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Sample records for poultry by-product meals

  1. Effect of poultry by-product meal on pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular failure and ascites in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Richard J.; Caston, Linda J.; Mirsalimi, S. Medhi; Leeson, Steve

    1992-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that poultry by-product meal would produce a thermogenic response (an increased requirement for oxygen) resulting in an increased incidence of pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular failure and ascites in commercial broiler chickens. Four treatment groups, each with three replicates of 40 chicks, were fed a commercial broiler starter to day 21, grower to day 35, and the following experimental diets after day 35: group 1, commercial chicken broiler finisher; group 2, commercial chicken broiler finisher with poultry by-product meal added to replace part of the soyabean meal; group 3, commercial chicken broiler finisher with poultry fat added to replace the animal-vegetable (AV) fat; group 4, commercial chicken broiler finisher with both poultry by-product meal and poultry fat added to replace soyabean meal and AV fat. On day 35, pen temperature was reduced to 15°C, and on day 42 to 12°C. Mortality from ascites between days 35 and 56 was 11(9%) in group 2, 5(4%) in group 4 and 3(2.5%) in groups 1 and 3 The incidence of pulmonary hypertension, as measured by an increased right ventricle: total ventricle (RV:TV) ratio (RV:TV > 0.249) at processing on day 57, was higher in the groups receiving poultry by-product and poultry fat: 27(22.5%) in group 2, 26(21.7%) in group 3, and 20(16.7%) in group 4 compared to that of the controls 12(10%). PMID:17424018

  2. A study on the meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal as protein substitutes of fish meal in practical diets for Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Baigang; Wang, Fuzhen; Yu, Yu

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) as the replacement of fish meal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of Litopenaeus vannamei. The basal diets were formulated with 22% fish meal and other ingredients which provided about 40% protein and 9% lipid in the diet. The experimental diets included MBM or PBM to replace 0, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of total fish meal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric in gross terms. The results showed that there were no significant differences (Pτ;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 60% fish meal had been replaced with MBM, while the percent weight gain (WG, %), body length gain (BLG, %) and ADC significantly decreased when the MBM was up to 80% of the fish meal. There were no significant differences (Pτ;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among all the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 80% fish meal had been replaced with PBM.

  3. In vivo measurement of flatulence and nutrient digestibility in dogs fed poultry by-product meal, conventional soybean meal, and low-oligosaccharide low-phytate soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Yamka, Ryan M; Harmon, David L; Schoenherr, William D; Khoo, Christina; Gross, Kathy L; Davidson, Stephen J; Joshi, Dinesh K

    2006-01-01

    To determine an optimal window for determining peak flatulence and evaluate the effects of oligosaccharides and supplemental beta-mannanase in soybean meal-based diets on nutrient availability and flatulence. 6 dogs. Dogs were used in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments in a 6 x 6 Latin square experiment to evaluate the digestibility, flatulence, and fecal odor metabolites of low-oligosaccharide low-phytate soybean meal (LLM), conventional soybean meal (SBM), and poultry by-product (PBP) meal diets with or without supplemental beta-mannanase (5 g/kg). Enzyme supplementation had no effect on total tract dry matter (DM), nitrogen digestibility, or digestible energy; however, differences between protein sources did exist for total tract DM digestibility and digestible energy. The PBP meal had higher DM digestibility and digestible energy (mean, 0.913 and 4,255 cal/g), compared with soy-based diets (mean, 0.870 and 4,049 cal/g). No differences were detected for any treatment regardless of protein source or addition of supplemental enzyme for any flatulence components analyzed. No differences were detected for all fecal odor metabolites regardless of addition of supplemental enzyme; however, differences between protein sources were detected. The PBP meal had lower concentrations of carboxylic acids and esters and higher concentrations of heterocycles, phenols, thio and sulfides, ketones, alcohols, and indoles than LLM and SBM. Diets containing < 22.4 g of stachyose/kg and < 2 g of raffinose/kg did not alter digestibility or increase flatulence in dogs.

  4. Enzyme effects on extruded diets for dogs with soybean meal as a substitute for poultry by-product meal.

    PubMed

    Tortola, L; Souza, N G; Zaine, L; Gomes, M O S; Matheus, L F O; Vasconcellos, R S; Pereira, G T; Carciofi, A C

    2013-05-01

    The effects of exogenous enzymes supplementation on kibble diets for dogs formulated with soybean meal (SBM) as a substitute for poultry by-product meal (PM) was investigated on nutrient digestibility, fermentation products formation, post-prandial urea response and selected faecal bacteria counts. Two kibble diets with similar compositions were used in two trials: PM-based diet (28.9% of PM; soybean hulls as a fibre source) and SBM-based diet (29.9% of SBM). In experiment 1, the SBM diet was divided into three diets: SBM-0, without enzyme addition; SBM-1, covered after extrusion with 7500 U protease/kg and 45 U cellulase/kg; and SBM-2, covered with 15,000 U protease/kg and 90 U cellulase/kg. In experiment 2, the SBM diet was divided into three diets: SBM-0; SBM-1, covered with 140 U protease/kg; 8 U cellulase/kg, 800 U pectinase/kg, 60 U phytase/kg, 40 U betaglucanase/kg and 20 U xylanase/kg; and SMB-2, covered with 700 U protease/kg, 40 U cellulase/kg, 4000 U pectinase/kg, 300 U phytase/kg, 200 U betaglucanase/kg and 100 U xylanase/kg. Each experiment followed a block design with six dogs per diet. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means compared by orthogonal and polynomial contrasts (p < 0.05). In both experiments, nutrients and energy digestibility did not differ between diets (p > 0.05). SBM consumption resulted in increased faecal moisture and production (p < 0.05), without effect on faecal score. Higher concentration of propionate, acetate and lactate, and lower ammonia and pH were found in the faeces of dogs fed SBM (p < 0.05). Higher post-prandial urea was verified in dogs fed SBM (p < 0.05). In experiment 2, the addition of enzymes increased faecal concentration of propionate, acetate and total short-chain fatty acid (p < 0.05) and tended to reduce post-prandial urea concentration (p = 0.06). Although with similar digestibility, SBM shows a worse utilization of absorbed amino acids than the PM. Soybean oligosaccharides can beneficially

  5. Nitrogen utilization from diets with refined and blended poultry by-products as partial fish meal replacements in diets for low-salinity cultured Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three trials were performed to evaluate partial fish meal (FM) replacement with poultry by-products in a practical-type diet for Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus reared in low-salinity. Two refined and blended meals (BP67, BP70), two chicken concentrates (CC66, CC70) and one standard pet-food ...

  6. Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility in dry-extruded expelled soybean meal, extruded canola seed-pea, feather meal, and poultry by-product meal for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bandegan, A; Kiarie, E; Payne, R L; Crow, G H; Guenter, W; Nyachoti, C M

    2010-12-01

    Ileal digestibility of amino acids (AA) in dry-extruded expelled soybean meal (DESBM), co-extruded canola seed-pea blend (ECSP, 50:50 wt/wt basis), poultry by-product meal (PBPM), and feather meal (FM) were determined in broiler chicks. For each ingredient, 5 samples each collected on different occasions were evaluated. Birds (n = 180 for each sample) were fed a commercial starter diet from d 1 to 15 of age followed by the test diets from d 15 to 21. Dry-extruded expelled soybean meal, ECSP, PBPM, and FM were included in the test diets at 95.3, 95.3, 38.4, and 28.4%, respectively, as the sole source of AA and balanced for minerals and vitamins. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was included in all diets as a digestibility marker. Each diet (5 per ingredient) was randomly assigned to 6 replicate cages, each with 6 birds. On d 21, birds were killed to collect ileal digesta for determining the apparent ileal AA digestibility on cage basis. The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) values were calculated using ileal endogenous AA losses previously determined in our laboratory. The apparent ileal digestibility of AA ranged from 78 to 91%, 68 to 83%, 51 to 81%, and 39 to 74% for DESBM, ECSP, PBPM, and FM, respectively. The respective ranges for SID values were 83 to 96%, 72 to 85%, 58 to 86%, and 42 to 78%. Among the indispensable AA, the lowest SID was observed for Thr in all test ingredients, whereas the highest SID was observed for Phe except in ECSP in which Arg had the highest SID. The SID of Lys (CV) were 91% (2.8%), 79% (2.0%), 78% (7.4%), and 60% (10%) for DESBM, ECSP, PBPM, and FM, respectively, whereas the SID of TSAA (CV) were 88% (4.5%), 77% (2.4%), 74% (9.0%), and 55% (18%), respectively. These SID AA data will help nutritionists to formulate broiler diets that more closely match the birds' requirements and minimize nutrient excess.

  7. A study on the meat and bone meal or poultry by-product meal as protein substitutes of fishmeal in concentrated diets for Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Baigang; Hu, Yangjiang; Yu, Yu

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) as the replacement of fishmeal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). The experimental diets included 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% MBM or PBM replacement of total fishmeal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric. The results showed that there are no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among the treatments fed with 0% 60% MBM replacement of fishmeal, while the percent weight gain (WG, %), body length gain (BLG, %) and ADC significantly decrease when fishmeal is replaced by 80% MBM. The result showed also that there are no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance and ADC among all treatments fed with the diets with 0% 80% replacements of fishmeal with PBM.

  8. Fish protein substrates can substitute effectively for poultry by-product meal when incorporated in high-quality senior dog diets.

    PubMed

    Zinn, K E; Hernot, D C; Fastinger, N D; Karr-Lilienthal, L K; Bechtel, P J; Swanson, K S; Fahey, G C

    2009-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to analytically define several novel fish substrates and determine the effects of feeding diets containing these substrates on total tract nutrient digestibilities and on immune status of senior dogs. The control diet contained poultry by-product meal while test diets contained 20% milt meal (MM), pink salmon hydrolysate (PSH) and white fish meal (WFM) added at the expense of poultry by-product meal. Concentrations of lymphocytes positive for CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD21 cell-surface markers and immunoglobulin concentrations were measured. Gene expression of cytokines tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-, interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Major compositional differences were noted among fish substrates but apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients and immune indices were not affected by treatment. Fish protein substrates were found to be effective substitutes for poultry by-product meal, providing diets of high nutritive value for senior dogs.

  9. Increasing prepartum dietary crude protein using poultry by-product meal dose not influence performance of multiparous Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yazdi, M Hossein; Amanlou, H; Mahjoubi, E

    2009-11-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two levels of Crude Protein (CP) using Poultry by-Product Meal (PBPM) fed during late gestation on the performance, blood metabolites and colostrum composition of Holstein cows. Twenty multiparous cows 26 +/- 6 days before expected calving were assigned randomly to two treatments containing 1) 140 g kg(-1) DM CP (34 g kg(-1) DM PBPM) 2) 160 g kg(-1) DM CP (75 g kg(-1) DM PBPM). The cow's BCS was 3.56 +/- 0.5 on average, at the beginning of the trial. Yields of milk, protein, lactose and fat were not affected by prepartum dietary CP level. Colostrum composition (fat, CP and total solids percents), blood metabolites (Ca, glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea N and cholesterol) and metabolic diseases incidence were not influenced by prepartum dietary CP level. There was no significant difference between treatments in body weight and BCS changes. As expected, blood urea N before calving was higher in the cows fed 160 g kg(-1) DM CP diets (p < 0.002). Serum cholesterol during prepartum (p < 0.03) and postpartum (p < 0.01) periods was significantly lower in 160 g kg(-1) DM CP treatment. In general, although postpartum glucose level increased in cows which received 160 g kg(-1) DM CP in the diet, it seems that there is no other obvious advantages over feeding the 140 g kg(-1) DM CP diet. So feeding this level of CP diet to close up cows is recommended.

  10. Growth and feed efficiency of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed formulated diets containing different levels of poultry by-product meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen; Zheng, Shixuan

    2009-12-01

    This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60 d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower ( P<0.05) growth than those fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). Shrimp fed diets 2-4 (30%-50% fish meal replacement) showed significantly higher growth than those fed diets 6 and 7 (70% and 100% fish meal replacement, respectively). Survival ranged from 94.7% to 100.0% and did not differ significantly ( P>0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litop enaeus vannamei.

  11. Nutritional evaluation of poultry by-product meal as a protein source for ruminants: effects on performance and nutrient flow and disappearance in steers.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, D W; Larson, B T; Bauer, M L; Branco, A F; McLeod, K R; Harmon, D L; Mitchell, G E

    1998-09-01

    We conducted three studies with steers to evaluate poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a supplemental N source for ruminants. An in situ study compared the solubility, degradation rate, and ruminal escape of PBM N with blood meal (BM), corn gluten meal (CGM), and soybean meal (SBM) N. Additionally, an 84-d growth study (n = 95, 228+/-5 kg BW) and a digestion trial (6 x 6 Latin square) were conducted. The basal diet for the growth and digestion studies consisted of 49% corn silage, 36% cottonseed hulls, and 15% supplement (DM basis). Sources of supplemental N (% of total supplemental N) were 100% SBM and 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% PBM, with urea used to balance for N. In situ ruminal escape N (25.2, 55.3, 86.7, and 98.9% for SBM, PBM, CGM, and BM, respectively) was greater (P < .05) for PBM than for SBM; however, a greater (P < .05) proportion of BM and CGM N escaped ruminal degradation compared with PBM. Dry matter intake, ADG and gain/ feed increased linearly (P < .003) as PBM increased; however, no differences (P > .48) were observed in these variables for 100% PBM compared with 100% SBM. Duodenal N flow and small intestinal N disappearance increased linearly (P < .05) as PBM increased in the diet. Bacterial N flow to the small intestine was not affected (P > .19) by treatment; however, 100% SBM decreased (P < .04) bacterial CP synthesis (g bacterial N/kg OM disappearance from the stomach) compared with 0 and 100% PBM. In vivo ruminal escape N of PBM and SBM was 40.6 and 13.7%, respectively. Ruminal NH3 N decreased linearly (P < .001) as PBM increased. These data suggest that PBM can replace SBM as a source of supplemental N for steer calves that consume a diet based on corn silage and cottonseed hulls.

  12. Effects of inclusion of poultry by-product meal and enzyme-prebiotic supplementation in grower diets on performance and feed digestibility of broilers.

    PubMed

    Kirkpinar, F; Açikgöz, Z; Bozkurt, M; Ayhan, V

    2004-04-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of level of inclusion of poultry by-product and enzyme-prebiotic supplementation on grower diet digestibility and the performance of broilers. 2. Six grower diets were formulated to provide a similar nutrient profile with the exception of using three graded levels of poultry by-product, namely 0, 25, 40 g/kg of the diet with and without supplementation of enzyme preparation at the rate of 1 kg per tonne of feed and prebiotic preparation at the rate of 2 kg per tonne of feed. The experimental diets were used from 3 to 6 weeks of age. 3. Body weights, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency were not affected by poultry by-product; however, enzyme-prebiotic had a significant positive effect on feed conversion efficiency at 0 to 6 weeks in experiment 1. 4. Crude protein digestibility was decreased by feeding the diet containing poultry by-product while ether extract digestibility was increased by poultry by-product at the rate of 25 g per kg of feed only. Dry matter retention, crude fibre digestibility and organic matter retention were not affected by poultry by-product. Dry matter and organic matter retentions, crude protein, ether extract and crude fibre digestibilities were not affected by enzyme-prebiotic. 5. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) values were increased by poultry by-product at the rate of 40 g per kg of feed and addition of enzyme-prebiotic.

  13. Nutritional evaluation of poultry by-product meal as a protein source for ruminants: small intestinal amino acid flow and disappearance in steers.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, D W; Larson, B T; Bauer, M L; Branco, A F; McLeod, K R; Harmon, D L; Mitchell, G E

    1999-04-01

    Six Angus steers (260+/-4 kg initial BW) fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square design to evaluate the effect of feeding poultry by-product meal (PBM) on small intestinal flow and disappearance of amino acids. The diets were provided at 2% of BW on a DM basis, formulated to contain 11.5% CP, and consisted of 49% corn silage, 36% cottonseed hulls, and 15% supplement on a DM basis. Supplements were formulated to contain 37% CP with sources of supplemental N being soybean meal (100% SBM) and 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% PBM, with urea used to balance for N. Duodenal flow of all amino acids increased linearly (P < .07) as PBM increased in the diet and, except for His, increased (P < .09) for 100% PBM compared with 100% SBM. Similar results were observed for duodenal flow of nonbacterial amino acids, which linearly increased (P < .05) with PBM and were greater (P < .05) for 100% PBM than for 100% SBM. Soybean meal increased (P < .09) the duodenal flow of nonbacterial Lys compared with 0% PBM, and 0% PBM increased (P < .04) flow of Val, Ala, and Pro compared with 100% SBM. Duodenal bacterial essential, nonessential, and total amino acid flows were not affected (P > .80) by PBM; however, they were greater (P < .02) for 100% SBM than for 100% PBM. In addition, nonessential and total bacterial amino acid flows were increased (P < .06) for 100% SBM compared with 0% PBM. Small intestinal disappearance of Lys and Pro increased linearly (P < .09) as PBM increased, and 100% PBM increased (P < .07) disappearance of Arg and Ala compared with 100% SBM. Supplemental N source had no effect (P > .31) on apparent small intestinal disappearance of essential, nonessential, and total amino acids. These data suggest that when PBM, SBM, and urea were used as sources of supplemental N, the daily disappearance of amino acids from the small intestine of steer calves consuming a corn silage- and cottonseed hull-based diet was similar.

  14. Bio-ag reutilization of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a substrate for black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens, along with poultry by-product meal and soybean meal, as total replacement of fish meal in

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, juveniles (mean initial weight, 2.66 g) to examine total replacement of menhaden fish meal (FM) with distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which had been used as substrate for the production of black ...

  15. Arsenic species in poultry feather meal.

    PubMed

    Nachman, K E; Raber, G; Francesconi, K A; Navas-Acien, A; Love, D C

    2012-02-15

    Organoarsenical drugs are widely used in the production of broiler chickens in the United States. Feathers from these chickens are processed into a meal product that is used as an animal feed additive and as an organic fertilizer. Research conducted to date suggests that arsenical drugs, specifically roxarsone, used in poultry production result in the accumulation of arsenic in the keratinous material of poultry feathers. The use of feather meal product in the human food system and in other settings may result in human exposures to arsenic. Consequently, the presence and nature of arsenic in twelve samples of feather meal product from six US states and China were examined. Since arsenic toxicity is highly species-dependent, speciation analysis using HPLC/ICPMS was performed to determine the biological relevance of detected arsenic. Arsenic was detected in all samples (44-4100 μg kg(-1)) and speciation analyses revealed that inorganic forms of arsenic dominated, representing 37 - 83% of total arsenic. Roxarsone was not detected in the samples (<20 μg As kg(-1)). Feather meal products represent a previously unrecognized source of arsenic in the food system, and may pose additional risks to humans as a result of its use as an organic fertilizer and when animal waste is managed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy and digestibility of amino acids in chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, hydrolyzed porcine intestines, a spent hen-soybean meal mixture, and conventional soybean meal fed to weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Rojas, O J; Stein, H H

    2013-07-01

    greater (P < 0.01) than in chicken meal and hydrolyzed porcine intestines, and with the exception of Arg and Val, SID values of all indispensable AA in the spent hen-SBM mixture were greater than in poultry byproduct meal. However, with the exception of Val and Lys, there were no differences between chicken meal and poultry byproduct meal. In conclusion, the ME in hydrolyzed porcine intestines and the spent hen-SBM mixture is greater than in chicken meal, but not different from the ME of SBM. Poultry by product meal provides more ME than SBM, chicken meal, and the spent hen-SBM mixture, and the SID of most indispensable AA is greater in the spent hen-SBM mixture than in chicken meal, poultry byproduct meal, and hydrolyzed porcine intestines, but less than in SBM.

  17. Protein quality of various raw and rendered by-product meals commonly incorporated into companion animal diets.

    PubMed

    Cramer, K R; Greenwood, M W; Moritz, J S; Beyer, R S; Parsons, C M

    2007-12-01

    Several experiments were conducted to evaluate the protein quality of various raw and rendered animal by-product meals commonly used in companion animal diets. Six freeze-dried raw animal meals (beef lungs, pork lungs, sheep lungs, pork livers, oceanfish, chicken necks) and 3 rendered animal meals (lamb meal, regular ash poultry by-product meal, and low ash poultry by-product meal) were fed in chick assays to determine Lys and TSAA bioavailability, protein efficiency ratio (PER), and net protein ratio (NPR). Each experimental diet was offered to 4 replicates of 5 chicks per pen in all growth assays. Furthermore, each animal by-product meal was fed to mature White Leghorn roosters for determination of true AA digestibility. All freeze-dried, raw animal meals were offered to 5 replicate roosters, and all rendered animal meals were offered to 4 replicate roosters. Most raw animal meals exhibited moderate to high protein quality. Lysine bio-availabilities ranged from 86 to 107% and 70 to 99% for raw and rendered animal meals, respectively. Bio-availability of TSAA ranged from 64 to 99% and 61 to 78% for raw and rendered animal meals, respectively. The PER values ranged from 2.83 to 4.03 and 2.01 to 3.34 for raw and rendered animal meals, respectively. The NPR values ranged from 3.83 to 4.8 and 3.05 to 4.12 for raw and rendered animal meals, respectively. Despite a numeric increase in NPR vs. PER values, the overall ranking of animal meals remained similar. Lamb meal had the poorest PER and NPR values, and pork lungs had the greatest values. Total essential AA digestibility and total AA digestibility ranged from 93.6 to 96.7 and 90.3 to 95.5%, respectively, for raw animal meals and 84.0 to 87.7 and 79.2 to 84.8%, respectively, for rendered animal meals. Rendered animal meals generally had lower protein quality than raw animal meals, with lamb meal consistently having the poorest protein quality and pork livers having the greatest protein quality.

  18. Nutritional evaluation of canola meals produced from new varieties of canola seeds for poultry.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Parr, C; Utterback, P; Parsons, C M

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the nutritional value of 14 canola meals from new varieties of canola and compared them to conventional canola meal samples and soybean meals in chickens. Five experiments that included different sources of canola meals or soybean meals were conducted. For each experiment, a precision-fed rooster assay with conventional or cecectomized roosters was conducted to determine TMEn or amino acid digestibility. Analyzed nutritional composition of the canola meal samples indicated increases in crude protein and amino acids for all test canola meals (49.41 to 50.58% crude protein on a dry matter basis) compared to conventional canola meals (40.73 to 43.01%). All test canola meals also contained lower amounts of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. Most test canola meals had significantly higher TMEn values than the conventional canola meals (P < 0.05), but all were lower than the soybean meal (P < 0.05). The test canola meals had higher amino acid digestibility coefficients than conventional canola meals in Experiments 1, 2, and 4 (P < 0.05), and higher concentrations of digestible amino acids in all 5 experiments. The results of this study indicated that nutritional value of the canola meal from new varieties of canola was greater than conventional canola meal for poultry. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Campylobacter contamination in retail poultry meats and by-products in the world: a literature survey.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hodaka; Yamamoto, Shigeki

    2009-03-01

    Campylobacter species are common bacterial pathogens associated with human gastroenteritis worldwide. In North America, Europe and Japan, campylobacteriosis is one of the leading food-borne bacterial illnesses and the consumption of poultry meats and/or by-products is suspected a major cause of the illness. In this survey, we summarized the research papers describing Campylobacter contamination of retail poultry meats and by-products in various countries of the world. In most of the countries, a majority of retail poultry meats and by-products were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. C. jejuni was usually the dominant Campylobacter species isolated from retail poultry and C. coli was less frequently isolated, although the ratio of C. coli to C. jejuni was considerably different among the countries. However, in Thailand and South Africa, C. coli was the dominant Campylobacter species isolated from retail poultry. A large portion of retail poultry was contaminated with Campylobacter spp. in the world; therefore, further trials are required for finding proper countermeasures and attention should be paid for the sanitary handling of poultry products.

  20. Isolation and Identification of Campylobacter spp. from Poultry and Poultry By-Products in Tunisia by Conventional Culture Method and Multiplex Real-Time PCR.

    PubMed

    Jribi, Hela; Sellami, Hanen; Mariam, Siala; Smaoui, Salma; Ghorbel, Asma; Hachicha, Salma; Benejat, Lucie; Messadi-Akrout, Feriel; Mégraud, Francis; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2017-10-01

    Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. are one of the primary causes of bacterial human diarrhea. The consumption of poultry meats, by-products, or both is suspected to be a major cause of human campylobacteriosis. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in fresh poultry meat and poultry by-products by conventional culture methods and to confirm Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates by using the multiplex PCR assay. Two hundred fifty fresh poultry samples were collected from a variety of supermarkets and slaughterhouses located in Sfax, Tunisia, including chicken (n =149) and turkey (n =101). The samples were analyzed using conventional microbiological examinations according to the 2006 International Organization for Standardization method (ISO 10272-1) for Campylobacter spp. Concurrently, a real-time PCR was used for identification of C. jejuni and C. coli . Of the 250 samples of poultry meat and poultry by-products, 25.6% (n = 64) were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. The highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was found in chicken meat (26.8%) followed by turkey meat (23.7%). Among the different products, poultry breasts showed the highest contamination (36.6%) followed by poultry by-products (30%), poultry wings (28%) and poultry legs (26%) showed the lowest contamination, and no contamination was found on neck skin. Of the 64 thermophilic Campylobacter isolates, C. jejuni (59.7%) was the most frequently isolated species and 10.9% of the isolates were identified as C. coli . All of the 64 Campylobacter isolates identified by the conventional culture methods were further confirmed by PCR. The seasonal peak of Campylobacter spp. contamination was in the warm seasons (spring and summer). The study concluded that high proportions of poultry meat and poultry by-products marketed in Tunisia are contaminated by Campylobacter spp. Furthermore, to ensure food safety, poultry meats must be properly cooked

  1. Expellor extracted rape and safflower oilseed meals for poultry and sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.M.; Katz, R.J.; Auld, D.A.; Petersen, C.F.; Sauter, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to evaluate the feeding value of on-the-farm expellor extracted rape (RSM) and safflower (SM) oilseed meals for poultry and sheep. Rapeseed meal and SM contained 30.7 and 25.8% crude protein (CP) and 21.7 and 8.7% fat, respectively. Rapeseed meal contained a total glucosinolate concentration of 78.3 ..mu..moles/g. A 22-day feeding trial was conducted with 6-day-old chicks. Rapeseed meal and SM replaced 25 or 50% of the soybean meal (SBM) protein in isonitrogenous (23% CP), isocaloric (3250 kcal ME/kg) diets. Birds fed SBM and 25 or 50% SM consumed more (P < .01) daily feed and gained more (P < .01) per day than those fed 25 or 50% RSM. Birds fed RSM had enlarged thyroid glands in comparison to those fed SMB. Two lamb digestion trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing cottonseed meal (CSM) protein with either RSM or SM on nitrogen utilization and DM digestibility. Replacing 100% of the CSM protein with RSM had no effect (P > .05) on dry matter digestibility and N utilization. Nitrogen balance studies indicate that expellor extracted SM may replace up to 75% of the CSM protein in diets for wethers. 8 tables.

  2. Analysis of pork and poultry meat and bone meal mixture using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Mirae; Lee, Hoonsoo; Torres, Irina; Garrido Varo, Ana; Pérez Marín, Dolores; Kim, Moon S.

    2017-05-01

    Meat and bone meal (MBM) has been banned as animal feed for ruminants since 2001 because it is the source of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Moreover, many countries have banned the use of MBM as animal feed for not only ruminants but other farm animals as well, to prevent potential outbreak of BSE. Recently, the EU has introduced use of some MBM in feeds for different animal species, such as poultry MBM for swine feed and pork MBM for poultry feed, for economic reasons. In order to authenticate the MBM species origin, species-specific MBM identification methods are needed. Various spectroscopic and spectral imaging techniques have allowed rapid and non-destructive quality assessments of foods and animal feeds. The objective of this study was to develop rapid and accurate methods to differentiate pork MBM from poultry MBM using short-wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging techniques. Results from a preliminary investigation of hyperspectral imaging for assessing pork and poultry MBM characteristics and quantitative analysis of poultry-pork MBM mixtures are presented in this paper.

  3. Effects of replacing fishmeal with animal by-products meal supplementation in diets on the growth and nutrient utilization of mangrove red snapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Khalid; Abbas, Ghulam; Akhtar, Rukhsana; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing

    2007-07-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 75 d to evaluate the nutritive value of a mixture of animal by-products (MAB) as a possible protein source in diets for juvenile mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (mean initial body weight, 30 g). Fish were fed one of five isonitrogenous diets (40% crude protein) replacing 0, 25% (MAB25), 50% (MAB50), 75% (MAB75) and 100% (MAB100) of fish meal protein with similar percentages of MAB. The MAB consisted of 25% cow liver meal, 20% leather meal, 20% meat and bone meal, 15% blood meal, 10% APC (poultry feather meal), 8% poultry manure dried, 1.5% choline and 0.5% chromic oxide. After 75 d of feeding, fish fed with diets MAB50, MAB75 and MAB100 exhibited significantly lower growth performance than that of fish fed with control and MAB25 diets. The optimum level of MAB was estimated to be 23%. Replacement of fish meal by MAB23% showed the following performance: maximum weight gain, 510%; SGR, 2.39% and FCE, 2.83%. The MAB substitution up to 75% of fish meal protein in diets did not show differences in apparent protein digestibility (83.6% for MAB25, 79.2% for MAB50, 78.7% for MAB75) compared with control (83.4%), whereas in MAB100 group digestibility (65.3%) was significantly lower than in other groups. The apparent phosphorus absorption of test diet groups was significantly higher (37.1% for MAB25, 28.5% for MAB50, 55.6% for MAB75 and 54.5% for MAB100) than that of control (11.2%). The levels of protein and ash in the whole body, carcass and viscera increased as MAB substitution in diets increased, whereas lipids and moisture remained consistent among all treatment groups. These results showed that approximately 23% of fish meal protein could be replaced by a mixture of animal by-products for juvenile snapper growing from 30 g to 167 g in 75 d without compromising growth performance and feed efficiency.

  4. Prediction of crude protein digestibility of animal by-product meals for dogs by the protein solubility in pepsin method.

    PubMed

    Kawauchi, Iris M; Sakomura, Nilva K; Pontieri, Cristiana F F; Rebelato, Aline; Putarov, Thaila C; Malheiros, Euclides B; Gomes, Márcia de O S; Castrillo, Carlos; Carciofi, Aulus C

    2014-01-01

    Animal by-product meals have large variability in crude protein (CP) content and digestibility. In vivo digestibility procedures are precise but laborious, and in vitro methods could be an alternative to evaluate and classify these ingredients. The present study reports prediction equations to estimate the CP digestibility of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PM) using the protein solubility in pepsin method (PSP). Total tract CP digestibility of eight MBM and eight PM samples was determined in dogs by the substitution method. A basal diet was formulated for dog maintenance, and sixteen diets were produced by mixing 70 % of the basal diet and 30 % of each tested meal. Six dogs per diet were used to determine ingredient digestibility. In addition, PSP of the MBM and PM samples was determined using three pepsin concentrations: 0·02, 0·002 and 0·0002 %. The CP content of MBM and PM ranged from 39 to 46 % and 57 to 69 %, respectively, and their mean CP digestibility by dogs was 76 (2·4) and 85 (2·6) %, respectively. The pepsin concentration with higher Pearson correlation coefficients with the in vivo results were 0·0002 % for MBM (r 0·380; P = 0·008) and 0·02 % for PM (r 0·482; P = 0·005). The relationship between the in vivo and in vitro results was better explained by the following equations: CP digestibility of MBM = 61·7 + 0·2644 × PSP at 0·0002 % (P = 0·008; R (2) 0·126); and CP digestibility of PM = 54·1 + 0·3833 × PSP at 0·02 % (P = 0·005; R (2) 0·216). Although significant, the coefficients of determination were low, indicating that the models were weak and need to be used with caution.

  5. Factors that affect the nutritive value of canola meal for poultry.

    PubMed

    Khajali, F; Slominski, B A

    2012-10-01

    This article reviews the factors affecting the nutritive value of canola meal (CM), including glucosinolates, sinapine, phytic acid, tannins, dietary fiber, and electrolyte balance. It also addresses the means of improving the nutritive value of CM throughout seed dehulling, development of low-fiber canola, or application of feed enzymes. Over the years, the glucosinolate content of canola has been declining steadily and is now only about one-twelfth of that of the older high-glucosinolate rapeseed (that is, 10 vs. 120 μmol/g). Therefore, the rations for broilers or laying hens could now contain 20% of CM without producing any adverse effects. Tannins are of lesser importance due to their presence in the hull fraction and thus low water solubility. Sinapine has been implicated with the production of a "fishy" taint in brown-shelled eggs, which results from a genetic defect among the strain of Rhode Island Red laying hens. The White Leghorns have been reported not to be affected. Although lower in protein, CM compares favorably with soybean meal with regard to amino acid content. Because CM contains more methionine and cysteine but less lysine, both meals tend to complement each other when used together in poultry diets. Canola meal is low in arginine (Arg) which could be of importance when introducing CM to broiler diets at high inclusion rates. The Arg content of CM is approximately two-thirds of that of soybean meal. Chickens fail to synthesize Arg and are highly dependent on dietary sources for this amino acid. Supplementation of Arg to CM-based diets has been shown to partly restore the growth performance. Dietary cation-anion difference in CM is also less than optimal due to the high sulfur and low potassium contents. Seed dehulling has not been very successful due to excessive fineness and thus difficulties with percolation of the miscella through the cake. Development of low-fiber, yellow-seeded canola and the use of enzymes have proven to increase the

  6. Assessment of Aflatoxin Contamination of Maize, Peanut Meal and Poultry Feed Mixtures from Different Agroecological Zones in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Kana, Jean Raphaël; Gnonlonfin, Benoit Gbemenou Joselin; Harvey, Jagger; Wainaina, James; Wanjuki, Immaculate; Skilton, Robert A.; Teguia, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Mycotoxins affect poultry production by being present in the feed and directly causing a negative impact on bird performance. Carry-over rates of mycotoxins in animal products are, in general, small (except for aflatoxins in milk and eggs) therefore representing a small source of mycotoxins for humans. Mycotoxins present directly in human food represent a much higher risk. The contamination of poultry feed by aflatoxins was determined as a first assessment of this risk in Cameroon. A total of 201 samples of maize, peanut meal, broiler and layer feeds were collected directly at poultry farms, poultry production sites and poultry feed dealers in three agroecological zones (AEZs) of Cameroon and analyzed for moisture content and aflatoxin levels. The results indicate that the mean of the moisture content of maize (14.1%) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than all other commodities (10.0%–12.7%). Approximately 9% of maize samples were positive for aflatoxin, with concentrations overall ranging from <2 to 42 µg/kg. Most of the samples of peanut meal (100%), broiler (93.3%) and layer feeds (83.0%) were positive with concentrations of positive samples ranging from 39 to 950 µg/kg for peanut meal, 2 to 52 µg/kg for broiler feed and 2 to 23 µg/kg for layer feed. The aflatoxin content of layer feed did not vary by AEZ, while the highest (16.8 µg/kg) and the lowest (8.2 µg/kg) aflatoxin content of broiler feed were respectively recorded in Western High Plateau and in Rainforest agroecological zones. These results suggest that peanut meal is likely to be a high risk feed, and further investigation is needed to guide promotion of safe feeds for poultry in Cameroon. PMID:23628785

  7. Assessment of aflatoxin contamination of maize, peanut meal and poultry feed mixtures from different agroecological zones in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Kana, Jean Raphaël; Gnonlonfin, Benoit Gbemenou Joselin; Harvey, Jagger; Wainaina, James; Wanjuki, Immaculate; Skilton, Robert A; Teguia, Alexis

    2013-04-29

    Mycotoxins affect poultry production by being present in the feed and directly causing a negative impact on bird performance. Carry-over rates of mycotoxins in animal products are, in general, small (except for aflatoxins in milk and eggs) therefore representing a small source of mycotoxins for humans. Mycotoxins present directly in human food represent a much higher risk. The contamination of poultry feed by aflatoxins was determined as a first assessment of this risk in Cameroon. A total of 201 samples of maize, peanut meal, broiler and layer feeds were collected directly at poultry farms, poultry production sites and poultry feed dealers in three agroecological zones (AEZs) of Cameroon and analyzed for moisture content and aflatoxin levels. The results indicate that the mean of the moisture content of maize (14.1%) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than all other commodities (10.0%-12.7%). Approximately 9% of maize samples were positive for aflatoxin, with concentrations overall ranging from ≤2 to 42 µg/kg. Most of the samples of peanut meal (100%), broiler (93.3%) and layer feeds (83.0%) were positive with concentrations of positive samples ranging from 39 to 950 µg/kg for peanut meal, 2 to 52 µg/kg for broiler feed and 2 to 23 µg/kg for layer feed. The aflatoxin content of layer feed did not vary by AEZ, while the highest (16.8 µg/kg) and the lowest (8.2 µg/kg) aflatoxin content of broiler feed were respectively recorded in Western High Plateau and in Rainforest agroecological zones. These results suggest that peanut meal is likely to be a high risk feed, and further investigation is needed to guide promotion of safe feeds for poultry in Cameroon.

  8. Effect of pressure processing on amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meal for poultry.

    PubMed

    Shirley, R B; Parsons, C M

    2000-12-01

    In the future, it may become desirable or required to process meat and bone meal (MBM) under pressure to reduce human health concerns associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Therefore, three experiments evaluated the effects of different processing pressures on the digestibility of amino acids (AA) in MBM when the pressure processing was done after typical rendering (Experiments 1 and 2) or during the initial rendering process of raw materials (Experiment 3). Processing pressures varied from 0 to 60 psi in experimental or commercial feather meal cookers. Increasing pressure during processing reduced MBM Cys concentrations in Experiments 1 and 2. True digestibilities of most AA were significantly decreased by increasing pressures in Experiments 1 and 2, and reductions were generally largest for Cys and Lys, particularly Cys, and increased with severity as pressure increased. For example, in Experiment 1, Cys digestibility decreased from 65 to 50 to 15%, and Lys digestibility decreased from 76 to 68 to 41% as the MBM was processed at 0, 30, and 60 psi, respectively, for 20 min. When the pressure processing occurred during the initial rendering of the MBM raw material (Experiment 3), a significant reduction in digestibility of most AA was observed only at 60 psi, and the decrease was much less than that observed in Experiments 1 and 2. Our results indicate that pressure processing of MBM decreases the digestibility of AA for poultry. Thus, pressure processing of MBM to reduce potential BSE infectivity will likely decrease the nutritional value of the MBM.

  9. Evaluation of standardized ileal digestible valine:lysine, total lysine:crude protein, and replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline amino acids on growth performance of nursery pigs from seven to twelve kilograms.

