using ISEs. PMID:26215887

  10. Covalent Polymers Containing Discrete Heterocyclic Anion Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambo, Brett M.; Silver, Eric S.; Bielawski, Christopher W.; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    This chapter covers recent advances in the development of polymeric materials containing discrete heterocyclic anion receptors, and focuses on advances in anion binding and chemosensor chemistry. The development of polymers specific for anionic species is a relatively new and flourishing area of materials chemistry. The incorporation of heterocyclic receptors capable of complexing anions through noncovalent interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions) provides a route to not only sensitive but also selective polymeric materials. Furthermore, these systems have been utilized in the development of polymers capable of extracting anionic species from aqueous media. These latter materials may lead to advances in water purification and treatment of diseases resulting from surplus ions.

  11. Signal processing with a summing operational amplifier in multicomponent potentiometric titrations.

    PubMed

    Parczewski, A

    1987-06-01

    It has been proved that application of two indicator electrodes connected to the ordinary titration apparatus through an auxiliary electronic device (a summing operational amplifier) significantly extends the scope of multicomponent potentiometric titrations in which the analytes are determined simultaneously from a single titration curve. For each analyte there is a corresponding potential jump on the titration curve. By application of the proposed auxiliary device, the sum of the electrode potentials is measured. The device also enables the relative sizes of the potential jumps at the end-points on the titration curve to be varied. The advantages of the proposed signal processing are exemplified by complexometric potentiometric titrations of Fe(III) and Cu(II) in mixtures, with a platinum electrode and a copper ion-selective electrode as the indicator electrodes.

  12. pH triggered superior selective adsorption and separation of both cationic and anionic dyes and photocatalytic activity on a fully exfoliated titanate layer-natural polymer based nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Amit Kumar; Saha, Arka; Panda, Asit Baran; Pal, Sagar

    2015-11-18

    A fully exfoliated titanate layer-natural polymer amylopectin based nanocomposite, with pH responsive superior selective adsorption, separation of both cationic (MB: 599 mg g(-1) at pH 9) and anionic (MO: 558 mg g(-1) at pH 3) dyes and photodegradation properties, has been realized through simultaneous in situ layered titanate formation, exfoliation and polymerization.

  13. The Selective Separation of Anions and Cations in Nuclear Waste Using Commercially Available Molecular Recognition Technology (MRT) Products

    SciTech Connect

    Izatt, S. R.; Bruening, R. L.; Krakowiak, K. E.; Izatt, R. M.

    2003-02-25

    This paper describes the use of some of IBC's SuperLig{reg_sign}, MacroLig{reg_sign}, and AnaLig{reg_sign} molecular recognition technology products to effectively and selectively separate and recover cesium, technetium, strontium, and radium from radioactive waste solutions. Distinct advantages are given over conventional separation techniques. Separations are described and results given for the target ions over chemically similar ions often present at much higher concentrations. The separations are performed in solutions of either high or low pH and usually containing high concentrations of salts. Other separations involving components of radioactive and mixed waste are noted.

  14. Spectroscopic and potentiometric studies on derivatized natural humic acid.

    PubMed

    Andjelkovic, Tatjana; Perovic, Jelica; Purenovic, Milovan; Blagojevic, Srdjan; Nikolic, Ruzica; Andjelkovic, Darko; Bojic, Aleksandar

    2006-12-01

    Isolated soil humic acid (HA) and commercial Aldrich HA were derivatized by esterification with methanol-thionyl and acetylation with acetic anhidride, in order to obtain derivatives with selectively blocked carboxyl and phenol groups, respectively. Results obtained by FT-IR spectroscopy and potentiometry show that the methanol-thionyl procedure is a selective, specific and efficient route for blocking carboxyl groups. The good correlation between results obtained by direct potentiometry after HA esterification and by classical calcium-acetate and baryta exchange methods suggests that esterification followed by direct acid-base potentiometric titration can be used as a method for the estimation of carboxyl and phenol group contents. Phenol groups can not be specifically identified by the acetylation method, due to the low selectivity of the acetylation method. The average values of apparent and intrinsic pK of underivatized and derivatized HAs confirm decrease in ionizable groups content due to derivatization and their values are related to the different chemical structures of the acids.

  15. Quest for anionic MOF membranes: continuous sod-ZMOF membrane with CO2 adsorption-driven selectivity.

    PubMed

    Al-Maythalony, Bassem A; Shekhah, Osama; Swaidan, Raja; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Pinnau, Ingo; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-02-11

    We report the fabrication of the first continuous zeolite-like metal-organic framework (ZMOF) thin-film membrane. A pure phase sod-ZMOF, sodalite topology, membrane was grown and supported on a porous alumina substrate using a solvothermal crystallization method. The absence of pinhole defects in the film was confirmed and supported by the occurrence of quantifiable time-lags, for all studied gases, during constant volume/variable pressure permeation tests. For both pure and mixed gas feeds, the sod-ZMOF-1 membrane exhibits favorable permeation selectivity toward carbon dioxide over relevant industrial gases such as H2, N2, and CH4, and it is mainly governed by favorable CO2 adsorption.

  16. Potentiometric surfaces of the intermediate aquifer system, west-central Florida, May, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mularoni, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The intermediate aquifer system underlies a 5000-sq-mi area including De Soto, Sarasota, Hardee, Manatee, and parts of Charlotte, Hillsborough, Highlands, and Polk Counties, Florida. It is overlain by the surf@cial aquifer system and underlain by the Floridan aquifer system. The potentiometric surface of the intermediate aquifer system was mapped by determining the altitude of water levels in a network of wells and represented on a map by contours that connect points of equal altitude. This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the spring dry season when ground- water withdrawals for agricultural use were high. The cumulative rainfall for the study area was 4.84 inches above normal for the period from June 1992 to May 1993. Hydrographs for selected wells indicated that the annual and seasonal fluctuations of the water levels were generally large (greater than 15 feet) in the central interior region where water demand for irrigation is high during the fall and spring. Seasonal fluctuations were smaller in the northern recharge area where water use is predominantly for public supply. Water levels measured in May 1993 for the composite intermediate aquifer potentiometric surface were lower than those measured in May or September 1992. A cone of depression exists in the potentiometric surface for the composite aquifer system at Warm Mineral Springs, which is a natural discharge point from this system.

  17. Identification of mud crab reovirus VP12 and its interaction with the voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein of mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hai-Dong; Su, Hong-Jun; Zou, Wei-Bin; Liu, Shan-Shan; Yan, Wen-Rui; Wang, Qian-Qian; Yuan, Li-Li; Chan, Siuming Francis; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo; Weng, Shao-Ping

    2015-05-01

    Mud crab reovirus (MCRV) is the causative agent of a severe disease in cultured mud crab (Scylla paramamosain), which has caused huge economic losses in China. MCRV is a double-stranded RNA virus with 12 genomic segments. In this paper, SDS-PAGE, mass spectrometry and Western blot analyses revealed that the VP12 protein encoded by S12 gene is a structural protein of MCRV. Immune electron microscopy assay indicated that MCRV VP12 is a component of MCRV outer shell capsid. Yeast two hybrid cDNA library of mud crab was constructed and mud crab voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (mcVDAC) was obtained by MCRV VP12 screening. The full length of mcVDAC was 1180 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 849 bp encoding a 282 amino acid protein. The mcVDAC had a constitutive expression pattern in different tissues of mud crab. The interaction between MCRV VP12 and mcVDAC was determined by co-immunoprecipitation assay. The results of this study have provided an insight on the mechanisms of MCRV infection and the interactions between the virus and mud crab.

  18. Tailoring the Pore Environment of Metal-Organic and Molecular Materials Decorated with Inorganic Anions: Platforms for Highly Selective Carbon Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugent, Patrick S.

    Due to their high surface areas and structural tunability, porous metal-organic materials, MOMs, have attracted wide research interest in areas such as carbon capture, as the judicious choice of molecular building block (MBB) and linker facilitates the design of MOMs with myriad topologies and allows for a systematic variation of the pore environment. Families of MOMs with modular components, i.e. MOM platforms, are eminently suitable for targeting the selective adsorption of guest molecules such as CO2 because their pore size and pore functionality can each be tailored independently. MOMs with saturated metal centers (SMCs) that promote strong yet reversible CO2 binding in conjunction with favorable adsorption kinetics are an attractive alternative to MOMs containing unsaturated metal centers (UMCs) or amines. Whereas MOMs with SMCs and exclusively organic linkers typically have poor CO2 selectivity, it has been shown that a versatile, long known platform with SMCs, pillared square grids with inorganic anion pillars and pcu topology, exhibits high and selective CO 2 uptake, a moderate CO2 binding affinity, and good stability under practical conditions. As detailed herein, the tuning of pore size and pore functionality in this platform has modulated the CO2 adsorption properties and revealed variants with unprecedented selectivity towards CO 2 under industrially relevant conditions, even in the presence of moisture. With the aim of tuning pore chemistry while preserving pore size, we initially explored the effect of pillar substitution upon the carbon capture properties of a pillared square grid, [Cu(bipy)2(SiF6)] (SIFSIX-1-Cu). Room temperature CO2, CH4, and N 2 adsorption isotherms revealed that substitution of the SiF6 2- ("SIFSIX") inorganic pillar with TiF6 2- ("TIFSIX") or SnF62- ("SNIFSIX") modulated CO2 uptake, CO2 affinity (heat of adsorption, Qst), and selectivity vs. CH4 and N2. TIFSIX-1-Cu and SNIFSIX-1-Cu were calculated to exhibit the highest CO2/N 2

  19. Creating potentiometric surfaces from combined water well and oil well data in the midcontinent of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gianoutsos, Nicholas J.; Nelson, Philip H.

    2013-01-01

    For years, hydrologists have defined potentiometric surfaces using measured hydraulic-head values in water wells from aquifers. Down-dip, the oil and gas industry is also interested in the formation pressures of many of the same geologic formations for the purpose of hydrocarbon recovery. In oil and gas exploration, drillstem tests (DSTs) provide the formation pressure for a given depth interval in a well. These DST measurements can be used to calculate hydraulic-head values in deep hydrocarbon-bearing formations in areas where water wells do not exist. Unlike hydraulic-head measurements in water wells, which have a low number of problematic data points (outliers), only a small subset of the DST data measure true formation pressures. Using 3D imaging capabilities to view and clean the data, we have developed a process to estimate potentiometric surfaces from erratic DST data sets of hydrocarbon-bearing formations in the midcontinent of the U.S. The analysis indicates that the potentiometric surface is more readily defined through human interpretation of the chaotic DST data sets rather than through the application of filtering and geostatistical analysis. The data are viewed as a series of narrow, 400-mile-long swaths and a 2D viewer is used to select a subset of hydraulic-head values that represent the potentiometric surface. The user-selected subsets for each swath are then combined into one data set for each formation. These data are then joined with the hydraulic-head values from water wells to define the 3D potentiometric surfaces. The final product is an interactive, 3D digital display containing: (1) the subsurface structure of the formation, (2) the cluster of DST-derived hydraulic head values, (3) the user-selected subset of hydraulic-head values that define the potentiometric surface, (4) the hydraulic-head measurements from the corresponding shallow aquifer, (5) the resulting potentiometric surface encompassing both oil and gas and water wells, and (6

  20. A simple-potentiometric method for determination of acid and alkaline phosphatase enzymes in biological fluids and dairy products using a nitrophenylphosphate plastic membrane sensor.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Saad S M; Sayour, Hossam E M; Kamel, Ayman H

    2009-04-27

    A novel poly(vinyl chloride) matrix membrane sensor responsive to 4-nitrophenylphosphate (4-NPP) substrate is described, characterized and used for the potentiometric assay of acid (ACP) and alkaline (ALP) phosphatase enzymes. The sensor is based on the use of the ion-association complex of 4-NPP anion with nickel(II)-bathophenanthroline cation as an electroactive material and nitrophenyloctyl ether (NPOE) as a solvent mediator. The sensor displays good selectivity and stability and demonstrates a near-Nernstian response for 4-NPP over the concentration range 9.6x10(-6) to 1.0x10(-2) M with an anionic slope of 28.6+/-0.3 mV decade(-1) and a detection limit of 6.3x10(-6) M over the pH range 4.5-10. The sensor is used to measure the decrease of a fixed concentration of 4-NPP substrate as a function of acid and alkaline phosphatase enzyme activities at optimized conditions of pH and temperature. A linear relationship between the initial rate of 4-NPP substrate hydrolysis and enzyme activity holds over 0.05-3.0 and 0.03-3.4 IU L(-1) of ACP and ALP enzymes, respectively. Validation of the method by measuring the lower detection limit, range, accuracy, precision, within-day repeatability and between-day-variability reveals good performance characteristics of the proposed sensor. The sensor is used for the determination of acid and alkaline phosphatase enzyme activities in biological fluids of some patients suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis, acute myelocytic leukemia, pre-eclampsia and prostatic cancer. The sensor is also utilized for assessment of alkaline phosphatase enzyme in milk and dairy products. The results obtained agree fairly well with data obtained by the standard spectrophotometric methods.

  1. Anion permselective membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, S.; Hodgdon, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of NAS 3-20108 was the development and evaluation of improved anion selective membranes useful as efficient separators in a redox power storage cell system being constructed. The program was divided into three parts, (a) optimization of the selected candidate membrane systems, (b) investigation of alternative membrane/polymer systems, and (c) characterization of candidate membranes. The major synthesis effort was aimed at improving and optimizing as far as possible each candidate system with respect to three critical membrane properties essential for good redox cell performance. Substantial improvements were made in 5 candidate membrane systems. The critical synthesis variables of cross-link density, monomer ratio, and solvent composition were examined over a wide range. In addition, eight alternative polymer systems were investigated, two of which attained candidate status. Three other alternatives showed potential but required further research and development. Each candidate system was optimized for selectivity.

  2. Comparison between amperometric and true potentiometric end-point detection in the determination of water by the Karl Fischer method.

    PubMed

    Cedergren, A

    1974-06-01

    A rapid and sensitive method using true potentiometric end-point detection has been developed and compared with the conventional amperometric method for Karl Fischer determination of water. The effect of the sulphur dioxide concentration on the shape of the titration curve is shown. By using kinetic data it was possible to calculate the course of titrations and make comparisons with those found experimentally. The results prove that the main reaction is the slow step, both in the amperometric and the potentiometric method. Results obtained in the standardization of the Karl Fischer reagent showed that the potentiometric method, including titration to a preselected potential, gave a standard deviation of 0.001(1) mg of water per ml, the amperometric method using extrapolation 0.002(4) mg of water per ml and the amperometric titration to a pre-selected diffusion current 0.004(7) mg of water per ml. Theories and results dealing with dilution effects are presented. The time of analysis was 1-1.5 min for the potentiometric and 4-5 min for the amperometric method using extrapolation.

  3. Real-time potentiometric detection of bacteria in complex samples.

    PubMed

    Zelada-Guillén, Gustavo A; Bhosale, Suryakant V; Riu, Jordi; Rius, F Xavier

    2010-11-15

    Detecting and identifying pathogen bacteria is essential to ensure quality at all stages of the food chain and to diagnose and control microbial infections. Traditional detection methods, including those based on cell culturing, are tedious and time-consuming, and their further application in real samples generally implies more complex pretreatment steps. Even though state-of-the-art techniques for detecting microorganisms enable the quantification of very low concentrations of bacteria, to date it has been difficult to obtain successful results in real samples in a simple, reliable, and rapid manner. In this Article, we demonstrate that the label-free detection and identification of living bacteria in real samples can be carried out in a couple of minutes and in a direct, simple, and selective way at concentration levels as low as 6 colony forming units/mL (CFU) in complex matrices such as milk or 26 CFU/mL in apple juice where the pretreatment step of samples is extremely easy. We chose Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) CECT 675 cells as a model organism as a nonpathogenic surrogate for pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 to test the effectiveness of a potentiometric aptamer-based biosensor. This biosensor uses single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) as excellent ion-to-electron transducers and covalently immobilized aptamers as biorecognition elements. The selective aptamer-target interaction significantly changes the electrical potential, thus allowing for both interspecies and interstrain selectivity and enabling the direct detection of the target. This technique is therefore a powerful tool for the immediate identification and detection of microorganisms. We demonstrate the highly selective detection of living bacteria with an immediate linear response of up to 10(4) CFU/mL. The biosensor can be easily built and used, is regenerated without difficulty, and can be used at least five times with no loss in the minimum amount of detected bacteria.

  4. A potentiometric biosensor for rapid on-site disease diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Tarasov, Alexey; Gray, Darren W; Tsai, Meng-Yen; Shields, Niall; Montrose, Armelle; Creedon, Niamh; Lovera, Pierre; O'Riordan, Alan; Mooney, Mark H; Vogel, Eric M

    2016-05-15

    Quantitative point-of-care (POC) devices are the next generation for serological disease diagnosis. Whilst pathogen serology is typically performed by centralized laboratories using Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA), faster on-site diagnosis would infer improved disease management and treatment decisions. Using the model pathogen Bovine Herpes Virus-1 (BHV-1) this study employs an extended-gate field-effect transistor (FET) for direct potentiometric serological diagnosis. BHV-1 is a major viral pathogen of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD), the leading cause of economic loss ($2 billion annually in the US only) to the cattle and dairy industry. To demonstrate the sensor capabilities as a diagnostic tool, BHV-1 viral protein gE was expressed and immobilized on the sensor surface to serve as a capture antigen for a BHV-1-specific antibody (anti-gE), produced in cattle in response to viral infection. The gE-coated immunosensor was shown to be highly sensitive and selective to anti-gE present in commercially available anti-BHV-1 antiserum and in real serum samples from cattle with results being in excellent agreement with Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) and ELISA. The FET sensor is significantly faster than ELISA (<10 min), a crucial factor for successful disease intervention. This sensor technology is versatile, amenable to multiplexing, easily integrated to POC devices, and has the potential to impact a wide range of human and animal diseases.

  5. New reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatographic method for selective separation of yttrium from all rare earth elements employing nitrilotriacetate complexes in anion exchange mode.

    PubMed

    Dybczyński, Rajmund S; Kulisa, Krzysztof; Pyszynska, Marta; Bojanowska-Czajka, Anna

    2015-03-20

    Separation of Y from other rare earth elements (REE) is difficult because of similarity of its ionic radius to ionic radii of Tb, Dy and Ho. In the new RP-HPLC system with C18 column, tetra-n-butyl ammonium hydroxide (TBAOH) as an ion interaction reagent (IIR), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) as a complexing agent at pH=2.8-3.5, and post column derivatization with Arsenazo III, yttrium is eluted in the region of light REE, between Nd and Sm and is base line separated from Nd and Sm and even from promethium. Simple model employing literature data on complex formation of REE with NTA and based on anion exchange mechanism was developed to foresee the order of elution of individual REE. The model correctly predicted that lanthanides up to Tb will be eluted in the order of increasing Atomic Number (At.No.) but all heavier REE will show smaller retention factors than Tb. Concurrent UV/VIS detection at 658nm and the use of radioactive tracers together with γ-ray spectrometric measurements made possible to establish an unique elution order of elution of REE: La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Y, Sm, Er, Ho, Tm, Yb, Eu, Lu, Dy+Gd, Tb, Sc. The real place of Y however, in this elution series differs from that predicted by the model (Y between Sm and Eu). The method described in this work enables selective separation of Y from La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm and all heavier REE treated as a group.

  6. Characterization of a hybrid-smectite nanomaterial formed by immobilizing of N-pyridin-2-ylmethylsuccinamic acid onto (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane modified smectite and its potentiometric sensor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topcu, Cihan; Caglar, Sema; Caglar, Bulent; Coldur, Fatih; Cubuk, Osman; Sarp, Gokhan; Gedik, Kubra; Bozkurt Cirak, Burcu; Tabak, Ahmet

    2016-09-01

    A novel N-pyridin-2-ylmethylsuccinamic acid-functionalized smectite nanomaterial was synthesized by immobilizing of N-pyridin-2-ylmethylsuccinamic acid through chemical bonding onto (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane modified smectite. The structural, thermal, morphological and surface properties of raw, silane-grafted and the N-pyridin-2-ylmethylsuccinamic acid-functionalized smectites were investigated by various characterization techniques. The thermal analysis data showed the presence of peaks in the temperature range from 200 °C to 600 °C due to the presence of physically adsorbed silanes, intercalated silanes, surface grafted silanes and chemically grafted silane molecules between the smectite layers. The powder x-ray diffraction patterns clearly indicated that the aminopropyl molecules also intercalated into the smectite interlayers as bilayer arrangement whereas N-pyridin-2-ylmethylsuccinamic acid molecules were only attached to 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane molecules on the external surface and edges of clay and they did not intercalate. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms N-pyridin-2-ylmethylsuccinamic acid molecules bonding through the amide bond between the amine group of aminopropyltriethoxysilane molecules and a carboxylic acid functional group of N-pyridin-2-ylmethylsuccinamic acid molecules. The guest molecules functionalized onto the smectite caused significant alterations in the textural and morphological parameters of the raw smectite. The anchoring of N-pyridin-2-ylmethylsuccinamic acid molecules led to positive electrophoretic mobility values when compared to starting materials. N-pyridin-2-ylmethylsuccinamic acid-functionalized smectite was employed as an electroactive ingredient in the structure of potentiometric PVC-membrane sensor. The sensor exhibited more selective potentiometric response towards chlorate ions compared to the other common anionic species.

  7. Synthesis and anion binding studies of tris(3-aminopropyl)amine-based tripodal urea and thiourea receptors: Proton transfer-induced selectivity for hydrogen sulfate over sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Khansari, Maryam Emami; Johnson, Corey R.; Basaran, Ismet; Nafis, Aemal; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Tris(3-aminopropyl)amine-based tripodal urea and thiourea receptors, tris([(4-cyanophenyl)amino]propyl)urea (L1) and tris([(4-cyanophenyl)amino]propyl)thiourea (L2), have been synthesized and their anion binding properties have been investigated for halides and oxoanions. As investigated by 1H NMR titrations, each receptor binds an anion with a 1:1 stoichiometry via hydrogen-bonding interactions (NH⋯anion), showing the binding trend in the order of F− > H2PO4− > HCO3− > HSO4− > CH3COO− > SO42− > Cl− > Br− > I in DMSO-d6. The interactions of the receptors were further studied by 2D NOESY, showing the loss of NOESY contacts of two NH resonances for the complexes of F−, H2PO4−, HCO3−, HSO4− or CH3COO− due to the strong NH⋯anion interactions. The observed higher binding affinity for HSO4− than SO42− is attributed to the proton transfer from HSO4− to the central nitrogen of L1 or L2 which was also supported by the DFT calculations, leading to the secondary acid-base interactions. The thiourea receptor L2 has a general trend to show a higher affinity for an anion as compared to the urea receptor L1 for the corresponding anion in DMSO-d6. In addition, the compound L2 has been exploited for its extraction properties for fluoride in water using a liquid-liquid extraction technique, and the results indicate that the receptor effectively extracts fluoride from water showing ca. 99% efficiency (based on L2). PMID:28184300

  8. Influence of Ionic Liquids on the Selectivity of Ion Exchange-Based Polymer Membrane Sensing Layers.

    PubMed

    Mendecki, Lukasz; Callan, Nicole; Ahern, Meghan; Schazmann, Benjamin; Radu, Aleksandar

    2016-07-16

    The applicability of ion exchange membranes is mainly defined by their permselectivity towards specific ions. For instance, the needed selectivity can be sought by modifying some of the components required for the preparation of such membranes. In this study, a new class of materials -trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium based ionic liquids (ILs) were used to modify the properties of ion exchange membranes. We determined selectivity coefficients for iodide as model ion utilizing six phosphonium-based ILs and compared the selectivity with two classical plasticizers. The dielectric properties of membranes plasticized with ionic liquids and their response characteristics towards ten different anions were investigated using potentiometric and impedance measurements. In this large set of data, deviations of obtained selectivity coefficients from the well-established Hofmeister series were observed on many occasions thus indicating a multitude of applications for these ion-exchanging systems.

  9. Influence of Ionic Liquids on the Selectivity of Ion Exchange-Based Polymer Membrane Sensing Layers

    PubMed Central

    Mendecki, Lukasz; Callan, Nicole; Ahern, Meghan; Schazmann, Benjamin; Radu, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    The applicability of ion exchange membranes is mainly defined by their permselectivity towards specific ions. For instance, the needed selectivity can be sought by modifying some of the components required for the preparation of such membranes. In this study, a new class of materials –trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium based ionic liquids (ILs) were used to modify the properties of ion exchange membranes. We determined selectivity coefficients for iodide as model ion utilizing six phosphonium-based ILs and compared the selectivity with two classical plasticizers. The dielectric properties of membranes plasticized with ionic liquids and their response characteristics towards ten different anions were investigated using potentiometric and impedance measurements. In this large set of data, deviations of obtained selectivity coefficients from the well-established Hofmeister series were observed on many occasions thus indicating a multitude of applications for these ion-exchanging systems. PMID:27438837

  10. Polypyrrole-calcion film as a membrane and solid-contact in an indicator electrode for potentiometric titrations.

    PubMed

    Blaz, T; Migdalski, J; Lewenstam, A

    2000-06-21

    This paper shows the application of conducting polymers (CPs) for constructing potentiometric indicator electrodes. Two types of polypyrrole (PPy)-based calcium sensors are presented, one sensor with PPy-calcion film as the active part and the other sensor with PPy-calcion as a solid-state contact coated with a conventional membrane selective towards calcium ions. It is shown that the PPy-calcion film, due to the complexing properties of calcion ensuring high loading of the film with calcium, is sufficiently selective to be used as the active part or as a mediating layer of the indicator electrode. The electrode, with PPy-calcion film as the active part, was used as the indicator electrode in potentiometric titrations of calcium in mixed solvents, where conventional PVC-based electrode can not be used. For the first time, the practical applicability of PPy-based electrodes in titrations is demonstrated.

  11. Anion permselective membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgdon, R. B.; Waite, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The synthesis and fabrication of polymeric anion permselective membranes for redox systems are discussed. Variations of the prime candidate anion membrane formulation to achieve better resistance and/or lower permeability were explored. Processing parameters were evaluated to lower cost and fabricate larger sizes. The processing techniques to produce more membranes per batch were successfully integrated with the fabrication of larger membranes. Membranes of about 107 cm x 51 cm were made in excellent yield. Several measurements were made on the larger sample membranes. Among the data developed were water transport and transference numbers for these prime candidate membranes at 20 C. Other work done on this system included characterization of a number of specimens of candidate membranes which had been returned after service lives of up to sixteen months. Work with new polymer constituents, with new N.P.'s, catalysts and backing fabrics is discussed. Some work was also done to evaluate other proportions of the ingredients of the prime candidate system. The adoption of a flow selectivity test at elevated temperature was explored.

  12. Tunable electronic interactions between anions and perylenediimide.

    PubMed

    Goodson, Flynt S; Panda, Dillip K; Ray, Shuvasree; Mitra, Atanu; Guha, Samit; Saha, Sourav

    2013-08-07

    Over the past decade anion-π interaction has emerged as a new paradigm of supramolecular chemistry of anions. Taking advantage of the electronic nature of anion-π interaction, we have expanded its boundaries to charge-transfer (CT) and formal electron transfer (ET) events by adjusting the electron-donating and accepting abilities of anions and π-acids, respectively. To establish that ET, CT, and anion-π interactions could take place between different anions and π-acids as long as their electronic and structural properties are conducive, herein, we introduce 3,4,9,10-perylenediimide (PDI-1) that selectively undergoes thermal ET from strong Lewis basic hydroxide and fluoride anions, but remains electronically and optically silent to poor Lewis basic anions, as ET and CT events are turned OFF. These interactions have been fully characterized by UV/Vis, NMR, and EPR spectroscopies. These results demonstrate the generality of anion-induced ET events in aprotic solvents and further refute a notion that strong Lewis basic hydroxide and fluoride ions can only trigger nucleophilic attack to form covalent bonds instead of acting as sacrificial electron donors to π-acids under appropriate conditions.

  13. Acyl anion free N-heterocyclic carbene organocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Sarah J; Candish, Lisa; Lupton, David W

    2013-06-21

    Reaction discovery using N-heterocyclic carbene organocatalysis has been dominated by the chemistry of acyl anion equivalents. Recent studies demonstrate that NHCs are far more diverse catalysts, with a variety of reactions discovered that proceed without acyl anion equivalent formation. In this tutorial review selected examples of acyl anion free NHC catalysis using carbonyl compounds are presented.

  14. A computer-controlled potentiometric/spectrophotometric titrator

    PubMed Central

    Stong, John D.

    1988-01-01

    A laboratory computer controlled potentiometric titrator interfaced to a diode array spectrophotometer is described. The titrator consists of widely used, commercially available components; therefore, major attention is given to modes of interconnection and software implementation in data format and system control. Replicate potentiometric titrations of glycines gave a relative standard deviation in titre of 1.035% and a relative standard deviation in pH of 0.745%. Replicate spectrophotometric titrations of bromophenol blue were analysed at three wavelengths to yield pKa= 3.898 ± 0.075 (1.9% rsd). Methods of data presentation and manipulation are presented. PMID:18925194

  15. Anion exchange membrane

    DOEpatents

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  16. Anions in Cometary Comae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, Steven B.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of negative ions (anions) in cometary comae is known from Giotto mass spectrometry of IP/Halley. The anions 0-, OH-, C-, CH- and CN- have been detected, as well as unidentified anions with masses 22-65 and 85-110 amu (Chaizy et al. 1991). Organic molecular anions are known to have a significant impact on the charge balance of interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes and have been shown to act as catalysts for the gas-phase synthesis of larger hydrocarbon molecules in the ISM, but their importance in cometary comae has not yet been explored. We present details of the first attempt to model the chemistry of anions in cometary comae. Based on the combined chemical and hydro dynamical model of Rodgers & Charnley (2002), we investigate the role of large carbon-chain anions in cometary coma chemistry. We calculate the effects of these anions on coma thermodynamics, charge balance and examine their impact on molecule formation.

  17. Fabrication of coated graphite electrode for the selective determination of europium (III) ions.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Anjali; Singh, Ashok Kumar; Bandi, Koteswara Rao; Jain, A K

    2013-10-15

    Preliminary complexation study showed that two ligands (ionophores) (2-((2-phenyl-2-(pyridin-2-yl)hydazono)methyl)pyridine) [L1], (2-((2-phenyl-2-(pyridin-2-yl)hydazono) methyl)phenol) [L2] can act as europium selective electrode. Europium selective coated graphite electrodes (CGE) were prepared by using ligands [L1] and [L2] and their potentiometric characteristics were determined. Membranes having different compositions of poly(vinylchloride) (PVC), the different plasticizers, anionic additives and ionophores were coated onto the graphite surface. The potential response measurements showed that the best performance was exhibited by the proposed CGE. This electrode had the widest working concentration range, Nernstian slope and fast response times of 10s. The selectivity studies showed that this electrode have higher selectivity towards Eu(3+) over a large number of cations. Furthermore, the electrode generated constant potentials in the pH range 2.7-9.0. This electrode can be used to quantify europium in soil, binary mixtures and also used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Eu(3+) with EDTA. The proposed electrode was also successfully applied to the determination of fluoride ions in real samples.

  18. PVC Membrane Sensors for Potentiometric Determination of Acebutolol

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, Gamal Abdel-Hafiz; Hefnawy, Mohamed Mahmoud; Al-Majed, Abdulrahman

    2007-01-01

    The construction and general performance characteristics of two novel potentiometric membrane sensors responsive to the acebutolol are described. The sensors are based on the use of ion-association complexes of acebutolol (AC) with tetraphenylborate(TPB) (I) and phosphomolybdate(PM) (II) as exchange sites in a PVC matrix. The sensors show a fast, stable and near- Nernstian for the mono charge cation of AC over the concentration range 1×10-3 - ∼10-6 M at 25 °C over the pH range 2.0 - 6.0 with cationic slope of 51.5 ± 0.5 and 53.0 ± 0.5 per concentration decade for AC-I and AC-II sensors respectively. The lower detection limit is 6×10-6 M and 4×0-6 M with the response time 20-30 s in the same order of both sensors. Selectivity coefficients of AC related to a number of interfering cation and some organic compounds were investigated. There are negligible interferences are caused by most of the investigated species. The direct determination of 3 - 370 μg/ml of AC shows an average recovery of 99.4 and 99.5% and a mean relative standard deviation of 1.5% at 100.0 μg/ml for sensor I and II respectively. The results obtained by determination of AC in tablets using the proposed sensors which comparable favorably with those obtained by the British pharmacopoeia method. In the present investigation the electrodes have been utilized as end point indicator for some precipitation titration reactions.

  19. Ion-Selective Electrodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Mark A.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    1984-01-01

    Literature on ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) is reviewed in seven sections: books, conferences, reviews; potentiometric membrane electrodes; glass and solid-state membrane electrodes; liquid and polymer membrane ISEs; coated wire electrodes, ion-selective field effect transistors, and microelectrodes; gas sensors and selective bioelectrode…

  20. New potentiometric and spectrophotometric methods for the determination of dextromethorphan in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Elmosallamy, Mohamed A F; Amin, Alaa S

    2014-01-01

    New, simple and convenient potentiometric and spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DXM) in pharmaceutical preparations. The potentiometric technique is based on developing a potentiometric sensor incorporating the dextromethorphan tetrakis(p-chlorophenyl)borate ion-pair complex as an electroactive species in a plasticized PVC matrix membrane with o-nitophenyl octyl ether or dioctyl phthalate. The sensor shows a rapid near Nernstian response of over 1 × 10(-5) - 1 × 10(-2) mol L(-1) dextromethorphan in the pH range of 3.0 - 9.0. The detection limit is 2 × 10(-6) mol L(-1) DXM and the response time is instantaneous (2 s). The proposed spectrophotometric technique involves the reaction of DXM with eriochrom black T (EBT) to form an ion-associate complex. Solvent extraction is used to improve the selectivity of the method. The optimal extraction and reaction conditions have been studied, and the analytical characteristics of the method have been obtained. Linearity is obeyed in the range of 7.37 - 73.7 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) DXM, and the detection limit of the method is 1.29 × 10(-5) mol L(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) and relative error for six replicate measurements of 3.685 × 10(-4) mol L(-1) are 0.672 and 0.855%, respectively. The interference effect of some excepients has also been tested. The drug contents in pharmaceutical preparations were successfully determined by the proposed methods by applying the standard-addition technique.

  1. Mass transfer of single- and double-charged anions through an MA-41L anion-exchange membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Kulikova, O.M.; Sharkova, O.V.; Kulikov, S.M.

    1995-02-20

    Selective anion transfer through an MA-41L anion-exchange membrane in the Cl{sup -}-F{sup -}, Cl{sup -}-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, F{sup -}-SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and F{sup -}-CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} systems has been studied. The feasibility of partial anion separation in the chloride-sulfate system has been demonstrated. The separation of fluoride ions from accompanying anions was found to be practically impossible.

  2. Potentiometric sensors doped with biomolecules as a new approach to small molecule/biomolecule binding kinetics analysis.

    PubMed

    Daems, D; De Wael, K; Vissenberg, K; Van Camp, G; Nagels, L

    2014-04-15

    The most successful binding kinetics analysis systems at this moment include surface plasmon resonance (SPR), quartz microcrystal balance (QMB) and surface acoustic wave (SAW). Although these are powerful methods, they generally are complex, expensive and require the use of monolayers. Here, we report on potentiometric sensors as an inexpensive and simple alternative to do binding kinetics analysis between small molecules in solution and biomolecules (covalently) attached in a biopolymer sensor coating layer. As an example, dopamine and an anti-dopamine aptamer were used as the small molecule and the biomolecule respectively. Binding between both follows a Langmuir adsorption type model and creates a surface potential. The system operates in Flow Injection Analysis mode (FIA). Besides being an interesting new binding kinetics tool, the approach allows systematic design of potentiometric biosensors (in the present study a dopamine sensor), and gives new insights into the functioning of ion-selective electrodes (ISE's).

  3. Comparison of HPLC, UV spectrophotometry and potentiometric titration methods for the determination of lumefantrine in pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    da Costa César, Isabela; Nogueira, Fernando Henrique Andrade; Pianetti, Gérson Antônio

    2008-09-10

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a HPLC, UV spectrophotometry and potentiometric titration methods to quantify lumefantrine in raw materials and tablets. HPLC analyses were carried out using a Symmetry C(18) column and a mobile phase composed of methanol and 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid (80:20), with a flow rate of 1.0ml/min and UV detection at 335nm. For the spectrophotometric analyses, methanol was used as solvent and the wavelength of 335nm was selected for the detection. Non-aqueous titration of lumefantrine was carried out using perchloric acid as titrant and glacial acetic acid/acetic anhydride as solvent. The end point was potentiometrically determined. The three evaluated methods showed to be adequate to quantify lumefantrine in raw materials, while HPLC and UV methods presented the most reliable results for the analyses of tablets.

  4. Electrostatic Binding of Electroactive and Non-Electroactive Anions in a Surface-Confined, Electroactive Polymer: Selectivity of Binding Measured by Auger Spectroscopy and Cyclic Voltammetry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-15

    reverse side it necessary and Identify I block nuimber) * --, surface confined polymers, electrostatic binding, Auger spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry .... 4...chemically reversible redox reaction when bound to the polymer, as determined by cyclic voltammetry . Such electroactive anions can be bound in the (PQ 2+)n...polymer for prolonged periods (>1 h) in the presence of 0.1 M KCI. Cyclic voltammetry of electrodes having variable amounts of IrCl6 3- *2+ 2 +3- 2

  5. Potentiometric Zinc Ion Sensor Based on Honeycomb-Like NiO Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Mazhar Ali; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Hussain, Mushtaque; Khan, Yaqoob; Khan, Azam; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    In this study honeycomb-like NiO nanostructures were grown on nickel foam by a simple hydrothermal growth method. The NiO nanostructures were characterized by field emission electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The characterized NiO nanostructures were uniform, dense and polycrystalline in the crystal phase. In addition to this, the NiO nanostructures were used in the development of a zinc ion sensor electrode by functionalization with the highly selective zinc ion ionophore 12-crown-4. The developed zinc ion sensor electrode has shown a good linear potentiometric response for a wide range of zinc ion concentrations, ranging from 0.001 mM to 100 mM, with sensitivity of 36 mV/decade. The detection limit of the present zinc ion sensor was found to be 0.0005 mM and it also displays a fast response time of less than 10 s. The proposed zinc ion sensor electrode has also shown good reproducibility, repeatability, storage stability and selectivity. The zinc ion sensor based on the functionalized NiO nanostructures was also used as indicator electrode in potentiometric titrations and it has demonstrated an acceptable stoichiometric relationship for the determination of zinc ion in unknown samples. The NiO nanostructures-based zinc ion sensor has potential for analysing zinc ion in various industrial, clinical and other real samples. PMID:23202217

  6. Covalent Polymers Containing Discrete Heterocyclic Anion Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Rambo, Brett M.; Silver, Eric S.; Bielawski, Christopher W.; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter covers recent advances in the development of polymeric materials containing discrete heterocyclic anion receptors, and focuses on advances in anion binding and chemosensor chemistry. The development of polymers specific for anionic species is a relatively new and flourishing area of materials chemistry. The incorporation of heterocyclic receptors capable of complexing anions through non-covalent interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions) provides a route to not only sensitive but also selective polymer materials. Furthermore, these systems have been utilized in the development of polymers capable of extracting anionic species from aqueous environments. These latter materials may lead to advances in water purification and treatment of diseases resulting from surplus ions. PMID:20871791

  7. Polymers for anion recognition and sensing.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Ali; Taylor, Mark S

    2012-01-16

    In biological systems, the selective and high-affinity recognition of anionic species is accomplished by macromolecular hosts (anion-binding proteins) that have been "optimized" through evolution. Surprisingly, it is only recently that chemists have systematically attempted to develop anion-responsive synthetic macromolecules for potential applications in medicine, national security, or environmental monitoring. Recent results indicating that unique features of polymeric systems such as signal amplification, multivalency, and cooperative behavior may be exploited productively in the context of anion recognition and sensing are documented. The wide variety of interactions-including Lewis acid/base, ion-pairing, and hydrogen bonding-that have been employed for this purpose is reflected in the structural diversity of anion-responsive macromolecules identified to date.

