Science.gov

Sample records for poultry litter application

  1. Subsurface band application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter is commonly used as a fertilizer on pastures and cropland. Poultry litter is typically land-applied by broadcasting the litter on the soil surface. Rain falling on soil to which poultry litter has been applied, may carry phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) nutrients from the soil into s...

  2. Poultry litter application on pastures and hayfields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is widely used on pastures and hayfields in Georgia. There are many benefits when it is used wisely. Producers should use nutrient management planning and recommended rates to ensure poultry litter is used in ways that maximize its benefits without harming the environment....

  3. An implement for subsurface band application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter is commonly used as a fertilizer on pastures and cropland. Poultry litter is typically land-applied by broadcasting the litter on the soil surface. Rain falling on soil to which poultry litter has been applied, may carry phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) nutrients from the soil into s...

  4. Fate of arsenic compounds in poultry litter upon land application.

    PubMed

    Jackson, B P; Seaman, J C; Bertsch, P M

    2006-12-01

    The use of the organic As compound, roxarsone, as an antibiotic additive to poultry feed continues to raise concern over potential negative environmental impacts. Total As concentration in poultry litter can reach >40 mg kg(-1) and both roxarsone and its mineralization product As(V) have been identified in poultry litters (PL). To investigate the fate of these As species upon land application of PL we conducted two studies. In the first, an Orangeburg soil (Ultisol from the Atlantic Coastal Plain) was spiked with either 20 mg kg(-1) As(V) or roxarsone and incubated at 10% moisture content for 4 months. Exchangeable As was determined periodically by extraction with 0.1M PO(4). Both As(V) and roxarsone displayed similar desorption; initially, approximately 70% of added As was ligand exchangeable and this decreased to 35% after 4 months incubation, presumably due to either slow sorption reactions or a change in solid phase speciation of As to less exchangeable forms. In the second study, various manipulations of two PL samples were applied to the Orangeburg soil at realistic field application rates. The treatments were wet to 10% moisture content and water soluble As, Cu and organic carbon (DOC) was measured over 30 days. Arsenic and Cu solubility were highest from the dried litter samples. Ashing of the PLs decreased soluble As and Cu, presumably because of the loss of organic matter from the ashed litter and subsequent decrease in DOC. Application of leachates from either PL resulted in higher concentrations of soluble As and Cu than when the soil was amended with equivalent concentrations of soluble As and Cu dissolved in DI H(2)O. We hypothesize that the increased levels of DOC from the PL treatments enhance As and Cu solubility through competitive sorption and complexation, respectively. In fact, As and Cu solubility was correlated to DOC levels in the amended soil extracts. Even though land application of PL introduced relatively low concentrations of As and Cu

  5. 17B-Estradiol in Runoff as Affected by Various Poultry Litter Application Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Runoff of estrogen from land fertilized with poultry litter has recently received increased attention. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various poultry litter application strategies on 17B-estradiol concentrations in runoff water. Treatments included the effects of 1) al...

  6. Effects of subsurface poultry litter application technology on water quality, odor, and corn yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impending rules in Maryland will require that poultry litter be incorporated into the soil upon application. For the past five years, we have tested various direct incorporation technologies for poultry litter on Maryland’s coastal plain. Most recently, the USDA-ARS “Subsurfer” has been the focus of...

  7. Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils: effects of long-term poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequential fractionation techniques, coupled with phosphatase hydrolysis, have allowed for greater understanding of manure/litter effects on soil P distribution. We evaluated the effect of long-term (greater than 10 years) poultry litter (broiler and turkey litter) application at annual rates of 4.5...

  8. Detection of pathogens, indicators and antibiotic resistance genes following land application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States (U.S.) is the world’s largest producer of poultry with over 18,000 kg of poultry litter (PL), a mixture of poultry manure, bedding, feathers, and spilled feed produced as a by-product. This PL is a valuable nutrient source for crop production however; land application of livestock ...

  9. Subsurface application of poultry litter in pasture and no-till soils.

    PubMed

    Pote, D H; Way, T R; Kleinman, P J A; Moore, P A; Meisinger, J J; Sistani, K R; Saporito, L S; Allen, A L; Feyereisen, G W

    2011-01-01

    Poultry litter provides a rich nutrient source for crops, but the usual practice of surface-applying litter can degrade water quality by allowing nutrients to be transported from fields in surface runoff while much of the ammonia (NH3)-N escapes into the atmosphere. Our goal was to improve on conventional titter application methods to decrease associated nutrient losses to air and water while increasing soil productivity. We developed and tested a knifing technique to directly apply dry poultry litter beneath the surface of pastures. Results showed that subsurface litter application decreased NH3-N volatilization and nutrient losses in runoff more than 90% (compared with surface-applied litter) to levels statistically as low as those from control (no litter) plots. Given this success, two advanced tractor-drawn prototypes were developed to subsurface apply poultry litter in field research. The two prototypes have been tested in pasture and no-till experiments and are both effective in improving nutrient-use efficiency compared with surface-applied litter, increasing crop yields (possibly by retaining more nitrogen in the soil), and decreasing nutrient losses, often to near background (control plot) levels. A paired-watershed study showed that cumulative phosphorus losses in runoff from continuously grazed perennial pastures were decreased by 55% over a 3-yr period if the annual poultry litter applications were subsurface applied rather than surface broadcast. Results highlight opportunities and challenges for commercial adoption of subsurface poultry litter application in pasture and no-till systems.

  10. 17β-estradiol in runoff as affected by various poultry litter application strategies.

    PubMed

    Delaune, P B; Moore, P A

    2013-02-01

    Steroidal hormones, which are excreted by all mammalian species, have received increasing attention in recent years due to potential environmental implications. The objective of this study was to evaluate 17β-estradiol concentrations in runoff water from plots receiving poultry litter applications using various management strategies. Treatments included the effects of 1) aluminum sulfate (alum) application rates to poultry litter; 2) time until the first runoff event occurs after poultry litter application; 3) poultry litter application rate; 4) fertilizer type; and 5) litter from birds fed modified diets. Rainfall simulators were used to cause continuous runoff from fertilized plots. Runoff samples were collected and analyzed for 17β-estradiol concentrations. Results showed that increasing alum additions to poultry litter decreased 17β-estradiol concentrations in runoff water. A significant exponential decline in 17β-estradiol runoff was also observed with increasing time until the first runoff event after litter application. Concentrations of 17β-estradiol in runoff water increased with increasing litter application rate and remained above background concentrations after three runoff events at higher application rates. Management practices such as diet modification and selection of fertilizer type were also shown to affect 17β-estradiol concentrations in runoff water. Although results from these experiments typically represented a worst case scenario since runoff events generally occurred immediately after litter application, the contaminant loss from pastures fertilized with poultry litter can be expected to be much lower than continual estradiol loadings observed from waste water treatment plants. Management practices such as alum amendment and application timing can significantly reduce the risk of 17β-estradiol losses in the environment.

  11. Application of composted poultry litter as a fertilizer for landscape bedding plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Each year, over 16 million tons of poultry litter is produced in the U.S. Federal and state regulations now limit the amount of poultry litter that can be land-applied, making it difficult to store and dispose poultry litter. The objective of this study was to evaluate composted poultry litter (CPL)...

  12. Bacteria associated with rain runoff following land application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry rearing in the United States is approximately a thirty million dollar per year industry. Land application of poultry litter is an economical viable use of this manure byproduct. However the recent concern associated with organic food and pathogenic bacterial contamination has led to increa...

  13. Application of gypsum to control P runoff from poultry litter fertilization of pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper will discuss the utilization of gypsum (CaSO4 .2H2O) to reduce P losses from surface runoff when poultry litter is used as a fertilizer source in agriculture. Utilization of poultry litter as a fertilizer source is common in regions with intense poultry production. While poultry litter ...

  14. Influence of Poultry Litter Applications on Nematode Communities in Cotton Agroecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Koenning, S. R.; Barker, K. R.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the application of poultry litter at 0.0, 6.7, 13.4, and 20.1 tons/ha on population changes during the growing season on nematode communities were evaluated in two cotton production fields in North Carolina. Numbers of bactivorous nematodes increased at midseason in response to the rate at which litter was applied but decreased with increasing litter application rates at cotton harvest. Numbers of fungivores at cotton harvest were related positively to the rate of litter applied, and this affected a positive increase in the fungivore-to-bacterivore ratio at this sampling date. The rate at which poultry litter was applied resulted in an increase in the bacterivore to plant-parasite ratio, and this corresponded with increased cotton lint yield. Trophic diversity was increased by litter application rate at cotton harvest at one location but not at another. The plant-parasite maturity index was greater consistently at one site than at a second site where the Hoplolaimus columbus population density was above the damage threshold for cotton. The population density of H. columbus was suppressed with increasing rates of poultry litter application, but other plant-parasitic nematodes were affected marginally. PMID:19262834

  15. Implement with adjustable band spacing for subsurface band application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter is commonly used as a fertilizer on pastures and cropland. Poultry litter is typically land-applied by broadcasting the litter on the soil surface. Rain falling on soil to which poultry litter has been applied, may carry phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) nutrients from the soil into s...

  16. Corn response and soil nutrient concentration from subsurface application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilizer management is vital to corn (Zea mays L.) production from financial and environmental perspectives. Poultry litter as a nutrient source in this cropping system is generally surface broadcast, potentially causing volatilization of NH3. Recently a new application method was devel...

  17. Copper and Zinc Runoff from Land Application of Composted Poultry Litter.

    PubMed

    DeLaune, P B; Moore, P A

    2016-09-01

    Regions with long-term animal manure applications based on nitrogen (N) requirements have concerns regarding elevated nutrient levels. Most attention has focused on phosphorus (P), but heavy metal accumulation has received attention due to perceived environmental concerns. Composting is a potential management practice that can reduce total manure mass and volume while creating a stabilized product that has less odor and fewer pathogens. However, composting animal manures can lead to high N loss via ammonia volatilization and increased concentrations of nonvolatile nutrients. The objective of this study was to measure copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in runoff water from plots fertilized with composted and fresh poultry litter. Seven treatments were evaluated in the first year: (i) unfertilized control, (ii) fresh poultry litter, (iii) normal compost (no amendment), (iv) composted litter with alum, (v) composted litter with phosphoric acid, (vi) composted litter with a microbial mixture, and (vii) composted litter with alum + microbial mixture. Six of these treatments were evaluated in Year 2 (alum + microbial mixture was not evaluated in Year 2). Rainfall simulators were used to produce a 5 cm h storm event sufficient in length to cause 30 min of continuous runoff. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were elevated in compost compared with fresh poultry litter. However, metal concentrations in compost did not correlate well with metal concentrations in runoff water and may have been affected by compost maturity and amendment. Total Cu and Zn concentrations in runoff water did not differ between alum-amended compost and fresh poultry litter in each year.

  18. Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils: effects of long-term poultry litter application on phosphorus distribution in Texas Blackland Vertisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequential fractionation techniques, coupled with phosphatase hydrolysis, have allowed for greater understanding of manure/litter effects on soil phosphorus (P) distribution. We evaluated the effect of long-term (> 10 years) poultry litter (broiler and turkey litter) application at rates of 4.5, 6.7...

  19. Subsurface band application of poultry litter and its influence on Phosphorus concentration and retention after runoff from permanent pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive P loss from agricultural fields has been identified as a major cause of eutrophication to river, lakes, and streams. To minimize and mitigate P loss from poultry litter (PL) applications, new technology is being developed for subsurface band application of litter below the soil surface. Th...

  20. Application of Composted Poultry Litter as a Fertilizer for Landscape Annual Bedding Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years there has been a major expansion in the poultry industry, leading to waste disposal problems in many of areas. A study was conducted to determine if the use of poultry litter in the landscape industry could provide an environmentally sound means of disposal for poultry producers as ...

  1. Detection of pathogens, indicators, and antibiotic resistance genes following land application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States (U.S.) is the world’s largest producer of poultry with over eight billion broilers produced yearly. Poultry litter (PL) is a mixture of manure, bedding, feathers, and spilled feed that is a by-product of broiler production. In 2009, the U.S. produced more than 50 million tons of PL...

  2. Long-term applications of untreated and alum-treated poultry litter drive soil nitrogen concentrations and associated microbial community dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum sulfate (alum)-treatment retains ammonia in poultry litter, potentially altering nitrogen cycling after application to soil. The objective of this research was to assess if eight and nine years of annual application of untreated or alum-treated poultry litters or ammonium nitrate have resul...

  3. Photodegradation of roxarsone in poultry litter leachates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Ferrer, I.; Rutherford, D.W.; Wershaw, R. L.; Ranville, J.F.; Wildeman, T.R.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic compounds have been used extensively in agriculture in the US for applications ranging from cotton herbicides to animal feed supplements. Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid), in particular, is used widely in poultry production to control coccidial intestinal parasites. It is excreted unchanged in the manure and introduced into the environment when litter is applied to farmland as fertilizer. Although the toxicity of roxarsone is less than that of inorganic arsenic, roxarsone can degrade, biotically and abiotically, to produce more toxic inorganic forms of arsenic, such as arsenite and arsenate. Experiments were conducted on aqueous litter leachates to test the stability of roxarsone under different conditions. Laboratory experiments have shown that arsenite can be cleaved photolytically from the roxarsone moiety at pH 4-8 and that the degradation rate increases with increasing pH. Furthermore, the rate of photodegradation increases with nitrate and natural organic matter concentration, reactants that are commonly found in poultry-litter-water leachates. Additional photochemical reactions rapidly oxidize the cleaved arsenite to arsenate. The formation of arsenate is not entirely undesirable, because it is less mobile in soil systems and less toxic than arsenite. A possible mechanism for the degradation of roxarsone in poultry litter leachates is proposed. The results suggest that poultry litter storage and field application practices could affect the degradation of roxarsone and subsequent mobilization of inorganic arsenic species. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Salmonella and fecal indicator bacteria in tile waters draining poultry litter application fields in central Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hruby, C.; Soupir, M.

    2012-12-01

    E. coli and enterococci are commonly used as pathogen indicators in surface waters. Along with these indicators, pathogenic Salmonella are prevalent in poultry litter, and have the potential to be transported from land-application areas to tile waters and ultimately to impact waters that are used for drinking-water and recreation. The fate and transport of these bacteria to drainage tiles from application fields, and the correlation of fecal indicator bacteria to pathogens in this setting, is poorly understood. In this field study, samples were obtained from poultry litter, soil, and drainage tile waters below chisel-plowed and no-till cornfields in central Iowa where poultry litter was applied each year in late spring prior to planting. Litter was applied at three different rates; commercial fertilizer with no litter, a low application rate based on the nitrogen requirements of the corn (PL1), and double the low rate (PL2). This site is characterized by low sloping (0-9%) Clarion and Nicollet soils, which are derived from glacial till. Samples were collected from April to September for three years (2010-12) when tiles were flowing. Record high precipitation fell during the sampling period in 2010, while 2011 and 2012 were exceptionally dry years at this location. Grab samples were taken directly from flowing tiles after every rainfall event (>2 cm in less than 24 hours) and samples were collected hourly throughout selected events using an automatic sampling device. Concentrations of E. coli, enterococci and Salmonella spp. were quantified by membrane filtration and growth on selective agars. Peak bacteria concentrations following rainfall events were often one order of magnitude higher in tile waters discharging from no-till plots, despite the smaller size and lower tile flow rates at these plots compared to the chisel-plowed plots. Bacteria concentrations regularly varied by two orders of magnitude in response to rainfall events. Bacteria transport via macropores

  5. Environmental fate of roxarsone in poultry litter. Part II. Mobility of arsenic in soils amended with poultry litter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutherford, D.W.; Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Needham, R.; Staver, K.W.; Wershaw, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    Poultry litter often contains arsenic as a result of organo-arsenical feed additives. When the poultry litter is applied to agricultural fields, the arsenic is released to the environment and may result in increased arsenic in surface and groundwater and increased uptake by plants. The release of arsenic from poultry litter, litter-amended soils, and soils without litter amendment was examined by extraction with water and strong acids (HCI and HN03). The extracts were analyzed for As, C, P, Cu, Zn, and Fe. Copper, zinc, and iron are also poultry feed additives. Soils with a known history of litter application and controlled application rate of arsenic-containing poultry litter were obtained from the University of Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station. Soils from fields with long-term application of poultry litter were obtained from a tilled field on the Delmarva Peninsula (MD) and an untilled Oklahoma pasture. Samples from an adjacent forest or nearby pasture that had no history of litter application were used as controls. Depth profiles were sampled for the Oklahoma pasture soils. Analysis of the poultry litter showed that 75% of the arsenic was readily soluble in water. Extraction of soils shows that weakly bound arsenic mobilized by water correlates positively with C, P, Cu, and Zn in amended fields and appears to come primarily from the litter. Strongly bound arsenic correlates positively with Fe in amended fields and suggests sorption or coprecipitation of As and Fe in the soil column.

  6. Transport of dissolved trace elements in surface runoff and leachate from a coastal plain soil after poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) litter to agricultural soils may exacerbate losses of trace elements in runoff water, an emerging concern to water quality. We evaluated trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, selenium and zinc) in surface runoff and ...

  7. Meta-analysis as a tool to study crop productivity response to poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive research on the use of poultry litter (PL) under different agricultural practices in the USA has shown both negative and positive effects on crop productivity (either yield or aboveground biomass). However, these experimental results are substantially dependent on the experimental set-up, ...

  8. Subsurface application of dry poultry litter: Impacts on common bermudagrass and other no-till crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry manure provides a rich organic nutrient source to fertilize crops and help neutralize soil acidity. However, the usual practice of broadcasting litter on the surface of pastures and other no-till systems can degrade water quality by allowing nutrients to be transported from fields in surfac...

  9. No-till corn response to subsurface application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilizer management is vital to no-till corn (Zea mays) production from financial and environmental perspectives. Poultry litter as a nutrient source in this cropping system is generally land applied by surface broadcast, potentially causing volatilization of ammonia (NH3)-N. Recently a...

  10. Nitrogen availability in composted poultry litter using natural amendments.

    PubMed

    Turan, N Gamze

    2009-02-01

    Poultry litter compost is used as fertilizer on agricultural land because of its high nutrient content. A major limitation of land application of poultry litter compost is the loss of nitrogen via NH3 volatilization. The present work was conducted to monitor nitrogen availability during composting of poultry litter with natural zeolite, expanded perlite, pumice and expanded vermiculite. Poultry litter was composted for 100 days using five in-vessel composting simulators with a volumetric ratio of natural materials:poultry litter of 1:10. It was found that natural materials significantly reduced NH3 volatilization. At the end of the process, the control treatment without any natural materials had the lowest rate of total N: 72% of the initial total N was lost from the compost made with no amendment, while 53, 42, 26 and 16% of initial total N was lost from compost containing expandable perlite, expandable vermiculite, pumice and natural zeolite, respectively.

  11. Changes in poultry litter toxicity with simulated acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G.; Krishnamurthy, S. )

    1991-01-01

    The Delmarva Peninsula on the Eastern Shore of Maryland ranks 4th in the nation in poultry production and generates 9,500 metric tons of poultry manure/litter per day. The poultry litter contains many macro and micro nutrients and is an excellent source of fertilizer. The litter also contains antibiotics, heavy metals, hormones and many microorganisms. Land application of this litter has been the only means of its utilization and disposal. With rainfall, surface water run-off (leachate), from land on which litter has been applied, reaches the Cheasapeake Bay from this region. This leachate with its high organic and inorganic salt contents and high biochemical oxygen demand can severely disrupt the aquatic life and cause fish kills. The objective of this research was to study the effect of simulated acid rain (pH 3, 4 and 5) on the toxicity of poultry litter extracts.

  12. Microbial biomass and soil carbon after 8 and 9 years of field applications of alum-treated and untreated poultry litter and inorganic nitrogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amendment with aluminum sulfate (alum) is considered a best management practice for its benefits in poultry production and increased retention of nutrients in the litter. However, little is known about how long-term applications of alum-treated litter to soil will affect the microbial community and ...

  13. Effects of long-term poultry litter application on phosphorus soil chemistry and runoff water quality.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Mark S; Daniel, Tommy C; DeLaune, Paul B; Sharpley, Andrew N; Lory, John A

    2013-11-01

    Continuous application of poultry litter (PL) significantly changes many soil properties, including soil test P (STP); Al, Fe, and Ca concentrations; and pH, which can affect the potential for P transport in surface runoff water. We conducted rainfall simulations on three historically acidic silt loam soils in Arkansas, Missouri, and Virginia to establish if long-term PL applications would affect soil inorganic P fractions and the resulting dissolved reactive P (DRP) in runoff water. Soil samples (0-5 cm depth) were taken to find sites ranging in Mehlich-3 STP from 20 to 1154 mg P kg. Simulated rainfall events were conducted on 3-m plots at 6.7 cm h, and runoff was collected for 30 min. Correlation between Mehlich-3 and runoff DRP indicated a linear relationship to 833 mg Mehlich-3 P kg. As Mehlich-3 STP increased, a concomitant increase in soil pH and Ca occurred on all soils. Soil P fractionation demonstrated that, as Mehlich-3 STP generally increased above 450 mg P kg (from high to very high), the easily soluble and loosely bound P fractions decreased by 3 to 10%. Water-insoluble complexes of P bound to Al and Ca were the main drivers in the reduction of DRP in runoff, accounting for up to 43 and 38% of total P, respectively. Basing runoff DRP concentration projections solely on Mehlich-3 STP may overestimate runoff P losses from soils receiving long-term PL applications due to dissolution of water-insoluble Ca-P compounds.

  14. Poultry litter toxicity comparison from various bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G.; Kelly, P. )

    1992-01-01

    Poultry litter contains many toxic chemicals including Cu, As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Se and PCBs. Poultry litter leachate has been shown to be more toxic to marine luminescent organisms (Photobacterium phosphoreum) than other farm animal manures. A comparison of toxicity of the poultry litter leachate was undertaken using various bioassays. The EC{sub 50} (or LC{sub 50}) value for the leachate with the Microtox and Daphnia bioassays was 2.9 g/L/ Nitrobacter and Pseudomonas bioassays were not useful in determining the leachate toxicity because of the nutritional properties of the litter. Poultry litter leachate was found to be mutagenic to strains TA 97, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 using the Ames Test.

  15. Water addition, evaporation and water holding capacity of poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Mark W; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2015-12-15

    Litter moisture content has been related to ammonia, dust and odour emissions as well as bird health and welfare. Improved understanding of the water holding properties of poultry litter as well as water additions to litter and evaporation from litter will contribute to improved litter moisture management during the meat chicken grow-out. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how management and environmental conditions over the course of a grow-out affect the volume of water A) applied to litter, B) able to be stored in litter, and C) evaporated from litter on a daily basis. The same unit of measurement has been used to enable direct comparison-litres of water per square metre of poultry shed floor area, L/m(2), assuming a litter depth of 5cm. An equation was developed to estimate the amount of water added to litter from bird excretion and drinking spillage, which are sources of regular water application to the litter. Using this equation showed that water applied to litter from these sources changes over the course of a grow-out, and can be as much as 3.2L/m(2)/day. Over a 56day grow-out, the total quantity of water added to the litter was estimated to be 104L/m(2). Litter porosity, water holding capacity and water evaporation rates from litter were measured experimentally. Litter porosity decreased and water holding capacity increased over the course of a grow-out due to manure addition. Water evaporation rates at 25°C and 50% relative humidity ranged from 0.5 to 10L/m(2)/day. Evaporation rates increased with litter moisture content and air speed. Maintaining dry litter at the peak of a grow-out is likely to be challenging because evaporation rates from dry litter may be insufficient to remove the quantity of water added to the litter on a daily basis.

  16. Carbon dioxide efflux from soil with poultry litter applications in conventional and conservation tillage systems in northern Alabama.

    PubMed

    Roberson, T; Reddy, K C; Reddy, S S; Nyakatawa, E Z; Raper, R L; Reeves, D W; Lemunyon, J

    2008-01-01

    Increased CO2 release from soils resulting from agricultural practices such as tillage has generated concerns about contributions to global warming. Maintaining current levels of soil C and/or sequestering additional C in soils are important mechanisms to reduce CO2 in the atmosphere through production agriculture. We conducted a study in northern Alabama from 2003 to 2006 to measure CO2 efflux and C storage in long-term tilled and non-tilled cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plots receiving poultry litter or ammonium nitrate (AN). Treatments were established in 1996 on a Decatur silt loam (clayey, kaolinitic thermic, Typic Paleudults) and consisted of conventional-tillage (CT), mulch-tillage (MT), and no-tillage (NT) systems with winter rye [Secale cereale (L.)] cover cropping and AN and poultry litter (PL) as nitrogen sources. Cotton was planted in 2003, 2004, and 2006. Corn was planted in 2005 as a rotation crop using a no-till planter in all plots, and no fertilizer was applied. Poultry litter application resulted in higher CO2 emission from soil compared with AN application regardless of tillage system. In 2003 and 2006, CT (4.39 and 3.40 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively) and MT (4.17 and 3.39 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively) with PL at 100 kg N ha(-1) (100 PLN) recorded significantly higher CO2 efflux compared with NT with 100 PLN (2.84 and 2.47 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively). Total soil C at 0- to 15-cm depth was not affected by tillage but significantly increased with PL application and winter rye cover cropping. In general, cotton produced with NT conservation tillage in conjunction with PL and winter rye cover cropping reduced CO2 emissions and sequestered more soil C compared with control treatments.

  17. Treating poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a USDA/ARS factsheet on how to treat poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum) to reduce ammonia emissions. Over half of the nitrogen excreted from chickens is lost to the atmosphere as ammonia before the manure is removed from the poultry houses. Research has shown that additions of alu...

  18. Poultry litter moisture management to reduce ammonia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia generation in poultry houses results from the natural breakdown of litter (bedding material mixed with deposits of feces, feathers, spilled feed and water). Good management practices can reduce ammonia concentrations in poultry houses. This factsheet relates findings from a recent publicat...

  19. 17beta-Estradiol and testosterone in drainage and runoff from poultry litter applications to tilled and no-till crop land under irrigation.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Michael B; Endale, Dinku M; Schomberg, Harry H; Hartel, Peter G; Cabrera, Miguel L

    2009-06-01

    Thirteen million [corrected] metric tons of poultry litter are produced annually by poultry producers in the U.S. Poultry litter contains the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, endocrine disruptors that have been detected in surface waters. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential impact of poultry litter applications on estradiol and testosterone concentrations in subsurface drainage and surface runoff in irrigated crop land under no-till and conventional-till management. We conducted an irrigation study in fall of 2001 and spring of 2002. Four treatments, no-till plus poultry litter, conventional-till plus poultry litter, no-till plus conventional fertilizer, and conventional-till plus conventional fertilizer, were evaluated. Flow-weighted concentration and load ha(-1) of the two hormones were measured in drainage and runoff. Soil concentrations of estradiol and testosterone were measured. Based on comparisons to the conventional fertilizer (and control) treatments, poultry litter did not add to the flow-weighted concentration or load ha(-1) of either estradiol or testosterone in subsurface drainage or surface runoff. Significant differences were, however, observed between tillage treatments: flow-weighted concentrations of estradiol were greater for no-till than conventional-till plots of the June irrigation; and runoff loads of both estradiol and testosterone were less from no-till than conventional-till plots for the November irrigation. Although the differences between no-till and conventional-tillage appeared to affect the hydrologic transport of both hormones, the differences appeared to have inconsequential environmental impact.

  20. Influence of poultry litter land application on the concentrations of estrogens in water and sediment within a watershed.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qi; Adams, Paige; Lu, Junhe; Cabrera, Miguel; Huang, Qingguo

    2013-07-01

    This research studied the occurrence of estrogens in the Upper Satilla watershed, Georgia, USA, which was impacted by poultry litter land application and discharge from a sewage treatment plant (STP) receiving poultry wastes. Over 14 months, four estrogens in stream water, sediment, suspended particles, and STP samples were quantified by LC/MS. Estrogens were consistently found in the STP influent with high concentrations while they were below the detection limits in the majority of stream water, suspended particles, and sediment. Estrone, 17β-estradiol, and estriol were found in 18% of stream water samples with concentrations up to 46.4, 67.2, and 125 ng L(-1), respectively. However, 17α-ethinylestradiol was only detected in STP samples. Estrogens were found in 14% of suspended particle samples with the median concentration being 27.5 ng g(-1) for estrone, 104.5 ng g(-1) for 17β-estradiol, and 93.9 ng g(-1) for estriol. The estrogen concentrations in sediment were <4.95 ng g(-1), indicating that sediment is not a major sink for estrogens in this watershed. The quantitative analysis of the temporal and spatial distribution of the estrogens suggests the occasional elevation of estrogens in the watershed above the predicted-no-effect-concentrations to fish likely to be associated with litter disposal and rainfall events.

  1. Bacterial content in runoff from simulated rainfall applied to plots amended with poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate potential bacterial runoff from poultry litter, litter was applied to test plots and exposed to simulated rainfall 1, 8 or 15 d after litter application. Runoff samples were tested for Salmonella and Campylobacter, two bacterial pathogens commonly associated with poultry, as well as com...

  2. Utilization of poultry litter for pesticide bioremediation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural chemical products such as pesticides have been used to increase crop production, especially in undeveloped countries. Poultry litter, the combination of feces and bedding materials, has also been used as an alternative to improve soil quality for crop production. However, information re...

  3. Poultry litter-based biochar: preparation, characterization, and utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of poultry litter (PL) by land application in concentrated bird production regions has resulted in severe water eutrophication issues. Given its high lignocelluosic content and low moisture, PL can be readily converted into agriculture-use biochar through farm-scale slow pyrolysis, with bio...

  4. Demonstration of a Small Modular BioPower System Using Poultry Litter

    SciTech Connect

    John P. Reardon; Art Lilley; Jim Wimberly; Kingsbury Browne; Kelly Beard; Jack Avens

    2002-05-22

    The purpose of this project was to assess poultry grower residue, or litter (manure plus absorbent biomass), as a fuel source for Community Power Corporation's small modular biopower system (SMB). A second objective was to assess the poultry industry to identify potential ''on-site'' applications of the SMB system using poultry litter residue as a fuel source, and to adapt CPC's existing SMB to generate electricity and heat from the poultry litter biomass fuel. Bench-scale testing and pilot testing were used to gain design information for the SMB retrofit. System design approach for the Phase II application of the SMB was the goal of Phase I testing. Cost estimates for an onsite poultry litter SMB were prepared. Finally, a market estimate was prepared for implementation of the on-farm SMB using poultry litter.

  5. Optimum poultry litter rates for maximum profit vs. yield in cotton production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton lint yield responds well to increasing rates of poultry litter fertilization, but little is known of how optimum rates for yield compare with optimum rates for profit. The objectives of this study were to analyze cotton lint yield response to poultry litter application rates, determine and co...

  6. Amino compounds in poultry litter, litter-amended pasture soils and grass shoots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic N accounts for 95-98% of total soil N contents with amino compounds (ACs) as major ingredients. But relatively little is known about the effects of poultry litter (PL) application on soil AC pools and turnover. In this work, we determined 21 AC contents in 23 PL samples, 15 soil samples with...

  7. Amino Compounds in Poultry Litter, Litter-Amended Soil and Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amino acids and amino sugars generally constitute the bulk of N in soil, so understanding their cycling is critical for efficient N use in crop production. Although poultry litter (PL) is relatively rich in N, little is known about the effects of PL application on turnover and availability of amino...

  8. Does Proximity to Subsurface Poultry Litter Affect Corn Seedling Survival and Growth?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter provides a rich nutrient source for crops, but the usual practice of surface broadcasting litter can degrade water quality by allowing storm runoff to transport nutrients into streams and lakes, while much of the ammonia N escapes into the atmosphere. Subsurface application of litter...

  9. Arsenic speciation and reactivity in poultry litter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arai, Y.; Lanzirotti, A.; Sutton, S.; Davis, J.A.; Sparks, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    Recent U.S. government action to lower the maximum concentration levels (MCL) of total arsenic (As) (10 ppb) in drinking water has raised serious concerns about the agricultural use of As-containing biosolids such as poultry litter (PL). In this study, solid-state chemical speciation, desorbability, and total levels of As in PL and long-term amended soils were investigated using novel synchrotronbased probing techniques (microfocused (??) synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) and ??-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopies) coupled with chemical digestion and batch experiments. The total As levels in the PL were as high as ???50 mg kg-1, and As(II/III and V) was always concentrated in abundant needle-shaped microscopic particles (???20/ ??m x 850 ??m) associated with Ca, Cu, and Fe and to a lesser extent with S, CI, and Zn. Postedge XANES features of litter particles are dissimilar to those of the organo-As(V) compound in poultry feed (i.e., roxarsone), suggesting possible degradation/transformation of roxarsone in the litter and/or in poultry digestive tracts. The extent of As desorption from the litter increased with increasing time and pH from 4.5 to 7, but at most 15% of the total As was released after 5 d at pH 7, indicating the presence of insoluble phases and/or strongly retained soluble compounds. No significant As accumulation (< 15 mg kg-1) was found in long-term PL-a mended agricultural surface soils. This suggests that As in the PL may have undergone surface and subsurface transport processes. Our research results raise concerns about long-term PL amendment effects on As contamination in surrounding soilwater environments.

  10. Soil with a short history of poultry litter fertilization remains superior to normally fertilized soil for cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown poultry litter is a superior fertilizer for cotton and other row crops. The productivity of soil that had received poultry litter as a fertilizer is not known after cessation of litter application and returning to conventional fertilization with inorganic fertilizers. This study ...

  11. Alum affects ammonia-producing microorganisms in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists at the USDA-ARS in Bowling Green, KY and in Fayetteville, AR are working to uncover the microbiology of ammonia production in poultry litter. Poultry litter is a valuable nutrient source for plants and microorganisms that contains high levels of protein, nitrogen, and other minerals. Howe...

  12. Legacy phosphorus in calcareous soils: Effects of long-term poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of manure application on soil phosphorus has been intensively studied with modifications of the Hedley sequential fractionation procedure, X ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy, and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance. Modern sequential fractionation techniques, coupled with phosph...

  13. A method for subsurface-banding poultry litter in plots not accessible with conventional field equipment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface band application of poultry litter has been shown to be effective in reducing nutrients in runoff and leachate, relative to surface broadcast application of litter. Some field plot arrangements, such as plots having adjacent pits in the soil, prevent the use of conventional field equipme...

  14. The impact of alum addition on organic P transformations in poultry litter and litter-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jason G; Penn, Chad J; McGrath, Joshua M; Sistani, Karamat

    2008-01-01

    Poultry litter treatment with alum (Al(2)(SO(4))(3) . 18H(2)O) lowers litter phosphorus (P) solubility and therefore can lower litter P release to runoff after land application. Lower P solubility in litter is generally attributed to aluminum-phosphate complex formation. However, recent studies suggest that alum additions to poultry litter may influence organic P mineralization. Therefore, alum-treated and untreated litters were incubated for 93 d to assess organic P transformations during simulated storage. A 62-d soil incubation was also conducted to determine the fate of incorporated litter organic P, which included alum-treated litter, untreated litter, KH(2)PO(4) applied at 60 mg P kg(-1) of soil, and an unamended control. Liquid-state (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that phytic acid was the only organic P compound present, accounting for 50 and 45% of the total P in untreated and alum-treated litters, respectively, before incubation and declined to 9 and 37% after 93 d of storage-simulating incubation. Sequential fractionation of litters showed that alum addition to litter transformed 30% of the organic P from the 1.0 mol L(-1) HCl to the 0.1 mol L(-1) NaOH extractable fraction and that both organic P fractions were more persistent in alum-treated litter compared with untreated litter. The soil incubation revealed that 0.1 mol L(-1) NaOH-extractable organic P was more recalcitrant after mixing than was the 1.0 mol L(-1) HCl-extractable organic P. Thus, adding alum to litter inhibits organic P mineralization during storage and promotes the formation of alkaline extractable organic P that sustains lower P solubility in the soil environment.

  15. Effects of long-term poultry litter application on inorganic and enzyme hydrolyzable P of Texas Blackland Vertisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of livestock manure on soil phosphorus (P) distribution has been studied for several decades; however, the majority of this work has focused on changes in inorganic P forms (Pi) following manure application. Up to 80% of the P in poultry manure is present as phytate or other organic forms...

  16. XANES Spectroscopic Analysis of Phosphorus Speciation in Alum-Amended Poultry Litter

    SciTech Connect

    Seiter,J.; Staats-Borda, K.; Ginder-Vogel, M.; Sparks, D.

    2008-01-01

    Aluminum sulfate (alum; Al2(SO4)3{center_dot}14H2O) is used as a chemical treatment of poultry litter to reduce the solubility and release of phosphate, thereby minimizing the impacts on adjacent aquatic ecosystems when poultry litter is land applied as a crop fertilizer. The objective of this study was to determine, through the use of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and sequential extraction, how alum amendments alter P distribution and solid-state speciation within the poultry litter system. Our results indicate that traditional sequential fractionation procedures may not account for variability in P speciation in heterogeneous animal manures. Analysis shows that NaOH-extracted P in alum amended litters is predominantly organic ({approx}80%), whereas in the control samples, >60% of NaOH-extracted P was inorganic P. Linear least squares fitting (LLSF) analysis of spectra collected of sequentially extracted litters showed that the P is present in inorganic (P sorbed on Al oxides, calcium phosphates) and organic forms (phytic acid, polyphosphates, and monoesters) in alum- and non-alum-amended poultry litter. When determining land application rates of poultry litter, all of these compounds must be considered, especially organic P. Results of the sequential extractions in conjunction with LLSF suggest that no P species is completely removed by a single extractant. Rather, there is a continuum of removal as extractant strength increases. Overall, alum-amended litters exhibited higher proportions of Al-bound P species and phytic acid, whereas untreated samples contained Ca-P minerals and organic P compounds. This study provides in situ information about P speciation in the poultry litter solid and about P availability in alum- and non-alum-treated poultry litter that will dictate P losses to ground and surface water systems.

  17. Effect of Litter Amendments on Poultry Litter Microbial Communities and the Subsequent Effect on Nitrogen Dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia production in poultry houses has serious implications for flock health and performance, nutrient value of poultry litter, and energy costs for running poultry operations. Numerous amendments are available for reducing ammonia volatilization, with acidifier-types being the most prevalent due ...

  18. Fungal contamination of poultry litter: a public health problem.

    PubMed

    Viegas, C; Carolino, E; Malta-Vacas, J; Sabino, R; Viegas, S; Veríssimo, C

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies have been conducted on microbial contaminants associated with various stages related to poultry and meat products processing, only a few reported on fungal contamination of poultry litter. The goals of this study were to (1) characterize litter fungal contamination and (2) report the incidence of keratinophilic and toxigenic fungi presence. Seven fresh and 14 aged litter samples were collected from 7 poultry farms. In addition, 27 air samples of 25 litters were also collected through impaction method, and after laboratory processing and incubation of collected samples, quantitative colony-forming units (CFU/m³) and qualitative results were obtained. Twelve different fungal species were detected in fresh litter and Penicillium was the most frequent genus found (59.9%), followed by Alternaria (17.8%), Cladosporium (7.1%), and Aspergillus (5.7%). With respect to aged litter, 19 different fungal species were detected, with Penicillium sp. the most frequently isolated (42.3%), followed by Scopulariopsis sp. (38.3%), Trichosporon sp. (8.8%), and Aspergillus sp. (5.5%). A significant positive correlation was found between litter fungal contamination (CFU/g) and air fungal contamination (CFU/m³). Litter fungal quantification and species identification have important implications in the evaluation of potential adverse health risks to exposed workers and animals. Spreading of poultry litter in agricultural fields is a potential public health concern, since keratinophilic (Scopulariopsis and Fusarium genus) as well as toxigenic fungi (Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium genus) were isolated.

  19. Reducing phosphorus runoff and leaching from poultry litter with alum: Twenty year small plot and paired-watershed studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Treating poultry litter with alum is a best management practice (BMP) for lowering ammonia (NH3) emissions and phosphorus (P) runoff losses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term (20 year) effects of alum-treated and untreated poultry litter applications on P availability, leachi...

  20. Survival of coccidia in poultry litter and reservoirs of infection.

    PubMed

    Reyna, P S; McDougald, L R; Mathis, G F

    1983-01-01

    The survival of coccidia was studied in poultry litter, dust, soil, and invertebrate animals. The populations of coccidia in litter were recorded during broiler growout in 16 broiler houses and in floor-pen trials involving anticoccidial drugs. The viability of oocysts declined rapidly in poultry litter regardless of the species; it was retained best in 40% moisture at 4 C. Sporocysts from broken oocytes did not survive even short exposure to poultry litter. Survival of oocysts was poorest at temperatures higher than 4 C, regardless of the carrier. In four floor-pen experiments designed to study the efficacy of anticoccidial drugs, the oocyst counts correlated in a general way with lesion scores and performance, indicating the oocyst counts might be useful along with other parameters to judge the effectiveness of drugs. Coccidia were transmitted to susceptible chicks by feeding them darkling beetles, flies, or house dust from poultry houses. More carrier samples were positive during the warmer months. Oocyst counts in litter of commercial poultry houses were very low during the first or last weeks of broiler growout but were high during the normal 3-to-6-week stress period. These results confirm the poor survival of oocysts in poultry litter and suggest that carryover from one flock to the next depends on the survival of a few oocysts in dust or arthropod vectors.

  1. Management Options for Reducing Ammonia Emissions from Poultry Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emissions from poultry litter not only result in air pollution; high levels of ammonia in poultry houses cause poor bird performance, increase the susceptibility of birds to viral diseases, and negatively impact human health. Although ammonia emissions are a concern, few cost-effective best ...

  2. Dissipation of 17B-estradiol in composted poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of heated composting and ambient temperature poultry waste decomposition on the fate of 17ß-estradiol and testosterone were determined in separate experiments. A mixture of poultry litter, wood chips and straw was amended with [14C]17ß-estradiol or [14C]testosterone and allowed to under...

  3. Amending poultry litter to reduce ammonia producing bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is a valuable nutrient source for crop production that requires proper management to garner environmentally and financially sustainable benefits. Successful management to reduce ammonia (NH3-N) and its harmful side-effects for poultry and the environment can be aided by the use of lit...

  4. Poultry Industry Trends for Litter Utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter utilization falls primarily into two broad categories, as fertilizer or in litter-to-energy processes. Without economic, environmentally sound litter uses, potential or real regional litigation may force alternative management that can be detrimental to the grower’s bottom line as wel...

  5. Impacts of poultry house environment on poultry litter bacterial community composition.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Michael D; Polson, Shawn W; Ritter, Don; Ravel, Jacques; Gelb, Jack; Morgan, Robin; Wommack, K Eric

    2011-01-01

    Viral and bacterial pathogens are a significant economic concern to the US broiler industry and the ecological epicenter for poultry pathogens is the mixture of bedding material, chicken excrement and feathers that comprises the litter of a poultry house. This study used high-throughput sequencing to assess the richness and diversity of poultry litter bacterial communities, and to look for connections between these communities and the environmental characteristics of a poultry house including its history of gangrenous dermatitis (GD). Cluster analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed differences in the distribution of bacterial phylotypes between Wet and Dry litter samples and between houses. Wet litter contained greater diversity with 90% of total bacterial abundance occurring within the top 214 OTU clusters. In contrast, only 50 clusters accounted for 90% of Dry litter bacterial abundance. The sixth largest OTU cluster across all samples classified as an Arcobacter sp., an emerging human pathogen, occurring in only the Wet litter samples of a house with a modern evaporative cooling system. Ironically, the primary pathogenic clostridial and staphylococcal species associated with GD were not found in any house; however, there were thirteen 16S rRNA gene phylotypes of mostly gram-positive phyla that were unique to GD-affected houses and primarily occurred in Wet litter samples. Overall, the poultry house environment appeared to substantially impact the composition of litter bacterial communities and may play a key role in the emergence of food-borne pathogens.

  6. Impacts of Poultry House Environment on Poultry Litter Bacterial Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Michael D.; Polson, Shawn W.; Ritter, Don; Ravel, Jacques; Gelb, Jack; Morgan, Robin; Wommack, K. Eric

    2011-01-01

    Viral and bacterial pathogens are a significant economic concern to the US broiler industry and the ecological epicenter for poultry pathogens is the mixture of bedding material, chicken excrement and feathers that comprises the litter of a poultry house. This study used high-throughput sequencing to assess the richness and diversity of poultry litter bacterial communities, and to look for connections between these communities and the environmental characteristics of a poultry house including its history of gangrenous dermatitis (GD). Cluster analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed differences in the distribution of bacterial phylotypes between Wet and Dry litter samples and between houses. Wet litter contained greater diversity with 90% of total bacterial abundance occurring within the top 214 OTU clusters. In contrast, only 50 clusters accounted for 90% of Dry litter bacterial abundance. The sixth largest OTU cluster across all samples classified as an Arcobacter sp., an emerging human pathogen, occurring in only the Wet litter samples of a house with a modern evaporative cooling system. Ironically, the primary pathogenic clostridial and staphylococcal species associated with GD were not found in any house; however, there were thirteen 16S rRNA gene phylotypes of mostly Gram-positive phyla that were unique to GD-affected houses and primarily occurred in Wet litter samples. Overall, the poultry house environment appeared to substantially impact the composition of litter bacterial communities and may play a key role in the emergence of food-borne pathogens. PMID:21949751

  7. Effect of Fresh Poultry Litter and Compost on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Stacy; Tsegaye, Teferi; Coleman, Tommy

    1998-01-01

    Application of poultry litter and compost as a substitute for fertilizer not only uses unwanted waste and decreases expenditures for commercial fertilizer, it adds nutrients to soil for plant uptake. The properties of soil affected by poultry litter were analyzed to determine the positive and negative aspects of using this substitute fertilizer. This study focused on changes associated with saturated hydraulic conductivity, bulk density, nitrate concentrations, and pH after application of varying concentrations of poultry litter and compost. Soil samples from Tennessee Valley Substation in Alabama were analyzed in a laboratory at Alabama A&M University. As a result of the application of fresh poultry litter and compost, we found that the saturated hydraulic conductivity increased and the bulk density decreased, while the pH was generally not affected. Using poultry litter and compost as an alternative commercial fertilizers could be adapted by the farming community to protect the sustainability of our environment. Unwanted waste is used productively and soil is enriched for farming.

  8. Quality of poultry litter-derived granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guannan; Guo, Mingxin

    2010-01-01

    Utilization of poultry litter as a source material for generating activated carbon is a value-added and environmentally beneficial approach to recycling organic waste. In this study, the overall quality of poultry litter-derived granular activated carbon was systematically evaluated based on its various physical and chemical properties. Granular activated carbon generated from pelletized poultry litter following a typical steam-activation procedure possessed numerous micropores in the matrix. The product exhibited a mean particle diameter of 2.59 mm, an apparent density of 0.45 g cm(-3), a ball-pan hardness of 91.0, an iodine number of 454 mg g(-1), and a BET surface area of 403 m(2) g(-1). It contained high ash, nitrogen, phosphorus contents and the trace elements Cu, Zn, and As. Most of the nutrients and toxic elements were solidified and solution-unextractable. In general, poultry litter-based activated carbon demonstrated overall quality comparable to that of low-grade commercial activated carbon derived from coconut shell and bituminous coal. It is promising to use poultry litter as a feedstock to manufacture activated carbon for wastewater treatment.

  9. Effects of Poultry litter and dairy manure applications on forage yield and quality in conventional and no-till established tall fescue (Scheonourous phoenix [Scop.] Holub) sward.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An endophyte-free tall fescue cultivar, ‘Bronson’ was seeded at a rate of 28kg per ha in the fall of 2010. Two establishment methods were utilized; conventional tillage and no-till establishment. Treatments included conventional fertilizer, poultry litter, and dairy manure along with an untreated co...

  10. Long-term effects of poultry litter, alum-treated litter, and ammonium nitrate on aluminum availability in soils.

    PubMed

    Moore, P A; Edwards, D R

    2005-01-01

    Research has shown that alum [Al(2)(SO(4))(3).14H(2)O] applications to poultry litter can greatly reduce phosphorus (P) runoff, as well as decrease ammonia (NH(3)) volatilization. However, the long-term effects of fertilizing with alum-treated litter are unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the long-term effects of normal poultry litter, alum-treated litter, and ammonium nitrate (NH(4)NO(3)) on aluminum (Al) availability in soils, Al uptake by tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and tall fescue yields. A long-term study was initiated in April of 1995. There were 13 treatments (unfertilized control, four rates of normal litter, four rates of alum-treated litter, and four rates of NH(4)NO(3)) in a randomized block design. All fertilizers were broadcast applied to 52 small plots (3.05 x 1.52 m) cropped to tall fescue annually in the spring. Litter application rates were 2.24, 4.49, 6.73, and 8.98 Mg ha(-1) (1, 2, 3, and 4 tons acre(-1)); NH(4)NO(3) rates were 65, 130, 195, and 260 kg N ha(-1) and were based on the amount of N applied with alum-treated litter. Soil pH, exchangeable Al (extracted with potassium chloride), Al uptake by fescue, and fescue yields were monitored periodically over time. Ammonium nitrate applications resulted in reductions in soil pH beginning in Year 3, causing exchangeable Al values to increase from less than 1 mg Al kg(-1) soil in Year 2 to over 100 mg Al kg(-1) soil in Year 7 for many of the NH(4)NO(3) plots. In contrast, normal and alum-treated litter resulted in an increase in soil pH, which decreased exchangeable Al when compared to unfertilized controls. Severe yield reductions were observed with NH(4)NO(3) beginning in Year 6, which were due to high levels of acidity and exchangeable Al. Aluminum uptake by forage and Al runoff from the plots were not affected by treatment. Fescue yields were highest with alum-treated litter (annual average = 7.36 Mg ha(-1)), followed by normal litter (6.93 Mg ha(-1)), NH(4)NO

  11. Biocrude oils from the fast pyrolysis of poultry litter and hardwood

    SciTech Connect

    Agblevor, F.A.; Beis, S.; Kim, S.S.; Tarrant, R.; Mante, N.O.

