Science.gov

Sample records for pour point api

  1. Predicting flash and pour points

    SciTech Connect

    Riazi, M.R.; Daubert, T.E.

    1987-09-01

    Flash point is correlated with ASTM 10% temperature. Pour point is correlated with molecular weight, specific gravity and kinematic viscosity at 100/sup 0/F. The flash point method was tested over an ASTM 10% temperature range of about 400 to 900/sup 0/F. The correlation for pour points is applicable to fractions with molecular weights of 140 to 800 and viscosities of 1 to 3,500 cSt.

  2. Handling of high pour point West African crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Irani, C.; Zajac, J.

    1982-02-01

    Problems related with the transportation of two high pour point west African (Zaire and Cabinda) crudes are discussed. Relevant rheological parameters of untreated and treated (chemical additives for pour point depression) crude were determined in the laboratory with a rotational viscometer and these results are presented. In both cases, low concentrations (30 to 50 ppmw) of the chemical additives improved the mobility and reduced the restarting pressure requirements for the crude. On the basis of the rheological evaluation of Cabinda crude, continuous circulation of the crude in the platform storage tank was suggested to field personnel as a means to partially alleviate the transportation problems. 17 refs.

  3. Copolymeric pour-point depressant for diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V.I.; Dadyko, V.A.; Dushechkin, A.P.; Shapkina, L.N.

    1984-03-01

    This article considers the use of a pour-point depressant consisting of a mixture of ethylene with methyl methacrylate (EMMA) and ethylene with vinyl acetate (EVA) to improve the low-temperature indexes of diesel fuels. It is determined that the greatest effect with respect to limiting filterability temperature from the addition of EMMA is achieved with an EVA content of approximately 0.04%. The use of both a copolymer promoting the formation of a large number of crystallization centers (EMMA) and a copolymer that is a good modifier of the wax crystal surface (EVA) leads to a limitation of the crystal growth and preservation of the fine-crystal structure as the fuel temperature is lowered.

  4. Synthesis copolymer use to reduce pour point temperature of diamond crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Than, Dao Viet; Chuong, Thai Hong; Tuy, Dao Quoc

    2017-09-01

    Diamond oil field is located in Block 01&02 Offshore Vietnam. Crude oil from Diamond Well Head Platform (WHP) is evacuated to FPSO via 20km 10" subsea flexible pipeline. The lowest seabed temperature in the field is 22°C, while the pour point temperature (PPT) of Diamond crude oil is very high (36°C) due to high paraffin content (25%). So studying to research a suitable Pour Point Depressant (PPD) for the crude oil is very important. The PPD must have ability to reduce pour point temperature of crude oil from 36°C to 21°C.

  5. Investigation of the Pour Point Depression Ability of Polyalkyl Acrylate Additives After Sonication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkova, G. I.; Anufriev, R. V.; Yudina, N. V.; Tchaikovskaya, O. N.

    2016-12-01

    Effect of ultrasonic treatment on the molecular parameters of polymeric additives based on polyalkyl acrylate is investigated. The viscosity, temperature, and energy characteristics of high-wax crude oil and solutions of petroleum wax in decane and aviation fuel TS-1 in the presence of initial and ultrasonified additives are determined. Results obtained indicate that the pour point depression ability of the additives is not reduced after treatment in an ultrasonic field.

  6. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment Tutorial: Pour Point Analysis of Land-applied Microbial Loadings and Comparison of Simulated and Gaging Station Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    This tutorial demonstrates a pour point analysis • Initiates execution of the SDMPB.• Navigates the SDMPB.• Chooses a pour point within a watershed, delineates the sub-area that contributes to that pour point, and collects data for it.• Considers land applicat...

  7. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment Tutorial: Pour Point Analysis of Land-applied Microbial Loadings and Comparison of Simulated and Gaging Station Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    This tutorial demonstrates a pour point analysis • Initiates execution of the SDMPB.• Navigates the SDMPB.• Chooses a pour point within a watershed, delineates the sub-area that contributes to that pour point, and collects data for it.• Considers land applicat...

  8. Development of a complex type of pour point-viscosity depressant and infrared spectrum research

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Fusheng; Wang Biao

    1995-11-01

    EMS, a complex type of pour point-viscosity depressant for crudes, is composed of EVA, MVA [molecular structure shown for both in the paper] and Surfactant. After adding EMS into the crudes, a very nice result in reducing pour point and viscosity for Daqing, Jianghan and Jidong crudes was obtained. From the research result of infrared spectroscopy of the interactions between EMS or its components and wax or mixture of resin and asphaltene isolated from three crudes, it has been shown that the area ratio of the double absorption peaks of 719 cm{sup {minus}1} and 729 cm{sup {minus}1} or 1,368 cm{sup {minus}1} and 1,378 cm{sup {minus}1} changed remarkably after EMS or its components were added into wax. It can be inferred that the cocrystallization probably happened between the EMS or its components and the wax. The position of the 4,000--3,000 cm{sup {minus}1} infrared absorption peak of the mixture of resin and asphaltene moved to the lower wavenumber, and the ratio of the area of 1,373 cm{sup {minus}1} absorption peak (methyl) to the combination area of 748, 810 and 871 cm{sup {minus}1} absorption peak (aromatics) increased remarkably. It can be inferred that the pour point-viscosity depressant molecules destroyed the original hydrogen bonds and overlapping of the aromatic ring planes among resin and asphaltene molecules to form a new cubic molecular structure and new hydrogen bonds with the results the viscosity of crude oil will be reduced.

  9. The effects of select factors on the pour point, cloud point, and cold filter plugging point of soybean-, choice white grease-, and corn-based biodiesel blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezierski, Kelly

    Soybean-, choice white grease-, and corn-based biodiesel from different sources blended with cold flow modifiers from 0.0% to 4.0% by weight were tested for cloud point (CP), cold filter plugging point (CFPP), and pour point (PP). The soybean-based blend that showed the best result was four weight percent of TechnolRTM B100 Biodiesel Cold Flow Improver used on B99 obtained from Wacker Oil, which resulted in a CP of -3°C, a PP of -18 °C, and a CFPP of -7°C. The TechnolRTM product slightly improved the CFPP of corn-based biodiesel when used at 2.0 weight percent, reducing it from -1°C to -4°C. No significant improvements were observed on choice white grease-based biodiesel blends. It was shown that, CFPP is not a linear function of the CP; the order of cold flow properties here occasionally follows the trend of the Cloud Point being greater than or equal to the Pour Point which is greater than or equal to the Cold Filter Plugging Point; and the source of the biodiesel also has a significant effect on the cold flow properties.

  10. Method and apparatus for determining the presence or absence of a pour point depressant additive in hydrocarbon liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Rummel, J.D.

    1986-07-29

    A method is described of determining the presence or absence of a pour point depressant additive in a hydrocarbon liquid derived from petroleum, the liquid containing paraffin wax, comprising the steps of: (a) cooling a sample of the liquid at a predetermined cooling rate from a temperature substantially above the cloud point temperature to a temperature substantially below the cloud point temperature; (b) monitoring the slope of the cooling rate curve and noting the points at which a deflection in the curve begins and ends; (c) determining the time interval between the beginning and ending points of the deflection of the curve, and (d) comparing the determined time interval to a reference time interval, associated with the predetermined cooling rate, so as to establish whether the determined time interval is less than or greater than the reference time interval thereby establishing the presence or absence, respectively, of a pour point depressant additive.

  11. Point of departure (PoD) selection for the derivation of acceptable daily exposures (ADEs) for active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs).

    PubMed

    Bercu, Joel P; Morinello, Eric J; Sehner, Claudia; Shipp, Bryan K; Weideman, Patricia A

    2016-08-01

    The Acceptable Daily Exposure (ADE) derived for pharmaceutical manufacturing is a health-based limit used to ensure that medicines produced in multi-product facilities are safe and are used to validate quality processes. Core to ADE derivation is selecting appropriate point(s) of departure (PoD), i.e., the starting dose of a given dataset that is used in the calculation of the ADE. Selecting the PoD involves (1) data collection and hazard characterization, (2) identification of "critical effects", and (3) a dose-response assessment including the determination of the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) or lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL), or calculating a benchmark dose (BMD) level. Compared to other classes of chemicals, active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are well-characterized and have unique, rich datasets that must be considered when selecting the PoD. Dataset considerations for an API include therapeutic/pharmacological effects, particularities of APIs for different indications and routes of administration, data gaps during drug development, and sensitive subpopulations. Thus, the PoD analysis must be performed by a qualified toxicologist or other expert who also understands the complexities of pharmaceutical datasets. In addition, as the pharmaceutical industry continues to evolve new therapeutic principles, the science behind PoD selection must also evolve to ensure state-of-the-science practices and resulting ADEs.

  12. A Novel Methodology for the Synthesis of Acyloxy Castor Polyol Esters: Low Pour Point Lubricant Base Stocks.

    PubMed

    Kamalakar, Kotte; Mahesh, Goli; Prasad, Rachapudi B N; Karuna, Mallampalli S L

    2015-01-01

    Castor oil, a non-edible oil containing hydroxyl fatty acid, ricinoleic acid (89.3 %) was chemically modified employing a two step procedure. The first step involved acylation (C(2)-C(6) alkanoic anhydrides) of -OH functionality employing a green catalyst, Kieselguhr-G and solvent free medium. The catalyst after reaction was filtered and reused several times without loss in activity. The second step is esterification of acylated castor fatty acids with branched mono alcohol, 2-ethylhexanol and polyols namely neopentyl glycol (NPG), trimethylolpropane (TMP) and pentaerythritol (PE) to obtain 16 novel base stocks. The base stocks when evaluated for different lubricant properties have shown very low pour points (-30 to -45°C) and broad viscosity ranges 20.27 cSt to 370.73 cSt, higher viscosity indices (144-171), good thermal and oxidative stabilities, and high weld load capacities suitable for multi-range industrial applications such as hydraulic fluids, metal working fluids, gear oil, forging and aviation applications. The study revealed that acylated branched mono- and polyol esters rich in monounsaturation is desirable for developing low pour point base stocks.

  13. Intensification and forecasting of low-pour-point diesel fuel production via modelling reactor and stabilizer column at industrial unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belinskaya, N. S.; Frantsina, E. V.; Ivanchina, E. D.; Popova, N. V.; Zyryanova, I. V.; Averyanova, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    In this work forecast calculation of stabilizer column in the technology of low-pour- point diesel fuel production was modelled. The results of forecast calculation were proved by full-scale experiment at diesel fuel catalytic dewaxing unit. The forecast calculation and full- scale experiment made it possible to determine the ways of mass transfer intensification, as well as to increase the degree of hydrogen sulphide removal in the column, and thereby to decrease corrosiveness of the product stream. It was found out that maintenance of the reflux rate in the range of 80-90 m3/h and injection of additional vapourizing streams, such as stable naphtha from distillation unit (in the volume of 10-22 m3/h) and hydrogen-containing gas (in the volume of 100-300 m3/h), ensure complete elimination of corrosive hydrogen sulphide from the product stream. Reduction of stream corrosive activity due to suggested solutions extends service life of equipment and pipelines at industrial catalytic dewaxing unit.

  14. Evolution of alpha-pinene oxidation products in the presence of varying oxidizers: CI-APi-TOF point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissanen, Matti P.; Jokinen, Tuija; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Praplan, Arnaud P.; Sipilä, Mikko; Sarnela, Nina; Junninen, Heikki; Duplissy, Jonathan; Kangasluoma, Juha; Hakala, Jani; Wimmer, Daniela; Adamov, Alexey; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Nieminen, Tuomo; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Cloud Collaboration

    2013-05-01

    Alpha-pinene oxidation was studied in the CERN CLOUD chamber under near atmospheric conditions using varying levels of different oxidizers (i.e., O3, HOx and NOx with differing gas mixture compositions) in the presence and absence of UV-radiation, SO2 and additional organic traces; ammonia (NH3) and dimethylamine (DMA). The oxidation products and their evolution due to aging in the chamber were studied using a novel CI-APi-TOF technique, with the nitrate ion (NO3-) based chemical ionization (CI) scheme. We aimed to the results that would indicate how different oxidizing pathways lead to different product distributions in the product clusters detected.

  15. Impact of an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery field trial on microbial community structure in a high pour-point oil reservoir.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; She, Yue-Hui; Li, Hua-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Tao; Shu, Fu-Chang; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Yu, Long-Jiang; Hou, Du-Jie

    2012-08-01

    Based on preliminary investigation of microbial populations in a high pour-point oil reservoir, an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) field trial was carried out. The purpose of the study is to reveal the impact of the indigenous MEOR process on microbial community structure in the oil reservoir using 16Sr DNA clone library technique. The detailed monitoring results showed significant response of microbial communities during the field trial and large discrepancies of stimulated microorganisms in the laboratory and in the natural oil reservoir. More specifically, after nutrients injection, the original dominant populations of Petrobacter and Alishewanella in the production wells almost disappeared. The expected desirable population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, determined by enrichment experiments in laboratory, was stimulated successfully in two wells of the five monitored wells. Unexpectedly, another potential population of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes which were not detected in the enrichment culture in laboratory was stimulated in the other three monitored production wells. In this study, monitoring of microbial community displayed a comprehensive alteration of microbial populations during the field trial to remedy the deficiency of culture-dependent monitoring methods. The results would help to develop and apply more MEOR processes.

  16. API Global Sourcing Strategies 2010.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Shannon

    2010-09-01

    The API Global Sourcing Strategies 2010 Conference, held in Berlin, included topics covering new developments in the field of global sourcing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). This conference report highlights selected presentations on development in Eastern API markets, specifically India and China, factors influencing changes in global API sourcing, and risk mitigation in API sourcing.

  17. The Utilization of Advanced Composites in Military Aircraft Held in San Diego, California on 7-11 October 1991 (L’Emploi des Materiaux Composites de Pointe pour les Avions Militaires)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    NS208) thdorie do I& diffusion do Fick . De nombreuses publications HR consne dan6o - 1.9%(914) existent sur Ito sujot. avec: pour point do d~part los...dictated by gaseous diffusion requirements during fibre production. TEST METHODS Non-circular fibres, such as trilobal cross-se-tions. offer...1.875as //o o•9oos;o; .8715 Environment 96*1 RH 60"Cg4 0 2 3 6 /t/t/ (days 7m’mm) Effet of laT-up on diffusion behnviOur Figure 3 Water Content (wt

  18. EPA Envirofacts API

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Envirofacts integrates information from a variety of EPA's environmental databases. Each of these databases contains information about facilities that are required to report activity to a state or federal system. Using this API, you can retrieve informati

  19. EPA Envirofacts API

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Envirofacts integrates information from a variety of EPA's environmental databases. Each of these databases contains information about facilities that are required to report activity to a state or federal system. Using this API, you can retrieve informati

  20. Mise au point du rheometre a cisaillement annulaire pour l'etude de rheologie d'un mastic bitumineux avec verre incorpore =

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mansouri, Souleimane

    Dans le domaine viscoelastique lineaire (VEL, domaine des petites deformations), le comportement thermomecanique du bitume et du mastic bitumineux (melange uniforme de bitume et de fillers) a ete caracterise au Laboratoire des Chaussees et Materiaux Bitumineux (LCMB) de l'Ecole de technologie superieure (ETS) avec l'appui de nos partenaires externes : la Societe des Alcools du Quebec (SAQ) et Eco Entreprises Quebec (EEQ). Les proprietes rheologiques des bitumes et des mastics ont ete mesurees grâce a un nouvel outil d'investigation appele, Rheometre a Cisaillement Annulaire (RCA), sous differentes conditions de chargement. Cet appareil permet non seulement de solliciter des eprouvettes de tailles importantes par rapport a celles utilisees lors des essais classiques, mais aussi d'effectuer des essais en conditions quasi-homogenes, ce qui permet de donner acces a la loi de comportement des materiaux. Les essais sont realises sur une large gamme de temperatures et de frequences (de -15 °C a 45°C et de 0,03Hz a 10 Hz). Cette etude a ete menee principalement pour comparer le comportement d'un bitume avec celui d'un mastic bitumineux dans le domaine des petites deformations. neanmoins, dans une seconde perspective, on s'interesse a l'influence des fillers de verre de post-consommation sur le comportement d'un mastic a faibles niveaux de deformations en comparant l'evolution des modules complexes de cisaillements (G*) d'un mastic avec fillers de verre et un mastic avec fillers conventionnels (calcaire). Enfin, le modele analogique 2S2P1D est utilise pour simuler le comportement viscoelastique lineaire des bitumes et des mastics bitumineux testes lors de la campagne experimentale.

  1. Associated particle imaging (API)

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    Associated Particle Imaging (API) is an active neutron probe technique that provides a 3-D image with elemental composition of the material under interrogation, and so occupies a unique niche in the interrogation of unknown objects. The highly penetrating nature of neutrons enables API to provide detailed information about targets of interest that are hidden from view. Due to the isotropic nature of the induced reactions, radiation detectors can be set on the same side of the object as the neutron source, so that the object can be interrogated from a single side. At the heat of the system is a small generator that produces a continuous, monoenergetic flux of neutrons. By measuring the trajectory of coincident alpha particles that are produced as part of the process, the trajectory of the neutron can be inferred. Interactions between a neutron and the material in its path often produce a gamma ray whose energy is characteristic of that material. When the gamma ray is detected, its energy is measured and combined with the trajectory information to produce a 3-D image of the composition of the object being interrogated. During the course of API development, a number of improvements have been made. A new, more rugged sealed Tube Neutron Generator (STNG) has been designed and fabricated that is less susceptible to radiation damage and better able to withstand the rigors of fielding than earlier designs. A specialized high-voltage power supply for the STNG has also been designed and built. A complete package of software has been written for the tasks of system calibration, diagnostics and data acquisition and analysis. A portable system has been built and field tested, proving that API can be taken out of the lab and into real-world situations, and that its performance in the field is equal to that in the lab.

  2. Evidence of Apis cerana sacbrood virus infection in Apis mellifera

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sacbrood virus (SBV) is one of the most serious threats to Apis cerana but is much less destructive to Apis mellifera. In previous studies, SBV isolates infecting A. cerana and A. mellifera were identified as different serotypes, suggesting a species-barrier of SBV infection. In order to clarify whe...

  3. Search without Boundaries Using Simple APIs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tong, Qi

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Library, where the author serves as the digital services librarian, is increasingly challenged to make it easier for users to find information from many heterogeneous information sources. Information is scattered throughout different software applications (i.e., library catalog, federated search engine, link resolver, and vendor websites), and each specializes in one thing. How could the library integrate the functionalities of one application with another and provide a single point of entry for users to search across? To improve the user experience, the library launched an effort to integrate the federated search engine into the library's intranet website. The result is a simple search box that leverages the federated search engine's built-in application programming interfaces (APIs). In this article, the author describes how this project demonstrated the power of APIs and their potential to be used by other enterprise search portals inside or outside of the library.

  4. Databrowser API for MCL

    SciTech Connect

    Spires, S.

    2004-07-01

    This code provides an application programming interface to the Macintosh OSX Carbon Databrowser from Macintosh Common Lisp. The Databrowser API is made available to Lisp via high level native CLOS classes and methods, obviating the need to write low-level Carbon code. This code is primarily ‘glue’ in that its job is to provide an interface between two extant software tools: Macintosh Common Lisp and the OSX Databrowser, both of which are COTS products from private vendors. The Databrowser is an extremely useful user interface widget that is provided with Apple’s OSX (and to some extent, OS9) operating systems. One Apple-sanctioned method for using the Databrowser is via an API called Carbon, which is designed for C and C++ programmers. We have translated the low-level Carbon programming interface to the Databrowser into high-level object-oriented Common Lisp calls, functions, methods. and classes to enable MCL programmers to more readily take advantage of the Databrowser from Lisp programs.

  5. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon northwest cell: poured ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon northwest cell: poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, exposed brick wall, vaulted veiling; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  6. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon central hallway: poured ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon central hallway: poured concrete floors, plaster-finished brick walls, vaulted ceiling, arch entryway to cells; southerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  7. QMP: LQCD Message Passing API

    SciTech Connect

    Jie Chen; Robert Edwards; William Watson

    2003-03-01

    Recent changes are: (1) There is no longer a logical node number, only a node number which does not change as the logical machine is define. Thus there are two styles of messaging: messages are sent to a node by node number, or messages are sent to a relative (logical) node. (2) Methods related to node numbers have been changed (some dropped, some added). This note presents: (1) the requirements for message passing within Lattice QCD applications; (2) a draft message API for both C and C++; and (3) implementation design ideas. The API is intended to be sufficiently flexible to be used by all Lattice QCD applications, and execute efficiently on all existing and anticipated platforms, so that there is no need to directly call non-portable message passing routines. Because of the highly regular grid communications with LQCD, MPI calls (which are more general) impose some additional overhead that is predicted to be non-negligible for large machines. Depending upon demand, a subset of MPI could be implemented above this new API so that legacy codes which use MPI could function on the new architectures which implement (only) the new API. Further, the new API has been implemented atop MPI so that new applications using this new API can still be run on older machines for which only MPI is available. Interspersed with the API description are some descriptions for how the API could be implemented for myrinet clusters and the QCDOC machine. These are meant to more fully illustrate the functionality, and are not intended as the final design. At the time of writing, the following implementations exist: (1) QMP-GM -- Uses GM; (2) QMP-MPI -- Uses MPI; tested above MPICH-GM, MPICH-SM (shared memory), and MPICH-P4 (sockets).

  8. New APIs for mobile graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulli, Kari

    2006-02-01

    Progress in mobile graphics technology during the last five years has been swift, and it has followed a similar path as on PCs: early proprietary software engines running on integer hardware paved the way to standards that provide a roadmap for graphics hardware acceleration. In this overview we cover five recent standards for 3D and 2D vector graphics for mobile devices. OpenGL ES is a low-level API for 3D graphics, meant for applications written in C or C++. M3G (JSR 184) is a high-level 3D API for mobile Java that can be implemented on top of OpenGL ES. Collada is a content interchange format and API that allows combining digital content creation tools and exporting the results to different run-time systems, including OpenGL ES and M3G. Two new 2D vector graphics APIs reflect the relations of OpenGL ES and M3G: OpenVG is a low-level API for C/C++ that can be used as a building block for a high-level mobile Java API JSR 226.

  9. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régipa, R.

    A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.

  10. The Web as an API.

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, J. H.

    2001-01-01

    As programmers we have worked with many Application Development Interface API development kits. They are well suited for interaction with a particular system. A vast source of information can be made accessible by using the http protocol through the web as an API. This setup has many advantages including the vast knowledge available on setting web servers and services. Also, these tools are available on most hardware and operating system combinations. In this paper I will cover the various types of systems that can be developed this way, their advantages and some drawbacks of this approach. Index Terms--Application Programmer Interface, Distributed applications, Hyper Text Transfer Protocol, Web.

  11. VIEW POURING PLATFORM SHOWING MOLD POURING JACKETS AND WEIGHTS AND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW POURING PLATFORM SHOWING MOLD POURING JACKETS AND WEIGHTS AND, IN THE FOREGROUND, SAND RETURN FROM THE SHAKEOUT ACTUATING A SIMPLE LEVER SYSTEM THAT ADDED FRESH WATER TO THE SAND IN PREPARATION FOR ITS REUSE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Centerville Foundry, 101 Airport Road, Centreville, Bibb County, AL

  12. Magnetic Material Arrangement In Apis Mellifera Abdomens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP014406 TITLE: Magnetic Material Arrangement In Apis Mellifera Abdomens...Magnetic Material Arrangement In Apis Mellifera Abdomens Darci M. S. Esquivel, Eliane Wajnberg, Geraldo R. Cernicchiaro, Daniel Acosta-Avalos’ and B.E...transition (52 K- 91 K). Hysteresis curves of Apis mellifera abdomens organized parallel and perpendicular to the applied magnetic field were obtained

  13. Investigation of waste glass pouring behavior over a knife edge

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The development of vitrification technology for converting radioactive waste into a glass solid began in the early 1960s. Some problems encountered in the vitrification process are still waiting for a solution. One of them is wicking. During pouring, the glass stream flows down the wall of the pour spout until it reaches an angled cut in the wall. At this point, the stream is supposed to break cleanly away from the wall of the pour spout and fall freely into the canister. However, the glass stream is often pulled toward the wall and does not always fall into the canister, a phenomenon known as wicking. Phase 1 involves the assembly, construction, and testing of a melter capable of supplying molten glass at operational flow rates over a break-off point knife edge. Phase 2 will evaluate the effects of glass and pour spout temperatures as well as glass flow rates on the glass flow behavior over the knife edge. Phase 3 will identify the effects on wicking resulting from varying the knife edge diameter and height as well as changing the back-cut angle of the knife edge. The following tasks were completed in FY97: Design the experimental system for glass melting and pouring; Acquire and assemble the melter system; and Perform initial research work.

  14. Evidence of Apis cerana Sacbrood virus Infection in Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Hong-Ri; Chen, Xiu-Xian; Chen, Yan Ping; Hu, Fu-Liang; Zhang, Jiang-Lin; Lin, Zhe-Guang; Yu, Ji-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Sacbrood virus (SBV) is one of the most destructive viruses in the Asian honeybee Apis cerana but is much less destructive in Apis mellifera. In previous studies, SBV isolates infecting A. cerana (AcSBV) and SBV isolates infecting A. mellifera (AmSBV) were identified as different serotypes, suggesting a species barrier in SBV infection. In order to investigate this species isolation, we examined the presence of SBV infection in 318 A. mellifera colonies and 64 A. cerana colonies, and we identified the genotypes of SBV isolates. We also performed artificial infection experiments under both laboratory and field conditions. The results showed that 38 A. mellifera colonies and 37 A. cerana colonies were positive for SBV infection. Phylogenetic analysis based on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences indicated that A. cerana isolates and most A. mellifera isolates formed two distinct clades but two strains isolated from A. mellifera were clustered with the A. cerana isolates. In the artificial-infection experiments, AcSBV negative-strand RNA could be detected in both adult bees and larvae of A. mellifera, although there were no obvious signs of the disease, demonstrating the replication of AcSBV in A. mellifera. Our results suggest that AcSBV is able to infect A. mellifera colonies with low prevalence (0.63% in this study) and pathogenicity. This work will help explain the different susceptibilities of A. cerana and A. mellifera to sacbrood disease and is potentially useful for guiding beekeeping practices. PMID:26801569

  15. Understanding the effect of API properties on bioavailability through absorption modeling.

    PubMed

    Kesisoglou, Filippos; Wu, Yunhui

    2008-12-01

    Selection of API phase is one of the first decision points in the formulation development process. Subsequent to phase selection, the focus shifts to the API physical properties such as particle size. Oftentimes, such properties are closely monitored throughout the drug development, as they can have a direct impact on the formulation bioperformance. The purpose of this mini-review was to describe the potential for application of absorption modeling in understanding the effect of API properties on bioavailability. Examples are provided to demonstrate how absorption modeling can be applied both early on to set the formulation strategy as well as during the development process to help with setting of specifications around the API. Limitations of the existing models and areas of possible expansion of such tools are also discussed.

  16. API Requirements for Dynamic Graph Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, B; Eliassi-Rad, T

    2006-10-13

    Given a large-scale time-evolving multi-modal and multi-relational complex network (a.k.a., a large-scale dynamic semantic graph), we want to implement algorithms that discover patterns of activities on the graph and learn predictive models of those discovered patterns. This document outlines the application programming interface (API) requirements for fast prototyping of feature extraction, learning, and prediction algorithms on large dynamic semantic graphs. Since our algorithms must operate on large-scale dynamic semantic graphs, we have chosen to use the graph API developed in the CASC Complex Networks Project. This API is supported on the back end by a semantic graph database (developed by Scott Kohn and his team). The advantages of using this API are (i) we have full-control of its development and (ii) the current API meets almost all of the requirements outlined in this document.

  17. Evidence of Apis cerana Sacbrood virus Infection in Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hong-Ri; Chen, Xiu-Xian; Chen, Yan Ping; Hu, Fu-Liang; Zhang, Jiang-Lin; Lin, Zhe-Guang; Yu, Ji-Wei; Zheng, Huo-Qing

    2016-04-01

    Sacbrood virus(SBV) is one of the most destructive viruses in the Asian honeybee Apis cerana but is much less destructive in Apis mellifera In previous studies, SBV isolates infecting A. cerana(AcSBV) and SBV isolates infecting A. mellifera(AmSBV) were identified as different serotypes, suggesting a species barrier in SBV infection. In order to investigate this species isolation, we examined the presence of SBV infection in 318A. mellifera colonies and 64A. cerana colonies, and we identified the genotypes of SBV isolates. We also performed artificial infection experiments under both laboratory and field conditions. The results showed that 38A. mellifera colonies and 37A. cerana colonies were positive for SBV infection. Phylogenetic analysis based on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences indicated that A. cerana isolates and most A. mellifera isolates formed two distinct clades but two strains isolated fromA. mellifera were clustered with theA. cerana isolates. In the artificial-infection experiments, AcSBV negative-strand RNA could be detected in both adult bees and larvae ofA. mellifera, although there were no obvious signs of the disease, demonstrating the replication of AcSBV inA. mellifera Our results suggest that AcSBV is able to infectA. melliferacolonies with low prevalence (0.63% in this study) and pathogenicity. This work will help explain the different susceptibilities ofA. cerana and A. melliferato sacbrood disease and is potentially useful for guiding beekeeping practices. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Hot-Stage Microscopy for Determination of API Particles in a Formulated Tablet

    PubMed Central

    Šimek, Michal; Grünwaldová, Veronika; Kratochvíl, Bohumil

    2014-01-01

    Although methods exist to readily determine the particle size distribution (PSD) of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) before its formulation into a final product, the primary challenge is to develop a method to determine the PSD of APIs in a finished tablet. To address the limitations of existing PSD methods, we used hot-stage microscopy to observe tablet disintegration during temperature change and, thus, reveal the API particles in a tablet. Both mechanical and liquid disintegration were evaluated after we had identified optimum milling time for mechanical disintegration and optimum volume of water for liquid disintegration. In each case, hot-stage micrographs, taken before and after the API melting point, were compared with image analysis software to obtain the PSDs. Then, the PSDs of the APIs from the disintegrated tablets were compared with the PSDs of raw APIs. Good agreement was obtained, thereby confirming the robustness of our methodology. The availability of such a method equips pharmaceutical scientists with an in vitro assessment method that will more reliably determine the PSD of active substances in finished tablets. PMID:25136629

  19. A RESTful API for Accessing Microbial Community Data for MG-RAST

    PubMed Central

    Wilke, Andreas; Bischof, Jared; Harrison, Travis; Brettin, Tom; D'Souza, Mark; Gerlach, Wolfgang; Matthews, Hunter; Paczian, Tobias; Wilkening, Jared; Glass, Elizabeth M.; Desai, Narayan; Meyer, Folker

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomic sequencing has produced significant amounts of data in recent years. For example, as of summer 2013, MG-RAST has been used to annotate over 110,000 data sets totaling over 43 Terabases. With metagenomic sequencing finding even wider adoption in the scientific community, the existing web-based analysis tools and infrastructure in MG-RAST provide limited capability for data retrieval and analysis, such as comparative analysis between multiple data sets. Moreover, although the system provides many analysis tools, it is not comprehensive. By opening MG-RAST up via a web services API (application programmers interface) we have greatly expanded access to MG-RAST data, as well as provided a mechanism for the use of third-party analysis tools with MG-RAST data. This RESTful API makes all data and data objects created by the MG-RAST pipeline accessible as JSON objects. As part of the DOE Systems Biology Knowledgebase project (KBase, http://kbase.us) we have implemented a web services API for MG-RAST. This API complements the existing MG-RAST web interface and constitutes the basis of KBase's microbial community capabilities. In addition, the API exposes a comprehensive collection of data to programmers. This API, which uses a RESTful (Representational State Transfer) implementation, is compatible with most programming environments and should be easy to use for end users and third parties. It provides comprehensive access to sequence data, quality control results, annotations, and many other data types. Where feasible, we have used standards to expose data and metadata. Code examples are provided in a number of languages both to show the versatility of the API and to provide a starting point for users. We present an API that exposes the data in MG-RAST for consumption by our users, greatly enhancing the utility of the MG-RAST service. PMID:25569221

  20. A RESTful API for accessing microbial community data for MG-RAST

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, Andreas; Bischof, Jared; Harrison, Travis; Brettin, Tom; D'Souza, Mark; Gerlach, Wolfgang; Matthews, Hunter; Paczian, Tobias; Wilkening, Jared; Glass, Elizabeth M.; Desai, Narayan; Meyer, Folker; Gardner, Paul P.

    2015-01-08

    Metagenomic sequencing has produced significant amounts of data in recent years. For example, as of summer 2013, MGRAST has been used to annotate over 110,000 data sets totaling over 43 Terabases. With metagenomic sequencing finding even wider adoption in the scientific community, the existing web-based analysis tools and infrastructure in MG-RAST provide limited capability for data retrieval and analysis, such as comparative analysis between multiple data sets. Moreover, although the system provides many analysis tools, it is not comprehensive. By opening MG-RAST up via a web services API (application programmers interface) we have greatly expanded access to MG-RAST data, as well as provided a mechanism for the use of third-party analysis tools with MG-RAST data. This RESTful API makes all data and data objects created by the MG-RAST pipeline accessible as JSON objects. As part of the DOE Systems Biology Knowledgebase project (KBase, http:// kbase.us) we have implemented a web services API for MG-RAST. This API complements the existing MG-RAST web interface and constitutes the basis of KBase’s microbial community capabilities. In addition, the API exposes a comprehensive collection of data to programmers. This API, which uses a RESTful (Representational State Transfer) implementation, is compatible with most programming environments and should be easy to use for end users and third parties. It provides comprehensive access to sequence data, quality control results, annotations, and many other data types. Where feasible, we have used standards to expose data and metadata. Code examples are provided in a number of languages both to show the versatility of the API and to provide a starting point for users. We present an API that exposes the data in MG-RAST for consumption by our users, greatly enhancing the utility of the MG-RAST service.

  1. A RESTful API for accessing microbial community data for MG-RAST

    DOE PAGES

    Wilke, Andreas; Bischof, Jared; Harrison, Travis; ...

    2015-01-08

    Metagenomic sequencing has produced significant amounts of data in recent years. For example, as of summer 2013, MGRAST has been used to annotate over 110,000 data sets totaling over 43 Terabases. With metagenomic sequencing finding even wider adoption in the scientific community, the existing web-based analysis tools and infrastructure in MG-RAST provide limited capability for data retrieval and analysis, such as comparative analysis between multiple data sets. Moreover, although the system provides many analysis tools, it is not comprehensive. By opening MG-RAST up via a web services API (application programmers interface) we have greatly expanded access to MG-RAST data, asmore » well as provided a mechanism for the use of third-party analysis tools with MG-RAST data. This RESTful API makes all data and data objects created by the MG-RAST pipeline accessible as JSON objects. As part of the DOE Systems Biology Knowledgebase project (KBase, http:// kbase.us) we have implemented a web services API for MG-RAST. This API complements the existing MG-RAST web interface and constitutes the basis of KBase’s microbial community capabilities. In addition, the API exposes a comprehensive collection of data to programmers. This API, which uses a RESTful (Representational State Transfer) implementation, is compatible with most programming environments and should be easy to use for end users and third parties. It provides comprehensive access to sequence data, quality control results, annotations, and many other data types. Where feasible, we have used standards to expose data and metadata. Code examples are provided in a number of languages both to show the versatility of the API and to provide a starting point for users. We present an API that exposes the data in MG-RAST for consumption by our users, greatly enhancing the utility of the MG-RAST service.« less

  2. When It Rains, It Pours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Linda

    2012-01-01

    "It's raining, it's pouring, the old man is snoring!" "The itsy, bitsy spider crawled up the waterspout, down came the rain and washed the spider out. Out came the sun and dried up all the rain, and the itsy, bitsy spider went up the spout again." What do children's nursery rhymes have to do with the school library? The author begins by telling a…

  3. When It Rains, It Pours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Linda

    2012-01-01

    "It's raining, it's pouring, the old man is snoring!" "The itsy, bitsy spider crawled up the waterspout, down came the rain and washed the spider out. Out came the sun and dried up all the rain, and the itsy, bitsy spider went up the spout again." What do children's nursery rhymes have to do with the school library? The author begins by telling a…

  4. Pump seal standard API 682 has deficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, K.R.

    1997-08-01

    Struggling to meet ever-tightening, stringent emission regulations, hydrocarbon processing plants are evaluating all possible alternatives that can cut or eliminate fugitive releases. Nearly 70% of centrifugal pump maintenance is due to mechanical seal failures, a leading contributor to fugitive emissions. The new standard--API 682 was developed exclusively to set guidelines that dictate mechanical seal performance and specifications. API 682`s goal: define centrifugal pump seal-sealing systems performance and design criteria that will improve reliability, increase pump-seal service life and help control VOC emissions. The article reviews the pros and cons for API 682 from the pump-user`s viewpoint.

  5. The JANA calibrations and conditions database API

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, David

    2010-04-01

    Calibrations and conditions databases can be accessed from within the JANA Event Processing framework through the API defined in its JCalibration base class. The API is designed to support everything from databases, to web services to flat files for the backend. A Web Service backend using the gSOAP toolkit has been implemented which is particularly interesting since it addresses many modern cybersecurity issues including support for SSL. The API allows constants to be retrieved through a single line of C++ code with most of the context, including the transport mechanism, being implied by the run currently being analyzed and the environment relieving developers from implementing such details.

  6. Internet SCADA Utilizing API's as Data Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Rosslin John; Kim, Haeng-Kon; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    An Application programming interface or API is an interface implemented by a software program that enables it to interact with other software. Many companies provide free API services which can be utilized in Control Systems. SCADA is an example of a control system and it is a system that collects data from various sensors at a factory, plant or in other remote locations and then sends this data to a central computer which then manages and controls the data. In this paper, we designed a scheme for Weather Condition in Internet SCADA Environment utilizing data from external API services. The scheme was designed to double check the weather information in SCADA.

  7. The JANA Calibrations and Conditions Database API

    SciTech Connect

    David Lawrence

    2010-07-01

    Calibrations and conditions databases can be accessed from within the JANA Event Processing framework through the API defined in its JCalibration base class. The API is designed to support everything from databases, to web services to flat files for the backend. A Web Service backend using the gSOAP toolkit has been implemented which is particularly interesting since it addresses many modern cybersecurity issues including support for SSL. The API allows constants to be retrieved through a single line of C++ code with most of the context, including the transport mechanism, being implied by the run currently being analyzed and the environment relieving developers from implementing such details.

  8. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-02-23

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian monofloral honey samples-acacia, pineapple and borneo honey-and compare them with tualang honey. Acacia and pineapple honey are produced by Apis mellifera bees while borneo and tualang honey are produced by Apis cerana and Apis dorsata bees, respectively. The physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and apparent sucrose content, were measured. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography, and a number of biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. Acacia honey was the most acidic (pH 3.53), whereas pineapple honey had the lowest moisture content (14.86%), indicating that both types of honey can resist microbial spoilage more effectively when compared to tualang honey (pH 3.80 and 17.53% moisture content). Acacia honey contained the highest EC (0.76 mS/cm), whereas borneo honey had the highest (377 ppm) TDS. The mean HMF content in Malaysian honey was 35.98 mg/kg. Tualang honey, which is amber color, had the highest color intensity (544.33 mAU). Acacia honey is the sweetest, and contained the highest concentration of total sugar, reducing sugar and apparent sucrose. Tualang honey had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (352.73 ± 0.81 mg galic acid/kg), flavonoids (65.65 ± 0.74 mg catechin/kg), DPPH (59.89%), FRAP values (576.91 ± 0.64 μM Fe (II)/100 g) and protein content (4.83 ± 0.02 g/kg) as well as the lowest AEAC values (244.10 ± 5.24 mg/kg), indicating its strong antioxidant properties. Proline, an important amino acid that is present in honey was also measured in the present study and it was found at the highest concentration in pineapple honey. Several strong correlations were found among the biochemical and antioxidant

  9. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian monofloral honey samples—acacia, pineapple and borneo honey—and compare them with tualang honey. Acacia and pineapple honey are produced by Apis mellifera bees while borneo and tualang honey are produced by Apis cerana and Apis dorsata bees, respectively. Methods The physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and apparent sucrose content, were measured. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography, and a number of biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. Results Acacia honey was the most acidic (pH 3.53), whereas pineapple honey had the lowest moisture content (14.86%), indicating that both types of honey can resist microbial spoilage more effectively when compared to tualang honey (pH 3.80 and 17.53% moisture content). Acacia honey contained the highest EC (0.76 mS/cm), whereas borneo honey had the highest (377 ppm) TDS. The mean HMF content in Malaysian honey was 35.98 mg/kg. Tualang honey, which is amber color, had the highest color intensity (544.33 mAU). Acacia honey is the sweetest, and contained the highest concentration of total sugar, reducing sugar and apparent sucrose. Tualang honey had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (352.73 ± 0.81 mg galic acid/kg), flavonoids (65.65 ± 0.74 mg catechin/kg), DPPH (59.89%), FRAP values (576.91 ± 0.64 μM Fe (II)/100 g) and protein content (4.83 ± 0.02 g/kg) as well as the lowest AEAC values (244.10 ± 5.24 mg/kg), indicating its strong antioxidant properties. Proline, an important amino acid that is present in honey was also measured in the present study and it was found at the highest concentration in pineapple honey. Several strong correlations were found among the

  10. Transcriptome differences in the hypopharyngeal gland between Western Honeybees (Apis mellifera) and Eastern Honeybees (Apis cerana).

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Wang, Zi-Long; Tian, Liu-Qing; Qin, Qiu-Hong; Wu, Xiao-Bo; Yan, Wei-Yu; Zeng, Zhi-Jiang

    2014-08-30

    Apis mellifera and Apis cerana are two sibling species of Apidae. Apis cerana is adept at collecting sporadic nectar in mountain and forest region and exhibits stiffer hardiness and acarid resistance as a result of natural selection, whereas Apis mellifera has the advantage of producing royal jelly. To identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that affect the development of hypopharyngeal gland (HG) and/or the secretion of royal jelly between these two honeybee species, we performed a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis of the HGs of these two species at three developmental stages (newly emerged worker, nurse and forager). Twelve DGE-tag libraries were constructed and sequenced using the total RNA extracted from the HGs of newly emerged workers, nurses, and foragers of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana. Finally, a total of 1482 genes in Apis mellifera and 1313 in Apis cerana were found to exhibit an expression difference among the three developmental stages. A total of 1417 DEGs were identified between these two species. Of these, 623, 1072, and 462 genes showed an expression difference at the newly emerged worker, nurse, and forager stages, respectively. The nurse stage exhibited the highest number of DEGs between these two species and most of these were found to be up-regulated in Apis mellifera. These results suggest that the higher yield of royal jelly in Apis mellifera may be due to the higher expression level of these DEGs. In this study, we investigated the DEGs between the HGs of two sibling honeybee species (Apis mellifera and Apis cerana). Our results indicated that the gene expression difference was associated with the difference in the royal jelly yield between these two species. These results provide an important clue for clarifying the mechanisms underlying hypopharyngeal gland development and the production of royal jelly.

  11. Honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) drone embryo proteomes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianke; Fang, Yu; Zhang, Lan; Begna, Desalegn

    2011-03-01

    Little attention has been paid to the drone honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) which is a haploid individual carrying only the set of alleles that it inherits from its mother. Molecular mechanisms underlying drone embryogenesis are poorly understood. This study evaluated protein expression profiles of drone embryogenesis at embryonic ages of 24, 48 and 72h. More than 100 reproducible proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry on 2D electrophoresis gels. Sixty-two proteins were significantly changed at the selected three experimental age points. Expression of the metabolic energy requirement-related protein peaked at the embryonic age of 48h, whereas development and metabolizing amino acid-related proteins expressed optimally at 72h. Cytoskeleton, protein folding and antioxidant-related proteins were highly expressed at 48 and 72h. Protein networks of the identified proteins were constructed and protein expressions were validated at the transcription level. This first proteomic study of drone embryogenesis in the honeybee may provide geneticists an exact timetable and candidate protein outline for further manipulations of drone stem cells.

  12. Real World Uses For Nagios APIs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Janice

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes the Nagios 4 APIs and how the NASA Advanced Supercomputing at Ames Research Center is employing them to upgrade its graphical status display (the HUD) and explain why it's worth trying to use them yourselves.

  13. The putative serine protease inhibitor Api m 6 from Apis mellifera venom: recombinant and structural evaluation.

    PubMed

    Michel, Y; McIntyre, M; Ginglinger, H; Ollert, M; Cifuentes, L; Blank, S; Spillner, E

    2012-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated reactions to honeybee venom can cause severe anaphylaxis, sometimes with fatal consequences. Detailed knowledge of the allergic potential of all venom components is necessary to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment of allergy and to gain a better understanding of the allergological mechanisms of insect venoms. Our objective was to undertake an immunochemical and structural evaluation of the putative low-molecular-weight serine protease inhibitor Api m 6, a component of honeybee venom. We recombinantly produced Api m 6 as a soluble protein in Escherichia coli and in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells.We also assessed specific IgE reactivity of venom-sensitized patients with 2 prokaryotically produced Api m 6 variants using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, we built a structural model ofApi m 6 and compared it with other protease inhibitor structures to gain insights into the function of Api m 6. In a population of 31 honeybee venom-allergic patients, 26% showed specific IgE reactivity with prokaryotically produced Api m 6, showing it to be a minor but relevant allergen. Molecular modeling of Api m 6 revealed a typical fold of canonical protease inhibitors, supporting the putative function of this venom allergen. Although Api m 6 has a highly variant surface charge, its epitope distribution appears to be similar to that of related proteins. Api m 6 is a honeybee venom component with IgE-sensitizing potential in a fraction of venom-allergic patients. Recombinant Api m 6 can help elucidate individual component-resolved reactivity profiles and increase our understanding of immune responses to low-molecular-weight allergens

  14. Mode-bifurcation upon pouring water into a cup that depends on the shape of the cup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Satoshi; Yamada, Akiko; Kitahata, Hiroyuki

    2005-05-01

    Mode-bifurcation that included hysteresis was investigated when water was poured into a cup via a water faucet. Three modes, i.e., accumulation flow (mode I), scattering flow (mode II), and open and shut oscillatory flow (mode III), could be produced by laterally changing the distance between the center of the cup and the landing point of water poured at a constant flow rate. Hysteresis in mode-bifurcation was observed when the distance was changed depending on the initial location of the water poured into the cup. Pendulum flow was also observed when water was poured into a shallow cell. The essential features of this mode-switching were reproduced by a numerical calculation as a function of the landing point of the poured water using two-variable (the size of the water hollow and the pressure on the water surface) differential equations that included the nature of reversed flow.

  15. CALIBRATION, OPTIMIZATION, AND SENSITIVITY AND UNCERTAINTY ALGORITHMS APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE (COSU-API)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Application Programming Interface (API) for Uncertainty Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis, and Parameter Estimation (UA/SA/PE API) tool development, here fore referred to as the Calibration, Optimization, and Sensitivity and Uncertainty Algorithms API (COSU-API), was initially d...

  16. CALIBRATION, OPTIMIZATION, AND SENSITIVITY AND UNCERTAINTY ALGORITHMS APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE (COSU-API)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Application Programming Interface (API) for Uncertainty Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis, and Parameter Estimation (UA/SA/PE API) tool development, here fore referred to as the Calibration, Optimization, and Sensitivity and Uncertainty Algorithms API (COSU-API), was initially d...

  17. Comparative virulence and competition between Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Milbrath, Meghan O; van Tran, Toan; Huang, Wei-Fong; Solter, Leellen F; Tarpy, David R; Lawrence, Frank; Huang, Zachary Y

    2015-02-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are infected by two species of microsporidia: Nosema apis and Nosemaceranae. Epidemiological evidence indicates that N. ceranae may be replacing N. apis globally in A. mellifera populations, suggesting a potential competitive advantage of N. ceranae. Mixed infections of the two species occur, and little is known about the interactions among the host and the two pathogens that have allowed N. ceranae to become dominant in most geographical areas. We demonstrated that mixed Nosema species infections negatively affected honey bee survival (median survival=15-17days) more than single species infections (median survival=21days and 20days for N. apis and N. ceranae, respectively), with median survival of control bees of 27days. We found similar rates of infection (percentage of bees with active infections after inoculation) for both species in mixed infections, with N. apis having a slightly higher rate (91% compared to 86% for N. ceranae). We observed slightly higher spore counts in bees infected with N. ceranae than in bees infected with N. apis in single microsporidia infections, especially at the midpoint of infection (day 10). Bees with mixed infections of both species had higher spore counts than bees with single infections, but spore counts in mixed infections were highly variable. We did not see a competitive advantage for N. ceranae in mixed infections; N. apis spore counts were either higher or counts were similar for both species and more N. apis spores were produced in 62% of bees inoculated with equal dosages of the two microsporidian species. N. ceranae does not, therefore, appear to have a strong within-host advantage for either infectivity or spore growth, suggesting that direct competition in these worker bee mid-guts is not responsible for its apparent replacement of N. apis.