  8. A combination of ion exchange and electrochemical reduction for nitrate removal from drinking water. Part I: nitrate removal using a selective anion exchanger in the bicarbonate form with reuse of the regenerant solution.

    PubMed

    Jelínek, Ludek; Parschová, Helena; Matejka, Zdenek; Paidar, Martin; Bouzek, Karel

    2004-01-01

    The process of selective nitrate removal from drinking water by means of ion exchange was studied. A commercial strong base anion exchanger with triethylammonium (-N+Et3) functional groups was used in the bicarbonate (HCO3-) and carbonate (CO3(2-)) form. The aim of this study was to optimize ion-exchanger regeneration in view of the subsequent electrochemical reduction of nitrates in the spent regenerant solution. The effects of ion-exchanger form, concentration of regenerant solution, and presence of nitrates, chlorides, and sulphates in the regenerant solution were studied. The strong base anion exchanger in HCO3- form that was investigated was able to treat 270 bed volumes of model water solution containing 124 mg dm(-3) nitrates. To achieve adequate regeneration of the saturated anion exchanger, it is necessary to use approximately 30 bed volumes of fresh 1-M sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) regenerant solution. The presence of residual 50-mg dm(-3) nitrates in the regenerant solution, treated by electrolysis, resulted in an increase in the dose of regenerant solution to 35 bed volumes and a decrease in the subsequent sorption run of approximately 13%. The volume of applied regenerant solution was high, but the consumption of NaHCO3 for regeneration was low.

  9. Potentiometric surface of the Ozark aquifer in northern Arkansas, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrader, Tony P.

    2001-01-01

    The Ozark aquifer in northern Arkansas comprises dolomites, limestones, sandstones, and shales of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian age, and ranges in thickness from approximately 1,100 feet to more than 4,000 feet. Hydrologically, the aquifer is complex, characterized by disconnected and extensive flow components with large variations in permeability. The potentiometric-surface map, based on 84 well and 6 spring water-level measurements collected in 2001 in Arkansas, indicates maximum water-level altitudes of about 1,359 feet in Carroll County and minimum water-level altitudes of about 241 feet in Randolph County. Regionally, the flow within the aquifer is to the south and southeast in the eastern and central part of the study area and to the northwest and north in the western part of the study area. Comparing the 2001 potentiometric-surface map with a predevelopment potentiometric-surface map indicates general agreement between the two surfaces. Potentiometric-surface differences could be attributed to differences in pumping related to changing population from 1990 to 2000.

  10. Isatinphenylsemicarbazones as efficient colorimetric sensors for fluoride and acetate anions - anions induce tautomerism.

    PubMed

    Jakusová, Klaudia; Donovalová, Jana; Cigáň, Marek; Gáplovský, Martin; Garaj, Vladimír; Gáplovský, Anton

    2014-04-05

    The anion induced tautomerism of isatin-3-4-phenyl(semicarbazone) derivatives is studied herein. The interaction of F(-), AcO(-), H2PO4(-), Br(-) or HSO4(-) anions with E and Z isomers of isatin-3-4-phenyl(semicarbazone) and N-methylisatin-3-4-phenyl(semicarbazone) as sensors influences the tautomeric equilibrium of these sensors in the liquid phase. This tautomeric equilibrium is affected by (1) the inter- and intra-molecular interactions' modulation of isatinphenylsemicarbazone molecules due to the anion induced change in the solvation shell of receptor molecules and (2) the sensor-anion interaction with the urea hydrogens. The acid-base properties of anions and the difference in sensor structure influence the equilibrium ratio of the individual tautomeric forms. Here, the tautomeric equilibrium changes were indicated by "naked-eye" experiment, UV-VIS spectral and (1)H NMR titration, resulting in confirmation that appropriate selection of experimental conditions leads to a high degree of sensor selectivity for some investigated anions. Sensors' E and Z isomers differ in sensitivity, selectivity and sensing mechanism. Detection of F(-) or CH3COO(-) anions at high weakly basic anions' excess is possible.

  11. Simultaneous determination of fermented milk aroma compounds by a potentiometric sensor array.

    PubMed

    Hruskar, Mirjana; Major, Nikola; Krpan, Marina; Vahcić, Nada

    2010-09-15

    The paper reports on the application of an electronic tongue for simultaneous determination of ethanol, acetaldehyde, diacetyl, lactic acid, acetic acid and citric acid content in probiotic fermented milk. The alphaAstree electronic tongue by Alpha M.O.S. was employed. The sensor array comprised of seven non-specific, cross-sensitive sensors developed especially for food analysis coupled with a reference Ag/AgCl electrode. Samples of plain, strawberry, apple-pear and forest-fruit flavored probiotic fermented milk were analyzed both by standard methods and by the potentiometric sensor array. The results obtained by these methods were used for the development of neural network models for rapid estimation of aroma compounds content in probiotic fermented milk. The highest correlation (0.967) and lowest standard deviation of error for the training (0.585), selection (0.503) and testing (0.571) subset was obtained for the estimation of ethanol content. The lowest correlation (0.669) was obtained for the estimation of acetaldehyde content. The model exhibited poor performance in average error and standard deviations of errors in all subsets which could be explained by low sensitivity of the sensor array to the compound. The obtained results indicate that the potentiometric electronic tongue coupled with artificial neural networks can be applied as a rapid method for the determination of aroma compounds in probiotic fermented milk.

  12. Potentiometric electronic tongue-flow injection analysis system for the monitoring of heavy metal biosorption processes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; del Valle, M; Alegret, S; Valderrama, C; Florido, A

    2012-05-15

    An automated flow injection potentiometric (FIP) system with electronic tongue detection (ET) is used for the monitoring of biosorption processes of heavy metals on vegetable wastes. Grape stalk wastes are used as biosorbent to remove Cu(2+) ions in a fixed-bed column configuration. The ET is formed by a 5-sensor array with Cu(2+) and Ca(2+)-selective electrodes and electrodes with generic response to heavy-metals, plus an artificial neural network response model of the sensor's cross-response. The real-time monitoring of both the Cu(2+) and the cation exchanged and released (Ca(2+)) in the effluent solution is performed by using flow-injection potentiometric electronic tongue system. The coupling of the electronic tongue with automation features of the flow-injection system allows us to accurately characterize the Cu(2+) ion-biosorption process, through obtaining its breakthrough curves, and the profile of the Ca(2+) ion release. In parallel, fractions of the extract solution are analysed by spectroscopic techniques in order to validate the results obtained with the reported methodology. The sorption performance of grape stalks is also evaluated by means of well-established sorption models.

  13. Potentiometric urea biosensor based on an immobilised fullerene-urease bio-conjugate.

    PubMed

    Saeedfar, Kasra; Heng, Lee Yook; Ling, Tan Ling; Rezayi, Majid

    2013-12-06

    A novel method for the rapid modification of fullerene for subsequent enzyme attachment to create a potentiometric biosensor is presented. Urease was immobilized onto the modified fullerene nanomaterial. The modified fullerene-immobilized urease (C60-urease) bioconjugate has been confirmed to catalyze the hydrolysis of urea in solution. The biomaterial was then deposited on a screen-printed electrode containing a non-plasticized poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PnBA) membrane entrapped with a hydrogen ionophore. This pH-selective membrane is intended to function as a potentiometric urea biosensor with the deposition of C60-urease on the PnBA membrane. Various parameters for fullerene modification and urease immobilization were investigated. The optimal pH and concentration of the phosphate buffer for the urea biosensor were 7.0 and 0.5 mM, respectively. The linear response range of the biosensor was from 2.31 × 10-3 M to 8.28 × 10-5 M. The biosensor's sensitivity was 59.67 ± 0.91 mV/decade, which is close to the theoretical value. Common cations such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ showed no obvious interference with the urea biosensor's response. The use of a fullerene-urease bio-conjugate and an acrylic membrane with good adhesion prevented the leaching of urease enzyme and thus increased the stability of the urea biosensor for up to 140 days.

  14. Potentiometric measurement of polymer-membrane electrodes based on lanthanum

    SciTech Connect

    Saefurohman, Asep Buchari, Noviandri, Indra; Syoni

    2014-03-24

    Quantitative analysis of rare earth elements which are considered as the standard method that has a high accuracy, and detection limits achieved by the order of ppm is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES). But these tools are expensive and valuable analysis of the high cost of implementation. In this study be made and characterized selective electrode for the determination of rare earth ions is potentiometric. Membrane manufacturing techniques studied is based on immersion (liquid impregnated membrane) in PTFE 0.5 pore size. As ionophores to be used tri butyl phosphate (TBP) and bis(2-etylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate. There is no report previously that TBP used as ionophore in polymeric membrane based lanthanum. Some parameters that affect the performance of membrane electrode such as membrane composition, membrane thickness, and types of membrane materials studied in this research. Manufacturing of Ion Selective Electrodes (ISE) Lanthanum (La) by means of impregnation La membrane in TBP in kerosene solution has been done and showed performance for ISE-La. FTIR spectrum results for PTFE 0.5 pore size which impregnated in TBP and PTFE blank showed difference of spectra in the top 1257 cm{sup −1}, 1031 cm{sup −1} and 794.7 cm{sup −1} for P=O stretching and stretching POC from group −OP =O. The result showed shift wave number for P =O stretching of the cluster (−OP=O) in PTFE-TBP mixture that is at the peak of 1230 cm{sup −1} indicated that no interaction bond between hydroxyl group of molecules with molecular clusters fosforil of TBP or R{sub 3}P = O. The membrane had stable responses in pH range between 1 and 9. Good responses were obtained using 10{sup −3} M La(III) internal solution, which produced relatively high potential. ISE-La showed relatively good performances. The electrode had a response time of 29±4.5 second and could be use for 50 days. The linear range was between 10{sup −5} and 10{sup −1} M.

  15. Potentiometric measurement of polymer-membrane electrodes based on lanthanum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saefurohman, Asep; Buchari, Noviandri, Indra; Syoni

    2014-03-01

    Quantitative analysis of rare earth elements which are considered as the standard method that has a high accuracy, and detection limits achieved by the order of ppm is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES). But these tools are expensive and valuable analysis of the high cost of implementation. In this study be made and characterized selective electrode for the determination of rare earth ions is potentiometric. Membrane manufacturing techniques studied is based on immersion (liquid impregnated membrane) in PTFE 0.5 pore size. As ionophores to be used tri butyl phosphate (TBP) and bis(2-etylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate. There is no report previously that TBP used as ionophore in polymeric membrane based lanthanum. Some parameters that affect the performance of membrane electrode such as membrane composition, membrane thickness, and types of membrane materials studied in this research. Manufacturing of Ion Selective Electrodes (ISE) Lanthanum (La) by means of impregnation La membrane in TBP in kerosene solution has been done and showed performance for ISE-La. FTIR spectrum results for PTFE 0.5 pore size which impregnated in TBP and PTFE blank showed difference of spectra in the top 1257 cm-1, 1031 cm-1 and 794.7 cm-1 for P=O stretching and stretching POC from group -OP =O. The result showed shift wave number for P =O stretching of the cluster (-OP=O) in PTFE-TBP mixture that is at the peak of 1230 cm-1 indicated that no interaction bond between hydroxyl group of molecules with molecular clusters fosforil of TBP or R3P = O. The membrane had stable responses in pH range between 1 and 9. Good responses were obtained using 10-3 M La(III) internal solution, which produced relatively high potential. ISE-La showed relatively good performances. The electrode had a response time of 29±4.5 second and could be use for 50 days. The linear range was between 10-5 and 10-1 M.

  16. Liquefaction of Douglas Fir wood slurries: titration of acids and anions in aqueous product and feed slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.G.

    1981-03-01

    After hydrolytic pretreatment, wood slurries contain substantial amounts of organic acids. Additional acids are produced during the liquefaction step whether or not there is prehydrolysis. The acids have pH's in the range of about 3 to 5 and are easily titrated potentiometrically with sodium hydroxide. Anions present in neutralized slurry or in aqueous product can be titrated with hydrogen chloride solution with appropriate corrections for sulfate if present, and for excess titrant at the low pH of the endpoint.

  17. Synthesis and studies of selective chemosensor for naked-eye detection of anions and cations based on a new Schiff-base derivative.

    PubMed

    Orojloo, Masoumeh; Amani, Saeid

    2016-10-01

    A new chromogenic receptor, 4-((2,4-dichlorophenyl)diazenyl)-2-(3-hydroxypropylimino) methyl)phenol, has been designed and synthesized for quantitative and low-cost detection of various biological anions and cations. The dye was characterized by elemental analyses, infrared, UV-visible spectroscopy, and NMR spectroscopy. Upon the addition of F(-) and H2PO4(-) to the solution of chemosensor in DMSO, the dramatic naked eye detectable color changes were observed from yellow to red and orange with a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.66×10(-6)mol. L(-1) and 1.24×10(-6)mol. L(-1) at room temperature, respectively. The chemosensor showed visual changes towards cations, such as Al(3+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+), and Cr(3+), in DMSO/water (9:1). The detection limit of receptor L for the analysis of Al(3+) ion was calculated to be 3.02×10(-6)mol. L(-1). The anion recognition property of the receptor via proton transfer was monitored by UV-visible titration and (1)HNMR spectroscopy. The binding constant (Ka) and stoichiometry of the host-guest complexes formed were determined by the Benesi-Hildebrand (B-H) plot and Job's method, respectively.

  18. Conductive polymer as a controlled microenvironment for the potentiometric high-throughput evaluation of ionic liquid cell toxicity.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weilian; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents both biological and potentiometric evaluations of the cell toxicity of a widely used ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim]BF(4)), to Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells (V79 cell line). The innovative potentiometric study takes advantage of the unique properties of conductive polymer polypyrrole (PPY) for the potentiometric evaluation of cell toxicity of [bmim]BF(4) to the V79 cells in a real-time, noninvasive and high-throughput manner. The conductive polymer PPY provides a controlled microenvironment that allows the quantitative release of the anions of the ionic liquids into the cells being monitored in real time and noninvasively. Parallel biological assay results showed that V79 cells exposed to [bmim]BF(4) usually grew in clusters, and that many small vacuoles could be seen in the cytoplasm. At the 24th hour after the V79 cells had been exposed to the ionic liquid (IL), the half inhibition concentration (EC(50)) of [bmim]BF(4) was around 5 mM. From a cell cycle study performed using a FACScan flow cytometer, it was found that the V79 cells could be partially locked to the G(1) phase by [bmim]BF(4), which extended the doubling time for cell growth. Comparing with the EC(50) values of cadmium chloride and mercury chloride, [bmim]BF(4) is not very toxic, but it may have a long-term toxic effect on mammalian cells. Compared to traditional biological in vitro assays, the use of a conductive polymer substrate in combination with a potentiometric sensor array is much more sensitive, faster, and enables a simpler evaluation of chemical cell toxicity. Additionally, it simplifies the study of the reversibility of cell toxicity, i.e., cell recovery, because there is no need to refresh the culture medium since a finite amount of chemicals can be doped and released. We found that the cytotoxicity of [bmim]BF(4) at a concentration of less than 6 mM was reversible for the V79 cell line, because cell morphology and

  19. Direct potentiometric quantification of histamine using solid-phase imprinted nanoparticles as recognition elements.

    PubMed

    Basozabal, Itsaso; Guerreiro, Antonio; Gomez-Caballero, Alberto; Aranzazu Goicolea, M; Barrio, Ramón J

    2014-08-15

    A new potentiometric sensor based on molecularly imprinted nanoparticles produced via the solid-phase imprinting method was developed. For histamine quantification, the nanoparticles were incorporated within a membrane, which was then used to fabricate an ion-selective electrode. The use of nanoparticles with high affinity and specificity allowed for label-free detection/quantification of histamine in real samples with short response times. The sensor could selectively quantify histamine in presence of other biogenic amines in real wine and fish matrices. The limit of detection achieved was 1.12×10(-6)molL(-1), with a linear range between 10(-6) and 10(-2)molL(-1) and a response time below 20s, making the sensor as developed a promising tool for direct quantification of histamine in the food industry.

  20. Use of potentiometric sensors to study (bio)molecular interactions.

    PubMed

    De Wael, K; Daems, D; Van Camp, G; Nagels, L J

    2012-06-05

    Potentiometric sensors were used to study molecular interactions in liquid environments with sensorgram methodology. This is demonstrated with a lipophilic rubber-based and a collagen-based hydrogel sensor coating. The investigated molecules were promazine and tartaric acid, respectively. The sensors were placed in a hydrodynamic wall-jet system for the recording of sensorgrams. Millivolt sensor responses were first converted to a signal, expressing the concentration of adsorbed organic ions. Using a linearization method, a pseudo-first order-kinetic model of adsorption was shown to fit the experimental results perfectly. K(assoc), k(on), and k(off) values were calculated. The technique can be used over 4 decades of concentration, and it is very sensitive to low-MW compounds as well as to multiply charged large biomolecules. This study is the first to demonstrate the application of potentiometric sensors as an alternative and complement to surface plasmon resonance methods.

  1. Redox potential of shallow groundwater by 1-month continuous in situ potentiometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioka, Seiichiro; Muraoka, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Yota

    2016-06-01

    One-month continuous in situ potentiometric measurements of redox potential (Eh) were used to investigate the dominant redox processes in the shallow groundwater (i.e., <10 m) of a Holocene aquifer, Aomori City, northern Japan. The Eh values, which were determined using a platinum electrode, were -163, -169 and -173 mV, respectively, for three monitoring campaigns. The temperatures and pH values of shallow groundwater during all three periods were approximately 12 °C and 6.6, respectively. Dissolved oxygen and sulfide ion concentrations were not detected. Chemical analyses showed that the shallow groundwater is Na-Fe-HCO3 type, and contains over 40 mg/L of Fe (the dominant cation) and over 200 mg/L of HCO3 - (the dominant anion). A good fit was found between measured Eh values and Eh values calculated using thermodynamic data of fine-grained goethite. This suggests that Fe redox system is related to the Eh values of shallow groundwater in the Aomori City aquifer.

  2. Potentiometric Surface of the Ozark Aquifer in Northern Arkansas, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pugh, Aaron L.

    2008-01-01

    The Ozark aquifer in northern Arkansas is composed of dolomite, limestone, sandstone, and shale of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian age, and ranges in thickness from approximately 1,100 feet to more than 4,000 feet. Hydrologically, the aquifer is complex, characterized by discrete and discontinuous flow components with large variations in permeability. The potentiometric-surface map, based on 58 well and 5 spring water-level measurements collected in 2007 in Arkansas and Missouri, has a maximum water-level altitude measurement of 1,169 feet in Carroll County and a minimum water-level altitude measurement of 118 feet in Randolph County. Regionally, the flow within the aquifer is to the south and southeast in the eastern and central part of the study area and to the west, northwest, and north in the western part of the study area. Comparing the 2007 potentiometric-surface map with a predevelopment potentiometric-surface map indicates general agreement between the two surfaces except in the northwestern part of the study area. Potentiometric-surface differences can be attributed to withdrawals related to increasing population, changes in public-supply sources, processes or water withdrawals outside the study area, or differences in data-collection or map-construction methods. The rapidly increasing population within the study area appears to have some effect on ground-water levels. Although, the effect appears to have been minimized by the development and use of surface-water distribution infrastructure, suggesting most of the incoming populations are fulfilling their water needs from surface-water sources. The conversion of some users from ground water to surface water may be allowing water levels in wells to recover (rise) or decline at a slower rate, such as in Benton, Carroll, and Washington Counties.

  3. Porous silicon as a substrate material for potentiometric biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thust, Marion; Schöning, M. J.; Frohnhoff, S.; Arens-Fischer, R.; Kordos, P.; Lüth, H.

    1996-01-01

    For the first time porous silicon has been investigated for the purpose of application as a substrate material for potentiometric biosensors operating in aqueous solutions. Porous silicon was prepared from differently doped silicon substrates by a standard anodic etching process. After oxidation, penicillinase, an enzyme sensitive to penicillin, was bound to the porous structure by physical adsorption. To characterize the electrochemical properties of the so build up penicillin biosensor, capacitance - voltage (C - V) measurements were performed on these field-effect structures.

  4. Automated potentiometric electrolyte analysis system. [for use in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility is demonstrated of utilizing chemical sensing electrode technology as the basis for an automatically-controlled system for blood gas and electrolyte analyses under weightlessness conditions. The specific measurements required were pH, pCO2, sodium, chloride, potassium ions, and ionized calcium. The general electrode theory, and ion activity measurements are described along with the fluid transport package, electronics unit, and controller for the automated potentiometric analysis system.

  5. Novel lipoate-selective membrane sensor for the flow injection determination of alpha-lipoic acid in pharmaceutical preparations and urine.

    PubMed

    Abbas, M N; Radwan, A A

    2008-02-15

    A potentiometric lipoate-selective sensor based on mercuric lipoate ion-pair as a membrane carrier is reported. The electrode was prepared by coating the membrane solution containing PVC, plasticizer, and carrier on the surface of graphite electrode. Influences of the membrane composition, pH, and possible interfering anions were investigated on the response properties of the electrode. The sensor exhibits significantly enhanced response toward lipoate ions over the concentration range 1 x 10(-7) molL(-1) to 1 x 10(-2) molL(-1) with a lower detection limit of (LDL) of 9 x 10(-8) molL(-1) and a slope of -29.4 m V decade(-1), with S.D. of the slope is 0.214 mV. Fast and stable response, good reproducibility, long-term stability, applicability over a pH range of 8.0-9.5 is demonstrated. The sensor has a response time of anions. The CGE was used in flow injection potentiometry (FIP) and resulted in well defined peaks for lipoate ions with stable baseline, excellent reproducibility and reasonable sampling rate of 30 injections per hour. The proposed sensor has been applied for the direct and FI potentiometric determination of LA in pharmaceutical preparations and urine; and has been also utilized as an indicator electrode for the potentiometric titration of LA.

  6. Potentiometric surface of the Ozark aquifer in northern Arkansas, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrader, T.P.

    2005-01-01

    The Ozark aquifer in northern Arkansas comprises dolomites, limestones, sandstones, and shales of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian age, and ranges in thickness from approximately 1,100 feet to more than 4,000 feet. Hydrologically, the aquifer is complex, characterized by discrete and discontinuous flow components with large variations in permeability. The potentiometric-surface map, based on 59 well and 5 spring water-level measurements collected in 2004 in Arkansas and Missouri, indicates maximum water-level altitudes of about 1,188 feet in Benton County and minimum water-level altitudes of about 116 feet in Randolph County. Regionally, the flow within the aquifer is to the south and southeast in the eastern and central part of the study area and to the northwest and north in the western part of the study area. Comparing the 2004 potentiometric- surface map with a predevelopment potentiometricsurface map indicates general agreement between the two surfaces. Potentiometric-surface differences could be attributed to differences in pumping related to changing population from 1990 to 2000, change in source for public supplies, processes or water use outside the study area, or differences in data-collection or map-construction methods.

  7. Potentiometric surface of the Ozark Aquifer in northern Arkansas, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pugh, Aaron L.

    1998-01-01

    The Ozark aquifer in northern Arkansas is comprised of dolostones, limestones, sandstones, and shales of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian age, and ranges in thickness from approximately 1,100 feet to more than 4,000 feet. Hydrologically, the aquifer is complex, characterized by discrete and diffuse flow components with large spatial variations in porosity and permeability. Regionally, the flow within the aquifer is to the south and southeast in the eastern and central part of the study area and to the northwest and north in the western part of the study area. Within Arkansas, the potentiometric-surface map based on October- December 1995 data indicates maximum water-level altitudes of greater than 1,300 feet in Boone, Carroll, and Madison Counties and minimum water-level altitudes of less than 400 feet in Independence, Izard, Lawrence, Randolph, Sharp, and Stone Counties. Comparing the 1995 potentiometric-surface map with a predevelopment potentiometric- surface map (Imes, 199), indicates general agreement between the two surfaces except in parts of Benton and Sharp Counties. Water-level differences could be attributed to differences in the time of year in which the water-level data were collected, differences in pumping conditions just prior to water-level measurement, differences in interpretation resulting (in part) from greater number of water-level measurements used for this report than for Imes (1990), or erroneous water-level data.

  8. Potentiometric-surface map, 1993, Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Tucci, P.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    The revised potentiometric surface map here, using mainly 1993 average water levels, updates earlier maps of this area. Water levels are contoured with 20-m intervals, with additional 0.5-m contours in the small-gradient area SE of Yucca Mountain. Water levels range from 728 m above sea level SE of Yucca to 1,034 m above sea level north of Yucca. Potentiometric levels in the deeper parts of the volcanic rock aquifer range from 730 to 785 m above sea level. The potentiometric surface can be divided into 3 regions: A small gradient area E and SE of Yucca, a moderate-gradient area on the west side of Yucca, and a large-gradient area to the N-NE of Yucca. Water levels from wells at Yucca were examined for yearly trends (1986-93) using linear least-squares regression. Of the 22 wells, three had significant positive trends. The trend in well UE-25 WT-3 may be influenced by monitoring equipment problems. Tends in USW WT-7 and USW WTS-10 are similar; both are located near a fault west of Yucca; however another well near that fault exhibited no significant trend.

  9. Anions coordinating anions: analysis of the interaction between anionic Keplerate nanocapsules and their anionic ligands.

    PubMed

    Melgar, Dolores; Bandeira, Nuno A G; Bonet Avalos, Josep; Bo, Carles

    2017-02-15

    Keplerates are a family of anionic metal oxide spherical capsules containing up to 132 metal atoms and some hundreds of oxygen atoms. These capsules holding a high negative charge of -12 coordinate both mono-anionic and di-anionic ligands thus increasing their charge up to -42, even up to -72, which is compensated by the corresponding counter-cations in the X-ray structures. We present an analysis of the relative importance of several energy terms of the coordinate bond between the capsule and ligands like carbonate, sulphate, sulphite, phosphinate, selenate, and a variety of carboxylates, of which the overriding component is contributed by solvation/de-solvation effects.

  10. Preliminary potentiometric map and flow dynamic characteristics for the upper-basalt confined aquifer system

    SciTech Connect

    Spane, F.A. Jr.; Raymond, R.G.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents the first comprehensive Hanford Site-wide potentiometric map for the upper-basalt confined aquifer system (i.e., the upper Saddle Mountains Basalt). In constructing the potentiometric map, over forty on-site and off-site monitoring wells and boreholes were used. The potentiometric map developed for the upper-basalt confined aquifer is consistent with the areal head pattern indicated for the Mabton interbed, which is a deeper and more areally extensive confined aquifer underlying the Hanford Site. Salient features for the upper-basalt confined aquifer system potentiometric map are described.

  11. R type anion channel

    PubMed Central

    Diatloff, Eugene; Peyronnet, Rémi; Colcombet, Jean; Thomine, Sébastien; Barbier-Brygoo, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    Plant genomes code for channels involved in the transport of cations, anions and uncharged molecules through membranes. Although the molecular identity of channels for cations and uncharged molecules has progressed rapidly in the recent years, the molecular identity of anion channels has lagged behind. Electrophysiological studies have identified S-type (slow) and R-type (rapid) anion channels. In this brief review, we summarize the proposed functions of the R-type anion channels which, like the S-type, were first characterized by electrophysiology over 20 years ago, but unlike the S-type, have still yet to be cloned. We show that the R-type channel can play multiple roles. PMID:21051946

  12. Electrochemical anion sensing using electrodes chemically modified with Au(I)-Cu(I) heterotrimetallic alkynyl cluster complexes containing ferrocenyl groups.

    PubMed

    Doménech, Antonio; Koshevoy, Igor O; Montoya, Noemí; Pakkanen, Tapani A

    2010-07-01

    A novel family of electrochemical anion sensors operating in aqueous media, based on the heterometallic Au(I)-Cu(I) [{Au(3)Cu(2)(C(2)R)(6)}Au(3)(PPh(2)C(6)H(4)PPh(2))(3)](PF(6))(2) (L1, R = Fc; L2, R = C(6)H(4)Fc) alkynyl cluster complexes, is presented. Upon attachment to graphite and gold electrodes, these compounds exhibit a well-defined, essentially reversible, solid-state electrochemistry in contact with aqueous media, based on ferrocenyl-centered oxidation processes involving anion insertion, leading to distinctive pH-independent electrochemical responses for fluoride, chloride, bromide, perchlorate, bicarbonate, carbonate, phosphate, hydrogen phosphate, dihydrogen phosphate, and nitrate anions. Cluster-modified electrodes can be used as potentiometric sensors as a result of the reversible, diffusion-controlled electrochemistry obtained for the anion-assisted electrochemical oxidation of L1 and L2.

  13. Functionalization of PVC membrane with ss oligonucleotides for a potentiometric biosensor.

    PubMed

    Shishkanova, T V; Volf, R; Krondak, M; Král, V

    2007-05-15

    A novel application of a single stranded (ss) oligonucleotide as an active component of polymeric membrane in an ion-selective electrode (ISE) is described. The original oligonucleotides, oligo(dA)(15), modified by cholesterol, triphenylmethyl and hexadecyl derivatives, were immobilized into poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane using extraction protocol. In parallel, the adsorption protocol was used to immobilize unmodified oligo(dA)(15) on the PVC membrane based on tridodecylmethyammonium chloride (TDDMA(+)Cl(-)). Immobilization of ss oligonucleotide probe through spacer was more effective for the potentiometric detection of the hybridization between complementary oligonucleotides. It was found that cholesterol-oligo(dA)(15) modified membranes were sensitive toward complementary oligo(dT)(15) in the concentration range 2-80 nM at pH 7. An explanation for the detection mechanism is proposed.

  14. Nonaqueous synthesis of a selectively modified, highly anionic sulfopropyl ether derivative of cyclomaltoheptaose (beta-cyclodextrin) in the presence of 18-crown-6.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Daniel L; Green, Thomas K

    2005-08-15

    A highly anionic cyclomaltooligosaccharide (cyclodextrin, CD) derivative containing sulfopropyl functional groups on the primary face of the CD was synthesized. Heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl)cyclomaltoheptaose [heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin] was reacted with 1,3-propane sultone and potassium hydride (KH) in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran in the presence of 18-crown-6 to yield highly substituted potassium heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-sulfopropyl)cyclomaltoheptaose [heptakis(KSPDM)-beta-CD] with an average degree of substitution (DSCE) of 6.9 as determined by inverse detection capillary electrophoresis (CE). The principal species in the product is the fully substituted heptakis(KSPDM)-beta-CD. Complete NMR assignments of the hydrogen and carbon atoms are made using a combination of gCOSY and gHSQC. In the absence of 18-crown-6, the reaction generates a mixture of multiply charged derivatives with average DSCE of 4.1. The possible roles of the crown ether in the reaction are discussed. The ROESY NMR spectrum of the inclusion complex that forms between heptakis(KSPDM)-beta-CD and 2-naphthoic acid in D2O reveals that 2-naphthoic acid inserts with the carboxyl group toward the derivatized primary rim of the cyclodextrin.

  15. Ground-water-level monitoring, basin boundaries, and potentiometric surfaces of the aquifer system at Edwards Air Force Base, California, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rewis, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    A ground-water-level monitoring program was implemented at Edwards Air Force Base, California, from January through December 1992 to monitor spatial and temporal changes in poten-tiometric surfaces that largely are affected by ground-water pumping. Potentiometric-surface maps are needed to determine the correlation between declining ground- water levels and the distribution of land subsidence. The monitoring program focused on areas of the base where pumping has occurred, especially near Rogers Lake, and involved three phases of data collection: (1) well canvassing and selection, (2) geodetic surveys, and (3) monthly ground-water-level measurements. Construction and historical water- level data were compiled for 118 wells and pi-ezometers on or near the base, and monthly ground-water-level measurements were made in 82 wells and piezometers on the base. The compiled water-level data were used in conjunction with previously collected geologic data to identify three types of no-flow boundaries in the aquifer system: structural boundaries, a principal-aquifer boundary, and ground-water divides. Heads were computed from ground-water-level measurements and land-surface altitudes and then were used to map seasonal potentiometric surfaces for the principal and deep aquifers underlying the base. Pumping has created a regional depression in the potentiometric surface of the deep aquifer in the South Track, South Base, and Branch Park well-field area. A 15-foot decline in the potentiometric surface from April to September 1992 and 20- to 30-foot drawdowns in the three production wells in the South Track well field caused locally unconfined conditions in the deep aquifer.

  16. Understanding and modeling removal of anionic organic contaminants (AOCs) by anion exchange resins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huichun; Shields, Anthony J; Jadbabaei, Nastaran; Nelson, Maurice; Pan, Bingjun; Suri, Rominder P S

    2014-07-01

    Ionic organic contaminants (OCs) are a growing concern for water treatment and the environment and are removed inefficiently by many existing technologies. This study examined removal of anionic OCs by anion exchange resins (AXRs) as a promising alternative. Results indicate that two polystyrene AXRs (IRA910 and IRA96) have higher sorption capacities and selectivity than a polyacrylate resin (A860). For the polystyrene resins, selectivity follows: phenolates ≥ aromatic dicarboxylates > aromatic monocarboxylates > benzenesulfonate > aliphatic carboxylates. This trend can be explained based on hydration energy, the number of exchange groups, and aromaticity and hydrophobicity of the nonpolar moiety (NPM) of the anions. For A860, selectivity only varies within a narrow range (0.13-1.64). Despite the importance of the NPM of the anions, neutral solutes were sorbed much less, indicating synergistic combinations of electrostatic and nonelectrostatic interactions in the overall sorption. By conducting multiple linear regression between Abraham's descriptors and nature log of selectivity, induced dipole-related interactions and electrostatic interactions were found to be the most important interaction forces for sorption of the anions, while solute H-bond basicity has a negative effect. A predictive model was then developed for carboxylates and phenolates based on the poly parameter linear free energy relationships established for a diverse range of 16 anions and 5 neutral solutes, and was validated by accurate prediction of sorption of five test solutes within a wide range of equilibrium concentrations and that of benzoate at different pH.

  17. Anion recognition using newly synthesized hydrogen bonding disubstituted phenylhydrazone-based receptors: poly(vinyl chloride)-based sensor for acetate.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vinod K; Goyal, Rajendra N; Sharma, Ram A

    2008-08-15

    A potentiometric acetate-selective sensor, based on the use of butane-2,3-dione,bis[(2,4-dinitrophenyl)hydrazone] (BDH) as a neutral carrier in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix, is reported. Effect of various plasticizers and cation excluder, cetryaltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was studied. The best performance was obtained with a membrane composition of PVC:BDH:CTAB ratio (w/w; mg) of 160:8:8. The sensor exhibits significantly enhanced selectivity toward acetate ions over a wide concentration range 5.0 x 10(-6) to 1.0 x 10(-1)M with a lower detection limit of 1.2 x 10(-6)M within pH range 6.5-7.5 with a response time of <15s and a Nernstian slope of 60.3+/-0.3 mV decade(-1) of activity. Influences of the membrane composition, and possible interfering anions were investigated on the response properties of the electrode. Fast and stable response, good reproducibility and long-term stability are demonstrated. The sensor has a response time of 15s and can be used for at least 65 days without any considerable divergence in their potential response. Selectivity coefficients determined with the separate solution method (SSM) and fixed interference method (FIM) indicate that high selectivity for acetate ion. The proposed electrode shows fairly good discrimination of acetate from several inorganic and organic anions. It was successfully applied to direct determination of acetate within food preservatives. Total concentration of acetic acid in vinegar samples were determined by direct potentiometry and the values agreed with those mentioned by the manufacturers.

  18. Creating a monthly time series of the potentiometric surface in the Upper Floridan aquifer, Northern Tampa Bay area, Florida, January 2000-December 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Terrie M.; Fouad, Geoffrey G.

    2014-01-01

    semivariograms decreased markedly between 2002 and 2003, timing that coincided with decreases in well-field pumping. Cross-validation results suggest that the kriging interpolation may smooth over the drawdown of the potentiometric surface near production wells. The groundwater monitoring network of 197 wells yielded an average kriging error in the potentiometric-surface elevations of 2 feet or less over approximately 70 percent of the map area. Additional data collection within the existing monitoring network of 260 wells and near selected well fields could reduce the error in individual months. Reducing the kriging error in other areas would require adding new monitoring wells. Potentiometric-surface elevations fluctuated by as much as 30 feet over the study period, and the spatially averaged elevation for the entire surface rose by about 2 feet over the decade. Monthly potentiometric-surface elevations describe the lateral groundwater flow patterns in the aquifer and are usable at a variety of spatial scales to describe vertical groundwater recharge and discharge conditions for overlying surface-water features.

  19. A novel potentiometric biosensor for determination of L-lysine in commercial pharmaceutical L-lysine tablet and capsule.

    PubMed

    Yarar, Saniye; Karakuş, Emine

    2016-01-01

    The construction of an L-lysine biosensor on ammonium-selective poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) membrane electrode is described in this study. The construction procedure occurs in two stages: (I) the preparation of ammonium-selective poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) membrane electrode and (II) the chemical immobilization of lysine oxidase on this ammonium-selective electrode by using glutaraldehyde. The ammonium ions produced after enzymatic reaction were determined potentiometrically. The sensitivity of the lysine biosensor against ammonium ions and lysine were studied. The response time, linear working range, reproducibility and life time of the biosensor were also determined. The interfering effect of other amino acids on the biosensor performance was also studied and potentiometric selectivity coefficients were calculated. Although the biosensor responded mainly against tyrosine, a lot of amino acids and ascorbic acid that can be present in some real samples did not show any important interference. Additionally, lysine assay in commercial pharmaceutical lysine tablets and capsules was also successfully carried out. The results were in good agreement with previously reported values.

  20. High Performance Anion Chromatography of Gadolinium Chelates.

    PubMed

    Hajós, Peter; Lukács, Diana; Farsang, Evelin; Horváth, Krisztian

    2016-11-01

    High performance anion chromatography (HPIC) method to separate ionic Gd chelates, [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and free matrix anions was developed. At alkaline pHs, polydentate complexing agents such as ethylene-diamine-tetraacetate, diethylene-triamine pentaacetate and trans-1,2-diamine-cyclohexane-tetraacetate tend to form stable Gd chelate anions and can be separated by anion exchange. Separations were studied in the simple isocratic chromatographic run over the wide range of pH and concentration of carbonate eluent using suppressed conductivity detection. The ion exchange and complex forming equilibria were quantitatively described and demonstrated in order to understand major factors in the control of selectivity of Gd chelates. Parameters of optimized resolution between concurrent ions were presented on a 3D resolution surface. The applicability of the developed method is represented by the simultaneous analysis of Gd chelates and organic/inorganic anions. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy  (ICP-AES) analysis was used for confirmation of HPIC results for Gd. Collection protocols for the heart-cutting procedure of chromatograms were applied. SPE procedures were also developed not only to extract traces of free gadolinium ions from samples, but also to remove the high level of interfering anions of the complex matrices. The limit of detection, the recoverability and the linearity of the method were also presented.