    2010-02-15

    The safe and economical disposal of poultry litter is becoming a major problem for the USA poultry industry. Current disposal methods such as land application and feeding to cattle are now under pressure because of pollution of water resources due to leaching, runoffs and concern for mad cow disease contamination of the food chain. Incineration or combustion is potentially applicable to large scale operations, but for small scale growers and EPA non-attainment areas, this is not a suitable option because of the high cost of operation. Thus, there is a need for developing appropriate technologies to dispose poultry litter. Poultry litters from broiler chicken and turkey houses, as well as bedding material were converted into biocrude oil in a fast pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor. The biocrude oil yields were relatively low ranging from 36 wt% to 50 wt% depending on the age and bedding material content of the litter. The bedding material (which was mostly hardwood shavings) biocrude oil yield was 63 wt%. The higher heating value (HHV) of the poultry litter biocrude oils ranged from 26 MJ/kg to 29 MJ/kg while that of the bedding material was 24 MJ/kg. The oils had relatively high nitrogen content ranging from 4 wt% to 8 wt%, very low sulfur (<1 wt%) content and high viscosity. The viscosities of the oils appeared to be a function of both the source of litter and the pyrolysis temperature. The biochar yield ranged from 27 wt% to 40 wt% depending on the source, age and composition of the poultry litter. The biochar ash content ranged from 24 wt% to 54 wt% and was very rich in inorganic components such as potassium and phosphorous.

  12. Biocrude oils from the fast pyrolysis of poultry litter and hardwood.

    PubMed

    Agblevor, F A; Beis, S; Kim, S S; Tarrant, R; Mante, N O

    2010-02-01

    The safe and economical disposal of poultry litter is becoming a major problem for the USA poultry industry. Current disposal methods such as land application and feeding to cattle are now under pressure because of pollution of water resources due to leaching, runoffs and concern for mad cow disease contamination of the food chain. Incineration or combustion is potentially applicable to large scale operations, but for small scale growers and EPA non-attainment areas, this is not a suitable option because of the high cost of operation. Thus, there is a need for developing appropriate technologies to dispose poultry litter. Poultry litters from broiler chicken and turkey houses, as well as bedding material were converted into biocrude oil in a fast pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor. The biocrude oil yields were relatively low ranging from 36 wt% to 50 wt% depending on the age and bedding material content of the litter. The bedding material (which was mostly hardwood shavings) biocrude oil yield was 63 wt%. The higher heating value (HHV) of the poultry litter biocrude oils ranged from 26 MJ/kg to 29 MJ/kg while that of the bedding material was 24 MJ/kg. The oils had relatively high nitrogen content ranging from 4 wt% to 8 wt%, very low sulfur (<1 wt%) content and high viscosity. The viscosities of the oils appeared to be a function of both the source of litter and the pyrolysis temperature. The biochar yield ranged from 27 wt% to 40 wt% depending on the source, age and composition of the poultry litter. The biochar ash content ranged from 24 wt% to 54 wt% and was very rich in inorganic components such as potassium and phosphorous.

  13. Poultry litter placement effects on cotton seedling emergence and early growth stage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in using poultry litter (PL) as a nutrient source for row crop production has increased in the Southeastern U.S. Poultry litter is generally broadcasted on the soil surface. This practice exposes litter N to volatilization and litter P to loss with surface water runoff, which potentially ne...

  14. Subsurface banding poultry litter impacts greenhouse gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact subsurface banding poultry litter (PL) has on greenhouse gas emissions is limited. Thus, a study was conducted in established bermudagrass pastures located in Coastal Plain and Piedmont regions to determine the effects subsurface applying PL has on soil flux using two different band spaci...

  15. Water quality benefits of subsurface-banded poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler chicken production is an important industry in Alabama and several other states. Broiler litter is commonly used as a fertilizer on pastures and cropland. This litter has commonly been land-applied near the broiler houses and this has resulted in long-term repeated application of litter to...

  16. Nutrient cycling in an agroforestry alley cropping system receiving poultry litter or nitrogen fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal utilization of animal manures as a plant nutrient source should also prevent adverse impacts on water quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term poultry litter and N fertilizer application on nutrient cycling following establishment of an alley cropping system with easter...

  17. Effect of five-year continuous poultry litter use in cotton production on major soil nutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Repeated application of poultry litter to crop lands may lead to nitrate leaching and build up of P and other elements in the soil profile, which are prone to loss from runoff and erosion. A study was conducted for five years at Belle Mina, AL on a Decatur silt loam (clayey, kaolinitic thermic, Typi...

  18. Seasonal changes in phosphorus and phosphatase compositions in soils enriched with poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Season and soil depth may play an important role in phosphorus (P) dynamics and mineralization in soil because of changes in soil moisture, temperature and microbial activity. This study was conducted to quantify P fractions and enzymatic activity from poultry litter (PL) application as affected by ...

  19. Development of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay to target a novel group of ammonia-producing bacteria found in poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Rothrock, M J; Cook, K L; Lovanh, N; Warren, J G; Sistani, K

    2008-06-01

    Ammonia production in poultry houses has serious implications for flock health and performance, nutrient value of poultry litter, and energy costs for running poultry operations. In poultry litter, the conversion of organic N (uric acid and urea) to NH(4)-N is a microbially mediated process. The urease enzyme is responsible for the final step in the conversion of urea to NH(4)-N. Cloning and analysis of 168 urease sequences from extracted genomic DNA from poultry litter samples revealed the presence of a novel, dominant group of ureolytic microbes (representing 90% of the urease clone library). Specific primers and a probe were designed to target this novel poultry litter urease producer (PLUP) group, and a new quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed. The assay allowed for the detection of 10(2) copies of target urease sequences per PCR reaction (approximately 1 x 10(4) cells per gram of poultry litter), and the reaction was linear over 8 orders of magnitude. Our PLUP group was present only in poultry litter and was not present in environmental samples from diverse agricultural settings. This novel PLUP group represented between 0.1 to 3.1% of the total microbial populations (6.0 x 10(6) to 2.4 x 10(8) PLUP cells per gram of litter) from diverse poultry litter types. The PLUP cell concentrations were directly correlated to the total cell concentrations in the poultry litter and were found to be influenced by the physical parameters of the litters (bedding material, moisture content, pH), as well as the NH(4)-N content of the litters, based on principal component analysis. Chemical parameters (organic N, total N, total C) were not found to be influential in the concentrations of our PLUP group in the diverse poultry litters Future applications of this assay could include determining the efficacy of current NH(4)-N-reducing litter amendments or in designing more efficient treatment protocols.

  20. Converting Poultry Litter into Activated Carbon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of animal manure is one of the biggest problems facing agriculture today. Now new technology has been designed to covert manure into environmentally friendly and highly valued activated carbon. When pelletized and activated under specific conditions, the litter becomes a highly porous mat...

  1. Double-cropping annual ryegrass and bermudagrass to reduce phosphorus levels in soil with history of poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Double-cropping forages may help to ameliorate excess soil nutrients in manure-impacted fields. Studies were conducted on Savannah soil with a 30+ yr history of broiler litter to determine the yield of biomass and P in bermudagrass (summer) and ryegrass-bermudagrass (year-round) forage systems. Duri...

  2. Subsurface application of poultry litter and its influence on nutrient losses in runoff water from permanent pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental pressure to reduce nutrient losses from agricultural fields has increased in recent years. To abate this nutrient loss to the environment, better management practices and new technologies need to be developed. Thus, research was conducted to evaluate if subsurface banding poultry lit...

  3. Effects of pelletized and non-pelletized poultry litter and nutrient immobilizing agent on surface runoff water quality from a forage based system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is recognized as a desirable organic fertilizer that improves soil fertility by adding essential plant nutrients and organic matter. Poultry litter is pelletized to improve the economics and handling and transport from production areas to land application sites. Compared to non-pell...

  4. Correlation of quantitative PCR for a poultry-specific brevibacterium marker gene with bacterial and chemical indicators of water pollution in a watershed impacted by land application of poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Weidhaas, Jennifer L; Macbeth, Tamzen W; Olsen, Roger L; Harwood, Valerie J

    2011-03-01

    The impact of fecal contamination from human and agricultural animal waste on water quality is a major public health concern. Identification of the dominant source(s) of fecal pollution in a watershed is necessary for assessing the safety of recreational water and protecting water resources. A field study was conducted using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the 16S rRNA gene of Brevibacterium sp. LA35 to track feces-contaminated poultry litter in environmental samples. Based on sensitivity and specificity characteristics of the qPCR method, the Bayesian conditional probability that detection of the LA35 marker gene in a water sample represented a true-positive result was 93%. The marker's covariance with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and metals associated with poultry litter was also assessed in litter, runoff, surface water, and groundwater samples. LA35 was detected in water and soil samples collected throughout the watershed, and its concentration covaried with concentrations of Escherichia coli, enterococci, As, Cu, P, and Zn. Significantly greater concentrations of FIB, As, Cu, P, and Zn were observed in edge-of-field runoff samples in which LA35 was detected, compared to samples in which it was not detected. Furthermore, As, Cu, P, and Zn concentrations covaried in environmental samples in which LA35 was detected and typically did not in samples in which the marker gene was not detected. The covariance of the poultry-specific LA35 marker gene with these known contaminants from poultry feces provides further evidence that it is a useful tool for assessing the impact of poultry-derived fecal pollution in environmental waters.

  5. Bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil using poultry litter

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G; Tao, J.

    1996-10-01

    Contaminated soil, excavated from around a leaking underground gasoline storage tank, is commonly subjected to thermal degradation to remove the gasoline. Bioremediation as an alternative treatment technology is now becoming popular. The important hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria include Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, and Flavobacterium. Poultry litter contains a large number of microorganisms, including Pseudomonas, as well as many inorganic nutrients and organic biomass that may assist in biodegrading gasoline in contaminated soil. During bioremediation of contaminated soil, microbial densities are known to increase by 2-3 orders of magnitude. However, bioremediation may result in a increase in the toxic characteristics of the soil due to the production of potentially toxic degradation intermediates. The objective of this research was to study the influence of the addition of poultry litter on the bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil by quantifying the changes in the densities of microorganisms and by monitoring the toxicity of the degradation products. 25 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. A microbial approach to understanding the production of ammonia in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As fertilizer costs increase, poultry litter has become an increasingly valuable commodity. Reducing ammonia (NH3) volatilization from poultry litter is therefore important not only to reduce ventilation costs and improve bird performance but also to retain the fertilizer value of the litter. The g...

  7. Impact of amendments on microbial communities associated with nitrogen mineralization in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As energy costs increase poultry litter is an ever more valuable commodity. Reducing ammonia volatilization from poultry litter becomes important not only to reduce ventilation costs and improve bird performance but also to retain the nutrient value of the litter as a fertilizer. The goal of this r...

  8. Effect of Alum Amendment on the Bacterial and Fungal Populations in Poultry Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alum (Al2 (SO4)3•14H2O) is a commonly used ammonia reducing poultry litter amendment that acidifies the litter to convert the volatile NH3-N to the mineralized NH4-N form. The effect of alum addition on the chemical makeup of the poultry litter has been previously studied, but very little work has ...

  9. Soil-incorporating Poultry Litter Increases Cotton Tissue Nitrogen Concentration and Uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applying poultry litter to fertilize no-till cotton implies the litter is left on the surface without soil-incorporation which exposes the litter and its nutrients to risks of loss in runoff water and volatilization. This research was conducted to test if light soil-incorporation of litter increases...

  10. Cotton response to poultry litter applied by subsurface banding relative to surface broadcasting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry poultry litter is typically land-applied by surface broadcasting, a practice that exposes certain litter nutrients to volatilization loss. Applying litter with a new, experimental implement that places the litter in narrow bands below the soil surface may reduce or eliminate such losses but has...

  11. Free and conjugated estrogen exports in surface-runoff from poultry litter-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Sudarshan; Inamdar, Shreeram; Tso, Jerry; Aga, Diana S; Sims, J Tom

    2010-01-01

    Land application of animal manures such as poultry litter is a common practice, especially in states with surplus manure. Past studies have shown that animal manure may contain estrogens, which are classified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals and may pose a threat to aquatic and wildlife species. We evaluated the concentrations of estrogens in surface runoff from experimental plots (5 x 12 m each) receiving raw and pelletized poultry litter. We evaluated the free (estrone, E1; 17beta-estradiol, E2beta; estriol, E3) and conjugate forms (glucuronides and sulfates) of estrogens, which differ in their toxicity. Sampling was performed for 10 natural storm events over a 4-mo period (April-July 2008). Estrogen concentrations were screened using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), followed by quantification using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Concentrations of estrogens from ELISA were much higher than the LC/MS/MS values, indicating crossreactivity with organic compounds. Exports of estrogens were much lower from soils amended with pelletized poultry litter than the raw form of the litter. No-tillage management practice also resulted in a lower export of estrogens with surface runoff compared with reduced tillage. The concentrations and exports of conjugate forms of estrogens were much higher than the free forms for some treatments, indicating that the conjugate forms should be considered for a comprehensive assessment of the threat posed by estrogens.

  12. Type C botulism in cattle being fed ensiled poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Neill, S D; McLoughlin, M F; McIlroy, S G

    1989-05-27

    A botulinum toxin from ensiled poultry litter which caused a major outbreak of bovine botulism was characterised as type C1. The litter produced transient ataxia when fed to two experimental calves and the clinical signs were accompanied by a transient appearance of serum toxin. Type C1 toxin was demonstrated in muscle tissues which had been taken during the outbreak from an affected animal with high circulating serum toxin, and held frozen for seven months. Clostridium botulinum type C organisms were demonstrated in faeces from another affected animal and also in kidney tissue from a third animal. These observations have implications for the diagnosis and management of future outbreaks of botulism and for the potential health risk from the meat of affected animals.

  13. Phosphorus and nitrogen losses from poultry litter stacks and leaching through soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The practice of stacking poultry litter in fields prior to spreading provides important logistical benefits to farmers but is controversial due to its potential to serve as a source of nutrients to leachate and runoff. We evaluated nutrient fate under stacked poultry litter to assess differences in ...

  14. Factors affecting arsenic and copper runoff from pastures fertilized with poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heavy metal runoff from soils fertilized with poultry litter has received increasing attention in recent years, although it is not really known if heavy runoff from poultry litter poses a significant threat to the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate arsenic (As) and copper (Cu)...

  15. Effects of poultry litter placement on seedling and early-stage growth of corn and cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in using poultry litter (PL) as a nutrient source for row crop production within the Southeastern U.S. has increased. Poultry litter is generally broadcast on the soil surface. This practice exposes the litter’s N to volatilization and P to surface water runoff, potentially negatively impac...

  16. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loads in an Agricultural Watershed Affected by Poultry Litter Application and Wastewater Effluent, Northeastern Oklahoma and Northwestern Arkansas, 2002-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esralew, R.; Tortorelli, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    The Eucha-Spavinaw Basin in Northeastern Oklahoma and Northwestern Arkansas is the source of water for Lake Eucha and Spavinaw Lake, which are part of the water supply for the city of Tulsa, Oklahoma. Lake Eucha and Spavinaw Lakes have experienced deteriorating water quality largely due to growth of algae, notably cyanobacteria, from the excess input of nutrients. As a result, the city of Tulsa has spent millions of dollars to eliminate taste and odor problems resulting from production of algal and bacterial byproducts. To evaluate changes in nutrient loading resulting from a reduction in land application of poultry litter, installation of best management practices, and reductions in the phosphorus concentrations in wastewater effluent, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations from samples collected during baseflow and runoff and used regression models to estimate nitrogen and phosphorus loads, yields, and flow-weighted concentrations in two major tributaries to Lake Eucha, Spavinaw and Beaty Creeks, for the period 2002-2009. Estimated mean flow-weighted total unfiltered nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in the basin were about 5 to 10 times greater than the 75th percentile of flow-weighted nutrient concentrations in other mostly undeveloped basins of the United States. Spavinaw and Beaty Creeks contributed an estimated mean annual total load of about 762,500 kilograms of nitrogen and 49,200 kilograms of phosphorus per year, 76 to 91 percent of which was transported to Lake Eucha by runoff. Thirty-four percent of the nitrogen load and 48 percent of the phosphorus load to Lake Eucha occurred during the year 2008 which was the wettest year on record for the Eucha-Spavinaw Basin. The results of this analysis indicate that although efforts were made to control nutrient loading, nutrient concentrations, especially phosphorus, were substantially augmented by non-point sources and that most loading occurs during runoff events

  17. A major outbreak of botulism in cattle being fed ensiled poultry litter.

    PubMed

    McLoughlin, M F; Mcllroy, S G; Neill, S D

    1988-06-11

    Eighty of a group of 150 housed beef cattle showed classical signs of botulism after eating a batch of ensiled poultry litter. Sixty-eight of the animals died and Clostridium botulinum type C toxin was detected in 18 of 22 sera examined. C botulinum organisms were isolated from the ensiled litter and type C toxin was demonstrated in samples of decomposed poultry carcases present in the litter. This outbreak of bovine botulism was the most serious to have been recorded in Europe and was the first associated with feeding ensiled poultry litter.

  18. Water quality impacts of converting to a poultry litter fertilization strategy.

    PubMed

    Harmel, R D; Torbert, H A; Haggard, B E; Haney, R; Dozier, M

    2004-01-01

    When improperly managed, land application of animal manures can harm the environment; however, limited watershed-scale runoff water quality data are available to research and address this issue. The water quality impacts of conversion to poultry litter fertilization on cultivated and pasture watersheds in the Texas Blackland Prairie were evaluated in this three-year study. Edge-of-field N and P concentrations and loads in surface runoff from new litter application sites were compared with losses under inorganic fertilization. The impact on downstream nutrient loss was also examined. In the fallow year with no fertilizer application, nutrient losses averaged 3 kg N ha(-1) and 0.9 kg P ha(-1) for the cultivated watersheds and were below 0.1 kg ha(-1) for the pasture watersheds. Following litter application, PO(4)-P concentrations in runoff were positively correlated to litter application rate and Mehlich-3 soil P levels. Following litter application, NO(3)-N and NH(4)-N concentrations in runoff were typically greater from cultivated watersheds, but PO(4)-P concentrations were greater for the pasture watersheds. Total N and P loads from the pasture watersheds (0.2 kg N ha(-1) and 0.7 kg P ha(-1)) were significantly lower than from the cultivated watersheds (32 kg N ha(-1) and 5 kg P ha(-1)) partly due to lower runoff volumes from the pasture watersheds. Downstream N and P concentrations and per-area loads were much lower than from edge-of-field watersheds. Results demonstrate that a properly managed annual litter application (4.5 Mg ha(-1) or less depending on litter N and P content) with supplemental N should supply necessary nutrients without detrimental water quality impacts.

  19. Chemical property of poultry litter amended with selected industrial and agricultural byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bulk of poultry litter consists of chicken manure and bedding materials. When applied to the soil, litter supplies all essential plant nutrients and serves as a source of organic matter that improves several important soil properties. Litter breaks down in the soil and its soil conditioning ef...

  20. Quantification of a Novel Group of Ammonia Producing Bacteria Found in Poultry Litter by Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia production in poultry houses has serious implications for flock health and performance, nutrient value of poultry litter, and energy costs for running poultry operations. The microbial enzyme responsible for final step in the conversion of uric acid (~70% of total N in poultry litter) to am...

  1. Water activity of poultry litter: Relationship to moisture content during a grow-out.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Mark W; McAuley, Jim; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2016-05-01

    Poultry grown on litter floors are in contact with their own waste products. The waste material needs to be carefully managed to reduce food safety risks and to provide conditions that are comfortable and safe for the birds. Water activity (Aw) is an important thermodynamic property that has been shown to be more closely related to microbial, chemical and physical properties of natural products than moisture content. In poultry litter, Aw is relevant for understanding microbial activity; litter handling and rheological properties; and relationships between in-shed relative humidity and litter moisture content. We measured the Aw of poultry litter collected throughout a meat chicken grow-out (from fresh pine shavings bedding material to day 52) and over a range of litter moisture content (10-60%). The Aw increased non-linearly from 0.71 to 1.0, and reached a value of 0.95 when litter moisture content was only 22-33%. Accumulation of manure during the grow-out reduced Aw for the same moisture content. These results are relevant for making decisions regarding litter re-use in multiple grow-outs as well as setting targets for litter moisture content to minimise odour, microbial risks and to ensure necessary litter physical conditions are maintained during a grow-out. Methods to predict Aw in poultry litter from moisture content are proposed.

  2. Ammonia emissions factors from broiler litter in barns, storage, and after land application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from poultry litter can cause high levels of NH3 in poultry rearing facilities, as well as atmospheric pollution. The objectives of this study were to: (1) measure NH3 emissions from litter in broiler houses, during storage and following land application, and (2) conduct a m...

  3. Alum amendment effects on phosphorus release and distribution in poultry litter-amended sandy soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staats, K.E.; Arai, Y.; Sparks, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Increased poultry production has contributed to excess nutrient problems in Atlantic Coastal Plain soils due to land application of poultry litter (PL). Aluminum sulfate [alum, Al2(SO4)3?? 14H2O] amendment of PL effectively reduces soluble phosphorus (P) in the PL; however, the effects of these litters when added to acidic, sandy soils are not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of alum-amended poultry litter in reducing P release from three Delaware Coastal Plain soils: Evesboro loamy sand (Ev; excessively drained, mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamments), Rumford loamy sand (Ru; well drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults), and Pocomoke sandy loam (Pm; very poorly drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, active, thermic Typic Umbraquults). Long-term (25 d) and short-term (24 h) desorption studies were conducted, in addition to chemical extractions and kinetic modeling, to observe the changes that alum-amended versus unamended PL caused in the soils. The Ev, Ru, and Pm soils were incubated with 9 Mg ha-1 of alum-amended or unamended PL. Long-term desorption (25 d) of the incubated material resulted in approximately 13.5% (Ev), 12.7% (Ru), and 13.3% (Pm) reductions in cumulative P desorbed when comparing soil treated with unamended and alum-amended PL. In addition, the P release from the soil treated with alum-amended litter was not significantly different from the control (soil alone). Short-term desorption (24 h) showed 7.3% (Ev), 15.4% (Ru), and 20% (Pm) reductions. The overall implication from this study is that the use of alum as a PL amendment is useful in coarse-textured soils of the Coastal Plain. With increased application of alum-amended PL, more significant decreases may be possible with little or no effect on soil quality.

  4. Alum amendment effects on phosphorus release and distribution in poultry litter-amended sandy soils.

    PubMed

    Staats, Kristin E; Arai, Yuji; Sparks, Donald L

    2004-01-01

    Increased poultry production has contributed to excess nutrient problems in Atlantic Coastal Plain soils due to land application of poultry litter (PL). Aluminum sulfate [alum, Al(2)(SO(4))(3).14H(2)O] amendment of PL effectively reduces soluble phosphorus (P) in the PL; however, the effects of these litters when added to acidic, sandy soils are not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of alum-amended poultry litter in reducing P release from three Delaware Coastal Plain soils: Evesboro loamy sand (Ev; excessively drained, mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamments), Rumford loamy sand (Ru; well drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults), and Pocomoke sandy loam (Pm; very poorly drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, active, thermic Typic Umbraquults). Long-term (25 d) and short-term (24 h) desorption studies were conducted, in addition to chemical extractions and kinetic modeling, to observe the changes that alum-amended versus unamended PL caused in the soils. The Ev, Ru, and Pm soils were incubated with 9 Mg ha(-1) of alum-amended or unamended PL. Long-term desorption (25 d) of the incubated material resulted in approximately 13.5% (Ev), 12.7% (Ru), and 13.3% (Pm) reductions in cumulative P desorbed when comparing soil treated with unamended and alum-amended PL. In addition, the P release from the soil treated with alum-amended litter was not significantly different from the control (soil alone). Short-term desorption (24 h) showed 7.3% (Ev), 15.4% (Ru), and 20% (Pm) reductions. The overall implication from this study is that the use of alum as a PL amendment is useful in coarse-textured soils of the Coastal Plain. With increased application of alum-amended PL, more significant decreases may be possible with little or no effect on soil quality.

  5. Application of solid waste from anaerobic digestion of poultry litter in Agrocybe aegerita cultivation: mushroom production, lignocellulolytic enzymes activity and substrate utilization.

    PubMed

    Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S; Mikiashvili, Nona A; Kelkar, Vinaya

    2009-06-01

    The degradation and utilization of solid waste (SW) from anaerobic digestion of poultry litter by Agrocybe aegerita was evaluated through mushroom production, loss of organic matter (LOM), lignocellulolytic enzymes activity, lignocellulose degradation and mushroom nutrients content. Among the substrate combinations (SCs) tested, substrates composed of 10-20% SW, 70-80% wheat straw and 10% millet was found to produce the highest mushroom yield (770.5 and 642.9 g per 1.5 kg of substrate). LOM in all SCs tested varied between 8.8 and 48.2%. A. aegerita appears to degrade macromolecule components (0.6-21.8% lignin, 33.1-55.2% cellulose and 14-53.9% hemicellulose) during cultivation on the different SCs. Among the seven extracellular enzymes monitored, laccase, peroxidase and CMCase activities were higher before fruiting; while xylanase showed higher activities after fruiting. A source of carbohydrates (e.g., millet) in the substrate is needed in order to obtain yield and biological efficiency comparable to other commercially cultivated exotic mushrooms.

  6. Poultry litter-based activated carbon for removing heavy metal ions in water.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingxin; Qiu, Guannan; Song, Weiping

    2010-02-01

    Utilization of poultry litter as a precursor material to manufacture activated carbon for treating heavy metal-contaminated water is a value-added strategy for recycling the organic waste. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to investigate kinetics, isotherms, and capacity of poultry litter-based activated carbon for removing heavy metal ions in water. It was revealed that poultry litter-based activated carbon possessed significantly higher adsorption affinity and capacity for heavy metals than commercial activated carbons derived from bituminous coal and coconut shell. Adsorption of metal ions onto poultry litter-based carbon was rapid and followed Sigmoidal Chapman patterns as a function of contact time. Adsorption isotherms could be described by different models such as Langmuir and Freundlich equations, depending on the metal species and the coexistence of other metal ions. Potentially 404 mmol of Cu2+, 945 mmol of Pb2+, 236 mmol of Zn2+, and 250-300 mmol of Cd2+ would be adsorbed per kg of poultry litter-derived activated carbon. Releases of nutrients and metal ions from litter-derived carbon did not pose secondary water contamination risks. The study suggests that poultry litter can be utilized as a precursor material for economically manufacturing granular activated carbon that is to be used in wastewater treatment for removing heavy metals.

  7. Botulism outbreak associated with poultry litter consumption in three Brazilian cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Ortolani, E L; Brito, L A; Mori, C S; Schalch, U; Pacheco, J; Baldacci, L

    1997-04-01

    One hundred fifty-five of 201 cattle from 3 different farms showed clinical signs and died of botulism after eating the same batch of poultry litter contaminated with poultry and rodent carcasses. The cattle had access to poultry litter for only 1 d; afterwards it was removed from the diet. Death occurred over a period of 17 d after the poultry litter intake. The peak mortality was on day 4; 20 animals died within 10 d of the ingestion. The greater the intake of poultry litter, the higher the cattle mortality. Three steers which died on the first day had peracute effects while the remaining cattle showed classical signs. Twenty-five of the 46 surviving cattle had mild clinical signs, but recovered in a few days. Type C Clostridium botulinum toxin was found in extracts of the poultry litter, carcasses and cattle intestinal contents. Nutrient composition of the poultry litter was normal but pH was lower (6.9) than usual (7.5 to 9.3).

  8. Pretreatment of poultry litter improves Bacillus thuringiensis-based biopesticides production.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Orhan; Icgen, Bulent; Ozcengiz, Gulay

    2010-04-01

    Pretreated poultry litter was used in batch cultures for the production of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-based biopesticide of lepidoptera- and diptera-specific Cry1 and Cry2, diptera-specific Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa and coleoptera-specific Cry3Aa toxins by Bt subsp. kurstaki 81, subsp. israelensis HD500 and subsp. tenebrionis 3203, respectively. Bt kurstaki 81 showed improved growth and produced more toxin in this medium as compared to other subspecies. Base and acid hydrolysis were tested as the methods of substrate pretreatment. The use of poultry litter pretreated with 2N HCl yielded 94% more bioinsecticidal protein than 2N NaOH-pretreated poultry litter when Bt kurstaki 81 was cultured. With appropriate pretreatment, poultry litter demonstrated potential as a valuable raw material for a low-cost complex medium to produce Bt-based biopesticides.

  9. Removal of volatile organic compounds by natural materials during composting of poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Turan, N G; Akdemir, A; Ergun, O N

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to reduce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced during composting of poultry litter. The natural zeolite, expanded perlite, pumice and expanded vermiculite as the natural materials were used for the reducing of VOCs. Composting was performed in a laboratory scale in-vessel composting plant. Poultry litter was composted for 100 d with volumetric ratio of natural materials:poultry litter of 1:10. The VOCs were tested using the FT-IR method by VOCs analyzer. Studies showed that VOCs generation was the greatest in the control treatment without any natural materials. The natural materials significantly reduced VOCs. At the end of the processes, removal efficiency was 79.73% for NZ treatment, 54.59% for EP treatment, 88.22% for P treatment and 61.53% for EV treatment. Potential of removal for VOCs on poultry litter matrix using natural materials was in order of: P>NZ>EV>EP.

  10. Relationships between Chemical Characteristics and Phytotoxicity of Biochar from Poultry Litter Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Rombolà, Alessandro G; Marisi, Giovanni; Torri, Cristian; Fabbri, Daniele; Buscaroli, Alessandro; Ghidotti, Michele; Hornung, Andreas

    2015-08-05

    Three biochars were prepared by intermediate pyrolysis from poultry litter at different temperatures (400, 500, and 600 °C with decreasing residence times) and compared with biochars from corn stalk prepared under the same pyrolysis conditions. The phytotoxicity of these biochars was estimated by means of seed germination tests on cress (Lepidium sativum L.) conducted in water suspensions (at 2, 5, and 40 g/L) and on biochars wetted according to their water-holding capacity. Whereas the seeds germinated after 72 h in water suspensions with corn stalk biochar were similar to the control (water only), significant inhibition was observed with poultry litter biochars. In comparison to corn stalk, poultry litter generated biochars with higher contents of ash, ammonium, nitrogen, and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and a similar concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results from analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC-MS) indicated that nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NCCs) and aliphatic components were distinctive constituents of the thermally labile fraction of poultry litter biochar. The inhibition of germination due to poultry litter biochar produced at 400 °C (PL400) was suppressed after solvent extraction or treatment with active sludge. A novel method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) enabled the identification of mobile organic compounds in PL400 capable of being released in air and water, including VFAs and NCCs. The higher phytotoxicity of poultry litter than corn biochars was tentatively attributed to hydrophilic biodegradable substances derived from lipids or proteins removable by water leaching or microbial treatments.

  11. Effect of alum additions to poultry litter on in-house ammonia and greenhouse gas concentrations and emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alum (Al2(SO4)3 •14H2O) additions to poultry litter have been shown to reduce ammonia (NH3) concentrations in poultry houses and NH3 fluxes from litter; however, continuous, accurate measurements of in-house NH3 concentrations and emissions from alum-treated and untreated commercial poultry houses i...

  12. Effects of Subsurface Applying Poultry Litter in Pasture and No-Till Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter provides a rich nutrient source for crops, but the usual practice of surface-broadcasting litter can degrade water quality by allowing storm runoff to transport nutrients into streams and lakes, while much of the ammonia-N escapes into the atmosphere. We developed and tested a knifin...

  13. Development of a new manure amendment for reducing ammonia volatilization and phosphorus runoff from poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Treating poultry litter with alum (Al2(SO4)3.14H2O) is a best management practice (BMP) that reduces phosphorus (P) runoff and ammonia (NH3) emissions. Due to the environmental benefits, improvements in poultry production, and lower energy costs over one billion broiler chickens are grown with alum...

  14. Poultry litter and the environment: Physiochemical properties of litter and soil during successive flock rotations and after remote site deposition.

    PubMed

    Crippen, Tawni L; Sheffield, Cynthia L; Byrd, J Allen; Esquivel, Jesus F; Beier, Ross C; Yeater, Kathleen

    2016-05-15

    The U.S. broiler meat market has grown over the past 16 years and destinations for U.S. broiler meat exports expanded to over 150 countries. This market opportunity has spurred a corresponding increase in industrialized poultry production, which due to the confined space in which high numbers of animals are housed, risks accumulating nutrients and pollutants. The purpose of this research was to determine the level of pollutants within poultry litter and the underlying soil within a production facility; and to explore the impact of spent litter deposition into the environment. The study follows a production facility for the first 2.5 years of production. It monitors the effects of successive flocks and management practices on 15 physiochemical parameters: Ca, Cu, electrical conductivity, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, moisture, Na, NO3(-)/N, organic matter, P, pH, S, and Zn. Litter samples were collected in-house, after clean-outs and during stockpiling. The soil before house placement, after the clean-outs and following litter stockpiling was monitored. Management practices markedly altered the physiochemical profiles of the litter in-house. A canonical discriminant analysis was used to describe the relationship between the parameters and sampling times. The litter profiles grouped into five clusters corresponding to time and management practices. The soil in-house exhibited mean increases in all physiochemical parameters (2-297 fold) except Fe, Mg, %M, and pH. The spent litter was followed after deposition onto a field for use as fertilizer. After 20 weeks, the soil beneath the litter exhibited increases in EC, Cu, K, Na, NO3(-)/N, %OM, P, S and Zn; while %M decreased. Understanding the impacts of industrialized poultry farms on the environment is vital as the cumulative ecological impact of this land usage could be substantial if not properly managed to reduce the risk of potential pollutant infiltration into the environment.

  15. Compatibility of ammonia suppressants used in poultry litter with mushroom compost preparation and production.

    PubMed

    González-Matute, Ramiro; Rinker, Danny Lee

    2006-09-01

    Ammonia suppressants are applied to chicken litter to decrease ammonia levels. And mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) producers use poultry litter to increase the nitrogen in the compost. To determine the influence of ammonia suppressants used in poultry litter on compost preparation and mushroom production, four mushroom crops were cultivated from compost prepared using litter treated with PLT, Barn Fresh and Impact-P at 25.22 kg/100 m2, 40 kg/100 m2, and 0.49 kg/100 m2, respectively, during the poultry production process. In general, no significant differences (P>0.05) were noted between treatments for total nitrogen, ammonia, pH, EC, ash, and moisture when compost or the headspace air was sampled during compost preparation throughout all stages. Nor were mushroom yields or counts significantly affected (P>0.05) by the presence of ammonia suppressants in the poultry litter. Thus, the mushroom industry can confidently use poultry litter amended with PLT, Impact-P, and Barn Fresh when used at the recommended rates.

  16. Hormone and pathogen content in soil after litter applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter applications at agronomic rates established for a crop’s P or N requirements may contain as much as 385 mg estradiol ha-1, 605 mg testosterone ha-1, 4.4(10)12 Escherichia coli cells ha-1, and 4.4(10)13 fecal enterococci cells ha-1. Field experiments from small plot- to small watershed...

  17. The effect of composting on the persistence of four ionophores in dairy manure and poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Osman A; Mulbry, Walter; Rice, Clifford

    2016-08-01

    Manure composting is a well-described approach for stabilization of nutrients and reduction of pathogens and odors. Although composting studies have shown that thermophilic temperatures and aerobic conditions can increase removal rates of selected antibiotics, comparable information is lacking for many other compounds in untreated or composted manure. The objective of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of composting conditions to reduce concentrations of four widely used ionophore feed supplements in dairy manure and poultry litter. Replicate aliquots of fresh poultry litter and dairy manure were amended with monensin, lasalocid, salinomycin, or amprolium to 10mgkg(-1)DW. Non-amended and amended dairy manure and poultry litter aliquots were incubated at 22, 45, 55, or 65°C under moist, aerobic conditions. Residue concentrations were determined from aliquots removed after 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12weeks. Results suggest that the effectiveness of composting for contaminant reduction is compound and matrix specific. Composting temperatures were not any more effective than ambient temperature in increasing the rate or extent of monensin removal in either poultry litter or dairy manure. Composting was effective for lasalocid removal in poultry litter, but is likely to be too slow to be useful in practice (8-12weeks at 65°C for >90% residue removal). Composting was effective for amprolium removal from poultry litter and salinomycin in dairy manure but both required 4-6weeks for >90% removal. However, composting did not increase the removal rates or salinomycin in poultry litter or the removal rates of lasalocid or amprolium in dairy manure.

  18. Spatial shifts in microbial population structure within poultry litter associated with physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Lovanh, N; Cook, K L; Rothrock, M J; Miles, D M; Sistani, K

    2007-09-01

    Microbial populations within poultry litter have been largely ignored with the exception of potential human or livestock pathogens. A better understanding of the community structure and identity of the microbial populations within poultry litter could aid in the development of management practices that would reduce populations responsible for toxic air emissions and pathogen incidence. In this study, poultry litter air and physical properties were correlated to shifts in microbial community structure as analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and measured by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Litter samples were taken in a 36-point grid pattern at 5 m across and 12 m down a 146 m x 12.8 m chicken house. At each sample point, physical parameters such as litter moisture, pH, air and litter temperature, and relative humidity were recorded, and samples were taken for molecular analysis. The DGGE analysis showed that the banding pattern of samples from the back and water/feeder areas of poultry house were distinct from those of samples from other areas. There were distinct clusters of banding patterns corresponding to the front, middle front, middle back, back, and waterer/feeder areas. The PCA analysis showed similar cluster patterns, but with more distinct separation of the front and midhouse samples. The PCA analysis also showed that moisture content and litter temperature (accounting for 51.5 and 31.5% of the separation of samples, respectively) play a major role in spatial diversity of microbial community in the poultry house. Based on analysis of DGGE fingerprints and cloned DGGE band sequences, there appear to be differences in the types of microorganisms over the length of the house, which correspond to differences in the physical properties of the litter.

  19. The effects of natural zeolite on salinity level of poultry litter compost.

    PubMed

    Turan, N Gamze

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the salinity uptake by natural zeolite when used as an ingredient during the composting process. The amounts of 5% and 10% of natural zeolite were applied to poultry litter as volume and compared with the compost made with no amendment. The results clearly showed that the salinity level of poultry litter was too high. It was found that the salinity level in the end compost decreases with increasing the amount of natural zeolite used. Salinity uptake efficiencies were 66.64% and 88.92% for end product containing 5% and 10% natural zeolite, respectively. Significantly, the addition of natural zeolite to poultry litter compost was found to have a beneficial effect on the characteristics of the end product.

  20. Soil and foliar nutrient and nitrogen isotope composition (δ(15)N) at 5 years after poultry litter and green waste biochar amendment in a macadamia orchard.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J; Zhao, Haitao; Wallace, Helen; Reverchon, Frédérique; Van Zwieten, Lukas

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the improvement in soil fertility and plant nutrient use in a macadamia orchard following biochar application. The main objectives of this study were to assess the effects of poultry litter and green waste biochar applications on nitrogen (N) cycling using N isotope composition (δ(15)N) and nutrient availability in a soil-plant system at a macadamia orchard, 5 years following application. Biochar was applied at 10 t ha(-1) dry weight but concentrated within a 3-m diameter zone when trees were planted in 2007. Soil and leaf samples were collected in 2012, and both soil and foliar N isotope composition (δ(15)N) and nutrient concentrations were assessed. Both soil and foliar δ(15)N increased significantly in the poultry litter biochar plots compared to the green waste biochar and control plots. A significant relationship was observed between soil and plant δ(15)N. There was no influence of either biochars on foliar total N concentrations or soil NH4 (+)-N and NO3 (-)-N, which suggested that biochar application did not pose any restriction for plant N uptake. Plant bioavailable phosphorus (P) was significantly higher in the poultry litter biochar treatment compared to the green waste biochar treatment and control. We hypothesised that the bioavailability of N and P content of poultry litter biochar may play an important role in increasing soil and plant δ(15)N and P concentrations. Biochar application affected soil-plant N cycling and there is potential to use soil and plant δ(15)N to investigate N cycling in a soil-biochar-tree crop system. The poultry litter biochar significantly increased soil fertility compared to the green waste biochar at 5 years following biochar application which makes the poultry litter a better feedstock to produce biochar compared to green waste for the tree crops.

  1. Effect of heating and aging of poultry litter on the persistence of enteric bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, K G; Tee, E; Tomkins, R B; Hepworth, G; Premier, R

    2011-01-01

    Food-borne illnesses have rarely been associated with the reuse of poultry litter as an organic fertilizer and soil amendment in agriculture. Yet farming practices in many countries have come under increased scrutiny because of heightened consumer awareness of food safety and environmental issues. This study was conducted to determine whether simple on-farm management practices could improve the microbiological safety of poultry litter. First, the effects of heat and moisture on the survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in poultry litter were investigated under laboratory conditions. Second, the persistence and regrowth of enteric bacteria were examined in poultry litter that had been aged for up to 12 wk in either a turned or static (unturned) windrow. Escherichia coli and Salmonella counts in poultry litter were reduced by >99% in 1 h at 55 or 65°C under laboratory conditions. At 35°C, both persisted longer under moist (65% wt/wt, wet basis) than dry (30% wt/wt) conditions. Poultry litter aged for 3 wk in a turned windrow, and up to 6 wk in a static windrow, supported increased E. coli densities when incubated in the laboratory at 37°C for 21 d. Peak temperatures >65°C were observed in both windrows within the first 3 wk of aging; after this point, the turned windrow was more consistently exposed to temperatures >45°C than the static windrow. By 12 wk, however, E. coli counts were very similar (3 to 3.6 log(10)) in the outside edge of both windrows. This study highlights the need for a better understanding of the interrelationship between spontaneous heating in organic waste streams, organic matter stabilization, and pathogen reduction.

  2. Improved polymerase chain reaction technique for determining the species composition of Eimeria in poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, M C; Miska, K; Klopp, S

    2006-12-01

    An improved polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for determining the species composition of Eimeria in poultry litter was developed by incorporating species-specific internal standards in the assay. Internal standard molecules were prepared by fusing seven different Eimeria species-specific intervening transcribed sequence 1 (ITS1) rDNA primer pairs to a non-Eimeria DNA molecule and by cloning the hybrid DNA molecules into a plasmid. The internal DNA standards were then used in Eimeria-specific ITS 1 PCR, and they were found to be capable of detecting E. acervulina, E. maxima, E. praecox, and E. tenella oocysts isolated directly from poultry litter.

  3. Effect of fractionation and pyrolysis on fuel properties of poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kaushlendra; Risse, L Mark; Das, K C; Worley, John; Thompson, Sidney

    2010-07-01

    Raw poultry litter has certain drawbacks for energy production such as high ash and moisture content, a corrosive nature, and low heating values. A combined solution to utilization of raw poultry litter may involve fractionation and pyrolysis. Fractionation divides poultry litter into a fine, nutrient-rich fraction and a coarse, carbon-dense fraction. Pyrolysis of the coarse fraction would remove the corrosive volatiles as bio-oil, leaving clean char. This paper presents the effect of fractionation and pyrolysis process parameters on the calorific value of char and on the characterization of bio-oil. Poultry litter samples collected from three commercial poultry farms were divided into 10 treatments that included 2 controls (raw poultry litter and its coarse fraction having particle size greater than 0.85 mm) and 8 other treatments that were combinations of three factors: type (raw poultry litter or its coarse fraction), heating rate (30 or 10 degrees C/min), and pyrolysis temperature (300 or 500 degrees C). After the screening process, the poultry litter samples were dried and pyrolyzed in a batch reactor under nitrogen atmosphere and char and condensate yields were recorded. The condensate was separated into three fractions on the basis of their density: heavy, medium, and light phase. Calorific value and proximate and nutrient analysis were performed for char, condensate, and feedstock. Results show that the char with the highest calorific value (17.39 +/- 1.37 MJ/kg) was made from the coarse fraction at 300 degrees C, which captured 68.71 +/- 9.37% of the feedstock energy. The char produced at 300 degrees C had 42 +/- 11 mg/kg arsenic content but no mercury. Almost all of the Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, and P remained in the char. The pyrolysis process reduced ammoniacal-nitrogen (NH4-N) in char by 99.14 +/- 0.47% and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) by 95.79 +/- 5.45% at 500 degrees C.

  4. Alternative poultry litter storage for improved transportation and use as a soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Penn, Chad J; Vitale, Jeffery; Fine, Scott; Payne, Joshua; Warren, Jason G; Zhang, Hailin; Eastman, Margaret; Herron, Sheri L

    2011-01-01

    Transportation of poultry litter out of nutrient limited watersheds such as the Illinois River basin (eastern Oklahoma) is a logical solution for minimizing phosphorus (P) losses from soils to surface waters. Transportation costs are basedon mass of load and distance transported. This study investigated an alternative litter storage technique designed to promote carbon (C) degradation, thereby concentrating nutrients for the purpose of decreasing transportation costs through decreased mass. Poultry litter was stored in 0.90-Mg conical piles under semipermeable tarps and adjusted to 40% moisture content, tested with and without addition of alum (aluminum sulfate). additional study was conducted using 3.6-Mg piles under the same conditions, except tested with and without use of aeration pipes. Samples were analyzed before and after (8 wk) storage. Litter mass degradation (i.e., loss in mass due to organic matter decomposition) was estimated on the basis of changes in litter total P contents. Additional characterization included pH, total nutrients, moisture content, total C, and degree of humification. Litter storage significantly decreased litter mass (16 to 27%), concentrated nutrients such as P and potassium (K) and increased proportion of fulvic and humic acids. The addition of aeration pipes increased mass degradationrelative to piles without aeration pipes. Nitrogen volatilization losses were minimized with alum additions. Increases in P and K concentrations resulted in greater monetary value per unit mass compared with fresh litter. Such increases translate to increased litter shipping distance and cost savings of $17.2 million over 25 yr for litter movement out of eastern Oklahoma.

  5. Mobility of poultry litter phosphorus in a Coastal Plain forest soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Loss of phosphorus (P) from soils may eutrophy surface waters. Use of P-rich poultry litter (PL) for fertilization of forest soils is an environmentally beneficial alternative to use for pasture fertilization because forest soils are typically low in P compared to pasture soils. This study examined ...

  6. Inactivation of avian influenza virus in chicken litter as a potential method to decontaminate poultry houses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Full cleaning and disinfection of a poultry house after an avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreak is expensive and labor intensive. An alternative to full house cleaning and disinfection is to inactivate the virus with high temperatures within the house. Litter in the house normally has a high virus...

  7. Trace metal enrichment and distribution in a poultry litter-amended soil under different tillage practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant nutrients and minor elements contamination resulting from enrichment due to agronomic practices such as poultry litter amendment of soils, tillage practices, and crop rotation patterns that have long been investigated to determine their impacts on yield, as well as soil and environmental susta...

  8. Composted Poultry Litter as an Amendment for Substrates with High Wood Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole Tree (WT) and Clean Chip Residual (CCR) are potential new nursery substrates that are by-products of the forestry industry containing high wood content. Initial immobilization of nitrogen is one limitation of these new substrates, however the addition of composted poultry litter (CPL) to subs...

  9. No-till corn response and soil nutrient concentrations from subsurface banding of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilizer management is vital to no-till corn (Zea mays) production from financial and environmental perspectives. Poultry litter as a nutrient source in this cropping system is generally land applied by surface broadcast, potentially causing volatilization of ammonia (NH3)-N. Recently a...

  10. Demonstration of a Small Modular Biopower System Using Poultry Litter-Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Reardon; Art Lilley

    2004-06-15

    On-farm conversion of poultry litter into energy is a unique market connected opportunity for commercialization of small modular bioenergy systems. The United States Department of Energy recognized the need in the poultry industry for alternative litter management as an opportunity for bioenergy. The DOE created a relevant topic in the December 2000 release of the small business innovative research (SBIR) grant solicitation. Community Power Corporation responded to this solicitation by proposing the development of a small modular gasification and gas cleanup system to produce separate value streams of clean producer gas and mineral rich solids. This phase II report describes our progress in the development of an on-farm litter to energy system.