  18. PedVizApi: a Java API for the interactive, visual analysis of extended pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Fuchsberger, Christian; Falchi, Mario; Forer, Lukas; Pramstaller, Peter P

    2008-01-15

    PedVizApi is a Java API (application program interface) for the visual analysis of large and complex pedigrees. It provides all the necessary functionality for the interactive exploration of extended genealogies. While available packages are mostly focused on a static representation or cannot be added to an existing application, PedVizApi is a highly flexible open source library for the efficient construction of visual-based applications for the analysis of family data. An extensive demo application and a R interface is provided. http://www.pedvizapi.org

  19. Hemolymph proteome changes during worker brood development match the biological divergences between western honey bees (Apis mellifera) and eastern honey bees (Apis cerana).

    PubMed

    Feng, Mao; Ramadan, Haitham; Han, Bin; Fang, Yu; Li, Jianke

    2014-07-05

    Hemolymph plays key roles in honey bee molecule transport, immune defense, and in monitoring the physiological condition. There is a lack of knowledge regarding how the proteome achieves these biological missions for both the western and eastern honey bees (Apis mellifera and Apis cerana). A time-resolved proteome was compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics to reveal the mechanistic differences by analysis of hemolymph proteome changes between the worker bees of two bee species during the larval to pupal stages. The brood body weight of Apis mellifera was significantly heavier than that of Apis cerana at each developmental stage. Significantly, different protein expression patterns and metabolic pathways were observed in 74 proteins (166 spots) that were differentially abundant between the two bee species. The function of hemolymph in energy storage, odor communication, and antioxidation is of equal importance for the western and eastern bees, indicated by the enhanced expression of different protein species. However, stronger expression of protein folding, cytoskeletal and developmental proteins, and more highly activated energy producing pathways in western bees suggests that the different bee species have developed unique strategies to match their specific physiology using hemolymph to deliver nutrients and in immune defense. Our disparate findings constitute a proof-of-concept of molecular details that the ecologically shaped different physiological conditions of different bee species match with the hemolymph proteome during the brood stage. This also provides a starting point for future research on the specific hemolymph proteins or pathways related to the differential phenotypes or physiology.

  20. Integrated platform and API for electrophysiological data.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Andrey; Stoewer, Adrian; Leonhardt, Aljoscha; Rautenberg, Philipp L; Kellner, Christian J; Garbers, Christian; Wachtler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancements in technology and methodology have led to growing amounts of increasingly complex neuroscience data recorded from various species, modalities, and levels of study. The rapid data growth has made efficient data access and flexible, machine-readable data annotation a crucial requisite for neuroscientists. Clear and consistent annotation and organization of data is not only an important ingredient for reproducibility of results and re-use of data, but also essential for collaborative research and data sharing. In particular, efficient data management and interoperability requires a unified approach that integrates data and metadata and provides a common way of accessing this information. In this paper we describe GNData, a data management platform for neurophysiological data. GNData provides a storage system based on a data representation that is suitable to organize data and metadata from any electrophysiological experiment, with a functionality exposed via a common application programming interface (API). Data representation and API structure are compatible with existing approaches for data and metadata representation in neurophysiology. The API implementation is based on the Representational State Transfer (REST) pattern, which enables data access integration in software applications and facilitates the development of tools that communicate with the service. Client libraries that interact with the API provide direct data access from computing environments like Matlab or Python, enabling integration of data management into the scientist's experimental or analysis routines.

  1. Integrated platform and API for electrophysiological data

    PubMed Central

    Sobolev, Andrey; Stoewer, Adrian; Leonhardt, Aljoscha; Rautenberg, Philipp L.; Kellner, Christian J.; Garbers, Christian; Wachtler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancements in technology and methodology have led to growing amounts of increasingly complex neuroscience data recorded from various species, modalities, and levels of study. The rapid data growth has made efficient data access and flexible, machine-readable data annotation a crucial requisite for neuroscientists. Clear and consistent annotation and organization of data is not only an important ingredient for reproducibility of results and re-use of data, but also essential for collaborative research and data sharing. In particular, efficient data management and interoperability requires a unified approach that integrates data and metadata and provides a common way of accessing this information. In this paper we describe GNData, a data management platform for neurophysiological data. GNData provides a storage system based on a data representation that is suitable to organize data and metadata from any electrophysiological experiment, with a functionality exposed via a common application programming interface (API). Data representation and API structure are compatible with existing approaches for data and metadata representation in neurophysiology. The API implementation is based on the Representational State Transfer (REST) pattern, which enables data access integration in software applications and facilitates the development of tools that communicate with the service. Client libraries that interact with the API provide direct data access from computing environments like Matlab or Python, enabling integration of data management into the scientist's experimental or analysis routines. PMID:24795616

  2. Open-air-nesting honey bees Apis dorsata and Apis laboriosa differ from the cavity-nesting Apis mellifera and Apis cerana in brood hygiene behaviour.

    PubMed

    Woyke, J; Wilde, J; Reddy, C C

    2004-01-01

    The cavity-nesting Apis mellifera and Apis cerana bees detect, uncap, and remove diseased brood. The hygiene behaviour of open-air-nesting bees Apis dorsata and Apis laboriosa was investigated in India and Nepal. Sealed A. dorsata pupae were pin-killed or deep-frozen. The workers removed 73 or 37% of damaged pin-killed pupae depending on the diameter of the pins, and only 7% of the frozen undamaged pupae. Migrating A. dorsata and A. laboriosa left unopened the sealed brood in deserted combs. Thus, A. dorsata and A. laboriosa do not open undamaged cells with dead brood. This behaviour is a more efficient mechanism in preventing the spread of diseases and parasitic mites than uncapping and removing dead pupae by A. mellifera and A. cerana. It may be beneficial for migrating A. dorsata and A. laboriosa to temporarily disuse part of the comb cells in exchange for arresting the mites there and thus reducing the increase of their population.

  3. Standard methods for Apis mellifera propolis research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Propolis is one of the most fascinating honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) products. It is a plant derived product that bees produce from resins that they collect from different plant organs and with which they mix beeswax. Propolis is a building material and a protective agent in the beehive. It also pl...

  4. The Apis mellifera filamentous virus genome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A complete reference genome of the Apis mellifera Filamentous virus (AmFV) was determined using Illumina Hiseq sequencing. The AmFV genome is a double strand DNA molecule of approximately 498’500 nucleotides with a GC content of 50.8%. It encompasses 251 non overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), e...

  5. Using USNO's API to Obtain Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesniak, Michael V.; Pozniak, Daniel; Punnoose, Tarun

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) is in the process of modernizing its publicly available web services into APIs (Application Programming Interfaces). Services configured as APIs offer greater flexibility to the user and allow greater usage. Depending on the particular service, users who implement our APIs will receive either a PNG (Portable Network Graphics) image or data in JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) format. This raw data can then be embedded in third-party web sites or in apps.Part of the USNO's mission is to provide astronomical and timing data to government agencies and the general public. To this end, the USNO provides accurate computations of astronomical phenomena such as dates of lunar phases, rise and set times of the Moon and Sun, and lunar and solar eclipse times. Users who navigate to our web site and select one of our 18 services are prompted to complete a web form, specifying parameters such as date, time, location, and object. Many of our services work for years between 1700 and 2100, meaning that past, present, and future events can be computed. Upon form submission, our web server processes the request, computes the data, and outputs it to the user.Over recent years, the use of the web by the general public has vastly changed. In response to this, the USNO is modernizing its web-based data services. This includes making our computed data easier to embed within third-party web sites as well as more easily querying from apps running on tablets and smart phones. To facilitate this, the USNO has begun converting its services into APIs. In addition to the existing web forms for the various services, users are able to make direct URL requests that return either an image or numerical data.To date, four of our web services have been configured to run with APIs. Two are image-producing services: "Apparent Disk of a Solar System Object" and "Day and Night Across the Earth." Two API data services are "Complete Sun and Moon Data for One Day" and "Dates

  6. Linked Vocabulary API for the Earth Sciences Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zednik, S.; Fox, P. A.; Fu, L.; West, P.; Ma, X.

    2014-12-01

    The Linked Vocabulary API is a specification for publishing RESTful APIs of vocabularies represented in the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) as Linked Data on the web. This work began as part of the Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Vocabularies (CMSPV) project in response to the need for a standard manner for agencies to publish and consume hierarchical vocabularies on the web. The RESTful architecture of the API provides a simple mechanism for consumption of full vocabularies, single vocabulary terms, related terms, and searches on terms. The Linked Data nature of the API promotes interoperability by exposing vocabulary resources as resolvable URIs that may be referenced from other vocabularies or sources of Linked Data and by allowing the published vocabulary to contain references as links to terms from other vocabularies. The Linked Vocabulary API is formally defined in a Linked Data API specification and may be deployed using standard implementations of the Linked Data API such as the Epimorphics Linked Data API (ELDA). Recent presentations of work done with the Linked Vocabulary API as part of the CMSPV project have resulted in the API receiving growing interest from the broader scientific community. In this contribution we present the Linked Vocabulary API design and deployment process.

  7. Population Genetics of Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae: One Host (Apis mellifera) and Two Different Histories

    PubMed Central

    Maside, Xulio; Gómez-Moracho, Tamara; Jara, Laura; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; De la Rúa, Pilar; Higes, Mariano; Bartolomé, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Two microsporidians are known to infect honey bees: Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. Whereas population genetics data for the latter have been released in the last few years, such information is still missing for N. apis. Here we analyze the patterns of nucleotide polymorphism at three single-copy loci (PTP2, PTP3 and RPB1) in a collection of Apis mellifera isolates from all over the world, naturally infected either with N. apis (N = 22) or N. ceranae (N = 23), to provide new insights into the genetic diversity, demography and evolution of N. apis, as well as to compare them with evidence from N. ceranae. Neutral variation in N. apis and N. ceranae is of the order of 1%. This amount of diversity suggests that there is no substantial differentiation between the genetic content of the two nuclei present in these parasites, and evidence for genetic recombination provides a putative mechanism for the flow of genetic information between chromosomes. The analysis of the frequency spectrum of neutral variants reveals a significant surplus of low frequency variants, particularly in N. ceranae, and suggests that the populations of the two pathogens are not in mutation-drift equilibrium and that they have experienced a population expansion. Most of the variation in both species occurs within honey bee colonies (between 62%-90% of the total genetic variance), although in N. apis there is evidence for differentiation between parasites isolated from distinct A. mellifera lineages (20%-34% of the total variance), specifically between those collected from lineages A and C (or M). This scenario is consistent with a long-term host-parasite relationship and contrasts with the lack of differentiation observed among host-lineages in N. ceranae (< 4% of the variance), which suggests that the spread of this emergent pathogen throughout the A. mellifera worldwide population is a recent event. PMID:26720131

  8. Population Genetics of Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae: One Host (Apis mellifera) and Two Different Histories.

    PubMed

    Maside, Xulio; Gómez-Moracho, Tamara; Jara, Laura; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; De la Rúa, Pilar; Higes, Mariano; Bartolomé, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Two microsporidians are known to infect honey bees: Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. Whereas population genetics data for the latter have been released in the last few years, such information is still missing for N. apis. Here we analyze the patterns of nucleotide polymorphism at three single-copy loci (PTP2, PTP3 and RPB1) in a collection of Apis mellifera isolates from all over the world, naturally infected either with N. apis (N = 22) or N. ceranae (N = 23), to provide new insights into the genetic diversity, demography and evolution of N. apis, as well as to compare them with evidence from N. ceranae. Neutral variation in N. apis and N. ceranae is of the order of 1%. This amount of diversity suggests that there is no substantial differentiation between the genetic content of the two nuclei present in these parasites, and evidence for genetic recombination provides a putative mechanism for the flow of genetic information between chromosomes. The analysis of the frequency spectrum of neutral variants reveals a significant surplus of low frequency variants, particularly in N. ceranae, and suggests that the populations of the two pathogens are not in mutation-drift equilibrium and that they have experienced a population expansion. Most of the variation in both species occurs within honey bee colonies (between 62%-90% of the total genetic variance), although in N. apis there is evidence for differentiation between parasites isolated from distinct A. mellifera lineages (20%-34% of the total variance), specifically between those collected from lineages A and C (or M). This scenario is consistent with a long-term host-parasite relationship and contrasts with the lack of differentiation observed among host-lineages in N. ceranae (< 4% of the variance), which suggests that the spread of this emergent pathogen throughout the A. mellifera worldwide population is a recent event.

  9. Transfert radiatif numerique pour un code SPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viau, Joseph Edmour Serge

    2001-03-01

    Le besoin de reproduire la formation d'etoiles par simulations numeriques s'est fait de plus en plus present au cours des 30 dernieres annees. Depuis Larson (1968), les codes de simulations n'ont eu de cesse de s'ameliorer. D'ailleurs, en 1977, Lucy introduit une autre methode de calcul venant concurrencer la methode par grille. Cette nouvelle facon de calculer utilise en effet des points a defaut d'utiliser des grilles, ce qui est une bien meilleure adaptation aux calculs d'un effondrement gravitationnel. Il restait cependant le probleme d'ajouter le transfert radiatif a un tel code. Malgre la proposition de Brookshaw (1984), qui nous montre une formule permettant d'ajouter le transfert radiatif sous la forme SPH tout en evitant la double sommation genante qu'elle implique, aucun code SPH a ce jour ne contient un transfert radiatif satisfaisant. Cette these presente pour la premiere fois un code SPH muni d'un transfert radiatif adequat. Toutes les difficultes ont pu etre surmontees afin d'obtenir finalement le transfert radiatif "vrai" qui survient dans l'effondrement d'un nuage moleculaire. Pour verifier l'integrite de nos resultats, une comparaison avec le nonisothermal test case de Boss & Myhill (1993) nous revele un resultat fort satisfaisant. En plus de suivre fidelement la courbe de l'evolution de la temperature centrale en fonction de la densite centrale, notre code est exempt de toutes les anomalies rencontrees par les codes par grille. Le test du cas de la conduction thermique nous a lui aussi servit a verifier la fiabilite de notre code. La aussi les resultats sont fort satisfaisants. Faisant suite a ces resultats, le code fut utilise dans deux situations reelles de recherche, ce qui nous a permis de demontrer les nombreuses possibilites que nous donne notre nouveau code. Dans un premier temps, nous avons tudie le comportement de la temperature dans un disque d'accretion durant son evolution. Ensuite nous avons refait en partie une experience de Bonnell

  10. Effects of Nosema apis, N. ceranae, and coinfections on honey bee (Apis mellifera) learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Lise R; Hillier, Neil Kirk; Rogers, Richard E L; Williams, Geoffrey R; Shutler, Dave

    2016-03-10

    Western honey bees (Apis mellifera) face an increasing number of challenges that in recent years have led to significant economic effects on apiculture, with attendant consequences for agriculture. Nosemosis is a fungal infection of honey bees caused by either Nosema apis or N. ceranae. The putative greater virulence of N. ceranae has spurred interest in understanding how it differs from N. apis. Little is known of effects of N. apis or N. ceranae on honey bee learning and memory. Following a Pavlovian model that relies on the proboscis extension reflex, we compared acquisition learning and long-term memory recall of uninfected (control) honey bees versus those inoculated with N. apis, N. ceranae, or both. We also tested whether spore intensity was associated with variation in learning and memory. Neither learning nor memory differed among treatments. There was no evidence of a relationship between spore intensity and learning, and only limited evidence of a negative effect on memory; this occurred only in the co-inoculation treatment. Our results suggest that if Nosema spp. are contributing to unusually high colony losses in recent years, the mechanism by which they may affect honey bees is probably not related to effects on learning or memory, at least as assessed by the proboscis extension reflex.

  11. Effects of Nosema apis, N. ceranae, and coinfections on honey bee (Apis mellifera) learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Charbonneau, Lise R.; Hillier, Neil Kirk; Rogers, Richard E. L.; Williams, Geoffrey R.; Shutler, Dave

    2016-01-01

    Western honey bees (Apis mellifera) face an increasing number of challenges that in recent years have led to significant economic effects on apiculture, with attendant consequences for agriculture. Nosemosis is a fungal infection of honey bees caused by either Nosema apis or N. ceranae. The putative greater virulence of N. ceranae has spurred interest in understanding how it differs from N. apis. Little is known of effects of N. apis or N. ceranae on honey bee learning and memory. Following a Pavlovian model that relies on the proboscis extension reflex, we compared acquisition learning and long-term memory recall of uninfected (control) honey bees versus those inoculated with N. apis, N. ceranae, or both. We also tested whether spore intensity was associated with variation in learning and memory. Neither learning nor memory differed among treatments. There was no evidence of a relationship between spore intensity and learning, and only limited evidence of a negative effect on memory; this occurred only in the co-inoculation treatment. Our results suggest that if Nosema spp. are contributing to unusually high colony losses in recent years, the mechanism by which they may affect honey bees is probably not related to effects on learning or memory, at least as assessed by the proboscis extension reflex. PMID:26961062

  12. Survey of Public IaaS Cloud Computing API

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamato, Yoji; Moriya, Takaaki; Ogawa, Takeshi; Akahani, Junichi

    Recently, Cloud computing is spread rapidly and many Cloud providers start their Cloud services. One of the Cloud computing problems is Cloud provider Lock In” for users. Actually, Cloud computing management APIs such as ordering or provisioning are different in each Cloud provider, so that users need to study and implement new APIs when they change Cloud providers. OGF and DMTF start the discussions of standardization of Cloud computing APIs, but there is no standard now. In this technical note, to clarify what APIs cloud providers should provide, we study common APIs for Cloud computing. We survey and compare Cloud computing APIs such as Rackspace Cloud Server, Sun Cloud, GoGrid, ElasticHosts, Amazon EC2 and FlexiScale which are currently provided as public IaaS Cloud APIs in the market. From the survey, the common APIs should support REST access style and provide account management, virtual server management, storage management, network management and resource usage management capabilities. We also show an example of OSS to provide these common APIs compared to normal hosting services OSS.

  13. Evaluation of a Pour-Through Water Treatment Device for Use as Microbiological Purifier

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development has evaluated the performance of a Point-of-Use (POU) pour-through device designed for use in India, developing and emerging market (D&E) countries, and under emergency situations in the Un...

  14. Evaluation of a Pour-Through Water Treatment Device for Use as Microbiological Purifier

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development has evaluated the performance of a Point-of-Use (POU) pour-through device designed for use in India, developing and emerging market (D&E) countries, and under emergency situations in the Un...

  15. Library API for Z-Order Memory Layout

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes

    2015-02-01

    This library provides a simple-to-use API for implementing an altnerative to traditional row-major order in-memory layout, one based on a Morton- order space filling curve (SFC) , specifically, a Z-order variant of the Morton order curve. The library enables programmers to, after a simple initialization step, to convert a multidimensional array from row-major to Z- order layouts, then use a single, generic API call to access data from any arbitrary (i,j,k) location from within the array, whether it it be stored in row- major or z-order format. The motivation for using a SFC in-memory layout is for improved spatial locality, which results in increased use of local high speed cache memory. The basic idea is that with row-major order layouts, a data access to some location that is nearby in index space is likely far away in physical memory, resulting in poor spatial locality and slow runtime. On the other hand, with a SFC-based layout, accesses that are nearby in index space are much more likely to also be nearby in physical memory, resulting in much better spatial locality, and better runtime performance. Numerous studies over the years have shown significant runtime performance gains are realized by using a SFC-based memory layout compared to a row-major layout, sometimes by as much as 50%, which result from the better use of the memory and cache hierarchy that are attendant with a SFC-based layout (see, for example, [Beth2012]). This library implementation is intended for use with codes that work with structured, array-based data in 2 or 3 dimensions. It is not appropriate for use with unstructured or point-based data.

  16. elevatr: Access Elevation Data from Various APIs | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Several web services are available that provide access to elevation data. This package provides access to several of those services and returns elevation data either as a SpatialPointsDataFrame from point elevation services or as a raster object from raster elevation services. Currently, the package supports access to the Mapzen Elevation Service, Mapzen Terrain Service, and the USGS Elevation Point Query Service. The R language for statistical computing is increasingly used for spatial data analysis . This R package, elevatr, is in response to this and provides access to elevation data from various sources directly in R. The impact of `elevatr` is that it will 1) facilitate spatial analysis in R by providing access to foundational dataset for many types of analyses (e.g. hydrology, limnology) 2) open up a new set of users and uses for APIs widely used outside of R, and 3) provide an excellent example federal open source development as promoted by the Federal Source Code Policy (https://sourcecode.cio.gov/).

  17. Rare royal families in honeybees, Apis mellifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, Robin F. A.; Lattorff, H. Michael G.; Neumann, Peter; Kraus, F. Bernhard; Radloff, Sarah E.; Hepburn, H. Randall

    2005-10-01

    The queen is the dominant female in the honeybee colony, Apis mellifera, and controls reproduction. Queen larvae are selected by the workers and are fed a special diet (royal jelly), which determines caste. Because queens mate with many males a large number of subfamilies coexist in the colony. As a consequence, there is a considerable potential for conflict among the subfamilies over queen rearing. Here we show that honeybee queens are not reared at random but are preferentially reared from rare “royal” subfamilies, which have extremely low frequencies in the colony's worker force but a high frequency in the queens reared.

  18. Adaptive runtime for a multiprocessing API

    DOEpatents

    Antao, Samuel F.; Bertolli, Carlo; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; O'Brien, John K.

    2016-11-15

    A computer-implemented method includes selecting a runtime for executing a program. The runtime includes a first combination of feature implementations, where each feature implementation implements a feature of an application programming interface (API). Execution of the program is monitored, and the execution uses the runtime. Monitor data is generated based on the monitoring. A second combination of feature implementations are selected, by a computer processor, where the selection is based at least in part on the monitor data. The runtime is modified by activating the second combination of feature implementations to replace the first combination of feature implementations.

  19. Adaptive runtime for a multiprocessing API

    DOEpatents

    Antao, Samuel F.; Bertolli, Carlo; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; O'Brien, John K.

    2016-10-11

    A computer-implemented method includes selecting a runtime for executing a program. The runtime includes a first combination of feature implementations, where each feature implementation implements a feature of an application programming interface (API). Execution of the program is monitored, and the execution uses the runtime. Monitor data is generated based on the monitoring. A second combination of feature implementations are selected, by a computer processor, where the selection is based at least in part on the monitor data. The runtime is modified by activating the second combination of feature implementations to replace the first combination of feature implementations.

  20. Experience API: Flexible, Decentralized and Activity-Centric Data Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevan, Jonathan M.; Ryan, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    This emerging technology report describes the Experience API (xAPI), a new e-learning specification designed to support the learning community in standardizing and collecting both formal and informal distributed learning activities. Informed by Activity Theory, a framework aligned with constructivism, data is collected in the form of activity…

  1. Experience API: Flexible, Decentralized and Activity-Centric Data Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevan, Jonathan M.; Ryan, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    This emerging technology report describes the Experience API (xAPI), a new e-learning specification designed to support the learning community in standardizing and collecting both formal and informal distributed learning activities. Informed by Activity Theory, a framework aligned with constructivism, data is collected in the form of activity…

  2. Preparation and physicochemical characterization of matrix pellets containing APIs with different solubility via extrusion process.

    PubMed

    Hegyesi, Diána; Thommes, Markus; Kleinebudde, Peter; Sovány, Tamás; Kása, Péter; Kelemen, András; Pintye-Hódi, Klára; Regdon, Géza

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a multiparticulate matrix system was produced, containing two different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs): enalapril-maleate and hydrochlorothiazide. The critical control points of the process were investigated by means of factorial design. Beside the generally used microcrystalline cellulose, ethylcellulose was used as matrix former to achieve modified drug release ensured by diffusion. The matrix pellets were made by extrusion-spheronization using a twin-screw extruder. Some pellet properties (aspect ratio, 10% interval fraction, hardness, deformation process) were determined. The aim of our study was to investigate how the two different APIs with different solubility and particle size influence the process. The amount of the granulation liquid plays a key role in the pellet shaping. A higher liquid feed rate is preferred in the pelletization process.

  3. Estimating emissions from grout pouring operations

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Hendrickson, D.W.

    1993-08-01

    Grouting is a method for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in which a contaminated solution is mixed into a slurry, poured into a large storage vault, then dried, fixing the contaminants within a stable solid matrix. A model (RELEASE) has been developed to estimate the quantity of aeorsol created during the pouring process. Information and equations derived from spill experiments were used in the model to determine release fractions. This paper discusses the derivation of the release fraction equation used in the code and the model used to account for gravity settling of particles in the vault. The input and results for a base case application are shown.

  4. Investigating an API for resilient exascale computing.

    SciTech Connect

    Stearley, Jon R.; Tomkins, James; VanDyke, John P.; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Laros, James H.,; Bridges, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Increased HPC capability comes with increased complexity, part counts, and fault occurrences. In- creasing the resilience of systems and applications to faults is a critical requirement facing the viability of exascale systems, as the overhead of traditional checkpoint/restart is projected to outweigh its bene ts due to fault rates outpacing I/O bandwidths. As faults occur and propagate throughout hardware and software layers, pervasive noti cation and handling mechanisms are necessary. This report describes an initial investigation of fault types and programming interfaces to mitigate them. Proof-of-concept APIs are presented for the frequent and important cases of memory errors and node failures, and a strategy proposed for lesystem failures. These involve changes to the operating system, runtime, I/O library, and application layers. While a single API for fault handling among hardware and OS and application system-wide remains elusive, the e ort increased our understanding of both the mountainous challenges and the promising trailheads. 3

  5. The geospatial data quality REST API for primary biodiversity data

    PubMed Central

    Otegui, Javier; Guralnick, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: We present a REST web service to assess the geospatial quality of primary biodiversity data. It enables access to basic and advanced functions to detect completeness and consistency issues as well as general errors in the provided record or set of records. The API uses JSON for data interchange and efficient parallelization techniques for fast assessments of large datasets. Availability and implementation: The Geospatial Data Quality API is part of the VertNet set of APIs. It can be accessed at http://api-geospatial.vertnet-portal.appspot.com/geospatial and is already implemented in the VertNet data portal for quality reporting. Source code is freely available under GPL license from http://www.github.com/vertnet/api-geospatial. Contact: javier.otegui@gmail.com or rguralnick@flmnh.ufl.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26833340

  6. The geospatial data quality REST API for primary biodiversity data.

    PubMed

    Otegui, Javier; Guralnick, Robert P

    2016-06-01

    We present a REST web service to assess the geospatial quality of primary biodiversity data. It enables access to basic and advanced functions to detect completeness and consistency issues as well as general errors in the provided record or set of records. The API uses JSON for data interchange and efficient parallelization techniques for fast assessments of large datasets. The Geospatial Data Quality API is part of the VertNet set of APIs. It can be accessed at http://api-geospatial.vertnet-portal.appspot.com/geospatial and is already implemented in the VertNet data portal for quality reporting. Source code is freely available under GPL license from http://www.github.com/vertnet/api-geospatial javier.otegui@gmail.com or rguralnick@flmnh.ufl.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. A knowledge discovery object model API for Java

    PubMed Central

    Zuyderduyn, Scott D; Jones, Steven JM

    2003-01-01

    Background Biological data resources have become heterogeneous and derive from multiple sources. This introduces challenges in the management and utilization of this data in software development. Although efforts are underway to create a standard format for the transmission and storage of biological data, this objective has yet to be fully realized. Results This work describes an application programming interface (API) that provides a framework for developing an effective biological knowledge ontology for Java-based software projects. The API provides a robust framework for the data acquisition and management needs of an ontology implementation. In addition, the API contains classes to assist in creating GUIs to represent this data visually. Conclusions The Knowledge Discovery Object Model (KDOM) API is particularly useful for medium to large applications, or for a number of smaller software projects with common characteristics or objectives. KDOM can be coupled effectively with other biologically relevant APIs and classes. Source code, libraries, documentation and examples are available at . PMID:14583100

  8. AERIAL OF SHUTTLE LANDING FACILITY [SLF] POURING OF CONCRETE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    AERIAL OF SHUTTLE LANDING FACILITY [SLF] POURING OF CONCRETE KSC-375C-10036.31 108-KSC-375C-10036.31, P-21426, ARCHIVE-04502 Aerial oblique of Shuttle runway facilities. Pouring concrete on runway. Direction north - altitude 100'.

  9. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH CRANE OPERATOR, TED SEALS, POURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH CRANE OPERATOR, TED SEALS, POURING MOLTEN METAL INTO A 1,300 TON ELECTRIC HOLDING FURNACE OR MIXER. AN ELECTRONIC SCALE RECORDED THAT 50.5 TONS OF METAL WERE POURED INTO THE FURNACE DURING THIS POUR. - American Cast Iron Pipe Company, Mixer Building, 1501 Thirty-first Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  10. A Statistical Treatment of Bioassay Pour Fractions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barengoltz, Jack; Hughes, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The binomial probability distribution is used to treat the statistics of a microbiological sample that is split into two parts, with only one part evaluated for spore count. One wishes to estimate the total number of spores in the sample based on the counts obtained from the part that is evaluated (pour fraction). Formally, the binomial distribution is recharacterized as a function of the observed counts (successes), with the total number (trials) an unknown. The pour fraction is the probability of success per spore (trial). This distribution must be renormalized in terms of the total number. Finally, the new renormalized distribution is integrated and mathematically inverted to yield the maximum estimate of the total number as a function of a desired level of confidence ( P(pour fraction. The extension to recovery efficiency corrections is also presented. Now the product of recovery efficiency and pour fraction may be small enough that the likely value may be much larger than the usual calculation: the number of spores divided by that product. The use of this analysis would not be limited to microbiological data.

  11. Comparison of learning and memory of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qiu-Hong; He, Xu-Jiang; Tian, Liu-Qing; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Zeng, Zhi-Jiang

    2012-10-01

    The honeybee is an excellent model organism for research on learning and memory among invertebrates. Learning and memory in honeybees has intrigued neuroscientists and entomologists in the last few decades, but attention has focused almost solely on the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera. In contrast, there have been few studies on learning and memory in the Eastern honeybee, Apis cerana. Here we report comparative behavioral data of color and grating learning and memory for A. cerana and A. mellifera in China, gathered using a Y-maze apparatus. We show for the first time that the learning and memory performance of A. cerana is significantly better on both color and grating patterns than that of A. mellifera. This study provides the first evidence of a learning and memory difference between A. cerana and A. mellifera under controlled conditions, and it is an important basis for the further study of the mechanism of learning and memory in honeybees.

  12. Matériaux pour la production d'hydrogène

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Just, J.

    2002-04-01

    L'émergence des piles à combustible et l'apparition de l'hydrogène comme carburant dans des véhicules grand public comme les autobus, suscitent un élan fort pour la mise au point de technologies nouvelles pour la production d'hydrogène décentralisée et à petite échelle. Du fait de sa richesse en hydrogène. des réserves disponibles et de son infrastructure de distribution, le gaz naturel est considéré comme la ressource majeure pouvant fournir les quantités d'hydrogène nécessaires pour un passage progressif vers une économie de l'hydrogène dans les décennies immédiates en attendant que progressivement les énergies renouvelables prennent le relais. Des solutions innovantes, incluant de nouveaux matériaux, sont nécessaires pour la mise au point des petits générateurs d'hydrogène efficaces et bon marché alimenté au gaz naturel qui sont attendus par les fabricants (le piles à combustible, les acteurs de l'énergie et les fabricants de véhicules.

  13. Nosema ceranae an emergent pathogen of Apis mellifera in Chile.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Jessica; Leal, Germán; Conget, Paulette

    2012-08-01

    The microsporidian Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae have been associated with colony disorders of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana, respectively. N. apis is endemic in South America. Recently, N. ceranae has been detected in Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina. No report of its presence, distribution and prevalence in Chile is available. Here, we present a real-time PCR-based method that was able to discriminate between N. apis and N. ceranae. The dynamic range of this assay was 100 to 100,000 spores per honeybee. False-negative results were avoided due to the use of ACTIN gene as internal standard. False-positive results were obtained neither in experimentally nor in naturally contaminated samples. Using this method, we screened 240 beehives from the Chilean region where 42% of the total country honey production take places (Región del Biobío). Nosema spp. were detected in the four provinces and in 20 of the 26 communes of the region. Among the samples analysed, 49% were positive for N. ceranae. Their infection level ranged from 200 to more than 100,000 spores per honeybee. N. apis was not detected in this region. Hence, our data show that in Chile N. ceranae is an emergent pathogen that is been replacing N. apis. Also, they support that N. ceranae maybe the actual responsible for nosemosis in A. mellifera in South America.

  14. Compositional Mining of Multiple Object API Protocols through State Abstraction

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xiaoguang; Qi, Yuhua; Wang, Rui; Gu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    API protocols specify correct sequences of method invocations. Despite their usefulness, API protocols are often unavailable in practice because writing them is cumbersome and error prone. Multiple object API protocols are more expressive than single object API protocols. However, the huge number of objects of typical object-oriented programs poses a major challenge to the automatic mining of multiple object API protocols: besides maintaining scalability, it is important to capture various object interactions. Current approaches utilize various heuristics to focus on small sets of methods. In this paper, we present a general, scalable, multiple object API protocols mining approach that can capture all object interactions. Our approach uses abstract field values to label object states during the mining process. We first mine single object typestates as finite state automata whose transitions are annotated with states of interacting objects before and after the execution of the corresponding method and then construct multiple object API protocols by composing these annotated single object typestates. We implement our approach for Java and evaluate it through a series of experiments. PMID:23844378

  15. Compositional mining of multiple object API protocols through state abstraction.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ziying; Mao, Xiaoguang; Lei, Yan; Qi, Yuhua; Wang, Rui; Gu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    API protocols specify correct sequences of method invocations. Despite their usefulness, API protocols are often unavailable in practice because writing them is cumbersome and error prone. Multiple object API protocols are more expressive than single object API protocols. However, the huge number of objects of typical object-oriented programs poses a major challenge to the automatic mining of multiple object API protocols: besides maintaining scalability, it is important to capture various object interactions. Current approaches utilize various heuristics to focus on small sets of methods. In this paper, we present a general, scalable, multiple object API protocols mining approach that can capture all object interactions. Our approach uses abstract field values to label object states during the mining process. We first mine single object typestates as finite state automata whose transitions are annotated with states of interacting objects before and after the execution of the corresponding method and then construct multiple object API protocols by composing these annotated single object typestates. We implement our approach for Java and evaluate it through a series of experiments.

  16. The pheromones of laying workers in two honeybee sister species: Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ken; Yang, Mingxian; Wang, Zhengwei; Radloff, Sarah E; Pirk, Christian W W

    2012-04-01

    When a honeybee colony loses its queen, workers activate their ovaries and begin to lay eggs. This is accompanied by a shift in their pheromonal bouquet, which becomes more queen like. Workers of the Asian hive bee Apis cerana show unusually high levels of ovary activation and this can be interpreted as evidence for a recent evolutionary arms race between queens and workers over worker reproduction in this species. To further explore this, we compared the rate of pheromonal bouquet change between two honeybee sister species of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera under queenright and queenless conditions. We show that in both species, the pheromonal components HOB, 9-ODA, HVA, 9-HDA, 10-HDAA and 10-HDA have significantly higher amounts in laying workers than in non-laying workers. In the queenright colonies of A. mellifera and A. cerana, the ratios (9-ODA)/(9-ODA + 9-HDA + 10-HDAA + 10-HDA) are not significantly different between the two species, but in queenless A. cerana colonies the ratio is significant higher than in A. mellifera, suggesting that in A. cerana, the workers' pheromonal bouquet is dominated by the queen compound, 9-ODA. The amount of 9-ODA in laying A. cerana workers increased by over 585% compared with the non-laying workers, that is 6.75 times higher than in A. mellifera where laying workers only had 86% more 9-ODA compared with non-laying workers.

  17. Microsporidia infecting Apis mellifera: coexistence or competition. Is Nosema ceranae replacing Nosema apis?

    PubMed

    Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Botías, Cristina; Bailón, Encarna Garrido; Martínez-Salvador, Amparo; Prieto, Lourdes; Meana, Aránzazu; Higes, Mariano

    2012-08-01

    Nosema ceranae has been suggested to be replacing Nosema apis in some populations of Apis mellifera honeybees. However, this replacement from one to the other is not supported when studying the distribution and prevalence of both microsporidia in professional apiaries in Spanish territories (transverse study), their seasonal pattern in experimental hives with co-infection or their prevalence at individual level (either in worker bees or drones). Nevertheless, N.ceranae has shown to present a higher prevalence at all the studied levels that could indicate any advantage for its development over N.apis or that it is more adapted to Spanish conditions. Also, both microsporidia show a different pattern of preference for its development according to the prevalence in the different Spanish bioclimatic belts studied. Finally, the fact that all analyses were carried out using an Internal PCR Control (IPC) newly developed guarantees the confidence of the data extracted from the PCR analyses. This IPC provides a useful tool for laboratory detection of honeybee pathogens. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. New makeup method for API connections

    SciTech Connect

    Day, J.B. ); Moyer, M.C.; Hirshberg, A.J. )

    1990-09-01

    A method of connection makeup was developed to provide a leak-free seal up to rated working pressure and tension for API 8-round casing and tubing threads. For many years, industry has used various torque-only and torque-turn techniques to make up these threads. Current industry needs and regulatory test requirements are raising the pressure-sealing needs and tensile-load requirements for drilling and production tubulars. This method, torque-position, accounts for variances in thread tolerances, coupling coating or plating, and thread compound. Advanced finite-element computer modeling helps to establish key makeup parameters. This paper discusses the problems with current makeup methods and evaluates the new method, including its field application for casing and tubing.

  19. The IRMIS object model and services API.

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, C.; Dohan, D. A.; Arnold, N. D.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2005-01-01

    The relational model developed for the Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) toolkit has been successfully used to capture the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system software (EPICS process variables and their definitions). The relational tables are populated by a crawler script that parses each Input/Output Controller (IOC) start-up file when an IOC reboot is detected. User interaction is provided by a Java Swing application that acts as a desktop for viewing the process variable information. Mapping between the display objects and the relational tables was carried out with the Hibernate Object Relational Modeling (ORM) framework. Work is well underway at the APS to extend the relational modeling to include control system hardware. For this work, due in part to the complex user interaction required, the primary application development environment has shifted from the relational database view to the object oriented (Java) perspective. With this approach, the business logic is executed in Java rather than in SQL stored procedures. This paper describes the object model used to represent control system software, hardware, and interconnects in IRMIS. We also describe the services API used to encapsulate the required behaviors for creating and maintaining the complex data. In addition to the core schema and object model, many important concepts in IRMIS are captured by the services API. IRMIS is an ambitious collaborative effort for defining and developing a relational database and associated applications to comprehensively document the large and complex EPICS-based control systems of today's accelerators. The documentation effort includes process variables, control system hardware, and interconnections. The approach could also be used to document all components of the accelerator, including mechanical, vacuum, power supplies, etc. One key aspect of IRMIS is that it is a documentation framework, not a design and development tool. We do not

  20. First come, first served. Does pouring sequence matter for consumption?

    PubMed

    Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette; Dieze, Anastasia; Hilzendegen, Carolin

    2016-10-01

    Various environmental factors associated with eating and drinking affect people's food choice and food intake. Lately, the role of tableware has been studied in more detail. The aim of this study was to determine whether pouring sequence of food components affects portion size. Study 1 invited participants to pour a beverage containing both apple juice and sparkling water. Pouring apple juice first increased juice by almost 25% compared to pouring water first. Pouring water first increased water by almost 19% compared to pouring juice first confirming our hypothesis that pouring sequence affects the ratio poured. Study 2 asked participants to prepare themselves a snack containing cereals with milk. Within-subject comparisons revealed that pouring milk before cereals significantly increased both milk and cereal amounts resulting in larger overall portion size compared to pouring cereals before adding milk. Habitual tendencies for preparing foods causing a perception bias or a perception bias itself could be possible explanations for the divergent study findings. These findings show for the first time the influence of pouring and preparation sequence on portion size. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nosema ceranae in European honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Fries, Ingemar

    2010-01-01

    Nosema ceranae is a microsporidian parasite described from the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana. The parasite is cross-infective with the European honey bee, Apis mellifera. It is not known when or where N. ceranae first infected European bees, but N. ceranae has probably been infecting European bees for at least two decades. N. ceranae appears to be replacing Nosema apis, at least in some populations of European honey bees. This replacement is an enigma because the spores of the new parasite are less durable than those of N. apis. Virulence data at both the individual bee and at the colony level are conflicting possibly because the impact of this parasite differs in different environments. The recent advancements in N. ceranae genetics, with a draft assembly of the N. ceranae genome available, are discussed and the need for increased research on the impacts of this parasite on European honey bees is emphasized.

  2. Safe "cloudification" of large images through picker APIs.

    PubMed

    Bremer, Erich; Kurc, Tahsin; Gao, Yi; Saltz, Joel; Almeida, Jonas S

    2016-01-01

    The "Box model" allows users with no particular training in informatics, or access to specialized infrastructure, operate generic cloud computing resources through a temporary URI dereferencing mechanism known as "drop-file-picker API" ("picker API" for sort). This application programming interface (API) was popularized in the web app development community by DropBox, and is now a consumer-facing feature of all major cloud computing platforms such as Box.com, Google Drive and Amazon S3. This reports describes a prototype web service application that uses picker APIs to expose a new, "cloudified", API tailored for image analysis, without compromising the private governance of the data exposed. In order to better understand this cross-platform cloud computing landscape, we first measured the time for both transfer and traversing of large image files generated by whole slide imaging (WSI) in Digital Pathology. The verification that there is extensive interconnectivity between cloud resources let to the development of a prototype software application that exposes an image-traversing REST API to image files stored in any of the consumer-facing "boxes". In summary, an image file can be upload/synchronized into a any cloud resource with a file picker API and the prototype service described here will expose an HTTP REST API that remains within the safety of the user's own governance. The open source prototype is publicly available at sbu-bmi.github.io/imagebox. Availability The accompanying prototype application is made publicly available, fully functional, with open source, at http://sbu-bmi.github.io/imagebox://sbu-bmi.github.io/imagebox. An illustrative webcasted use of this Web App is included with the project codebase at https://github.com/SBU-BMI/imageboxs://github.com/SBU-BMI/imagebox.

  3. Molecular detection of Spiroplasma apis and Spiroplasma melliferum in bees.

    PubMed

    Meeus, Ivan; Vercruysse, Vicky; Smagghe, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Spiroplasma apis and Spiroplasma melliferum are known as honey bee pathogens and are detected by unspecific methodologies like culturing or dark field microscopy. We developed a multiplex PCR being able to differentiate between both species and detect the genus Spiroplasma. This PCR can directly be used on culture samples or on DNA extracted bees. By PCR on cultured samples we were able to identify S. apis in Bombus pratorum and S. melliferum in Bombus pascuorum.

  4. Lubricating oil containing VII pour depressant

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, W.P.; Mays, D.L.

    1986-08-19

    Lubricating oils for internal combustion engines typically contain a multitude of additives which function as detergents, dispersants, viscosity index improvers, pour depressants, etc. in order to improve the properties of the oil. It is found that it is particularly necessary to improve the properties exhibited by lubricating oil compositions at low temperatures. It is an object of this invention to provide a lubricating oil containing an additive which provides improved properties at low temperatures.

  5. Differential physiological effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on honey bees: A comparison between Apis mellifera and Apis cerana.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiguo; Li, Meng; He, Jingfang; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chaimanee, Veeranan; Huang, Wei-Fone; Nie, Hongyi; Zhao, Yazhou; Su, Songkun

    2017-08-01

    Acute toxicities (LD50s) of imidacloprid and clothianidin to Apis mellifera and A. cerana were investigated. Changing patterns of immune-related gene expressions and the activities of four enzymes between the two bee species were compared and analyzed after exposure to sublethal doses of insecticides. Results indicated that A. cerana was more sensitive to imidacloprid and clothianidin than A. mellifera. The acute oral LD50 values of imidacloprid and clothianidin for A. mellifera were 8.6 and 2.0ng/bee, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for A. cerana were 2.7 and 0.5ng/bee. The two bee species possessed distinct abilities to mount innate immune response against neonicotinoids. After 48h of imidacloprid treatment, carboxylesterase (CCE), prophenol oxidase (PPO), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were significantly downregulated in A. mellifera but were upregulated in A. cerana. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was significantly elevated in A. mellifera at 48h after exposure to imidacloprid, but no significant change was observed in A. cerana. AChE was downregulated in both bee species at three different time points during clothianidin exposure, and GST activities were upregulated in both species exposed to clothianidin. Different patterns of immune-related gene expression and enzymatic activities implied distinct detoxification and immune responses of A. cerana and A. mellifera to imidacloprid and clothianidin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. GIANT API: an application programming interface for functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Andrew M; Wong, Aaron K; Fisk, Ian; Troyanskaya, Olga G

    2016-07-08

    GIANT API provides biomedical researchers programmatic access to tissue-specific and global networks in humans and model organisms, and associated tools, which includes functional re-prioritization of existing genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. Using tissue-specific interaction networks, researchers are able to predict relationships between genes specific to a tissue or cell lineage, identify the changing roles of genes across tissues and uncover disease-gene associations. Additionally, GIANT API enables computational tools like NetWAS, which leverages tissue-specific networks for re-prioritization of GWAS results. The web services covered by the API include 144 tissue-specific functional gene networks in human, global functional networks for human and six common model organisms and the NetWAS method. GIANT API conforms to the REST architecture, which makes it stateless, cacheable and highly scalable. It can be used by a diverse range of clients including web browsers, command terminals, programming languages and standalone apps for data analysis and visualization. The API is freely available for use at http://giant-api.princeton.edu. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. GIANT API: an application programming interface for functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Andrew M.; Wong, Aaron K.; Fisk, Ian; Troyanskaya, Olga G.

    2016-01-01

    GIANT API provides biomedical researchers programmatic access to tissue-specific and global networks in humans and model organisms, and associated tools, which includes functional re-prioritization of existing genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. Using tissue-specific interaction networks, researchers are able to predict relationships between genes specific to a tissue or cell lineage, identify the changing roles of genes across tissues and uncover disease-gene associations. Additionally, GIANT API enables computational tools like NetWAS, which leverages tissue-specific networks for re-prioritization of GWAS results. The web services covered by the API include 144 tissue-specific functional gene networks in human, global functional networks for human and six common model organisms and the NetWAS method. GIANT API conforms to the REST architecture, which makes it stateless, cacheable and highly scalable. It can be used by a diverse range of clients including web browsers, command terminals, programming languages and standalone apps for data analysis and visualization. The API is freely available for use at http://giant-api.princeton.edu. PMID:27098035

  8. Identification of Complete Repertoire of Apis florea Odorant Receptors Reveals Complex Orthologous Relationships with Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Karpe, Snehal D; Jain, Rikesh; Brockmann, Axel; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2016-09-26

    We developed a computational pipeline for homology based identification of the complete repertoire of olfactory receptor (OR) genes in the Asian honey bee species, Apis florea Apis florea is phylogenetically the most basal honey bee species and also the most distant sister species to the Western honey bee Apis mellifera, for which all OR genes had been identified before. Using our pipeline, we identified 180 OR genes in A. florea, which is very similar to the number of ORs identified in A. mellifera (177 ORs). Many characteristics of the ORs including gene structure, synteny of tandemly repeated ORs and basic phylogenetic clustering are highly conserved. The composite phylogenetic tree of A. florea and A. mellifera ORs could be divided into 21 clades which are in harmony with the existing Hymenopteran tree. However, we found a few nonorthologous OR relationships between both species as well as independent pseudogenization of ORs suggesting separate evolutionary changes. Particularly, a subgroup of the OR gene clade XI, which had been hypothesized to code cuticular hydrocarbon receptors showed a high number of species-specific ORs RNAseq analysis detected a total number of 145 OR transcripts in male and 162 in female antennae. Most of the OR genes were highly expressed on the female antennae. However, we detected five distinct male-biased OR genes, out of which three genes (AfOr11, AfOr18, AfOr170P) were shown to be male-biased in A. mellifera, too, thus corroborating a behavioral function in sex-pheromone communication.

  9. LISA: a java API for performing simulations of trajectories for all types of balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conessa, Huguette

    2016-07-01

    LISA (LIbrarie de Simulation pour les Aerostats) is a java API for performing simulations of trajectories for all types of balloons (Zero Pressure Balloons, Pressurized Balloons, Infrared Montgolfier), and for all phases of flight (ascent, ceiling, descent). This library has for goals to establish a reliable repository of Balloons flight physics models, to capitalize developments and control models used in different tools. It is already used for flight physics study software in CNES, to understand and reproduce the behavior of balloons, observed during real flights. It will be used operationally for the ground segment of the STRATEOLE2 mission. It was developed with quality rules of "critical software." It is based on fundamental generic concepts, linking the simulation state variables to interchangeable calculation models. Each LISA model defines how to calculate a consistent set of state variables combining validity checks. To perform a simulation for a type of balloon and a phase of flight, it is necessary to select or create a macro-model that is to say, a consistent set of models to choose from among those offered by LISA, defining the behavior of the environment and the balloon. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce the main concepts of LISA, and the new perspectives offered by this library.