    PubMed

    Nemechek, J E; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M

    2014-04-01

    Five experiments were conducted to evaluate replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline AA for 7- to 12-kg pigs. In all experiments, pigs (PIC TR4 × 1050) were fed a common diet for 3 d postweaning, treatment diets for 14 d (d 0 to 14), and, again, a common diet for 14 d (d 14 to 28). Treatment diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.30% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys. Experiment 1 evaluated replacing dietary fish meal with crystalline AA. For the 6 treatments, crystalline Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Ile, Val, Gln, and Gly all increased to maintain minimum AA ratios as fish meal decreased (4.50, 3.60, 2.70, 1.80, and 0.90 to 0.00%). There was no difference in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among treatments, validating a low-CP, AA-fortified diet for subsequent experiments. Experiment 2 evaluated deleting crystalline AA from a low-CP, AA-fortified diet with 6 treatments: 1) a positive control similar to the diet validated in Exp. 1, 2) positive control with l-Ile deleted, 3) positive control with l-Trp deleted, 4) positive control with l-Val deleted, 5) positive control with l-Gln and l-Gly deleted, and 6) positive control with l-Ile, l-Trp, l-Val, l-Gln, and l-Gly deleted (NC). Pigs fed the positive control or Ile deleted diet had improved (P < 0.05) ADG and ADFI during d 0 to 14 compared with pigs fed diets with l-Trp or l-Val deleted or NC. Experiment 3 evaluated 6 treatments with total Lys:CP of 6.79, 6.92, 7.06, 7.20, 7.35, and 7.51%. Fish meal was adjusted as a source of dispensable N to achieve the target Lys:CP. There were no differences in growth performance among pigs fed different Lys:CP diets. Experiment 4 evaluated increasing SID Val:Lys with Val at 57.4, 59.9, 62.3, 64.7, 67.2, and 69.6% of Lys. Average daily gain and ADFI increased (quadratic, P < 0.01) and G:F improved (linear, P = 0.02) during d 0 to 14 as Val:Lys increased from 57.4 to 64.7%. Experiment 5 was a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of

  10. Poultry offal meal in chicken: traceability using the technique of carbon (13C/12C)- and nitrogen (15N/14N)-stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Cruz, V C; Araújo, P C; Sartori, J R; Pezzato, A C; Denadai, J C; Polycarpo, G V; Zanetti, L H; Ducatti, C

    2012-02-01

    Studies on the detection of animal by-products in poultry meat are rare and practically nonexistent in chicken meat. With the development of the technique of stable isotopes for traceability purposes and the certification of broiler diet patterns, it has been necessary to know the behavior of the isotopic signature of different tissues in birds, in case of a potential replacement of a diet containing animal ingredients with a strictly vegetable one and vice versa. Thus, this study, carried out at the São Paulo State University, Botucatu Campus, Brazil, aimed to evaluate meat from the breast, thigh, drumstick, and wings to trace the presence of poultry offal meal (OM) in broiler feed using the analysis of stable isotopes of carbon ((13)C/(12)C) and nitrogen ((15)N/(14)N) by mass spectrometry. In total, 720 one-d-old chicks were distributed into 6 groups: vegetable diet (VD) from 1 to 42 d; 8% poultry offal meal (OM) diet from 1 to 42 d; VD from 1 to 21 d and 8% OM diet from 22 to 42 d; VD from 1 to 35 d and 8% OM diet from 36 to 42 d; 8% OM diet from 1 to 21 d and VD from 22 to 42 d; and 8% OM diet from 1 to 35 d and VD from 36 to 42 d. Through the analysis of C and N, it is possible to trace the use of OM in broiler feeding when this ingredient is part of the feeding throughout the breeding phase or when it substitutes a strictly VD even up to 35 d. When an OM diet is substituted by a VD, the animal ingredient has to be part of the feeding for 21 d or longer to be detected by this method.

  11. Replacement of fish meal protein by surimi by-product protein in the diet of blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, K N; Subramanian, S; Korikanthimath, V S

    2013-02-01

    Based on the nutrient requirement of Trichogaster trichopterus, a fish meal-based basal diet with 350 g/kg diet crude protein and 16.7 MJ/kg energy was formulated, in which the fish meal protein was replaced by surimi by-product protein at 0.0 (control), 12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels. The formulated diets were fed ad libitum to T. trichopterus fingerlings (4.80 ± 0.03 g) in triplicate groups for 45 days in a closed water system. Eighteen fibre-reinforced plastic tanks with 200 l of water were used for rearing the fish. Weight gain, specific growth rate, feed/gain ratio, protein efficiency ratio, nutrient retention and digestibility (protein and energy) of fish were not affected (p > 0.05) up to 50% fish meal protein replacement level by surimi by-product protein. While whole-body protein content of fish was marginally decreased, the lipid content was increased with increase in surumi by-product incorporation level in the diet. The study results suggest that the fish meal protein, which is scarce and costly nowadays, could be replaced up to 50% by surimi by-product protein in the diet of blue gourami without hampering the growth and nutrient utilization of fish.

  12. Use of biofuel by-product from the green algae Desmochloris sp. and diatom Nanofrustulum sp. meal in diets for nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Algal by-product meals from the Hawaiian biofuels industry were evaluated as protein ingredients in diets for juveniles of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 40% protein and were made with fish meal, soybean meal, whole diatom (Nanofrustulum sp.)...

  13. Effect of marine by-product meals on hen egg production parameters, yolk lipid composition and sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Toyes-Vargas, E; Ortega-Pérez, R; Espinoza-Villavicencio, J L; Arellano-Pérez, M; Civera, R; Palacios, E

    2017-10-06

    The effect of including 5% marine by-product meals in feeds of laying hens on egg production, composition and sensory characteristics was tested. Marine by-product meals were prepared using two methods: (i) cooking (100°C/10 min) followed by drying (60°C/24 hr) or (ii) grinding followed by drying. The raw materials used for meal production were scallop or squid viscera, shrimp heads or whole mackerel. A total of 108 laying hens were allocated to nine diet treatments; one control diet (corn and soya bean based) and eight experimental diets, containing 95% of the control feed and 5% of the experimental meal for three weeks. Daily intake was higher in hens fed the dried mackerel and cooked shrimp meals. All the experimental treatments showed significantly higher concentration of n-3 HUFA in yolk reserves and phospholipids compared to the control (0.12-0.13 g per 100 g), especially those with scallop or squid prepared by both methods (0.53-0.95 g per 100 g). Scallop, squid and shrimp meal inclusion in the feed produced eggs with more astaxanthin (0.22 mg per 100 g) while this carotenoid was absent in the control and mackerel treatments. Visual evaluation of raw yolk colour increased with the inclusion of marine by-product meals with higher values in hens fed shrimp heads (13), followed by scallop viscera (11), squid viscera (9), and with similar values for mackerel and control (4). The taste, aroma, texture and colour of cooked eggs from different treatments were not statically different when evaluated by a panel of 60 untrained people. These results suggest that meals from marine by-products are a better alternative for improving egg yolk composition by increasing n-3 HUFA when compared to fishmeal as they also increase astaxanthin and yolk pigmentation without affecting egg sensory characteristics. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy enables the fast and accurate prediction of the essential amino acid contents in soy, rapeseed meal, sunflower meal, peas, fishmeal, meat meal products, and poultry meal.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, J; Hörr, J; Schirmer, B

    2001-01-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations were developed to enable the accurate and fast prediction of the total contents of methionine, cystine, lysine, threonine, tryptophan, and other essential amino acids, protein, and moisture in the most important protein-rich feed ingredients. More than 1000 samples of global origin collected over four years were analyzed on amino acids following the official methods of the United States and the European Union. Detailed data and graphics are given to characterize the obtained calibration equations. NIRS was validated with independent samples for soy and meat meal products and compared to the amino acid predictions using linear crude protein regressions. With a few exceptions, validation showed that 85-98% of the amino acid variance in the samples could be explained using NIRS. NIRS predictions compared to reference results agree excellently, with relative mean deviations below 5%. Especially for meat and poultry meals, NIRS can predict amino acids much better than crude protein regressions. By enabling the amino acid analysis of many samples to be completed in a short time, NIRS can improve the accuracy of feed formulation and thus the quality and production costs of mixed feeds.

  15. Rice gluten meal as an alternative by-product feed for growing dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohit; Thakur, Sudarshan Singh; Mahesh, M S

    2016-03-01

    This experiment aimed at studying the nutritional characteristics and feeding value of rice gluten meal (RGM, a wet-milling by-product of rice) in growing dairy calves. RGM contained 464 g/kg of crude protein with 821 and 196 g/kg nitrogen (N) of borate-phosphate insoluble N and acid detergent insoluble N, respectively, which were higher (P < 0.05) than groundnut cake (GNC). In vitro gas production, organic matter digestibility and energy values were comparable between RGM and GNC. For in vivo trial, 18 Karan-Fries calves (6-12 months) were randomly assigned into three groups based on comparable body weight and age. The first group (GP-I) was fed concentrate mixture containing mainly GNC as protein source, whilst it was replaced by RGM up to 50 and 75 % on N basis, in second (GP-II) and third (GP-III) groups, respectively. Thus, RGM constituted 140 and 210 g/kg of concentrate mixture of GP-II and GP-III, respectively. In addition, all animals were offered chopped green maize and wheat straw for the whole experimental period of 90 days. Results revealed that there was no difference in intake and digestibility of nutrients, N balance, average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency among three groups. Nevertheless, RGM-based diets produced cost-effective ADG than GP-I. Furthermore, experimental calves did not differ in haematological variables like glucose, blood urea N, plasma proteins and non-esterified fatty acids. This study demonstrated that RGM could be incorporated successfully in the concentrate mixture, replacing 75 % of GNC without any discernable compromise in the performance of growing calves.

  16. Prevalence of Putative Virulence Genes in Campylobacter and Arcobacter Species Isolated from Poultry and Poultry By-Products in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Jribi, Hela; Sellami, Hanen; Hassena, Amal Ben; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2017-10-01

    Campylobacter and Arcobacter spp. are common causes of gastroenteritis in humans; these infections are commonly due to undercooked poultry. However, their virulence mechanism is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of genotypic virulence markers in Campylobacter and Arcobacter species using PCR. The prevalence of virulence and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) genes was estimated in 71 Campylobacteraceae isolates. PCR was used to detect the presence of virulence genes (iam, cadF, virB1, flaA, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC) using specific primers for a total of 45 Campylobacter isolates, including 37 C. jejuni and 8 C. coli. All the Campylobacter isolates were positive for the cadF gene. The plasmid gene virB11 was not detected in any strain. The invasion associated marker was not detected in C. jejuni. Lower detection rates were observed for flaA, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC. The presence of nine putative Arcobacter virulence genes (cadF, ciaB, cj1349, mviN, pldA, tlyA, irgA, hecA, and hecB) was checked in a set of 22 Arcobacter butzleri and 4 Arcobacter cryaerophilus isolates. The pldA and mviN genes were predominant (88.64%). Lower detection rates were observed for tlyA (84.76%), ciaB (84.61%), cadF and cj1349 (76.92%), IrgA and hecA (61.53%), and hecB (57.69%). The findings revealed that a majority of the Campylobacteraceae strains have these putative virulence genes that may lead to pathogenic effects in humans.

  17. The influence of 'time since last blood meal' on the toxicity of essential oils to the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    PubMed

    George, D R; Smith, T J; Sparagano, O A E; Guy, J H

    2008-08-17

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) is a serious ectoparasitic pest of layer hens that can survive for long periods in the poultry house sub-structure without taking a blood meal from its host. The research undertaken in this study found that 'time since last blood meal' had a notable effect on how toxic a selection of plant essential oils were to D. gallinae under laboratory conditions. In general, the essential oils had a greater toxic effect on D. gallinae if mites had been starved of a blood meal for around 3 weeks, than if they had been more recently fed 3-13 days prior to tests. This result was consistent across the four essential oils used (thyme, palmarosa, caraway and juniper leaf). This suggests that plant essential oils may be of use in management schemes for D. gallinae, particularly if used to sanitise houses between flocks, when mites will have been starved.

  18. Detection of pork and poultry meat and bone meals in animal feed using hyperspectral imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Animal feed with meat and bone meal (MBM) has been the source of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and other livestock animals. Many countries have banned the use MBM as an animal feed ingredient. Spectral imaging techniques have shown potential for rapid assessment and authentication...

  19. Protein Retention Assessment of Four Levels of Poultry By-Product Substitution of Fishmeal in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Diets Using Stable Isotopes of Nitrogen (δ15N) as Natural Tracers

    PubMed Central

    Badillo, Daniel; Herzka, Sharon Z.; Viana, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    This is second part from an experiment where the nitrogen retention of poultry by-product meal (PBM) compared to fishmeal (FM) was evaluated using traditional indices. Here a quantitative method using stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (δ15N values) as natural tracers of nitrogen incorporation into fish biomass is assessed. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed for 80 days on isotopically distinct diets in which 0, 33, 66 and 100% of FM as main protein source was replaced by PBM. The diets were isonitrogenous, isolipidic and similar in gross energy content. Fish in all treatments reached isotopic equilibrium by the end of the experiment. Two-source isotope mixing models that incorporated the isotopic composition of FM and PBM as well as that of formulated feeds, empirically derived trophic discrimination factors and the isotopic composition of fish that had reached isotopic equilibrium to the diets were used to obtain a quantitative estimate of the retention of each source of nitrogen. Fish fed the diets with 33 and 66% replacement of FM by PBM retained poultry by-product meal roughly in proportion to its level of inclusion in the diets, whereas no differences were detected in the protein efficiency ratio. Coupled with the similar biomass gain of fishes fed the different diets, our results support the inclusion of PBM as replacement for fishmeal in aquaculture feeds. A re-feeding experiment in which all fish were fed a diet of 100% FM for 28 days indicated isotopic turnover occurred very fast, providing further support for the potential of isotopic ratios as tracers of the retention of specific protein sources into fish tissues. Stable isotope analysis is a useful tool for studies that seek to obtain quantitative estimates of the retention of different protein sources. PMID:25226392

  20. Protein retention assessment of four levels of poultry by-product substitution of fishmeal in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) diets using stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N) as natural tracers.

    PubMed

    Badillo, Daniel; Herzka, Sharon Z; Viana, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    This is second part from an experiment where the nitrogen retention of poultry by-product meal (PBM) compared to fishmeal (FM) was evaluated using traditional indices. Here a quantitative method using stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (δ(15)N values) as natural tracers of nitrogen incorporation into fish biomass is assessed. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed for 80 days on isotopically distinct diets in which 0, 33, 66 and 100% of FM as main protein source was replaced by PBM. The diets were isonitrogenous, isolipidic and similar in gross energy content. Fish in all treatments reached isotopic equilibrium by the end of the experiment. Two-source isotope mixing models that incorporated the isotopic composition of FM and PBM as well as that of formulated feeds, empirically derived trophic discrimination factors and the isotopic composition of fish that had reached isotopic equilibrium to the diets were used to obtain a quantitative estimate of the retention of each source of nitrogen. Fish fed the diets with 33 and 66% replacement of FM by PBM retained poultry by-product meal roughly in proportion to its level of inclusion in the diets, whereas no differences were detected in the protein efficiency ratio. Coupled with the similar biomass gain of fishes fed the different diets, our results support the inclusion of PBM as replacement for fishmeal in aquaculture feeds. A re-feeding experiment in which all fish were fed a diet of 100% FM for 28 days indicated isotopic turnover occurred very fast, providing further support for the potential of isotopic ratios as tracers of the retention of specific protein sources into fish tissues. Stable isotope analysis is a useful tool for studies that seek to obtain quantitative estimates of the retention of different protein sources.

  1. Bioavailability of iron in cottonseed meal, ferric sulfate, and two ferrous sulfate by-products of the galvanizing industry.

    PubMed

    Boling, S D; Edwards, H M; Emmert, J L; Biehl, R R; Baker, D H

    1998-09-01

    Iron depletion-repletion assays were carried out with young chicks to establish Fe bioavailability values for Fe2(SO4)3.7H2O (22.7% Fe), Fe-ZnSO4.H2O (20.2% Fe, 13.0% Zn), Zn-FeSO4.H2O (20.2% Zn, 14.2% Fe), and cottonseed meal (200 mg Fe/kg). Standard hemoglobin response curves were established using feed-grade FeSO4.H2O (28.8% Fe) or reagent-grade FeSO4.7H2O (20.1% Fe) as standards such that relative bioavailability (RBV) could be assessed for the experimental sources of Fe. Weight gain, hemoglobin, and hematocrit responded linearly (P < 0.05) to Fe supplementation in all assays. Using hemoglobin as the response criterion, slope-ratio calculations established Fe RBV values of 126% for Fe-ZnSO4.H2O and 93% for Zn-FeSO4.H2O. The 126% value for Fe-ZnSO4.H2O was greater (P < 0.05) than the FeSO4.H2O standard (100%), but the 93% value for Zn-FeSO4.H2O was not different (P > 0.10) from the standard. However, evaluation of all criteria of response (hemoglobin, hematocrit, weight gain) suggested that neither Fe-ZnSO4.H2O nor Zn-FeSO4.H2O had different Fe RBV values than FeSO4.H2O. Standard-curve calculations were used for assessment of Fe RBV in Fe2(SO4)3.7H2O and cottonseed meal, as only a single level of Fe addition was studied for each of these products. Iron RBV in Fe2(SO4)3.7H2O was estimated to be 37%, whereas Fe RBV in cottonseed meal was found to be 56%. Both of these values were lower (P < 0.05) than the FeSO4 standard. The data suggest that the two new products, representing combinations of FeSO4.H2O and ZnSO4.H2O by-products of the galvanizing industry, are excellent sources of bioavailable Fe, whereas ferric sulfate and cottonseed meal are relatively poor sources of usable Fe.

  2. Rat and poultry feeding studies with soybean meal produced from imidazolinone-tolerant (CV127) soybeans.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoyun; de Brum, Paulo A R; Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Cui; Wang, Cuiyan; Lu, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Contri, Daniela; Nakatani, Andreia; de Avila, Valdir S; Klein, Claudete H; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The safety and nutritional properties of CV127 soybeans were evaluated in rat and broiler feeding studies. Some episodic differences were observed between rats fed CV127, Conquista, and the standard diet for the endpoints examined. None of these differences were considered treatment related, adverse, or biologically meaningful. In general, birds fed diets containing CV127, Conquista, or Monsoy 8001 showed no significant differences in growth and performance response variables. Chickens fed diets containing Coodetec 217 had lower body weight and weight gain for all developmental periods compared to CV127, but no significant differences were found in feed conversion for the two diets during any development period. The results of both feeding studies demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are as safe, wholesome, and nutritionally valuable as the other soybean meals tested, including those varieties for which histories of safe use have been established and well documented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Interactive effects of age, sex, and strain on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility of soybean meal and an animal by-product blend in broilers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were to determine if age, sex, and strain of broilers affects the apparent ileal amino acid digestibility (AID) of soybean meal (SBM) and an animal by-product blend (ABB). Chicks from two broiler strains, a commercially available and another in the test phase, were obta...

  4. Energy value of poultry byproduct meal and animal-vegetable oil blend for broiler chickens by the regression method.

    PubMed

    Cao, M H; Adeola, O

    2016-02-01

    The energy values of poultry byproduct meal (PBM) and animal-vegetable oil blend (A-V blend) were determined in 2 experiments with 288 broiler chickens from d 19 to 25 post hatching. The birds were fed a starter diet from d 0 to 19 post hatching. In each experiment, 144 birds were grouped by weight into 8 replicates of cages with 6 birds per cage. There were 3 diets in each experiment consisting of one reference diet (RD) and 2 test diets (TD). The TD contained 2 levels of PBM (Exp. 1) or A-V blend (Exp. 2) that replaced the energy sources in the RD at 50 or 100 g/kg (Exp. 1) or 40 or 80 g/kg (Exp. 2) in such a way that the same ratio were maintained for energy ingredients across experimental diets. The ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn of PBM and A-V blend were determined by the regression method. Dry matter of PBM and A-V blend were 984 and 999 g/kg; the gross energies were 5,284 and 9,604 kcal/kg of DM, respectively. Addition of PBM to the RD in Exp. 1 linearly decreased (P < 0.05) DM, ileal and total tract of DM, energy and nitrogen digestibilities and utilization. In Exp. 2, addition of A-V blend to the RD linearly increased (P < 0.001) ileal digestibilities and total tract utilization of DM, energy and nitrogen as well as IDE, ME, and MEn. Regressions of PBM-associated IDE, ME, or MEn intake in kcal against PBM intake were: IDE = 3,537x + 4.953, r(2) = 0.97; ME = 3,805x + 1.279, r(2) = 0.97; MEn = 3,278x + 0.164, r(2) = 0.90; and A-V blend as follows: IDE = 10,616x + 7.350, r(2) = 0.96; ME = 10,121x + 0.447, r(2) = 0.99; MEn = 10,124x + 2.425, r(2) = 0.99. These data indicate the respective IDE, ME, MEn values (kcal/kg of DM) of PBM evaluated to be 3,537, 3,805, and 3,278, and A-V blend evaluated to be 10,616, 10,121, and 10,124.

  5. By-Product Feeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    By-product feeds are generated from the production of food, fiber, and bio-energy products for human consumption. They include plant feedstuffs such as hulls, stalks, peels, and oil seed meals, and animal by-products such as blood meal, fats, bone meal, or processed organ meats. Some feed by-product...

  6. Effects of raw material source, ash content, and assay length on protein efficiency ratio and net protein ratio values for animal protein meals.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M L; Parsons, C M

    1997-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein ratio (NPR) of meat and bone meals containing 24 or 34% ash, poultry by-product meals containing 7 or 16% ash, lamb meals containing 15 or 24% ash, a lamb meal analog containing 19% ash (mixture of lamb meal and turkey meal), and two meat and bone meals processed at either a low or a high temperature. The PER values (weight gain per unit of protein intake) and NPR values (PER corrected for maintenance) were determined using a chick growth assay in which chicks were fed a N-free diet or 10% CP diets containing one of the animal meals as the only source of dietary protein for 6, 9, or 13 d. The PER of the lamb meal analog was greater (P < 0.05) than that of the other meals, and the PER values of the poultry by-product meals were generally greater than those for the lamb and meat and bone meals. The PER values for the lamb meals were higher than those for most of the meat and bone meals. The PER of the 34% ash meat and bone meal was lower (P < 0.05) than the PER of the 24% ash meat and bone meal (1.03 vs 1.63, respectively, at 9 d). Further experiments showed that the lower PER of the high ash meat and bone meal was not due to its high Ca and P content. Ash content had no significant effect on PER of the poultry by-product and lamb meals. The PER of the low-temperature meat and bone meal was higher (P < 0.05) than the PER of the high-temperature meat and bone meal. The relative differences in NPR values among the animal meals were similar to those observed for PER values. Decreasing the length of the assay from 13 to 6 d increased the PER and NPR of all meals but had little or no effect on the ranking of values among meals. The results of this study indicated that PER and NPR values of animal meals were influenced by raw material source, and that ash content and processing temperature affected the PER and NPR of meat and bone meal. The results also indicated that PER and NPR

  7. Cytotoxicity evaluation and antioxidant enzyme expression related to heavy metals found in tuna by-products meal: An in vitro study in human and rat liver cell lines.

    PubMed

    Saïdi, Saber Abdelkader; Azaza, Mohamed Salah; Windmolders, Petra; van Pelt, Jos; El-Feki, Abdelfattah

    2013-11-01

    Heavy metals can accumulate in organisms via various pathways, including respiration, adsorption and ingestion. They are known to generate free radicals and induce oxidative and/or nitrosative stress with depletion of anti-oxidants. Tuna by-product meal (TBM) is rich in proteins and can, therefore, offer an attractive protein source for animals. This study was undertaken to assess the effects of metals present in TBM, namely cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg), separately or in combination with oxidative stress, on cell viability. Three cell models: rat liver FTO2B, human hepatoma HepG2, and human hepatic WRL-68, were used. Cell viability was determined following exposure to various concentrations of the metals. Two antioxidant genes, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were measured to obtain a better understanding of oxidative stress-associated gene expression. Among the metals present in TBM, only Cd at a concentration of 30μM was noted to exhibit cytotoxic effects. This cytotoxicity was even more pronounced after co-stimulation with H2O2, used to mimic systemic oxidative stress. At non-toxic concentrations, Hg and Pb were noted to aggravate oxidative stress toxicity. The results further revealed that exposure to Cd, Pb, and a co-stimulation of H2O2 with Hg resulted in the increased expression of antioxidant gene SOD. A risk assessment of toxic contaminants in TBM indicated that food safety objectives should consider the human health impacts of foods derived from animals fed on contaminated meal and that much care should be taken when TBM is used in animal diet.

  8. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Geostatistical Analysis for Modeling Spatial Distribution of Analytical Constituents in Bulk Animal By-Product Protein Meals.

    PubMed

    Adame-Siles, José A; Fearn, Tom; Guerrero-Ginel, José E; Garrido-Varo, Ana; Maroto-Molina, Francisco; Pérez-Marín, Dolores

    2017-03-01

    Control and inspection operations within the context of safety and quality assessment of bulk foods and feeds are not only of particular importance, they are also demanding challenges, given the complexity of food/feed production systems and the variability of product properties. Existing methodologies have a variety of limitations, such as high costs of implementation per sample or shortcomings in early detection of potential threats for human/animal health or quality deviations. Therefore, new proposals are required for the analysis of raw materials in situ in a more efficient and cost-effective manner. For this purpose, a pilot laboratory study was performed on a set of bulk lots of animal by-product protein meals to introduce and test an approach based on near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and geostatistical analysis. Spectral data, provided by a fiber optic probe connected to a Fourier transform (FT) NIR spectrometer, were used to predict moisture and crude protein content at each sampling point. Variographic analysis was carried out for spatial structure characterization, while ordinary Kriging achieved continuous maps for those parameters. The results indicated that the methodology could be a first approximation to an approach that, properly complemented with the Theory of Sampling and supported by experimental validation in real-life conditions, would enhance efficiency and the decision-making process regarding safety and adulteration issues.

  9. Pixel selection for near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) discrimination between fish and terrestrial animal species in animal protein by-product meals.

    PubMed

    Riccioli, Cecilia; Pérez-Marín, Dolores; Guerrero-Ginel, José Emilio; Saeys, Wouter; Garrido-Varo, Ana

    2011-07-01

    This paper proposes a method based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging for discriminating between terrestrial and fish species in animal protein by-products used in livestock feed. Four algorithms (Mahalanobis distance, Kennard-Stone, spatial interpolation, and binning) were compared in order to select an appropriate subset of pixels for further partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The method was applied to a set of 50 terrestrial and 40 fish meals analyzed in the 1000-1700 nm range. Models were then tested using an external validation set comprising 45 samples (25 fish and 20 terrestrial). The PLS-DA models obtained using the four subset-selection algorithms yielded a classification accuracy of 99.80%, 99.79%, 99.85%, and 99.61%, respectively. The results represent a first step for the analysis of mixtures of species and suggest that NIR-CI, providing valuable information on the origin of animal components in processed animal proteins, is a promising method that could be used as part of the EU feed control program aimed at eradicating and preventing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and related diseases.

  10. Risk analysis of poultry feed costs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction and Aims. Poultry feed continues to be a significant expense in poultry production as the cost of corn and soybean meals remain elevated. Alternative meals are under investigation to reduce production costs while maintaining high feed conversion rates and body weight gain. Two promising...

  11. Poultry blood from slaughterhouses: development of a biopreservation system to improve microbiological quality prior to transforming blood into by-products.

    PubMed

    Zbrun, M V; Frizzo, L S; Soto, L P; Rosmini, M R; Sequeira, G J; Astesana, D M; Blajman, J E; Rossler, E; Berisvil, A; Romero Scharpen, A; Signorini, M L

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with specific additives as a Biopreservation System (BS) for poultry blood during its storage in slaughterhouses. The BS consisted of two LAB (Enterococcus faecalis DSPV 008SA or Lactobacillus salivarius DSPV 032SA) with 4 additives (lactose 2 g/l, yeast extract 0.4 g/l, ammonium citrate 0.4 g/l and NaCl 1 g/l). After 24 h storage at 30ºC, lower counts of enterobacteria, coliforms, Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were evident in blood treated with the BS than in untreated blood. The ability of LAB to prevent haemolysis was evident. A decrease in pH was associated with control of spoilage microorganisms but it needed to be regulated to prevent coagulation of proteins. On the basis of these results it is recommended to supplement blood with a BS to avoid undesirable changes during blood storage before processing.

  12. Effects of partial or total fish meal replacement by agricultural by-product diets on gonad maturation, sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    PubMed

    Nyina-wamwiza, L; Defreyne, P S; Ngendahayo, L; Milla, S; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2012-10-01

    The establishment of the first sexual maturation was characterized in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in order to study the efficiency of replacement of fish meal (FM) by diets composed of local vegetable ingredients. Four diets were formulated containing decreasing levels of FM (50-0% for diet 1 to diet 4) and increasing proportions of vegetable ingredients (50-100%). Gonadosomatic index (GSI), diameter and percentages of developmental stages of oocytes, plasma sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics were investigated from February to June using one-year-old fish. Fish were individually tagged, and 12 individuals from each diet were investigated monthly. Replacement of FM with plant ingredients did not affect the GSI neither in males, nor in females. All males were spermiating, and no abnormal gonads were found. In females, GSI and percentages of advanced stages of oocytes decreased during the dry season, indicating seasonal changes in gonad development. Moreover, oocytes were in late exogenous vitellogenesis, but no final maturation stages were observed, whatever the diet. Higher plasma levels of E2 in females and of androgens (T and 11-KT) in both sexes were observed in fish fed diet 4 than in those receiving diet 1 depending on the season. Levels of plasma E2 and ALP (indicator for vitellogenin) in males did not differ among treatments and seasons suggesting no phytoestrogenic activity. The results showed that total replacement of FM by vegetable diets composed of groundnut oilcakes, bean and sunflower meals has no deleterious effect on the onset of sexual maturation in African catfish but, may stimulate the sex steroid production and in turns may potentially exert some positive actions on reproductive success.

  13. Fish meal in animal feed and human exposure to persistent bioaccumulative and toxic substances.

    PubMed

    Dórea, José G

    2006-11-01

    Persistent and bioaccumulative toxic substances (PBTSs) that end up in fish are health hazards and the object of fish-consumption advisories. Some of these substances are present as extraneous contaminants, e.g., man-made lipophilic pollutants such as organohalogen pollutants, and others such as monomethyl mercury can be considered naturally occurring. Omnivores (e.g., poultry and swine) and especially ruminants that are fed contaminated fish meal can pass monomethyl mercury and organohalogen pollutants to eggs, meat, and dairy products. Differences in fish meal PBTS profiles and farm animal (e.g., poultry, swine, cattle, and farmed fish) physiology modulate PBTSs in animal products. Fish-consumption advisories issued to protect human health do not extend to fish by-products fed to farmed animals. Animals (especially farmed fish) that are fed fish meal can bioconcentrate monomethyl mercury in protein matrices, and organohalogen pollutants can be passed on in the fat components of derived foods. Policies to decrease exposure to monomethyl mercury and organohalogen pollutants must consider farming practices that use fish by-products. A risk assessment of toxic contaminants in fish meal may indicate that food safety objectives must consider the human health impact of foods derived from animals fed contaminated meal.

  14. Effect of including high-lipid by-product pellets in substitution for barley grain and canola meal in finishing diets for beef cattle on ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Górka, P; Castillo-Lopez, E; Joy, F; Chibisa, G E; McKinnon, J J; Penner, G B

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of replacing barley grain and canola meal with high-lipid by-product pellets (HLBP; 14.6% CP, 29.8% NDF, 9.0% fat, and 5.52 MJ NE/kg in DM) on DMI, ruminal fermentation, nutrient flow at the omasal canal, and nutrient digestibility. Four ruminally cannulated and ovariectomized Hereford × Gelbvieh heifers (initial BW of 631.9 ± 23.3 kg; mean ± SD) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Periods consisted of 28 d, including 10 d for diet transition, 11 d for dietary adaptation, and 7 d for measurements. Heifers were fed a typical finishing diet consisting of 89% of concentrate (barley grain and canola meal; CONT), 6% of barley silage, and 5% of mineral and vitamin supplement (on DM basis). Dietary treatments consisted of a CONT or diets where 30% (HLBP30), 60% (HLBP60), and 90% (HLBP90) of the barley grain and canola meal were replaced with HLBP. Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment ( > 0.10). Total short-chain fatty acid concentration and molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate ( > 0.10) among treatments and ruminal ammonia did not differ ( > 0.10) among treatments, and ruminal ammonia increased ( = 0.03) linearly with increasing HLBP inclusion rate in the diet. Mean and maximum pH increased, whereas the duration and area that pH was below 5.8, 5.5, and 5.2, thresholds used for mild, severe, and acute ruminal acidosis, respectively, decreased linearly ( ≤ 0.05) with increasing rates of inclusion of HLBP. Organic matter flow at the omasal canal increased linearly ( = 0.03) with increasing HLBP inclusion rate in the diet. However, OM digestibility coefficients and apparent ruminal NDF and ADF digestibility yielded negative values for some animals, especially those fed HLBP90, indicating that ruminal digestibility was underestimated. Total tract OM digestibility decreased linearly ( < 0.01) with increasing inclusion rates of HLBP. This study showed that HLBP inclusion in substitution for barley

  15. Use of meatpacking by-products in fish diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since fish meal is of limited supply and more expensive than most other protein sources, reducing its use in fish feeds will increase profits and improve sustainability of the aquaculture industry. Meat meal, meat and bone meal, and blood meal are by-products of the animal rendering industry and ar...

  16. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Fermented By-product of Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, as a Fish Meal Replacer in Juvenile Amur Catfish, Silurus asotus: Effects on Growth, Serological Characteristics and Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Katya, Kumar; Yun, Yong-hyun; Park, Gunhyun; Lee, Jeong-Yeol; Yoo, Gwangyeol; Bai, Sungchul C.

    2014-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of dietary fermented by-product of mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, (FBPM) as a fish meal (FM) replacer in juvenile Amur catfish, Silurus asotus. A total number of 225 fish averaging 5.7±0.1 g (mean±standard deviation) were fed one of the five experimental diets formulated to replace FM with FBPM at 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% (FBPM0, FBPM5, FBPM10, FBPM20, and FBPM30, respectively). At the end of eight weeks of the experiment, average weight gain (WG) of fish fed FBPM0 or FBPM5 were significantly higher than those of fish fed FBPM20 or FBPM30 diets (p<0.05). However, there was no significant differences in WG among the fish fed FBPM0, FBPM5 or FBPM10, and between fish fed FBPM10 or FBPM20, and also between those fed FBPM20 or FBPM30 diets. Lysozyme activity of fish fed FBPM0 or FBPM5 were significantly higher than those of fish fed FBPM10, FBPM20 or FBPM30 diets (p<0.05). The chemiluminescent response of fish fed FBPM5 was significantly higher than those of fish fed FBPM0, FBPM20 or FBPM30 diets (p<0.05). Broken line regression analysis of WG suggested that the maximal dietary inclusion level for FBPM as a FM replacer could be 6.3% without any adverse effects on whole body composition and on serological characteristics. Therefore, these results may indicate that the maximal dietary inclusion level of FBPM as a FM replacer could be 6.3% in juvenile Amur catfish. PMID:25178300

  17. Easy Meal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The woman pictured below is sitting down to a nutritious, easily-prepared meal similar to those consumed by Apollo astronauts. The appetizing dishes shown were created simply by adding water to the contents of a Mountain House* Easy Meal package of freeze dried food. The Easy Meal line is produced by Oregon Freeze Dry Foods, Inc., Albany, Oreaon, a pioneer in freeze drying technology and a company long associated with NASA in developing suitable preparations for use on manned spacecraft. Designed to provide nutritionally balanced, attractive hot meals for senior adults, Easy Meal is an offshoot of a 1975-77 demonstration project managed by Johnson Space Center and called Meal System for the Elderly. The project sought ways to help the estimated 3.5 million elderly Americans who are unable to take advantage of existing meal programs. Such services are provided by federal, state and local agencies, but they are not available to many who live in rural areas, or others who are handicapped, temporarily ill or homebound for other reasons. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods was a participant in that multi-agency cooperative project. With its Easy Meal assortment of convenience foods pictured above left, the company is making commercially available meal packages similar to those distributed in the Meal System for the Elderly program. In the freeze drying process, water is extracted from freshly-cooked foods by dehydration at very low temperatures, as low as 50 I degrees below zero. Flavor is locked in by packaging the dried food in pouches which block out moisture and oxygen, the principal causes of food deterioration; thus the food can be stored for long periods without refrigeration. Meals are reconstituted by adding hot or cold water, depending on the type of food, and they are table ready in five to 10 minutes. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods offers five different meal packages and plans to expand the line.

  18. Poultry Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    Poultry are one of the most badly treated animals in the modern world. It has been shown that they have high levels of both cognition and feelings, and as a result there has been a recent trend of promoting poultry welfare. There is also a tradition of keeping poultry as pets in some parts of the world. However, in modern cities and societies, it is often difficult to maintain contact with pets, particularly for office workers. We propose and describe a novel cybernetics system to use mobile and Internet technology to improve human-pet interaction. It can also be used for people who are allergic to touching animals and thus cannot stroke them directly. This interaction encompasses both visualization and tactile sensation of real objects.

  19. New insights into meat by-product utilization.

    PubMed

    Toldrá, Fidel; Mora, Leticia; Reig, Milagro

    2016-10-01

    Meat industry generates large volumes of by-products like blood, bones, meat trimmings, skin, fatty tissues, horns, hoofs, feet, skull and viscera among others that are costly to be treated and disposed ecologically. These costs can be balanced through innovation to generate added value products that increase its profitability. Rendering results in feed ingredients for livestock, poultry and aquaculture as well as for pet foods. Energy valorization can be obtained through the thermochemical processing of meat and bone meal or the use of waste animal fats for the production of biodiesel. More recently, new applications have been reported like the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates as alternative to plastics produced from petroleum. Other interesting valorization strategies are based on the hydrolysis of by-products to obtain added value products like bioactive peptides with relevant physiological effects as antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, etc. with promising applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry. This paper reports and discusses the latest developments and trends in the use and valorisation of meat industry by-products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of snack food by-product inclusion on production of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Van Wyhe, R C; Fraley, S E; Szybisty, C A; Karcher, D M; Karcher, E L

    2012-06-01

    The increased interest in becoming green for consumers and companies is driving groups to develop innovative ways to become more efficient and reduce their waste. Foods past their expiration dates are large sources of waste and are causing food-manufacturing companies to develop waste disposal strategies. Integrating by-products from these companies into animal diets, specifically that of laying hens, could be significantly more cost effective for both the human food manufacturers and the agricultural producers. The study's objective is to evaluate laying hen diets containing snack food by-product, consisting mostly of expired potato chips, and the effect on hen performance. In total, 192 White Leghorn laying hens (45 wk old) were selected from the Michigan State University Poultry Farm. Hens were housed in conventional cages (3 birds/cage) and received 1 of 4 diets for 5 wk: 1) industry control corn-soybean meal, 2) control with 3% by-product, 3) control with 6% by-product, and 4) control with 9% by-product. Diets were formulated to be isocaloric, isonitrogenous, and balanced for sodium. Feed intake was measured for 3 consecutive days each week, and no overall differences between treatments were observed. However, during the first week, feed intake was significantly higher in birds fed the 6% and 9% diets compared with those fed control (P < 0.05). Birds fed the 6% had a higher feed intake than that of the control again during the fourth week (P < 0.01). Egg production, egg weight, and specific gravity were measured weekly. Hen BW was measured on d 1, 14, 28, and 35. Egg production, egg weight, specific gravity, and BW were not significantly affected by the addition of snack food by-products to the diet. In conclusion, the addition of expired snack food by-product into poultry diets does not significantly affect laying hen egg production and has the potential to be used as an alternative feed stuff in the future.

  1. Replacement of Soybean Meal with Animal Origin Protein Meals Improved Ramoplanin A2 Production by Actinoplanes sp. ATCC 33076.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Deniz; Kayali, Hulya Ayar

    2016-09-01

    Ramoplanin A2 is the last resort antibiotic for treatment of many high morbidity- and mortality-rated hospital infections, and it is expected to be marketed in the forthcoming years. Therefore, high-yield production of ramoplanin A2 gains importance. In this study, meat-bone meal, poultry meal, and fish meal were used instead of soybean meal for ramoplanin A2 production by Actinoplanes sp. ATCC 33076. All animal origin nitrogen sources stimulated specific productivity. Ramoplanin A2 levels were determined as 406.805 mg L(-1) in fish meal medium and 374.218 mg L(-1) in poultry meal medium. These levels were 4.25- and 4.09-fold of basal medium, respectively. However, the total yield of poultry meal was higher than that of fish meal, which is also low-priced. In addition, the variations in pH levels, protein levels, reducing sugar levels, extracellular protease, amylase and lipase activities, and intracellular free amino acid levels were monitored during the incubation period. The correlations between ramoplanin production and these variables with respect to the incubation period were determined. The intracellular levels of L-Phe, D-Orn, and L-Leu were found critical for ramoplanin A2 production. The strategy of using animal origin nitrogen sources can be applied for large-scale ramoplanin A2 production.