  11. Survival of generic E. coli and Listeria spp. populations in dairy compost- and poultry litter compost-amended soils in the Northeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction:The FDA FSMA standards stipulate composting conditions that meet acceptable treatments for use of manure/poultry litter-based biological soil amendments of animal origin (BSAAO). Application of FSMA-compliant BSAAO to soils for production of fresh produce is expected to result in reduc...

  12. Sequential P Extracts in Cecil soil during ten years of conventional and conservation tillage cropping management with and without poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil phosphorus (P) buildup from long-term applications of poultry litter presents a potential environmental problem. Knowledge of soil P distribution among its chemical forms is useful for assessing risk levels. We measured sequentially-fractioned H2O, NaHCO3, NaOH, and HCl extractable P in a Cecil...

  13. Biochar lowers ammonia emission and improves nitrogen retention in poultry litter composting.

    PubMed

    Agyarko-Mintah, Eunice; Cowie, Annette; Van Zwieten, Lukas; Singh, Bhupinder Pal; Smillie, Robert; Harden, Steven; Fornasier, Flavio

    2017-03-01

    The poultry industry produces abundant quantities of nutrient-rich litter, much of which is composted before use as a soil amendment. However, a large proportion of nitrogen (N) in poultry litter is lost via volatilisation during composting, with negative environmental and economic consequences. This study examined the effect of incorporating biochar during composting of poultry litter on ammonia (NH3) volatilisation and N retention. Biochars produced at 550°C from greenwaste (GWB) and poultry litter (PLB) feedstocks were co-composted with a mixture of raw poultry litter and sugarcane straw [carbon (C):N ratio 10:1] in compost bins. Ammonia emissions accounted for 17% of the total N (TN) lost from the control and 12-14% from the biochar-amended compost. The TN emitted as NH3, as a percentage of initial TN, was significantly lower (P<0.05) i.e. by 60% and 55% in the compost amended with GWB and PLB, respectively, relative to the control. The proportion of N retained in the finished compost, as a percentage of initial TN, was 84%, 78% and 67% for the GWB, PLB and nil biochar control, respectively. Lower concentration of dissolved organic C (DOC) together with higher activity of beta-glucosidase and leucine-aminopeptidase were found in the GWB-amended compost (cf. control). It is hypothesized that lower NH3 emission in the GWB-amended compost was caused not just by the higher surface area of this biochar but could also be related to greater incorporation of ammonium (NH4(+)) in organic compounds during microbial utilisation of DOC. Furthermore, the GWB-amended compost retained more NH4(+) at the end of composting than the PLB-amended compost. Results showed that addition of biochar, especially GWB, generated multiple benefits in composting of poultry litter: decrease of NH3 volatilisation, decrease in NH3 toxicity towards microorganisms, and improved N retention, thus enhancing the fertiliser value of the composted litter. It is suggested that the latter benefit is

  14. Spatial variability of heating profiles in windrowed poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In-house windrow composting of broiler litter has been suggested as a means to reduce microbial populations between flocks. Published time-temperature goals are used to determine the success of the composting process for microbial reductions. Spatial and temporal density of temperature measurement ...

  15. Environmental fate of roxarsone in poultry litter. I. Degradation of roxarsone during composting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garbarino, J.R.; Bednar, A.J.; Rutherford, D.W.; Beyer, R.S.; Wershaw, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    Roxarsone, 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid, is an organoarsenic compound that is used extensively in the feed of broiler poultryto control coccidial intestinal parasites, improve feed efficiency, and promote rapid growth. Nearly all the roxarsone in the feed is excreted unchanged in the manure. Poultry litter composed of the manure and bedding material has a high nutrient content and is used routinely as a fertilizer on cropland and pasture. Investigations were conducted to determine the fate of poultrylitter roxarsone in the environment. Experiments indicated that roxarsone was stable in fresh dried litter; the primary arsenic species extracted with water from dried litter was roxarsone. However, when water was added to litter at about 50 wt % and the mixture was allowed to compost at 40oC, the speciation of arsenic shifted from roxarsone to primarily arsenate in about 30 days. Increasing the amount of water increased the rate of degradation. Experiments also suggested that the degradation process most likely was biotic in nature. The rate of degradation was directly proportional to the incubation temperature; heat sterilization eliminated the degradation. Biotic degradation also was supported by results from enterobacteriaceae growth media that were inoculated with litter slurry to enhance the biotic processes and to reduce the concomitant abiotic effects from the complex litter solution. Samples collected from a variety of litter windrows in Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Maryland also showed that roxarsone originally present had been converted to arsenate.

  16. Transformation of ionophore antimicrobials in poultry litter during pilot-scale composting.

    PubMed

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Yonkos, Lance; Aga, Diana S

    2016-05-01

    Ionophores are the second top selling class of antimicrobials used in food-producing animals in the United States. In chickens, ionophores are used as feed additives to control coccidiosis; up to 80% of administered ionophores are excreted in the litter. Because poultry litter is commonly used to fertilize agricultural fields, ionophore residues in litter have become contaminants of emerging concern. This study aims to develop a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantify ionophores, and identify their transformation products (TPs) in poultry litter after on-farm pilot-scale composting. The validation parameters of the optimized method showed good accuracy, ranging from 71 to 119% recovery and relative standard deviation (precision) of ≤19% at three different concentration levels (10, 50 and 100 μg/kg). Monensin, salinomycin and narasin, were detected in the poultry litter samples prior to composting at 290.0 ± 40, 426 ± 46, and 3113 ± 318 μg kg(-1), respectively. This study also aims to investigate the effect of different composting conditions on the removal of ionophores, such as the effect of turning or aeration. Results revealed a 13-68% reduction in ionophore concentrations after 150 d of composting, depending on whether the compost was aerated, turned, or subjected to a combination of both aeration and turning. Three transformation products and one metabolite of ionophores were identified in the composted litter using high-resolution liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF/MS).

  17. Reducing Phosphorus Runoff and Leaching from Poultry Litter with Alum: Twenty-Year Small Plot and Paired-Watershed Studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lidong; Moore, Philip A; Kleinman, Peter J A; Elkin, Kyle R; Savin, Mary C; Pote, Daniel H; Edwards, Dwayne R

    2016-07-01

    Treating poultry litter with alum has been shown to lower ammonia (NH) emissions and phosphorus (P) runoff losses. Two long-term studies were conducted to assess the effects of alum-treated poultry litter on P availability, leaching, and runoff under pasture conditions. From 1995 to 2015, litter was applied annually in a paired watershed study comparing alum-treated and untreated litter and in a small plot study comparing 13 treatments (an unfertilized control, four rates of alum-treated litter, four rates of untreated litter, and four rates of NHNO). In the paired watershed study, total P loads in runoff were 231% higher from pasture receiving untreated litter (1.96 kg P ha) than from that receiving alum-treated litter (0.85 kg P ha). In both studies, alum-treated litter resulted in significantly higher Mehlich III P (M3-P) and lower water-extractable P at the soil surface, reflecting greater retention of applied P and lesser availability of that P to runoff or leaching. In soils fertilized with alum-treated litter, M3-P was much higher when analyzed by inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectrometry than by colorimetry, possibly due to the formation of aluminum phytate. Indeed, alum-treated poultry litter leached less P over the 20-yr study: M3-P at 10 to 50 cm was 266% greater in plots fertilized with untreated litter (331 kg M3-P ha) than with alum-treated litter (124 kg M3-P ha). This research provides compelling evidence that treating poultry litter with alum provides short-term and long-term benefits to P conservation and water quality.

  18. Influence of poultry litter on the toxicity of cadmium to aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosal, T.K.; Kaviraj, A.

    1996-12-01

    Increased deposition of cadmium in impounded water through atmospheric fallout and runoff water is a growing concern for aquaculture. In India, pisciculture practices are threatened by frequent low to moderate deposition of Cd in ponds. Although several studies have been conducted on Cd toxicity to freshwater organisms, little is known about the interaction of Cd with other chemicals present in the receiving water system. There is evidence that Cd, in the presence of other chemicals, may produce synergistic, additive or antagonistic effect on aquatic organisms. Aquatic ecosystems, heavily enriched by nitrogen and phosphorus, have reduced the stress imposed by Cd. In contrast, chemicals such as KMnO{sub 4} and CoCl{sub 2} used in aquaculture increase Cd toxicity to fish and plankton. Poultry litter is frequently used in pisciculture ponds to enrich nutrients. However, interaction of poultry litter with Cd is not known. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. Phases' characteristics of poultry litter hydrothermal carbonization under a range of process parameters.

    PubMed

    Mau, Vivian; Quance, Julie; Posmanik, Roy; Gross, Amit

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the hydrothermal carbonization of poultry litter under a range of process parameters. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of HTC of poultry litter under a range of operational parameters (temperature, reaction time, and solids concentration) on the formation and characteristics of its phases. Results showed production of a hydrochar with caloric value of 24.4MJ/kg, similar to sub-bituminous coal. The gaseous phase consisted mainly of CO2. However, significant amounts of H2S dictate the need for (further) treatment. The process also produced an aqueous phase with chemical characteristics suggesting its possible use as a liquid fertilizer. Temperature had the most significant effect on processes and product formation. Solids concentration was not a significant factor once dilution effects were considered.

  20. Detection and quantification of additives (urea, biuret and poultry litter) in alfalfas by NIR spectroscopy with fibre-optic probe.

    PubMed

    González-Martín, Inmaculada; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel

    2008-09-15

    The additives (urea, biuret and poultry litter) present in alfalfa, which contribute non-proteic nitrogen, were analysed using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology together with a remote reflectance fibre-optic probe. We used 75 samples of known alfalfa without additives and 75 samples with each of the additives, urea (0.01-10%), biuret (0.01-10%) and poultry litter (1-25%). Using the discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) algorithm, the presence or absence of the additives urea, biuret and poultry litter is classified and predicted with a high prediction rate of 96.9%, 100% and 100%, obtaining the equations of discrimination for each additive. The regression method employed for the quantification was modified partial least squares (MPLS). The equations were developed using the fibre-optic probe to determine the content of urea, biuret and poultry litter with multiple correlation coefficients (RSQ) and prediction corrected standard errors (SEP (C)) of 0.990, 0.28% for urea, 0.991, 0.29% for biuret and 0.925, 2.08% for poultry litter. The work permits the instantaneous and simultaneous prediction and determination of urea, biuret and poultry litter in alfalfas, applying the fibre-optic directly on the ground samples of alfalfa.

  1. Efficiency of basalt zeolite and Cuban zeolite to adsorb ammonia released from poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Nuernberg, Giselle B; Moreira, Marcelo A; Ernani, Paulo R; Almeida, Jaime A; Maciel, Tais M

    2016-12-01

    Confined poultry production is an important livestock activity, which generates large amounts of waste associated with the potential for environmental pollution and ammonia (NH3) emissions. The release of ammonia negatively affects poultry production and decreases the N content of wastes that could be used as soil fertilizers. The objective of this study was to evaluate a low-cost, simple and rapid method to simulate ammonia emissions from poultry litter as well as to quantify the reduction in the ammonia emissions to the environment employing two adsorbent zeolites, a commercial Cuban zeolite (CZ) and a ground basalt Brazilian rock containing zeolite (BZ). The experiments were conducted in a laboratory, in 2012-2013. The zeolites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), physical adsorption of N2 (BET) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ammonia released from poultry litter and its simulation from NH4OH solution presented similar capture rates of 7.99 × 10(-5) and 7.35 × 10(-5) mg/h, respectively. Both zeolites contain SiO2 and Al2O3 as major constituents, with contents of 84% and 12% in the CZ, and 51% and 12% in the BZ, respectively, besides heulandite groups. Their BET surface areas were 89.4 and 11.3 m(2) g(-1), respectively, and the two zeolites had similar surface morphologies. The zeolites successfully adsorbed the ammonia released, but CZ was more efficient than BZ, since to capture all of the ammonia 5 g of CZ and 20 g of BZ were required. This difference is due to higher values for the superficial area, porosity, CEC and acid site strength of CZ relatively to BZ. The proposed methodology was shown to be an efficient method to simulate and quantify the ammonia released from poultry litter.

  2. Long Term Effects of Poultry Litter on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Cotton Plots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surrency, J.; Tsegaye, T.; Coleman, T.; Fahsi, A.; Reddy, C.

    1998-01-01

    Poultry litter and compost can alter the moisture holding capacity of a soil. These organic materials can also increase the nutrient status of a soil during the decomposition process by microbial actions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of poultry litter and compost on the dielectric constant and moisture holding capacity of soil. The Delta-T theta-probe was used to measure volumetric soil water content and the apparent dielectric constant of the upper 6-cm of the soil profile. Soil texture, pH, and organic matter were also determined for each plot. Results of these analyses indicated that the pH of the soil ranged from 6.4 to 7.7 and the volumetric soil moisture content ranged from 0.06 to 0.18 cu m/cu m for the upper 6-cm of the soil profile. The effect of poultry litter and compost on soil properties resulted in an increase in the volumetric moisture content and dielectric constant of the soil due to the improvement of the soil structure.

  3. Investigation of nitrogen-bearing species in catalytic steam gasification of poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Atul C; Bagchi, Bratendu

    2005-05-01

    The production of broiler chickens has become one of the largest sectors in U.S. agriculture, and the growing demand for poultry has led to an annual production growth rate of 5%. With increased demand for poultry, litter management has become a major challenge in the agriculture industry. Although the catalytic steam gasification has been accepted as a possible and feasible method for litter management, concern has been expressed about the presence of nitrogen and phosphorus containing species in the fuel gas and/or in the final solid residue. The possible release of phosphorus as phosphine gas in the fuel gas can have an adverse impact on the environment. Similarly, possible release of ammonia from the nitrogen containing species is also not acceptable. Hence, under partial U.S. Department of Agriculture support, a study was conducted to examine the fate and the environmental impact of the nitrogen- and phosphorus-containing species released during catalytic steam gasification of poultry litter. From various preliminary tests, it was concluded that most (approximately 100%) of the phosphorus would remain in the residue, and some (20-70%) of the nitrogen would end up as ammonia in the fuel gas. The effects of temperature, catalyst loading, and type of catalyst on ammonia liberation were studied in a muffled furnace setup at atmospheric pressure. The fraction of nitrogen released as ammonia was found to decrease with an increase in temperature during pyrolysis and steam gasification. It also decreased with an increase in catalyst loading.

  4. Recovery of ammonia from poultry litter using flat gas permeable membranes.

    PubMed

    Rothrock, M J; Szögi, A A; Vanotti, M B

    2013-06-01

    The use of flat gas-permeable membranes was investigated as components of a new process to capture and recover ammonia (NH3) in poultry houses. This process includes the passage of gaseous NH3 through a microporous hydrophobic membrane, capture with a circulating dilute acid on the other side of the membrane, and production of a concentrated ammonium (NH4) salt. Bench- and pilot-scale prototype systems using flat expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes and a sulfuric acid solution consistently reduced headspace NH3 concentrations from 70% to 97% and recovered 88% to 100% of the NH3 volatilized from poultry litter. The potential benefits of this technology include cleaner air inside poultry houses, reduced ventilation costs, and a concentrated liquid ammonium salt that can be used as a plant nutrient solution.

  5. Occurrence and sorption of fluoroquinolones in poultry litters and soils from São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leal, Rafael Marques Pereira; Figueira, Rafael Fernandes; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Regitano, Jussara Borges

    2012-08-15

    Animal production is one of the most expressive sectors of Brazilian agro-economy. Although antibiotics are routinely used in this activity, their occurrence, fate, and potential impacts to the local environment are largely unknown. This research evaluated sorption-desorption and occurrence of four commonly used fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, and enrofloxacin) in poultry litter and soil samples from São Paulo State, Brazil. The sorption-desorption studies involved batch equilibration technique and followed the OECD guideline for pesticides. All compounds were analyzed by HPLC, using fluorescence detector. Fluoroquinolones' sorption potential to the poultry litters (K(d) ≤65 L kg(-1)) was lower than to the soil (K(d) ~40,000 L kg(-1)), but was always high (≥69% of applied amount) indicating a higher specificity of fluoroquinolones interaction with soils. The addition of poultry litter (5%) to the soil had not affected sorption or desorption of these compounds. Desorption was negligible in the soil (≤0.5% of sorbed amount), but not in the poultry litters (up to 42% of sorbed amount). Fluoroquinolones' mean concentrations found in the poultry litters (1.37 to 6.68 mg kg(-1)) and soils (22.93 μg kg(-1)) were compatible to those found elsewhere (Austria, China, and Turkey). Enrofloxacin was the most often detected compound (30% of poultry litters and 27% of soils) at the highest mean concentrations (6.68 mg kg(-1) for poultry litters and 22.93 μg kg(-1) for soils). These results show that antibiotics are routinely used in poultry production and might represent one potential source of pollution to the environment that has been largely ignored and should be further investigated in Brazil.

  6. Role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in modulating the efficiency of poultry litter composting with rock phosphate and its effect on growth and yield of wheat.

    PubMed

    Billah, Motsim; Bano, Asghari

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in P solubilisation from rock phosphate through composting with poultry litter, and further to study the effects of prepared enriched composts on growth, yield, and phosphorus uptake of wheat crop. Various phosphorus-enriched composts were prepared from rock phosphate and poultry litter (1:10) with and without inoculation of plant growth promoting rhizobacterias (Pseudomonas sp. and Proteus sp.). Results showed that the rock-phosphate-added poultry litter had higher total phosphorus, available (Mehlic-3 extracted) phosphorus, microbial biomass (carbon and phosphorus), and lower total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and carbon/nitrogen ratio over poultry litter alone. Inoculation of Pseudomonas sp. with rock phosphate-added poultry litter showed maximum increase in available phosphorus (41% of total phosphorus) followed by Proteus sp. inoculation (30% of total phosphorus) over uninoculated treatment (23% of total phosphorus) on the 120th day of composting. Microbial biomass (carbon and phosphorus) increased up to Day 45 and tended to decrease till the 120th day of composting, irrespective of the treatments. However, in pot experiments, wheat seeds receiving inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacterias, subsequently treated with rock phosphate-enriched compost proved highly stimulatory to plant height, phosphorus uptake, grain yield, and seed phosphorus content over uninoculated untreated control. The plant growth promoting rhizobacterias inoculation can be a sustainable source releasing phosphorus from low grade rock phosphate through composting and application of rock phosphate-enriched compost can be an alternative to chemical fertilisers for better crop production.

  7. Broiler litter management effects on the nutrient composition of the litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of poultry litter as a fertilizer source is a common practice in agriculture production. However, potential water quality concerns as a result of over application of poultry litter has risen as a major environmental issue in states with substantial poultry production. Fundamental to the ...

  8. Phosphorus release behaviors of poultry litter biochar as a soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Lin, Yingxin; Chiu, Pei C; Imhoff, Paul T; Guo, Mingxin

    2015-04-15

    Phosphorus (P) may be immobilized and consequently the runoff loss risks be reduced if poultry litter (PL) is converted into biochar prior to land application. Laboratory studies were conducted to examine the water extractability of P in PL biochar and its release kinetics in amended soils. Raw PL and its biochar produced through 400°C pyrolysis were extracted with deionized water under various programs and measured for water extractable P species and contents. The materials were further incubated with a sandy loam at 20 g kg(-1) soil and intermittently leached with water for 30 days. The P release kinetics were determined from the P recovery patterns in the water phase. Pyrolysis elevated the total P content from 13.7 g kg(-1) in raw PL to 27.1 g kg(-1) in PL biochar while reduced the water-soluble P level from 2.95 g kg(-1) in the former to 0.17 g kg(-1) in the latter. The thermal treatment transformed labile P in raw PL to putatively Mg/Ca phosphate minerals in biochar that were water-unextractable yet proton-releasable. Orthophosphate was the predominant form of water-soluble P in PL biochar, with condensed phosphate (e.g., pyrophosphate) as a minor form and organic phosphate in null. Release of P from PL biochar in both water and neutral soils was at a slower and steadier rate over a longer time period than from raw PL. Nevertheless, release of P from biochar was acid-driven and could be greatly promoted by the media acidity. Land application of PL biochar at soil pH-incorporated rates and frequency will potentially reduce P losses to runoffs and minimize the adverse impact of waste application on aquatic environments.

  9. Slow pyrolysis of poultry litter and pine woody biomass: impact of chars and bio-oils on microbial growth.

    PubMed

    Das, K C; Garcia-Perez, M; Bibens, B; Melear, N

    2008-06-01

    Accidental or prescribed fires in forests and in cultivated fields, as well as primitive charcoal production practices, are responsible for the release of large amounts of gases, char and condensable organic molecules into the environment. This paper describes the impact of condensable organic molecules and chars resulting from the slow pyrolysis of poultry litter, pine chips and pine pellets on the growth of microbial populations in soil and water. The proximate and elemental analyses as well as the content of proteins, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and ash for each of these bio-materials are reported. The yields and some properties of char and condensable liquids are also documented. The behavior of microbial populations in soil and water is followed through respiration studies. It was found that biological activity was highest when aqueous fractions from poultry litter were applied in water. Cumulative oxygen consumption over a 120-h period was highest in the aqueous phases from poultry litter coarse fraction (1.82 mg/g). On average the oxygen consumption when oily fractions from poultry litter were applied represented 44 to 62% of that when aqueous fractions were applied. Pine chip and pine pellet derived liquids and chars produced respiration activity that were an order of magnitude lower than that of poultry litter liquid fractions. These results suggest that the growth observed is due to the effect of protein-derived molecules.

  10. Direct Speciation of Phosphorus in Alum-Amended Poultry Litter: Solid-State 31P NMR Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hunger, Stefan; Cho, Herman M.; Sims, James T.; Sparks, Donald L.

    2004-02-01

    Amending poultry litter (PL) with aluminum sulfate (alum) has proven to be effective in reducing water-soluble phosphorus (P) in the litter and in runoff from fields that have received PL applications; it has therefore been suggested as a best management practice. Although its effectiveness has been demonstrated on a macroscopic scale in the field, little is known about P speciation in either alumamended or unamended litter. This knowledge is important for the evaluation of the long-term stability and bioavailability of P, which is a necessary prerequisite for the assessment of the sustainability of intensive poultry operations. Both solid state MAS and CP-MAS {sup 31}P NMR as well as {sup 31}P({sup 27}Al) TRAPDOR were used to investigate P speciation in alumamended and unamended PL. The results indicate the presence of a complex mixture of organic and inorganic orthophosphate phases. A calcium phosphate phase, probably a surface precipitate on calcium carbonate, could be identified in both unamended and alum-amended PL, as well as physically bound HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. Phosphate associated with Al was found in the alum-amended PL, most probably a mixture of a poorly ordered wavellite and phosphate surface complexes on aluminum hydroxide that had been formed by the hydrolysis of alum. However, a complex mixture of organic and inorganic phosphate species could not be resolved. Phosphate associated with Al comprised on average 40{+-}14% of the total P in alum-amended PL, whereas calcium phosphate phases comprised on average 7{+-}4% in the alum-amended PL and 14{+-}5% in the unamended PL.

  11. A comparison of two methods for isolation of Salmonella from poultry litter samples.

    PubMed

    Read, S C; Irwin, R J; Poppe, C; Harris, J

    1994-10-01

    Two methods were compared to determine their ability and efficiency in detecting Salmonella in poultry litter samples. Method 1 consisted of pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water (BPW), selective motility enrichment in Modified Semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis (MSRV) agar, and plating onto MacConkey (MC) agar. Method 2 employed tetrathionate brilliant green (TBG) broth and plating on brilliant green agar with novobiocin (BGAN) and on xylose lysine tergitol 4 (XLT4) agar. Method 1 resulted in a significantly higher isolation rate, was cheaper, and was less labor intensive.

  12. Gram-positive bacteria are a major reservoir of Class 1 antibiotic resistance integrons in poultry litter

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Sobhan; Maurer, John J.; Hofacre, Charles; Summers, Anne O.

    2004-01-01

    Reversing the spread of antibiotic multiresistant bacteria is hampered by ignorance of the natural history of resistance genes, the mobile elements carrying them, and the bacterial hosts harboring them. Using traditional cultivation and cultivation-independent molecular techniques, we quantified antibiotic resistance genes and mobile elements called integrons in poultry house litter from commercial poultry farms. Unexpectedly, the major reservoir for Class 1 integrons in poultry litter is not their previously identified hosts, Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae such as Escherichia coli. Rather, integrons and associated resistance genes abound in several genera of Gram-positive bacteria that constitute >85% of the litter community compared with Enterobacteriaceae that comprise <2% of this ecosystem. This finding warrants reexamination of our assumptions about the persistence and spread of antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:15107498

  13. Phosphate reactivity in long-term poultry litter-amended southern Delaware sandy soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arai, Y.; Livi, K.J.T.; Sparks, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    Eutrophication caused by dissolved P from poultry litter (PL)-amended agricultural soils has been a serious environmental concern in the Delaware-Maryland-Virginia Peninsula (Delmarva), USA. To evaluate state and federal nutrient management strategies for reducing the environmental impact of soluble P from long-term PL-amended Delaware (DE) soils, we investigated (i) inorganic P speciation; (ii) P adsorption capacity; and (iii) the extent of P desorption. Although the electron microprobe (EMP) analyses showed a strong correlation between P and Al/Fe, crystalline Al/Fe-P precipitates were not detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Instead, the inorganic P fractionation analyses showed high levels of oxalate extractable P, Al, and Fe fractions (615-858, 1215-1478, and 337-752 mg kg-1, respectively), which were susceptible to slow release during the long-term (30-d) P desorption experiments at a moderately acidic soil pHwater. The labile P in the short-term (24-h) desorption studies was significantly associated with oxalate and F extractable Fe and Al, respectively. This was evident in an 80% reduction maximum in total desorbable P from NH4 oxalate/F pretreated soils. In the adsorption experiments, P was strongly retained in soils at near targeted pH of lime (???6.0), but P adsorption gradually decreased with decreasing pH near the soil pHwater (???5.0). The overall findings suggest that P losses from the can be suppressed by an increase in the P retention capacity of soils via (i) an increase in the number of lime applications to maintain soil pHwater at near targeted pH values, and/or (ii) alum/iron sulfate amendments to provide additional Al- and Fe-based adsorbents. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  14. Soil solution chemistry of a fly ash-, poultry litter-, and sewage sludge-amended soil

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, B.P.; Miller, W.P.

    2000-04-01

    Mixing coal fly ash (FA) with organic wastes to provide balanced soil amendments offers a potential viable use of this industrial by-product. When such materials are land-applied to supply nutrients for agronomic crops, trace element contaminant solubility must be evaluated. In this study, major and trace element soil solution concentrations arising from application of fly ash, organic wastes, and mixtures of the two were compared in a laboratory incubation. Two fly ashes, broiler poultry litter (PL), municipal sewage sludge (SS), and mixtures of FA with either PL or SS were mixed with a Cecil sandy loam (fine, kaolinitic, thermic Typic Kanhapludult) at rates of 32.3, 8.1, and 16.1 g kg{sup {minus}1} soil for FA, PL, and SS, respectively. Treatments were incubated at 22 C at 17% moisture content and soil solution was periodically extracted by centrifugation over 33 d. Initial soil solution concentrations of As, Mo, Se, and Cu were significantly greater in FA/OL treatments than the respective FA-only treatments. For Cu, increased solution concentrations were attributable to increased loading rates in FA/PL mixtures. Solution Cu concentrations were strongly correlated with dissolved C (R{sup 2} > 0.96) in all PL treatments. Significant interactive effects for solution Mo and Se concentrations were observed for the FA/PL and may have resulted from the increased pH and competing anion concentrations of these treatments. Solution As concentrations showed a significant interactive effect for one FA/PL mixture. For the individual treatments, As was more soluble in the Pl treatment than either FA treatment. Except for soluble Se from on FA/SS mixture, trace element solubility in the FA/SS mixtures was not significantly different than the respective FA-only treatment.

  15. Assessing changes in the composition of broiler litters from commercial poultry units in Northern Ireland following the adoption of phytase in diets.

    PubMed

    Foy, R H; Ball, M E E; George, J

    2014-11-01

    Microbial phytases increase the bioavailability of phytate P in poultry diets, and a survey was undertaken to determine if their use had lowered the P composition of broiler litter in Northern Ireland compared with standard values of litter composition listed in the current United Kingdom fertilizer recommendations. Litter samples were collected from a total of 20 units across Northern Ireland in 2010 and analyzed for DM, N, phosphate (P2O5), potash (K2O), magnesium oxide (MgO), water-soluble P (WSP), ammonium N (NH4N), and uric acid N. Dry matter of litter was positively correlated (P < 0.001) with N (r(2) = 0.65), P2O5 (r(2) = 0.63), K2O (r(2) = 0.56), and MgO (r(2) = 0.58). Negative correlations were observed between litter DM and WSP (r(2) = 0.45, P < 0.001) and NH4N (r(2) = 0.22, P = 0.038) contents. A standardized litter composition with a 60% DM gave a phosphate content of 13.7 kg/t that was 45% lower than the fertilizer book value (RB209), but there were only slight differences (<3%) between book values and DM standardized values for N and potash contents. Uric acid and NH4 contents were similar to published values. Mean N:P ratio (by weight) of litter increased from 3.7 in 2004 to 5.0 in 2010, lowering the risk of oversupply of P if land applications are targeted to meet N supply. Using the standard RB209 values to plan land applications of broiler litter to meet crop P demands risks undersupplying P, and there is a need for the regulatory values to be modified in light of the changing composition of broiler litter.

  16. Development of a Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay to Target a Novel Group of Ammonia-Producing Bacteria Found in Poultry Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia production in poultry houses has serious implications for flock health and performance, nutrient value of poultry litter, and energy costs for running poultry operations. The urease enzyme is responsible for the final step in the conversion of organic N (specifically uric acid and urea) to ...

  17. Effect of poultry litter biochar on Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth and ethanol production from steam-exploded poplar and corn stover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, Oumou

    The use of ethanol produced from lignocellulosic biomass for transportation fuel offers solutions in reducing environmental emission and the use of non-renewable fuels. However, lignocellulosic ethanol production is still hampered by economic and technical obstacles. For instance, the inhibitory effect of toxic compounds produced during biomass pretreatment was reported to inhibit the fermenting microorganisms, hence there was a decrease in ethanol yield and productivity. Thus, there is a need to improve the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol in order to promote its commercialization. The research reported here investigated the use of poultry litter biochar to improve the ethanol production from steam-exploded poplar and corn stover. The effect of poultry litter biochar was first studied on Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 204508/S288C growth, and second on the enzyme hydrolysis and fermentation of two steam-exploded biomasses: (poplar and corn stover). The third part of the study investigated optimal process parameters (biochar loading, biomass loading, and enzyme loading) on the reducing sugars production, and ethanol yield from steam-exploded corn stover. In this study, it has been shown that poultry litter biochar improved the S. cerevisiae growth and ethanol productivity; therefore poultry litter biochar could potentially be used to improve the ethanol production from steam-exploded lignocellulosic biomass.

  18. Evaluation of Poultry Litter Amendment to Agricultural Soils: Leaching Losses and Partitioning of Trace Elements in Collard Greens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaching of trace metals and greenhouse plant growth (Collard greens; Brassica oleracea var. acephala) response studies were conducted in two types of soils with contrasting characteristics amended with varying rates (0 to 24.70 Mg ha-1) of poultry litter (PL) or 1:1 mixture of PL and fly ash (FA). ...

  19. Develop an alternate energy source thru use of a poultry litter pelletizer and a combustion chamber to heat poultry houses. Final technical project report

    SciTech Connect

    Gonthier, M.W.; Mercier, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Poultry litter in a pelletized form is an acceptable energy source. The machinery and mechanism to process the litter, the combustion chamber with supporting controls and equipment, is practical and marketable. The controlling factor is economic demand. With the price of fossil fuel diminishing and with the labor cost and energy cost to process the litter, it is not economically desirable to pay the equivalent of $1.50 per gallon. It would not be economically competitive with present heating power plants because of its high initial cost, the cost of labor to maintain a pellet supply and the undesirable feature of solid fuel versus liquid fuel. This system could not be fully competitive with present systems until fuel pric

  20. Odour emissions from poultry litter - A review litter properties, odour formation and odorant emissions from porous materials.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Mark W; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2016-07-15

    Odour emissions from meat chicken sheds can at times cause odour impacts on surrounding communities. Litter is seen as the primary source of this odour. Formation and emission of odour from meat chicken litter during the grow-out period are influenced by various factors such as litter conditions, the environment, microbial activity, properties of the odorous gases and management practices. Odour emissions vary spatially and temporally. This variability has made it challenging to understand how specific litter conditions contribute to odour emissions from the litter and production sheds. Existing knowledge on odorants, odour formation mechanisms and emission processes that contribute to odour emissions from litter are reviewed. Litter moisture content and water thermodynamics (i.e. water activity, Aw) are also examined as factors that contribute to microbial odour formation, physical litter conditions and the exchange of individual odorant gases at the air-water interface. Substantial opportunities exist for future research on litter conditions and litter formation mechanisms and how these contribute to odour emissions. Closing this knowledge gap will improve management strategies that intercept and interfere with odour formation and emission processes leading to an overall reduction in the potential to cause community impacts.

  1. Environmental impacts of in-house windrow composting of broiler litter prior to land application in subtropical/semi-arid conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application to crop and pasture land is a common and effective method of utilizing the resource value of poultry litter. In-house windrow composting of litter is an emerging management practice with the potential to mitigate water quality and nuisance odor concerns associated with land applica...

  2. Simultaneous multi-residue determination of twenty one veterinary drugs in poultry litter by modeling three-way liquid chromatography with fluorescence and absorption detection data.

    PubMed

    Teglia, Carla M; Peltzer, Paola M; Seib, Silvia N; Lajmanovich, Rafael C; Culzoni, María J; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2017-05-15

    A method for the simultaneous investigation of twenty one veterinary active ingredients in poultry litter based on MCR-ALS modeling of three-way liquid chromatography with fluorescence and UV detection data is presented. The chromatographic procedure was optimized in terms of both the nature of the organic solvent and the pH of the mobile phase to maximize the resolution of the analytes. In order to improve the simultaneous extraction efficiency of the twenty one veterinary drugs, a simplex-centroid design with combinations of the three components of the extracting mixture, i.e. MeOH, ACN and sodium phosphate buffer 10mmolL(-1) pH =3.50, was carried out. The second-order advantage was exploited in the analysis of highly complex samples containing unmodeled components. The qualitative and quantitative results showed that the application of MCR-ALS was appropriate to resolve highly overlapped peaks in the presence of unknown matrix compounds. Limits of quantification, relative errors of prediction (REP) and average recoveries ranging from 0.02 to 0.61µgg(-1), 3.09-9.35% and 91.0-105.6%, respectively, were obtained. Eventually, the method was successfully applied to the determination of active ingredients in five poultry litter samples collected from different poultry livestock in Argentina.

  3. Effects of in ovo vaccination and anticoccidials on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study reports the effects of various field anticoccidial programs on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters. The programs included in ovo vaccination and various medications with either ...

  4. Effect of in ovo vaccination and anticoccidials on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on used litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study reports the effects of various field anticoccidial programs on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on used litter. The programs included in ovo vaccination and various medications with either chemi...

  5. Agronomic and environmental soil test phosphorus method comparisons and diet modification impacts on poultry litter phosphorus composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugene, Branly

    account for extractable Al and Fe, the primary P sorbents in most soils. Although Bray P1 is an appropriate soil test based on the data generated in this study, it would not be the most practical soil test as it is not considered a multi-element extraction in most states. Since PM3 was strongly correlated with Bray P1 and the benefit of using PM3as a multi-element extractant from which the PSRM3 can be calculated, it is probably the most practical test to use for both agronomic and environmental soil P assessment. We also evaluated the impacts of diets containing different amounts of DDGS and dietary fumeric acid on P excretion and P transformations during litter storage. Total P and phytate P were significantly (p< 0.0001) affected by dietary inclusion of DDGS; where DDGS inclusion of 20% decreased TP by 16, 15, and 16% for day 0, 7, and 14 of storage, respectively compared to commercial diets. Phytate P, on the other hand, was reduced by 38, 37, and 47% for day 0, 7, and 14 of storage, respectively. Overall, DDGS influenced the forms of P in poultry litter with phytate P being the most impacted. The inclusion of DDGS in poultry diets seems promising as it can potentially decrease the levels of phytate P in poultry litters, which is of may be of environmental significance as phytate P can desorb inorganic P in soils.

  6. Nutrient release and ammonium sorption by poultry litter and wood biochars in stormwater treatment.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Miller, Valentina; Chiu, Pei C; Maresca, Julia A; Guo, Mingxin; Imhoff, Paul T

    2016-05-15

    The feasibility of using biochar as a filter medium in stormwater treatment facilities was evaluated with a focus on ammonium retention. Successive batch extractions and batch ammonium sorption experiments were conducted in both deionized (DI) water and artificial stormwater using poultry litter (PL) and hardwood (HW) biochars pyrolyzed at 400°C and 500°C. No measureable nitrogen leached from HW biochars except 0.07 μmol/g of org-N from 400°C HW biochar. PL biochar pyrolyzed at 400°C leached 120-127 μmol/g of nitrogen but only 7.1-8.6 μmol/g of nitrogen when pyrolyzed at 500°C. Ammonium sorption was significant for all biochars. At a typical ammonium concentration of 2mg/L in stormwater, the maximum sorption was 150 mg/kg for PL biochar pryolyzed at 400°C. In stormwater, ion competition (e.g. Ca(2+)) suppressed ammonium sorption compared to DI water. Surprisingly, ammonium sorption was negatively correlated to the BET surface area of the tested biochars, but increased linearly with cation exchange capacity. Cation exchange capacity was the primary mechanism controlling ammonium sorption and was enhanced by pyrolysis at 400°C, while BET surface area was enhanced by pyrolysis at 500°C. The optimal properties (BET surface area, CEC, etc.) of biochar as a sorbent are not fixed but depend on the target pollutant. Stormwater infiltration column experiments in sand with 10% biochar removed over 90% of ammonium with influent ammonium concentration of 2mg/L, compared to only 1.7% removal in a sand-only column, indicating that kinetic limitations on sorption were minor for the storm conditions studied. Hardwood and poultry litter biochar pyrolyzed at 500°C and presumably higher temperature may be viable filter media for stormwater treatment facilities, as they showed limited release of organic and inorganic nutrients and acceptable ammonium sorption.

  7. Effect of Alum Additions to Poultry Litter on In-House Ammonia and Greenhouse Gas Concentrations and Emissions.

    PubMed

    Eugene, Branly; Moore, Philip A; Li, Hong; Miles, Dana; Trabue, Steven; Burns, Robert; Buser, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Alum [Al(SO4) ·14HO] addition to poultry litter has been shown to reduce ammonia (NH) concentrations in poultry houses; however, its effects on greenhouse gas (GHG; NO, CH, and CO) emissions is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of alum additions on (i) in-house NH and GHG concentrations, (ii) NH and GHG emissions, and (iii) litter chemical properties. Two identical broiler houses located in northwest Arkansas were used for this study: one house was a control and the other was treated with alum between each flock of birds. Ventilation rates were coupled with in-house NH and GHG measurements to determine emission rates. Overall, alum additions significantly reduced the daily average in-house NH concentration by 42% (8.9 vs. 15.4 μL L), and the overall NH emission rate was reduced by 47% (7.2 vs. 13.4 kg d house). The average cumulative NH emission for the three flocks was 330 kg house flock for the alum-treated house and 617 kg house flock for the control. Concentrations and emissions of nitrous oxide (NO) and methane (CH) from the alum-treated house were not significantly different than the untreated house. However, carbon dioxide (CO) emissions were significantly higher from the untreated house than the alum-treated house. Alum also significantly increased litter N content and reduced the C/N ratio. These results indicate that the addition of alum to poultry litter is not only an effective management practice for reducing in-house NH concentrations and emissions but also significantly reduces CO emissions from poultry facilities.

  8. Updraft gasification of poultry litter at farm-scale--A case study.

    PubMed

    Taupe, N C; Lynch, D; Wnetrzak, R; Kwapinska, M; Kwapinski, W; Leahy, J J

    2016-04-01

    Farm and animal wastes are increasingly being investigated for thermochemical conversion, such as gasification, due to the urgent necessity of finding new waste treatment options. We report on an investigation of the use of a farm-scale, auto-thermal gasification system for the production of a heating gas using poultry litter (PL) as a feedstock. The gasification process was robust and reliable. The PL's ash melting temperature was 639°C, therefore the reactor temperature was kept around this value. As a result of the low reactor temperature the process performance parameters were low, with a cold gas efficiency (CGE) of 0.26 and a carbon conversion efficiency (CCE) of 0.44. The calorific value of the clean product gas was 3.39 MJ m(-3)N (LHV). The tar was collected as an emulsion containing 87 wt.% water and the extracted organic compounds were identified. The residual char exceeds thresholds for Zn and Cu to obtain European biochar certification; however, has potential to be classified as a pyrogenic carbonaceous material (PCM), which resembles a high nutrient biochar.

  9. Modeling the growth and death kinetics of Salmonella in poultry litter as a function of pH and water activity.

    PubMed

    Payne, J B; Osborne, J A; Jenkins, P K; Sheldon, B W

    2007-01-01

    Contaminated poultry litter, serving as a reservoir for Salmonella, can be linked to both food safety concerns when contaminated birds enter processing plants and environmental concerns when used as a fertilizer. Predictive modeling allows for the estimation of microbial growth or inactivation as a function of controlling environmental growth factors. A study was conducted to observe the combined effects of pH and water activity (A(w)) at a constant temperature on Salmonella populations in used turkey litter to predict microbial response over time. Litter, first pH-adjusted and then inoculated with a 3-strain Salmonella serovar cocktail to an initial concentration of approximately 10(7) cfu/g, was placed into individual sealed plastic containers with saturated salt solutions for controlling A(w). A balanced design including 3 A(w) values (0.84, 0.91, 0.96), 3 pH values (4, 7, 9), and a constant temperature of 30 degrees C was used, with litter samples periodically removed and analyzed for Salmonella populations, pH, and A(w). At each combination of environmental factors, the Churchill or exponential inactivation mathematical models were used to describe the growth and death of Salmonella over time. Salmonella populations exhibited growth (approximately 2 log) with little decline up to 42 d in litter environments of pH 7 and 9 and a A(w) of 0.96. As litter A(w) and pH levels were reduced, populations declined, with the most drastic reductions (approximately 5 log in 9 h) occurring in low-pH (4) and low-A(w) (0.84) environments. Generalized models for bacterial growth and death under grouped pH environments were successfully developed to predict Salmonella behavior in litter over time. These findings suggest that the best management practices and litter treatments that lower litter A(w) to < or =0.84 and pH to < or =4 are effective in reducing Salmonella populations. The use of a single equation to predict the growth and decline of Salmonella populations as a

  10. Biochar increases nitrogen retention and lowers greenhouse gas emissions when added to composting poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Agyarko-Mintah, Eunice; Cowie, Annette; Singh, Bhupinder Pal; Joseph, Stephen; Van Zwieten, Lukas; Cowie, Alan; Harden, Steven; Smillie, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Biochar has intrinsic and nascent structural and sorption properties that may alter the physical and chemical properties of a composting mixture thus influencing the production of greenhouse gases [GHGs; nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4)]. In this study, contrasting biochars produced from greenwaste (GWB) or poultry litter (PLB) were incorporated into a composting mixture containing poultry litter and straw, and GHG emissions were measured in situ during composting using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Emissions of N2O from the biochar-amended composting mixtures decreased significantly (P<0.05) soon after commencement of the composting process compared with the non-amended control. The cumulative emissions of N2O over 8weeks in the GWB composting mixture (GWBC), PLB composting mixture (PLBC) and control (no biochar) were 4.2, 5.0 and 14.0gN2O-Nkg(-1) of total nitrogen (TN) in composting mixture, respectively (P<0.05). The CH4 emissions were significantly (P<0.05) lower in the GWBC and PLBC treatments than the control during the period from day 8 to day 36, when anaerobic conditions likely prevailed. The cumulative CH4 emissions were 12, 18 and 80mg CH4-Ckg(-1) of total carbon (TC) for the GWBC, PLBC and control treatments, respectively, though due to wide variation between replicates this difference was not statistically significant. The cumulative N2O and CH4 emissions were similar between the GWBC and PLBC despite differences in properties of the two biochars. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis and SEM imaging of the composted biochars indicated the presence of iron oxide compounds and amine-NH3 on the surface and pores of the biochars (PLB>GWB). The change in nitrogen (N) functional groups on the biochar surface after composting is evidence for sorption and/or reaction with N from labile organic N, mineral N, and gaseous N (e.g. N2O). The concentration of NH4(+) increased during the thermophilic phase and then decreased during

  11. Poultry litter and the environment: Physiochemical properties of litter and soil during successive flock rotations and after remote site deposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. broiler meat market has grown over the past 16 years and destinations for U.S. broiler meat exports expanded to over 150 countries. This market opportunity has spurred a corresponding increase in industrialized poultry production, which due to the confined space in which high numbers of an...

  12. Engineering and economic feasibility of using poultry litter as a fuel to generate electric power at Maryland`s Eastern Correctional Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Estomin, S.L.; Walters, G.; Prasad, A.; Ross, J.

    1998-02-16

    This report presents an analysis of the engineering, environmental, and economic feasibility of the Eastern Correctional Institute (ECI) meeting its electric power and thermal requirements by relying on poultry litter as a fuel. In addition to satisfying all or a portion of the utility requirements of ECI, a maximum/medium security prison located in Princess Anne, Maryland, the use of poultry litter as a fuel would reduce the amount of poultry waste currently used on the Eastern Shore as fertilizer. Based on the engineering and environmental assessments conducted, three alternative scenarios to satisfy ECI`s electric power supply and thermal requirements using poutlry litter as a fuel were developed. For all scenarios, as well as a base case defined by current operations at ECI, 20-year life-cycle costs were estimated based on projections of usage, capital costs, fuel costs, labor costs, and other relevant factors.

  13. Utilization of Poultry Litter to Enhance Fungal Activity and Microbial Dynamics in the Presence of Pesticide Mixture: Implication on Pesticide Bioremediation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical products such as pesticides have been used to increase crop production, especially in undeveloped countries. Poultry litter, the combination of feces and bedding materials, has also been used as an alternative to improve soil quality for crop production. In this study, five treatments were ...

  14. Do fecal and litter microbiomes vary within the major areas of a commercial poultry house, and does this effect sampling strategies for whole house microbiomic studies?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microbiota of the live production environment can directly shape the gastrointestinal microbiome of chickens and indirectly influence the health of birds. Therefore, numerous studies have attempted to characterize the microbial communities in litter and chicken feces from commercial poultry hous...

  15. Evaluation of Composted Poultry Litter as a Substrate Amendment for WholeTree, Clean Chip Residual, and Pinebark for Container Grown Woody Nursery Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    WholeTree (WT) and Clean Chip Residual (CCR) are potential new nursery substrates that are by-products of the forestry industry containing high wood content. Initial immobilization of nitrogen is one concern when using these new substrates; however the addition of composted poultry litter (CPL) to s...

  16. Ammonia emission factors from broiler litter in barns, in storage, and after land application.

    PubMed

    Moore, Philip A; Miles, Dana; Burns, Robert; Pote, Dan; Berg, Kess; Choi, In Hag

    2011-01-01

    We measured NH₃ emissions from litter in broiler houses, during storage, and after land application and conducted a mass balance of N in poultry houses. Four state-of-the-art tunnel-ventilated broiler houses in northwest Arkansas were equipped with NH₃ sensors, anemometers, and data loggers to continuously record NH₃ concentrations and ventilation for 1 yr. Gaseous fluxes of NH₃, N₂O, CH₄, and CO₂ from litter were measured. Nitrogen (N) inputs and outputs were quantified. Ammonia emissions during storage and after land application were measured. Ammonia emissions during the flock averaged approximately 15.2 kg per day-house (equivalent to 28.3 g NH₃per bird marketed). Emissions between flocks equaled 9.09 g NH₃ per bird. Hence, in-house NH₃ emissions were 37.5 g NH₃ per bird, or 14.5 g kg(-1) bird marketed (50-d-old birds). The mass balance study showed N inputs for the year to the four houses totaled 71,340 kg N, with inputs from bedding, chicks, and feed equal to 303, 602, and 70,435 kg, respectively (equivalent to 0.60, 1.19, and 139.56 g N per bird). Nitrogen outputs totaled 70,396 kg N. Annual N output from birds marketed, NH₃ emissions, litter or cake, mortality, and NO₂ emissions was 39,485, 15,571, 14,464, 635, and 241 kg N, respectively (equivalent to 78.2, 30.8, 28.7, 1.3, and 0.5 g N per bird). The percent N recovery for the N mass balance study was 98.8%. Ammonia emissions from stacked litter during a 16-d storage period were 172 g Mg(-1) litter, which is equivalent to 0.18 g NH₃ per bird. Ammonia losses from poultry litter broadcast to pastures were 34 kg N ha (equivalent to 15% of total N applied or 7.91 g NH₃ per bird). When the litter was incorporated into the pasture using a new knifing technique, NH₃ losses were virtually zero. The total NH₃ emission factor for broilers measured in this study, which includes losses in-house, during storage, and after land application, was 45.6 g NH₃ per bird marketed.