  10. Characterization of api g 1.0201, a new member of the Api g 1 family of celery allergens.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Ferris, R; Pec, M; Radauer, C; O'Riordain, G; Laimer Da Camara Machado, M; Scheiner, O; Breiteneder, H

    2000-06-01

    The association of pollinosis with allergy to plant foods occurs in up to 70% of tree pollen-allergic patients. In recent years, some of the relevant cross-reacting proteins have been characterized at the molecular and immunological level. Api g 1 has been identified as the celery homologue of the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1. Although a number of Bet v 1 isoforms have been characterized from birch pollen, little is known about isoforms of food allergens and their allergenic features. Api g 1.0201, an isoform of Api g 1, was isolated from a cDNA library, cloned and sequenced. The cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified recombinant protein was tested in immunoblots. Api g 1.0201 displays 72% sequence similarity to the previously identified Api g 1.0101 and consists of 159 amino acid residues. The sequence of Api g 1.0201 has five additional amino acid residues at the carboxy-terminus as compared to Api g 1.0101. Purified recombinant Api g 1.0201 is recognized by IgE from the sera of celery-allergic patients, as well as by the murine monoclonal anti-Bet v 1 antibody. In general, this isoform displays a weaker IgE-binding capacity than Api g 1.0101, as concluded from immunoblotting experiments. Results from inhibition assays revealed that IgE-binding to Api g 1.0201 is only slightly reduced by preincubation with either purified recombinant Api g 1.0101 or purified recombinant Bet v 1a. Total inhibition was only achieved when using purified natural Bet v 1. At present, little is known about the IgE-binding capacity of isoforms of Bet v 1 homologues of food allergens. Identification and characterization of such isoforms may help to contribute to a better understanding of food allergy and the observed cross-reactivity to pollen allergy. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Magnetoreception System in Honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chin-Yuan; Ko, Fu-Yao; Li, Chia-Wei; Fann, Kuni; Lue, Juh-Tzeng

    2007-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) undergo iron biomineralization, providing the basis for magnetoreception. We showed earlier the presence of superparamagnetic magnetite in iron granules formed in honeybees, and subscribed to the notion that external magnetic fields may cause expansion or contraction of the superparamagnetic particles in an orientation-specific manner, relaying the signal via cytoskeleton (Hsu and Li 1994). In this study, we established a size-density purification procedure, with which quantitative amount of iron granules was obtained from honey bee trophocytes and characterized; the density of iron granules was determined to be 1.25 g/cm3. While we confirmed the presence of superparamagnetic magnetite in the iron granules, we observed changes in the size of the magnetic granules in the trophycytes upon applying additional magnetic field to the cells. A concomitant release of calcium ion was observed by confocal microscope. This size fluctuation triggered the increase of intracellular Ca+2 , which was inhibited by colchicines and latrunculin B, known to be blockers for microtubule and microfilament syntheses, respectively. The associated cytoskeleton may thus relay the magnetosignal, initiating a neural response. A model for the mechanism of magnetoreception in honeybees is proposed, which may be applicable to most, if not all, magnetotactic organisms. PMID:17460762

  12. The Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus Genome.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Laurent; Cornman, Scott; Hartmann, Ulrike; Cousserans, François; Evans, Jay D; de Miranda, Joachim R; Neumann, Peter

    2015-07-09

    A complete reference genome of the Apis mellifera Filamentous virus (AmFV) was determined using Illumina Hiseq sequencing. The AmFV genome is a double stranded DNA molecule of approximately 498,500 nucleotides with a GC content of 50.8%. It encompasses 247 non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), equally distributed on both strands, which cover 65% of the genome. While most of the ORFs lacked threshold sequence alignments to reference protein databases, twenty-eight were found to display significant homologies with proteins present in other large double stranded DNA viruses. Remarkably, 13 ORFs had strong similarity with typical baculovirus domains such as PIFs (per os infectivity factor genes: pif-1, pif-2, pif-3 and p74) and BRO (Baculovirus Repeated Open Reading Frame). The putative AmFV DNA polymerase is of type B, but is only distantly related to those of the baculoviruses. The ORFs encoding proteins involved in nucleotide metabolism had the highest percent identity to viral proteins in GenBank. Other notable features include the presence of several collagen-like, chitin-binding, kinesin and pacifastin domains. Due to the large size of the AmFV genome and the inconsistent affiliation with other large double stranded DNA virus families infecting invertebrates, AmFV may belong to a new virus family.

  13. FRONT VIEW OF POURING FROM #61 HOLDING FURNACE AT #02 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT VIEW OF POURING FROM #61 HOLDING FURNACE AT #02 STATION INTO THREE VERTICAL MOLDS SUBMERGED IN A WATER-FILLED TANK BELOW THE CASTING FLOOR. THE CASTING CREW'S JOBS DURING THIS PHASE OF THE OPERATION INCLUDE REGULATING THE POURING RATE AND MONITORING THE VALVE RODS THAT CONTROL THE WATER SPRAYS ON THE MOLDS. DIFFERENT ALLOYS REQUIRE SPECIFIC POURING SPEEDS AND WATER PRESSURES. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  14. Spiroplasma apis, a new species from the honey-bee Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Mouches, C; Bové, J M; Tully, J G; Rose, D L; McCoy, R E; Carle-Junca, P; Garnier, M; Saillard, C

    1983-01-01

    Two spiroplasma strains (B31 and B39) recovered from diseased honey-bees (Apis mellifera) in southwestern France were similar in biochemical, serological and pathological properties. The organisms grew at 30 degrees C, required cholesterol for growth, fermented glucose, catabolized arginine and produced a film and spot reaction. The two spiroplasmas were serologically indistinguishable but were related to serogroup IV spiroplasmas, which had been previously isolated from flower surfaces and from insects. The isolates were distinct from the three previously established species of Spiroplasma and from other presently known serogroups. The G + C content of the DNA from strain B31 was 30 +/- 1 mol %. Both B31 and B39 strains were associated with a lethal infection ("May disease") of the honey-bee. On the basis of the characterization presented here, it is proposed that these spiroplasmal pathogens of bees and allied strains be classified as a new species, Spiroplasma apis, the type strain of which is B31 (ATCC 33834).

  15. Inheritance of traits associated with reproductive potential in Apis mellifera capensis and Apis mellifera scutellata workers.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Lyndon A; Allsopp, Michael H; Beekman, Madeleine; Wossler, Theresa C; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2008-01-01

    When workers of the thelytokous Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis, come into contact with colonies of the neighboring arrhenotokous subspecies Apis mellifera scutellata, they can become lethal social parasites. We examined the inheritance of 3 traits (number of ovarioles, number of basitarsal hairs, and size of spermatheca) that are thought to be associated with reproductive potential in A. m. capensis workers. To do so, we produced hybrid A. m. scutellata/A. m. capensis queens and backcrossed them to either A. m. capensis or A. m. scutellata drones. We then measured the 3 traits in parental, hybrid, and backcross offspring. We show that the 3 traits are phenotypically correlated. We also show that the expression of ovariole number, basitarsal hairs, and size of spermatheca is influenced by the genotype of the individual and the rearing environment but that the influence of the rearing environment is less important to the number of ovarioles. We hypothesize a single recessive allele (l), present at high frequency in natural A. m. capensis populations, which when homozygous causes larvae to elicit more food. This increased feeding as larvae causes resulting adult workers to develop more queen-like morphology and increased reproductive potential. The number of ovarioles, in contrast, appears to be under independent genetic control.

  16. Inhibiting DNA methylation alters olfactory extinction but not acquisition learning in Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhiwen; Wang, Chao; Nieh, James C; Tan, Ken

    2016-07-01

    DNA methylation plays a key role in invertebrate acquisition and extinction memory. Honey bees have excellent olfactory learning, but the role of DNA methylation in memory formation has, to date, only been studied in Apis mellifera. We inhibited DNA methylation by inhibiting DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) with zebularine (zeb) and studied the resulting effects upon olfactory acquisition and extinction memory in two honey bee species, Apis cerana and A. mellifera. We used the proboscis extension reflex (PER) assay to measure memory. We provide the first demonstration that DNA methylation is also important in the olfactory extinction learning of A. cerana. DNMT did not reduce acquisition learning in either species. However, zeb bidirectionally and differentially altered extinction learning in both species. In particular, zeb provided 1h before acquisition learning improved extinction memory retention in A. mellifera, but reduced extinction memory retention in A. cerana. The reasons for these differences are unclear, but provide a basis for future studies to explore species-specific differences in the effects of methylation on memory formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quality control Lactobacillus strains for use with the API 50CH and API ZYM systems at 37 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Charteris, W P; Kelly, P M; Morelli, L; Collins, J K

    2001-01-01

    The API 50CH and API ZYM systems fulfil an important role in the polyphasic taxonomic identification of lactobacilli. When the API 50CH fermentation profile of the quality control Lactobacillus casei var. alactosus (Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei) strain NCFB 206 was determined at 37 degrees C, it was found to differ from that determined at 30 degrees C by BioMéreiux SA (Montalieu Vercieu, France) and the National Collection of Food Bacteria (Aberdeen, Scotland). In addition, the API 50CH fermentation and API ZYM profiles of Lb. casei strain ATCC 334T determined at 37 degrees C differed from those determined at 30 degrees C by Lee and Simard (1984). Strains NCFB 206 and ATCC 334T were thus assumed to exhibit temperature-dependent variation in fermentation profile, a phenomenon recently described by Nigatu et al. (2000). In contrast, Lb. rhamnosus strain ATCC 243T did not exhibit temperature-dependent variation in fermentation profile. Moreover, the fermentation profile obtained at 37 degrees C differed in only one respect (positive beta-gentiobiose utilisation) from that published by Collins et al. (1989). In addition, Lactobacillus strain GG produced a stable and reproducible API ZYM profile at 37 degrees C, although some variation in the level of enzyme activity was evident. Thus, strain NCFB 206 was replaced by strain ATCC 243T as the quality control strain of choice for use with the API 50CH fermentation system, and Lactobacillus strain GG adopted for use as a quality control strain with the API ZYM system for strain identification of lactobacilli at 37 degrees C. The API 50CH and API ZYM profiles of the commercially important Lactobacillus strains NCFB 1748, GG, KLD, F19, and ACA-DC 212.3 were determined at 37 degrees C after anaerobic growth in MRS broth. The fermentation and enzyme profiles of strain NCFB 1748 were almost identical to those of Lb. crispatus ATCC 33820T, those of strain GG were found to be more similar to those of Lb. rhamnosus strain 243T

  18. A Process Analytical Technology (PAT) approach to control a new API manufacturing process: development, validation and implementation.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Cédric; Clicq, David; Lecomte, Clémence; Merschaert, Alain; Norrant, Edith; Fotiadu, Frédéric

    2014-03-01

    Pharmaceutical companies are progressively adopting and introducing Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Quality-by-Design (QbD) concepts promoted by the regulatory agencies, aiming the building of the quality directly into the product by combining thorough scientific understanding and quality risk management. An analytical method based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was developed as a PAT tool to control on-line an API (active pharmaceutical ingredient) manufacturing crystallization step during which the API and residual solvent contents need to be precisely determined to reach the predefined seeding point. An original methodology based on the QbD principles was designed to conduct the development and validation of the NIR method and to ensure that it is fitted for its intended use. On this basis, Partial least squares (PLS) models were developed and optimized using chemometrics methods. The method was fully validated according to the ICH Q2(R1) guideline and using the accuracy profile approach. The dosing ranges were evaluated to 9.0-12.0% w/w for the API and 0.18-1.50% w/w for the residual methanol. As by nature the variability of the sampling method and the reference method are included in the variability obtained for the NIR method during the validation phase, a real-time process monitoring exercise was performed to prove its fit for purpose. The implementation of this in-process control (IPC) method on the industrial plant from the launch of the new API synthesis process will enable automatic control of the final crystallization step in order to ensure a predefined quality level of the API. In addition, several valuable benefits are expected including reduction of the process time, suppression of a rather difficult sampling and tedious off-line analyses. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. On-line near infrared spectroscopy as a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tool to control an industrial seeded API crystallization.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, C; Lecomte, C; Clicq, D; Merschaert, A; Norrant, E; Fotiadu, F

    2013-09-01

    The final step of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) manufacturing synthesis process consists of a crystallization during which the API and residual solvent contents have to be quantified precisely in order to reach a predefined seeding point. A feasibility study was conducted to demonstrate the suitability of on-line NIR spectroscopy to control this step in line with new version of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) guideline [1]. A quantitative method was developed at laboratory scale using statistical design of experiments (DOE) and multivariate data analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression. NIR models were built to quantify the API in the range of 9-12% (w/w) and to quantify the residual methanol in the range of 0-3% (w/w). To improve the predictive ability of the models, the development procedure encompassed: outliers elimination, optimum model rank definition, spectral range and spectral pre-treatment selection. Conventional criteria such as, number of PLS factors, R(2), root mean square errors of calibration, cross-validation and prediction (RMSEC, RMSECV, RMSEP) enabled the selection of three model candidates. These models were tested in the industrial pilot plant during three technical campaigns. Results of the most suitable models were evaluated against to the chromatographic reference methods. Maximum relative bias of 2.88% was obtained about API target content. Absolute bias of 0.01 and 0.02% (w/w) respectively were achieved at methanol content levels of 0.10 and 0.13% (w/w). The repeatability was assessed as sufficient for the on-line monitoring of the 2 analytes. The present feasibility study confirmed the possibility to use on-line NIR spectroscopy as a PAT tool to monitor in real-time both the API and the residual methanol contents, in order to control the seeding of an API crystallization at industrial scale. Furthermore, the successful scale-up of the method proved its capability to be

  20. The APIES mission to explore the asteroid belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arrigo, P.; Santandrea, S.

    2006-01-01

    APIES (Asteroid Population Investigation & Exploration Swarm) is a mission developed by EADS Astrium in response to the European Space Agency (ESA) recent Call for Ideas for "swarm" missions, based on the utilisation of a large number of spacecraft working cooperatively to achieve the mission objectives. APIES is intended to be the first interplanetary swarm mission, designed to explore the asteroid main belt. This is one of the least known parts of the Solar System, yet holding vital information about its evolution and planet formation. APIES aims to characterize a statistically significant sample of asteroids, exploring the main belt in great detail, measuring mass & density and imaging over 100 of these objects, at a stroke more than doubling the number of Solar System bodies visited by man-made spacecraft. Using the latest advances in systems miniaturization, propulsion, onboard autonomy and communications, the APIES mission can achieve these ambitious goals within the framework of a standard ESA mission. APIES has completed a mission feasibility study as part of the general studies programme (GSP) of ESA, whose purpose is to evaluate novel missions, concepts, methods, and to identify their research and development needs beyond the programmes currently running.

  1. The APIES mission to explore the asteroid belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arrigo, P.; Santandrea, S.

    APIES (Asteroid Population Investigation & Exploration Swarm) is a mission developed by EADS Astrium in response to an European Space Agency (ESA) Call for Ideas for "swarm" missions, based on the utilisation of a large number of spacecraft working cooperatively to achieve the mission objectives. APIES is intended to be the first interplanetary swarm mission, designed to explore the asteroid main belt. This is one the least known parts of the Solar System, yet holding vital information about its evolution and planet formation. APIES aims to characterize a statistically significant sample of asteroids, exploring the main belt in great detail, measuring mass & density and imaging over 100 of these objects, at a stroke more than doubling the number of Solar System bodies visited by man-made spacecraft. Using the latest advances in systems miniaturization, propulsion, onboard autonomy and communications, the APIES mission can achieve these ambitious goals within the framework of a standard ESA mission. APIES has completed a Mission Feasibility Study as part of the General Studies Programme (GSP) of ESA, whose purpose is to evaluate novel missions, concepts, methods, and to identify their research and development needs beyond the programmes currently running.

  2. Does Nosema ceranae Wipe Out Nosema apis in Turkey?

    PubMed Central

    IVGIN TUNCA, Rahşan; OSKAY, Devrim; GOSTERIT, Ayhan; TEKIN, Olgay Kaan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis among apiaries using both spore counts and multiplex PCR and the replacement of N. apis by N. ceranae in some regions of Turkey. Methods: A hundred honey bee samples were collected from 99 apiaries in 11 different locations in 2011–2012 in Turkey. Nosema infection degree from collected samples was determined using light microscope and molecular detection of Nosema spp. (N. ceranae and N. apis) was performed using specific primers by multiplex PCR. Results: N. ceranae was only found spores in sampling areas using molecular diagnosis. N. apis was not detected in whole sampling areas using both techniques. There are no Nosema spores detected in Konya one location using two techniques. The nucleotide sequences from amplification products of the Nosema infested honeybee samples were (98%) identical with the sequence of N. ceranae for many countries deposited in the GenBank database in this study. Conclusion: The present study illustrated that N. ceranae is the only spores for sampled areas in 2011–2012. The study could also indicate that N. ceranae has been replaced instead of N. apis in Turkey. In addition, the prevalence of N. ceranae and two microsporodia spores effects on honey bee colonies in Turkey were needed to determine with intensive sampling, periodically. PMID:28096862

  3. A statistical treatment of bioassay pour fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barengoltz, Jack; Hughes, David

    A bioassay is a method for estimating the number of bacterial spores on a spacecraft surface for the purpose of demonstrating compliance with planetary protection (PP) requirements (Ref. 1). The details of the process may be seen in the appropriate PP document (e.g., for NASA, Ref. 2). In general, the surface is mechanically sampled with a damp sterile swab or wipe. The completion of the process is colony formation in a growth medium in a plate (Petri dish); the colonies are counted. Consider a set of samples from randomly selected, known areas of one spacecraft surface, for simplicity. One may calculate the mean and standard deviation of the bioburden density, which is the ratio of counts to area sampled. The standard deviation represents an estimate of the variation from place to place of the true bioburden density commingled with the precision of the individual sample counts. The accuracy of individual sample results depends on the equipment used, the collection method, and the culturing method. One aspect that greatly influences the result is the pour fraction, which is the quantity of fluid added to the plates divided by the total fluid used in extracting spores from the sampling equipment. In an analysis of a single sample’s counts due to the pour fraction, one seeks to answer the question: What is the probability that if a certain number of spores are counted with a known pour fraction, that there are an additional number of spores in the part of the rinse not poured. This is given for specific values by the binomial distribution density, where detection (of culturable spores) is success and the probability of success is the pour fraction. A special summation over the binomial distribution, equivalent to adding for all possible values of the true total number of spores, is performed. This distribution when normalized will almost yield the desired quantity. It is the probability that the additional number of spores does not exceed a certain value. Of course

  4. Comparison of the energetic stress associated with experimental Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis infection of honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Botías, Cristina; Barrios, Laura; Martínez-Salvador, Amparo; Meana, Aránzazu; Mayack, Christopher; Higes, Mariano

    2011-09-01

    Nosema ceranae is a relatively new and widespread parasite of the western honeybee Apis mellifera that provokes a new form of nosemosis. In comparison to Nosema apis, which has been infecting the honeybee for much longer, N. ceranae seems to have co-evolved less with this host, causing a more virulent disease. Given that N. apis and N. ceranae are obligate intracellular microsporidian parasites, needing host energy to reproduce, energetic stress may be an important factor contributing to the increased virulence observed. Through feeding experiments on caged bees, we show that both mortality and sugar syrup consumption were higher in N. ceranae-infected bees than in N. apis-infected and control bees. The mortality and sugar syrup consumption are also higher in N. apis-infected bees than in controls, but are less than in N. ceranae-infected bees. With both microsporidia, mortality and sugar syrup consumption increased in function of the increasing spore counts administered for infection. The differences in energetic requirements between both Nosema spp. confirm that their metabolic patterns are not the same, which may depend critically on host-parasite interactions and, ultimately, on host pathology. The repercussions of this increased energetic stress may even explain the changes in host behavior due to starvation, lack of thermoregulatory capacity, or higher rates of trophallaxis, which might enhance transmission and bee death.

  5. The microsporidian parasites Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis are widespread in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies across Scotland.

    PubMed

    Bollan, Karen A; Hothersall, J Daniel; Moffat, Christopher; Durkacz, John; Saranzewa, Nastja; Wright, Geraldine A; Raine, Nigel E; Highet, Fiona; Connolly, Christopher N

    2013-02-01

    Nosema ceranae is spreading into areas where Nosema apis already exists. N. ceranae has been reported to cause an asymptomatic infection that may lead, ultimately, to colony collapse. It is thought that there may be a temperature barrier to its infiltration into countries in colder climates. In this study, 71 colonies from Scottish Beekeeper's Association members have been screened for the presence of N. apis and N. ceranae across Scotland. We find that only 11 of the 71 colonies tested positive for spores by microscopy. However, 70.4 % of colonies screened by PCR revealed the presence of both N. ceranae and N. apis, with only 4.2 or 7 % having either strain alone and 18.3 % being Nosema free. A range of geographically separated colonies testing positive for N. ceranae were sequenced to confirm their identity. All nine sequences confirmed the presence of N. ceranae and indicated the presence of a single new variant. Furthermore, two of the spore-containing colonies had only N. ceranae present, and these exhibited the presence of smaller spores that could be distinguished from N. apis by the analysis of average spore size. Differential quantification of the PCR product revealed N. ceranae to be the dominant species in all seven samples tested. In conclusion, N. ceranae is widespread in Scotland where it exists in combination with the endemic N. apis. A single variant, identical to that found in France (DQ374655) except for the addition of a single nucleotide polymorphism, is present in Scotland.

  6. Nosema ceranae in drone honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Traver, Brenna E; Fell, Richard D

    2011-07-01

    Nosema ceranae is a microsporidian intracellular parasite of honey bees, Apis mellifera. Previously Nosema apis was thought to be the only cause of nosemosis, but it has recently been proposed that N. ceranae is displacing N. apis. The rapid spread of N. ceranae could be due to additional transmission mechanisms, as well as higher infectivity. We analyzed drones for N. ceranae infections using duplex qPCR with species specific primers and probes. We found that both immature and mature drones are infected with N. ceranae at low levels. This is the first report detecting N. ceranae in immature bees. Our data suggest that because drones are known to drift from their parent hives to other hives, they could provide a means for disease spread within and between apiaries.

  7. Acinetobacter apis sp. nov., isolated from the intestinal tract of a honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pil Soo; Shin, Na-Ri; Kim, Joon Yong; Yun, Ji-Hyun; Hyun, Dong-Wook; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2014-08-01

    A novel Gram-negative, obligate aerobic, non-motile, and both coccobacillus- and bacillus-shaped bacterium, designated strain HYN18(T), was isolated from the intestinal tract of a honey bee (Apis mellifera). The isolate was oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Strain HYN18(T) showed optimum growth at 25°C, pH 6-7, and in the presence of 1% (w/v) NaCl in trypticase soy broth medium. The isolate was negative for hydrolyses of starch, casein, gelatin and urea, indole production from tryptone and hemolysis on sheep blood agar. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene and rpoB gene sequence showed that strain HYN18(T) was most closely related to Acinetobacter nectaris SAP 763.2(T) and A. boissieri SAP 284.1(T) with 98.3% and 98.1% similarity (16S rRNA gene), respectively, and 84.4% similarity with Acinetobacter nectaris SAP 763.2(T) (rpoB gene). The major cellular fatty acids were summed features 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c /C16:1ω6c ), C12:0 and C16:0. The main isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone-9 (Q-9). The polar lipids of strain HYN18(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified lipids, an unidentified phospholipid and an unidentified glycolipid. The DNA G+C content was 40.6 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments indicated less than 33 ± 10% relatedness to the closest phylogenetic species, Acinetobacter nectaris SAP 763.2(T). Thus, the phenotypic, phylogenetic and genotypic analyses indicate that strain HYN18(T) is a novel species within the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter apis is proposed. The type strain is HYN18(T) (=KACC 16906(T) =JCM 18575(T)).

  8. AERIAL OF SHUTTLE LANDING FACILITY [SLF] POURING CONCRETE ON RUNWAY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    AERIAL OF SHUTTLE LANDING FACILITY [SLF] POURING CONCRETE ON RUNWAY KSC-375C-10036.32 108-KSC-375C-10036.32, P-21425, ARCHIVE-04501 Aerial oblique of Shuttle Landing Facility. Pouring concrete on runway. Direction North - Altitude 100'.

  9. Safe “cloudification” of large images through picker APIs

    PubMed Central

    Bremer, Erich; Kurc, Tahsin; Gao, Yi; Saltz, Joel; Almeida, Jonas S

    2016-01-01

    The “Box model” allows users with no particular training in informatics, or access to specialized infrastructure, operate generic cloud computing resources through a temporary URI dereferencing mechanism known as “drop-file-picker API” (“picker API” for sort). This application programming interface (API) was popularized in the web app development community by DropBox, and is now a consumer-facing feature of all major cloud computing platforms such as Box.com, Google Drive and Amazon S3. This reports describes a prototype web service application that uses picker APIs to expose a new, “cloudified”, API tailored for image analysis, without compromising the private governance of the data exposed. In order to better understand this cross-platform cloud computing landscape, we first measured the time for both transfer and traversing of large image files generated by whole slide imaging (WSI) in Digital Pathology. The verification that there is extensive interconnectivity between cloud resources let to the development of a prototype software application that exposes an image-traversing REST API to image files stored in any of the consumer-facing “boxes”. In summary, an image file can be upload/synchronized into a any cloud resource with a file picker API and the prototype service described here will expose an HTTP REST API that remains within the safety of the user’s own governance. The open source prototype is publicly available at sbu-bmi.github.io/imagebox. Availability The accompanying prototype application is made publicly available, fully functional, with open source, at http://sbu-bmi.github.io/imagebox://sbu-bmi.github.io/imagebox. An illustrative webcasted use of this Web App is included with the project codebase at https://github.com/SBU-BMI/imageboxs://github.com/SBU-BMI/imagebox. PMID:28269829

  10. Device for controlling the pouring of molten materials

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Alan F.; Duncan, Alfred L.

    1994-01-01

    A device for controlling the pouring of a molten material from a crucible or other container. The device (10) includes an annular retainer ring (12) for mounting in the drain opening in the bottom of a conventional crucible (16), the retainer ring defining a opening (14) therethrough. The device (10) also includes a plug member (22) having an annular forward end portion (24) for force-fit reception in the opening (14) of the retainer ring (12) to selectively seal the opening (14) and for being selectively forced through the opening (14). The plug member (22) has a rear end portion (26) for being positioned within the crucible (16), the rear end portion (26) including stop means for prohibiting the rear end portion from passing through the opening (14) in the retainer ring (12) when the forward end portion (24) is selectively forced through the opening. The plug member (22) defines at least one, and preferably a plurality of flutes (32), each extending from a point rearward the annular forward end portion (24) of the plug member (22), and forward the stop means, to a point rearward of the stop means. The flutes (32) permit fluid communication between the interior and exterior of the crucible (16) when the forward end portion (24) of the plug member (22) is forced through the opening (14) in the retaining ring (12) such that the molten material is allowed to flow from the crucible (16).

  11. Device for controlling the pouring of molten materials

    DOEpatents

    Moore, A.F.; Duncan, A.L.

    1994-02-15

    A device is described for controlling the pouring of a molten material from a crucible or other container. The device includes an annular retainer ring for mounting in the drain opening in the bottom of a conventional crucible, the retainer ring defining a opening there through. The device also includes a plug member having an annular forward end portion for force-fit reception in the opening of the retainer ring to selectively seal the opening and for being selectively forced through the opening. The plug member has a rear end portion for being positioned within the crucible, the rear end portion including stop means for prohibiting the rear end portion from passing through the opening in the retainer ring when the forward end portion is selectively forced through the opening. The plug member defines at least one, and preferably a plurality of flutes, each extending from a point rearward the annular forward end portion of the plug member, and forward the stop means, to a point rearward of the stop means. The flutes permit fluid communication between the interior and exterior of the crucible when the forward end portion of the plug member is forced through the opening in the retaining ring such that the molten material is allowed to flow from the crucible. 5 figures.

  12. elevatr: Access Elevation Data from Various APIs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several web services are available that provide access to elevation data. This package provides access to several of those services and returns elevation data either as a SpatialPointsDataFrame from point elevation services or as a raster object from raster elevation services. ...

  13. Presence of Nosema ceranae in honeybees (Apis mellifera) in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Invernizzi, Ciro; Abud, Carolina; Tomasco, Ivanna H; Harriet, Jorge; Ramallo, Gustavo; Campá, Juan; Katz, Helena; Gardiol, Gabriela; Mendoza, Yamandú

    2009-06-01

    The microsporidium Nosema ceranae is an emergent pathogen of European honeybees Apis mellifera. Using a PCR-RFLP diagnosis, 29 samples of infected honeybees obtained in 2007-2008 (N=26), 2004 (N=2) and before 1990 (N=1) were analyzed for the presence of Nosema apis and N. ceranae. Only N. ceranae was found in all samples, indicating that this species dispersed to Uruguay (and likely the region) at some time before 1990. The presence of N. ceranae in Uruguay is not associated with an increase of Nosemosis, and its role in colony loss seems to be irrelevant.

  14. T-RFLP analysis of bacterial communities in the midguts of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana honey bees in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Disayathanoowat, Terd; Young, John Peter W; Helgason, Thorunn; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated bacterial community structures in the midguts of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana in Thailand to understand how bacterial communities develop in Apis species. The bacterial species present in replicate colonies from different locations and life stages were analysed. PCR amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses revealed a total of 16 distinct terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs), 12 of which were shared between A. mellifera and A. cerana populations. The T-RFs were affiliated to Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinomycetes. The Gammaproteobacteria were found to be common in all stages of honey bee, but in addition, the Firmicutes group was found to be present in the worker bees. Bacterial community structure showed no difference amongst the replicate colonies, but was affected to some degree by geographical location, life stage and species of honey bees.

  15. Infectivity and virulence of Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis in commercially available North American honey bees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nosema ceranae infection is ubiquitous in western honey bees, Apis mellifera. In the US, displacement of N. apis in bee colonies suggests that N. ceranae has competitive advantages. Our study, however, showed that N. ceranae was significantly less infective and less virulent than N. apis in commerc...

  16. APPARATUS FOR MELTING AND POURING METAL

    DOEpatents

    Harris, F.A.

    1958-02-25

    This patent relates to a crucible for melting and pouring a metal under controlled atmospheric conditions. The crucible has a frangible plug in the bottom and a retaining device to prevent the entrance of the broken portions of the plug into the mold without interfering with the flow of the melt. After the charge has been melted, a knockout rod is lowered through the charge and forced against the frangible plug sufficiently to break off the closure disk along a previously scored line. The disk drops onto a retaining grid large enough to permit the flow of metal around the disk and into the mold below. Thts arrangement elimnates the entry of broken portions of the plug into the mold, thereby elimnating a common cause of imperfect castings.

  17. PrismTech Data Distribution Service Java API Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggs, Cortney

    2008-01-01

    My internship duties with Launch Control Systems required me to start performance testing of an Object Management Group's (OMG) Data Distribution Service (DDS) specification implementation by PrismTech Limited through the Java programming language application programming interface (API). DDS is a networking middleware for Real-Time Data Distribution. The performance testing involves latency, redundant publishers, extended duration, redundant failover, and read performance. Time constraints allowed only for a data throughput test. I have designed the testing applications to perform all performance tests when time is allowed. Performance evaluation data such as megabits per second and central processing unit (CPU) time consumption were not easily attainable through the Java programming language; they required new methods and classes created in the test applications. Evaluation of this product showed the rate that data can be sent across the network. Performance rates are better on Linux platforms than AIX and Sun platforms. Compared to previous C++ programming language API, the performance evaluation also shows the language differences for the implementation. The Java API of the DDS has a lower throughput performance than the C++ API.

  18. The Proteins API: accessing key integrated protein and genome information.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, Andrew; Antunes, Ricardo; Alpi, Emanuele; Bursteinas, Borisas; Gonzales, Leonardo; Liu, Wudong; Luo, Jie; Qi, Guoying; Turner, Edd; Martin, Maria

    2017-04-05

    The Proteins API provides searching and programmatic access to protein and associated genomics data such as curated protein sequence positional annotations from UniProtKB, as well as mapped variation and proteomics data from large scale data sources (LSS). Using the coordinates service, researchers are able to retrieve the genomic sequence coordinates for proteins in UniProtKB. This, the LSS genomics and proteomics data for UniProt proteins is programmatically only available through this service. A Swagger UI has been implemented to provide documentation, an interface for users, with little or no programming experience, to 'talk' to the services to quickly and easily formulate queries with the services and obtain dynamically generated source code for popular programming languages, such as Java, Perl, Python and Ruby. Search results are returned as standard JSON, XML or GFF data objects. The Proteins API is a scalable, reliable, fast, easy to use RESTful services that provides a broad protein information resource for users to ask questions based upon their field of expertise and allowing them to gain an integrated overview of protein annotations available to aid their knowledge gain on proteins in biological processes. The Proteins API is available at (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/proteins/api/doc).

  19. Standard methods for Apis mellifera anatomy and dissection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An understanding of the anatomy and functions of internal and external structures are fundamental to many studies on the honey bee Apis mellifera. Similarly, proficiency in dissection techniques is vital for many more complex procedures. In this paper, which is a prelude to the other papers of the C...

  20. Standard methods for research on apis mellifera gut symbionts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gut microbes can play an important role in digestion, disease resistance, and the general health of animals, but little is known about the biology of gut symbionts in Apis mellifera. This paper is part of a series on honey bee research methods, providing protocols for studying gut symbionts. We desc...

  1. Standard methods for research on Apis mellifera gut symbionts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gut microbes can play an important role in digestion, disease resistance, and the general health of animals, but little is known about the biology of gut symbionts in Apis mellifera. This paper is part of a series on honey bee research methods, providing protocols for studying gut symbionts. We desc...

  2. The Proteins API: accessing key integrated protein and genome information

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Ricardo; Alpi, Emanuele; Gonzales, Leonardo; Liu, Wudong; Luo, Jie; Qi, Guoying; Turner, Edd

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Proteins API provides searching and programmatic access to protein and associated genomics data such as curated protein sequence positional annotations from UniProtKB, as well as mapped variation and proteomics data from large scale data sources (LSS). Using the coordinates service, researchers are able to retrieve the genomic sequence coordinates for proteins in UniProtKB. This, the LSS genomics and proteomics data for UniProt proteins is programmatically only available through this service. A Swagger UI has been implemented to provide documentation, an interface for users, with little or no programming experience, to ‘talk’ to the services to quickly and easily formulate queries with the services and obtain dynamically generated source code for popular programming languages, such as Java, Perl, Python and Ruby. Search results are returned as standard JSON, XML or GFF data objects. The Proteins API is a scalable, reliable, fast, easy to use RESTful services that provides a broad protein information resource for users to ask questions based upon their field of expertise and allowing them to gain an integrated overview of protein annotations available to aid their knowledge gain on proteins in biological processes. The Proteins API is available at (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/proteins/api/doc). PMID:28383659

  3. Development and evaluation of the OCD/API model

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses a modification of the Offshore and Coastal Dispersion Model that improves its ability to account for effects of complex terrain, fumigation, and platform downwash. The OCD/API modification tested better than the previous model version for complex terrain and for noncomplex situations.

  4. Trichomonascus apis sp. nov., a heterothallic yeast species from honeycomb.

    PubMed

    Péter, Gábor; Tornai-Lehoczki, Judit; Dlauchy, Dénes

    2009-06-01

    Four strains of a novel heterothallic yeast species were isolated from pollen-storing cells of a honeycomb of honeybee (Apis mellifera) in Hungary. Analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit (26S) rRNA gene sequences placed the strains in the Trichomonascus clade. The four strains share identical D1/D2 sequences and differ by 24 substitutions and nine indels from the genetically most closely related species, Blastobotrys attinorum. The name Trichomonascus apis sp. nov. is proposed for the novel species. The carbon-source assimilation spectrum of T. apis sp. nov. is rather broad. Unlike B. attinorum, it assimilates sucrose, trehalose, d-glucuronate and succinate and does not grow at 37 degrees C, thus enabling the two taxa to be distinguished. The type and isotype strains of Trichomonascus apis are NCAIM Y.01848(T) (=CBS 10922(T) =NRRL Y-48475(T)) and NCAIM Y.01849(IT) (=CBS 10923(IT) =NRRL Y-48476(IT)), respectively.

  5. The New Cannabis Policy Taxonomy on APIS: Making Sense of the Cannabis Policy Universe.

    PubMed

    Klitzner, Michael D; Thomas, Sue; Schuler, Jonathan; Hilton, Michael; Mosher, James

    2017-06-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's Alcohol Policy Information System (APIS) is, for the first time, adding legal data pertaining to recreational cannabis use to its current offerings on alcohol policy. Now that Colorado, Washington, Oregon, Alaska, and the District of Columbia have legalized aspects of recreational cannabis, and more states are considering it, there is an urgency to provide high-quality, multi-dimensional legal data to the public health community. This article introduces the Cannabis Policy Taxonomy recently posted on APIS, and explores its theoretical and empirical contributions to the substance abuse literature and its potential for use in policy research. We also present results of interviews with public health experts in alcohol and cannabis policy, which sought to determine the most important variables to address in the initial release of cannabis policy data. From this process, we found that pricing controls emerged as the variable singled out by the largest number of experts. This analysis points to a host of vital policies that are of increasing importance to public health policy scholars and their current and future research.

  6. New results on sporadic ionization observed with the API technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhmetieva, N. V.; Belikovich, V. V.; Kagan, L. M.

    We present new results of our studies of sporadic E-layers E s by means of the artificial periodic irregularities API technique Artificial periodic irregularities were generated in antinodes of the standing electromagnetic wave formed due to interference of HF radio waves transmitted vertically and reflected from the ionosphere The API are horizontally aligned with a vertical scale of one-half of the wavelength lambda of the transmitted wave for more details on the API method and its applications see Belikovich et al Ionospheric Research by Means of Artificial Periodic Irregularities - Katlenburg-Lindau Germany 2002 Copernicus GmbH ISBN 3-936586-03-9 160 pp Recently we have presented and experimentally realized a method to determine the sporadic E-layer ion composition the molecular masses of the predominant metallic ions and the total ion densities on the basis of the measurements of the amplitude and the decay time of the API signals To study the structure of sporadic ionization layers in the E region as well as a possibility and effectiveness of Es modification by high-power radiowave transmissions we designed and carried out another experiment at the SURA facility 56 1 r N 44 1 r E in August 10-15 2004 The ionosphere modification was done by O-mode waves using two SURA transmitters at the frequency 4 3 MHz with effective radiated power ERP of about 60 MW at the transmitting schedule of the 1-min on 2-min off so-called additional heating The third transmitter was used for API formation and

  7. Expanding Ring for the DWPF Melter Pour Spout

    SciTech Connect

    Imrich, K.J.

    2002-09-23

    The Materials Technology Section was requested to develop a novel concept, namely that of an expanding ring, to restore the upper knife edge in the DWPF melter pour spout. The expanding ring is a unit that, when deployed in the DPWF pour spout, will self-expand against the inner diameter of the 3-inch section of the pour spout providing a seal against glass leakage and a new knife edge that will mate with a Type 3A insert. This report provides a summary of the final design features of the expanding ring and an overview of its development.

  8. Etude d'un systeme de recuperation et de stockage de chaleur pour un systeme eolien-diesel avec stockage d'air comprime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remillon, Thibaut

    La recherche presentee dans ce memoire porte sur les systemes hybrides eolien-diesel avec stockage d'air comprime (SHEDAC) adaptes a la production d'electricite en sites isoles, et plus precisement sur l'apport d'un systeme de recuperation et de stockage de chaleur (TES) au fonctionnement de ces systemes. Le principe de fonctionnement est le suivant. Quand la puissance eolienne est excedentaire par rapport aux besoins de la charge, le surplus d'energie est utilise pour comprimer de l'air. De ce processus resulte un rechauffement de l'air, on choisit d'extraire et de stocker la chaleur separement. Lors de la phase de restitution d'energie, l'air comprime utilise pour suralimenter le moteur thermique est rechauffe en utili sant la chaleur stockee precedemment. Tout au long de l'etude, nous avons seulement pris en compte la chaleur provenant du processus de compression de l'air, et neglige en tous points du systeme les echanges de chaleur avec le milieu exterieur. Pour quantifier l'apport du systeme de stockage de chaleur, nous avons tout d'abord mene une etude bibliographique sur ces systemes, pour identifier les meilleures solutions disponibles. Ensuite, on a modelise une de ces solutions sous Simulink pour etudier son fonctionnement de maniere plus precise. D'autre part, on a modelise un systeme de stockage de chaleur ideal pour quantifier l'apport maximal d'un TES sur les performances du SHEDAC. Nous avons conclu que les TES les plus adaptes aux systemes SHEDAC etaient les solutions actives directes a deux reservoirs, et que, pour beneficier au maximum du systeme de stockage de chaleur, il etait interessant de realiser la detente de l'air comprime stocke dans un moteur a air comprime, pour maximiser la recuperation d'energie mecanique.

  9. Un accumulateur echangeur de chaleur hybride pour la gestion simultanee des energies solaire et electrique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Hammou, Zouhair

    Cette etude porte sur la conception d'un accumulateur echangeur de chaleur hybride (AECH) pour la gestion simultanee des energies solaire et electrique. Un modele mathematique reposant sur les equations de conservation de la quantite d'energie est expose. Il est developpe pour tester differents materiaux de stockage, entre autres, les materiaux a changement de phase (solide/liquide) et les materiaux de stockage sensible. Un code de calcul est mis en eeuvre sur ordinateur, puis valide a l'aide des resultats analytiques et numeriques de la litterature. En parallele, un prototype experimental a echelle reduite est concu au laboratoire afin de valider le code de calcul. Des simulations sont effectuees pour etudier les effets des parametres de conception et des materiaux de stockage sur le comportement thermique de l'AECH et sur la consommation d'energie electrique. Les resultats des simulations sur quatre mois d'hiver montrent que la paraffine n-octadecane et l'acide caprique sont deux candidats souhaitables pour le stockage d'energie destine au chauffage des habitats. L'utilisation de ces deux materiaux dans l'AECH permet de reduire la consommation d'energie electrique de 32% et d'aplanir le probleme de pointe electrique puisque 90% de l'energie electrique est consommee durant les heures creuses. En plus, en adoptant un tarif preferentiel, le calcul des couts lies a la consommation d'energie electrique montre que le consommateur adoptant ce systeme beneficie d'une reduction de 50% de la facture d'electricite.

  10. Study of the obp5 gene in Apis mellifera ligustica and Apis cerana cerana.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H X; Zeng, X N; Liang, Q; Zhang, X F; Huang, W Z; Chen, H S; Luo, Y X

    2015-06-12

    Apis mellifera ligustica and A. cerana cerana exhibit differences in olfactory sensitivity to odors from nectariferous plants and diseased broods. It is presumed that the differences in odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) between these 2 species contribute to their olfactory sensitivity. We compared the sequences, temporal expression pattern, and binding properties of the 2 OBP-encoding genes. We cloned the Amobp5 and Acobp5 genes. Among the ligands tested, phenethyl acetate was the most variable, with AcOBP5 showing high affinity and AmOBP5 having no apparent affinity for this ligand. While AmOBP5 had high affinity to both benzyl alcohol and 2-phenylethanol, the binding affinity of AcOBP5 to these compounds was moderate. However, the fluorescence intensity of these compounds was not decreased below 50%; thus, the dissociation constants could not be calculated. The Amobp5 gene showed significantly higher expression in 10- and 15-day-old workers than in other stages, while the Acobp5 gene had the highest expression in 30-day-old workers. Both the Amobp5 and Acobp5 genes had the lowest expression level in 1-day-old workers. These results suggest that the binding properties and temporal expression patterns of the obp5 genes in A. mellifera and A. cerana play a critical role in the olfactory sensitivity of workers.

  11. Host Specificity in the Honeybee Parasitic Mite, Varroa spp. in Apis mellifera and Apis cerana.

    PubMed

    Beaurepaire, Alexis L; Truong, Tuan A; Fajardo, Alejandro C; Dinh, Tam Q; Cervancia, Cleofas; Moritz, Robin F A

    2015-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major global threat to the Western honeybee Apis mellifera. This mite was originally a parasite of A. cerana in Asia but managed to spill over into colonies of A. mellifera which had been introduced to this continent for honey production. To date, only two almost clonal types of V. destructor from Korea and Japan have been detected in A. mellifera colonies. However, since both A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies are kept in close proximity throughout Asia, not only new spill overs but also spill backs of highly virulent types may be possible, with unpredictable consequences for both honeybee species. We studied the dispersal and hybridisation potential of Varroa from sympatric colonies of the two hosts in Northern Vietnam and the Philippines using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers. We found a very distinct mtDNA haplotype equally invading both A. mellifera and A. cerana in the Philippines. In contrast, we observed a complete reproductive isolation of various Vietnamese Varroa populations in A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies even if kept in the same apiaries. In light of this variance in host specificity, the adaptation of the mite to its hosts seems to have generated much more genetic diversity than previously recognised and the Varroa species complex may include substantial cryptic speciation.

  12. Host Specificity in the Honeybee Parasitic Mite, Varroa spp. in Apis mellifera and Apis cerana

    PubMed Central

    Beaurepaire, Alexis L.; Dinh, Tam Q.; Cervancia, Cleofas; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2015-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major global threat to the Western honeybee Apis mellifera. This mite was originally a parasite of A. cerana in Asia but managed to spill over into colonies of A. mellifera which had been introduced to this continent for honey production. To date, only two almost clonal types of V. destructor from Korea and Japan have been detected in A. mellifera colonies. However, since both A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies are kept in close proximity throughout Asia, not only new spill overs but also spill backs of highly virulent types may be possible, with unpredictable consequences for both honeybee species. We studied the dispersal and hybridisation potential of Varroa from sympatric colonies of the two hosts in Northern Vietnam and the Philippines using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers. We found a very distinct mtDNA haplotype equally invading both A. mellifera and A. cerana in the Philippines. In contrast, we observed a complete reproductive isolation of various Vietnamese Varroa populations in A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies even if kept in the same apiaries. In light of this variance in host specificity, the adaptation of the mite to its hosts seems to have generated much more genetic diversity than previously recognised and the Varroa species complex may include substantial cryptic speciation. PMID:26248192

  13. The concrete technology of post pouring zone of raft foundation of Hongyun Building B tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Suhua; Yu, Liu; Wu, Yanli; Zhao, Ying

    2017-08-01

    The foundation of Hongyun building B tower is made of raft board foundation which is 3300mm in the thickness concreted pouring amount of large and the late poured band in the pouring settlement formed. The temperature of the pouring settlement was controlled in order to prevent the crack of the construction of the late poured band. The steel of post pouring band was designed and monitorred. The quality of post pouring band quality is guaranteed in the raft concrete foundation of Hongyun Building B tower.

  14. Decodeurs rapides pour codes topologiques quantiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duclos-Cianci, Guillaume

    L'encodage topologique de l'information quantique a attire beaucoup d'attention, car c'est un modele qui semble propice a resister aux erreurs locales. Tout d'abord, le modele du calcul topologique est base sur la statistique anyonique non-Abelienne universelle et sur son controle. Des anyons indesirables peuvent apparaitre soudainement, en raison de fluctuations thermiques ou de processus virtuels. La presence de ces anyons peut corrompre l'information encodee, il est necessaire de les eliminer: la correction consiste a fusionner les defauts tout en preservant la topologie du systeme. Ensuite, dans le cas des codes topologiques, on doit aussi proteger l'information encodee dans la topologie. En effet, dans ces systemes, on n'a acces qu'a une fraction de l'information decrivant l'erreur. Elle est recueillie par des mesures et peut etre interpretee en termes de particules. Ces defauts peuplent le code et doivent etre annihiles adequatement dans le but de preserver l'information encodee. Dans ce memoire, nous proposons un algorithme efficace, appele decodeur, pouvant etre utilise dans les deux contextes decrits ci-haut. Pour y parvenir, cet algorithme s'inspire de methodes de renormalisation et de propagation de croyance. Il est exponentiellement plus rapide que les methodes deja existantes, etant de complexite O (ℓ2 log ℓ) en serie et, si on parallelise, O (log ℓ) en temps, contre O (ℓ6) pour les autres decodeurs. Le temps etant le facteur limitant dans le probleme du decodage, cette caracteristique est primordiale. De plus, il tolere une plus grande amplitude de bruit que les methodes existantes; il possede un seuil de ˜ 16.5% sur le canal depolarisant surpassant le seuil deja etabli de ˜ 15.5%. Finalement, il est plus versatile. En effet, en etant limite au code de Kitaev, on ne savait pas decoder les codes topologiques de maniere generale (e.g. codes de couleur). Or, le decodeur propose dans ce memoire peut traiter la grande classe des codes

  15. POURING IRON FROM ELECTRIC FURNACE INTO BULL LADLE AFTER MAGNESIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    POURING IRON FROM ELECTRIC FURNACE INTO BULL LADLE AFTER MAGNESIUM HAD BEEN ADDED TO GENERATE DUCTILE IRON WHEN IT COOLS IN THE MOLD. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  16. 41. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is to right of furnace; photo taken from furnace operator's booth. Looking south/southwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  17. 6. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM THE POURING AISLE OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM THE POURING AISLE OF THE ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING AT ELECTRIC FURNACE X-3. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  18. 47. Pouring deck columns, steampowered concrete mixer at center; direction ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Pouring deck columns, steam-powered concrete mixer at center; direction of view not clear, but probably to north. - Parks Bar Bridge, Spanning Yuba River at State Highway 20, Smartville, Yuba County, CA

  19. 45. EXPOSEDAGGREGATE CONCRETE AT NICHE, NORTH BOUNDARY, SEVERAL TEXTURES POURED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. EXPOSED-AGGREGATE CONCRETE AT NICHE, NORTH BOUNDARY, SEVERAL TEXTURES POURED AT ONE TIME, October 1987 - Meridian Hill Park, Bounded by Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Euclid & W Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. POURING IRON FROM BULL LADLE INTO MOBILE LADLES USED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    POURING IRON FROM BULL LADLE INTO MOBILE LADLES USED TO FILL MOLDS ON CONVEYOR LINES AFTER FERRO-SILICON IS ADDED TO ENHANCE DUCTILITY AND FLUIDITY. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  1. 42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is to right of furnace; operator takes temperature of iron in trough during pout. Looking south - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  2. 13. MASS OF POURED CONCRETE IN IRREGULAR STEPPED LAYERS AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. MASS OF POURED CONCRETE IN IRREGULAR STEPPED LAYERS AT THE BASE OF THE LEFT (EAST) BUTTRESS. CAMERA FACING SOUTHWEST. - Salinas Dam, Salinas River near Pozo Road, Santa Margarita, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  3. Infra-population and -community dynamics of the parasites Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, and consequences for honey bee (Apis mellifera) hosts.