  2. Meal Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, John T.

    Changing life styles for college students are causing food service directors to change their ways of serving students. Students today seem to prefer living in privately owned apartments and houses where they can provide and cook their own food to living on campus and having meals prepared for them. Many colleges and universities are eliminating…

  3. Agricultural waste derived fuel from oil meal and waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fang-Chih; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Ko, Chun-Han

    2017-05-27

    Oil meal is a by-product of the oil industry (peanut meal, sesame meal, and camellia meal). Oil is extracted from seeds, and the leftover meal is then pelletized, and this process generates a large amount of waste oil meal in Taiwan. In this study, peanut meal, sesame meal, and camellia meal derived fuels were prepared from the waste oil meal with waste cooking oil. The combustion behaviors of the oil meal derived fuels were also investigated. The characteristics of the derived fuel made from oil meal with waste cooking oil showed that the ash content is less than 10% and its calorific value reached 5000 kcal/kg. Additionally, the activation energy of the oil meal and waste cooking oil was analyzed by the Kissinger method. The results show that the fuel prepared in this work from the oil meal mixed with waste cooking oil is suitable for use as an alternative fuel and also avoids food safety issues.

  4. Biological conversion of poultry and animal waste to a feedstuff for poultry

    SciTech Connect

    El Boushy, A.R.; Klaassen, G.J.; Ketelaars, E.H.

    1985-06-01

    Poultry and animal waste can be converted into a high protein feed-stuff by biological digestion and degradation, oxidation or by the action of micro-organisms and algae. These processes might help to solve the accummulating problem of disposal of poultry and animal waste, which in some cases are not suitable as soil fertilizers and cause pollution problems. International co-operation between advanced industrialized countries and developing areas is not only desirable but essential to overcome malnutrition by increasing the animal protein supply in the form of meat and eggs. Only a limited number of published data are available but nevertheless five types of treated waste are considered useful under certain conditions as feedstuffs for poultry: 1. housefly pupae meal - caged layer manure degraded by housefly larvae; 2. earthworm meal - another biodegradation of caged layer manure; 3. liquor and residue from a ditch used for oxidizing swine liquid manure; 4. aerobic fermentation of poultry manure; and 5. meals produced from algae grown in ponds of sedimented animal waste and sewage. 46 references.

  5. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays.

    PubMed

    Kim, E J; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal broiler assay (PFC). For the PFR, cecectomized roosters were precision-fed approximately 30 g of feed sample, and excreta were collected 48 h postfeeding. For the SIAAD, 16-d-old broilers were fed a semipurified diet containing the feed samples as the only source of protein from 17 to 21 d, with ileal digesta collected at 21 d. For the PFC, 22-d-old broilers were precision-fed 10 g of feed sample mixed with chromic oxide, and ileal digesta were collected at 4 h postfeeding. Digestibility coefficients were standardized using a nitrogen-free diet for the SIAAD and PFC and using fasted roosters for the PFR. There were generally no consistent differences in standardized amino acid digestibility values among assays, and values were in general agreement among assays, particularly for SBM and MBM. Differences did occur among methods for amino acid digestibility in fish meal; however, these differences were not consistent among methods or amino acids. The results of the study indicated that all 3 bioassays are acceptable for determining the amino acid digestibility of SBM, canola meal, MBM, and fish meal for poultry.

  6. Conversion of poultry wastes into energy feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Kabadayi, Arzu; Ucar, Suat; Yanik, Jale

    2016-10-01

    In this study, conversion of wastes from poultry farming and industry into biochar and bio-oil via thermochemical processes was investigated. Fuel characteristics and chemical structure of biochars and bio-oils have been investigated using standard fuel analysis and spectroscopic methods. Biochars were produced from poultry litter through both hydrothermal carbonization (sub-critical water, 175-250°C) and pyrolysis over a temperature range between 250 and 500°C. In comparison to hydrothermal carbonization, pyrolysis at lower temperatures produced biochar with greater energy yield due to the higher mass yield. Biochars obtained by both processes were comparable to coal. Hydrothermal liquefaction of poultry meal at different temperatures (200-325°C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions. Higher temperatures favored the formation of bio-crude oil, with a maximum yield of 35wt.% at 300°C. The higher heating values of bio-oils showed that bio-oil could be a potential source of synthetic fuels. However, elemental analysis demonstrated the high nitrogen content of bio-oils. Therefore, bio-oils obtained from hydrothermal liquefaction of poultry meal should be upgraded for utilization as a transport and heating fuel.

  7. Child Nutrition Labeling for Meat and Poultry Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Cheryl; And Others

    Prepared for food manufacturers, this publication contains instructions for calculating the contribution that a meat or poultry product makes toward the meal pattern requirements of child nutrition programs. It also contains instructions on how to apply for and obtain the approval for a label containing a child nutrition statement. These…

  8. Validation of Thermal Lethality against Salmonella enterica in Poultry Offal during Rendering.

    PubMed

    Jones-Ibarra, Amie-Marie; Acuff, Gary R; Alvarado, Christine Z; Taylor, T Matthew

    2017-09-01

    Recent outbreaks of human disease following contact with companion animal foods cross-contaminated with enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella enterica, have resulted in increased concern regarding the microbiological safety of animal foods. Additionally, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act and its implementing rules have stipulated the implementation of current good manufacturing practices and food safety preventive controls for livestock and companion animal foods. Animal foods and feeds are sometimes formulated to include thermally rendered animal by-product meals. The objective of this research was to determine the thermal inactivation of S. enterica in poultry offal during rendering at differing temperatures. Raw poultry offal was obtained from a commercial renderer and inoculated with a mixture of Salmonella serovars Senftenberg, Enteritidis, and Gallinarum (an avian pathogen) prior to being subjected to heating at 150, 155, or 160°F (65.5, 68.3, or 71.1°C) for up to 15 min. Following heat application, surviving Salmonella bacteria were enumerated. Mean D-values for the Salmonella cocktail at 150, 155, and 160°F were 0.254 ± 0.045, 0.172 ± 0.012, and 0.086 ± 0.004 min, respectively, indicative of increasing susceptibility to increased application of heat during processing. The mean thermal process constant (z-value) was 21.948 ± 3.87°F. Results indicate that a 7.0-log-cycle inactivation of Salmonella may be obtained from the cumulative lethality encountered during the heating come-up period and subsequent rendering of raw poultry offal at temperatures not less than 150°F. Current poultry rendering procedures are anticipated to be effective for achieving necessary pathogen control when completed under sanitary conditions.

  9. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica strains isolated from Brazilian poultry production.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Samara P; Drescher, Guilherme; Barth, Valdir C; Ferreira, Carlos A S; Oliveira, Sílvia D

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance profiles and presence of resistance determinants and integrons were evaluated in Salmonella enterica strains from Brazilian poultry. The analysis of 203 isolates showed that those from the poultry environment (88 isolates) were significantly more resistant to antimicrobials than isolates from other sources, particularly those isolated from poultry by-product meal (106 isolates). Thirty-seven isolates were resistant to at least three antimicrobial classes. Class 1 integrons were detected in 26 isolates, and the analysis of the variable region between the 5' conserved segment (CS) and 3' CS of each class 1 integron-positive isolate showed that 13 contained a typical 3' CS and 14 contained an atypical 3' CS. One Salmonella Senftenberg isolate harbored two class 1 integrons, showing both typical and atypical 3' CSs. The highest percentage of resistance was found to sulfonamides, and sul genes were detected in the majority of the resistant isolates. Aminoglycoside resistance was detected in 50 isolates, and aadA and aadB were present in 28 and 32 isolates, respectively. In addition, strA and strB were detected in 78.1 and 65.6% isolates resistant to streptomycin, respectively. Twenty-one isolates presented reduced susceptibility to β-lactams and harbored bla(TEM), bla(CMY), and/or bla(CTX-M). Forty isolates showed reduced susceptibility to tetracycline, and most presented tet genes. These results highlight the importance of the environment as a reservoir of resistant Salmonella, which may enable the persistence of resistance determinants in the poultry production chain, contributing, therefore, to the debate regarding the impacts that antimicrobial use in animal production may exert in human health.

  10. Detection of pathogens, indicators and antibiotic resistance genes following land application of poultry litter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The United States (U.S.) is the world’s largest producer of poultry with over 18,000 kg of poultry litter (PL), a mixture of poultry manure, bedding, feathers, and spilled feed produced as a by-product. This PL is a valuable nutrient source for crop production however; land application of livestock ...

  11. Study on mycoflora of poultry feed ingredients and finished feed in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghaemmaghami, Seyed Soheil; Modirsaneii, Mehrdad; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Unhygienic poultry feedstuffs can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effect on poultry production and public health. In the present study, mycobiota and colony-forming units per gram in ingredients and finish poultry feed was evaluated with special reference to potentially mycotoxigenic fungi. Materials and Methods: Eighty five samples of corn, soybean meal and poultry finished feed were collected from nine poultry feed factories located in three provinces i.e. Tehran, Alborz and Qom in Iran from October 2014 to January 2015. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar (AFPA) and dichloran rosebengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) and incubated at 28 °C for 7–10 days. Purified fungal colonies were identified by a combination of macro- and microscopic morphological criteria. For determining the rate of fungal contamination, samples were cultured on SDA and colony forming units (CFUs) were calculated. Results: A total of 384 fungal isolates belonging to 7 genera of filamentous fungi and yeasts were obtained from corn (124 isolates), soybean meal (92 isolates), and feed before (72 isolates), and after pelleting (96 isolates). The most prominent fungal isolate in corn, soybean meal and feed before pelleting (feed as mash form) was Fusarium but in feed after pelleting was Aspergillus. Among 5 Aspergillus species isolated, potentially aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates was predominant in corn (46.6%), soybean meal (72.7%) and poultry finished feed (75%). CFUs results indicated that 9/22 corn samples (40.9%), none of 22 soybean meal samples, 19/41 finished feed (46.3%) were contaminated higher than the standard limit. Conclusions: Our results indicated that corn, soybean meal and finished feed of poultry feed mill are contaminated with various fungal genera by different levels sometimes higher that the standard limits. Contamination with potentially mycotoxigenic fungi especially Aspergillus

  12. Recycled poultry bedding as cattle feed.

    PubMed

    Rankins, Darrell L; Poore, Matthew H; Capucille, Dawn J; Rogers, Glenn M

    2002-07-01

    Since the 1950s, recycled poultry bedding has been used as an economical feedstuff for beef cattle. It has been extensively studied at several experiment stations around the world with regard to its safety and nutritional aspects. It will continue to be closely scrutinized as the public increases its awareness of agricultural issues. As this study was being prepared, the news media was "spotlighting" bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Currently, in the United States there is a ban on incorporation of mammalian-derived protein feeds into ruminant diets. This has led to a requirement of beef cattle producers signing affidavits indicating that they had met this obligation. Some poultry companies use ruminant meat and bone meal in broiler diets when least-cost formulation indicates that it is economically desirable. This then poses the question of whether feeding RPB to beef cattle should be permitted if the birds had been fed ruminant meat and bone meal. It also raises the question of whether cattle grazing pastures fertilized with RPB are exposed to ruminant meat and bone meal. Because of the importance of pasture fertilization as a waste disposal solution for the poultry industry, it seems that the issue will be quickly resolved by omitting the ruminant meat and bone meal from poultry diets should concerns increase. Use of RPB, like many byproduct feeds, requires a higher level of management expertise than traditional feeds. Despite the potential problems discussed in this study, an informed beef cattle producer can gain a financially competitive edge by using RPB. A simple processing method, deep-stacking under polyethylene sheeting, can produce a safe product that will provide a complete diet when blended with an energy source and supplemented with some long-stem fiber. The diets can be used for both brood cows and stocker calves for extended periods of time, and the practice of feeding RPB is safe for both cattle and consumers [45]. Economic parameters will

  13. Seafood inclusion in commercial main meal early years' food products.

    PubMed

    Carstairs, Sharon A; Marais, Debbi; Craig, Leone C A; Kiezebrink, Kirsty

    2016-10-01

    Seafood consumption is recommended as part of a healthy, balanced diet. Under-exposure to seafood during early years feeding, when taste and food acceptance is developed, may impact on the future development of a varied diet. This study aimed to investigate the availability and nutritional content of seafood in commercial infant meals compared to the other food types. A survey was conducted of all commercial infant main meal products available for purchase in supermarkets, high street retailers and online stores within the United Kingdom. The primary food type (seafood, poultry, meat and vegetables) within each product, nutritional composition per 100 g, and ingredient contribution were assessed. Of the original 341 main meal products seafood (n = 13; 3.8%) was underrepresented compared to poultry (103; 30.2%), meat (121; 35.5%) and vegetables (104; 30.5%). The number of the seafood meals increased three years later (n = 20; 6.3%) vegetable meals remained the largest contributor to the market (115; 36.4%) with meat (99; 31.3%) and poultry (82; 26.0%) both contributing slightly less than previously. Seafood-based meals provided significantly higher energy (83.0 kcal), protein (4.6 g), and total fat (3.2 g) than vegetable (68 kcal, 2.7 g, 1.9 g), meat (66 kcal, 3.0 g, 2.1 g) and poultry-based meals (66 kcal, 3.0 g, 2.1 g) and higher saturated fat (1.3 g) than poultry (0.4 g) and vegetable-based (0.6 g) meals (all per 100 g) which may be attributed to additional dairy ingredients. Parents who predominantly use commercial products to wean their infant may face challenges in sourcing a range of seafood products to enable the introduction of this food into the diet of their infant. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Learning through school meals?

    PubMed

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica

    2014-07-01

    This article is based on a qualitative multiple case study aimed at evaluating the effects of free school meal interventions on pupils' learning, and on the learning environment in schools. The study was conducted at four schools, each offering free school meals for 20 weeks. At each school individual and focus group interviews were conducted with students in grades 5 to 7 and grades 8 to 9. Furthermore, students were observed during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The purpose of the article is to explore the learning potentials of school meals. The cross-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competences in relation to food, meals and health, as well as their involvement in the school meal project. The analysis indicates that the pupils have developed knowledge and skills related to novel foods and dishes, and that school meals can contribute to pupils' learning, whether this learning is planned or not. However, if school meals are to be further developed as an arena for learning, greater consideration must be given to the interaction between pupil, school meal and teacher than in the school meal projects presented in this study, and the potentials for learning through school meals clarified and discussed in the schools. Studying the school meal projects raises a number of dilemmas, such as whether the lunch break should be a part of or a break from education, are school meals a common (school) or private (parent) responsibility, and questions about pupils' and teachers' roles and participation in school meals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Artificial insemination in poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Artificial insemination is a relative simple yet powerful tool geneticists can employ for the propagation of economically important traits in livestock and poultry. In this chapter, we address the fundamental methods of the artificial insemination of poultry, including semen collection, semen evalu...

  16. The timing of meals.

    PubMed

    Strubbe, Jan H; Woods, Stephen C

    2004-01-01

    In most individuals, food intake occurs as discrete bouts or meals, and little attention has been paid to the factors that normally determine when meals will occur when food is freely available. On the basis of experiments using rats, the authors suggest that when there are no constraints on obtaining food and few competing activities, 3 levels of interacting controls normally dictate when meals will start. The first is the genetically determined circadian activity pattern on which nocturnal animals tend to initiate most meals in the dark. The second is the regularly occurring changing of the light cycle: These changes provide temporal anchors. The third relates to the size of the preceding meal, such that larger meals cause a longer delay until the onset of the next meal. Superimposed on these 3 are factors related to learning, convenience, and opportunity.

  17. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican States...

  18. Effect of mustard seed meal on early weed emergence in peppermint and potato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed meal is the by-product remaining after pressing/crushing mustard seed to remove the majority of the oil. Trials to evaluate weed suppression were conducted at several locations on peppermint and potatoes using seed meal obtained from Sinapis alba, variety Ida Gold. White mustard seed meal appl...

  19. Effects of expeller pressed camelina meal and/or canola meal on digestibility, performance and fatty acid composition of broiler chickens fed wheat-soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Philip; Widyaratne, Gemunu

    2012-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of graded levels of camelina meal and/or canola meal on digestibility, performance and fatty acid composition of broiler chickens. A total of 180-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of the six treatments. The control diet was based on wheat and soybean meal and contained 15% canola meal. The experimental diets contained 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% or 15% camelina meal added at the expense of canola meal. Chromic oxide (0.35%) was added to all diets as a digestibility marker. On the morning of day 22, birds were killed by cervical dislocation and their abdominal fat pad was obtained. The apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter and energy as well as nitrogen retention all declined linearly (p < 0.01) with increasing levels of dietary camelina meal. Weight gain (p < 0.01) and feed intake (p = 0.08) were linearly reduced as the level of camelina meal in the diet increased. Feed conversion ratio was also negatively affected by camelina meal (p < 0.01). Birds fed diets containing 15% camelina meal had significantly higher (p < 0.01) levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, total n-3 fatty acids, total n-6 fatty acids and a significantly lower ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (p < 0.01) than birds fed canola meal. In conclusion, the inclusion of camelina meal in their diet significantly reduced the growth and feed conversion ratio of broilers compared with canola meal. However, the potential to incorporate n-3 fatty acids into carcass tissues may provide some justification for including camelina meal in poultry rations.

  20. Poultry Plant Noise Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A demonstration conducted last winter at the Tip Top Poultry Plant intended to show poultry plant managers from all over the U.S. potential solutions to the problem of plant noise. Plastic covers used over sound absorbing materials need to meet cleanability requirements, high- pressure water cleaning and other harsh maintenance procedures peculiar to the poultry processing industry. For the demonstration, Fiber Flex, Inc. manufactured and donated 750 noise panels; Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation donated the fiberglas cores; and the cover material was purchased from Howe and Bainbridge. The Engineering Experiment Station (EES) conducted before and after noise surveys and is evaluating the effect of noise reduction on turnover and productivity in the demonstration plant. EES plans to conduct a noise abatement workshop and update a handbook to help poultry processors with noise problems. EES study and demonstration may be applicable to other food processing plants where similar sanitary constraints exist.

  1. Poultry Plant Noise Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    A demonstration conducted last winter at the Tip Top Poultry Plant intended to show poultry plant managers from all over the U.S. potential solutions to the problem of plant noise. Plastic covers used over sound absorbing materials need to meet cleanability requirements, high- pressure water cleaning and other harsh maintenance procedures peculiar to the poultry processing industry. For the demonstration, Fiber Flex, Inc. manufactured and donated 750 noise panels; Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation donated the fiberglas cores; and the cover material was purchased from Howe and Bainbridge. The Engineering Experiment Station (EES) conducted before and after noise surveys and is evaluating the effect of noise reduction on turnover and productivity in the demonstration plant. EES plans to conduct a noise abatement workshop and update a handbook to help poultry processors with noise problems. EES study and demonstration may be applicable to other food processing plants where similar sanitary constraints exist.

  2. Poultry Industry Energy Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The poultry industry, a multi-billion dollar business in the United States, uses great amounts of energy in such operations as broiler growing, feed manufacturing, poultry processing and packing. Higher costs and limited supply of fuels common to the industry are predicted, so poultry producers are seeking ways to reduce energy expenditure. NASA is providing assistance to Delmarva Poultry Industry, Inc., an association of some 4,000 growers and suppliers in one of the nation's largest poultry production areas. Delmarva is the East Coast peninsula that includes Delaware and parts of Maryland and Virginia. The upper right photo shows a weather station in the Delmarva area (wind indicator on the pole, other instruments in the elevated box). The station is located at the University of Maryland's Broiler Sub-station, Salisbury; Maryland, where the university conducts research on poultry production and processing. The sub-station is investigating ways of conserving energy in broiler production and also exploring the potential of solar collectors as an alternative energy source. For these studies, it is essential that researchers have continuous data on temperature, pressure, wind speed and direction, solar intensity and cloud cover. Equipment to acquire such data was loaned and installed by NASA's Wallops Flight Center, Wallops Island, Virginia.

  3. Perceptual attributes of poultry and other meat products: a repertory grid application.

    PubMed

    Michel, L Martínez; Punter, P H; Wismer, W V

    2011-04-01

    Increased demand for processed poultry products through the growth of home meal replacements and ready to eat products, present an opportunity for the development of new value-added poultry products. Repertory grid interviews were conducted to generate insight into consumer driven product development of these products. Procrustes analysis revealed that healthiness, nutrition, convenience, and processing attributes were most important parameters for discriminating amongst 24 meat and meat alternatives. "White meat", "healthier", "leaner", "good source of protein", "easy to cook" and "convenient", were found to positively influence consumer preferences for unprocessed chicken products, eggs and salmon while price did not appear to be important for differentiating the products. Traditional processed fish and poultry products, such as chicken nuggets, represented undesirable composition, processing and quality concerns. Identification of consumer attributes for discriminating poultry products among other meat alternatives can guide the development of competitive value-added poultry products.

  4. Management and utilization of poultry wastes.

    PubMed

    Williams, C M; Barker, J C; Sims, J T

    1999-01-01

    Waste by-products such as excreta or bedding material that are generated by the worldwide annual production of more than 40 million metric tons (t) of poultry meat and 600 billion eggs are generally land applied as the final step of a producer's waste management strategy. Under proper land application conditions, the nutrients and organisms in poultry wastes pose little environmental threat. Environmental contamination occurs when land application of poultry wastes is in excess of crop utilization potential, or is done under poor management conditions causing nutrient loss from environmental factors such as soil erosion or surface runoff during rainfall. Environmental parameters of concern are N, P, and certain metals (Cu and Zn in particular), as well as pathogenic microorganisms that may be contained in poultry waste. The biochemical cycle of N is very dynamic, and N contained in poultry waste may either be removed by crop harvest, leave the animal production facility, waste treatment lagoon, or application field as a gas (NH3, NO, NO2, N2O, or N2), or, due to its mobility in soil, be transported in organic or inorganic N forms in the liquid state via surface runoff or leaching into groundwater. Elevated concentrations of NO3-N in groundwater used for human consumption is a health risk to infants that are susceptible to methemoglobinemia. An environmental impact resulting from elevated NO3-N is eutrophication of surface waters. Ammonia loss from poultry waste is an environmental concern because of volatilized wet and dry deposits of NH3 into nitrogen-sensitive ecosystems. Phosphorus in poultry wastes may contribute to environmental degradation by accelerating the process of eutrophication. Unlike N, P is very immobile in soil and must first be transported to a surface water environment to have an environmental impact. It is generally accepted, however, that this nutrient affects receiving waters via transport in eroding soil as sediment-bound P or in surface

  5. Clostridium difficile in poultry and poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Roger B; Norman, Keri N; Andrews, Kathleen; Hume, Michael E; Scanlan, Charles M; Callaway, Todd R; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J

    2011-12-01

    The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile have increased in hospitals in North America from the emergence of newer, more virulent strains. Toxigenic C. difficile has been isolated from food animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer to human beings. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of toxigenic C. difficile in chickens and retail poultry meat in Texas. Seven C. difficile isolates were detected in fecal samples of 300 (2.3%) broiler chickens. Three cultivation procedures were evaluated for isolation of C. difficile from poultry meat and detected 1/32 (3.1%), 2/32 (6.2%), and 4/32 (12.5%) for the three procedures, respectively. Chicken and poultry meat isolates were characterized as toxinotype V and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis gel type-NAP7 or NAP7-variant. Susceptibilities to 11 antimicrobial agents in the current study suggested somewhat reduced resistance than reported for other meat or animal toxinotype V isolates.

  6. The Timing of Meals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strubbe, Jan H.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2004-01-01

    In most individuals, food intake occurs as discrete bouts or meals, and little attention has been paid to the factors that normally determine when meals will occur when food is freely available. On the basis of experiments using rats, the authors suggest that when there are no constraints on obtaining food and few competing activities, 3 levels of…

  7. Meals for the Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA is drawing upon its food-preparation expertise to assist in solving a problem affecting a large segment of the American population. In preparation for manned space flight programs, NASA became experienced in providing astronauts simple, easily-prepared, nutritious meals. That experience now is being transferred to the public sector in a cooperative project managed by Johnson Space Center. Called Meal System for the Elderly, the project seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally balanced meal packages to those who are unable to participate in existing meal programs. Many such programs are conducted by federal, state and private organizations, including congregate hot meal services and home-delivered "meals on wheels." But more than 3.5 million elderly Americans are unable to take advantage of these benefits. In some cases, they live in rural areas away from available services; in others, they are handicapped, temporarily ill, or homebound for other reasons. Meal System for the Elderly, a cooperative program in which the food-preparation expertise NASA acquired in manned space projects is being utilized to improve the nutritional status of elderly people. The program seeks to fill a gap by supplying nutritionally-balanced food packages to the elderly who are unable to participate b existing meal service programs.

  8. Meals for the Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The aim of Skylab's multi-agency cooperative project was to make simple but nutritious space meals available to handicapped and otherwise homebound senior adults, unable to take advantage of existing meal programs sponsored by federal, state and private organizations. As a spinoff of Meal Systems for the Elderly, commercial food processing firms are now producing astronaut type meals for public distribution. Company offers variety of freeze dried foods which are reconstituted by addition of water, and "retort pouch" meals which need no reconstitution, only heating. The retort pouch is an innovative flexible package that combines the advantage of boil-in bag and metal can. Foods retain their flavor, minerals and vitamins can be stored without refrigeration and are lightweight for easy transportation.

  9. A by-product of swine slaughtering as a protein source in broiler diets: effects on performance, composition of excreta, litter quality and on foot pad health.

    PubMed

    Kölln, M; Loi-Brügger, A; Kamphues, J

    2017-06-01

    Foot pad dermatitis (FPD) is of great concern in poultry industry, and dietary strategies are needed to improve foot pad health because of animal welfare and economic reasons. As the main factor for the development of FPD is the DM content of litter (consisting mainly of excreta; Kamphues et al., 2011), there are different dietary approaches to influence this disease pattern. In two consecutive trials, a total of 200 broilers were kept from day 7 until the 35th day of life. They were divided into four groups at each trial and fed with one of four experimental diets, based on wheat and corn mainly, but differing in the protein source: Group 1 was fed a diet with soya bean meal (SBM) as the main protein source, whereas Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4 were assigned to diets with 4, 8 and 12% of a protein-rich (66.7% CP in DM) by-product of swine slaughtering [Swine Protein Meal (SPM); in exchange for SBM]. The inclusion of 12% SPM resulted in a decreased dietary potassium content of about 3 g/kg diet (Group 1 vs. 4). Increasing dietary levels of the by-product (8 and 12%) led to lowered feed intake (Group 1 vs. 4: ~10%) and weight gain (Group 1 vs. Group 4: ~8.5%). Although highest DM contents of excreta and litter were determined in Group 4, foot pad health was not influenced positively as hypothesized. Remarkable was the observed 'stickiness' of excreta when the by-product was included in the diet at increasing levels, presumably due to the high proportion of bones in the by-product. In conclusion, substituting SBM by 4% of the by-product of swine slaughtering in broiler diets did not impair performance parameters, but led to the most favourable foot pad scores in this study. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Diary of a poultry intern.

    PubMed

    Garton, William

    2015-01-24

    Christmas is a demanding time for vets working in the poultry industry. As the memory of the season fades, William Garton reflects on his initial four months as a poultry intern. British Veterinary Association.

  11. Ornithosis in poultry workers.

    PubMed

    Andrews, B E; Major, R; Palmer, S R

    1981-03-21

    An outbreak of ornithosis in duck workers in the winter of 1979 and spring of 1980 was discovered by the investigation of a cluster of cases in Norfolk. A serological survey showed that 61% of duck workers but only 23% of control poultry workers had chlamydia group antibody titres of greater than or equal to 1:8. Altogether 9% of duck workers in the survey had antibody titres greater than or equal to 1:32 and a clinical illness suggestive of ornithosis. The proportions of seropositive tests and clinical attack rates were highest in workers eviscerating ducks and lowest in farm workers. It is suggested that a clinical history of contact with poultry should be considered relevant in the diagnosis of ornithosis and that clinicians caring for poultry workers should consider the possibility of ornithosis as an occupational disease.

  12. Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Arné, Pascal; Thierry, Simon; Wang, Dongying; Deville, Manjula; Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Desoutter, Anaïs; Féménia, Françoise; Nieguitsila, Adélaïde; Huang, Weiyi; Chermette, René; Guillot, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood. PMID:21826144

  13. Evaluation of hydrolyzed poultry feathers as a dietary ingredient for pond-raised channel catfish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study examined the use of hydrolyzed poultry feathers (HPF) as a replacement for soybean meal in diets for pond raised channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Four isonitrogenous (28% crude protein) diets were evaluated that contained 0, 5, 10, or 15% HPF. Fingerling Channel catfish (mean ±...

  14. Detection of pathogens, indicators, and antibiotic resistance genes following land application of poultry litter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The United States (U.S.) is the world’s largest producer of poultry with over eight billion broilers produced yearly. Poultry litter (PL) is a mixture of manure, bedding, feathers, and spilled feed that is a by-product of broiler production. In 2009, the U.S. produced more than 50 million tons of PL...

  15. Water quality and poultry production.

    PubMed

    King, A J

    1996-07-01

    Mineral and microbial content of water affects the performance of poultry. Because poultry production can adversely affect water quality, the Environmental Protection Agency monitors and regulates its impact. Management of nonpoint source water contamination is especially important. If properly managed, litter, a valuable secondary commodity associated with poultry production, can be used as fertilizer, food, or energy.

  16. 75 FR 64733 - Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Safflower Seed Meal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals (21 CFR part 573) to provide... cattle and poultry feeds. The safflower variety has been bioengineered to contain a gene from the water mold Saprolegnia diclina responsible for production of -linolenic acid in the seed oil. Seed meals are...

  17. Improved prediction of meat and bone meal metabolizable energy content for ducks through in vitro methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apparent metabolizable energy (AME) of meat and bone meal (MBM) for poultry is highly variable, but impractical to measure routinely. Previous efforts at developing an in vitro method for predicting AME have had limited success. The present study uses data from a previous publication on the AME of...

  18. Feather meal: a previously unrecognized route for reentry into the food supply of multiple pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs).

    PubMed

    Love, D C; Halden, R U; Davis, M F; Nachman, K E

    2012-04-03

    Antimicrobials used in poultry production have the potential to bioaccumulate in poultry feathers but available data are scarce. Following poultry slaughter, feathers are converted by rendering into feather meal and sold as fertilizer and animal feed, thereby providing a potential pathway for reentry of drugs into the human food supply. We analyzed feather meal (n = 12 samples) for 59 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) using EPA method 1694 employing liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). All samples tested positive and six classes of antimicrobials were detected, with a range of two to ten antimicrobials per sample. Caffeine and acetaminophen were detected in 10 of 12 samples. A number of PPCPs were determined to be heat labile during laboratory simulation of the rendering process. Growth of wild-type E. coli in MacConkey agar was inhibited by sterilized feather meal (p = 0.01) and by the antimicrobial enrofloxacin (p < 0.0001) at levels found in feather meal. Growth of a drug-resistant E. coli strain was not inhibited by sterilized feather meal or enrofloxacin. This is the first study to detect antimicrobial residues in feather meal. Initial results suggest that more studies are needed to better understand potential risks posed to consumers by drug residues in feather meal.

  19. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Ben Sassi, Neila; Averós, Xavier; Estevez, Inma

    2016-01-01

    Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability. PMID:27727169

  20. Enteric viruses of poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite the economic importance of the poultry gut, very little is known about the complex gut microbial community. Enteric disease syndromes such as Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS) in broiler chickens and Poult Enteritis Complex (PEC) in young turkeys are difficult to characterize and reproduce in ...

  1. Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

  2. Stunning systems for poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poultry are stunned immediately prior to slaughter to facilitate automated processing, to minimize the subsequent death struggle and thereby minimize carcass damage and down grades, and to render the bird unconscious and incapable to perceive pain. A stunning method for slaughter should be consider...

  3. Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

  4. A survey of village poultry production in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Jansen, T; Glatz, P C; Miao, Z H

    2009-10-01

    A total of 84 farmers in 31 villages of Guadalcanal, Western, Malaita and Central Provinces of the Solomon Islands were surveyed to obtain baseline information on the current feeding practices and farmer attitudes to village poultry production. Farming of village chickens in the Solomon Islands is conducted on a small scale. Most surveyed farmers thought chickens were easy to care for, provide food for the family and was a good cash income enterprise. Some farmers were interested in keeping local chickens, but found it difficult to obtain the birds. The main feed sources are fresh coconut, copra meal, fish meal, mill run, food scraps and forage sources from the range. Some villagers believe that chickens only need to eat household scraps and did not provide drinking water. Many villagers lacked the knowledge of managing a village poultry enterprise. Some chicken houses were built by using bush materials or by purchasing construction materials. Farmers indicated they would like the government to provide funds for establishing a smallholder poultry enterprise and to provide information on feeding and management of birds.

  5. Comparison of broiler performance and carcass yields when fed diets containing genetically modified canola meal from event DP-Ø73496-4, near-isogenic canola meal, or commercial canola meals.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, J; Roberts, M; Rice, D; Smith, B; Hong, B; Delaney, B; Iiams, C

    2014-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) canola (Brassica napus L.) line containing event DP-Ø73496-4 (hereafter referred to as 73496 canola) was produced by the insertion of the glyphosate acetyltransferase (gat4621) gene derived from Bacillus licheniformis. Expression of the GAT4621 protein present in 73496 canola plants confers in planta tolerance to the herbicidal active ingredient glyphosate. The objective of this study was to compare the nutritional performance of broiler chickens fed canola meal from 73496 canola seed with that of broiler chickens fed non-GM canola meal in a 42-d feeding trial. Diets were prepared using meal processed from seed from unsprayed 73496 plants or from plants sprayed with an in-field application of glyphosate herbicide [73496(S)]. For comparison, additional diets were produced with canola meal obtained from the non-GM near-isogenic control or non-GM commercial reference DuPont Pioneer brand varieties 42H72, 42H73, 46A65, and 44A89. Diets were fed to Ross 708 broilers (n = 120/group, 50% male and 50% female) in 3 phases: starter and grower phases containing 10 or 20% canola meal, respectively, and a finisher phase with a common corn-soybean meal diet without any canola meal. No statistically significant differences were observed in growth performance measures or organ and carcass yields between broilers consuming diets produced with canola meal from unsprayed or sprayed 73496 seed and those consuming diets produced with canola meal from control seed. Additionally, all performance, organ, and carcass measures from control, 73496, and 73496(S) canola treatment groups were within tolerance intervals constructed using data from the reference canola groups. It was concluded from these results that meal processed from 73496 canola seed (unsprayed plants or plants sprayed with glyphosate) was nutritionally equivalent to meal processed from non-GM near-isogenic control canola seed. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Anaerobic digestion of organic solid poultry slaughterhouse waste--a review.

    PubMed

    Salminen, E; Rintala, J

    2002-05-01

    This work reviews the potential of anaerobic digestion for material recovery and energy production from poultry slaughtering by-products and wastes. First, we describe and quantify organic solid by-products and wastes produced in poultry farming and poultry slaughterhouses and discuss their recovery and disposal options. Then we review certain fundamental aspects of anaerobic digestion considered important for the digestion of solid slaughterhouse wastes. Finally, we present an overview of the future potential and current experience of the anaerobic digestion treatment of these materials.

  7. Improved poultry house

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of energy and poultry production was explored in three areas: methane production from litter, broiler house insulation, and broiler house HVAC systems. The findings show that while a methane plant would not be popular with individual American poultry producers; the pay back in fuel and fertilizer, if the plant was located in close proximinity to the processing plant, would be favorable. Broiler house insulation has been dramatically improved since the outset of this study. Presently, all new installations in the survey area are the Environmental houses which are fully insulated. HVAC systems have had to keep pace with the introduction of better insulation. The new Environmental houses HVAC systems are fully automated and operating on a positive atmosphere principal. Ammonia and other problems have been kept in check while reducing air changes per house from a high of 7 per hour to as little as 3 per hour.

  8. Poultry housing and husbandry.

    PubMed

    Elson, H A

    2010-08-01

    1. In order to conduct this anniversary review, 10 excellent papers were carefully selected from the 148 available papers published on housing and husbandry in British Poultry Science (BPS) over the past 50 years. 2. The 10 selected papers on this subject covered mainly the housing and husbandry of laying hens, but two of them dealt with various aspects of broiler production. 3. Aspects of housing considered included a wide range of intensive and extensive systems of broiler and egg production. Specific topics included the effects of husbandry system on bird welfare, including skeletal damage in laying hens and contact dermatitis in broiler chickens, as well as the design and management of nest boxes, perches, feeders and drinkers, conventional laying cages (CCs), furnished laying cages (FCs) and non-cage systems (NCs). 4. A variety of the findings in these and related papers have enlightened our understanding of many aspects of poultry housing and husbandry; most of them have found application in the poultry industry and thus improved its efficiency.

  9. Improving digestibility of feather meal by steam flash explosion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiqi; Yang, Ruijin; Zhao, Wei

    2014-04-02

    Poultry feathers are available in large quantities. However, natural feathers have poor digestibility and are often considered as solid wastes. To improve the digestibility of poultry feathers, steam flash explosion (SFE) was applied to duck feathers at different pressures ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 MPa for 1 min. The pepsin digestibility, disulfide bond content, and major secondary structure component (β-sheets) of duck feathers before and after the process were examined. The results showed that SFE could effectively increase pepsin digestibility of feather meal. Under the optimal conditions (1.8 MPa for 1 min), the pepsin digestibility of exploded feather meal achieved approximately 91%, which was about 9 times higher than that of the original feathers. The pepsin digestibility was highly correlated with the degree of reduction of disulfide bonds (R(2) = 0.98) and slightly negatively correlated with β-sheet structure. SFE is an effective method to improve the bio-utilization of feather meal.

  10. The European perspective on pale, soft, exudative conditions in poultry.

    PubMed

    Petracci, M; Bianchi, M; Cavani, C

    2009-07-01

    Over the past 15 yr, the European poultry processing industry has gradually increased the availability of poultry meat in a large variety of processed ready meals following what occurred a few years before in North America. This shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. In parallel to this market change, the consciousness of the pale, soft, and exudative (PSE)-like meat issue has extensively grown. In poultry, PSE-like meat can be generally considered meat having low ultimate pH, pale color, and poor functional properties (i.e., low water-holding capacity). In the last 10 yr, some studies have been undertaken in Europe to both characterize and evaluate the overall incidence of PSE-like chicken and turkey breast meat. According to these studies, the occurrence of PSE-like meat can be up to 40% within a flock during hot climate. Several key factors have been identified and their effects have been analyzed, including genetics, season, antemortem factors, and slaughtering conditions.

  11. Mustard meal in dairy rations.

    PubMed

    Moss, B R

    1975-11-01

    Consumption of 0% mustard meal and 15% soybean meal, 7.5% mustard meal and 7.5% soybean meal, or 15% mustard meal and 0% soybean meal rations did not differ in palatability studies with 10 group-fed lactating cows when the mustard meal was treated with 3% caustic soda. Order of preference was for 0, 7.5, and 15% mustard meal rations when mustard meal was untreated. Twelve lactating cows were in each of two lactation trials to compare the three rations of untreated mustard meal. Milk, milk fat, and solids-not-fat, and milk protein did not differ for either trial. Protein-bound iodine of plasma for all cows were within the normal range. Three cows were placed on each of the three rations and received a minimum of 9 kg per day for 6 mo preparturition to determine goitrogenic effects. All cows gave birth to normal, vigorous calves. Limited organoleptic evaluations of milk indicated that untreated mustard meal may impart a detrimental flavor to milk, but a taste panel could not differentiate between milk from cows on the three rations of treated mustard meal. Twenty-one male and 43 female Holstein claves received either 0, 10, or 20% mustard meal starter rations from birth to 3 mo of age. Growth, feed consumption, or plasma protein-bound iodine did not differ.

  12. 7 CFR 701.56 - Poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... losses in calendar year 2005 to a poultry house in an eligible county due to a 2005 hurricane. (b... hurricane. (f) Assistance is limited to poultry houses used to house poultry for commercial enterprises. A...

  13. Meals in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Kofod, Jens; Birkemose, Anna

    2004-06-01

    Undernutrition is present among 33% of nursing home residents in Denmark. Hence, it is relevant to examine the meal situation at nursing homes to single out factors that may increase or reduce the residents' food intake. In the ongoing Danish nursing home debate it is claimed that a new type of nursing home improves the residents' meal situation with a positive effect on nutrition. The aim of this work is to test the general hypothesis that (i) residents appreciate the meal situation in these nursing homes and (ii) nutritional status of the residents is improved in this type of nursing home. This study was carried out in four Danish nursing homes at various locations in Denmark. The methods used are qualitative interviews and observations at four nursing homes in combination with measurement of body mass index (BMI) at two of the four nursing homes. Undernutrition is defined as a BMI below 20. The study could not confirm the general hypothesis, as a consistent improvement in the meal situation was not found in the nursing homes studied. But an indication of improved nutritional status was found in two of the nursing homes where the degree of undernutrition was lower than generally found in Denmark. Furthermore, the study indicated that the staff and the residents conceived the nursing homes differently.