  1. Potentiometric surface of the Lloyd aquifer on Long Island, New York, in January 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rich, Charles A.; Prince, Keith R.; Spinello, Anthony G.

    1975-01-01

    A map showing the potentiometric surface of the Lloyd aquifer was drawn from water-level measurements made in January 1975. Altitude of the potentiometric surface ranged from more than 20 feet below mean sea level in Queens County to more than 40 feet above mean sea level in Suffolk County.

  2. Anion-π catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yingjie; Beuchat, César; Domoto, Yuya; Gajewy, Jadwiga; Wilson, Adam; Mareda, Jiri; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan

    2014-02-05

    The introduction of new noncovalent interactions to build functional systems is of fundamental importance. We here report experimental and theoretical evidence that anion-π interactions can contribute to catalysis. The Kemp elimination is used as a classical tool to discover conceptually innovative catalysts for reactions with anionic transition states. For anion-π catalysis, a carboxylate base and a solubilizer are covalently attached to the π-acidic surface of naphthalenediimides. On these π-acidic surfaces, transition-state stabilizations up to ΔΔGTS = 31.8 ± 0.4 kJ mol(-1) are found. This value corresponds to a transition-state recognition of KTS = 2.7 ± 0.5 μM and a catalytic proficiency of 3.8 × 10(5) M(-1). Significantly increasing transition-state stabilization with increasing π-acidity of the catalyst, observed for two separate series, demonstrates the existence of "anion-π catalysis." In sharp contrast, increasing π-acidity of the best naphthalenediimide catalysts does not influence the more than 12 000-times weaker substrate recognition (KM = 34.5 ± 1.6 μM). Together with the disappearance of Michaelis-Menten kinetics on the expanded π-surfaces of perylenediimides, this finding supports that contributions from π-π interactions are not very important for anion-π catalysis. The linker between the π-acidic surface and the carboxylate base strongly influences activity. Insufficient length and flexibility cause incompatibility with saturation kinetics. Moreover, preorganizing linkers do not improve catalysis much, suggesting that the ideal positioning of the carboxylate base on the π-acidic surface is achieved by intramolecular anion-π interactions rather than by an optimized structure of the linker. Computational simulations are in excellent agreement with experimental results. They confirm, inter alia, that the stabilization of the anionic transition states (but not the neutral ground states) increases with the π-acidity of the

  3. Historical potentiometric surface of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and contiguous hydraulically connected units, west-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bush, Peter W.; Ardis, Ann F.; Wynn, Kirby H.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a potentiometric-surface map of the principal aquifers of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system based on the earliest available data; to explain in general terms what the potentiometric surface represents relative to rainfall conditions and ground-water withdrawals; and to discuss the major factors that control the configuration of the potentiometric surface.

  4. Solid state potentiometric gaseous oxide sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wachsman, Eric D. (Inventor); Azad, Abdul Majeed (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A solid state electrochemical cell (10a) for measuring the concentration of a component of a gas mixture (12) includes first semiconductor electrode (14) and second semiconductor electrode (16) formed from first and second semiconductor materials, respectively. The materials are selected so as to undergo a change in resistivity upon contacting a gas component, such as CO or NO. An electrolyte (18) is provided in contact with the first and second semiconductor electrodes. A reference cell can be included in contact with the electrolyte. Preferably, a voltage response of the first semiconductor electrode is opposite in slope direction to that of the second semiconductor electrode to produce a voltage response equal to the sum of the absolute values of the control system uses measured pollutant concentrations to direct adjustment of engine combustion conditions.

  5. Potentiometric determination of plutonium by sodium bismuthate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Charyulu, M M; Rao, V K; Natarajan, P R

    1984-12-01

    A potentiometric method for the determination of plutonium is described, in which the plutonium is quantitatively oxidized to plutonium(VI) with sodium bismuthate in nitric acid medium, the excess of oxidant is destroyed chemically and plutonium(VI) is reduced to plutonium(IV) with a measured excess of iron(II), the surplus of which is back-titrated with dichromate. For 3-5 mg of plutonium the error is less than 0.2%. For submilligram quantities of plutonium in presence of macro-amounts of uranium the error is below 2.0%.

  6. Potentiometric surface of the Catahoula aquifer in central Louisiana, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fendick, Jr., Robert B.; Carter, Kayla

    2015-12-09

    The potentiometric surface of the Catahoula aquifer was constructed by using the altitude of water levels measured at 29 wells during the period May through September 2013. The altitude of water levels ranged from 0.02 ft above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD 29) in well Co-51 to 238 ft above NGVD 29 in well Na-317. Groundwater movement in the Catahoula aquifer is generally to the southeast and towards discharge areas beneath the Sabine, Red, Little, and Tensas River Valleys.

  7. Cesium cation templated selective synthesis of a "cone-shaped" sugar macrotricyclic cryptand: A dual anion-cation molecular recognition of potassium tartrate.

    PubMed

    Porwanski, S; Moretti, F; Dumarcay-Charbonnier, F; Marsura, A

    2016-05-01

    Cesium templated Staudinger-aza-Wittig tandem reaction (S.A.W.) has been used in the synthesis of a bis-diazacrown-bis-cellobiosyl-tetra-ureido cryptand. A novel macrotricyclic compound having a "cone-shaped" configuration was selectively obtained. Additionally, first results on potential recognition properties of the cryptand are also given.

  8. Potentiometric titration and equivalent weight of humic acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pommer, A.M.; Breger, I.A.

    1960-01-01

    The "acid nature" of humic acid has been controversial for many years. Some investigators claim that humic acid is a true weak acid, while others feel that its behaviour during potentiometric titration can be accounted for by colloidal adsorption of hydrogen ions. The acid character of humic acid has been reinvestigated using newly-derived relationships for the titration of weak acids with strong base. Re-interpreting the potentiometric titration data published by Thiele and Kettner in 1953, it was found that Merck humic acid behaves as a weak polyelectrolytic acid having an equivalent weight of 150, a pKa of 6.8 to 7.0, and a titration exponent of about 4.8. Interdretation of similar data pertaining to the titration of phenol-formaldehyde and pyrogallol-formaldehyde resins, considered to be analogs for humic acid by Thiele and Kettner, leads to the conclusion that it is not possible to differentiate between adsorption and acid-base reaction for these substances. ?? 1960.

  9. A Urea Potentiometric Biosensor Based on a Thiophene Copolymer.

    PubMed

    Lai, Cheng-Yuan Kevin; Foot, Peter J S; Brown, John W; Spearman, Peter

    2017-03-03

    A potentiometric enzyme biosensor is a convenient detector for quantification of urea concentrations in industrial processes, or for monitoring patients with diabetes, kidney damage or liver malfunction. In this work, poly(3-hexylthiophene-co-3-thiopheneacetic acid) (P(3HT-co-3TAA)) was chemically synthesized, characterized and spin-coated onto conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) glass electrodes. Urease (Urs) was covalently attached to the smooth surface of this copolymer via carbodiimide coupling. The electrochemical behavior and stability of the modified Urs/P(3HT-co-3TAA)/ITO glass electrode were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, and the bound enzyme activity was confirmed by spectrophotometry. Potentiometric response studies indicated that this electrode could determine the concentration of urea in aqueous solutions, with a quasi-Nernstian response up to about 5 mM. No attempt was made to optimize the response speed; full equilibration occurred after 10 min, but the half-time for response was typically <1 min.

  10. A Urea Potentiometric Biosensor Based on a Thiophene Copolymer

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Cheng-Yuan (Kevin); Foot, Peter J. S.; Brown, John W.; Spearman, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A potentiometric enzyme biosensor is a convenient detector for quantification of urea concentrations in industrial processes, or for monitoring patients with diabetes, kidney damage or liver malfunction. In this work, poly(3-hexylthiophene-co-3-thiopheneacetic acid) (P(3HT-co-3TAA)) was chemically synthesized, characterized and spin-coated onto conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) glass electrodes. Urease (Urs) was covalently attached to the smooth surface of this copolymer via carbodiimide coupling. The electrochemical behavior and stability of the modified Urs/P(3HT-co-3TAA)/ITO glass electrode were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, and the bound enzyme activity was confirmed by spectrophotometry. Potentiometric response studies indicated that this electrode could determine the concentration of urea in aqueous solutions, with a quasi-Nernstian response up to about 5 mM. No attempt was made to optimize the response speed; full equilibration occurred after 10 min, but the half-time for response was typically <1 min. PMID:28273816

  11. Electron anions and the glass transition temperature

    PubMed Central

    Sushko, Peter V.; Tomota, Yudai; Hosono, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Properties of glasses are typically controlled by judicious selection of the glass-forming and glass-modifying constituents. Through an experimental and computational study of the crystalline, molten, and amorphous [Ca12Al14O32]2+ ⋅ (e–)2, we demonstrate that electron anions in this system behave as glass modifiers that strongly affect solidification dynamics, the glass transition temperature, and spectroscopic properties of the resultant amorphous material. The concentration of such electron anions is a consequential control parameter: It invokes materials evolution pathways and properties not available in conventional glasses, which opens a unique avenue in rational materials design. PMID:27559083

  12. Potentiometric analytical microsystem based on the integration of a gas-diffusion step for on-line ammonium determination in water recycling processes in manned space missions.

    PubMed

    Calvo-López, Antonio; Ymbern, Oriol; Puyol, Mar; Casalta, Joan Manel; Alonso-Chamarro, Julián

    2015-05-18

    The design, construction and evaluation of a versatile cyclic olefin copolymer (COC)-based continuous flow potentiometric microanalyzer to monitor the presence of ammonium ion in recycling water processes for future manned space missions is presented. The microsystem integrates microfluidics, a gas-diffusion module and a detection system in a single substrate. The gas-diffusion module was integrated by a hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. The potentiometric detection system is based on an all-solid state ammonium selective electrode and a screen-printed Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The analytical features provided by the analytical microsystem after the optimization process were a linear range from 0.15 to 500 mg L(-1) and a detection limit of 0.07 ± 0.01 mg L(-1). Nevertheless, the operational features can be easily adapted to other applications through the modification of the hydrodynamic variables of the microfluidic platform.

  13. Estimated 2012 groundwater potentiometric surface and drawdown from predevelopment to 2012 in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque metropolitan area, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Rachel I.; McKean, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, the water-supply requirements of the Albuquerque metropolitan area of central New Mexico were met almost exclusively by groundwater withdrawal from the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. In response to water-level declines, the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA) began diverting water from the San Juan-Chama Drinking Water Project in December 2008 to reduce the use of groundwater to meet municipal demand. Modifications in the demand for water and the source of the supply of water for the Albuquerque metropolitan area have resulted in a variable response in the potentiometric surface of the production zone (the interval of the aquifer, from within about 200 feet below the water table to 900 feet or more, in which supply wells generally are screened) of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Analysis of the magnitude and spatial distribution of water-level change can help improve the understanding of how the groundwater system responds to withdrawals and variations in the management of the water supply and can support water-management agencies’ efforts to minimize future water-level declines and improve sustainability. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the ABCWUA, has developed an estimate of the 2012 potentiometric surface of the production zone of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque metropolitan area. This potentiometric surface is the latest in a series of reports depicting the potentiometric surface of the area. This report presents the estimated potentiometric surface during winter (from December to March) of water year 2012 and the estimated changes in potentiometric surface between predevelopment (pre-1961) and water year 2012 for the production zone of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque metropolitan area. Hydrographs from selected piezometers are included to provide details of historical water-level changes. In general, water-level measurements used for this report were

  14. Solid-contact potentiometric aptasensor based on aptamer functionalized carbon nanotubes for the direct determination of proteins.

    PubMed

    Düzgün, Ali; Maroto, Alicia; Mairal, Teresa; O'Sullivan, Ciara; Rius, F Xavier

    2010-05-01

    A facile, solid-contact selective potentiometric aptasensor exploiting a network of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) acting as a transducing element is described in this work. The molecular properties of the SWCNT surface have been modified by covalently linking aptamers as biorecognition elements to the carboxylic groups of the SWCNT walls. As a model system to demonstrate the generic application of the approach, a 15-mer thrombin aptamer interacts with thrombin and the affinity interaction gives rise to a direct potentiometric signal that can be easily recorded within 15 s. The dynamic linear range, with a sensitivity of 8.0 mV/log a(Thr) corresponds to the 10(-7)-10(-6) M range of thrombin concentrations, with a limit of detection of 80 nM. The aptasensor displays selectivity against elastase and bovine serum albumin and is easily regenerated by immersion in 2 M NaCl. The aptasensor demonstrates the capacity of direct detection of the recognition event avoiding the use of labels, mediators, or the addition of further reagents or analyte accumulation.

  15. Complex anion inclusion compounds: flexible anion-exchange materials.

    PubMed

    Williams, Edward R; Leithall, Rebecca M; Raja, Robert; Weller, Mark T

    2013-01-11

    Copper chloropyrophosphate frameworks have been synthesised with a wide variety of complex inorganic anions trapped in a large, flexible, one-dimensional pore, with anions including chloride, bromide, phosphate and the complex metal halo-anions PtCl(4)(2-), PdBr(4)(2-), CuCl(4)(2-) and AuCl(4)(-).

  16. Development and characterization of ion selective electrode for the assay of antimony.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, G A E

    2007-03-15

    The construction and general performance characteristics of two novel potentiometric carbon paste electrodes (CPE) responsive to antimony are described. These sensors are based on the use of the ion associate complexes of tetraiodoantimonate (TIA) anion with cetylpyridinium (CP) and triphenyl tetrazolium (TPT) counter cations as ion exchange site in a carbon paste matrix. The two sensors exhibits fast, stable and near-Nernstian for the mono charged TIA anion over the concentration range 1x10(-3) to 10(-6)M at 25 degrees C in the pH range 4-10 with anionic slope of 58.0+/-0.5 and 55.0+/-0.7 per concentration decade for TIA-CP and TIA-TPT, respectively. The lower detection limits are 4 and 5x10(-6)M and response time are 20 and 30s in the same order of both electrodes. Selectivity coefficients for antimony relative to a number of different cations and anions were investigated. There is negligible interference from many inorganic cation and anion except for Hg(2+), Cd(2+), and Bi(3+); however, their effect were eliminated by EDTA. The determination of 1.0-120.0mug/ml of antimony in aqueous solutions shows an average recovery of 99.0 and 97.5% with relative standard deviation of 2.0% for both electrodes at 40mug/ml. The determination of antimony in wastewater and some antibilharzial compounds using the proposed electrodes gave results that compare favorably with those obtained by the atomic absorption spectrometric method. Precipitation titrations involving cetylpyridinium chloride as titrant are monitored with both electrodes with inflection point of 180 and 100mV for TIA-CP and TIA-TPT, respectively.

  17. Putting anion-π interactions into perspective.

    PubMed

    Frontera, Antonio; Gamez, Patrick; Mascal, Mark; Mooibroek, Tiddo J; Reedijk, Jan

    2011-10-04

    Supramolecular chemistry is a field of scientific exploration that probes the relationship between molecular structure and function. It is the chemistry of the noncovalent bond, which forms the basis of highly specific recognition, transport, and regulation events that actuate biological processes. The classic design principles of supramolecular chemistry include strong, directional interactions like hydrogen bonding, halogen bonding, and cation-π complexation, as well as less directional forces like ion pairing, π-π, solvophobic, and van der Waals potentials. In recent years, the anion-π interaction (an attractive force between an electron-deficient aromatic π system and an anion) has been recognized as a hitherto unexplored noncovalent bond, the nature of which has been interpreted through both experimental and theoretical investigations. The design of selective anion receptors and channels based on this interaction represent important advances in the field of supramolecular chemistry. The objectives of this Review are 1) to discuss current thinking on the nature of this interaction, 2) to survey key experimental work in which anion-π bonding is demonstrated, and 3) to provide insights into the directional nature of anion-π contact in X-ray crystal structures.

  18. Potentiometric Surfaces in the Springfield Plateau and Ozark Aquifers of Northwestern Arkansas, Southeastern Kansas, Southwestern Missouri, and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Czarnecki, John B.; Mugel, Douglas N.

    2008-01-01

    The Springfield Plateau and Ozark aquifers are important sources of ground water in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system. Water from these aquifers is used for agricultural, domestic, industrial, and municipal water sources. Changing water use over time in these aquifers presents a need for updated potentiometric-surface maps of the Springfield Plateau and Ozark aquifers. The Springfield Plateau aquifer consists of water-bearing Mississippian-age limestone and chert. The Ozark aquifer consists of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian age water-bearing rocks consisting of dolostone, limestone, and sandstone. Both aquifers are complex with areally varying lithologies, discrete hydrologic units, varying permeabilities, and secondary permeabilities related to fractures and karst features. During the spring of 2006, ground-water levels were measured in 285 wells. These data, and water levels from selected lakes, rivers, and springs, were used to create potentiometric-surface maps for the Springfield Plateau and Ozark aquifers. Linear kriging was used initially to construct the water-level contours on the maps; the contours were subsequently modified using hydrologic judgment. The potentiometric-surface maps presented in this report represent ground-water conditions during the spring of 2006. During the spring of 2006, the region received less than average rainfall. Dry conditions prior to the spring of 2006 could have contributed to the observed water levels as well. The potentiometric-surface map of the Springfield Plateau aquifer shows a maximum measured water-level altitude within the study area of about 1,450 feet at a spring in Barry County, Missouri, and a minimum measured water-level altitude of 579 feet at a well in Ottawa County, Oklahoma. Cones of depression occur in Dade, Lawrence and Newton Counties in Missouri and Delaware and Ottawa Counties in Oklahoma. These cones of depression are associated with private wells. Ground water in the Springfield Plateau aquifer

  19. Photodetachment of Lanthanide Oxide Anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covington, A. M.; Emmons, E. D.; Kraus, R. G.; Thompson, J. S.; Calabrese, D.; Davis, V. T.

    2007-06-01

    Laser photodetached electron spectroscopy (LPES) has been used to study the structure and collision properties of lanthanide oxide anions including LaOn^- and CeOn^-. Preliminary photoelectron spectra from these anions will be presented along with ion beam production data from these and other lanthanide oxide anions.

  20. Crown-Ether Derived Graphene Hybrid Composite for Membrane-Free Potentiometric Sensing of Alkali Metal Ions.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Gunnar; Ulstrup, Jens; Chi, Qijin

    2016-01-13

    We report the design and synthesis of newly functionalized graphene hybrid material that can be used for selective membrane-free potentiometric detection of alkali metal ions, represented by potassium ions. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) functionalized covalently by 18-crown[6] ether with a dense surface coverage is achieved by the introduction of a flexible linking molecule. The resulting hybrid composite is highly stable and is capable of detecting potassium ions down to micromolar ranges with a selectivity over other cations (including Ca(2+), Li(+), Na(+), NH4(+)) at concentrations up to 25 mM. This material can be combined further with disposable chips, demonstrating its promise as an effective ion-selective sensing component for practical applications.

  1. Potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District, September 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.; Woodham, W.M.; Schiner, George R.

    1980-01-01

    A September 1980 potentiometric-surface map of the Southwest Florida Water Management District depicts the annual high water-level period. Potentiometric levels rose 1 to 31 feet between May 1980 and September 1980 in the citrus and farming sections of southern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, southwestern Polk, northwestern DeSoto, and Manatee Counties. Water levels in these areas are widely affected by reduced pumping for irrigation and have the greatest range in fluctuations. Generally, potentiometric levels were lower than previous September levels except in Citrus, eastern Levy, and western Marion Counties where levels were 0 to 8 feet higher. (USGS)

  2. Potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District, September 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.; Woodham, W.M.; Laughlin, Charles P.

    1979-01-01

    A September 1979 potentiometric-surface map of the Southwest Florida Water Management District depicts the annual high water-level period. Potentiometric levels increased 1 to 20 feet between May 1979 and September 1979, in the citrus and farming sections of southern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, southwestern Polk, northwestern DeSoto, and Manatee Counties. Water levels in these areas are widely affected by pumping for irrigation and have the greatest range in fluctuations. Water-level increases ranged from 0 to 7 feet in coastal, northern, and southern areas of the Water Management District. Generally, potentiometric levels were higher than previous September levels due to heavy rains in August and September. (USGS)

  3. Map showing the potentiometric surface of the Aquia Aquifer, May 19-23, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Frank; Drummond, Dave; Curley, Tracey

    1981-01-01

    The map is based on water level measurements made May 19-23, 1980. The well network used included 83 wells which have been screened in the Aquia aquifer (Aquia Formation of Paleocene Age). Highest levels of the potentiometric surface, 20 to 35 feet above sea level, were measured near the outcrop or subcrop of the aquifer in the topographically high areas of Anne Arundel and Prince Georges Counties. The potentiometric surface slopes to the southeast. Four separate and extensive cones of depression have developed in the potentiometric surface in the vicinities of Lexington Park, Leonardtown, Prince Frederick, and Chesapeake Beach. The cones of Leonardtown and Lexington Park seem to be merging. (USGS)

  4. Potentiometric surface of the upper Patapsco Aquifer in southern Maryland, September 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, D.C.; Mack, Frederick K.

    1993-01-01

    A map showing the potentiometric surface of the upper Patapsco aquifer in the Patapsco Formation of Cretaceous age in southern Maryland during September 1991 was prepared from water levels measured in wells. The potentiometric surface was at least 70 feet above sea level near the northwestern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in a topographically high area of Anne Arundel County, and at least 56 feet above sea level in a similar setting in Prince Georges County. From these high areas, the potentiometric surface declined to the south and southeast toward large well fields in the Annapolis and Waldorf areas and at the Chalk Point powerplant.

  5. Removal of dissolved organic matter by anion exchange: Effect of dissolved organic matter properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyer, T.H.; Singer, P.C.; Aiken, G.R.

    2008-01-01

    Ten isolates of aquatic dissolved organic matter (DOM) were evaluated to determine the effect that chemical properties of the DOM, such as charge density, aromaticity, and molecular weight, have on DOM removal by anion exchange. The DOM isolates were characterized asterrestrial, microbial, or intermediate humic substances or transphilic acids. All anion exchange experiments were conducted using a magnetic ion exchange (MIEX) resin. The charge density of the DOM isolates, determined by direct potentiometric titration, was fundamental to quantifying the stoichiometry of the anion exchange mechanism. The results clearly show that all DOM isolates were removed by anion exchange; however, differences among the DOM isolates did influence their removal by MIEX resin. In particular, MIEX resin had the greatest affinity for DOM with high charge density and the least affinity for DOM with low charge density and low aromaticity. This work illustrates that the chemical characteristics of DOM and solution conditions must be considered when evaluating anion exchange treatment for the removal of DOM. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  6. Hydrated hydride anion clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Han Myoung; Kim, Dongwook; Singh, N. Jiten; Kołaski, Maciej; Kim, Kwang S.

    2007-10-01

    On the basis of density functional theory (DFT) and high level ab initio theory, we report the structures, binding energies, thermodynamic quantities, IR spectra, and electronic properties of the hydride anion hydrated by up to six water molecules. Ground state DFT molecular dynamics simulations (based on the Born-Oppenheimer potential surface) show that as the temperature increases, the surface-bound hydride anion changes to the internally bound structure. Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations are also carried out for the spectral analysis of the monohydrated hydride. Excited-state ab initio molecular dynamics simulations show that the photoinduced charge-transfer-to-solvent phenomena are accompanied by the formation of the excess electron-water clusters and the detachment of the H radical from the clusters. The dynamics of the detachment process of a hydrogen radical upon the excitation is discussed.

  7. Anion permselective membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgdon, R. B.; Waite, W. A.; Alexander, S. S.

    1984-07-01

    Two polymer ion exchange membranes were synthesized to fulfill the needs of both electrical resistivity and anolyte/catholyte separation for utility load leveling utilizing the DOE/NASA mixed electrolyte REDOX battery. Both membranes were shown to meet mixed electrolyte utility load leveling criteria. Several modifications of an anion exchange membrane failed to meet utility load leveling REDOX battery criteria using the unmixed electrolyte REDOX cell.

  8. Anion permselective membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgdon, R. B.; Waite, W. A.; Alexander, S. S.

    1984-01-01

    Two polymer ion exchange membranes were synthesized to fulfill the needs of both electrical resistivity and anolyte/catholyte separation for utility load leveling utilizing the DOE/NASA mixed electrolyte REDOX battery. Both membranes were shown to meet mixed electrolyte utility load leveling criteria. Several modifications of an anion exchange membrane failed to meet utility load leveling REDOX battery criteria using the unmixed electrolyte REDOX cell.

  9. Potentiometric analysis of water soluble cutting fluid-metal combinations

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, E.E.

    1991-12-01

    The results of corrosion studies conducted by the University of Kansas under Contract G257763 for Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD), are given. These potentiometric studies evaluate the corrosivity of two water soluble cutting fluids at varying concentrations on samples of 304 stainless steel, 6061-T6 aluminum, and beryllium copper. This testing serves two purposes: (1) to develop effective test procedures adaptable to existing KCD corrosion measurement equipment for corrosion analysis of cutting fluid-metals combinations, and (2) to understand the relative corrosiveness of the varying water soluble cutting fluids on different metals. The tests used were adapted from the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM). Future testing will identify polarization techniques for establishing corrosion rates which will be used in evaluating both water soluble cutting fluids and other aqueous solutions used at KCD.

  10. Derivative analysis of potentiometric titration data to obtain protonation constants

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.F.; Xia, Y.X.; Choppin, G.R.

    1996-11-15

    A methodology is described to calibrate glass electrodes and to analyze potentiometric titration data to calculate protonation constants. The analysis uses the variation of dV/dpH with titrant addition in terms of two physical parameters which involve the concentrations of H{sup +}, OH{sup -}, and H{sub m}A. The data for titration of acetic acid and 8-hydroxyquinoline in 0.10-5.0 m NaCl media are analyzed by this method to obtain the stoichiometric protonation constants of the acids, the ionization constants of water, and the parameters s and b in the pH electrode calibration equation, pcH = spH{sub m} + b, where pcH = -log[H{sup +}], pH{sub m} is the pH meter reading. 31 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Protein detection with potentiometric aptasensors: a comparative study between polyaniline and single-walled carbon nanotubes transducers.

    PubMed

    Düzgün, Ali; Imran, Hassan; Levon, Kalle; Rius, F Xavier

    2013-01-01

    A comparison study on the performance characteristics and surface characterization of two different solid-contact selective potentiometric thrombin aptasensors, one exploiting a network of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and the other the polyaniline (PANI), both acting as a transducing element, is described in this work. The molecular properties of both SWCNT and PANI surfaces have been modified by covalently linking thrombin binding aptamers as biorecognition elements. The two aptasensors are compared and characterized through potentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) based on the voltammetric response of multiply charged transition metal cations (such as hexaammineruthenium, [Ru(NH3)6](3+)) bound electrostatically to the DNA probes. The surface densities of aptamers were accurately determined by the integration of the peak for the reduction of [Ru(NH3)6](3+) to [Ru(NH3)6](2+). The differences and the similarities, as well as the transduction mechanism, are also discussed. The sensitivity is calculated as 2.97 mV/decade and 8.03 mV/decade for the PANI and SWCNTs aptasensors, respectively. These results are in accordance with the higher surface density of the aptamers in the SWCNT potentiometric sensor.

  12. All-solid-state reference electrodes based on colloid-imprinted mesoporous carbon and their application in disposable paper-based potentiometric sensing devices.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinbo; Ho, Kieu T; Zou, Xu U; Smyrl, William H; Stein, Andreas; Bühlmann, Philippe

    2015-03-03

    Reference electrodes are used in almost every electroanalytical measurement. Here, all-solid-state reference electrodes are described that employ colloid-imprinted mesoporous (CIM) carbon as solid contact and a poly(vinyl chloride) reference membrane to contact the sample. Such a reference membrane is doped with a moderately hydrophilic ionic liquid and a hydrophobic redox couple, leading to well-defined constant potentials at the interfaces of this membrane to the sample and to the solid contact, respectively. Due to the intrinsic properties of CIM carbon, reference electrodes with a CIM carbon solid contact exhibit excellent resistance to common interfering agents such as light and O2, with outstanding potential stability in continuous potentiometric measurements. The potential drift of CIM carbon-based reference electrodes without redox couple is as low as 1.7 μV/h over 110 h, making them the most stable all-solid-state reference electrodes reported so far. To demonstrate the compatibility of CIM carbon-based reference electrodes with miniaturized potentiometric systems, these reference electrodes were integrated into paper-based potentiometric sensing devices, successfully replacing the conventional reference electrode with its reference electrolyte solution. As a proof of concept, disposable paper-based Cl(-) sensing devices that contain stencil-printed Ag/AgCl-based Cl(-) selective electrodes and CIM carbon-based reference electrodes were constructed. These sensing devices are inexpensive, easy to use, and offer highly reproducible Cl(-) measurements with sample volumes as low as 10 μL.

  13. Revised potentiometric-surface map, Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ervin, E.M.; Luckey, R.R.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The revised potentiometric-surface map presented in this report updates earlier maps of the Yucca Mountain area using mainly 1988 average water levels. Because of refinements in the corrections to the water-level measurements, these water levels have increased accuracy and precision over older values. The small-gradient area to the southeast of Yucca Mountain is contoured with a 0.25-meter interval and ranges in water-level altitude from 728.5 to 731.0 meters. Other areas with different water levels, to the north and west of Yucca Mountain, are illustrated with shaded patterns. The potentiometric surface can be divided into three regions: 1) A small-gradient area to the southeast of Yucca Mountain, which may be explained by flow through high-transmissivity rocks or low ground-water flux through the area; 2) A moderate-gradient area, on the western side of Yucca Mountain, where the water-level altitude ranges from 775 to 780 meters, and appears to be impeded by the Solitario Canyon Fault and a splay of that fault; and 3) A large-gradient area, to the north-northeast of Yucca Mountain, where water level altitude ranges from 738 to 1,035 meters, possibly as a result of a semi-perched groundwater system. Water levels from wells at Yucca Mountain were examined for yearly trends (1986-89) using linear least-squares regression. Data from five wells exhibited trends which were statistically significant, but some of those may be a result of slow equilibration of the water level from drilling in less permeable rocks. Adjustments for temperature and density changes in the deep wells with long fluid columns were attempted, but some of the adjusted data did not fit the surrounding data and, thus, were not used.

  14. Do CH-Anion and Anion-π Interactions Alter the Mechanism of 2:1 Host-Guest Complexation in Arylethynyl Monourea Anion Receptors?

    PubMed

    Eytel, Lisa M; Gilbert, Annie K; Görner, Paul; Zakharov, Lev N; Johnson, Darren W; Haley, Michael M

    2017-03-23

    Selective tuning of arylethynyl urea scaffolds for anionic guests requires an understanding of preferred binding motifs of the host-guest interaction. To investigate the binding preference of receptors without a pre-organized binding pocket, two electron-deficient phenylacetylene receptors with a single urea moiety have been prepared and were found to bind halides as 2:1 host-guest complexes that feature key CH-anion or anion-π interactions. These supporting interactions also appear to influence the mechanism of the 2:1 binding event.

  15. Nano- and microsized zeolites as a perspective material for potentiometric biosensors creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatkin, Oleksandr O.; Shelyakina, Margaryta K.; Arkhypova, Valentyna N.; Soy, Esin; Kirdeciler, Salih Kaan; Ozansoy Kasap, Berna; Lagarde, Florence; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Akata Kurç, Burcu; Soldatkin, Alexei P.; Dzyadevych, Sergei V.

    2015-02-01

    A number of potentiometric biosensors based on coimmobilization of enzymes with different types of zeolite on pH-ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) have been developed. Their working characteristics have been determined and compared.

  16. Potentiometric map of the Meridian-Upper Wilcox Aquifer in Mississippi, fall 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wasson, B.E.

    1980-01-01

    The potentiometric map of the Meridian-upper Wilcox aquifer is one of a series of maps, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Mississippi Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Land and Water Resources, delineating the potentiometric surfaces of the major aquifers in Mississippi. In the outcrop area of the Meridian-upper Wilcox aquifer the potentiometric surface is strongly affected by recharge from precipitation, by topography, and by drainage of the aquifer by streams. The potentiometric surface slopes downward generally to the west away from the area of outcrop and is strongly affected by large groundwater withdrawals in the Greenwood, Indianola, Marks, Grenada, and Memphis areas. Historically, water levels in or near the outcrop of the Meridian-upper Wilcox have shown little or no long-term changes, but during the past 20 years water levels have declined from 1 to 2 feet per year in much of the confined part of the aquifer. (USGS)

  17. Potentiometric surface of Floridan Aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, May 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolansky, R.M.; Mills, L.R.; Woodham, W.M.; Laughlin, C.P.

    1979-01-01

    A May 1979 potentiometric-surface map depicts the annual low water-level period. Potentiometric levels declined 4 to 21 feet between September 1978 and May 1979, in the citrus and farming sections of southern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, southwestern Polk, northwestern DeSoto, and Manatee Counties. Water levels in these areas are widely affected by pumping for irrigation and have the greatest range in fluctuations. Water-level declines ranged from 0 to 6 feet in coastal, northern, and southern areas of the Water Management District. Generally potentiometric levels were higher than previous May levels due to heavy rains in April and May. In parts of Hillsborough, Pasco, and Pinellas Counties, May 1979 potentiometric levels were 18 feet higher than those of September 1978. (USGS)

  18. Going Beyond, Going Further: Knives, Forks, and Beer Cans as Potentiometric Sensors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selig, Walter S.

    1985-01-01

    Background information, materials needed, and procedures used are provided for potentiometric fluoride, halide, orthophosphate, and sulfate titrations. Typical results obtained are also provided for each type of titration. (JN)

  19. Potentiometric map of the Sparta aquifer system in Mississippi, fall, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wasson, B.E.

    1980-01-01

    This potentiometric map of the Sparta aquifer system is the tenth in a series of maps, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Mississippi Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Land and Water Resources, delineating the potentiometric surfaces of the major aquifers in Mississippi. In the outcrop area of the Sparta, the potentiometric surface is strongly affected by recharge from precipitation, by topography, and by drainage of the aquifer into streams. The potentiometric surface slopes downward generally to the west away from the area of outcrop and is strongly affected by large ground-water withdrawals in the Jackson, Yazoo City, Cleveland, Clarksdale, and Memphis areas. Historically, water levels in or near the outcrop of the Sparta have shown little or no long-term changes, but during the past 20 years, in much of the confined part of the aquifer, water levels have declined from 1 to 3 feet per year. (USGS)

  20. Potentiometric map of the Coffee Sand Aquifer in northeastern Mississippi, October and November 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wasson, B.E.

    1980-01-01

    This potentiometric map of the Coffee Sand aquifer in northeastern Mississippi is the fourth in a series of maps, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Mississippi Department of Natural Resources, Bureau of Land and Water Resources, delineating the potentiometric surfaces of the major aquifers in Mississippi. In the outcrop areas the potentiometric surface is strongly affected by recharge from precipitation, topography, and drainage of the aquifer by streams. The potentiometric surface slopes generally to the west away from the area of outcrop and is mildly affected by moderate ground-water withdrawals by wells in Tippah and Union County. Historically, water levels in or near the outcrop of the Coffee Sand have shown little or no long-term changes as shown by a hydrograph of one well in Alcorn County. In the downdip part of the aquifer water-level declines of 2 feet per year are common. (USGS)

  1. Potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District, May 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, G.L.; Schiner, George R.

    1983-01-01

    Maps of the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida are prepared semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District. Maps for May and September show, respectively, the potentiometric surface of the normally expected annual low and high water level conditions. This report shows the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer for May 1983. Water level measurements were made during May 16-27. The map represents water level conditions when groundwater withdrawals for agricultural use are high, before the beginning of the summer rainy season. Therefore, the potentiometric surface is near its lowest level for the year. (Lantz-PTT)

  2. Performance evaluation of a novel potentiometric membrane sensor for determination of atorvastatin in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Farhad; Asaadi, Nasim

    2013-01-01

    A novel potentiometric ion-selective PVC membrane sensor for analysis of atorvastatin (AT) in pharmaceutical preparations based on atorvastatin-(tetraphenyl borate), (AT-(TPB)2) as sensing element, tetraphenyl borate as additive and tris-2-ethyl-hexyl phosphate (TOP) as plasticizer solvent was prepared. The electrode shows a good Nernestian response over the concentration range of 0.09-5586 μg mL(-1)of AT with slope of 30.1±0.1 mV/decade and limit of detection0.056μg mL(-1).The response time of sensor is fats (less than 10 sec) and could be used for about one month in the pH range of 4.5-8.0. The electrode exhibit good selectivity for the AT in the presence of large amount of co-drugs and inorganic cations. The method is precise and accurate with mean relative standard deviation of <2%.Atorvastatin is determined successfully in several tablets by the proposed membrane.

  3. Graphene-based potentiometric biosensor for the immediate detection of living bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Rafael; Vallés, Cristina; Benito, Ana M; Maser, Wolfgang K; Rius, F Xavier; Riu, Jordi

    2014-04-15

    In this communication we present a potentiometric aptasensor based on chemically modified graphene (transducer layer of the aptasensor) and aptamers (sensing layer). Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) are the basis for the construction of two versions of the aptasensor for the detection of a challenging living organism such as Staphylococcus aureus. In these two versions, DNA aptamers are either covalently (in the GO case) or non-covalently (in the RGO case) attached to the transducer layer. In both cases we are able to selectively detect a single CFU/mL of S. aureus in an assay close to real time, although the noise level associated to the aptasensors made with RGO is lower than the ones made with GO. These new aptasensors, that show a high selectivity, are characterized by the simplicity of the technique and the materials used for their construction while offering ultra-low detection limits in very short time responses in the detection of microorganisms.

  4. Design and characterization of novel all-solid-state potentiometric sensor array dedicated to physiological measurements.

    PubMed

    Toczyłowska-Mamińska, Renata; Kloch, Monika; Zawistowska-Deniziak, Anna; Bala, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    A novel construction of all-solid-state potentiometric sensor array designed for physiological measurements has been presented. The planar construction and elimination of liquid phase creates broad opportunities for the modifications in the sensing part of the sensor. The designed construction is based on all-solid-state ion-selective electrodes integrated with the ionic-liquid based reference electrode. Work parameters of the sensor arrays were characterized. It has been shown that presented sensor design indicates high sensitivity (55.2±1mV/dec, 56.3±2mV/dec, 58.4±1mV/dec and 53.5±1mV/pH for sodium-, potassium-, chloride- and pH-selective electrodes, respectively in 10(-5)-10(-1.5)M range of primary ions), low response time (t95 did not exceed 10s), high potential stability (potential drift in 28-h measurement was ca. ±2mV) and potential repeatability ca. ±1mV. The system was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of K(+), Cl(-), Na(+) and pH in the model physiological solution and for the ion flux studies in human colon epithelium Caco-2 cell line as well.