    PubMed

    Williams, Geoffrey R; Shutler, Dave; Burgher-MacLellan, Karen L; Rogers, Richard E L

    2014-01-01

    Nosema spp. fungal gut parasites are among myriad possible explanations for contemporary increased mortality of western honey bees (Apis mellifera, hereafter honey bee) in many regions of the world. Invasive Nosema ceranae is particularly worrisome because some evidence suggests it has greater virulence than its congener N. apis. N. ceranae appears to have recently switched hosts from Asian honey bees (Apis cerana) and now has a nearly global distribution in honey bees, apparently displacing N. apis. We examined parasite reproduction and effects of N. apis, N. ceranae, and mixed Nosema infections on honey bee hosts in laboratory experiments. Both infection intensity and honey bee mortality were significantly greater for N. ceranae than for N. apis or mixed infections; mixed infection resulted in mortality similar to N. apis parasitism and reduced spore intensity, possibly due to inter-specific competition. This is the first long-term laboratory study to demonstrate lethal consequences of N. apis and N. ceranae and mixed Nosema parasitism in honey bees, and suggests that differences in reproduction and intra-host competition may explain apparent heterogeneous exclusion of the historic parasite by the invasive species.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Spiroplasma apis B31T (ATCC 33834), a Bacterium Associated with May Disease of Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Ku, Chuan; Lo, Wen-Sui; Chen, Ling-Ling; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2014-01-09

    Spiroplasma apis B31(T) (ATCC 33834) is a wall-less bacterium in the class Mollicutes that has been linked to May disease of honeybees (Apis mellifera). Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to facilitate the investigation of its virulence factors.

  5. Infra-Population and -Community Dynamics of the Parasites Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, and Consequences for Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Geoffrey R.; Shutler, Dave; Burgher-MacLellan, Karen L.; Rogers, Richard E. L.

    2014-01-01

    Nosema spp. fungal gut parasites are among myriad possible explanations for contemporary increased mortality of western honey bees (Apis mellifera, hereafter honey bee) in many regions of the world. Invasive Nosema ceranae is particularly worrisome because some evidence suggests it has greater virulence than its congener N. apis. N. ceranae appears to have recently switched hosts from Asian honey bees (Apis cerana) and now has a nearly global distribution in honey bees, apparently displacing N. apis. We examined parasite reproduction and effects of N. apis, N. ceranae, and mixed Nosema infections on honey bee hosts in laboratory experiments. Both infection intensity and honey bee mortality were significantly greater for N. ceranae than for N. apis or mixed infections; mixed infection resulted in mortality similar to N. apis parasitism and reduced spore intensity, possibly due to inter-specific competition. This is the first long-term laboratory study to demonstrate lethal consequences of N. apis and N. ceranae and mixed Nosema parasitism in honey bees, and suggests that differences in reproduction and intra-host competition may explain apparent heterogeneous exclusion of the historic parasite by the invasive species. PMID:24987989

  6. Modelface: an Application Programming Interface (API) for Homology Modeling Studies Using Modeller Software

    PubMed Central

    Sakhteman, Amirhossein; Zare, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    An interactive application, Modelface, was presented for Modeller software based on windows platform. The application is able to run all steps of homology modeling including pdb to fasta generation, running clustal, model building and loop refinement. Other modules of modeler including energy calculation, energy minimization and the ability to make single point mutations in the PDB structures are also implemented inside Modelface. The API is a simple batch based application with no memory occupation and is free of charge for academic use. The application is also able to repair missing atom types in the PDB structures making it suitable for many molecular modeling studies such as docking and molecular dynamic simulation. Some successful instances of modeling studies using Modelface are also reported. PMID:28243276

  7. Draft genome sequence of the Algerian bee Apis mellifera intermissa.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Nizar Jamal; Loucif-Ayad, Wahida; Adjlane, Noureddine; Saini, Deepti; Manchiganti, Rushiraj; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh; AlShagoor, Banan; Batainh, Ahmed Mahmud; Mugasimangalam, Raja

    2015-06-01

    Apis mellifera intermissa is the native honeybee subspecies of Algeria. A. m. intermissa occurs in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco, between the Atlas and the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. This bee is very important due to its high ability to adapt to great variations in climatic conditions and due to its preferable cleaning behavior. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this honey bee, its Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JSUV00000000. The 240-Mb genome is being annotated and analyzed. Comparison with the genome of other Apis mellifera sub-species promises to yield insights into the evolution of adaptations to high temperature and resistance to Varroa parasite infestation.

  8. Draft genome sequence of the Algerian bee Apis mellifera intermissa

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Nizar Jamal; Loucif-Ayad, Wahida; Adjlane, Noureddine; Saini, Deepti; Manchiganti, Rushiraj; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh; AlShagoor, Banan; Batainh, Ahmed Mahmud; Mugasimangalam, Raja

    2015-01-01

    Apis mellifera intermissa is the native honeybee subspecies of Algeria. A. m. intermissa occurs in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco, between the Atlas and the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. This bee is very important due to its high ability to adapt to great variations in climatic conditions and due to its preferable cleaning behavior. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this honey bee, its Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JSUV00000000. The 240-Mb genome is being annotated and analyzed. Comparison with the genome of other Apis mellifera sub-species promises to yield insights into the evolution of adaptations to high temperature and resistance to Varroa parasite infestation. PMID:26484171

  9. Uncovering the immune responses of Apis mellifera ligustica larval gut to Ascosphaera apis infection utilizing transcriptome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dafu; Guo, Rui; Xu, Xijian; Xiong, Cuiling; Liang, Qin; Zheng, Yanzhen; Luo, Qun; Zhang, Zhaonan; Huang, Zhijian; Kumar, Dhiraj; Xi, Weijun; Zou, Xuan; Liu, Min

    2017-07-20

    Honeybees are susceptible to a variety of diseases, including chalkbrood, which is capable of causing huge losses of both the number of bees and colony productivity. This research is designed to characterize the transcriptome profiles of Ascosphaera apis-treated and un-treated larval guts of Apis mellifera ligustica in an attempt to unravel the molecular mechanism underlying the immune responses of western honeybee larval guts to mycosis. In this study, 24, 296 and 2157 genes were observed to be differentially expressed in A. apis-treated Apis mellifera (4-, 5- and 6-day-old) compared with un-treated larval guts. Moreover, the expression patterns of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were examined via trend analysis, and subsequently, gene ontology analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were conducted for DEGs involved in up- and down-regulated profiles. Immunity-related pathways were selected for further analysis, and our results demonstrated that a total of 13 and 50 DEGs were annotated in the humoral immune-related and cellular immune-related pathways, respectively. Additionally, we observed that many DEGs up-regulated in treated guts were part of cellular immune pathways, such as the lysosome, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, and insect hormone biosynthesis pathways and were induced by A. apis invasion. However, more down-regulated DEGs were restrained. Surprisingly, a majority of DEGs within the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, and the MAPK signaling pathway were up-regulated in treated guts, while all but two genes involved in the NF-κB signaling pathway were down-regulated, which suggested that most genes involved in humoral immune-related pathways were activated in response to the invasive fungal pathogen. This study's findings provide valuable information regarding the investigation of the molecular mechanism of immunity defenses of A. m. ligustica larval guts to infection with A. apis. Furthermore, these studies lay the groundwork for

  10. Outcome of Colonization of Apis mellifera by Nosema ceranae▿

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Meana, Aránzazu; Prieto, Lourdes; Salvador, Amparo Martínez; Garrido-Bailón, Encarna; Higes, Mariano

    2007-01-01

    A multiplex PCR-based method, in which two small-subunit rRNA regions are simultaneously amplified in a single reaction, was designed for parallel detection of honeybee microsporidians (Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae). Each of two pairs of primers exclusively amplified the 16S rRNA targeted gene of a specific microsporidian. The multiplex PCR assay was useful for specific detection of the two species of microsporidians related to bee nosemosis, not only in purified spores but also in honeybee homogenates and in naturally infected bees. The multiplex PCR assay was also able to detect coinfections by the two species. Screening of bee samples from Spain, Switzerland, France, and Germany using the PCR technique revealed a greater presence of N. ceranae than of N. apis in Europe, although both species are widely distributed. From the year 2000 onward, statistically significant differences have been found in the proportions of Nosema spp. spore-positive samples collected between and within years. In the first period examined (1999 to 2002), the smallest number of samples diagnosed as Nosema positive was found during the summer months, showing clear seasonality in the diagnosis, which is characteristic of N. apis. From 2003 onward a change in the tendency resulted in an increase in Nosema-positive samples in all months until 2005, when a total absence of seasonality was detected. A significant causative association between the presence of N. ceranae and hive depopulation clearly indicates that the colonization of Apis mellifera by N. ceranae is related to bee losses. PMID:17675417

  11. Carbonic anhydrase from Apis mellifera: purification and inhibition by pesticides.

    PubMed

    Soydan, Ercan; Güler, Ahmet; Bıyık, Selim; Şentürk, Murat; Supuran, Claudiu T; Ekinci, Deniz

    2017-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes have been shown to play an important role in ion transport and in pH regulation in several organisms. Despite this information and the wealth of knowledge regarding the significance of CA enzymes, few studies have been reported about bee CA enzymes and the hazardous effects of chemicals. Using Apis mellifera as a model, this study aimed to determine the risk of pesticides on Apis mellifera Carbonic anhydrase enzyme (Am CA). CA was initially purified from Apis mellifera spermatheca for the first time in the literature. The enzyme was purified with an overall purification of ∼35-fold with a molecular weight of ∼32 kDa. The enzyme was then exposed to pesticides, including tebuconazole, propoxur, carbaryl, carbofuran, simazine and atrazine. The six pesticides dose-dependently inhibited in vitro AmCA activity at low micromolar concentrations. IC50 values for the pesticides were 0.0030, 0.0321, 0.0031, 0.0087, 0.0273 and 0.0165 μM, respectively. The AmCA inhibition mechanism of these compounds is unknown at this moment.

  12. PvaPy: Python API for EPICS PV Access

    SciTech Connect

    Veseli, S.

    2016-01-01

    As the number of sites deploying and adopting EPICS Version 4 grows, so does the need to support PV Access from multiple languages. Especially important are the widely used scripting languages that tend to reduce both software development time and the learning curve for new users. In this paper we describe PvaPy, a Python API for the EPICS PV Access protocol and its accompanying structured data API. Rather than implementing the protocol itself in Python, PvaPy wraps the existing EPICS Version 4 C++ libraries using the Boost.Python framework. This approach allows us to benefit from the existing code base and functionality, and to significantly reduce the Python API development effort. PvaPy objects are based on Python dictionaries and provide users with the ability to access even the most complex of PV Data structures in a relatively straightforward way. Its interfaces are easy to use, and include support for advanced EPICS Version 4 features such as implementation of client and server Remote Procedure Calls (RPC).

  13. ADS 2.0: New Architecture, API and Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyla, R.; Accomazzi, A.; Holachek, A.; Grant, C. S.; Elliott, J.; Henneken, E. A.; Thompson, D. M.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.; Sudilovsky, V.

    2015-09-01

    The ADS platform is undergoing the biggest rewrite of its 20-year history. While several components have been added to its architecture over the past couple of years, this talk will concentrate on the underpinnings of ADS's search layer and its API. To illustrate the design of the components in the new system, we will show how the new ADS user interface is built exclusively on top of the API using RESTful web services. Taking one step further, we will discuss how we plan to expose the treasure trove of information hosted by ADS (10 million records and fulltext for much of the Astronomy and Physics refereed literature) to partners interested in using this API. This will provide you (and your intelligent applications) with access to ADS's underlying data to enable the extraction of new knowledge and the ingestion of these results back into the ADS. Using this framework, researchers could run controlled experiments with content extraction, machine learning, natural language processing, etc. In this talk, we will discuss what is already implemented, what will be available soon, and where we are going next.

  14. Multimodel parameter optimization with adaptive population importance sampler (APIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, Jarmo; Susiluoto, Jouni; Knauer, Jürgen; Aurela, Mika; Mammarella, Ivan; Markkanen, Tiina; Thum, Tea; Zaehle, Sönke; Aalto, Tuula

    2017-04-01

    We are optimizing key parameters in soil hydrology and forest water and carbon exchange related formulations in ecosystem model JSBACH, which is the land surface component of the Earth System model of Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-ESM). The model has been modified to use multiple stomatal/canopy conductance formulations which will vary during the optimization process. Our previous results have shown that JSBACH is lacking in its response to drought, which is the motivation to test the different conductance formulations. The optimization is done with the adaptive population importance sampler (APIS) algorithm, that provides a global estimation of the selected JSBACH parameters, using all generated samples. Additionally APIS is able to estimate the model evidence (or partition function), which can be used to determine the optimal submodel (conductance formulation). APIS starts with a set of N randomly generated proposals (standard deviations for the parameters), with location parameters spread in the state space. We draw M samples and calculate the partial IS (importance sampler) estimators for each proposal, after which we update the location parameters and each proposal as well as the global estimator for each JSBACH parameter. This process is then repeated a number of times. The study focuses on boreal coniferous evergreen forests. The optimization is based on site level eddy covariance flux measurements on multiple sites across the Northern Hemisphere, where the parameters are estimated by minimizing the model-data mismatch in evapotranspiration and gross primary production.

  15. The APIES microsatellite mission to explore the asteroid belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arrigo, P.; Santandrea, S.

    2004-11-01

    APIES (Asteroid Population Investigation &Exploration Swarm) is a mission developed by EADS Astrium in response to a European Space Agency (ESA) Call for Ideas for "swarm" missions, based on the utilisation of a large number of spacecraft working cooperatively to achieve the mission objectives. The APIES baseline concept is centred on a "swarm" of 19 BElt Explorer (BEE) identical microsatellites, weighting less than 45 kg each, including their scientific payload, visiting over 100 Main Belt asteroids in multiple flybys. The BEEs are carried to the asteroid belt by a Hub and Interplanetary VEhicle (HIVE), a conventional spacecraft launched with a Soyuz-Fregat rocket, using solar electric propulsion for the transfer to the asteroid belt and acting as communication hub and control centre for the mission after the swarm deployment. Using the latest advances in systems miniaturization, propulsion, onboard autonomy and communications, the APIES mission can achieve its ambitious goal within the framework of a standard ESA mission, representing a novel mission concept example, whose feasibility is essentially linked to the use of microsatellite technology, enabling the achievement of science objectives unattainable with conventional spacecraft.

  16. Improving the API dissolution rate during pharmaceutical hot-melt extrusion I: Effect of the API particle size, and the co-rotating, twin-screw extruder screw configuration on the API dissolution rate.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Gogos, Costas G; Ioannidis, Nicolas

    2015-01-15

    The dissolution rate of the active pharmaceutical ingredients in pharmaceutical hot-melt extrusion is the most critical elementary step during the extrusion of amorphous solid solutions - total dissolution has to be achieved within the short residence time in the extruder. Dissolution and dissolution rates are affected by process, material and equipment variables. In this work, we examine the effect of one of the material variables and one of the equipment variables, namely, the API particle size and extruder screw configuration on the API dissolution rate, in a co-rotating, twin-screw extruder. By rapidly removing the extruder screws from the barrel after achieving a steady state, we collected samples along the length of the extruder screws that were characterized by polarized optical microscopy (POM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine the amount of undissolved API. Analyses of samples indicate that reduction of particle size of the API and appropriate selection of screw design can markedly improve the dissolution rate of the API during extrusion. In addition, angle of repose measurements and light microscopy images show that the reduction of particle size of the API can improve the flowability of the physical mixture feed and the adhesiveness between its components, respectively, through dry coating of the polymer particles by the API particles.

  17. A SNP Based High-Density Linkage Map of Apis cerana Reveals a High Recombination Rate Similar to Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zachary Y.; Wu, Xiao Bo; Zhu, Yong Qiang; Zheng, Hua Jun; Zeng, Zhi Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Background The Eastern honey bee, Apis cerana Fabricius, is distributed in southern and eastern Asia, from India and China to Korea and Japan and southeast to the Moluccas. This species is also widely kept for honey production besides Apis mellifera. Apis cerana is also a model organism for studying social behavior, caste determination, mating biology, sexual selection, and host-parasite interactions. Few resources are available for molecular research in this species, and a linkage map was never constructed. A linkage map is a prerequisite for quantitative trait loci mapping and for analyzing genome structure. We used the Chinese honey bee, Apis cerana cerana to construct the first linkage map in the Eastern honey bee. Results F2 workers (N = 103) were genotyped for 126,990 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). After filtering low quality and those not passing the Mendel test, we obtained 3,000 SNPs, 1,535 of these were informative and used to construct a linkage map. The preliminary map contains 19 linkage groups, we then mapped the 19 linkage groups to 16 chromosomes by comparing the markers to the genome of A. mellfiera. The final map contains 16 linkage groups with a total of 1,535 markers. The total genetic distance is 3,942.7 centimorgans (cM) with the largest linkage group (180 loci) measuring 574.5 cM. Average marker interval for all markers across the 16 linkage groups is 2.6 cM. Conclusion We constructed a high density linkage map for A. c. cerana with 1,535 markers. Because the map is based on SNP markers, it will enable easier and faster genotyping assays than randomly amplified polymorphic DNA or microsatellite based maps used in A. mellifera. PMID:24130775

  18. Proteome analysis of Apis mellifera royal jelly.

    PubMed

    Schönleben, Simone; Sickmann, Albert; Mueller, Martin J; Reinders, Joerg

    2007-10-01

    Royal jelly plays a pivotal role in the development of honey bee larvae. However, while various health promoting properties of royal jelly have been reported, most of the active substances within royal jelly that lead to these properties are still unknown. Since up to 50% (dry mass) of royal jelly is protein, royal jelly proteome analysis is a promising starting point for attempts to identify the proteins that provide health-promoting effects. However, the comprehensive analysis of royal jelly proteins is hampered by the enormous abundance of some proteins in the major royal jelly protein family, which constitutes 80-90% of the royal jelly proteome. The high heterogeneity of these proteins is an additional challenge for proteomic analysis, since it necessitates the use of analytical techniques that provide high resolution and a wide dynamic range. The application of individual methods such as 2D-PAGE or multidimensional chromatography can only yield certain subpopulations of a proteome due to the specific bias of each method. We applied different methods for the prefractionation and separation of royal jelly proteins in order to circumvent the shortcomings of the individual techniques and achieve a high coverage of the royal jelly proteome. In this way, we were able to identify 20 different proteins in total, as well as to show a very high degree of cleavage of different proteins of the major royal jelly protein family. Furthermore, we investigated the protein phosphorylation of royal jelly proteins, and identified and located two phosphorylation sites within venom protein 2.

  19. Virus Infections of Honeybees Apis Mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Tantillo, Giuseppina; Bottaro, Marilisa; Di Pinto, Angela; Martella, Vito; Di Pinto, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    The health and vigour of honeybee colonies are threatened by numerous parasites (such as Varroa destructor and Nosema spp.) and pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa. Among honeybee pathogens, viruses are one of the major threats to the health and well-being of honeybees and cause serious concern for researchers and beekeepers. To tone down the threats posed by these invasive organisms, a better understanding of bee viral infections will be of crucial importance in developing effective and environmentally benign disease control strategies. Here we summarize recent progress in the understanding of the morphology, genome organization, transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis of eight honeybee viruses: Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Kakugo virus (KV); Sacbrood virus (SBV); Black Queen cell virus (BQCV); Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV); Kashmir bee virus (KBV); Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV); Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV). The review has been designed to provide researchers in the field with updated information about honeybee viruses and to serve as a starting point for future research. PMID:27800411

  20. Reliability of the Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) scoring system for the Bender Gestalt.

    PubMed

    Aucone, E J; Raphael, A J; Golden, C J; Espe-Pfeifer, P; Seldon, J; Pospisil, T; Dornheim, L; Proctor-Weber, Z; Calabria, M

    1999-09-01

    This study assesses the interrater reliability of the revised Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) scoring system for the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT). The API scoring system identifies 207 possible distortions in a BGT protocol. Agreement across nine raters exceeded 90% for each of three clinical protocols. Kappa statistics indicated that the API system exhibited good interrater reliability. Further research is necessary in such areas as test-retest reliability and validity to further demonstrate the effectiveness of the procedure.

  1. [Effect of API 0134 on platelet membrane glycoprotein expression in patients with hyperlipemia].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-wei; Li, Shu-sheng; Wang, Guo-ping

    2004-05-01

    By observing the effect of API 0134, an active ingredient of green chiretta, on platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP) in patients with hyperlipemia to explore the mechanism of the anti-platelet aggregation effect of API. The mean immunofluorescent intensity (MFI) of the platelet membrane glycoprotein GP II b/III a, GPIb, P-selectin (GMP-140) and von Willebrand's factor (vWF) in resting platelet, activated platelet (untreated or treated with API 0134 of different concentrations) were detected in 30 randomly selected patients with hyperlipemia, using immunofluorescent marker and flow cytometry. API of all concentrations (25 mg/L, 50 mg/L and 100 mg/L) could significantly decrease the MFI of GP II b/III a in a positive dose-dependent manner, as compared with that in activated platelet untreated with API; API of 50 mg/L and 100 mg/L could also reduce the MFI of GMP-140 and vWF in activated platelet (P < 0.01); but API of 100 mg/L showed insignificant influence on GPIb expression in activated platelet membrane. API 0134 exerts obvious anti-platelet GP II b/III a effect on activated platelets, middle or large dose of API also shows inhibiting effect on GMP-140 and vWF expression in platelet.

  2. In vitro immunological degranulation of human basophils is modulated by lung histamine and Apis mellifica.

    PubMed Central

    Poitevin, B; Davenas, E; Benveniste, J

    1988-01-01

    1. The effect of high dilutions of two homeopathic drugs Lung histamine (Lung his) and Apis mellifica (Apis mel) used for the treatment of allergic diseases has been assessed on in vitro human basophil degranulation. Experiments were conducted blind. 2. Basophil degranulation induced by 1.66 X 10(-9) M anti-IgE antibody was significantly inhibited in the presence of 5 Lung his (5th centesimal dilution of Lung his) and 15 Lung his (15th centesimal dilution of Lung his) by 28.8% and 28.6% respectively and by 65.8% in the presence of 9 Apis mel (9th centesimal dilution of Apis mel). Basophil degranulation induced by 1.66 X 10(-16) to 1.66 X 10(-18) M anti-IgE antibody was also inhibited by high dilutions of Lung his and Apis mel with an inhibition of nearly 100% with 18 Lung his (18th centesimal dilution of Lung his) and 10 Apis mel (10th centesimal dilution of Apis mel). An alternance of inhibition, inactivity and stimulation was observed when basophils were incubated in the presence of serial dilutions of Lung his and Apis mel. 3. The investigation of the clinical efficacy of high dilutions of Lung his and Apis mel should be envisaged in allergic diseases in parallel with in vitro and ex vivo biological assays. PMID:3382588

  3. A comparative evaluation of tray spacer thickness and repeat pour on the accuracy of monophasic polyvinyl siloxane impression material: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Yadav, Deepti; Yadav, Reena; Arora, Aman

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effect of various tray spacer thickness and subsequent repeated pours on the accuracy and dimensional stability of the impression made from monophasic polyvinyl siloxane material. Custom trays with different spacer thickness (2, 4 and 6 mm) were used for making an impression of a master model simulating 3 unit fixed partial denture with monophasic polyvinyl siloxane material. These impressions were poured with die stone and repoured. Distance between the reference points were measured and subjected to statistical analysis. Casts obtained from 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd pour of the impression in 2, 4 and 6 mm spacer thickness tray have similar dimensional accuracy amongst each other and with the master model except in molar diameter and inter-abutment distances of cast obtained from 6 mm spacer thickness tray. The vertical distance of stone dies were decreased, whereas horizontal distance increased as the thickness of impression material is increased. There were statistically non-significant changes occurring among the repeated pours in 2, 4 and 6 mm spacer thickness. 2 and 4 mm spacer thickness are acceptable for making an impression for three unit fixed partial denture with monophasic polyvinyl siloxane material and it was not affected by two subsequent (1 st and 2 nd) repeated pours.

  4. Correlation Between Microstructures and Tensile Properties of Strain-Based API X60 Pipeline Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Hyo Kyung; Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Sunghak; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Ro, Yunjo; Lee, Chang Sun; Hwang, Byoungchul; Shin, Sang Yong

    2016-06-01

    The correlation between the microstructures and tensile properties of strain-based American Petroleum Institute (API) X60 pipeline steels was investigated. Eight types of strain-based API X60 pipeline steels were fabricated by varying the chemical compositions, such as C, Ni, Cr, and Mo, and the finish cooling temperatures, such as single-phase and dual-phase regions. In the 4N and 5C steels, the volume fractions of bainitic ferrite (BF) and the secondary phases increased with the increasing C and adding Cr instead of Ni. In the 5C and 6NC steels, the volume fractions of acicular ferrite (AF) and BF decreased with increasing C and adding Ni, whereas the volume fractions of polygonal ferrite (PF) and the secondary phases increased. In the 6NC and 6NM steels, the volume fraction of BF was increased by adding Mo instead of Cr, whereas the volume fractions of PF and the secondary phases decreased. In the steels rolled in the single-phase region, the volume fraction of polygonal ferrite ranged from 40 to 60 pct and the volume fraction of AF ranged from 20 to 40 pct. In the steels rolled in the dual-phase region, however, the volume fraction of PF was more than 70 pct and the volume fraction of AF was below 20 pct. The strength of the steels with a high volume fraction of AF was higher than those of the steels with a high volume fraction of PF, whereas the yield point elongation and the strain hardening exponent were opposite. The uniform elongation after the thermal aging process decreased with increasing volume fraction of PF, whereas the uniform elongation increased with increasing volume fraction of AF. The strain hardening exponent increased with increasing volume fraction of PF, but decreased with increasing volume fraction of AF and effective grain size.

  5. Ablation laser pour la microélectronique plastique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alloncle, A.-P.; Thomas, B.; Grojo, D.; Delaporte, Ph.; Sentis, M.; Sanaur, S.; Barret, M.; Collot, Ph.

    2006-12-01

    La microélectronique plastique connaît un développement sans précédent dans le domaine de la recherche. Cette étude s'intéresse à l'utilisation des lasers impulsionnels pour la réalisation de composants organiques sur supports souples. Les deux aspects plus particulièrement étudiés sont d'une part la gravure de polymère pour réaliser un canal entre la source et le drain, et d'autre part le développement d'un procédéde dépôt appelé LIFT pour Laser Induced Forward Transfer. Ce dernier pourrait notamment permettre dedéposer des composés organiques non solubles.

  6. Antimicrobial Peptide Evolution in the Asiatic Honey Bee Apis cerana

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peng; Shi, Min; Chen, Xue-xin

    2009-01-01

    The Asiatic honeybee, Apis cerana Fabricius, is an important honeybee species in Asian countries. It is still found in the wild, but is also one of the few bee species that can be domesticated. It has acquired some genetic advantages and significantly different biological characteristics compared with other Apis species. However, it has been less studied, and over the past two decades, has become a threatened species in China. We designed primers for the sequences of the four antimicrobial peptide cDNA gene families (abaecin, defensin, apidaecin, and hymenoptaecin) of the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera L. and identified all the antimicrobial peptide cDNA genes in the Asiatic honeybee for the first time. All the sequences were amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In all, 29 different defensin cDNA genes coding 7 different defensin peptides, 11 different abaecin cDNA genes coding 2 different abaecin peptides, 13 different apidaecin cDNA genes coding 4 apidaecin peptides and 34 different hymenoptaecin cDNA genes coding 13 different hymenoptaecin peptides were cloned and identified from the Asiatic honeybee adult workers. Detailed comparison of these four antimicrobial peptide gene families with those of the Western honeybee revealed that there are many similarities in the quantity and amino acid components of peptides in the abaecin, defensin and apidaecin families, while many more hymenoptaecin peptides are found in the Asiatic honeybee than those in the Western honeybee (13 versus 1). The results indicated that the Asiatic honeybee adult generated more variable antimicrobial peptides, especially hymenoptaecin peptides than the Western honeybee when stimulated by pathogens or injury. This suggests that, compared to the Western honeybee that has a longer history of domestication, selection on the Asiatic honeybee has favored the generation of more variable antimicrobial peptides as protection against pathogens. PMID:19156201

  7. [Local honeybee (Apis mellifera mellifera L.) populations in the Urals].

    PubMed

    Il'iasov, R A; Petukhov, A V; Poskriakov, A V; Nikolaenko, A G

    2007-06-01

    The COI-COII intergenic region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was studied in local honeybee (Apis mellifera mellifera) L. populations from the Middle and Southern Urals. Analysis of bee colonies in these regions revealed apiaries enriched in families descending from A. m. mellifera in the maternal lineage. These results confirm the suggestion of preservation of A. m. mellifera refuges in the Urals and provide grounds for work on the preservation of the gene pool of this bee variety, valuable for all Russia.

  8. Argon Intercalibration Pipette System (APIS): Smoking from the Same Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrin, B. D.; Swisher, C. C., III; Hemming, S. R.; Renne, P. R.; Deino, A. L.; Hodges, K. V.; Van Soest, M. C.; Heizler, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    40Ar/39Ar age inter-calibration experiments, conducted as part of the US NSF sponsored EARTHTIME initiative, (http://www.earth-time.org), using two of the most commonly used 40Ar/39Ar mineral standards, Fish Canyon (FC, ~28.2 Ma) and Alder Creek (AC, ~1.2 Ma) sanidines, have revealed significant inter-laboratory inconsistencies. The reported ages for the AC sanidines range from 1.173 to 1.200 Ma (FC 28.02) (±~2%), ~4 times greater than the reported precision. These experiments have caused the 40Ar/39Ar community to scrutinize procedures and several informal lab intercalibrations have been conducted among different labs. This exercise is leading to better agreement, but discrepancies remain that need to be addressed. In an effort to isolate the cause(s) of these inconsistencies, two Argon Inter-calibration Pipette System (APIS) were designed and constructed. Each consists of three gas canisters; one contains atmospheric Ar, while the other two contain artificial gas mixtures with 40Ar/39Ar ratios similar to those of FC and AC. Each canister has 4x10-10 moles of 40Ar, is equipped with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 cc pipettes, and can deliver gas volumes from 0.1-0.7 cc. All volumes were determined manometrically to 0.4% or better and then filled to uniform pressure with Ar standard gases. This experimental design eliminates sample heterogeneity, leaving only interlaboratory variations in gas purification, data reduction, and isotopic measurement as potential sources of interlaboratory calibration discrepancies. APIS-1 was designated as a traveling unit that is brought to participating labs. APIS-2 is the reserve/master standard. Currently, APIS-1 is in its early stages in the voyage and has been to three labs (Rutgers, LDEO, and New Mexico Tech) as of this writing. The interlaboratory comparisons are ongoing, and will include ASU, BGC, Univ. of Wisconsin, and Oregon State University, plus additional laboratories of opportunity. A progress report will be presented at AGU.

  9. Solar Eclipse Computer API: Planning Ahead for August 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Chizek Frouard, Malynda; Lesniak, Michael V.; Bell, Steve

    2016-01-01

    With the total solar eclipse of 2017 August 21 over the continental United States approaching, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) on-line Solar Eclipse Computer can now be accessed via an application programming interface (API). This flexible interface returns local circumstances for any solar eclipse in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) that can be incorporated into third-party Web sites or applications. For a given year, it can also return a list of solar eclipses that can be used to build a more specific request for local circumstances. Over the course of a particular eclipse as viewed from a specific site, several events may be visible: the beginning and ending of the eclipse (first and fourth contacts), the beginning and ending of totality (second and third contacts), the moment of maximum eclipse, sunrise, or sunset. For each of these events, the USNO Solar Eclipse Computer reports the time, Sun's altitude and azimuth, and the event's position and vertex angles. The computer also reports the duration of the total phase, the duration of the eclipse, the magnitude of the eclipse, and the percent of the Sun obscured for a particular eclipse site. On-line documentation for using the API-enabled Solar Eclipse Computer, including sample calls, is available (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/api.php). The same Web page also describes how to reach the Complete Sun and Moon Data for One Day, Phases of the Moon, Day and Night Across the Earth, and Apparent Disk of a Solar System Object services using API calls.For those who prefer using a traditional data input form, local circumstances can still be requested that way at http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/SolarEclipses.php. In addition, the 2017 August 21 Solar Eclipse Resource page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Eclipse2017.php) consolidates all of the USNO resources for this event, including a Google Map view of the eclipse track designed by Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO). Looking further ahead, a

  10. The Ensembl REST API: Ensembl Data for Any Language.

    PubMed

    Yates, Andrew; Beal, Kathryn; Keenan, Stephen; McLaren, William; Pignatelli, Miguel; Ritchie, Graham R S; Ruffier, Magali; Taylor, Kieron; Vullo, Alessandro; Flicek, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We present a Web service to access Ensembl data using Representational State Transfer (REST). The Ensembl REST server enables the easy retrieval of a wide range of Ensembl data by most programming languages, using standard formats such as JSON and FASTA while minimizing client work. We also introduce bindings to the popular Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor tool permitting large-scale programmatic variant analysis independent of any specific programming language. The Ensembl REST API can be accessed at http://rest.ensembl.org and source code is freely available under an Apache 2.0 license from http://github.com/Ensembl/ensembl-rest. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Algorithmes et architectures pour ordinateurs quantiques supraconducteurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blais, A.

    2003-09-01

    'utilisation de qubits basés sur les jonctions Josephson. On présente entre autres une approche originale pour l'interaction entre qubits. Cette approche est très générale puisqu'elle peut être appliquée à différents designs de qubits. Finalement, on s'intéresse à la lecture des qubits supraconducteurs de flux. Le détecteur suggéré ici a l'avantage de pouvoir être découplé du qubit lorsqu'il n'y a pas de mesure en cours.

  12. Functional characterization of naturally occurring melittin peptide isoforms in two honey bee species, Apis mellifera and Apis cerana.

    PubMed

    Park, Doori; Jung, Je Won; Lee, Mi Ok; Lee, Si Young; Kim, Boyun; Jin, Hye Jun; Kim, Jiyoung; Ahn, Young-Joon; Lee, Ki Won; Song, Yong Sang; Hong, Seunghun; Womack, James E; Kwon, Hyung Wook

    2014-03-01

    Insect-derived antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have diverse effects on antimicrobial properties and pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammation and anticancer properties. Naturally occurring genetic polymorphism have a direct and/or indirect influence on pharmacological effect of AMPs, therefore information on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) occurring in natural AMPs provides an important clue to therapeutic applications. Here we identified nucleotide polymorphisms in melittin gene of honey bee populations, which is one of the potent AMP in bee venoms. We found that the novel SNP of melittin gene exists in these two honey bee species, Apis mellifera and Apis cerana. Nine polymorphisms were identified within the coding region of the melittin gene, of which one polymorphism that resulted in serine (Ser) to asparagine (Asp) substitution that can potentially effect on biological activities of melittin peptide. Serine-substituted melittin (Mel-S) showed more cytotoxic effect than asparagine-substituted melittin (Mel-N) against E. coli. Also, Mel-N and Mel-S had different inhibitory effects on the production of inflammatory factors such as IL-6 and TNF-α in BV-2 cells. Moreover, Mel-S showed stronger cytotoxic activities than Mel-N peptide against two human ovarian cancer cell lines. Using carbon nanotube-based transistor, we here characterized that Mel-S interacted with small unilamellar liposomes more strongly than Mel-N. Taken together, our present study demonstrates that there exist different characteristics of the gene frequency and the biological activities of the melittin peptide in two honey bee species, Apis mellifera and A. cerana.

  13. Infectivity and virulence of Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis in commercially available North American honey bees.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Fone; Solter, Leellen; Aronstein, Katherine; Huang, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Nosema ceranae infection is ubiquitous in western honey bees, Apis mellifera, in the United States and the pathogen has apparently replaced Nosema apis in colonies nationwide. Displacement of N. apis suggests that N. ceranae has competitive advantages but N. ceranae was significantly less infective and less virulent than N. apis in commercially available lineages of honey bees in studies conducted in Illinois and Texas. At 5 days post eclosion, the most susceptible age of adult bees tested, the mean ID50 for N. apis was 359 spores compared to 3217 N. ceranae spores, a nearly 9-fold difference. Infectivity of N. ceranae was also lower than N. apis for 24-h and 14-day worker bees. N. ceranae was less infective than reported in studies using European strains of honey bees, while N. apis infectivity, tested in the same cohort of honey bees, corresponded to results reported globally from 1972 to 2010. Mortality of worker bees was similar for both pathogens at a dosage of 50 spores and was not different from the uninfected controls, but was significantly higher for N. apis than N. ceranae at dosages ⩾500 spores. Our results provide comparisons for evaluating research using different ages of bees and pathogen dosages and clarify some controversies. In addition, comparisons among studies suggest that the mixed lineages of US honey bees may be less susceptible to N. ceranae infections than are European bees or that the US isolates of the pathogen are less infective and less virulent than European isolates.

  14. The Development of the Adolescent Parenting Inventory (API): Identification of High Risk Adolescents Prior to Parenthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavolek, Stephen J.; And Others

    The monograph describes the development of the Adolescent Parenting Inventory (API), an instrument designed to prevent child abuse by identifying adolescents in need of acquiring appropriate child rearing and parenting skills. Field testing of the API with approximately 3,000 adolescents is explained to have revealed substantial content validity,…

  15. Equations for leak resistance of API 8-round connectors in tension

    SciTech Connect

    Schwind, B.E. )

    1990-03-01

    This paper presents stress and leak-resistance equations based on the theory of elasticity for API 8-round connectors in tension and compares results of these equations to those of the finite-element method (FEM) and full-scale physical testing. The new equations identify significant nonconservative aspects inherent in current API methodologies.

  16. Macelignan inhibits bee pathogenic fungi Ascophaera apis growth through HOG1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Y.K.; Kim, K.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Ascosphaera apis is a bee pathogen that causes bee larvae infection disease, to which treatment is not yet well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate antifungal susceptibility in vitro against A. apis and to identify a new antifungal agent for this pathogen through minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay and western blot analysis. Macelignan had 1.56 and 3.125 μg/mL MIC against A. apis after 24 and 48 h, respectively, exhibiting the strongest growth inhibition against A. apis among the tested compounds (corosolic acid, dehydrocostus lactone, loganic acid, tracheloside, fangchinoline and emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside). Furthermore, macelignan showed a narrow-ranged spectrum against various fungal strains without any mammalian cell cytotoxicity. In spite of miconazole having powerful broad-ranged anti-fungal activity including A. apis, it demonstrated strong cytotoxicity. Therefore, even if macelignan alone was effective as an antifungal agent to treat A. apis, combined treatment with miconazole was more useful to overcome toxicity, drug resistance occurrence and cost effectiveness. Finally, HOG1 was revealed as a target molecule of macelignan in the anti-A. apis activity by inhibiting phosphorylation using S. cerevisiae as a model system. Based on our results, macelignan, a food-grade antimicrobial compound, would be an effective antifungal agent against A. apis infection in bees. PMID:27383123

  17. Characteristics of honey bee and non-Apis bee (Hymenoptera) farms in Canada.

    PubMed

    Daly, Z; Melhim, A; Weersink, A

    2012-08-01

    Here, we present a farm-level, Canada-wide analysis of Canadian bee farms in 2006; this article is the first report to distinguish between honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) farms and non-Apis bee (Hymenoptera) farms. Farms are characterized according to bee species, bee stocks, and whether the farm makes 50% or more of gross sales from bee-related activities. Farm characteristics, including bee stocks, gross sales, capital investments, land base, specialization, location, and operator demographics, are reported for the different farm types and sizes. Non-Apis bee farms are revealed to be a nontrivial part of the Canadian bee industry: 21.2% of Canadian bee farms have non-Apis bees and 16.6% have exclusively non-Apis bees. Important differences between honey bee farms and non-Apis bee farms also are found. These differences include the more land-intensive nature of non-Apis bee farms and the finding that non-Apis bee farms have greater diversity in terms of their primary commodity, even at higher bee stock levels.

  18. Nosema ceranae, a newly identified pathogen of Apis mellifera in the U.S. and Asia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nosemosis (Nosema disease) is one of the most serious and prevalent adult honey bee diseases worldwide. For years, Nosema apis was thought to be the only microsporidia infecting domestic bee colonies. However, recently it was discovered that N. ceranae could jump from Asian honey bees (Apis cerana...

  19. The Development of the Adolescent Parenting Inventory (API): Identification of High Risk Adolescents Prior to Parenthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavolek, Stephen J.; And Others

    The monograph describes the development of the Adolescent Parenting Inventory (API), an instrument designed to prevent child abuse by identifying adolescents in need of acquiring appropriate child rearing and parenting skills. Field testing of the API with approximately 3,000 adolescents is explained to have revealed substantial content validity,…

  20. Predominant Api m 10 sensitization as risk factor for treatment failure in honey bee venom immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Frick, Marcel; Fischer, Jörg; Helbling, Arthur; Ruëff, Franziska; Wieczorek, Dorothea; Ollert, Markus; Pfützner, Wolfgang; Müller, Sabine; Huss-Marp, Johannes; Dorn, Britta; Biedermann, Tilo; Lidholm, Jonas; Ruecker, Gerta; Bantleon, Frank; Miehe, Michaela; Spillner, Edzard; Jakob, Thilo

    2016-12-01

    Component resolution recently identified distinct sensitization profiles in honey bee venom (HBV) allergy, some of which were dominated by specific IgE to Api m 3 and/or Api m 10, which have been reported to be underrepresented in therapeutic HBV preparations. We performed a retrospective analysis of component-resolved sensitization profiles in HBV-allergic patients and association with treatment outcome. HBV-allergic patients who had undergone controlled honey bee sting challenge after at least 6 months of HBV immunotherapy (n = 115) were included and classified as responder (n = 79) or treatment failure (n = 36) on the basis of absence or presence of systemic allergic reactions upon sting challenge. IgE reactivity to a panel of HBV allergens was analyzed in sera obtained before immunotherapy and before sting challenge. No differences were observed between responders and nonresponders regarding levels of IgE sensitization to Api m 1, Api m 2, Api m 3, and Api m 5. In contrast, Api m 10 specific IgE was moderately but significantly increased in nonresponders. Predominant Api m 10 sensitization (>50% of specific IgE to HBV) was the best discriminator (specificity, 95%; sensitivity, 25%) with an odds ratio of 8.444 (2.127-33.53; P = .0013) for treatment failure. Some but not all therapeutic HBV preparations displayed a lack of Api m 10, whereas Api m 1 and Api m 3 immunoreactivity was comparable to that of crude HBV. In line with this, significant Api m 10 sIgG4 induction was observed only in those patients who were treated with HBV in which Api m 10 was detectable. Component-resolved sensitization profiles in HBV allergy suggest predominant IgE sensitization to Api m 10 as a risk factor for treatment failure in HBV immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic variation in natural honeybee populations, Apis mellifera capensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepburn, Randall; Neumann, Peter; Radloff, Sarah E.

    2004-09-01

    Genetic variation in honeybee, Apis mellifera, populations can be considerably influenced by breeding and commercial introductions, especially in areas with abundant beekeeping. However, in southern Africa apiculture is based on the capture of wild swarms, and queen rearing is virtually absent. Moreover, the introduction of European subspecies constantly failed in the Cape region. We therefore hypothesize a low human impact on genetic variation in populations of Cape honeybees, Apis mellifera capensis. A novel solution to studying genetic variation in honeybee populations based on thelytokous worker reproduction is applied to test this hypothesis. Environmental effects on metrical morphological characters of the phenotype are separated to obtain a genetic residual component. The genetic residuals are then re-calculated as coefficients of genetic variation. Characters measured included hair length on the abdomen, width and length of wax plate, and three wing angles. The data show for the first time that genetic variation in Cape honeybee populations is independent of beekeeping density and probably reflects naturally occurring processes such as gene flow due to topographic and climatic variation on a microscale.

  2. Genetic variation in natural honeybee populations, Apis mellifera capensis.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, Randall; Neumann, Peter; Radloff, Sarah E

    2004-09-01

    Genetic variation in honeybee, Apis mellifera, populations can be considerably influenced by breeding and commercial introductions, especially in areas with abundant beekeeping. However, in southern Africa apiculture is based on the capture of wild swarms, and queen rearing is virtually absent. Moreover, the introduction of European subspecies constantly failed in the Cape region. We therefore hypothesize a low human impact on genetic variation in populations of Cape honeybees, Apis mellifera capensis. A novel solution to studying genetic variation in honeybee populations based on thelytokous worker reproduction is applied to test this hypothesis. Environmental effects on metrical morphological characters of the phenotype are separated to obtain a genetic residual component. The genetic residuals are then re-calculated as coefficients of genetic variation. Characters measured included hair length on the abdomen, width and length of wax plate, and three wing angles. The data show for the first time that genetic variation in Cape honeybee populations is independent of beekeeping density and probably reflects naturally occurring processes such as gene flow due to topographic and climatic variation on a microscale.

  3. From where did the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) originate?

    PubMed

    Han, Fan; Wallberg, Andreas; Webster, Matthew T

    2012-08-01

    The native range of the honeybee Apis mellifera encompasses Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, whereas the nine other species of Apis are found exclusively in Asia. It is therefore commonly assumed that A. mellifera arose in Asia and expanded into Europe and Africa. However, other hypotheses for the origin of A. mellifera have also been proposed based on phylogenetic trees constructed from genetic markers. In particular, an analysis based on >1000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers placed the root of the tree of A. mellifera subspecies among samples from Africa, suggestive of an out-of-Africa expansion. Here, we re-evaluate the evidence for this and other hypotheses by testing the robustness of the tree topology to different tree-building methods and by removing specimens with a potentially hybrid background. These analyses do not unequivocally place the root of the tree of A. mellifera subspecies within Africa, and are potentially consistent with a variety of hypotheses for honeybee evolution, including an expansion out of Asia. Our analyses also support high divergence between western and eastern European populations of A. mellifera, suggesting they are likely derived from two distinct colonization routes, although the sources of these expansions are still unclear.

  4. Parasitic Cape honeybee workers, Apis mellifera capensis, evade policing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Stephen J.; Beekman, Madeleine; Wossler, Theresa C.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2002-01-01

    Relocation of the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis, by bee-keepers from southern to northern South Africa in 1990 has caused widespread death of managed African honeybee, A. m. scutellata, colonies. Apis mellifera capensis worker bees are able to lay diploid, female eggs without mating by means of automictic thelytoky (meiosis followed by fusion of two meiotic products to restore egg diploidy), whereas workers of other honeybee subspecies are able to lay only haploid, male eggs. The A. m. capensis workers, which are parasitizing and killing A. m. scutellata colonies in northern South Africa, are the asexual offspring of a single, original worker in which the small amount of genetic variation observed is due to crossing over during meiosis (P. Kryger, personal communication). Here we elucidate two principal mechanisms underlying this parasitism. Parasitic A. m. capensis workers activate their ovaries in host colonies that have a queen present (queenright colonies), and they lay eggs that evade being killed by other workers (worker policing)-the normal fate of worker-laid eggs in colonies with a queen. This unique parasitism by workers is an instance in which a society is unable to control the selfish actions of its members.

  5. The Auroral Planetary Imaging and Spectroscopy (APIS) service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, L.; Prangé, R.; Henry, F.; Le Sidaner, P.

    2015-06-01

    The Auroral Planetary Imaging and Spectroscopy (APIS) service, accessible online, provides an open and interactive access to processed auroral observations of the outer planets and their satellites. Such observations are of interest for a wide community at the interface between planetology, magnetospheric and heliospheric physics. APIS consists of (i) a high level database, built from planetary auroral observations acquired by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) since 1997 with its mostly used Far-Ultraviolet spectro-imagers, (ii) a dedicated search interface aimed at browsing efficiently this database through relevant conditional search criteria and (iii) the ability to interactively work with the data online through plotting tools developed by the Virtual Observatory (VO) community, such as Aladin and Specview. This service is VO compliant and can therefore also been queried by external search tools of the VO community. The diversity of available data and the capability to sort them out by relevant physical criteria shall in particular facilitate statistical studies, on long-term scales and/or multi-instrumental multi-spectral combined analysis.