  14. Districts Tackling Meal Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

  15. Districts Tackling Meal Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

  16. Meals Served in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivigal, Lisa

    The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) contacted public school districts around the United States to determine if they offered low-fat, healthful meals. The PCRM ranked the schools according to whether they served low-fat and vegetarian meals daily, whether these meals varied through the week, and whether children needed to…

  17. Efficacy of feeding glucosinolate-extracted crambe meal to broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Kloss, P; Jeffrey, E; Wallig, M; Tumbleson, M; Parsons, C; Johnson, L; Reuber, M

    1994-10-01

    Glucosinolates and their breakdown products (nitriles) have long been implicated as toxic factors when feeding rapeseed (Brassica napus) meals and crambe (Crambe abyssinica) meals to poultry. Accordingly, various methods have been developed to remove these compounds from the meals to enhance their value as feed supplements. Glucosinolates and nitriles were extracted from commercially processed, defatted crambe meal by washing with water or various solvent-water mixtures: 50% isopropanol, 50% acetone, or 50% ethanol. In addition, crambe seed was extruded and extracted in the laboratory with isopropanol or hexane. Water washing of commercially defatted meal proved to be the most effective method of extraction, removing 95% of the glucosinolates and nitriles. Meals were fed to 7-d-old broiler chicks at 10% of the diet for 14 d. Weight gain decreased (P < .05) in most groups; however a greater decrease (P < .01) was observed in birds fed meals with high glucosinolate content. Feed intake also decreased (P < .05) in most groups; consequently, feed efficiencies were similar for all groups. No changes in serum chemistries, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, or tissue lesions were associated with glucosinolate or nitrile intake. A relationship (P < .05, r = .74) was found between weight gain and glucosinolate intake. No correlation was found between feed intake and meal glucosinolate or nitrile concentrations.

  18. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  19. Quality evaluation of poultry carcasses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The USDA Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) has been mandated to organoleptically inspect poultry carcasses online at processing plants. For poultry quality and safety evaluation, the development of accurate and reliable instruments for online detection of unwholesomeness such as septicemia, cada...

  20. Veterinary involvement in poultry production.

    PubMed

    Parker, Daniel

    2016-01-16

    The worldwide poultry sector is expected to grow substantially over the next few decades, as the world looks to feed a rapidly expanding population. In a further article in Veterinary Record's series looking at the state of different sectors of the veterinary profession, Daniel Parker looks at veterinary involvement in the poultry sector. British Veterinary Association.

  1. Soybean meal retains its nutritional value as an animal feed following its use for biodiesel production via in situ transesterification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The suitability in poultry nutrition of the lipid-depleted meal generated by in situ transesterification of flaked soybeans to produce biodiesel was examined. For purposes of comparison, analogous diets were formulated using flaked soybeans whose lipid had been removed by conventional industrial he...

  2. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all poultry...

  3. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all poultry...

  4. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all poultry...

  5. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all poultry...

  6. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all poultry...

  7. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

  8. Preserving high-protein fish by-products through silages and fermentates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    n Alaska, over three million metric tons of fish by-products are generated each year. However, due to the remote locations and seasonal nature of salmon fisheries, by-products are generally not fully utilized unless a fish meal plant is located nearby. Acidification is a common method for inhibiting...

  9. Oily fish increases iron bioavailability of a phytate rich meal in young iron deficient women.

    PubMed

    Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Sarriá, Beatriz; Carbajal, Angeles; Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Roe, Mark A; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2008-02-01

    Iron deficiency is a major health problem worldwide, and is associated with diets of low iron bioavailability. Non-heme iron absorption is modulated by dietary constituents, one of which is the so-called "meat factor", present in meat, fish (oily and lean) and poultry, which is an important enhancer of iron absorption in humans. Food processing also affects iron bioavailability. To evaluate the effect of consuming sous vide cooked salmon fish on non-heme iron bioavailability from a bean meal, rich in phytate, in iron-deficient women. Randomized crossover trial in 21 young women with low iron stores (ferritin < 30 microg/L). Two test meals were extrinsically labelled with stable isotopes of iron (Fe-57 or Fe-58). Iron bioavailability was measured as the incorporation of stable isotopes into erythrocytes 14 d after meals consumption. The addition of fish to the bean meal significantly increased (p < 0.001) iron absorption. Serum ferritin concentration and iron absorption were inversely correlated for both the bean meal (R(2) = 0.294, p = 0.011) and the fish and bean meal (R(2) = 0.401, p = 0.002). Sous vide cooked salmon fish increases iron absorption from a high phytate bean meal in humans.

  10. Recent advances in research on enzymes for poultry diets.

    PubMed

    Slominski, B A

    2011-09-01

    Exogenous enzymes have been used extensively in the diets of poultry to improve productive performance. Further research, however, is needed to evaluate the efficacy of enzyme use and for the expansion of the use of enzymes to accommodate the wide array of dietary constituents used in poultry feeding programs. The use of effective phytase preparations to improve bird performance and to reduce environmental P pollution has shown less than optimum results, partly due to the potential negative effects of nontargeted dietary fiber components and to confounding influence of inadequate knowledge of accurate P requirements and the tendency for the use of excessive safety margins in diet formulation. Targeting specific nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) of wheat, barley, or rye with enzyme preparations has proven effective for diets based on these cereals but not for corn- and soybean meal-based diets, primarily due to the differences in constituent NSP. The increased use of whole flaxseed in poultry diets represents an additional research area for effective enzyme development to alleviate potential negative effects of constituent NSP components. Such challenges of the enzyme development process and their outcomes are presented in this publication.

  11. Microbial load, acidity, lipid oxidation and volatile basic nitrogen of irradiated fish and meat-bone meals.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M R; Al-Bachir, M

    2007-04-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of different doses of gamma irradiation (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kilo gray; kGy) on some nutritive components and chemical aspects pertaining to quality of fish meal and meat-bone meal. The radiation doses required to reduce the total microbial load and Salmonella sp. one log cycle (D(10)) in fish meal and meat-bone meal were determined. Results indicated that gamma irradiation of fish meal and meat-bone meal with 5-20 kGy doses had no effects on the total acidity values but increased the values of lipid oxidation and total volatile basic nitrogen. D(10) of total microbial load and Salmonella sp. were 833 and 313 Gy for fish meal and 526 Gy and 278 Gy for meat-bone meal, respectively. It can be concluded that radiation processing could be employed in the recycling of fish and meat-bone meals by using them as feedstuffs in poultry diets with no fear of losing their nutritive components.

  12. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, tyrosinase inhibitory and anti-inflammatory activities of selected agro-industrial by-products.

    PubMed

    Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abdullah, Norhani; Hendra, Rudi; Karimi, Ehsan

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of abundantly available agro-industrial by-products for their bioactive compounds and biological activities is beneficial in particular for the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, rapeseed meal, cottonseed meal and soybean meal were investigated for the presence of bioactive compounds and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. Methanolic extracts of rapeseed meal showed significantly (P < 0.01) higher phenolics and flavonoids contents; and significantly (P < 0.01) higher DPPH and nitric oxide free radical scavenging activities when compared to that of cottonseed meal and soybean meal extracts. Ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid tests results showed rapeseed meal with the highest antioxidant activity (P < 0.01) followed by BHT, cotton seed meal and soybean meal. Rapeseed meal extract in xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory assays showed the lowest IC(50) values followed by cottonseed and soybean meals. Anti-inflammatory assay using IFN-γ/LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells indicated rapeseed meal is a potent source of anti-inflammatory agent. Correlation analysis showed that phenolics and flavonoids were highly correlated to both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Rapeseed meal was found to be promising as a natural source of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities in contrast to cotton and soybean meals.

  13. Diary of a poultry intern.

    PubMed

    Garton, William

    2015-03-21

    William Garton, intern at Minster Vets, has been on an intensive two-week poultry health course where he gained lots of new knowledge as well as a sense of direction and purpose. British Veterinary Association.

  14. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  15. Fermentation of rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and faba beans in combination with wheat bran increases solubility of protein and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Blaabjerg, Karoline

    2017-01-01

    To increase self-supply of protein and phosphorus (P) in European pig and poultry diets and reduce nitrogen (N) and P excretion, attention is directed to approaches increasing protein and P digestibility of rapeseed, sunflower and faba beans. Wheat bran is rich in enzymes degrading and solubilizing protein and phytate. Herein, solubilization of protein, N and P was investigated when increasing ratios of wheat bran were fermented with rapeseed meal (RSM), sunflower meal (SFM), faba beans (FB) or a combination of these (RSM/SFM/FB). Protein, N and P solubility was greater, for all mixtures, the more wheat bran was included and the longer the mixtures were fermented. The increase in N (FB > RSM/SFM/FB > SFM > RSM) and protein solubility (RSM/SFM/FB > RSM > SFM > FB) was greatest from day 0 to day 3 and thereafter limited, whereas P solubility increased during the whole period (5 days; FB > RSM/SFM/FB > SFM > RSM). In general, FB showed the highest solubility and highest increase in N and P solubility, while RSM showed the highest protein solubility and RSM/SFM/FB the highest increase in protein solubility. Fermentation of RSM, SFM, FB and RSM/SFM/FB without or with wheat bran uncovers a potential for increased protein and P digestibility and thereby reduced N and P excretion from pigs and poultry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Effects of fungal (Aspergillus niger or Ceriporiopsis subvermispora) fermentation on the nutritive value of shea nut (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal for broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Dei, H K; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M

    2008-05-01

    1. Shea nut (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn.) meal was fermented for 8 d with either Aspergillus niger, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora or a mixture of the two organisms. The fermentation was completed using two methods, an opened container or a closed container. 2. Each of the 6 samples was dried and incorporated into basal broiler diets at 90 g/kg. 3. In addition, the unfermented shea nut meal was incorporated in the diet at 90 g/kg and the basal diet (maize and soybean meal based) was also provided as an eighth dietary treatment to individually caged broiler chickens. 4. All fermented fungi-treated shea nut meals had similar proximate nutrient compositions to the unfermented shea nut meal, but there were substantial decreases in their hydrolysable tannins and saponin contents. Both fermentation methods gave similar reductions in the concentrations of tannins and saponins. 5. Shea nut meal fermented with individual or both fungal organisms gave greater (P < 0.001) growth performance than that of unfermented shea nut meal. However, all shea nut meals including the unfermented meal gave lower (P < 0.001) growth variables than those for the maize-soybean meal control. 6. The nutritional improvement of shea nut meal achieved in this study still falls far short of what is expected for it to become valuable for the poultry feed industry. These fermentation methods using A. niger or C. subvermispora require further improvements to provide satisfactory feed products.

  17. Peanut by-products fed to cattle.

    PubMed

    Hill, Gary M

    2002-07-01

    Peanut by-products supply substantial quantities of feedstuffs to beef cattle grown in the same region where peanuts are produced. Included in the list of products fed to cattle are peanuts and peanut meal, peanut skins, peanut hulls, peanut hay, and silages. Residual peanut hay is by far the most widely used peanut by-product fed to beef cattle, and if it is properly harvested with minimal leaf shatter, it is comparable to good-quality grass hays in nutrient content. Peanut skins are often included in small quantities in cattle and pet foods, supplying both protein and energy. High tannin content of peanut skins can cause severe performance depressions in beef cattle if peanut skins are included at levels higher than 10% of the diet, unless diets contain relatively high CP (above 15% CP), or additional N sources are added such as ammonia or urea. Because dairy cattle diets are often above 16% CP in the total dietary DM, peanut skins may increase milk production when added at levels up to 16% of the dry matter. Peanut hulls are effectively used as a roughage source at levels up to 20% of beef finishing diets, for bedding in dairy cattle loafing sheds (if tested and found to contain low aflatoxin levels), and in a variety of manufactured products. Peanut hulls are economically priced because of their quantity, their inherent high fiber, and low CP content, and they should not be fed as a primary feedstuffs for beef cattle. Peanut by-products are generally priced below other by-products, and they can be incorporated into a variety of supplements and diets for cow herds, growing-finishing cattle, and dairy cattle.

  18. Guar meal germ and hull fractions differently affect growth performance and intestinal viscosity of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, J T; Bailey, C A; Cartwright, A L

    2003-10-01

    High concentrations of guar meal in poultry diets deleteriously affect growth, feed intake, and digesta viscosity. These effects are attributed to residual gum in the meal. A 2 x 5 factorial experiment investigated the impacts of two guar meal fractions (germ and hull) at five inclusion levels (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0%) on intestinal viscosity, measures of growth, and feed conversion in broiler chickens fed to 20 d of age. Growth and feed conversion ratio were not affected by inclusion of as much as 7.5% of the germ fraction into poultry diets, while inclusion of the hull fraction reduced growth at all concentrations. The hull fraction increased intestinal viscosity at all inclusion levels fed, although feed conversion was not affected until the inclusion rate exceeded 5.0%. The germ fraction significantly increased intestinal viscosity at 7.5 and 10% inclusion rates. When germ fraction was fed, relative organ weights remained constant through all concentrations except for the ventriculus and duodenum at 7.5 and 10% inclusion levels. Relative pancreas weight was significantly increased at the 10% level of the hull fraction. Increases in intestinal viscosity corresponded with growth depression. These results suggest that residual gum was responsible for some deleterious effects seen when guar meal was fed. The germ fraction was a superior ingredient when compared with the hull fraction. The guar meal germ fraction constituting as much as 7.5% of the diet supported growth and feed conversion measures similar to those observed with a typical corn-soybean poultry ration.

  19. Meal Counting and Claiming Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual contains information about the selection and implementation of a meal counting and claiming system for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (BSP). Federal reimbursement is provided for each meal that meets program requirements and is served to an eligible student. Part 1 explains the six elements of…

  20. Extensive protein hydrolyzation is indispensable to prevent IgE-mediated poultry allergen recognition in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Olivry, Thierry; Bexley, Jennifer; Mougeot, Isabelle

    2017-08-17

    The central premise for the commercialization of diets with hydrolyzed ingredients is that the small-sized digested peptides would be unable to crosslink allergen-specific IgE at the surface of tissue mast cells and induce their degranulation. Evidence for the validity of this concept to diagnose food allergies in dogs and cats is limited, however. Our objectives were to study the recognition of standard and variably hydrolyzed poultry extracts by sera from dogs and cats with elevated chicken-specific serum IgE. Forty sera from dogs and 40 from cats with undetectable, low, medium or high serum levels of chicken-specific IgE were tested by ELISA on plates coated with the positive controls chicken, duck and turkey meat extracts and the negative controls beef meat (dogs) or wheat (cats). Plates were also coated with a non-hydrolyzed chicken meal, and mildly- or extensively-hydrolyzed poultry feather extracts. The frequencies of dogs with positive IgE against the various extracts were: chicken meat: 100%, duck and turkey meats: 97%, beef meat: 3%, non-hydrolyzed chicken meal: 73%, mildly-hydrolyzed poultry feathers: 37% and extensively-hydrolyzed poultry feathers: 0%. For cats, these respective percentages were (with wheat replacing beef as a negative control): 100, 84, 97, 7, 7, 0 and 0%. To detect any allergenic cross-reactivity between poultry meat-based and feather hydrolysate-derived extracts, an IgE ELISA inhibition was also done. Ten canine sera with the highest level of anti-poultry IgE in the previous experiment were incubated overnight with a previously optimized 50 μg amount of each of the extracts used above. We performed ELISA on plates coated with chicken, duck or turkey meats with or without inhibitors. The median inhibition percentages after incubation with the non-hydrolyzed chicken meal were ~22%, with the mildly-hydrolyzed poultry feathers: 14-22%, and those with the extensively-hydrolyzed poultry feathers: 5 to 10%; the last inhibition level was

  1. Prevalence and Characterization of Salmonella in Animal Meals Collected from Rendering Operations.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiuping

    2016-06-01

    As part of the Salmonella Education Reduction Program, the Animal Protein Producers Industry initiated a yearlong microbiological survey of animal meals from 1 January to 31 December 2010. The types of animal meals included poultry meal, pork and beef crax, meat meal, meat and bone meal, feather meal, blood meal, and fish meal from a variety of rendering operations (n = 65). Salmonella was positive in 731 (8.3%) of 8,783 analyzed samples, with contamination rates as 1.0, 33.2, and 21.3% from samples collected right after press, being loaded out, or unidentified, respectively. The randomly selected positive Salmonella samples (n = 100) representing 1.1% of the total samples tested were enumerated by the most-probable-number (MPN) method. The Salmonella contamination level ranged from <0.03 (below the detection limit) to 240 MPN/g with a median MPN per gram of 0.036. Among 102 Salmonella isolates from those 100 positive samples, a total of 42 Salmonella serotypes or groups were identified with Montevideo (13%), Senftenberg (11%), Mbandaka (7%), Orion (7%), Livingstone (6%), Tennessee (4%), Infantis (4%), Cerro (4%), and group C1 (4%) as the most predominant ones. Those Salmonella isolates were further analyzed for antimicrobial resistance to the 15 most common antibiotics by using the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System gram-negative plate. Most Salmonella isolates (n = 94) were sensitive to all antibiotics tested, with seven isolates resistant to one antibiotic and one resistant to seven antibiotics. Clearly, the prevalence of Salmonella in animal meals declined compared with previous surveys, and none of the Salmonella serotypes concerning target animal health were isolated. In addition, most Salmonella isolates remained susceptible to the majority of the 15 most commonly used antibiotics.

  2. Emulsifying properties of chemically deamidated corn (Zea mays) gluten meal.

    PubMed

    Flores, I; Cabra, V; Quirasco, M C; Farres, A; Galvez, A

    2010-06-01

    Corn gluten meal is a by-product of starch production that is readily available. Corn protein isolates have limited applications due to their hydrophobic nature, low solubility and limited functionality as emulsifiers. In this study, a mild acidic treatment of corn gluten meal was performed in order to achieve deamidation of asparagine and glutamine residues and modify the interfacial behavior of this byproduct. A 0.1 N HCl treatment for 6 h at 70 °C rendered a deamidation degree of 20.4%, which increased the emulsification activity index of corn gluten meal from 6.8 to 16.8 m(2)/g protein, with a remarkable increase in emulsion stability from 0 to 90.6% oil retention. Proteins participating in the emulsion were separated by SDS-PAGE and the main polypeptides were identified as alpha and beta-zeins. After deamidation, protein dissociation and unfolding due to the obtained negative charges resulted in enhanced functionality.

  3. Endemic Poultry Viral Diseases 2016 Research Update

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Viral infections of the avian gastrointestinal tract negatively impact poultry production; however, determining the complex etiologies of the viral enteric diseases in poultry has been difficult. Project scientists are continuing to investigate the species specificity, molecular phylogenetics, and p...

  4. 7 CFR 701.156 - Poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to a poultry house in an eligible county due to a 2005 hurricane. (b) Claimants under this section... reconstruction and/or repair of a poultry house to the same size as before the hurricane. (f) Assistance is...

  5. 7 CFR 701.156 - Poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to a poultry house in an eligible county due to a 2005 hurricane. (b) Claimants under this section... reconstruction and/or repair of a poultry house to the same size as before the hurricane. (f) Assistance is...

  6. Meal type affects heartburn severity.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, S; Miner, P; Robinson, M; Greenwood, B; Maton, P N; Pappa, K

    1998-03-01

    This study compared heartburn severity, number of episodes, and changes in esophageal pH induced by three meals. Symptomatic volunteers consumed the following on different occasions: McDonald's Quarter Pounder, french fries, and chocolate shake; McDonald's Sausage Biscuit with Egg, cheese, raw onion, and chocolate milk; and Wendy's Chili and red wine. Increases in reflux episodes over baseline for the hamburger, sausage biscuit, and chili meals were 28.8 +/- 5.7, 36 +/- 5.5 and 43.7 +/- 8.8, respectively. The sausage biscuit and chili increased reflux compared to the hamburger (P < 0.05), but the chili did not differ statistically from the sausage biscuit meal. Onset and peak heartburn for the hamburger, sausage biscuit, and chili meals were 45 and 90, 30 and 120, and 15 and 150 min, respectively. Despite lower fat content, chili and red wine promoted more reflux and heartburn pain than the other meals, demonstrating the importance of meal selection in provocative meal studies.

  7. Apparent digestibility of possible fish meal replacements in Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar and Arctic Charr, Salvelinus alpinus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To increase the sustainability of salmonid production, alternative protein sources to fish meal need to be identified. Many studies have examined terrestrial plant meals/protein concentrates as alternatives. Recently the focus has turned to aquatic protists and plants as well as by-products from oth...

  8. 9 CFR 94.28 - Restrictions on the importation of poultry meat and products, and live birds and poultry, from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... poultry meat and products, and live birds and poultry, from the APHIS-defined EU Poultry Trade Region. 94... RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.28 Restrictions on the importation of poultry meat and products, and live birds... from birds and poultry that were in any of the following regions or zones, unless the birds and poultry...

  9. 7 CFR 701.156 - Poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry. 701.156 Section 701.156 Agriculture... Poultry. (a) Subject to the other eligibility provisions of this part except as provided explicitly in... to a poultry house in an eligible county due to a 2005 hurricane. (b) Claimants under this section...

  10. 7 CFR 701.156 - Poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry. 701.156 Section 701.156 Agriculture... Poultry. (a) Subject to the other eligibility provisions of this part except as provided explicitly in... to a poultry house in an eligible county due to a 2005 hurricane. (b) Claimants under this section...

  11. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section 381.159... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381...

  12. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section 381.159... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381...

  13. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section 381.159... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381...

  14. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section 381.159... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381...

  15. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section 381.159... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381...

  16. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal b...

  17. Colostrum: Your Baby's First Meal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Colostrum: Your Baby's First Meal Ages & ...

  18. How can we improve the environmental sustainability of poultry production?

    PubMed

    Leinonen, Ilkka; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2016-08-01

    The review presents results of recent life cycle assessment studies aiming to quantify and improve the environmental performance of UK poultry production systems, including broiler meat, egg and turkey meat production. Although poultry production has been found to be relatively environmentally friendly compared with the production of other livestock commodities, it still contributes to environmental impacts, such as global warming, eutrophication and acidification. Amongst different sub-processes, feed production and transport contributes about 70 % to the global warming potential of poultry systems, whereas manure management contributes about 40-60 % to their eutrophication potential and acidification potential, respectively. All these impacts can be reduced by improving the feed efficiency, either by changing the birds through genetic selection or by making the feed more digestible (e.g. by using additives such as enzymes). However, although genetic selection has the potential to reduce the resources needed for broiler production (including feed consumption), the changing need of certain feed ingredients, most notably protein sources as a result of changes in bird requirements may limit the benefits of this strategy. The use of alternative feed ingredients, such as locally grown protein crops and agricultural by-products, as a replacement of South American grown soya, can potentially also lead to improvements in several environmental impact categories, as long as such feeding strategies have no negative effect on bird performance. Other management options, such as improving poultry housing and new strategies for manure management have also the potential to further improve the environmental sustainability of the poultry industries in Europe.

  19. Diary of a poultry intern.

    PubMed

    Garton, William

    2015-05-16

    In his post as poultry intern, William Garton is finding that CPD takes up a large proportion of his time. This, he says, can be quite enjoyable, particularly when events are sponsored by international pharmaceutical companies. This month, he has been on two training courses, one in Spain and the other in Belgium. British Veterinary Association.

  20. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry.

    PubMed

    Hashim, I B; Resurreccion, A V; McWatters, K H

    1995-08-01

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either "somewhat necessary" or "very necessary" to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test.

  1. Utilization of byproducts and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish processing industries: a review.

    PubMed

    Jayathilakan, K; Sultana, Khudsia; Radhakrishna, K; Bawa, A S

    2012-06-01

    India is bestowed with vast livestock wealth and it is growing at the rate of 6% per annum. The contribution of livestock industry including poultry and fish is increasing substantially in GDP of country which accounts for >40% of total agricultural sector and >12% of GDP. This contribution would have been much greater had the animal by-products been also efficiently utilized. Efficient utilization of by-products has direct impact on the economy and environmental pollution of the country. Non-utilization or under utilization of by-products not only lead to loss of potential revenues but also lead to the added and increasing cost of disposal of these products. Non-utilization of animal by-products in a proper way may create major aesthetic and catastrophic health problems. Besides pollution and hazard aspects, in many cases meat, poultry and fish processing wastes have a potential for recycling raw materials or for conversion into useful products of higher value. Traditions, culture and religion are often important when a meat by-product is being utilized for food. Regulatory requirements are also important because many countries restrict the use of meat by-products for reasons of food safety and quality. By-products such as blood, liver, lung, kidney, brains, spleen and tripe has good nutritive value. Medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of by-product are also highlighted in this review. Waste products from the poultry processing and egg production industries must be efficiently dealt with as the growth of these industries depends largely on waste management. Treated fish waste has found many applications among with which the most important are animal feed, biodiesel/biogas, dietectic products (chitosan), natural pigments (after extraction) and cosmetics (collagen). Available information pertaining to the utilization of by-products and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish and their processing industries has been reviewed here.

  2. Bacterial protein meal produced on natural gas replacing soybean meal or fish meal in broiler chicken diets.

    PubMed

    Schøyen, Hilde F; Svihus, Birger; Storebakken, Trond; Skrede, Anders

    2007-08-01

    The effects of replacing soybean meal or fish meal with 2, 4 or 6% bacterial protein meal (BPM) on growth performance, ileal digestibility of amino acids and sensory quality of meat, were examined using 630 broiler chickens. Weight gain from 7-32 days of age did not differ significantly among the treatments. Efficiency of feed conversion was increased when BPM replaced soybean meal, and abdominal fat deposition tended to decline. Feed conversion was not affected when BPM replaced fish meal. Amino acid digestibility was unaffected or improved when BPM replaced soybean meal, whereas replacement of fishmeal with BPM resulted in similar digestibility. Sensory quality of fresh thigh meat was similar among treatments, but for freeze-stored chest meat replacement of fish meal with BPM reduced off-odour and off-flavour and increased juiciness. It was concluded that 6% BPM can replace soybean meal or fish meal protein in broiler chicken diets.

  3. Brewing by-products: their use as animal feeds.

    PubMed

    Westendorf, Michael L; Wohlt, James E

    2002-07-01

    Brewers grains, a by-product of beer production, are often used as a livestock feed. Because brewers grains provide protein, fiber, and energy, they can be useful in a variety of diets. Protein in brewers grains can meet a significant portion of supplemental protein requirements; in addition, they provide fiber and needed bulk in the diets of ruminants and horses. Brewers grains and other brewers by-products have also been fed to pigs, sheep, and poultry. Currently, the primary market for wet brewers grains is as a dairy cattle feed; however, some may be fed to beef cattle in feedlots. Brewers grains have historically been marketed wet or dry, but wet brewers grains currently make up the majority of the marketed product. Brewers grains provide protein, energy, and fiber in livestock diets, but product variability can influence their utilization and necessitate a testing program to determine nutrient content.

  4. Food variety in commercial and homemade complementary meals for infants in Germany. Market survey and dietary practice.

    PubMed

    Mesch, Christina M; Stimming, Madlen; Foterek, Kristina; Hilbig, Annett; Alexy, Ute; Kersting, Mathilde; Libuda, Lars

    2014-05-01

    Already infants do not meet the recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake although the complementary feeding period offers the possibility to expose the infant to a variety of flavours from fruits and vegetables. The objective of the present analysis was to identify differences in the vegetable variety in commercial vs. homemade complementary meals and to describe fish and meat variety in these meals in dietary practice in Germany. A further objective was to provide an overview of the food variety in commercial complementary vegetable-potato-meat/fish meals available on the German baby food market in 2012. 3-day weighed dietary records from the German DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study were used to describe the fish and meat variety and to compare the vegetable variety in commercial and homemade meals using a vegetable variety score (VegVS). The online data base 'Nutrichild' served to describe the food variety on the market. The vegetable variety was low in homemade as well as in commercial meals without any differences in total variety at 6 and 9months of age. At 12months of age infants fed with commercial meals got a higher vegetable variety than those fed with homemade meals. In homemade and commercial meals most often carrot was used, whereas other vegetables were far below this frequency. In both meals, poultry and beef were most often used whereas fish meals were rarely offered. The market survey showed the same low vegetable variety and low fish offer as the results of the DONALD study. The data show that it is necessary to promote the advantages of a vegetable variety and fish consumption in Germany, already in early infancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Composted Poultry Litter as an Amendment for Substrates with High Wood Content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole Tree (WT) and Clean Chip Residual (CCR) are potential new nursery substrates that are by-products of the forestry industry containing high wood content. Initial immobilization of nitrogen is one limitation of these new substrates, however the addition of composted poultry litter (CPL) to subs...

  6. [Production of cassava whole meal (N. esculenta Crantz) to prepare a feed for growing chicks. II. Evaluation of cassava whole meal in growing chicks].

    PubMed

    Ballinas Díaz, J; Larios Saldaña, A; Cruz Mondragón, C; Castellanos Molina, R; Avila González, E

    1997-12-01

    About 50% of the raw materials used for poultry feeds are constituted of sorghum as a energy source. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the nutritional quality of a cassava whole meal (CWF: 61.2% and 38.8% of root and leaf flours, respectively) for growing chicks. The sorghum was partially substituted from a basal diet by 15, 30 and 45% of CWF. Four diets based of sorghum, soybean meal and CWF were formulated. Levels of 0.0, 8.6, 16.4 and 23.7% of CWF were included in the diets. White Vantress chicks (96) were used in the nutritional experiment during 28 days. Each treatment was assayed with 24 chicks. The diet containing 23.7% of CWF showed the lower weight gain and feed efficiency (p < 0.05) as compared with the other diets, and the liver/ bird weight relation increased directly with the increment of CWF.

  7. Campylobacteriosis: the role of poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Skarp, C P A; Hänninen, M-L; Rautelin, H I K

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of human infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the main bacterial agents of gastrointestinal disease, has been increasing worldwide. Here, we review the role of poultry as a source and reservoir for Campylobacter. Contamination and subsequent colonization of broiler flocks at the farm level often lead to transmission of Campylobacter along the poultry production chain and contamination of poultry meat at retail. Yet Campylobacter prevalence in poultry, as well as the contamination level of poultry products, vary greatly between different countries so there are differences in the intervention strategies that need to be applied. Temporal patterns in poultry do not always coincide with those found in human infections. Studies in rural and urban areas have revealed differences in Campylobacter infections attributed to poultry, as poultry seems to be the predominant reservoir in urban, but not necessarily in rural, settings. Furthermore, foreign travel is considered a major risk factor in acquiring the disease, especially for individuals living in the northern European countries. Intervention strategies aimed at reducing Campylobacter colonization in poultry and focused at the farm level have been successful in reducing the number of Campylobacter cases in several countries. Increasing farm biosecurity and education of consumers are likely to limit the risk of infection. Overall, poultry is an important reservoir and source of human campylobacteriosis, although the contribution of other sources, reservoirs and transmission warrants more research. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk factors for contamination of ready-to-eat street-vended poultry dishes in Dakar, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, E; Perrier Gros-Claude, J D; Tall, F; Guèye, E F; Salvat, G

    2005-08-25

    Our objective was to investigate the Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of traditional ready-to-eat street-vended poultry dishes and to assess the association of some restaurant characteristics and cooking practices with the contamination of these meals. One hundred and forty-eight street-restaurants were studied from January 2003 to April 2004 in Dakar. A questionnaire was submitted to the managers, and samples of ready-to-eat poultry dishes were taken. Salmonella spp. was isolated in 20.1% of the 148 street-restaurants studied and in 10.1% samples of poultry dishes. The most prevalent serovars isolated were Salmonella hadar, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella brancaster. Campylobacter jejuni was detected in only 3 restaurants and 3 poultry dishes. Not peeling and not cleaning vegetables and other ingredients during meal preparation (OR=3.58), dirty clothing for restaurant employees (OR=4.65), reheating previously cooked foods (OR=5.2), and no kitchen and utensils disinfection (OR=3.47) were associated with an increasing risk of Salmonella contamination. Adequate cooking procedures decreased the risk of Salmonella contamination (OR=0.15).

  9. Improving village poultry's survival rate through community-based poultry health management: evidence from Benin.

    PubMed

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto Delphin

    2013-01-01

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of "poultry interest groups" in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due to the fact that village poultry farming is practiced in a total or partial scavenging system which gives the impression that all the birds in the village belong to the same flock. Accordingly, actions that target all farmers of the same village may have a larger impact on the village poultry's survival rate than actions that target individual producers. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of CBM on the survival rate of village poultry. Based on data collected on 353 poultry keepers, the study shows that CBM significantly improves the survival rate of village poultry. The adoption of technologies--poultry vaccination, construction of henhouses, and improved feed--disseminated through the CBM also significantly improves the survival rate. The access to markets for inputs and veterinary services is also important in improving the survival rate of poultry. Finally, the study suggests that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies.

  10. Color of Meat and Poultry

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... The Color of Meat and Poultry Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  11. Starch digestion capacity of poultry.

    PubMed

    Svihus, B

    2014-09-01

    Starch is quantitatively the most important nutrient in poultry diets and will to a large extent be present as intact starch granules due to very limited extent of gelatinization during pelleting. Although native starch is difficult to digest due to a semi-crystalline structure, even fast-growing broiler chickens appears to be able to digest this starch more or less completely during passage through the jejunum. However, reduced starch digestibility has been observed, particularly in pelleted diets containing large quantities of wheat. Although properties of the starch granule such as size and components on the granule surface may affect digestibility, the entrapment of starch granules in cell walls and a protein matrix may be even more important factors impeding starch digestion. In that case, this and the fact that amylase secretion is normally very high in poultry may explain the lack of convincing effects of exogenous α-amylase added to the diet. However, few well-designed experiments assessing mechanisms of starch digestion and the effect of α-amylase supplementation have been carried out, and thus more research is needed in this important area. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Intestinal protozoa important to poultry.

    PubMed

    McDougald, L R

    1998-08-01

    Parasites of two groups are important in poultry, the coccidia and the mastiogophora (flagellates) (Table 1). Most of the Coccidia in poultry are in the genus Eimeria, but a few species of Isospora, Cryptosporidium, and Sarcosporidia are represented. The Eimeria are best known, with seven important species recognized in chickens and several others in turkeys. Diagnosis of coccidiosis is by recognition of classic signs and lesions, by gross examination, and can be aided by microscopic examination of feces and intestinal contents. Control of coccidiosis is by preventive use of anticoccidials and by immunization. Cryptosporidium are common in poultry but little is known of their importance, except for the occasional outbreak of respiratory cryptosporidiosis in turkey poults. Of the flagellates, Histomonas meleagridis is the best known. Infections in turkeys may cause near 100% mortality, but outbreaks in chickens are more often marked by morbidity and subsequent recovery. Recent outbreaks in broiler breeder pullets caused excessive losses from mortality (5 to 20%) culling, and overall poor flock performance. Histomonas organisms are carried by eggs of the cecal worm Heterakis gallinarum enabling them to survive for long periods in soil as a source of infection. In the U.S. there are no products available for treatment of blackhead. Preventive use of anthelminthics to destroy the cecal worm carrier show some promise in reducing exposure.

  13. Palatable Meal Anticipation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Cynthia T.; Patton, Danica F.; Mistlberger, Ralph E.; Steele, Andrew D.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to sense time and anticipate events is a critical skill in nature. Most efforts to understand the neural and molecular mechanisms of anticipatory behavior in rodents rely on daily restricted food access, which induces a robust increase of locomotor activity in anticipation of daily meal time. Interestingly, rats also show increased activity in anticipation of a daily palatable meal even when they have an ample food supply, suggesting a role for brain reward systems in anticipatory behavior, and providing an alternate model by which to study the neurobiology of anticipation in species, such as mice, that are less well adapted to “stuff and starve” feeding schedules. To extend this model to mice, and exploit molecular genetic resources available for that species, we tested the ability of wild-type mice to anticipate a daily palatable meal. We observed that mice with free access to regular chow and limited access to highly palatable snacks of chocolate or “Fruit Crunchies” avidly consumed the snack but did not show anticipatory locomotor activity as measured by running wheels or video-based behavioral analysis. However, male mice receiving a snack of high fat chow did show increased food bin entry prior to access time and a modest increase in activity in the two hours preceding the scheduled meal. Interestingly, female mice did not show anticipation of a daily high fat meal but did show increased activity at scheduled mealtime when that meal was withdrawn. These results indicate that anticipation of a scheduled food reward in mice is behavior, diet, and gender specific. PMID:20941366

  14. Thanksgiving Meal in MDDK Galley

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-27

    S126-E-12236 (27 Nov. 2008) --- Not far away from this close-up scene of the galley on the Space Shuttle Endeavour were nine astronauts and a cosmonaut eager to share a Thanksgiving meal to top off almost two weeks of joint activities, including an involved home improvement project on the International Space Station. Unlike most of their families and friends on Earth, who probably went through pains to prepare elaborate meals for this festive occasion, the STS-126 and Expedition 18 crewmembers merely needed add water to these prepared packets

  15. Quantity and economic importance of nine selected by-products used in California dairy rations.

    PubMed

    Grasser, L A; Fadel, J G; Garnett, I; DePeters, E J

    1995-04-01

    Food processing representatives, brokers, nutritionists, livestock producers, and trade associations were surveyed to quantify 9 by-products used for feeding livestock during 1992 in California. The commodities were almond hulls, dried beet pulp, wet brewers grains, wet citrus pulp, pressed citrus pulp, wet corn gluten feed, corn gluten meal, whole cottonseed, and rice bran. The 9 by-products contributed over 2.5 million tonnes and about 27% of the total feed concentrate moved within California during 1992. Market value of these 9 by-products was almost .25 billion dollars. Whole cottonseed accounted for about 31% of the total tonnage of these 9 by-products and provided about 66% of the total CP and 53% of the total NEL of these 9 by-products. The by-products were more valuable as energy sources than CP sources compared with NEL from corn and CP from soybean meal, respectively. Calculations of milk production, based on the CP content or NEL content of the by-products, showed that these 9 by-products could have contributed sufficient CP or NEL for over 31% of the milk produced in California during 1992. Ration formulations demonstrated that the economic value of by-products changed with feedstuffs available and, in general, would be used in rations over a range of market prices.

  16. Productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens fed Hermetia illucens larvae meal as total replacement of soybean meal from 24 to 45 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Marono, S; Loponte, R; Lombardi, P; Vassalotti, G; Pero, M E; Russo, F; Gasco, L; Parisi, G; Piccolo, G; Nizza, S; Di Meo, C; Attia, Y A; Bovera, F

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the research was to study the effects of an insect meal from Hermetia illucens larvae (HILM) as complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) on productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens, from 24 to 45 wk of age. A total of 108 24-week-old Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens was equally divided into 2 groups (54 hens/group, 9 replicates of 6 hens/group). From 24 to 45 wk of age, the groups were fed 2 different isoproteic and isoenergetic diets: the control group (SBM) was fed a corn-soybean meal based diet, while in the HILM group the soybean meal was completely replaced by Hermetia illucens larvae meal. Feed intake, number of eggs produced, and egg weight were recorded weekly along the trial. At 45 wk of age, blood samples were collected from 2 hens per replicate. The use of HIML led to a more favorable (P < 0.01) feed conversion ratio in hens but lay percentage, feed intake, average egg weight, and egg mass were higher (P < 0.01) in hens fed the SBM diet. Hens fed insect meal produced a higher percentage of eggs from small (S), medium (M), and extra-large (XL) classes (P < 0.01) than SBM, while the SBM group had a higher percentage of eggs from the large (L) class (P < 0.01). The levels of globulin and albumin to globulin ratio were, respectively, higher and lower (P < 0.05) in HILM than the SBM group. Cholesterol and triglycerides were higher (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) in hens from SBM than in the HILM group. Blood levels of Ca were higher (P < 0.01) in hens fed insect meal, while creatinine was higher (P < 0.01) in blood of hens fed SBM. Hermetia illucens larvae meal can be a suitable alternative protein source for laying hens even if the complete replacement of soybean meal needs further investigation to avoid the negative effects on feed intake. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Meals on Wheels Association of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... vulnerable seniors it serves. DOWNLOAD THE INFOGRAPHIC MR. PRESIDENT, COME TAKE A RIDE WITH MEALS ON WHEELS ... Blueprint proposing cuts that could effect our programs, President and CEO of Meals on Wheels America Ellie ...