  5. Performance Evaluation of a Novel Potentiometric Membrane Sensor for Determination of Atorvastatin in Pharmaceutical Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Farhad; Asaadi, Nasim

    2013-01-01

    A novel potentiometric ion-selective PVC membrane sensor for analysis of atorvastatin (AT) in pharmaceutical preparations based on atorvastatin-(tetraphenyl borate), (AT-(TPB)2) as sensing element, tetraphenyl borate as additive and tris-2-ethyl-hexyl phosphate (TOP) as plasticizer solvent was prepared. The electrode shows a good Nernestian response over the concentration range of 0.09–5586 μg mL-1of AT with slope of 30.1±0.1 mV/decade and limit of detection0.056μg mL-1.The response time of sensor is fats (less than 10 sec) and could be used for about one month in the pH range of 4.5–8.0. The electrode exhibit good selectivity for the AT in the presence of large amount of co-drugs and inorganic cations. The method is precise and accurate with mean relative standard deviation of <2%.Atorvastatin is determined successfully in several tablets by the proposed membrane. PMID:24523744

  6. PVC membrane electrode for the potentiometric determination of Ipratropium bromide using batch and flow injection techniques.

    PubMed

    Hassouna, M E M; Elsuccary, S A A

    2008-06-15

    Ipratropium (IP(+)) ion-selective electrode (ISE) has been constructed from poly(vinyl chloride) matrix membrane containing Ipratropium-tetraphenylborate (IP-TPB) as the electroactive component using 2-nitrophenyloctylether as plasticizer. The electrode exhibits near Nernstian response to Ipratropium bromide (IPBr) over the concentration range 10(-5) to 10(-2) mol L(-1) and detection limit 5.1x10(-6) mol L(-1). The electrode offers significant advantages including long lifetime (>2 months), excellent stability and reproducibility, fast response time (<10 s), wide pH working range (pH 2-9), high thermal stability (isothermal coefficient 0.37 mV/degrees C) and superior selectivity for IPBr over a large number of inorganic and organic substances. The electrode was successfully used as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of IPBr versus sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) and in the determination of IPBr in Atrovent vials and spiked urine samples applying batch and flow injection techniques, with satisfactory results.

  7. Planar Zeolite Film-Based Potentiometric Gas Sensors Manufactured by a Combined Thick-Film and Electroplating Technique

    PubMed Central

    Marr, Isabella; Reiß, Sebastian; Hagen, Gunter; Moos, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Zeolites are promising materials in the field of gas sensors. In this technology-oriented paper, a planar setup for potentiometric hydrocarbon and hydrogen gas sensors using zeolites as ionic sodium conductors is presented, in which the Pt-loaded Na-ZSM-5 zeolite is applied using a thick-film technique between two interdigitated gold electrodes and one of them is selectively covered for the first time by an electroplated chromium oxide film. The influence of the sensor temperature, the type of hydrocarbons, the zeolite film thickness, and the chromium oxide film thickness is investigated. The influence of the zeolite on the sensor response is briefly discussed in the light of studies dealing with zeolites as selectivity-enhancing cover layers. PMID:22164042

  8. Potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, west-central Florida, September 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewelling, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    The potentiometric surface in the Upper Floridan aquifer was mapped by determining the altitude of water levels in a network of wells and is represented on maps by contours that connect points of equal altitude. Maps of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida are prepared semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey. Maps for May and September show, respectively, the potentiometric surface of the normally expected annual low and high water level conditions. Potentiometric surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971 to 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. The potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer is shown for September 1987. Most of the water level data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during the period of September 14-18. Supplemental data were collected by other agencies and companies. This map represents water level conditions near the end of the summer rainy season when groundwater withdrawals for agricultural use are low and therefore, when the potentiometric surface is near its highest level for the year. (See also W88-03126) (Lantz-PTT)

  9. Anion permselective membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgdon, R. B.; Waite, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    The efforts on the synthesis of polymer anion redox membranes were mainly concentrated in two areas, membrane development and membrane fabrication. Membrane development covered the preparation and evaluation of experimental membranes systems with improved resistance stability and/or lower permeability. Membrane fabrication covered the laboratory scale production of prime candidate membranes in quantities of up to two hundred and sizes up to 18 inches x 18 inches (46 cm x 46 cm). These small (10 in x 11 in) and medium sized membranes were mainly for assembly into multicell units. Improvements in processing procedures and techniques for preparing such membrane sets lifted yields to over 90 percent.

  10. Mixed Anion Heterostructure Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    data presented Sb(g) Sb(ads) Sb(s) Kads D (1) (2)Very low + GaAs no reaction ( 3 ) kexch 33 for As2 which indicates that the...Kads D (1) (2) ( 3 ) Anion Exchange kexch (4) Isoelectronic AsSb formation Favoured by As4 +As GaAsySb1-y + Sby(s) GaSb1-y + AsSby(s) +As kiso (5...experiment implemented for this investigation provided a basis for modeling the P(g) P(ads) P(s) + GaAs Kads D (1) (2) ( 3 ) kexch (4) +P GaPyAs1-y

  11. Anion-promoted cation motion and conduction in zeolites.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Edgar; Bell, Robert G; Wilmer, Dirk; Koller, Hubert

    2006-01-18

    The motion of sodium cations in sodalite and cancrinite has been investigated by force field calculations, solid-state NMR, and impedance spectroscopy. Special emphasis is dedicated to the influence of anions on sodium mobilities. Local cation motion is promoted when they interact with anions. However, not all systems with high local mobilities exhibit good ion conductivities, as cooperativity of the motion appears to be an important factor, as well. The activation barrier for local sodium motion (calculations) and long-range transport (dc conductivities) is lowered in sodalite when halogenide anions, Cl(-), Br(-), or I(-), are present. The activation barriers increase with increasing size of the anion and decreasing coordination in the transition state. On the basis of (23)Na solid-state NMR data, all the sodium ions in the dense sodalite structure are rather rigid up to 470 K. All the cations in chromate sodalite, and Na(+) in the small cancrinite epsilon-cages without anion interactions, show a restricted local motion at higher temperatures. There is a selective high local motion of Na(+) in the neighborhood of chromate anions in the more open channel system of cancrinite. These results suggest that sodium migration can be enhanced, at least locally, in open channel systems by anion interactions. A dynamics coupling between anion reorientation and cation mobility was not observed.

  12. Pseudorotation in fullerene anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Janette L.; Hands, Ian D.; Bates, Colin A.

    2007-07-01

    Jahn-Teller (JT) problems are often characterised by an adiabatic potential energy surface (APES) containing either a set of isoenergetic wells or a trough of equivalent-energy points, which may be warped by higher-order coupling terms or anisotropic effects. In all three cases, the JT effect will be dynamic. Either tunnelling between the wells or rotation (of a distortion) around the trough will restore the original symmetry of the system. This motion is referred to as pseudorotation. It should be possible to observe a JT system in a distorted geometry if measurements are made on a sufficiently short timescale. In various cubic systems, this timescale has been calculated to be the order of picoseconds. Such timescales are accessible using modern methods of ultrafast spectroscopy. Measurements of pseudorotation rates can lead to important information on the strength and nature of the JT coupling present. We will present analytical calculations that allow the rate of pseudorotation to be determined in terms of the vibronic coupling parameters. We will show how these results can be applied to E ⊗ e systems and then to the more complicated system applicable to C60- anions. This is of particular interest because of the high icosahedral symmetry of fullerene ions and also because of the many potential uses of materials containing these ions. We conclude by outlining experiments that should be capable of measuring pseudorotation in C 60 anions.

  13. Potentiometric surface of the intermediate aquifer system, west- central Florida, May 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewelling, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    The intermediate aquifer system within the Southwest Florida Water Management District underlies a 5,000 sq mi area of De Soto, Sarasota, Hardee, Manatee, and parts of Charlotte, Hillsborough, Highlands, and Polk Counties. The intermediate aquifer system occurs between the overlying surficial aquifer system and the underlying Floridan aquifer system, and consists of layers of sand, shell, clay, marl, limestone, and dolom of the Tamiami, Hawthorn, and Tampa Formations of late Tertiary age. The intermediate aquifer system contains one or more water-bearing units separated by discontinuous confining units. This aquifer system is the principal source of potable water in the southwestern part of the study area and is widely used as a source of water in other parts where wells are open to the intermediate aquifer system or to both the intermediate and Floridan aquifer systems. Yields of individual wells open to the intermediate aquifer system range from a few gallons to several hundred gallons per minute. The volume of water withdrawn from the intermediate aquifer system is considerably less than that withdrawn from the Floridan aquifer system in the study area. The surface was mapped by determining the altitude of water levels in a network of wells and is represented on maps by contours that connect points of equal altitude. The compos potentiometric surface of all water-bearing units within the intermediate aquifer system is shown. In areas where multiple aquifers exist, wells open to all aquifers were selected for water level measurements whenever possible. In the southwestern and lower coastal region of the study area, two aquifers and confining units are described for the intermediate aquifer system: the Tamiami-upper Hawthorn aquifer and the underlying lower Hawthorn-upper Tampa aquifer. The potentiometric surface of the Tamiami-upper Hawthorn aquifer is also shown. Water levels are from wells drilled and open exclusively to that aquifer. The exact boundary for the

  14. Inhibitive potentiometric detection of trace metals with ultrathin polypyrrole glucose oxidase biosensor.

    PubMed

    Ayenimo, Joseph G; Adeloju, Samuel B

    2015-05-01

    A method, based on the inhibition of an ultrathin polypyrrole-glucose oxidase (PPy-GOx) potentiometric biosensor response, is described for the detection of Cu(2+), Hg(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) ions. Based on experimental conditions (0.2 M pyrrole, 500 U mL(-1) GOx, and an applied current density of 0.05 mA cm(-2) and a polymerization period of 500s) previously published by us, PPy-GOx films of approximately 55 nm thick were used to demonstrate the inhibitive potentiometric detection of selected trace metals down to 0.079 μM Cu(2+), 0.025 μM Hg(2+), 0.024 μM Pb(2+) and 0.044 μM Cd(2+). Furthermore, good linear concentration ranges were achieved for Cu(2+) (0.079-16 μM), Hg(2+) (0.025-5 μM), Pb(2+) (0.10-15 μM) and Cd(2+) (0.04-62 μM). The analysis of the nature of the inhibition of glucose oxidase in the PPy-GOx biosensor by these metals was achieved by Dixon and Cornish-Bowden plots. The shapes of the curves (exponential decay, parabolic and linear) obtained for the inhibitors suggest that the inhibition by the metal ions may not be exclusively directed at the essential -SH group, but involve additional binding sites of the enzyme. Dixon and Cornish-Bowden plots suggest that the inhibition is competitive for Cd(2+), while non-competitive inhibition was observed for other metal ions. The ultra-thin PPy-GOx film enabled improved permeability to the metal inhibitors than possible with conventional biosensors with thicker films and, hence, better reflects the actual inhibition effect of the trace metals on the enzyme activity. The use of the ultra-thin film also eliminated the usual need for incubation of the enzyme electrode for a long period in the presence of the inhibitors. Furthermore, a rapid recovery of the enzyme activity was achieved by simply washing the electrode with water and storing in phosphate buffer for 10-15 min. The proposed biosensing approach was successfully used for the detection of individual trace metals in tap water, achieving a 98

  15. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer in the St. Johns River Water Management District and Vicinity, Florida, September 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinnaman, Sandra L.; Dixon, Joann F.

    2008-01-01

    This map depicts the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the St. Johns River Water Management District and vicinity for September 2007. Potentiometric contours are based on water-level measurements collected at 554 wells during the period September 15-27, near the end of the wet season. Some contours are inferred from previous potentiometric-surface maps with larger well networks. The potentiometric surface of the carbonate Upper Floridan aquifer responds mainly to rainfall, and more locally, to ground-water withdrawals and spring flow. Potentiometric-surface highs generally correspond to topographic highs where the aquifer is recharged. Springs and areas of diffuse upward leakage naturally discharge water from the aquifer and are most prevalent along the St. Johns River. Areas of discharge are reflected by depressions in the potentiometric surface. Ground-water withdrawals locally have lowered the potentiometric surface. Ground water in the Upper Floridan aquifer generally flows from potentiometric highs to potentiometric lows in a direction perpendicular to the contours.

  16. Potentiometric online detection of aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous phase using carbon nanotube-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Washe, Alemayehu P; Macho, Santiago; Crespo, Gastón A; Rius, F Xavier

    2010-10-01

    Surfaces made of entangled networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) display a strong adsorption affinity for aromatic hydrocarbons. Adsorption of these compounds onto the walls of SWCNTs changes the electrical characteristics of the SWCNT-solution interface. Using these features, we have developed a potentiometric sensor to detect neutral aromatic species. Specifically, we can detect online aromatic hydrocarbons in industrial coolant water. Our chromatographic results confirm the adsorption of toluene onto the walls of carbon nanotubes, and our impedance spectroscopy data show the change in the double layer capacitance of the carbon nanotube-solution interface upon addition of toluene, thus confirming the proposed sensing mechanism. The sensor showed a toluene concentration dependent EMF response that follows the shape of an adsorption isotherm and displayed an immediate response to the presence of toluene with a detection limit of 2.1 ppm. The sensor does not respond to other nonaromatic hydrocarbons that may coexist with aromatic hydrocarbons in water. It shows a qualitative sensitivity and selectivity of 100% and 83%, respectively, which confirms its ability to detect aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous solutions. The sensor showed an excellent ability to immediately detect the presence of toluene in actual coolant water. Its operational characteristics, including its fast response, low cost, portability, and easy use in online industrial applications, improve those of current chromatographic or spectroscopic techniques.

  17. Dissolution testing and potentiometric determination of famciclovir in pure, dosage forms and biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Rezk, Mohamed S; El Nashar, Rasha M

    2013-02-01

    The performance characteristics of two new plastic membrane ion selective electrodes (ISEs) used for the determination of famciclovir (Fcv) based on the ion associate of Fcv with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) or phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) are described. Different experimental conditions as type of plasticizer to be incorporated in the membrane, life span, effect of soaking, pH, temperature, and interferences were studied. Both electrodes showed similar performance under these conditions, exhibiting Nernstian slopes of S (Fcv-PTA)=58.60±0.84 mV/decade and S (Fcv-PMA)=58.77±0.68 mV/decade within a usable concentration range of 10⁻⁵-10⁻² [Fcv/M] at 298/K. Famciclovir was assayed potentiometrically in its pure solution, pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids (urine and plasma) using proposed electrodes under batch and flow injection analysis (FIA) conditions with a recovery % ranging between 96.76% and 102.83% having RSD of 0.66%-1.81%. The electrodes were also successfully applied in the determination of the dissolution profile of Fcv tablets and the results came in agreement with the validated results of the HPLC method obtained from the quality control unit of the company producing the tablets.

  18. Novel PVC-membrane electrode for flow injection potentiometric determination of Biperiden in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Elmorsy; El-Sabbagh, Inas A; El-Kholy, N G; Ghahni, E Y Abdel

    2011-12-15

    The construction and performance characteristics of Biperiden (BP) polyvinyl chloride (PVC) electrodes are described. Different methods for electrode fabrication are tested including; incorporation of BP-ion pairs (BP-IPs), incorporation of ion pairing agents, or soaking the plain electrode in BP-ion pairs suspension solution. Electrode matrices were optimized referring to the effect of modifier content and nature, plasticizer and the method of modification. The proposed electrodes work satisfactorily in the BP concentration range from 10(-5) to 10(-2)mol L(-1), with fast response time (7s) and adequate operational lifetime (28 days). The electrode potential is pH independent within the range 2.0-7.0, with good selectivity towards BP in presence of various interfering species. The developed electrodes have been applied for potentiometric determination of BP in pharmaceutical formulation under batch and flow injection analysis (FIA) conditions. FIA offers the advantages of accuracy and automation feasibility with high sampling frequency. The dissolution profile for Akineton tablets (2mg BP/tablet) was studied using the proposed electrode in comparison with the official methods.

  19. Surface-active ionic liquids in micellar catalysis: impact of anion selection on reaction rates in nucleophilic substitutions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Formulae for calculating aggregation parameters and fitting of kinetic constants and copies of NMR spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cp00493h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Cognigni, Alice; Gaertner, Peter; Zirbs, Ronald; Peterlik, Herwig; Prochazka, Katharina; Schröder, Christian

    2016-01-01

    A series of surface-active ionic liquids based on the 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium cation and different anions such as halides and alkylsulfates was synthesized. The aggregation behavior of these ionic liquids in water was characterized by surface tension, conductivity measurements and UV-Vis spectroscopy in order to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and to provide aggregation parameters. The determination of surface activity and aggregation properties of amphiphilic ionic liquids was accompanied by SAXS studies on selected surface-active ionic liquids. The application of these surface-active ionic liquids with different anions was tested in nucleophilic substitution reactions for the degradation of organophosphorus compounds. Kinetic studies via UV-Vis spectrophotometry showed a strong acceleration of the reaction in the micellar system compared to pure water. In addition, an influence of the anion was observed, resulting in a correlation between the anion binding to the micelle and the reaction rate constants, indicating that the careful choice of the surface-active ionic liquid can considerably affect the outcome of reactions. PMID:27121134

  20. Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides

    PubMed Central

    Stieger, Bruno; Hagenbuch, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides or OATPs are central transporters in the disposition of drugs and other xenobiotics. In addition, they mediate transport of a wide variety of endogenous substrates. The critical role of OATPs in drug disposition has spurred research both in academia and in the pharmaceutical industry. Translational aspects with clinical questions are the focus in academia, while the pharmaceutical industry tries to define and understand the role these transporters play in pharmacotherapy. The present overview summarizes our knowledge on the interaction of food constituents with OATPs, and on the OATP transport mechanisms. Further, it gives an update on the available information on the structure-function relationship of the OATPs, and finally, covers the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of OATPs. PMID:24745984

  1. Biparametric potentiometric analytical microsystem for nitrate and potassium monitoring in water recycling processes for manned space missions.

    PubMed

    Calvo-López, Antonio; Arasa-Puig, Eva; Puyol, Mar; Casalta, Joan Manel; Alonso-Chamarro, Julián

    2013-12-04

    The construction and evaluation of a Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics (LTCC)-based continuous flow potentiometric microanalyzer prototype to simultaneously monitor the presence of two ions (potassium and nitrate) in samples from the water recycling process for future manned space missions is presented. The microsystem integrates microfluidics and the detection system in a single substrate and it is smaller than a credit card. The detection system is based on two ion-selective electrodes (ISEs), which are built using all-solid state nitrate and potassium polymeric membranes, and a screen-printed Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The obtained analytical features after the optimization of the microfluidic design and hydrodynamics are a linear range from 10 to 1000 mg L(-1) and from 1.9 to 155 mg L(-1) and a detection limit of 9.56 mg L(-1) and 0.81 mg L(-1) for nitrate and potassium ions respectively.

  2. Resonant spectra of quadrupolar anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossez, K.; Mao, Xingze; Nazarewicz, W.; Michel, N.; Garrett, W. R.; Płoszajczak, M.

    2016-09-01

    In quadrupole-bound anions, an extra electron is attached at a sufficiently large quadrupole moment of a neutral molecule, which is lacking a permanent dipole moment. The nature of the bound states and low-lying resonances of such anions is of interest for understanding the threshold behavior of open quantum systems in general. In this work, we investigate the properties of quadrupolar anions as halo systems, the formation of rotational bands, and the transition from a subcritical to supercritical electric quadrupole moment. We solve the electron-plus-rotor problem using a nonadiabatic coupled-channel formalism by employing the Berggren ensemble, which explicitly contains bound states, narrow resonances, and the scattering continuum. The rotor is treated as a linear triad of point charges with zero monopole and dipole moments and nonzero quadrupole moment. We demonstrate that binding energies and radii of quadrupolar anions strictly follow the scaling laws for two-body halo systems. Contrary to the case of dipolar anions, ground-state band of quadrupolar anions smoothly extend into the continuum, and many rotational bands could be identified above the detachment threshold. We study the evolution of a bound state of an anion as it dives into the continuum at a critical quadrupole moment and we show that the associated critical exponent is α =2 . Everything considered, quadrupolar anions represent a perfect laboratory for the studies of marginally bound open quantum systems.

  3. Graphene-based biomimetic materials targeting urine metabolite as potential cancer biomarker: application over different conductive materials for potentiometric transduction

    PubMed Central

    Truta, Liliana A.A.N.A.; Ferreira, Nádia S.; Sales, M. Goreti F.

    2015-01-01

    This works presents a novel surface Smart Polymer Antibody Material (SPAM) for Carnitine (CRT, a potential biomarker of ovarian cancer), tested for the first time as ionophore in potentiometric electrodes of unconventional configuration. The SPAM material consisted of a 3D polymeric network created by surface imprinting on graphene layers. The polymer was obtained by radical polymerization of (vinylbenzyl)trimethylammonium chloride and 4-styrenesulfonic acid (signaling the binding sites), and vinyl pivalate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (surroundings). Non-imprinted material (NIM) was prepared as control, by excluding the template from the procedure. These materials were then used to produce several plasticized PVC membranes, testing the relevance of including the SPAM as ionophore, and the need for a charged lipophilic additive. The membranes were casted over solid conductive supports of graphite or ITO/FTO. The effect of pH upon the potentiometric response was evaluated for different pHs (2-9) with different buffer compositions. Overall, the best performance was achieved for membranes with SPAM ionophore, having a cationic lipophilic additive and tested in HEPES (4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid) buffer, pH 5.1. Better slopes were achieved when the membrane was casted on conductive glass (−57.4mV/decade), while the best detection limits were obtained for graphite-based conductive supports (3.6×10−5mol/L). Good selectivity was observed against BSA, ascorbic acid, glucose, creatinine and urea, tested for concentrations up to their normal physiologic levels in urine. The application of the devices to the analysis of spiked samples showed recoveries ranging from 91% (± 6.8%) to 118% (± 11.2%). Overall, the combination of the SPAM sensory material with a suitable selective membrane composition and electrode design has lead to a promising tool for point-of-care applications. PMID:26456975

  4. Graphene-based biomimetic materials targeting urine metabolite as potential cancer biomarker: application over different conductive materials for potentiometric transduction.

    PubMed

    Truta, Liliana A A N A; Ferreira, Nádia S; Sales, M Goreti F

    2014-12-20

    This works presents a novel surface Smart Polymer Antibody Material (SPAM) for Carnitine (CRT, a potential biomarker of ovarian cancer), tested for the first time as ionophore in potentiometric electrodes of unconventional configuration. The SPAM material consisted of a 3D polymeric network created by surface imprinting on graphene layers. The polymer was obtained by radical polymerization of (vinylbenzyl)trimethylammonium chloride and 4-styrenesulfonic acid (signaling the binding sites), and vinyl pivalate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (surroundings). Non-imprinted material (NIM) was prepared as control, by excluding the template from the procedure. These materials were then used to produce several plasticized PVC membranes, testing the relevance of including the SPAM as ionophore, and the need for a charged lipophilic additive. The membranes were casted over solid conductive supports of graphite or ITO/FTO. The effect of pH upon the potentiometric response was evaluated for different pHs (2-9) with different buffer compositions. Overall, the best performance was achieved for membranes with SPAM ionophore, having a cationic lipophilic additive and tested in HEPES (4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid) buffer, pH 5.1. Better slopes were achieved when the membrane was casted on conductive glass (-57.4mV/decade), while the best detection limits were obtained for graphite-based conductive supports (3.6×10(-5)mol/L). Good selectivity was observed against BSA, ascorbic acid, glucose, creatinine and urea, tested for concentrations up to their normal physiologic levels in urine. The application of the devices to the analysis of spiked samples showed recoveries ranging from 91% (± 6.8%) to 118% (± 11.2%). Overall, the combination of the SPAM sensory material with a suitable selective membrane composition and electrode design has lead to a promising tool for point-of-care applications.

  5. Probes for anionic cell surface detection

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Bradley D.

    2013-03-05

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally directed to compositions comprising a class of molecular probes for detecting the presence of anionic cell surfaces. Embodiments include compositions that are enriched for these compositions and preparations, particularly preparations suitable for use as laboratory/clinical reagents and diagnostic indicators, either alone or as part of a kit. An embodiment of the invention provides for a highly selective agent useful in the discernment and identification of dead or dying cells, such as apoptotic cells, in a relatively calcium-free environment. An embodiment of the invention provides a selective agent for the identification of bacteria in a mixed population of bacterial cells and nonbacterial cells.

  6. Subtle impact of atomic ratio, charge and lewis basicity on structure selection and stability: the Zintl anion [(La@In2Bi11)(μ-Bi)2(La@In2Bi11)]6-.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Bastian; Weigend, Florian; Dehnen, Stefanie

    2012-10-22

    Ternary intermetalloid cluster: the first intermetalloid M/13/15 Zintl anion [(La@In(2)Bi(11))(μ-Bi)(2)(La@In(2)Bi(11))](6-) was obtained upon reaction of [InBi(3)](2-) with [La(C(5)Me(4)H)(3)] in ethane-1,2-diamine. DFT calculations served to analyze and explain the Lewis acid/base interaction upon assignment of formal charges as "Bi(+) ←In(2-) ", which discriminates the anion from an isoelectronic La/Sn/Bi analogue that does not require bridging.

  7. Bound Anionic States of Aadenine

    SciTech Connect

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H.

    2007-03-20

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation,wehave demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the newfound anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The new valence states observed here, unlike the dipole-bound state, could exist in condensed phases and might be relevant to radiobiological damage. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of (i) an experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a combinatorial/quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules.

  8. Bound Anionic States of Adenine

    SciTech Connect

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H.

    2007-03-20

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the newfound anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The new valence states observed here, unlike the dipole-bound state, could exist in condensed phases and might be relevant to radiobiological damage. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of (i) an experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (it) a combinatorial/quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules.

  9. Electron anions and the glass transition temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Lewis E.; Sushko, Peter V.; Tomota, Yudai; Hosono, Hideo

    2016-08-24

    Properties of glasses are typically controlled by judicious selection of the glass-forming and glass-modifying constituents. Through an experimental and computational study of the crystalline, molten, and amorphous [Ca12Al14O32]2+ ∙ (e)2, we demonstrate that electron anions in this system behave as glass-modifiers that strongly affect solidification dynamics, the glass transition temperature, and spectroscopic properties of the resultant amorphous material. Concentration of such electron anions is a consequential control parameter: it invokes materials evolution pathways and properties not available in conventional glasses, which opens a new avenue in rational materials design.

  10. An intracellular anion channel critical for pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Escobar, Iliana E; Lefkovith, Ariel J; Marks, Michael S; Oancea, Elena

    2014-12-16

    Intracellular ion channels are essential regulators of organellar and cellular function, yet the molecular identity and physiological role of many of these channels remains elusive. In particular, no ion channel has been characterized in melanosomes, organelles that produce and store the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanosome function cause albinism, characterized by vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired retinal development, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. The most common form of albinism is caused by mutations in oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), a melanosome-specific transmembrane protein with unknown function. Here we used direct patch-clamp of skin and eye melanosomes to identify a novel chloride-selective anion conductance mediated by OCA2 and required for melanin production. Expression of OCA2 increases organelle pH, suggesting that the chloride channel might regulate melanin synthesis by modulating melanosome pH. Thus, a melanosomal anion channel that requires OCA2 is essential for skin and eye pigmentation.

  11. Development of novel enzyme potentiometric biosensor based on pH-sensitive field-effect transistors for aflatoxin B1 analysis in real samples.

    PubMed

    Stepurska, K V; Soldatkin, O O; Arkhypova, V M; Soldatkin, A P; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Dzyadevych, S V

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed at the development and optimization of a potentiometric biosensor based on pH-sensitive field-effect transistors and acetylcholinesterase for aflatoxin B1 determination in real samples. Optimal conditions for bioselective elements operation were defined and analytical characteristics of the proposed biosensor were studied. The proposed biosensor characterized high operational stability and reproducibility of signal. Selectivity of acetylcholinesterase-biosensor to aflatoxins in relation to other groups of toxic substances was analyzed. The developed biosensor was applied to the determination of aflatoxin B1 in real samples (sesame, walnut and pea).

  12. Potentiometric map of the Winona-Tallahatta Aquifer in northwestern Mississippi, fall 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wasson, B.E.

    1980-01-01

    The potentiometric map of the Winona-Tallahatta aquifer is one of a series of maps, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Mississippi Department of Natural Resources , Bureau of Land and Water Resources, delineating the potentiometric surfaces of the major aquifers in Mississippi. In the outcrop area of the Winona-Tallahatta aquifer the potentiometric surface is strongly affected by recharge from precipitation, by topography, and by drainage of the aquifer by streams. The potentiometric surface slopes downward generally to the west away from the area of outcrop and is strongly affected by recharge from precipitation, by topography, and by drainage of the aquifer by streams. The potentiometric surface slopes downward generally to the west away from the area of outcrop and is strongly affected by pumpage from wells in Leflore, Sunflower , and Bolivar Counties, Historically, water levels in or near the outcrop of the Winona-Tallahatta have shown little or no long-term changes, but the heavy withdrawals in the confined part of the aquifer have caused long-term water-level declines of 1 to 2 feet per year. (USGS)

  13. Potentiometric surface of the upper Floridan Aquifer, west-central Florida, September 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The potentiometric surface is the level to which water will rise in tightly cased wells that tap the Upper Floridan aquifer. The surface is mapped by determining the altitude of water levels in a network of wells and is represented on maps by contours that connect points of equal altitude. Maps of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida are prepared semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District. Maps for May and September show, respectively, the potentiometric surfaces of the normally expected annual low and high water level conditions. The potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer is shown for September 1985. Most of the water level data were collected during September 9-13. Supplemental data were collected by other agencies and companies. The map represents water level conditions near the end of the summer rainy season when groundwater withdrawals for agricultural use are low. Hence, the potentiometric surface is near its highest level for the year. (Lantz-PTT)

  14. Anion-exchange nanospheres as titration reagents for anionic analytes.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Jingying; Xie, Xiaojiang; Bakker, Eric

    2015-08-18

    We present here anion-exchange nanospheres as novel titration reagents for anions. The nanospheres contain a lipophilic cation for which the counterion is initially Cl(-). Ion exchange takes place between Cl(-) in the nanospheres and a more lipophilic anion in the sample, such as ClO4(-) and NO3(-). Consecutive titration in the same sample solution for ClO4(-) and NO3(-) were demonstrated. As an application, the concentration of NO3(-) in spinach was successfully determined using this method.

  15. Potentiometric surface of the upper Patapsco aquifer in southern Maryland, September 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the potentiometric surface of the Upper Patapsco aquifer in the Patapsco Formation of Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland during September 1999. The map is based on water-level measurements in 49 wells. The potentiometric surface was 119 feet above sea level near the northern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in a topographically high area of Anne Arundel County, and 55 feet above sea level in a similar setting in Prince Georges County. From these high areas, the potentiometric surface declined to the southeast toward large well fields in the Annapolis area, and from all directions toward a cone of depression southwest of Waldorf. Ground-water levels declined to 20 feet below sea level in the Annapolis area, and 131 feet below sea level southwest of Waldorf.

  16. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Patapsco Aquifer in Southern Maryland, September 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the potentiometric surface of the Upper Patapsco aquifer in the Patapsco Formation of Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland during September 2001. The map is based on water-level measurements in 49 wells. The potentiometric surface was highest at 118 feet above sea level near the northern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in northern Anne Arundel County. From this area, the potentiometric surface declined to the southeast toward large well fields in the Annapolis area, and from all directions toward a cone of depression located southwest of Waldorf. The ground-water level declined to 26 feet below sea level in the Annapolis area, and the lowest water level was 132 feet below sea level southwest of Waldorf.

  17. Potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District, May 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.; Woodham, W.M.; Schiner, George R.

    1980-01-01

    A May 1980 potentiometric-surface map of the Southwest Florida Water Management District depicts the annual low water-level period. Potentiometric levels decreased 5 to 36 feet between September 1979 and May 1980, in the citrus and farming sections of southern Hillsborough, southwestern Polk, northwestern DeSoto , Hardee, and Manatee Counties. Water levels in these areas are widely affected by pumping for irrigation and have the greatest range in fluctuations. Water-level decreases ranged from 0 to 8 feet in coastal, northern, and southern areas of the Water Management District. Generally, potentiometric levels were lower than previous May levels except in the northernmost and southernmost counties where water levels were 1 to 5 feet higher. (USGS)

  18. Potentiometric surface of the Brightseat-upper Potomac Aquifer in Virginia 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammond, E.C.; McFarland, E.R.; Focazio, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-water level measurements from 30 wells in the Brightseat-upper Potomac aquifer in the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province of Virginia in 1993 were used to prepare a map of the potentiometric surface of the aquifer. The map shows the potentiometric surface of the Brightseat-upper Potomac aquifer indicating a regional trend toward the Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean. The potentiometric-surface data indicate that cones of depression are apparent around West Point and in southeastern Isle of Wight County near Franklin, Virginia. The highest ground-water-level measurement was 4 feet above sea level in northern Accomack County, and the lowest ground-water-level measure- ment was 117 feet below sea level in Franklin, Virginia.

  19. Potentiometric surface of the Magothy Aquifer in southern Maryland during September 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Frederick K.; Andreasen, David C.; Curtin, Stephen E.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    1990-01-01

    A map showing the potentiometric surface of the Magothy aquifer in southern Maryland during the fall of 1988 was prepared from water-level measurements in 83 observation wells. The potentiometric surface was highest near the northwest boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in topographically high locations of Anne Arundel and Prince Georges Counties. The hydraulic gradient in the study area was generally southeastward or toward the centers of three cones of depression that have developed in response to pumping stresses. These cones formed around well fields in the Annapolis, Waldorf, and Chalk Point areas. The potentiometric surface of the Magothy aquifer was more than 40 ft below sea level in parts of the Waldorf and Chalk Point areas. (USGS)

  20. Potentiometric Surface of the Magothy Aquifer in Southern Maryland, September 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Mack, Frederick K.

    1996-01-01

    A map showing the potentiometric surface of the Magothy aquifer in the Magothy Formation of Cretaceous age in southern Maryland during September 1995 was prepared from water-level measurements in 92 wells. The potentiometric surface was highest near the northwestern boundaryand outcrop area of the aquifer in topographically high areas of Anne Arundel and Prince Georges Counties. Regionally, the potentiometric surface sloped gently downward towards the southeast and the local gradients were directed toward the centers of three cones of depression that have developed in response to pumping. These cones were centeredaround well fields in the Annapolis, Waldorf, and Chalk Point areas. Ground-water levels were as low as 63 feet below sea level in the Waldorf area, more than 50 feet below sea level at Chalk Point, and almost 20 feet below sea level near Annapolis.

  1. Potentiometric surface of the Magothy Aquifer in southern Maryland, September 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Mack, Frederick K.; Andreasen, David C.

    1995-01-01

    A map showing the potentiometric surface of the Magothy aquifer in the Magothy Formation of Cretaceous age in southern Maryland during September 1994 was prepared from water levels measured in 85 wells. The potentiometric surface was highest near the northwestern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in topographically high areas of Anne Arundel and Prince Georges Counties. Regionally, the potentiometric surface sloped gently downward toward the southeast, and the local gradients were directed toward the centers of three cones of depression that have developed in response to pumping. These cones were centered around well fields in the Annapolis, Waldorf, and Chalk Point areas. Ground-water levels were as low as 60 feet below sea level in the Waldorf area, more than 45 feet below sea level at Chalk Point, and almost 15 feet below sea level near Annapolis.

  2. Potentiometric surface of the Magothy Aquifer in southern Maryland during the fall of 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Frederick K.; Andreasen, David C.; Curtin, Stephen E.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    1989-01-01

    A map showing the potentiometric surface of the Magothy aquifer in the Cretaceous Magothy Formation in southern Maryland during the fall of 1987 was prepared by using water level measurements in 85 observation wells. The potentiometric surface was highest near the northwestern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in topographically high locations of Anne Arundel and Prince Georges Counties. The hydraulic gradient in the study area was generally southeastward or toward the centers of three cones of depression which have developed in response to pumping stresses. These cones formed around well fields in the Annapolis, Waldorf, and Chalk Point areas. The potentiometric surface of the Magothy aquifer was more than 40 ft below sea level in parts of the Waldorf and Chalk Point areas. (USGS)

  3. Potentiometric surface of the Magothy Aquifer in southern Maryland, September 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, D.C.; Mack, Frederick K.

    1993-01-01

    A map showing the potentiometric surface of the Magothy aquifer in the Magothy Formation of Cretaceous age in southern Maryland during September 1991 was prepared from water levels measured in 89 wells. The potentiometric surface was highest near the northwestern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in topographically high areas of Anne Arundel and Prince Georges Counties. Regionally, the potentiometric surface sloped gently downward toward the southeast, and the local gradients were directed toward the centers of 3 cones of depression that have developed in response to pumping. These cones were centered around well fields in the Annapolis, Waldorf, and Chalk Point areas. Groundwater levels were more than 50 feet below sea level in the Waldorf area, nearly 50 feet below sea level at Chalk Point, and greater than 10 feet below sea level near Annapolis.

  4. Potentiometric surface of the upper Patapsco Aquifer in southern Maryland, September 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Mack, Frederick K.; Andreasen, David C.

    1995-01-01

    A map showing the potentiometric surface of the upper Patapsco aquifer in the Patapsco Formation of Cretaceous age in southern Maryland during September 1994 was prepared from water levels measured in 43 wells. The potentiometric surface was at least 70 feet above sea level near the northwestern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in a topographically high area of Anne Arundel County, and nearly 60 feet above sea level in a similar setting in Prince Georges County. From these high areas, the potentiometric surface declined to the south and southeast toward large well fields in the Annapolis and Waldorf areas and at the Chalk Point powerplant. Ground-water levels reached nearly 30 feet below sea level in the Annapolis area, nearly 110 feet below sea level southwest of Waldorf, and more than 25 feet below sea level at the Chalk Point powerplant.

  5. Generalized potentiometric-surface map of the High Plains aquifer in Wyoming, 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Avery, Charles; Pettijohn, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    A potentiometric-surface map shows the general configuration of the water surface for the High Plains Aquifer, which is composed of Oligocene age and younger rocks in southeastern Wyoming. The potentiometric contours are shown at 100-foot intervals on a map at a scale of 1:250,000. The High Plains Aquifer in Wyoming underlies an area of 8,190 square miles and geologically consists of the White River Formation of Oligocene age, the Arikaree Formation of early Miocene age, the Ogallala Formation of late Miocene age, and alluvial deposits of Quaternary age. The altitude of the potentiometric surface declines from about 7 ,100 feet in southwestern Laramie County to about 4,100 feet in eastern Goshen County. Typically, the slope is between 20 and 30 feet per mile; the general direction of flow is eastward. (USGS)

  6. Spectral and potentiometric analysis of cytochromes from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    de Vrij, W; van den Burg, B; Konings, W N

    1987-08-03

    Bacillus subtilis cytoplasmic membranes contain several cytochromes which are linked to the respiratory chain. At least six different cytochromes have been separated and identified by ammonium sulphate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. They include two terminal oxidases with CO-binding properties and cyanide sensitivity. One of these is an aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase which has characteristic absorption maxima in the reduced-oxidized difference spectrum at 601 nm in the alpha-band and at 443 nm in the Soret band regions. In the alpha-band two separate electron transitions with Em = +205 mV and Em = +335 mV can be discriminated by redox potentiometric titration. The other CO-binding cytochrome c oxidase contains two cytochrome b components with alpha-band maxima at 556 nm and 559 nm. Cytochrome b556 can be reduced by ascorbate and has an Em + +215 mV, whereas cytochrome b559 has an Em = +140 mV. Furthermore a complex consisting of a cytochrome b564 (Em = +140 mV) associated with a cytochrome c554 (Em = +250 mV) was found. This cytochrome c554, which can be reduced by ascorbate, appears to have an asymmetrical alpha-peak and stains for heme-catalyzed peroxidase activity on SDS-containing polyacrylamide gels. A protein with a molecular mass of about 30 kDa is responsible for this activity. A cytochrome b559 (Em = +65 mV) appears to be an essential part of succinate dehydrogenase. Finally a cytochrome c550 component with an apparent mid-point potential of Em = +195 mV has been detected.