  6. Polymorphism analysis of csd gene in six Apis mellifera subspecies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zilong; Liu, Zhiyong; Wu, Xiaobo; Yan, Weiyu; Zeng, Zhijiang

    2012-03-01

    The complementary sex determination (csd) gene is the primary gene determining the gender of honey bees (Apis spp). In this study we analyzed the polymorphism of csd gene in six Apis mellifera subspecies. The genomic region 3 of csd gene in these six A. mellifera was cloned, and identified. A total of 79 haplotypes were obtained from these six subspecies. Analysis showed that region 3 of csd gene has a high level of polymorphism in all the six A. mellifera subspecies. The A. m. anatolica subspecies has a slightly higher nucleotide diversity (π) than other subspecies, while the π values showed no significant difference among the other five subspecies. The phylogenetic tree showed that all the csd haplotypes from different A. mellifera subspecies are scattered throughout the tree, without forming six different clades. Population differentiation analysis showed that there are significant genetic differentiations among some of the subspecies. The NJ phylogenetic tree showed that the A. m. caucasica and A. m. carnica have the closest relationship, followed by A. m. ssp, A. m. ligustica, A. m. carpatica and A. m. anatolica that were gathered in the tree in turn.

  7. APIS-a novel approach for conditioning honey bees.

    PubMed

    Kirkerud, Nicholas H; Wehmann, Henja-Niniane; Galizia, C Giovanni; Gustav, David

    2013-01-01

    Honey bees perform robustly in different conditioning paradigms. This makes them excellent candidates for studying mechanisms of learning and memory at both an individual and a population level. Here we introduce a novel method of honey bee conditioning: APIS, the Automatic Performance Index System. In an enclosed walking arena where the interior is covered with an electric grid, presentation of odors from either end can be combined with weak electric shocks to form aversive associations. To quantify behavioral responses, we continuously monitor the movement of the bee by an automatic tracking system. We found that escapes from one side to the other, changes in velocity as well as distance and time spent away from the punished odor are suitable parameters to describe the bee's learning capabilities. Our data show that in a short-term memory test the response rate for the conditioned stimulus (CS) in APIS correlates well with response rate obtained from conventional Proboscis Extension Response (PER)-conditioning. Additionally, we discovered that bees modulate their behavior to aversively learned odors by reducing their rate, speed and magnitude of escapes and that both generalization and extinction seem to be different between appetitive and aversive stimuli. The advantages of this automatic system make it ideal for assessing learning rates in a standardized and convenient way, and its flexibility adds to the toolbox for studying honey bee behavior.

  8. A Java API for working with PubChem datasets.

    PubMed

    Southern, Mark R; Griffin, Patrick R

    2011-03-01

    PubChem is a public repository of chemical structures and associated biological activities. The PubChem BioAssay database contains assay descriptions, conditions and readouts and biological screening results that have been submitted by the biomedical research community. The PubChem web site and Power User Gateway (PUG) web service allow users to interact with the data and raw files are available via FTP. These resources are helpful to many but there can also be great benefit by using a software API to manipulate the data. Here, we describe a Java API with entity objects mapped to the PubChem Schema and with wrapper functions for calling the NCBI eUtilities and PubChem PUG web services. PubChem BioAssays and associated chemical compounds can then be queried and manipulated in a local relational database. Features include chemical structure searching and generation and display of curve fits from stored dose-response experiments, something that is not yet available within PubChem itself. The aim is to provide researchers with a fast, consistent, queryable local resource from which to manipulate PubChem BioAssays in a database agnostic manner. It is not intended as an end user tool but to provide a platform for further automation and tools development. http://code.google.com/p/pubchemdb.

  9. Parasitic Cape honeybee workers, Apis mellifera capensis, evade policing.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stephen J; Beekman, Madeleine; Wossler, Theresa C; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2002-01-10

    Relocation of the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis, by bee-keepers from southern to northern South Africa in 1990 has caused widespread death of managed African honeybee, A. m. scutellata, colonies. Apis mellifera capensis worker bees are able to lay diploid, female eggs without mating by means of automictic thelytoky (meiosis followed by fusion of two meiotic products to restore egg diploidy), whereas workers of other honeybee subspecies are able to lay only haploid, male eggs. The A. m. capensis workers, which are parasitizing and killing A. m. scutellata colonies in northern South Africa, are the asexual offspring of a single, original worker in which the small amount of genetic variation observed is due to crossing over during meiosis (P. Kryger, personal communication). Here we elucidate two principal mechanisms underlying this parasitism. Parasitic A. m. capensis workers activate their ovaries in host colonies that have a queen present (queenright colonies), and they lay eggs that evade being killed by other workers (worker policing)-the normal fate of worker-laid eggs in colonies with a queen. This unique parasitism by workers is an instance in which a society is unable to control the selfish actions of its members.

  10. Towards Standardized Patient Data Exchange: Integrating a FHIR Based API for the Open Medical Record System.

    PubMed

    Kasthurirathne, Suranga N; Mamlin, Burke; Grieve, Grahame; Biondich, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Interoperability is essential to address limitations caused by the ad hoc implementation of clinical information systems and the distributed nature of modern medical care. The HL7 V2 and V3 standards have played a significant role in ensuring interoperability for healthcare. FHIR is a next generation standard created to address fundamental limitations in HL7 V2 and V3. FHIR is particularly relevant to OpenMRS, an Open Source Medical Record System widely used across emerging economies. FHIR has the potential to allow OpenMRS to move away from a bespoke, application specific API to a standards based API. We describe efforts to design and implement a FHIR based API for the OpenMRS platform. Lessons learned from this effort were used to define long term plans to transition from the legacy OpenMRS API to a FHIR based API that greatly reduces the learning curve for developers and helps enhance adhernce to standards.

  11. Genomic and transcriptional analysis of protein heterogeneity of the honeybee venom allergen Api m 6.

    PubMed

    Peiren, N; de Graaf, D C; Evans, J D; Jacobs, F J

    2006-10-01

    Several components of honeybee venom are known to cause allergenic responses in humans and other vertebrates. One such component, the minor allergen Api m 6, has been known to show amino acid variation but the genetic mechanism for this variation is unknown. Here we show that Api m 6 is derived from a single locus, and that substantial protein-level variation has a simple genome-level cause, without the need to invoke multiple loci or alternatively spliced exons. Api m 6 sits near a misassembled section of the honeybee genome sequence, and we propose that a substantial number of indels at and near Api m 6 might be the root cause of this misassembly. We suggest that genes such as Api m 6 with coding-region or untranslated region indels might have had a strong effect on the assembly of this draft of the honeybee genome.

  12. Evaluation of the API ATB 32C system for the rapid identification of foodborne yeasts.

    PubMed

    Rohm, H; Lechner, F; Lehner, M

    1990-12-01

    The commercial API ATB 32C identification kit was compared with a standard method for identifying 11 reference strains and 53 yeast strains isolated from fermented milk products. Approx. 50% of the species considered in the API ATB 32C database were identified on a level of good, very good, and excellent identification. The numerical profile of 25 strains was not found in the API ATB 32C index. Low discrimination or misidentification was observed in seven strains. The low reliability of the API ATB 32C system may be ascribed to the incomplete nature of the profile index. A majority (91%) of the strains, however, were identified correctly by the API ATB 32C strip test results in combination with the commercial computer program of Barnett et al. (1985). This combined procedure offers the possibility to identify any out of 497 species considered by Barnett et al. (1985).

  13. STEEL BEAMS FOR FIRST FLOOR BEING READIED FOR CONCRETE POUR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STEEL BEAMS FOR FIRST FLOOR BEING READIED FOR CONCRETE POUR UNDER WEATHER SHELTER DURING COLD WINTER. NOTE ABUNDANCE OF BEAMS; THE FLOOR WILL SUPPORT HEAVY LOADS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 1175. Unknown Photographer, 12/20/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Workmen and Crawler Crane pouring roof slab and parapet wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Workmen and Crawler Crane pouring roof slab and parapet wall of building - looking northwest. Taken Nov. 15, 1929. 14th Naval District Photo Collection Item No. 7165 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Waterfront Crane Track System, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Le sumatriptan intranasal pour la migraine chez les enfants

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.; Meckler, Garth D.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Je vois de plus en plus d’enfants et d’adolescents qui souffrent de céphalées pouvant se classer dans la catégorie des migraines. J’ai fait des lectures sur le sumatriptan par voie intranasale comme thérapie abortive. Est-ce un traitement efficace? Réponse La migraine aiguë chez les enfants et les adolescents est fréquente et difficile à traiter. Le sumatriptan intranasal est une option sûre et généralement efficace pour les enfants et les adolescents. La dose actuellement recommandée est de 20 mg pour les enfants qui pèsent plus de 40 kg et de 10 mg pour ceux dont le poids se situe entre 20 et 39 kg. Il faudrait faire des études de plus grande envergure pour contrecarrer les limitations des échantillons de petite taille et mieux comprendre la faible concentration plasmique et les effets placebo observés dans les études jusqu’à présent.

  16. First Concrete Poured for NSLS-II Ring Building

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-20

    The first bits of the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) ring building are now taking shape after the concrete-pouring process for the new, world-class facility began on Monday, July 20. Once complete, the 400,000 square-foot building will house the accelerator ring, the largest component of the machine.

  17. Traitement par plasma thermique d'une liqueur caustique pour la destruction des cyanures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Luc

    L'objectif principal de cette recherche est d'evaluer la possibilite de traiter le lixiviat de brasques usees produit par le procede LCL&L (Lixiviation a bas caustique et chaulage) par contact direct avec un jet de plasma thermique. L'utilisation d'un chalumeau au plasma permet d'eliminer les problemes de reaction avec les produits de combustion relies a l'utilisation de chalumeaux conventionnels (e.g. carbonatation du NaOH en Na2CO3). Le fait de se servir de ce type de chalumeau en mode submerge pour le traitement d'une solution liquide constitue l'originalite du projet. Les essais effectues dans le cadre de ce travail experimental sont realises a l'echelle banc d'essai dans un premier temps. Ils visent a determiner le taux de decomposition des cyanures contenus dans le lixiviat sous des conditions de plasma thermique en fonction de differents parametres et a faire la mise a l'echelle d'un reacteur pilote. La puissance electrique fournie au chalumeau, la temperature et la pression d'operation, le point d'addition d'eau, le volume de lixiviat traite et l'addition de peroxyde d'hydrogene (H2O2) comme co-reactif ont tous un impact sur le taux de destruction des cyanures trouve. Sous toutes les conditions etudiees, le reacteur plasma offre un taux de destruction plus rapide qu'un reacteur agite sous pression pour une meme concentration en cyanures. Ainsi, la comparaison de la constante cinetique obtenue pour le reacteur agite avec une constante similaire pour le reacteur plasma (pente du graphique -ln(C/C0) en fonction du temps) est de 0.04x10-3 s-1 vs 0.59x10-3 s-1 a 100°C et de 1.85x10-3 s-1' vs 3x10 -3 s-1s a 170°C. Ces resultats confirment que le plasma joue un role important sur la decomposition des cyanures et qu'il contribue a en augmenter le taux de destruction. Suite aux connaissances acquises sur le banc d'essai, un reacteur pilote est concu. Un chalumeau au plasma d'une puissance de 60 kW-150 kW et fonctionnant avec l'air comme gaz plasmagene y est

  18. Single-step GBLUP using APY inverse for protein yield in US Holstein with a large number of genotyped animals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to provide initial results in an application of single-step genomic BLUP with a genomic relationship matrix (G^-1APY) calculated using the Algorithm of Proven and Young (APY) to 305-day protein yield for US Holsteins. Two G^-1APY were tested; one was from 139,057 geno...

  19. The Ruby UCSC API: accessing the UCSC genome database using Ruby.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Hiroyuki; Aerts, Jan; Katayama, Toshiaki; Bonnal, Raoul J P; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro

    2012-09-21

    The University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) genome database is among the most used sources of genomic annotation in human and other organisms. The database offers an excellent web-based graphical user interface (the UCSC genome browser) and several means for programmatic queries. A simple application programming interface (API) in a scripting language aimed at the biologist was however not yet available. Here, we present the Ruby UCSC API, a library to access the UCSC genome database using Ruby. The API is designed as a BioRuby plug-in and built on the ActiveRecord 3 framework for the object-relational mapping, making writing SQL statements unnecessary. The current version of the API supports databases of all organisms in the UCSC genome database including human, mammals, vertebrates, deuterostomes, insects, nematodes, and yeast.The API uses the bin index-if available-when querying for genomic intervals. The API also supports genomic sequence queries using locally downloaded *.2bit files that are not stored in the official MySQL database. The API is implemented in pure Ruby and is therefore available in different environments and with different Ruby interpreters (including JRuby). Assisted by the straightforward object-oriented design of Ruby and ActiveRecord, the Ruby UCSC API will facilitate biologists to query the UCSC genome database programmatically. The API is available through the RubyGem system. Source code and documentation are available at https://github.com/misshie/bioruby-ucsc-api/ under the Ruby license. Feedback and help is provided via the website at http://rubyucscapi.userecho.com/.

  20. SjAPI, the first functionally characterized Ascaris-type protease inhibitor from animal venoms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zongyun; Wang, Bin; Hu, Jun; Yang, Weishan; Cao, Zhijian; Zhuo, Renxi; Li, Wenxin; Wu, Yingliang

    2013-01-01

    Serine protease inhibitors act as modulators of serine proteases, playing important roles in protecting animal toxin peptides from degradation. However, all known serine protease inhibitors discovered thus far from animal venom belong to the Kunitz-type subfamily, and whether there are other novel types of protease inhibitors in animal venom remains unclear. Here, by screening scorpion venom gland cDNA libraries, we identified the first Ascaris-type animal toxin family, which contains four members: Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (SjAPI), Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor 2 (SjAPI-2), Chaerilus tricostatus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (CtAPI), and Buthus martensii Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (BmAPI). The detailed characterization of Ascaris-type peptide SjAPI from the venom gland of scorpion Scorpiops jendeki was carried out. The mature peptide of SjAPI contains 64 residues and possesses a classical Ascaris-type cysteine framework reticulated by five disulfide bridges, different from all known protease inhibitors from venomous animals. Enzyme and inhibitor reaction kinetics experiments showed that recombinant SjAPI was a dual function peptide with α-chymotrypsin- and elastase-inhibiting properties. Recombinant SjAPI inhibited α-chymotrypsin with a Ki of 97.1 nM and elastase with a Ki of 3.7 μM, respectively. Bioinformatics analyses and chimera experiments indicated that SjAPI contained the unique short side chain functional residues "AAV" and might be a useful template to produce new serine protease inhibitors. To our knowledge, SjAPI is the first functionally characterized animal toxin peptide with an Ascaris-type fold. The structural and functional diversity of animal toxins with protease-inhibiting properties suggested that bioactive peptides from animal venom glands might be a new source of protease inhibitors, which will accelerate the development of diagnostic and therapeutic agents for human diseases that target

  1. The Ruby UCSC API: accessing the UCSC genome database using Ruby

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) genome database is among the most used sources of genomic annotation in human and other organisms. The database offers an excellent web-based graphical user interface (the UCSC genome browser) and several means for programmatic queries. A simple application programming interface (API) in a scripting language aimed at the biologist was however not yet available. Here, we present the Ruby UCSC API, a library to access the UCSC genome database using Ruby. Results The API is designed as a BioRuby plug-in and built on the ActiveRecord 3 framework for the object-relational mapping, making writing SQL statements unnecessary. The current version of the API supports databases of all organisms in the UCSC genome database including human, mammals, vertebrates, deuterostomes, insects, nematodes, and yeast. The API uses the bin index—if available—when querying for genomic intervals. The API also supports genomic sequence queries using locally downloaded *.2bit files that are not stored in the official MySQL database. The API is implemented in pure Ruby and is therefore available in different environments and with different Ruby interpreters (including JRuby). Conclusions Assisted by the straightforward object-oriented design of Ruby and ActiveRecord, the Ruby UCSC API will facilitate biologists to query the UCSC genome database programmatically. The API is available through the RubyGem system. Source code and documentation are available at https://github.com/misshie/bioruby-ucsc-api/ under the Ruby license. Feedback and help is provided via the website at http://rubyucscapi.userecho.com/. PMID:22994508

  2. Modelisation de photodetecteurs a base de matrices de diodes avalanche monophotoniques pour tomographie d'emission par positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbeil Therrien, Audrey

    quantifier l'impact des parametres du photodetecteur sur la resolution en energie et la resolution en temps et ainsi optimiser les performances de la matrice de PAMP. Par exemple, l'augmentation du ratio de surface active ameliore les performances, mais seulement jusqu'a un certain point. D'autres phenomenes lies a la surface active, comme le bruit thermique, provoquent une degradation du resultat. Le simulateur nous permet de trouver un compromis entre ces deux extremes. Les simulations avec les parametres initiaux demontrent une efficacite de detection de 16,7 %, une resolution en energie de 14,2 % LMH et une resolution en temps de 0.478 ns LMH. Enfin, le simulateur propose, bien qu'il vise une application en TEP, peut etre adapte pour d'autres applications en modifiant la source de photons et en adaptant les objectifs de performances. Mots-cles : Photodetecteurs, photodiodes avalanche monophotoniques, semiconducteurs, tomographie d'emission par positrons, simulations, modelisation, detection monophotonique, scintillateurs, circuit d'etouffement, SPAD, SiPM, Photodiodes avalanche operees en mode Geiger

  3. Realisation de guides d'onde plans faibles pertes en nitrure de silicium pour un biocapteur integre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorin, Arnaud

    Le nitrure de silicium est un materiau tres utilise en microelectronique et en optique integree due a l'excellente homogeneite et reproductibilite de son epaisseur et de son indice de refraction. De plus, l'indice de refraction eleve du nitrure de silicium est particulierement interessant pour les applications en biophotonique. En effet, ces dernieres annees les biocapteurs a champ evanescent ont demontre une augmentation de la sensibilite avec l'utilisation de guides d'onde plans a haut indice de refraction. La sensibilite pourrait etre encore amelioree en integrant sur un meme substrat l'ensemble des composants passifs et actifs (Lab-on-a-chip) qui composent le biocapteur a champ evanescent. L'integration des differents composants optiques passe par la fabrication d'un guide d'onde plan dans le visible qui soit realise avec des procedes a basse temperature, faible epaisseur, faible perte et haut indice de refraction. Meme si les couches d'oxyde metallique (TiO2, Ta2O5 par exemple), generalement utilisees pour ce type d'application, permettent d'obtenir de bonnes proprietes optiques, elles ne permettent pas d'atteindre la qualite des couches en nitrure de silicium notamment en termes de rugosite de surface pour de faibles epaisseurs. Dans le cadre de ces travaux de doctorat, les parametres du guide d'onde sont optimises pour une application utilisant des fluorophores a points quantiques emettant a 650 nm et excites avec une source laser a 532 nm. Une epaisseur de 80 nm est determinee comme optimale pour l'excitation, la collection de la fluorescence et le couplage fibre-guide. Le developpement d'un guide d'onde capable d'atteindre cette epaisseur et conservant des bonnes proprietes optiques est necessaire. A notre connaissance aucun travail n'a ete realise pour optimiser les pertes dans le visible des guides de nitrure de silicium, en fonction des parametres du procede PECVD. Dans ce travail de these, des guides d'onde sont fabriques pour la premiere fois en

  4. Resisting majesty: Apis cerana, has lower antennal sensitivity and decreased attraction to queen mandibular pheromone than Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shihao; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xinyu; Tan, Ken; Nieh, James

    2017-01-01

    In highly social bees, queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) is vital for colony life. Both Apis cerana (Ac) and Apis mellifera (Am) share an evolutionarily conserved set of QMP compounds: (E)-9-oxodec-2-enoic acid (9-ODA), (E)-9-hydroxydec-2-enoic acid (9-HDA), (E)-10-hydroxy-dec-2-enoic acid (10-HDA), 10-hydroxy-decanoic acid (10-HDAA), and methyl p–hydroxybenzoate (HOB) found at similar levels. However, evidence suggests there may be species-specific sensitivity differences to QMP compounds because Ac workers have higher levels of ovarian activation than Am workers. Using electroantennograms, we found species-specific sensitivity differences for a blend of the major QMP compounds and three individual compounds (9-HDA, 10-HDAA, and 10-HDA). As predicted, Am was more sensitive than Ac in all cases (1.3- to 2.7- fold higher responses). There were also species differences in worker retinue attraction to three compounds (9-HDA, HOB, and 10-HDA). In all significantly different cases, Am workers were 4.5- to 6.2-fold more strongly attracted than Ac workers were. Thus, Ac workers responded less strongly to QMP than Ac workers, and 9-HDA and 10-HDA consistently elicited stronger antennal and retinue formation responses. PMID:28294146

  5. Resisting majesty: Apis cerana, has lower antennal sensitivity and decreased attraction to queen mandibular pheromone than Apis mellifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shihao; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xinyu; Tan, Ken; Nieh, James

    2017-03-01

    In highly social bees, queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) is vital for colony life. Both Apis cerana (Ac) and Apis mellifera (Am) share an evolutionarily conserved set of QMP compounds: (E)-9-oxodec-2-enoic acid (9-ODA), (E)-9-hydroxydec-2-enoic acid (9-HDA), (E)-10-hydroxy-dec-2-enoic acid (10-HDA), 10-hydroxy-decanoic acid (10-HDAA), and methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (HOB) found at similar levels. However, evidence suggests there may be species-specific sensitivity differences to QMP compounds because Ac workers have higher levels of ovarian activation than Am workers. Using electroantennograms, we found species-specific sensitivity differences for a blend of the major QMP compounds and three individual compounds (9-HDA, 10-HDAA, and 10-HDA). As predicted, Am was more sensitive than Ac in all cases (1.3- to 2.7- fold higher responses). There were also species differences in worker retinue attraction to three compounds (9-HDA, HOB, and 10-HDA). In all significantly different cases, Am workers were 4.5- to 6.2-fold more strongly attracted than Ac workers were. Thus, Ac workers responded less strongly to QMP than Ac workers, and 9-HDA and 10-HDA consistently elicited stronger antennal and retinue formation responses.

  6. Pyrosequencing analysis of the bacterial communities in the guts of honey bees Apis cerana and Apis mellifera in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Hong, In-Pyo; Bok, Jeung-Im; Kim, Byung-Yong; Song, Jaekyeong; Weon, Hang-Yeon

    2012-10-01

    The bacterial communities in the guts of the adults and larvae of the Asian honey bee Apis cerana and the European honey bee Apis mellifera were surveyed by pyrosequencing the 16S rRNA genes. Most of the gut bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were highly similar to the known honey bee-specific ones and affiliated with Pasteurellaceae or lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUs, defined at 97% similarity) were lower in the larval guts (6 or 9) than in the adult guts (18 or 20), and the frequencies of Pasteurellaceae-related OTUs were higher in the larval guts while those of LAB-related OTUs in the adult guts. The frequencies of Lactococcus, Bartonella, Spiroplasma, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae-related OTUs were much higher in A. cerana guts while Bifidobacterium and Lachnospiraceae-related OTUs were more abundant in A. mellfera guts. The bacterial community structures in the midguts and hindguts of the adult honey bees were not different for A. cerana, but significantly different for A. mellifera. The above results substantiated the previous observation that honey bee guts are dominated by several specific bacterial groups, and also showed that the relative abundances of OTUs could be markedly changed depending on the developmental stage, the location within the gut, and the honey bee species. The possibility of using the gut bacterial community as an indicator of honey bee health was discussed.

  7. Flight behaviour of honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers is altered by initial infections of the fungal parasite Nosema apis

    PubMed Central

    Dosselli, Ryan; Grassl, Julia; Carson, Andrew; Simmons, Leigh W.; Baer, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) host a wide range of parasites, some being known contributors towards dramatic colony losses as reported over recent years. To counter parasitic threats, honey bees possess effective immune systems. Because immune responses are predicted to cause substantial physiological costs for infected individuals, they are expected to trade off with other life history traits that ultimately affect the performance and fitness of the entire colony. Here, we tested whether the initial onset of an infection negatively impacts the flight behaviour of honey bee workers, which is an energetically demanding behaviour and a key component of foraging activities. To do this, we infected workers with the widespread fungal pathogen Nosema apis, which is recognised and killed by the honey bee immune system. We compared their survival and flight behaviour with non-infected individuals from the same cohort and colony using radio frequency identification tags (RFID). We found that over a time frame of four days post infection, Nosema did not increase mortality but workers quickly altered their flight behaviour and performed more flights of shorter duration. We conclude that parasitic infections influence foraging activities, which could reduce foraging ranges of colonies and impact their ability to provide pollination services. PMID:27827404

  8. Resisting majesty: Apis cerana, has lower antennal sensitivity and decreased attraction to queen mandibular pheromone than Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shihao; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xinyu; Tan, Ken; Nieh, James

    2017-03-15

    In highly social bees, queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) is vital for colony life. Both Apis cerana (Ac) and Apis mellifera (Am) share an evolutionarily conserved set of QMP compounds: (E)-9-oxodec-2-enoic acid (9-ODA), (E)-9-hydroxydec-2-enoic acid (9-HDA), (E)-10-hydroxy-dec-2-enoic acid (10-HDA), 10-hydroxy-decanoic acid (10-HDAA), and methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (HOB) found at similar levels. However, evidence suggests there may be species-specific sensitivity differences to QMP compounds because Ac workers have higher levels of ovarian activation than Am workers. Using electroantennograms, we found species-specific sensitivity differences for a blend of the major QMP compounds and three individual compounds (9-HDA, 10-HDAA, and 10-HDA). As predicted, Am was more sensitive than Ac in all cases (1.3- to 2.7- fold higher responses). There were also species differences in worker retinue attraction to three compounds (9-HDA, HOB, and 10-HDA). In all significantly different cases, Am workers were 4.5- to 6.2-fold more strongly attracted than Ac workers were. Thus, Ac workers responded less strongly to QMP than Ac workers, and 9-HDA and 10-HDA consistently elicited stronger antennal and retinue formation responses.

  9. Proteomic characterization of royal jelly proteins in Chinese (Apis cerana cerana) and European (Apis mellifera) honeybees.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ning; Jiang, Jie; Sun, Liangxian; Lai, Changcheng; Sun, Lifang; Wu, Xueji

    2008-06-01

    In this study, the proteins contained in royal jelly (RJ) derived from Chinese and European honeybees have been analyzed in detail and compared. Remarkable differences were found in the heterogeneity of major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs), MRJP2 and MRJP3, in terms of molecular weight and isoelectric points between the two species of RJ. MRJP2 and MRJP3 produced by Chinese honeybee are less polymorphic than those produced by European honeybee. This study is a contribution to the description of the royal jelly proteome.

  10. A Systematic Review of the Free-Pour Assessment: Implications for Research, Assessment and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Nicole R; Kohn, Carolynn S; Schmerbauch, Megan; Correia, Christopher J

    2017-03-13

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a major concern. Alcohol consumption data are typically collected via self-report questionnaires. However, research has suggested that individuals are unable to identify a standard drink size and that their self-report may be influenced by certain environmental conditions, calling into question the reliability and validity of self-report. The free-pour is an objective measure that may provide a clearer picture of current alcohol consumption trends, individuals' knowledge of standard drink sizes, and accuracy of self-report. This systematic review of existing free-pour assessment methods suggests that individuals are unable to identify and pour standard drink sizes, with the largest discrepancies occurring for liquor and wine pours and pours into larger and wider glasses. Additional variables that appear to influence pouring behavior are gender, pouring location (e.g., home or laboratory), pouring task (e.g., selecting a line or physically pouring), and drinking history; however, additional research is necessary to better understand the effects of these variables on pouring behavior. These findings have important implications for the accuracy of self-report measures, as well as clinical implications for alcohol use screenings, alcohol education courses, and brief interventions for alcohol use. The systematic review concludes with recommendations for practical applications and future research of the free-pour assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. API5 confers cancer stem cell-like properties through the FGF2-NANOG axis.

    PubMed

    Song, K-H; Cho, H; Kim, S; Lee, H-J; Oh, S J; Woo, S R; Hong, S-O; Jang, H S; Noh, K H; Choi, C H; Chung, J-Y; Hewitt, S M; Kim, J-H; Son, M; Kim, S-H; Lee, B I; Park, H-C; Bae, Y-K; Kim, T W

    2017-01-16

    Immune selection drives the evolution of tumor cells toward an immune-resistant and cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotype. We reported that apoptosis inhibitor-5 (API5) acts as an immune escape factor, which has a significant role in controlling immune resistance to antigen-specific T cells, but its functional association with CSC-like properties remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that API5 confers CSC-like properties, including NANOG expression, the frequency of CD44-positive cells and sphere-forming capacity. Critically, these CSC-like properties mediated by API5 are dependent on FGFR1 signaling, which is triggered by E2F1-dependent FGF2 expression. Furthermore, we uncovered the FGF2-NANOG molecular axis as a downstream component of API5 signaling that is conserved in cervical cancer patients. Finally, we found that the blockade of FGFR signaling is an effective strategy to control API5(high) human cancer. Thus, our findings reveal a crucial role of API5 in linking immune resistance and CSC-like properties, and provide the rationale for its therapeutic application for the treatment of API5(+) refractory tumors.

  12. api, A novel Medicago truncatula symbiotic mutant impaired in nodule primordium invasion.

    PubMed

    Teillet, Alice; Garcia, Joseph; de Billy, Françoise; Gherardi, Michèle; Huguet, Thierry; Barker, David G; de Carvalho-Niebel, Fernanda; Journet, Etienne-Pascal

    2008-05-01

    Genetic approaches have proved to be extremely useful in dissecting the complex nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium-legume endosymbiotic association. Here we describe a novel Medicago truncatula mutant called api, whose primary phenotype is the blockage of rhizobial infection just prior to nodule primordium invasion, leading to the formation of large infection pockets within the cortex of noninvaded root outgrowths. The mutant api originally was identified as a double symbiotic mutant associated with a new allele (nip-3) of the NIP/LATD gene, following the screening of an ethylmethane sulphonate-mutagenized population. Detailed characterization of the segregating single api mutant showed that rhizobial infection is also defective at the earlier stage of infection thread (IT) initiation in root hairs, as well as later during IT growth in the small percentage of nodules which overcome the primordium invasion block. Neither modulating ethylene biosynthesis (with L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinylglycine or 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) nor reducing ethylene sensitivity in a skl genetic background alters the basic api phenotype, suggesting that API function is not closely linked to ethylene metabolism or signaling. Genetic mapping places the API gene on the upper arm of the M. truncatula linkage group 4, and epistasis analyses show that API functions downstream of BIT1/ERN1 and LIN and upstream of NIP/LATD and the DNF genes.

  13. API5 confers cancer stem cell-like properties through the FGF2-NANOG axis

    PubMed Central

    Song, K-H; Cho, H; Kim, S; Lee, H-J; Oh, S J; Woo, S R; Hong, S-O; Jang, H S; Noh, K H; Choi, C H; Chung, J-Y; Hewitt, S M; Kim, J-H; Son, M; Kim, S-H; Lee, B I; Park, H-C; Bae, Y-K; Kim, T W

    2017-01-01

    Immune selection drives the evolution of tumor cells toward an immune-resistant and cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotype. We reported that apoptosis inhibitor-5 (API5) acts as an immune escape factor, which has a significant role in controlling immune resistance to antigen-specific T cells, but its functional association with CSC-like properties remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that API5 confers CSC-like properties, including NANOG expression, the frequency of CD44-positive cells and sphere-forming capacity. Critically, these CSC-like properties mediated by API5 are dependent on FGFR1 signaling, which is triggered by E2F1-dependent FGF2 expression. Furthermore, we uncovered the FGF2-NANOG molecular axis as a downstream component of API5 signaling that is conserved in cervical cancer patients. Finally, we found that the blockade of FGFR signaling is an effective strategy to control API5high human cancer. Thus, our findings reveal a crucial role of API5 in linking immune resistance and CSC-like properties, and provide the rationale for its therapeutic application for the treatment of API5+ refractory tumors. PMID:28092370

  14. Asexually produced Cape honeybee queens (Apis mellifera capensis) reproduce sexually.

    PubMed

    Beekman, Madeleine; Allsopp, Michael H; Lim, Julianne; Goudie, Frances; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2011-01-01

    Unmated workers of the Cape honeybee Apis mellifera capensis can produce female offspring including daughter queens. As worker-laid queens are produced asexually, we wondered whether these asexually produced individuals reproduce asexually or sexually. We sampled 11 colonies headed by queens known to be the clonal offspring of workers and genotyped 23 worker offspring from each queen at 5 microsatellite loci. Without exception, asexually produced queens produced female worker offspring sexually. In addition, we report the replacement of a queen by her asexually produced granddaughter, with this asexually produced queen also producing offspring sexually. Hence, once a female larva is raised as a queen, mating and sexual reproduction appears to be obligatory in this subspecies, despite the fact that worker-laid queens are derived from asexual lineages.

  15. The Ensembl REST API: Ensembl Data for Any Language

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Andrew; Beal, Kathryn; Keenan, Stephen; McLaren, William; Pignatelli, Miguel; Ritchie, Graham R. S.; Ruffier, Magali; Taylor, Kieron; Vullo, Alessandro; Flicek, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: We present a Web service to access Ensembl data using Representational State Transfer (REST). The Ensembl REST server enables the easy retrieval of a wide range of Ensembl data by most programming languages, using standard formats such as JSON and FASTA while minimizing client work. We also introduce bindings to the popular Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor tool permitting large-scale programmatic variant analysis independent of any specific programming language. Availability and implementation: The Ensembl REST API can be accessed at http://rest.ensembl.org and source code is freely available under an Apache 2.0 license from http://github.com/Ensembl/ensembl-rest. Contact: ayates@ebi.ac.uk or flicek@ebi.ac.uk Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25236461

  16. Chill sensitivity of honey bee, Apis mellifera, embryos.

    PubMed

    Collins, Anita M; Mazur, Peter

    2006-08-01

    Improved methods for preservation of honey bee, Apis mellifera L., germplasm would be very welcome to beekeeping industry queen breeders. The introduction of two parasites and the emergence of an antibiotic resistant disease have increased demands for resistant stock. Techniques for artificial insemination of queens are available, and semen has been cryopreserved with limited success. However, cryopreservation of embryos for rearing queens would mesh well with current practices and also provide drones (haploid males). Eggs at five ages between twenty-four hours and sixty-two hours were exposed to 0, -6.6, and/or -15 degrees C for various times, and successful hatch measured. Honey bee embryos show chill sensitivity as do other insect embryos, and the rate of chill injury increases dramatically with decrease in holding temperature. The 48 h embryos in both groups showed the greatest tolerance to chilling, although 44 h embryos were only slightly less so.

  17. Yeast cell factories for fine chemical and API production

    PubMed Central

    Pscheidt, Beate; Glieder, Anton

    2008-01-01

    This review gives an overview of different yeast strains and enzyme classes involved in yeast whole-cell biotransformations. A focus was put on the synthesis of compounds for fine chemical and API (= active pharmaceutical ingredient) production employing single or only few-step enzymatic reactions. Accounting for recent success stories in metabolic engineering, the construction and use of synthetic pathways was also highlighted. Examples from academia and industry and advances in the field of designed yeast strain construction demonstrate the broad significance of yeast whole-cell applications. In addition to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, alternative yeast whole-cell biocatalysts are discussed such as Candida sp., Cryptococcus sp., Geotrichum sp., Issatchenkia sp., Kloeckera sp., Kluyveromyces sp., Pichia sp. (including Hansenula polymorpha = P. angusta), Rhodotorula sp., Rhodosporidium sp., alternative Saccharomyces sp., Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulopsis sp., Trichosporon sp., Trigonopsis variabilis, Yarrowia lipolytica and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. PMID:18684335

  18. Improving molecular discrimination of Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae.

    PubMed

    Carletto, Jérôme; Blanchard, Philippe; Gauthier, Aurélie; Schurr, Frank; Chauzat, Marie-Pierre; Ribière, Magali

    2013-05-01

    Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are the causative agents of nosemosis, a contagious honeybee disease that weakens bee colonies. The species are discriminated through several PCR-based methods including a multiplex PCR recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). In this study, the OIE protocol was compared to two other PCR protocols using different PCR kits with the same primer pairs as described in OIE. The results showed that the three PCR protocols have similar sensitivity but only the kit dedicated to multiplex PCR could detect small quantities of one Nosema species when greater quantities of the other were also present. However, singleplex PCR methods are currently the most sensitive methods for discerning each species. These results have important implications for epidemiology and the understanding of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Significance and progress of DIAN/A4/API].

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    The DIAN observational study compared the pathophysiological markers between mutation carriers and non-carriers for autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease. It has revealed the biomarker changes in the mutation carrier's brain started as early as 20, even 25 years prior to symptoms. The researchers of DIAN started the prevention trial(DIAN-TU) with two monoclonal antibodies. The API study is the clinical trial of the anti-amyloid monoclonal antibody therapy to the kindred of early onset familial AD (EOAD) who carry the PSEN1 E280A mutation. This study has also shown the same biomarker changes that were reported in the DIAN study. Anti-Amyloid Treatment in Asymptomatic AD (A4) is a prevention trial aimed at treating cognitive normal older individuals at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease dementia on the basis of having biomarker evidence of amyloid (pre-clinical AD). Solanezumab was selected for the anti-amyloid treatment for A4.

  20. Yeast cell factories for fine chemical and API production.

    PubMed

    Pscheidt, Beate; Glieder, Anton

    2008-08-07

    This review gives an overview of different yeast strains and enzyme classes involved in yeast whole-cell biotransformations. A focus was put on the synthesis of compounds for fine chemical and API (= active pharmaceutical ingredient) production employing single or only few-step enzymatic reactions. Accounting for recent success stories in metabolic engineering, the construction and use of synthetic pathways was also highlighted. Examples from academia and industry and advances in the field of designed yeast strain construction demonstrate the broad significance of yeast whole-cell applications. In addition to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, alternative yeast whole-cell biocatalysts are discussed such as Candida sp., Cryptococcus sp., Geotrichum sp., Issatchenkia sp., Kloeckera sp., Kluyveromyces sp., Pichia sp. (including Hansenula polymorpha = P. angusta), Rhodotorula sp., Rhodosporidium sp., alternative Saccharomyces sp., Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulopsis sp., Trichosporon sp., Trigonopsis variabilis, Yarrowia lipolytica and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Himalayan honey bee, Apis laboriosa.

    PubMed

    Chhakchhuak, Liansangmawii; De Mandal, Surajit; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami; Sudalaimuthu, Naganeeswaran; Gopalakrishnan, Chellappa; Mugasimangalam, Raja C; Senthil Kumar, Nachimuthu

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Himalayan bee Apis laboriosa, from Mizoram, India, has been sequenced using Illumina NextSeq500 platform and analysed. The mitogenome was assembled and found to be 15 266 bp in length and the gene arrangement is similar to other honey bee species. The A. laboriosa mitogenome comprises of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and an A + T-rich region of 346 bp. Based on the concatenated PCGs, in the phylogenetic tree, A. laboriosa is placed as a sister group along with the cavity nesting honey bees. The present study reports the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of A. laboriosa, which will enhance our knowledge on Apinae mitogenomes and phylogeny.

  2. A non-policing honey bee colony (Apis mellifera capensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beekman, Madeleine; Good, Gregory; Allsopp, Mike; Radloff, Sarah; Pirk, Chris; Ratnieks, Francis

    2002-09-01

    In the Cape honey bee Apis mellifera capensis, workers lay female eggs without mating by thelytokous parthenogenesis. As a result, workers are as related to worker-laid eggs as they are to queen-laid eggs and therefore worker policing is expected to be lower, or even absent. This was tested by transferring worker- and queen-laid eggs into three queenright A. m. capensis discriminator colonies and monitoring their removal. Our results show that worker policing is variable in A. m. capensis and that in one colony worker-laid eggs were not removed. This is the first report of a non-policing queenright honey bee colony. DNA microsatellite and morphometric analysis suggests that the racial composition of the three discriminator colonies was different. The variation in policing rates could be explained by differences in degrees of hybridisation between A. m. capensis and A. m. scutellata, although a larger survey is needed to confirm this.

  3. Evaluation of the API Aerosizer Mach 2 particle sizer

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, E.B.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1991-12-31

    An API Aerosizer{trademark} Mach 2 was evaluated for measuring size distributions of aerosols. The aerosols tested included monodisperse polystyrene latex particles ranging in size from 0.78 {mu}m to 7.17 {mu}m, glass beads from 1.14 {mu}m to 87.0 {mu}m, polydisperse aerosols with densities between 1.63 g/cc and 5.69 g/cc, and bimodal aerosols of carbon black and diesel exhaust. Electron and optical microscopy were used to provide the true sizes of the polystyrene particles and glass beads. A Lovelace multi-jet impactor provided comparative size data for the polydisperse aerosols, and a Lovelace multi-jet impactor/parallel flow diffusion battery sampling train was used to size the bimodal aerosols.

  4. Evaluation of the API Aerosizer Mach 2 particle sizer

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, E.B.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1991-01-01

    An API Aerosizer{trademark} Mach 2 was evaluated for measuring size distributions of aerosols. The aerosols tested included monodisperse polystyrene latex particles ranging in size from 0.78 {mu}m to 7.17 {mu}m, glass beads from 1.14 {mu}m to 87.0 {mu}m, polydisperse aerosols with densities between 1.63 g/cc and 5.69 g/cc, and bimodal aerosols of carbon black and diesel exhaust. Electron and optical microscopy were used to provide the true sizes of the polystyrene particles and glass beads. A Lovelace multi-jet impactor provided comparative size data for the polydisperse aerosols, and a Lovelace multi-jet impactor/parallel flow diffusion battery sampling train was used to size the bimodal aerosols.

  5. A non-policing honey bee colony (Apis mellifera capensis).

    PubMed

    Beekman, Madeleine; Good, Gregory; Allsopp, Mike H; Radloff, Sarah; Pirk, Chris W W; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2002-10-01

    In the Cape honey bee Apis mellifera capensis, workers lay female eggs without mating by thelytokous parthenogenesis. As a result, workers are as related to worker-laid eggs as they are to queen-laid eggs and therefore worker policing is expected to be lower, or even absent. This was tested by transferring worker- and queen-laid eggs into three queenright A. m. capensis discriminator colonies and monitoring their removal. Our results show that worker policing is variable in A. m. capensis and that in one colony worker-laid eggs were not removed. This is the first report of a non-policing queenright honey bee colony. DNA microsatellite and morphometric analysis suggests that the racial composition of the three discriminator colonies was different. The variation in policing rates could be explained by differences in degrees of hybridisation between A. m. capensis and A. m. scutellata, although a larger survey is needed to confirm this.

  6. Pheromonal contest between honeybee workers ( Apis mellifera capensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, R. F. A.; Simon, U. E.; Crewe, R. M.

    2000-10-01

    Queenless workers of the Cape honeybee ( Apis mellifera capensis) can develop into reproductives termed pseudoqueens. Although they morphologically remain workers they become physiologically queenlike, produce offspring, and secrete mandibular gland pheromones similar to those of true queens. However, after queen loss only very few workers gain pseudoqueen status. A strong intracolonial selection governs which workers start oviposition and which remain sterile. The "queen substance", 9-keto-2(E)-decenoic acid (9-ODA), the dominant compound of the queen's mandibular gland pheromones, suppresses the secretion of queenlike mandibular gland pheromones in workers. It may act as an important signal in pseudoqueen selection. By analysing the mandibular gland pheromones of workers kept in pairs, we found that A. m. capensis workers compete to produce the strongest queen-like signal.

  7. Utilization of the Google Maps API in WebPages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricket, D.

    2006-12-01

    Google Maps, which offers a powerful, user-friendly mapping technology including business locations, contact information, and driving directions, also provides an easy-to-use platform for representing scientific information in a geographic format. Users can add draggable maps, satellite imagery, and zoom functionality technology to their own web pages using the Google Maps API. Features such as overlays (including markers and polylines) can be customized to show geologic map features and display shadowed "info windows" can be customized with additional information, images along with the direction they were taken, and access to data. A demonstration will be given of how to import large datasets into Google Maps, along formatting tips and tricks. Discussion of how the geoscience community would like to use both 2D and 3D mapping technologies is encouraged.

  8. Asymmetrical coexistence of Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanping; Evans, Jay D; Zhou, Liang; Boncristiani, Humberto; Kimura, Kiyoshi; Xiao, Tieguang; Litkowski, A M; Pettis, Jeffery S

    2009-07-01

    Globalization has provided opportunities for parasites/pathogens to cross geographic boundaries and expand to new hosts. Recent studies showed that Nosema ceranae, originally considered a microsporidian parasite of Eastern honey bees, Apis cerana, is a disease agent of nosemosis in European honey bees, Apis mellifera, along with the resident species, Nosema apis. Further studies indicated that disease caused by N. ceranae in European honey bees is far more prevalent than that caused by N. apis. In order to gain more insight into the epidemiology of Nosema parasitism in honey bees, we conducted studies to investigate infection of Nosema in its original host, Eastern honey bees, using conventional PCR and duplex real time quantitative PCR methods. Our results showed that A. cerana was infected not only with N. ceranae as previously reported [Fries, I., Feng, F., Silva, A.D., Slemenda, S.B., Pieniazek, N.J., 1996. Nosema ceranae n. sp. (Microspora, Nosematidae), morphological and molecular characterization of a microsporidian parasite of the Asian honey bee Apis cerana (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Eur. J. Protistol. 32, 356-365], but also with N. apis. Both microsporidia produced single and mixed infections. Overall and at each location alone, the prevalence of N. ceranae was higher than that of N. apis. In all cases of mixed infections, the number of N. ceranae gene copies (corresponding to the parasite load) significantly out numbered those of N. apis. Phylogenetic analysis based on a variable region of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSUrRNA) showed four distinct clades of N. apis and five clades of N. ceranae and that geographical distance does not appear to influence the genetic diversity of Nosema populations. The results from this study demonstrated that duplex real-time qPCR assay developed in this study is a valuable tool for quantitative measurement of Nosema and can be used to monitor the progression of microsprodian infections of honey bees in a timely and cost

  9. Use of a glutaric acid cocrystal to improve oral bioavailability of a low solubility API.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Daniel P; Childs, Scott L; Giordano, Jennifer; Iarriccio, Anthony; Cassidy, James; Shet, Manjunath S; Mannion, Richard; O'Donnell, Ed; Park, Aeri

    2006-08-01

    The bioavailability of a development candidate active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) was very low after oral dosing in dogs. In order to improve bioavailability, we sought to increase the dissolution rate of the solid form of the API. When traditional methods of forming salts and amorphous material failed to produce a viable solid form for continued development, we turned to the non-traditional approach of cocrystallization. A crystal engineering approach was used to design and execute a cocrystal screen of the API. Hydrogen bonding between the API and pharmaceutically acceptable carboxylic acids was identified as a viable synthon for associating multiple components in the solid state. A number of carboxylic acid guest molecules were tested for cocrystal formation with the API. A cocrystal containing the API and glutaric acid in a 1:1 molecular ratio was identified and the single crystal structure is reported. Physical characterization of the cocrystal showed that it is unique regarding thermal, spectroscopic, X-ray, and dissolution properties. The cocrystal solid is nonhygroscopic, and chemically and physically stable to thermal stress. Use of the cocrystal increased the aqueous dissolution rate by 18 times as compared to the homomeric crystalline form of the drug. Single dose dog exposure studies confirmed that the cocrystal increased plasma AUC values by three times at two different dose levels. APIs that are non-ionizable or demonstrate poor salt forming ability traditionally present few opportunities for creating crystalline solid forms with desired physical properties. Cocrystals are an additional class of crystalline solid that can provide options for improved properties. In this case, a crystalline molecular complex of glutaric acid and an API was identified and used to demonstrate an improvement in the oral bioavailability of the API in dogs.