  17. Wettability of poultry litter biochars at variable pyrolysis temperatures and their impact on soil wettability and water retention relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, S. C.; Witt, B.; Guo, M.; Chiu, P.; Imhoff, P. T.

    2012-12-01

    To reduce the impact of poultry farming on greenhouse gas emissions, poultry farming waste - poultry litter - can be converted to biofuel and biochar through slow-pyrolysis, with the biochar added to agricultural soil for nutrient enrichment and carbon sequestration. While biochars from source materials other than poultry litter have been shown to sequester carbon and increase soil fertility, there is considerable variability in biochar behavior - even with biochars created from the same source material. This situation is exacerbated by our limited understanding of how biochars alter physical, chemical, and biological processes in agricultural soils. The focus of this work is to develop a mechanistic understanding of how poultry litter (PL) biochars affect the hydrology, microbial communities, N2O emissions, and nitrogen cycling in agricultural soils. The initial focus is on the impact of PL biochar on soil hydrology. PL from Perdue AgriRecycle, LLC (Seaford, Delaware) was used to produce biochars at pyrolysis temperatures from 300°C to 600°C. To explore the impact of these biochars on soil wettability, the PL biochars were mixed with a 30/40 Accusand in mass fractions from 0% to 100%. The water contact angle was then measured using a goniometer on these sand/biochar mixtures using the sessile drop method and a single layer of sample particles. The PL biochars produced at temperatures between 300°C to 400°C were hydrophobic, while those pyrolized at > 400°C were hydrophilic. Water contact angles for samples with 100% biochar varied systematically with pyrolysis temperature, decreasing from 101.12° to 20.57° as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 300 to 600°C. Even for small amounts of hydrophobic biochar added to the hydrophilic sand, the contact angle of the mixture was altered: for sand/biochar mixtures containing only 2% hydrophobic PL biochar by weight, the contact angle of the mixture increased from ~ 8° (0% biochar) to 20° (2% biochar). For

  18. Recovery of ammonia from poultry litter using flat gas permeable membranes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of flat gas-permeable membranes was investigated as components of a new process to capture and recover ammonia (NH3) in poultry houses. This process includes the passage of gaseous NH3 through a microporous hydrophobic membrane, capture with a circulating dilute acid on the other side of the...

  19. Effects of in ovo vaccination and anticoccidials on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Woo; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Pagès, Marc; Bautista, Daniel A; Pope, Conrad R; Ritter, G Donald; Lillehoj, Erik P; Neumann, Anthony P; Siragusa, Gregory R

    2012-08-01

    The present study reports the effects of various field anticoccidial programs on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters. The programs included in ovo vaccination and various medications with either chemicals, ionophores, or both. In general, serum samples from these chickens showed anticoccidial antibody titers when tested at days 7 and 14 post hatch with the peak response at day 43. Serum anticoccidial titers were highest in birds fed a non-medicated diet compared with those vaccinated or fed medicated diets. Total number of Eimeria oocysts and the composition of Eimeria spp. present in the litter samples from different treatment groups varied depending on the type of anticoccidial program. Oocyst counts in general ranged from 3.7×10(3) to 7.0×10(4) per g of litter. Importantly, both morphological and molecular typing studies revealed four major predominant Eimeria spp., E. acervulina, E. maxima, E. praecox, and E. tenella in the litter samples. Collectively, these results indicate that the field anticoccidial programs influenced the type and abundance of Eimeria spp. present in the litter samples and also modulated host immune response to Eimeria.

  20. Bioremediation of gasoline contaminated soil by a bacterial consortium amended with poultry litter, coir pith and rhamnolipid biosurfactant.

    PubMed

    Rahman, K S M; Banat, I M; Thahira, J; Thayumanavan, Tha; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find methods for enhancing rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation in gasoline contaminated soil by ex situ bioremediation. Red soil (RS) was treated with gasoline-spilled soil (GS) from a gasoline station and different combinations of amendments were prepared using (i) mixed bacterial consortium (MC), (ii) poultry litter (PL), (iii) coir pith (CP) and (iv) rhamnolipid biosurfactant (BS) produced by Pseudomonas sp. DS10-129. The study was conducted for a period of 90 days during which bacterial growth, hydrocarbon degradation and growth parameters of Phaseolus aureus RoxB including seed germination, chlorophyll content, shoot and root length were measured. Approximately 67% and 78% of the hydrocarbons were effectively degraded within 60 days in soil samples amended with RS + GS + MC + PL + CP + BS at 0.1% and 1%. Maximum percentage of seed germination, shoot length, root length and chlorophyll content in P. aureus were recorded after 60 days in the above amendments. Further incubation to 90 days did not exhibit significant improvements. Statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range test (DMRT) revealed that the level of amendments, incubation time and combination of amendments significantly influenced bacterial growth, hydrocarbon degradation, seed germination and chlorophyll content at a 1% probability level. All tested additives MC, PL, CP and rhamnolipid BS had significant positive effects on the bioremediation of GS.

  1. Effects of broiler litter application on nutrient accumulations in soil.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive nutrient accumulation in soils due to land application of broiler litter is a growing environmental concern. A four year study was conducted on a Pembroke silt loam soil (Mollic Paleudalf) cropped to orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) to evaluate accumulation of soil nutrients from broil...

  2. Effects of broiler litter application on nutrient accumulation in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive nutrient accumulation in soils due to land application of broiler litter is a growing environmental concern. A four-year study was conducted on a Pembroke silt loam soil (Mollic Paleudalf) cropped to orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) to evaluate accumulation of soil nutrients from broil...

  3. Survival, transport, and sources of fecal bacteria in streams and survival in land-applied poultry litter in the upper Shoal Creek basin, southwestern Missouri, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumacher, John G.

    2003-01-01

    five sampling sites along the 5.7-mi study reach of Shoal Creek, but the trends at successive downstream sites were out of phase and could not be explained by simple advection and dispersion. At base-flow conditions, the travel time of bacteria in Shoal Creek along the 5.7-mi reach between State Highway W (site 2) and the MDNR sampling site (site 3) was about 26 hours. Substantial dispersion and dilution occurs along the upper 4.1 mi of this reach because of inflows from a number of springs and tributaries and the presence of several long pools and channel meanders. Minimal dispersion and dilution occurs along the 1.6-mi reach immediately upstream from the MDNR sampling site. Measurements of fecal bacteria decay in Shoal Creek during July 2001 indicated that about 8 percent of fecal coliform and E. coli bacteria decay each hour with an average first-order decay constant of 0.084 h-1 (per hour). Results of field test plots indicated that substantial numbers of fecal bacteria present in poul try litter can survive in fields for as much as 8 weeks after the application of the litter to the land surface. Median densities of fecal coliform and E. coli in slurry-water samples collected from fields increased from less than 60 col/100 mL before the application of turkey and broiler litter, to as large as 420,000 and 290,000 col/100 mL after the application of litter. Bacteria densities in the test plots generally decreased in a exponential manner over time with decay rates ranging from 0.085 to 0.185 d-1 (per day) for fecal coliform to between 0.100 and 0.250 d-1 for E. coli. The apparent survival of significant numbers of fecal bacteria on fields where poultry litter has been applied indicates that runoff from these fields is a potential source of fecal bacteria to vicinity streams for many weeks following litter application.

  4. Poultry manure as raw material for mercury adsorbents in gas applications

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Lima, I.M.; Boihem, L.L.

    2009-09-30

    The quantity of poultry manure generated each year is large, and technologies that take advantage of the material should be explored. At the same time, increased emphasis on the reduction of mercury emissions from coal-fired electric power plants has resulted in environmental regulations that may, in the future, require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents. The sorbents could be injected into the flue gas stream, where they could adsorb the mercury. The sorbents (now containing mercury) would be removed via filtration or other means from the flue gas. Our preliminary work has demonstrated that activated carbon made from poultry manure can adsorb mercury from air with good efficiency. In laboratory experiments, an activated carbon made from turkey cake manure removed the majority of elemental mercury from a hot air stream. Other activated carbons made from chicken and turkey litter manure were also efficient. In general, unwashed activated carbons made from poultry manure were more efficient in removing mercury than their acid-washed counterparts. The results suggest that the adsorption of mercury was mainly due to chemisorption on the surface of the carbon. Other potential uses for the activated carbons are the removal of mercury from air and natural gas.

  5. Kinetics of batch anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and wheat straw including a novel strategy of estimation of endogenous decay and yield coefficients using numerical integration.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiacheng; Zhu, Jun

    2016-10-01

    The kinetics of anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and wheat straw has not been widely reported in the literature. Since endogenous decay and yield coefficients are two basic parameters for the design of anaerobic digesters, they are currently estimated only by continues experiments. In this study, numerical integration was employed to develop a novel strategy to estimate endogenous decay and yield coefficients using initial and final liquid data combined with methane volumes produced over time in batch experiments. To verify this method, the kinetics of batch anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and wheat straw at different TS and VS levels was investigated, with the corresponding endogenous decay and (non-observed) yield coefficients in the exponential periods determined to be between 0.74 × 10(-3) and 6.1 × 10(-3) d(-1), and between 0.0259 and 0.108 g VSS (g VS)(-1), respectively. A general Gompertz model developed early for bio-product could be used to simulate the methane volume profile in the co-digestion. The same model parameters obtained from the methane model combined with the corresponding yield coefficients could also be used to describe the VSS generation and VS destruction.

  6. Managing broiler litter application rate and grazing to decrease watershed runoff losses.

    PubMed

    Sistani, K R; Brink, G E; Oldham, J L

    2008-01-01

    Pasture management and broiler litter application rate are critical factors influencing the magnitude of nutrients being transported by runoff from fields. We investigated the impact of pasture management and broiler litter application rate on nutrient runoff from bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) pastures. The experiment was conducted on a Ruston fine sandy loam with a factorial arrangement on 21 large paddocks. Runoff water was collected from natural rainfall events from 2001 to 2003. Runoff water and soil samples were analyzed for nutrients and sediments. Runoff was generally greater (29%) from grazed than hayed pastures regardless of the litter application rate. There was greater inorganic N in the runoff from grazed paddocks when litter rate was based on N rather than P. The mean total P loss per runoff event for all treatments ranged from 7 to 45 g ha(-1) and the grazed treatment with litter applied on N basis had the greatest total P loss. Total dissolved P was the dominant P fraction in the runoff, ranging from 85% to 93% of the total P. The soluble reactive P was greater for treatments with litter applied on N basis regardless of pasture management. Runoff total sediments were greater for N-based litter application compared to those which received litter on P basis. Our results indicate that litter may be applied on N basis if the pasture is hayed and the soil P is low. In contrast, litter rates should be based on a P-basis if pasture is grazed.

  7. Non-food industrial applications of poultry feathers.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Narendra

    2015-11-01

    Poultry feathers are one of the unique coproducts that have versatile applications ranging from composites, fibers, tissue engineering scaffolds, nano and micro particles, electronic devices and many others. Despite their low cost, abundant availability, wide applicability and unique properties, non-food industrial applications of feather keratin are very limited. Poor-thermoplasticity, difficulty in dissolving keratin and limited knowledge on the processability and properties of products developed are some of the limitations for the large scale use of feather/keratin. Nevertheless, increasing interests in using renewable and sustainable raw materials and need to decrease dependence on non-renewable petroleum resources make feathers an attractive raw material for bioproducts. This review provides an overview of the products developed from poultry feathers and their limitations and advantages.

  8. Multi-microbial compound eliminates Salmonella Typhimurium from one-third of poultry litter samples within eight days

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter is composed of bedding material mixed with chicken manure, feathers, and feed. The bedding material is typically composed of wood shavings; peanut or rice hulls depending on the area of the country where the broilers are being raised. Due to the increasing price of fresh bedding mat...

  9. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from environmental samples in the area of intensive poultry production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we investigated antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus spp. from different environmental compartments including litter from two farms, 12 surface and 28 groundwater sites in an area of intensive poultry production and litter application. The enumerated isolates (n=250) were tested ...

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of copper poisoning caused by accidental feeding on poultry litter in a sheep flock.

    PubMed

    Christodoulopoulos, G; Roubies, N

    2007-11-01

    We report a case of chronic copper poisoning in a flock of 182 grazing dairy sheep in Thessaly, Central Greece. Five ewes were found dead during the course of a week. The diagnosis of copper poisoning was confirmed by necropsy examination, blood test results, and abnormally high copper levels in liver and kidney samples. A field investigation revealed the source of copper as a litter heap from a broiler farm to which the sheep had accidental access during their movement between the milking parlour and the grazing area. Access to the litter was subsequently blocked and all sheep were provided with 50 g of a salt/gypsum/sodium molybdate mixture (90.0: 9.8: 0.2, w/w) mixed in 500 g of concentrate feed daily, for a period of 5 weeks. Follow-up blood samples were taken 3 and 8 wk after the initial diagnosis. A reduction in aspartate aminotransferase activity indicated the source of copper had been eliminated and the subsequent treatment was successful.

  11. Reducing phosphorus runoff and inhibiting ammonia loss from poultry manure with aluminum sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, P.A. Jr.; Daniel, T.C.; Edwards, D.R.

    2000-02-01

    Applications of aluminum sulfate (Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} {center_dot} 14H{sub 2}O), commonly referred to as alum, to poultry litter have been shown to decrease P runoff from lands fertilized with litter and to inhibit NH{sub 3} volatilization. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of alum applications in commercial broiler houses on: (1) NH{sub 3} volatilization (in-house), (2) poultry production, (3) litter chemistry, and (4) P runoff following litter application. Two farms were used for this study: one had six poultry houses and the other had four. The litter in half of the houses at each farm was treated with alum; the other houses were controls. Alum was applied at a rate of 1,816 kg/house, which corresponded to 0.091 kg/bird. Each year the houses were cleaned in the spring and the litter was broadcast onto paired watersheds in tall fescue at each farm. Results from this study showed that alum applications lowered the litter pH, particularly during the first 3 to 4 wk of each growout. Reductions in litter pH resulted in less NH{sub 3} volatilization, which led to reductions in atmospheric NH{sub 3} in the alum-treated houses. Broilers grown on alum-treated litter were significantly heavier than controls (1.73 kg vs. 1.66 kg). Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations in runoff from pastures fertilized with alum-treated litter averaged 73% lower than that from normal litter throughout a 3-yr period. These results indicate that alum-treatment of poultry litter is a very effective best management practice that reduces nonpoint source pollution while it increases agricultural productivity.

  12. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  13. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  14. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  15. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  16. 9 CFR 381.198 - Importer to make application for inspection of poultry products offered for entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inspection of poultry products offered for entry. 381.198 Section 381.198 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products § 381.198 Importer to make application for inspection...

  17. Free range and deep litter poultry production systems: effect on performance, carcass yield and meat composition of cockerel chickens.

    PubMed

    Sogunle, Olajide Mark; Olaniyi, Olagoke Ayobami; Egbeyale, Lawrence Tokunbo; Akinola, Olufemi Sunday; Shittu, Taofeek A; Abiola, Samuel Soladoye; Ladokun, Abimbola O; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out on 150 cockerel chickens each of Harco Black and Novogen strains to determine their performance, carcass yield and meat composition on free range and deep litter production systems. The birds were brooded for 4 weeks and thereafter allotted to the different production systems for a period of 12 weeks. Each production system was allotted 150 chicks (75 chicks per strain) with three replicates of 25 chicks. The birds on deep litter production system were fed ad libitum while each bird on free range was fed 50 % of its daily feed requirement. On the 84 th day, a total of 36 birds were randomly selected for analysis of the carcass yield and meat composition. The data generated were subjected to a two-way analysis of variance in a 2 × 2 factorial experimental arrangement. Novogen strain consumed less feed (P < 0.05) on free range and had the best feed/gain (2.72). A higher (P < 0.05) shear force value (3.74 N) was obtained in the thigh muscle for birds on free range. The tibia proximal length and breadth, and tibia distal length and breadth were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by the production systems and strains. On free range, Harco black had more meat (85.69 g) than bone (18.07 g) in the breast while Novogen had the lowest meat/bone (2.38). Conclusively, Novogen strain should be raised on free range for a better performance in terms of feed/gain, but for higher meat composition, Harco black is a better strain.

  18. Investigation of energy recovery from poultry litter and municipal solid waste by thermochemical conversion method in India.

    PubMed

    Kirubakaran, V; Sivaramakrishnan, V; Premalatha, M; Subramanian, P

    2005-10-01

    The waste disposal is becoming a major threat to environmental issues and to sustainable development of mankind. The rapid growth in population and enormous developmental activities are the main causes for the generation of waste in many forms. Hence there is need to redress the concern on environment and efforts to be made for effective collection and disposal of wastes. Most of the solid waste is a mix of household wastes, street wastes, commercial and institutional wastes containing organic as well as inorganic matter. This offers better opportunity to recover energy from organic fraction of wastes by adapting suitable processing and treatment technologies. This paper describes the various technologies need to be adopted for the disposal of poultry waste and municipal solid waste. More emphasis has been given on waste disposal technologies for better environment and economics. The advantages and disadvantages of each disposal technology have been briefed.

  19. Rainfall and tillage effects on transport of fecal bacteria and sex hormones 17ß-estradiol and testosterone from broiler litter applications to a Georgia Piedmont Ultisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter provides plant nutrients for crop and pasture production. Fecal bacteria, sex hormones (17ß-estradiol and testosterone) and antibiotic residues are litter components, however, that may contaminate surface waters and become a public health risk. Our objective was to quantify transpor...

  20. [Applicability analysis of spatially explicit model of leaf litter in evergreen broad-leaved forests].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing-Qing; Liu, He-Ming; Jonard, Mathieu; Wang, Zhang-Hua; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2014-11-01

    The spatially explicit model of leaf litter can help to understand its dispersal process, which is very important to predict the distribution pattern of leaves on the surface of the earth. In this paper, the spatially explicit model of leaf litter was developed for 20 tree species using litter trap data from the mapped forest plot in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong, Zhejiang Pro- vince, eastern China. Applicability of the model was analyzed. The model assumed an allometric equation between diameter at breast height (DBH) and leaf litter amount, and the leaf litter declined exponentially with the distance. Model parameters were estimated by the maximum likelihood method. Results showed that the predicted and measured leaf litter amounts were significantly correlated, but the prediction accuracies varied widely for the different tree species, averaging at 49.3% and ranging from 16.0% and 74.0%. Model qualities of tree species significantly correlated with the standard deviations of the leaf litter amount per trap, DBH of the tree species and the average leaf dry mass of tree species. There were several ways to improve the forecast precision of the model, such as installing the litterfall traps according to the distribution of the tree to cover the different classes of the DBH and distance apart from the parent trees, determining the optimal dispersal function of each tree species, and optimizing the existing dispersal function.

  1. Poultry farm hygiene: microbiological quality assessment of drinking water used in layer chickens managed under the battery cage and deep litter systems at three poultry farms in southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Folorunso, O R; Kayode, Sule; Onibon, V O

    2014-01-01

    Water troughs from deep litter and caged chicken water troughs (drinkers) fixed to each of the different 3-tier cages containing layer chickens in Farms A, B and C were subjected to a 7-day study which involved the monitoring of poultry farm hygiene. Drinkers were washed before filling with water on Day 1. For Days 3, 5 and 7 water was served without prior washing. The occurrence and characterization of the bacteria isolates were investigated and data obtained were analyzed and compared. For the bacterial count on Day 1, for layer chickens on cage system, no significant differences (p > 0.05) among the farms and between the farms tier interactions. On Day 3, no significant difference (p > 0.05) among the parameters. On Day 5, there was significant difference (p<0.05) among the farms and on Day 7, there was high significant difference (p < 0.01) among the farms. On Days 5 and 7, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) among the tiers nor between the interactions of the farms and tiers. The bacterial count in water troughs of layer chickens in deep litter system, on Day 1, had no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the farms, water troughs and their interactions. On Day 3, no significant difference (p > 0.05) among the parameters. On Days 5 and 7, there were significant difference (p<0.05) and a high significant difference (p < 0.01) between the farms respectively. On Days 5 and 7, no significant differences between the water troughs and between the interaction of the farms and the water troughs. Farm A isolates contained Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermis, Klebsiella sp., Salmonella sp., Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus salivarius and Corynebacterium sp. Farm B had Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermis, Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium sp., Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis and Klebsiella sp. while for Farm C, apart from the prevalent bacteria isolates obtained in Farms A

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility and distribution of antimicrobial-resistance genes among Enterococcus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolates recovered from poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Simjee, Shabbir; McDermott, Patrick F; White, David G; Hofacre, Charles; Berghaus, Roy D; Carter, Peggy J; Stewart, Leigh; Liu, Tongrui; Maier, Marie; Maurer, John J

    2007-12-01

    Data on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant enterococci and staphylococci from the poultry production environment are sparse in the United States. This information is needed for science-based risk assessments of antimicrobial use in animal husbandry and potential public-health consequences. In this study, we assessed the susceptibility of staphylococci and enterococci isolated from poultry litter, recovered from 24 farms across Georgia, to several antimicrobials of veterinary and human health importance. Among the 90 Enterococcus isolates recovered, E. hirae (46%) was the most frequently encountered species, followed by E. faecium (27%), E. gallinarum (12%), and E. faecalis (10%). Antimicrobial resistance was most often observed to tetracycline (96%), followed by clindamycin (90%), quinupristin-dalfopristin (62%), penicillin (53%), erythromycin (50%), nitrofurantoin (49%), and clarithromycin (48%). Among the 110 staphylococci isolates recovered, only coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were identified with the predominant Staphylococcus species being S. sciuri (38%), S. lentus (21%), S. xylosus (14%) and S. simulans (12%). Resistance was less-frequently observed among the Staphylococcus isolates for the majority of antimicrobials tested, as compared with Enterococcus isolates, and was primarily limited to clarithromycin (71%), erythromycin (71%), clindamycin (48%), and tetracycline (38%). Multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes were prevalent in both Enterococcus and Staphylococcus; however, Enterococcus exhibited a statistically significant difference in the median number of antimicrobials to which resistance was observed (median = 5.0) compared with Staphylococcus species (median = 3.0). Because resistance to several of these antimicrobials in gram-positive bacteria may be attributed to the shuttling of common drug-resistance genes, we also determined which common antimicrobial-resistance genes were present in both enterococci and staphylococci. The

  3. An Application of the Phosphorus Consistent Rule for Environmentally Acceptable Cost-Efficient Management of Broiler Litter in Crop Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Limaye, Ashutosh; Adhikari, Murali; Martin, Neil R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    We calculated the profitability of using broiler litter as a source of plant nutrients using the phosphorus consistent litter application rule. The cost saving by using litter is 37% over the use of chemical fertilizer-only option to meet the nutrient needs of major crops grown in Alabama. In the optimal solution, only a few routes of all the possible routes developed were used for inter- and intra- county litter hauling. If litter is not adopted as the sole source of crop nutrients, the best environmental policy may be to pair the phosphorus consistent rule with taxes, marketable permits, and subsidies.flaws

  4. Enhancement of broiler litter to improve the fertilizer quality of litter

    SciTech Connect

    Ransom, J.M.; Strickland, R.C.

    1992-12-01

    This document presents efforts to utilize poultry litter for feed, fertilizer, and soil amendments. Historical and programmatic efforts by TVA are discussed. Current methods of drying and pelleting the litter, along with more direct methods of composting are reported.

  5. Enhancement of broiler litter to improve the fertilizer quality of litter

    SciTech Connect

    Ransom, J.M.; Strickland, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    This document presents efforts to utilize poultry litter for feed, fertilizer, and soil amendments. Historical and programmatic efforts by TVA are discussed. Current methods of drying and pelleting the litter, along with more direct methods of composting are reported.

  6. 40 CFR 412.4 - Best management practices (BMPs) for land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. 412.4 Section 412.4 Protection of... application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. (a) Applicability. This section applies to any CAFO... wastewater may not be land applied. Examples of conduits to surface waters include but are not limited...

  7. 40 CFR 412.4 - Best management practices (BMPs) for land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. 412.4 Section 412.4 Protection of... application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. (a) Applicability. This section applies to any CAFO... wastewater may not be land applied. Examples of conduits to surface waters include but are not limited...

  8. 40 CFR 412.4 - Best management practices (BMPs) for land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. 412.4 Section 412.4 Protection of... application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. (a) Applicability. This section applies to any CAFO... wastewater may not be land applied. Examples of conduits to surface waters include but are not limited...

  9. 40 CFR 412.4 - Best management practices (BMPs) for land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. 412.4 Section 412.4 Protection of... application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. (a) Applicability. This section applies to any CAFO... wastewater may not be land applied. Examples of conduits to surface waters include but are not limited...

  10. 40 CFR 412.4 - Best management practices (BMPs) for land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... land application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. 412.4 Section 412.4 Protection of... application of manure, litter, and process wastewater. (a) Applicability. This section applies to any CAFO... wastewater may not be land applied. Examples of conduits to surface waters include but are not limited...

  11. Changes in physicochemical characteristics of biochars by hydrothermal and dry carbonization of swine solids and poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biomass conversion from agricultural residues is an important resource for renewable energy production. Biochar, the carbonaceous materials derived from biomass conversion, has received a great attention due to its useful applications. Combination of feedstock and thermal processing conditions produ...

  12. Impact of management practices on water extractable organic carbon and nitrogen from a poultry litter-amended soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient runoff from manured land can cause water quality problems; however, properly managing application rate in combination with tillage and crop system may reduce water soluble organic C (WEOC) and N (WEON), and decrease the risk of nutrient runoff. The objective of this research was to deter...

  13. Distribution of plant nutrient elements and carbon in particle size fractions of broiler litter ash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An estimated 10.8 million tons of broiler litter and 3.0 million tons of turkey litter were produced in the United States in 2009. Poultry litter is a mixture of manure, bedding material (e.g., wood chips, sawdust, or straw), feathers, and spilled feed. Poultry litter contains high levels of Ca, N...

  14. Environmental assay on the effect of poultry manure application on soil organisms in agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Delgado, M; Rodríguez, C; Martín, J V; Miralles de Imperial, R; Alonso, F

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports the effects produced on the organisms of the soil (plants, invertebrates and microorganisms), after the application of two types of poultry manure (sawdust and straw bed) on an agricultural land. The test was made using a terrestrial microcosm, Multi-Species Soil System (MS3) developed in INIA. There was no difference in the germination for any of the three species of plants considered in the study. The biomass was increased in the wheat (Triticum aestivum) coming from ground treated with both kinds of poultry manure. Oilseed rape (Brasica rapa) was not affected and regarding vetch (Vicia sativa) only straw poultry manure showed significant difference. For length only Vicia sativa was affected showing a reduction when straw was exposed to poultry manure. When the effect on invertebrates was studied, we observed a reduction in the number of worms during the test, especially from the ground control (13.7%), higher than in the ground with sawdust poultry manure (6.7%), whereas in the ground with straw poultry manure, there was no reduction. The biomass was affected and at the end of the test it was observed that while the reduction of worms in the ground control was about 48%, the number of those that were in the ground with sawdust poultry manure or straw poultry manure decreased by 41% and 22% respectively. Finally, the effects on microorganisms showed that the enzymatic activities: dehydrogenase (DH) and phosphatase and basal respiration rate increased at the beginning of the test, and the differences were statistically significant compared with the values of the control group. During the test, all these parameters decreased (except DH activities) but they were always higher than in the ground control. This is why it is possible to deduce that the contribution of poultry manure caused an improvement in the conditions of fertilization and also for the soil.

  15. Application of Probiotics for the Production of Safe and High-quality Poultry Meat

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong Ha; Hamidon, Farizal; Rajangan, Chandraprasad; Soh, Kim Pong; Gan, Chee Yuen; Lim, Theam Soon

    2016-01-01

    Poultry industry has always been a dynamic and integral part of national economies in many countries. Economic losses incur especially in large-scale rearing facilities, often attributed to the deterioration of environmental conditions, poultry exposure to stressors and development of diseases. While antibiotics have been commonly used for prophylactic purposes and as growth stimulants, extensive documentation of antimicrobial resistance among pathogenic bacteria due to indiscriminate utilization of antibiotic in the industry has led to public and governmental outcries. Elimination of antibiotics from poultry production has thus encouraged intensive search for alternatives. In this review, we discuss the immense potential of probiotics to fill the gap as alternative growth promoters and evidences of beneficial effects of probiotic application in poultry production. PMID:27857531

  16. Nutrient loss in leachate and surface runoff from surface-broadcast and subsurface-banded broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface band application of poultry litter has been shown to reduce the transport of nutrients from fields in surface runoff, compared to the conventional surface broadcast application. Little in situ research has been conducted to determine effects of surface broadcast application and subsurfac...

  17. Effects of frequency of multiple applications of litter amendment on litter ammonia and live performance in a shared airspace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mitigation of ammonia (NH3) volatilization from litter is of particular interest given its effects on broiler health and production efficiency, as well as air and water quality concerns. Typical management guidelines recommend aerial NH3 concentrations be limited to 25 ppm. However, concentrations i...

  18. Stratification of phosphorus forms from long-term conservation tillage and poultry litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) stratification leaves high P concentrations at the soil surface, which are vulnerable to loss in runoff. Understanding P forms at the soil surface may help control P loss, but little information is available on how P forms stratify in soil. We used 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spec...

  19. Fate of steroid hormones in sewage sludge and poultry litter prior to land application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steroid hormones can act as potent endocrine disruptors when released into the environment. The main sources of these chemicals are thought to be wastewater treatment plant discharges and waste from animal feeding operations. While these compounds have frequently been found in wastewater effluents...

  20. Nitrous oxide emissions from nitrogen enriched low-phosphorus pelletized broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High concentration of the poultry industry in certain regions of the United States promoted an excess of soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) because of recurrent land application of broiler litter waste. A new waste treatment technology developed by USDA-ARS, called “Quick Wash”, can recover phosph...

  1. Effects of immobilizing agents on surface runoff water quality from bermudagrass sod fertilized with broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface broadcasting is the common method for applying poultry litter on perennial forages, but this application method concentrates nutrients and pathogenic microorganisms at the soil surface where they are vulnerable to runoff water. The potential impairment of surface water from soluble nutrients...

  2. Nitrous oxide emissions from soil amended with low-phosphorus broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regions of the United States with a high concentration of poultry farms have soils with excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) far beyond the agronomic requirement of crops because of recurrent land application of broiler litter. A new waste treatment technology developed by USDA-ARS, called “Quick ...

  3. Subsurface application enhances benefits of manure redistribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable nutrient management requires redistribution of livestock manure from nutrient-excess areas to nutrient-deficit areas. Field experiments were conducted to assess agronomic and environmental effects of different poultry litter application methods (surface vs. subsurface) and timings (fall ...

  4. Runoff phosphorus loss immediately after poultry manure application as influenced by the application rate and tillage.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Daniel E; Mallarino, Antonio P; Haq, Mazhar U; Allen, Brett L

    2009-01-01

    Excessive or N-based application of poultry manure for crops may result in significant risk of P loss with surface runoff. This study assessed P loss immediately after poultry manure application to soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] residue with and without tillage at eight Iowa fields. Manure from chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) or turkeys (Melleagris gollopavo) was applied at intended rates of 0, 84, or 168 kg total N ha(-1) (total P was 0, 21-63, 50-123 kg P ha(-1), respectively) with three replications. Simulated rainfall (76 mm h(-1)) was applied to 3-m2 sections of larger field plots with 2 to 7% slope, usually within 2 d of application, to collect runoff during 30 min. Runoff was analyzed for concentrations of sediment, dissolved reactive P (DRPC), bioavailable P (BAPC), and total P (TPRC). Non-incorporated manure consistently increased (P < or = 0.10) concentrations of all runoff P fractions in five sites, but there were increasing trends at all sites, and on average manure increased DRPC, BAPC, and TPRC 32, 23, and 12 times, respectively, over the control. Tillage to incorporate manure reduced DRPC, BAPC, and TPRC by 88, 89, and 77% on average, respectively, although in non-manured plots tillage seldom affected DRPC or BAPC and often increased TPRC. Tillage increased sediment concentration in runoff but not enough to offset the benefits of manure P incorporation. Runoff P loads generally followed trends of runoff P concentrations but were more variable, and significant treatment effects were less frequent. Overall, incorporation of manure by tillage was very effective at reducing P loss during runoff events shortly after poultry manure application under the conditions of this study.

  5. Broiler litter application method and runoff timing effects on nutrient and Escherichia coli losses from tall fescue pasture.

    PubMed

    Sistani, K R; Torbert, H A; Way, T R; Bolster, C H; Pote, D H; Warren, J G

    2009-01-01

    The inability to incorporate manure into permanent pasture leads to the concentration of nutrients near the soil surface with the potential to be transported off site by runoff water. In this study, we used rainfall simulations to examine the effect of broiler chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) litter application method and the runoff timing on nutrient and E. coli losses from tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) pasture on a Hartsells sandy loam soil (fine-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults)) in Crossville, AL. Treatments included two methods of litter application (surface broadcast and subsurface banding), commercial fertilizer, and control. Litter was applied at a rate of 8.97 Mg ha(-1). Treatments were assigned to 48 plots with four blocks (12 plots each) arranged in a randomized complete block design to include three replications in each block. Simulated rainfall was applied to treatments as follows: Day 1, block 1 (runoff 1); Day 8, block 2 (runoff 2); Day 15, block 3 (runoff 3); and Day 22, block 4 (runoff 4). Total phosphorus (TP), inorganic N, and Escherichia coli concentrations in runoff from broadcast litter application were all significantly greater than from subsurface litter banding. The TP losses from broadcast litter applications averaged 6.8 times greater than those from subsurface litter applications. About 81% of the runoff TP was in the form of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) for both litter-application methods. The average losses of NO(3)-N and total suspended solids (TSS) from subsurface banding plots were 160 g ha(-1) and 22 kg ha(-1) compared to 445 g ha(-1) and 69 kg ha(-1) for the broadcast method, respectively. Increasing the time between litter application and the first runoff event helped decrease nutrient and E. coli losses from surface broadcast litter, but those losses generally remained significantly greater than controls and subsurface banded, regardless of runoff timing. This study shows that subsurface

  6. Bacteriophage application on red meats and poultry: Effects on Salmonella population in final ground products.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Y; Purushothaman, P; Gupta, N; Ragnone, M; Verma, S C; de Mello, A S

    2017-05-01

    This research was conducted to study the effects of bacteriophage application during tumbling on Salmonella populations in ground meat and poultry. Red meat trim and poultry were inoculated with a Salmonella cocktail to result in a contamination level of 7logCFU/g in ground products. A commercial preparation containing bacteriophages S16 and Felix-O1a (FO1a) was applied during tumbling at 10(7) and 10(8)PFU/ml. Samples were held at 4°C for 6h and 18h (red meat) and 30min and 6h (poultry). Overall, bacteriophage application on trim reduced 1 and 0.8logCFU/g of Salmonella in ground beef and ground pork, respectively. For ground chicken and ground turkey, Salmonella was reduced by 1.1 and 0.9logCFU/g, respectively. This study shows that bacteriophage application during tumbling of red meat trim and poultry can provide additional Salmonella control in ground products.

  7. Evaluation of ammonia emissions from broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emissions from poultry litter results in air pollution and can cause high levels of ammonia in poultry houses, which negatively impacts bird performance. The objectives of this study were to: (1) conduct a nitrogen (N) mass balance in broiler houses by measuring the N inputs (bedding, chick...

  8. Critical litter moisture maximizes ammonia generation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural breakdown of litter (bedding material mixed with deposits of feces, feathers, spilled feed and water) generates ammonia in poultry houses. Good management practices can reduce ammonia concentrations in poultry houses. Findings from a recent publication indicate there is a critical litt...

  9. Nutritional and physical properties of organic Beauregard sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.)] as influenced by broiler litter application rate.

    PubMed

    Gichuhi, Peter N; Kpomblekou-A, Kokoasse; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C

    2014-07-01

    Organic farming has been on an upward trend in recent years. However, the manures used like broiler litter have variable nutrient content, making it important to establish optimal application rate, for maximum crop yield and quality. Additionally, some states like Alabama restricts the amount of broiler litter to control excessive nutrients accumulation which can lead to surface and ground water contamination. The current study evaluated the effect of broiler litter at rates 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 t ha(-1) (treatments T0, T0.5, T1, T2, and T3), on the nutritional and physical properties of Beauregard sweet potato. Analyses were performed to determine moisture, ash, fiber, vitamin C, and β-carotene contents using oven, muffler furnace, dye, and spectrophotometric methods; texture; and color using compressive strength and L, a, b system, respectively. Ash content of the samples ranged from 0.9% to 1.4% with a very strong positive linear correlation (r = 0.9) to the broiler litter rate. However, vitamin C had a quadratic relationship with the broiler litter rate with a peaking at T0.5 (15.5 mg/100 g). The yellow color (b-value) also had a strong linear relationship with the broiler litter rate (r = 0.86). However, the other measures showed moderate, weak, or negligible correlations to the broiler litter level. T0.5 had the highest β-carotene (262.0 μg/g), dry matter contents and had the most firm (0.040 kN) sweet potatoes with the deepest orange color (L = 60.7). Based on the study's findings, 0.5 t ha(-1) appeared to be appropriate level of broiler litter, which is consistent with Alabama's law and is also advantageous in terms of low cost of farming practices and water pollution reduction.

  10. Immunomodulatory role of probiotics in poultry and potential in ovo application.

    PubMed

    Cox, C M; Dalloul, R A

    2015-03-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing debate regarding the use of sub-therapeutic antibiotics in animal feed. This stems from worries that this practice may result in microbial resistance to human antibiotics employed in treating infections, thus causing a human health concern. Due to this tension, the poultry industry is under mounting pressure to reduce the use of these agents as feed additives and alternative control methods have taken the forefront in the research community. Investigators are searching for the latest alternative that will protect flocks from disease, while not hindering performance or negatively impacting profit margins. Probiotic supplementation is one option currently being explored as a means of improving performance and reducing the amount and severity of enteric diseases in poultry, and subsequent contamination of poultry products for human consumption. Probiotics are live, nonpathogenic microorganisms known to have a positive effect on the host by beneficially modifying gut microbiota and modulating the immune system. This review will discuss the role of probiotics in poultry, including their effects on performance, immune response and host defence against disease. Also addressed will be the recent applications of supplementing probiotics in ovo as an innovative means to administer such additives to promote early colonisation of beneficial bacteria.

  11. Evaluation of precision litter application practices for cotton production and soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter is typically land applied by surface broadcasting, a practice that exposes litter nutrients to volatilization or runoff losses. Placing litter in narrow bands below the soil surface may mitigate those losses and improve plant growth development, yield and quality. This study was cond...

  12. Establishment of numerical beach-litter hindcast/forecast models: an application to Goto Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kako, Shin'ichiro; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Magome, Shinya; Hinata, Hirofumi; Seino, Satoquo; Kojima, Azusa

    2011-02-01

    This study attempts to establish a system for hindcasting/forecasting the quantity of litter reaching a beach using an ocean circulation model, a two-way particle tracking model (PTM) to find litter sources, and an inverse method to compute litter outflows at each source. Twelve actual beach survey results, and satellite and forecasted wind data were also used. The quantity of beach litter was hindcasted/forecasted using a forward in-time PTM with the surface currents computed in the ocean circulation model driven by satellite-derived/forecasted wind data. Outflows obtained using the inverse method was given for each source in the model. The time series of the hindcasted/forecasted quantity of beach litter were found consistent with the quantity of beach litter determined from sequential webcam images of the actual beach. The accuracy of the model, however, is reduced drastically by intense winds such as typhoons which disturb drifting litter motion.

  13. Application of poultry processing industry waste: a strategy for vegetation growth in degraded soil.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Carla Danielle Vasconcelos; Pontes Filho, Roberto Albuquerque; Artur, Adriana Guirado; Costa, Mirian Cristina Gomes

    2015-02-01

    The disposal of poultry processing industry waste into the environment without proper care, can cause contamination. Agricultural monitored application is an alternative for disposal, considering its high amount of organic matter and its potential as a soil fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of poultry processing industry waste to improve the conditions of a degraded soil from a desertification hotspot, contributing to leguminous tree seedlings growth. The study was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a randomized blocks design and a 4 × 2 factorial scheme with five replicates. The treatments featured four amounts of poultry processing industry waste (D1 = control 0 kg ha(-1); D2 = 1020.41 kg ha(-1); D3 = 2040.82 kg ha(-1); D4 = 4081.63 kg ha(-1)) and two leguminous tree species (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit). The poultry processing industry waste was composed of poultry blood, grease, excrements and substances from the digestive system. Plant height, biomass production, plant nutrient accumulation and soil organic carbon were measured forty days after waste application. Leguminous tree seedlings growth was increased by waste amounts, especially M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth, with height increment of 29.5 cm for the waste amount of 1625 kg ha(-1), and L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, with maximum height increment of 20 cm for the waste amount of 3814.3 kg ha(-1). M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth had greater initial growth, as well as greater biomass and nutrient accumulation compared with L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. However, belowground biomass was similar between the evaluated species, resulting in higher root/shoot ratio for L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Soil organic carbon did not show significant response to waste amounts, but it did to leguminous tree seedlings growth, especially L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Poultry processing industry waste contributes to leguminous tree seedlings growth

  14. Runoff water quality from broiler litter-amended tall fescue in response to natural precipitation in the Ozark Highlands.

    PubMed

    Menjoulet, B C; Brye, K R; Pirani, A L; Haggard, B E; Gbur, E E

    2009-01-01

    The Arkansas poultry industry produced more than 1.2 billion broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and generated approximately 1.3 million Mg of broiler litter in 2002. High transportation costs of relocating broiler litter have led to annual land applications near poultry houses, increasing concern for potential surface water contamination from runoff. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of broiler litter application rate on runoff water quality in response to natural precipitation. Six plots (1.5 by 6.0 m), located on a Captina silt loam (finesilty, siliceous, active, mesic Typic Fragiudult), were amended with fresh broiler litter at 0, 5.6, and 11.2 Mg ha(-1) (control, low, and high litter treatments, respectively) once annually for 4 yr (May 2003 through April 2007). Runoff collected after each runoff-producing event was analyzed for soluble nutrients and metals. Cumulative runoff did not differ among litter treatments over the 4-yr study. At times, flow-weighted mean (FWM) concentrations of As from all litter treatments exceeded the maximum contaminant level for drinking water (0.01 mg As L(-1)). Four-year FWM Fe concentrations and runoff losses were greater (P < 0.05) from the high than from the low litter treatment and unamended control, and the 4-yr FWM P concentration from the low litter treatment (3.0 mg L(-1)) was greater than that from the unamended control (1.8 mg L(-1)). Since precipitation is temporally variable, evaluating runoff water quality in response to natural precipitation over several years is key to ascertaining the long-term impacts of surface-applied soil amendments like broiler litter.

  15. Optimization of methane production in anaerobic co-digestion of poultry litter and wheat straw at different percentages of total solid and volatile solid using a developed response surface model.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiacheng; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Poultry litter (PL) can be good feedstock for biogas production using anaerobic digestion. In this study, methane production from batch co-digestion of PL and wheat straw (WS) was investigated for two factors, i.e., total solid (2%, 5%, and 10%) and volatile solid (0, 25, and 50% of WS), constituting a 3 × 3 experimental design. The results showed that the maximum specific methane volume [197 mL (g VS)(‑1)] was achieved at 50% VS from WS at 5% TS level. It was estimated that the inhibitory threshold of free ammonia was about 289 mg L(--1), beyond which reduction of methanogenic activity by at least 54% was observed. The specific methane volume and COD removal can be expressed using two response surface models (R(2) = 0.9570 and 0.9704, respectively). Analysis of variance of the experimental results indicated that the C/N ratio was the most significant factor influencing the specific methane volume and COD removal in the co-digestion of these two materials.

  16. Reduction of nitrogen excretion and emission in poultry: A review for organic poultry.

    PubMed

    Chalova, Vesela I; Kim, Jihyuk; Patterson, Paul H; Ricke, Steven C; Kim, Woo K

    2016-01-01

    Organic poultry is an alternative to conventional poultry which is rapidly developing as a response to customers' demand for better food and a cleaner environment. Although organic poultry manure can partially be utilized by organic horticultural producers, litter accumulation as well as excessive nitrogen still remains a challenge to maintain environment pureness, animal, and human health. Compared to conventional poultry, diet formulation without nitrogen overloading in organic poultry is even more complicated due to specific standards and regulations which limit the application of some supplements and imposes specific criteria to the ingredients in use. This is especially valid for methionine provision which supplementation as a crystalline form is only temporarily allowed. This review is focused on the utilization of various protein sources in the preparation of a diet composed of 100% organic ingredients which meet the avian physiology need for methionine, while avoiding protein overload. The potential to use unconventional protein sources such as invertebrates and microbial proteins to achieve optimal amino acid provision is also discussed.

  17. Ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from broiler houses with downtime windrowed litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An emerging poultry manure management practice is in house windrowing to disinfect the litter. With this practice, growers windrow the litter in broiler houses between flocks, usually for 2 weeks. This results in high litter temperatures that can reduce pathogens in the litter. However, this practi...

  18. Greenhouse gas and ammonia emission from a litter-windrowing in bird houses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of emerging poultry manure management practices is in house windrowing to disinfect the litter. With this practice, growers windrow the litter in broiler houses between flocks, usually for 2 weeks. This results in high litter temperatures that can reduce pathogens in the litter. However, this p...

  19. The effects of application of poultry manure to crude oil polluted soils on maize (Zea mays) growth and soil properties.

    PubMed

    Ogboghodo, I A; Erebor, E B; Osemwota, I O; Isitekhale, H H

    2004-01-01

    An investigation of the effects of application of poultry manure to crude oil polluted soils on the growth of maize and soil properties was carried out under natural conditions at the Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria. Potted maize plants were treated to crude oil pollution at four different levels (0, 25, 50 and 75 mL) and amended with poultry manure at four rates of application (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha(-1)) two weeks after pollution. Results obtained showed that percent survival rate, plant height and dry matter yield decreased with increase in crude oil contamination. For example % seed germination decreased from 93 to 0% as crude oil increased from 0 to 75 mL without poultry manure application while plant height decreased from 97 to 20 cm. However when amended with poultry manure, statistical analysis showed that the highest rate of crude oil application (75 mL) and the 150 kg ha(-1) rate poultry manure application affected maize growth, dry matter yield and soil properties significantly. For example at the 75 mL crude oil application, plant height increased from 20 to 149 cm as level of manure applied increased from 0 to 150 kg ha(-1) while dry matter yield increased from 27 to 58 g.

  20. Energy conservation and cost benefits in the meat and poultry processing industry. Technology transfer; a technology applications manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Auditing energy consumption and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities and investments can provide the most favorable economic return are covered. The wide-application energy-conservation techniques applicable in most industries, including the meat and poultry processing industries, are emphasized. Wide-application (often called generic) techniques include waste heat recovery, improvement of electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, and increases in boiler efficiencies. Specific examples of the application of these techniques in meat packing and poultry processing plants are cited. Specific processing changes that have already resulted in significant energy cost savings at some meat packing or poultry processing plants are examined. A summary checklist for energy conservation and brief case studies from industry are provided. Information is presented on energy price trends and discusses the analysis of capital investment alternatives.

  1. 9 CFR 93.218 - Import permits and applications for inspection for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inspection for poultry. 93.218 Section 93.218 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND...

  2. 9 CFR 93.218 - Import permits and applications for inspection for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection for poultry. 93.218 Section 93.218 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND...

  3. 9 CFR 93.218 - Import permits and applications for inspection for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inspection for poultry. 93.218 Section 93.218 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND...

  4. 9 CFR 93.218 - Import permits and applications for inspection for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inspection for poultry. 93.218 Section 93.218 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND...

  5. 9 CFR 93.218 - Import permits and applications for inspection for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inspection for poultry. 93.218 Section 93.218 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND...

  6. Applications and consequences of bacteriocins to control Campylobacter spp. in poultry production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unacceptably high frequency of Campylobacter jejuni transmission from poultry to humans encourages scientists to consider and create alternative intervention strategies to control the pathogen in poultry production. Extremely high numbers of Campylobacter (often >108 cfu/g of poultry intestinal...

  7. Multi-microbial compounds eliminate or reduce Salmonella Typhimurium from one-third of poultry liter samples within 8 days

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reuse of poultry litter (bedding + poultry manure) is economically important; however, this material often serves as a reservoir of Salmonella. According to research, consumption of litter by poultry during the pre-harvest feed withdrawal period can lead to gastrointestinal tract Salmonella infecti...