  7. PVC membrane based potentiometric sensors for uranium determination.

    PubMed

    Hassan, S S; Ali, M M; Attawiya, A M

    2001-07-06

    Two novel uranyl PVC matrix membrane sensors responsive to uranyl ion are described. The first sensor incorporates tris(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (TEHP) as both electroactive material and plasticizer and sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) as an ion discriminator. The sensor displays a rapid and linear response for UO(2)(2+) ions over the concentration range 1x10(-1)-2x10(-5) mol l(-1) UO(2)(2+) with a cationic slope of 25.0+/-0.2 mV decade(-1). The working pH range is 2.8-3.6 and the life span is 4 weeks. The second sensor contains O-(1,2-dihydro-2-oxo-1-pyridyl)-N,N,N',N'-bis(tetra-methylene)uronium hexafluorophosphate (TPTU) as a sensing material, sodium tetraphenylborate as an ion discriminator and dioctyl phenylphosphonate (DOPP) as a plasticizer. Linear and stable response for 1x10(-1)-5x10(-5) mol l(-1) UO(2)(2+) with near-Nernstian slope of 27.5+/-0.2 mV decade(-1) are obtained. The working pH range is 2.5-3.5 and the life span of the sensor is 6 weeks. Interference from many inorganic cations is negligible for both sensors. However, interference caused by some ions (e.g. Th(4+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+)) is eliminated by a prior ion exchange or solvent extraction step. Direct potentiometric determination of as little as 5 mug ml(-1) uranium in aqueous solutions shows an average recovery of 97.2+/-1.3%. Application for the determination of uranium at levels of 0.01-1 wt.% in naturally occurring and certified ores gives results with good correlation with data obtained by X-ray fluorescence.

  8. Potentiometric surface of the Ozark aquifer in northern Arkansas, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czarnecki, John B.; Pugh, Aaron L.; Blackstock, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    The Ozark aquifer in northern Arkansas is composed of dolomite, limestone, sandstone, and shale of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian age and ranges in thickness from approximately 1,100 feet to more than 4,000 feet. Hydrologically, the aquifer is complex, characterized by discrete and discontinuous flow components with large variations in permeability. The potentiometric-surface map, based on 56 well and 5 spring water-level measurements made in 2010 in Arkansas and Missouri, has a maximum water-level altitude measurement of 1,174 feet in Carroll County and a minimum water-level altitude measurement of 120 feet in Randolph County. Regionally, the flow within the aquifer is to the south and southeast in the eastern and central part of the study area and to the west, northwest, and north in the western part of the study area. Water-level altitudes changed 0.5 feet or less in 31 out of 56 wells measured between 2007 and 2010. Despite rapidly increasing population within the study area, the increase appears to have minimal effect on groundwater levels, although the effect may have been minimized by the development and use of surface-water distribution infrastructure, suggesting that most of the incoming populations are fulfilling their water needs from surface-water sources. The conversion of some users from groundwater to surface water may be allowing water levels in some wells to recover (rise) or decline at a slower rate in some areas such as in Benton, Carroll, and Washington Counties.

  9. Novel heterocyclic thiosemicarbazones derivatives as colorimetric and "turn on" fluorescent sensors for fluoride anion sensing employing hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Ashok Kumar, S L; Saravana Kumar, M; Sreeja, P B; Sreekanth, A

    2013-09-01

    Two novel heterocyclic thiosemicarbazone derivatives have been synthesized, and characterized, by means of spectroscopic and single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. Their chromophoric-fluorogenic response towards anions in competing solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was studied. The receptor shows selective recognition towards fluoride anion. The binding affinity of the receptors with fluoride anion was calculated using UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques.

  10. Kinetic catalytic determination of trace levels of iodide based on the oxidation of basic dyes with hydrogen peroxide monitored potentiometrically using simple PVC electrodes.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Elmorsy; El-Ries, M A; Zidane, F I; Ibrahim, S A; Abd-Elmonem, M S

    2011-02-15

    Four sensitive catalytic potentiometric methods have been developed for trace levels determination of iodide based on its catalytic effects on the oxidation of four dyes: viz. variamine blue (VB), rhodamine B (RB), methylene blue (MB) and malachite green (MG), with H(2)O(2) in H(3)PO(4) medium at 25±0.5°C. The catalyzed reaction rates were estimated potentiometrically by monitoring the potential of the corresponding dye-PVC ion selective electrodes. To select the optimized reaction conditions offering the highest sensitivity of the method, parallel studies were carried out on each dye catalyzed reaction including: the effect of reactant concentration, reaction medium and temperature. The working calibration curves were linear over the concentration range from 0.32 to 2.54 mg L(-1) iodide for VB method and from 3.2 to 12.7 mg L(-1) for other ones. The tolerance limits of more than 20 interfering species were listed indicating the high selectivity of the method. Trace iodide in edible salt and pharmaceutical samples was determined without the need for separation or preconcentration procedures.

  11. Potentiometric surface of the Magothy aquifer in southern Maryland, September 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the change in the potentiometric surface of the Lower Patapsco aquifer in the Lower Patapsco Formation of Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland for September 1990 and September 1999. The map, based on water?level measurements in 52 wells, shows that the change of the potentiometric surface during the 9- year period ranged from a rise of 13 feet at Indian Head and 6 feet near the outcrop area in Glen Burnie, to declines of 34 feet at Arnold, 30 feet at Waldorf, and 24 feet at Morgantown.

  12. Potentiometric Surface of the Magothy Aquifer in Southern Maryland, September 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the change in the potentiometric surface of the Aquia aquifer in the Aquia Formation of Paleocene age in Southern Maryland for September 1982 and September 2001. The map, based on water level measurements in 58 wells, shows that the potentiometric surface during the 19-year period declined from zero in the northernmost part of the study area, which is the outcrop of the aquifer, to 120 feet at Lexington Park. Lexington Park is near the southeasternmost part of the study area and approaches the downdip boundary of the aquifer.

  13. Potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, September 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolansky, R.M.; Mills, L.R.; Woodham, W.M.; Laughlin, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    A September 1978 potentiometric-surface map depicts the annual high water-level period of the Floridan aquifer in the Southwest Florida Management District. Potentiometric levels increased 10 to 25 feet between May 1978 and September 1978, in the citrus and farming sections of southern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, southwestern Polk and Manatee Counties. These areas are widely affected by pumping for irrigation and have the greatest fluctuations in water-levels between the low and high water-level periods. Water-level rises in coastal, northern and southern areas of the Water Management District ranged from 0 to 10 feet. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Potentiometric surface of Floridan aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, September 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, P.D.; Mills, L.R.; Laughlin, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    A potentiometric-surface map of the Southwest Florida Water Management District depicts the annual high water-level period. Potentiometric levels increased 15 to 30 feet between May 1977 and September 1977 in the citrus and farming sections of southeastern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, and southwestern Polk Counties. These areas are widely affected by pumpage for irrigation and have the greatest range in water-level fluctuations between the low and high water-level periods. Water-level rises in coastal, northern, and southern areas of the Water Management District ranged from 0 to 15 feet. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Ferrocenylbenzobisimidazoles for recognition of anions and cations.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, María; Tárraga, Alberto; Molina, Pedro

    2013-07-01

    The preparation of 2,7-disubstituted benzobisimidazoles decorated with substituents displaying different electrooptical properties is described. The presence of redox, chromogenic, and fluorescent groups at the heteroaromatic core, which acts as ditopic binding site, made these receptors potential candidates as multichannel probes for ions. The triad 4 behaves as a selective redox and fluorescent chemosensor for HSO4(-) and Hg(2+) ions, whereas receptor 5 acts as a redox and chromogenic chemosensor molecule for AcO(-) and SO4(2-) anions. The change in the absorption spectra is accompanied by a color change from yellow to orange, while sensing of Zn(2+), Hg(2+), and Pb(2+) cations is carried out only by electrochemical techniques. Receptor 6 exhibits a remarkable cathodic shift of the oxidation wave only in the presence of AcO(-), H2PO4(-), and HP2O7(3-) anions, whereas addition of Pb(2+) induces an anodic shift. A new low energy band in the absorption spectra, which is responsible for the color change from colorless to pale yellow, and an important increase of the monomer emission band is observed only in the presence of H2PO4(-), and HP2O7(3-) anions. The most salient feature of the receptor 6 is its ability to act as a multichannel (redox, chromogenic, and fluorescent) chemodosimeter for Cu(2+), and Hg(2+) metal cations.

  16. [Application of high performance anion exchange chromatography for trace analysis of polarizable anions].

    PubMed

    Mo, Shumin; Liang, Lina; Cai, Yaqi; Mou, Shifen; Wen, Meijuan

    2005-11-01

    Polarizable anions such as Br-, S2O3(2-), I- and SCN- were separated using 45 mmol/L sodium hydroxide solution as the mobile phase on a high hydrophilic IonPac AS16 column. With a pulsed amperometric detector, the detection limits were 0.5, 0.2, 0.05 and 2 microg/L (25.0 microL injected, signal-to-noise ratio of 3) for Br-, S2O3(2-), I- and SCN. The relative standard deviation (RSD) range of trace anions was from 0.8% to 3.7% (n = 9). Under the same chromatographic conditions, these anions were also determined using a suppressed conductivity detector and the detection limits were 1, 1, 2 and 10 microg/L (25 microL injected, signal-to-noise ratio of 3), respectively. The RSD range was from 0.9% to 4.7% (n = 9). Comparing a pulsed amperometric detector with a conductivity detector, the former is 2 to 40 times more sensitive than the latter. For the determination of polarizable anions, a pulsed amperometric detector has higher selectivity, precision and sensitivity.

  17. Anion transporters and biological systems.

    PubMed

    Gale, Philip A; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo; Quesada, Roberto

    2013-12-17

    In this Account, we discuss the development of new lipid bilayer anion transporters based on the structure of anionophoric natural products (the prodigiosins) and purely synthetic supramolecular systems. We have studied the interaction of these compounds with human cancer cell lines, and, in general, the most active anion transporter compounds possess the greatest anti-cancer properties. Initially, we describe the anion transport properties of synthetic molecules that are based on the structure of the family of natural products known as the prodiginines. Obatoclax, for example, is a prodiginine derivative with an indole ring that is currently in clinical trials for use as an anti-cancer drug. The anion transport properties of the compounds were correlated with their toxicity toward small cell human lung cancer GLC4 cells. We studied related compounds with enamine moieties, tambjamines, that serve as active transporters. These molecules and others in this series could depolarize acidic compartments within GLC4 cells and trigger apoptosis. In a study of the variation of lipophilicity of a series of these compounds, we observed that, as log P increases, the anion transport efficiency reaches a peak and then decreases. In addition, we discuss the anion transport properties of series of synthetic supramolecular anion receptor species. We synthesized trisureas and thioureas based on the tren backbone, and found that the thiourea compounds effectively transport anions. Fluorination of the pendant phenyl groups in this series of compounds greatly enhances the transport properties. Similar to our earlier results, the most active anion transporters reduced the viability of human cancer cell lines by depolarizing acidic compartments in GLC4 cells and triggering apoptosis. In an attempt to produce simpler transporters that obey Lipinski's Rule of Five, we synthesized simpler systems containing a single urea or thiourea group. Once again the thiourea systems, and in particular

  18. Map showing how the potentiometric surface of the Magothy Aquifer of August 1980 differed from the potentiometric surface of September 1977, in southern Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Frederick K.; Wheeler, J.C.; Curtin, Stephen E.

    1982-01-01

    The map is based on the differences between two sets of water-level measurements made in 65 observation wells. One set was made in 1977, a relatively dry year, and the other set was made in 1980, another relatively dry year. The map shows that the potentiometric surface was higher in 1980, by as much as 9 feet, than it was in 1977, in a band a few miles wide near the outcrop and subcrop areas of the aquifer in northern Prince Georges County and central Anne Arundel County. In the remainder of the map area, the 1980 potentiometric surface was lower than it had been in 1977, with declines as great as 20 feet measured in well fields at Waldorf and Chalk Point. The network of observation wells was developed and is operated and maintained as part of the cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey and agencies of the Maryland Department of Natural Resources. (USGS)

  19. Determination of vanadium(V) by direct automatic potentiometric titration with EDTA using a chemically modified electrode as a potentiometric sensor.

    PubMed

    Quintar, S E; Santagata, J P; Cortinez, V A

    2005-10-15

    A chemically modified electrode (CME) was prepared and studied as a potentiometric sensor for the end-point detection in the automatic titration of vanadium(V) with EDTA. The CME was constructed with a paste prepared by mixing spectral-grade graphite powder, Nujol oil and N-2-naphthoyl-N-p-tolylhydroxamic acid (NTHA). Buffer systems, pH effects and the concentration range were studied. Interference ions were separated by applying a liquid-liquid extraction procedure. The CME did not require any special conditioning before using. The electrode was constructed with very inexpensive materials and was easily made. It could be continuously used, at least two months without removing the paste. Automatic potentiometric titration curves were obtained for V(V) within 5 x 10(-5) to 2 x 10(-3)M with acceptable accuracy and precision. The developed method was applied to V(V) determination in alloys for hip prosthesis.

  20. Ektachem slides for direct potentiometric determination of sodium in plasma: effect of natremia, blood pH, and type of electrolyte reference fluid on concordance with flame photometry and other potentiometric methods.

    PubMed

    Boeyckens, A; Schots, J; Vandenplas, H; Senesael, F; Goedhuys, W; Gorus, F K

    1992-01-01

    With electrolyte reference fluid (ERF)00, results from Kodak Ektachem slides for the direct potentiometric assay of sodium in plasma were significantly correlated with results from flame photometry, but also appeared to be systematically higher, especially in hypernatremic patients. Indirect potentiometry with the Technicon RA-1000 yielded intermediate values. In 23 hypernatremic patients with greater than or equal to 6 mmol/L difference in sodium between Ektachem ERF00 and flame photometry, a clinical survey disclosed the frequent association of large between-method differences with renal failure, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal disease. However, there was no correlation between differences in sodium on the one hand and anion gaps or (lipo)protein concentrations on the other, nor did in vitro addition studies implicate metabolites that often accumulate in the above-mentioned disorders. Unlike indirect methods, sodium measurements by direct potentiometry on Ektachem and Corning were influenced by in vitro changes of pH between 7.0 and 7.9. However, in a group of patients that included many acidotic individuals, between-method differences in sodium appeared not significantly correlated with in vivo blood pH. Use of the equitransferant ERF04 on Ektachem strongly diminishes the systematic differences with flame photometry, reduces the pH-dependency of the results to that of the direct Corning method, and brings the mean analytical recovery of sodium to below 95% (instead of 115% previously) without affecting the ability of Ektachem slides to avoid spuriously low results in the presence of increased (monoclonal) protein concentrations.

  1. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Lee, Kwan-Soo

    2013-07-23

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes and compositions comprising chemical compounds comprising a polymeric core, a spacer A, and a guanidine base, wherein said chemical compound is uniformly dispersed in a suitable solvent and has the structure: ##STR00001## wherein: i) A is a spacer having the structure O, S, SO.sub.2, --NH--, --N(CH.sub.2).sub.n, wherein n=1-10, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.sub.3--, wherein n=1-10, SO.sub.2-Ph, CO-Ph, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.5, R.sub.6, R.sub.7 and R.sub.8 each are independently --H, --NH.sub.2, F, Cl, Br, CN, or a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl group, or any combination of thereof; ii) R.sub.9, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, or R.sub.13 each independently are --H, --CH.sub.3, --NH.sub.2, --NO, --CH.sub.nCH.sub.3 where n=1-6, HC.dbd.O--, NH.sub.2C.dbd.O--, --CH.sub.nCOOH where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--C(NH.sub.2)--COOH where n=1-6, --CH--(COOH)--CH.sub.2--COOH, --CH.sub.2--CH(O--CH.sub.2CH.sub.3).sub.2, --(C.dbd.S)--NH.sub.2, --(C.dbd.NH)--N--(CH.sub.2).sub.nCH.sub.3, where n=0-6, --NH--(C.dbd.S)--SH, --CH.sub.2--(C.dbd.O)--O--C(CH.sub.3).sub.3, --O--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--(NH.sub.2)--COOH, where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.dbd.CH wherein n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--CN wherein n=1-6, an aromatic group such as a phenyl, benzyl, phenoxy, methylbenzyl, nitrogen-substituted benzyl or phenyl groups, a halide, or halide-substituted methyl groups; and iii) wherein the composition is suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly.

  2. Bound anionic states of adenine

    SciTech Connect

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H

    2007-03-20

    Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases, are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the new-found anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of: (i) a new experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a new combinatorial/ quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules. The computational portion of this work was supported by the: (i) Polish State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN) Grants: DS/8000-4-0140-7 (M.G.) and N204 127 31/2963 (M.H.), (ii) European Social Funds (EFS) ZPORR/2.22/II/2.6/ARP/U/2/05 (M.H.), and (iii) US DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Low Dose Radiation Research Program (M.G.). M.H. holds the Foundation for Polish Science (FNP) award for young scientists. The calculations were performed at the Academic

  3. Gallium based low-interaction anions

    DOEpatents

    King, Wayne A.; Kubas, Gregory J.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides: a composition of the formula M.sup.+x (Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.-).sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; a composition of the formula (R).sub.x Q.sup.+ Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.- where Q is selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus and oxygen, each R is a ligand selected from the group consisting of alkyl, aryl, and hydrogen, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 3 and 4 depending upon Q, and each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; an ionic polymerization catalyst composition including an active cationic portion and a gallium based weakly coordinating anion; and bridged anion species of the formula M.sup.+x.sub.y [X(Ga(Y.sub.3).sub.z ].sup.-y.sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, X is a bridging group between two gallium atoms, y is an integer selected from the group consisting 1 and 2, z is an integer of at least 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide.

  4. Nitrite-Templated Synthesis of Lanthanide-Containing [2]Rotaxanes for Anion Sensing**

    PubMed Central

    Langton, Matthew J; Blackburn, Octavia A; Lang, Thomas; Faulkner, Stephen; Beer, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    The first anion-templated synthesis of a lanthanide-containing interlocked molecule is demonstrated by utilizing a nitrite anion to template initial pseudorotaxane formation. Subsequent stoppering of the interpenetrated assembly allows for the preparation of a lanthanide-functionalized [2]rotaxane in high yield. Following removal of the nitrite anion template, the europium [2]rotaxane host is demonstrated to recognize and sense fluoride selectively. PMID:24989322

  5. An estimated potentiometric surface of the Death Valley region, Nevada and California, developed using geographic information system and automated interpolation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    D`Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.; Turner, A.K.

    1998-07-01

    An estimated potentiometric surface was constructed for the Death Valley region, Nevada and California, from numerous, disparate data sets. The potentiometric surface was required for conceptualization of the ground-water flow system and for construction of a numerical model to aid in the regional characterization for the Yucca Mountain repository. Because accurate, manual extrapolation of potentiometric levels over large distances is difficult, a geographic-information-system method was developed to incorporate available data and apply hydrogeologic rules during contour construction. Altitudes of lakes, springs, and wetlands, interpreted as areas where the potentiometric surface intercepts the land surface, were combined with water levels from well data. Because interpreted ground-water recharge and discharge areas commonly coincide with groundwater basin boundaries, these areas also were used to constrain a gridding algorithm and to appropriately place local maxima and minima in the potentiometric-surface map. The resulting initial potentiometric surface was examined to define areas where the algorithm incorrectly extrapolated the potentiometric surface above the land surface. A map of low-permeability rocks overlaid on the potentiometric surface also indicated areas that required editing based on hydrogeologic reasoning. An interactive editor was used to adjust generated contours to better represent the natural water table conditions, such as large hydraulic gradients and troughs, or ``vees``. The resulting estimated potentiometric-surface map agreed well with previously constructed maps. Potentiometric-surface characteristics including potentiometric-surface mounds and depressions, surface troughs, and large hydraulic gradients were described.

  6. BIOSENSOR FOR DIRECT DETERMINATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE NERVE AGENTS. 1. POTENTIOMETRIC ENZYME ELECTRODE. (R823663)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A potentiometric enzyme electrode for the direct measurement of organophosphate (OP)
    nerve agents was developed. The basic element of this enzyme electrode was a pH electrode
    modified with an immobilized organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) layer formed by cross-linking
    OPH ...

  7. Potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer, west-central Florida, September 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the approximate annual low and high water-level conditions, respectively. This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in September 2010. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the wet season, when groundwater levels usually are at an annual high and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are low. The cumulative average rainfall of 53.17 inches for west-central Florida (from October 2009 through September 2010) was 0.41 inches above the historical cumulative average of 52.76 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2010). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District.

  8. Detection of Picogram Quantities of Botulinus Toxin-B Using the Light Addressable Potentiometric Sensor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    this report. All assays were performed on the Light Addressable Potentiometric Sensor. Results indicate a near linear dose response curve for...increasing the amounts of BoTX (10-1,000 pg). The presence of 1-30 ng of toxin resulted in a dose response curve that yielded high output signals (>4,000

  9. Potentiometric titration of heterocyclic nitrogen bases in non-aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Rao, K C; Naidu, P R

    1972-11-01

    Pyridine, quinoline, isoquinoline, acridine, alpha-picoline, beta-picoline, gamma-picoline and 2,6-lutidine have been titrated potentio-metrically (calomel and glass electrodes), with chlorosulphonic acid in methyl ethyl ketone-acetic acid (1:1) medium, with an error of less than 1%.

  10. Lead in Hair and in Red Wine by Potentiometric Stripping Analysis: The University Students' Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephsen, Jens

    1985-01-01

    A new program for training upper secondary school chemistry teachers (SE 537 693) depends heavily on student project work. A project in which lead in hair and in red wine was examined by potentiometric stripping analysis is described and evaluated. (JN)

  11. Map showing the potentiometric surface of the Magothy Aquifer in southern Maryland, September 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Frederick K.; Wheeler, Judith C.; Curtin, Stephen E.

    1982-01-01

    A map was prepared that shows the potentiometric surface of the Magothy aquifer in southern Maryland in September 1982. The map is based on measurements from a network of 83 observation wells. The highest levels of the potentiometric surface, 57 and 58 feet above sea level, were measured near the outcrop-subcrop of the aquifer in topographically high areas of Anne Arundel and Prince Georges Counties. The potentiometric surface slopes to the southeast to about sea level along much of the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay. Three distinct and extensive cones of depression have developed in the potentiometric surface around the well fields of the Annapolis area, Waldorf area, and Chalk Point. Several square miles of each cone are below sea level, and in some areas at Chalk Point and Waldorf, the cone is more than 50 feet below sea level. The network of wells was developed as part of the cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Maryland Geological Survey, and the Maryland Energy Administration. (USGS)

  12. Design and Evaluation of Potentiometric Principles for Bladder Volume Monitoring: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shih-Ching; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsun; Fan, Wen-Jia; Lai, Chien-Hung; Chen, Chun-Lung; Wei, Wei-Feng; Peng, Chih-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in microelectronics and wireless transmission technology have led to the development of various implantable sensors for real-time monitoring of bladder conditions. Although various sensing approaches for monitoring bladder conditions were reported, most such sensors have remained at the laboratory stage due to the existence of vital drawbacks. In the present study, we explored a new concept for monitoring the bladder capacity on the basis of potentiometric principles. A prototype of a potentiometer module was designed and fabricated and integrated with a commercial wireless transmission module and power unit. A series of in vitro pig bladder experiments was conducted to determine the best design parameters for implementing the prototype potentiometric device and to prove its feasibility. We successfully implemented the potentiometric module in a pig bladder model in vitro, and the error of the accuracy of bladder volume detection was <±3%. Although the proposed potentiometric device was built using a commercial wireless module, the design principles and animal experience gathered from this research can serve as a basis for developing new implantable bladder sensors in the future. PMID:26039421

  13. Potentiometric determination of the 'formal' hydrolysis ratio of aluminium species in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Agathe C; Shafran, Kirill L; Perry, Carole C

    2008-01-21

    The 'formal' hydrolysis ratio (h = C(OH-)added/C(Al)total) of hydrolysed aluminium-ions is an important parameter required for the exhaustive and quantitative speciation-fractionation of aluminium in aqueous solutions. This paper describes a potentiometric method for determination of the formal hydrolysis ratio based on an automated alkaline titration procedure. The method uses the point of precipitation of aluminium hydroxide as a reference (h = 3.0) in order to calculate the initial formal hydrolysis ratio of hydrolysed aluminium-ion solutions. Several solutions of pure hydrolytic species including aluminium monomers (AlCl3), Al13 polynuclear cluster ([Al13O4(OH)24(H2O)12]7+), Al30 polynuclear cluster ([Al30O8(OH)56(H2O)26]18+) and a suspension of nanoparticulate aluminium hydroxide have been used as 'reference standards' to validate the proposed potentiometric method. Other important variables in the potentiometric determination of the hydrolysis ratio have also been optimised including the concentration of aluminium and the type and strength of alkali (Trizma-base, NH3, NaHCO3, Na2CO3 and KOH). The results of the potentiometric analysis have been cross-verified by quantitative 27Al solution nuclear magnetic resonance (27Al NMR) measurements. The 'formal' hydrolysis ratio of a commercial basic aluminium chloride has been measured as an example of a practical application of the developed technique.

  14. Detection of Catechol by Potentiometric-Flow Injection Analysis in the Presence of Interferents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, Suzanne K.; Widera, Justyna; Zhang, Hong

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an undergraduate analytical chemistry experiment developed to teach instrumental lab skills while incorporating common interferents encountered in the real-world analysis of catechol. The lab technique incorporates potentiometric-flow injection analysis on a dibenzo-18-crown-6 dual platinum electrode to detect catechol in…

  15. Potentiometric pH Measurements of Acidity Are Approximations, Some More Useful than Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Levie, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A recent article by McCarty and Vitz "demonstrating that it is not true that pH = -log[H+]" is examined critically. Then, the focus shifts to underlying problems with the IUPAC definition of pH. It is shown how the potentiometric method can provide "estimates" of both the IUPAC-defined hydrogen activity "and" the hydrogen ion concentration, using…

  16. Hydrogen in anion vacancies of semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Mao-Hua; Singh, David J

    2009-01-01

    Density functional calculations show that, depending on the anion size, hydrogen in anion vacancies of various II-VI semiconductors can be either two-fold or four-fold coordinated, and has either amphoteric or shallow donor character. In general, the multi-coordination of hydrogen in an anion vacancy is the indication of an anionic H, H { ion, in the relatively ionic environment. In more covalent semiconductors, H would form a single cation-H bond in the anion vacancy.

  17. Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Theoretical Studies of Anion-pi Interactions: Binding Strength and Anion Specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Bin; Sun, Zhenrong; Wang, Xue B.

    2015-01-01

    illustrates that size-selective photoelectron spectroscopy combined with theoretical calculations represent a powerful technique to probe intrinsic anion–π interactions and has potential to provide quantitative guest-host molecular binding strengths and unravel fundamental insights in specific anion recognitions.

  18. Potentiometric levels and water quality in the aquifers underlying Belvidere, Illinois, 1993-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Patrick C.; Thomas, C.A.; Brown, T.A.; Yeskis, D.J.; Kay, R.T.

    1999-01-01

    In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), began a study of the hydrogeology and water quality of the aquifers underlying the vicinity of Belvidere, Boone County, Ill. Previously, volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and other constituents of industrial origin were detected in one or more ground-water samples from about 100 of the approximately 700 monitoring and water-supply wells in the area, including the 8 municipal wells in Belvidere. A glacial drift aquifer underlies at least 50 percent of the 80-square-mile study area; bedrock aquifers that underlie virtually all of the study area include the Galena-Platteville, St. Peter Sandstone, Ordovician, and Cambrian-Ordovician aquifers. During 1993, water levels were measured in 152 wells and water-quality samples were collected from 97 wells distributed throughout the study area. During 1994-96, similar data were collected from 31 wells. Potentiometric levels in the glacial drift and Galena-Platteville aquifers are similar and range from about 750 to 900 feet above sea level. The potentiometric surfaces of the aquifers are subdued representations of the land surface. Horizontal ground-water flow in the aquifers primarily is towards the Kishwaukee River, which flows through the central part of the study area, and its principal tributaries. Vertical ground-water flow appears to be downward at most locations in the study area, particularly in the urbanized areas affected by pumping of the Belvidere municipal wells and upland areas remote from the principal surface-water drainages. Flow appears to be upward between the Galena-Platteville and glacial drift aquifers where ground water discharges to the Kishwaukee River and its principal tributaries. All water samples were analyzed for VOC's. Selected samples also were analyzed for trace metals, cyanide, semivolatile organic compounds, or other constituents. VOC's were detected in samples from 50 wells (52

  19. Potentiometric surface in the Central Oklahoma (Garber-Wellington) aquifer, Oklahoma, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Magers, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    A study of the hydrogeology of the Central Oklahoma aquifer was started in 2008 to provide the Oklahoma Water Resources Board (OWRB) hydrogeologic data and a groundwater flow model that can be used as a tool to help manage the aquifer. The 1973 Oklahoma water law requires the OWRB to do hydrologic investigations of Oklahoma's aquifers (termed 'groundwater basins') and to determine amounts of water that may be withdrawn by permitted water users. 'Maximum annual yield' is a term used by OWRB to describe the total amount of water that can be withdrawn from a specific aquifer in any year while allowing a minimum 20-year life of the basin (Oklahoma Water Resources Board, 2010). Currently (2010), the maximum annual yield has not been determined for the Central Oklahoma aquifer. Until the maximum annual yield determination is made, water users are issued a temporary permit by the OWRB for 2 acre-feet/acre per year. The objective of the study, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, was to study the hydrogeology of the Central Oklahoma aquifer to provide information that will enable the OWRB to determine the maximum annual yield of the aquifer based on different proposed management plans. Groundwater flow models are typically used by the OWRB as a tool to help determine the maximum annual yield. This report presents the potentiometric surface of the Central Oklahoma aquifer based on water-level data collected in 2009 as part of the current (2010) hydrologic study. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Investigations Atlas HA-724 by Christenson and others (1992) presents the 1986-87 potentiometric-surface map. This 1986-87 potentiometric-surface map was made as part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment pilot project for the Central Oklahoma aquifer that examined the geochemical and hydrogeological processes operating in the aquifer. An attempt was made to obtain water-level measurements for the 2009 potentiometric-surface map from the wells

  20. Organic anion uptake by hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wolkoff, Allan W

    2014-10-01

    Many of the compounds taken up by the liver are organic anions that circulate tightly bound to protein carriers such as albumin. The fenestrated sinusoidal endothelium of the liver permits these compounds to have access to hepatocytes. Studies to characterize hepatic uptake of organic anions through kinetic analyses, suggested that it was carrier-mediated. Attempts to identify specific transporters by biochemical approaches were largely unsuccessful and were replaced by studies that utilized expression cloning. These studies led to identification of the organic anion transport proteins (oatps), a family of 12 transmembrane domain glycoproteins that have broad and often overlapping substrate specificities. The oatps mediate Na(+)-independent organic anion uptake. Other studies identified a seven transmembrane domain glycoprotein, Na(+)/taurocholate transporting protein (ntcp) as mediating Na(+)-dependent uptake of bile acids as well as other organic anions. Although mutations or deficiencies of specific members of the oatp family have been associated with transport abnormalities, there have been no such reports for ntcp, and its physiologic role remains to be determined, although expression of ntcp in vitro recapitulates the characteristics of Na(+)-dependent bile acid transport that is seen in vivo. Both ntcp and oatps traffic between the cell surface and intracellular vesicular pools. These vesicles move through the cell on microtubules, using the microtubule based motors dynein and kinesins. Factors that regulate this motility are under study and may provide a unique mechanism that can alter the plasma membrane content of these transporters and consequently their accessibility to circulating ligands.

  1. Revised potentiometric-surface map, Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nevada; Water-resources investigations report 93-4000

    SciTech Connect

    Ervin, E.M.; Luckey, R.R.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1994-05-01

    This report presents a revised potentiometric-surface map based mainly on the 1988 average water levels at Yucca Mountain and the nearby vicinity extending from Crater Flat to Jackass Flats. Discussion includes an explanation of the revised potentiometric-surface map, an examination of yearly trends in the water levels, and adjustments for temperature and density effects in the deeper wells. Report scope focuses on the potentiometric surface of the uppermost saturated zone in the Tertiary volcanic rocks at Yucca Mountain. Some information, related to the underlying Paleozoic carbonate aquifer, pertinent to the volcanic flow system, is presented.

  2. Potentiometric surface of the lower Cape Fear Aquifer in the central coastal plain of North Carolina, December 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winner, M.D.; Lyke, William L.; Brockman, Allen R.

    1989-01-01

    Water level measurements were made in four wells open to the lower Cape Fear aquifer at the end of 1986 to determine the configuration of its potentiometric surface over an area of approximately 4,100 sq mi. Because of the scarcity of data, five earlier measurements were also used to help estimate the position of the potentiometric contours. These were one-time measurements in temporary observation wells. A broad cone of depression has formed in the area between Kinston and New Bern where the potentiometric surface is below sea level and seems likely related to large groundwater withdrawals from the aquifers overlying the lower Cape Fear in that area.

  3. Potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Suwannee River Water Management District, Florida, May 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verdi, Richard Jay; Sepulveda, A. Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This map depicts the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Suwannee River Water Management District (SRWMD) during May 2005. Potentiometric contours are based on water-level measurements taken at more than 400 observation wells during the period of May 1-31, 2005. A potentiometric surface is defined as an areal representation of the levels to which water would rise in tightly cased wells open to an aquifer (Fetter, 1988). Since these water-level measurements from the Upper Floridan aquifer were taken over a 31-day period, they do not represent a 'snapshot' of the conditions at a specific date and time.

  4. Anions in Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    PubMed

    D'Ascenzo, Luigi; Auffinger, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Nucleic acid crystallization buffers contain a large variety of chemicals fitting specific needs. Among them, anions are often solely considered for pH-regulating purposes and as cationic co-salts while their ability to directly bind to nucleic acid structures is rarely taken into account. Here we review current knowledge related to the use of anions in crystallization buffers along with data on their biological prevalence. Chloride ions are frequently identified in crystal structures but display low cytosolic concentrations. Hence, they are thought to be distant from nucleic acid structures in the cell. Sulfate ions are also frequently identified in crystal structures but their localization in the cell remains elusive. Nevertheless, the characterization of the binding properties of these ions is essential for better interpreting the solvent structure in crystals and consequently, avoiding mislabeling of electron densities. Furthermore, understanding the binding properties of these anions should help to get clues related to their potential effects in crowded cellular environments.

  5. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2015-10-08

    This project seeks to improve the efficiency of the plutonium anion-exchange process for purifying Pu through the development of alternate ion-exchange media. The objective of the project in FY15 was to develop and test a porous foam monolith material that could serve as a replacement for the current anion-exchange resin, Reillex® HPQ, used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for purifying Pu. The new material provides advantages in efficiency over the current resin by the elimination of diffusive mass transport through large granular resin beads. By replacing the large resin beads with a porous foam there is much more efficient contact between the Pu solution and the anion-exchange sites present on the material. Several samples of a polystyrene based foam grafted with poly(4-vinylpyridine) were prepared and the Pu sorption was tested in batch contact tests.

  6. Optimizing potentiometric ionophore and electrode design for environmental on-site control of antibiotic drugs: application to sulfamethoxazole.

    PubMed

    Almeida, S A A; Truta, Liliana A A N A; Queirós, Raquel B; Montenegro, M C B S M; Cunha, Alexandre L; Sales, M G F

    2012-05-15

    Potentiometric sensors are typically unable to carry out on-site monitoring of environmental drug contaminants because of their high limits of detection (LODs). Designing a novel ligand material for the target analyte and managing the composition of the internal reference solution have been the strategies employed here to produce for the first time a potentiometric-based direct reading method for an environmental drug contaminant. This concept has been applied to sulfamethoxazole (SMX), one of the many antibiotics used in aquaculture practices that may occur in environmental waters. The novel ligand has been produced by imprinting SMX on the surface of graphitic carbon nanostructures (CN)<500 nm. The imprinted carbon nanostructures (ICN) were dispersed in plasticizer and entrapped in a PVC matrix that included (or not) a small amount of a lipophilic additive. The membrane composition was optimized on solid-contact electrodes, allowing near-Nernstian responses down to 5.2 μg/mL and detecting 1.6 μg/mL. The membranes offered good selectivity against most of the ionic compounds in environmental water. The best membrane cocktail was applied on the smaller end of a 1000 μL micropipette tip made of polypropylene. The tip was then filled with inner reference solution containing SMX and chlorate (as interfering compound). The corresponding concentrations were studied for 1 × 10(-5) to 1 × 10(-10) and 1 × 10(-3) to 1 × 10(-8)mol/L. The best condition allowed the detection of 5.92 ng/L (or 2.3 × 10(-8)mol/L) SMX for a sub-Nernstian slope of -40.3 mV/decade from 5.0 × 10(-8) to 2.4 × 10(-5)mol/L. The described sensors were found promising devices for field applications. The good selectivity of the sensory materials together with a carefully selected composition for the inner reference solution allowed LODs near the nanomolar range. Both solid-contact and "pipette tip"-based sensors were successfully applied to the analysis of aquaculture waters.

  7. Isobar Separator for Anions: Current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alary, Jean-François; Javahery, Gholamreza; Kieser, William; Zhao, Xiao-Lei; Litherland, Albert; Cousins, Lisa; Charles, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    The Isobar Separator for Anions (ISA) is an emerging separation technique of isobars applied first to the selective removal of 36S from 36Cl, achieving a relative suppression ratio of 6 orders of magnitude. Using a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) column incorporating low energy gas cells, this innovative technique enables the use of a wide range of low energy ion-molecule reactions and collisional-induced dissociation processes for suppressing specific atomic of molecular anions with a high degree of selectivity. Other elemental pairs (analyte/isobar) successfully separated at AMS level include Ca/K, Sr/(Y, Zr), Cs/Ba, Hf/W and Pu/U. In view of these initial successes, an effort to develop a version of the ISA that can be used as a robust technique for routine AMS analysis has been undertaken. We will discuss the detailed layout of a practical ISA and the functional requirements that a combined ISA/AMS should meet. These concepts are currently being integrated in a pre-commercial ISA system that will be installed soon at the newly established A.E. Lalonde Laboratory in Ottawa, Canada.

  8. Characterization of Sea Lettuce Surface Functional Groups by Potentiometric Titrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebling, A. M.; Schijf, J.