  18. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  19. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  20. Avian Influenza and Ban on Overnight Poultry Storage in Live Poultry Markets, Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Y.H. Connie; Lau, Eric H.Y.; Zhang, Li Juan; Guan, Yi; Cowling, Benjamin J.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed ≈12 years of surveillance data on avian influenza in Hong Kong live poultry markets. A ban on keeping live poultry overnight in these markets reduced virus isolation rates by 84% in chickens (p = 0.006) and 100% (p = 0.01) in minor poultry. PMID:22840782

  1. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

  2. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

  3. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

  4. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  5. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  6. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  7. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

  8. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND...

  9. A low-cost fermentation medium for thermophilic protease production by Streptomyces sp. 594 using feather meal and corn steep liquor.

    PubMed

    De Azeredo, L A I; De Lima, M B; Coelho, R R R; Freire, D M G

    2006-10-01

    Protease production by Streptomyces sp. 594 was obtained after submerged fermentation (SF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) using feather meal (FM) and corn steep liquor (CSL) as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen. Enzyme productions were 13.4 U ml(-1) in SF and 21.5 U g(-1) in SSF; these values were approximately 86% and 39% higher, respectively, than those obtained previously when yeast extract was used in place of CSL. The proteases, which belong to the serine and metalloproteinase classes, were active at high temperatures (55 degrees C to 90 degrees C) and over a wide range of pH values (5.0 to 10.0). Thus, these thermophilic proteases have shown interesting properties for industrial purposes. As far as we are concerned, this is the first contribution toward the microbial production of thermophilic proteases by a streptomycete using a low-cost medium composed of industrial poultry (FM) and corn processing by-products (CSL).

  10. 77 FR 24873 - Modernization of Poultry Slaughter Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Modernization of Poultry Slaughter Inspection AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed... the comment period for the proposed rulemaking ``Modernization of Poultry Slaughter Inspection'' and... advocacy organizations and two trade associations representing the poultry industry asked that FSIS...

  11. Adolescents' perceptions and experiences of family meals.

    PubMed

    Prior, Amie-Louise; Limbert, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    Benefits of family meals include diet quality, social interaction and wellbeing, yet previous research indicates only one in four adolescents eats a meal with their family every day. This study identified factors relating to the frequency and importance of family meals. A focus group conducted with seven adolescents was analysed thematically. The themes and findings of past research were used to develop a Family Meals Questionnaire (FMQ), completed by 76 adolescents. Regular engagement in healthy family meals eaten around the table was reported, with the majority of participants reporting that their meals included a variety of foods and portions of vegetables. Frequency of family meals was associated with increased family togetherness for both males and females. The nutritional value of meals was found to be most important to females, whereas the impact of family meals on mood was more salient for males. Findings suggest that the views and behaviour of other family members may influence adolescents' enjoyment and perceptions of the importance of family meals, and therefore impact on their frequency. These findings may inform the development of future interventions aimed at increasing adolescent engagement in family meals by adopting a family systems approach to improve the frequency and experience of family meals.

  12. Healthy School Meals: Promotion Ideas That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Children, Families, and Learning, Roseville. Food and Nutrition Service.

    "Healthy School Meals: Promotion Ideas That Work" is a Minnesota program based on the USDA's Team Nutrition program. The program's goal is to improve the health of children through school meals and nutrition education. This is accomplished by empowering schools to serve meals meeting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and motivating…

  13. 29 CFR 553.223 - Meal time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meal time. 553.223 Section 553.223 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.223 Meal time... personnel in accordance with section 7(a)(1) of the Act, the public agency may exclude meal time from...

  14. Bovine meat and bone meal is an economically viable alternative in quail feeding in the initial phase.

    PubMed

    Pizzolante, Carla C; Kakimoto, Sérgio K; Moraes, José E; Saccomani, Ana Paula O; Soares, Daniela F; Paschoalin, Gustavo C; Budiño, Fábio E L

    2016-05-31

    Quail egg production has experienced a steep rise in the last decade. Nutrition is the main factor affecting productive potential in the poultry industry, as appropriate nutritional management is necessary to ensure the maintenance of optimal physical conditions, growth and the production of high quality products. Meat and bone meal (MBM) has often been used in the poultry industry as an alternative and cost-effective source of protein in partial replacement of corn and soybean meal. However, there have been no studies to date that have investigated the effect of dietary MBM on the performance of quail or on the costs of production in the starter phase. This is particularly important considering that this phase is characterized by large investments by producers, without immediate economic return. In this study, we investigated whether partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM) by meat and bone meal (MBM) in the diet of Japanese quail during the starter phase is a viable alternative that would maintain or improve their productive and economic performance. Our results show that the inclusion of MBM in the diet of quail reduces feeding costs by up to 6% without impairing productive performance.

  15. 21 CFR 579.40 - Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... radiation for the treatment of complete poultry diets and poultry feed ingredients may be safely used as.... (c) Use. Ionizing radiation is used as a single treatment for rendering complete poultry diets or...

  16. 21 CFR 579.40 - Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... radiation for the treatment of complete poultry diets and poultry feed ingredients may be safely used as.... (c) Use. Ionizing radiation is used as a single treatment for rendering complete poultry diets or...

  17. Efficacy of feed enzymes in pig and poultry diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles: a review.

    PubMed

    Swiatkiewicz, S; Swiatkiewicz, M; Arczewska-Wlosek, A; Jozefiak, D

    2016-02-01

    Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a coproduct of the ethanol industry, are often used as feed material in livestock and poultry nutrition. Results of many experiments have indicated, however, that a high dietary level of DDGS can negatively affect the digestibility of nutrients and the performance of monogastric animals due to their high content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Nevertheless, using high levels of DDGS as a protein source in livestock diets can be still economically justifiable in view of the rising prices of soya bean meal and other protein sources. The aim of some recent experiments with poultry and pigs was to improve the nutritional efficacy of high-NSP diets through the addition of feed enzymes. As presented and discussed in this review article, the efficacy of feed enzymes added to poultry and pig diets containing DDGS is not consistent and depends on many factors. However, NSP-hydrolysing enzymes generally seemed to be more efficient than phytases in terms of the digestibility of nutrients and the growth performance of poultry and pigs fed high-DDGS diets. For this reason, supplementation with NSP-hydrolysing enzymes could be an efficient way to enable the use of increased levels of DDGS in poultry and pig diets. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Analyses of meal patterns across dietary shifts

    PubMed Central

    Treesukosol, Yada; Moran, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    The direct controls of meal size can be categorized into positive signals such as those from the oral cavity and negative signals such as postoral inhibitory cues. It follows that the relative contribution of these signals, and in turn meal pattern parameters, change across periods of high-energy diet exposure. Here, we compared daily intake and meal pattern analysis in male Sprague-Dawley rats presented a high-energy diet for 6 weeks then standard chow for ~ 1 week (HE), with those of standard chow fed controls (CHOW). These measures allow for evaluation of 1) whether there are distinct dynamic and static phases of DIO and if so, how they are characterized, 2) how meal patterns change across short and long term HE experience, and 3) ingestive behavioral changes when HE-fed animals are returned to standard chow. The HE animals showed significantly higher intake primarily driven by an increase in meal size compared to CHOW controls. This was most pronounced during the first several days of high-energy diet exposure thus characterizing the dynamic phase. Intake and meal size decreased with longer exposure to the diet but remained significantly higher than those of CHOW. Increased meal size could be driven by enhanced orosensory stimulation and/or reduced sensitivity to postoral inhibitory feedback. Distribution curves derived from histogram plots of meal size revealed both larger average meal size (right shift) and spread (standard deviation) thus it is tempting to speculate that more than one type of mechanism influences increased meal size. Meal number decreased suggesting post meal inhibitory signaling is relatively intact. However, this increase was insufficient to compensate for the increased meal size. When HE animals were switched to standard chow, daily intake and meal size decreased and eventually returned to values comparable to those of the CHOW rats. Meal number remained lower suggesting altered physiological mechanism(s) that underlie the control of

  19. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Sharon I; Hoerr, Sharon L; Mendoza, Jason A; Tsuei Goh, Eugenia

    2008-11-01

    Exposure of children to kids meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, ie, "kids meals." The nutrient quality of kids meals was assessed primarily by using criteria from the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Analysis compared the nutrient values of meals offered by major fast food companies with restaurants in Houston, TX, with complete publicly available data. Data described every combination of meals offered in the target market. For each meal combination, the following were analyzed: total energy, percentage of energy from fat, total fat, saturated fat, sodium, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, added sugars, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, iron, energy density (food only), and the number of NSLP nutrient criteria met. Three percent of kids meals met all NSLP criteria. Those that met all criteria offered a side of fruit plus milk. Most were deli-sandwich-based meals. Meals that met the criteria had about one-third the fat, one-sixth the added sugars, twice the iron, and 3 times the amount of vitamin A and calcium as did kids meals that did not meet the criteria (P Meals that did not meet the NSLP criteria were more than 1.5 times more energy dense than those that did meet the criteria (P < 0.001). Kids meals that met the NSLP criteria are uncommon and are lower in energy density. These meals may contribute to the nutritional status of children.

  20. Consequences of the ban of by-products from terrestrial animals in livestock feeding in Germany and the European Union: alternatives, nutrient and energy cycles, plant production, and economic aspects.

    PubMed

    Rodehutscord, M; Abel, H J; Friedt, W; Wenk, C; Flachowsky, G; Ahlgrimm, H J; Johnke, B; Kühl, R; Breves, G

    2002-04-01

    or rotation furnace if heat is the main energy required. In contrast, the energetic efficiency of fermentation is low. (4.) Incineration or co-incineration of MBM and other by-products causes pollution gas emissions amounting to about 1.4 kg CO2 and 0.2 kg NOx per kg. The CO2 production as such is hardly disadvantageous, because heat and electrical energy can be generated by the combustion process. The prevention of dangerous gaseous emissions from MBM burning is current standard in the incineration plants in Germany and does not affect the environment inadmissibly. (5.) The effects of the MBM ban on the price for compound feed is not very significant. Obviously, substitution possibilities between different feed ingredients helped to exchange MBM without large price distortions. However, with each kg MBM not used in pig and poultry feeding economic losses of about 0.14 [symbol: see text] have to considered. In conclusion, the by far highest proportion of raw materials for MBM comes as by-products from the slaughter process. Coming this way, and assuring that further treatment is safe from the hygienic point of view, MBM and animal fat can be regarded as valuable sources of amino acids, minerals and energy in feeding pigs and poultry. Using them as feedstuffs could considerably contribute to the goal of keeping limited nutrients, phosphorus in particular, within the nutrient cycle and dealing responsible with limited resources.

  1. Spanish poultry education: assisting the needs of the poultry industry.

    PubMed

    Corzo, A

    2009-11-01

    The Hispanic population is rising in most states in the United States, not only as an absolute value but as a proportion of the overall population of each state. Consequently, various poultry-related jobs have been increasingly filled by Hispanic personnel. However, although few problems have risen from lack of performance from these employees, in some cases, the language barrier has hindered professional development and production efficiency. As a result, various broiler integrators have suggested that we equip our undergraduate student body with some basic skills that would enable these future professionals of our industry to better communicate with Hispanic employees, both in casual conversational as well as at the technical poultry level. For that purpose, a course was recently developed and provided to our students and the results seem promising. Acceptance by our students of the technical information being conveyed was, for the most part, satisfactory and it was concluded that finding a common ground as a starting point was the most challenged area.

  2. What determines real-world meal size? Evidence for pre-meal planning.

    PubMed

    Fay, Stephanie H; Ferriday, Danielle; Hinton, Elanor C; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2011-04-01

    The customary approach to the study of meal size suggests that 'events' occurring during a meal lead to its termination. Recent research, however, suggests that a number of decisions are made before eating commences that may affect meal size. The present study sought to address three key research questions around meal size: the extent to which plate-cleaning occurs; prevalence of pre-meal planning and its influence on meal size; and the effect of within-meal experiences, notably the development of satiation. To address these, a large-cohort internet-based questionnaire was developed. Results showed that plate-cleaning occurred at 91% of meals, and was planned from the outset in 92% of these cases. A significant relationship between plate-cleaning and meal planning was observed. Pre-meal plans were resistant to modification over the course of the meal: only 18% of participants reported consumption that deviated from expected. By contrast, 28% reported continuing eating beyond satiation, and 57% stated that they could have eaten more at the end of the meal. Logistic regression confirmed pre-meal planning as the most important predictor of consumption. Together, our findings demonstrate the importance of meal planning as a key determinant of meal size and energy intake.

  3. Bilingual Skills Training Program. Meat Cutting. Module 3.0: Identifying and Cutting Meat and By-Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern New Mexico Community Coll., El Rito.

    This module on identifying and cutting of meat and by-products is the third of three (CE 028 291-293) in the meat cutting course of a bilingual skills training program. The course is designed to furnish theoretical and laboratory experience in the cutting of beef, pork, poultry, lamb, and mutton. Module objectives are for students to develop…

  4. Bilingual Skills Training Program. Meat Cutting. Module 3.0: Identifying and Cutting Meat and By-Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern New Mexico Community Coll., El Rito.

    This module on identifying and cutting of meat and by-products is the third of three (CE 028 291-293) in the meat cutting course of a bilingual skills training program. The course is designed to furnish theoretical and laboratory experience in the cutting of beef, pork, poultry, lamb, and mutton. Module objectives are for students to develop…

  5. Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for…

  6. Minimization of Salmonella Contamination on Raw Poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many reviews have discussed Salmonella in poultry and suggested best practices to minimize this organism on raw poultry meat. Despite years of research and conscientious control efforts by industry and regulatory agencies, human salmonellosis rates have declined only modestly and Salmonella is stil...

  7. Subsurface band application of poultry litter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Broiler litter is commonly used as a fertilizer on pastures and cropland. Poultry litter is typically land-applied by broadcasting the litter on the soil surface. Rain falling on soil to which poultry litter has been applied, may carry phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) nutrients from the soil into s...

  8. 76 FR 68058 - Classes of Poultry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... defined primarily in terms of the age and sex of the bird. Genetic improvements and poultry management... primarily based on the age and sex of the bird. \\1\\ Ready-to-cook poultry at 9 CFR 381.1 is defined as any... are female while the definition states that the birds may be of either sex. The comment suggested that...

  9. Prospects for phosphorus recovery from poultry litter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Land disposal of poultry litter is an environmental concern in regions with intense poultry production because there is not enough land for crop utilization of its nutrients, especially phosphorus (P). This situation promotes soil P surplus and potential pollution of water resources. Although poultr...

  10. Treating poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is a USDA/ARS factsheet on how to treat poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum) to reduce ammonia emissions. Over half of the nitrogen excreted from chickens is lost to the atmosphere as ammonia before the manure is removed from the poultry houses. Research has shown that additions of alu...

  11. The management of phosphorus in poultry litter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poultry litter provides an important source of plant nutrients including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur. The potential for phosphorus (P) surplus at the farm scale can increase when farming systems change from cropping to intensive poultry and animal production, as P...

  12. Poultry litter application on pastures and hayfields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poultry litter is widely used on pastures and hayfields in Georgia. There are many benefits when it is used wisely. Producers should use nutrient management planning and recommended rates to ensure poultry litter is used in ways that maximize its benefits without harming the environment....

  13. Live poultry exposure, Guangzhou, China, 2006.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qiuyan; Lam, Wing Tak; Leung, Gabriel M; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Fielding, Richard

    2009-12-01

    Live poultry in wet markets and backyard husbandry comprise potentially major exposure sources for human cases of H5N1 avian influenza. In China the magnitude of risk from this exposure is unknown. We estimated exposure based on self-reported behavior. In January-March 2006, 1550 face-to-face interviews derived from stratified cluster and randomized within-household sampling provided data on live poultry exposure in Guangzhou, China based on self-reported buying and touching patterns. Standardized exposures were calculated and after adjustment extrapolated to the urban population. The results, adjusted for gender, showed that 1,248/1,550 (80%, 95% Confidence Limits 78-82%) respondents reported an average of 20.5 live chicken purchases/household annually. Of those buying poultry 33% touched poultry before buying while 20% of households raised live poultry. Total exposures from wet market and backyard husbandry in Guangzhou greatly exceed those of adjacent Hong Kong (15,280,000 e/year vs. 1,110,900 e/year). Backyard exposure frequency likely exceeds that from live poultry retail, but purchases were more prevalent and hence comprise a significant risk source. The Guangzhou population faces risks from the high prevalence of exposures during purchase and poultry rearing. Better management for raising and selling poultry in Guangzhou is needed. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for…

  15. Avian influenza vaccines and vaccination for poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vaccines against avian influenza (AI) have had more limited use in poultry than vaccines against other poultry diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis, and have been used more commonly in the developing world. Over the past 40 years, AI vaccines have been primarily based o...

  16. Pet poultry training for veterinary practitioners.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Rocio; Faux, Cynthia; Dhillon, Singh A; Newberry, Ruth C; Moore, Dale A

    2010-01-01

    Keeping backyard poultry in urban areas is a burgeoning trend in the United States. As such, we believe urban pet poultry owners are increasingly likely to seek veterinary services from urban companion-animal practitioners. Traditionally, poultry species have been classified as production animals. Most small-animal practitioners have limited experience or knowledge of these species and hesitate to accept these animals at their practices. We developed a one-day course to train veterinarians in pet poultry (as opposed to commercial poultry) medicine. The course covers poultry examination, diseases, and treatments and provides an introduction to poultry breeds and behavior and the basics of nutrition and husbandry. We believe this type of continuing education program is important for veterinarians because they are often on the front line of human public health issues. In addition, courses of this type increase the number of veterinarians trained to spot serious avian diseases, including foreign diseases and diseases with zoonotic potential. Most important, veterinarians with this training develop the knowledge to contribute to the health and well-being of pet poultry along with their clients' other companion animals.

  17. Salmonellosis: the role of poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Antunes, P; Mourão, J; Campos, J; Peixe, L

    2016-02-01

    Salmonellosis remains one of the most frequent food-borne zoonoses, constituting a worldwide major public health concern. Currently, at a global level, the main sources of infection for humans include meat products, including the consumption of contaminated poultry meat, in spite of the success of Salmonella control measures implemented in food-animal production of industrialized countries. In recent years, a shift in Salmonella serotypes related to poultry and poultry production has been reported in diverse geographical regions, being particularly associated with the spread of certain well-adapted clones. Moreover, antimicrobial resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella is considered one of the major public health threats related with food-animal production, including the poultry production chain and poultry meat, which is an additional concern in the management of salmonellosis. The circulation of the same multidrug-resistant Salmonella clones and/or identical mobile genetic elements encoding antibiotic resistance genes from poultry to humans highlights this scenario. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the role of poultry meat on salmonellosis at a global scale and the main problems that could hinder the success of Salmonella control measures at animal production level. With the increasing globalization of foodstuffs like poultry meat, new problems and challenges might arise regarding salmonellosis control, making new integrated intervention strategies necessary along the food chain. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Poultry litter moisture management to reduce ammonia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ammonia generation in poultry houses results from the natural breakdown of litter (bedding material mixed with deposits of feces, feathers, spilled feed and water). Good management practices can reduce ammonia concentrations in poultry houses. This factsheet relates findings from a recent publicat...

  19. Use of ethanol production by-products for producing microalgae, tilapia, and freshwater prawns

    SciTech Connect

    Behrends, L.L.; Kingsley, J.B.; Price, A.H. III

    1983-01-01

    By-products from fermentation of grains to alcohol are highly valued as feed supplements for beef and dairy cattle, swine, and poultry. The quantity of wet distillers by-products (stillage) from fuel alcohol production is expected to increase greatly. Unlike dried distillers by-products, wet distillers by-products have generally been abandoned as feed supplements for livestock because of high water content, cost of handling, and storage problems. Using wet distillers by-products as a fertilizer or feed supplement in aquatic production systems appears promising. Two experiments were conducted to determine relationships between stillage application rates and production of microalgae and yields of tilapia (fish) and freshwater prawns (shrimp). Dissolved oxygen concentrations and several other water quality parameters were also monitored. 19 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. Waste/By-Product Hydrogen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-13

    Waste/By product Hydrogen Waste H2 sources include: � Waste bio‐mass: biogas to high temp fuel cells to produce H2 – there are over two dozen sites...By‐product Hydrogen Fuel Flexibility Biogas : generated from organic waste �Wastewater treatment plants can provide multiple MW of renewable...TCF ( 82 Million cars) � Biogas fuels approximately 210 Million cars Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association

  1. Shelf stable meals for public sector uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmandt, J. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Meal System was developed with three simple concepts in mind: (1) nutritious, conventional foods are packaged in single-serving units and assembled into complete meals; (2) the meals have an extended shelf-life and can be transported and stored without need for refrigeration or freezing; (3) preparation of the meal by the consumer is an easy task which is accomplished in ten minutes or less. The meal system was tested in 1975 and 1976 by different groups of elderly individuals. NASA and the LBJ School of Public Affairs sponsored a national conference to report on the demonstration of the meal system for the elderly and to explore potential uses of the system for social services, institutional feeding programs, disaster relief, and international aid. The proceedings of the conference and how different groups assessed the potential of the meal system are reported.

  2. Quality improvement of kosher chilled poultry.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, H; Abraharn, R Ben

    2002-11-01

    Pathogens like Listeria monocytogenes are of great concern in the poultry industry. Poultry, which are subjected to the kosher slaughtering and koshering process, may introduce even higher risks than conventially slaughtered poultry due to the potential for microbial cross-contamination at several critical points in the koshering line, particularly in the chillers. The effect of Microgard (MIC) and Nisin (NIS) on reducing total microbial counts, inhibiting L. monocytogenes, and prolonging shelf life was evaluated. In this work we applied dips of poultry into solutions of NIS, active against Gram-positive bacteria, and MIC, which is a bacteriocin mixture that retards growth of Gram-negative bacteria, and a mixture of organic acids. These treatments inhibited both inoculated and naturally occurring L. monocytogenes on poultry, and increased shelf life, at 6 C, from 2 to 4 d (end of shelf life was considered when total aerobic counts reached 7 log cfu/g).

  3. School Meal Programs: More Systematic Development of Specifications Could Improve the Safety of Foods Purchased through USDA's Commodity Program. Report to the Ranking Member, Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives. GAO-11-376

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shames, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Through its commodity program, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) provides commodity foods at no cost to schools taking part in the national school meals programs. Commodities include raw ground beef, cheese, poultry, and fresh produce. Like federal food safety agencies, the commodity program has taken steps designed to reduce microbial…

  4. Mothers and meals. The effects of mothers' meal planning and shopping motivations on children's participation in family meals.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, William Alex; Kubena, Karen S; Tolle, Glen; Dean, Wesley R; Jan, Jie-sheng; Anding, Jenna

    2010-12-01

    Participation in family meals has been associated with benefits for health and social development of children. The objective of the study was to identify the impact of mothers' work of caring through planning regularly scheduled meals, shopping and cooking, on children's participation in family meals. Parents of children aged 9-11 or 13-15 years from 300 Houston families were surveyed about parents' work, meal planning for and scheduling of meals, motivations for food purchases, importance of family meals, and children's frequency of eating dinner with their families. The children were interviewed about the importance of eating family meals. Hypotheses were tested using path analysis to calculate indirect and total effects of variables on the outcome variable of frequency of children eating dinner with their family. Mothers' belief in the importance of family meals increased likelihood of children eating dinner with families by increasing likelihood that mothers planned dinner and that dinners were regularly scheduled. Mothers' perception of time pressures on meal preparation had a negative, indirect effect on the frequency of children's participation in family dinners by reducing mothers' meal planning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Poultry, pig and the risk of BSE following the feed ban in France--a spatial analysis.

    PubMed

    Abrial, David; Calavas, Didier; Jarrige, Nathalie; Ducrot, Christian

    2005-01-01

    A spatial analysis was carried out in order to analyse the reason why the risk of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) was spatially heterogeneous in France, during the period following the feed ban of Meat and Bone Meal to cattle. The hypothesis of cross-contamination between cattle feedstuff and monogastric feedstuff, which was strongly suggested from previous investigations, was assessed, with the assumption that the higher the pig or poultry density is in a given area, the higher the risk of cross-contamination and cattle infection might be. The data concerned the 467 BSE cases born in France after the ban of meat and bone meal (July 1990) and detected between July 1st, 2001 and December 31, 2003, when the surveillance system was optimal and not spatially biased. The disease mapping models were elaborated with the Bayesian graphical modelling methods and based on a Poisson distribution with spatial smoothing (hierarchical approach) and covariates. The parameters were estimated by a Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation method. The main result was that the poultry density did not significantly influence the risk of BSE whereas the pig density was significantly associated with an increase in the risk of 2.4% per 10 000 pigs. The areas with a significant pig effect were located in regions with a high pig density as well as a high ratio of pigs to cattle. Despite the absence of a global effect of poultry density on the BSE risk, some areas had a significant poultry effect and the risk was better explained in some others when considering both pig and poultry densities. These findings were in agreement with the hypothesis of cross-contamination, which could take place at the feedstuff factory, during the shipment of food or on the farm. Further studies are needed to more precisely explore how the cross-contamination happened.

  6. Current and emerging technologies for rapid detection and characterization of Salmonella in poultry and poultry products.

    PubMed

    Park, Si Hong; Aydin, Muhsin; Khatiwara, Anita; Dolan, Maureen C; Gilmore, David F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Ahn, Soohyoun; Ricke, Steven C

    2014-04-01

    Salmonella is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses in the United States, and one of the main contributors to salmonellosis is the consumption of contaminated poultry and poultry products. Since deleterious effects of Salmonella on public health and the economy continue to occur, there is an ongoing need to develop more advanced detection methods that can identify Salmonella accurately and rapidly in foods before they reach consumers. Rapid detection and identification methods for Salmonella are considered to be an important component of strategies designed to prevent poultry and poultry product-associated illnesses. In the past three decades, there have been increasing efforts towards developing and improving rapid pathogen detection and characterization methodologies for application to poultry and poultry products. In this review, we discuss molecular methods for detection, identification and genetic characterization of Salmonella associated with poultry and poultry products. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the established and emerging rapid detection and characterization methods are addressed for Salmonella in poultry and poultry products. The methods with potential application to the industry are highlighted in this review. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry and poultry products for sale on the Bulgarian retail market.

    PubMed

    Stoyanchev, Todor; Vashin, Ivan; Ring, Christian; Atanassova, Viktoria

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry and poultry products available for the consumers at retail markets in Bulgaria. Samples (n = 210) of poultry carcasses and poultry products for sale at the retail market in Bulgaria were analysed for the presence of Campylobacter spp., of these 35 frozen whole carcasses, 135 chilled poultry cuts (45 wing cuts, 45 thigh cuts and 45 fillet) and 40 thermally treated (ready-to-eat) poultry products. The results obtained showed that 35.2% of the frozen poultry carcasses for sale in the markets were Campylobacter contaminated. In the chilled poultry cuts Campylobacter was isolated at the highest percentage in wing- and thigh cuts, 91.1% and 88.9%, respectively. The fillet samples were contaminated by Campylobacter in 48.9% of cases. In the chilled poultry products as well as in the frozen carcasses C. jejuni (74.8%/70.3%) was the most commonly isolated Campylobacter species, with the remainder being C. coli (25.2%/29.7%). Campylobacter spp. were not detected in the thermally treated poultry products.

  8. Umami taste amino acids produced by hydrolyzing extracted protein from tomato seed meal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed for extracting protein to prepare umami taste amino acids from defatted tomato seed meal (DTSM) which is a by-product of tomato processing. Papain was used as an enzyme for the hydrolysis of DTSM. The particle size distribution of DTSM, protein concentration and fr...

  9. Prion infected Meat-and-Bone Meal is still infectious after biodiesel production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has led to world-wide drop in the market for beef by-products, such as Meat-and-Bone Meal (MBM), a fat-containing product traditionally used as an animal feed supplement. While normal rendering is insufficient, the production of biodiesel from M...

  10. Impact of Heat Stress on Poultry Production.

    PubMed

    Lara, Lucas J; Rostagno, Marcos H

    2013-04-24

    Understanding and controlling environmental conditions is crucial to successful poultry production and welfare. Heat stress is one of the most important environmental stressors challenging poultry production worldwide. The detrimental effects of heat stress on broilers and laying hens range from reduced growth and egg production to decreased poultry and egg quality and safety. Moreover, the negative impact of heat stress on poultry welfare has recently attracted increasing public awareness and concern. Much information has been published on the effects of heat stress on productivity and immune response in poultry. However, our knowledge of basic mechanisms associated to the reported effects, as well as related to poultry behavior and welfare under heat stress conditions is in fact scarce. Intervention strategies to deal with heat stress conditions have been the focus of many published studies. Nevertheless, effectiveness of most of the interventions has been variable or inconsistent. This review focuses on the scientific evidence available on the importance and impact of heat stress in poultry production, with emphasis on broilers and laying hens.

  11. Campylobacter in Poultry: Ecology and Potential Interventions.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Orhan; Kassem, Issmat I; Shen, Zhangqi; Lin, Jun; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Zhang, Qijing

    2015-06-01

    Avian hosts constitute a natural reservoir for thermophilic Campylobacter species, primarily Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, and poultry flocks are frequently colonized in the intestinal tract with high numbers of the organisms. Prevalence rates in poultry, especially in slaughter-age broiler flocks, could reach as high as 100% on some farms. Despite the extensive colonization, Campylobacter is essentially a commensal in birds, although limited evidence has implicated the organism as a poultry pathogen. Although Campylobacter is insignificant for poultry health, it is a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, and contaminated poultry meat is recognized as the main source for human exposure. Therefore, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the development of interventions to diminish Campylobacter contamination in poultry, with the intention to reduce the burden of food-borne illnesses. During the past decade, significant advance has been made in understanding Campylobacter in poultry. This review summarizes the current knowledge with an emphasis on ecology, antibiotic resistance, and potential pre- and postharvest interventions.

  12. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400 Nutrition labeling of poultry products. (a) Nutrition labeling shall be provided for all poultry products intended...

  13. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15... CHLAMYDIOSIS Newcastle Disease § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds and poultry that have been destroyed because of a quarantine for Newcastle disease may not be replaced by birds or poultry moved...

  14. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  15. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  16. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  17. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  18. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  19. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed...

  20. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  1. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  2. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  3. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed...

  4. 9 CFR 93.205 - Certificate for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for poultry. 93.205... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  5. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  6. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  7. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  8. 9 CFR 381.75 - Poultry used for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry used for research. 381.75... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection § 381.75 Poultry...

  9. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  10. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF...

  11. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed...

  12. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  13. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF...

  14. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  15. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  16. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  17. 9 CFR 93.205 - Certificate for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certificate for poultry. 93.205... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  18. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF...

  19. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  20. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed...

  1. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF...

  2. 9 CFR 381.75 - Poultry used for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry used for research. 381.75... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection § 381.75 Poultry...

  3. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS...

  4. 9 CFR 381.75 - Poultry used for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry used for research. 381.75... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection § 381.75 Poultry...

  5. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  6. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed...

  7. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  8. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry Canada 6 § 93.216 Poultry from Canada. Poultry imported from Canada is not required to meet the requirements of § 93.209 but shall meet all other requirements of this...

  9. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400 Nutrition labeling of poultry products. (a) Nutrition labeling must be provided for all poultry products intended for...

  10. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400 Nutrition labeling of poultry products. (a) Nutrition labeling must be provided for all poultry products intended for...

  11. Hepatitis Virus Infections in Poultry.

    PubMed

    Yugo, Danielle M; Hauck, Ruediger; Shivaprasad, H L; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Viral hepatitis in poultry is a complex disease syndrome caused by several viruses belonging to different families including avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV-1, -2, -3), duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3, fowl adenoviruses (FAdV), and turkey hepatitis virus (THV). While these hepatitis viruses share the same target organ, the liver, they each possess unique clinical and biological features. In this article, we aim to review the common and unique features of major poultry hepatitis viruses in an effort to identify the knowledge gaps and aid the prevention and control of poultry viral hepatitis. Avian HEV is an Orthohepevirus B in the family Hepeviridae that naturally infects chickens and consists of three distinct genotypes worldwide. Avian HEV is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome or big liver and spleen disease in chickens, although the majority of the infected birds are subclinical. Avihepadnaviruses in the family of Hepadnaviridae have been isolated from ducks, snow geese, white storks, grey herons, cranes, and parrots. DHBV evolved with the host as a noncytopathic form without clinical signs and rarely progressed to chronicity. The outcome for DHBV infection varies by the host's ability to elicit an immune response and is dose and age dependent in ducks, thus mimicking the pathogenesis of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and providing an excellent animal model for human HBV. DHAV is a picornavirus that causes a highly contagious virus infection in ducks with up to 100% flock mortality in ducklings under 6 wk of age, while older birds remain unaffected. The high morbidity and mortality has an economic impact on intensive duck production farming. Duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3 are astroviruses in the family of Astroviridae with similarity phylogenetically to turkey astroviruses, implicating the potential for cross-species infections between strains. Duck astrovirus (DAstV) causes

  12. The poultry scientist and agromedicine.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Ronald J

    2004-01-01

    The poultry industry of today is immense and of great economic significance. This has been made possible, in part, by the vast amount of research which has been performed for the purpose of improving the reproduction, growth and health of avian species. Ancillary benefits resulting from this research have been discoveries of importance to human medicine such as: discovery of many essential vitamins and nutrients, knowledge of the immune system, understanding of the mechanisms of viral infection and viral participation in cancer, clarification of mechanisms of heredity, and many other findings. Work in the author's laboratory has the potential of generating knowledge of importance to medical sciences by providing information about diluents useful for cold-storage of cells, about enzymes whose activities may be applicable to studies of human tissues, and about mitochondria.

  13. 76 FR 42595 - Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... requirements. 9 CFR Part 94 Animal diseases, Imports, Livestock, Meat and meat products, Milk, Poultry and... 1:10 dilution of a bacteria-free, infectious allantoic fluid; (2) Any H5 or H7 virus that does...

  14. Simultaneous production of proteases and antioxidant compounds from agro-industrial by-products.

    PubMed

    Lemes, Ailton Cesar; Álvares, Gabriel Teixeira; Egea, Mariana Buranelo; Brandelli, Adriano; Kalil, Susana Juliano

    2016-12-01

    The use of processes for simultaneous production of bioproducts as enzymes and bioactive compounds is an interesting alternative to reduce environmental impacts. Thus, the aim of this study was to produce simultaneously, using the biorefinery concept, both proteases and bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity from Bacillus sp. P45 cultivation by using different by-products. The integrated process developed in this study enabled to obtain enzymes with proteolytic and keratinolytic properties in a process with alternate substrates from agro-industrial by-products (feather meal, residual feather meal and biomass), thus, creating an interesting alternative to managing them. The residual biomass provided the highest protease activity (1306.6U/mL) and the reused feather meal reached the highest keratinolytic activity (89U/mL), both at 32h of cultivation. Moreover, hydrolysates produced in cultivation using feather meal and residual biomass had high antioxidant activity, they have great potential as natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A methodology based on NIR-microscopy for the detection of animal protein by-products.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Marín, Dolores; Fearn, Tom; Guerrero, José Emilio; Garrido-Varo, Ana

    2009-11-15

    This study develops a methodology based on NIR-microscopy analysis and chemometric tools for the detection of animal protein by-products in mixtures, such as compound feeds and mixtures of ingredients, using a library of animal meal by-products only. The proposed methodology is a two-step strategy which worked better than the SIMCA approach it was compared with. In the first step, animal particles are identified using one of two methods, a global or a local distance measure. In the second, K-nearest-neighbours (KNN) is used to discriminate between terrestrial and fish particles. The models were developed using a training set comprising 11,727 spectra of pure terrestrial meals and 5843 of fish meals. KNN using second derivative spectra and five neighbours correctly classifies 98.5% of these samples under cross-validation. The procedure was validated using two external datasets, one made up of mixtures of species (fish and bovine), and a second of commercial compound feeds. The results obtained confirm that the procedure is able to reliably detect the presence of animal meals, although further work would be needed to develop it into an accurate quantitative method.

  16. Evaluation of Nigerian hospital meal carts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayodeji, Sesan P.; Adeyeri, Michael K.; Omoniyi, Olaoluwa

    2015-03-01

    Hospital meal carts are used to deliver meals, drugs and some other materials to patients in the hospital environment. These carts which are moved manually by operators, the health workers, mostly do not comply with ergonomics guidelines and physical requirements of the equipment users in terms of anthropometry data of the region thus increasing the risk of musculoskeletal disorder among the meal cart users. This study carried out ergonomic evaluation of the available meal carts in some western Nigeria hospitals. A well-structured questionnaire has two major segments: Operational survey and biomechanical survey, which were administered to the health workers using hospital meal carts in some hospitals in southwestern Nigeria, and physical assessment, which was undertaken to collect data for the ergonomic evaluation. The responses from the questionnaires show that some areas on the existing hospital meal carts are of concern to the users which need to be improved upon.

  17. 9 CFR 381.15 - Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human food products containing poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... productâ of certain human food products containing poultry. 381.15 Section 381.15 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Exemptions § 381.15 Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human...

  18. 9 CFR 381.15 - Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human food products containing poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... productâ of certain human food products containing poultry. 381.15 Section 381.15 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Exemptions § 381.15 Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human...

  19. 9 CFR 381.15 - Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human food products containing poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... productâ of certain human food products containing poultry. 381.15 Section 381.15 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Exemptions § 381.15 Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human...

  20. 9 CFR 381.15 - Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human food products containing poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... productâ of certain human food products containing poultry. 381.15 Section 381.15 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Exemptions § 381.15 Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human...

  1. 9 CFR 381.15 - Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human food products containing poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... productâ of certain human food products containing poultry. 381.15 Section 381.15 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Exemptions § 381.15 Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human...

  2. Wheat milling by-products and their impact on bread making.

    PubMed

    Hemdane, Sami; Leys, Sofie; Jacobs, Pieter J; Dornez, Emmie; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2015-11-15

    This study investigates the relationship between the properties of dietary fiber (DF) rich wheat milling by-products and their impact on bread making. From coarse bran over coarse and fine weatings to low grade flour, the content of starch and lipids increased, while that of DF and ash decreased. Enzyme activity levels differed strongly and were not related to other by-product properties. Average particle size of the by-products was positively correlated with DF and ash contents and their hydration properties. When meals from flour and by-products were composed on the same overall starch level to compensate for differences in endosperm contamination in the by-products, bread specific volume was more strongly depressed with fine weatings and low grade flour than with coarse bran and weatings. This suggests that the properties of the former were intrinsically more detrimental to bread making than those of the latter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Can family meals protect adolescents from obesity?].

    PubMed

    Tabak, Izabela; Jodkowska, Maria; Oblacińska, Anna; Mikiel-Kostyra, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    To analyse the relationship between the frequency of family meals and the body weight of 13-year-olds and its selected determinants. The study was conducted in 2008 as the last stage in a prospective cohort study of 605 children. Questionnaires containing questions about the frequency of family meals, the general regularity of meals, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity and the number of hours spent watching television or at the computer were sent to 13-year-olds by mail. School nurses performed anthropometric measurements of the pupils' weight and height. Statistical analyses were performed, i.e. Pearson's correlations, the two-step cluster analysis and the logistic regression analysis. Most of the young people (80-90%) eat each of the main meals in the company of their parents at least once a week, 21% have breakfast with their parents every day, 41% - dinner, and 45% - supper. The frequency of family meals correlated negatively with the girls' BMI and the number of hours they spent watching television or at the computer, while positively with physical activity, regular meals and vegetable consumption in adolescents of both genders. The lowest mean values of BMI were found in a group of adolescents often eating family meals, the highest - in the group of young people who rarely ate family meals (over 20% of young people in this group were overweight), but the differences were statistically significant only for girls (p=0.025). The probability of less than 2 hours of sedentary behaviour daily, physical activity of at least 60 minutes per day and everyday vegetable and fruit consumption is twice as high in adolescents often consuming meals with their parents, and with the daily consumption of all the meals in this way - more than fourfold higher than in other groups. Family meals treated as a predictor of a healthy lifestyle can indirectly protect adolescents from overweight and obesity. Promoting family meals should be an important method of

  4. 29 CFR 553.223 - Meal time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Meal time. 553.223 Section 553.223 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.223 Meal time... exclude meal time from hours worked if all the tests in § 785.19 of this title are met. (b) If a public...