  10. Exogenous delivery of chaperonin subunit fragment ApiCCT1 modulates mutant Huntingtin cellular phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Sontag, Emily M.; Joachimiak, Lukasz A.; Tan, Zhiqun; Tomlinson, Anthony; Housman, David E.; Glabe, Charles G.; Potkin, Steven G.; Frydman, Judith; Thompson, Leslie M.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation of misfolded proteins is characteristic of a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington disease (HD). The CCT/TRiC (chaperonin containing TCP-1/TCP-1 ring) chaperonin complex can inhibit aggregation and cellular toxicity induced by expanded repeat Huntingtin (mHtt) fragments. The substrate-binding apical domain of CCT/TRiC subunit CCT1, ApiCCT1, is sufficient to inhibit aggregation of expanded repeat mHtt fragments in vitro, providing therapeutic promise for HD. However, a key hurdle in considering ApiCCT1 as a potential treatment is in delivery. Because ApiCCT1 has a region of similarity to the HIV Tat protein cell-transduction domain, we tested whether recombinant ApiCCT1 (ApiCCT1r) protein could enter cells following exogenous delivery and modulate an established panel of mHtt-mediated cell-based phenotypes. Cell fractionation studies demonstrate that exogenous ApiCCT1r can penetrate cell membranes and can localize to the nucleus, consistent with a strategy that can target both cytosolic and nuclear pathogenic events in HD. ApiCCT1r application does indeed modulate HD cellular phenotypes by decreasing formation of visible inclusions, fibrillar oligomers, and insoluble mHtt derived from expression of a truncated mHtt exon 1 fragment. ApiCCT1r also delays the onset of inclusion body formation as visualized via live imaging. ApiCCT1r reduces mHtt-mediated toxicity in immortalized striatal cells derived from full-length knock-in HD mice, suggesting that therapeutic benefit may extend beyond effects on aggregation. These studies provide the basis for a potentially robust and unique therapeutic strategy to target mHtt-mediated protein pathogenesis. PMID:23365139

  11. Sequential hygienic behavior in Carniolan honey bees (Apis mellifera carnica).

    PubMed

    Gramacho, K P; Gonçalves, L S

    2009-01-01

    We examined the sequence, order or steps of hygienic behavior (HB) from pin-killed pupae until the removal of them by the bees. We conducted our study with four colonies of Apis mellifera carnica in Germany and made four repetitions. The pin-killing method was used for evaluation of the HB of bees. The data were collected every 2 h after perforation, totaling 13 observations. Additionally, for one hygienic colony and another non-hygienic colony, individual analyses of each dead pupa were made at every observation, including all details, steps or sequences of HB. The bees recognize the cells containing dead pupae within 2 h after perforation, initially making a hole in the capping, which is the beginning of HB. Uncapping of the dead brood cell reached maximum values from 4 to 6 h after perforation; after 24 h, practically all cells were already uncapped. Another variable, called brood partially removed, was analyzed 4 h after perforation, after the cells had been perforated, which involved uncapping, followed by partial or total removal of the brood. Maximum values of brood partially removed were found 10 h after perforation, though such cells could be found up to 48 h after perforation. The most frequent sequence of events in both colonies was: capped cell --> punctured cell --> brood partially removed --> empty cell. A new model of three pairs of recessive genes (uncapping u1, u2 and remover r) was proposed in order to explain the genetic control of the HB in Apis mellifera. We recommend evaluating HB 24 h after perforation and using a correction factor to compensate for control removal levels. We found a series of details of HB, which allow a study of how various factors may affect the sequence of the activities involved in HB and investigation of the genetics that controls this process.

  12. Homopolar pulse welding of API 5L carbon steel linepipe

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, P.; Carnes, R.; Harville, M.

    1994-12-31

    Homopolar pulse welding (HPW) is a resistance welding process being investigated as a method to rapidly join API 5L carbon steel linepipe. The target application for this investigation is deepwater offshore pipeline construction utilizing the J-lay method, which requires a rapid one-shot welding process for economic feasibility. HPW utilizes the high current, low-voltage pulse produced by a homopolar generator to rapidly resistance heat the interface between abutting workpieces, and follows that pulse with an upset action to produce a weld. A large number of controllable parameters affecting the quality of the resultant weld are present in the process. Three inch nominal diameter, schedule 160 API 5L X-52 pipe sections were welded in this series while controlling variations in generator discharge speed electrode location and upsetting parameters. Welding current voltage and temperature curves were recorded for the welds. Tensile and Charpy V-notch impact specimens were machined from each weld and tested. Weld cross-sections were macroscopically examined. By delaying the application of the forging action, the `white line` or decarburized zone commonly found in high frequency resistance or flash butt welds was eliminated. Weld tensile strength was found to be primarily dependent on generator discharge speed (heat input). Electrode distance from the weld interface was found to be the critical factor determining weld zone cooling rate. HPW parameters can be selected to produce welds without the `white line` or decarburized zone commonly found in high frequency resistance and flash butt welds. Full tensile strength welds are easily achieved providing two conditions are met: sufficient heat input is supplied and a nominal upsetting action is applied within a few seconds of the discharge current peak. Electrode location provides control over the weld zone cooling rate.

  13. Tipping Point

    MedlinePlus

    ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  14. The Arabidopsis apyrase AtAPY1 is localized in the Golgi instead of the extracellular space

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The two highly similar Arabidopsis apyrases AtAPY1 and AtAPY2 were previously shown to be involved in plant growth and development, evidently by regulating extracellular ATP signals. The subcellular localization of AtAPY1 was investigated to corroborate an extracellular function. Results Transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing AtAPY1 fused to the SNAP-(O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase)-tag were used for indirect immunofluorescence and AtAPY1 was detected in punctate structures within the cell. The same signal pattern was found in seedlings stably overexpressing AtAPY1-GFP by indirect immunofluorescence and live imaging. In order to identify the nature of the AtAPY1-positive structures, AtAPY1-GFP expressing seedlings were treated with the endocytic marker stain FM4-64 (N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(p-diethylaminophenyl-hexatrienyl)-pyridinium dibromide) and crossed with a transgenic line expressing the trans-Golgi marker Rab E1d. Neither FM4-64 nor Rab E1d co-localized with AtAPY1. However, live imaging of transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing AtAPY1-GFP and either the fluorescent protein-tagged Golgi marker Membrin 12, Syntaxin of plants 32 or Golgi transport 1 protein homolog showed co-localization. The Golgi localization was confirmed by immunogold labeling of AtAPY1-GFP. There was no indication of extracellular AtAPY1 by indirect immunofluorescence using antibodies against SNAP and GFP, live imaging of AtAPY1-GFP and immunogold labeling of AtAPY1-GFP. Activity assays with AtAPY1-GFP revealed GDP, UDP and IDP as substrates, but neither ATP nor ADP. To determine if AtAPY1 is a soluble or membrane protein, microsomal membranes were isolated and treated with various solubilizing agents. Only SDS and urea (not alkaline or high salt conditions) were able to release the AtAPY1 protein from microsomal membranes. Conclusions AtAPY1 is an integral Golgi protein with the substrate specificity typical for Golgi apyrases. It is therefore not likely to

  15. IgE recognition of chimeric isoforms of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom allergen Api m 10 evaluated by protein array technology.

    PubMed

    Van Vaerenbergh, Matthias; De Smet, Lina; Rafei-Shamsabadi, David; Blank, Simon; Spillner, Edzard; Ebo, Didier G; Devreese, Bart; Jakob, Thilo; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-02-01

    Api m 10 has recently been established as novel major allergen that is recognized by more than 60% of honeybee venom (HBV) allergic patients. Previous studies suggest Api m 10 protein heterogeneity which may have implications for diagnosis and immunotherapy of HBV allergy. In the present study, RT-PCR revealed the expression of at least nine additional Api m 10 transcript isoforms by the venom glands. Two distinct mechanisms are responsible for the generation of these isoforms: while the previously known variant 2 is produced by an alternative splicing event, novel identified isoforms are intragenic chimeric transcripts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the identification of chimeric transcripts generated by the honeybee. By a retrospective proteomic analysis we found evidence for the presence of several of these isoforms in the venom proteome. Additionally, we analyzed IgE reactivity to different isoforms by protein array technology using sera from HBV allergic patients, which revealed that IgE recognition of Api m 10 is both isoform- and patient-specific. While it was previously demonstrated that the majority of HBV allergic patients display IgE reactivity to variant 2, our study also shows that some patients lacking IgE antibodies for variant 2 display IgE reactivity to two of the novel identified Api m 10 variants, i.e. variants 3 and 4. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Infections with the Sexually Transmitted Pathogen Nosema apis Trigger an Immune Response in the Seminal Fluid of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Grassl, Julia; Peng, Yan; Baer-Imhoof, Barbara; Welch, Mat; Millar, A Harvey; Baer, Boris

    2017-01-06

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) males are highly susceptible to infections with the sexually transmitted fungal pathogen Nosema apis. However, they are able to suppress this parasite in the ejaculate using immune molecules in the seminal fluid. We predicted that males respond to infections by altering the seminal fluid proteome to minimize the risk to sexually transmit the parasite to the queen and her colony. We used iTRAQ isotopic labeling to compare seminal fluid proteins from infected and noninfected males and found that N. apis infections resulted in significant abundance changes in 111 of the 260 seminal fluid proteins quantitated. The largest group of proteins with significantly changed abundances consisted of 15 proteins with well-known immune-related functions, which included two significantly more abundant chitinases in the seminal fluid of infected males. Chitinases were previously hypothesized to be involved in honey bee antifungal activity against N. apis. Here we show that infection with N. apis triggers a highly specific immune response in the seminal fluid of honey bee males.

  17. Homology differences between complete Sacbrood virus genomes from infected Apis mellifera and Apis cerana honeybees in Korea.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar; Yoo, Mi Sun; Kim, Young-Ha; Kim, Nam-Hee; Ramya, Mummadireddy; Jung, Ha-Na; Thao, Le Thi Bich; Lee, Hee-Soo; Kang, Seung-Won

    2016-04-01

    Sacbrood virus (SBV) represents a serious threat to the health of managed honeybees. We determined four complete SBV genomic sequences (AmSBV-Kor1, AmSBV-Kor2, AcSBV-Kor3, and AcSBV-Kor4) isolated from Apis mellifera and Apis cerana in various regions of South Korea. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from the complete genomic sequences of these Korean SBVs (KSBVs) and 21 previously reported SBV sequences from other countries. Three KSBVs (not AmSBV-Kor1) clustered with previously reported Korean genomes, but separately from SBV genomes from other countries. The KSBVs shared 90-98 % identity, and 89-97 % identity with the genomes from other countries. AmSBV-Kor1 was least similar (~90 % identity) to the other KSBVs, and was most similar to previously reported strains AmSBV-Kor21 (97 %) and AmSBV-UK (93 %). Phylogenetic analysis of the partial VP1 region sequences indicated that SBVs clustered by host species and country of origin. The KSBVs were aligned with nine previously reported complete SBV genomes and compared. The KSBVs were most different from the other genomes at the end of the 5' untranslated region and in the entire open reading frame. A SimPlot graph of the VP1 region confirmed its high variability, especially between the SBVs infecting A. mellifera and A. cerana. In this genomic region, SBVs from A. mellifera species contain an extra continuous 51-nucleotide sequence relative to the SBVs from A. cerana. This genomic diversity may reflect the adaptation of SBV to specific hosts, viral cross-infections, and the spatial distances separating the KSBVs from other SBVs.

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera Larvae Fed with Heterospecific Royal Jelly and by CSBV Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiu; Han, Richou

    2014-01-01

    Chinese honeybee Apis cerana (Ac) is one of the major Asian honeybee species for local apiculture. However, Ac is frequently damaged by Chinese sacbrood virus (CSBV), whereas Apis mellifera (Am) is usually resistant to it. Heterospecific royal jelly (RJ) breeding in two honeybee species may result in morphological and genetic modification. Nevertheless, knowledge on the resistant mechanism of Am to this deadly disease is still unknown. In the present study, heterospecific RJ breeding was conducted to determine the effects of food change on the larval mortality after CSBV infection at early larval stage. 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS proteomic technology was employed to unravel the molecular event of the bees under heterospecific RJ breeding and CSBV challenge. The change of Ac larval food from RJC to RJM could enhance the bee resistance to CSBV. The mortality rate of Ac larvae after CSBV infection was much higher when the larvae were fed with RJC compared with the larvae fed with RJM. There were 101 proteins with altered expressions after heterospecific RJ breeding and viral infection. In Ac larvae, 6 differential expression proteins were identified from heterospecific RJ breeding only, 21 differential expression proteins from CSBV challenge only and 7 differential expression proteins from heterospecific RJ breeding plus CSBV challenge. In Am larvae, 17 differential expression proteins were identified from heterospecific RJ breeding only, 26 differential expression proteins from CSBV challenge only and 24 differential expression proteins from heterospecific RJ breeding plus CSBV challenge. The RJM may protect Ac larvae from CSBV infection, probably by activating the genes in energy metabolism pathways, antioxidation and ubiquitin-proteasome system. The present results, for the first time, comprehensively descript the molecular events of the viral infection of Ac and Am after heterospecific RJ breeding and are potentially useful for establishing CSBV resistant

  19. Influence of delayed pouring on irreversible hydrocolloid properties.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Stéfani Becker; Augusto, Carolina Rocha; Leitune, Vicente Castelo Branco; Samuel, Susana Maria Werner; Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of irreversible hydrocolloid materials poured immediately and after different storage periods. Four alginates were tested: Color Change (Cavex); Hydrogum (Zhermack); Hydrogum 5 (Zhermack); and Hydro Print Premium (Coltene). Their physical properties, including the recovery from deformation (n = 3), compressive strength (n = 3), and detail reproduction and gypsum compatibility (n = 3), were analyzed according to ANSI/ADA specification no. 18. Specimens were stored at 23ºC and humidity and were then poured with gypsum immediately and after 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days. The data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test at p < 0.05. All of the alginate impression materials tested exhibited detail reproduction and gypsum compatibility at all times. Hydro Print Premium and Hydrogum 5 showed recovery from deformation, as established by ANSI/ADA specification no. 18, after 5 days of storage. As the storage time increased, the compressive strength values also increased. Considering the properties of compounds' recovery from deformation, compressive strength, and detail reproduction and gypsum compatibility, irreversible hydrocolloids should be poured immediately.

  20. The early bee catches the flower - circadian rhythmicity influences learning performance in honey bees, Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Marina; Gustav, David

    2010-01-01

    Circadian rhythmicity plays an important role for many aspects of honey bees’ lives. However, the question whether it also affects learning and memory remained unanswered. To address this question, we studied the effect of circadian timing on olfactory learning and memory in honey bees Apis mellifera using the olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex paradigm. Bees were differentially conditioned to odours and tested for their odour learning at four different “Zeitgeber” time points. We show that learning behaviour is influenced by circadian timing. Honey bees perform best in the morning compared to the other times of day. Additionally, we found influences of the light condition bees were trained at on the olfactory learning. This circadian-mediated learning is independent from feeding times bees were entrained to, indicating an inherited and not acquired mechanism. We hypothesise that a co-evolutionary mechanism between the honey bee as a pollinator and plants might be the driving force for the evolution of the time-dependent learning abilities of bees. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00265-010-1026-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21350590

  1. CyREST: Turbocharging Cytoscape Access for External Tools via a RESTful API

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Keiichiro; Muetze, Tanja; Kolishovski, Georgi; Shannon, Paul; Demchak, Barry

    2015-01-01

    As bioinformatic workflows become increasingly complex and involve multiple specialized tools, so does the difficulty of reliably reproducing those workflows. Cytoscape is a critical workflow component for executing network visualization, analysis, and publishing tasks, but it can be operated only manually via a point-and-click user interface. Consequently, Cytoscape-oriented tasks are laborious and often error prone, especially with multistep protocols involving many networks. In this paper, we present the new cyREST Cytoscape app and accompanying harmonization libraries. Together, they improve workflow reproducibility and researcher productivity by enabling popular languages (e.g., Python and R, JavaScript, and C#) and tools (e.g., IPython/Jupyter Notebook and RStudio) to directly define and query networks, and perform network analysis, layouts and renderings. We describe cyREST’s API and overall construction, and present Python- and R-based examples that illustrate how Cytoscape can be integrated into large scale data analysis pipelines. cyREST is available in the Cytoscape app store (http://apps.cytoscape.org) where it has been downloaded over 1900 times since its release in late 2014. PMID:26672762

  2. CyREST: Turbocharging Cytoscape Access for External Tools via a RESTful API.

    PubMed

    Ono, Keiichiro; Muetze, Tanja; Kolishovski, Georgi; Shannon, Paul; Demchak, Barry

    2015-01-01

    As bioinformatic workflows become increasingly complex and involve multiple specialized tools, so does the difficulty of reliably reproducing those workflows. Cytoscape is a critical workflow component for executing network visualization, analysis, and publishing tasks, but it can be operated only manually via a point-and-click user interface. Consequently, Cytoscape-oriented tasks are laborious and often error prone, especially with multistep protocols involving many networks. In this paper, we present the new cyREST Cytoscape app and accompanying harmonization libraries. Together, they improve workflow reproducibility and researcher productivity by enabling popular languages (e.g., Python and R, JavaScript, and C#) and tools (e.g., IPython/Jupyter Notebook and RStudio) to directly define and query networks, and perform network analysis, layouts and renderings. We describe cyREST's API and overall construction, and present Python- and R-based examples that illustrate how Cytoscape can be integrated into large scale data analysis pipelines. cyREST is available in the Cytoscape app store (http://apps.cytoscape.org) where it has been downloaded over 1900 times since its release in late 2014.

  3. Selection on worker honeybee responses to queen pheromone (Apis mellifera L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankiw, T.; Winston, Mark L.; Fondrk, M. Kim; Slessor, Keith N.

    Disruptive selection for responsiveness to queen mandibular gland pheromone (QMP) in the retinue bioassay resulted in the production of high and low QMP responding strains of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). Strains differed significantly in their retinue response to QMP after one generation of selection. By the third generation the high strain was on average at least nine times more responsive than the low strain. The strains showed seasonal phenotypic plasticity such that both strains were more responsive to the pheromone in the spring than in the fall. Directional selection for low seasonal variation indicated that phenotypic plasticity was an additional genetic component to retinue response to QMP. Selection for high and low retinue responsiveness to QMP was not an artifact of the synthetic blend because both strains were equally responsive or non-responsive to whole mandibular gland extracts compared with QMP. The use of these strains clearly pointed to an extra-mandibular source of retinue pheromones (Pankiw et al. 1995; Slessor et al. 1998; Keeling et al. 1999).

  4. Point Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    ClaSIfication , 0.1102F 2304 Point processes____________ 12. PERSONAL AUTHORIS) Serfozo, R.F. 13AL TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED I4. DATE OF REPORT...the Laplace functional of M is as in Lemma 1.12. Keep in mind that a typical representation of a marked point process is o V 4 =. 1 6XnZ where N = 2 6...special case, for f: A - R . is X E[f(NO)] = E[JO f(O N)dt]. 0 Keep in mind that the expectation on the left is with respect to the probability for N

  5. A review on the taste masking of bitter APIs: hot-melt extrusion (HME) evaluation.

    PubMed

    Maniruzzaman, Mohammed; Boateng, Joshua S; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Snowden, Martin J; Douroumis, Dennis

    2014-02-01

    The majority of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) found in oral dosage forms have a bitter taste. Masking the unpleasant taste of bitter, APIs is a major challenge in the development of such oral dosage forms. Taste assessment is an important quality-control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations of any new molecular entity. Hot-melt extrusion (HME) techniques, have very recently, been accepted from an industrial compliance viewpoint in relation to both manufacturing operations and development of pharmaceuticals. HME achieves taste masking of bitter APIs via various mechanisms such as the formation of solid dispersions and inter-molecular interactions and this has led to its wide-spread use in pharmaceutical formulation research. In this article, the uses of various taste evaluation methods and HME as continuous processing techniques for taste masking of bitter APIs used for the oral delivery of drugs are reviewed.

  6. BUILDING MODEL ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS WITH THE JOINT UNIVERSAL PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF RELIABILITY (JUPITER) API

    EPA Science Inventory

    The open-source, public domain JUPITER (Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability) API (Application Programming Interface) provides conventions and Fortran-90 modules to develop applications (computer programs) for analyzing process models. The input ...

  7. BUILDING MODEL ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS WITH THE JOINT UNIVERSAL PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF RELIABILITY (JUPITER) API

    EPA Science Inventory

    The open-source, public domain JUPITER (Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability) API (Application Programming Interface) provides conventions and Fortran-90 modules to develop applications (computer programs) for analyzing process models. The input ...

  8. Evaluation of different API systems for identification of porcine Pasteurella multocida isolates.

    PubMed

    Vera Lizarazo, Y A; Rodríguez Ferri, E F; Gutiérrez Martín, C B

    2008-12-01

    An exhaustive biochemical characterisation of 60 porcine Pasteurella multocida clinical isolates recovered from lesions indicative of pneumonia, previously confirmed by PCR and all belonging to the capsular serogroup A, was performed by means of four commercial systems. The API 20NE correctly identified almost all isolates (95%), but only 60% could be ascribed to this species by the API 20E method. The high diversity exhibited by the API 50CHB/E system, with six different patterns, does not advise its use as additional system for a definitive identification at the species level, but this method could be a potential tool for characterising P. multocida isolates below this level. The more uniform reactions yielded by the API ZYM test make this system helpful in the confirmatory identification of this organism. The high variability (20 profiles) obtained when the four systems are taken together also suggests their usefulness for epidemiological purposes in order to sub-type P. multocida isolates.

  9. Three-dimensional model of the honeybee venom allergen Api m 7: structural and functional insights.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Dessislava; Greunke, Kerstin; Betzel, Christian

    2010-06-01

    Api m 7 is one of the major protease allergens of the honeybee venom. It consists of a serine protease-like (SPL) and a CUB domain. The knowledge about the structure and function of Api m 7 is limited mainly to its amino acid sequence. Three-dimensional models of the two structural domains were constructed using their amino acid sequences and the crystallographic coordinates of prophenoloxidase-activating factor (PPAF-II) as a template for the SPL domain and the coordinates of porcine spermadhesin PSP-II for the CUB domain. The structural organization of Api m 7 suggests that the CUB domain is involved in interactions with natural substrates while the SPL domain probably activates zymogens. IgE epitopes and antigenic sites were predicted. Api m 7 shows structural and functional similarity to the members of the PPAF-II family. Possible substrates, function and evolution of the enzyme are discussed in the paper.

  10. NSLS-II HIGH LEVEL APPLICATION INFRASTRUCTURE AND CLIENT API DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, G.; Yang; L.; Shroff; K.

    2011-03-28

    The beam commissioning software framework of NSLS-II project adopts a client/server based architecture to replace the more traditional monolithic high level application approach. It is an open structure platform, and we try to provide a narrow API set for client application. With this narrow API, existing applications developed in different language under different architecture could be ported to our platform with small modification. This paper describes system infrastructure design, client API and system integration, and latest progress. As a new 3rd generation synchrotron light source with ultra low emittance, there are new requirements and challenges to control and manipulate the beam. A use case study and a theoretical analysis have been performed to clarify requirements and challenges to the high level applications (HLA) software environment. To satisfy those requirements and challenges, adequate system architecture of the software framework is critical for beam commissioning, study and operation. The existing traditional approaches are self-consistent, and monolithic. Some of them have adopted a concept of middle layer to separate low level hardware processing from numerical algorithm computing, physics modelling, data manipulating, plotting, and error handling. However, none of the existing approaches can satisfy the requirement. A new design has been proposed by introducing service oriented architecture technology. The HLA is combination of tools for accelerator physicists and operators, which is same as traditional approach. In NSLS-II, they include monitoring applications and control routines. Scripting environment is very important for the later part of HLA and both parts are designed based on a common set of APIs. Physicists and operators are users of these APIs, while control system engineers and a few accelerator physicists are the developers of these APIs. With our Client/Server mode based approach, we leave how to retrieve information to the

  11. Integration of Experience API Into CDET’s E-Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    multimedia , tables, images, documents, and plain text. Table 4 provides the Center for Advanced Teaching and Learning at the University of Wisconsin La...EXPERIENCE API INTO CDET’S E- LEARNING by Clayton C. MacAloney June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Man-Tak Shing Co-Advisor: Arijit Das THIS PAGE...thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INTEGRATION OF EXPERIENCE API INTO CDET’S E- LEARNING 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Clayton C. MacAloney 7

  12. MechanoAPI-ILs: Pharmaceutical Ionic Liquids Obtained through Mechanochemical Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Martins, Inês C B; Oliveira, M Conceição; Diogo, Hermínio P; Branco, Luís C; Duarte, M Teresa

    2017-04-10

    An alternative, efficient, and green synthetic strategy for the preparation of pharmaceutical ionic liquids using mechanochemistry (MechanoAPI-ILs) is reported. Six new API-ILs based on gabapentin and l-glutamic acid were successfully synthesized and characterized, demonstrating that mechanochemistry is a very promising synthetic strategy. Results compare both the new and the classical approach and clearly show the advantages of the new method. This new technique is faster, solvent free, reproducible, selective, and leads to higher yields.

  13. Sensitivity Analysis of Fatigue Crack Growth Model for API Steels in Gaseous Hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, Robert L; Rustagi, Neha; Drexler, Elizabeth S; Slifka, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    A model to predict fatigue crack growth of API pipeline steels in high pressure gaseous hydrogen has been developed and is presented elsewhere. The model currently has several parameters that must be calibrated for each pipeline steel of interest. This work provides a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters in order to provide (a) insight to the underlying mathematical and mechanistic aspects of the model, and (b) guidance for model calibration of other API steels. PMID:26601024

  14. ApiAP2 Factors as Candidate Regulators of Stochastic Commitment to Merozoite Production in Theileria annulata

    PubMed Central

    Pieszko, Marta; Weir, William; Goodhead, Ian; Kinnaird, Jane; Shiels, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Background Differentiation of one life-cycle stage to the next is critical for survival and transmission of apicomplexan parasites. A number of studies have shown that stage differentiation is a stochastic process and is associated with a point that commits the cell to a change over in the pattern of gene expression. Studies on differentiation to merozoite production (merogony) in T. annulata postulated that commitment involves a concentration threshold of DNA binding proteins and an auto-regulatory loop. Principal Findings In this study ApiAP2 DNA binding proteins that show changes in expression level during merogony of T. annulata have been identified. DNA motifs bound by orthologous domains in Plasmodium were found to be enriched in upstream regions of stage-regulated T. annulata genes and validated as targets for the T. annulata AP2 domains by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Two findings were of particular note: the gene in T. annulata encoding the orthologue of the ApiAP2 domain in the AP2-G factor that commits Plasmodium to gametocyte production, has an expression profile indicating involvement in transmission of T. annulata to the tick vector; genes encoding related domains that bind, or are predicted to bind, sequence motifs of the type 5'-(A)CACAC(A) are implicated in differential regulation of gene expression, with one gene (TA11145) likely to be preferentially up-regulated via auto-regulation as the cell progresses to merogony. Conclusions We postulate that the Theileria factor possessing the AP2 domain orthologous to that of Plasmodium AP2-G may regulate gametocytogenesis in a similar manner to AP2-G. In addition, paralogous ApiAP2 factors that recognise 5'-(A)CACAC(A) type motifs could operate in a competitive manner to promote reversible progression towards the point that commits the cell to undergo merogony. Factors possessing AP2 domains that bind (or are predicted to bind) this motif are present in the vector-borne genera Theileria

  15. Higher prevalence and levels of Nosema ceranae than Nosema apis infections in Canadian honey bee colonies.

    PubMed

    Emsen, Berna; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Eccles, Les; Lacey, Brian; Ruiz-Pérez, Rosario A; Nasr, Medhat

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and infection levels of the microsporidia fungi Nosema apis and/or Nosema ceranae in honey bee colonies of two Canadian provinces. Three surveys were conducted in the springs of 2008, 2010 and 2012 and PCR identification of Nosema species were performed in samples from 169 and 181 Ontario colonies and from 76 Alberta colonies that tested positive to Nosema spp. Infection levels of positive colonies were determined by microscopy and analyzed by Nosema spp. Results showed that N. ceranae was the dominant species in all three surveys (prevalence range of 41-91 vs. 4-34 % for N. apis), whereas mixed infections were less frequent than single infections (5-25 %). Infection levels of colonies parasitized by N. ceranae were three to five times higher than those of colonies parasitized by N. apis in the three surveys whereas mixed infections showed the highest spore counts. This is the first field study demonstrating significantly higher infection levels in colonies parasitized with either N. ceranae only or with both, N. ceranae and N. apis, than in colonies parasitized with N. apis only. Taken together, these results suggest that N. ceranae may be more virulent and better adapted than N. apis in cold climates such as Canadian environments.

  16. Programmatic access to logical models in the Cell Collective modeling environment via a REST API.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Bryan M; Schreier, Travis R; Dauer, Joseph T; Helikar, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Cell Collective (www.cellcollective.org) is a web-based interactive environment for constructing, simulating and analyzing logical models of biological systems. Herein, we present a Web service to access models, annotations, and simulation data in the Cell Collective platform through the Representational State Transfer (REST) Application Programming Interface (API). The REST API provides a convenient method for obtaining Cell Collective data through almost any programming language. To ensure easy processing of the retrieved data, the request output from the API is available in a standard JSON format. The Cell Collective REST API is freely available at http://thecellcollective.org/tccapi. All public models in Cell Collective are available through the REST API. For users interested in creating and accessing their own models through the REST API first need to create an account in Cell Collective (http://thecellcollective.org). thelikar2@unl.edu. Technical user documentation: https://goo.gl/U52GWo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Consequences of Nosema apis infection for male honey bees and their fertility.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yan; Baer-Imhoof, Barbara; Millar, A Harvey; Baer, Boris

    2015-06-30

    The queens of eusocial bees, ants and wasps mate only during a very short period early in life and males therefore produce ejaculates consisting of large numbers of high quality sperm. Such extreme selection for high fecundity resulted in males investing minimally into their somatic survival, including their immune system. However, if susceptible males are unable to protect their reproductive tissue from infections, they compromise queen fitness if they transfer pathogens during mating. We used the honey bee Apis mellifera and investigated the course of infection of the sexually transmitted pathogen Nosema apis. We predicted that honey bee males are susceptible but protect their reproductive tissues from infections. We investigated the effects of N. apis infections on the midgut, the accessory glands and the accessory testes and quantified the consequences of infection on male survival and fecundity. We found that N. apis is able to infect males, and as infections progressed, it significantly impacted fertility and survival in older males. Even though we confirm males to be able to minimize N. apis infections of their reproductive tissues, the parasite is present in ejaculates of older males. Consequently N. apis evolved alternative routes to successfully infect ejaculates and get sexually transmitted.

  18. The Matchmaker Exchange API: automating patient matching through the exchange of structured phenotypic and genotypic profiles

    PubMed Central

    Buske, Orion J.; Schiettecatte, François; Hutton, Benjamin; Dumitriu, Sergiu; Misyura, Andriy; Huang, Lijia; Hartley, Taila; Girdea, Marta; Sobreira, Nara; Mungall, Chris; Brudno, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of clinical sequencing, the difficulty of identifying additional affected families is a key obstacle to solving many rare diseases. There may only be a handful of similar patients worldwide, and their data may be stored in diverse clinical and research databases. Computational methods are necessary to enable finding similar patients across the growing number of patient repositories and registries. We present the Matchmaker Exchange Application Programming Interface (MME API), a protocol and data format for exchanging phenotype and genotype profiles to enable matchmaking among patient databases, facilitate the identification of additional cohorts, and increase the rate with which rare diseases can be researched and diagnosed. We designed the API to be straightforward and flexible in order to simplify its adoption on a large number of data types and workflows. We also provide a public test data set, curated from the literature, to facilitate implementation of the API and development of new matching algorithms. The initial version of the API has been successfully implemented by three members of the Matchmaker Exchange and was immediately able to reproduce previously-identified matches and generate several new leads currently being validated. The API is available at https://github.com/ga4gh/mme-apis. PMID:26255989

  19. Consequences of Nosema apis infection for male honey bees and their fertility

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yan; Baer-Imhoof, Barbara; Harvey Millar, A.; Baer, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The queens of eusocial bees, ants and wasps mate only during a very short period early in life and males therefore produce ejaculates consisting of large numbers of high quality sperm. Such extreme selection for high fecundity resulted in males investing minimally into their somatic survival, including their immune system. However, if susceptible males are unable to protect their reproductive tissue from infections, they compromise queen fitness if they transfer pathogens during mating. We used the honey bee Apis mellifera and investigated the course of infection of the sexually transmitted pathogen Nosema apis. We predicted that honey bee males are susceptible but protect their reproductive tissues from infections. We investigated the effects of N. apis infections on the midgut, the accessory glands and the accessory testes and quantified the consequences of infection on male survival and fecundity. We found that N. apis is able to infect males, and as infections progressed, it significantly impacted fertility and survival in older males. Even though we confirm males to be able to minimize N. apis infections of their reproductive tissues, the parasite is present in ejaculates of older males. Consequently N. apis evolved alternative routes to successfully infect ejaculates and get sexually transmitted. PMID:26123530

  20. Hernie inguinale en Afrique subsaharienne: quelle place pour la technique de Shouldice?

    PubMed Central

    Traoré, Drissa; Diarra, Lasseny; Coulibaly, Bréhima; Bengaly, Brehima; Togola, Birama; Traoré, Alhassane; Traoré, Hamady; Ongoïba, Nouhoum; Sissoko, Filifing; Koumaré, Abdel Karim

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif était d’étudier l'aspect épidémio-clinique et thérapeutique de la hernie inguinale selon la technique de Shouldice. Nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective, portant sur les patients opérés pour hernie inguinale selon la technique de Shouldice dans le service de chirurgie B du CHU du Point G, Bamako, Mali. Il a été enregistré 225patients opérés selon la technique de Shouldice. L’âge moyen était de 49 ans +/- 17,7. Il y avait 90,7% (204) hommes soit un sex-ratio de 9,7. Les cultivateurs, les ménagères et les ouvriers ont représenté 51,1% (115). Dans 75,2% (169) les patients ont consulté pour tuméfaction inguinale. En pré opératoire, la hernie était compliquée chez 82 (36,4%) patients dont 24 cas de récidive. L’étranglement herniaire a été la principale complication pré opératoire 58,5% (48/82). Les suites opératoires à un an ont été simples chez 94,2%(210) des patients; elles étaient marquées par 8 cas de récidive, 4 cas de névralgie, 2 cas d'atrophie testiculaire, 1 cas de chéloïde. La technique de Shouldice est la technique de choix pour la cure de la hernie inguinale dans les pays en voie de développement à cause du bon résultat et son coût peu onéreux par rapport aux autres techniques utilisant des dispositifs médicaux. PMID:26664551

  1. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones ( Apis mellifera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee ( Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen’s visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  2. The defensive response of the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Nouvian, Morgane; Reinhard, Judith; Giurfa, Martin

    2016-11-15

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are insects living in colonies with a complex social organization. Their nest contains food stores in the form of honey and pollen, as well as the brood, the queen and the bees themselves. These resources have to be defended against a wide range of predators and parasites, a task that is performed by specialized workers, called guard bees. Guards tune their response to both the nature of the threat and the environmental conditions, in order to achieve an efficient trade-off between defence and loss of foraging workforce. By releasing alarm pheromones, they are able to recruit other bees to help them handle large predators. These chemicals trigger both rapid and longer-term changes in the behaviour of nearby bees, thus priming them for defence. Here, we review our current understanding on how this sequence of events is performed and regulated depending on a variety of factors that are both extrinsic and intrinsic to the colony. We present our current knowledge on the neural bases of honeybee aggression and highlight research avenues for future studies in this area. We present a brief overview of the techniques used to study honeybee aggression, and discuss how these could be used to gain further insights into the mechanisms of this behaviour. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Primary cell culture method for the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Ju, Hyunhee; Ghil, Sungho

    2015-10-01

    Honeybees are among the most important pollinators in nature, and honeybee-associated products are useful in various areas, including the food industry. However, honeybees may be infected by various types of pathogens. The study of honeybee-associated diseases would greatly benefit from a successful cell culture system, but although some honeybee cell culture techniques have been introduced, these methods have not yet been fully established. Here, we describe a primary cell culture method for the honeybee, Apis mellifera. We isolated, sterilized, and seeded egg cells into non-coated cell culture dishes to generate cell aggregates. After approximately 10 d, aggregates were dissociated and seeded to cell culture dishes. Cell passages were continuously performed, with sub-culturing every 3-4 d. The cells expressed non-adherent phenotypes. Their growth increased with the passage number when they were cultured in growth medium based on L-15 insect medium but not Schneider's insect medium. Finally, polymerase chain reaction confirmed that the cells originated from A. mellifera. Our results suggest that the culturing methods described herein are appropriate for isolating primary cells from honeybee eggs. These methods could thus facilitate the study of honeybee-associated pathogenesis, development, and toxicology.

  4. Male fitness of honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Kraus, F B; Neumann, P; Scharpenberg, H; van Praagh, J; Moritz, R F A

    2003-09-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) have an extreme polyandrous mating system. Worker offspring of 19 naturally mated queens was genotyped with DNA microsatellites, to estimate male reproductive success of 16 drone producing colonies. This allowed for estimating the male mating success on both the colony level and the level of individual drones. The experiment was conducted in a closed population on an isolated island to exclude interferences of drones from unknown colonies. Although all colonies had produced similar numbers of drones, differences among the colonies in male mating success exceeded one order of magnitude. These differences were enhanced by the siring success of individual drones within the offspring of mated queens. The siring success of individual drones was correlated with the mating frequency at the colony level. Thus more successful colonies not only produced drones with a higher chance of mating, but also with a significantly higher proportion of offspring sired than drones from less successful colonies. Although the life cycle of honeybee colonies is very female centred, the male reproductive success appears to be a major driver of natural selection in honeybees.

  5. When API Mass Spectrometry Meets Super Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lee Chuin

    2015-01-01

    In a tutorial paper on the application of free-jet technique for API-MS, John Fenn mentioned that “…for a number of years and a number of reasons, it has been found advantageous in many situations to carry out the ionization process in gas at pressures up to 1000 Torr or more” (Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 200: 459–478, 2000). In fact, the first ESI mass spectrometer constructed by Yamashita and Fenn had a counter-flow curtain gas source at 1050 Torr (ca. 1.4 atm) to sweep away the neutral (J. Phys. Chem. 88: 4451–4459, 1984). For gaseous ionization using electrospray plume, theoretical analysis also shows that “super-atmospheric operation would be more preferable in space-charge-limited situations.”(Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 300: 182–193, 2011). However, electrospray and the corona-based chemical ion source (APCI) in most commercial instrument are basically operated under an atmospheric pressure ambient, perhaps out of the concern of safety, convenience and simplicity in maintenance. Running the ion source at pressure much higher than 1 atm is not so common, but had been done by a number of groups as well as in our laboratory. A brief review on these ion sources will be given in this paper. PMID:26819912

  6. Effects of Oxalic Acid on Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    Rademacher, Eva; Harz, Marika; Schneider, Saskia

    2017-01-01

    Oxalic acid dihydrate is used to treat varroosis of Apis mellifera. This study investigates lethal and sublethal effects of oxalic acid dihydrate on individually treated honeybees kept in cages under laboratory conditions as well as the distribution in the colony. After oral application, bee mortality occurred at relatively low concentrations (No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) 50 µg/bee; Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL) 75 µg/bee) compared to the dermal treatment (NOAEL 212.5 µg/bee; LOAEL 250 µg/bee). The dosage used in regular treatment via dermal application (circa 175 µg/bee) is below the LOAEL, referring to mortality derived in the laboratory. However, the treatment with oxalic acid dihydrate caused sublethal effects: This could be demonstrated in an increased responsiveness to water, decreased longevity and a reduction in pH-values in the digestive system and the hemolymph. The shift towards stronger acidity after treatment confirms that damage to the epithelial tissue and organs is likely to be caused by hyperacidity. The distribution of oxalic acid dihydrate within a colony was shown by macro-computed tomography; it was rapid and consistent. The increased density of the individual bee was continuous for at least 14 days after the treatment indicating the presence of oxalic acid dihydrate in the hive even long after a treatment. PMID:28783129

  7. Effects of Oxalic Acid on Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Rademacher, Eva; Harz, Marika; Schneider, Saskia

    2017-08-07

    Abstract: Oxalic acid dihydrate is used to treat varroosis of Apis mellifera. This study investigates lethal and sublethal effects of oxalic acid dihydrate on individually treated honeybees kept in cages under laboratory conditions as well as the distribution in the colony. After oral application, bee mortality occurred at relatively low concentrations (No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) 50 µg/bee; Lowest Observed Adverse Effect Level (LOAEL) 75 µg/bee) compared to the dermal treatment (NOAEL 212.5 µg/bee; LOAEL 250 µg/bee). The dosage used in regular treatment via dermal application (circa 175 µg/bee) is below the LOAEL, referring to mortality derived in the laboratory. However, the treatment with oxalic acid dihydrate caused sublethal effects: This could be demonstrated in an increased responsiveness to water, decreased longevity and a reduction in pH-values in the digestive system and the hemolymph. The shift towards stronger acidity after treatment confirms that damage to the epithelial tissue and organs is likely to be caused by hyperacidity. The distribution of oxalic acid dihydrate within a colony was shown by macro-computed tomography; it was rapid and consistent. The increased density of the individual bee was continuous for at least 14 days after the treatment indicating the presence of oxalic acid dihydrate in the hive even long after a treatment.

  8. `Special agents' trigger social waves in giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelzer, Evelyn; Kastberger, Gerald

    2009-12-01

    Giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) nest in the open and have therefore evolved a variety of defence strategies. Against predatory wasps, they produce highly coordinated Mexican wavelike cascades termed ‘shimmering’, whereby hundreds of bees flip their abdomens upwards. Although it is well known that shimmering commences at distinct spots on the nest surface, it is still unclear how shimmering is generated. In this study, colonies were exposed to living tethered wasps that were moved in front of the experimental nest. Temporal and spatial patterns of shimmering were investigated in and after the presence of the wasp. The numbers and locations of bees that participated in the shimmering were assessed, and those bees that triggered the waves were identified. The findings reveal that the position of identified trigger cohorts did not reflect the experimental path of the tethered wasp. Instead, the trigger centres were primarily arranged in the close periphery of the mouth zone of the nest, around those parts where the main locomotory activity occurs. This favours the ‘special-agents’ hypothesis that suggest that groups of specialized bees initiate the shimmering.

  9. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen's visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  10. Nosema Tolerant Honeybees (Apis mellifera) Escape Parasitic Manipulation of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Kurze, Christoph; Le Conte, Yves; Dussaubat, Claudia; Erler, Silvio; Kryger, Per; Lewkowski, Oleg; Müller, Thomas; Widder, Miriam; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is not only pivotal for development, but also for pathogen defence in multicellular organisms. Although numerous intracellular pathogens are known to interfere with the host’s apoptotic machinery to overcome this defence, its importance for host-parasite coevolution has been neglected. We conducted three inoculation experiments to investigate in the apoptotic respond during infection with the intracellular gut pathogen Nosema ceranae, which is considered as potential global threat to the honeybee (Apis mellifera) and other bee pollinators, in sensitive and tolerant honeybees. To explore apoptotic processes in the gut epithelium, we visualised apoptotic cells using TUNEL assays and measured the relative expression levels of subset of candidate genes involved in the apoptotic machinery using qPCR. Our results suggest that N. ceranae reduces apoptosis in sensitive honeybees by enhancing inhibitor of apoptosis protein-(iap)-2 gene transcription. Interestingly, this seems not be the case in Nosema tolerant honeybees. We propose that these tolerant honeybees are able to escape the manipulation of apoptosis by N. ceranae, which may have evolved a mechanism to regulate an anti-apoptotic gene as key adaptation for improved host invasion. PMID:26445372

  11. blend4php: a PHP API for galaxy.

    PubMed

    Wytko, Connor; Soto, Brian; Ficklin, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    Galaxy is a popular framework for execution of complex analytical pipelines typically for large data sets, and is a commonly used for (but not limited to) genomic, genetic and related biological analysis. It provides a web front-end and integrates with high performance computing resources. Here we report the development of the blend4php library that wraps Galaxy's RESTful API into a PHP-based library. PHP-based web applications can use blend4php to automate execution, monitoring and management of a remote Galaxy server, including its users, workflows, jobs and more. The blend4php library was specifically developed for the integration of Galaxy with Tripal, the open-source toolkit for the creation of online genomic and genetic web sites. However, it was designed as an independent library for use by any application, and is freely available under version 3 of the GNU Lesser General Public License (LPGL v3.0) at https://github.com/galaxyproject/blend4phpDatabase URL: https://github.com/galaxyproject/blend4php. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Comparative Sucrose Responsiveness in Apis mellifera and A. cerana Foragers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wenchao; Kuang, Haiou; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Jie; Liu, Wei; Wu, Zhenhong; Tian, Yuanyuan; Huang, Zachary Y.; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    In the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, pollen foragers have a higher sucrose responsiveness than nectar foragers when tested using a proboscis extension response (PER) assay. In addition, Africanized honey bees have a higher sucrose responsiveness than European honey bees. Based on the biology of the Eastern honey bee, A. cerana, we hypothesized that A. cerana should also have a higher responsiveness to sucrose than A. mellifera. To test this hypothesis, we compared the sucrose thresholds of pollen foragers and nectar foragers in both A. cerana and A. mellifera in Fujian Province, China. Pollen foragers were more responsive to sucrose than nectar foragers in both species, consistent with previous studies. However, contrary to our hypothesis, A. mellifera was more responsive than A. cerana. We also demonstrated that this higher sucrose responsiveness in A. mellifera was not due to differences in the colony environment by co-fostering two species of bees in the same mixed-species colonies. Because A. mellifera foragers were more responsive to sucrose, we predicted that their nectar foragers should bring in less concentrated nectar compared to that of A. cerana. However, we found no differences between the two species. We conclude that A. cerana shows a different pattern in sucrose responsiveness from that of Africanized bees. There may be other mechanisms that enable A. cerana to perform well in areas with sparse nectar resources. PMID:24194958

  13. Nosema Tolerant Honeybees (Apis mellifera) Escape Parasitic Manipulation of Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kurze, Christoph; Le Conte, Yves; Dussaubat, Claudia; Erler, Silvio; Kryger, Per; Lewkowski, Oleg; Müller, Thomas; Widder, Miriam; Moritz, Robin F A

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is not only pivotal for development, but also for pathogen defence in multicellular organisms. Although numerous intracellular pathogens are known to interfere with the host's apoptotic machinery to overcome this defence, its importance for host-parasite coevolution has been neglected. We conducted three inoculation experiments to investigate in the apoptotic respond during infection with the intracellular gut pathogen Nosema ceranae, which is considered as potential global threat to the honeybee (Apis mellifera) and other bee pollinators, in sensitive and tolerant honeybees. To explore apoptotic processes in the gut epithelium, we visualised apoptotic cells using TUNEL assays and measured the relative expression levels of subset of candidate genes involved in the apoptotic machinery using qPCR. Our results suggest that N. ceranae reduces apoptosis in sensitive honeybees by enhancing inhibitor of apoptosis protein-(iap)-2 gene transcription. Interestingly, this seems not be the case in Nosema tolerant honeybees. We propose that these tolerant honeybees are able to escape the manipulation of apoptosis by N. ceranae, which may have evolved a mechanism to regulate an anti-apoptotic gene as key adaptation for improved host invasion.

  14. When API Mass Spectrometry Meets Super Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lee Chuin

    2015-01-01

    In a tutorial paper on the application of free-jet technique for API-MS, John Fenn mentioned that "…for a number of years and a number of reasons, it has been found advantageous in many situations to carry out the ionization process in gas at pressures up to 1000 Torr or more" (Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 200: 459-478, 2000). In fact, the first ESI mass spectrometer constructed by Yamashita and Fenn had a counter-flow curtain gas source at 1050 Torr (ca. 1.4 atm) to sweep away the neutral (J. Phys. Chem. 88: 4451-4459, 1984). For gaseous ionization using electrospray plume, theoretical analysis also shows that "super-atmospheric operation would be more preferable in space-charge-limited situations."(Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 300: 182-193, 2011). However, electrospray and the corona-based chemical ion source (APCI) in most commercial instrument are basically operated under an atmospheric pressure ambient, perhaps out of the concern of safety, convenience and simplicity in maintenance. Running the ion source at pressure much higher than 1 atm is not so common, but had been done by a number of groups as well as in our laboratory. A brief review on these ion sources will be given in this paper.

  15. Comparative sucrose responsiveness in Apis mellifera and A. cerana foragers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenchao; Kuang, Haiou; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Jie; Liu, Wei; Wu, Zhenhong; Tian, Yuanyuan; Huang, Zachary Y; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    In the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, pollen foragers have a higher sucrose responsiveness than nectar foragers when tested using a proboscis extension response (PER) assay. In addition, Africanized honey bees have a higher sucrose responsiveness than European honey bees. Based on the biology of the Eastern honey bee, A. cerana, we hypothesized that A. cerana should also have a higher responsiveness to sucrose than A. mellifera. To test this hypothesis, we compared the sucrose thresholds of pollen foragers and nectar foragers in both A. cerana and A. mellifera in Fujian Province, China. Pollen foragers were more responsive to sucrose than nectar foragers in both species, consistent with previous studies. However, contrary to our hypothesis, A. mellifera was more responsive than A. cerana. We also demonstrated that this higher sucrose responsiveness in A. mellifera was not due to differences in the colony environment by co-fostering two species of bees in the same mixed-species colonies. Because A. mellifera foragers were more responsive to sucrose, we predicted that their nectar foragers should bring in less concentrated nectar compared to that of A. cerana. However, we found no differences between the two species. We conclude that A. cerana shows a different pattern in sucrose responsiveness from that of Africanized bees. There may be other mechanisms that enable A. cerana to perform well in areas with sparse nectar resources.

  16. API focuses on cleanliness, economics of fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-15

    Fossil fuels, consumed in free markets, are playing positive economic and environmental roles as the world economy becomes integrated, industry leader said last week. Environmental zealots threaten to force conversion from gasoline as a motor fuel in the U.S. and oppose the growing integration of the world economy. Fossil fuels, free markets, human creativity, and entrepreneurial spirit--not government intervention--are the keys to a clean environment, said API pres. Charles J. DiBona and outgoing Chairman C.J. (Pete) Silas, chairman and chief executive officer of Phillips Petroleum Co. DiBona said proponents of the BTU tax defeated earlier this year used erroneous assumptions to make a case against oil use in an effort to replace the efficiency of the marketplace with the inefficiency of bureaucracy. The government's role is to set tough standards and avoid dictating the way environmental standards are met, they said. Other speakers warned that voluntary measures put forward by the Clinton administration of address global climate change issues likely will fall short.