    2008-12-01

    In pursuit of our ultimate goal to better understand the prodigious capacity of the marine macroalga Ulva lactuca (sea lettuce) for adsorbing a broad range of dissolved trace metals from seawater, we performed an initial characterization of its surface functional groups. Specifically, the number of distinct functional groups as well as their individual bulk concentrations and acid dissociation constants (pKas) were determined by potentiometric titrations in NaCl solutions of various ionic strengths (I = 0.01-5.0 M), under inert nitrogen atmosphere at 25°C. Depending on the ionic strength, Ulva samples were manually titrated down to pH 2 or 3 with 1 N HCl and then up to pH 10 with 1 N NaOH in steps of 0.1-0.2 units, continuously monitoring pH with a glass combination electrode. Titrations of a dehydrated Ulva standard reference material (BCR-279) were compared with fresh Ulva tissue cultured in our laboratory. A titration in filtered natural seawater was also compared with one in an NaCl solution of equal ionic strength. Equilibrium constants for the ionization of water in NaCl solutions as a function of ionic strength were obtained from the literature. Fits to the titration data ([H]T vs. pH) were performed with the FITEQL4.0 computer code using non-electrostatic 3-, 4-, and 5-site models, either by fixing ionic strength at its experimental value or by allowing it to be extrapolated to zero, while considering all functional group pKas and bulk concentrations as adjustable parameters. Since pKas and bulk concentrations were found to be strongly correlated, the latter were also fixed in some cases to further constrain the pKas. Whereas these calculations are currently ongoing, preliminary results point to three, possibly four, functional groups with pKas of about 4.1, 6.3, and 9.5 at I = 0. Bulk concentrations of the three groups are very similar, about 5-6×10-4 mol/g based on dry weight, which suggests that all are homogeneously distributed over the surface and

  9. A bidentate Lewis acid with a telluronium ion as an anion-binding site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haiyan; Gabbaï, François P.

    2010-11-01

    The search for receptors that can selectively capture small and potentially toxic anions in protic media has sparked a renewed interest in the synthesis and anion-binding properties of polydentate Lewis acids. Seeking new paradigms to enhance the anion affinities of such systems, we synthesized a bidentate Lewis acid that contains a boryl and a telluronium moiety as Lewis acidic sites. Anion-complexation studies indicate that this telluronium borane displays a high affinity for fluoride in methanol. Structural and computational studies show that the unusual fluoride affinity of this bidentate telluronium borane can be correlated with the formation of a B-F --> Te chelate motif supported by a strong lone-pair(F) --> σ*(Te-C) donor-acceptor interaction. These results, which illustrate the viability of heavier chalcogenium centres as anion-binding sites, allow us to introduce a novel strategy for the design of polydentate Lewis acids with enhanced anion affinities.

  10. A bidentate Lewis acid with a telluronium ion as an anion-binding site.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haiyan; Gabbaï, François P

    2010-11-01

    The search for receptors that can selectively capture small and potentially toxic anions in protic media has sparked a renewed interest in the synthesis and anion-binding properties of polydentate Lewis acids. Seeking new paradigms to enhance the anion affinities of such systems, we synthesized a bidentate Lewis acid that contains a boryl and a telluronium moiety as Lewis acidic sites. Anion-complexation studies indicate that this telluronium borane displays a high affinity for fluoride in methanol. Structural and computational studies show that the unusual fluoride affinity of this bidentate telluronium borane can be correlated with the formation of a B-F → Te chelate motif supported by a strong lone-pair(F) → σ*(Te-C) donor-acceptor interaction. These results, which illustrate the viability of heavier chalcogenium centres as anion-binding sites, allow us to introduce a novel strategy for the design of polydentate Lewis acids with enhanced anion affinities.

  11. Tetrathiafulvalene diindolylquinoxaline: a dual signaling anion receptor with phosphate selectivity†

    PubMed Central

    Bejger, Christopher; Park, Jung Su; Silver, Eric S.; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of tetrathiafulvalene into the backbone of a known neutral phosphate receptor, diindolylquinoxaline, yields a dual optical-electrochemical chemosensor for dihydrogen phosphate that functions in dichloromethane. This system shows selectivity for dihydrogen phosphate over other small anions and can be used to detect the presence of this analyte via fluorescence quenching or cyclic voltammetry. PMID:20856940

  12. Water-level data from wells and test holes through 1991 and potentiometric contours as of 1991 for Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, G.S.; Trudeau, D.A.; Savard, C.S.

    1995-12-01

    The underground nuclear testing program of the US Department of Energy (USDOE) takes place at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), about 65 mi north-west of Las Vegas, Nevada. Underground nuclear tests at Yucca Flat, one of the USDOE test areas at NTS, have affected hydrologic conditions, including groundwater levels. The purpose of this map report, prepared in cooperation with USDOE, is to present selected water-level data collected from wells and test holes through December 1991, and to show potentiometric contours representing 1991 water-table conditions in the Yucca Flat area. The more generic term, potentiometric contours, is used herein rather than ``water-table contours`` because the hydrologic units contributing water to wells and test holes may not accurately represent the water table. The water table is that surface in an unconfined water body at which the pressure is atmospheric. It is defined by the altitude at which non- perched ground water is first found in wells and test holes. Perched ground water is defined as unconfined ground water separated from an underlying body of ground water by an unsaturated zone. This map report updates information on water levels in some wells and test holes and the resulting water-table contours in rocks of Cenozoic and Paleozoic age shown by Doty and Thordarson for 1980 conditions.

  13. Anion binding in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiters, Martin C.; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kostenko, Alexander V.; Soldatov, Alexander V.; Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P.; Bevers, Loes E.; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2009-11-01

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L3 (2p3/2) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  14. Expanding the scope of the anion templated synthesis of interlocked structures.

    PubMed

    Spence, Graeme T; Beer, Paul D

    2013-02-19

    Nature achieves impressively strong and selective complexation of small molecule anions through the elaborate binding sites of sophisticated proteins. Inspired by these examples, we have developed an anion templation strategy for the synthesis of mechanically interlocked host structures for anion recognition applications. Upon removal of the discrete anionic templating species, such host systems possess unique, three-dimensional, geometrically restrained cavities containing convergent hydrogen bond donor atoms. Such structures exhibit high affinity binding selectivity toward complementary anions. This Account describes recent advances in this anion templation meth odology, demonstrating the versatility and scope of this approach, and progressing to more diverse architectures. Specifically, we have prepared an expansive range of interlocked hosts with enhanced anion recognition properties, such as the ability to operate effectively in competitive aqueous media. We have produced these structures through the utilization of a new anion templated amide condensation synthetic method and through the incorporation of a range of different anion binding motifs, such as groups capable of effective solution-phase halogen bonding interactions. Importantly, direct comparisons between halogen bonding and hydrogen bonding systems reveal impressively magnified anion recognition properties for halogen bonding interlocked host systems. We have also employed the anion templation strategy successfully to construct selective electrochemical and luminescent anion sensors, as well as architectures of increasing complexity, such as a triply interlocked capsule and a handcuff catenane. The synthesis of these latter examples presents greater challenges; however, such molecules offer additional applications in higher order recognition and sensing and in switchable molecular devices. Having established anion templation as a viable synthetic route to interlocked architectures, we have used this

  15. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Patapsco Aquifer in Southern Maryland, September 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the potentiometric surface of the Upper Patapsco aquifer in the Patapsco Formation of Lower Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland during September 2002. The map is based on water-level measurements in 50 wells. The highest measured water level was 117 feet above sea level near the northern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in northern Anne Arundel County. From this area, the potentiometric surface declined to the southeast toward large well fields in Arnold and Annapolis, and from all directions toward a cone of depression located southwest of Waldorf. The measured ground-water level declined to 36 feet below sea level in Arnold, and to 23 feet below sea level in Annapolis. The lowest water level measured was 136 feet below sea level southwest of Waldorf.

  16. Potentiometric Surface of the Magothy Aquifer in Southern Maryland, September 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Staley, Andrew W.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the potentiometric surface of the Magothy aquifer in the Magothy Formation of Late Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland during September 2007. The map is based on water-level measurements in 69 wells. The highest measured water level was 85 feet above sea level near the northern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in the north-central part of Anne Arundel County. The potentiometric surface declined towards the south. Local gradients were directed toward the center of a cone of depression in the Waldorf area that developed in response to pumping. Measured ground-water levels were as low as 90 feet below sea level in the Waldorf area.

  17. Potentiometric Surface of the Magothy Aquifer in Southern Maryland, September 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Staley, Andrew W.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the potentiometric surface of the Magothy aquifer in the Magothy Formation of Late Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland during September 2009. The map is based on water-level measurements in 66 wells. The highest measured water level was 85 feet above sea level near the northern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in the north-central part of Anne Arundel County. The potentiometric surface declined towards the south. Local hydraulic gradients were directed toward the center of a cone of depression in the Waldorf area that developed in response to pumping. Measured groundwater levels were as low as 71 feet below sea level in the Waldorf area. The map also shows well yield in gallons per day for 2008 at wells or well fields.

  18. Potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District, May 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.; Woodham, W.M.; Schiner, George R.

    1981-01-01

    A May 1981 potentiometric-surface map of the Southwest Florida Water Management District depicts the annual low water-level period. Potentiometric levels decreased 10 to 45 feet between September 1980 and May 1981 in the citrus and farming sections of southern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, southwestern Polk, northwestern DeSoto, and Manatee Counties. Water levels in these areas are widely affected by pumping for irrigation and have the greatest range in fluctuations. Water-level decreases ranged from 0 to 1 feet in coastal, northern, and southern areas of the Water Management District. Water levels in all of the approximate 700 wells measured in May 1981 are lower than May 1980 because of the virtual absence of rainfall in April and May. (USGS)

  19. Simple home-made sensors for potentiometric titrations. [Nitroform CH(NO/sub 2/)/sub 3/

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, W.

    1982-04-01

    A sensor for potentiometric titrations was prepared by coating a spectroscopic graphite rod with a solution of poly(vinyl chloride) and dioctyphthalate in tetrahydrofuran. The reference electrode was an Ag/AgCl single-junction electrode. The sensor was used in precipitation, acid-base, compleximetric, and redox titrations. Preparation of the coated-graphite sensor is simple and rapid. Moreover, it is quite inexpensive. A limitation is its applicability in aqueous media only, because organic solvents will dissolve the membrane. Various uncoated types of graphite have also been investigated as sensors, particularly in two applications of interest in the analysis of propellants: the titration of nitroform and perchlorate. Obviously, these sensors can be used also in nonaqueous, or partially nonaqueous media. These sensors may also find use in the potentiometric titration of fluoride vs La(III) or Th(IV).

  20. Potentiometric surface of the Aquia Aquifer in southern Maryland, September 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, D.C.; Mack, Frederick K.

    1993-01-01

    A map showing the potentiometric surface of the Aquia aquifer in the Aquia Formation of Paleocene age in southern Maryland during September 1991 was prepared from water levels measured in 82 wells. The potentiometric surface was above sea level near the northwestern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in topographically high areas of Anne Arundel and Prince Georges Counties, and was below sea level in the remainder of the study area. The hydraulic gradient was directed southeastward toward an extensive cone of depression around well fields at Lexington Park and Solomons Island. Groundwater levels were more than 60 feet below sea level in a 60-sq-mi area surrounding the deepest part of the cone of depression and 117 feet below sea level in one well near the center of the cone.

  1. Potentiometric Surface of the Aquia Aquifer in Southern Maryland, September 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the potentiometric surface of the Aquia aquifer in the Aquia Formation of Paleocene age in Southern Maryland during September 2001. The map is based on water-level measurements in 76 wells. The potentiometric surface was highest at 40 feet above sea level near the northern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in the central part of Anne Arundel County, and was below sea level in the remainder of the study area. The hydraulic gradient was directed southeastward toward an extensive cone of depression around well fields at Lexington Park and Solomons Island. A cone of depression formed in northern Calvert County due to pumpage at Chesapeake Beach and North Beach. The water level has declined to 44 feet below sea level in this area. The lowest measurement was 160 feet below sea level at the center of a cone of depression at Lexington Park.

  2. Potentiometric surface of the Aquia Aquifer in southern Maryland during September 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Frederick K.; Andreasen, David C.; Curtin, Stephen E.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    1990-01-01

    A map showing the potentiometric surface of the Aquia aquifer in the Paleocene Aquia Formation in southern Maryland during the fall of 1988 was constructed on the basis of water level measurements made at 84 observation wells. The potentiometric surface was above sea level near the northwestern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in topographically high areas of Anne Arundel and Prince Georges Counties; it was below sea level in the remainder of the study area. The hydraulic gradient generally was to the southeast toward an extensive cone of depression centered around well fields near Lexington Park and Solomons Island. Water levels were more than 60 ft below sea level in a 50 sq-mi area near the center of the cone and were more than 100 ft below sea level at two of the wells near the center of the cone. (USGS)

  3. Potentiometric surface of the Aquia Aquifer in southern Maryland, September 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Mack, Frederick K.; Andreasen, David C.

    1995-01-01

    A map showing the potentiometric surface of the Aquia aquifer in the Aquia aquifer in the Aquia Formation of Paleocene age in southern Maryland during September 1994 was prepared from water levels measured in 74 wells. The potentiometric surface was above sea level near the northwestern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in topographically high areas of Anne Arundel and Prince Georges Counties, and was below sea level in the remainder of the study area. The hydraulic gradient was directed southeastward toward an extensive cone of depression around well fields at Lexington Park and Solomons Island. Ground-water levels were more than 70 feet below sea level in a 60-square-mile area surrounding the deepest part of the cone of depression and 131 feet below sea level in one well near the center of the cone.

  4. Potentiometric Surface of the Aquia Aquifer in southern Maryland, September 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Mack, Frederick K.

    1997-01-01

    A map showing the potentiometric surface of the Aquia aquifer in the Aquia Formation of Paleocene age in southern Maryland during September 1995 was prepared from water-level measurements in 80 wells. The potentiometric surface was above sea level near the northwestern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in topographically high areas of Anne Arundel and Prince Georges Counties, and was below sea level in the remainder of the study area. The hydraulic gradient was directed southeastward toward an extensive cone of depression around well fields at Lexington Park and Solomons Island. Ground-water levels were more than 70 feet below sea level in a 60-square-mile area surrounding the deepest part of the cone of depression and 126 feet below sea level in one well near the center of the cone.

  5. The study of some possible measurement errors in clinical blood electrolyte potentiometric (ISE) analysers.

    PubMed

    Rumenjak, Vlatko; Milardović, Stjepan; Kruhak, Ivan; Grabarić, Bozidar S

    2003-09-01

    The understanding of the most important sources of error in potentiometric blood analyser which might contribute to better instruments measurement repeatability is very often marginalized in fabrications and daily operation of some commercial blood analysers. In this paper ISEs-potentiometric measurements were performed and validated in Clinical Institute of Laboratory Diagnosis of the Zagreb University School of Medicine and Clinical Hospital Centre, using a carefully designed and constructed fully automated (computerised) homemade ISE-based blood electrolyte analyser constructed with an in-line five-channel flow-through measuring cell. The influence of electrolyte concentration of the salt bridge is reported. Special attention has been paid to the reference electrode design, and constructions which can operate in open liquid junction and membrane restricted liquid junction modes are described.

  6. Potentiometric map of the Meridian-Upper Wilcox Aquifer in Mississippi, fall 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darden, Daphne

    1986-01-01

    The Meridian-upper Wilcox aquifer consists of the Meridian Sand member of the Tallahatta Formation and the uppermost sand beds of the Wilcox Group. Thickness of the aquifer ranges from 50 ft to 500 ft. Precipitation recharges the Meridian-upper Wilcox in the outcrop area, which extends from Benton County, MS, in the north to Clarke County, MS, in the south. The potentiometric map is based on water level measurements made in about 170 wells in the Meridian-upper Wilcox aquifer in October 1983, and on the approximate altitudes of water surfaces in some major streams. The contours show altitudes at which water levels would have stood in tightly cased unpumped wells. This map, the second in the series for the Meridian-upper Wilcox aquifer, updates a map that delineated the potentiometric surface of the aquifer in 1979. (Lantz-PTT)

  7. Potentiometric surface map of the Magothy aquifer in southern Maryland, September, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the potentiometric surface of the Magothy aquifer in the Magothy Formation of Upper Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland during September 2002. The map is based on water-level measurements in 79 wells. The highest measured water level was 83 feet above sea level near the northern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in the north-central part of Anne Arundel County. The potentiometric surface declined towards the south and east. Local gradients were directed toward the centers of two cones of depression that developed in response to pumping. These cones of depression were centered around well fields in the Waldorf area and at the Chalk Point power plant. Measured ground-water levels were as low as 81 feet below sea level in the Waldorf area and 75 feet below sea level at Chalk Point.

  8. Map showing the potentiometric surface of the Magothy Aquifer in southern Maryland, August 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Frederick K.; Wheeler, Judith C.; Curtin, Stephen E.

    1981-01-01

    This map is based on measurements made in a network of 77 observation wells. Highest levels of the potentiometric surface, 61 to 64 feet above sea level, were near the outcrop or subcrop of the aquifer in topographically high areas of Anne Arundel and northern Prince Georges Counties. The potentiometric surface slopes toward centers of pumpage near Annapolis, in northern Charles County, and southern Prince Georges County. Two separate , distinct, and extensive cones of depression have developed in the surface around the well fields of Waldorf, in northern Charles County, and the Chalk Point power plant, in southern Prince Georges County. The cone of depression in the Annapolis area has coalesced with a more shallow cone that includes the Broadneck Peninsula. The network of wells was developed and is operated and maintained as part of the cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey and agencies of the Maryland Department of Natural Resources. (USGS)

  9. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Patapsco Aquifer in Southern Maryland, September 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Mack, Frederick K.

    1996-01-01

    A map showing the potentiometric surface of the upper Patapsco aquifer in the Patapsco Formation of Cretaceous age in southern Maryland during September 1995 was prepared from water-level measurements in 42 wells. The potentiometric surface was nearly 120 feet above sea level near the northwestern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in topographically high areas of Anne Arundel County, and 55 feet above sea level in a similar setting in Prince Georges County. From these high areas, the potentiometic surface declined to the south and southeast toward large well fields in the Annapolis and Waldorf areas and at the Chalk Point powerplant. Ground-water levels reached nearly 30 feet below sea level in the Annapolis area, 113 feet below sea level southwest of Waldorf, and more than 30 feet below sea level at the Chalk Point powerplant.

  10. Potentiometric Surface of the Patuxent Aquifer in Southern Maryland, September 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Staley, Andrew W.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the potentiometric surface of the Patuxent aquifer in the Patuxent Formation of Early Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland during September 2007. The map is based on water-level measurements in 41 wells. The highest measured water level was 165 feet above sea level near the northwestern boundary and in the outcrop area of the aquifer in northern Prince George's County. From this area, the potentiometric surface declined south towards well fields at Glen Burnie, Bryans Road, the Morgantown power plant, and the Chalk Point power plant. The measured ground-water levels were 81 feet below sea level at Glen Burnie, 47 feet below sea level southwest of Bryans Road, 27 feet below sea level at the Morgantown power plant, and 24 feet below sea level at the Chalk Point power plant.

  11. Potentiometric Surface of the Magothy Aquifer in Southern Maryland, September 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the potentiometric surface of the Magothy aquifer in the Magothy Formation of Upper Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland during September 2002. The map is based on water-level measurements in 79 wells. The highest measured water level was 83 feet above sea level near the northern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in the north-central part of Anne Arundel County. The potentiometric surface declined towards the south and east. Local gradients were directed toward the centers of two cones of depression that developed in response to pumping. These cones of depression were centered around well fields in the Waldorf area and at the Chalk Point power plant. Measured ground-water levels were as low as 81 feet below sea level in the Waldorf area and 75 feet below sea level at Chalk Point.

  12. Potentiometric Surface of the Patuxent Aquifer in Southern Maryland, September 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Staley, Andrew W.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the potentiometric surface of the Patuxent aquifer in the Patuxent Formation of Early Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland during September 2009. The map is based on water-level measurements in 42 wells. The highest measured water level was 169 feet above sea level in the outcrop area of the aquifer in northern Prince George's County. From this area, the potentiometric surface declined south towards well fields at Glen Burnie, Bryans Road, the Morgantown power plant, and the Chalk Point power plant. The measured groundwater levels were 78 feet below sea level at Glen Burnie, 56 feet below sea level at Bryans Road, 29 feet below sea level at the Morgantown power plant, and 28 feet below sea level at the Chalk Point power plant. The map also shows well yield in gallons per day for 2008 at wells or well fields.

  13. Determination of two metals from a single potentiometric titration curve The application of two indicator electrodes.

    PubMed

    Parczewski, A

    1988-06-01

    The advantages of applying two indicator electrodes in complexometric potentiometric multicomponent titration are shown by means of simulated titration curves. Two measurement arrangements have been considered, one in which the indicator electrodes are directly connected to a voltmeter and the other in which the electrodes are connected to the voltmeter through a summing operational amplifier. They have been compared with the conventional arrangement of a single indicator electrode and a reference electrode. The influence of the stability constants of the complexes in solution and of the electrode parameters on the shape of titration curves has been examined. It is shown that the use of two indicator electrodes may significantly increase the applicability of multicomponent potentiometric titrations.

  14. An on-line potentiometric sequential injection titration process analyser for the determination of acetic acid.

    PubMed

    van Staden, J F; Mashamba, Mulalo G; Stefan, Raluca I

    2002-09-01

    An on-line potentiometric sequential injection titration process analyser for the determination of acetic acid is proposed. A solution of 0.1 mol L(-1) sodium chloride is used as carrier. Titration is achieved by aspirating acetic acid samples between two strong base-zone volumes into a holding coil and by channelling the stack of well-defined zones with flow reversal through a reaction coil to a potentiometric sensor where the peak widths were measured. A linear relationship between peak width and logarithm of the acid concentration was obtained in the range 1-9 g/100 mL. Vinegar samples were analysed without any sample pre-treatment. The method has a relative standard deviation of 0.4% with a sample frequency of 28 samples per hour. The results revealed good agreement between the proposed sequential injection and an automated batch titration method.

  15. Wearable Potentiometric Chloride Sweat Sensor: The Critical Role of the Salt Bridge.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Jin Seob; Cutting, Garry R; Searson, Peter C

    2016-12-20

    The components of sweat provide an array of potential biomarkers for health and disease. Sweat chloride is of interest as a biomarker for cystic fibrosis, electrolyte metabolism disorders, electrolyte balance, and electrolyte loss during exercise. Developing wearable sensors for biomarkers in sweat is a major technological challenge. Potentiometric sensors provide a relatively simple technology for on-body sweat chloride measurement, however, equilibration between reference and test solutions has limited the time over which accurate measurements can be made. Here, we report on a wearable potentiometric chloride sweat sensor. We performed parametric studies to show how the salt bridge geometry determines equilibration between the reference and test solutions. From these results, we show a sweat chloride sensor can be designed to provide accurate measurements over extended times. We then performed on-body tests on healthy subjects while exercising to establish the feasibility of using this technology as a wearable device.

  16. Anion binding by protonated forms of the tripodal ligand tren.

    PubMed

    Bazzicalupi, Carla; Bencini, Andrea; Bianchi, Antonio; Danesi, Andrea; Giorgi, Claudia; Valtancoli, Barbara

    2009-03-16

    The interaction of the protonated forms of tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (tren) with NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), TsO(-), PO(4)(3-), P(2)O(7)(4-), and P(3)O(10)(5-) was studied by means of potentiometric and microcalorimetric measurements in a 0.10 M NMe(4)Cl aqueous solution at 298.1 +/- 0.1 K, affording stability constants and the relevant energetic terms DeltaH degrees and TDeltaS degrees of complexation. Thermodynamic data show that these anion complexation processes are mainly controlled by electrostatic forces, although hydrogen-bond interactions and solvation effects also contribute to complex stability, leading, in some cases, to special DeltaH degrees and TDeltaS degrees contributions. The crystal structures of [H(3)L][NO(3)](3) and [H(3)L][TsO](3) evidence a preferred tridentate coordination mode of the triprotonated ligands in the solid state. Accordingly, the H(3)L(3+) receptor binds a single oxygen atom of both NO(3)(-) and TsO(-) by means of its three protonated fingers, although in the crystal structure of [H(3)L][TsO](3), one conformer displaying bidentate coordination was also found. Modeling studies performed on the [H(3)L(NO(3))](2+) complex suggested that the tridentate binding mode is the preferred one in aqueous solution, while in the gas phase, a different complex conformation in which the receptor interacts with all three oxygen atoms of NO(3)(-) is more stable.

  17. Ion exchange polymers for anion separations

    DOEpatents

    Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Marsh, S. Fredric; Bartsch, Richard A.

    1997-01-01

    Anion exchange resins including at least two positively charged sites and a ell-defined spacing between the positive sites are provided together with a process of removing anions or anionic metal complexes from aqueous solutions by use of such resins. The resins can be substituted poly(vinylpyridine) and substituted polystyrene.

  18. Ion exchange polymers for anion separations

    DOEpatents

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Marsh, S.F.; Bartsch, R.A.

    1997-09-23

    Anion exchange resins including at least two positively charged sites and a well-defined spacing between the positive sites are provided together with a process of removing anions or anionic metal complexes from aqueous solutions by use of such resins. The resins can be substituted poly(vinylpyridine) and substituted polystyrene.

  19. Binding Hydrated Anions with Hydrophobic Pockets.

    PubMed

    Sokkalingam, Punidha; Shraberg, Joshua; Rick, Steven W; Gibb, Bruce C

    2016-01-13

    Using a combination of isothermal titration calorimetry and quantum and molecular dynamics calculations, we demonstrate that relatively soft anions have an affinity for hydrophobic concavity. The results are consistent with the anions remaining partially hydrated upon binding, and suggest a novel strategy for anion recognition.

  20. Hydrogen bonding and molecular association in 2-(quinuclidinium)-butyric acid bromide hydrate studied by X-ray diffraction, DFT calculations, FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, and potentiometric titration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dega-Szafran, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Szafran, M.; Barczyński, P.

    2010-06-01

    The structure of 2-(quinuclidinium)-butyric acid bromide hydrate (QNBu·H 2O·HBr, 3) has been determined by X-ray diffraction, DFT calculations and characterized by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. Crystals of 3 are monoclinic, space group P2 1. The water molecule interacts with the carboxylic group of 2-(quinuclidinium)-butyric acid and with the bromide anion by the COOH⋯OH 2 and HOH⋯Br hydrogen bonds of 2.575(3) and 3.293(2) Å, respectively. The structures of monomer ( 4) and dimeric cation ( 5) of the title complex have been optimized by the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) approach, yielding conformations consistent with this in the crystal. The solid-state FTIR spectra of 3 and its deuterated analogue have been measured and compared with the theoretical spectrum of 4. The assignments of the observed and predicted bands have been proposed. The molecule of 3 has a chiral center at the C(9) atom, which is responsible for the non-magnetically equivalence of the α-ring and C(11)H 2 methylene protons in 1H NMR spectrum. The values of p Ka of quinuclidinium-acetate (quinuclidine betaine), 2-(quinuclidinium)-propionate and 2-(quinuclidinium)-butyrate have been determined by the potentiometric titration of their hydrohalides.

  1. Light-Addressable Potentiometric (LAP) Sensor Assay of Newcastle Disease Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    potentiometric (LAP) sensor, was employed to detect the presence of immobilized urease -conjugated antibodies. Lower limits of detection (LOD) of the assay were...is high, approximately 95% under the conditions of these assays (8), the number of the urease -containing antibody-antigen sandwiches immobilized will...produced un- der DND contract by the University of Alberta (Edmonton, AB). Antibody from clone 25R5 was covalently linked to urease ; antibody from clone

  2. Precise, fast, and flexible determination of protein interactions by affinity capillary electrophoresis: part 3: anions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanhong; Redweik, Sabine; El-Hady, Deia Abd; Albishri, Hassan M; Preu, Lutz; Wätzig, Hermann

    2014-08-01

    The binding of physiologically anionic species or negatively charged drug molecules to proteins is of great importance in biochemistry and medicine. Since affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) has already proven to be a suitable analytical tool to study the influence of ions on proteins, this technique was applied here for comprehensively studying the influence of various anions on proteins of BSA, β-lactoglobulin, ovalbumin, myoglobin, and lysozyme. The analysis was performed using different selected anions of succinate, glutamate, phosphate, acetate, nitrate, iodide, thiocyanate, and pharmaceuticals (salicylic acid, aspirin, and ibuprofen) that exist in the anionic form at physiological pH 7.4. Due to the excellent repeatability and precision of the ACE measurements, not necessarily strong but significant influences of the anions on the proteins were found in many cases. Different influences in the observed bindings indicated change of charge, mass, or conformational changes of the proteins due to the binding with the studied anions. Combining the mobility-shift and pre-equilibrium ACE modes, rapidity and reversibility of the protein-anion bindings were discussed. Further, circular dichroism has been used as an orthogonal approach to characterize the interactions between the studied proteins and anions to confirm the ACE results. Since phosphate and various anions from amino acids and small organic acids such as succinate or acetate are present in very high concentrations in the cellular environment, even weak influences are certainly relevant as well.

  3. Discrete and infinite 1D, 2D/3D cage frameworks with inclusion of anionic species and anion-exchange reactions of Ag3L2 type receptor with tetrahedral and octahedral anions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Ke; Huang, Xiaohua; Lu, Tianhong; Wang, Xiujian; Sun, Wei-Yin; Kang, Bei-Sheng

    2008-06-28

    Complexes [PF6 subset(Ag3(titmb)2](PF6)2 (8) and {SbF6 subset[Ag3(titmb)2](SbF6)2}.H2O.1.5 CH3OH (9) are obtained by reaction of titmb and Ag+ salts with different anions (PF6(-) and SbF6(-)), and crystal structures reveal that they are both M3L2 cage complexes with short Ag...F interactions between the silver atoms and the fluorine atoms of the anions. In complex 8, a novel cage dimer is formed by weak Ag...F contacts; an unique cage tetramer formed via Ag...pi interactions (Ag...eta5-imidazole) between dimers and an infinite 1D cage chain is presented. However, each of the external non-disordered SbF6(-) anions connect with six cage 9s via Ag...F contacts, and each cage 9 in turn connects with three SbF6(-) anions to form a 2D network cage layer; and the layers are connected by pi-pi interactions to form a 3D network. The anion-exchange reactions of four Ag3L2 type complexes ([BF4 subset(Ag3(titmb)2](BF4)2 (6), [ClO4 subset(Ag3(titmb)2](ClO4)2 (7b), [PF6 subset(Ag3(titmb)2](PF6)2 (8) and [SbF6 subset(Ag3(titmb)2](SbF6)2.1.5CH3OH (9)) with tetrahedral and octahedral anions (ClO4(-), BF4(-), PF6(-) and SbF6(-)) are also reported. The anion-exchange experiments demonstrate that the anion selective order is SbF6(-) > PF6(-) > BF4(-), ClO4(-), and this anion receptor is preferred to trap octahedral and tetrahedral anions rather than linear or triangle anions; SbF6(-) is the biggest and most preferable one, so far. The dimensions of cage complexes with or without internal anions, anion-exchange reactions, cage assembly and anion inclusions, silver(I) coordination environments, Ag-F and Ag-pi interactions of Ag3L2 complexes 1-9 are discussed.

  4. Epidermal tattoo potentiometric sodium sensors with wireless signal transduction for continuous non-invasive sweat monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bandodkar, Amay J; Molinnus, Denise; Mirza, Omar; Guinovart, Tomás; Windmiller, Joshua R; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Andrade, Francisco J; Schöning, Michael J; Wang, Joseph

    2014-04-15

    This article describes the fabrication, characterization and application of an epidermal temporary-transfer tattoo-based potentiometric sensor, coupled with a miniaturized wearable wireless transceiver, for real-time monitoring of sodium in the human perspiration. Sodium excreted during perspiration is an excellent marker for electrolyte imbalance and provides valuable information regarding an individual's physical and mental wellbeing. The realization of the new skin-worn non-invasive tattoo-like sensing device has been realized by amalgamating several state-of-the-art thick film, laser printing, solid-state potentiometry, fluidics and wireless technologies. The resulting tattoo-based potentiometric sodium sensor displays a rapid near-Nernstian response with negligible carryover effects, and good resiliency against various mechanical deformations experienced by the human epidermis. On-body testing of the tattoo sensor coupled to a wireless transceiver during exercise activity demonstrated its ability to continuously monitor sweat sodium dynamics. The real-time sweat sodium concentration was transmitted wirelessly via a body-worn transceiver from the sodium tattoo sensor to a notebook while the subjects perspired on a stationary cycle. The favorable analytical performance along with the wearable nature of the wireless transceiver makes the new epidermal potentiometric sensing system attractive for continuous monitoring the sodium dynamics in human perspiration during diverse activities relevant to the healthcare, fitness, military, healthcare and skin-care domains.

  5. Potentiometric Surface of the Lower Patapsco Aquifer in Southern Maryland, September 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the potentiometric surface of the Lower Patapsco aquifer in the Patapsco Formation of Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland during September 2001. The map is based on water-level measurements in 65 wells. The potentiometric surface was as high as 110 feet above sea level near the northwestern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in northern Anne Arundel County. From this area, the potentiometric surface declined towards large well fields at Severndale, Arnold, and Annapolis. The ground-water levels declined to 78 feet below sea level at Severndale, 38 feet below sea level at Arnold, and 31 feet below sea level a few miles west of Annapolis. There was also a cone of depression covering a large area in Charles County that includes Waldorf, LaPlata, Indian Head, and the Morgantown power plant. The ground-water levels were as low as 173 feet below sea level at Waldorf, 126 feet below sea level at LaPlata, 112 feet below sea level at Indian Head, and 92 feet below sea level at the Morgantown power plant.

  6. Urea potentiometric enzymatic biosensor based on charged biopolymers and electrodeposited polyaniline.

    PubMed

    Lakard, Boris; Magnin, Delphine; Deschaume, Olivier; Vanlancker, Guilhem; Glinel, Karine; Demoustier-Champagne, Sophie; Nysten, Bernard; Jonas, Alain M; Bertrand, Patrick; Yunus, Sami

    2011-06-15

    A potentiometric biosensor based on urease was developed for the quantitative determination of urea concentration in aqueous solutions for biomedical applications. The urease was either physisorbed onto an electrodeposited polyaniline film (PANI), or immobilized on a layer-by-layer film (LbL) assembled over the PANI film, that was obtained by the alternate deposition of charged polysaccharides (carboxymethylpullulan (CMP) and chitosan (CHI)). In the latter case, the urease (Urs) enzyme was either physically adsorbed or covalently grafted to the LbL film using carbodiimide coupling reaction. Potentiometric responses of the enzymatic biosensors were measured as a function of the urea concentration in aqueous solutions (from 10(-6) to 10(-1) mol L(-1) urea). Very high sensitivity and short response time were observed for the present biosensor. Moreover, a stability study showed a higher stability over time for the potentiometric response of the sensor with the enzyme-grafted LbL film, testifying for the protective nature of the polysaccharide coating and the interest of covalent grafting.

  7. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer in the St. Johns River Water Management District and Vicinity, May 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinnaman, Sandra L.; Dixon, Joann F.

    2008-01-01

    This map depicts the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the St. Johns River Water Management District and vicinity for May 2008. Potentiometric contours are based on water-level measurements collected at 567 wells during the period May 6-May 27, near the end of the dry season. Some contours are inferred from previous potentiometric-surface maps with larger well networks. The potentiometric surface of the carbonate Upper Floridan aquifer responds mainly to rainfall, and more locally, to ground-water withdrawals and spring flow. Potentiometric-surface highs generally correspond to topographic highs where the aquifer is recharged. Springs and areas of diffuse upward leakage naturally discharge water from the aquifer and are most prevalent along the St. Johns River. Areas of discharge are reflected by depressions in the potentiometric surface. Ground-water withdrawals locally have lowered the potentiometric surface. Ground water in the Upper Floridan aquifer generally flows from potentiometric highs to potentiometric lows in a direction perpendicular to the contours. Measured values of the potentiometric surface ranged from 7 feet below NGVD29 near Fernandina Beach, Florida, to 124 feet above NGVD29 in Polk County, Florida. The average water level of the network in May 2008 was about 1 foot lower than the average in September 2007 following below-average rainfall during the dry season of 2007-08. Seasonal differences in network average water levels generally range from 4 to 6 feet. For 457 wells with previous measurements, May 2008 levels ranged from about 19 feet below to about 11 feet above September 2007 water levels. The average water level of the network in May 2008 was about 1 foot higher than the average in May 2007. For 544 wells with previous measurements, May 2008 levels ranged from about 8 feet below to about 13 feet above May 2007 water levels. Long-term hydrographs of ground-water levels for continuous and periodic wells are available

  8. Diamino-diamido tetrathiafulvalene for the sensing of anions and cations: a view in electrochemistry and structure.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zheng; Lu, Zhe-Jun; Zhu, Qin-Yu; Huo, Li-Bin; Han, Qiong-Hua; Bian, Guo-Qing; Dai, Jie

    2011-03-31

    A new cation- and anion-sensitive system based on a TTF derivative with a diamino-diamido moiety (H(2)L) has been studied. The results of cyclic voltammetry indicated that the redox potentials of the protonated H(2)L (H(4)L(2+)) selectively respond to later transition metal cations and some oxo anions. Solid-state structures of the cation-anion compounds formed by H(4)L(2+) and oxo anions were characterized crystallographically, which is helpful to understand the matter of the sensitivity for the anion. There are two types of hydrogen bonds in these compounds, one is with an amino group and the other is with an amido group. The shift of the redox potential is obviously related to formation of hydrogen bonding with the amido group. The packing structures of these cation-anion compounds are arranged to layered sandwiched structures assembled by an oxo-anion layer and two TTF layers through hydrogen bonding.

  9. Water-table and Potentiometric-surface altitudes in the Upper Glacial, Magothy, and Lloyd aquifers beneath Long Island, New York, April-May 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monti, Jack; Como, Michael D.; Busciolano, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    turned off for a minimum of 24 hours before measurements were made so that the water levels in the wells could recover to the level of the potentiometric head in the surrounding aquifer. Full recovery time at some of these supply wells can exceed 24 hours; therefore, water levels measured at these wells are assumed to be less accurate than those measured at observation wells, which are not pumped (Busciolano, 2002). In this report, all water-level altitudes are referenced to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD 29). Hydrographs are included on these maps for selected wells that are instrumented with recording equipment. These hydrographs are representative of the 2010 water year1 to show the changes that have occurred throughout that period. The synoptic survey water level measured at the well is included on each hydrograph.

  10. Anion Solvation in Carbonate Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2015-11-16

    With the correlation between Li+ solvation and interphasial chemistry on anodes firmly established in Li-ion batteries, the effect of cation–solvent interaction has gone beyond bulk thermodynamic and transport properties and become an essential element that determines the reversibility of electrochemistry and kinetics of Li-ion intercalation chemistries. As of now, most studies are dedicated to the solvation of Li+, and the solvation of anions in carbonate-based electrolytes and its possible effect on the electrochemical stability of such electrolytes remains little understood. As a mirror effort to prior Li+ solvation studies, this work focuses on the interactions between carbonate-based solvents and two anions (hexafluorophosphate, PF6–, and tetrafluoroborate, BF4–) that are most frequently used in Li-ion batteries. The possible correlation between such interaction and the interphasial chemistry on cathode surface is also explored.