  5. 29 CFR 553.223 - Meal time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Meal time. 553.223 Section 553.223 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.223 Meal time... exclude meal time from hours worked if all the tests in § 785.19 of this title are met. (b) If a public...

  6. 29 CFR 553.223 - Meal time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Meal time. 553.223 Section 553.223 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.223 Meal time... exclude meal time from hours worked if all the tests in § 785.19 of this title are met. (b) If a...

  7. Analysis of reflectance spectra from hyperspectral images of poultry carcasses for fecal and ingesta detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windham, William R.; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Park, Bosoon; Smith, Doug P.; Poole, Gavin

    2002-11-01

    Identification and separation of poultry carcasses contaminated by feces and/or crop ingesta are very important to protect the consumer from a potential source of food poisoning. A transportable hyperspectral imaging system was developed to detect fecal and ingesta contamination on the surface of poultry carcasses. Detection algorithms used with the imaging system were developed from visible/near infrared monochromator spectra and with contaminates from birds fed a corn/soybean meal diet. The objectives of this study were to investigate using regions of interest reflectance spectra from hyperspectral images to determine optimal wavelengths for fecal detection algorithms from images of birds fed corn, wheat and milo diets. Spectral and spatial data between 400 and 900 nm with a 1.0 nm spectral resolution were acquired from uncontaminated and fecal and ingesta contaminated poultry carcasses. Regions of interest (ROIs) were defined for fecal and ingesta contaminated and uncontaminated skin (i.e. breast, thigh, and wing). Average reflectance spectra of the ROIs were extracted for analysis. Reflectance spectra of contaminants and uncontaminated skin differed. Spectral data pre-processing treatments with a single-term, linear regression program to select wavelengths for optimum calibration coefficients to detect contamination were developed. Fecal and ingesta detection models, specifically a quotient of 2 and/or 3-wavelengths was 100% successful in classification of contaminates.

  8. Respiratory function in poultry workers and pharmacologic characterization of poultry dust extract.

    PubMed

    Zuskin, E; Mustajbegovic, J; Schachter, E N; Kern, J; Rienzi, N; Goswami, S; Marom, Z; Maayani, S

    1995-07-01

    A group of 343 workers (252 males and 91 females) employed in four poultry farms in Croatia was studied for the prevalence of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function changes. There were significantly higher prevalences of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, chronic bronchitis, and chest tightness in poultry workers than in control workers. Male poultry workers who were smokers had significantly higher prevalences of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, and chronic bronchitis than poultry workers who were nonsmokers (P<0.01). Poultry workers exposed for more than 10 years had significantly higher symptoms prevalences than those workers with shorter exposures (except among female smokers). There was also a high prevalence in poultry workers of acute symptoms which developed during the work shift. The measured FVC, FEV1, and FEF25 in poultry workers were significantly lower than predicted normal values. Workers exposed for more than 10 years had lower ventilatory capacity tests (expressed as percentage of predicted) than those workers with shorter exposures. Changes in FEV1, FEF50, and FEF25 were less pronounced than FVC. Additionally we showed that a water-soluble poultry dust extract obtained from this workplace caused a dose-related contraction of nonsensitized guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle when studied in vitro. Pharmacologic studies of this response indicate that it may result from the release of multiple endogenous mediators. Our data suggest that work in poultry farms may, for some workers, cause the development of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function changes.

  9. Camelina meal increases egg n-3 fatty acid content without altering quality or production in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Kakani, Radhika; Fowler, Justin; Haq, Akram-Ul; Murphy, Eric J; Rosenberger, Thad A; Berhow, Mark; Bailey, Christopher A

    2012-05-01

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed plant rich in n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and extruding the seeds results in high protein meal (*40%) containing high levels of n-3 fatty acids. In this study, we examined the effects of feeding extruded defatted camelina meal to commercial laying hens, measuring egg production, quality, and fatty acid composition. Lohmann White Leghorn hens (29 weeks old) were randomly allocated to three dietary treatment groups (n = 25 per group) and data was collected over a 12 week production period. All the treatment groups were fed a corn soy based experimental diet containing 0% (control), 5, or 10% extruded camelina meal. We found no significant differences in percent hen-day egg production and feed consumed per dozen eggs. Egg shell strength was significantly higher in both camelina groups compared to the controls. Egg total n-3 fatty acid content increased 1.9- and 2.7-fold in 5 and 10% camelina groups respectively relative to the control. A similar increase in DHA content also occurred. Further camelina meal did not alter glucosinolate levels and no detectable glucosinolates or metabolic product isothiocyanates were found in the eggs from either the 5 or 10% camelina groups. These results indicate that camelina meal is a viable dietary source of n-3 fatty acids for poultry and its dietary inclusion results in eggs enriched with n-3 fatty acids.

  10. Effect of processing on the microflora of Norwegian seaweed meal, with observations on Sporendonema minutum (Hoye) Frank and Hess.

    PubMed

    Sieburth, J M; Jensen, A

    1967-07-01

    Meal from the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jol. is mainly used as an animal feed supplement. Since moist weed often develops a marked mold growth and since little was known about the microflora of seaweed meal, a cultural procedure was developed to enumerate the populations of bacteria, yeasts, and molds of seaweed meals manufactured by different drying processes. The microflora could be supported by a variety of media varying in levels of nutrition and in the source and concentration of salts. Fresh weed contained less than 10(3) bacteria and less than 10(2) yeasts and molds per g (dry weight). The type and extent of microbial populations in seaweed meal appeared to be dependent upon the method of seaweed drying. Rotary drum-drying at temperatures decreasing from 800 to 80 C maintained or reduced the microbial populations to 10(3) organisms per g (dry weight). Although meals with high nutritional quality can be obtained with warm air- or rock-dried weed, these conditions can also permit bacterial and mold development. Extended rock-drying in variable weather conditions and prolonged storage of moist weed, both of which decrease the nutritional quality, also lead to high bacterial numbers and to a marked development of the halophilic brown mold Sporendonema minutum which attained populations of 10(8) viable spores per g of dried weed. A poultry diet containing 5% badly molded weed had no apparent toxic or growth-depressing effect when fed to chicks.

  11. Caloric beverages consumed freely at meal-time add calories to an ad libitum meal.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of ad libitum consumption of commonly consumed meal-time beverages on energy and fluid intakes and post-meal average subjective appetite and blood glucose in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled design, 29 males and females consumed to satiation an ad libitum pizza meal with one of five beverages in unlimited amount including water (0 kcal), 1% milk (44 kcal/100 ml), regular cola (44 kcal/100 ml), orange juice (44 kcal/100 ml) and diet cola (0 kcal). Food and fluid intakes were measured at the meal. Average subjective appetite and blood glucose were measured before and for 2h after the meal. Although energy intake from pizza was similar among all beverage treatments, the amount of fluid consumed (g) varied among the beverages with intake of orange juice higher than regular and diet cola, but not different from water or milk. Meal-time ingestion of caloric beverages, milk, orange juice and regular cola, led to higher total meal-time energy intakes compared to either water or diet cola. Post-meal blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) was lower after milk than after meals with water, orange juice and regular cola and post-meal average subjective appetite AUC was lower after milk than after meals with water. Meal intakes of nutrients including protein, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamins B12, A and D were higher at the meal with milk compared to the other beverages. Thus, caloric beverages consumed ad libitum during a meal add to total meal-time energy intake, but 1% milk favors a lower post-meal blood glucose and average subjective appetite score and adds to nutrient intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Abdul; Kashif, Natasha; Kifayat, Nasira; Ahmad, Shabeer

    2016-09-01

    The antibiotic residues in poultry meat can pose certain hazards to human health among them are sensitivity to antibiotics, allergic reactions, mutation in cells, imbalance of intestinal micro biota and bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The purpose of the present paper was to detect antibiotic residue in poultry meat. During the present study a total of 80 poultry kidney and liver samples were collected and tested for detection of different antibiotic residues at different pH levels Eschericha coli at pH 6, 7 and Staphyloccocus aureus at pH 8 & 9. Out of 80 samples only 4 samples were positive for antibiotic residues. The highest concentrations of antibiotic residue found in these tissues were tetracycline (8%) followed by ampicilin (4%), streptomycine (2%) and aminoglycosides (1%) as compared to other antibiotics like sulfonamides, neomycine and gentamycine. It was concluded that these microorganism at these pH levels could be effectively used for detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.

  13. Poultry litter toxicity comparison from various bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G.; Kelly, P. )

    1992-01-01

    Poultry litter contains many toxic chemicals including Cu, As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Se and PCBs. Poultry litter leachate has been shown to be more toxic to marine luminescent organisms (Photobacterium phosphoreum) than other farm animal manures. A comparison of toxicity of the poultry litter leachate was undertaken using various bioassays. The EC{sub 50} (or LC{sub 50}) value for the leachate with the Microtox and Daphnia bioassays was 2.9 g/L/ Nitrobacter and Pseudomonas bioassays were not useful in determining the leachate toxicity because of the nutritional properties of the litter. Poultry litter leachate was found to be mutagenic to strains TA 97, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 using the Ames Test.

  14. Backyard poultry: legislation, zoonoses and disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, M L; Roberts, V

    2014-10-01

    In law, backyard poultry are "food-producing animals" and "farmed animals" and are subject to regulations regarding welfare, prescribing, banned procedures, disposal of carcases, feeding bans, notifiable diseases and disease surveillance in addition to those applying to most other pets. Many owners and some veterinary surgeons are unclear about the requirements of these regulations. Backyard poultry are also associated with some different zoonotic disease risks to mammalian pets. Because a high proportion of poultry morbidity and mortality relates to infectious diseases, the health of backyard poultry is amenable to improvement through basic husbandry, biosecurity, hygiene and preventive medicine measures that can be incorporated into a simple "flock-health plan". This article reviews these topics.

  15. Production performance of finisher broiler fed with cocoyam-corm meal as partial energy replacement for maize

    PubMed Central

    de la Cruz, Christian Paul P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Gabing San Fernando (Xanthosoma spp.) corms as partial carbohydrate replacement for maize in finisher broiler production. Materials and Methods: The completely randomized design was utilized to investigate the effects of three finisher poultry diets prepared in varying amounts of cocoyam-corm meal set at 0% (control), 25%, and 50% (experimental) replacement levels. Results: There were no significant differences (p≥0.05) as to mortality and body weight measurements between control and experimental groups. Similarly, the mean weights of selected internal organs and condemnable carcasses among treatment groups did not show any significant differences (p≥0.05). In terms of the average feed intakes, birds from 50%-cocoyam group had the highest mean value and were found to be statistically different (p≥0.01) from both control and 25%-cocoyam groups. However, feed conversion ratio did not significantly differ (p≥0.05) among three groups. Higher feed costs were associated with the 50%-cocoyam treatment diet, which was only consistent with higher feed inputs. Thus, the group fed with 50%-cocoyam meal had significantly higher total mean production costs (p<0.005) per bird, when other expenses were taken into account. The production costs for the group given 25%-cocoyam meal did not significantly differ (p≥0.05) from the control group. Conclusion: Partial replacement of maize with cocoyam-corm meal at 25% level was acceptable since inclusion at this level did not adversely affect the production performance of finisher broilers in terms of growth rate, mortality rate, and feeding efficiency. The use of cocoyam meal as nonconventional and alternative carbohydrate source in poultry diet presents positive economic implications, especially to smallhold farmers from the developing countries, like the Philippines. PMID:27847420

  16. Wheat germ: not only a by-product.

    PubMed

    Brandolini, Andrea; Hidalgo, Alyssa

    2012-03-01

    The wheat germ (embryonic axis and scutellum) represents about 2.5-3.8% of total seed weight and is an important by-product of the flour milling industry. The germ contains about 10-15% lipids, 26-35% proteins, 17% sugars, 1.5-4.5% fibre and 4% minerals, as well as significant quantities of bioactive compounds such as tocopherols [300-740 mg/kg dry matter (DM)], phytosterols (24-50 mg/kg), policosanols (10 mg/kg), carotenoids (4-38 mg/kg), thiamin (15-23 mg/kg) and riboflavin (6-10 mg/kg). Oil recovery is achieved by mechanical pressing or solvent extraction, which retrieve about 50% or 90% lipids, respectively; innovative approaches, such as supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, are also proposed. The oil is rich in triglycerides (57% of total lipids), mainly linoleic (18:2), palmitic (16:0) and oleic (18:1) acids, but relevant amounts of sterols, mono- and diglycerides, phospho- and glycolipids are present. The lypophilic antioxidants tocopherols and carotenoids are also abundant. The main by-product of oil extraction is defatted germ meal, which has high protein content (30-32%), is rich in albumin (34.5% of total protein) and globulin (15.6%), and thus presents a well-balanced amino acid profile. Its principal mineral constituents are potassium, magnesium, calcium, zinc and manganese, in decreasing order. Total flavonoid content is about 0.35 g rutin equivalent/100 g DM. The wheat germ is therefore a unique source of concentrated nutrients, highly valued as food supplement. While the oil is widely appreciated for its pharmaceutical and nutritional value, the defatted germ meal is a promising source of high-quality vegetable proteins. Better nutrient separation from the kernel and improved fractioning techniques could also provide high-purity molecules with positive health benefits.

  17. Microscopic recognition and identification of fish meal in compound feeds.

    PubMed

    van Raamsdonk, L W D; Prins, T W; van de Rhee, N; Vliege, J J M; Pinckaers, V G Z

    2017-08-01

    Fish meal is an accepted ingredient in compound feed. Unauthorised application is primarily enforced by visual inspection, i.e., microscopy. In order to document the visually available diversity, fragments of bones and scales of 17 teleost fish species belonging to seven different orders were investigated for their diversity in the presence of structural elements: lacunae and canaliculae in bone fragments and type of growth rings and teeth of scale fragments. Despite the classical division into cellular bones and acellular bones of teleost fish, i.e., whether or not possessing osteocytes, the current examinations revealed patterns of lacunae, in some types accompanied with canaliculae, in all 17 species investigated. In total seven types of bone structures were defined, and six types of scale structures. Profiles with the relative frequency of each bone type per species were established. The share of acellular bone fragments appeared to be related to the evolutionary position of the species. Results of proficiency tests for the detection of fish meal reveal that in most cases the sensitivity and specificity for the detection of fish meal ranges from sufficient to perfect. Only some specified circumstances can hamper proper recognition and identification, most notably salmon bone fragments mimicking bone fragments from terrestrial animals, and pieces of hydrolysed proteins or minerals mimicking acellular fish bone fragments. The expertise gained in this study would help to improve the distinction between fish meal and terrestrial animal material in compound feed, and it supports the application of the species-to-species ban with respect to the valorisation of by-products from fish farms in aquafeed. In a broader perspective, the current expertise might be helpful to detect fraud throughout the feed/food production chain. The matrix of characteristics versus species is implemented in a data model running in the expert system 'Determinator' for facilitating

  18. Factors Related to the Number of Fast Food Meals Obtained by College Meal Plan Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingman, Deirdre A.; Schulz, Mark R.; Wyrick, David L.; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Gupta, Sat N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study tested whether days on campus, financial access through a meal plan, and health consciousness were associated with number of meals that college students obtained from fast food restaurants. Participants and Methods: In April 2013, all students currently enrolled in a meal plan were invited to participate in an online survey…

  19. Factors Related to the Number of Fast Food Meals Obtained by College Meal Plan Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingman, Deirdre A.; Schulz, Mark R.; Wyrick, David L.; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Gupta, Sat N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study tested whether days on campus, financial access through a meal plan, and health consciousness were associated with number of meals that college students obtained from fast food restaurants. Participants and Methods: In April 2013, all students currently enrolled in a meal plan were invited to participate in an online survey…

  20. Barley β-glucan in poultry diets

    PubMed Central

    Pescatore, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increased interest in the use of immunomodulators as substitutes for antibiotics in food animal production. Beta-glucans from yeast and fungi may be ideal substitutes because of their positive effects on the avian immune system without adversely affecting poultry performance. Barley β-glucans, however, have not shown this potential due to the adverse effects dietary inclusion of barley has on poultry performance. PMID:25332996

  1. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on performance of lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Canola meal (CM) has been shown to be a more effective crude protein (CP) source than soybean meal (SBM) for lactating dairy cows. Treating CM may increase its rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fraction and improve the amount of absorbable amino acids. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ...

  2. Evaluation of skate meal and sablefish viscera meal as fish meal replacement in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus saxfilis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the nutritional value of skate meal (SM) and black cod viscera meal (BCVM) from Alaska and to ascertain their suitability as replacements for commercial pollock fishmeal in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis). Test diets were made by r...

  3. Rapid determination of gizzerosine in fish meals using microchip capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Meng-Wei; Bai, Xiao-Lin; Xu, Pei-Li; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Li; Liu, Yi-Ming; Liao, Xun

    2017-05-01

    Sensitive detection of gizzerosine, a causative agent for deadly gizzard erosion in chicken feeds, is very important to the poultry industry. In this work, a new method was developed based on microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection for rapid analysis of gizzerosine, a biogenic amine in fish meals. The MCE separation was performed on a glass microchip using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as dynamic coating modifier. Separation conditions, including running buffer pH and concentration, SDS concentration, and the separation voltage were investigated to achieve fast and sensitive quantification of gizzerosine. The assay proposed was very quick and could be completed within 65 s. A linear calibration curve was obtained in the range from 0.04 to 1.8 μg ml(-1) gizzerosine. The detection limit was 0.025 μg ml(-1) (0.025 mg kg(-1)), which was far more sensitive than those previously reported. Gizzerosine was well separated from other endogenous components in fish meal samples. Recovery of gizzerosine from this sample matrix (n = 3) was determined to be 97.2-102.8%. The results from analysing fish meal samples indicated that the present MCE-LIF method might hold the potential for rapid detection of gizzerosine in poultry feeds.

  4. Faba beans and peas in poultry feed: economic assessment.

    PubMed

    Proskina, Liga; Cerina, Sallija

    2017-10-01

    Broiler diets mainly consist of cereals and protein-rich feed sources; in the EU-27, poultry farming consumes 24% of the total amount of protein-rich feedstuffs. Since the EU produces only 30% of the total quantity of protein crops used for feed, it is necessary to promote the use of traditional European protein crops (beans, peas) for feed in livestock farming. The research aim is to identify economic gains from the production of broiler chicken meat, replacing soybean meal with domestic faba beans and field peas in broiler chicken diets. Adding field peas and faba beans to the broiler feed ration resulted in a significant live weight increase (5.74-11.95%) at the selling age, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio by 0.61-6.06%, and decrease in the product unit cost (15.34-37.06%) as well as an increase in the production efficiency factor (8.70-48.54), compared with the control group. The optimum kind of legume species used in the broiler diet was peas, which were added in the amount of 200 g kg(-1) , resulting in live weight gain, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio and an increase in the production efficiency factor. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. [NIRS method for determination of meat and bone meal content in ruminant concentrates].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zeng-ling; Han, Lu-jia; Li, Qiong-fei; Liu, Xian

    2008-06-01

    Feed contaminated with MBM is commonly accepted as the main transmission carrier of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). To prevent BSE many countries have banned MBM as a feed ingredient. In the People's Republic of China, the ban was first applied to ruminant feed. In order to investigate the feasibility of near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method for rapidly quantitative determination of meat and bone meal content in ruminant concentrates, 225 representatively commercial ruminant concentrates samples and 75 meat and bone meal (including cattle, sheep, pig and poultry meat and bone meal) samples were collected in the People's Republic of China. Two hundred twenty five ruminant concentrates samples of adulterated meat and bone meal (0.5%-35%) were prepared including 135 calibration samples and 90 independent validation samples. For the calibration set samples, 3 samples were prepared at each concentration. For validation set samples, 2 samples were prepared at each concentration. Any one commercial ruminant concentrates was used once only. The spectra were scanned by raster near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy instrument, and the effect of spectrum pretreatment methods (mathematic pretreatments and scatter correction) and spectrum region (visible and NIR) on the calibration results was considered. The calibration equation was established by modified partial least squares method. The result showed that the calibration gave r2 of 0.979, a standard error of calibration (SEC) of 1.522% and a standard error of cross validation (SECV) of 1.582%. The 90 independent validation samples were used to validate the quantitative equation. The r2, a standard error of prediction (SEP) and ratio of performance to standard deviation (RPD) were 0.972, 1.764% and 5.99 respectively. The results of this study indicated that near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method could provide rapidly quantitative prediction for meat and bone meal percent in

  6. Keratinolytic abilities of Micrococcus luteus from poultry waste

    PubMed Central

    Laba, Wojciech; Choinska, Anna; Rodziewicz, Anna; Piegza, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Keratinolytic microorganisms have become the subject of scientific interest due to their ability to biosynthesize specific keratinases and their prospective application in keratinic waste management. Among several bacterial classes, actinobacteria remain one of the most important sources of keratin-degrading strains, however members of the Micrococcaceae family are rarely scrutinized in regard to their applicatory keratinolytic potential. The tested Micrococcus sp. B1pz isolate from poultry feather waste was identified as M. luteus. The strain, grown in the medium with 1–2% chicken feathers and a yeast extract supplement, produced keratinases of 32 KU and lower level of proteases, 6 PU. It was capable to effectively decompose feathers or “soft” keratin of stratum corneum, in contrast to other “hard” hair-type keratins. The produced keratinolytic enzymes were mainly a combination of alkaline serine or thiol proteases, active at the optimum pH 9.4, 55 °C. Four main protease fractions of 62, 185, 139 and 229 kDa were identified in the crude culture fluid. The research on the auxiliary role of reducing factors revealed that reducing sulfur compounds could be applied in keratinolysis enhancement during enzymatic digestion of keratin, rather than in culture conditions. The presented M. luteus isolate exhibits a significant keratinolytic potential, which determines its feasible applicatory capacity towards biodegradation of poultry by-products or formulation of keratin-based feed components. PMID:26413049

  7. Keratinolytic abilities of Micrococcus luteus from poultry waste.

    PubMed

    Laba, Wojciech; Choinska, Anna; Rodziewicz, Anna; Piegza, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Keratinolytic microorganisms have become the subject of scientific interest due to their ability to biosynthesize specific keratinases and their prospective application in keratinic waste management. Among several bacterial classes, actinobacteria remain one of the most important sources of keratin-degrading strains, however members of the Micrococcaceae family are rarely scrutinized in regard to their applicatory keratinolytic potential. The tested Micrococcus sp. B1pz isolate from poultry feather waste was identified as M. luteus. The strain, grown in the medium with 1-2% chicken feathers and a yeast extract supplement, produced keratinases of 32 KU and lower level of proteases, 6 PU. It was capable to effectively decompose feathers or "soft" keratin of stratum corneum, in contrast to other "hard" hair-type keratins. The produced keratinolytic enzymes were mainly a combination of alkaline serine or thiol proteases, active at the optimum pH 9.4, 55 °C. Four main protease fractions of 62, 185, 139 and 229 kDa were identified in the crude culture fluid. The research on the auxiliary role of reducing factors revealed that reducing sulfur compounds could be applied in keratinolysis enhancement during enzymatic digestion of keratin, rather than in culture conditions. The presented M. luteus isolate exhibits a significant keratinolytic potential, which determines its feasible applicatory capacity towards biodegradation of poultry by-products or formulation of keratin-based feed components.

  8. Extraction and characterization of elastin from poultry skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadalian, Mehdi; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan; Azman, Mohd Azri; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2013-11-01

    Poultry by-products have a great economic potential that need to be exploited. Poultry skin could be utilized to produce elastin, which is often incorporated in the production of functional food or medicine due to its antioxidative properties. This study was conducted to determine the physicochemical and microstructural characteristics of elastins isolated from broiler and spent hen skin. Analyses including proximate and amino acid composition along with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were carried out. In this study, elastin was successfully extracted from broiler and spent hen skin using three successive solvents extract of NaCl, acetone and NaOH respectively. It was apparent that the fat content of extracted elastin from broiler skin was higher (P < 0.05) than spent hen's, with both samples recording less than 1% fat. Moreover, broiler skin elastin also had a higher protein content (68.3%) than spent hen's (67.8%). Both skin sources contained glycine as the major amino acid (19-20%), followed by glutamic acid, proline, alanine and arginine. The results of TEM indicated that the use of collagenase enzyme or further purification efforts should be incorporated along with the extraction methods used because of the presence of collagen and other debris in the resultant elastin.

  9. Extraction and characterization of elastin from poultry skin

    SciTech Connect

    Nadalian, Mehdi; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan; Babji, Abdul Salam; Azman, Mohd Azri

    2013-11-27

    Poultry by-products have a great economic potential that need to be exploited. Poultry skin could be utilized to produce elastin, which is often incorporated in the production of functional food or medicine due to its antioxidative properties. This study was conducted to determine the physicochemical and microstructural characteristics of elastins isolated from broiler and spent hen skin. Analyses including proximate and amino acid composition along with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were carried out. In this study, elastin was successfully extracted from broiler and spent hen skin using three successive solvents extract of NaCl, acetone and NaOH respectively. It was apparent that the fat content of extracted elastin from broiler skin was higher (P < 0.05) than spent hen’s, with both samples recording less than 1% fat. Moreover, broiler skin elastin also had a higher protein content (68.3%) than spent hen’s (67.8%). Both skin sources contained glycine as the major amino acid (19–20%), followed by glutamic acid, proline, alanine and arginine. The results of TEM indicated that the use of collagenase enzyme or further purification efforts should be incorporated along with the extraction methods used because of the presence of collagen and other debris in the resultant elastin.

  10. Comparing childhood meal frequency to current meal frequency, routines, and expectations among parents.

    PubMed

    Friend, Sarah; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Garwick, Ann; Flattum, Colleen Freeh; Draxten, Michelle

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about the continuation of family meals from childhood to parenthood. This study aims to examine associations between parents' report of eating family meals while growing up and their current family meal frequency, routines, and expectations. Baseline data were used from the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study, a randomized controlled trial with a program to promote healthful behaviors and family meals at home. Participants (160 parent/child dyads) completed data collection in 2011-2012 in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolitan area. Parents were predominately female (95%) and white (77%) with a mean age of 41.3 years. General linear modeling examined relationships between parents' report of how often they ate family meals while growing up and their current family meal frequency, routines, and expectations as parents, controlling for parent age, education level, and race. Parental report of eating frequent family meals while growing up was positively and significantly associated with age, education, and self-identification as white (all p < .05). Compared to those who ate family meals less than three times/week or four to five times/week, parents who ate six to seven family meals/week while growing up reported significantly more frequent family meals with their current family (4.0, 4.2 vs. 5.3 family meals/week, p = .001). Eating frequent family meals while growing up was also significantly and positively associated with having current regular meal routines and meal expectations about family members eating together (both p < .05). Promoting family meals with children may have long-term benefits over generations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Comparing Childhood Meal Frequency to Current Meal Frequency, Routines and Expectations Among Parents

    PubMed Central

    Friend, Sarah; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Garwick, Ann; Flattum, Colleen Freech; Draxten, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the continuation of family meals from childhood to parenthood. This study aims to examine associations between parents’ report of eating family meals while growing up and their current family meal frequency, routines, and expectations. Baseline data were used from the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study, a randomized controlled trial with a program to promote healthful behaviors and family meals at home. Participants (160 parent/child dyads) completed data collection in 2011–2012 in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolitan area. Parents were predominately female (95%) and white (77%) with a mean age of 41.3 years. General linear modeling examined relationships between parents’ report of how often they ate family meals while growing up and their current family meal frequency, routines and expectations as parents, controlling for parent age, education level and race. Parental report of eating frequent family meals while growing up was positively and significantly associated with age, education and self-identification as white (all p<0.05). Compared to those who ate family meals less than three times/week or four to five times/week, parents who ate six to seven family meals/week while growing up reported significantly more frequent family meals with their current family (4.0, 4.2 vs 5.3 family meals/week, p=.001). Eating frequent family meals while growing up was also significantly and positively associated with having current regular meal routines and meal expectations about family members eating together (both p<.05). Promoting family meals with children may have long-term benefits over generations. PMID:25485670

  12. Pilot Fullerton prepares meal on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Pilot Fullerton, wearing communications kit assembly (assy) mini headset (HDST), prepares meal on middeck. Fullerton clips corner of rehydratable food (cereal) package with scissors. The opening will allow Fullerton to insert JSC water dispenser kit water gun in order to heat contents with hot water. Meal tray assembly is secured to forward middeck locker and holds additional food packages and beverage containers.

  13. The family meal panacea: exploring how different aspects of family meal occurrence, meal habits and meal enjoyment relate to young children's diets.

    PubMed

    Skafida, Valeria

    2013-07-01

    The general consensus in the research to date is that family meals are linked to healthier eating habits in children, compared to not eating with the family. Yet, few studies explore what it is about commensality which leads to better food choices among children. Using a representative Scottish sample of five-year-old children, this research explores the extent to which family meal occurrence, meal patterns regarding where, when and with whom children eat and perceived meal enjoyment predict the quality of children's diets after controlling for indicators of maternal capital that influence both meal rituals and taste preferences. Eating the same food as parents is the aspect of family meals most strongly linked to better diets in children, highlighting the detrimental effect in the rise of 'children's food'. Although theoretical and empirical work pointed to the important health advantage in children eating together with parents, the results suggested that eating together was a far less important aspect of family meals. In evaluating the importance of the family meal, this article redirects attention away from issues of form and function towards issues of food choice. Policy implications and the importance for public health to recognise the way eating habits are defined by and reproduce social and cultural capital are discussed.

  14. Adolescent and parent views of family meals.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2006-04-01

    To examine and compare the family mealtime environment from the perspectives of both adolescents and parents. Adolescents completed a school-based survey and parents participated in a telephone interview as part of Project EAT (Eating Among Teens). Participants were 902 adolescent females (n=424) and males (n=478) and one of their guardians/parents. Frequencies, chi(2) analyses, and Spearman correlations were used to assess relationships. Parents were more likely than adolescents to report eating five or more family meals per week, the importance of eating together, and scheduling difficulties (P<0.001). Younger adolescents were more likely than older adolescents to report eating five or more family meals per week, higher importance of eating together, and more rule expectations at mealtime (P<0.001), whereas older adolescents were more likely to report scheduling difficulties (P<0.001). Girls reported more family meals per week and more scheduling conflicts than boys did; boys reported more rules at mealtime than girls did (P<0.001). Family meals are perceived positively by both adolescents and parents. Family meals may be a useful mechanism for enhancing family togetherness, and for role modeling behaviors that parents would like their children to emulate. Dietetics professionals can capitalize on positive attitudes toward family meals to help promote their frequency. Helping families learn to cook healthful, quick meals may reduce dependency on less healthful meal options, reduce the frequency of eating outside of the home, and promote greater nutritional intake.

  15. Meal and Snacking Patterns of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Nan; Rhoads, Dianne S.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of the responses of 3,309 Louisiana students was used to determine students' meal and snacking habits at the elementary, junior high, and high school levels. Student responses concerned: (1) where and why food was consumed; (2) vitamin supplements; (3) reasons meals were omitted; and (4) reaction to school lunches. (PP)

  16. Meal and Snacking Patterns of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Nan; Rhoads, Dianne S.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of the responses of 3,309 Louisiana students was used to determine students' meal and snacking habits at the elementary, junior high, and high school levels. Student responses concerned: (1) where and why food was consumed; (2) vitamin supplements; (3) reasons meals were omitted; and (4) reaction to school lunches. (PP)

  17. Approaches to improve poultry vaccination using novel poultry adjuvants against coccidiosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this review, various new approaches to improve poultry adaptive immunity against coccidiosis through vaccination will be addressed using the recently published data. To improve poultry production and to meet the demands for the ever-increasing world human population, we need to develop new stra...

  18. Thermal inactivation of avian influenza virus in poultry litter as a method to decontaminate poultry houses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Removal of contaminated material from a poultry house during recovery from an avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak is very costly and labor intensive. Because AIV is not environmentally stable heating poultry houses may provide a way to efficiently disinfect houses. The objective of this work was ...

  19. Nutritional quality of meals in nursing homes and meals on wheels for elderly persons in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Barić, Irena Colić; Satalić, Zvonimir; Keser, Irena

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the adequacy of meals provided for elderly residents and non-residents of nursing homes in Croatia. Menus of 44 all-day meals provided for residents from 4 nursing homes and 34 meals on wheels provided for non-residents of low socioeconomic status were selected by random sampling. A questionnaire was used to determine socioeconomic status and attitude of residents (n = 89) and non-residents (n = 80) regarding meals offered. An average energy value of all-day meals and meals on wheels was 96.7 and 39.8% RDA respectively. All-day meals provide adequate amounts of the micronutrients examined (phosphorus, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin C) with exception of calcium. Fat provided 35% and 36% of energy for all-day meals and meals on wheels respectively. The body mass index (BMI) under 18.5 kg/m2 had 1.7% residents and 4.0% non-residents. BMI higher than 24.9 kg/m2 were observed in 50% and 47% of residents and non-residents respectively. Gender differences were observed for meal preferences offered to both residents and non-residents. The meals provided adequate amounts of energy and the micronutrients examined. However, a decrease in the energy fraction of fat and decrease in protein content would be advisable.

  20. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Brown, J.A.; Brophy, C.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1984-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount.

  1. Antibiotic resistant coliform bacilli, isolated from freshly slaughtered poultry and from chilled poultry at retail outlets.

    PubMed

    Bensink, J C; Botham, F P

    1983-03-01

    Antibiotic resistance in coliforms isolated from poultry was investigated. Poultry carcases were examined immediately after slaughter or at retail outlets; the carcases were from the same processing plant and 100 were examined from each source. Approximately 85% of the total of 13,858 isolates examined were found to be resistant to at least one antibiotic. Highly significant differences were found in the levels of antibiotic resistance from the 2 sources; ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and sulphonamide resistance was found more frequently in isolates from poultry at retail, while resistance against streptomycin and neomycin occurred more frequently in isolates from poultry examined at slaughter. The data were insufficient to explain these changes. Transfer of resistance occurred less frequently in isolates from poultry at retail; in particular the transfer of resistance from coliforms other than Escherichia coli was found to be greatly reduced.

  2. Bacterial Contaminants of Poultry Meat: Sources, Species, and Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rouger, Amélie; Zagorec, Monique

    2017-01-01

    With the constant increase in poultry meat consumption worldwide and the large variety of poultry meat products and consumer demand, ensuring the microbial safety of poultry carcasses and cuts is essential. In the present review, we address the bacterial contamination of poultry meat from the slaughtering steps to the use-by-date of the products. The different contamination sources are identified. The contaminants occurring in poultry meat cuts and their behavior toward sanitizing treatments or various storage conditions are discussed. A list of the main pathogenic bacteria of concern for the consumer and those responsible for spoilage and waste of poultry meat is established. PMID:28841156

  3. Bacterial Contaminants of Poultry Meat: Sources, Species, and Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rouger, Amélie; Tresse, Odile; Zagorec, Monique

    2017-08-25

    With the constant increase in poultry meat consumption worldwide and the large variety of poultry meat products and consumer demand, ensuring the microbial safety of poultry carcasses and cuts is essential. In the present review, we address the bacterial contamination of poultry meat from the slaughtering steps to the use-by-date of the products. The different contamination sources are identified. The contaminants occurring in poultry meat cuts and their behavior toward sanitizing treatments or various storage conditions are discussed. A list of the main pathogenic bacteria of concern for the consumer and those responsible for spoilage and waste of poultry meat is established.

  4. An overview of poultry industry in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    HUSSAIN, J.; RABBANI, I.; ASLAM, S.; AHMAD, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    The poultry sector is an important and vibrant segment of agriculture in Pakistan with a significant contribution to the national GDP (1.3%). Commercial poultry production in Pakistan started in the 1960’s and has been providing a significant portion of daily proteins to the Pakistani population ever since. During its evolution the industry enjoyed promotional policies of the Government, but has faced several challenges such as disease outbreaks and retail price fluctuations. Despite its important role in the country’s economy, not a single scientific study is available on its evolutionary history. The data available in this regard are scattered and lack reliability. This review is an effort to encompass the history of the overall growth of the poultry industry in Pakistan, its present status (2012 statistics) and future directions and challenges. This article may serve as the basic source of information on Pakistan’s poultry industry achievements. It will also guide poultry experts and policy makers for developing strategic planning for further growth of the industry. PMID:26696690

  5. Utilization of Biodiesel By-Products for Biogas Production

    PubMed Central

    Kolesárová, Nina; Hutňan, Miroslav; Bodík, Igor; Špalková, Viera

    2011-01-01

    This contribution reviews the possibility of using the by-products from biodiesel production as substrates for anaerobic digestion and production of biogas. The process of biodiesel production is predominantly carried out by catalyzed transesterification. Besides desired methylesters, this reaction provides also few other products, including crude glycerol, oil-pressed cakes, and washing water. Crude glycerol or g-phase is heavier separate liquid phase, composed mainly by glycerol. A couple of studies have demonstrated the possibility of biogas production, using g-phase as a single substrate, and it has also shown a great potential as a cosubstrate by anaerobic treatment of different types of organic waste or energy crops. Oil cakes or oil meals are solid residues obtained after oil extraction from the seeds. Another possible by-product is the washing water from raw biodiesel purification, which is an oily and soapy liquid. All of these materials have been suggested as feasible substrates for anaerobic degradation, although some issues and inhibitory factors have to be considered. PMID:21403868

  6. Poultry feed based on protein hydrolysate derived from chrome-tanned leather solid waste: creating value from waste.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Rubina; Pati, Anupama

    2016-04-01

    Leather industry generates huge amount of chrome-containing leather solid waste which creates major environment problems to tanners worldwide. Chrome-tanned leather solid waste is primarily chromium complex of collagen protein. The presence of chromium limits its protein application in animal feed industry. The purified protein hydrolysate with zero chromium could be used in poultry feed. In this study, an attempt has been made to assess performance of poultry with purified protein hydrolysate as a feed derived from chrome-tanned leather waste as partial replacement of soyabean meal as a sole source of protein for growing broiler chickens. Growth study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding protein hydrolysate on performance and physiochemical characteristics of meat of broiler chickens. Two experimental diets containing various levels of protein hydrolysate (EI-20 % and EII-30 %) were evaluated. The comparative study was performed as control with soyabean meal. Daily feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured from day 8 to day 35. At the end of the study, birds were randomly selected and slaughtered to evaluate for physiochemical characteristics of meat. Diet had significant effects on feed intake and body weight gain. Birds fed with 20 and 30 % protein hydrolysate consumed 9.5 and 17.5 % higher amount of feed and gained 6.5 and 16.6 % higher than soyabean meal-fed birds. The current study produced evidence that protein hydrolysate can replace up to 75 % of soyabean meal in broiler diets without affecting either growth performance or meat characteristics.