  8. Nanosilver Biocidal Properties and Their Application in Disinfection of Hatchers in Poultry Processing Plants.

    PubMed

    Banach, Marcin; Tymczyna, Leszek; Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska, Anna; Pulit-Prociak, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use aqueous suspensions of silver nanoparticles with a wide spectrum of particle sizes, variable morphology, high stability, and appropriate physicochemical properties to examine their bactericidal and fungicidal properties against microorganisms present in poultry processing plants. At the same time, the particles were tested for preventing the production of odorogenous pollutants during incubation and thereby reducing the emission of harmful gases from such types of facilities. The results show that the use of nanosilver preparations in order to disinfect eggs and hatchers reduced microbiological contamination. The bactericidal and fungicidal efficacy of the applied preparation was comparable to UV radiation and its effectiveness increasing during the incubation. Good results were achieved in terms of the level of organic gaseous contaminants, which decreased by 86% after the application of the nanosilver preparation.

  9. Nanosilver Biocidal Properties and Their Application in Disinfection of Hatchers in Poultry Processing Plants

    PubMed Central

    Banach, Marcin; Tymczyna, Leszek; Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska, Anna; Pulit-Prociak, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use aqueous suspensions of silver nanoparticles with a wide spectrum of particle sizes, variable morphology, high stability, and appropriate physicochemical properties to examine their bactericidal and fungicidal properties against microorganisms present in poultry processing plants. At the same time, the particles were tested for preventing the production of odorogenous pollutants during incubation and thereby reducing the emission of harmful gases from such types of facilities. The results show that the use of nanosilver preparations in order to disinfect eggs and hatchers reduced microbiological contamination. The bactericidal and fungicidal efficacy of the applied preparation was comparable to UV radiation and its effectiveness increasing during the incubation. Good results were achieved in terms of the level of organic gaseous contaminants, which decreased by 86% after the application of the nanosilver preparation. PMID:26903785

  10. Improved poultry house

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of energy and poultry production was explored in three areas: methane production from litter, broiler house insulation, and broiler house HVAC systems. The findings show that while a methane plant would not be popular with individual American poultry producers; the pay back in fuel and fertilizer, if the plant was located in close proximinity to the processing plant, would be favorable. Broiler house insulation has been dramatically improved since the outset of this study. Presently, all new installations in the survey area are the Environmental houses which are fully insulated. HVAC systems have had to keep pace with the introduction of better insulation. The new Environmental houses HVAC systems are fully automated and operating on a positive atmosphere principal. Ammonia and other problems have been kept in check while reducing air changes per house from a high of 7 per hour to as little as 3 per hour.

  11. Broiler litter application and tillage effects on restoration of degraded soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was initiated in 2005 at Plant Material Center, NRCS, in Coffeeville Mississippi, on a degraded Loring silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, thermic, Glossic Fragiudalf) soil to determine restorative potential of broiler litter, soil and crop management on selected soil physical, chemical, and...

  12. Three annual flue gas desulfurization gypsum applications on macronutrient and micronutrient losses in runoff from bermudagrass fertilized with poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considerable amounts of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum are being produced as a by-product of generating electricity. As a result, beneficial reuse of this by-product is being sought to reduce landfilling and its associated cost. The use of this byproduct as a low-cost soil amendment for suppl...

  13. 78 FR 19182 - Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ..., Poultry, and Egg Products: Availability of Draft Compliance Guide and PGA Message Set Pilot Program AGENCY... for certain meat, poultry, and egg products through the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). ACE is... INFORMATION: I. Background The Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA) (21 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) and the...

  14. Perceptual attributes of poultry and other meat products: a repertory grid application.

    PubMed

    Michel, L Martínez; Punter, P H; Wismer, W V

    2011-04-01

    Increased demand for processed poultry products through the growth of home meal replacements and ready to eat products, present an opportunity for the development of new value-added poultry products. Repertory grid interviews were conducted to generate insight into consumer driven product development of these products. Procrustes analysis revealed that healthiness, nutrition, convenience, and processing attributes were most important parameters for discriminating amongst 24 meat and meat alternatives. "White meat", "healthier", "leaner", "good source of protein", "easy to cook" and "convenient", were found to positively influence consumer preferences for unprocessed chicken products, eggs and salmon while price did not appear to be important for differentiating the products. Traditional processed fish and poultry products, such as chicken nuggets, represented undesirable composition, processing and quality concerns. Identification of consumer attributes for discriminating poultry products among other meat alternatives can guide the development of competitive value-added poultry products.

  15. [Inhibition of decomposing leaf litter of Cinnamomum camphora on growth of Capsicum annu- um and the alleviation effect of nitrogen application].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Hu, Ting-xing; Wang, Qian; Hu, Hong-ling; Jiang, Xue; Zhou, Guang-liang; Chen, Gang

    2015-02-01

    Effects of decomposing leaf litter of Cinnamomum camphora on growth, physiological and phenological traits of Capsicum annuum, and modification of these effects by nitrogen application were investigated using a pot experiment. C. camphora leaf litter was applied at rate of 0, 25, 50 100 g per pot, resulting into four treatments, i.e., CK (the control), L25, L50, and L100. Nitrogen application was firstly performed on the 39th d of decomposition (3.0 g urea was added to each pot six times). Leaf area, plant height, basal diameter and biomass production of C. annuum were all inhibited sharply by exposure to the leaf litter, and the inhibition effect increased with the increasing leaf litter in terms of both the intensity and the stability. Treated with L25, budding number reduced by 88.7% averagely during 55th-75th d, and the rate of fructification plant decreased by 40% on the 96th d of decomposition, while neither buds nor fruits were observed when exposed to L50 and L100 at that time. Pigment contents and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) were impacted due to leaf litter addition, and malonaldehyde (MDA) was only markedly promoted by L100. Inhibition on growth and development of C. annuum caused by leaf litter decomposition could be alleviated by nitrogen application. Leaf area treated with leaf litter recovered to the control level on the 52nd d after nitrogen application, and similar results appeared on the 83rd d after nitrogen application for other growth traits. Budding and fructification status were also visibly improved.

  16. Effects of top-dressing recycled broiler litter on litter production, litter characteristics, and nitrogen mass balance.

    PubMed

    Coufal, C D; Chavez, C; Niemeyer, P R; Carey, J B

    2006-03-01

    Top-dressing is a method of broiler litter management in which a thin layer of new, clean litter material is spread over the top of previously used litter prior to placement of a new flock. This fresh layer of bedding material increases the absorptive capacity of the litter and decreases litter caking. Although this practice has been widely used in the poultry industry for many years, no research has been conducted to quantify the effects the practice has on broiler performance, litter production rates, and nutrient content, or the ability of broiler litter to retain manure N and prevent volatilization. An experiment was conducted to quantify these parameters under simulated commercial conditions in a research facility. Nine consecutive flocks of broilers were reared on recycled broiler litter that had previously been used for 9 flocks. Control pens received no litter treatment whereas top-dressed pens received a thin layer of new rice hulls (1 to 2 cm) before the placement of each flock. Nitrogen loss was calculated using the mass balance method. Average broiler performance was not different between the top-dressed and control pens. Top-dressing of litter significantly (P < 0.05) reduced caked litter production compared with control pens in 6 of 9 flocks. However, average total litter production over all 9 flocks was not different between the 2 litter management strategies. In all flocks, litter N content was significantly reduced in top-dressed pens compared with control pens. As a result, litter C:N ratios were significantly higher for pens with top-dressed litter. Differences in N loss between the treatments were not consistent. Average N loss for all flocks was 10.61 and 11.92 g of N/kg of marketed broiler for control and top-dressed pens, respectively, or 20.1 and 22.5% of N inputs, respectively. Based on this experiment, top-dressing of recycled broiler litter would not be recommended as a strategy to reduce the volatilization of N from broiler rearing

  17. Determination of selected veterinary antimicrobials in poultry excreta by UHPLC-MS/MS, for application in Salmonella control programs.

    PubMed

    Gorissen, Brecht; Reyns, Tim; Devreese, Mathias; De Backer, Patrick; Van Loco, Joris; Croubels, Siska

    2015-06-01

    The most important source of Salmonella spp. infection in humans is by the consumption of contaminated poultry products. Due to the risk of resistance development and its transfer from animals to humans, the Belgian Royal Decree concerning the eradication of Salmonella (C-2007/22784) prohibits treatment of poultry with antimicrobials against zoonotic Salmonella spp. To uncover illicit use, an analytical method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for the determination of antimicrobial residues in poultry excreta was developed and validated for classes having an active spectrum against Salmonella spp. in poultry: β-lactams (amoxicillin and penicillin V), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin, difloxacin, and flumequine), polymyxins (colistin), sulfonamides in combination with trimethoprim (sulfachloropyridazine, sulfadiazine, and sulfaclozine), and tetracyclines (chlortetracycline and doxycycline). A generic and high-throughput sample preparation was developed. Extraction of samples was performed by ultrasonication using a combination of acetonitrile and McIlvaine buffer, followed by centrifugation and filtration prior to analysis. The method was validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC for linearity, apparent recovery/trueness, repeatability, reproducibility, limit of quantification, limit of detection, specificity, matrix effect, and storage stability in matrix. To demonstrate the applicability of the method, an in vivo experiment was conducted. For each antimicrobial class, one registered drug was selected and administered in the drinking water to two laying hens. Excreta samples were collected every 12 h during and until 2 days after treatment and analyzed using the developed method.

  18. Bermudagrass management in the southern Piedmont, USA: IX. Trace elements in soil with broiler litter application.

    PubMed

    Franzluebbers, A J; Wilkinson, S R; Stuedemann, J A

    2004-01-01

    An understanding of the long-term cycling of trace elements in soil with broiler litter fertilization under various forage utilization strategies is needed to develop sustainable agricultural production systems. We evaluated differences in Cu, Mn, Zn, and six other trace elements in response to 5 yr of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] management varying in fertilization and harvest strategies on a Typic Kanhapludult in Georgia. Chicken (Gallus gallus) broiler litter was a significant source of trace elements that led to 3.4 +/- 0.5 times higher Cu, 2.0 +/- 0.3 times higher Mn, and 2.1 +/- 0.2 times higher Zn in the surface 3 cm of soil than when forage was fertilized inorganically. There were variable effects of broiler litter fertilization on other trace elements, depending upon element, depth of sampling, and forage utilization strategy. Concentrations of all trace elements in soil were below levels considered toxic to plants. Soil at a depth of 0 to 3 cm under grazed paddocks had 33 +/- 5% greater Cd, 18 +/- 1% greater Cr, 53 +/- 24% greater Cu, and 24 +/- 7% greater Zn compared with unharvested and hayed management. Trace elements in soil were unaffected whether forage was unharvested or removed as hay. These results suggest that broiler litter is a significant source of several trace elements and that ruminant processing of forage and subsequent deposition of excreta on the paddock allow these trace elements to accumulate more at the soil surface where they might interact with the high concentration of organic matter.

  19. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all...

  20. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all...

  1. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all...

  2. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all...

  3. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all...

  4. EFFECTS OF LARGE-SCALE POULTRY FARMS ON AQUATIC MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES: A MOLECULAR INVESTIGATION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of large-scale poultry production operations on water quality and human health are largely unknown. Poultry litter is frequently applied as fertilizer to agricultural lands adjacent to large poultry farms. Run-off from the land introduces a variety of stressors into t...

  5. Poultry Plant Noise Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A demonstration conducted last winter at the Tip Top Poultry Plant intended to show poultry plant managers from all over the U.S. potential solutions to the problem of plant noise. Plastic covers used over sound absorbing materials need to meet cleanability requirements, high- pressure water cleaning and other harsh maintenance procedures peculiar to the poultry processing industry. For the demonstration, Fiber Flex, Inc. manufactured and donated 750 noise panels; Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation donated the fiberglas cores; and the cover material was purchased from Howe and Bainbridge. The Engineering Experiment Station (EES) conducted before and after noise surveys and is evaluating the effect of noise reduction on turnover and productivity in the demonstration plant. EES plans to conduct a noise abatement workshop and update a handbook to help poultry processors with noise problems. EES study and demonstration may be applicable to other food processing plants where similar sanitary constraints exist.

  6. Application of food safety management systems (ISO 22000/HACCP) in the Turkish poultry industry: a comparison based on enterprise size.

    PubMed

    Kök, M Samil

    2009-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the extent of food safety management systems (ISO 22000/HACCP) implementation in the Turkish poultry industry. A survey was conducted with 25 major poultry meat producers, which account for close to 90% of national production, and a comparison was made between the procedures of small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) and large firms (LFs). The survey revealed that there is a high level of application of ISO 22000 (72%), which is seen to aid the export market. LFs were shown to adopt more stringent schemes and make better use of governmental support services than SMEs. LFs were also more aware of, and able to deal with, risks from a greater range of contaminants.

  7. Effect of in-house chicken litter composting on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions and pathogen reduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inhouse composting is a management practice to reduce pathogen in poultry litter. In between flocks, growers windrow the litter inside the broiler houses. This results in high temperatures that can reduce some pathogens in the litter. However, this practice is likely to increase emissions of NH3 and...

  8. Impact of fresh or used litter on the posthatch immune system of commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Lillehoj, H S; Lee, S H; Jang, S I; Ritter, G Donald; Bautista, D A; Lillehoj, E P

    2011-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of exposure of growing broiler chickens of commercial origin to used poultry litter on intestinal and systemic immune responses. The litter types evaluated were fresh wood shavings or used litter obtained from commercial poultry farms with or without a history of gangrenous dermatitis (GD). Immune parameters measured were serum nitric oxide (NO) levels, serum antibody titers against Eimeria or Clostridium perfringens, mitogen-induced spleen cell proliferation, and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocyte or splenic lymphocyte subpopulations. At 43 days posthatch, birds raised on used litter from a GD farm had higher serum NO levels and greater Eimeria or C. perfringens antibody levels compared with chickens raised on fresh litter or used, non-GD litter. Birds raised on non-GD and GD used litter had greater spleen cell mitogenic responses compared with chickens raised on fresh litter. Finally, spleen and intestinal lymphocyte subpopulations were increased or decreased depending on the litter type and the surface marker analyzed. Although it is likely that the presence of Eimeria oocysts and endemic viruses varies qualitatively and quantitatively between flocks and, by extension, varies between different used litter types, we believe that these data provide evidence that exposure of growing chicks to used poultry litter stimulates humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, presumably due to contact with contaminating enteric pathogens.

  9. Liming Poultry Manures to Kill Pathogens and Decrease Soluble Phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire,R.; Hesterberg, D.; Gernat, A.; Anderson, K.; Wineland, M.; Grimes, J.

    2006-01-01

    Received for publication September 9, 2005. Stabilizing phosphorus (P) in poultry waste to reduce P losses from manured soils is important to protect surface waters, while pathogens in manures are an emerging issue. This study was conducted to evaluate CaO and Ca(OH){sub 2} for killing manure bacterial populations (pathogens) and stabilizing P in poultry wastes and to investigate the influence on soils following amendment with the treated wastes. Layer manure and broiler litter varying in moisture content were treated with CaO and Ca(OH){sub 2} at rates of 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% by weight. All treated wastes were analyzed for microbial plate counts, pH, and water-soluble phosphorus (WSP), while a few selected layer manures were analyzed by phosphorus X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). A loamy sand and a silt loam were amended with broiler litter and layer manure treated with CaO at rates of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% and soil WSP and pH were measured at times 1, 8, and 29 d. Liming reduced bacterial populations, with greater rates of lime leading to greater reductions; for example 10% CaO applied to 20% solids broiler litter reduced the plate counts from 793 000 to 6500 mL{sup -1}. Liming also reduced the WSP in the manures by over 90% in all cases where at least 10% CaO was added. Liming the manures also reduced WSP in soils immediately following application and raised soil pH. The liming process used successfully reduced plate counts and concerns about P losses in runoff following land application of these limed products due to decreased WSP.

  10. Soil respiration as affected by long-term broiler litter application to a udult in the ozark highlands.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Richard L; Brye, Kristofor R; Gbur, Edward E

    2015-01-01

    The United States produced 8.4 billion broiler chickens () and an estimated 10.1 to 14.3 million Mg of broiler litter (BL) in 2012. Arkansas' production of 1 billion broilers in 2012 produced an estimated 1.2 to 1.7 million Mg of BL, most of which was concentrated in the Ozark Highlands region of northwest Arkansas. Increased CO release from soils associated with agricultural practices has generated concerns regarding the contribution of certain agricultural management practices to global warming. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of long-term (>6 yr) BL application to a Udult on soil respiration and annual C emissions and to determine the predictability of soil respiration based on soil temperature and moisture in the Ozark Highlands region of northwest Arkansas. Soil respiration was measured routinely between May 2009 and May 2012 in response to annual BL application rates of 0, 5.6, and 11.2 Mg dry litter ha that began in 2003. Soil respiration varied ( < 0.01) with BL rate, measurement date, and year. Additions of BL stimulated respiration after application, and rainfall events after dry-soil conditions stimulated respiration in all years. Soil temperature at the 10-cm depth, 0- to 6-cm soil volumetric water content (VWC), and annual CO-C emissions were unaffected ( > 0.05) by BL application rate but differed ( < 0.01) among study years. Multiple regression indicated that soil respiration could be reasonably predicted using 2-cm-depth soil temperature (T) and the product of T and VWC as predictors ( = 0.52; < 0.01). Results indicate that organic amendments, such as BL, can stimulate release of CO from the soil to the atmosphere, potentially negatively affecting atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations; thus, there may be application rates above which the benefits of organic amendments may be diminished by adverse environmental effects. Improved BL management strategies are needed to lessen the loss of CO from BL-amended soils.

  11. Poultry Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    Poultry are one of the most badly treated animals in the modern world. It has been shown that they have high levels of both cognition and feelings, and as a result there has been a recent trend of promoting poultry welfare. There is also a tradition of keeping poultry as pets in some parts of the world. However, in modern cities and societies, it is often difficult to maintain contact with pets, particularly for office workers. We propose and describe a novel cybernetics system to use mobile and Internet technology to improve human-pet interaction. It can also be used for people who are allergic to touching animals and thus cannot stroke them directly. This interaction encompasses both visualization and tactile sensation of real objects.

  12. Litter-Spinning Retarders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Aerodynamic plates stop litter from spinning during hoisting by helicopter. Features of proposed litter-spinning retarders include convenience of deployment and independence from ground restraint. Retarder plate(s) folded flat against bottom of litter during storage or while litter is loaded. Plate(s) held in storage position by latch that releases manually or automatically as litter is hoisted. Upon release, springs move plates into deployed position.

  13. Fertilizing cotton with broiler litter is superior to inorganic fertilizers in Mississippi soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter, a mixture of mainly manure and bedding material, is well known as a source of mineral plant nutrients and as a soil conditioner. It has been shown to be an effective fertilizer for row crops, forage and pasture crops, and even for forest trees. The effectiveness of litter as a fert...

  14. Corn grain yield and soil properties after 10 years of broiler litter amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of broiler litter nutrients for crop production benefits crops, soils, and aids in disposing manure. Understanding corn (Zea mays L.) grain production and soil properties resulting from long-term poultry litter amendment helps establish a sustainable animal manure based corn production with low ...

  15. Application of peracetic acid and quarternary ammonium disinfectants as a part of sanitary treatment in a poultry house and poultry processing plant.

    PubMed

    Kasková, A; Ondrasovicová, O; Vargová, M; Ondrasovic, M; Venglovský, J

    2007-01-01

    Hygiene and sanitation play a major role in any effective disease control programme for poultry production and processing premises. Various deficiencies in disinfection may induce that chains of infections are not broken from one stock to another. The present study investigated the efficacy of disinfection on a broiler farm and in a plant processing poultry from the investigated farm. Besides inspection of disinfection, the influence of contamination on broiler carcasses and consequences of this contamination on sanitation of the processing lines were studied. Swabs from surfaces coming into contact with the handled raw material were taken and evaluated. The results obtained by a standard microbiological swab method were evaluated and compared with an ATP-bioluminescence method. The investigations included determination of total counts of microorganisms, coliform bacteria and moulds. When employing the standard plate-count method, the total counts of microorganisms (TCM) reached <1, 1-100 and >100 CFU in 0, 12 and 88% swabs on poultry farm and in 22%, 36% and 42% swabs in the processing plant, respectively. The bioluminescence method was used only in the processing plant and contamination corresponding to <100, 100-300 and >300 relative light units (RLU) was detected in 80%, 10% and 10% swabs respectively.

  16. Litter Ammonia Generation: Moisture Content and Organic vs. Inorganic Bedding Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Negative impacts on the environment, bird well-being, and farm worker health indicate the need for abatement strategies for poultry litter NH3 generation. Type of bedding affects many parameters related to poultry production including NH3 losses. Broiler excrement was mixed with pine wood shavings, ...

  17. Copper and Zn uptake by radish and pakchoi as affected by application of livestock and poultry manures.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dong-Mei; Hao, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Yu-Jun; Dong, Yuan-Hua; Cang, Long

    2005-04-01

    Environmental safety of agricultural utilization of livestock and poultry manures from intensive farming is attracting great attention because the manures often contain high concentrations of heavy metals and organic pollutants. Pot experiments, in which a pig manure (PM), a chicken manure (CM) and a commercial organic manure (OM) with different concentrations of Cu and Zn to simulate soil metal accumulation by manure application for different times were utilized in a garden soil at a rate of 2% (W/W), were conducted to study the effect of application of these livestock and poultry manures on growth of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) as well as their Cu and Zn uptake. The results exhibit that the manures except the PM improved the growth of radish and pakchoi. The difference of biomass among the same manure treatments containing different concentrations of Cu and Zn, however, was insignificant. In addition, application of the livestock and poultry manures significantly increased soil pHs and electric conductivities (EC) compared with the control, which is ascribed that these manures had high pH and contained large amounts of inorganic ions. The available soil Zn concentrations in the PM were higher than that in the CM and OM, and the extractable soil Cu concentrations in the three manures were almost the same after radish growth in the garden soil but were different after pakchoi growth. Zinc and Cu concentrations in the radish and pakchoi tissues increased when the soil Zn and Cu concentrations increased by manures application, but were still within a safe value. An except is the treatment PM4 in which the Zn concentration of the above-ground part of radish was 28.7 mg kg-1, exceeding the Chinese Food Hygiene Standard of 20 mg kg-1 based on fresh weight. Good correlation was obtained between the extractable soil Zn (or Cu) concentrations extracted by 1.0 mol l-1 NH4NO3 and the Zn (or Cu) concentrations in radish and pakchoi tissues

  18. Effects of broiler litter ash, layer manure ash and calcium phosphate on corn, wheat and soybean growth, phosphorus and arsenic uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is being incinerated in order to reduce excess litter and to increase the percentage of renewable fuel used to generate electricity. Ash from incinerated litter has been effective in increasing crop growth. However, there is no current literature comparing phosphorus availability fr...

  19. Effects of tillage and poultry manure application rates on Salmonella and fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in tiles draining Des Moines Lobe soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of poultry manure (PM) to cropland as fertilizer is a common practice in artificially drained regions of the Upper Midwest. To assess the potential for PM to contribute pathogenic bacteria to downstream waters, information is needed on the impacts of manure management and tillage practi...

  20. In vitro assessment of thyroidal and estrogenic activities in poultry and broiler manure.

    PubMed

    Valdehita, A; Quesada-García, A; Delgado, M M; Martín, J V; García-González, M C; Fernández-Cruz, M L; Navas, J M

    2014-02-15

    Among the many chemicals found in avian manure, endocrine disruptors (EDs), of natural or anthropogenic origin, are of special environmental concern. Nowadays, an increasing amount of estrogens is being released into the environment via the use of manure to fertilize agricultural land. While most research in this field has focused on estrogenic phenomena, little is known about alterations related to other endocrine systems, such as the thyroidal one. Here we simultaneously assessed the potential estrogenic and thyroidal activity of poultry and broiler litter manure using in vitro approaches based on estrogen receptor (Er) and thyroid receptor (Tr) transactivation assays. In addition, leaching experiments were performed to assess whether the EDs present in the manure pass through a soil column and potentially reach the groundwater. Manure from four broiler and four poultry farms was collected in two sampling campaigns carried out in two seasons (fall and spring). Extracts from broiler and poultry manure exhibited strong thyroidal activity. Only poultry manure showed estrogenic activity, which is consistent with the low levels of estrogens expected in hatchlings. Leakage experiments were performed in columns with two kinds of arable soils: sandy and loamy. No estrogenicity or thyroidal activity was detectable in soils treated with the manure or in the corresponding leachates. These results indicate that substances with estrogenic or thyroidal activity were degraded in the soil under our experimental conditions. However, the long-term effects associated with the constant and intensive application of manure to agricultural land in some regions require further research.

  1. Prospects of in ovo feeding and nutrient supplementation for poultry: the science and commercial applications--a review.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Mukund M; Barekatain, Mohammad R; Bhanja, Subrat K; Iji, Paul A

    2013-12-01

    In ovo supplementation of poultry embryos was first reported several decades ago, but it is only recently that concerted research has been directed at developing the technology for this process to be routinely used by the poultry industry. Although the technology of in ovo feeding was patented more than 10 years ago, it has not been widely adopted by the poultry industry. This review examines the early development of the enteric system of the poultry embryo; defines and distinguishes between in ovo feeding and in ovo nutrient administration; highlights the importance of early feeding of the chick; and discusses the development of in ovo feeding technology and its effects on hatchability, growth, gut health and immune response of chicks. The range of possible nutrients that can be administered is also explored. The limitations associated with embryo development and nutrient metabolism are highlighted, leading to the prediction of the future role of in ovo feeding in the poultry industry.

  2. Effect of kosher salt application on microbial profiles of poultry carcasses.

    PubMed

    Shin, D; Kakani, G; Molina, V A; Regenstein, J M; Choe, H S; Sánchez-Plata, M X

    2012-12-01

    The effect of conventionally applied kosher salt on the microbiological profile of posteviscerated chicken carcasses obtained from a local commercial processing facility was evaluated. The broiler carcasses were divided into treatments 1 through 8. Standard sampling methods were used to evaluate Salmonella prevalence, aerobic plate counts, coliforms, generic Escherichia coli, and psychrotroph counts. Results indicate significant reductions in microbial populations in all the salted groups compared with controls. Significant reductions (1.45, 2.31, 2.81, and 1.48 log cfu/mL of rinse) were obtained for aerobic plate count (APC), coliforms, generic E. coli, and psychrotroph counts, respectively, on prechill salt-treated carcasses compared with controls. Salt-treated carcasses sampled after chilling had lower microbial populations compared with control chilled samples with significant reductions in coliforms and generic E. coli (1.25 and 1.77 log, respectively). Salt-treated samples had lower counts on APC and psychrotrophs after 10 d of refrigerated storage compared with controls. Finally, drip loss of salt-treated carcasses was lower after 24 h compared with nontreated controls. Based on the results, it can be concluded that salting process is an effective contributor to microbial reductions during processing that needs further investigation as a possible intervention in commercial poultry processing settings.

  3. Intestinal Microbiota of Broiler Chickens As Affected by Litter Management Regimens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingling; Lilburn, Mike; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-01

    Poultry litter is a mixture of bedding materials and enteric bacteria excreted by chickens, and it is typically reused for multiple growth cycles in commercial broiler production. Thus, bacteria can be transmitted from one growth cycle to the next via litter. However, it remains poorly understood how litter reuse affects development and composition of chicken gut microbiota. In this study, the effect of litter reuse on the microbiota in litter and in chicken gut was investigated using 2 litter management regimens: fresh vs. reused litter. Samples of ileal mucosa and cecal digesta were collected from young chicks (10 days of age) and mature birds (35 days of age). Based on analysis using DGGE and pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons, the microbiota of both the ileal mucosa and the cecal contents was affected by both litter management regimen and age of birds. Faecalibacterium, Oscillospira, Butyricicoccus, and one unclassified candidate genus closely related to Ruminococcus were most predominant in the cecal samples, while Lactobacillus was predominant in the ileal samples at both ages and in the cecal samples collected at day 10. At days 10 and 35, 8 and 3 genera, respectively, in the cecal luminal microbiota differed significantly in relative abundance between the 2 litter management regimens. Compared to the fresh litter, reused litter increased predominance of halotolerant/alkaliphilic bacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing gut bacterium. This study suggests that litter management regimens affect the chicken GI microbiota, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health.

  4. Effects of bedding materials in applied broiler litter and immobilizing agents on runoff water, soil properties, and bermudagrass growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently poultry producers in the USA have begun using different types of bedding materials in production houses. Nutrient release into the environment from applied broiler litter (BL) made with different bedding materials has not been investigated. In this greenhouse study, broiler litter (BL) wi...

  5. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Litter and manure from carriers and... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.24 Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The...

  6. 9 CFR 72.24 - Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Litter and manure from carriers and... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.24 Litter and manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The...

  7. Litter treatment with Aluminum Sulfate (Alum) produced an inconsistent reduction in horizontal transmission of Campylobacter in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacteriosis is a significant health problem worldwide and poultry products are considered as one of the main vehicles of transmission. Alum treatment of poultry litter was reported to decrease Campylobacter colonization frequency and population in the ceca in broilers. Little is known about h...

  8. Application of ISO22000 and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (fmea) for Industrial Processing of Poultry Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varzakas, Theodoros H.; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S.

    Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) model has been applied for the risk assessment of poultry slaughtering and manufacturing. In this work comparison of ISO22000 analysis with HACCP is carried out over poultry slaughtering, processing and packaging. Critical Control points and Prerequisite programs (PrPs) have been identified and implemented in the cause and effect diagram (also known as Ishikawa, tree diagram and fishbone diagram).

  9. Composting and gypsum amendment of broiler litter to reduce nutrient leaching loss.

    PubMed

    Adeli, Ardeshir; Sheng, J; Jenkins, J N; Feng, G

    2015-03-01

    The effect of composted litter relative to fresh litter on leaching losses of nutrients has not been well documented. Fresh and composted broiler litter was surface-applied to bermudagrass (hay) [ (L.) Pers.] established in undisturbed soil columns based on N need of the grass in the presence or absence of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum to evaluate an approach to reduce broiler litter nutrient leaching potential. Columns were periodically leached and biomass was harvested during the 60-d experiment. Total N applied to bermudagrass from broiler litter was 320 kg ha. Gypsum was mixed with fresh and composted litter at the rate based on 20% of litter weight. For composted broiler litter, NO-N, P, K, Cu, and Zn contents in the leachate obtained from the first leaching event were 58, 50, 40, 32, and 38% less than fresh broiler litter, respectively. Significant decreases in NO-N (13%), P (53%), Cu (17%), and Zn (28%) in leachate were obtained when gypsum was mixed with fresh broiler litter. Fresh broiler litter and composted broiler litter applications increased bermudagrass growth compared with the control and gypsum significantly increased yields when mixed with broiler litter. Composted broiler litter application significantly increased N and organic C in the soil compared with fresh litter. Results demonstrate that coapplication of composted broiler litter with FGD gypsum provide the most effective management option for minimizing leaching losses of nutrients while sustaining crop productivity.

  10. Feasibility of mercury removal from simulated flue gas by activated chars made from poultry manures.

    PubMed

    Klasson, K Thomas; Lima, Isabel M; Boihem, Larry L; Wartelle, Lynda H

    2010-12-01

    Increased emphasis on reduction of mercury emissions from coal fired electric power plants has resulted in environmental regulations that may in the future require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents for mercury removal. At the same time, the quantity of poultry manure generated each year is large and technologies that take advantage of the material should be explored. The purpose of the work was to obtain preliminary data to investigate if activated chars made from different poultry manures could adsorb mercury from simulated flue gas. In laboratory experiments, activated chars made from chicken cake and litter removed mercury from the gas as well as a commercial alternative. It was also found that acid-washing these chars after activation may improve pore structure but does not influence the mercury removal efficiency. Activated chars were also made from turkey cake and litter. These raw materials produced activated chars with similar pore structure as those made from chicken manure, but they did not adsorb mercury as well. Acid-washing the turkey manure-based chars improved their performance, but this step would add to the cost of production. Preliminary evaluations suggest that unwashed activated chars may cost as little as $0.95/kg to produce.

  11. Current and emerging technologies for rapid detection and characterization of Salmonella in poultry and poultry products.

    PubMed

    Park, Si Hong; Aydin, Muhsin; Khatiwara, Anita; Dolan, Maureen C; Gilmore, David F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Ahn, Soohyoun; Ricke, Steven C

    2014-04-01

    Salmonella is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses in the United States, and one of the main contributors to salmonellosis is the consumption of contaminated poultry and poultry products. Since deleterious effects of Salmonella on public health and the economy continue to occur, there is an ongoing need to develop more advanced detection methods that can identify Salmonella accurately and rapidly in foods before they reach consumers. Rapid detection and identification methods for Salmonella are considered to be an important component of strategies designed to prevent poultry and poultry product-associated illnesses. In the past three decades, there have been increasing efforts towards developing and improving rapid pathogen detection and characterization methodologies for application to poultry and poultry products. In this review, we discuss molecular methods for detection, identification and genetic characterization of Salmonella associated with poultry and poultry products. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the established and emerging rapid detection and characterization methods are addressed for Salmonella in poultry and poultry products. The methods with potential application to the industry are highlighted in this review.

  12. LA35 Poultry Fecal Marker Persistence Is Correlated with That of Indicators and Pathogens in Environmental Waters

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Bina; Weidhaas, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Disposal of fecally contaminated poultry litter by land application can deliver pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) into receiving waters via runoff. While water quality is regulated by FIB enumeration, FIB testing provides inadequate information about contamination source and health risk. This microbial source tracking (MST) study compared the persistence of the Brevibacterium sp. strain LA35 16S rRNA gene (marker) for poultry litter with that of pathogens and FIB under outdoor, environmentally relevant conditions in freshwater, marine water, and sediments over 7 days. Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Bacteroidales, and LA35 were enumerated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), and Enterococcus spp. and E. coli were quantified by culture and qPCR. Unlike the other bacteria, C. jejuni was not detectable after 48 h. Bacterial levels in the water column consistently declined over time and were highly correlated among species. Survival in sediments ranged from a slow decrease over time to growth, particularly in marine microcosms and for Bacteroidales. S. enterica also grew in marine sediments. Linear decay rates in water (k) ranged from −0.17 day−1 for LA35 to −3.12 day−1 for C. coli. LA35 levels correlated well with those of other bacteria in the water column but not in sediments. These observations suggest that, particularly in the water column, the fate of LA35 in aquatic environments is similar to that of FIB, C. coli, and Salmonella, supporting the hypothesis that the LA35 marker gene can be a useful tool for evaluating the impact of poultry litter on water quality and human health risk. PMID:25934617

  13. Soil microbial biomass nitrogen and Beta-Glucosaminidase activity response to compaction, poultry litter application and cropping in a claypan soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compaction-induced changes in soil physical properties may significantly affect soil microbial activity, especially nitrogen-cycling processes, in many agroecosystems. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of soil compaction on soil microbiological properties related to N in a clay...

  14. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    SciTech Connect

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  15. Stable isotope ratio method for the characterisation of the poultry house environment.

    PubMed

    Skipitytė, Raminta; Mašalaitė, Agnė; Garbaras, Andrius; Mickienė, Rūta; Ragažinskienė, Ona; Baliukonienė, Violeta; Bakutis, Bronius; Šiugždaitė, Jūratė; Petkevičius, Saulius; Maruška, Audrius Sigitas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2017-06-01

    Stable isotope analysis was applied to describe the poultry house environment. The poultry house indoor environment was selected for this study due to the relevant health problems in animals and their caretakers. Air quality parameters including temperature, relative humidity, airflow rate, NH3, CO2 and total suspended particles, as well as mean levels of total airborne bacteria and fungi count, were measured. Carbon isotope ratios ((13)C/(12)C) were obtained in size-segregated aerosol particles. The carbon ((13)C/(12)C) and nitrogen ((15)N/(14)N) isotope ratios were measured in feed, litter, scrapings from the ventilation system, feathers and eggs. Additionally, the distribution of δ(13)C and δ(15)N values in different tissues of the chicken was examined. The airborne bacteria and fungi extracted from the air filters collected from poultry farms were grown in the laboratory in media with known isotope values and measured for stable isotope ratios. Analysis of isotope fractionation between microorganisms and their media indicated the applicability of stable isotope analysis in bulk samples for the identification of source material. The analysed examples imply that stable isotope analysis can be used to examine the indoor environment along with its biology and ecology, and serve as an informative bioanalytical tool.

  16. Littering Behavior in Public Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Stuart N.

    1976-01-01

    This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning littering behavior. Available studies are categorized according to the variables that influence littering--individual and environmental. Theoretical issues of attitude-behavior consistency and incentive effectiveness are analyzed with respect to littering and litter control. Results…

  17. Field Experiments in Litter Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnie, William C.

    1973-01-01

    A series of urban and highway litter experiments in Richmond (Virginia), St. Louis, and Philadelphia indicated well-designed litter cans reduced littering about 15 percent along city streets and nearly 30 percent along highways. Also, the propensity to litter is critically affected by the characteristics of the individual and environmental…

  18. Conversion of poultry wastes into energy feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Kabadayi, Arzu; Ucar, Suat; Yanik, Jale

    2016-10-01

    In this study, conversion of wastes from poultry farming and industry into biochar and bio-oil via thermochemical processes was investigated. Fuel characteristics and chemical structure of biochars and bio-oils have been investigated using standard fuel analysis and spectroscopic methods. Biochars were produced from poultry litter through both hydrothermal carbonization (sub-critical water, 175-250°C) and pyrolysis over a temperature range between 250 and 500°C. In comparison to hydrothermal carbonization, pyrolysis at lower temperatures produced biochar with greater energy yield due to the higher mass yield. Biochars obtained by both processes were comparable to coal. Hydrothermal liquefaction of poultry meal at different temperatures (200-325°C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions. Higher temperatures favored the formation of bio-crude oil, with a maximum yield of 35wt.% at 300°C. The higher heating values of bio-oils showed that bio-oil could be a potential source of synthetic fuels. However, elemental analysis demonstrated the high nitrogen content of bio-oils. Therefore, bio-oils obtained from hydrothermal liquefaction of poultry meal should be upgraded for utilization as a transport and heating fuel.

  19. Arsenic Metabolites, Including N-Acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic Acid, in Chicken Litter from a Roxarsone-Feeding Study Involving 1600 Chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zonglin; Peng, Hanyong; Lu, Xiufen; Liu, Qingqing; Huang, Rongfu; Hu, Bin; Kachanoski, Gary; Zuidhof, Martin J; Le, X Chris

    2016-07-05

    The poultry industry has used organoarsenicals, such as 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (Roxarsone, ROX), to prevent disease and to promote growth. Although previous studies have analyzed arsenic species in chicken litter after composting or after application to agricultural lands, it is not clear what arsenic species were excreted by chickens before biotransformation of arsenic species during composting. We describe here the identification and quantitation of arsenic species in chicken litter repeatedly collected on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 of a Roxarsone-feeding study involving 1600 chickens of two strains. High performance liquid chromatography separation with simultaneous detection by both inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry provided complementary information necessary for the identification and quantitation of arsenic species. A new metabolite, N-acetyl-4-hydroxy-m-arsanilic acid (N-AHAA), was identified, and it accounted for 3-12% of total arsenic. Speciation analyses of litter samples collected from ROX-fed chickens on days 14, 24, 28, 30, and 35 showed the presence of N-AHAA, 3-amino-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid (3-AHPAA), inorganic arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), and ROX. 3-AHPAA accounted for 3-19% of the total arsenic. Inorganic arsenicals (the sum of As(III) and As(V)) comprised 2-6% (mean 3.5%) of total arsenic. Our results on the detection of inorganic arsenicals, methylarsenicals, 3-AHPAA, and N-AHAA in the chicken litter support recent findings that ROX is actually metabolized by the chicken or its gut microbiome. The presence of the toxic metabolites in chicken litter is environmentally relevant as chicken litter is commonly used as fertilizer.

  20. Effect of Poultry Litter on Biomethanation from Swine Slurry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of methane p...

  1. Abundance of pathogens in the gut and litter of broiler chickens as affected by bacitracin and litter management.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shan; Gutek, Amanda; Lilburn, Michael; Yu, Zhongtang

    2013-10-25

    Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. are food-borne enteric pathogens that are commonly associated with poultry. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplemental bacitracin and litter management (fresh vs. reused) on the abundance of these pathogens in commercial broiler chickens. Specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were used to quantify C. perfringens, virulent C. perfringens that carried the genes encoding α-toxin (cpa) and NetB-toxin (netB), Salmonella, and Campylobacter in samples of ileal mucosa, cecal content, and litter. Campylobacter was not detected in any of the samples collected. The abundance of Salmonella was not affected by either bacitracin or litter condition. Generic C. perfringens was detected in the ileal mucosa at very low level at 10 days of age but was much higher at 35 days. Chickens reared on reused litter tended to have a lower abundance of generic C. perfringens compared with those reared on fresh litter. In the ileal mucosa, no cpa or netB was detected at day 10 but was detected at day 35 in the chickens that were not fed supplemental bacitracin. Chicks fed supplemental bacitracin had reduced abundance of generic C. perfringens as well as the cpa and netB genes in the ileal mucosa, cecal content, and litters. A strong positive correlation was found between the abundance of all three measurements of C. perfringens. The abundance of Salmonella spp. and C. perfringens was also shown to be correlated. This is the first study that has examined the effect of dietary bacitracin and litter conditions on the prevalence of these three common enteric pathogens. Unless contaminated from previous flocks, reused litter may not necessarily contain significantly greater abundances of C. perfringens or Salmonella.

  2. Rapid determination of natural and synthetic hormones in biosolids and poultry manure by isotope dilution GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Albero, Beatriz; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Miguel, Esther; Aznar, Ramón; Tadeo, José L

    2014-04-01

    The release of hormones into the environment due to land application of biosolids and manure is a cause of concern for their potential impacts. This paper presents the development of a rapid and sensitive method, based on extraction, for the analysis of 13 hormones in biosolids and poultry manure. A simultaneous derivatization of hydroxyl and ketone groups was carried out for the determination of hormones by GC–MS/MS. The method was validated in three matrices (sewage sludge, manure, and broiler litter). Recoveries from spiked samples at three concentration levels (50, 25, and 10 ng/g) ranged from 76 to 124% with relative SDs ≤ 16%. Method detection limits for the three matrices were in the range of 0.5–3.0 ng/g dry weight. The optimized method was applied to biosolid and poultry manure samples collected in Spain. Only seven of the 13 studied hormones were detected in the different samples. trans-Androsterone was detected at high levels (up to 3.1 μg/g in biosolid samples). Estrone and estradiol were the two hormones detected at higher levels in layer manure, whereas estrone and 4-androstene-3,17-dione presented the highest levels in broiler litter.

  3. The Experimental Control of Littering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Roger N.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Behavior, incentives, and education programs were researched as factors relating to littering. Experiments in theaters, forest campgrounds, and hiking and dispersed car camping areas indicate incentive systems are necessary and feasible for curbing litter problems. (BL)

  4. Intestinal Microbiota of Broiler Chickens As Affected by Litter Management Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingling; Lilburn, Mike; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-01

    Poultry litter is a mixture of bedding materials and enteric bacteria excreted by chickens, and it is typically reused for multiple growth cycles in commercial broiler production. Thus, bacteria can be transmitted from one growth cycle to the next via litter. However, it remains poorly understood how litter reuse affects development and composition of chicken gut microbiota. In this study, the effect of litter reuse on the microbiota in litter and in chicken gut was investigated using 2 litter management regimens: fresh vs. reused litter. Samples of ileal mucosa and cecal digesta were collected from young chicks (10 days of age) and mature birds (35 days of age). Based on analysis using DGGE and pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons, the microbiota of both the ileal mucosa and the cecal contents was affected by both litter management regimen and age of birds. Faecalibacterium, Oscillospira, Butyricicoccus, and one unclassified candidate genus closely related to Ruminococcus were most predominant in the cecal samples, while Lactobacillus was predominant in the ileal samples at both ages and in the cecal samples collected at day 10. At days 10 and 35, 8 and 3 genera, respectively, in the cecal luminal microbiota differed significantly in relative abundance between the 2 litter management regimens. Compared to the fresh litter, reused litter increased predominance of halotolerant/alkaliphilic bacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing gut bacterium. This study suggests that litter management regimens affect the chicken GI microbiota, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health. PMID:27242676

  5. Artificial insemination in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial insemination is a relative simple yet powerful tool geneticists can employ for the propagation of economically important traits in livestock and poultry. In this chapter, we address the fundamental methods of the artificial insemination of poultry, including semen collection, semen evalu...

  6. Effect of aluminum sulfate on litter composition and ammonia emission in a single flock of broilers up to 42 days of age.

    PubMed

    Madrid, J; López, M J; Orengo, J; Martínez, S; Valverde, M; Megías, M D; Hernández, F

    2012-08-01

    New alternatives are necessary if the environmental impact linked to intensive poultry production is to be reduced, and different litter handling methods should be explored. Among these, acidifying amendments added to poultry litters has been suggested as a management practice to help reduce the potential environmental effect involved in multiple flock cycles. There have been several studies on the use of aluminum sulfate (alum) and its benefits, but almost no data are available under farm conditions in Europe. An experiment with Ross 308 broilers from 1 to 42 days of age was conducted to evaluate the effect of alum on litter composition, the solubility of some mineral elements and NH3 emission during a single flock-rearing period in commercial houses located in southeast Spain. Broilers were placed on clean wood shavings in four commercial houses, containing 20 000 broilers each. Before filling, alum was applied at a rate of 0.25 kg/m2 to the wood shavings of two poultry houses, whereas the remaining two were used as control. Litter from each poultry house was sampled every 3 to 5 days. Ammonia emissions from the poultry houses were monitored from 37 to 42 days of age. In comparison with the control group, alum treatment significantly reduced the pH level of the litter (P < 0.001) with an average difference of 1.32 ± 0.24 units. Alum-treated litter showed, on average, a higher electrical conductivity than the control litter (5.52 v. 3.63 dS/m). The dry matter (DM) and total N and P contents did not show differences between the treatments (P > 0.05). Regarding the NH4 +-N content, alum-treated litter showed a higher value than the untreated litter, with an average difference of 0.16 ± 0.07% (on a DM basis). On average, alum-treated litter had lower water-soluble P, Zn and Cu contents than the untreated litter. Alum noticeably reduced the in-house ammonia concentration (P < 0.001), with an average of 4.8 ppm at 42 days of age (62.9% lower than the control), and

  7. Antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus spp. isolated from environmental samples in an area of intensive poultry production.

    PubMed

    Furtula, Vesna; Jackson, Charlene R; Farrell, Erin Gwenn; Barrett, John B; Hiott, Lari M; Chambers, Patricia A

    2013-03-12

    Enterococcus spp. from two poultry farms and proximate surface and ground water sites in an area of intensive poultry production were tested for resistance to 16 clinical antibiotics. Resistance patterns were compared to assess trends and possible correlations for specific antimicrobials and levels of resistance. Enterococci were detected at all 12 surface water sites and three of 28 ground water sites. Resistance to lincomycin, tetracycline, penicillin and ciprofloxacin in poultry litter isolates was high (80.3%, 65.3%, 61.1% and 49.6%, respectively). Resistance in the surface water to the same antibiotics was 87.1%, 24.1%, 7.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Overall, 86% of litter isolates, 58% of surface water isolates and 100% of ground water isolates were resistant to more than one antibiotic. Fifty-four different resistance patterns were recognised in isolates obtained from litter and environmental samples and several E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates from litter and environment samples shared the same resistance pattern. Multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) indices calculated to assess health risks due to the presence of resistant enterococci suggested an increased presence of antibiotics in surface water, likely from poultry sources as no other wastewater contributions in the area were documented.

  8. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican...

  9. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican...

  10. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, NEWCASTLE... on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified...

  11. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican...

  12. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican...

  13. Rainfall timing effect on concentrations of testosterone and estradiol in surface runoff from broiler litter applied to grassed plots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter contains the sex hormones testosterone and estradiol, which may contaminate surface runoff following litter application to grasslands. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of runoff occurring at different times after litter application and under different environmental con...

  14. Economic feasibility of recycling swine and poultry waste: A case study from Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshmand, A.R.

    1995-12-31

    Increasing environmental problems from swine and poultry waste in Hong Kong call for alternative measures of disposing such waste that are effective not only ecologically, but also financially. This paper analyzes the benefit-cost ratio for adopting the pig-on-litter and dry-muckout method for poultry and swine farms. The results of the analyses indicate that adopting the pig-on-litter method is feasible in several scenarios except when the waste collection cost is borne by the farmer and the farmer does not receive any benefits from the sale of the spent sawdust. Dry muckout is feasible for both swine and poultry farms. It is recommended that, in the early stages of adopting pollution-abating strategies, the government should provide incentives to the farming community. Furthermore, a farm waste cooperative, and the establishment of a barter exchange where spent sawdust is exchanged for fresh sawdust, bacterial product, and labor for collection, are recommended.

  15. Reducing Children's Littering on a Nature Trail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaHart, David E.; Bailey, Jon S.