  11. Polymerization of anionic wormlike micelles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; González, Yamaira I; Xu, Hangxun; Kaler, Eric W; Liu, Shiyong

    2006-01-31

    Polymerizable anionic wormlike micelles are obtained upon mixing the hydrotropic salt p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) with the reactive anionic surfactant sodium 4-(8-methacryloyloxyoctyl)oxybenzene sulfonate (MOBS). Polymerization captures the cross-sectional radius of the micelles (approximately 2 nm), induces micellar growth, and leads to the formation of a stable single-phase dispersion of wormlike micellar polymers. The unpolymerized and polymerized micelles were characterized using static and dynamic laser light scattering, small-angle neutron scattering, 1H NMR, and stopped-flow light scattering. Stopped-flow light scattering was also used to measure the average lifetime of the unpolymerized wormlike micelles. A comparison of the average lifetime of unpolymerized wormlike micelles with the surfactant monomer propagation rate was used to elucidate the mechanism of polymerization. There is a significant correlation between the ratio of the average lifetime to the monomer propagation rate and the average aggregation number of the polymerized wormlike micelles.

  12. Aza compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xiao-Qing; McBreen, James

    1998-01-06

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of Li.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

  13. Aza compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.Q.; McBreen, J.

    1998-01-06

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of Li{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  14. Anionic Forensic Signatures for Sample Matching of Potassium Cyanide Using High Performance Ion Chromatography and Chemometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Fraga, Carlos G.; Farmer, Orville T.; Carman, April J.

    2011-01-30

    Potassium cyanide, a known poison, was used a model compound to determine the feasibility of using anionic impurities as a forensic signature for matching KCN samples back to their source. In this study, portions of eight KCN stocks originating from four countries were separately dissolved in water and analyzed by high performance ion chromatography (HPIC) using an anion exchange column and conductivity detection. Sixty KCN aqueous samples were produced from the eight stocks and analyzed for 11anionic impurities. Hierarchal cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to demonstrate that KCN samples cluster according to source based on the concentrations of their anionic impurities. The F-ratio method and degree-of-class separation (DCS) were used for feature selection on a training set of KCN samples in order to optimize sample clustering. The optimal subset of anions needed for sample classification was determined to be sulfate, oxalate, phosphate, and an unknown anion named unk5. Using K-nearest neighbors (KNN) and the optimal subset of anions, KCN test samples from different KCN stocks were correctly determined to be manufactured in the United States. In addition, KCN samples from stocks manufactured in Belgium, Germany, and the Czech Republic were all correctly matched back to their original stocks because each stock had a unique anionic impurity profile. The application of the F-ratio method and DCS for feature selection improved the accuracy and confidence of sample classification by KNN.

  15. Hosting anions. The energetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Schmidtchen, Franz P

    2010-10-01

    Hosting anions addresses the widely spread molecular recognition event of negatively charged species by dedicated organic compounds in condensed phases at equilibrium. The experimentally accessible energetic features comprise the entire system including the solvent, any buffers, background electrolytes or other components introduced for e.g. analysis. The deconvolution of all these interaction types and their dependence on subtle structural variation is required to arrive at a structure-energy correlation that may serve as a guide in receptor construction. The focus on direct host-guest interactions (lock-and-key complementarity) that have dominated the binding concepts of artificial receptors in the past must be widened in order to account for entropic contributions which constitute very significant fractions of the total free energy of interaction. Including entropy necessarily addresses the ambiguity and fuzziness of the host-guest structural ensemble and requires the appreciation of the fact that most liquid phases possess distinct structures of their own. Apparently, it is the perturbation of the intrinsic solvent structure occurring upon association that rules ion binding in polar media where ions are soluble and abundant. Rather than specifying peculiar structural elements useful in anion binding this critical review attempts an illumination of the concepts and individual energetic contributions resulting in the final observation of specific anion recognition (95 references).

  16. A Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensor for Odorant Detection Using Single Bioengineered Olfactory Sensory Neurons as Sensing Element.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunsheng; Du, Liping; Tian, Yulan; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    A light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), a silicon-based surface potential detector, is combined with bioengineered olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) for odorant detection. A LAPS chip is used as a transducer to monitor cell membrane potential changes. In addition, a focused movable laser with a diameter comparable to cell sizes is employed to select the desirable single cell for measurement under a microscope. Bioengineered OSNs are coupled to the LAPS surface and employed as sensing elements, which are prepared by the expression of an olfactory receptor of C. elegans, ODR-10, on the plasma membrane of rat primary OSNs via transient transfection. The responses of bioengineered OSNs to diacetyl, isoamyl acetate, and acetic acid are monitored by extracellular recording using the LAPS chip. Features of the recorded extracellular potential firings are analyzed in frequency and time domains. We have shown that bioengineered OSNs can generate specific response signals upon the stimulation of diacetyl, which is the natural ligand of ODR-10. Moreover, different concentrations of diacetyl can elicit different temporal firing patterns in bioengineered OSNs, which permits the concentration detection of specific odorant molecules in solution.

  17. Stabilization of the initial electrochemical potential for a metal-based potentiometric titration study of a biosorption process.

    PubMed

    Naja, Ghinwa; Mustin, Christian; Volesky, Bohumil; Berthelin, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    An interactive metal-based potentiometric titration method has been developed using an ion selective electrode for studying the sorption of metal cations. The accuracy of this technique was verified by analyzing the metal sorption mechanism for the biomass of Rhizopus arrhizus fungus and diatomite, two dissimilar materials (organic and mineral, strong sorbent and weak sorbent) of a different order of cation exchange capacity. The problem of the initial electrochemical potential was addressed identifying the usefulness of a Na-sulfonic resin as a strong chelating agent applied before the beginning of sorption titration experiments so that the titration curves and the sorption uptake could be quantitatively compared. The resin stabilized the initial electrochemical potential to -405+/-5 mV corresponding to 2 micro gl(-1) of lead concentration in solution. The amounts of lead sorbed by R. arrhizus biomass and diatomite were 0.9 mmol g(-1) (C(e)=5.16 x 10(-2)mM) and 0.052 mmol g(-1) (C(e)=5.97 x 10(-2) mM), respectively. Lead sorption by the fungal biomass was pinpointed to at least two types of chemical active sites. The first type was distinguished by high reactivity and a low number of sites whereas the other was characterized by their higher number and lower reactivity.

  18. Use of Sequential Injection Analysis to construct a Potentiometric Electronic Tongue: Application to the Multidetermination of Heavy Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Mimendia, Aitor; Merkoci, Arben; Valle, Manel del; Legin, Andrey

    2009-05-23

    An automated potentiometric electronic tongue (ET) was developed for the quantitative determination of heavy metal mixtures. The Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) technique was used in order to automate the obtaining of input data, and the combined response was modeled by means of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The sensor array was formed by four sensors: two based on chalcogenide glasses Cd sensor and Cu sensor, and the rest on poly(vinyl chloride) membranes Pb sensor and Zn sensor. The Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) sensors were first characterized with respect to one and two analytes, by means of high-dimensionality calibrations, thanks to the use of the automated flow system; this characterization enabled an interference study of great practical utility. To take profit of the dynamic nature of the sensor's response, the kinetic profile of each sensor was compacted by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and the extracted coefficients were used as inputs for the ANN in the multidetermination applications. In order to identify the ANN which provided the best model of the electrode responses, some of the network parameters were optimized. Finally analyses were performed employing synthetic samples and water samples of the river Ebro; obtained results were compared with reference methods.

  19. Use of Sequential Injection Analysis to construct a Potentiometric Electronic Tongue: Application to the Multidetermination of Heavy Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimendia, Aitor; Legin, Andrey; Merkoçi, Arben; del Valle, Manel

    2009-05-01

    An automated potentiometric electronic tongue (ET) was developed for the quantitative determination of heavy metal mixtures. The Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) technique was used in order to automate the obtaining of input data, and the combined response was modeled by means of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The sensor array was formed by four sensors: two based on chalcogenide glasses Cd sensor and Cu sensor, and the rest on poly(vinyl chloride) membranes Pb sensor and Zn sensor. The Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) sensors were first characterized with respect to one and two analytes, by means of high-dimensionality calibrations, thanks to the use of the automated flow system; this characterization enabled an interference study of great practical utility. To take profit of the dynamic nature of the sensor's response, the kinetic profile of each sensor was compacted by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and the extracted coefficients were used as inputs for the ANN in the multidetermination applications. In order to identify the ANN which provided the best model of the electrode responses, some of the network parameters were optimized. Finally analyses were performed employing synthetic samples and water samples of the river Ebro; obtained results were compared with reference methods.

  20. Effect of water content in perchloric acid on the non-aqueous potentiometric titration of nitrogen-containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Qi, X S; Miller, R B; Namiki, Y; Zhang, J; Jacobus, R

    1997-11-01

    In the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), 0.1 N perchloric acid in acetic acid volumetric solution (hereafter HClO4 VS) used for non-aqueous titration has specified a water content between 0.02 and 0.05%. Preparing this titrant with such a narrow range of water content is very time consuming, precludes the use of commercially available titrants, and, consequently, prompted an investigation to try and expand the range up to 0.5%. In this study, the titrimetric results obtained using HClO4 VS containing more water were very close to those obtained using the USP specified titrants. A maximum assay difference of 0.7% in the titrations of three selected nitrogen-containing compounds, clonidine hydrochloride, dipyridamole, and adenosine were observed. The titrimetric results obtained using these titrants were also precise with RSDs of not more than 0.4%. Therefore, a wider range of water content in HClO4 VS between 0.02 and 0.5% is suggested for the USP potentiometric titration of nitrogen-containing compounds.

  1. Model Catalysis of Ammonia Synthesis ad Iron-Water Interfaces - ASum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopic Study of Solid-GasInterfaces and Anion Photoelectron Spectroscopic Study of Selected Anionclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, Michael James

    2005-01-01

    the free OH or free OD. From the absence of SFG spectra of ice-like structure we conclude that surface hydroxides are formed and no liquid water is present on the surface. Other than model catalysis, gas phase anion photoelectron spectroscopy of the Cl + H2 van der Waals well, silicon clusters, germanium clusters, aluminum oxide clusters and indium phosphide clusters were studied. The spectra help to map out the neutral potential energy surfaces of the clusters. For aluminum oxide, the structures of the anions and neutrals were explored and for silicon, germanium and indium phosphide the electronic structure of larger clusters was mapped out.

  2. Potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer, west-central Florida, September 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing freshwater are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish-water desalination in coastal communties (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in September 2005. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface, connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in a tightly cased well that taps a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the wet season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual high and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are low. The cumulative average rainfall of 55.19 inches for west-central Florida (from October 2004 through September 2005) was 2.00 inches above the historical cumulative average of 53.19 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2005). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to the most recent calendar year) and are updated monthly by the SWFWMD. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the SWFWMD, is part of a semiannual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the approximate annual low and high water

  3. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, May 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in May 2007. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the dry season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual low and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are high. The cumulative average rainfall of 41.21 inches for west-central Florida (from June 2006 through May 2007) was 11.63 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.84 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2007). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the

  4. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, September 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing freshwater are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in September 2006. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the wet season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual high and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are low. The cumulative average rainfall of 46.06 inches for west-central Florida (from October 2005 through September 2006) was 6.91 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.97 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2006). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each

  5. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, September 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, Anita G.

    2009-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in September 2008. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the wet season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual high and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are low. The cumulative average rainfall of 50.63 inches for west-central Florida (from October 2007 through September 2008) was 2.26 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.89 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2008). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each

  6. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, September 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in September 2007. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the wet season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual high and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are low. The cumulative average rainfall of 39.50 inches for west-central Florida (from October 2006 through September 2007) was 13.42 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.92 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2007). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each

  7. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, May 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in May 2008. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the dry season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual low and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are high. The cumulative average rainfall of 46.95 inches for west-central Florida (from June 2007 through May 2008) was 5.83 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.78 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2008). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the

  8. Design of Ru(II) Complexes Based on Anthraimidazoledione-Functionalized Terpyridine Ligand for Improvement of Room-Temperature Luminescence Characteristics and Recognition of Selective Anions: Experimental and DFT/TD-DFT Study.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Debiprasad; Bar, Manoranjan; Mukherjee, Shruti; Baitalik, Sujoy

    2016-10-03

    In this work we report synthesis and characterization of three rigid and linear rodlike monometallic Ru(II) complexes based on a terpyridine ligand tightly connected to 9,10-anthraquinone electron-acceptor unit through phenyl-imidazole spacer. The motivation of designing these complexes is to enhance their excited-state lifetimes at room temperature. Interestingly it is found that all three complexes exhibit luminescence at room temperature with excited-state lifetimes in the range of 1.6-52.8 ns, depending upon the coligand as well as the solvent. Temperature-dependent luminescence investigations indicate that the energy gap between the emitting (3)MLCT state and nonemitting metal-centered state (3)MC in the complexes increased enormously compared with parent [Ru(tpy)2](2+). In addition, by taking advantage of the imidazole NH proton(s), which became appreciably acidic upon combined effect of electron accepting anthraquinone moiety as well as metal ion coordination, we also examined anion recognition and sensing behaviors of the complexes in organic, mixed aqueous-organic as well as in solid medium through different optical channels such as absorption, steady-state and time-resolved emission, and (1)H NMR spectroscopic techniques. In conjunction with the experiment, computational investigation was also employed to examine the electronic structures of the complexes and accurate assignment of experimentally observed spectral and redox behaviors.

  9. Separation and quantification of inulin in selected artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) cultivars and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale WEB. ex WIGG.) roots by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Katrin; Muks, Erna; Carle, Reinhold; Schieber, Andreas

    2006-12-01

    The profile of fructooligosaccharides and fructopolysaccharides in artichoke heads and dandelion roots was investigated. For this purpose, a suitable method for high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometic detection was developed. The separation of monomers, oligomers and polymers up to a chain length of 79 sugar residues was achieved in one single run. Glucose, fructose, sucrose and individual fructooligosaccharides (kestose, nystose, fructofuranosylnystose) were quantified in six different artichoke cultivars and in dandelion roots. The contents ranged from 12.9 g/kg DM to 71.7 g/kg DM for glucose, from 15.8 g/kg DM to 67.2 g/kg DM for fructose, and from 16.8 g/kg DM to 55.2 g/kg DM for sucrose in the artichoke heads. Kestose was the predominant fructooligosaccharide, followed by nystose and fructofuranosylnystose. In four cultivars fructofuranosylnystose was only detectable in traces and reached its maximum value of 3.6 g/kg DM in the cultivar Le Castel. Furthermore, an average degree of polymerization of 5.3 to 16.7 was calculated for the individual artichoke cultivars, which is noticeably lower than hitherto reported. In contrast, the contents of kestose, nystose and fructofuranosylnystose in dandelion root exceeded that of artichoke, reflecting the short chain characteristic of the inulin, which was confirmed by chromatographic analysis.

  10. Potentiometric surface of the upper Floridan Aquifer in the St. Johns River Water Management District and vicinity, May 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knowles, Leel; O'Reilly, A. M.; Phelps, G.G.; Bradner, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    This map depicts the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the St. Johns River Water Management District and vicinity for May 1995. The map is based on water-level measurements made at more than 900 wells and springs. Approximately 30 new wells were added to better define the potentiometric surface mainly in the northwest area of the map. Data on the map were contoured using 5-foot contour intervals in most areas. Two new wells located north of Rainbow Springs indicate a slight northward extension of the depressed area surrounding the springs. Several new wells in Bradford County indicate a slight reduction in the size of the potentiometric-surface high along the northwest edge of the county. The potentiometric surface of this karstic aquifer generally reflects land surface topography. Potentiometric-surface highs often correspond to topographic highs, which are areas of recharge to the Upper Floridan aquifer. Springs within topographic lows along with areas of more diffuse upward leakage are natural zones of discharge. Municipal, agricultural, and industrial withdrawals have lowered the potentiometric surface in some areas. The potentiometric surface ranged from 127 feet above sea level in Polk County to 84 feet below sea level in southeast Georgia near the St. Marys River. Water levels measured in May 1995 generally were about 0 to 4 feet higher than those measured in May 1994 except in St. Lucie County and near Rainbow Springs, where levels were 1 to 3 feet lower. Generally, May 1995 water levels were 0 to 5 feet lower than levels in September 1994, except near Orlando, where levels were 6 to 12 feet lower, and across the northwest corner of the map area which includes Marion, Alachua, Bradford, Baker, and Nassau Counties, north and west Duval County, and south Georgia. (USGS)

  11. From anion receptors to transporters.

    PubMed

    Gale, Philip A

    2011-03-15

    Cystic fibrosis is the most well-known of a variety of diseases termed channelopathies, in which the regulation of ion transport across cell membranes is so disrupted that the threshold of a pathology is passed. The human toll exacted by these diseases has led a number of research groups, including our own, to create compounds that mediate ion transport across lipid bilayers. In this Account, we discuss three classes of synthetic compounds that were refined to bind and transport anions across lipid bilayer membranes. All of the compounds were originally designed as anion receptors, that is, species that would simply create stable complexes with anions, but were then further developed as transporters. By studying structurally simple systems and varying their properties to change the degree of preorganization, the affinity for anions, or the lipophilicity, we have begun to rationalize why particular anion transport mechanisms (cotransport or antiport processes) occur in particular cases. For example, we have studied the chloride transport properties of receptors based on the closely related structures of isophthalamide and pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide: the central ring in each case was augmented with pendant methylimidazole groups designed to cotransport H(+) and Cl(-). We observed that the more preorganized pyridine-based receptor was the more efficient transporter, a finding replicated with a series of isophthalamides in which one contained hydroxyl groups designed to preorganize the receptor. This latter class of compound, together with the natural product prodigiosin, can transport bicarbonate (as part of a chloride/bicarbonate antiport process) across lipid bilayer membranes. We have also studied the membrane transport properties of calix[4]pyrroles. Although the parent meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole functions solely as a Cs(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter, other compounds with increased anion affinities can function through an antiport process. One example is octafluoro

  12. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, May 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, Anita G.

    2009-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in May 2009. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the dry season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual low and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are high. The cumulative average rainfall of 48.53 inches for west-central Florida (from June 2008 through May 2009) was 4.12 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.65 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2009). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the

  13. Rapid and wide-range determination of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) in fish tissues using light addressable potentiometric sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Xu, Yiwei; Tahir, Haroon E; Zou, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping

    2017-04-15

    A rapid and wide-range method, based on light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), is introduced into determination of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) in fish tissues. A compact LAPS module is prepared by integrating four LAPS chips specifically sensitive to target elements. Its responses in digestions from various settings are investigated to find suitable factors. Analytical properties of this method are evaluated in consequent experiments under optimized conditions. Measurement range for each target element exceeds 0.1 to 1000mgL(-1), and response time is less than 10s. Accuracy, precision and selectivity of the proposed method are also well defined in measurements. It is successively performed to detect the target elements in real fish samples from 4 species, and obtained results are consistent with certified method.

  14. Use of a biomimetic chromatographic stationary phase for study of the interactions occurring between inorganic anions and phosphatidylcholine membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wenzhi; Haddad, Paul R; Hasebe, Kiyoshi; Mori, Masanobu; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Ohno, Masako; Kamo, Naoki

    2002-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method for the study of ion-membrane interactions is reported. A phosphatidylcholine biomimetic stationary phase was established by loading dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) onto a reversed-phase octadecylsilica packed column. This column was then used to study the interaction of some inorganic anions with the stationary phase by UV and conductivity detection. Ten inorganic anions were selected as model ions and were analyzed with the proposed chromatographic system. Anion-DMPC interactions of differing magnitudes were observed for all of the model anions. Perchlorate-DMPC interactions were strongest, followed by thiocyanate-DMPC, iodide-DMPC, chlorate-DMPC, nitrate-DMPC, bromide-DMPC, chloride-DMPC, fluoride-DMPC, and then sulfate-DMPC. Cations in the eluent, especially H(+) ions and divalent cations such as Ca(2+), showed strong effects on anion-DMPC interactions. The chromatographic data suggest that DMPC interacts with both the anions and the cations. Anion-DMPC interactions were dependent on the surface potential of the stationary phase: at low surface potentials anion-DMPC interactions were predominantly solvation dependent in nature whereas at more positive surface potentials anion-DMPC interactions were predominantly electrostatic in nature. Cation-DMPC interactions served to raise the surface potential, causing the anion-DMPC interactions to vary from solvation dependent to electrostatic. The chromatographic data were used to provide quantitative estimates of the enthalpies of the anion-DMPC interactions. PMID:12496102

  15. Poly(ethylene oxide)-bonded stationary phase for separation of inorganic anions in capillary ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Linda, Roza; Lim, Lee Wah; Takeuchi, Toyohide

    2013-06-14

    A tosylated-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) reagent was reacted with primary amino groups of an aminopropylsilica packing material (TSKgel NH2-60) in acetonitrile to form PEO-bonded stationary phase. The reaction was a single and simple step reaction. The prepared stationary phase was able to separate inorganic anions. The retention behavior of six common inorganic anions on the prepared stationary phase was examined under various eluent conditions in order to clarify its separation/retention mechanism. The elution order of the tested anions was iodate, bromate, bromide, nitrate, iodide, and thiocyanate, which was similar as observed in common ion chromatography. The retention of inorganic anions could be manipulated by ion exchange interaction which is expected that the eluent cation is coordinated among the PEO chains and it works as the anion-exchange site. Cations and anions of the eluent therefore affected the retention of sample anions. We demonstrated that the retention of the analyte anions decreased with increasing eluent concentration. The repeatability of retention time for the six anions was satisfactory on this column with relative standard deviation values from 1.1 to 4.3% when 10mM sodium chloride was used as the eluent. Compared with the unmodified TSKgel NH2-60, the prepared stationary phase retained inorganic anions more strongly and the selectivity was also improved. The present stationary phase was applied for the determination of inorganic anions contained in various water samples.

  16. Potentiometric and NMR complexation studies of phenylboronic acid PBA and its aminophosphonate analog with selected catecholamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptak, Tomasz; Młynarz, Piotr; Dobosz, Agnieszka; Rydzewska, Agata; Prokopowicz, Monika

    2013-05-01

    Boronic acids are a class of intensively explored compounds, which according to their specific properties have been intensively explored in last decades. Among them phenylboronic acids and their derivatives are most frequently examined as receptors for diverse carbohydrates. In turn, there is a large gap in basic research concerning complexation of catecholamines by these compounds. Therefore, we decided to undertake studies on interaction of chosen catecholamines, namely: noradrenaline (norephinephrine), dopamine, L-DOPA, DOPA-P (phosphonic analog of L-DOPA) and catechol, with simple phenyl boronic acid PBA by means of potentiometry and NMR spectroscopy. For comparison, the binding properties of recently synthesized phenylboronic receptor 1 bearing aminophosphonate function in meta-position were investigated and showed promising ability to bind catecholamines. The protonation and stability constants of PBA and receptor 1 complexes were examined by potentiometry. The obtained results demonstrated that PBA binds the catecholamines with the following affinity order: noradrenaline ⩾ dopamine ≈ L-DOPA > catechol > DOPA-P, while its modified analog 1 reveals slightly different preferences: dopamine > noradrenaline > catechol > L-DOPA > DOPA-P.

  17. Comparative study of ZnO nanorods and thin films for chemical and biosensing applications and the development of ZnO nanorods based potentiometric strontium ion sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khun, K.; Ibupoto, Z. H.; Chey, C. O.; Lu, Jun.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the comparative study of ZnO nanorods and ZnO thin films were performed regarding the chemical and biosensing properties and also ZnO nanorods based strontium ion sensor is proposed. ZnO nanorods were grown on gold coated glass substrates by the hydrothermal growth method and the ZnO thin films were deposited by electro deposition technique. ZnO nanorods and thin films were characterised by field emission electron microscopy [FESEM] and X-ray diffraction [XRD] techniques and this study has shown that the grown nanostructures are highly dense, uniform and exhibited good crystal quality. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy [TEM] was used to investigate the quality of ZnO thin film and we observed that ZnO thin film was comprised of nano clusters. ZnO nanorods and thin films were functionalised with selective strontium ionophore salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone [ST] membrane, galactose oxidase, and lactate oxidase for the detection of strontium ion, galactose and L-lactic acid, respectively. The electrochemical response of both ZnO nanorods and thin films sensor devices was measured by using the potentiometric method. The strontium ion sensor has exhibited good characteristics with a sensitivity of 28.65 ± 0.52 mV/decade, for a wide range of concentrations from 1.00 × 10-6 to 5.00 × 10-2 M, selectivity, reproducibility, stability and fast response time of 10.00 s. The proposed strontium ion sensor was used as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of strontium ion versus ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid [EDTA]. This comparative study has shown that ZnO nanorods possessed better performance with high sensitivity and low limit of detection due to high surface area to volume ratio as compared to the flat surface of ZnO thin films.

  18. The dissociation constants of the cytostatic bosutinib by nonlinear least-squares regression of multiwavelength spectrophotometric and potentiometric pH-titration data.

    PubMed

    Meloun, Milan; Nečasová, Veronika; Javůrek, Milan; Pekárek, Tomáš

    2016-02-20

    Potentiometric and spectrophotometric pH-titration of the multiprotic cytostatics bosutinib for dissociation constants determination were compared. Bosutinib treats patients with positive chronic myeloid leukemia. Bosutinib exhibits four protonatable sites in a pH range from 2 to 11, where two pK are well separated (ΔpK>3), while the other two are near dissociation constants. In the neutral medium, bosutinib occurs in the slightly water soluble form LH that can be protonated to the soluble cation LH4(3+). The molecule LH can be dissociated to still difficultly soluble anion L(-). The set of spectra upon pH from 2 to 11 in the 239.3-375.0nm was divided into two absorption bands: the first one from 239.3 to 290.5nm and the second from 312.3 to 375.0nm, which differ in sensitivity of chromophores to a pH change. Estimates of pK of the entire set of spectra were compared with those of both absorption bands. Due to limited solubility of bosutinib the protonation in a mixed aqueous-methanolic medium was studied. In low methanol content of 3-6% three dissociation constants can be reliably determined with SPECFIT/32 and SQUAD(84) and after extrapolation to zero content of methanol they lead to pKc1=3.43(12), pKc2=4.54(10), pKc3=7.56(07) and pKc4=11.04(05) at 25°C and pKc1=3.44(06), pKc2=5.03(08) pKc3=7.33(05) and pKc4=10.92(06) at 37°C. With an increasing content of methanol in solvent the dissociation of bosutinib is suppressed and the percentage of LH3(2+) decreases and LH prevails. From the potentiometric pH-titration at 25°C the concentration dissociation constants were estimated with ESAB pKc1=3.51(02), pKc2=4.37(02), pKc3=7.97(02) and pKc4=11.05(03) and with HYPERQUAD: pKc1=3.29(12), pKc2=4.24(10), pKc3=7.95(07) and pKc4=11.29(05).

  19. Preparation of a dibenzylated 1,4-diazacyclohexane-derived strong anion-exchange stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Juxiang; Zuo, Xiongjun; Lang, Qiwei; Zeng, Zhijian; Li, Chao

    2013-07-05

    This paper reports the preparation of a novel, silica-based, strong anion-exchange stationary phase from a 1,4-diazacyclohexane derivative. To prepare the difunctional strong anion-exchange stationary phase, activated silica beads were first bonded with 3-chloropropyltriethoxysilane and then reacted with 1-methylpiperazine followed by benzyl chloride. The silica beads, the strong anion-exchange stationary phase and its precusors were instrumentally characterized. Aromatic acids were separated with non-aqueous anion-exchange chromatography. After elution with eluant prepared in mixed solvents of water and methanol, the resulting 1,4-diazacyclohexane-derived, difunctional, strong anion-exchange stationary phase exhibited good separation and selectivity for the aromatic acids investigated. The effects of eluant pH, eluant ion concentration and solvent composites on the separations were investigated. Organic acids with different substituents were eluted in order of decreasing dissociation coefficients, with no observable peak shape differences.

  20. Tripodal naphthalene ether ligand: Solid-state anion recognition and fluorescence studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Avijit; Bhuyan, Mouchumi; Choudhury, Rajib; Das, Gopal

    2008-05-01

    The simple tripodal amine ligand Tris-[2-(naphthalen-1-yloxy)-ethyl]-amine ( L1) was screened for anion recognition. Four crystal structures confirmed the inorganic as well as organic anion recognition in the solid state. Solid-state structures are results of supramolecular self-assembly and 3D molecular network involves C-H⋯O and C-H⋯ π bonding in the crystal lattice. In the solid state, it forms a strong C-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯O type interactions with the anions. This anion recognition was also confirmed by steady state fluorescence spectroscopy. In complex 4, L1 is confined between 2D hydrogen bonded sheet formed by pyromellitic acid anion. L1 shows unusually high selectivity toward nitrate in solution resulting in both a dramatic color change and a concomitant quenching of luminescence.

  1. A new anionic exchange stir bar sorptive extraction coating based on monolithic material for the extraction of inorganic anion.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaojia; Lin, Jianbing; Yuan, Dongxing

    2010-07-23

    A novel anionic exchange stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) coating based on poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium chloride-co-divinylbenzene) monolithic material for the extraction of inorganic anion was prepared. The effect of preparation conditions such as ratio of functional monomer to cross-linker, content of porogenic solvent on the extraction efficiencies were investigated in detailed. The monolithic material was characterized by elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. In order to investigate the extraction capacity of the new coating for inorganic anion, the new SBSE was combined with ionic chromatography with conductivity detection, Br-, NO3-, PO4(3-) and SO4(2-) were selected as detected solutes. Several extractive parameters, including pH value and ionic strength in sample matrix, desorption solvent, extraction and desorption time were optimized. The results showed that strongly ionic strength did not favor the extraction of anlaytes. Under the optimum experimental conditions, low detection limits (S/N=3) and quantification limits (S/N=10) of the proposed method for the target anions were achieved within the range of 0.92-2.62 and 3.03-9.25 microg/L, respectively. The method also showed good linearity, simplicity, practicality and low cost for the extraction inorganic anions. Finally, the proposed method was successfully used to detect the two different trademarks of commercial purified water with satisfactory recovery in the range of 70.0-92.6%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first to use SBSE to enrich inorganic anions.

  2. Computer-controlled ion-selective electrode switch

    PubMed Central

    Lapa, Rui A. S.

    1991-01-01

    The construction of a microcomputer-controlled electrode switch for use in potentiometric determinations is described. This can be coupled to most of the analytical equipment usually found in laboratories, to enable a setting up of automatic systems capable of performing sequential determinations with several ion-selective electrodes. The assessment of its analytical usage and behaviour are discussed. PMID:18924895

  3. Estimated 2008 groundwater potentiometric surface and predevelopment to 2008 water-level change in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque area, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falk, Sarah E.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2011-01-01

    The water-supply requirements of the Albuquerque metropolitan area of central New Mexico have historically been met almost exclusively by groundwater withdrawal from the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. Previous studies have indicated that the large quantity of groundwater withdrawal relative to recharge has resulted in water-level declines in the aquifer system throughout the metropolitan area. Analysis of the magnitude and pattern of water-level change can help improve understanding of how the groundwater system responds to withdrawals and variations in the management of the water supply and can support water-management agencies' efforts to minimize future water-level declines and improve sustainability. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, presents the estimated groundwater potentiometric surface during winter (from December to March) of the 2008 water year and the estimated changes in water levels between predevelopment and water year 2008 for the production zone of the Santa Fe Group aquifer system in the Albuquerque and surrounding metropolitan and military areas. Hydrographs from selected wells are included to provide details of historical water-level changes. In general, water-level measurements used for this report were measured in small-diameter observation wells screened over short intervals and were considered to best represent the potentiometric head in the production zone-the interval of the aquifer, about 300 feet below land surface to 1,100 feet or more below land surface, in which production wells generally are screened. Water-level measurements were collected by various local and Federal agencies. The 2008 water year potentiometric surface map was created in a geographic information system, and the change in water-level elevation from predevelopment to water year 2008 was calculated. The 2008 water-level contours indicate that the general direction of

  4. High-capacity anion exchangers based on poly (glycidylmethacrylate-divinylbenzene) microspheres for ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junwei; Wang, Yong; Cheng, Heli; Wang, Nani; Wu, Shuchao; Zhang, Peimin; Zhu, Yan

    2016-10-01

    Poly (glycidylmethacrylate-divinylbenzene) microspheres were prepared by the two-staged swelling and polymerization method and applied to prepare anion exchange stationary phases. Methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, diethylamine and triethylamine were selected to prepare the quaternary ammonium groups of anion exchangers, respectively. The diameters and surface characteristics of microspheres were measured by scanning electron microscope and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements. The anion exchangers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrum, elemental analysis and breakthrough curve methods. The chromatographic performances of anion exchangers were illustrated by separating conventional anions, organic weak acids and carbohydrates. The results indicated that the anion exchange capacities were controllable by changing either the content of glycidylmethacrylate in microspheres or the number of bonded quaternary ammonium layer. Meanwhile, the substituents of quaternary ammonium groups greatly influenced the separation properties of anion exchangers. Finally, the three-layer methylamine-quaternized anion exchanger was successfully applied for the determination of fluoride in tea sample. The content of fluoride was detected to be 0.13mgg(-1) without the interference of acetate and formate.

  5. Sheathless capillary electrophoresis‐mass spectrometry for anionic metabolic profiling

    PubMed Central

    Gulersonmez, Mehmet Can; Lock, Stephen; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The performance of CE coupled on‐line to MS via a sheathless porous tip sprayer was evaluated for anionic metabolic profiling. A representative metabolite mixture and biological samples were used for the evaluation of various analytical parameters, such as peak efficiency (plate numbers), migration time and peak area repeatability, and LODs. The BGE, i.e. 10% acetic acid (pH 2.2), previously used for cationic metabolic profiling was now assessed for anionic metabolic profiling by using MS detection in negative ion mode. For test compounds, RSDs for migration times and peak areas were below 2 and 11%, respectively, and plate numbers ranged from 60 000 to 40 0000 demonstrating a high separation efficiency. Critical metabolites with low or no retention on reversed‐phase LC could be efficiently separated and selectively analyzed by the sheathless CE‐MS method. An injection volume of only circa 20 nL resulted in LODs between 10 and 200 nM (corresponding to an amount of 0.4–4 fmol), which was an at least tenfold improvement as compared to LODs obtained by conventional CE‐MS approaches for these analytes. The methodology was applied to anionic metabolic profiling of glioblastoma cell line extracts. Overall, a sheathless CE‐MS method has been developed for highly efficient and sensitive anionic metabolic profiling studies, which can also be used for cationic metabolic profiling studies by only switching the MS detection and separation voltage polarity. PMID:26593113

  6. Pyrazole complexes as anion receptors.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Sonia; Pérez, Julio; Riera, Lucía; Riera, Víctor; Miguel, Daniel

    2006-03-01

    The behavior of the receptors [Re(CO)3(Hdmpz)3]BAr'4 (Hdmpz = 3,5-dimethylpyrazole) (1) and [Re(CO)3(HtBupz)3]BAr'4 (HtBupz = 3(5)-tert-butylpyrazole) (2; Ar' = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl) toward the anions fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, hydrogensulfate, dihydrogenphosphate, nitrate, and perrhenate was studied in CD3CN solution. In most cases, the receptors were stable. Anion exchange was fast, and binding constants were calculated from the NMR titration profiles. The structure of the adduct [Re(CO)3(HtBupz)3] x NO3 (3) was determined by X-ray diffraction. Two pyrazole moieties are hydrogen-bonded to one nitrate oxygen atom, and the third pyrazole moiety is hydrogen-bonded to an oxygen atom of an adjacent nitrate, leading to infinite chains. The structure of the adduct [Re(CO)3(Hdmpz)3]BAr'4acetone (4), also determined by X-ray diffraction, showed a similar interaction of two pyrazole N-H groups with the acetone oxygen atom. F- and H2PO4(-) deprotonate the receptors, and HSO4(-) decomposed 1. The structure of one of the decomposition products (5), determined by X-ray diffraction, is consistent with pyrazole protonation and substitution by sulfate.

  7. Potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer, St. Johns River Water Management District and vicinity, Florida, May 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiner, George R.; Hayes, Eugene C.

    1981-01-01

    This map presents the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in the St. Johns River Water Management District and vicinity for May 1981. The Floridan aquifer is the principal source of potable water in the area. Water-level measurements were made in approximately 1,000 wells and at several springs. The potentiometric surface is shown mostly by 5-foot contour intervals. In the Fernandina Beach area 20 and 40-foot intervals are used to show a deep cone of depression. The potentiometric surface ranged from 122 feet above NGVD (National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929) in Polk County to 125 feet below NGVD in Nassau County. Water levels were at record lows in many counties due to lack of rainfall. Declines were as much as 10 feet and commonly 5 feet from the May 1980 levels. (USGS)

  8. Potentiometric surface of the upper Cape Fear Aquifer in the central coastal plain of North Carolina, December 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winner, M.D.; Lyke, William L.; Brockman, Allen R.

    1989-01-01

    Water-level measurements were made in 84 wells open to the upper Cape Fear aquifer at the end of 1986 to determine the configuration of its potentiometric surface over an area of approximately 5,500 sq mi. The major feature of the potentiometric surface is the development of a large, almost circular cone of depression as a result of the merging of a number of smaller cones. The center of the large cone lies along an axis between Greenville and Kinston. The potentiometric surface in the upper Cape Fear is nearly 100 ft below sea level at Greenville; it is more than 100 ft above sea level south of the Neuse River near Colorado.

  9. Fusion of Potentiometric & Voltammetric Electronic Tongue for Classification of Black Tea Taste based on Theaflavins (TF) Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Legin, Andrey; Papieva, Irina; Sarkar, Subrata; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Kartsova, Anna; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib

    2011-09-01

    Black tea is an extensively consumed beverage worldwide with an expanding market. The final quality of black tea depends upon number of chemical compounds present in the tea. Out of these compounds, theaflavins (TF), which is responsible for astringency in black tea, plays an important role in determining the final taste of the finished black tea. The present paper reports our effort to correlate the theaflavins contents with the voltammetric and potentiometric electronic tongue (e-tongue) data. Noble metal-based electrode array has been used for collecting data though voltammetric electronic tongue where as liquid filled membrane based electrodes have been used for potentiometric electronic tongue. Black tea samples with tea taster score and biochemical results have been collected from Tea Research Association, Tocklai, India for the analysis purpose. In this paper, voltammetric and potentiometric e-tongue responses are combined to demonstrate improvement of cluster formation among tea samples with different ranges of TF values.

  10. ANION EXCHANGE METHOD FOR SEPARATION OF METAL VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, E.K.; Raby, B.A.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for selectively separating radium, bismuth, poloniums and lead values from a metallic mixture of thc same. The mixture is dissolved in aqueous hydrochloric acid and the acidity is adjusted to between 1 to 2M in hydrochloric acid to form the anionic polychloro complexes of polonium and bismuth. The solution is contacted with a first anion exchange resin such as strong base quaternary ammonia type to selectively absorb the polonium and bismuth leaving the radium and lead in the effluent. The effluent, after treatment in hydrochloric acid to increase the hydrochloric acid concentration to 6M is contacted with a second anion exchange iesin of the same type as the above to selectively adsorb the lead leaving the radium in the effluent. Radium is separately recovered from the effluent from the second exchange column. Lead is stripped from the loaded resin of the second column by treatment with 3M hydrochloric acid solution. The loaded resin of the first column is washed with 8M hydrochloric acid solution to recover bismuth and then treated with strong nitric acid solution to recover polonium.

  11. Potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District, September 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, G.L.; Schiner, George R.