  7. College Students’ Perceived Differences Between the Terms Real Meal, Meal, and Snack

    PubMed Central

    Banna, Jinan; Richards, Rickelle; Brown, Lora Beth

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess qualitatively and quantitatively college students’ perceived differences between a real meal, meal, and snack. Design A descriptive study design was used to administer an 11-item online survey to college students. Setting Two university campuses in the western US. Participants Pilot testing was conducted with 20 students. The final survey was completed by 628 ethnically diverse students. Main Outcome Measures Students’ perceptions of the terms real meal, meal, and snack. Analysis Three researchers coded the data independently, reconciled differences via conference calls, and agreed on a final coding scheme. Data were reevaluated based on the coding scheme. Means, frequencies, Pearson chi-square, and t test statistics were used. Results More than half of students perceived a difference between the terms real meal and meal. Most (97.6%) perceived a difference between the terms meal and snack. A marked difference in the way students defined these terms was evident, with a real meal deemed nutritious and healthy and meeting dietary recommendations, compared with meals, which were considered anything to eat. Conclusions and Implications These findings suggest that the term real meal may provide nutrition educators with a simple phrase to use in educational campaigns to promote healthful food intake among college students. PMID:27993555

  8. The placemat protocol: Measuring preschoolers' healthy-meal schemas with pretend meals.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Kristen; Peralta, Mericarmen; Jacobsohn, Gwen Costa; Grider, David T

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition instruction can lead to more healthful food choices among children, but little is known about preschoolers' healthy-meal schemas because there are few developmentally appropriate measures. This study validated the Placemat Protocol, a novel measure of preschooler healthy-meal schemas using realistic food models to assemble pretend meals. Preschoolers (N = 247, mean age 4 years 8 months) created 2 meals (preferred and healthy), completed measures of verbal nutrition knowledge and vocabulary, and were weighed and measured for BMI. Parents reported healthy eating guidance, child dietary intake, and family demographics. Children used an average of 5.1 energy-dense (ED) and 3.4 nutrient-dense (ND) foods for their preferred meal, but reversed the ratio to 3.1 ED and 5.1 ND foods for their healthy meal. Healthy meals contained fewer estimated kcal, less fat, less sugar, and more fiber than preferred meals. Meal differences held for younger children, children with lower verbal nutrition knowledge and vocabulary, and child subgroups at higher risk for obesity. Placemat Protocol data correlated with parent healthy eating guidance and child obesogenic dietary intake as expected. The Placemat Protocol shows promise for assessing developing healthy-meal schemas before children can fully articulate their knowledge on verbal measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 9 CFR 201.108-1 - Instructions for weighing live poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Instructions for weighing live poultry... STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.108-1 Instructions for weighing live poultry. Live poultry dealers who operate scales on which live poultry is weighed for purposes of purchase, sale...

  10. 9 CFR 201.108-1 - Instructions for weighing live poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Instructions for weighing live poultry... STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.108-1 Instructions for weighing live poultry. Live poultry dealers who operate scales on which live poultry is weighed for purposes of purchase, sale...

  11. 9 CFR 201.108-1 - Instructions for weighing live poultry or feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Instructions for weighing live poultry... PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.108-1 Instructions for weighing live poultry or feed. Live poultry dealers who operate scales on which live poultry or feed is weighed...

  12. 9 CFR 201.100 - Records to be furnished poultry growers and sellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records to be furnished poultry... PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.100 Records to be furnished poultry growers and sellers. (a) Poultry growing arrangement; timing of disclosure. As a live poultry...

  13. 9 CFR 201.100 - Records to be furnished poultry growers and sellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records to be furnished poultry... PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.100 Records to be furnished poultry growers and sellers. (a) Poultry growing arrangement; timing of disclosure. As a live poultry...

  14. 9 CFR 201.100 - Records to be furnished poultry growers and sellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records to be furnished poultry... PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.100 Records to be furnished poultry growers and sellers. (a) Poultry growing arrangement; timing of disclosure. As a live poultry...

  15. 9 CFR 201.100 - Records to be furnished poultry growers and sellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records to be furnished poultry... PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.100 Records to be furnished poultry growers and sellers. (a) Poultry growing arrangement; timing of disclosure. As a live poultry...

  16. Formulating poultry processing sanitizers from alkaline salts of fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Though some poultry processing operations remove microorganisms from carcasses; other processing operations cause cross-contamination that spreads microorganisms between carcasses, processing water, and processing equipment. One method used by commercial poultry processors to reduce microbial contam...

  17. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... including bone and breading may be used in lieu of minimum 18 percent or 2 ounces of cooked deboned poultry meat and the cooked poultry including bone and breading shall not contain more than 30 percent breading. ...

  18. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... including bone and breading may be used in lieu of minimum 18 percent or 2 ounces of cooked deboned poultry meat and the cooked poultry including bone and breading shall not contain more than 30 percent breading. ...

  19. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... including bone and breading may be used in lieu of minimum 18 percent or 2 ounces of cooked deboned poultry meat and the cooked poultry including bone and breading shall not contain more than 30 percent breading. ...

  20. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... including bone and breading may be used in lieu of minimum 18 percent or 2 ounces of cooked deboned poultry meat and the cooked poultry including bone and breading shall not contain more than 30 percent breading. ...

  1. Coccidiostats in unmedicated feedingstuffs for poultry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radičević, T.; Janković, S.; Stefanović, S.; Nikolić, D.; Đinović-Stojanović, J.; Spirić, D.

    2017-09-01

    Coccidiostats are compounds that are widely used as feed additives to prevent and treat coccidiosis, a contagious disease affecting mainly poultry, and which is associated with warm and humid conditions, as can be found on poultry farms. In Serbia and in the EU, specific coccidiostats are authorized as poultry feed additives. A wide range of these products is available for prevention (as additives) and treatment of coccidiosis (as veterinary medicinal products). The aim of this study is to present findings of residues of coccidiostats in unmedicated feed for chickens for fattening and laying hens as possible causes for coccidiostat residues in liver and eggs. The reasons for these compounds occurring in animal tissues and primary products of animal origin could be an inappropriate withdrawal period after the last administration of medicated feed or cross-contamination of unmedicated feed during the production on the same production line as medicated feedingstuffs, because of inadequate cleaning procedures and/or hygiene practices.

  2. Crew Meal in Node 1 Unity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-09

    S131-E-008307 (9 April 2010) --- Three Expedition 23 crew members share a meal at the galley in the Unity node of the International Space Station. Pictured from the left are Russian cosmonauts Oleg Kotov, commander; Mikhail Kornienko and Alexander Skvortsov, both flight engineers. Skvortsov had interrupted his meal to document the station crew members and the visiting Discovery astronauts (out of frame) during the meal. Thirteen cosmonauts and astronauts will continue their joint activities over the next several days aboard the orbital complex.

  3. Microbiological Spoilage of Meat and Poultry Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerveny, John; Meyer, Joseph D.; Hall, Paul A.

    Humankind has consumed animal protein since the dawn of its existence. The archaeological record shows evidence of animal protein consumption as early as 12,500 BC (Mann, 2005). Raw meat and poultry are highly perishable commodities subject to various types of spoilage depending on handling and storage conditions. Because of this high potential for spoilage, the historical record reveals that early civilizations used techniques such as salting, smoking, and drying to preserve meat (Mack, 2001; Bailey, 1986). Today, more than ever, because of the globalization of the food supply, and increasing demands from exacting consumers, the control of meat and poultry spoilage is essential.

  4. Record of Some Chemical Residues in Poultry Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadelman, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    How pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and heavy metals might get into poultry meat or eggs is reviewed. Several case studies where chemicals were found in poultry products are discussed. It can be concluded that the poultry industry is striving and generally succeeding in producing safe and nutritious meat and eggs. (Author/EB)

  5. Record of Some Chemical Residues in Poultry Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadelman, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    How pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and heavy metals might get into poultry meat or eggs is reviewed. Several case studies where chemicals were found in poultry products are discussed. It can be concluded that the poultry industry is striving and generally succeeding in producing safe and nutritious meat and eggs. (Author/EB)

  6. A Review of Bacteriocins to Control Campylobacter spp. in Poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The unacceptably high frequency of Campylobacter jejuni transmission from poultry to humans encourages scientists to consider and create alternative intervention strategies to control the pathogen in poultry production. Extremely high numbers of Campylobacter (often >108 cfu/g of poultry intestinal...

  7. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15... DISEASE (END) AND CHLAMYDI-OSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds and poultry that have been destroyed because of a quarantine for END may not be replaced by birds...

  8. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15... DISEASE (END) AND CHLAMYDI-OSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds and poultry that have been destroyed because of a quarantine for END may not be replaced by birds...

  9. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15...- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds and poultry that have been destroyed because of a quarantine for END may not be replaced by birds or...

  10. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15...- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds and poultry that have been destroyed because of a quarantine for END may not be replaced by birds or...

  11. Salmonella prevalence in poultry varies greatly in emerging markets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poultry meat continues to be a significant source for human salmonellosis worldwide. Retail establishments serve as an end point sale for raw and processed poultry products. Food safety surveillance systems for raw poultry have been carried out mainly at the processing plants. That being said, it is...

  12. 9 CFR 381.140 - Relabeling poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relabeling poultry products. 381.140... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers § 381.140...

  13. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposal of condemned poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Handling and Disposal of Condemned or...

  14. 9 CFR 381.73 - Quarantine of diseased poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased poultry. 381.73... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection § 381.73...

  15. 9 CFR 381.140 - Relabeling poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relabeling poultry products. 381.140... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers § 381.140...

  16. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raising of poultry in general. 780.125 Section 780.125... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.125 Raising of poultry in general. (a) The term “poultry” includes domesticated fowl and game birds. Ducks and...

  17. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into contractual...

  18. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Raising of poultry in general. 780.125 Section 780.125... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.125 Raising of poultry in general. (a) The term “poultry” includes domesticated fowl and game birds. Ducks and...

  19. 9 CFR 381.140 - Relabeling poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Relabeling poultry products. 381.140... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers § 381.140...

  20. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposal of condemned poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Handling and Disposal of Condemned or...

  1. 9 CFR 381.73 - Quarantine of diseased poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased poultry. 381.73... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection § 381.73...

  2. Practical Poultry Raising. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Kenneth M.

    This manual is designed to provide development workers with the information and tools needed to begin or to improve poultry production. Covered in the individual chapters are the following topics: the nature and scope of poultry production, assessment of local poultry selections, basic information about chickens, country chickens, poultry…

  3. 9 CFR 381.140 - Relabeling poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Relabeling poultry products. 381.140... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers § 381.140...

  4. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into contractual...

  5. 9 CFR 381.73 - Quarantine of diseased poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased poultry. 381.73... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection § 381.73...

  6. 9 CFR 381.73 - Quarantine of diseased poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased poultry. 381.73... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection § 381.73...

  7. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposal of condemned poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Handling and Disposal of Condemned or...

  8. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into contractual...

  9. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Raising of poultry in general. 780.125 Section 780.125... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.125 Raising of poultry in general. (a) The term “poultry” includes domesticated fowl and game birds. Ducks and...

  10. 9 CFR 381.73 - Quarantine of diseased poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased poultry. 381.73... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection § 381.73...

  11. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of poultry in general. 780.125 Section 780.125... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.125 Raising of poultry in general. (a) The term “poultry” includes domesticated fowl and game birds. Ducks and...

  12. 9 CFR 381.140 - Relabeling poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relabeling poultry products. 381.140... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers § 381.140...

  13. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or...

  14. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of condemned poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Handling and Disposal of Condemned or...

  15. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposal of condemned poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Handling and Disposal of Condemned or...

  16. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Raising of poultry in general. 780.125 Section 780.125... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.125 Raising of poultry in general. (a) The term “poultry” includes domesticated fowl and game birds. Ducks and...

  17. Avian Influenza Vaccination of Poultry and Passive Case Reporting, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Grosbois, Vladimir; Jobre, Yilma; Saad, Ahmed; El Nabi, Amira Abd; Galal, Shereen; Kalifa, Mohamed; El Kader, Soheir Abd; Dauphin, Gwenaëlle; Roger, François; Lubroth, Juan; Peyre, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of a mass poultry vaccination campaign on passive surveillance of highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype (H5N1) outbreaks among poultry in Egypt. Passive reporting dropped during the campaign, although probability of infection remained unchanged. Future poultry vaccination campaigns should consider this negative impact on reporting for adapting surveillance strategies. PMID:23171740

  18. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400 Nutrition labeling of poultry products. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 82165, Dec. 29, 2010. (a) Nutrition...

  19. Effect of replacement of maize with earth ball (Icacinia manni) meal on the performance of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Umoren, U E; Isika, M A; Asanga, E P; Ezeigwe, P N

    2007-07-15

    The aim of the study was to assess the replacement value of earth ball for maize in broiler diets. A feeding trial was conducted for eight weeks using 220 unsexed Anak 2000 broiler chickens in a completely randomized design to assess the effect of replacement of maize with Icacinia manni meal at 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% on the performance. The diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric, containing 24% crude protein and 3095 Kcal kg-' ME in the starter ration and 21% crude protein and 3204 Kcal kg-' ME in the finisher mash. The birds were randomly distributed into 5 treatments with two replicates containing 22 birds each making a total of 44 birds per treatment. Results showed that in the starter phase, dietary treatments had significantly (p<0.05) least feed intake, body weight gain in the 45 and 60% Icacinia manni meal diets, but not significantly (p>0.05) different in mortality and feed conversion ratio. Significant differences (p<0.05) were also observed in feed intake and body weight gain in the finisher phase. Birds on 0 and 15% Icacinia manni meal diets consumed more feed and were heavier (p<0.05) than those on 30, 45 and 60% Icacinia meal diets. Mortality and feed conversion ratio were not significantly different (p>0.05) at the finisher phase. Birds on 0 and 15% Icacinia meal inclusion exhibited significantly (p<0.05) higher dressed weight, kidney, liver, lung, shank, intestine, neck and gizzard weights. The study concludes that Icacinia manni meal could replace maize up to 15% in broiler diets without deleterious effect on performance, which holds great potential as feed ingredient in poultry nutrition.

  20. Changes in apparent metabolizable energy and digestive tract of broiler chickens fed diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Masri, M. R.

    2003-05-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of feeding broiler chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal (0, 5, 10, 25, 50 kGy), at a rate of 100 g/kg diet, on the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values, using total collection of feed and excreta, during different age periods (14-21, 21-28, 28-35 and 35-42 days) and on the biological aspects of the digestive organs during the last 4 weeks of chickens'age (14-42 days). Results indicated that feeding of broiler chickens with diets containing irradiated meat-bone meal had insignificant effects on the AME values which amounted to an average of 18.6 MJ/kg diet during the four weeks of experimental periods. The AME values increased significantly by 0.36-0.99 MJ/kg diet during the late fourth age period compared with the other earlier three age periods. No significant difference was noticed in the AME values between the second and third experimental age periods. Feeding chickens with irradiated meat-bone meal for 4 weeks (14-42 day of age) had no significant effects on the relative weights of crop, proventriculus, gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caeca, colon, pancreas and liver. Therefore, radiation sterilized meat-bone meal could be used as feedstuff in poultry diets without any deleterious effect on the diet energy utilization and biological aspects of chickens'digestive tract.

  1. Keratinase Production by Three Bacillus spp. Using Feather Meal and Whole Feather as Substrate in a Submerged Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Mazotto, Ana Maria; Coelho, Rosalie Reed Rodrigues; Cedrola, Sabrina Martins Lage; de Lima, Marcos Fábio; Couri, Sonia; Paraguai de Souza, Edilma; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    Three Bacillus species (B. subtilis LFB-FIOCRUZ 1270, B. subtilis LFB-FIOCRUZ 1273, and B. licheniformis LFB-FIOCRUZ 1274), isolated from the poultry industry, were evaluated for keratinase production using feathers or feather meal as the sole carbon and nitrogen sources in a submerged fermentation. The three Bacillus spp. produced extracellular keratinases and peptidases after 7 days. Feather meal was the best substrate for keratinase and peptidase production in B. subtilis 1273, with 412 U/mL and 463 U/ml. The three strains were able to degrade feather meal (62–75%) and feather (40–95%) producing 3.9–4.4 mg/ml of soluble protein in feather meal medium and 1.9–3.3 mg/ml when feather medium was used. The three strains produced serine peptidases with keratinase and gelatinase activity. B. subtilis 1273 was the strain which exhibited the highest enzymatic activity. PMID:21822479

  2. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  3. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  4. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing bran...

  5. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  6. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing bran...

  7. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing bran...

  8. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  9. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  10. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  11. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  12. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  13. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing bran...

  14. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  15. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing bran...

  16. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  17. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in § 94.6(a) as free of END and highly pathogenic avian influenza at the time the poultry were in the... slaughtered in a region designated in § 94.6(a) as free of END and highly pathogenic avian influenza at a... § 94.6(a) as free of END and highly pathogenic avian influenza in a federally inspected processing...

  18. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in § 94.6(a) as free of END and highly pathogenic avian influenza at the time the poultry were in the... slaughtered in a region designated in § 94.6(a) as free of END and highly pathogenic avian influenza at a... § 94.6(a) as free of END and highly pathogenic avian influenza in a federally inspected processing...

  19. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE... Newcastle disease (END), supplement their meat supply by the importation of fresh (chilled or frozen...

  20. 29 CFR 785.19 - Meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS HOURS WORKED Application of Principles Rest and Meal Periods... periods do not include coffee breaks or time for snacks. These are rest periods. The employee must be...

  1. 29 CFR 785.19 - Meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS HOURS WORKED Application of Principles Rest and Meal Periods... periods do not include coffee breaks or time for snacks. These are rest periods. The employee must be...

  2. PCDD/F levels in food and canteen meals from southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Mayer, R

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of food samples collected in 1997 and 1998 in Bavaria, Germany showed that PCDD/F levels in food of animal origin, with the exception of fish, have decreased to low levels way below 1 pg I-TEQ/g fat. Lowest PCDD/F contents were found in pork (mean: 0.27 pg I-TEQ/g fat) followed by poultry and cow's milk (mean: approx. 0.5 pg I-TEQ/g fat). Average contamination levels determined in beef and eggs lay in the range from 0.7 to 0.8 pg I-TEQ/g fat. PCDD/F levels in fish were clearly higher than levels in meat, milk and egg samples (mean: 5.6 pg I-TEQ/g fat). Comparison of topical levels with former results from Bavaria show that the recently detected decline of contamination of food has continued during the past few years. In addition to investigations of unprepared food, we analysed prepared canteen meals over a period of 1 year. The average PCDD/F level found in canteen food (0.37 pg I-TEQ/g fat) was in good conformity with determined PCDD/F levels in unprepared food regarding the estimated fat composition of prepared meals. The average consumption of fat per meal via canteen food was 21.1 g and the average PCDD/F intake per meal was 7.6 pg I-TEQ. On the supposition that determined PCDD/F levels in canteen food on fat basis are representative of total fat consumed by humans (102 g fat/day), the daily PCDD/F intake would amount to a mean value of 36.7 pg I-TEQ corresponding to 0.52 pg I-TEQ/kg body weight.

  3. Pilot Fullerton prepares meal on middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1982-03-30

    STS003-26-253 (30 March 1982) --- Astronaut Gordon Fullerton, STS-3 pilot, wearing communications kit assembly (assy) mini-headset (HDST), prepares meal on middeck. Fullerton clips corner of rehydratable food (cereal) package with scissors. The opening will allow Fullerton to insert JSC water dispenser kit water gun in order to heat contents with hot water. Meal tray assembly is secured to forward middeck locker and holds additional food packages and beverage containers. Photo credit: NASA

  4. Manure phosphorus extractability as affected by aluminum- and iron by-products and aerobic composting.

    PubMed

    Dao, T H; Sikora, L J; Hamasaki, A; Chaney, R L

    2001-01-01

    Shifts in manure phosphorus (P) chemical forms and pool sizes induced by water treatment residuals and industrial mineral by-products are largely undefined. We conducted a manure P fractionation study to determine mechanisms of reduction of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in poultry manure upon mineral by-product additions. The effects of composting on the P immobilization efficacy of the by-products were determined using laboratory self-heating composting simulators. The mineral by-products included an aluminum-water treatment residual (Al-WTR) and an iron-rich titanium-processing by-product. The noncomposted manure averaged 0.11 g g(-1) of total P as DRP forms. The by-products significantly reduced manure DRP, by an average of 39 and 48% in the Al- and the Fe-treated manure, respectively. The by-products also reduced the 0.5 M NH4F-extractable phosphorus (FEP) fraction. Shifts in P forms between FEP and 0.1 M NaOH-extractable phosphorus (SHEP) depended upon the Al and Fe contents of the by-products while the combined FEP + SHEP pool remained constant. Phosphate sorption measurements supported the observations that the Fe-rich by-product was more effective at reducing manure DRP and enhancing the formation of SHEP forms at the expense of FEP than the Al-WTR. Composting had no effect on the efficacy of either by-product to reduce DRP. Potential mechanisms of enhanced P stabilization in treated manure upon composting included chemical shifts from the DRP and FEP fractions to the citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite extractable P fraction. Thus, the choice of P immobilization agents affected the stability of immobilized P forms and should be taken into consideration in developing manure processing and nutrient stabilization methods.

  5. 9 CFR 93.204 - Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and reservation fees for space at quarantine facilities... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...

  6. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico. 94.23 Section 94.23 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN...

  7. 9 CFR 93.204 - Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and reservation fees for space at quarantine facilities... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...

  8. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico. 94.23 Section 94.23 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN...

  9. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico. 94.23 Section 94.23 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN...

  10. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico. 94.23 Section 94.23 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, NEWCASTLE DISEASE, HIGHLY...

  11. 9 CFR 93.204 - Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and reservation fees for space at quarantine facilities... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...

  12. 9 CFR 93.204 - Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and reservation fees for space at quarantine facilities... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...

  13. 9 CFR 93.204 - Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and reservation fees for space at quarantine facilities... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...

  14. 21 CFR 579.40 - Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry... THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 579.40 Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. Ionizing...

  15. 21 CFR 579.40 - Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry... THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 579.40 Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. Ionizing...

  16. 21 CFR 579.40 - Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry... THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND HANDLING OF ANIMAL FEED AND PET FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 579.40 Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. Ionizing...

  17. Prevalence and key figures for the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae infections in poultry farm systems.

    PubMed

    Sparagano, Olivier; Pavlićević, Aleksandar; Murano, Takako; Camarda, Antonio; Sahibi, Hamid; Kilpinen, Ole; Mul, Monique; van Emous, Rick; le Bouquin, Sophie; Hoel, Kristian; Cafiero, Maria Assunta

    2009-06-01

    Recent surveys and sample collection have confirmed the endemicity of Dermanyssus gallinae in poultry farming worldwide. The reduction in number and efficacy of many acaricide products has accentuated the prevalence rates of this poultry ectoparasite observed more often in non intensive systems such as free-range, barns or backyards and more often in laying hens than in broiler birds. The lack of knowledge from producers and the utilisation of inadequate, ineffective or illegal chemicals in many countries have been responsible for the increase in infestation rates due to the spread of acaricide resistance. The costs for control methods and treatment are showing the tremendous economic impact of this ectoparasite on poultry meat and egg industries. This paper reviews the prevalence rates of this poultry pest in different countries and for different farming systems and the production parameters which could be linked to this pest proliferation.

  18. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  19. Development of a Pilot Scale Process to Sequester Aflatoxin and Release Bioactive Peptides from Highly Contaminated Peanut Meal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanut meal (PM) is the high protein by-product remaining after commercial extraction of peanut oil. PM applications are limited because of typical high concentrations of aflatoxin. For the first time, pilot-scale extraction of protein and sequestration of aflatoxin from PM were evaluated. Aqueous...

  20. The management of phosphorus in poultry litter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential for phosphorus (P) surplus at the farm scale can increase when farming systems change from cropping to intensive poultry and animal production, as P inputs become dominated by animal feed rather than fertilizer. Cost-effective and innovative solutions are needed to expand the range of ...

  1. Water chemistry and poultry processing water quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examined the influences of water chemistry on the quality of process water used in immersion chillers. During commercial poultry processing the bird carcasses come in direct contact with process water during washing and chilling operations. Contamination of the process water with bacteria...

  2. Meat, Fish, and Poultry Processing Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchfield, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of industrial wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes studies on: (1) meat industry wastes; (2) fish-processing waste treatment; and (3) poultry-processing waste treatment. A list of 76 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Utilization of poultry litter for pesticide bioremediation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agricultural chemical products such as pesticides have been used to increase crop production, especially in undeveloped countries. Poultry litter, the combination of feces and bedding materials, has also been used as an alternative to improve soil quality for crop production. However, information re...

  4. Computer vision in the poultry industry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Computer vision is becoming increasingly important in the poultry industry due to increasing use and speed of automation in processing operations. Growing awareness of food safety concerns has helped add food safety inspection to the list of tasks that automated computer vision can assist. Researc...

  5. Systems for recycling water in poultry processing

    SciTech Connect

    Carawan, R.E.; Sheldon, B.W.

    1988-12-31

    The study was conducted to identify effective and economical water treatments, including disinfection, to meet the U.S. Department of Agriculture`s standards for the recycling of poultry chiller water. Reconditioned chiller water meeting these criteria was used to chill hot broiler carcasses, and the quality of the chilled carcasses was then evaluated.

  6. Poultry Producer. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a comprehensive and verified employer competency list for a poultry producer program. It contains units (with or without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability…

  7. Photodegradation of roxarsone in poultry litter leachates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Ferrer, I.; Rutherford, D.W.; Wershaw, R. L.; Ranville, J.F.; Wildeman, T.R.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic compounds have been used extensively in agriculture in the US for applications ranging from cotton herbicides to animal feed supplements. Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid), in particular, is used widely in poultry production to control coccidial intestinal parasites. It is excreted unchanged in the manure and introduced into the environment when litter is applied to farmland as fertilizer. Although the toxicity of roxarsone is less than that of inorganic arsenic, roxarsone can degrade, biotically and abiotically, to produce more toxic inorganic forms of arsenic, such as arsenite and arsenate. Experiments were conducted on aqueous litter leachates to test the stability of roxarsone under different conditions. Laboratory experiments have shown that arsenite can be cleaved photolytically from the roxarsone moiety at pH 4-8 and that the degradation rate increases with increasing pH. Furthermore, the rate of photodegradation increases with nitrate and natural organic matter concentration, reactants that are commonly found in poultry-litter-water leachates. Additional photochemical reactions rapidly oxidize the cleaved arsenite to arsenate. The formation of arsenate is not entirely undesirable, because it is less mobile in soil systems and less toxic than arsenite. A possible mechanism for the degradation of roxarsone in poultry litter leachates is proposed. The results suggest that poultry litter storage and field application practices could affect the degradation of roxarsone and subsequent mobilization of inorganic arsenic species. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Meat, Fish, and Poultry Processing Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchfield, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of industrial wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes studies on: (1) meat industry wastes; (2) fish-processing waste treatment; and (3) poultry-processing waste treatment. A list of 76 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues

    PubMed Central

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat’s poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry. PMID:22347614

  10. Muscle growth and poultry meat quality issues.

    PubMed

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat's poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

  11. Early intestinal growth and development in poultry.

    PubMed

    Lilburn, M S; Loeffler, S

    2015-07-01

    While there are many accepted "facts" within the field of poultry science that are in truth still open for discussion, there is little debate with respect to the tremendous genetic progress that has been made with commercial broilers and turkeys (Havenstein et al., 2003, 2007). When one considers the changes in carcass development in poultry meat strains, these genetic "improvements" have not always been accompanied by correlated changes in other physiological systems and this can predispose some birds to developmental anomalies (i.e. ascites; Pavlidis et al., 2007; Wideman et al., 2013). Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in intestinal growth/health as poultry nutritionists have attempted to adopt new approaches to deal with the broader changes in the overall nutrition landscape. This landscape includes not only the aforementioned genetic changes but also a raft of governmental policies that have focused attention on the environment (phosphorus and nitrogen excretion), consumer pressure on the use of antibiotics, and renewable biofuels with its consequent effects on ingredient costs. Intestinal morphology has become a common research tool for assessing nutritional effects on the intestine but it is only one metric among many that can be used and histological results can often be interpreted in a variety of ways. This study will address the broader body of research on intestinal growth and development in commercial poultry and will attempt to integrate the topics of the intestinal: microbial interface and the role of the intestine as an immune tissue under the broad umbrella of intestinal physiology. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Replacing dietary soybean meal with canola meal improves production and efficiency of lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous research suggested that crude protein (CP) from canola meal (CM) is used more efficiently than CP from solvent soybean meal (SBM) by lactating dairy cows. We tested whether dietary CP content influenced relative effectiveness of equal supplemental CP from either CM or SBM. Fifty lactating H...

  13. Teachers' interaction with children in the school meal situation: the example of pedagogic meals in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Persson Osowski, Christine; Göranzon, Helen; Fjellström, Christina

    2013-01-01

    School meals are also a teaching occasion in which children learn about food and meals, which is referred to as "pedagogic meals" in Sweden. The aim of the present article was to study how the pedagogic meal is practiced in preschool and school settings, with focus on how teachers acted when interacting with the children. Observations, interviews, and focus group interviews. School canteens. Three schools. Teaching in the school meal situation. Social constructionism, new social studies of childhood. The teachers took on 3 different roles. The sociable teacher role entailed turning the school lunch into a social occasion, the educating teacher role involved educating the children, and the evasive teacher role was not associated with the definition of a pedagogic meal. The teacher roles, which ranged from adult-oriented to child-oriented, and which varied in the level of interaction with the children, were summarized in a framework named the Adult- to Child-oriented Teacher Role Framework for School Meals (ACTS). To realize the potential of pedagogic meals, teachers must be educated and become aware of the effects of their behaviors. In this situation, the ACTS framework can constitute a useful tool. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 20 CFR 655.173 - Setting meal charges; petition for higher meal charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Setting meal charges; petition for higher meal charges. 655.173 Section 655.173 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... the 12 month percentage change for the Consumer Price Index for all Urban Consumers for Food...

  15. 20 CFR 655.1314 - Setting meal charges; petition for higher meal charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Setting meal charges; petition for higher meal charges. 655.1314 Section 655.1314 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... month percentage change for the Consumer Price Index for all Urban Consumers for Food between...

  16. Effect of replacing dietary soybean meal with canola meal on production of lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous research suggested that crude protein (CP) from canola meal (CM) was used more efficiently that CP from solvent soybean meal (SBM) by lactating dairy cows. We wished to test whether CM was more effective than SBM on low CP (14.9% CP) than high CP (16.8% CP) diets and to see if it was advant...

  17. Appetite influences the responses to meal ingestion.

    PubMed

    Pribic, T; Nieto, A; Hernandez, L; Malagelada, C; Accarino, A; Azpiroz, F

    2017-08-01

    We have previously shown that the postprandial experience includes cognitive sensations, such as satiety and fullness, with a hedonic dimension involving digestive well-being and mood. Preload conditioning has been shown to modulate appetite and food consumption under certain conditions, but its effects on the responses to meal ingestion are not clear. We hypothesized that appetite modulation by preload conditioning has differential effects on the cognitive and the emotive responses to meal ingestion. The effects of preload conditioning (ingestion of a low- vs a high-calorie breakfast) on appetite and on the cognitive and emotive responses to a comfort probe meal ingested 2 hours later (ham and cheese sandwich with orange juice; 300 mL, 425 Kcal) was tested in healthy subjects (n=12) in a cross-over design. Sensations were measured at regular intervals 15 minutes before and 60 minutes after the probe meal. As compared to the low-calorie breakfast, the high-calorie breakfast reduced basal hunger sensation and influenced the responses to the subsequent probe meal: it increased satiety (4.3±0.2 score vs 2.7±0.2 score; P<.001) and fullness (5.4±0.5 score vs 3.1±0.5; P<.001), but reduced the expected postprandial experience of digestive well-being after a palatable meal (1.3±0.7 score vs 3.0±0.3; P=.045). Appetite modulation by preload conditioning has differential effects on the cognitive and emotive responses to a meal. Preload conditioning of the postprandial experience may be applicable to dietary planning and prevention of postprandial symptoms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Class and eating: Family meals in Britain.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Ewa

    2017-09-01

    This paper examines social differentiation in eating patterns in Britain. It focuses on family meals among individuals with under-age children. Eating with family members has been associated with improvement in wellbeing, nutritional status, and school performance of the children. Modern lifestyles may pose a challenge to commensal eating for all groups, but the scale of the impact varies between social classes, with some groups at higher risk of shortening or skipping family meal time. Eating patterns are differentiated by individual's social class; they have also been associated with educational attainment, work schedules, and household composition. The objective of this study is to disaggregate the effect of these variables. Using data from the 2014/2015 UK Time Use Survey I analyse the net effect of social class, education, income, work and family characteristics on the frequency and duration of family meals. Individuals in the highest occupational class dedicate more time overall to family meals. However, class effect becomes insignificant when other variables, such as education or income, are controlled for. This study finds that higher educated individuals have more frequent family meals, and more affluent individuals spend more time at the table with their household members. Work characteristics are associated with frequency of meals, but not with their duration. Finally, household composition matters for how people eat. Parents of younger children eat with their family members more frequently than parents of teenagers. Single parents, a notoriously time-poor category, spend the least amount of time eating with their families and have fewer commensal meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Keratin degradation by bacteria and fungi isolated from a poultry farm and plumage.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, N; Raveendran, S

    2015-04-01

    1. Poultry processing generates a large quantity of feather waste. Feathers are a rich source of keratin and could be used as a feather meal in the feed industry if the keratin is degraded using suitable micro-organisms. 2. In this study, keratin-degrading micro-organisms were isolated from a poultry farm. The predominant organisms were identified as Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus and Trychophyton sp. 3. The isolates were inoculated into feather medium and observed for keratin degradation by measuring the protein content, free amino acids and change in pH. 4. During feather degradation by B. subtilis, the concentration of soluble protein released to the medium increased gradually and reached the maximum (433 µg/ml) during d 7 of incubation and the pH increased from the initial 6.9 to 8.4 on d 9 of incubation. Similarly, the maximum protein content of 414 µg/ml and pH of 8.5 was observed for A. fumigatus on d 21 of incubation. 5. B. subtilis and A. fumigatus showed almost the same level of keratinase activity.

  20. Associations between TV viewing at family meals and the emotional atmosphere of the meal, meal healthfulness, child dietary intake, and child weight status.

    PubMed

    Trofholz, Amanda C; Tate, Allan D; Miner, Michael H; Berge, Jerica M

    2017-01-01

    Research on family meals has demonstrated that family meals are protective for many aspects of child and adolescent health. It is unclear whether distractions at family meals, such as watching TV, are associated with child weight and weight-related behaviors, the emotional atmosphere at the meal, or family meal healthfulness. Direct observational and objective data were collected on primarily low-income and minority families (n = 120) with 6-12 year old children. Data were collected during home visits and included 24-hr dietary recalls, anthropometry, and video-recorded family meals. Video-recorded family meals were coded to assess the presence of TV, whether the family was paying attention to the TV, family group enjoyment and the dietary healthfulness of the foods served at family meals. The presence of TV was negatively associated with the dietary healthfulness and emotional atmosphere of the meal and the child's overall dietary quality. It was positively associated with serving fast food for family meals. Those families who were paying attention to the TV had significantly worse meal dietary healthfulness and were more likely to have fast food at family meals compared to those who were not paying attention. No significant findings were found between the presence of TV at family meals and child overweight status. Study results show that TV is frequently present at family meals. Even if families are not paying attention to the TV, it appears that simply having the TV on as background noise is associated with deleterious outcomes. In addition to increasing family meals, families should be given guidance on turning off the TV and making the family meal a time to connect with one another. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 41 CFR 301-11.17 - If my agency authorizes per diem reimbursement, will it reduce my M&IE allowance for a meal(s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for a complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? 301-11.17 Section 301-11.17 Public Contracts... complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? No. A meal provided by a common carrier or a complimentary meal provided by a hotel/motel does not affect your per diem. ...

  2. 41 CFR 301-11.17 - If my agency authorizes per diem reimbursement, will it reduce my M&IE allowance for a meal(s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for a complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? 301-11.17 Section 301-11.17 Public Contracts... complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? No. A meal provided by a common carrier or a complimentary meal provided by a hotel/motel does not affect your per diem. ...

  3. 41 CFR 301-11.17 - If my agency authorizes per diem reimbursement, will it reduce my M&IE allowance for a meal(s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for a complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? 301-11.17 Section 301-11.17 Public Contracts... complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? No. A meal provided by a common carrier or a complimentary meal provided by a hotel/motel does not affect your per diem. ...

  4. 41 CFR 301-11.17 - If my agency authorizes per diem reimbursement, will it reduce my M&IE allowance for a meal(s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for a complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? 301-11.17 Section 301-11.17 Public Contracts... complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? No. A meal provided by a common carrier or a complimentary meal provided by a hotel/motel does not affect your per diem. ...

  5. 41 CFR 301-11.17 - If my agency authorizes per diem reimbursement, will it reduce my M&IE allowance for a meal(s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for a complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? 301-11.17 Section 301-11.17 Public Contracts... complimentary meal(s) provided by a hotel/motel? No. A meal provided by a common carrier or a complimentary meal provided by a hotel/motel does not affect your per diem. ...

  6. Analysis of post-blood meal flight distances in mosquitoes utilizing zoo animal blood meals.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jacob A; DiMenna, Mark A; Hanelt, Ben; Hofkin, Bruce V

    2012-06-01

    We assessed the post-blood meal flight distance of four mosquito species in a unique environment using blood meal analysis. Mosquitoes were trapped at the Rio Grande Zoo in Albuquerque, NM, and the blood source of blood-engorged mosquitoes was identified. The distance from the enclosure of the animal serving as a blood source to the trap site was then determined. We found that mosquitoes captured at the zoo flew no more than 170 m with an average distance of 106.7 m after taking a blood meal. This is the first study in which the flight distance of wild mosquitoes has been assessed using blood meal analysis and the first in which zoo animals have served as the exclusive source of blood meals. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  7. Development of primers for detection of heat-treated cetacean materials in porcine meat and bone meal.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Naoki; Yoshida, Tomotaro; Kusama, Toyoko; Takagi, Masami; Onodera, Takashi; Sugiura, Katsuaki

    2009-07-01

    The feed ban introduced after the detection of the first case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in 2001 in Japan has been modified to allow some of the previously prohibited animal materials to be used in animal feed. Recently, porcine materials were allowed to be used in feed for pigs, poultry, and fish. Materials from other mammals, including whales, remain prohibited. In the absence of a method to detect the prohibited whale materials in porcine materials, there is a possibility that the whale materials are being used for feed for pigs, poultry, and fish. To detect illegal use of whale materials mixed with porcine materials, we have developed PCR primers specific to a group of most cetacean species, using a computer-based method we developed previously. The primer sets were capable of detecting whale meat meal that had been autoclaved at 133 degrees C for up to 20 min. The detection limit of whale material in porcine meat and bone meal was 0.1%.

  8. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on ruminal digestion, fermentation pattern, omasal nutrient flow, and performance in lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extrusion-treated canola meal (TCM) was produced in an attempt to increase the rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fraction of canola meal (CM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with CM or TCM on ruminal digestion, fermentation pattern, omasal nutr...

  9. Meal patterns and meal-induced metabolic changes in calves fed milk ad lib.

    PubMed

    Senn, M; Gross-Lüem, S; Leuenberger, H; Langhans, W

    The feeding behavior of 11 calves fed milk ad lib was characterized and analyzed at the age of 5 weeks, and the short-term changes in the plasma concentrations of various metabolites (glucose, lactate, free fatty acids, triglycerides, beta-hydroxybutyrate) and insulin in relation to a representative spontaneous milk meal were measured during the following week. In a 6-day period, the calves consumed 287 (=86%) of a total of 335 milk meals during the light phase from 0500-2200 [on average, 4.4 +/- 0.5 (mean +/- SEM) meals]. The meal size and duration during light were 2.0 +/- 0.3 kg and 5.3 +/- 0.3 min, respectively. However, only 0.7 +/- 0.1 milk meals of similar size and duration were consumed during the dark phase. The plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose increased in response to the spontaneous milk meal and remained elevated for at least 2 h after meal end. The plasma concentrations of triglycerides, free fatty acids, and beta-hydroxybutyrate also increased after meal termination, and remained elevated until 40 min (triglycerides, free fatty acids) and 60 min (beta-hydroxybutyrate) after meal end, respectively. The observed spontaneous milk intake patterns were similar to the natural suckling behavior described for calves, suggesting that the conditions of the present experiment did not disrupt the animals' natural feeding behavior. Some of the profound metabolic changes in relation to a spontaneous milk meal might contribute to the control of milk intake in calves, but further experiments are necessary to test this idea.