    1975-01-01

    This study compared incentives and educational methods to motivate children to pick up litter and to prevent littering. Incentives did aid in getting litter picked up. One-sentence anti-litter statements, educational materials, and lectures reduced littering, but incentives did not. (MR)

  16. Effect of Bacillus Subtilis-based Direct-fed Microbials on Immune Status in Broiler Chickens Raised on Fresh or Used Litter.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Lillehoj, H S; Jang, S I; Lee, S H; Bautista, D A; Siragusa, G R

    2013-11-01

    Type of dietary direct-fed microbials (DFMs) or poultry litter could directly influence the composition of gut microbiota. Gut microbiota plays an important role in shaping the developing immune system and maintaining the homeostasis of the mature immune system in mammal and chickens. The present study was carried out to investigate the interaction among litter, DFMs and immunity in broiler chickens exposed to a field-simulated environment. Immune status of broiler chickens was assessed by serum antibodies against Eimeria spp. and Clostridium spp. and intestinal cytokine mRNA expression. The current experimental design had a 3 ×2 factorial arrangement of treatments with three types of litter, i.e., fresh litter or used litter that was obtained from a farm with no disease outbreak (used litter) or a farm with history of a gangrenous dermatitis outbreak (GD litter), and two dietary treatments with or without DFMs. It was found that either DFM addition or type of litter significantly affected anticoccidial antibody levels of broiler chickens at d 42. In general, dietary DFMs increased the anticoccidial antibodies in the fresh-litter raised chickens, but lowered the levels in the GD-litter raised chickens. Serum antibodies against Clostridium perfringens α-toxin were significantly (p<0.05) higher in chickens raised on GD litter compared with those raised on fresh litter. Cytokine mRNA expression was significantly (p<0.05) altered by either the type of litter or DFMs. Of interest, dietary DFMs lowered interferon-γ, interleukin 1beta, and CXCLi2 cytokine mRNA expression in chickens raised on fresh litter but increased them in GD-litter raised chickens. In conclusion, dietary DFMs modulate various immune parameters of broiler chickens, but the DFM-mediated effects were dependent upon the type of litter on which chickens were raised.

  17. Poultry Industry Energy Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The poultry industry, a multi-billion dollar business in the United States, uses great amounts of energy in such operations as broiler growing, feed manufacturing, poultry processing and packing. Higher costs and limited supply of fuels common to the industry are predicted, so poultry producers are seeking ways to reduce energy expenditure. NASA is providing assistance to Delmarva Poultry Industry, Inc., an association of some 4,000 growers and suppliers in one of the nation's largest poultry production areas. Delmarva is the East Coast peninsula that includes Delaware and parts of Maryland and Virginia. The upper right photo shows a weather station in the Delmarva area (wind indicator on the pole, other instruments in the elevated box). The station is located at the University of Maryland's Broiler Sub-station, Salisbury; Maryland, where the university conducts research on poultry production and processing. The sub-station is investigating ways of conserving energy in broiler production and also exploring the potential of solar collectors as an alternative energy source. For these studies, it is essential that researchers have continuous data on temperature, pressure, wind speed and direction, solar intensity and cloud cover. Equipment to acquire such data was loaned and installed by NASA's Wallops Flight Center, Wallops Island, Virginia.

  18. The Effects of Litter on Littering Behavior in a Forest Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, S. Larry; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The effects of littered and nonlittered areas on littering behavior were determined in picnic areas in the Uinta National Forest, Utah. Littered and nonlittered conditions were controlled by spreading or removing litter from specified areas. Observations revealed that in the nonlittered areas there was more litter than in the littered areas. (CS)

  19. Mixed Substrate Fermentation for Enhanced Phytase Production by Thermophilic Mould Sporotrichum thermophile and Its Application in Beneficiation of Poultry Feed.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Amit; Satyanarayana, T; Singh, Bijender

    2016-01-01

    The optimum values of the critical variables determined by the central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM) for maximum phytase production (1881.26 U g(-1) dry mouldy residue (DMR)) by Sporotrichum thermophile are 2.5 % Tween 80, 1.0 % yeast extract and 48 h of incubation period. Phytase production in the mixed substrate (sugarcane bagasse and wheat bran) fermentation enhanced 11.6-fold over the initial production as a consequence of optimization. Phytase titres are sustainable in flasks, trays and column bioreactor (1796 to 2095 U g(-1) DMR), thus validating the model and the process for large-scale phytase production. When the yeast extract was replaced with corn steep liquor (2 % w/v), a sustained enzyme titre (1890 U g(-1) DMR) was attained, making the process cost-effective. Among all the detergents, Tween 80 supported a higher phytase production than others. The enzyme efficiently liberated nutritional components from poultry feed (inorganic phosphate, soluble protein and reducing sugars) in a time-dependent manner.

  20. Clostridium difficile in poultry and poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Roger B; Norman, Keri N; Andrews, Kathleen; Hume, Michael E; Scanlan, Charles M; Callaway, Todd R; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J

    2011-12-01

    The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile have increased in hospitals in North America from the emergence of newer, more virulent strains. Toxigenic C. difficile has been isolated from food animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer to human beings. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of toxigenic C. difficile in chickens and retail poultry meat in Texas. Seven C. difficile isolates were detected in fecal samples of 300 (2.3%) broiler chickens. Three cultivation procedures were evaluated for isolation of C. difficile from poultry meat and detected 1/32 (3.1%), 2/32 (6.2%), and 4/32 (12.5%) for the three procedures, respectively. Chicken and poultry meat isolates were characterized as toxinotype V and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis gel type-NAP7 or NAP7-variant. Susceptibilities to 11 antimicrobial agents in the current study suggested somewhat reduced resistance than reported for other meat or animal toxinotype V isolates.

  1. Mower/Litter Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Burg Corporation needed to get more power out of the suction system in their Vac 'N Bag grass mower/litter remover. The president submitted a problem statement to the Marshall Space Flight Center Technology Transfer Office, which devised a way to guide heavier items of trash to a point where suction was greatest, and made changes to the impeller and the exhaust port, based on rocket propulsion technology. The improved system is used by highway departments, city governments and park authorities, reducing work time by combining the tasks of grass cutting and vacuuming trash and grass clippings.

  2. In situ characterization of forest litter using ground-penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Frédéric; Jonard, François; Jonard, Mathieu; Lambot, Sébastien

    2016-03-01

    Decomposing litter accumulated on the soil surface in forests plays a major role in several ecosystem processes; its detailed characterization is therefore essential for thorough understanding of ecosystem functioning. In addition, litter is known to affect remote sensing radar data over forested areas and their proper processing requires accurate quantification of litter scattering properties. In the present study, ultrawideband (0.8-2.2 GHz) ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data were collected in situ for a wide range of litter types to investigate the potential of the technique to reconstruct litter horizons in undisturbed natural conditions. Radar data were processed resorting to full-wave inversion. Good agreement was generally found between estimated and measured litter layer thicknesses, with root-mean-square error values around 1 cm for recently fallen litter (OL layer) and around 2 cm for fragmented litter in partial decomposition (OF layer) and total litter (OL + OF). Nevertheless, significant correlations between estimated and measured thicknesses were found for total litter only. Inaccuracies in the reconstruction of the individual litter horizons were mainly attributed to weak dielectric contrasts amongst litter layers, with absolute differences in relative dielectric permittivity values often lower than 2 between humus horizons, and to uncertainties in the ground truth values. Radar signal inversions also provided reliable estimates of litter electromagnetic properties, with average relative dielectric permittivity values around 2.9 and 6.3 for OL and OF litters, respectively. These results are encouraging for the use of GPR for noninvasive characterization and mapping of forest litter. Perspectives for the application of the technique in biogeosciences are discussed.

  3. Veterinary antibiotic resistance, residues, and ecological risks in environmental samples obtained from poultry farms, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Nabawy, Ehab Elsayed

    2015-02-01

    In Egypt, poultry production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary antibiotics (VAs) into the environment. About 80 % of meat production in Egypt is of poultry origin, and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of VAs in these farms have not yet been properly evaluated. Thus, the main purpose of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant enteric key bacteria and the incidence of residual antibiotics in poultry farm environmental samples and to determine whether fertilizing soils with poultry litter from farms potentially brings ecological risks. From December 2011 to September 2012, a total of 225 litter, bird dropping, and water samples were collected from 75 randomly selected boiler poultry farms. A high prevalence of Escherichia coli (n = 179; 79.5 %) in contrast to the low prevalence of Salmonella spp. (n = 7; 3.1 %) was detected. Amongst E. coli isolates, serotypes O142:K86, O125:K70, O91:K, and O119:K69 were the most common. Meanwhile, Salmonella enterica serotypes emek and enteritidis were recovered. The antibiograms using the disc diffusion method revealed significantly more common resistant and multi-resistant isolates in broiler poultry farms. Residues of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were detected at 2.125 and 1.401 mg kg(-1) mean levels, respectively, in environmental samples contaminated with E. coli-resistant strains by HPLC. The risk evaluations highlighted that tetracycline residues in poultry litter significantly display environmental risks with a hazard quotient value above 1 (1.64). Our study implies that ineffective implementation of veterinary laws which guide and guard against incorrect VA usage may potentially bring health and environmental risks.

  4. Campylobacter infections in children exposed to infected backyard poultry in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Tras, W F; Holt, H R; Tayel, A A; El-Kady, N N

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease which has a worldwide public health impact. The disease is endemic in Egypt; however, the epidemiology in animals and humans has not been fully characterized. The objective of this study was to compare the risk of Campylobacter faecal carriage in children exposed to Campylobacter-infected vs. non-infected backyard poultry and to identify risk factors for a backyard being classified as infected. A total of 103 households which owned backyard poultry were sampled from a rural community in Egypt. Within these households 379 poultry and 106 children were tested for C. jejuni and C. coli; 23·5% and 5·5% of poultry were positive for C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. In the studied households; 12·3% of children were positive for C. jejuni, and 2·8% were positive for C. coli. Using logistic regression, households with poultry positive for C. jejuni had 3·86 (95% confidence interval 1·0-15·0) times the odds of having children positive for C. jejuni compared to those housed with poultry which all tested negative. Backyard poultry may present a transmission route of C. jejuni to children. Backyards with poor cleaning and disinfection, wet litter and manure disposed of within the backyard had increased odds of being positive for C. jejuni. Enhancing biosecurity and management in poultry backyards may reduce the risk of the disease.

  5. Runoff quality from no-till cotton fertilized with broiler litter in subsurface bands.

    PubMed

    Adeli, A; Tewolde, H; Shankle, M W; Way, T R; Brooks, J P; McLaughlin, M R

    2013-01-01

    Surface broadcast of broiler litter to no-till row crops exposes the litter and its nutrients to risks of loss in runoff water and volatilization and may limit the potential benefit of litter to the crops. Subsurface banding of litter could alleviate these risks. A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 on an upland Falkner silt loam soil to determine the effect of broiler litter placement on runoff nutrient losses from no-till cotton ( L.). Treatments included surface broadcast broiler litter applied manually, subsurface-banded litter applied by tractor-drawn equipment, and no broiler litter, all in combination with or without winter wheat ( L.) cover crop residue. Broiler litter rate was 5.6 Mg ha. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with a split-plot arrangement of treatments replicated three times. In 2008, simulated rainfall was used to generate runoff 27 d after litter application. Subsurface-banded litter reduced runoff total C, N, P, NH, NO, Cu, Zn and water-soluble P (WP) concentrations by 72, 64, 51, 49, 70, 36, 65, and 77%, respectively, compared with surface broadcast. The reductions were greater in 2009 where runoff occurred 1 d after litter application. Bacterial runoff was decreased by one log with subsurface-banded litter compared to surface broadcast. Except for C, NH, N, and WP, the presence of winter cover crop residue did not affect the load or runoff nutrient concentrations in either year. The results indicate that subsurface banding litter to no-till cotton substantially reduces nutrient and bacterial losses in runoff compared with surface broadcasting.

  6. Drinking water application of Denagard® Tiamulin for control of Brachyspira pilosicoli infection of laying poultry.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Martin J; Mappley, Luke; Le Roy, Caroline; Claus, Sandrine P; Davies, Paul; Thompson, Gavin; La Ragione, Roberto M

    2015-12-01

    Avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS) caused by Brachyspira spp., and notably Brachyspira pilosicoli, is common in layer flocks and reportedly of increasing incidence in broilers and broiler breeders. Disease manifests as diarrhoea, increased feed consumption, reduced growth rates and occasional mortality in broilers and these signs are shown in layers also associated with a delayed onset of lay, reduced egg weights, faecal staining of eggshells and non-productive ovaries. Treatment with Denagard® Tiamulin has been used to protect against B. pilosicoli colonisation, persistence and clinical presentation of AIS in commercial layers, but to date there has been no definitive study validating efficacy. Here, we used a poultry model of B. pilosicoli infection of layers to compare the impact of three doses of Denagard® Tiamulin. Four groups of thirty 17 week old commercial pre-lay birds were all challenged with B. pilosicoli strain B2904 with three oral doses two days apart. All birds were colonised within 2 days after the final oral challenge and mild onset of clinical signs were observed thereafter. A fifth group that was unchallenged and untreated was also included for comparison as healthy birds. Five days after the final oral Brachypira challenge three groups were given Denagard® Tiamulin in drinking water made up following the manufacturer's recommendations with doses verified as 58.7 ppm, 113 ppm and 225 ppm. Weight gain body condition and the level of diarrhoea of birds infected with B. pilosicoli were improved and shedding of the organism reduced significantly (p=0.001) following treatment with Denagard® Tiamulin irrespective of dose given. The level and duration of colonisation of organs of birds infected with B. pilosicoli was also reduced. Confirming previous findings we showed that the ileum, caeca, colon, and both liver and spleen were colonised and here we demonstrated that treatment with Denagard® Tiamulin resulted in significant reduction in the

  7. Development and application of novel SNP-based serotyping assays in targeting Salmonella enterica within the poultry production and processing continuum.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteriditis (S. Enteriditis) is the leading cause of salmonellosis worldwide. While some S. enterica serotypes are specific to birds, many represent human zoonotic pathogens, thus their presence and survival throughout the continuum of poultry production...

  8. Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Arné, Pascal; Thierry, Simon; Wang, Dongying; Deville, Manjula; Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Desoutter, Anaïs; Féménia, Françoise; Nieguitsila, Adélaïde; Huang, Weiyi; Chermette, René; Guillot, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood. PMID:21826144

  9. Application of the Taguchi method in poultry science: estimation of the in vitro optimum intrinsic phytase activity of rye, wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Sedghi, M; Golian, A; Esmaeilipour, O; Van Krimpen, M M

    2014-01-01

    1. In poultry investigations, the main interest is often to study the effects of many factors simultaneously. Two or three level factorial designs are the most commonly used for this type of investigation. However, it is often too costly to perform when number of factors increase. So a fractional factorial design, which is a subset or a fraction of a full factorial design, is an alternative. The Taguchi method has been proposed for simplifying and standardising fractional factorial designs. 2. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the applicability of the Taguchi method to optimise in vitro intrinsic phytase activity (IPA) of rye, wheat and barley under different culture conditions. 3. In order to have a solid base for judging the suitability of the Taguchi method, the results of the Taguchi method were compared with those of an experiment that was conducted as a 3(4) full factorial arrangement with three feed ingredients (rye, wheat and barley), three temperatures (20°C, 38°C and 55°C), three pH values (3.0, 5.5 and 8.0) and three incubation times (30, 60 and 120 min), with two replicates per treatment. 4. After data collection, a Taguchi L 9 (3(4)) orthogonal array was used to estimate the effects of different factors on the IPA, based on a subset of only 9 instead of 81 treatments. The data were analysed with both Taguchi and full factorial methods and the main effects and the optimal combinations of these 4 factors were obtained for each method. 5. The results indicated that according to both the full factorial experimental design and the Taguchi method, the optimal culture conditions were obtained with the following combination: rye, pH = 3, temperature = 20 °C and time of incubation = 30 min. The comparison between the Taguchi and full factorial results showed that the Taguchi method is a sufficient and resource saving alternative to the full factorial design in poultry science.

  10. Effects of Chicken Litter Storage Time and Ammonia Content on Thermal Resistance of Desiccation-Adapted Salmonella spp.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhao; Wang, Hongye; Ionita, Claudia; Luo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Broiler chicken litter was kept as a stacked heap on a poultry farm, and samples were collected up to 9 months of storage. Chicken litter inoculated with desiccation-adapted Salmonella cells was heat-treated at 75, 80, 85, and 150°C. Salmonella populations decreased in all these samples during heat treatment, and the inactivation rates became lower in chicken litter when storage time was extended from 0 to 6 months. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in thermal resistance of Salmonella in 6- and 9-month litter samples, indicating that a threshold for thermal resistance was reached after 6 months. Overall, the thermal resistance of Salmonella in chicken litter was affected by the storage time of the litter. The changes in some chemical, physical, and microbiological properties during storage could possibly contribute to this difference. Moisture and ammonia could be two of the most significant factors influencing the thermal resistance of Salmonella cells in chicken litter. Our results emphasize the importance of adjusting time and temperature conditions for heat processing chicken litter when it is removed from the chicken house at different time intervals. PMID:26209673

  11. Effects of Chicken Litter Storage Time and Ammonia Content on Thermal Resistance of Desiccation-Adapted Salmonella spp.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao; Wang, Hongye; Ionita, Claudia; Luo, Feng; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-10-01

    Broiler chicken litter was kept as a stacked heap on a poultry farm, and samples were collected up to 9 months of storage. Chicken litter inoculated with desiccation-adapted Salmonella cells was heat-treated at 75, 80, 85, and 150°C. Salmonella populations decreased in all these samples during heat treatment, and the inactivation rates became lower in chicken litter when storage time was extended from 0 to 6 months. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in thermal resistance of Salmonella in 6- and 9-month litter samples, indicating that a threshold for thermal resistance was reached after 6 months. Overall, the thermal resistance of Salmonella in chicken litter was affected by the storage time of the litter. The changes in some chemical, physical, and microbiological properties during storage could possibly contribute to this difference. Moisture and ammonia could be two of the most significant factors influencing the thermal resistance of Salmonella cells in chicken litter. Our results emphasize the importance of adjusting time and temperature conditions for heat processing chicken litter when it is removed from the chicken house at different time intervals.

  12. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    DOEpatents

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-09-03

    An animal litter composition that includes geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. This geopolymerization reaction may occur within a pelletizer. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it may be dried and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates may be used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter or other absorbing material. Aluminum sulfate, clinoptilolite, silica gel, sodium alginate and mineral oil may be added as additional ingredients.

  13. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    SciTech Connect

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2012-08-28

    An animal litter composition including geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control is accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  14. Microbiological study of methane generation from poultry wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Studies have been conducted to investigate the biological potential of methane generation from two types of poultry waste: broiler chicken litter and laying hen manure. Through the systematic study, thermophilic bacterial cultures were initiated and established to produce methane at their highest rates. It was found that different kinds of waste with different chemical compositions required different operational conditions to reach the individual maximal potential. The microbiology of the methane-producing bacteria in the poultry waste-based anaerobic digester was studied. An enriched thermophilic methane-producing culture was isolated. The methanogenic culture can use acetate, ethanol, methylamine, propionate, and H/sub 2/-CO/sub 2/, but not formate and methanol, for growth and methanogenesis. The methanogenic culture was found to be a mixed culture from which a thermophilic Methanococcus sp. and an unidentified rod-shaped microorganism were isolated. The two organisms produced methane symbiotically in the acetate medium.

  15. Distribution of paratyphoids on Saudi Arabian poultry farms and pathogenicity studies of predominant serotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, E.K.; Nabbut, N.H.; Hinners, S.W.

    1983-07-01

    A total of 412 feed samples and 632 litter samples from 15 poultry farms (2 breeding farms and 13 rearing farms) were examined for Salmonella. Twelve of these farms had Salmonella in litter, five farms had Salmonella in the feed and four had Salmonella in both feed and litter. Seventeen feed samples (4.13%) and 121 litter samples (19.15%) were contaminated with Salmonella. Sixteen Salmonella serotypes were encountered, of which six were found in both feed and litter. Salmonella concord and S. livingstone were present in the litter of one breeding farm and its progeny farms. The five most frequently isolated Salmonella serotypes in feed and litter were S. concord (17.39%), S. coeln (15.94%), S. livingstone (15.22%), S. manhattan (11.59%), and S. paratyphi B var. java (8.69%). The pathogenicities of those serotypes were determined by calculating their median lethal doses (LD50) 24 and 48 hr postinjection of 1,050 one-day-old broiler chicks via the navel into the yolk sac. The composite 48-hr LD50s (viable cells) were: S. concord, less than 8.8 X 10(3); S. livingstone, 1.1 X 10(5); S. manhattan, 3.5 X 10(5); S. coeln, 1.25 X 10(7); and S. paratyphi B var. java, 1.73 X 10(7).

  16. [Effects of the decomposition of poplar and alder mixed leaf litters on soil microbial biomass].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qin; Fang, Sheng-Zuo; Tian, Ye

    2012-08-01

    An incubation test was conducted to study the effects of the decomposition of poplar and trabeculate alder leaf litters with different mixed ratios and under different application ways on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN). The mixed ratio of the litters had significant effects on soil MBC and MBN. On the 30th day of incubation, soil MBC and MBN were significantly higher in the treatments with > or = 50% of alder litter than in the treatment with poplar litter only and the control. On the 75th day of incubation, the soil MBC in the treatments with > or = 40% of alder litter and the soil MBN in the treatments with > or = 30% of alder litter were significantly greater than those in the treatment with poplar litter only and the control. After 135 days incubation, soil MBC and MBN were significant higher in the treatments with > or = 20% and > or = 40% of alder litter than in the treatment with poplar litter only and the control, respectively. There was no significant difference in the soil MBC/MBN between the treatments with different mixed ratios of poplar and alder leaf litters and the control. Overall, soil MBC/MBN increased during the early period of incubation and decreased in the later period, suggesting that soil microflora changed during the decomposition of the litters. In the whole incubation period, the application ways of the litters had lesser effects on the soil MBC, MBN, and MBC/MBN, indicating that the addition ways of the litters did not affect soil microflora.

  17. Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

  18. Enteric viruses of poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of the poultry gut, very little is known about the complex gut microbial community. Enteric disease syndromes such as Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS) in broiler chickens and Poult Enteritis Complex (PEC) in young turkeys are difficult to characterize and reproduce in ...

  19. Technology and Poultry Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Ben Sassi, Neila; Averós, Xavier; Estevez, Inma

    2016-01-01

    Consideration of animal welfare is essential to address the consumers’ demands and for the long term sustainability of commercial poultry. However, assessing welfare in large poultry flocks, to be able to detect potential welfare risks and to control or minimize its impact is difficult. Current developments in technology and mathematical modelling open new possibilities for real-time automatic monitoring of animal welfare and health. New technological innovations potentially adaptable to commercial poultry are appearing, although their practical implementation is still being defined. In this paper, we review the latest technological developments with potential to be applied to poultry welfare, especially for broiler chickens and laying hens. Some of the examples that are presented and discussed include the following: sensors for farm environmental monitoring, movement, or physiological parameters; imaging technologies such as optical flow to detect gait problems and feather pecking; infrared technologies to evaluate birds’ thermoregulatory features and metabolism changes, that may be indicative of welfare, health and management problems. All these technologies have the potential to be implemented at the commercial level to improve birds’ welfare and to optimize flock management, therefore, improving the efficiency of the system in terms of use of resources and, thus, long term sustainability. PMID:27727169

  20. Use of Enterococcus, BST and sterols as indicators for poultry pollution source tracking in surface and groundwater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study has applied Enterococcus, Bacterial Source Tracking (BST) and sterol analysis for pollution source identification from poultry sources. Fecal contamination was detected in 100% of surface water and 15% of groundwater sites tested. E. faecium was the dominant species in aged litter sampl...

  1. Persistence and transmission of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in a watermelon field ammended with poultry itter: year two

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction:Poultry litter (PL) is a nutrient-rich soil amendmentfor crop production; however, use of PL in soils may introduce enteric pathogens tofruits and vegetables. Purpose:This study was to evaluated the persistence of a non-pathogenic rifampicin-resistant E. coli strain (TVS 355) and the p...

  2. Patterns of contact within the New Zealand poultry industry.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, C Y; Stevenson, M A; Rawdon, T G; Gerber, N; French, N P

    2010-07-01

    Members of the Poultry Industry Association and the Egg Producers Federation of New Zealand (n=420) were sent a questionnaire asking them to describe the type and frequency of on- and off-enterprise movements relating to feed, live birds and hatching eggs, table eggs and poultry product, and manure and waste litter. Social network analyses were used to describe patterns of contact among poultry enterprises and their associates for these four movement types. The response rate to the survey was 58% (244 out of 420). Network structures for enterprise-to-enterprise movements of feed, live birds and hatching eggs, and table egg and poultry product were characterised by 'hub and spoke' type structures with small-world characteristics. Small worlds were created by network hubs (e.g. feed suppliers and hatcheries) providing goods and services to larger numbers of client farms. In addition to hubs acting as the predominant source of material moving onto farms we identified enterprises acting as bridges between identified small worlds. The presence of these bridges is a concern, since their presence has the potential to facilitate the spread of hazards (e.g. feed contaminants, infectious agents carried within feed) more readily throughout the population. An ability to predict enterprises with these network characteristics on the basis of factors such as shed capacity, enterprise type, geographic location would be useful for developing risk-based approaches to disease prevention, surveillance, detection, response and control activities.

  3. Monitoring wood shaving litter and animal products for polychlorophenols residues, Ontario, Canada 1978-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, R.; Stonefield, K.I.; Luyken, H.

    1988-03-01

    Timber is extensively treated with the wood preservative pesticides collectively called the polychlorophenols (PxCP) which include tri-(T3CP), tetra-(T4CP), and pentachlorophenol (P5CP). These treatments are intended to protect lumber against the attacks of wood eating or boring insects and the wood decaying and staining fungi. Wood shavings are a by-product of the lumber industry that have been utilized widely in agriculture for many years as a major bedding litter for poultry, swine, and cattle and a minor litter for other domestic animals. Complaints were lodged within the Province of Ontario of off-flavors in locally produced poultry meat. Many local poultry producers reported having difficulties with (1) the fertility of their breeding flocks and (2) the ineffectiveness of vaccines among poultry raised on wood shavings but which disappeared when raised on cereal straw. An Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food service was offered whereby producers could have their wood shavings analyzed and receive guidance on the advisability of use. This paper reports on this service started in 1978 for wood shavings, and on a follow-up monitoring program to determine residues of PxCP in domestic animal products.

  4. Interactions of tissue and fertilizer nitrogen on decomposition dynamics of lignin-rich conifer litter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven S.; Matkins, Joselin J.; Hibbs, David E.

    2012-01-01

    High tissue nitrogen (N) accelerates decomposition of high-quality leaf litter in the early phases of mass loss, but the influence of initial tissue N variation on the decomposition of lignin-rich litter is less resolved. Because environmental changes such as atmospheric N deposition and elevated CO2 can alter tissue N levels within species more rapidly than they alter the species composition of ecosystems, it is important to consider how within-species variation in tissue N may shape litter decomposition and associated N dynamics. Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii ) is a widespread lignin-rich conifer that dominates forests of high carbon (C) storage across western North America, and displays wide variation in tissue and litter N that reflects landscape variation in soil N. We collected eight unique Douglas-fir litter sources that spanned a two-fold range in initial N concentrations (0.67–1.31%) with a narrow range of lignin (29–35%), and examined relationships between initial litter chemistry, decomposition, and N dynamics in both ambient and N fertilized plots at four sites over 3 yr. High initial litter N slowed decomposition rates in both early (0.67 yr) and late (3 yr) stages in unfertilized plots. Applications of N fertilizer to litters accelerated early-stage decomposition, but slowed late-stage decomposition, and most strongly affected low-N litters, which equalized decomposition rates across litters regardless of initial N concentrations. Decomposition of N-fertilized litters correlated positively with initial litter manganese (Mn) concentrations, with litter Mn variation reflecting faster turnover of canopy foliage in high N sites, producing younger litterfall with high N and low Mn. Although both internal and external N inhibited decomposition at 3 yr, most litters exhibited net N immobilization, with strongest immobilization in low-N litter and in N-fertilized plots. Our observation for lignin-rich litter that high initial N can slow decomposition

  5. 76 FR 42595 - Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the European Union... 25 Member States of the European Union as the APHIS-defined European Union poultry trade region and... establish requirements governing the importation of live birds and poultry, including hatching eggs,...

  6. 78 FR 19080 - Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Importation of Live Birds and Poultry, Poultry Meat, and Poultry Products From a Region in the European Union... poultry trade region and adding it to the list of regions we consider to be free of Newcastle disease. We... addition, we are establishing requirements governing the importation of live birds and poultry and...

  7. Litter chemistry prevails over litter consumers in mediating effects of past steel industry activities on leaf litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    Lucisine, Pierre; Lecerf, Antoine; Danger, Michaël; Felten, Vincent; Aran, Delphine; Auclerc, Apolline; Gross, Elisabeth M; Huot, Hermine; Morel, Jean-Louis; Muller, Serge; Nahmani, Johanne; Maunoury-Danger, Florence

    2015-12-15

    Soil pollution has adverse effects on the performance and life history traits of microorganisms, plants, and animals, yet evidence indicates that even the most polluted sites can support structurally-complex and dynamic ecosystems. The present study aims at determining whether and how litter decomposition, one of the most important soil ecological processes leaf, is affected in a highly trace-metal polluted site. We postulated that past steel mill activities resulting in soil pollution and associated changes in soil characteristics would influence the rate of litter decomposition through two non-exclusive pathways: altered litter chemistry and responses of decomposers to lethal and sub-lethal toxic stress. We carried out a litter-bag experiment using Populus tremula L. leaf litter collected at, and allowed to decompose in, a trace metal polluted site and in three unpolluted sites used as controls. We designed a fully-factorial transplant experimental design to assess effects of litter origin and exposure site on the rate of litter decomposition. We further determined initial litter chemistry, fungal biomass, mesofauna abundance in litter bags, and the soil macrofauna community. Irrespective of the site of litter exposure, litter originating from the polluted site had a two-fold faster decomposition than litter from the unpolluted sites. Litter chemistry, notably the lignin content, seemed most important in explaining the degradation rate of the leaf litter. Abundance of meso and macro-detritivores was higher at the polluted site than at the unpolluted sites. However, litter decomposition proceeded at similar rates in polluted and unpolluted sites. Our results show that trace metal pollution and associated soil and litter changes do not necessarily weaken consumer control on litter decomposition through lethal and sub-lethal toxic stress.

  8. Current aspects of Salmonella contamination in the US poultry production chain and the potential application of risk strategies in understanding emerging hazards.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Kalavathy; Shi, Zhaohao; Ricke, Steven C

    2017-05-01

    One of the leading causes of foodborne illness in poultry products is Salmonella enterica. Salmonella hazards in poultry may be estimated and possible control methods modeled and evaluated through the use of quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) models and tools. From farm to table, there are many possible routes of Salmonella dissemination and contamination in poultry. From the time chicks are hatched through growth, transportation, processing, storage, preparation, and finally consumption, the product could be contaminated through exposure to different materials and sources. Examination of each step of the process is necessary as well as an examination of the overall picture to create effective countermeasures against contamination and prevent disease. QMRA simulation models can use either point estimates or probability distributions to examine variables such as Salmonella concentrations at retail or at any given point of processing to gain insight on the chance of illness due to Salmonella ingestion. For modeling Salmonella risk in poultry, it is important to look at variables such as Salmonella transfer and cross contamination during processing. QMRA results may be useful for the identification and control of critical sources of Salmonella contamination.

  9. Inorganic fertilizers after broiler litter amendment reduce surplus nutrients in orchardgrass soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common producer practice to dispose of broiler litter at high rates to forage crops allow excessive accumulation of soil nutrients. A remediation study was developed to examine if inorganic fertilizer application over the residual fertility of broiler litter would reduce surplus soil nutrients i...

  10. Combustion Of Poultry-Derived Fuel in a CFBC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lufei; Anthony, Edward J.

    Poultry farming generates large quantities of waste. Current disposal practice is to spread the poultry wastes onto farmland as fertilizer. However, as the factory farms for poultry grow both in numbers and size, the amount of poultry wastes generated has increased significandy in recent years. In consequence, excessive application of poultry wastes on farmland is resulting in more and more contaminants entering the surface water. One of the options being considered is the use of poultry waste as power plant fuel. Since poultry-derived fuel (PDF) is biomass, its co-firing will have the added advantage of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from power generation. To evaluate the combustion characteristics of co-firing PDF with coal, combustion tests of mixtures of coal and PDF were conducted in CanmetENERGY's pilot-scale CFBC. The goal of the tests was to verify that PDF can be co-fired with coal and, more importantly, that emissions from the combustion process are not adversely affected by the presence of PDF in the fuel feed. The test results were very promising and support the view that co-firing in an existing coal-fired CFBC is an effective method of utilizing this potential fuel, both resolving a potential waste disposal problem and reducing the amount of CO2 released by the boiler.

  11. Effect of Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials on immune status in broiler chickens raised on fresh or used litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The type of dietary direct-fed microbials (DFMs) or poultry litter could directly influence the composition of gut microbiota. Gut microbiota play an important role in shaping the developing immune system and maintaining homeostasis of the mature immune system in mammal and chickens. The present stu...

  12. Spring and Baby Poultry are Here!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Spring and Baby Poultry are Here! Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... do people get Salmonella infections from live baby poultry? Live poultry may have Salmonella germs in their ...

  13. Effect of Leaf Litter Diversity on Dissolved Organic Matter Export in a Deciduous Forest Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibe*, A.; Eißfeller, V.; Langenbruch, C.; Seven, J.; Gleixner, G.

    2012-04-01

    We investigated sources and fate of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soils in order to understand the effect of tree diversity on below ground processes. We established a leaf litter exchange experiment in the National Park Hainich (Thuringia, Germany) in December 2008. Labeled (13C) and unlabeled leaf litter of beach (Fagus sylvatica) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior) were exposed to study the decomposition process. Soil water was collected biweekly with glass suction plates (1 μm pore size, UMS, Munich, Germany) in 5 cm soil depth and pH, conductivity, DOC and anions (Cl-, NO3-, NO2-, PO43-, SO42-, F-) were determined. The 13DOC values were measured using high performance liquid chromatography - isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HPLC-IRMS). The values of conductivity and pH in the soil water indicate slower decomposition processes for leaf litter of beech in comparison to ash leaf litter. The conductivity was correlated with the Cl- ion during the first spring, which suggests the export of carbon due to leaching processes. However during the summer the conductivity correlated with the NO3- ions, which indicates mineralization as driving process. Surprisingly, the contribution of litter 13C into the dissolved carbon pool was very low. The highest contribution with up to 8.6% DOC labeled by ash litter derived carbon was found in the first 3 month of application. However, in the mean only 1.2% and 2.6% of DOC was labeled by carbon of the beech and ash litter, respectively. This represents in total only up to 0.41% of labeled litter carbon that was added. The higher percentages of ash litter derived 13C in DOM of soil water compared to beech indicates a positive effect of litter quality on decomposition. However, we did not find a faster decomposition or higher ash litter derived carbon export in mixed (ash and beech litter) treatments, which would indicate food selection or biodiversity effects.

  14. Fertilizer potential of liquid and solid effluent from thermophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste.

    PubMed

    Liedl, B E; Bombardiere, J; Chaffield, J M

    2006-01-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic treatment of poultry litter produces an effluent stream of digested materials that can be separated into solid and liquid fractions for use as a crop fertilizer. The majority of the phosphorus is partitioned into the solid fraction while the majority of the nitrogen is present in the liquid fraction in the form of ammonium. These materials were tested over six years as an alternative fertilizer for the production of vegetable, fruit, and grassland crops. Application of the solids as a field crop fertilizer for vegetables and blueberries resulted in lower yields than the other fertilizer treatments, but an increase in soil phosphorus over a four-year period. Application of the digested liquids on grass and vegetable plots resulted in similar or superior yields to plots treated with commercially available nitrogen fertilizers. Hydroponic production of lettuce using liquid effluent was comparable to a commercial hydroponic fertilizer regime; however, the effluent treatment for hydroponic tomato production required supplementation and conversion of ammonium to nitrate. While not a total fertilizer solution, our research shows the effectiveness of digested effluent as part of a nutrient management program which could turn a livestock residuals problem into a crop nutrient resource.

  15. Bioinsecticide and leaf litter combination increases oviposition and reduces adult recruitment to create an effective ovitrap for Culex mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Bellile, Katie G; Vonesh, James R

    2016-06-01

    Mosquito egg traps, aquatic habitats baited with oviposition attractant and insecticide, are important tools for surveillance and control efforts in integrated vector management programs. The bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is increasingly used as an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical insecticides and the combination of Bti with a simple oviposition attractant like leaf litter to create an effective egg trap seems appealing. However, previous research suggests that Bti may itself alter oviposition, and that leaf litter may dramatically reduce Bti toxicity. Here we present results from field experiment designed to link the effects of litter and Bti on mosquito oviposition habitat selection and post-colonization survival to production of adult mosquitoes. Tripling litter increased Culex spp. oviposition nearly nine-fold, while Bti had no effect on oviposition. Neither factor altered egg survival, thus larval abundance reflected the effects of litter on oviposition. Both Bti and litter reduced larval survival by ∼60%. We found no evidence that increased litter reduced Bti toxicity. Adult production was dependent upon both litter and Bti. In the absence of Bti, effects of litter on oviposition translated into three-fold more adults. However, in the presence of Bti, initial increases in oviposition were erased by the combined negative effects of Bti and litter on post-colonization survival. Thus, our study provides field evidence that combined litter and Bti application creates an effective ovitrap. This combined treatment had the highest oviposition and the lowest survival, and thus removed the greatest number of mosquitoes from the landscape.

  16. Role of arthropod communities in bioenergy crop litter decomposition†.

    PubMed

    Zangerl, Arthur R; Miresmailli, Saber; Nabity, Paul; Lawrance, Allen; Yanahan, Alan; Mitchell, Corey A; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; David, Mark B; Berenbaum, May R; DeLucia, Evan H

    2013-10-01

    The extensive land use conversion expected to occur to meet demands for bioenergy feedstock production will likely have widespread impacts on agroecosystem biodiversity and ecosystem services, including carbon sequestration. Although arthropod detritivores are known to contribute to litter decomposition and thus energy flow and nutrient cycling in many plant communities, their importance in bioenergy feedstock communities has not yet been assessed. We undertook an experimental study quantifying rates of litter mass loss and nutrient cycling in the presence and absence of these organisms in three bioenergy feedstock crops-miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and a planted prairie community. Overall arthropod abundance and litter decomposition rates were similar in all three communities. Despite effective reduction of arthropods in experimental plots via insecticide application, litter decomposition rates, inorganic nitrogen leaching, and carbon-nitrogen ratios did not differ significantly between control (with arthropods) and treatment (without arthropods) plots in any of the three community types. Our findings suggest that changes in arthropod faunal composition associated with widespread adoption of bioenergy feedstock crops may not be associated with profoundly altered arthropod-mediated litter decomposition and nutrient release.

  17. 46 CFR 108.709 - Litter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Litter. 108.709 Section 108.709 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.709 Litter. Each unit must have a litter that is— (a) Stowed in a location that...

  18. 46 CFR 108.709 - Litter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Litter. 108.709 Section 108.709 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.709 Litter. Each unit must have a litter that is— (a) Stowed in a location that...

  19. Quality evaluation of poultry carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) has been mandated to organoleptically inspect poultry carcasses online at processing plants. For poultry quality and safety evaluation, the development of accurate and reliable instruments for online detection of unwholesomeness such as septicemia, cada...

  20. Effectiveness of Naturally Occurring Substances Added to Duck Litter in Reducing Emergence and Landing of Adult Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Lachance, Simon; Shiell, Justine; Guerin, Michele T; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia

    2017-02-01

    Poultry barns provide an ideal breeding environment for Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) owing to the controlled temperatures and litter (manure plus bedding material) accumulation. Management techniques that render the litter less suitable for immature stage development, such as the addition of naturally occurring insecticidal substances, could reduce fly infestations. The effectiveness of acetic, boric, and citric acids; diatomaceous earth; and hydrated lime at restricting female landing and growth of house flies in duck litter was evaluated. Litter treated with 1.9% and 4.7% by weight of acetic or boric acid had significantly lower adult emergence rates compared with the same concentrations of citric acid, diatomaceous earth, hydrated lime, or the untreated control litter. The pH of duck litter treated with acetic or citric acid was significantly reduced and remained significantly lower than the control litter (pH 8.7) for 10 d. Significantly more house flies landed on a house fly-rearing substrate (wheat bran, powdered milk, bloodmeal, water, and yeast) than litter treated with any of the other test substances or the control. The LC50 for boric acid was estimated to be 0.01% by weight, which was lower than that of acetic acid (1.42%). Similarly, the LC90 of boric acid was estimated to be 0.12%, which was lower than that of acetic acid (10.03%). Acetic acid and boric acid have the potential to be incorporated into litter as a pest management tactic to reduce house fly populations in duck production facilities.

  1. Spatial contrasts of seasonal and intraflock broiler litter trace gas emissions, physical and chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Miles, D M; Brooks, J P; Sistani, K

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive mitigation strategies for gaseous emissions from broiler operations requires knowledge of the litters' physical and chemical properties, gas evolution, bird effects, as well as broiler house management and structure. This research estimated broiler litter surface fluxes for ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2). Ancillary measurements of litter temperature, litter total N, ammonium (NH4+), total C content, moisture, and pH were also made. Grid sampling was imposed over the floor area of two commercial broiler houses at the beginning (Day 1), middle (Day 23), and end (Day 43) of a winter and subsequent summer flock housed on reused pine shavings litter. The grid was composed of 36 points, three locations across the width, and 12 locations down the length of the houses. To observe feeder and waterer (F/W) influences on the parameters, eight additional sample locations were added in a crisscross pattern among these automated supply lines. Color variograms illustrate the nature of parameter changes within each flock and between seasons. Overall trends for the NH3, N2O, and CO2 gas fluxes indicate an increase in magnitude with bird age during a flock for both summer and winter, but flux estimates were reduced in areas where compacted litter (i.e., caked litter or cake) formed at the end of the flocks (at F/W locations and in the fan area). End of flock gas fluxes were estimated at 1040 mg NH3 m(-2) h(-1), 20 mg N2O m(-2) h(-1), and 24,200 mg CO2 m(-2) h(-1) in winter; and 843 mg NH3 m(-2) h(-1), 18 mg N2O m(-2) h(-1)), and 27,200 mg CO2 m(-2) h(-1) in summer. The results of intensive sample efforts during winter and summer flocks, reported visually using contour plots, offer a resource to the poultry industry and researchers for creating new management strategies for improving production and controlling gas evolution. Particularly, efforts could focus on designing housing systems that minimize extremes in litter compaction. The

  2. 76 FR 68058 - Classes of Poultry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... 9 CFR Part 381 [Docket No. FSIS-2007-0048] RIN 0583-AC83 Classes of Poultry AGENCY: Food Safety and... amending the definitions and standards for the official U.S. classes of poultry so that they more accurately and clearly describe the characteristics of poultry in the market today. Poultry classes...

  3. Climate and litter quality differently modulate the effects of soil fauna on litter decomposition across biomes.

    PubMed

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T; Kattge, Jens; Wall, Diana H

    2013-08-01

    Climate and litter quality have been identified as major drivers of litter decomposition at large spatial scales. However, the role played by soil fauna remains largely unknown, despite its importance for litter fragmentation and microbial activity. We synthesised litterbag studies to quantify the effect sizes of soil fauna on litter decomposition rates at the global and biome scales, and to assess how climate, litter quality and soil fauna interact to determine such rates. Soil fauna consistently enhanced litter decomposition at both global and biome scales (average increment ~ 37%). [corrected]. However, climate and litter quality differently modulated the effects of soil fauna on decomposition rates between biomes, from climate-driven biomes to those where climate effects were mediated by changes in litter quality. Our results advocate for the inclusion of biome-specific soil fauna effects on litter decomposition as a mean to reduce the unexplained variation in large-scale decomposition models.

  4. Climate and litter quality differently modulate the effects of soil fauna on litter decomposition across biomes

    PubMed Central

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T.; Kattge, Jens; Wall, Diana H.

    2015-01-01

    Climate and litter quality have been identified as major drivers of litter decomposition at large spatial scales. However, the role played by soil fauna remains largely unknown, despite its importance for litter fragmentation and microbial activity. We synthesized litterbag studies to quantify the effect sizes of soil fauna on litter decomposition rates at the global and biome scales, and to assess how climate, litter quality and soil fauna interact to determine such rates. Soil fauna consistently enhanced litter decomposition at both global and biome scales (average increment ~27%). However, climate and litter quality differently modulated the effects of soil fauna on decomposition rates between biomes, from climate-driven biomes to those where climate effects were mediated by changes in litter quality. Our results advocate for the inclusion of biome-specific soil fauna effects on litter decomposition as a mean to reduce the unexplained variation in large-scale decomposition models. PMID:23763716

  5. Measurement of broiler litter production rates and nutrient content using recycled litter.

    PubMed

    Coufal, C D; Chavez, C; Niemeyer, P R; Carey, J B

    2006-03-01

    It is important for broiler producers to know litter production rates and litter nutrient content when developing nutrient management plans. Estimation of broiler litter production varies widely in the literature due to factors such as geographical region, type of housing, size of broiler produced, and number of flocks reared on the same litter. Published data for N, P, and K content are also highly variable. In addition, few data are available regarding the rate of production, characteristics, and nutrient content of caked litter (cake). In this study, 18 consecutive flocks of broilers were reared on the same litter in experimental pens under simulated commercial conditions. The mass of litter and cake produced was measured after each flock. Samples of all litter materials were analyzed for pH, moisture, N, P, and K. Average litter and cake moisture content were 26.4 and 46.9%, respectively. Significant variation in litter and cake nutrient content was observed and can largely be attributed to ambient temperature differences. Average litter, cake, and total litter (litter plus cake) production rates were 153.3, 74.8, and 228.2 g of dry litter material per kg of live broiler weight (g/kg) per flock, respectively. Significant variation in litter production rates among flocks was also observed. Cumulative litter, cake, and total litter production rates after 18 flocks were 170.3, 78.7, and 249.0 g/kg, respectively. The data produced from this research can be used by broiler producers to estimate broiler litter and cake production and the nutrient content of these materials.

  6. Poultry production's environmental impact on water quality.

    PubMed

    Pope, C W

    1991-05-01

    Poultry meat and eggs are rapidly becoming the major source of animal protein in the diets of American consumers. Such expansion has resulted in a similar increase in waste management problems. The national production of broilers and mature chickens was 5.68 billion, 242 million turkeys, 31 million ducks, and 69 trillion table eggs in 1989 based on the USDA National Statistics Survey. Annual production of fecal waste from poultry flocks was 8.8 million tons on a dry weight basis plus more than 106,000 metric tons of broiler hatchery waste. Add to this 37 million dead birds and condemnations at processing plants (figures are also from USDA for 1989 based on USDA National Statistics Survey). When all this waste is added together, the task of keeping the environment clean becomes monumental. The following waste management practices can and must take care of these poultry industry waste products: sanitary land fills, rendering facilities, extrusion machinery, compost plants, lagoons or holding tanks, and land application techniques.

  7. Marine litter prediction by artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Balas, Can Elmar; Ergin, Aysen; Williams, Allan T; Koc, Levent

    2004-03-01

    Artificial intelligence techniques of neural network and fuzzy systems were applied as alternative methods to determine beach litter grading, based on litter surveys of the Antalya coastline (the Turkish Riviera). Litter measurements were categorized and assessed by artificial intelligence techniques, which lead to a new litter categorization system. The constructed neural network satisfactorily predicted the grading of the Antalya beaches and litter categories based on the number of litter items in the general litter category. It has been concluded that, neural networks could be used for high-speed predictions of litter items and beach grading, when the characteristics of the main litter category was determined by field studies. This can save on field effort when fast and reliable estimations of litter categories are required for management or research studies of beaches--especially those concerned with health and safety, and it has economic implications. The main advantages in using fuzzy systems are that they consider linguistic adjectival definitions, e.g. many/few, etc. As a result, additional information inherent in linguistic comments/refinements and judgments made during field studies can be incorporated in grading systems.

  8. Responses of litter invertebrate communities to litter manipulation in a Japanese conifer plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Tomohiro; Takito, Yuki; Soga, Masashi; Hijii, Naoki

    2013-08-01

    We examined how the litter invertebrate communities were affected by the temporal changes in the mass and structural complexity of the litter resources by adding and removing litter on the forest floor of a temperate conifer plantation (Cryptomeria japonica) in Japan. We showed that litter mass and depth in the litter-addition (L+) plots changed rapidly into a steady-state condition similar to those in the control plots, mainly due to accelerated decomposition processes during the rainy season. Higher area-based densities of litter invertebrates in the L+ plots, similar mass-based densities between the L+ and control plots, and significant positive correlations between litter mass and the number of individuals implied that the abundance of litter invertebrates would be governed by litter mass rather than by the litter depth. Many litter invertebrates including detritivores were collected even in the litter-removal (L-) area. The relative abundances of invertebrate predators collecting pitfall traps were higher in the L- plots and lower in the L+ plots compared to those in the control plots, whereas those collecting Tullgren funnels were higher in the L+ plots than in the control plots. In the L+ plots, the range of variation in the community compositions among the samples decreased significantly over time in response to a drastic decrease in litter mass, in contrast to the control plots, which showed a relatively constant community composition during the study period. Our litter manipulation experiment reveals some of the mechanisms responsible for maintaining an equilibrium state of forest-floor litter mass and for the responses of litter invertebrate communities to temporal changes in the litter.