  17. Relatedness among honeybees (Apis mellifera) of a drone congregation

    PubMed Central

    Baudry, E.; Solignac, M.; Garnery, L.; Gries, M.; Cornuet, J.-M.; Koeniger, N.

    1998-01-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera) queen mates during nuptial flights, in the so-called drone congregation area where many males from surrounding colonies gather. Using 20 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci, we studied a sample of 142 drones captured in a congregation close to Oberursel (Germany). A parentage test based on lod score showed that this sample contained one group of four brothers, six groups of three brothers, 20 groups of two brothers and 80 singletons. These values are very close to a Poisson distribution. Therefore, colonies were apparently equally represented in the drone congregation, and calculations showed that the congregation comprised males that originated from about 240 different colonies. This figure is surprisingly high. Considering the density of colonies around the congregation area and the average flight range of males, it suggests that most colonies within the recruitment perimeter delegated drones to the congregation with an equal probability, resulting in an almost perfect panmixis. Consequently, the relatedness between a queen and her mates, and hence the inbreeding coefficient of the progeny, should be minimized. The relatedness among the drones mated to the same queen is also very low, maximizing the genetic diversity among the different patrilines of a colony.

  18. Cytosine modifications in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) worker genome.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Erik M K; Amdam, Gro V

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic changes enable genomes to respond to changes in the environment, such as altered nutrition, activity, or social setting. Epigenetic modifications, thereby, provide a source of phenotypic plasticity in many species. The honey bee (Apis mellifera) uses nutritionally sensitive epigenetic control mechanisms in the development of the royal caste (queens) and the workers. The workers are functionally sterile females that can take on a range of distinct physiological and/or behavioral phenotypes in response to environmental changes. Honey bees have a wide repertoire of epigenetic mechanisms which, as in mammals, include cytosine methylation, hydroxymethylated cytosines, together with the enzymatic machinery responsible for these cytosine modifications. Current data suggests that honey bees provide an excellent system for studying the "social repertoire" of the epigenome. In this review, we elucidate what is known so far about the honey bee epigenome and its mechanisms. Our discussion includes what may distinguish honey bees from other model animals, how the epigenome can influence worker behavioral task separation, and how future studies can answer central questions about the role of the epigenome in social behavior.

  19. Amorphous-Amorphous Phase Separation in API/Polymer Formulations.

    PubMed

    Luebbert, Christian; Huxoll, Fabian; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2017-02-15

    The long-term stability of pharmaceutical formulations of poorly-soluble drugs in polymers determines their bioavailability and therapeutic applicability. However, these formulations do not only often tend to crystallize during storage, but also tend to undergo unwanted amorphous-amorphous phase separations (APS). Whereas the crystallization behavior of APIs in polymers has been measured and modeled during the last years, the APS phenomenon is still poorly understood. In this study, the crystallization behavior, APS, and glass-transition temperatures formulations of ibuprofen and felodipine in polymeric PLGA excipients exhibiting different ratios of lactic acid and glycolic acid monomers in the PLGA chain were investigated by means of hot-stage microscopy and DSC. APS and recrystallization was observed in ibuprofen/PLGA formulations, while only recrystallization occurred in felodipine/PLGA formulations. Based on a successful modeling of the crystallization behavior using the Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT), the occurrence of APS was predicted in agreement with experimental findings.

  20. blend4php: a PHP API for galaxy

    PubMed Central

    Wytko, Connor; Soto, Brian; Ficklin, Stephen P.

    2017-01-01

    Galaxy is a popular framework for execution of complex analytical pipelines typically for large data sets, and is a commonly used for (but not limited to) genomic, genetic and related biological analysis. It provides a web front-end and integrates with high performance computing resources. Here we report the development of the blend4php library that wraps Galaxy’s RESTful API into a PHP-based library. PHP-based web applications can use blend4php to automate execution, monitoring and management of a remote Galaxy server, including its users, workflows, jobs and more. The blend4php library was specifically developed for the integration of Galaxy with Tripal, the open-source toolkit for the creation of online genomic and genetic web sites. However, it was designed as an independent library for use by any application, and is freely available under version 3 of the GNU Lesser General Public License (LPGL v3.0) at https://github.com/galaxyproject/blend4php. Database URL: https://github.com/galaxyproject/blend4php PMID:28077564

  1. Web API for biology with a workflow navigation system.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yeondae; Shigemoto, Yasumasa; Kuwana, Yoshikazu; Sugawara, Hideaki

    2009-07-01

    DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) provides Web-based systems for biological analysis, called Web APIs for biology (WABI). So far, we have developed over 20 SOAP services and several workflows that consist of a series of method invocations. In this article, we present newly developed services of WABI, that is, REST-based Web services, additional workflows and a workflow navigation system. Each Web service and workflow can be used as a complete service or a building block for programmers to construct more complex information processing systems. The workflow navigation system aims to help non-programming biologists perform analysis tasks by providing next applicable services on Web browsers according to the output of a previously selected service. With this function, users can apply multiple services consecutively only by following links without any programming or manual copy-and-paste operations on Web browsers. The listed services are determined automatically by the system referring to the dictionaries of service categories, the input/output types of services and HTML tags. WABI and the workflow navigation system are freely accessible at http://www.xml.nig.ac.jp/index.html and http://cyclamen.ddbj.nig.ac.jp/, respectively.

  2. Studies of learned helplessness in honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica).

    PubMed

    Dinges, Christopher W; Varnon, Christopher A; Cota, Lisa D; Slykerman, Stephen; Abramson, Charles I

    2017-04-01

    The current study reports 2 experiments investigating learned helplessness in the honey bee (Apis mellifera ligustica). In Experiment 1, we used a traditional escape method but found the bees' activity levels too high to observe changes due to treatment conditions. The bees were not able to learn in this traditional escape procedure; thus, such procedures may be inappropriate to study learned helplessness in honey bees. In Experiment 2, we used an alternative punishment, or passive avoidance, method to investigate learned helplessness. Using a master and yoked design where bees were trained as either master or yoked and tested as either master or yoked, we found that prior training with unavoidable and inescapable shock in the yoked condition interfered with avoidance and escape behavior in the later master condition. Unlike control bees, learned helplessness bees failed to restrict their movement to the safe compartment following inescapable shock. Unlike learned helplessness studies in other animals, no decrease in general activity was observed. Furthermore, we did not observe a "freezing" response to inescapable aversive stimuli-a phenomenon, thus far, consistently observed in learned helplessness tests with other species. The bees, instead, continued to move back and forth between compartments despite punishment in the incorrect compartment. These findings suggest that, although traditional escape methods may not be suitable, honey bees display learned helplessness in passive avoidance procedures. Thus, regardless of behavioral differences from other species, honey bees can be a unique invertebrate model organism for the study of learned helplessness. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Inheritance of thelytoky in the honey bee Apis mellifera capensis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, N C; Beekman, M; Allsopp, M H; Rinderer, T E; Lim, J; Oxley, P R; Oldroyd, B P

    2015-06-01

    Asexual reproduction via thelytokous parthenogenesis is widespread in the Hymenoptera, but its genetic underpinnings have been described only twice. In the wasp Lysiphlebus fabarum and the Cape honey bee Apis mellifera capensis the origin of thelytoky have each been traced to a single recessive locus. In the Cape honey bee it has been argued that thelytoky (th) controls the thelytoky phenotype and that a deletion of 9 bp in the flanking intron downstream of exon 5 (tae) of the gemini gene switches parthenogenesis from arrhenotoky to thelytoky. To further explore the mode of inheritance of thelytoky, we generated reciprocal backcrosses between thelytokous A. m. capensis and the arrhenotokous A. m. scutellata. Ten genetic markers were used to identify 108 thelytokously produced offspring and 225 arrhenotokously produced offspring from 14 colonies. Patterns of appearance of thelytokous parthenogenesis were inconsistent with a single locus, either th or tae, controlling thelytoky. We further show that the 9 bp deletion is present in the arrhenotokous A. m. scutellata population in South Africa, in A. m. intermissa in Morocco and in Africanized bees from Brazil and Texas, USA, where thelytoky has not been reported. Thus the 9  p deletion cannot be the cause of thelytoky. Further, we found two novel tae alleles. One contains the previously described 9 bp deletion and an additional deletion of 7 bp nearby. The second carries a single base insertion with respect to the wild type. Our data are consistent with the putative th locus increasing reproductive capacity.

  4. 'Special agents' trigger social waves in giant honeybees (Apis dorsata).

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, Evelyn; Kastberger, Gerald

    2009-12-01

    Giant honeybees (Apis dorsata) nest in the open and have therefore evolved a variety of defence strategies. Against predatory wasps, they produce highly coordinated Mexican wavelike cascades termed 'shimmering', whereby hundreds of bees flip their abdomens upwards. Although it is well known that shimmering commences at distinct spots on the nest surface, it is still unclear how shimmering is generated. In this study, colonies were exposed to living tethered wasps that were moved in front of the experimental nest. Temporal and spatial patterns of shimmering were investigated in and after the presence of the wasp. The numbers and locations of bees that participated in the shimmering were assessed, and those bees that triggered the waves were identified. The findings reveal that the position of identified trigger cohorts did not reflect the experimental path of the tethered wasp. Instead, the trigger centres were primarily arranged in the close periphery of the mouth zone of the nest, around those parts where the main locomotory activity occurs. This favours the 'special-agents' hypothesis that suggest that groups of specialized bees initiate the shimmering.

  5. Activity of telomerase and telomeric length in Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Korandová, Michala; Frydrychová, Radmila Čapková

    2016-06-01

    Telomerase is an enzyme that adds repeats of DNA sequences to the ends of chromosomes, thereby preventing their shortening. Telomerase activity is associated with proliferative status of cells, organismal development, and aging. We report an analysis of telomerase activity and telomere length in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Telomerase activity was found to be regulated in a development and caste-specific manner. During the development of somatic tissues of larval drones and workers, telomerase activity declined to 10 % of its level in embryos and remained low during pupal and adult stages but was upregulated in testes of late pupae, where it reached 70 % of the embryo level. Upregulation of telomerase activity was observed in the ovaries of late pupal queens, reaching 160 % of the level in embryos. Compared to workers and drones, queens displayed higher levels of telomerase activity. In the third larval instar of queens, telomerase activity reached the embryo level, and an enormous increase was observed in adult brains of queens, showing a 70-fold increase compared to a brain of an adult worker. Southern hybridization of terminal TTAGG fragments revealed a high variability of telomeric length between different individuals, although the same pattern of hybridization signals was observed in different tissues of each individual.

  6. A veterinary approach to the European honey bee (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed

    Williams, D L

    2000-07-01

    The European honey bee (Apis mellifera) has the unusual status of being an inherently wild species from which a natural foodstuff (honey) is derived by manipulating its behaviour to deposit this in man-made wooden frames. Bees also produce propolis and Royal Jelly which can be harvested but their most important effect is one not immediately obvious as an economic product: that of pollination. Bee diseases are predominantly infectious and parasitic conditions accentuated by the close confinement in which they congregate, either in man-made hives or in colonies in a natural cavity. Treatment or at least control of some of these conditions can be attempted. In some cases natural bee behavioural traits limit the effect of the disease while in others, such as the notifiable disease American foulbrood, destruction of the colony is the only method of control. The mite Varroa jacobsoni can be controlled by the synthetic pyrethroids flumethrin and tau-fluvalinate. The introduction of these products has heightened veterinary interest in this important invertebrate species.

  7. Western honeybee drones and workers (Apis mellifera ligustica) have different olfactory mechanisms than eastern honeybees (Apis cerana cerana).

    PubMed

    Woltedji, Dereje; Song, Feifei; Zhang, Lan; Gala, Alemayehu; Han, Bin; Feng, Mao; Fang, Yu; Li, Jianke

    2012-09-07

    The honeybees Apis mellifera ligustica (Aml) and Apis cerana cerana (Acc) are two different western and eastern bee species that evolved in distinct ecologies and developed specific antennal olfactory systems for their survival. Knowledge of how their antennal olfactory systems function in regards to the success of each respective bee species is scarce. We compared the antennal morphology and proteome between respective sexually mature drones and foraging workers of both species using a scanning electron microscope, two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Despite the general similarities in antennal morphology of the drone and worker bees between the two species, a total of 106 and 100 proteins altered their expression in the drones' and the workers' antennae, respectively. This suggests that the differences in the olfactory function of each respective bee are supported by the change of their proteome. Of the 106 proteins that altered their expression in the drones, 72 (68%) and 34 (32%) were overexpressed in the drones of Aml and Acc, respectively. The antennae of the Aml drones were built up by the highly expressed proteins that were involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, molecular transporters, antioxidation, and fatty acid metabolism in contrast to the Acc drones. This is believed to enhance the antennal olfactory functions of the Aml drones as compared to the Acc drones during their mating flight. Likewise, of the 100 proteins with expression changes between the worker bees of the two species, 67% were expressed in higher levels in the antennae of Aml worker contrasting to 33% in the Acc worker. The overall higher expressions of proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, molecular transporters, and antioxidation in the Aml workers compared with the Acc workers indicate the Aml workers require more antennal proteins for their olfactory

  8. CONCRETE POURS HAVE PRODUCED A REINFORCED SUPPORT BASE FOR MTR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONCRETE POURS HAVE PRODUCED A REINFORCED SUPPORT BASE FOR MTR REACTOR. PIPE TUNNEL IS UNDER CONSTRUCTION AT CENTER OF VIEW. PIPES WILL CARRY RADIOACTIVE WATER FROM REACTOR TO WATER PROCESS BUILDING. CAMERA LOOKS SOUTH INTO TUNNEL ALONG WEST SIDE OF REACTOR BASE. TWO CAISSONS ARE AT LEFT SIDE OF VIEW. NOTE "WINDOW" IN SOUTH FACE OF REACTOR BASE AND ALSO GROUP OF PENETRATIONS TO ITS LEFT. INL NEGATIVE NO. 733. Unknown Photographer, 10/6/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Varying degrees of Apis mellifera ligustica introgression in protected populations of the black honeybee, Apis mellifera mellifera, in northwest Europe.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Annette B; Palmer, Kellie A; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Pedersen, Bo V

    2005-01-01

    The natural distribution of honeybee subspecies in Europe has been significantly affected by human activities during the last century. Non-native subspecies of honeybees have been introduced and propagated, so that native black honeybee (Apis mellifera mellifera) populations lost their identity by gene-flow or went extinct. After previous studies investigated the remaining gene-pools of native honeybees in France and Spain, we here assess the genetic composition of eight northwest European populations of the black honeybee, using both mitochondrial (restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the intergenic transfer RNAleu-COII region) and nuclear (11 microsatellite loci) markers. Both data sets show that A. m. mellifera populations still exist in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, England, Scotland and Ireland, but that they are threatened by gene flow from commercial honeybees. Both Bayesian admixture analysis of the microsatellite data and DraI-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis of the intergenic region indicated that gene-flow had hardly occurred in some populations, whereas almost 10% introgression was observed in other populations. The most introgressed population was found on the Danish Island of Laeso, which is the last remaining native Danish population of A. m. mellifera and the only one of the eight investigated populations that is protected by law. We discuss how individual admixture analysis can be used to monitor the restoration of honeybee populations that suffer from unwanted hybridization with non-native subspecies.

  10. [Melissopalynology and trophic niche of Apis cerana ceraca and Apis mellifera ligustica in Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Jia; Zhao, Tian-Rui; Zhao, Feng-Yun

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 and 2011, the honey samples of Apis cerana cerana and A. mellifera ligustica were collected from Kunming and Mengzi of Yunnan Province, respectively, aimed to analyze the melissopalynology and tropic niche of the two bee species. The absolute pollen concentration of the honey of A. cerana cerana was 1.55 x 10(4) ind x g(-1), being significantly higher than that (1.01 x 10(4) ind x g(-1)) of A. mellifera ligustica, and the number of nectar plant species collected by A. cerana cerana was 12.9, also significantly higher than that (7.7) collected by A. mellifera ligustica, indicating that A. cerana cerana could utilize more nectar plants, while A. mellifera ligustica had stronger selectivity to the nectar plants. The trophic niche breadth of A. cerana cerana was 0.35, which was significantly higher than that (0.23) of A. mellifera ligustica. The trophic niche overlap index between the two bee species was 0.71, and the interspecific competition index was 0.93, suggesting that the food competition between A. cerana cerana and A. mellifera ligustica was fierce.

  11. Influence of small amorphous amounts in hydrophilic and hydrophobic APIs on storage stability of dry powder inhalation products.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thorsten; Krehl, Regina; Schiewe, Jörg; Weiler, Claudius; Steckel, Hartwig

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different manufacturing methods to induce formation of amorphous content, changes of physico-chemical characteristics of powder blends and changes of aerodynamic properties over storage time (6months) analyzed with the Next Generation Impactor (NGI) are investigated. Earlier studies have shown that standard pharmaceutical operations lead to structural disorders which may influence drug delivery and product stability. In this investigation, fully amorphous drug samples produced by spray-drying (SD) and ball-milling (BM) as well as semi-crystalline samples (produced by blending and micronization) are studied and compared to fully crystalline starting material. The amorphous content of these hydrophilic and hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was determined using a validated one-step DVS-method. For the conducted blending and micronization tests, amorphous amounts up to a maximum of 5.1% for salbutamol sulfate (SBS) and 17.0% for ciclesonide (CS) were measured. In order to investigate the impact of small amorphous amounts, inhalable homogenous powder mixtures with very high and low amorphous content and a defined particle size were prepared with a Turbula blender for each API. These blends were stored (6months, 45% RH, room temperature) to evaluate the influence of amorphous amounts on storage stability. The fine particle fraction (FPF: % of emitted dose<5μm) was determined with the NGI at defined time points. The amorphous amounts showed a major effect on dispersion behavior, the mixtures of the two APIs showed differences at the beginning of the study and significant differences in storage stability. The FPF values for SBS decreased during storage (FPF: from 35% to <27%) for the blend with high amorphous amounts, in contrast the initially re-crystallized sample achieved a comparable constant level of about 25%. For the hydrophobic CS a constantly increasing FPF (from 6% to >15%) over storage time for both types of blends was

  12. Conception d'un circuit d'etouffement pour photodiodes a avalanche en mode geiger pour integration heterogene 3d

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Alexandre

    Le Groupe de Recherche en Appareillage Medical de Sherbrooke (GRAMS) travaille actuellement sur un programme de recherche portant sur des photodiodes a avalanche mono-photoniques (PAMP) operees en mode Geiger en vue d'une application a la tomographie d'emission par positrons (TEP). Pour operer dans ce mode; la PAMP, ou SPAD selon l'acronyme anglais (Single Photon Avalanche Diode), requiert un circuit d'etouffement (CE) pour, d'une part, arreter l'avalanche pouvant causer sa destruction et, d'autre part. la reinitialiser en mode d'attente d'un nouveau photon. Le role de ce CE comprend egalement une electronique de communication vers les etages de traitement avance de signaux. La performance temporelle optimale du CE est realisee lorsqu'il est juxtapose a la PAMP. Cependant, cela entraine une reduction de la surface photosensible ; un element crucial en imagerie. L'integration 3D, a base d'interconnexions verticales, offre une solution elegante et performante a cette problematique par l'empilement de circuits integres possedant differentes fonctions (PAMP, CE et traitement avance de signaux). Dans l'approche proposee, des circuits d'etouffement de 50 pm x 50 pm realises sur une technologie CMOS 130 mn 3D Tezzaron, contenant chacun 112 transistors, sont matrices afin de correspondre a une matrice de PAMP localisee sur une couche electronique superieure. Chaque circuit d'etouffement possede une gigue temporelle de 7,47 ps RMS selon des simulations faites avec le logiciel Cadence. Le CE a la flexibilite d'ajuster les temps d'etouffement et de recharge pour la PAMP tout en presentant une faible consommation de puissance (~ 0,33 mW a 33 Mcps). La conception du PAMP necessite de supporter des tensions superieures aux 3,3 V de la technologie. Pour repondre a ce probleme, des transistors a drain etendu (DEMOS) ont ete realises. En raison de retards de production par Ies fabricants, les circuits n'ont pu etre testes physiquement par des mesures. Les resultats de ce memoire

  13. Social waves in giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) elicit nest vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Weihmann, Frank; Hoetzl, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) nest in the open and have developed a wide array of strategies for colony defence, including the Mexican wave-like shimmering behaviour. In this collective response, the colony members perform upward flipping of their abdomens in coordinated cascades across the nest surface. The time-space properties of these emergent waves are response patterns which have become of adaptive significance for repelling enemies in the visual domain. We report for the first time that the mechanical impulse patterns provoked by these social waves and measured by laser Doppler vibrometry generate vibrations at the central comb of the nest at the basic (=`natural') frequency of 2.156 ± 0.042 Hz which is more than double the average repetition rate of the driving shimmering waves. Analysis of the Fourier spectra of the comb vibrations under quiescence and arousal conditions provoked by mass flight activity and shimmering waves gives rise to the proposal of two possible models for the compound physical system of the bee nest: According to the elastic oscillatory plate model, the comb vibrations deliver supra-threshold cues preferentially to those colony members positioned close to the comb. The mechanical pendulum model predicts that the comb vibrations are sensed by the members of the bee curtain in general, enabling mechanoreceptive signalling across the nest, also through the comb itself. The findings show that weak and stochastic forces, such as general quiescence or diffuse mass flight activity, cause a harmonic frequency spectrum of the comb, driving the comb as an elastic plate. However, shimmering waves provide sufficiently strong forces to move the nest as a mechanical pendulum. This vibratory behaviour may support the colony-intrinsic information hypothesis herein that the mechanical vibrations of the comb provoked by shimmering do have the potential to facilitate immediate communication of the momentary defensive state of the honeybee nest to the

  14. Social waves in giant honeybees (Apis dorsata) elicit nest vibrations.

    PubMed

    Kastberger, Gerald; Weihmann, Frank; Hoetzl, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Giant honeybees (Apis dorsata) nest in the open and have developed a wide array of strategies for colony defence, including the Mexican wave-like shimmering behaviour. In this collective response, the colony members perform upward flipping of their abdomens in coordinated cascades across the nest surface. The time-space properties of these emergent waves are response patterns which have become of adaptive significance for repelling enemies in the visual domain. We report for the first time that the mechanical impulse patterns provoked by these social waves and measured by laser Doppler vibrometry generate vibrations at the central comb of the nest at the basic (='natural') frequency of 2.156 ± 0.042 Hz which is more than double the average repetition rate of the driving shimmering waves. Analysis of the Fourier spectra of the comb vibrations under quiescence and arousal conditions provoked by mass flight activity and shimmering waves gives rise to the proposal of two possible models for the compound physical system of the bee nest: According to the elastic oscillatory plate model, the comb vibrations deliver supra-threshold cues preferentially to those colony members positioned close to the comb. The mechanical pendulum model predicts that the comb vibrations are sensed by the members of the bee curtain in general, enabling mechanoreceptive signalling across the nest, also through the comb itself. The findings show that weak and stochastic forces, such as general quiescence or diffuse mass flight activity, cause a harmonic frequency spectrum of the comb, driving the comb as an elastic plate. However, shimmering waves provide sufficiently strong forces to move the nest as a mechanical pendulum. This vibratory behaviour may support the colony-intrinsic information hypothesis herein that the mechanical vibrations of the comb provoked by shimmering do have the potential to facilitate immediate communication of the momentary defensive state of the honeybee nest to

  15. Antibacterial Activity of a Cardanol from Thai Apis mellifera Propolis

    PubMed Central

    Boonsai, Pattaraporn; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha; Chanchao, Chanpen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Propolis is a sticky, dark brown resinous residue made by bees that is derived from plant resins. It is used to construct and repair the nest, and in addition possesses several diverse bioactivities. Here, propolis from Apis mellifera from Nan province, Thailand, was tested for antibacterial activity against Gram+ve (Staphylococcus aureus and Paenibacillus larvae) and Gram-ve (Escherichia coli) bacteria. Materials and methods: The three bacterial isolates were confirmed for species designation by Gram staining and analysis of the partial sequence of 16S rDNA. Propolis was sequentially extracted by methanol, dichloromethane and hexane. The antibacterial activity was determined by agar well diffusion and microbroth dilution assays using streptomycin as a positive control. The most active crude extract was further purified by quick column and adsorption chromatography. The apparent purity of each bioactive fraction was tested by thin layer chromatography. The chemical structure of the isolated bioactive compound was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Results: Crude methanol extract of propolis showed the best antibacterial activity with a minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value of 5 mg/mL for S. aureus and E. coli and 6.25 mg/mL for P. larvae. After quick column chromatography, only three active fractions were inhibitory to the growth of S. aureus and E. coli with MIC values of 6.25 and 31.3 µg/mL, respectively. Further adsorption chromatography yielded one pure bioactive fraction (A1A) with an IC50 value of 0.175 µg/mL for E. coli and 0.683 µg/mL for P. larvae, and was determined to be cardanol by NMR analysis. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed unusual shaped (especially in dividing cells), damaged and dead cells in cardanol-treated E. coli. Conclusion: Thai propolis contains a promising antibacterial agent. PMID:24578609

  16. Inheritance of thelytoky in the honey bee Apis mellifera capensis

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, N C; Beekman, M; Allsopp, M H; Rinderer, T E; Lim, J; Oxley, P R; Oldroyd, B P

    2015-01-01

    Asexual reproduction via thelytokous parthenogenesis is widespread in the Hymenoptera, but its genetic underpinnings have been described only twice. In the wasp Lysiphlebus fabarum and the Cape honey bee Apis mellifera capensis the origin of thelytoky have each been traced to a single recessive locus. In the Cape honey bee it has been argued that thelytoky (th) controls the thelytoky phenotype and that a deletion of 9 bp in the flanking intron downstream of exon 5 (tae) of the gemini gene switches parthenogenesis from arrhenotoky to thelytoky. To further explore the mode of inheritance of thelytoky, we generated reciprocal backcrosses between thelytokous A. m. capensis and the arrhenotokous A. m. scutellata. Ten genetic markers were used to identify 108 thelytokously produced offspring and 225 arrhenotokously produced offspring from 14 colonies. Patterns of appearance of thelytokous parthenogenesis were inconsistent with a single locus, either th or tae, controlling thelytoky. We further show that the 9 bp deletion is present in the arrhenotokous A. m. scutellata population in South Africa, in A. m. intermissa in Morocco and in Africanized bees from Brazil and Texas, USA, where thelytoky has not been reported. Thus the 9 bp deletion cannot be the cause of thelytoky. Further, we found two novel tae alleles. One contains the previously described 9 bp deletion and an additional deletion of 7 bp nearby. The second carries a single base insertion with respect to the wild type. Our data are consistent with the putative th locus increasing reproductive capacity. PMID:25585920

  17. Neutralization of Apis mellifera bee venom activities by suramin.

    PubMed

    El-Kik, Camila Z; Fernandes, Fabrício F A; Tomaz, Marcelo Amorim; Gaban, Glauco A; Fonseca, Tatiane F; Calil-Elias, Sabrina; Oliveira, Suellen D S; Silva, Claudia L M; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco; Melo, Paulo A

    2013-06-01

    In this work we evaluated the ability of suramin, a polysulfonated naphthylurea derivative, to antagonize the cytotoxic and enzymatic effects of the crude venom of Apis mellifera. Suramin was efficient to decrease the lethality in a dose-dependent way. The hemoconcentration caused by lethal dose injection of bee venom was abolished by suramin (30 μg/g). The edematogenic activity of the venom (0.3 μg/g) was antagonized by suramin (10 μg/g) in all treatment protocols. The changes in the vascular permeability caused by A. mellifera (1 μg/g) venom were inhibited by suramin (30 μg/g) in the pre- and posttreatment as well as when the venom was preincubated with suramin. In addition, suramin also inhibited cultured endothelial cell lesion, as well as in vitro myotoxicity, evaluated in mouse extensor digitorum longus muscle, which was inhibited by suramin (10 and 25 μM), decreasing the rate of CK release, showing that suramin protected the sarcolemma against damage induced by components of bee venom (2.5 μg/mL). Moreover, suramin inhibited the in vivo myotoxicity induced by i.m. injection of A. mellifera venom in mice (0.5 μg/g). The analysis of the area under the plasma CK vs. time curve showed that preincubation, pre- and posttreatment with suramin (30 μg/g) inhibited bee venom myotoxic activity in mice by about 89%, 45% and 40%, respectively. Suramin markedly inhibited the PLA2 activity in a concentration-dependent way (1-30 μM). Being suramin a polyanion molecule, the effects observed may be due to the interaction of its charges with the polycation components present in A. mellifera bee venom. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of the Asian Honey Bee Apis cerana cerana

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zachary Y.; Wu, Xiao Bo; Yan, Wei Yu; Zeng, Zhi Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Background The Eastern hive honey bee, Apis cerana cerana is a native and widely bred honey bee species in China. Molecular biology research about this honey bee species is scarce, and genomic information for A. c. cerana is not currently available. Transcriptome and expression profiling data for this species are therefore important resources needed to better understand the biological mechanisms of A. c. cerana. In this study, we obtained the transcriptome information of A. c. cerana by RNA-sequencing and compared gene expression differences between queens and workers of A. c. cerana by digital gene expression (DGE) analysis. Results Using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing we obtained 51,581,510 clean reads corresponding to 4.64 Gb total nucleotides from a single run. These reads were assembled into 46,999 unigenes with a mean length of 676 bp. Based on a sequence similarity search against the five public databases (NR, Swissport, GO, COG, KEGG) with a cut-off E-value of 10−5 using BLASTX, a total of 24,630 unigenes were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology terms, or metabolic pathways. Using these transcriptome data as references we analyzed the gene expression differences between the queens and workers of A. c. cerana using a tag-based digital gene expression method. We obtained 5.96 and 5.66 million clean tags from the queen and worker samples, respectively. A total of 414 genes were differentially expressed between them, with 189 up-regulated and 225 down-regulated in queens. Conclusions Our transcriptome data provide a comprehensive sequence resource for future A. c. cerana study, establishing an important public information platform for functional genomic studies in A. c. cerana. Furthermore, the DGE data provide comprehensive gene expression information for the queens and workers, which will facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the different physiological aspects of the two castes. PMID:23112877

  19. Antibacterial activity of a cardanol from Thai Apis mellifera propolis.

    PubMed

    Boonsai, Pattaraporn; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha; Chanchao, Chanpen

    2014-01-01

    Propolis is a sticky, dark brown resinous residue made by bees that is derived from plant resins. It is used to construct and repair the nest, and in addition possesses several diverse bioactivities. Here, propolis from Apis mellifera from Nan province, Thailand, was tested for antibacterial activity against Gram(+ve) (Staphylococcus aureus and Paenibacillus larvae) and Gram(-ve) (Escherichia coli) bacteria. The three bacterial isolates were confirmed for species designation by Gram staining and analysis of the partial sequence of 16S rDNA. Propolis was sequentially extracted by methanol, dichloromethane and hexane. The antibacterial activity was determined by agar well diffusion and microbroth dilution assays using streptomycin as a positive control. The most active crude extract was further purified by quick column and adsorption chromatography. The apparent purity of each bioactive fraction was tested by thin layer chromatography. The chemical structure of the isolated bioactive compound was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Crude methanol extract of propolis showed the best antibacterial activity with a minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value of 5 mg/mL for S. aureus and E. coli and 6.25 mg/mL for P. larvae. After quick column chromatography, only three active fractions were inhibitory to the growth of S. aureus and E. coli with MIC values of 6.25 and 31.3 µg/mL, respectively. Further adsorption chromatography yielded one pure bioactive fraction (A1A) with an IC50 value of 0.175 µg/mL for E. coli and 0.683 µg/mL for P. larvae, and was determined to be cardanol by NMR analysis. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed unusual shaped (especially in dividing cells), damaged and dead cells in cardanol-treated E. coli. Thai propolis contains a promising antibacterial agent.

  20. Using PAT to accelerate the transition to continuous API manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Francisca F; Rahbek, Jesper P; Mortensen, Asmus R; Pedersen, Mette T; Felizardo, Pedro M; Bro, Rasmus; Mealy, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    and by-products in the continuous reactor effluent. Graphical Abstract Using PAT to accelerate the transition to continuous API manufacturing.

  1. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Schott, Matthias; Klein, Birgit; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog “alert” is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors. PMID:26083377

  2. Intraspecific Aggression in Giant Honey Bees (Apis dorsata)

    PubMed Central

    Weihmann, Frank; Waddoup, Dominique; Hötzl, Thomas; Kastberger, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    We investigated intraspecific aggression in experimental nests (expN1, expN2) of the giant honey bee Apis dorsata in Chitwan (Nepal), focusing on interactions between surface bees and two other groups of bees approaching the nest: (1) homing “nestmate” foragers landing on the bee curtain remained unmolested by guards; and (2) supposed “non-nestmate” bees, which were identified by their erratic flight patterns in front of the nest, such as hovering or sideways scanning and splaying their legs from their body, and were promptly attacked by the surface bees after landing. These supposed non-nestmate bees only occurred immediately before and after migration swarms, which had arrived in close vicinity (and were most likely scouting for a nesting site). In total, 231 of the “nestmate” foragers (fb) and 102 approaches of such purported “non-nestmate” scouts (sc) were analysed (total observation time expN1: 5.43 min) regarding the evocation of shimmering waves (sh). During their landing the “nestmate” foragers provoked less shimmering waves (relnsh[fb] = 23/231 = 0.0996, relnsh[sc] = 75/102 = 0.7353; p <0.001, χ2-test) with shorter duration (Dsh[fb] = 197 ± 17 ms, Dsh[sc] = 488 ± 16 ms; p <0.001; t-test) than “non-nestmates”. Moreover, after having landed on the nest surface, the “non-nestmates” were attacked by the surface bees (expN1, expN2: observation time >18 min) quite similarly to the defensive response against predatory wasps. Hence, the surface members of settled colonies respond differently to individual giant honey bees approaching the nest, depending on whether erratic flight patterns are displayed or not. PMID:26462834

  3. Acaricide, fungicide and drug interactions in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Reed M; Dahlgren, Lizette; Siegfried, Blair D; Ellis, Marion D

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analysis shows that honey bees (Apis mellifera) and hive products contain many pesticides derived from various sources. The most abundant pesticides are acaricides applied by beekeepers to control Varroa destructor. Beekeepers also apply antimicrobial drugs to control bacterial and microsporidial diseases. Fungicides may enter the hive when applied to nearby flowering crops. Acaricides, antimicrobial drugs and fungicides are not highly toxic to bees alone, but in combination there is potential for heightened toxicity due to interactive effects. Laboratory bioassays based on mortality rates in adult worker bees demonstrated interactive effects among acaricides, as well as between acaricides and antimicrobial drugs and between acaricides and fungicides. Toxicity of the acaricide tau-fluvalinate increased in combination with other acaricides and most other compounds tested (15 of 17) while amitraz toxicity was mostly unchanged (1 of 15). The sterol biosynthesis inhibiting (SBI) fungicide prochloraz elevated the toxicity of the acaricides tau-fluvalinate, coumaphos and fenpyroximate, likely through inhibition of detoxicative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity. Four other SBI fungicides increased the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate in a dose-dependent manner, although possible evidence of P450 induction was observed at the lowest fungicide doses. Non-transitive interactions between some acaricides were observed. Sublethal amitraz pre-treatment increased the toxicity of the three P450-detoxified acaricides, but amitraz toxicity was not changed by sublethal treatment with the same three acaricides. A two-fold change in the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate was observed between years, suggesting a possible change in the genetic composition of the bees tested. Interactions with acaricides in honey bees are similar to drug interactions in other animals in that P450-mediated detoxication appears to play an important role. Evidence of non-transivity, year-to-year variation

  4. Acaricide, Fungicide and Drug Interactions in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Reed M.; Dahlgren, Lizette; Siegfried, Blair D.; Ellis, Marion D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chemical analysis shows that honey bees (Apis mellifera) and hive products contain many pesticides derived from various sources. The most abundant pesticides are acaricides applied by beekeepers to control Varroa destructor. Beekeepers also apply antimicrobial drugs to control bacterial and microsporidial diseases. Fungicides may enter the hive when applied to nearby flowering crops. Acaricides, antimicrobial drugs and fungicides are not highly toxic to bees alone, but in combination there is potential for heightened toxicity due to interactive effects. Methodology/Principal Findings Laboratory bioassays based on mortality rates in adult worker bees demonstrated interactive effects among acaricides, as well as between acaricides and antimicrobial drugs and between acaricides and fungicides. Toxicity of the acaricide tau-fluvalinate increased in combination with other acaricides and most other compounds tested (15 of 17) while amitraz toxicity was mostly unchanged (1 of 15). The sterol biosynthesis inhibiting (SBI) fungicide prochloraz elevated the toxicity of the acaricides tau-fluvalinate, coumaphos and fenpyroximate, likely through inhibition of detoxicative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity. Four other SBI fungicides increased the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate in a dose-dependent manner, although possible evidence of P450 induction was observed at the lowest fungicide doses. Non-transitive interactions between some acaricides were observed. Sublethal amitraz pre-treatment increased the toxicity of the three P450-detoxified acaricides, but amitraz toxicity was not changed by sublethal treatment with the same three acaricides. A two-fold change in the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate was observed between years, suggesting a possible change in the genetic composition of the bees tested. Conclusions/Significance Interactions with acaricides in honey bees are similar to drug interactions in other animals in that P450-mediated detoxication appears to play an

  5. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Schott, Matthias; Klein, Birgit; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog "alert" is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors.

  6. Accuracies of Leuconostoc phenotypic identification: a comparison of API systems and conventional phenotypic assays.

    PubMed

    Kulwichit, Wanla; Nilgate, Sumanee; Chatsuwan, Tanittha; Krajiw, Sunisa; Unhasuta, Chudaachhara; Chongthaleong, Anan

    2007-07-02

    Commercial diagnostics are commonly used to identify gram-positive bacteria. Errors have been reported mostly at the species level. We have found certain phenotypic criteria used in API systems which significantly misidentify Leuconostoc, an emerging human pathogen, at the genus level. We also attempt to find practical, conventional phenotypic assays for accurate identification of this group of bacteria. Clinical isolates of catalase-negative, gram-positive coccoid or coccobacillary bacteria with non-beta hemolysis in our institute during 1997-2004 were subject to an identification aid by API 20 STREP, following the instruction manual, as an aid to conventional phenotypic tests. Those identified as Leuconostoc by API 20 STREP were re-examined by the same kit and also by API 50 CHL according to the instruction manuals, by our Leuconostoc conventional phenotypic assays, by Leuconostoc- and Lactobacillus-specific PCR's, and, where possible, by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. In addition, catalase-negative gram-positive isolates during 2005-2006 which were resistant to vancomycin at high levels were also evaluated by the same phenotypic and genotypic assays. Out of several thousands of clinical gram-positive isolates, 26 catalase negative gram-positive isolates initially identified as Leuconostoc by API 20 STREP and 7 vancomycin-resistant gram-positive catalase-negative bacteria entered the study. 11 out of the 26 isolates and all the 7 isolates were identified as Leuconostoc by API 20 STREP. Only 5 isolates, however, were confirmed by both genotypic and all defined conventional phenotypic criteria. API 50 CHL also failed to reliably provide accurate identification of Leuconostoc. We have identified key problem tests in API 20 STREP leading to misidentification of the bacteria. A simple, conventional set of phenotypic tests for Leuconostoc identification is proposed. The current API systems cannot accurately identify Leuconostoc. Identification of vancomycin

  7. Comparative virulence of Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis in individual European honey bees.

    PubMed

    Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar

    2010-06-24

    Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are intracellular microsporidian parasites infecting the midgut epithelial cells of adult honey bees. N. ceranae was considered to be restricted to the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana, but is nowadays a parasite found also in the European honey bee (Apis mellifera) across most of the world. Recent surveys and experimental work suggest that N. ceranae is a serious threat to the global beekeeping industry. It has been suggested that N. ceranae induces significantly higher mortality in honey bees than N. apis, but little is known about their comparative virulence. In this study, we used in vivo infection experiments to study the two parasites' different virulence (i.e. multiplication rate and infectivity). A qPCR was developed to elucidate within host competition between the two parasites using mixed infections. The outcome of the experiments indicates minor differences in infectious dose and multiplication rate between the two species. Moreover, the mortality caused by N. ceranae was not significantly higher than for N. apis and N. ceranae appeared to have no competitive advantage within host.

  8. The differential development of microsporidia infecting worker honey bee (Apis mellifera) at increasing incubation temperature.

    PubMed

    Higes, Mariano; García-Palencia, Pilar; Botías, Cristina; Meana, Aránzazu; Martín-Hernández, Raquel

    2010-12-01

    In the last century, nosemosis caused by Nosema apis is traditionally considered as a low-prevalence disease of Apis mellifera, even though it occurs worldwide. Colonies affected by N. apis display low levels of infection during summer, a small peak in autumn and usually a slow rise during winter. However, nosemosis due to Nosema ceranae is considered as an emergent illness that is posing a major threat to the health of individual honey bees and whole bee colonies. The symptoms of infection by these two pathogens are very different, as are the virulence, spread and pathogenicity. We have carried out experiments in artificially infected worker honey bees maintained in the laboratory at two different temperatures. Both microsporidia developed as expected for up to 4 days after infection at 33.0°C, but when maintained for 5 or 7 days at 37.2°C, only N. ceranae completed its life cycle in infected honey bees, while the development of N. apis was inhibited. This and other published data suggest that N. ceranae is eurythermal whereas N. apis is stenothermal. The higher temperature tolerance recorded may be related to the higher prevalence of N. ceranae reported worldwide. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. JEnsembl: a version-aware Java API to Ensembl data systems

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Trevor; Law, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: The Ensembl Project provides release-specific Perl APIs for efficient high-level programmatic access to data stored in various Ensembl database schema. Although Perl scripts are perfectly suited for processing large volumes of text-based data, Perl is not ideal for developing large-scale software applications nor embedding in graphical interfaces. The provision of a novel Java API would facilitate type-safe, modular, object-orientated development of new Bioinformatics tools with which to access, analyse and visualize Ensembl data. Results: The JEnsembl API implementation provides basic data retrieval and manipulation functionality from the Core, Compara and Variation databases for all species in Ensembl and EnsemblGenomes and is a platform for the development of a richer API to Ensembl datasources. The JEnsembl architecture uses a text-based configuration module to provide evolving, versioned mappings from database schema to code objects. A single installation of the JEnsembl API can therefore simultaneously and transparently connect to current and previous database instances (such as those in the public archive) thus facilitating better analysis repeatability and allowing ‘through time’ comparative analyses to be performed. Availability: Project development, released code libraries, Maven repository and documentation are hosted at SourceForge (http://jensembl.sourceforge.net). Contact: jensembl-develop@lists.sf.net, andy.law@roslin.ed.ac.uk, trevor.paterson@roslin.ed.ac.uk PMID:22945789

  10. An adaptive software defined radio design based on a standard space telecommunication radio system API

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Wenhao; Tian, Xin; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik

    2017-05-01

    Software defined radio (SDR) has become a popular tool for the implementation and testing for communications performance. The advantage of the SDR approach includes: a re-configurable design, adaptive response to changing conditions, efficient development, and highly versatile implementation. In order to understand the benefits of SDR, the space telecommunication radio system (STRS) was proposed by NASA Glenn research center (GRC) along with the standard application program interface (API) structure. Each component of the system uses a well-defined API to communicate with other components. The benefit of standard API is to relax the platform limitation of each component for addition options. For example, the waveform generating process can support a field programmable gate array (FPGA), personal computer (PC), or an embedded system. As long as the API defines the requirements, the generated waveform selection will work with the complete system. In this paper, we demonstrate the design and development of adaptive SDR following the STRS and standard API protocol. We introduce step by step the SDR testbed system including the controlling graphic user interface (GUI), database, GNU radio hardware control, and universal software radio peripheral (USRP) tranceiving front end. In addition, a performance evaluation in shown on the effectiveness of the SDR approach for space telecommunication.

  11. First Detection of Nosema ceranae, a Microsporidian Protozoa of European Honeybees (Apis mellifera) In Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nabian, S; Ahmadi, K; Nazem Shirazi, MH; Gerami Sadeghian, A

    2011-01-01

    Background Nosemosis of European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is present in bee colonies worldwide. Until recently, Nosema apis had been regarded as the causative agent of the disease, that causes heavy economic losses in apicultures. Nosema ceranae is an emerging microsporidian parasite of European honeybees, A. mellifera, but its distribution is not well known. Previously, nosemosis in honeybees in Iran was attributed exclusively to N. apis. Methods Six Nosema positive samples (determined from light microscopy of spores) of adult worker bees from one province of Iran (Savadkouh- Mazandaran, northern Iran) were tested to determine Nosema species using previously- developed PCR primers of the 16 S rRNA gene. As it is difficult to distinguish N. ceranae and N. apis morphologically, a PCR assay based on 16 S ribosomal RNA has been used to differentiate N. apis and N. ceranae. Results Only N. ceranae was found in all samples, indicating that this species present in Iran apiaries. Conclusion This is the first report of N. ceranae in colonies of A. mellifera in Iran. It seems that intensive surveys are needed to determine the distribution and prevalence of N. ceranae in different regions of Iran. PMID:22347302

  12. The efficacy of pour-on ivermectin in bison (Bison bison)

    PubMed Central

    Woodbury, Murray R.; Lewis, W. Roy

    2011-01-01

    To test the effectiveness of pour-on ivermectin in parasitized bison, changes in fecal parasite egg counts after treatment with ivermectin injectable or pour-on preparations were compared to a negative control group. There was no difference between the two ivermectin groups, and both forms of ivermectin were effective in reducing fecal parasite egg counts in parasitized bison. PMID:22043076

  13. Shape of glass and amount of alcohol poured: comparative study of effect of practice and concentration.

    PubMed

    Wansink, Brian; van Ittersum, Koert

    2005-12-24

    To determine whether people pour different amounts into short, wide glasses than into tall, slender ones. College students practised pouring alcohol into a standard glass before pouring into larger glasses; bartenders poured alcohol for four mixed drinks either with no instructions or after being told to take their time. University town and large city, United States. 198 college students and 86 bartenders. Volume of alcohol poured into short, wide and tall, slender glasses. Aiming to pour a "shot" of alcohol (1.5 ounces, 44.3 ml), both students and bartenders poured more into short, wide glasses than into tall slender glasses (46.1 ml v 44.7 ml and 54.6 ml v 46.4 ml, respectively). Practice reduced the tendency to overpour, but not for short, wide glasses. Despite an average of six years of experience, bartenders poured 20.5% more into short, wide glasses than tall, slender ones; paying careful attention reduced but did not eliminate the effect. To avoid overpouring, use tall, narrow glasses or ones on which the alcohol level is premarked. To avoid underestimating the amount of alcohol consumed, studies using self reports of standard drinks should ask about the shape of the glass.

  14. Creating Mobile and Web Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) for NASA Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oostra, D.; Chambers, L. H.; Lewis, P. M.; Moore, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    The Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at the NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia houses almost three petabytes of data, a collection that increases every day. To put it into perspective, it is estimated that three petabytes of data storage could store a digitized copy of all printed material in U.S. research libraries. There are more than ten other NASA data centers like the ASDC. Scientists and the public use this data for research, science education, and to understand our environment. Most importantly these data provide the potential for all of us make new discoveries. NASA is about making discoveries. Galileo was quoted as saying, "All discoveries are easy to understand once they are discovered. The point is to discover them." To that end, NASA stores vast amounts of publicly available data. This paper examines an approach to create web applications that serve NASA data in ways that specifically address the mobile web application technologies that are quickly emerging. Mobile data is not a new concept. What is new, is that user driven tools have recently become available that allow users to create their own mobile applications. Through the use of these cloud-based tools users can produce complete native mobile applications. Thus, mobile apps can now be created by everyone, regardless of their programming experience or expertise. This work will explore standards and methods for creating dynamic and malleable application programming interfaces (APIs) that allow users to access and use NASA science data for their own needs. The focus will be on experiences that broaden and increase the scope and usage of NASA science data sets.

  15. Honeybee Apis mellifera acetylcholinesterase--a biomarker to detect deltamethrin exposure.

    PubMed

    Badiou, A; Meled, M; Belzunces, L P

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility to use acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as a biomarker of exposure to deltamethrin insecticide in the honeybee, Apis mellifera and to test its reliability in the presence of other contaminants, as carbamate insecticide. Joined actions of deltamethrin (pyrethroid) and pirimicarb (carbamate), alone or in association, are investigated on AChE activity in surviving and dead honeybees, with a special focus on the relative proportions of its membrane and soluble forms. At the 0.5X dose (12.5 ng of deltamethrin and/or 2.5 microg of pirimicarb per bee), the residual tissue AChE activity in dead bees was 78% with deltamethrin, 43% with pirimicarb and 33% with dual treatment. In surviving bees, tissue AChE activity represented 250%, and 270% of control AChE activity with deltamethrin and dual treatment, respectively. The analysis of membrane and soluble AChE forms revealed an increase in the soluble form in dead bees after deltamethrin and dual treatment. However, in vitro investigations showed no direct interaction of deltamethrin on soluble and membrane AChE activity. The results suggest that the action of deltamethrin on AChE activity, in honeybee intact organisms, could be due to indirect mechanisms. The duality of AChE response to deltamethrin exposure, exhibited by the possibility of increase (surviving bees) or decrease (dead bees) of its activity has been pointed out for the first time. The important increase in AChE activity in response to deltamethrin, not altered by pirimicarb treatment, suggests that AChE activity could represent a robust biomarker specific to deltamethrin exposure in living bees.