  10. Impossible meals? The food and meal situation of flight attendants in Scandinavia - A qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Maria; Lennernäs Wiklund, Maria

    2017-02-24

    The working conditions of flight attendants (FAs) often involve extended and irregular working hours, short rest periods, difficulties in planning for breaks and high demands of service provision. Moreover, work schedules including early check-in, shifts during circadian low and time-zone transitions imply constant exposure to alterations in circadian systems and related health risks. The aim of this explorative study was to investigate how the organisation of work, time and place influence the food and meal situation of FAs when at work, focusing on patterns, form and social context of meals. The research questions posed were how food and meals at work were characterised and perceived among the FAs, and what strategies were adopted to manage the food and meal situation. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with fourteen FAs working in Scandinavia. The results indicated that the organisation of work, time and place have a major influence on the meal situation at work, and how food and meals are perceived and managed by FAs. The work was defined as fragmented and inconsistent regarding time and place resulting in scattered meals and a more snack-based form of eating. The meal situation was characterised by irregularity as well as unpredictability. Eating took place when food was available and when there was enough time to eat, rather than being guided by hunger or social context. Various strategies such as eating in prevention, using emergency food, avoiding certain food and drinks or eating little or nothing at all were used to manage the unpredictability of the meal situation as well as the gap between organisational and individual times. The findings demonstrated the individual responsibility to solve the meal at work, e.g. to solve organisational times.

  11. Dehydration-Anorexia Derives From A Reduction In Meal Size, But Not Meal Number

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Christina N.; Lorenzen, Sarah M.; Compton, Douglas; Watts, Alan G.

    2011-01-01

    The anorexia that results from extended periods of cellular dehydration is an important physiological adaptation that limits the intake of osmolytes from food and helps maintain the integrity of fluid compartments. The ability to experimentally control both the development and reversal of anorexia, together with the understanding of underlying hormonal and neuropeptidergic signals, make dehydration (DE)-anorexia a powerful model for exploring the interactions of neural networks that stimulate and inhibit food intake. However, it is not known which meal parameters are affected by cellular dehydration to generate anorexia. Here we use continuous and high temporal resolution recording of food and fluid intake, together with a drinking-explicit method of meal pattern analysis to explore which meal parameters are modified during DE-anorexia. We find that the most important factor responsible for DE-anorexia is the failure to maintain feeding behavior once a meal has started, rather than the ability to initiate a meal, which remains virtually intact. This outcome is consistent with increased sensitivity to satiation signals and post-prandial satiety mechanisms. We also find that DE-anorexia significantly disrupts the temporal distribution of meals across the day so that the number of nocturnal meals gradually decreases while diurnal meal number increases. Surprisingly, once DE-anorexia is reversed this temporal redistribution is maintained for at least 4 days after normal food intake has resumed, which may allow increased daily food intake even after normal satiety mechanisms are reinstated. Therefore, DE-anorexia apparently develops from a selective targeting of those neural networks that control meal termination, whereas meal initiation mechanisms remain viable. PMID:21854794

  12. Dehydration-anorexia derives from a reduction in meal size, but not meal number.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Christina N; Lorenzen, Sarah M; Compton, Douglas; Watts, Alan G

    2012-01-18

    The anorexia that results from extended periods of cellular dehydration is an important physiological adaptation that limits the intake of osmolytes from food and helps maintain the integrity of fluid compartments. The ability to experimentally control both the development and reversal of anorexia, together with the understanding of underlying hormonal and neuropeptidergic signals, makes dehydration (DE)-anorexia a powerful model for exploring the interactions of neural networks that stimulate and inhibit food intake. However, it is not known which meal parameters are affected by cellular dehydration to generate anorexia. Here we use continuous and high temporal resolution recording of food and fluid intake, together with a drinking-explicit method of meal pattern analysis to explore which meal parameters are modified during DE-anorexia. We find that the most important factor responsible for DE-anorexia is the failure to maintain feeding behavior once a meal has started, rather than the ability to initiate a meal, which remains virtually intact. This outcome is consistent with increased sensitivity to satiation signals and post-prandial satiety mechanisms. We also find that DE-anorexia significantly disrupts the temporal distribution of meals across the day so that the number of nocturnal meals gradually decreases while diurnal meal number increases. Surprisingly, once DE-anorexia is reversed this temporal redistribution is maintained for at least 4 days after normal food intake has resumed, which may allow increased daily food intake even after normal satiety mechanisms are reinstated. Therefore, DE-anorexia apparently develops from a selective targeting of those neural networks that control meal termination, whereas meal initiation mechanisms remain viable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Processing on the Microflora of Norwegian Seaweed Meal, with Observations on Sporendonema minutum (Høye) Frank and Hess

    PubMed Central

    Sieburth, John McN.; Jensen, Arne

    1967-01-01

    Meal from the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jol. is mainly used as an animal feed supplement. Since moist weed often develops a marked mold growth and since little was known about the microflora of seaweed meal, a cultural procedure was developed to enumerate the populations of bacteria, yeasts, and molds of seaweed meals manufactured by different drying processes. The microflora could be supported by a variety of media varying in levels of nutrition and in the source and concentration of salts. Fresh weed contained less than 103 bacteria and less than 102 yeasts and molds per g (dry weight). The type and extent of microbial populations in seaweed meal appeared to be dependent upon the method of seaweed drying. Rotary drum-drying at temperatures decreasing from 800 to 80 C maintained or reduced the microbial populations to 103 organisms per g (dry weight). Although meals with high nutritional quality can be obtained with warm air- or rock-dried weed, these conditions can also permit bacterial and mold development. Extended rock-drying in variable weather conditions and prolonged storage of moist weed, both of which decrease the nutritional quality, also lead to high bacterial numbers and to a marked development of the halophilic brown mold Sporendonema minutum which attained populations of 108 viable spores per g of dried weed. A poultry diet containing 5% badly molded weed had no apparent toxic or growth-depressing effect when fed to chicks. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6069160

  14. Evaluation of Composted Poultry Litter as a Substrate Amendment for WholeTree, Clean Chip Residual, and Pinebark for Container Grown Woody Nursery Crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    WholeTree (WT) and Clean Chip Residual (CCR) are potential new nursery substrates that are by-products of the forestry industry containing high wood content. Initial immobilization of nitrogen is one concern when using these new substrates; however the addition of composted poultry litter (CPL) to s...

  15. Rural villagers and urban residents exposure to poultry in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhibin; Wu, Peng; Ge, Li; Fielding, Richard; Cheng, Xiaowen; Su, Weike; Ye, Min; Shi, Ying; Liao, Qiaohong; Zhou, Hang; Zhou, Lei; Li, Leilei; Wu, Jiabing; Zhang, Shunxiang; Yu, Zhangda; Wu, Xiaomin; Ma, Hanwu; Lu, Jianhua; Cowling, Benjamin J; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of poultry exposure in rural and urban areas in China have not been systematically evaluated and compared. The objective of our study is to investigate patterns in human exposure to poultry in rural and urban China. We conducted a two-stage household-based clustered survey on population exposure to live/sick/dead poultry in Xiuning and Shenzhen. Half of the rural households (51%) in Xiuning raised poultry, mostly (78%) free-range. Around half of those households (40%) allowed poultry to stay in their living areas. One quarter of villagers reported having contact with sick or dead poultry. In Shenzhen, 37% urban residents visited live poultry markets. Among these, 40% purchased live poultry and 16% touched the poultry or cages during purchase. Our findings indicated that human exposure to poultry was different in rural and urban areas in China. This discrepancy could contribute to the observed differences in epidemiologic characteristics between urban and rural cases of influenza A(H7N9) and A(H5N1) virus infection.

  16. Rural Villagers and Urban Residents Exposure to Poultry in China

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ying; Liao, Qiaohong; Zhou, Hang; Zhou, Lei; Li, Leilei; Wu, Jiabing; Zhang, Shunxiang; Yu, Zhangda; Wu, Xiaomin; Ma, Hanwu; Lu, Jianhua; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of poultry exposure in rural and urban areas in China have not been systematically evaluated and compared. The objective of our study is to investigate patterns in human exposure to poultry in rural and urban China. We conducted a two-stage household-based clustered survey on population exposure to live/sick/dead poultry in Xiuning and Shenzhen. Half of the rural households (51%) in Xiuning raised poultry, mostly (78%) free-range. Around half of those households (40%) allowed poultry to stay in their living areas. One quarter of villagers reported having contact with sick or dead poultry. In Shenzhen, 37% urban residents visited live poultry markets. Among these, 40% purchased live poultry and 16% touched the poultry or cages during purchase. Our findings indicated that human exposure to poultry was different in rural and urban areas in China. This discrepancy could contribute to the observed differences in epidemiologic characteristics between urban and rural cases of influenza A(H7N9) and A(H5N1) virus infection. PMID:24769673

  17. A generic coding approach for the examination of meal patterns.

    PubMed

    Woolhead, Clara; Gibney, Michael J; Walsh, Marianne C; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R

    2015-08-01

    Meal pattern analysis can be complex because of the large variability in meal consumption. The use of aggregated, generic meal data may address some of these issues. The objective was to develop a meal coding system and use it to explore meal patterns. Dietary data were used from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (2008-2010), which collected 4-d food diary information from 1500 healthy adults. Self-recorded meal types were listed for each food item. Common food group combinations were identified to generate a number of generic meals for each meal type: breakfast, light meals, main meals, snacks, and beverages. Mean nutritional compositions of the generic meals were determined and substituted into the data set to produce a generic meal data set. Statistical comparisons were performed against the original National Adult Nutrition Survey data. Principal component analysis was carried out by using these generic meals to identify meal patterns. A total of 21,948 individual meals were reduced to 63 generic meals. Good agreement was seen for nutritional comparisons (original compared with generic data sets mean ± SD), such as fat (75.7 ± 29.4 and 71.7 ± 12.9 g, respectively, P = 0.243) and protein (83.3 ± 26.9 and 80.1 ± 13.4 g, respectively, P = 0.525). Similarly, Bland-Altman plots demonstrated good agreement (<5% outside limits of agreement) for many nutrients, including protein, saturated fat, and polyunsaturated fat. Twelve meal types were identified from the principal component analysis ranging in meal-type inclusion/exclusion, varying in energy-dense meals, and differing in the constituents of the meals. A novel meal coding system was developed; dietary intake data were recoded by using generic meal consumption data. Analysis revealed that the generic meal coding system may be appropriate when examining nutrient intakes in the population. Furthermore, such a coding system was shown to be suitable for use in determining meal-based dietary patterns. © 2015

  18. Improved prediction of meat and bone meal metabolizable energy content for ducks through in vitro methods.

    PubMed

    Garcia, R A; Phillips, J G; Adeola, O

    2012-08-01

    Apparent metabolizable energy (AME) of meat and bone meal (MBM) for poultry is highly variable, but impractical to measure routinely. Previous efforts at developing an in vitro method for predicting AME have had limited success. The present study uses data from a previous publication on the AME of 12 MBM samples, determined using 288 White Pekin ducks, as well as composition data on these samples. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that 2 noncompositional attributes of MBM, particle size and protease resistance, will have utility in improving predictions of AME based on in vitro measurements. Using the same MBM samples as the previous study, 2 measurements of particle size were recorded and protease resistance was determined using a modified pepsin digestibility assay. Analysis of the results using a stepwise construction of multiple linear regression models revealed that the measurements of particle size were useful in building models for AME, but the measure of protease resistance was not. Relatively simple (4-term) and complex (7-term) models for both AME and nitrogen-corrected AME were constructed, with R-squared values ranging from 0.959 to 0.996. The rather minor analytical effort required to conduct the measurements involved is discussed. Although the generality of the results are limited by the number of samples involved and the species used, they suggest that AME for poultry can be accurately predicted through simple and inexpensive in vitro methods.

  19. Molecular Epidemiology of Nontyphoidal Salmonella in Poultry and Poultry Products in India: Implications for Human Health.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Sellappan; Purushothaman, Venketaraman; Murthy, Thippichettypalayam Ramasamy Gopala Krishna; Sukumar, Kuppannan; Srinivasan, Palani; Gowthaman, Vasudevan; Balusamy, Mohan; Atterbury, Robert; Kuchipudi, Suresh V

    2015-09-01

    Human infections with non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars are increasingly becoming a threat to human health globally. While all motile Salmonellae have zoonotic potential, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are most commonly associated with human disease, for which poultry are a major source. Despite the increasing number of human NTS infections, the epidemiology of NTS in poultry in India has not been fully understood. Hence, as a first step, we carried out epidemiological analysis to establish the incidence of NTS in poultry to evaluate the risk to human health. A total of 1215 samples (including poultry meat, tissues, egg and environmental samples) were collected from 154 commercial layer farms from southern India and screened for NTS. Following identification by cultural and biochemical methods, Salmonella isolates were further characterized by multiplex PCR, allele-specific PCR, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In the present study, 21/1215 (1.73 %) samples tested positive for NTS. We found 12/392 (3.06 %) of tissue samples, 7/460 (1.52 %) of poultry products, and 2/363 (0.55 %) of environmental samples tested positive for NTS. All the Salmonella isolates were resistant to oxytetracycline, which is routinely used as poultry feed additive. The multiplex PCR results allowed 16/21 isolates to be classified as S. Typhimurium, and five isolates as S. Enteritidis. Of the five S. Enteritidis isolates, four were identified as group D Salmonella by allele-specific PCR. All of the isolates produced different banding patterns in ERIC PCR. Of the thirteen macro restriction profiles (MRPs) obtained by PFGE, MRP 6 was predominant which included 6 (21 %) isolates. In conclusion, the findings of the study revealed higher incidence of contamination of NTS Salmonella in poultry tissue and animal protein sources used for poultry. The results of the study warrants further investigation

  20. Potential use of peanut by-products in food processing: a review.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jun; Du, Fangling

    2012-10-01

    Peanut is one of the most important oil and protein producing crops in the world. Yet the amounts of peanut processing by-products containing proteins, fiber and polyphenolics are staggering. With the environmental awareness and scarcity of space for landfilling, wastes/by-product utilization has become an attractive alternative to disposal. Several peanut by-products are produced from crush peanut processes and harvested peanut, including peanut meal, peanut skin, peanut hull and peanut vine. Some of peanut by-products/waste materials could possibility be used in food processing industry, The by-products of peanut contain many functional compounds, such as protein, fiber and polyphenolics, which can be incorporated into processed foods to serve as functional ingredients. This paper briefly describes various peanut by-products produced, as well as current best recovering and recycling use options for these peanut byproducts. Materials, productions, properties, potential applications in food manufacture of emerging materials, as well as environmental impact are also briefly discussed.

  1. Availability of phosphorus in bone meal.

    PubMed

    Baker, A M; Trimm, J R; Sikora, F J

    1989-01-01

    Two commercially available bone meal products (grades 0-12-0 and 6-12-0) were examined. Samples were prepared according to AOAC method 2.007, and total and available phosphorus contents were determined. Portions of these preparations were reground to pass through successively smaller sieves, and subsequent analyses indicated the availability of phosphorus to be directly proportional to fineness of grind. A quantity of the citrate-insoluble fraction of the bone meal was obtained by following AOAC extraction procedures. Agronomic studies were conducted that compared this insoluble fraction with the original bone meal material and with reagent grade Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O. The data indicated poor correlation between the analytically defined and agronomically determined availability of phosphorus.

  2. Role of School Meal Service in Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    School meal service programs are essential for children's long-term nutrition and health promotion. The programs vary in content, depending on the economic condition, health condition and the food supply situation in each country. Children are encouraged to improve their nutrition, and choose healthy foods and learn good dietary habits through school meals and nutrition education. In Japan, the school lunch program started in 1889. The percentage of elementary schools serving school lunches had reached 99.2% in 2014, and the Nutrition Teacher system started in 2004. Nutrition teachers are to play the roles of teachers on food and nutrition education in addition to managers of foodservice operations in schools. Nutrition teachers are expected to have effects on school nutrition programs by providing meal service together with nutrition education. And so, significant effort is needed from both academia and the field to raise the related nutritional issues.

  3. Associations of family meal frequency with family meal habits and meal preparation characteristics among families of youth with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kornides, M L; Nansel, T R; Quick, V; Haynie, D L; Lipsky, L M; Laffel, L M B; Mehta, S N

    2014-05-01

    While benefits of family mealtimes, such as improved dietary quality and increased family communication, have been well-documented in the general population, less is known about family meal habits that contribute to more frequent family meals in youth with type 1 diabetes. This cross-sectional study surveyed 282 youth ages 8-18 years with type 1 diabetes and their parents on measures regarding diabetes-related and dietary behaviours. T-tests determined significant differences in youth's diet quality, adherence to diabetes management and glycaemic control between those with and without regular family meals (defined as ≥ 5 meals per week). Logistic regression analyses determined unadjusted and adjusted associations of age, socio-demographics, family meal habits, and family meal preparation characteristics with regular family meals. 57% of parents reported having regular family meals. Families with regular family meals had significantly better diet quality as measured by the Healthy Eating Index (P < 0.05) and the NRF9.3 (P < 0.01), and adherence to diabetes management (P < 0.001); the difference in glycaemic control approached statistical significance (P = 0.06). Priority placed on, pleasant atmosphere and greater structure around family meals were each associated with regular family meals (P < 0.05). Meals prepared at home were positively associated with regular family meals, while convenience and fast foods were negatively associated (P < 0.05). Families in which at least one parent worked part-time or stayed at home were significantly more likely to have regular family meals than families in which both parents worked full-time (P < 0.05). In the multivariate logistic regression model, greater parental priority given to family mealtimes (P < 0.001) and more home-prepared meals (P < 0.001) predicted occurrence of regular family meals; adjusting for parent work status and other family meal habits. Strategies for promoting families meals should not only highlight

  4. Impacts of poultry house environment on poultry litter bacterial community composition.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Michael D; Polson, Shawn W; Ritter, Don; Ravel, Jacques; Gelb, Jack; Morgan, Robin; Wommack, K Eric

    2011-01-01

    Viral and bacterial pathogens are a significant economic concern to the US broiler industry and the ecological epicenter for poultry pathogens is the mixture of bedding material, chicken excrement and feathers that comprises the litter of a poultry house. This study used high-throughput sequencing to assess the richness and diversity of poultry litter bacterial communities, and to look for connections between these communities and the environmental characteristics of a poultry house including its history of gangrenous dermatitis (GD). Cluster analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed differences in the distribution of bacterial phylotypes between Wet and Dry litter samples and between houses. Wet litter contained greater diversity with 90% of total bacterial abundance occurring within the top 214 OTU clusters. In contrast, only 50 clusters accounted for 90% of Dry litter bacterial abundance. The sixth largest OTU cluster across all samples classified as an Arcobacter sp., an emerging human pathogen, occurring in only the Wet litter samples of a house with a modern evaporative cooling system. Ironically, the primary pathogenic clostridial and staphylococcal species associated with GD were not found in any house; however, there were thirteen 16S rRNA gene phylotypes of mostly gram-positive phyla that were unique to GD-affected houses and primarily occurred in Wet litter samples. Overall, the poultry house environment appeared to substantially impact the composition of litter bacterial communities and may play a key role in the emergence of food-borne pathogens.

  5. Reduction of nitrogen excretion and emission in poultry: A review for organic poultry.

    PubMed

    Chalova, Vesela I; Kim, Jihyuk; Patterson, Paul H; Ricke, Steven C; Kim, Woo K

    2016-01-01

    Organic poultry is an alternative to conventional poultry which is rapidly developing as a response to customers' demand for better food and a cleaner environment. Although organic poultry manure can partially be utilized by organic horticultural producers, litter accumulation as well as excessive nitrogen still remains a challenge to maintain environment pureness, animal, and human health. Compared to conventional poultry, diet formulation without nitrogen overloading in organic poultry is even more complicated due to specific standards and regulations which limit the application of some supplements and imposes specific criteria to the ingredients in use. This is especially valid for methionine provision which supplementation as a crystalline form is only temporarily allowed. This review is focused on the utilization of various protein sources in the preparation of a diet composed of 100% organic ingredients which meet the avian physiology need for methionine, while avoiding protein overload. The potential to use unconventional protein sources such as invertebrates and microbial proteins to achieve optimal amino acid provision is also discussed.

  6. Impacts of Poultry House Environment on Poultry Litter Bacterial Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Michael D.; Polson, Shawn W.; Ritter, Don; Ravel, Jacques; Gelb, Jack; Morgan, Robin; Wommack, K. Eric

    2011-01-01

    Viral and bacterial pathogens are a significant economic concern to the US broiler industry and the ecological epicenter for poultry pathogens is the mixture of bedding material, chicken excrement and feathers that comprises the litter of a poultry house. This study used high-throughput sequencing to assess the richness and diversity of poultry litter bacterial communities, and to look for connections between these communities and the environmental characteristics of a poultry house including its history of gangrenous dermatitis (GD). Cluster analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed differences in the distribution of bacterial phylotypes between Wet and Dry litter samples and between houses. Wet litter contained greater diversity with 90% of total bacterial abundance occurring within the top 214 OTU clusters. In contrast, only 50 clusters accounted for 90% of Dry litter bacterial abundance. The sixth largest OTU cluster across all samples classified as an Arcobacter sp., an emerging human pathogen, occurring in only the Wet litter samples of a house with a modern evaporative cooling system. Ironically, the primary pathogenic clostridial and staphylococcal species associated with GD were not found in any house; however, there were thirteen 16S rRNA gene phylotypes of mostly Gram-positive phyla that were unique to GD-affected houses and primarily occurred in Wet litter samples. Overall, the poultry house environment appeared to substantially impact the composition of litter bacterial communities and may play a key role in the emergence of food-borne pathogens. PMID:21949751

  7. Replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Khalaji, S; Manafi, M; Olfati, Z; Hedyati, M; Latifi, M; Veysi, A

    2016-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets. Experiments were carried out as a completely randomized design where each experiment involved 4 treatments of 6 replicates and 10 chicks in each pen. Soybean meal proteins in a corn-soy control diet were replaced with 15, 30, and 45% of cow skin gelatin (CSG) or corn protein concentrate (CPC), respectively, in experiments 1 and 2. BW and cumulative feed intake were measured at 7, 21, and 42 d of age. Blood characteristics, relative organs weight and length, ileal digesta viscosity, ileal morphology, and cecal coliform and Salmonella population were measured at 42 d of age. Apparent total tract digestibility of protein was determined during 35 to 42 d of age. Replacement of soybean meal with CSG severely inhibited BW gain, decreased feed intake, and increased FCR in broilers during the experimental period (P ≤ 0.01). The inclusion of CPC reduced BW and increased FCR significantly (P ≤ 0.05) at 21 and 42 d of age without any consequence in feed intake. Protein digestibility was reduced and ileal digesta viscosity was increased linearly by increasing the amount of CSG and CPC in the control diet (P ≤ 0.01). Replacement of soybean meal with CSG and CPC did not significantly alter blood cell profile and plasma phosphorus, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, Aspartate transaminase, and HDL and LDL cholesterol concentration. The inclusion of CSG linearly (P ≤ 0.05) increased plasma uric acid concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) when the amount of CSG replacement was 15%. The results of this experiment showed that using CSG and CPC negatively affects broiler performance and therefore is not a suitable alternative to soybean meal in commercial diets. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Role of immunostimulatory molecules in poultry vaccines.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sachin; Koul, Monika; Rai, Anant

    2010-11-01

    Immunization by vaccination is the most suitable and safest method for preventing infectious diseases in the poultry worldwide. Vaccines alone cannot effectively protect birds from variety of pathogens under field conditions. The combined use of potent immunostimulants in vaccines is an alternative to increase the efficacy of vaccines that can be achieved by the development of better adjuvant. One such adjuvant is cytokine; cytokines have been used extensively as adjuvant in vaccines and are responsible for the type and extent of an immune response following vaccination. Although the innate immune system in birds is not fully characterized but their immune system is very much similar to that of mammals, and moreover with the recent discovery of a number of avian cytokine genes it is now possible to study their effectiveness in enhancing the immune response during vaccination. This review focuses on the recent studies and developments involving the role of immunomodulating agents especially cytokines of avian origin in poultry vaccines.

  9. Could light meal jeopardize laboratory coagulation tests?

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Lippi, Giuseppe; Danese, Elisa; Gelati, Matteo; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Background: Presently the necessity of fasting time for coagulation tests is not standardized. Our hypothesis is that this can harm patient safety. This study is aimed at evaluating whether a light meal (i.e. breakfast) can jeopardize laboratory coagulation tests. Materials and methods: A blood sample was firstly collected from 17 fasting volunteers (12 h). Immediately after blood collection, the volunteers consumed a light meal. Then samples were collected at 1, 2 and 4 h after the meal. Coagulation tests included: activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), fibrinogen (Fbg), antithrombin III (AT), protein C (PC) and protein S (PS). Differences between samples were assessed by Wilcoxon ranked-pairs test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Mean % differences were determined and differences between and baseline and 1, 2 and 4h samples were compared with reference change value (RCV). Results: A significantly higher % activity of AT was observed at 1 h and 4 h after meal vs. baseline specimen [113 (104–117) and 111 (107–120) vs. 109 (102–118), respectively; P = 0.029 and P = 0.016]. APTT at 2 h was found significantly lower than baseline samples [32.0 (29.9–34.8) vs. 34.1 (32.2–35.2), respectively; P = 0.041]. The results of both Fbg and PS tests were not influenced by a light meal. Furthermore, no coagulation tests had significant variation after comparison with RCV. Conclusion: A light meal does not influence the laboratory coagulation tests we assessed, but we suggest that the laboratory quality managers standardize the fasting time for all blood tests at 12 hours, to completely metabolize the lipids intake. PMID:25351352

  10. Could light meal jeopardize laboratory coagulation tests?

    PubMed

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Lippi, Giuseppe; Danese, Elisa; Gelati, Matteo; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Presently the necessity of fasting time for coagulation tests is not standardized. Our hypothesis is that this can harm patient safety. This study is aimed at evaluating whether a light meal (i.e. breakfast) can jeopardize laboratory coagulation tests. A blood sample was firstly collected from 17 fasting volunteers (12 h). Immediately after blood collection, the volunteers consumed a light meal. Then samples were collected at 1, 2 and 4 h after the meal. Coagulation tests included: activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), fibrinogen (Fbg), antithrombin III (AT), protein C (PC) and protein S (PS). Differences between samples were assessed by Wilcoxon ranked-pairs test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Mean % differences were determined and differences between and baseline and 1, 2 and 4h samples were compared with reference change value (RCV). A significantly higher % activity of AT was observed at 1 h and 4 h after meal vs. baseline specimen [113 (104-117) and 111 (107-120) vs. 109 (102-118), respectively; P = 0.029 and P = 0.016]. APTT at 2 h was found significantly lower than baseline samples [32.0 (29.9-34.8) vs. 34.1 (32.2-35.2), respectively; P = 0.041]. The results of both Fbg and PS tests were not influenced by a light meal. Furthermore, no coagulation tests had significant variation after comparison with RCV. A light meal does not influence the laboratory coagulation tests we assessed, but we suggest that the laboratory quality managers standardize the fasting time for all blood tests at 12 hours, to completely metabolize the lipids intake.

  11. Commander Mattingly prepares meal on middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1982-07-04

    STS004-28-312 (27 June-4 July 1982) --- Astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II, STS-4 crew commander, prepares a meal in the middeck area of space shuttle Columbia. He uses scissors to open a drink container. Various packages of food and meal accessories are attached to locker doors. At far left edge of the frame is the tall payload called continuous flow electrophoresis experiment (CFES) system-designed to separate biological materials according to their surface electrical charges as they pass through an electrical field. Astronaut Henry W. Hartsfield Jr. exposed this frame with a 35mm camera. Photo credit: NASA

  12. Crew Meal in Node 1 Unity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-09

    S131-E-008304 (9 April 2010) --- With 13 astronauts and cosmonauts onboard the station at one time, activities around the galley in the Unity node get rather busy at meal time. Over half the 13 are seen in this flight day five aggregation. NASA astronaut James P. Dutton Jr., STS-131 pilot, prepares part of his meal at left. Also pictured clockwise (from the right) are JAXA astronaut Soichi Noguchi and NASA astronaut Tracy Caldwell Dyson, both Expedition 23 flight engineers; NASA astronauts Stephanie Wilson and Clayton Anderson, both STS-131 mission specialists; along with Russian cosmonauts Oleg Kotov and Mikhail Kornienko, Expedition 23 commander and flight engineer, respectively.

  13. Poultry production's environmental impact on water quality.

    PubMed

    Pope, C W

    1991-05-01

    Poultry meat and eggs are rapidly becoming the major source of animal protein in the diets of American consumers. Such expansion has resulted in a similar increase in waste management problems. The national production of broilers and mature chickens was 5.68 billion, 242 million turkeys, 31 million ducks, and 69 trillion table eggs in 1989 based on the USDA National Statistics Survey. Annual production of fecal waste from poultry flocks was 8.8 million tons on a dry weight basis plus more than 106,000 metric tons of broiler hatchery waste. Add to this 37 million dead birds and condemnations at processing plants (figures are also from USDA for 1989 based on USDA National Statistics Survey). When all this waste is added together, the task of keeping the environment clean becomes monumental. The following waste management practices can and must take care of these poultry industry waste products: sanitary land fills, rendering facilities, extrusion machinery, compost plants, lagoons or holding tanks, and land application techniques.

  14. Natural antioxidants in meat and poultry products.

    PubMed

    Karre, Liz; Lopez, Keyla; Getty, Kelly J K

    2013-06-01

    In response to recent claims that synthetic antioxidants have the potential to cause toxicological effects and consumers' increased interest in purchasing natural products, the meat and poultry industry has been seeking sources of natural antioxidants. Due to their high phenolic compound content, fruits and other plant materials provide a good alternative to conventional antioxidants. Plum, grape seed extract, cranberry, pomegranate, bearberry, pine bark extract, rosemary, oregano, and other spices functions as antioxidants in meat and poultry products. Pomegranate, pine bark extract, cinnamon, and cloves have exhibited stronger antioxidant properties than some synthetic options. Plum products, grape seed extract, pine bark extract, rosemary, and some spices all have been shown to affect the color of finished meat or poultry products; however, in some products such as pork sausage or uncured meats, an increase in red color may be desired. When selecting a natural antioxidant, sensory and quality impact on the product should be considered to achieve desired traits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Residue depletion of ivermectin in broiler poultry.

    PubMed

    Mestorino, Nora; Buldain, Daniel; Buchamer, Andrea; Gortari, Lihuel; Daniele, Martín; Marchetti, María Laura

    2017-04-01

    Helminth infections are widespread in the poultry industry. There is evidence of extra-label use of some drugs, such as ivermectin (IVM), in broiler poultry. Pharmacokinetic and residual studies of IVM in poultry, however, are rather scarce. Our aim was to determine time restrictions for broiler chickens fed with balanced feed mixed with IVM for 21 days, and thus achieve acceptable residual levels for consumption as established by the European Union. Sixty 1-day-old chicks were fed with food supplemented with IVM at 5 mg kg(-1) feed for 21 days. Groups of six treated animals were sacrificed at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 15, 20 and 28 days after treatment. Liver, skin/fat, kidney and muscle samples were obtained. IVM were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after automatic solid-phase extraction with SPE C18 cartridges. The highest concentrations were measured in the liver, which is logical given that IVM is a drug that undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism. The optimal withdrawal time for edible tissues of these animals to stay within the permitted residual levels were: 12 days for liver, 8 days for skin/fat, 0 days for muscle and 10 days for kidney.

  16. Improving meal context in nursing homes. Impact of four strategies on food intake and meal pleasure.

    PubMed

    Divert, Camille; Laghmaoui, Rachid; Crema, Célia; Issanchou, Sylvie; Wymelbeke, Virginie Van; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire

    2015-01-01

    In France, in most nursing homes, the composition of menus, the time and the place at which meals are served, the choice of one's place at the table are imposed on residents. Yet, the act of eating cannot be restricted to nutritional and sensory aspects alone. It also includes a psycho-affective dimension, which relates to the context in which the meal is served. We tested the impact of four contextual factors, considered individually, on food intake and meal pleasure in elderly people living in nursing homes: the way the main course was named on the menu, the size and the variety of portions of vegetables served to residents, the presence or not of condiments in the middle of the table and the presence or not of elements to modify the surroundings such as a decorative object on the table or background music. Twelve experimental meals were served to 42 nursing home residents. For each factor, we compared a control condition with two experimental conditions. Our study showed that changing a single contextual element of the meal in nursing homes could be sufficient to improve residents' satisfaction with their meals and increase the quantities of meat or vegetables consumed, as long as this factor had a direct impact on what was going to be consumed (increased variety on the plate, condiments on the table). Factors affecting the context of the meal (names of dishes, decor) proved to be ineffective. Given the budgetary constraints faced by nursing homes, this study proposes interesting and inexpensive ideas to increase satisfaction with meals and food intake in elderly people who are dependent on others for their meals.

  17. Control of campylobacter in poultry industry from farm to poultry processing unit: A review.

    PubMed

    Umaraw, Pramila; Prajapati, A; Verma, Akhilesh K; Pathak, V; Singh, V P

    2017-03-04

    Campylobacter is an emerging zoonotic bacterial threat in the poultry industry. Most of the human cases of campylobacteriosis recorded have revealed their poultry origins. Various control measures have been employed both at the farm and processing levels to combat with it. The antibiotic treatment, phage therapy, competitive exclusion, and vaccination have been adapted at the farm level to reduce colonization of Campylobacter in poultry gut. While prevention of intestinal spillage, scheduled slaughter, logistic slaughter, chemical decontamination of carcasses are recommended to reduce contamination during processing. The postharvest interventions such as heat treatment, freezing, irradiation of contaminated carcass can effectively reduce Campylobacter contamination. Thus, integrated approaches are required to tackle infection of Campylobacter in humans.

  18. Use of fish hydrolysates and fishmeal by-products of the Alaskan fishing industry in diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The suitability of four fish hydrolysates and two fishmeals derived from by-products of the Alaskan fishing industry, as menhaden fishmeal replacements in shrimp diets was determined. A control diet (30% crude protein and 8.5% crude lipid) was produced with menhaden meal (13% of diet). Experimental ...

  19. Apparent metabolizable and net energy values of corn and soybean meal for broiler breeding cocks.

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Liu, G H; Liao, R B; Chang, Y L; Huang, X Y; Wu, Y B; Yang, H M; Yan, H J; Cai, H Y

    2017-01-01

    The AME and net energy (NE) values of 4 corn varieties, including 2 normal corn varieties (Zheng Dan 958 and Xian Yu 335), and one each of waxy corn and sweet corn, and 2 soybean meal samples including regular (RSBM) and dehulled soybean meal (DSBM), were determined in 2 experiments for broiler breeding cocks using the indirect calorimetry method. The 4 test diets in Experiment 1 consisted of each test corn, which replaced 40% of the corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the test diets in Experiment 2 contained 25% RSBM or DSBM, which was used to replace the corn basal diet. Thirty (Experiment 1) or 18 (Experiment 2) 50-week-old Arbor Acre (AA) broiler breeding cocks were used in a completely randomized design. After a 7 d dietary adaptation period, 6 birds as replicates from each treatment were assigned to individual respiration chambers for energy measurement via gaseous exchange and total excreta collection for 10 d. In Experiment 1, the AME, ME intake (MEI), retained energy (RE), NE, and NE:AME ratio values were higher (P < 0.001) in the test diets as compared with the corn-soybean meal basal diet. The AME and NE values in the sweet corn diet were higher (P < 0.05) than those values in the other 3 test diets. The heat production (HP), fasting heat production (FHP), and respiration quotient (RQ) were not influenced by the various experimental diets. The respective AME and NE values were 3,785, 3,775, 3,738, and 3,997 kcal/kg (DM basis), and 2,982, 3,006, 2,959, and 3,146 kcal/kg (DM basis) for Zheng Dan 958, Xian Yu 335, waxy corn, and sweet corn. Birds fed a corn basal diet in Experiment 2 had higher AME, MEI, RE, NE, and NE:AME ratio values (P < 0.001). Soybean meal substitution had no effect on HP, FHP, or RQ. The average AME and NE content was 2,492 and 1,581 kcal/kg (DM basis) for RSBM, and 2,580 and 1,654 kcal/kg (DM basis) for DSBM, respectively. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Protein At All 3 Meals May Help Preserve Seniors' Strength

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167595.html Protein at All 3 Meals May Help Preserve Seniors' Strength Staves ... Aug. 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Eating protein at all three daily meals, instead of just at dinner, ...

  1. At the Table with Family and Making Family Meals Manageable

    MedlinePlus

    ... in his highchair. Family Meal Preparation and Encouraging Responsibility Who prepares the meals at home most often? ... entire family. Wonderfully, many families have shared cooking responsibilities, which includes all of the children in the ...

  2. Classification of specialty seed meals from NIR reflectance spectra

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy was used to identify alternative seed meals proposed for food and feed formulations. Spectra were collected from cold pressed Camelina (Camelina sativa), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), and Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) meals. Additional spectra were collected ...

  3. Ammonia excretion and oxygen consumption rates of juvenile pompano on six experimental poultry by-product diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Florida pompano is a high market value marine finfish and recirculating aquaculture systems provide a sustainable culture method for growing these fish at high production densities in inland where agricultural land is more affordable. To reduce the feed load burden on the operating costs of the RAS ...

  4. The Role of Probiotics in the Poultry Industry

    PubMed Central

    Lutful Kabir, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    The increase of productivity in the poultry industry has been accompanied by various impacts, including emergence of a large variety of pathogens and bacterial resistance. These impacts are in part due to the indiscriminate use of chemotherapeutic agents as a result of management practices in rearing cycles. This review provides a summary of the use of probiotics for prevention of bacterial diseases in poultry, as well as demonstrating the potential role of probiotics in the growth performance and immune response of poultry, safety and wholesomeness of dressed poultry meat evidencing consumer’s protection, with a critical evaluation of results obtained to date. PMID:20111681

  5. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  6. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§ 137...

  7. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§ 137...

  8. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  9. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  10. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§ 137...

  11. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  12. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§ 137...

  13. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  14. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§ 137...

  15. Gorp, Again? Alternate Camp Trail Meals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Layne

    1998-01-01

    By planning menus, repackaging food, packing the right spices, and being creative with aluminum foil and zip-top plastic bags, there is no reason to eat a bland trail meal again. Gives ten recipes, some with options for varying the dish. Eight of them serve two campers, two serve four to six. (TD)

  16. Guidelines for Equipment To Prepare Healthy Meals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Mary Frances; Carr, Deborah H.

    The National Food Service Management Institute (NFSMI) has conducted a project to develop guidelines on the type of preparation equipment needed in school kitchens to produce meals that meet the nutrition standards of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). The guidelines provide detailed descriptions of food preparation equipment items,…

  17. Wilmore with Planned Thanksgiving Meal Items

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-23

    Commander Barry Wilmore takes a self-portrait with food packages (smoked turkey, cranapple dessert, cornbread dressing, and tea with sugar) planned for his Thanksgiving meal. Image was taken near the galley table in the Unity Node 1, and released by Wilmore on Instagram.

  18. Health Tip: Grill a Healthier Meal

    MedlinePlus

    ... trigger formation of cancer-causing compounds. Trim away fat before grilling meat. Marinate meat for at least 30 minutes before grilling. Good marinades include vinegar, citrus juice, beer, wine or green tea. For a healthier meal, grill tomatoes, onions, squash, ...

  19. Gorp, Again? Alternate Camp Trail Meals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Layne

    1998-01-01

    By planning menus, repackaging food, packing the right spices, and being creative with aluminum foil and zip-top plastic bags, there is no reason to eat a bland trail meal again. Gives ten recipes, some with options for varying the dish. Eight of them serve two campers, two serve four to six. (TD)

  20. Meal composition and shift work performance.

    PubMed

    Love, Heather L; Watters, Corilee A; Chang, Wei-Ching

    2005-01-01

    Research indicates that the ability to perform a task can be affected by the composition of the meal preceding the task. This study investigated the effect of shift workers' consumption of a medium-fat, medium-carbohydrate meal on alertness scores. Six subjects (four men, two women) aged 19 to 44 recorded food intake, sleep, and quality of sleep for two weeks, and measured their body temperature and performed cognitive tests during two night shifts at baseline and in test periods. The Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) was used to quantify sleepiness, and a Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) was used to measure cognitive performance. In comparison with the score at baseline, when subjects had a low-fat, high-carbohydrate dietary intake (1,335 kcal/5,588 kJ, 56% carbohydrate, 28% fat), the 1.6-second PASAT score improved significantly (p=0.042) during night shifts when subjects consumed a test meal (987 kcal/4,131 kJ, 46% carbohydrate, 42% fat). No statistically significant difference in SSS was found between baseline and test periods. The reduced body temperature between 2400 hours and 0530 hours was similar for both baseline and test periods. Meal composition and size during night shifts may affect cognitive performance.