  9. Tetracycline Resistance in the Subsurface of a Poultry Farm: Influence of Poultry Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Y.; Ball, W. P.; Ward, M. J.; Hilpert, M.

    2007-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are considered to be important man-made reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Using the electromagnetic induction (EMI) method of geophysical characterization, we measured the apparent subsurface electrical conductivity (ECa) at a CAFO site in order to assess the movement of pollutants associated with animal waste. The map of ECa and other available data suggest that (1) soil surrounding a poultry litter storage shed is contaminated by poultry waste, (2) a contamination plume in the subsurface emanates from that shed, and (3) the development of that plume is due to groundwater flow. We focused on understanding the spread of tetracycline resistance (Tc\\tiny R), because tetracycline is one of the most frequently used antibiotics in food animal production and therefore probably used at our field site. Microbiological experiments show the presence of Tc\\tiny R bacteria in the subsurface and indicate higher concentrations in the top soil than in the aquifer. Environmental DNA was extracted to identify CAFO- associated Tc\\tiny R genes and to explore a link between the presence of Tc\\tiny R and CAFO practices. A "shot-gun" cloning approach is under development to target the most prevalent Tc\\tiny R gene. This gene will be monitored in future experiments, in which we will study the transmission of Tc\\tiny R to naive E.~coli under selective pressure of Tc. Experimental results will be used to develop a mathematical/numerical model in order to describe the transmission process and to subsequently make estimates regarding the large-scale spread of antibiotic resistance.

  10. Investigation of Clostridium botulinum in commercial poultry farms in France between 2011 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Souillard, R; Woudstra, C; Le Maréchal, C; Dia, M; Bayon-Auboyer, M H; Chemaly, M; Fach, P; Le Bouquin, S

    2014-01-01

    Between 2011 and 2013, 17 poultry botulism outbreaks were investigated in France. All cases were associated with Clostridium botulinum type C-D. Presence of C. botulinum was studied in seven areas: poultry house, changing room, ventilation system, surroundings, animal reservoirs, water, and feed. Swabs, litter, soil, darkling beetles, rodents and wild bird droppings, feed and water samples were collected. The presence of C. botulinum type C-D in the environment of affected flocks was detected in 39.5% of the 185 samples analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. C. botulinum type C-D was reported in each area. Four areas were more frequently contaminated, being found positive in more than one-half of farms: darkling beetles (9/11), poultry house (14/17), water (13/16) and surroundings (11/16). After cleaning and disinfection, the ventilation system and/or the soil (in the houses and the surroundings) returned positive results in four out of eight poultry farms. Consequently, darkling beetles, the drinking water, the ventilation system and the soil in the surroundings and the houses were identified as the main critical contaminated areas to consider in poultry farms to prevent recurrence of botulism outbreaks.

  11. Repeated compost application effects on phosphorus runoff in the Virginia Piedmont.

    PubMed

    Spargo, John T; Evanylo, Gregory K; Alley, Marcus M

    2006-01-01

    Increasing amounts of animal and municipal wastes are being composted before land application to improve handling and spreading characteristics, and to reduce odor and disease incidence. Repeated applications of composted biosolids and manure to cropland may increase the risk for P enrichment of agricultural runoff. We conducted field research in 2003 and 2004 on a Fauquier silty clay loam (Ultic Hapludalfs) to compare the effects of annual (since 1999) applications of composted and uncomposted organic residuals on P runoff characteristics. Biosolids compost (BSC), poultry litter-yard waste compost (PLC), and uncomposted poultry litter (PL) were applied based on estimated plant-available N. A commercial fertilizer treatment (CF) and an unamended control treatment (CTL) were also included. Corn (Zea mays L.) and a cereal rye (Secale cereal L.) cover crop were planted each year. We applied simulated rainfall in fall 2004 and analyzed runoff for dissolved reactive P (DRP), total dissolved P (TDP), total P (TP), total organic C (TOC), and total suspended solids (TSS). End of season soil samples were analyzed for Mehlich-3 P (M3P), EPA 3050 P (3050P), water soluble P (WSP), degree of P saturation (DPS), soil C, and bulk density. Compost treatments significantly increased soil C, decreased bulk density, and increased M3P, 3050P, WSP, and DPS. The concentration of DRP, TDP, and TP in runoff was highest in compost treatments, but the mass of DRP and TDP was not different among treatments because infiltration was higher and runoff lower in compost-amended soil. Improved soil physical properties associated with poultry litter-yard waste compost application decreased loss of TP and TSS.

  12. Toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles to grass litter decomposition in a sandy soil

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Shahzad, Tanvir; Shahid, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Dhavamani, Jeyakumar; Ismail, Iqbal M. I.; Basahi, Jalal M.; Almeelbi, Talal

    2017-01-01

    We examined time-dependent effect of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) at a rate of 2000 mg kg−1 soil on Cynodon dactylon litter (3 g kg−1) decomposition in an arid sandy soil. Overall, heterotrophic cultivable bacterial and fungal colonies, and microbial biomass carbon were significantly decreased in litter-amended soil by the application of nanoparticles after 90 and 180 days of incubation. Time dependent effect of nanoparticles was significant for microbial biomass in litter-amended soil where nanoparticles decreased this variable from 27% after 90 days to 49% after 180 days. IONPs decreased CO2 emission by 28 and 30% from litter-amended soil after 90 and 180 days, respectively. These observations indicated that time-dependent effect was not significant on grass-litter carbon mineralization efficiency. Alternatively, nanoparticles application significantly reduced mineral nitrogen content in litter-amended soil in both time intervals. Therefore, nitrogen mineralization efficiency was decreased to 60% after 180 days compared to that after 90 days in nanoparticles grass-litter amended soil. These effects can be explained by the presence of labile Fe in microbial biomass after 180 days in nanoparticles amendment. Hence, our results suggest that toxicity of IONPs to soil functioning should consider before recommending their use in agro-ecosystems. PMID:28155886

  13. Toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles to grass litter decomposition in a sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Shahzad, Tanvir; Shahid, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Dhavamani, Jeyakumar; Ismail, Iqbal M I; Basahi, Jalal M; Almeelbi, Talal

    2017-02-03

    We examined time-dependent effect of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) at a rate of 2000 mg kg(-1) soil on Cynodon dactylon litter (3 g kg(-1)) decomposition in an arid sandy soil. Overall, heterotrophic cultivable bacterial and fungal colonies, and microbial biomass carbon were significantly decreased in litter-amended soil by the application of nanoparticles after 90 and 180 days of incubation. Time dependent effect of nanoparticles was significant for microbial biomass in litter-amended soil where nanoparticles decreased this variable from 27% after 90 days to 49% after 180 days. IONPs decreased CO2 emission by 28 and 30% from litter-amended soil after 90 and 180 days, respectively. These observations indicated that time-dependent effect was not significant on grass-litter carbon mineralization efficiency. Alternatively, nanoparticles application significantly reduced mineral nitrogen content in litter-amended soil in both time intervals. Therefore, nitrogen mineralization efficiency was decreased to 60% after 180 days compared to that after 90 days in nanoparticles grass-litter amended soil. These effects can be explained by the presence of labile Fe in microbial biomass after 180 days in nanoparticles amendment. Hence, our results suggest that toxicity of IONPs to soil functioning should consider before recommending their use in agro-ecosystems.

  14. Toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles to grass litter decomposition in a sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Shahzad, Tanvir; Shahid, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Dhavamani, Jeyakumar; Ismail, Iqbal M. I.; Basahi, Jalal M.; Almeelbi, Talal

    2017-02-01

    We examined time-dependent effect of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) at a rate of 2000 mg kg‑1 soil on Cynodon dactylon litter (3 g kg‑1) decomposition in an arid sandy soil. Overall, heterotrophic cultivable bacterial and fungal colonies, and microbial biomass carbon were significantly decreased in litter-amended soil by the application of nanoparticles after 90 and 180 days of incubation. Time dependent effect of nanoparticles was significant for microbial biomass in litter-amended soil where nanoparticles decreased this variable from 27% after 90 days to 49% after 180 days. IONPs decreased CO2 emission by 28 and 30% from litter-amended soil after 90 and 180 days, respectively. These observations indicated that time-dependent effect was not significant on grass-litter carbon mineralization efficiency. Alternatively, nanoparticles application significantly reduced mineral nitrogen content in litter-amended soil in both time intervals. Therefore, nitrogen mineralization efficiency was decreased to 60% after 180 days compared to that after 90 days in nanoparticles grass-litter amended soil. These effects can be explained by the presence of labile Fe in microbial biomass after 180 days in nanoparticles amendment. Hence, our results suggest that toxicity of IONPs to soil functioning should consider before recommending their use in agro-ecosystems.

  15. A multi-criteria evaluation system for marine litter pollution based on statistical analyses of OSPAR beach litter monitoring time series.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Marcus; Neumann, Daniel; Fleet, David M; Matthies, Michael

    2013-12-01

    During the last decades, marine pollution with anthropogenic litter has become a worldwide major environmental concern. Standardized monitoring of litter since 2001 on 78 beaches selected within the framework of the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR) has been used to identify temporal trends of marine litter. Based on statistical analyses of this dataset a two-part multi-criteria evaluation system for beach litter pollution of the North-East Atlantic and the North Sea is proposed. Canonical correlation analyses, linear regression analyses, and non-parametric analyses of variance were used to identify different temporal trends. A classification of beaches was derived from cluster analyses and served to define different states of beach quality according to abundances of 17 input variables. The evaluation system is easily applicable and relies on the above-mentioned classification and on significant temporal trends implied by significant rank correlations.

  16. Cigarette litter: smokers' attitudes and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rath, Jessica M; Rubenstein, Rebecca A; Curry, Laurel E; Shank, Sarah E; Cartwright, Julia C

    2012-06-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers' littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers' knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of

  17. Cigarette Litter: Smokers’ Attitudes and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Jessica M.; Rubenstein, Rebecca A.; Curry, Laurel E.; Shank, Sarah E.; Cartwright, Julia C.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers’ littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers’ knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of

  18. Litter composition effects on decomposition across the litter-soil interface

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods Many studies have investigated the influence of plant litter species composition on decomposition dynamics, but given the variety of communities and environments around the world, a variety of consequences of litter-mixing have been reported. Litter ...

  19. McDonald's Litter Hunt: A Community Litter Control System for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNees, M. Patrick; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a community litter control program. Special adhesive stickers were randomly placed on existing litter throughout a community and youth were rewarded with special prizes for participating in the program. Litter was reduced 32 percent across the city. (Author/MA)

  20. Field application of a combined pig and poultry market chain and risk pathway analysis within the Pacific Islands region as a tool for targeted disease surveillance and biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Brioudes, Aurélie; Gummow, Bruce

    2016-07-01

    Limited resources are one of the major constraints in effective disease monitoring and control in developing countries. This paper examines the pig and poultry market chains of four targeted Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs): Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu and combines them with a risk pathway analysis to identify the highest risk areas (risk hotspots) and risky practices and behaviours (risk factors) of animal disease introduction and/or spread, using highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) as model diseases because of their importance in the region. The results show that combining a market chain analysis with risk pathways is a practical way of communicating risk to animal health officials and improving biosecurity. It provides a participatory approach that helps officials to better understand the trading regulations in place in their country and to better evaluate their role as part of the control system. Common risk patterns were found to play a role in all four PICTs. Legal trade pathways rely essentially on preventive measures put in place in the exporting countries while no or only limited control measures are undertaken by the importing countries. Legal importations of animals and animal products are done mainly by commercial farms which then supply local smallholders. Targeting surveillance on these potential hotspots would limit the risk of introduction and spread of animal diseases within the pig and poultry industry and better rationalize use of skilled manpower. Swill feeding is identified as a common practice in the region that represents a recognized risk factor for dissemination of pathogens to susceptible species. Illegal introduction of animals and animal products is suspected, but appears restricted to small holder farms in remote areas, limiting the risk of spread of transboundary animal diseases along the market chain. Introduction of undeclared goods hidden within a legal

  1. Can probiotics improve the environmental microbiome and resistome of commercial poultry production?

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Adriana A; Hurley-Bacon, Anne L; Zedek, Andrea S; Kwan, Tiffany W; Jordan, Andrea P O; Avellaneda, Gloria; Hofacre, Charles L; Oakley, Brian B; Collett, Stephen R; Maurer, John J; Lee, Margie D

    2013-09-25

    Food animal production systems have become more consolidated and integrated, producing large, concentrated animal populations and significant amounts of fecal waste. Increasing use of manure and litter as a more "natural" and affordable source of fertilizer may be contributing to contamination of fruits and vegetables with foodborne pathogens. In addition, human and animal manure have been identified as a significant source of antibiotic resistance genes thereby serving as a disseminator of resistance to soil and waterways. Therefore, identifying methods to remediate human and animal waste is critical in developing strategies to improve food safety and minimize the dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study, we sought to determine whether withdrawing antibiotic growth promoters or using alternatives to antibiotics would reduce the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes or prevalence of pathogens in poultry litter. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) paired with high throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the bacterial community composition of litter from broiler chickens that were treated with streptogramin growth-promoting antibiotics, probiotics, or prebiotics. The prevalence of resistance genes and pathogens was determined from sequencing results or PCR screens of litter community DNA. Streptogramin antibiotic usage did not elicit statistically significant differences in Shannon diversity indices or correlation coefficients among the flocks. However, T-RFLP revealed that there were inter-farm differences in the litter composition that was independent of antibiotic usage. The litter from all farms, regardless of antibiotic usage, contained streptogramin resistance genes (vatA, vatB, and vatE), macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance genes (ermA and ermB), the tetracycline resistance gene tetM and class 1 integrons. There was inter-farm variability in the distribution of vatA and vatE with no statistically

  2. Can Probiotics Improve the Environmental Microbiome and Resistome of Commercial Poultry Production?

    PubMed Central

    Pedroso, Adriana A.; Hurley-Bacon, Anne L.; Zedek, Andrea S.; Kwan, Tiffany W.; Jordan, Andrea P. O.; Avellaneda, Gloria; Hofacre, Charles L.; Oakley, Brian B.; Collett, Stephen R.; Maurer, John J.; Lee, Margie D.

    2013-01-01

    Food animal production systems have become more consolidated and integrated, producing large, concentrated animal populations and significant amounts of fecal waste. Increasing use of manure and litter as a more “natural” and affordable source of fertilizer may be contributing to contamination of fruits and vegetables with foodborne pathogens. In addition, human and animal manure have been identified as a significant source of antibiotic resistance genes thereby serving as a disseminator of resistance to soil and waterways. Therefore, identifying methods to remediate human and animal waste is critical in developing strategies to improve food safety and minimize the dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria. In this study, we sought to determine whether withdrawing antibiotic growth promoters or using alternatives to antibiotics would reduce the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes or prevalence of pathogens in poultry litter. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) paired with high throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the bacterial community composition of litter from broiler chickens that were treated with streptogramin growth-promoting antibiotics, probiotics, or prebiotics. The prevalence of resistance genes and pathogens was determined from sequencing results or PCR screens of litter community DNA. Streptogramin antibiotic usage did not elicit statistically significant differences in Shannon diversity indices or correlation coefficients among the flocks. However, T-RFLP revealed that there were inter-farm differences in the litter composition that was independent of antibiotic usage. The litter from all farms, regardless of antibiotic usage, contained streptogramin resistance genes (vatA, vatB, and vatE), macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance genes (ermA and ermB), the tetracycline resistance gene tetM and class 1 integrons. There was inter-farm variability in the distribution of vatA and vatE with no

  3. Effect of growth promotant usage on enterococci species on a poultry farm.

    PubMed

    Debnam, Antoinette L; Jackson, Charlene R; Avellaneda, Gloria E; Barrett, John B; Hofacre, Charles L

    2005-09-01

    The species population of enterococci isolated from four poultry houses for six grow-outs on one farm was determined. Two houses on the farm were control houses and did not use any antimicrobials, while two other houses on the farm used flavomycin, virginiamycin, and bacitracin during different poultry grow-outs. Litter, chick boxliners, feed, and poultry carcass rinses were obtained from each house and cultured for the presence of enterococci. Nine species of enterococci (Enterococcusfaecalis, E. faecium, E. avium, E. casselifiavus, E. cecorum, E. durans, E. gallinarum, E. hirae, and E. malodoratus) were identified from the study. Enterococcus faecalis was isolated more frequently from chick boxliners (n=176; 92%) and carcass rinses (n=491; 69%), whereas E. faecium was found more frequently in litter (n=361; 77%) and feed (n=67; 64%). Enterococcus faecalis (n=763; 52%) and E. faecium (n=578; 39%) were isolated most often from the farm and houses, regardless of antimicrobial treatment. Fifty-two percent of E. faecalis and 39% of E. faecium were isolated from both control (n=389 and 295, respectively) and treatment (n=374 and 283, respectively) samples. This study indicates that antimicrobial usage on this farm did not alter the resident population of enterococci.

  4. Stability of a Lipase Extracted from Seeds of Pachira aquatica in Commercial Detergents and Application Tests in Poultry Wastewater Pretreatment and Fat Particle Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Polizelli, Patrícia Peres; Facchini, Fernanda Dell Antonio

    2013-01-01

    A protein extract containing a plant lipase from oleaginous seeds of Pachira aquatica was tested using soybean oil, wastewater from a poultry processing plant, and beef fat particles as substrate. The hydrolysis experiments were carried out at a temperature of 40°C, an incubation time of 90 minutes, and pH 8.0-9.0. The enzyme had the best stability at pH 9.0 and showed good stability in the alkaline range. It was found that P. aquatica lipase was stable in the presence of some commercial laundry detergent formulations, and it retained full activity up to 0.35% in hydrogen peroxide, despite losing activity at higher concentrations. Concerning wastewater, the lipase increased free fatty acids release by 7.4 times and promoted the hydrolysis of approximately 10% of the fats, suggesting that it could be included in a pretreatment stage, especially for vegetable oil degradation. PMID:24455209

  5. Effects of litter manipulation on litter decomposition in a successional gradients of tropical forests in southern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Gurmesa, Geshere A; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Tao; Fu, Shenglei; Liu, Zhanfeng; Dong, Shaofeng; Ma, Chuan; Mo, Jiangming

    2014-01-01

    Global changes such as increasing CO2, rising temperature, and land-use change are likely to drive shifts in litter inputs to forest floors, but the effects of such changes on litter decomposition remain largely unknown. We initiated a litter manipulation experiment to test the response of litter decomposition to litter removal/addition in three successional forests in southern China, namely masson pine forest (MPF), mixed coniferous and broadleaved forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest (MEBF). Results showed that litter removal decreased litter decomposition rates by 27%, 10% and 8% and litter addition increased litter decomposition rates by 55%, 36% and 14% in MEBF, MF and MPF, respectively. The magnitudes of changes in litter decomposition were more significant in MEBF forest and less significant in MF, but not significant in MPF. Our results suggest that change in litter quantity can affect litter decomposition, and this impact may become stronger with forest succession in tropical forest ecosystem.

  6. Effects of Litter Manipulation on Litter Decomposition in a Successional Gradients of Tropical Forests in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Gurmesa, Geshere A.; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Tao; Fu, Shenglei; Liu, Zhanfeng; Dong, Shaofeng; Ma, Chuan; Mo, Jiangming

    2014-01-01

    Global changes such as increasing CO2, rising temperature, and land-use change are likely to drive shifts in litter inputs to forest floors, but the effects of such changes on litter decomposition remain largely unknown. We initiated a litter manipulation experiment to test the response of litter decomposition to litter removal/addition in three successional forests in southern China, namely masson pine forest (MPF), mixed coniferous and broadleaved forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest (MEBF). Results showed that litter removal decreased litter decomposition rates by 27%, 10% and 8% and litter addition increased litter decomposition rates by 55%, 36% and 14% in MEBF, MF and MPF, respectively. The magnitudes of changes in litter decomposition were more significant in MEBF forest and less significant in MF, but not significant in MPF. Our results suggest that change in litter quantity can affect litter decomposition, and this impact may become stronger with forest succession in tropical forest ecosystem. PMID:24901698

  7. Comparative efficacy of three epigeic earthworms under different deciduous forest litters decomposition.

    PubMed

    Manna, M C; Jha, S; Ghosh, P K; Acharya, C L

    2003-07-01

    An experiment was conducted during 1998-1999, in a deciduous forest located in the semi-arid tropics of central India, to evaluate the suitability of different forest litters as food material for the tropical epigeic earthworms i.e. Eisenia fetida (Savigny), Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) and Dicogaster bolaui (michaelsen). The aim was to examine the influence of these earthworms on the decomposition processes of three types of forest litters i.e. Tectona grandis (teak), Madhuca indica (mahua) and Butea monosperma (palas), on the maintenance of quality in a vermicomposting system, and to assess the effect of applications of in situ prepared vermicomposts on the growth of forest trees. The results indicated that T. grandis litter was the most suitable food material for the earthworms possibly because it contained high reserves of mineral nutrients. Comparisons of the survival and reproduction rates of the three epigeic earthworm species indicated that a higher reproduction rate was maintained for E. fetida compared to P. excavatus and D. bolaui in the decomposition of these forest litters. The rates of growth and population increases of E. fetida approximately doubled after 12 weeks of litter decomposition. The litter decomposition process was associated strongly with the quality of the materials and their chemical composition. Irrespective of earthworm inoculations, the levels of available nutrient such as NH(4)-N, NO(3)-N, available P and K increased significantly (plitter compost>M. indica litter compost>B. monosperma litter compost. The mature decomposed litter had lower C/N ratios (11.3-24.8:1), water-soluble carbon (0.30-0.58%), water-soluble carbohydrates (0.35-0.71%) and larger cation exchange capacity/total organic carbon ratios than the values in the parent forest litter. The lignin content increased with maturation with a concomitant decrease in cellulose resulting in higher lignin/cellulose ratios. Application of all three

  8. Oxidative damage to poultry: from farm to fork.

    PubMed

    Estévez, M

    2015-06-01

    Poultry and poultry meat are particularly susceptible to oxidative reactions. Oxidation processes have been for decades the focus of animal and meat scientists owing to the negative impact of these reactions on animal growth, performance, and food quality. Lipid oxidation has been recognized a major threat to the quality of processed poultry products. The recent discoveries on the occurrence of protein oxidation in muscle foods have increased the scientific and technological interest in a topic that broadens the horizons of food biochemistry into innovative fields. Furthermore, in recent years we have witnessed a growing interest in consumers on the impact of diet and oxidation on health and aging. Hence, the general description of oxidative reactions as harmful phenomena goes beyond the actual impact on animal production and food quality and reaches the potential influence of oxidized foods on consumer health. Likewise, the current antioxidant strategies aim for the protection of the living tissues, the food systems, and a potential health benefit in the consumer upon ingestion. Along these lines, the application of phytochemicals and other microelements (Se, Cu) with antioxidant potential in the feeds or directly in the meat product are strategies of substantial significance. The present paper reviews in a concise manner the most relevant and novel aspects of the mechanisms and consequences of oxidative reactions in poultry and poultry meat, and describes current antioxidant strategies against these undesirable reactions.

  9. Enzymatic activities in coniferous leaf litter

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.

    1980-07-01

    Assays for measuring the activities of cellulase, xylanase, mannase, amylase, ..beta..-glucosidase, invertase, and protease employing buffered suspensions of ground coniferous and deciduous leaf litter exhibited zero-order kinetics. Only a small percentage of the whole-litter activities of invertase, ..beta..-glucosidase, and protease were extractable into 0.05M potassium acetate, pH 5.0; however, extractable activities of cellulase and xylanase represented from 39 to 174% of the whole-litter activities indicating their soluble exocellar nature. Extractable protease and amylase activities were best correlated with the average daily rates of CO/sub 2/ evolution in a group of 90 leaf litter samples equally representing 18 coniferous species. Enzymatic activities were readily detectable in extracts of all samples but classification of the samples by species provided little differentiation in the distribution of either enzymatic activities or rates of CO/sub 2/ evolution. Mannase, cellulase, and xylanase activities were well-correlated with each other in all samples. Assays attempting to measure a pool of readily-metabolizable substances in litter by extractable reducing substances, ninhydrin-positive substances, glucose, and phenolics failed to show correlation coefficients >0.41 with rates of CO/sub 2/ evolution. Addition of D-(+)-catechin to litter extracts, up to levels equivalent to those observed in the group of samples, did not inhibit any carbohydrase thus suggesting the lack of inhibition of litter-decomposing enzymes by the concentrations of phenolics present in these coniferous leaf litters.

  10. Broiler house litter sampling: the final frontier

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Today, the sustainability of broiler operations reaches beyond the need for litter nutrient management plans that came to the forefront of the industry’s attention in the last fifteen years. Thorough characterization of litter within houses provides the basis for emission models to benefit growers,...

  11. 33 CFR 144.01-35 - Litter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Litter. 144.01-35 Section 144.01-35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-35 Litter. On each...

  12. Endemic Poultry Viral Diseases 2016 Research Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viral infections of the avian gastrointestinal tract negatively impact poultry production; however, determining the complex etiologies of the viral enteric diseases in poultry has been difficult. Project scientists are continuing to investigate the species specificity, molecular phylogenetics, and p...

  13. Sequence analysis of parvoviruses associated with enteric disease of poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome (PEMS) and Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS) are significant viral enteric diseases of poultry. The etiology of these diseases is not completely understood. Here, we report the application of a molecular screening method that was designed to detect novel viruses from...

  14. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section 381.159... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition §...

  15. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section 381.159... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition §...

  16. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section 381.159... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition §...

  17. 7 CFR 701.156 - Poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry. 701.156 Section 701.156 Agriculture... Poultry. (a) Subject to the other eligibility provisions of this part except as provided explicitly in... to a poultry house in an eligible county due to a 2005 hurricane. (b) Claimants under this...

  18. 7 CFR 701.56 - Poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry. 701.56 Section 701.56 Agriculture Regulations... ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.56 Poultry. (a) Subject to the other eligibility provisions of this part... losses in calendar year 2005 to a poultry house in an eligible county due to a 2005 hurricane....

  19. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section 381.159... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition §...

  20. 7 CFR 701.156 - Poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry. 701.156 Section 701.156 Agriculture... Poultry. (a) Subject to the other eligibility provisions of this part except as provided explicitly in... to a poultry house in an eligible county due to a 2005 hurricane. (b) Claimants under this...

  1. 7 CFR 701.156 - Poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry. 701.156 Section 701.156 Agriculture... Poultry. (a) Subject to the other eligibility provisions of this part except as provided explicitly in... to a poultry house in an eligible county due to a 2005 hurricane. (b) Claimants under this...

  2. 7 CFR 701.156 - Poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry. 701.156 Section 701.156 Agriculture... Poultry. (a) Subject to the other eligibility provisions of this part except as provided explicitly in... to a poultry house in an eligible county due to a 2005 hurricane. (b) Claimants under this...

  3. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section 381.159... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition §...

  4. Study on Hydrological Functions of Litter Layers in North China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Niu, Jianzhi; Xie, Baoyuan

    2013-01-01

    Canopy interception, throughfall, stemflow, and runoff have received considerable attention during the study of water balance and hydrological processes in forested ecosystems. Past research has either neglected or underestimated the role of hydrological functions of litter layers, although some studies have considered the impact of various characteristics of rainfall and litter on litter interception. Based on both simulated rainfall and litter conditions in North China, the effect of litter mass, rainfall intensity and litter type on the maximum water storage capacity of litter (S) and litter interception storage capacity (C) were investigated under five simulated rainfall intensities and four litter masses for two litter types. The results indicated: 1) the S values increased linearly with litter mass, and the S values of broadleaf litter were on average 2.65 times larger than the S values of needle leaf litter; 2) rainfall intensity rather than litter mass determined the maximum interception storage capacity (Cmax); Cmax increased linearly with increasing rainfall intensity; by contrast, the minimum interception storage capacity (Cmin) showed a linear relationship with litter mass, but a poor correlation with rainfall intensity; 3) litter type impacted Cmax and Cmin; the values of Cmax and Cmin for broadleaf litter were larger than those of needle leaf litter, which indicated that broadleaf litter could intercepte and store more water than needle leaf litter; 4) a gap existed between Cmax and Cmin, indicating that litter played a significant role by allowing rainwater to infiltrate or to produce runoff rather than intercepting it and allowing it to evaporate after the rainfall event; 5) Cmin was always less than S at the same litter mass, which should be considered in future interception predictions. Vegetation and precipitation characteristics played important roles in hydrological characteristics. PMID:23936188

  5. Effects of Nitrogen Addition on Litter Decomposition and CO2 Release: Considering Changes in Litter Quantity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-Chao; Hu, Ya-Lin; Mao, Rong; Zhao, Qiong; Zeng, De-Hui

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impacts of changes in litter quantity under simulated N deposition on litter decomposition, CO2 release, and soil C loss potential in a larch plantation in Northeast China. We conducted a laboratory incubation experiment using soil and litter collected from control and N addition (100 kg ha−1 year−1 for 10 years) plots. Different quantities of litter (0, 1, 2 and 4 g) were placed on 150 g soils collected from the same plots and incubated in microcosms for 270 days. We found that increased litter input strongly stimulated litter decomposition rate and CO2 release in both control and N fertilization microcosms, though reduced soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and dissolved inorganic N (DIN) concentration. Carbon input (C loss from litter decomposition) and carbon output (the cumulative C loss due to respiration) elevated with increasing litter input in both control and N fertilization microcosms. However, soil C loss potentials (C output–C input) reduced by 62% in control microcosms and 111% in N fertilization microcosms when litter addition increased from 1 g to 4 g, respectively. Our results indicated that increased litter input had a potential to suppress soil organic C loss especially for N addition plots. PMID:26657180

  6. Effects of Nitrogen Addition on Litter Decomposition and CO2 Release: Considering Changes in Litter Quantity.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Chao; Hu, Ya-Lin; Mao, Rong; Zhao, Qiong; Zeng, De-Hui

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impacts of changes in litter quantity under simulated N deposition on litter decomposition, CO2 release, and soil C loss potential in a larch plantation in Northeast China. We conducted a laboratory incubation experiment using soil and litter collected from control and N addition (100 kg ha-1 year-1 for 10 years) plots. Different quantities of litter (0, 1, 2 and 4 g) were placed on 150 g soils collected from the same plots and incubated in microcosms for 270 days. We found that increased litter input strongly stimulated litter decomposition rate and CO2 release in both control and N fertilization microcosms, though reduced soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and dissolved inorganic N (DIN) concentration. Carbon input (C loss from litter decomposition) and carbon output (the cumulative C loss due to respiration) elevated with increasing litter input in both control and N fertilization microcosms. However, soil C loss potentials (C output-C input) reduced by 62% in control microcosms and 111% in N fertilization microcosms when litter addition increased from 1 g to 4 g, respectively. Our results indicated that increased litter input had a potential to suppress soil organic C loss especially for N addition plots.

  7. PAHs in decaying Quercus ilex leaf litter: mutual effects on litter decomposition and PAH dynamics.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, F; Baldantoni, D; Alfani, A

    2014-11-01

    The investigation of the relationships between litter decomposition and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is important to shed light not only on the effects of these pollutants on fundamental ecosystem processes, such as litter decomposition, but also on the degradation of these pollutants by soil microbial community. This allows to understand the effect of atmospheric PAH contamination on soil PAH content via litterfall. At this aim, we studied mass and PAH dynamics of Quercus ilex leaf litters collected from urban, industrial and remote sites, incubated in mesocosms under controlled conditions for 361d. The results highlighted a litter decomposition rate of leaves sampled in urban>industrial>remote sites; the faster decomposition of litter of the urban site is also related to the low C/N ratio of the leaves. The PAHs showed concentrations at the beginning of the incubation of 887, 650 and 143 ng g(-1)d.w., respectively in leaf litters from urban, industrial and remote sites. The PAHs in litter decreased along the time, with the same trend observed for mass litter, showing the highest decrease at 361 d for the urban leaf litter. Anyway, PAH dynamics in all the litters exhibited two phases of loss, separated by a PAH increase observed at 246 d and mainly linked to benzo[e]pyrene.

  8. Serologic Testing for Salmonella Infections in Poultry Flocks: Limitations and Opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diverse serologic methods have been developed and applied to successfully detect Salmonella infections in poultry with both sensitivity and consistency. However, the field application of serology has been limited by several inherent characteristics of antibody detection tests: (1) infections without...

  9. High-temperature thermal destruction of poultry derived wastes for energy recovery in Australia.

    PubMed

    Florin, N H; Maddocks, A R; Wood, S; Harris, A T

    2009-04-01

    The high-temperature thermal destruction of poultry derived wastes (e.g., manure and bedding) for energy recovery is viable in Australia when considering resource availability and equivalent commercial-scale experience in the UK. In this work, we identified and examined the opportunities and risks associated with common thermal destruction techniques, including: volume of waste, costs, technological risks and environmental impacts. Typical poultry waste streams were characterised based on compositional analysis, thermodynamic equilibrium modelling and non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry (TG-MS). Poultry waste is highly variable but otherwise comparable with other biomass fuels. The major technical and operating challenges are associated with this variability in terms of: moisture content, presence of inorganic species and type of litter. This variability is subject to a range of parameters including: type and age of bird, and geographical and seasonal inconsistencies. There are environmental and health considerations associated with combustion and gasification due to the formation of: NO(X), SO(X), H(2)S and HCl gas. Mitigation of these emissions is achievable through correct plant design and operation, however, with significant economic penalty. Based on our analysis and literature data, we present cost estimates for generic poultry-waste-fired power plants with throughputs of 2 and 8 tonnes/h.

  10. Chronic Nitrogen Deposition Has a Minor Effect on the Quantity and Quality of Aboveground Litter in a Boreal Forest

    PubMed Central

    Nordin, Annika; Palmqvist, Kristin; Gundale, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition enhances carbon (C) sequestration in boreal soils. However, key underlying mechanisms explaining this increase have not been resolved. Two potentially important mechanisms are that aboveground litter production increases, or that litter quality changes in response to N enrichment. As such, our aim was to quantify whether simulated chronic N deposition caused changes in aboveground litter production or quality in a boreal forest. We conducted a long-term (17 years) stand-scale (0.1 ha) forest experiment, consisting of three N addition levels (0, 12.5, and 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1) in northern Sweden, where background N deposition rates are very low. We measured the annual quantity of litter produced for 8 different litter categories, as well as their concentrations of C, N, phosphorus (P), lignin, cellulose and hemi-cellulose. Our results indicate that mosses were the only major litter component showing significant quantitative and qualitative alterations in response to the N additions, indicative of their ability to intercept a substantial portion of the N added. These effects were, however, offset by the other litter fractions where we found no changes in the total litter fluxes, or individual chemical constituents when all litter categories were summed. This study indicates that the current annual litter fluxes cannot explain the increase in soil C that has occurred in our study system in response to simulated chronic N application. These results suggest that other mechanisms are likely to explain the increased soil C accumulation rate we have observed, such as changes in soil microbial activity, or potentially transient changes in aboveground litter inputs that were no longer present at the time of our study. PMID:27580120

  11. Chronic Nitrogen Deposition Has a Minor Effect on the Quantity and Quality of Aboveground Litter in a Boreal Forest.

    PubMed

    Maaroufi, Nadia I; Nordin, Annika; Palmqvist, Kristin; Gundale, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition enhances carbon (C) sequestration in boreal soils. However, key underlying mechanisms explaining this increase have not been resolved. Two potentially important mechanisms are that aboveground litter production increases, or that litter quality changes in response to N enrichment. As such, our aim was to quantify whether simulated chronic N deposition caused changes in aboveground litter production or quality in a boreal forest. We conducted a long-term (17 years) stand-scale (0.1 ha) forest experiment, consisting of three N addition levels (0, 12.5, and 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1) in northern Sweden, where background N deposition rates are very low. We measured the annual quantity of litter produced for 8 different litter categories, as well as their concentrations of C, N, phosphorus (P), lignin, cellulose and hemi-cellulose. Our results indicate that mosses were the only major litter component showing significant quantitative and qualitative alterations in response to the N additions, indicative of their ability to intercept a substantial portion of the N added. These effects were, however, offset by the other litter fractions where we found no changes in the total litter fluxes, or individual chemical constituents when all litter categories were summed. This study indicates that the current annual litter fluxes cannot explain the increase in soil C that has occurred in our study system in response to simulated chronic N application. These results suggest that other mechanisms are likely to explain the increased soil C accumulation rate we have observed, such as changes in soil microbial activity, or potentially transient changes in aboveground litter inputs that were no longer present at the time of our study.

  12. The impact of environmental conditions on Campylobacter jejuni survival in broiler faeces and litter

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Shaun; Meade, Joseph; Gibbons, James; McGill, Kevina; Bolton, Declan; Whyte, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial food-borne pathogen within the European Union, and poultry meat is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans. However, there is limited knowledge about how this organism persists in broiler litter and faeces. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a number of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and oxygen, on Campylobacter survival in both broiler litter and faeces. Materials and methods Used litter was collected from a Campylobacter-negative broiler house after final depopulation and fresh faeces were collected from transport crates. Samples were confirmed as Campylobacter negative according to modified ISO methods for veterinary samples. Both sample matrices were inoculated with 9 log10 CFU/ml C. jejuni and incubated under high (≥85%) and low (≤70%) relative humidity conditions at three different temperatures (20°C, 25°C, and 30°C) under both aerobic and microaerophilic atmospheres. Inoculated litter samples were then tested for Campylobacter concentrations at time zero and every 2 hours for 12 hours, while faecal samples were examined at time zero and every 24 hours for 120 hours. A two-tailed t-test assuming unequal variance was used to compare mean Campylobacter concentrations in samples under the various temperature, humidity, and atmospheric conditions. Results and discussion C. jejuni survived significantly longer (P≤0.01) in faeces, with a minimum survival time of 48 hours, compared with 4 hours in used broiler litter. C. jejuni survival was significantly enhanced at 20°C in all environmental conditions in both sample matrices tested compared with survival at 25°C and 30°C. In general, survival was greater in microaerophilic compared with aerobic conditions in both sample matrices. Humidity, at the levels examined, did not appear to significantly impact C. jejuni survival in any sample matrix. The persistence of Campylobacter in broiler litter

  13. The Litter Problem. Environmental Education Supplementary Instructional Guide, Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Presented is a guide for helping secondary school students investigate the litter problem, acquire litter control skills, and develop an anti-litter ethic. The manual contains a hierarchy of learning objectives, a pretest/posttest, background information on litter, and activities keyed to the learning objectives. Each lesson includes brief…

  14. The Litter Problem. Environmental Education Supplementary Instructional Guide, Elementary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Presented is a guide for helping elementary school students become aware of the litter problem, acquire litter control skills, and develop an anti-litter ethic. The manual contains a hierarchy of learning objectives, a pretest/posttest instrument, background information on litter, and 12 lessons designed to promote attainment of the learning…

  15. Applications of In Ovo Technique for the Optimal Development of the Gastrointestinal Tract and the Potential Influence on the Establishment of Its Microbiome in Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Roto, Stephanie M.; Kwon, Young Min; Ricke, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    As the current poultry production system stands, there is a period of time when newly hatched chicks are prevented from access to feed for approximately 48–72 h. Research has indicated that this delay in feeding may result in decreased growth performance when compared to chicks that are fed immediately post-hatch. To remedy this issue, in ovo methodology may be applied in order to supply the embryo with additional nutrients prior to hatching and those nutrients will continue to be utilized by the chick post-hatch during the fasting period. Furthermore, in ovo injection of various biologics have been researched based on the ability of not only supplying the chick embryo with additional nutrients that would promote improved growth but also compounds that may benefit the future health of the chicken host. Such compounds include various immunostimulants, live beneficial bacteria, prebiotics, and synbiotics. However, it is important to determine the site and age of the in ovo injection for the most productive effects. The primary focus of the current review is to address these two issues [the most effective site(s) and age(s) of in ovo injection] as well as provide the framework for the development of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of the chick embryo. Additionally, recent research suggests the colonization of the microbiota in the developing chick may occur during the late stages of embryogenesis. Therefore, we will also discuss the potentials of the in ovo injection method in establishing a healthy and diverse community of microorganisms to colonize the developing GIT that will provide both protection from pathogen invasion and improvement in growth performance to developing chicks. PMID:27583251

  16. Influence of raised plastic floors compared with pine shaving litter on environment and Pekin duck condition.

    PubMed

    Karcher, D M; Makagon, M M; Fraley, G S; Fraley, S M; Lilburn, M S

    2013-03-01

    Commercial poultry production management practices have been under increased public scrutiny driven by concerns for food safety and animal welfare. Within the United States, wood shavings and raised plastic floors are common flooring systems used in duck production. It is intuitive that each flooring type would present different management challenges influencing physical characteristics of growing ducks. This study evaluated the relationship between flooring type and duck condition during the winter. Random samples of 20 ducks from 5 predetermined areas (n = 100) were examined in commercial duck houses (n = 9, litter; n = 11, raised plastic slats). Ducks were assessed at 7, 21, and 32 d of age for eye, nostril, and feather cleanliness, feather and foot pad quality, and gait. The data were analyzed to determine the proportion of ducks with a given score. In both housing types, the proportion of 0 scores for foot pad quality improved during the production cycle (P < 0.0001). Feather hygiene declined with age in ducks reared on litter flooring, whereas ducks reared on slatted flooring had cleaner feathers at d 32 (P < 0.011). With the exception of foot pad scores, the majority of ducks had no detectable problems for any single trait. The only main effect due to flooring pertained to feather quality with the proportion of ducks having a 0 or 1 score greater in litter flooring systems than slats (P < 0.05). Overall, the condition of ducks reared, regardless of flooring system, was considered to be good.

  17. Lower prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella on large-scale U.S. conventional poultry farms that transitioned to organic practices.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Amy R; Kinney, Erinna L; George, Ashish; Hulet, R Michael; Cruz-Cano, Raul; Schwab, Kellogg J; Zhang, Guangyu; Joseph, Sam W

    2014-04-01

    As a result of the widespread use of antibiotics in large-scale U.S. poultry production, a significant proportion of Salmonella strains recovered from conventional poultry farms and retail poultry products express antibiotic resistance. We evaluated whether large-scale poultry farms that transitioned from conventional to organic practices and discontinued antibiotic use were characterized by differences in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella compared to farms that maintained conventional practices. We collected poultry litter, water and feed samples from 10 newly organic and 10 conventional poultry houses. Samples were analyzed for Salmonella using standard enrichment methods. Isolates were confirmed using standard biochemical tests and the Vitek®2 Compact System. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Sensititre® microbroth dilution. Data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test and generalized linear mixed models. We detected Salmonella in both conventional and newly organic poultry houses. Salmonella Kentucky was the predominant serovar identified, followed by S. Orion, S. Enteritidis, S. Gostrup and S. Infantis. Among S. Kentucky isolates (n=41), percent resistance was statistically significantly lower among isolates recovered from newly organic versus conventional poultry houses for: amoxicillin-clavulanate (p=0.049), ampicillin (p=0.042), cefoxitin (p=0.042), ceftiofur (p=0.043) and ceftriaxone (p=0.042). Percent multidrug resistance (resistance to ≥3 antimicrobial classes) was also statistically significantly lower among S. Kentucky isolates recovered from newly organic poultry houses (6%) compared to those recovered from conventional houses (44%) (p=0.015). To our knowledge, these are the first U.S. data to show immediate, on-farm changes in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella when antibiotics are voluntarily withdrawn from large-scale poultry facilities in the United States.

  18. Litter quality mediated nitrogen effect on plant litter decomposition regardless of soil fauna presence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weidong; Chao, Lin; Yang, Qingpeng; Wang, Qingkui; Fang, Yunting; Wang, Silong

    2016-10-01

    Nitrogen addition has been shown to affect plant litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. The way that nitrogen deposition impacts the relationship between plant litter decomposition and altered soil nitrogen availability is unclear, however. This study examined 18 co-occurring litter types in a subtropical forest in China in terms of their decomposition (1 yr of exposure in the field) with nitrogen addition treatment (0, 0.4, 1.6, and 4.0 mol·N·m(-2) ·yr(-1) ) and soil fauna exclusion (litter bags with 0.1 and 2 cm mesh size). Results showed that the plant litter decomposition rate is significantly reduced because of nitrogen addition; the strength of the nitrogen addition effect is closely related to the nitrogen addition levels. Plant litters with diverse quality responded to nitrogen addition differently. When soil fauna was present, the nitrogen addition effect on medium-quality or high-quality plant litter decomposition rate was -26% ± 5% and -29% ± 4%, respectively; these values are significantly higher than that of low-quality plant litter decomposition. The pattern is similar when soil fauna is absent. In general, the plant litter decomposition rate is decreased by soil fauna exclusion; an average inhibition of -17% ± 1.5% was exhibited across nitrogen addition treatment and litter quality groups. However, this effect is weakly related to nitrogen addition treatment and plant litter quality. We conclude that the variations in plant litter quality, nitrogen deposition, and soil fauna are important factors of decomposition and nutrient cycling in a subtropical forest ecosystem.

  19. Zinc oxide nanoparticles affect carbon and nitrogen mineralization of Phoenix dactylifera leaf litter in a sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz; Shahzad, Tanvir; Shahid, Muhammad; Ismail, Iqbal M I; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Almeelbi, Talal

    2017-02-15

    We investigated the impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs; 1000mgkg(-1) soil) on soil microbes and their associated soil functions such as date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) leaf litter (5gkg(-1) soil) carbon and nitrogen mineralization in mesocosms containing sandy soil. Nanoparticles application in litter-amended soil significantly decreased the cultivable heterotrophic bacterial and fungal colony forming units (cfu) compared to only litter-amended soil. The decrease in cfu could be related to lower microbial biomass carbon in nanoparticles-litter amended soil. Likewise, ZnO NPs also reduced CO2 emission by 10% in aforementioned treatment but this was higher than control (soil only). Labile Zn was only detected in the microbial biomass of nanoparticles-litter applied soil indicating that microorganisms consumed this element from freely available nutrients in the soil. In this treatment, dissolved organic carbon and mineral nitrogen were 25 and 34% lower respectively compared to litter-amended soil. Such toxic effects of nanoparticles on litter decomposition resulted in 130 and 122% lower carbon and nitrogen mineralization efficiency respectively. Hence, our results entail that ZnO NPs are toxic to soil microbes and affect their function i.e., carbon and nitrogen mineralization of applied litter thus confirming their toxicity to microbial associated soil functions.

  20. Can't See the Wood for the Litter: Evaluation of Litter Behavior Modification in a Forest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindemann-Matthies, Petra; Bonigk, Isabel; Benkowitz, Dorothee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated elementary school children's (n = 171) litter behavior during guided forest tours following two different treatments. Four classes received a verbal appeal not to litter in the forest, while another four classes received both a verbal appeal and a demonstration of the desired litter behavior (picking up litter, putting it…

  1. Volatile organic compounds from leaves litter.

    PubMed

    Isidorov, Valery; Jdanova, Maria

    2002-09-01

    Qualitative composition of volatile emissions of litter of five species of deciduous trees was investigated by GC-MS. The list of identified substances contains more than 70 organic compounds of various classes. It was established that the composition of components emitted by the litter into the gas phase greatly differs from that of essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from turned leaves collected from trees during fall. It is suggested that most compounds found in litter emissions are products of vital activity of microorganisms decomposing it. The reported data indicate that after the vegetative period is over the decomposition processes of litter are important seasonal sources of reactive organic compounds under the forest canopy.

  2. No Litter Will Make a Better Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Amy

    1987-01-01

    Describes a community anti-litter campaign developed by second grades, involving letter writing, dramatics, photography, and the creation of posters and a videotape. Identifies skills from the Kentucky Essential Skills list that were taught by the project. (SV)

  3. Campylobacteriosis: the role of poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Skarp, C P A; Hänninen, M-L; Rautelin, H I K

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of human infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the main bacterial agents of gastrointestinal disease, has been increasing worldwide. Here, we review the role of poultry as a source and reservoir for Campylobacter. Contamination and subsequent colonization of broiler flocks at the farm level often lead to transmission of Campylobacter along the poultry production chain and contamination of poultry meat at retail. Yet Campylobacter prevalence in poultry, as well as the contamination level of poultry products, vary greatly between different countries so there are differences in the intervention strategies that need to be applied. Temporal patterns in poultry do not always coincide with those found in human infections. Studies in rural and urban areas have revealed differences in Campylobacter infections attributed to poultry, as poultry seems to be the predominant reservoir in urban, but not necessarily in rural, settings. Furthermore, foreign travel is considered a major risk factor in acquiring the disease, especially for individuals living in the northern European countries. Intervention strategies aimed at reducing Campylobacter colonization in poultry and focused at the farm level have been successful in reducing the number of Campylobacter cases in several countries. Increasing farm biosecurity and education of consumers are likely to limit the risk of infection. Overall, poultry is an important reservoir and source of human campylobacteriosis, although the contribution of other sources, reservoirs and transmission warrants more research.