    1983-01-01

    Maps of the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida are prepared semiannually by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District. Maps for May and September show the potentiometric surface that is close to the annual low or high water level condition that usually occurs in May or September, respectively. The surface is mapped by determining the altitude of water levels in a network of wells and is represented on maps by contours that connect points of equal altitude. This report shows the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer for September 1983. Data for the map were collected during September 12-23. The map represents water level conditions near the end of the summer rainy season when groundwater withdrawals for agricultural use are low. Water levels in most wells measured in September 1983 were higher than those measured in May 1983. September water levels averaged about 0.6 ft higher than May levels in areas north of Hillsborough County and about 7 ft higher in southern areas. Water level increases in the north ranged from zero to about 2 ft along coastal regions and from zero to about 5 ft in inland areas. Water level declines in the north ranged from zero to about 7 ft and occurred in scattered parts of all northern counties. In the south, water level increases ranged from zero to about 3 ft along coastal and extreme southern regions and from about 5 to 34 ft in other southern areas. The greatest water level increases occurred in southern Hillsborough County where irrigation pumpage contributes to large seasonal fluctuations. There were a few areas in Hillsborough and Pinellas Counties where September water levels showed declines ranging from about 1 to 3 ft when compared with May levels. (Lantz-PTT)

  12. Anion Dependent Dynamics and Water Solubility Explained by Hydrogen Bonding Interactions in Mixtures of Water and Aprotic Heterocyclic Anion Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Quintin R; Schneider, William F; Maginn, Edward J

    2016-12-15

    Molecular dynamics simulations were used to compare water solubilities and the effects of water on the structure and dynamics of ionic liquids (ILs) composed of phosphonium cations paired with azolide and phenolate anions. The addition of water decreases ordering of the ions compared to the dry ILs with the exception of anion-anion ordering in the phenolate IL. The result is that the dynamics of the azolide ionic liquids increase significantly upon addition of water, whereas the phenolate IL dynamics show little change. The relative water solubilities were compared through calculation of Henry's law constants. Water is much more soluble in the phenolate IL due to strong hydrogen bonding interactions between water and the phenolate oxygen atom. Anions can therefore be selected to control IL-water hydrogen bonding for optimal performance in applications such as CO2 separation.

  13. Simultaneous separation and detection of anions and thiophilic cations using capillary-size anion exchange chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Sötz, Veronika Anna; Kochmann, Sven

    2015-05-01

    In this fundamental study, the simultaneous separation and detection of anions and thiophilic cations in anion exchange chromatography with suppressed conductivity detection is investigated. Mercury(II) and cadmium(II) served as model analytes. Separation and detection was performed by introducing 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate, which forms complexes with both mercury and cadmium with a strong metal-sulfur bond, into the KOH eluent. Additional to the separation on the column, these complexes were able to pass the suppressor. Subsequently, they could be detected as negative peaks. A simple model for the separation mechanism was developed based on these results. Furthermore, the effect of the eluent concentration on the retention factors of both cation complexes and standard anions was examined and quantified. It revealed that the concentration of 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate has more influence on the cations than the KOH concentration. Also, 2.0 mM of 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate had about the same effect on the anion separation as 60 mM KOH. Finally, selectivity and detection limits were investigated. The detection limits were 4.9 μM for mercury and 2.2 μM for cadmium.

  14. Potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer, southwest Florida Water Management District, September 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yobbi, D.K.; Schiner, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    A September 1981 potentiometric-surface map of the Southwest Florida Water Management District depicts the annual high water-level period. Water levels in most wells measured in September 1981 are equal to or higher than in May 1981. Levels averaged about 26 feet higher in the southern part of the area and 5 feet in the north. In the agricultural sections of southern Hillsborough, Hardee, southwestern Polk, northwestern De Soto, and Manatee Counties, water levels increased 10 to 46 feet. From September 1980 to September 1981, water levels ranged from a decrease of 11 feet in Citrus County to an increase of 9 feet in southern Hillsborough County. (USGS)

  15. Potentiometric maps of the Sparta Sand, northern Louisiana and southern Arkansas, 1900, 1965, 1975, and 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryals, G.N.

    1980-01-01

    The potentiometric surface of the Sparta Sand in northern Louisiana is shown by contours on four maps. Maps for 1900, 1965 , and spring 1975 are generalized, small-scale maps from previously published reports. The spring 1980 map (1:500,000) is based on measurements in 144 wells and includes the southern tier of counties in southern Arkansas. The map shows regional effects of pumping from the Sparta Sand and effects of local pumping centers at Magnolia and El Dorado, Ark., and at Minden, Ruston, Jonesboro-Hodge, Winnfield, Bastrop, and in the Monroe area of Louisiana. (USGS)

  16. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume II - Potentiometric Data Document Package

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    Volume II of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the potentiometric data. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  17. Indirect potentiometric titration of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical preparations using copper based mercury film electrode.

    PubMed

    Abdul Kamal Nazer, Meeran Mohideen; Hameed, Abdul Rahman Shahul; Riyazuddin, Patel

    2004-01-01

    A simple and rapid potentiometric method for the estimation of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical dosage forms has been developed. The method is based on treating ascorbic acid with iodine and titration of the iodide produced equivalent to ascorbic acid with silver nitrate using Copper Based Mercury Film Electrode (CBMFE) as an indicator electrode. Interference study was carried to check possible interference of usual excipients and other vitamins. The precision and accuracy of the method was assessed by the application of lack-of-fit test and other statistical methods. The results of the proposed method and British Pharmacopoeia method were compared using F and t-statistical tests of significance.

  18. Potentiometric surface of the upper Floridan aquifer, west-central Florida, May 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, Anita G.

    2011-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing freshwater are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in May 2011. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the dry season, when groundwater levels usually are at an annual low and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are high. The cumulative average rainfall of 45.74 inches for west-central Florida (from June 2010 through May 2011) was 6.85 inches below the historical cumulative average of 52.59 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2011). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September from 1975 through 2010. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to

  19. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-central Florida, May 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in May 2010. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the dry season, when groundwater levels usually are at an annual low and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are high. The cumulative average rainfall of 55.21 inches for west-central Florida (from June 2009 through May 2010) was 2.55 inches above the historical cumulative average of 52.66 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2010). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water-level data are collected in May and September each year to show the

  20. Determination of sulfur compounds in hydrotreated transformer base oil by potentiometric titration.

    PubMed

    Chao, Qiu; Sheng, Han; Cheng, Xingguo; Ren, Tianhui

    2005-06-01

    A method was developed to analyze the distribution of sulfur compounds in model sulfur compounds by potentiometric titration, and applied to analyze hydrotreated transformer base oil. Model thioethers were oxidized to corresponding sulfoxides by tetrabutylammonium periodate and sodium metaperiodate, respectively, and the sulfoxides were titrated by perchloric acid titrant in acetic anhydride. The contents of aliphatic thioethers and total thioethers were then determined from that of sulfoxides in solution. The method was applied to determine the organic sulfur compounds in hydrotreated transformer base oil.

  1. Anion adsorption induced surface reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Lei

    2005-11-01

    Surface stress plays an important role in the behavior of solid surfaces. Potential-controlled anion adsorption in electrolytes alters the surface stress of the electrode and results in morphology changes to the surfaces. With a combination of potential-induced surface stress measurement and in situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), it is demonstrated that anion adsorption induces changes in structure of thin films and modifies the growth morphology and stress evolution in epitaxially grown films. Surface structural transitions in the heteroepitaxial system consisting of one to two gold monolayers on platinum substrates were observed. By increasing the potential, structural transitions, from (1 x 1), to a striped phase, to a hexagonal structure, occurred in the gold bilayer. This hexagonal structure was related to the formation of an ordered sulfate adlayer with a ( 3x7 ) structure. Such transitions were repeatable by cycling the potential. Furthermore, the transitions between various dislocation structures were affected by anion adsorption. The surface composition of the gold bilayer on Pt was measured by underpotential deposition of copper. By subtracting the contribution of a pure Pt surface from the gold bi-layer on Pt, a stress change of -2.4 N/m was observed, which agrees with the stress change of -2.46 N/m predicted to accompany formation of 1.5 MLs of coherent Au on Pt(111) from epitaxy theory. The Cu monolayer deposited on Au(111) from an acid sulfate electrolyte was found to be pseudomorphic while the Cu monolayer formed on Au(111) in vacuum was incoherent. The stress-thickness change associated with the coherent monolayer of copper on Au(111) in electrolyte was -0.6 N/m, while conventional epitaxy theories predict a value of +7.76 N/m. STM results elucidated the sulfate adsorption on the copper monolayer caused an expansion of the layer as evidenced by a Moire Structure. For the Cu monolayer on Au(111), the sulfate-induced expansion

  2. The difference between the potentiometric surfaces of the Lower Patapsco Aquifer, September 1990 and September 2003 in Southern Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the change in the potentiometric surface of the Lower Patapsco aquifer in the Lower Patapsco Formation of Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland for September 1990 and September 2003. The map, based on water level measurements in 45 wells, shows that the change of the potentiometric surface during the 13- year period ranged from rises of 17 feet at Indian Head and 9 feet near the outcrop area in Glen Burnie, to declines of 40 feet at Arnold, 44 feet at Severndale, 48 feet at Waldorf, 69 feet at LaPlata, and 31 feet at the Morgantown powerplant.

  3. The difference between the potentiometric surfaces of the lower Patapsco aquifer, September 1990 and September 1999 in southern Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the change in the potentiometric surface of the Lower Patapsco aquifer in the Lower Patapsco Formation of Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland for September 1990 and September 1999. The map, based on water?level measurements in 52 wells, shows that the change of the potentiometric surface during the 9- year period ranged from a rise of 13 feet at Indian Head and 6 feet near the outcrop area in Glen Burnie, to declines of 34 feet at Arnold, 30 feet at Waldorf, and 24 feet at Morgantown.

  4. The Difference Between the Potentiometric Surfaces of the Aquia Aquifer in Southern Maryland, September 1982 and September 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Staley, Andrew W.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the change in the potentiometric surface of the Aquia aquifer in the Aquia Formation of Paleocene age in Southern Maryland between September 1982 and September 2009. The map, based on water level differences obtained from 49 wells, shows that the potentiometric surface during the 27-year period declined from zero in the northernmost part of the study area, which is the outcrop of the aquifer, to 111 feet at Lexington Park. Lexington Park is near the southeasternmost part of the study area and approaches the downdip boundary of the aquifer. The map also shows well yield in gallons per day for 2008 at wells or well fields.

  5. The difference between the potentiometric surfaces of the upper Patapsco aquifer, September 1990 and September 1999 in southern Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the change in the potentiometric surface of the Upper Patapsco aquifer in the Upper Patapsco Formation of Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland for September 1990 and September 1999. The map, based on water?level measurements in 37 wells, shows that the potentiometric surface during the 9- year period ranged from a decline of 1 foot in the northernmost part of the study area, which is near the outcrop of the aquifer, to a decline of 22 feet at LaPlata, which is near the southwesternmost part of the study area.

  6. The Difference Between the Potentiometric Surfaces of the Aquia Aquifer in Southern Maryland, September 1982 and September 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Staley, Andrew W.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the change in the potentiometric surface of the Aquia aquifer in the Aquia Formation of Paleocene age in Southern Maryland for September 1982 and September 2007. The map, based on water-level measurements in 53 wells, shows that the potentiometric surface during the 25-year period declined from zero in the northernmost part of the study area, which is the outcrop of the aquifer, to 117 feet at Lexington Park. Lexington Park is near the southeasternmost part of the study area and approaches the downdip boundary of the aquifer.

  7. The difference between the potentiometric surfaces of the Aquia Aquifer, September 1982 and September 2003 in southern Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreason, David C.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the change in the potentiometric surface of the Aquia aquifer in the Aquia Formation of Paleocene age in Southern Maryland for September 1982 and September 2003. The map, based on water level measurements in 56 wells, shows that the potentiometric surface during the 21-year period declined from zero in the northernmost part of the study area, which is the outcrop of the aquifer, to 108 feet at Lexington Park. Lexington Park is near the southeasternmost part of the study area and approaches the downdip boundary of the aquifer.

  8. The Difference Between the Potentiometric Surfaces of the Upper Patapsco Aquifer, September 1982 and September 2001 in Southern Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the change in the potentiometric surface of the Upper Patapsco aquifer in the Upper Patapsco Formation of Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland for September 1990 and September 2001. The map, based on water level measurements in 35 wells, shows that during the 11-year period, the potentiometric surface ranged from an increase of 3 feet at Arnold, which is located just north of Annapolis, to a decline of 24 feet 5 miles south of LaPlata and 20 feet at both Waldorf and LaPlata.

  9. The difference between the potentiometric surfaces of the Aquia aquifer, September 1982 and September 1999 in southern Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the change in the potentiometric surface of the Aquia aquifer in the Aquia Formation of Paleocene age in Southern Maryland for September 1982 and September 1999. The map, based on water level measurements in 67 wells, shows that the change of the potentiometric surface during the 17-year period declined from zero in the northernmost part of the study area, which is the outcrop of the aquifer, to 101 feet at Lexington Park. Lexington Park is near the southeasternmost part of the study area and approaches the downdip boundary of the aquifer.

  10. The Difference Between the Potentiometric Surfaces of the Aquia Aquifer, September 1982 and September 2001 in Southern Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the change in the potentiometric surface of the Aquia aquifer in the Aquia Formation of Paleocene age in Southern Maryland for September 1982 and September 2001. The map, based on water level measurements in 58 wells, shows that the potentiometric surface during the 19-year period declined from zero in the northernmost part of the study area, which is the outcrop of the aquifer, to 120 feet at Lexington Park. Lexington Park is near the southeasternmost part of the study area and approaches the downdip boundary of the aquifer.

  11. The Difference Between the Potentiometric Surfaces of the Magothy Aquifer in Southern Maryland, September 1975 and September 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Staley, Andrew W.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the change in the potentiometric surface of the Magothy aquifer in the Magothy Formation of Late Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland between September 1975 and September 2009. The map, based on water level differences obtained from 48 wells, shows that during the 34-year period, the potentiometric surface had little change at the outcrop area, which is in the northernmost part of the study area, but declined 75 feet at Waldorf. Waldorf is located near the southwesternmost part of the study area, and approaches the downdip boundary of the aquifer. The map also shows well yield in gallons per day for 2008 at wells or well fields.

  12. The Difference Between the Potentiometric Surfaces of the Magothy Aquifer, September 1975 and September 2001 in Southern Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the change in the potentiometric surface of the Magothy aquifer in the Magothy Formation of Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland for September 1975 and September 2001. The map, based on water level measurements in 54 wells, shows that during the 26-year period, the potentiometric surface ranged from zero at the outcrop area, which is in the northernmost part of the study area, to a decline of 75 feet at Waldorf. Waldorf is located near the southwesternmost part of the study area, and approaches the downdip boundary of the aquifer.

  13. The difference between the potentiometric surfaces of the Magothy aquifer, September 1975 and September 1999 in southern Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the change in the potentiometric surface of the Magothy aquifer in the Magothy Formation of Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland for September 1975 and September 1999. The map, based on water level measurements in 61 wells, shows that the potentiometric surface during the 24-year period ranged from zero at the outcrop area, which is in the northernmost part of the study area, to a decline of 76 feet in Waldorf. Waldorf is located near the southwesternmost part of the study area, and approaches the downdip boundary of the aquifer.

  14. The difference between the potentiometric surfaces of the Magothy Aquifer of September 1986 and September 1988 in southern Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Frederick K.; Andreasen, David C.; Curtin, Stephen E.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    1990-01-01

    A map was prepared that shows the net change in the potentiometric surface of the Magothy aquifer (in the Cretaceous Magothy Formation) in southern Maryland from the fall of 1986 to the fall of 1988. The map, based on water level measurements from 79 observation wells, shows that during the 2 year period the potentiometric surface declined less than 5 ft in most of the northern part of the study area and more than 10 ft in a 4-sq-mi area in northern Charles County. Net water-level rises of as much as 2 ft were measured in central Charles County. (USGS)

  15. The Difference Between the Potentiometric Surfaces of the Magothy Aquifer in Southern Maryland, September 1975 and September 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Staley, Andrew W.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the change in the potentiometric surface of the Magothy aquifer in the Magothy Formation of Late Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland for September 1975 and September 2007. The map, based on water-level measurements in 51 wells, shows that during the 32-year period, the potentiometric surface had no change at the outcrop area, which is in the northernmost part of the study area, but declined 90 feet at Waldorf. Waldorf is located near the southwesternmost part of the study area, and approaches the downdip boundary of the aquifer.

  16. The difference between the potentiometric surfaces of the Magothy aquifer, September 1975 and September 2003 in southern Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the change in the potentiometric surface of the Magothy aquifer in the Magothy Formation of Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland for September 1975 and September 2003. The map, based on water level measurements in 51 wells, shows that during the 28-year period, the potentiometric surface had no change at the outcrop area, which is in the northernmost part of the study area, but declined 71 feet at Waldorf. Waldorf is located near the southwesternmost part of the study area, and approaches the downdip boundary of the aquifer.

  17. The difference between the potentiometric surfaces of the Upper Patasco Aquifer, September 1990 and September 2003 in southern Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the change in the potentiometric surface of the Upper Patapsco aquifer in the Upper Patapsco Formation of Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland for September 1990 and September 2003. The map, based on water level measurements in 32 wells, shows that during the 13-year period, the potentiometric surface changed from an increase of 6 feet at Arnold, which is located just north of Annapolis, to a decline of 25 feet at Waldorf and Lexington Park and 20 feet at LaPlata and the Chalk Point powerplant.

  18. The Difference Between the Potentiometric Surfaces of the Upper Patapsco Aquifer in Southern Maryland, September 1990 and September 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Staley, Andrew W.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the change in the potentiometric surface of the upper Patapsco aquifer in the Patapsco Formation of Early Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland for September 1990 and September 2007. The map, based on water-level measurements in 33 wells, shows that during the 17-year period, the change in the potentiometric surface ranged from zero at the edge of the outcrop area in northern Anne Arundel County to a decline of 28 feet at Crofton Meadows, 38 feet at Arnold, 36 feet at Waldorf, 35 feet at the Chalk Point power plant, and 40 feet at Lexington Park.

  19. Potentiometric surface, 2013, and water-level differences, 1991-2013, of the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer in northwest Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fendick, Robert B.; Carter, Kayla

    2015-01-01

    This report presents data and maps that illustrate the potentiometric surface of the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer during March–May 2013 and water-level differences from 1991 to 2013. The potentiometric surface map can be used for determining the direction of groundwater flow, hydraulic gradients, and effects of withdrawals on the groundwater resource. The rate of groundwater movement also can be estimated from the gradient when the hydraulic conductivity is applied. Water-level data collected for this study are stored in the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) and are on file at the USGS office in Baton Rouge, La.

  20. Off-On-Off fluorescence behavior of an intramolecular charge transfer probe toward anions and CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Rashid; Razi, Syed S.; Shahid, Mohammad; Srivastava, Priyanka; Misra, Arvind

    2016-11-01

    The photophysical behavior of a newly developed fluorescent probe, tricyanoethylphenyl phenanthroimidazole (TCPPI) has been studied. Upon interaction of different class of anions TCPPI displayed naked-eye sensitive fluorescence "turn-on" response to detect selectively F- (0.98 μM, 18.62 ppb) and CN- (1.12 μM, 29.12 ppb) anions in acetonitrile (MeCN). Job's plot analysis revealed a 1:1 binding stoichiometry between probe and anions. The spectral data analysis and 1H NMR titration studies suggested about the affinity of F- and CN- anions with moderately acidic - NH fragment of imidazolyl unit of probe through deprotonation and H-bonding interaction. Moreover, the anion activated probe upon interaction with CO2 revived photophysical properties of probe, "On-Off-On" type fluorescence and enabled anion-induced CO2 sensing in the medium.

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of simple naked-eye colorimetric chemosensors for anions based on azo dye-thiosemicarbazones.

    PubMed

    Radchatawedchakoon, Widchaya; Sangsuwan, Withsakorn; Kruanetr, Senee; Sakee, Uthai

    2014-01-01

    A series of novel, highly selective azo dye-thiosemicarbazones based anion sensors (3e-f) have been synthesized from the condensation reaction between thiosemicarbazide and six different azo salicylaldehydes. The structure of the sensors was confirmed by spectroscopic methods. The selectivity and sensitivity in the recognition for acetate anion over other anions such as fluoride, chloride, iodide and dihydrogenphosphate anions were determined by naked-eyes and UV-vis spectra. The color of the solution containing sensor had an obvious change from light yellow to orange only after the addition of acetate anion in aqueous solution (water/dimethylsulfoxide, 7:3, v/v) while other anions did not cause obvious color change. The anion recognition property of the receptor via proton-transfer is monitored by UV-vis titration and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Under condition in aqueous solution of sensor 3e (water/dimethylsulfoxide, 7:3, v/v), linearity range for the quantification of acetate anion was 1-22 μM and limit of detection (LOD) of acetate anion was 0.71 μM.

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of simple naked-eye colorimetric chemosensors for anions based on azo dye-thiosemicarbazones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radchatawedchakoon, Widchaya; Sangsuwan, Withsakorn; Kruanetr, Senee; Sakee, Uthai

    2014-03-01

    A series of novel, highly selective azo dye-thiosemicarbazones based anion sensors (3e-f) have been synthesized from the condensation reaction between thiosemicarbazide and six different azo salicylaldehydes. The structure of the sensors was confirmed by spectroscopic methods. The selectivity and sensitivity in the recognition for acetate anion over other anions such as fluoride, chloride, iodide and dihydrogenphosphate anions were determined by naked-eyes and UV-vis spectra. The color of the solution containing sensor had an obvious change from light yellow to orange only after the addition of acetate anion in aqueous solution (water/dimethylsulfoxide, 7:3, v/v) while other anions did not cause obvious color change. The anion recognition property of the receptor via proton-transfer is monitored by UV-vis titration and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Under condition in aqueous solution of sensor 3e (water/dimethylsulfoxide, 7:3, v/v), linearity range for the quantification of acetate anion was 1-22 μM and limit of detection (LOD) of acetate anion was 0.71 μM.

  3. Nexal membrane permeability to anions

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    The permeability of the septa of the earthworm in the median axon has been calculated for the anions fluorescein and its halogen derivatives. The values ranged from 5.4 X 10(-5) to 4 X 10(-6) cm/s. Previously, the septa had been shown to contain nexuses. By using freeze-fracture material, the surface area of nexus on the septal membranes was determined to be 4.5%, very similar to the percentage of nexus in the intercalated disk of mammalian myocardium. Plasma membrane permeability to these dyes was also calculated and shown to be much less than that of the septal membranes. In addition, an estimate of cytoplasmic binding for each dye was made, and most dyes showed little or no binding with the exception of aminofluorescein. PMID:702107

  4. Potentiometric membrane electrode for salicylate based on an organotin complex with a salicylal Schiff base of amino acid.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lan; Yuan, Ruo; Fu, Ying-Zi; Chai, Ya-Qin

    2005-03-01

    A novel salicylate-selective electrode based on an organotin complex with a salicylal Schiff base of amino acid salicylaldehydeaminoacid-di-n-butyl-Sn(IV) [Sn(IV)-SAADB] as ionophore is described, which exhibits high selectivity for salicylate over many other common anions with an anti-Hofmeister selectivity sequence: Sal- > PhCOO- > SCN- > Cl04- > I- > NO3- > NO2- > Br- > Cl- > CH3COO-. The electrode, based on Sn(IV)-SAADB, with a 30.44 wt% PVC, a 65.45 wt% plasticizer (dioctyl phthalate, DOP), a 3.81 wt% ionophore and a 0.3 wt% anionic additive is linear in 6.0 x 10(-6) - 1.0 x 10(-1) mol l(-1) with a detection limit of 2.0 x 10(-6) mol l(-1) and a slope of 62.0 +/- 1.2 mV/decade of salicylate concentration in a phosphate buffer solution of pH 5.5 at 25 degrees C. The influence on the electrode performances by lipophilic charged additives was studied, and the possible response mechanism was investigated by UV spectra. The electrode was applied to medicine analysis and the result obtained has been satisfactory.

  5. Potentiometric Surface of the Lower Patapsco Aquifer in Southern Maryland, September 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the potentiometric surface of the Lower Patapsco aquifer in the Patapsco Formation of Lower Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland during September 2002. The map is based on water-level measurements in 69 wells. The highest measured water level was 108 feet above sea level near the northwestern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in northern Anne Arundel County. From this area, the potentiometric surface declined towards large well fields at Severndale, Arnold, and Annapolis. The measured ground-water levels declined to 87 feet below sea level at Severndale, 39 feet below sea level at Arnold, and 43 feet below sea level a few miles west of Annapolis. There was also a cone of depression covering a large area in Charles County that includes Waldorf, LaPlata, Indian Head, and the Morgantown power plant. The ground-water levels measured were as low as 191 feet below sea level at Waldorf, 131 feet below sea level at LaPlata, 115 feet below sea level at Indian Head, and 86 feet below sea level at the Morgantown power plant.

  6. Potentiometric Surface Map of the Lower Patapsco Aquifer in Southern Maryland, September, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the potentiometric surface of the Lower Patapsco aquifer in the Patapsco Formation of Lower Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland during September 2003. The map is based on water-level measurements in 66 wells. The highest measured water level was 112 feet above sea level near the northwestern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in northern Prince Georges County. From this area, the potentiometric surface declined towards well fields at Severndale, Arnold, and Annapolis. The measured ground-water levels were 86 feet below sea level at Severndale, 41 feet below sea level at Arnold, and 39 feet below sea level a few miles west of Annapolis. There was also a cone of depression covering a large area in Charles County that includes Waldorf, LaPlata, Indian Head, and the Morgantown powerplant. The ground-water levels measured were as low as 165 feet below sea level at Waldorf, 135 feet below sea level at LaPlata, 114 feet below sea level at Indian Head, and 92 feet below sea level at the Morgantown powerplant.

  7. Potentiometric Surface of the Lower Patapsco Aquifer in Southern Maryland, September 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasin, David C.; Staley, Andrew W.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the potentiometric surface of the lower Patapsco aquifer in the Patapsco Formation of Early Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland during September 2009. The map is based on water-level measurements in 64 wells. The highest measured water level was 110 feet above sea level near the northwestern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in northern Prince George's County. From this area, the potentiometric surface declined towards well fields at Severndale, Broad Creek, and Arnold. The measured groundwater levels were 99 feet below sea level at Severndale, 50 feet below sea level at Broad Creek, and 36 feet below sea level at Arnold. There was also a cone of depression in Charles County that includes Waldorf, La Plata, Indian Head, and the Morgantown power plant. The groundwater levels measured were as low as 215 feet below sea level at Waldorf, 149 feet below sea level at La Plata, 121 feet below sea level at Indian Head, and 96 feet below sea level at the Morgantown power plant. The map also shows well yield in gallons per day for 2008 at wells or well fields.

  8. Potentiometric Surface of the Lower Patapsco Aquifer in Southern Maryland, September 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Staley, Andrew W.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the potentiometric surface of the lower Patapsco aquifer in the Patapsco Formation of Early Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland during September 2007. The map is based on water-level measurements in 65 wells. The highest measured water level was 111 feet above sea level near the northwestern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in northern Prince George's County. From this area, the potentiometric surface declined towards well fields at Severndale and Arnold. The measured ground-water levels were 87 feet below sea level at Severndale, and 42 feet below sea level at Arnold. There was also a cone of depression covering a large area in Charles County that includes Waldorf, La Plata, Indian Head, and the Morgantown power plant. The ground-water levels measured were as low as 219 feet below sea level at Waldorf, 187 feet below sea level at La Plata, 106 feet below sea level at Indian Head, and 89 feet below sea level at the Morgantown power plant.

  9. Potentiometric urea biosensor utilizing nanobiocomposite of chitosan-iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; AlSalhi, M. S.; Atif, M.; Ansari, Anees A.; Israr, M. Q.; Sadaf, J. R.; Ahmed, E.; Nur, O.; Willander, M.

    2013-02-01

    The iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles have been fabricated through a simple, cheap and reproducible approach. Scanning electron microscope, x-rays powder diffraction of the fabricated nanoparticles. Furthermore, the fabrication of potentiometric urea biosensor is carried out through drop casting the initially prepared isopropanol and chitosan solution, containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles, on the glass fiber filter with a diameter of 2 cm and a copper wire (of thickness -500 μm) has been utilized to extract the voltage signal from the functionalized nanoparticles. The functionalization of surface of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles is obtained by the electrostatically immobilization of urease onto the nanobiocomposite of the chitosan- Fe3O4 in order to enhance the sensitivity, specificity, stability and reusability of urea biosensor. Electrochemical detection procedure has been adopted to measure the potentiometric response over the wide logarithmic concentration range of the 0.1 mM to 80 mM. The Fe3O4 nanoparticles based urea biosensor depicts good sensitivity with ~42 mV per decade at room temperature. Durability of the biosensor could be considerably enhanced by applying a thin layer of the nafion. In addition, the reasonably stable output response of the biosensor has been found to be around 12 sec.

  10. Potentiometric Surface of the Aquia Aquifer in Southern Maryland, September 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Wheeler, Judith C.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the potentiometric surface of the Aquia aquifer in the Aquia Formation of Paleocene age in Southern Maryland during September 1999. The map is based on water-level measurements in 85 wells. The potentiometric surface was above sea level near the northern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in a topographically high area of Anne Arundel County, and was below sea level in the remainder of the study area. The hydraulic gradient was directed southeastward toward an extensive cone of depression around well fields at Lexington Park and Solomons Island. Ground-water levels were more than 80 feet below sea level in a 100-square-mile area surrounding the deepest part of the cone of depression. A cone of depression formed in northern Calvert County due to pumpage at Chesapeake Beach and North Beach. The water level has declined to 43 feet below sea level in this area. The lowest measurement was 164 feet below sea level in a well near the center of the cone of depression at Lexington Park.

  11. Determination of ascorbic acid by polypyrrole potentiometric detector in ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Mutlu; Ozcan, Levent; Usta, Betül; Sahin, Yücel

    2009-08-15

    A potentiometric detector, based on electrodeposition of polypyrrole onto Pt electrode, was investigated in this study. The chromatographic performance of the PPy detector was investigated in ion chromatography. The resulting PPy detector exhibited good performance for AA determination with a wide linear range (1.0 x 10(-6) to 1.0 x 10(-2)M), a highly reproducible response (R.S.D. of 2.45%), without any interference and long-term stability. The calculated detection limit was 7.0 x 10(-5)mM at 3 sigma. The calibration results showed good Nernstian behavior and also satisfactory low detection limit. In order to verify the reliability of the PPy detector, it was applied to the determination of AA in pharmaceutical samples. The results were satisfactory and agreed closely with the manufacturers' stated contents. The PPy electrode can be used as an alternative novel potentiometric detector material for determination of AA in standards and pharmaceutical samples.

  12. Potentiometric Aptasensing of Vibrio alginolyticus Based on DNA Nanostructure-Modified Magnetic Beads

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guangtao; Ding, Jiawang; Yu, Han; Yin, Tanji; Qin, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A potentiometric aptasensing assay that couples the DNA nanostructure-modified magnetic beads with a solid-contact polycation-sensitive membrane electrode for the detection of Vibrio alginolyticus is herein described. The DNA nanostructure-modified magnetic beads are used for amplification of the potential response and elimination of the interfering effect from a complex sample matrix. The solid-contact polycation-sensitive membrane electrode using protamine as an indicator is employed to chronopotentiometrically detect the change in the charge or DNA concentration on the magnetic beads, which is induced by the interaction between Vibrio alginolyticus and the aptamer on the DNA nanostructures. The present potentiometric aptasensing method shows a linear range of 10–100 CFU mL−1 with a detection limit of 10 CFU mL−1, and a good specificity for the detection of Vibrio alginolyticus. This proposed strategy can be used for the detection of other microorganisms by changing the aptamers in the DNA nanostructures. PMID:27918423

  13. Potentiometric surface of the Upper Patapsco aquifer in southern Maryland, September 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Staley, Andrew W.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the potentiometric surface of the upper Patapsco aquifer in the Patapsco Formation of Early Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland during September 2009. The map is based on water-level measurements in 65 wells. The highest measured water level was 118 feet above sea level near the northern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in northern Anne Arundel County. From this area, the potentiometric surface declined to the south toward a well field in the Annapolis-Arnold area, and from all directions toward three additional cones of depression. These cones are located in the Waldorf-La Plata area, Chalk Point, and the Leonardtown-Lexington Park area. The lowest measured groundwater levels were 26 feet below sea level at Annapolis, 108 feet below sea level south of Waldorf, 60 feet below sea level at Chalk Point, and 83 feet below sea level at Leonardtown. The map also shows well yield in gallons per day for 2008 at wells or well fields.

  14. Map showing the potentiometric surface of the Magothy Aquifer in southern Maryland, September 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, F.K.; Wheeler, J.C.; Curtin, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    The map is based on measurements from a network of 83 observation wells cased to the Magothy aquifer. Highest levels of the potentiometric surface, 59 to 60 feet above sea level, were measured near the outcrop-subcrop of the aquifer in topographically high areas of Anne Arundel and Prince Georges Counties. The surface slopes to the southeast to above sea level along much of the western shore of Chesapeake Bay. Three separate, distinct, and extensive cones of depression have developed in the potentiometric surface around the well fields of the city of Annapolis-Broadneck Peninsula area, town of Waldorf, and Chalk Point. Several square miles of each cone are below sea level, and, in some areas at Chalk Point and Waldorf, the cone is 40 to 50 feet below sea level. The network of wells was developed as part of the cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Maryland Geological Survey, and the Maryland Energy and Coastal Zone Administration. (USGS)

  15. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Patapsco Aquifer in Southern Maryland, September 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, Stephen E.; Andreasen, David C.; Staley, Andrew W.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a map showing the potentiometric surface of the upper Patapsco aquifer in the Patapsco Formation of Early Cretaceous age in Southern Maryland during September 2007. The map is based on water-level measurements in 50 wells. The highest measured water level was 120 feet above sea level near the northern boundary and outcrop area of the aquifer in northern Anne Arundel County. From this area, the potentiometric surface declined to the south toward a well field in the Annapolis-Arnold area, and from all directions toward four cones of depression. These cones are located in the Waldorf-La Plata area, Chalk Point-Prince Frederick area, Swan Point subdivision in southern Charles County, and the Lexington Park-St. Inigoes area. The lowest measured ground-water level was 44 feet below sea level at Arnold, 106 feet below sea level south of Waldorf, 54 feet below sea level at Swan Point, 59 feet below sea level at Chalk Point, and 58 feet below sea level at Lexington Park.

  16. Potentiometric and spectrofluorimetric studies on complexation of tenoxicam with some metal ions.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Horria A; Wadood, Hanaa M A; Farghaly, Othman A

    2002-06-01

    The interaction of tenoxicam with six metal ions, viz. Fe(III), Bi(III), Sb(III), Cr(III), Cd(II) and Al(III) was studied using potentiometric and fluorimetric methods. In the potentiometric method the ionization constant of the ligand and stability constants of the complexes formed have been tabulated at 25+/-0.1 degrees C, ionic strength of NaNO3 in 50% (v/v) aqueous acetonitrile solution was 0.05 mol x dm(-3). Complexes of 1:1 and/or 1:2 and/or 1:3 metal to ligand ratios are formed. The fluorescence of tenoxicam in the presence and absence of the metal ions was studied. The drug can be determined fluorimetrically in 0.5 M HNO3 at an emission wavelength of 450 nm (excitation at 350 nm). The linear range is 0.040-0.2 microg/ml in the absence of Al(III) and 0.016-0.1 microg/ml in the presence of Al(III). Tenoxicam was determined by the proposed method in tablet, suppository and injection. The recovery percent ranged from 98.16 to 102.22%. The effect of 2-aminopyridine on the recovery of tenoxicam was also investigated.

  17. Creating molecular macrocycles for anion recognition

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary The creation and functionality of new classes of macrocycles that are shape persistent and can bind anions is described. The genesis of triazolophane macrocycles emerges out of activity surrounding 1,2,3-triazoles made using click chemistry; and the same triazoles are responsible for anion capture. Mistakes made and lessons learnt in anion recognition provide deeper understanding that, together with theory, now provides for computer-aided receptor design. The lessons are acted upon in the creation of two new macrocycles. First, cyanostars are larger and like to capture large anions. Second is tricarb, which also favors large anions but shows a propensity to self-assemble in an orderly and stable manner, laying a foundation for future designs of hierarchical nanostructures. PMID:27340452

  18. Closing the gap on unmeasured anions

    PubMed Central

    Kellum, John A

    2003-01-01

    Many critically ill and injured patients, especially those with metabolic acidosis, have abnormally high levels of unmeasured anions in their blood. At the same time, such patients are prone to hypoalbuminemia, which makes the traditional anion gap calculation inaccurate. Thus, little is known about the epidemiology and clinical consequences of an excess in unmeasured anions in the blood. Indeed, even the etiology of these "missing ions" is often unclear. Unfortunately, more precise means of quantifying unmeasured anions, such as the strong ion gap (SIG), are cumbersome to use clinically. However, a simple means of correcting the anion gap can be used to estimate SIG and may provide additional insight into this common clinical problem. PMID:12793870

  19. Asymmetric Anion-π Catalysis on Perylenediimides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Miros, François N; Mareda, Jiri; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan

    2016-11-07

    Anion-π catalysis, that is the stabilization of anionic transition states on π-acidic aromatic surfaces, has so far been developed with naphthalenediimides (NDIs). This report introduces perylenediimides (PDIs) to anion-π catalysis. The quadrupole moment of PDIs (+23.2 B) is found to exceed that of NDIs and reach new records with acceptors in the core (+70.9 B), and their larger surface provides space to better accommodate chemical transformations. Unlike NDIs, the activity of PDI catalysts for enolate and enamine addition is determined by the twist of their π surface rather than their reducibility. These results, further strengthened by nitrate inhibition and circular dichroism spectroscopy, support an understanding of anion-π interactions centered around quadrupole moments, i.e., electrostatic contributions, rather than redox potentials and charge transfer. The large PDI surfaces provide access to the highest enantioselectivities observed so far in anion-π catalysis (96 % ee).

  20. Potentiometric Surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer, West-Central Florida, May 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Hydrologic Conditions in West-Central Florida The Floridan aquifer system consists of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers separated by the middle confining unit. The middle confining unit and the Lower Floridan aquifer in west-central Florida generally contain highly mineralized water. The water-bearing units containing fresh water are herein referred to as the Upper Floridan aquifer. The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water in the Southwest Florida Water Management District and is used for major public supply, domestic use, irrigation, and brackish water desalination in coastal communities (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2000). This map report shows the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer measured in May 2006. The potentiometric surface is an imaginary surface connecting points of equal altitude to which water will rise in tightly-cased wells that tap a confined aquifer system (Lohman, 1979). This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the dry season, when ground-water levels usually are at an annual low and withdrawals for agricultural use typically are high. The cumulative average rainfall of 50.23 inches for west-central Florida (from June 2005 through May 2006) was 2.82 inches below the historical cumulative average of 53.05 inches (Southwest Florida Water Management District, 2006). Historical cumulative averages are calculated from regional rainfall summary reports (1915 to most recent complete calendar year) and are updated monthly by the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, is part of a semi-annual series of Upper Floridan aquifer potentiometric-surface map reports for west-central Florida. Potentiometric-surface maps have been prepared for January 1964, May 1969, May 1971, May 1973, May 1974, and for each May and September since 1975. Water