  4. Antibiotic resistance gene concentrations in agroecosystems following beef manure or poultry litter deposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotics are commonly used in livestock production to promote growth and combat disease. However, as much as 80% of the drug may pass through the animal and into the soil where selective pressure may favor survival of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Recent studies have shown that there is also a p...

  5. Compositional and thermal evaluation of lignocellulosic and poultry litter chars via high and low temperature pyrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inorganic elements in biomass feedstocks can influence thermochemical reactions as well as the resultant chars elemental, compositional, and thermal characteristics. Chars were produced using slow pyrolysis at less than 400 and at higher than 500 degree Celsius from sugarcane bagasse, peanut hulls,...

  6. Simulating the fate of fall- and spring-applied poultry litter nitrogen in corn production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monitoring the fate of N derived from manures applied to fertilize crops is difficult, time consuming, and relatively expensive. But computer simulation models can help understand the interactions among various N processes in the soil-plant system and determine the fate of applied N. The RZWQM2 was ...

  7. Combination of biochar and poultry litter impact on soil properties and corn yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar, a by-product of a thermochemical process called pyrolysis, which involves burning of any agricultural and animal waste (biomass) under high temperature and absence of oxygen. It is assumed that since biochar is very high in aromatic carbon, which persists in soil environment for very long ...

  8. The effect of composting on the persistence of four ionophores in dairy manure and poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure composting is a well-described approach for stabilization of nutrients and reduction of pathogens and odors. Although composting studies have shown that thermophilic temperatures and aerobic conditions can increase removal rates of selected antibiotics, comparable information is lacking for ...

  9. No-till corn productivity in a Southeastern United States ultisoil amended with poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emerging potential for large-scale renewable bio-energy production has substantially increased the price and demand of corn (Zea mays L.). In order to compete in the new corn market producers in the southeastern USA need to overcome the region’s soil and water limitations. One option is adopting...

  10. Clean Chip Residual Amended with Composted Poultry Litter as a Substrate for Lantana camara

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rising costs for containerized nursery crop substrates (pine bark and peat) have driven the need for substrate research. Among the potential media resources is Clean Chip Residual (CCR), a by-product of the forestry industry. This material is produced during the harvest of “clean chips” for use ...

  11. Legume proportions, poultry litter, and tillage effects on cover crop decomposition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.)–cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop mixtures can provide N scavenging and N provisioning benefits in grain cropping systems. The objectives of this research were to determine, under field conditions, the effects of species proportions, tillage, and pelletized...

  12. Abiotic and Biotic Effect of Poultry Litter Biochar on Ammonia Removal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the era of climate change, conversion of raw materials such as crop residuals and other waste byproducts into biochar could serve as a sink for carbon sequestration which could help reduce carbon footprint in the atmospheric environment. Biochar could also be used for soil amendment to improve ...

  13. Steroid hormones in biosolids and poultry litter: A comparison of potential environmental inputs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steroid hormones can act as potent endocrine disruptors when released into the environment. The main sources of these chemicals are thought to be wastewater treatment plant discharges and waste from animal feeding operations. While these compounds have frequently been found in wastewater effluents...

  14. Improving village poultry's survival rate through community-based poultry health management: evidence from Benin.

    PubMed

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto Delphin

    2013-01-01

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of "poultry interest groups" in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due to the fact that village poultry farming is practiced in a total or partial scavenging system which gives the impression that all the birds in the village belong to the same flock. Accordingly, actions that target all farmers of the same village may have a larger impact on the village poultry's survival rate than actions that target individual producers. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of CBM on the survival rate of village poultry. Based on data collected on 353 poultry keepers, the study shows that CBM significantly improves the survival rate of village poultry. The adoption of technologies--poultry vaccination, construction of henhouses, and improved feed--disseminated through the CBM also significantly improves the survival rate. The access to markets for inputs and veterinary services is also important in improving the survival rate of poultry. Finally, the study suggests that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies.

  15. Zoning and compartmentalisation as risk mitigation measures: an example from poultry production.

    PubMed

    Ratananakorn, L; Wilson, D

    2011-04-01

    This paper discusses the application of compartmentalisation in the Thai commercial poultry industry. The concept was adopted to address Thailand's inability to export fresh poultry meat because of endemic avian influenza. Owing to the nature of compartmentalisation, implementation required a strong partnership between government and the private sector (the Thai poultry exporters). The paper describes the processes implemented to ensure that appropriate risk mitigation measures were in place and to guarantee the continued biosecurity of the compartments. Other Members of the World Organisation for Animal Health may be able to adapt the compartment system used in Thailand to their own similar situations and the formal international recognition of such systems would be beneficial.

  16. Color of Meat and Poultry

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... The Color of Meat and Poultry Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  17. Development of behavior in the litter huddle in rat pups: within- and between-litter differences.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Amando; García-Torres, Esmeralda; Prager, Geraldine; Hudson, Robyn; Rödel, Heiko G

    2010-01-01

    Early postnatal growth in mammals can be considerably influenced by litter size and often differs among littermates in relation to birth mass. In a study of Long Evans laboratory rats we asked whether within- and between-litter differences in body mass and growth are related to behavioral development during early postnatal life. For this, we analyzed the amount of general motor activity and the display of directed, seemingly goal-oriented interactions within the litter huddle in previsual pups. During the study period from postnatal days 2 to 11, we found significant changes in pup behavior, showing a nonlinear, quadratic shape. General motor activity and, more specifically, the display of behaviors apparently directed to reaching central positions in the litter huddle increased during the first postnatal days and then decreased again. However, pups from small litters that grow more rapidly than pups from large litters, showed a faster increase in both behaviors, whereas the young from large litters reached a higher maximum. We also found striking within-litter differences in the amount of directed behavior performed by light and heavy pups, with higher levels in the former group, most probably because light pups that have a less favorable body mass-to-volume ratio and more often occupy peripheral positions in the litter huddle, make a greater effort to reach thermally favorable central positions. In conclusion, our study shows there to be consistent between-litter as well as within-litter differences in behavioral patterns during early life. These differences might have important implications for an individual's long-term behavioral and physiological performance.

  18. Evaluation of free water and water activity measurements as functional alternatives to total moisture content in broiler excreta and litter samples.

    PubMed

    van der Hoeven-Hangoor, E; Rademaker, C J; Paton, N D; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2014-07-01

    Litter moisture contents vary greatly between and within practical poultry barns. The current experiment was designed to measure the effects of 8 different dietary characteristics on litter and excreta moisture content. Additionally, free water content and water activity of the excreta and litter were evaluated as additional quality measures. The dietary treatments consisted of nonstarch polysaccharide content (NSP; corn vs. wheat), particle size of insoluble fiber (coarse vs. finely ground oat hulls), viscosity of a nonfermentable fiber (low- and high-viscosity carboxymethyl cellulose), inclusion of a clay mineral (sepiolite), and inclusion of a laxative electrolyte (MgSO4). The 8 treatments were randomly assigned to cages within blocks, resulting in 12 replicates per treatment with 6 birds per replicate. Limited effects of the dietary treatments were noted on excreta and litter water activity, and indications were observed that this measurement is limited in high-moisture samples. Increasing dietary NSP content by feeding a corn-based diet (low NSP) compared with a wheat-based diet (high NSP) increased water intake, excreta moisture and free water, and litter moisture content. Adding insoluble fibers to the wheat-based diet reduced excreta and litter moisture content, as well as litter water activity. Fine grinding of the oat hulls diminished the effect on litter moisture and water activity. However, excreta moisture and free water content were similar when fed finely or coarsely ground oat hulls. The effects of changing viscosity and adding a clay mineral or laxative deviated from results observed in previous studies. Findings of the current experiment indicate a potential for excreta free water measurement as an additional parameter to assess excreta quality besides total moisture. The exact implication of this parameter warrants further investigation.

  19. 40 CFR 432.1 - General Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and poultry products for human consumption and/or animal food and feeds. Meat and poultry products for human consumption include meat and poultry from cattle, hogs, sheep, chickens, turkeys, ducks and other... STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY § 432.1 General Applicability....

  20. 40 CFR 432.1 - General Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and poultry products for human consumption and/or animal food and feeds. Meat and poultry products for human consumption include meat and poultry from cattle, hogs, sheep, chickens, turkeys, ducks and other... STANDARDS (CONTINUED) MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY § 432.1 General Applicability....

  1. 9 CFR 94.28 - Restrictions on the importation of poultry meat and products, and live birds and poultry, from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... poultry meat and products, and live birds and poultry, from the APHIS-defined EU Poultry Trade Region. 94... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS... RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.28 Restrictions on the importation of poultry meat and products, and live...

  2. Watching eyes on potential litter can reduce littering: evidence from two field experiments

    PubMed Central

    Bateson, Melissa; Robinson, Rebecca; Abayomi-Cole, Tim; Greenlees, Josh; O’Connor, Abby

    2015-01-01

    Littering constitutes a major societal problem, and any simple intervention that reduces its prevalence would be widely beneficial. In previous research, we have found that displaying images of watching eyes in the environment makes people less likely to litter. Here, we investigate whether the watching eyes images can be transferred onto the potential items of litter themselves. In two field experiments on a university campus, we created an opportunity to litter by attaching leaflets that either did or did not feature an image of watching eyes to parked bicycles. In both experiments, the watching eyes leaflets were substantially less likely to be littered than control leaflets (odds ratios 0.22–0.32). We also found that people were less likely to litter when there other people in the immediate vicinity than when there were not (odds ratios 0.04–0.25) and, in one experiment but not the other, that eye leaflets only reduced littering when there no other people in the immediate vicinity. We suggest that designing cues of observation into packaging could be a simple but fruitful strategy for reducing littering. PMID:26644979

  3. Watching eyes on potential litter can reduce littering: evidence from two field experiments.

    PubMed

    Bateson, Melissa; Robinson, Rebecca; Abayomi-Cole, Tim; Greenlees, Josh; O'Connor, Abby; Nettle, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Littering constitutes a major societal problem, and any simple intervention that reduces its prevalence would be widely beneficial. In previous research, we have found that displaying images of watching eyes in the environment makes people less likely to litter. Here, we investigate whether the watching eyes images can be transferred onto the potential items of litter themselves. In two field experiments on a university campus, we created an opportunity to litter by attaching leaflets that either did or did not feature an image of watching eyes to parked bicycles. In both experiments, the watching eyes leaflets were substantially less likely to be littered than control leaflets (odds ratios 0.22-0.32). We also found that people were less likely to litter when there other people in the immediate vicinity than when there were not (odds ratios 0.04-0.25) and, in one experiment but not the other, that eye leaflets only reduced littering when there no other people in the immediate vicinity. We suggest that designing cues of observation into packaging could be a simple but fruitful strategy for reducing littering.

  4. Listeria monocytogenes infection in poultry and its public health importance with special reference to food borne zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Verma, Amit Kumar; Rajagunalan, S; Kumar, Amit; Tiwari, Ruchi; Chakraborty, Sandip; Kumar, Rajesh

    2013-04-01

    Listeriosis is a disease that causes septicemia or encephalitis in humans, animals and birds. Although, the disease is rare and sporadic in poultry but if occurs then causes septicemia or sometimes localized encephalitis. Occasionally, the disease is seen in young chicks and the causative agent, like in humans and animals, is Listeria monocytogenes. The organism is capable to infect almost all animals and poultry; however, outbreaks of listeriosis are infrequent in birds. It is widely distributed among avian species and chickens, turkeys, waterfowl (geese, ducks), game birds, pigeons, parrots, wood grouse, snowy owl, eagle, canaries, which appear to be the most commonly affected. Chickens are thought to be the carriers of Listeria and also the prime reservoirs for the infection and thus contaminate the litter and environment of the poultry production units. Listeriosis is often noticed along with other poultry diseases such as coccidiosis, infectious coryza, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and parasitic infections, signifying the opportunistic nature of the organism. Intestinal colonization of poultry and the presence of L. monocytogenes in feces represent a potential source of the organism for listeriosis in ruminants. Man gets infection from raw broiler meat due to Listeria contamination and unhygienic conditions of the processing area, rather than acquiring direct infection from birds. With the changing food habits of the people, the health consciousness is also increasing and since listeriosis has now been recognized as an emerging food borne zoonoses. Therefore, this review has been compiled to make aware the poultry producers and the consumers of poultry meat/products regarding the importance of the disease and its public health significance.

  5. Lignin degradation during plant litter photodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; King, J. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Lignin is the second most abundant compound, after cellulose, synthesized by plants. Numerous studies have demonstrated that initial lignin concentration is negatively correlated with litter decomposition rate under both laboratory and field conditions. Thus lignin is commonly considered to be a "recalcitrant" compound during litter decomposition. However, lignin can also serve as a radiation-absorbing compound during photodegradation, the process through which solar radiation breaks down organic matter. Here, we synthesize recent studies concerning lignin degradation during litter photodegradation and report results from our study on how photodegradation changes lignin chemistry at a molecular scale. Recent field studies have found that litter with high initial lignin concentration does not necessarily exhibit high mass loss during photodegradation. A meta-analysis (King et al. 2012) even found a weak negative correlation between initial lignin concentration and photodegradation rate. Contradicting results have been reported with regard to the change in lignin concentration during photodegradation. Some studies have found significant loss of lignin during photodegradation, while others have not. In most studies, loss of lignin only accounts for a small proportion of the overall mass loss. Using NMR spectroscopy, we found significant loss of lignin structural units containing beta-aryl ether linkages during photodegradation of a common grass litter, Bromus diandrus, even though conventional forage fiber analysis did not reveal changes in lignin concentration. Both our NMR and fiber analyses supported the idea that photodegradation induced loss of hemicellulose, which was mainly responsible for the litter mass loss during photodegradation. Our results suggest that photodegradation induces degradation, but not necessarily complete breakdown, of lignin structures and consequently exposes hemicellulose and cellulose to microbial decomposition. We conclude that lignin

  6. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  7. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  8. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  9. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  10. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  11. 9 CFR 381.173 - Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Poultry). 381.173 Section 381.173 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions...

  12. 9 CFR 381.173 - Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Poultry). 381.173 Section 381.173 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions...

  13. 9 CFR 381.173 - Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Poultry). 381.173 Section 381.173 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions...

  14. 77 FR 24873 - Modernization of Poultry Slaughter Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Modernization of Poultry Slaughter Inspection AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed... the comment period for the proposed rulemaking ``Modernization of Poultry Slaughter Inspection'' and... advocacy organizations and two trade associations representing the poultry industry asked that FSIS...

  15. 9 CFR 381.173 - Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Poultry). 381.173 Section 381.173 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions...

  16. 9 CFR 381.173 - Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Poultry). 381.173 Section 381.173 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions...

  17. Biological and climatic controls on leaf litter decomposition across European forests and grasslands revealed by reciprocal litter transplantation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portillo-Estrada, M.; Pihlatie, M.; Korhonen, J. F. J.; Levula, J.; Frumau, A. K. F.; Ibrom, A.; Lembrechts, J. J.; Morillas, L.; Horváth, L.; Jones, S. K.; Niinemets, Ü.

    2015-11-01

    Projection of carbon and nitrogen cycles to future climates is associated with large uncertainties, in particular due to uncertainties how changes in climate alter soil turnover, including litter decomposition. In addition, future conditions are expected to result in changes in vegetation composition, and accordingly in litter type and quality, but it is unclear how such changes could potentially alter litter decomposition. Litter transplantation experiments were carried out across 6 European sites (4 forest and 2 grasslands) spanning a large geographical and climatic gradient (5.6-11.4 °C in annual temperature 511-878 mm in precipitation) to gain insight into biological (litter origin and type, soil type) and climatic controls on litter decomposition. The decomposition k rates were overall higher in warmer and wetter sites than in colder and drier sites, and positively correlated to the litter total specific leaf area. Also, litter N content increased as less litter mass remained and decay went further. Surprisingly, this study demonstrates that climatic controls on litter decomposition are quantitatively more important than species, litter origin and soil type. Cumulative climatic variables, precipitation and air temperature (ignoring days with air temperatures below 0 °C), were appropriate to predict the litter remaining mass during decomposition (Mr). And Mr and cumulative air temperature were found to be the best predictors for litter carbon and nitrogen remaining during decomposition. We concluded with an equation for predicting the decomposition k rate by using mean annual air temperature and litter total specific leaf area.

  18. VOC Emissions From Decomposing Leaf Litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E. M.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Fierer, N.; Monson, R. K.

    2007-12-01

    The emission of VOCs from the biosphere has a profound effect on the oxidative capacity of the troposphere. Most studies of the flux of reactive carbon from the biosphere have focused on BVOC emissions at leaf and canopy scales with relatively few studies investigating BVOC emissions from soils. Here we present results describing the emissions of a suite of BVOCs from different litter types under different levels of nitrogen availability. To investigate these effects, three biochemically distinct litter types (Deschampsia sp., Acomostylis sp., and Rhododendron sp.) were coarsely ground and incubated in the dark for two months under different nitrogen regimes at optimal conditions for microbial activity. We used proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and an infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to monitor BVOC emissions and CO2 production rates throughout the course of the investigation. When different leaf litter types decomposed, they released distinctly different types and quantities of VOCs. However, varying nitrogen availability caused the VOC signature from some litters to change dramatically. We suggest that decomposition of leaf litter could provide a substantive source of reactive carbon to the atmosphere at local and regional scales and hypothesize that nitrogen deposition may play a role in attenuating the release of some reactive species.

  19. Natural zeolites in diet or litter of broilers.

    PubMed

    Schneider, A F; Almeida, D S De; Yuri, F M; Zimmermann, O F; Gerber, M W; Gewehr, C E

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to analyse the influence of adding natural zeolites (clinoptilolite) to the diet or litter of broilers and their effects on growth performance, carcass yield and litter quality. Three consecutive flocks of broilers were raised on the same sawdust litter, from d 1 to d 42 of age, and distributed in three treatments (control with no added zeolites, addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to diet and addition of 100 g/kg zeolites to litter). The addition of zeolites to the diet or litter did not affect growth performance or carcass yield. The addition of zeolites to the diet did not influence moisture content of the litter, ammonia volatilisation was reduced only in the first flock and pH of litter was reduced in the second and third flock. However, the addition of zeolites to the litter reduced moisture content, litter pH and ammonia volatilisation in all flocks analysed. The addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to the diet in three consecutive flocks was not effective in maintaining litter quality, whereas the addition of 100 g/kg natural zeolites to sawdust litter reduced litter moisture and ammonia volatilisation in three consecutive flocks raised on the same litter.

  20. Spanish poultry education: assisting the needs of the poultry industry.

    PubMed

    Corzo, A

    2009-11-01

    The Hispanic population is rising in most states in the United States, not only as an absolute value but as a proportion of the overall population of each state. Consequently, various poultry-related jobs have been increasingly filled by Hispanic personnel. However, although few problems have risen from lack of performance from these employees, in some cases, the language barrier has hindered professional development and production efficiency. As a result, various broiler integrators have suggested that we equip our undergraduate student body with some basic skills that would enable these future professionals of our industry to better communicate with Hispanic employees, both in casual conversational as well as at the technical poultry level. For that purpose, a course was recently developed and provided to our students and the results seem promising. Acceptance by our students of the technical information being conveyed was, for the most part, satisfactory and it was concluded that finding a common ground as a starting point was the most challenged area.

  1. Control of climate and litter quality on leaf litter decomposition in different climatic zones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyue; Wang, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Climate and initial litter quality are the major factors influencing decomposition rates on large scales. We established a comprehensive database of terrestrial leaf litter decomposition, including 785 datasets, to examine the relationship between climate and litter quality and evaluate the factors controlling decomposition on a global scale, the arid and semi-arid (AS) zone, the humid middle and humid low (HL) latitude zones. Initial litter nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentration only increased with mean annual temperature (MAT) in the AS zone and decreased with mean annual precipitation (MAP) in the HL zone. Compared with nutrient content, MAT imposed less effect on initial litter lignin content than MAP. MAT were the most important decomposition driving factors on a global scale as well as in different climatic zones. MAP only significantly affected decomposition constants in AS zone. Although litter quality parameters also showed significant influence on decomposition, their importance was less than the climatic factors. Besides, different litter quality parameters exerted significant influence on decomposition in different climatic zones. Our results emphasized that climate consistently exerted important effects on decomposition constants across different climatic zones.

  2. [Effects of litter and mineral nitrogen input on soil organic carbon decomposition in subtropical mixed forest in Dinghu Mountain, South China].

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Juan; Zeng, Hui; Guo, Da-Li

    2011-12-01

    In July-December 2010, a complete factor-controlled experiment was conducted to study the effects of litter and mineral nitrogen addition on soil organic matter decomposition (soil respiration) at the depths of 0-10 cm and 20-30 cm in Dinghu Mountain National Reserve. Coniferous needle litter and broadleaved litter were added, respectively, and 70 g N x m(-2) x yr(-1) of NH4 NO3 was applied to simulate soil nitrogen saturation whereas soil mineral nitrogen was removed by ion-exchange membrane to simulate the decreased nitrogen absorption by root. The addition of both needle litter and broadleaved litter increased the respiration rate of soil-litter system significantly from July to November, but this effect disappeared in December. Both mineral nitrogen application and soil mineral nitrogen removal increased the soil-litter respiration significantly. These results suggest that litter decomposed completely in a short period therefor had limited effects on soil organic matter decomposition and accumulation, and thus, foliar litters could be not the major source of soil organic matter, whereas soil mineral nitrogen removal could obviously promote the soil organic matter decomposition in the system.

  3. The multidimensional causal factors of 'wet litter' in chicken-meat production.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Mark W; Moss, Amy F; Groves, Peter J; Wilkinson, Stuart J; Stuetz, Richard M; Selle, Peter H

    2016-08-15

    The problem of 'wet litter', which occurs primarily in grow-out sheds for meat chickens (broilers), has been recognised for nearly a century. Nevertheless, it is an increasingly important problem in contemporary chicken-meat production as wet litter and associated conditions, especially footpad dermatitis, have developed into tangible welfare issues. This is only compounded by the market demand for chicken paws and compromised bird performance. This review considers the multidimensional causal factors of wet litter. While many causal factors can be listed it is evident that the critical ones could be described as micro-environmental factors and chief amongst them is proper management of drinking systems and adequate shed ventilation. Thus, this review focuses on these environmental factors and pays less attention to issues stemming from health and nutrition. Clearly, there are times when related avian health issues of coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis cannot be overlooked and the development of efficacious vaccines for the latter disease would be advantageous. Presently, the inclusion of phytate-degrading enzymes in meat chicken diets is routine and, therefore, the implication that exogenous phytases may contribute to wet litter is given consideration. Opinion is somewhat divided as how best to counter the problem of wet litter as some see education and extension as being more beneficial than furthering research efforts. However, it may prove instructive to assess the practice of whole grain feeding in relation to litter quality and the incidence of footpad dermatitis. Additional research could investigate the relationships between dietary concentrations of key minerals and the application of exogenous enzymes with litter quality.

  4. Avian influenza vaccines and vaccination for poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines against avian influenza (AI) have had more limited use in poultry than vaccines against other poultry diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis, and have been used more commonly in the developing world. Over the past 40 years, AI vaccines have been primarily based o...

  5. Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for…

  6. Salmonellosis: the role of poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Antunes, P; Mourão, J; Campos, J; Peixe, L

    2016-02-01

    Salmonellosis remains one of the most frequent food-borne zoonoses, constituting a worldwide major public health concern. Currently, at a global level, the main sources of infection for humans include meat products, including the consumption of contaminated poultry meat, in spite of the success of Salmonella control measures implemented in food-animal production of industrialized countries. In recent years, a shift in Salmonella serotypes related to poultry and poultry production has been reported in diverse geographical regions, being particularly associated with the spread of certain well-adapted clones. Moreover, antimicrobial resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella is considered one of the major public health threats related with food-animal production, including the poultry production chain and poultry meat, which is an additional concern in the management of salmonellosis. The circulation of the same multidrug-resistant Salmonella clones and/or identical mobile genetic elements encoding antibiotic resistance genes from poultry to humans highlights this scenario. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the role of poultry meat on salmonellosis at a global scale and the main problems that could hinder the success of Salmonella control measures at animal production level. With the increasing globalization of foodstuffs like poultry meat, new problems and challenges might arise regarding salmonellosis control, making new integrated intervention strategies necessary along the food chain.

  7. Pet poultry training for veterinary practitioners.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Rocio; Faux, Cynthia; Dhillon, Singh A; Newberry, Ruth C; Moore, Dale A

    2010-01-01

    Keeping backyard poultry in urban areas is a burgeoning trend in the United States. As such, we believe urban pet poultry owners are increasingly likely to seek veterinary services from urban companion-animal practitioners. Traditionally, poultry species have been classified as production animals. Most small-animal practitioners have limited experience or knowledge of these species and hesitate to accept these animals at their practices. We developed a one-day course to train veterinarians in pet poultry (as opposed to commercial poultry) medicine. The course covers poultry examination, diseases, and treatments and provides an introduction to poultry breeds and behavior and the basics of nutrition and husbandry. We believe this type of continuing education program is important for veterinarians because they are often on the front line of human public health issues. In addition, courses of this type increase the number of veterinarians trained to spot serious avian diseases, including foreign diseases and diseases with zoonotic potential. Most important, veterinarians with this training develop the knowledge to contribute to the health and well-being of pet poultry along with their clients' other companion animals.

  8. Risk analysis of poultry feed costs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction and Aims. Poultry feed continues to be a significant expense in poultry production as the cost of corn and soybean meals remain elevated. Alternative meals are under investigation to reduce production costs while maintaining high feed conversion rates and body weight gain. Two promising...

  9. Minimization of Salmonella Contamination on Raw Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many reviews have discussed Salmonella in poultry and suggested best practices to minimize this organism on raw poultry meat. Despite years of research and conscientious control efforts by industry and regulatory agencies, human salmonellosis rates have declined only modestly and Salmonella is stil...

  10. The origin of litter chemical complexity during decomposition.

    PubMed

    Wickings, Kyle; Grandy, A Stuart; Reed, Sasha C; Cleveland, Cory C

    2012-10-01

    The chemical complexity of decomposing plant litter is a central feature shaping the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, but explanations of the origin of this complexity remain contentious. Here, we ask: How does litter chemistry change during decomposition, and what roles do decomposers play in these changes? During a long-term (730 days) litter decomposition experiment, we tracked concurrent changes in decomposer community structure and function and litter chemistry using high-resolution molecular techniques. Contrary to the current paradigm, we found that the chemistry of different litter types diverged, rather than converged, during decomposition due to the activities of decomposers. Furthermore, the same litter type exposed to different decomposer communities exhibited striking differences in chemistry, even after > 90% mass loss. Our results show that during decomposition, decomposer community characteristics regulate changes in litter chemistry, which could influence the functionality of litter-derived soil organic matter (SOM) and the turnover and stabilisation of soil C.

  11. Quality improvement of kosher chilled poultry.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, H; Abraharn, R Ben

    2002-11-01

    Pathogens like Listeria monocytogenes are of great concern in the poultry industry. Poultry, which are subjected to the kosher slaughtering and koshering process, may introduce even higher risks than conventially slaughtered poultry due to the potential for microbial cross-contamination at several critical points in the koshering line, particularly in the chillers. The effect of Microgard (MIC) and Nisin (NIS) on reducing total microbial counts, inhibiting L. monocytogenes, and prolonging shelf life was evaluated. In this work we applied dips of poultry into solutions of NIS, active against Gram-positive bacteria, and MIC, which is a bacteriocin mixture that retards growth of Gram-negative bacteria, and a mixture of organic acids. These treatments inhibited both inoculated and naturally occurring L. monocytogenes on poultry, and increased shelf life, at 6 C, from 2 to 4 d (end of shelf life was considered when total aerobic counts reached 7 log cfu/g).

  12. Evaluation and application of a one-step duplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for the rapid detection of influenza A (H7N9) virus from poultry samples.

    PubMed

    Bao, Hongmei; Ma, Yong; Shi, Jianzhong; Zeng, Xianying; Zhao, Yuhui; Wang, Xiurong; Chen, Hualan

    2015-10-01

    In China, a novel reassortant influenza A (H7N9) virus, which has caused 435 cases of human infection, has recently emerged. Most cases of human infections with the H7N9 virus are known to be associated with a poultry farm and live-poultry markets. In this study, a one-step duplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the H7N9 virus for effective surveillance and early diagnosis of cases from clinical samples collected from live-poultry markets or poultry farms. The detection limit of this assay was as low as 0.1 EID50 of H7N9 viruses, which is similar to the detection limit of the real-time RT-PCR assay released by the Word Health Organization. The coefficients of variation (CVs) of both inter-assay and intra-assay reproducibility were less than 1.55 %, showing good reproducibility. No cross-reactivity was observed with RNA of other subtypes of influenza virus or other avian respiratory viruses. The assay can effectively detect H7N9 influenza virus RNA from multiple sources, including chickens, pigeons, ducks, humans, and the environment. Furthermore, the RRT-PCR assay was evaluated with more than 700 clinical samples collected from live-poultry markets and 120 experimentally infected chicken samples. Together, these results indicate that the duplex RRT-PCR assay is a specific, sensitive, and efficient diagnostic method for the epidemiological surveillance and diagnosis of H7N9 virus from different sources, particularly poultry samples.

  13. Evaluation of different selective media and culturing techniques for the quantification of Campylobacter ssp. from broiler litter.

    PubMed

    Kiess, A S; Parker, H M; McDaniel, C D

    2010-08-01

    Poultry is a major reservoir for Campylobacter, the leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, but how broilers become initially colonized is still under debate. Broiler litter is a potential source, but the best technique for quantifying Campylobacter from litter is still unknown. Therefore, our objectives were to determine if certain media are more selective for quantifying Campylobacter and if enrichment allows for the detection of stressed or viable but nonculturable cells from broiler litter samples. In this trial, 5 media and 2 culturing techniques were used to enumerate Campylobacter from broiler litter. The media used were campy-Line agar (CLA), campy-cefex agar (CCA), modified CCA, Campylobacter agar plates (CAP), and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar. Litter samples were obtained from a commercial broiler house. Each sample was equally divided and diluted 10-fold into peptone, for direct plating, or 4-fold into Campylobacter enrichment broth. Samples diluted in peptone were direct-plated onto each media and incubated under microaerophilic conditions for 48 h at 42 degrees C. Samples diluted in enrichment broth were incubated under the same conditions for 24 h, then further diluted to 10-fold before plating. Plates from enriched samples were incubated for an additional 24 h after plating. After incubation, all plates (direct and enriched) were counted and presumptive positive colonies were confirmed using a Campylobacter latex agglutination kit. Results indicated that there was no difference in the ability of any of the selective media tested to grow Campylobacter. Direct-plated samples had a higher Campylobacter isolation rate compared with enriched samples. The CLA and CAP were able to suppress total bacterial growth better than modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate, modified CCA, and CCA. The CLA and CAP were the only media able to detect total bacterial population shifts over time. In conclusion, it is important

  14. Emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from outdoor-stored broiler litter using tunable-diode laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wit, William Harrison

    Handling and storage of a variety of types of agricultural wastes results in the formation and release of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) gases to the atmosphere. These gases contribute to climate change through the greenhouse effect. Few studies have examined evolution of these gases from stored poultry litter in North America. Although N 2O is a by-product of nitrification, it is largely produced as an intermediate product of denitrification and is produced most intensely when both aerobic and anaerobic conditions are present. CH4 emissions, however, are typically associated with anaerobic reactions. Outdoor storage of broiler litter provides an excellent media for which both aerobic and anaerobic zones can coexist, particularly when the litter is of varying ages from multiple broiler flocks (cycles). It provides a large amount of nitrogen for bacterial nitrification/denitrification processes as well as Carbon to support anaerobic bacterial fermentation. The objective of the study was to quantify N 2O and CH4 emissions for broiler litter stored in an uncovered, outdoor bunker by conducting small-scale dynamic flux chamber studies and full-scale field experiments. The field experiments used a modified micrometeorological mass balance approach to monitor emissions from stored broiler litter in a three-walled concrete bunker. Atmospheric concentrations of N2O and CH4 were measured using tunable-diode laser spectroscopy. Field experiments over the course of approximately four months yielded average emission rates of 14+/-17mug m-2 s -1 and 84+/-61 mug m-2 s-1 for N2O and CH4 respectively that agreed well with the trends of emission rates observed in the dynamic flux chamber experiments. The primary drivers of emissions of both CH4 and N2O appeared to be temperature and moisture content while organic carbon and organic nitrogen (loss on ignition, nitrate concentrations) contents were also important factors.

  15. Long-term litter decomposition controlled by manganese redox cycling

    PubMed Central

    Keiluweit, Marco; Nico, Peter; Harmon, Mark E.; Mao, Jingdong; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Kleber, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition is a keystone ecosystem process impacting nutrient cycling and productivity, soil properties, and the terrestrial carbon (C) balance, but the factors regulating decomposition rate are still poorly understood. Traditional models assume that the rate is controlled by litter quality, relying on parameters such as lignin content as predictors. However, a strong correlation has been observed between the manganese (Mn) content of litter and decomposition rates across a variety of forest ecosystems. Here, we show that long-term litter decomposition in forest ecosystems is tightly coupled to Mn redox cycling. Over 7 years of litter decomposition, microbial transformation of litter was paralleled by variations in Mn oxidation state and concentration. A detailed chemical imaging analysis of the litter revealed that fungi recruit and redistribute unreactive Mn2+ provided by fresh plant litter to produce oxidative Mn3+ species at sites of active decay, with Mn eventually accumulating as insoluble Mn3+/4+ oxides. Formation of reactive Mn3+ species coincided with the generation of aromatic oxidation products, providing direct proof of the previously posited role of Mn3+-based oxidizers in the breakdown of litter. Our results suggest that the litter-decomposing machinery at our coniferous forest site depends on the ability of plants and microbes to supply, accumulate, and regenerate short-lived Mn3+ species in the litter layer. This observation indicates that biogeochemical constraints on bioavailability, mobility, and reactivity of Mn in the plant–soil system may have a profound impact on litter decomposition rates. PMID:26372954

  16. Subsurface Banded Broiler Litter Improves Cotton Yield and Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter is typically land-applied as a fertilizer by surface broadcasting, a practice that results in volatilization loss of N as NH3. This loss may be drastically reduced or eliminated by the use of a newly developed precision litter implement designed to apply the litter in bands just belo...

  17. The Evaluation of Litter Behavior Modification in a River Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Mark C.; Wilson, Beth E.

    1988-01-01

    Behavior modification techniques were evaluated by observing litter collection behavior of commercial rafting groups. The number of litter pieces retrieved by treatment and control groups was significantly different. Results support the idea that verbal appeal and role modeling can be effective litter control techniques. (Author/CW)

  18. Long-term litter decomposition controlled by manganese redox cycling.

    PubMed

    Keiluweit, Marco; Nico, Peter; Harmon, Mark E; Mao, Jingdong; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Kleber, Markus

    2015-09-22

    Litter decomposition is a keystone ecosystem process impacting nutrient cycling and productivity, soil properties, and the terrestrial carbon (C) balance, but the factors regulating decomposition rate are still poorly understood. Traditional models assume that the rate is controlled by litter quality, relying on parameters such as lignin content as predictors. However, a strong correlation has been observed between the manganese (Mn) content of litter and decomposition rates across a variety of forest ecosystems. Here, we show that long-term litter decomposition in forest ecosystems is tightly coupled to Mn redox cycling. Over 7 years of litter decomposition, microbial transformation of litter was paralleled by variations in Mn oxidation state and concentration. A detailed chemical imaging analysis of the litter revealed that fungi recruit and redistribute unreactive Mn(2+) provided by fresh plant litter to produce oxidative Mn(3+) species at sites of active decay, with Mn eventually accumulating as insoluble Mn(3+/4+) oxides. Formation of reactive Mn(3+) species coincided with the generation of aromatic oxidation products, providing direct proof of the previously posited role of Mn(3+)-based oxidizers in the breakdown of litter. Our results suggest that the litter-decomposing machinery at our coniferous forest site depends on the ability of plants and microbes to supply, accumulate, and regenerate short-lived Mn(3+) species in the litter layer. This observation indicates that biogeochemical constraints on bioavailability, mobility, and reactivity of Mn in the plant-soil system may have a profound impact on litter decomposition rates.

  19. Impeding movement of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, James; Küster, Tatiana; George, David; Sparagano, Olivier; Tomley, Fiona

    2016-07-30

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is an economically important hematophagous parasite of commercial egg laying hens, also affecting domesticated birds and companion animals. Conventional control of D. gallinae through acaricidal spraying is often ineffective, creating an urgent need to identify alternative management strategies for commercial and domestic infestations. Whilst integrated pest management is being considered for D. gallinae, the potential of impeding mite 'migration' routes, to either prevent initial infestation or manage established populations, has not been researched. Here we demonstrate that barriers of insecticidal glue, double sided sticky tape and thyme oil can contain D. gallinae within a specified area of a petri dish (78-88% of total mite population) and this level of containment was significantly greater than for negative controls (p values <0.05). Further studies in poultry houses are recommended to investigate the efficacy of these barriers in real world application and identity potential for barriers as a strategy for mite control.

  20. The Effect of Litter Position on Ultraviolet Photodegradation of Standing Dead Litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; King, J. Y.

    2012-12-01

    In dryland ecosystems, models incorporating only biotic mechanisms usually underestimate the decay rate of plant litter. Photodegradation, an abiotic process through which solar radiation breaks down organic matter, has recently been proposed as an important pathway of litter decomposition in dryland ecosystems, accounting for as much as 25 to 60% of mass loss. However, it remains unclear what factors control the relative importance of photodegradation and biotic decomposition. It is hypothesized that this balance is affected by the location of litter within the litter layer (or thatch): in upper layers of thatch, photodegradation is significant because litter is exposed to sunlight; in lower layers where litter is strongly shaded, photodegradation is negligible compared to biotic decomposition. In August 2011, a field experiment was initiated at the University of California's Sedgwick Reserve, Santa Ynez, CA, in order to understand how ultraviolet (UV) radiation and litter position within the thatch affect litter decomposition. Two levels of UV radiation (280-400 nm) are achieved by screens: "UV-Pass" (transmitting > 81% of UV radiation) and "UV-Block" (transmitting < 8% of UV radiation). Litterbags were placed either at the top or at the bottom of the thatch. Results after 9 months of field exposure show that at the top of the thatch, litter mass loss was 13% higher in UV-Pass than in UV-Block, suggesting the occurrence of UV photodegradation. Surprisingly, litter mass loss was 52% higher in UV-Pass at the bottom of the thatch, even though very limited UV radiation penetrated through the thatch (at least 10 cm thick). The relative humidity in the thatch was higher in UV-Pass than in UV-Block treatments, especially at night; thus it is speculated that the UV manipulation not only alters the incoming radiation spectrum but also affects microclimate, consequently changing biotic decomposition. At the bottom of the thatch, lignin concentration of plant litter was 19

  1. Ecological restoration of litter in mined areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teresinha Gonçalves Bizuti, Denise; Nino Diniz, Najara; Schweizer, Daniella; de Marchi Soares, Thaís; Casagrande, José Carlos; Henrique Santin Brancalion, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    The success of ecological restoration projects depends on going monitoring of key ecological variables to determine if a desired trajectory has been established and, in the case of mining sites, nutrient cycling recovery plays an utmost importance. This study aimed to quantify and compare the annual litter production in native forests, and in restoration sites established in bauxite mines. We collected samples in 6 native forest remnants and 6 year-old restoration sites every month for a period of one year, in the city of Poços de Caldas/MG, SE Brazil. 120 wire collectors were used (0,6x0,6) and suspended 30cm above the soil surface. The material was dried until constant weight, weighed and fractionated in leaves, branches and reproductive material. The average annual litter production was 2,6 Mg ha-1 in native forests and 2,1 in forest in restoration sites, differing statistically. Litter production was higher in the rainy season, especially in September. Among the litter components, the largest contributor to total production was the fraction leaves, with 55,4% of the total dry weight of material collected, followed by reproductive material which contributed 24,5% and branches, with 20%. We conclude that the young areas in restoration process already restored important part, but still below the production observed in native areas.

  2. Litter Study: A School Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Dannel

    1976-01-01

    Describes a project done to verify or dispute the breakdown in litter content proposed by Keep America Beautiful, Inc. (KAB). Decisions made relating to quantity of materials, area to be studied, and a complete description of the project are given. (EB)

  3. Extension Leads Model City Litter Fight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Doris

    1971-01-01

    A three-year war on litter is in effect in the Portland, Maine, area, as a result of the University of Maine's enlisting the county extension service to help the local Model Cities program clean up the inner city. Article details problems and progress in meeting the objectives. (PD)

  4. Leaf litter arthropod responses to tropical forest restoration.

    PubMed

    Cole, Rebecca J; Holl, Karen D; Zahawi, Rakan A; Wickey, Philipp; Townsend, Alan R

    2016-08-01

    Soil and litter arthropods represent a large proportion of tropical biodiversity and perform important ecosystem functions, but little is known about the efficacy of different tropical forest restoration strategies in facilitating their recovery in degraded habitats. We sampled arthropods in four 7- to 8-year-old restoration treatments and in nearby reference forests. Sampling was conducted during the wet and dry seasons using extractions from litter and pitfall samples. Restoration treatments were replicated in 50 × 50-m plots in four former pasture sites in southern Costa Rica: plantation - trees planted throughout the plot; applied nucleation/islands - trees planted in patches of different sizes; and natural regeneration - no tree planting. Arthropod abundance, measures of richness and diversity, and a number of functional groups were greater in the island treatment than in natural regeneration or plantation treatments and, in many cases, were similar to reference forest. Litter and pitfall morphospecies and functional group composition in all three restoration treatments were significantly different than reference sites, but island and plantation treatments showed more recovery than natural regeneration. Abundance and functional group diversity showed a much greater degree of recovery than community composition. Synthesis and applications: The less resource-intensive restoration strategy of planting tree islands was more effective than tree plantations in restoring arthropod abundance, richness, and functional diversity. None of the restoration strategies, however, resulted in similar community composition as reference forest after 8 years of recovery, highlighting the slow rate of recovery of arthropod communities after disturbance, and underscoring the importance of conservation of remnant forests in fragmented landscapes.

  5. Characterization of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae isolates from laying hens and poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) from an outbreak of erysipelas.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Helena; Brännström, Sara; Skarin, Hanna; Chirico, Jan

    2010-12-01

    Infection with the zoonotic bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae causes severe disease outbreaks (erysipelas) in poultry flocks. As this bacterium has been isolated from the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), this parasite has been suggested as a possible means of transmission of E. rhusiopathiae on and between poultry farms. To further elucidate the capacity of the mite as a reservoir, we analysed and compared 56 bacterial isolates from laying hens and nine isolates from mites by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), using the restriction enzyme SmaI. The isolates originated from one outbreak in a laying hen flock housed in an indoor litter-based aviary system. Except for two isolates, a homogeneous banding pattern was obtained from all isolates analysed, suggesting that a single strain was the cause of the outbreak. Another finding was that isolates from individual hens could exhibit slightly different PFGE patterns. Mites collected from the same house at the end of the production period of the following flock were negative for the presence of E. rhusiopathiae. An increasing number of erysipelas outbreaks as well as escalating problems with D. gallinae are expected in other European countries related to the forthcoming changes in housing systems for laying hens. Consequently, further studies are needed to investigate the importance of erysipelas in poultry and the importance of D. gallinae in the transmission of E. rhusiopathiae.

  6. The role of volatiles in aggregation and host-seeking of the haematophagous poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Koenraadt, C J M; Dicke, M

    2010-03-01

    Infestations with ectoparasitic poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) pose an increasing threat to poultry health and welfare. Because of resistance to acaricides and higher scrutiny of poultry products, alternative and environmentally safe management strategies are warranted. Therefore, we investigated how volatile cues shape the behavior of D. gallinae and how this knowledge may be exploited in the development of an attract-and-kill method to control mite populations. A Y-tube olfactometer bio-assay was used to evaluate choices of mites in response to cues related to conspecific mites as well as related to their chicken host. Both recently fed and starved mites showed a strong preference (84 and 85%, respectively) for volatiles from conspecific, fed mites as compared to a control stream of clean air. Mites were also significantly attracted to 'aged feathers' (that had remained in the litter for 3-4 days), but not to 'fresh feathers'. Interestingly, an air stream containing 2.5% CO(2), which mimics the natural concentration in air exhaled by chickens, did attract fed mites, but inhibited the attraction of unfed mites towards volatiles from aged feathers. We conclude that both mite-related cues (aggregation pheromones) and host-related cues (kairomones) mediate the behavior of the poultry mite. We discuss the options to exploit this knowledge as the 'attract' component of attract-and-kill strategies for the control of D. gallinae.

  7. Leaf litter decomposition in a southern Sonoran Desert ecosystem, northwestern Mexico: Effects of habitat and litter quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Yrízar, Angelina; Núñez, Silvia; Búrquez, Alberto

    2007-11-01

    Leaf litter decomposition of dominant woody perennial species in the three most common habitats of the southern Sonoran Desert was studied using the litter-bag method. Our objective was to assess the influence of litter quality on decomposition rates in three contrasting desert environments. The hypotheses were: (1) decomposition rates within the same litter type are faster in more mesic habitats, (2) decomposition rates are lower in higher lignin content or lower nutrient quality substrates, and (3) species-rich substrates enhance decomposition rates. For all litter types and habitats, a rapid loss of mass occurred during the summer rains at the start of the experiment, but total loss within the same litter type differed significantly among habitats. Decay rates were not higher in the more mesic habitat, but in the dry plains where solar irradiance and termite activity were highest. While termite activity was less important in the arroyos and absent in the hillsides habitats, proliferation of fungal mycelium in these sites was much higher than in the plains, suggesting that biotic and abiotic factors act both independently of litter richness. Lignin content seems to be an important factor controlling the loss of litter, because decay rates were inversely related to litter initial lignin content in all three habitats. Leaf litter diversity did not enhance rates of decomposition. The leaf litter mixture had k-values similar to the most recalcitrant monospecific litter in all three habitats, indicating a neutral or even antagonistic role of species-specific compounds in decomposition rates.

  8. Fallout volume and litter type affect (137)Cs concentration difference in litter between forest and stream environments.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Masaru; Gomi, Takashi; Negishi, Junjiro N

    2016-11-01

    It is important to understand the changes in the (137)Cs concentration in litter through leaching when considering that (137)Cs is transferred from basal food resources to animals in forested streams. We found that the difference of (137)Cs activity concentration in litter between forest and stream was associated with both litter type and (137)Cs fallout volume around Fukushima, Japan. The (137)Cs activity concentrations in the litter of evergreen conifers tended to be greater than those in the litter of broad-leaved deciduous trees because of the absence of deciduous leaves during the fallout period in March 2011. Moreover, (137)Cs activity concentrations in forest litter were greater with respect to the (137)Cs fallout volume. The (137)Cs activity concentrations in stream litter were much lower than those in forest litter when those in forest litter were higher. The (137)Cs leaching patterns indicated that the differences in (137)Cs activity concentration between forest and stream litter could change with changes in both fallout volume and litter type. Because litter is an important basal food resource in the food webs of both forests and streams, the (137)Cs concentration gradient reflects to possible (137)Cs transfer from lower to higher trophic animals. Our findings will improve our understanding of the spatial heterogeneity and variability of (137)Cs concentrations in animals resident to the contaminated landscape.

  9. Campylobacter in Poultry: Ecology and Potential Interventions.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Orhan; Kassem, Issmat I; Shen, Zhangqi; Lin, Jun; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Zhang, Qijing

    2015-06-01

    Avian hosts constitute a natural reservoir for thermophilic Campylobacter species, primarily Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, and poultry flocks are frequently colonized in the intestinal tract with high numbers of the organisms. Prevalence rates in poultry, especially in slaughter-age broiler flocks, could reach as high as 100% on some farms. Despite the extensive colonization, Campylobacter is essentially a commensal in birds, although limited evidence has implicated the organism as a poultry pathogen. Although Campylobacter is insignificant for poultry health, it is a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, and contaminated poultry meat is recognized as the main source for human exposure. Therefore, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the development of interventions to diminish Campylobacter contamination in poultry, with the intention to reduce the burden of food-borne illnesses. During the past decade, significant advance has been made in understanding Campylobacter in poultry. This review summarizes the current knowledge with an emphasis on ecology, antibiotic resistance, and potential pre- and postharvest interventions.

  10. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  11. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS NEWCASTLE DISEASE AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Newcastle Disease § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds and poultry that have...

  12. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been...

  13. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been...

  14. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  15. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  16. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS...

  17. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  18. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  19. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  20. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...