  16. Short- and long-term memories formed upon backward conditioning in honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Felsenberg, Johannes; Plath, Jenny Aino; Lorang, Steven; Morgenstern, Laura; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    In classical conditioning, the temporal sequence of stimulus presentations is critical for the association between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US). In forward conditioning, the CS precedes the US and is learned as a predictor for the US. Thus it acquires properties to elicit a behavioral response, defined as excitatory properties. In backward conditioning, the US precedes the CS. The CS might be learned as a predictor for the cessation of the US acquiring inhibitory properties that inhibit a behavioral response. Interestingly, behavior after backward conditioning is controlled by both excitatory and inhibitory properties of the CS, but the underlying mechanisms determining which of these opposing properties control behavior upon retrieval is poorly understood. We performed conditioning experiments in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) to investigate the CS properties that control behavior at different time points after backward conditioning. The CS properties, as characterized by the retardation or enhancement of subsequent acquisition, were examined 30 min and 24 h after backward conditioning. We found that 30 min after backward conditioning, the CS acquired an inhibitory property during backward conditioning depending on the intertrial interval, the number of trials, and the odor used as the CS. One day after backward conditioning, we observed significant retardation of acquisition. In addition, we demonstrated an enhanced, generalized odor response in the backward conditioned group compared to untreated animals. These results indicate that two long-lasting opposing memories have been formed in parallel: one about the excitatory properties of the CS and one about the inhibitory properties of the CS. PMID:24353291

  17. Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, L.) as Active Samplers of Airborne Particulate Matter

    PubMed Central

    Di Prisco, Gennaro; Caprio, Emilio; Pellecchia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are bioindicators of environmental pollution levels. During their wide-ranging foraging activity, these hymenopterans are exposed to pollutants, thus becoming a useful tool to trace the environmental contaminants as heavy metals, pesticides, radionuclides and volatile organic compounds. In the present work we demonstrate that bees can also be used as active samplers of airborne particulate matter. Worker bees were collected from hives located in a polluted postmining area in South West Sardinia (Italy) that is also exposed to dust emissions from industrial plants. The area is included in an official list of sites of national interest for environmental remediation, and has been characterized for the effects of pollutants on the health of the resident population. The head, wings, hind legs and alimentary canal of the bees were investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). The analyses pointed to specific morphological and chemical features of the particulate, and resulted into the identification of three categories of particles: industry -, postmining -, and soil –derived. With the exception of the gut, all the analyzed body districts displayed inorganic particles, mostly concentrated in specific areas of the body (i.e. along the costal margin of the fore wings, the medial plane of the head, and the inner surface of the hind legs). The role of both past mining activities and the industrial activity close to the study area as sources of the particulate matter is also discussed. We conclude that honey bees are able to collect samples of the main airborne particles emitted from different sources, therefore could be an ideal tool for monitoring such a kind of pollutants. PMID:26147982

  18. Honey Bees (Apis mellifera, L.) as Active Samplers of Airborne Particulate Matter.

    PubMed

    Negri, Ilaria; Mavris, Christian; Di Prisco, Gennaro; Caprio, Emilio; Pellecchia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are bioindicators of environmental pollution levels. During their wide-ranging foraging activity, these hymenopterans are exposed to pollutants, thus becoming a useful tool to trace the environmental contaminants as heavy metals, pesticides, radionuclides and volatile organic compounds. In the present work we demonstrate that bees can also be used as active samplers of airborne particulate matter. Worker bees were collected from hives located in a polluted postmining area in South West Sardinia (Italy) that is also exposed to dust emissions from industrial plants. The area is included in an official list of sites of national interest for environmental remediation, and has been characterized for the effects of pollutants on the health of the resident population. The head, wings, hind legs and alimentary canal of the bees were investigated with Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). The analyses pointed to specific morphological and chemical features of the particulate, and resulted into the identification of three categories of particles: industry-, postmining-, and soil-derived. With the exception of the gut, all the analyzed body districts displayed inorganic particles, mostly concentrated in specific areas of the body (i.e. along the costal margin of the fore wings, the medial plane of the head, and the inner surface of the hind legs). The role of both past mining activities and the industrial activity close to the study area as sources of the particulate matter is also discussed. We conclude that honey bees are able to collect samples of the main airborne particles emitted from different sources, therefore could be an ideal tool for monitoring such a kind of pollutants.

  19. Characterization of the N-glycans of recombinant bee venom hyaluronidase (Api m 2) expressed in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Soldatova, Lyudmila N; Tsai, Chaoming; Dobrovolskaia, Ekaterina; Marković-Housley, Zora; Slater, Jay E

    2007-01-01

    Honeybee venom hyaluronidase (Api m 2) is a major glycoprotein allergen. Previous studies have indicated that recombinant Api m 2 expressed in insect cells has enzyme activity and IgE binding comparable with that of native Api m 2. In contrast, Api m 2 expressed in Escherichia coli does not. In this study, we characterized the carbohydrate side chains of Api m 2 expressed in insect cells, and compared our data with the established carbohydrate structure of native Api m 2. We assessed both the monosaccharide and the oligosaccharide content of recombinant Api m 2 using fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis and HPLC. To identify the amino acid residues at which glycosylation occurs, we digested recombinant Api m 2 with endoproteinase Glu-C and identified the fragments that contained carbohydrate by specific staining. Recombinant Api m 2 expressed in insect cells contains N-acetylglucosamine, mannose, and fucose, as well as trace amounts of glucose and galactose, and the oligosaccharide analysis is consistent with heterogeneous oligosaccharide chains consisting of two to seven monosaccharides. No sialic acid or N-acetylgalactosamine were detected. These results are similar to published data for native Api m 2, although some monosaccharide components appear to be absent in the recombinant protein. Analysis of proteolytic digests indicates that of the four candidate N-glycosylation sites, carbohydrate chains are attached at asparagines 115 and 263. Recombinant Api m 2 expressed in insect cells has enzymic activity and IgE binding comparable with the native protein, and its carbohydrate composition is very similar.

  20. [New Approach to the Mitotype Classification in Black Honeybee Apis mellifera mellifera and Iberian Honeybee Apis mellifera iberiensis].

    PubMed

    Ilyasov, R A; Poskryakov, A V; Petukhov, A V; Nikolenko, A G

    2016-03-01

    The black honeybee Apis mellifera mellifera L. is today the only subspecies of honeybee which is suitable for commercial breeding in the climatic conditions of Northern Europe with long cold winters. The main problem of the black honeybee in Russia and European countries is the preservation of the indigenous gene pool purity, which is lost as a result of hybridization with subspecies, A. m. caucasica, A. m. carnica, A. m. carpatica, and A. m. armeniaca, introduced from southern regions. Genetic identification of the subspecies will reduce the extent of hybridization and provide the gene pool conservation of the black honeybee. Modern classification of the honeybee mitotypes is mainly based on the combined use ofthe DraI restriction endonuclease recognition site polymorphism and sequence polymorphism of the mtDNA COI-COII region. We performed a comparative analysis of the mtDNA COI-COII region sequence polymorphism in the honeybees ofthe evolutionary lineage M from Ural and West European populations of black honeybee A. m. mellifera and Spanish bee A. m. iberiensis. A new approach to the classification of the honeybee M mitotypes was suggested. Using this approach and on the basis of the seven most informative SNPs of the mtDNA COI-COII region, eight honeybee mitotype groups were identified. In addition, it is suggested that this approach will simplify the previously proposed complicated mitotype classification and will make it possible to assess the level of the mitotype diversity and to identify the mitotypes that are the most valuable for the honeybee breeding and rearing.

  1. Glandular sources of pheromones used to control host workers (Apis mellifera scutellata) by socially parasitic workers of Apis mellifera capensis.

    PubMed

    Okosun, Olabimpe O; Pirk, Christian W W; Crewe, Robin M; Yusuf, Abdullahi A

    2017-10-01

    Pheromonal control by the honey bee queen is achieved through the use of secretions from diverse glandular sources, but the use of pheromones from a variety of glandular sources by reproductively dominant workers, has not previously been explored. Using the social parasite, Apis mellifera capensis clonal worker we studied the diversity of glandular sources used for pheromonal control of reproductively subordinate A. m. scutellata workers. To determine whether pheromones from different glandular sources are used by reproductively active workers to achieve dominance and evaluate the degree of pheromonal competition between workers of the two sub-species, we housed groups of workers of the two sub-species together in cages and analysed mandibular and tergal gland secretions as well as, ovarian activation status of each worker after 21days. The results showed that A. m. capensis invasive clones used both mandibular and tergal gland secretions to achieve reproductive dominance and suppress ovarian activation in their A. m. scutellata host workers. The reproductively dominant workers (false queens) produced more queen-like pheromones and inhibited ovarian activation in subordinate A. m. scutellata workers. These results show that tergal gland pheromones working in synergy with pheromones from other glands allow individual workers (false queens) to establish reproductive dominance within these social groups and to act in a manner similar to that of queens. Thus suggesting that, the evolution of reproductively dominant individuals (queens or false queens) and subordinate individuals (workers) in social insects like the honey bee is the result of a complex interplay of pheromonal signals from different exocrine glands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. API2-MALT1 fusion protein induces transcriptional activation of the API2 gene through NF-{kappa}B binding elements: Evidence for a positive feed-back loop pathway resulting in unremitting NF-{kappa}B activation

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, Yoshitaka . E-mail: yhosokaw@aichi-cc.jp; Suzuki, Hiroko; Nakagawa, Masao; Lee, Tae H.; Seto, Masao

    2005-08-19

    t(11;18)(q21;q21) is a characteristic as well as the most frequent chromosomal translocation in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type lymphoma, and this translocation results in a fusion transcript, API2-MALT1. Although API2-MALT1 has been shown to enforce activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling, the transcriptional target genes of this fusion protein remains to be identified. Our analyses of the API2-MALT transfectants suggested that one of the target genes may be the apoptotic inhibitor API2 gene. Luciferase reporter assays with deletion and mutational constructs of the API2 promoter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays established that API2-MALT1 induces transcriptional activation of the API2 gene through two NF-{kappa}B binding elements. Moreover, supershift experiments indicated that these elements are recognized by the NF-{kappa}B p50/p65 heterodimer. Taken together, our results strongly indicated that API2-MALT1 possesses a novel mechanism of self-activation by up-regulating its own expression in t(11;18)(q21;q21)-carrying MALT lymphomas, highlighting a positive feedback-loop pathway resulting in unremitting NF-{kappa}B activation.

  3. API2-MALT1 oncoprotein promotes lymphomagenesis via unique program of substrate ubiquitination and proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Rosebeck, Shaun; Lim, Megan S; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J; McAllister-Lucas, Linda M; Lucas, Peter C

    2016-02-26

    Lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) is the most common extranodal B cell tumor and accounts for 8% of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Gastric MALT lymphoma is the best-studied example and is a prototypical neoplasm that occurs in the setting of chronic inflammation brought on by persistent infection or autoimmune disease. Cytogenetic abnormalities are commonly acquired during the course of disease and the most common is chromosomal translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21), which creates the API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein. t(11;18)-positive lymphomas can be clinically aggressive and have a higher rate of dissemination than t(11;18)-negative tumors. Many cancers, including MALT lymphomas, characteristically exhibit deregulated over-activation of cellular survival pathways, such as the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Molecular characterization of API2-MALT1 has revealed it to be a potent activator of NF-κB, which is required for API2-MALT1-induced cellular transformation, however the mechanisms by which API2-MALT1 exerts these effects are only recently becoming apparent. The API2 moiety of the fusion binds tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor associated factor (TRAF) 2 and receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1), two proteins essential for TNF receptor-induced NF-κB activation. By effectively mimicking ligand-bound TNF receptor, API2-MALT1 promotes TRAF2-dependent ubiquitination of RIP1, which then acts as a scaffold for nucleating and activating the canonical NF-κB machinery. Activation occurs, in part, through MALT1 moiety-dependent recruitment of TRAF6, which can directly modify NF-κB essential modulator, the principal downstream regulator of NF-κB. While the intrinsic MALT1 protease catalytic activity is dispensable for this canonical NF-κB signaling, it is critical for non-canonical NF-κB activation. In this regard, API2-MALT1 recognizes NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK), the essential upstream regulator of non-canonical NF-κB, and cleaves it to

  4. API2-MALT1 oncoprotein promotes lymphomagenesis via unique program of substrate ubiquitination and proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Rosebeck, Shaun; Lim, Megan S; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J; McAllister-Lucas, Linda M; Lucas, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) is the most common extranodal B cell tumor and accounts for 8% of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Gastric MALT lymphoma is the best-studied example and is a prototypical neoplasm that occurs in the setting of chronic inflammation brought on by persistent infection or autoimmune disease. Cytogenetic abnormalities are commonly acquired during the course of disease and the most common is chromosomal translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21), which creates the API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein. t(11;18)-positive lymphomas can be clinically aggressive and have a higher rate of dissemination than t(11;18)-negative tumors. Many cancers, including MALT lymphomas, characteristically exhibit deregulated over-activation of cellular survival pathways, such as the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Molecular characterization of API2-MALT1 has revealed it to be a potent activator of NF-κB, which is required for API2-MALT1-induced cellular transformation, however the mechanisms by which API2-MALT1 exerts these effects are only recently becoming apparent. The API2 moiety of the fusion binds tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor associated factor (TRAF) 2 and receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1), two proteins essential for TNF receptor-induced NF-κB activation. By effectively mimicking ligand-bound TNF receptor, API2-MALT1 promotes TRAF2-dependent ubiquitination of RIP1, which then acts as a scaffold for nucleating and activating the canonical NF-κB machinery. Activation occurs, in part, through MALT1 moiety-dependent recruitment of TRAF6, which can directly modify NF-κB essential modulator, the principal downstream regulator of NF-κB. While the intrinsic MALT1 protease catalytic activity is dispensable for this canonical NF-κB signaling, it is critical for non-canonical NF-κB activation. In this regard, API2-MALT1 recognizes NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK), the essential upstream regulator of non-canonical NF-κB, and cleaves it to

  5. APIS : a value-added database of HST UV planetary auroral observations acquired since 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, L.; Henry, F.; Prangé, R.; Le Sidaner, P.

    2014-04-01

    The APIS service http://lesia.obspm.fr/apis/ (Auroral Planetary Imaging and Spectroscopy), aimed at facilitating the use of planetary auroral observations, was presented at EPSC last year, following its opening to the community in July 2013. This facility consists of : - a high level database derived from public Far-UV observations of Jupiter, Io, Ganymede, Saturn, Titan and Uranus acquired by the Hubble Space Telescope since 1997 (36 observational campaigns so far) ; - a specific search interface (Figure 1), aimed at browsing the database freely, quickly and efficiently through relevant search criteria (as planetary longitudes, moon or spacecraft ephemeris etc.). - Virtual-Observatory tools which enable the user to interactively work with images and spectra online. We will present the updated capabilities of APIS and illustrate them with several examples. Several tutorials are also directly available online.

  6. Using the RxNorm web services API for quality assurance purposes.

    PubMed

    Peters, Lee; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2008-11-06

    Auditing large, rapidly evolving terminological systems is still a challenge. In the case of RxNorm, a standardized nomenclature for clinical drugs, we argue that quality assurance processes can benefit from the recently released application programming interface (API) provided by RxNav. We demonstrate the usefulness of the API by performing a systematic comparison of alternative paths in the RxNorm graph, over several thousands of drug entities. This study revealed potential errors in RxNorm, currently under review. The results also prompted us to modify the implementation of RxNav to navigate the RxNorm graph more accurately. The RxNav web services API used in this experiment is robust and fast.

  7. Mechanical Characteristics of Submerged Arc Weldment in API Gas Pipeline Steel of Grade X65

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, S. H.; Mohammadyani, D.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical properties of submerged arc weldment (SAW) in gas transportation pipeline steel of grade API X65 (65 ksi yield strength) were investigated. This steel is produced by thermo mechanical control rolled (TMC), and is largely used in Iran gas piping systems and networks. The results from laboratory study on three different regions; i.e. base metal (BM), fusion zone (FZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) were used to compare weldment mechanical characteristics with those specified by API 5L (revision 2004) standard code. Different laboratory experiments were conducted on test specimens taken from 48 inch outside diameter and 14.3 mm wall thickness gas pipeline. The test results showed a gradient of microstructure and Vickers hardness data from the centerline of FZ towards the unaffected MB. Similarly, lower Charpy absorbed energy (compared to BM) was observed in the FZ impact specimens. Despite this, the API specifications were fulfilled in three tested zones, ensuring pipeline structural integrity under working conditions.

  8. Mechanical Characteristics of Submerged Arc Weldment in API Gas Pipeline Steel of Grade X65

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemi, S. H.; Mohammadyani, D.

    2011-01-17

    The mechanical properties of submerged arc weldment (SAW) in gas transportation pipeline steel of grade API X65 (65 ksi yield strength) were investigated. This steel is produced by thermo mechanical control rolled (TMC), and is largely used in Iran gas piping systems and networks. The results from laboratory study on three different regions; i.e. base metal (BM), fusion zone (FZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) were used to compare weldment mechanical characteristics with those specified by API 5L (revision 2004) standard code. Different laboratory experiments were conducted on test specimens taken from 48 inch outside diameter and 14.3 mm wall thickness gas pipeline. The test results showed a gradient of microstructure and Vickers hardness data from the centerline of FZ towards the unaffected MB. Similarly, lower Charpy absorbed energy (compared to BM) was observed in the FZ impact specimens. Despite this, the API specifications were fulfilled in three tested zones, ensuring pipeline structural integrity under working conditions.

  9. MicroRNA-1 promotes apoptosis of hepatocarcinoma cells by targeting apoptosis inhibitor-5 (API-5).

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Liu, Yu; Li, Hua; Peng, Jing-Jing; Tan, Yan; Zou, Qiang; Song, Xiao-Feng; Du, Min; Yang, Zheng-Hui; Tan, Yong; Zhou, Jin-Jun; Xu, Tao; Fu, Zeng-Qiang; Feng, Jian-Qiong; Cheng, Peng; chen, Tao; Wei, Dong; Su, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Huan-Yi; Qi, Zhong-Chun; Tang, Li-Jun; Wang, Tao; Guo, Xin; Hu, Yong-He; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-02

    Although microRNA-1 (miR-1) is a known liver cancer suppressor, the role of miR-1 in apoptosis of hepatoma cells has remained largely unknown. Our study shows that ectopic miR-1 overexpression induced apoptosis of liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Apoptosis inhibitor 5 (API-5) was found to be a potential regulator of miR-1 induced apoptosis, using a bioinformatics approach. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between miR-1 and API-5 expression was observed in human liver cancer tissues and adjacent normal liver tissues. Negative regulation of API-5 expression by miR-1 was demonstrated to promote apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Our study provides a novel regulatory mechanism of miR-1 in the apoptosis of hepatoma cells. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Using the RxNorm Web Services API for Quality Assurance Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Lee; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Auditing large, rapidly evolving terminological systems is still a challenge. In the case of RxNorm, a standardized nomenclature for clinical drugs, we argue that quality assurance processes can benefit from the recently released application programming interface (API) provided by RxNav. We demonstrate the usefulness of the API by performing a systematic comparison of alternative paths in the RxNorm graph, over several thousands of drug entities. This study revealed potential errors in RxNorm, currently under review. The results also prompted us to modify the implementation of RxNav to navigate the RxNorm graph more accurately. The RxNorm web services API used in this experiment is robust and fast. PMID:18999038

  11. An overview of the CellML API and its implementation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background CellML is an XML based language for representing mathematical models, in a machine-independent form which is suitable for their exchange between different authors, and for archival in a model repository. Allowing for the exchange and archival of models in a computer readable form is a key strategic goal in bioinformatics, because of the associated improvements in scientific record accuracy, the faster iterative process of scientific development, and the ability to combine models into large integrative models. However, for CellML models to be useful, tools which can process them correctly are needed. Due to some of the more complex features present in CellML models, such as imports, developing code ab initio to correctly process models can be an onerous task. For this reason, there is a clear and pressing need for an application programming interface (API), and a good implementation of that API, upon which tools can base their support for CellML. Results We developed an API which allows the information in CellML models to be retrieved and/or modified. We also developed a series of optional extension APIs, for tasks such as simplifying the handling of connections between variables, dealing with physical units, validating models, and translating models into different procedural languages. We have also provided a Free/Open Source implementation of this application programming interface, optimised to achieve good performance. Conclusions Tools have been developed using the API which are mature enough for widespread use. The API has the potential to accelerate the development of additional tools capable of processing CellML, and ultimately lead to an increased level of sharing of mathematical model descriptions. PMID:20377909

  12. Transcriptome analysis of the honey bee fungal pathogen, Ascosphaera apis: implications for host pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We present a comprehensive transcriptome analysis of the fungus Ascosphaera apis, an economically important pathogen of the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) that causes chalkbrood disease. Our goals were to further annotate the A. apis reference genome and to identify genes that are candidates for being differentially expressed during host infection versus axenic culture. Results We compared A. apis transcriptome sequence from mycelia grown on liquid or solid media with that dissected from host-infected tissue. 454 pyrosequencing provided 252 Mb of filtered sequence reads from both culture types that were assembled into 10,087 contigs. Transcript contigs, protein sequences from multiple fungal species, and ab initio gene predictions were included as evidence sources in the Maker gene prediction pipeline, resulting in 6,992 consensus gene models. A phylogeny based on 12 of these protein-coding loci further supported the taxonomic placement of Ascosphaera as sister to the core Onygenales. Several common protein domains were less abundant in A. apis compared with related ascomycete genomes, particularly cytochrome p450 and protein kinase domains. A novel gene family was identified that has expanded in some ascomycete lineages, but not others. We manually annotated genes with homologs in other fungal genomes that have known relevance to fungal virulence and life history. Functional categories of interest included genes involved in mating-type specification, intracellular signal transduction, and stress response. Computational and manual annotations have been made publicly available on the Bee Pests and Pathogens website. Conclusions This comprehensive transcriptome analysis substantially enhances our understanding of the A. apis genome and its expression during infection of honey bee larvae. It also provides resources for future molecular studies of chalkbrood disease and ultimately improved disease management. PMID:22747707

  13. Transcriptome analysis of the honey bee fungal pathogen, Ascosphaera apis: implications for host pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cornman, R Scott; Bennett, Anna K; Murray, K Daniel; Evans, Jay D; Elsik, Christine G; Aronstein, Kate

    2012-06-29

    We present a comprehensive transcriptome analysis of the fungus Ascosphaera apis, an economically important pathogen of the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) that causes chalkbrood disease. Our goals were to further annotate the A. apis reference genome and to identify genes that are candidates for being differentially expressed during host infection versus axenic culture. We compared A. apis transcriptome sequence from mycelia grown on liquid or solid media with that dissected from host-infected tissue. 454 pyrosequencing provided 252 Mb of filtered sequence reads from both culture types that were assembled into 10,087 contigs. Transcript contigs, protein sequences from multiple fungal species, and ab initio gene predictions were included as evidence sources in the Maker gene prediction pipeline, resulting in 6,992 consensus gene models. A phylogeny based on 12 of these protein-coding loci further supported the taxonomic placement of Ascosphaera as sister to the core Onygenales. Several common protein domains were less abundant in A. apis compared with related ascomycete genomes, particularly cytochrome p450 and protein kinase domains. A novel gene family was identified that has expanded in some ascomycete lineages, but not others. We manually annotated genes with homologs in other fungal genomes that have known relevance to fungal virulence and life history. Functional categories of interest included genes involved in mating-type specification, intracellular signal transduction, and stress response. Computational and manual annotations have been made publicly available on the Bee Pests and Pathogens website. This comprehensive transcriptome analysis substantially enhances our understanding of the A. apis genome and its expression during infection of honey bee larvae. It also provides resources for future molecular studies of chalkbrood disease and ultimately improved disease management.

  14. Physicochemical characterisation and investigation of the bonding mechanisms of API-titanate nanotube composites as new drug carrier systems.

    PubMed

    Sipos, Barbara; Pintye-Hódi, Klára; Kónya, Zoltán; Kelemen, András; Regdon, Géza; Sovány, Tamás

    2017-02-25

    Titanate nanotube (TNT) has recently been explored as a new carrier material for active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). The aim of the present work was to reveal the physicochemical properties of API-TNT composites, focusing on the interactions between the TNTs and the incorporated APIs. Drugs belonging to different Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) classes were loaded into TNTs: diltiazem hydrochloride (BCS I.), diclofenac sodium (BCS II.), atenolol (BCS III.) and hydrochlorothiazide (BCS IV.). Experimental results demonstrated that it is feasible for spiral cross-sectioned titanate nanotubes to carry drugs and maintain their bioactivity. The structural properties of the composites were characterized by a range of analytical techniques, including FT-IR, DSC, TG-MS, etc. The interactions between APIs and TNTs were identified as electrostatic attractions, mainly dominated by hydrogen bonds. Based on the results, it can be stated that the strength of the association depends on the hydrogen donor strength of the API. The drug release of incorporated APIs was evaluated from compressed tablets and compared to that of pure APIs. Differences noticed in the dissolution profiles due to incorporation showed a correlation with the strength of interactions between the APIs and the TNTs observed in the above analytical studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Morphological, molecular, and phylogenetic characterization of Nosema cerana, a microsporidian parasite isolated from the European honey bee, Apis mellifera

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nosema ceranae, a microsporidian parasite originally described from Apis cerana, has been found to infect Apis melllifera and is highly pathogenic to its new host. In the present study, data on N. ceranae ultrastructure, host tissue tropism, secondary structures of ribosomal RNA, and phylogenetic ...

  16. A multiplex PCR assay for determination of mating type in isolates of the honey bee fungal pathogen, Ascosphaera apis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study we developed a multiplex PCR for identification of mating type idiomorphs in the filamentous fungus, Ascosphaera apis, the causative agent of chalkbrood disease in the honey bee (Apis melliffera). A combination of gene-specific primers was designed to amplify Mat1-1 and Mat1-2 gene fra...

  17. Myeloid-specific Expression of Api6/AIM/Spα Induces Systemic Inflammation and Adenocarcinoma in the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Peng; Du, Hong; Li, Yuan; Yan, Cong

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the functional role of apoptosis inhibition of myeloid lineage cells in tumor formation, apoptosis inhibitor 6 (Api6/AIM/Spα) was overexpressed in a myeloid-specific c-fms-rtTA/(TetO)7-CMV-Api6 bitransgenic mouse model under the control of the c-fms promoter/intron 2. In this bitransgenic system, Api6-Flag fusion protein was expressed in myeloid lineage cells after doxycycline treatment. Induction of Api6 abnormally elevated levels of macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells in the bone marrow, blood and lung in vivo. BrdU incorporation and Annexin V binding studies showed systemically-increased cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis in myeloid lineage cells. Api6 overexpression activated oncogenic signaling pathways including Stat3, Erk1/2 and p38 in myeloid lineage cells in multiple organs of the bitransgenic mice. In the lung, severe inflammation and massive tissue remodeling were observed in association with increased-expression of pro-cancer cytokines/chemokines, decreased-expression of pro-apoptosis molecule genes and increased-expression of matrix metalloproteinase genes as a result of Api6 overexpression. Oncogenic CD11b+/Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were systemically increased. After Api6 overexpression, lung adenocarcinoma was observed in bitransgenic mice with a 35% incidence rate. These studies suggest that dysregulation of myeloid cell populations by extracellular Api6 signaling leads to abnormal myelopoiesis and lung cancer. PMID:19155514

  18. There-apy: The Use of Task, Imagery, and Symbolism To Connect the Inner and Outer Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstein-Naveh, A. Rosa

    2001-01-01

    Presents a model of therapy called there-apy, which weaves together the use of task, symbolism, and imagery into an ongoing process. Concrete tasks take on symbolic meaning, and symbolism gets actualized through achieving concrete tasks. There-apy connects the individual's outside and inside worlds and often involves the partner or family in the…

  19. Efficacy of API 20C and ID 32C Systems for Identification of Common and Rare Clinical Yeast Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, Rama; Gromadzki, Sally; Pincus, David H.; Salkin, Ira F.; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    1998-01-01

    The abilities of the API 20C and ID 32C yeast identification systems to identify 123 common and 120 rare clinical yeast isolates were compared. API 20C facilitated correct identification of 97% common and 88% rare isolates while ID 32C facilitated correct identification of 92% common and 85% rare isolates. PMID:9774605

  20. Evaluation of the API 20C yeast identification system for the differentiation of some dematiaceous fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; McGinnis, M R; Pincus, D H; Goldson, P R; Kerkering, T M

    1989-01-01

    Ninety-seven isolates of Cladosporium spp., Exophiala spp., Fonsecaea spp., Lecythophora hoffmannii, Phaeoannellomyces werneckii, Phialophora spp., Wangiella dermatitidis, and Xylohypha bantiana were used to evaluate the API 20C Yeast Identification System for the differentiation of dematiaceous fungi. Using the API 20C system, we were able to distinguish most species of Phialophora and Cladosporium and to separate L. hoffmannii from the species of Phialophora tested; X. bantiana from C. carrionii, C. resinae, and C. sphaerospermum; and W. dermatitidis from Exophiala jeanselmei and Exophiala spinifera. Ninety-two (60.1%) of 153 possible species-pair combinations were separated. PMID:2808678

  1. The role of pollen in chalkbrood disease in Apis mellifera: transmission and predisposing conditions.

    PubMed

    Flores, J M; Gutiérrez, I; Espejo, R

    2005-01-01

    Chalkbrood in honeybees (Apis mellifera L. Himenoptera: Apidae) is a fungal disease caused by Ascosphaera apis (Maassen ex Claussen) Olive and Spiltoir. This disease requires the presence of fungal spores and a predisposing condition in the susceptible brood for the disease to develop. In this study we examined the role of pollen in the development of chalkbrood disease under two experimental conditions: (i) pollen combs were transferred from infected to uninfected beehives and (ii) colonies were deprived of adequate pollen supplies to feed the brood. The results of both treatments confirmed that pollen is an element that should be taken into account when controlling this honeybee disease.

  2. Develop 3G Application with The J2ME SATSA API

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    JunWu, Xu; JunLing, Liang

    This paper describes research in the use of the Security and Trust Services API for J2ME (SATSA) to develop mobile applications. for 3G networks. SATSA defines a set of APIs that allows J2ME applications to communicate with and access functionality, secure storage and cryptographic operations provided by security elements such as smart cards and Wireless Identification Modules (WIM). A Java Card application could also work as an authentication module in a J2ME-based e-bank application. The e-bank application would allow its users to access their bank accounts using their cell phones.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Indian honey bee, Apis cerena cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apinae).

    PubMed

    Chhakchhuak, Liansangmawii; De Mandal, Surajit; Sanga, Zothan; Lalnunmawii, Esther; Lalhruaitluanga, H; Guruswami, Gurusubramanian; Sudalaimuthu, Naganeeswaran; Gopalakrishnan, Chellappa; Mugasimangalam, Raja C; Nachimuthu, Senthil Kumar

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitogenome of Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apinae) was sequenced using Illumina NextSeq500 platform and found to be 15 831 bp long. The mitogenome contains 37 genes (13 PCGs, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs) and a control region. The base composition is biased towards A-T (83.9%). The control region is 498 bp long with polyT stretch and poly [TA (A)]n-like stretch. The phylogenetic tree constructed using concatenated PCGs showed that A. cerana cerana clustered with other cavity nesting Apis species.

  4. Testing of the structure of macromolecular polymer films containing solid active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bölcskei, É.; Süvegh, K.; Marek, T.; Regdon, G.; Pintye-Hódi, K.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure of free films of Eudragit ® L 30D-55 containing different concentrations (0%, 1% or 5%) of diclofenac sodium by positron annihilation spectroscopy. The data revealed that the size of the free-volume holes and the lifetimes of ortho-positronium atoms decreased with increase of the API concentration. Films containing 5% of the API exhibited a different behavior during storage (17 °C, 65% relative humidity (RH)) in consequence of the uptake of water from the air.

  5. Caracterisation thermique de modules de refroidissement pour la photovoltaique concentree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, Louis-Michel

    Pour rentabiliser la technologie des cellules solaires, une reduction du cout d'exploitation et de fabrication est necessaire. L'utilisation de materiaux photovoltaiques a un impact appreciable sur le prix final par quantite d'energie produite. Une technologie en developpement consiste a concentrer la lumiere sur les cellules solaires afin de reduire cette quantite de materiaux. Or, concentrer la lumiere augmente la temperature de la cellule et diminue ainsi son efficacite. Il faut donc assurer a la cellule un refroidissement efficace. La charge thermique a evacuer de la cellule passe au travers du recepteur, soit la composante soutenant physiquement la cellule. Le recepteur transmet le flux thermique de la cellule a un systeme de refroidissement. L'ensemble recepteur-systeme de refroidissement se nomme module de refroidissement. Habituellement, la surface du recepteur est plus grande que celle de la cellule. La chaleur se propage donc lateralement dans le recepteur au fur et a mesure qu'elle traverse le recepteur. Une telle propagation de la chaleur fournit une plus grande surface effective, reduisant la resistance thermique apparente des interfaces thermiques et du systeme de refroidissement en aval vers le module de refroidissement. Actuellement, aucune installation ni methode ne semble exister afin de caracteriser les performances thermiques des recepteurs. Ce projet traite d'une nouvelle technique de caracterisation pour definir la diffusion thermique du recepteur a l'interieur d'un module de refroidissement. Des indices de performance sont issus de resistances thermiques mesurees experimentalement sur les modules. Une plateforme de caracterisation est realisee afin de mesurer experimentalement les criteres de performance. Cette plateforme injecte un flux thermique controle sur une zone localisee de la surface superieure du recepteur. L'injection de chaleur remplace le flux thermique normalement fourni par la cellule. Un systeme de refroidissement est installe

  6. Soft drink "pouring rights": marketing empty calories to children.

    PubMed

    Nestle, M

    2000-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 objectives call for meals and snacks served in schools to contribute to overall diets that meet federal dietary guidelines. Sales in schools of foods and drinks high in calories and low in nutrients undermine this health objective, as well as participation in the more nutritious, federally sponsored, school lunch programs. Competitive foods also undermine nutrition information taught in the classroom. Lucrative contracts between school districts and soft drink companies for exclusive rights to sell one brand are the latest development in the increasing commercialization of school food. These contracts, intended to elicit brand loyalty among young children who have a lifetime of purchases ahead of them, are especially questionable because they place schools in the position of "pushing" soft drink consumption. "Pouring rights" contracts deserve attention from public health professionals concerned about the nutritional quality of children's diets.

  7. Passeport pour les deux infinis: an educational project in French

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, Nicolas; Descotes-Genon, Sébastien; Kerhoas-Cavata, Sophie; Paul, Jacques; Robert-Esil, Jean-Luc; Royole-Degieux, Perrine

    2016-04-01

    Passeport pour les deux infinis (;Passport for the two infinities;, in short Pass2i) is a French educational project aiming at promoting the physics of the infinitely small (particle physics) and of the infinitely big (cosmology & astrophysics) to high-school teachers and students. It is managed since 2009 by a small team of outreach experts (physicists and engineers) from the CNRS and the CEA. The Pass2i cornerstone is a reversible book - where each side explores one of the two infinities - and which is given for free to science high school teachers who request it, thanks to the support of French funding agencies. The Pass2i non-profit association wants to be a bridge between science and education: training sessions are organized for teachers, educational resources created and made available for download on the Pass2i website (http://www.passeport2i.fr).

  8. VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER STATION IN THE CASTING SHOP. (OTHER UNITS MELT BRASS ALLOYS.) THIS IS THE SOUTHERNMOST FURNACE OF THE FOUR PRESENTLY IN SITU. THE CURRENT CASTING SHOP WAS CONSTRUCTED DURING THE EARLY 1970'S, REPLACING THE ORIGINAL PRE-WWI FACILITY. STATIONS #02, 03, AND 04 EACH CONSIST OF A HOLDER FLANKED BY A PAIR OF 800 KW ELECTRIC MELTERS. THE HOLDER IS REHEATED AT 85,000 LBS. SHAKER BOX, LOCATED AT THE REAR OF EACH MELTER SUPPLY THE MIXTURE OF INGREDIENTS REQUIRED FOR EACH PARTICULAR ALLOY. ONE MEMBER OF THE THREE-MAN CASTING TEAMS IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SHAKING METAL INTO THE MELTERS. IN THE LOWER RIGHT ARE SHOWN THE MOLD STORAGE AREA AND THE FURNACE BUILDERS' AREA FOR CHIPPING AND REBRICKING OFF-LINE UNITS. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  9. VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE #67 HOLDING FURNACE POURING AT #04 COPPER STATION IN THE CASTING SHOP. (OTHER UNITS MELT BRASS ALLOYS.) THIS IS THE SOUTHERNMOST FURNACE OF THE FOUR PRESENTLY IN SITU. THE CURRENT CASTING SHOP WAS CONSTRUCTED DURING THE EARLY 1970'S, REPLACING THE ORIGINAL PRE-WWI FACILITY. STATIONS #02,03, AND 04 EACH CONSIST OF A HOLDER FLANKED BY A PAIR OF 800 KW ELECTRIC MELTERS. THE HOLDER IS RATED AT 85,000 LBS. SHAKER BOXES, LOCATED AT THE REAR OF EACH MELTER SUPPLY THE MIXTURE OF INGREDIENTS REQUIRED FOR EACH PARTICULAR ALLOY. ONE MEMBER OF THE THREE-MAN CASTING TEAMS IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SHAKING METAL INTO THE MELTERS. IN THE LOWER RIGHT ARE SHOWN THE MOLD STORAGE AREA AND THE FURNACE BUILDERS' AREA FOR CHIPPING AND REBRICKING OFF-LINE UNITS. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  10. An example of how to handle amorphous fractions in API during early pharmaceutical development: SAR114137--a successful approach.

    PubMed

    Petzoldt, Christine; Bley, Oliver; Byard, Stephen J; Andert, Doris; Baumgartner, Bruno; Nagel, Norbert; Tappertzhofen, Christoph; Feth, Martin Philipp

    2014-04-01

    The so-called pharmaceutical solid chain, which encompasses drug substance micronisation to the final tablet production, at pilot plant scale is presented as a case study for a novel, highly potent, pharmaceutical compound: SAR114137. Various solid-state analytical methods, such as solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Dynamic Water Vapour Sorption Gravimetry (DWVSG), hot-stage Raman spectroscopy and X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) were applied and evaluated to characterise and quantify amorphous content during the course of the physical treatment of crystalline active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). DSC was successfully used to monitor the changes in amorphous content during micronisation of the API, as well as during stability studies. (19)F solid-state NMR was found to be the method of choice for the detection and quantification of low levels of amorphous API, even in the final drug product (DP), since compaction during tablet manufacture was identified as a further source for the formation of amorphous API. The application of different jet milling techniques was a critical factor with respect to amorphous content formation. In the present case, the change from spiral jet milling to loop jet milling led to a decrease in amorphous API content from 20-30 w/w% to nearly 0 w/w% respectively. The use of loop jet milling also improved the processability of the API. Stability investigations on both the milled API and the DP showed a marked tendency for recrystallisation of the amorphous API content on exposure to elevated levels of relative humidity. No significant impact of amorphous API on either the chemical stability or the dissolution rate of the API in drug formulation was observed. Therefore, the presence of amorphous content in the oral formulation was of no consequence for the clinical trial phases I and II. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against the honeybee pathogens, Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis and their topical toxicity to Apis mellifera adults.

    PubMed

    Chaimanee, Veeranan; Thongtue, Ubonwan; Sornmai, Nantaporn; Songsri, Sineenard; Pettis, Jeffery S

    2017-09-04

    To explore alternative non-chemical control measures against two honeybee pathogens, Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis, thirty-seven plant species were screened for antimicrobial activity. The activity of selected plant extracts was screened using a in vitro disk diffusion assay and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the broth microdilution method. The results showed that thirty-six plant extracts had some antibacterial activity on P. larvae by disk diffusion assay. Chromolaena odorata showed the greatest antibacterial activity against P. larvae (MIC 16-64 μg/ml). Out of 37 tested plants, only seven species, Amomum krervanh, Allium sativum, Cinnamomum spp., Piper betle, Piper ribesioides, Piper sarmentosum and Syzygium aromaticum had inhibitory effects on A. apis (MICs of 32-64 μg/ml). The results demonstrated that promising plant extracts were not toxic to adult bees at the concentrations used in this study. The results demonstrate the potential antimicrobial activity of natural products against honeybee diseases caused by P. larvae and A. apis. Chromolaena odorata in particular showed high bioactivity against P. larvae. Further study is recommended to develop these non-chemical treatments against American foulbrood and chalkbrood in honeybees. This work proposes new natural products for the control of American foulbrood and chalkbrood in honeybees. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. rApi m 3 and rApi m 10 improve detection of honey bee sensitization in Hymenoptera venom-allergic patients with double sensitization to honey bee and yellow jacket venom.

    PubMed

    Frick, M; Müller, S; Bantleon, F; Huss-Marp, J; Lidholm, J; Spillner, E; Jakob, T

    2015-12-01

    Recombinant allergens improve the diagnostic precision in Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA), in particular in patients with double sensitization to both honey bee (HBV) and yellow jacket venom (YJV). While currently available vespid allergens allow the detection of >95% of YJV-allergic patients, the sensitization frequency to the only available HBV marker allergen rApi m 1 in HBV-allergic patients is lower. Here, we demonstrate that sIgE to additional HBV marker allergens rApi m 3 and rApi m 10 allows the detection of genuine HBV sensitization in 46-65% of Api m 1 negative sera. This is of particular relevance in patients with double sensitization to HBV and YJV that did not identify the culprit insect. Addition of sIgE to rApi m 3 and rApi m 10 provides evidence of HBV sensitization in a large proportion of rApi m 1-negative patients and thus provides a diagnostic marker and rationale for VIT treatment with HBV, which otherwise would have been missing.

  13. Young and old honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae differentially prime the developmental maturation of their caregivers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In eusocial insects daughters rear the offspring of the queen to adulthood. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, nurses differentially regulate larval nutrition. Among worker-destined larvae, younger instars receive an unrestricted diet paralleling that of queen larvae in protein composition but with r...

  14. Evaluation of Apis mellifera syriaca Levant Region honeybee conservation using Comparative Genome Hybridization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apis mellifera syriaca is the native honeybee subspecies of Jordan and much of the Levant Region. It expresses behavioral adaptations to a regional climate with very high temperatures, nectar dearth in summer, attacks of the Oriental wasp and is resistant to Varroa mites. The A. m. syriaca control r...

  15. An abbreviated SNP panel for ancestry assignment of honeybees (Apis mellifera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper examines whether an abbreviated panel of 37 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has the same power as a larger and more expensive panel of 95 SNPs to assign ancestry of honeybees (Apis mellifera) to three ancestral lineages. We selected 37 SNPs from the original 95 SNP panel using alle...

  16. The prevalence of parasites and pathogens in Asian honeybees, Apis cerana, in China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pathogens and parasites threaten the health and well-being of honeybees, key pollinators of agricultural crops and flowers worldwide. We conducted a nationwide survey to determine the occurrence and prevalence of pathogens and parasites in Chinese populations of the Asian honeybee species, Apis cer...

  17. Involvement of Phosphorylated "Apis Mellifera" CREB in Gating a Honeybee's Behavioral Response to an External Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, Katrin B.; Heufelder, Karin; Feige, Janina; Bauer, Paul; Dyck, Yan; Ehrhardt, Lea; Kühnemund, Johannes; Bergmann, Anja; Göbel, Josefine; Isecke, Marlene; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) is involved in neuronal plasticity. Phosphorylation activates CREB and an increased level of phosphorylated CREB is regarded as an indicator of CREB-dependent transcriptional activation. In honeybees ("Apis mellifera") we recently demonstrated a particular high…

  18. Transcriptional markers of sub-optimal nutrition in developing young Apis mellifera nurse workers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) contribute substantially to the worldwide economy and ecosystem health as pollinators. Pollen is essential to the bee’s diet, providing protein, lipids, and micronutrients. The dramatic shifts in physiology, anatomy, and behavior that accompany normal worker development a...

  19. Tagged Neutron Source for API Inspection Systems with Greatly Enhanced Spatial Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    2012-06-04

    We recently developed induced fission and transmission imaging methods with time- and directionally-tagged neutrons offer new capabilities for characterization of fissile material configurations and enhanced detection of special nuclear materials (SNM). An Advanced Associated Particle Imaging (API) generator with higher angular resolution and neutron yield than existing systems is needed to fully exploit these methods.

  20. Microsatellite loci for the fungus, Ascosphaera apis, cause of honey bee chalkbrood disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fungus Ascosphaera apis (Ascomycota:Ascosphaeriaceae) is a worldwide fungal pathogen of honey bees. To provide tools for understanding the dispersal history of this pathogen, strain differences in virulence, and host-pathogen interactions, we developed and tested microsatellite loci for this sp...

  1. Responses of Varroa-resistant honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to Deformed wing virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The negative impact of Deformedwing virus (DWV) on European honey bees Apis mellifera is magnified by Varroa destructor parasitism. This study compared the responses of two Varroa-resistant honey bee stocks, pure Russian honey bees (RHB) and out-crossed Varroa Sensitive Hygienic bees, Pol-line (POL)...

  2. Synergistic effects of non-Apis bees and honey bees for pollination services.

    PubMed

    Brittain, Claire; Williams, Neal; Kremen, Claire; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2013-03-07

    In diverse pollinator communities, interspecific interactions may modify the behaviour and increase the pollination effectiveness of individual species. Because agricultural production reliant on pollination is growing, improving pollination effectiveness could increase crop yield without any increase in agricultural intensity or area. In California almond, a crop highly dependent on honey bee pollination, we explored the foraging behaviour and pollination effectiveness of honey bees in orchards with simple (honey bee only) and diverse (non-Apis bees present) bee communities. In orchards with non-Apis bees, the foraging behaviour of honey bees changed and the pollination effectiveness of a single honey bee visit was greater than in orchards where non-Apis bees were absent. This change translated to a greater proportion of fruit set in these orchards. Our field experiments show that increased pollinator diversity can synergistically increase pollination service, through species interactions that alter the behaviour and resulting functional quality of a dominant pollinator species. These results of functional synergy between species were supported by an additional controlled cage experiment with Osmia lignaria and Apis mellifera. Our findings highlight a largely unexplored facilitative component of the benefit of biodiversity to ecosystem services, and represent a way to improve pollinator-dependent crop yields in a sustainable manner.

  3. Responses of Varroa-resistant honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to Deformed Wing Virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The impact of Deformed wing virus (DWV) on Apis mellifera is magnified by Varroa destructor parasitism. This study compared the responses of two Varroa-resistant honey bee stocks [Russian honey bees (RHB) and an outcross of Varroa Sensitive Hygienic bees (POL)] to DWV infection to that of Italian ho...

  4. Concurrent infestations by Aethina tumida and Varroa destructor alters thermoregulation in Apis mellifera winter clusters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, and the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, are parasites of the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Both parasites overwinter in honeybee colonies. The efficacy of thermoregulation might be reduced in beetle and mite infested clusters, due to altered activity of host...

  5. Does Year Round Schooling Affect the Outcome and Growth of California's API Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Amery D.; Stone, Jake E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined whether year round schooling (YRS) in California had an effect upon the outcome and growth of schools' Academic Performance Index (API) scores. While many previous studies had examined the connection between YRS and academic achievement, most had lacked the statistical rigour required to provide reliable interpretations. As a…

  6. An Auto-Configuration System for the GMSEC Architecture and API

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moholt, Joseph; Mayorga, Arturo

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on an automated configuration concept for The Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) architecture and Application Program Interface (API) is shown. The topics include: 1) The Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC); 2) Automated Configuration Concept; 3) Implementation Approach; and 4) Key Components and Benefits.

  7. Permanent prevalence of Nosema ceranae in honey bees (Apis mellifera) in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Csáki, Tamás; Heltai, Miklós; Markolt, Ferenc; Kovács, Balázs; Békési, László; Ladányi, Márta; Péntek-Zakar, Erika; Meana, Aránzazu; Botías, Cristina; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Higes, Mariano

    2015-09-01

    Nosema ceranae is present in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies worldwide. Studies on the comparative virulence of N. ceranae and N. apis showed significant differences in individual mortality, and the prevalence of N. ceranae seems to be predominant in both the continental and the Mediterranean climate regions. This study attempted to monitor the geographical and seasonal distribution of these two Nosema species in Hungary, using a simple laboratory method. The distribution of N. ceranae and N. apis infection rates along all seasons was homogeneous (P = 0.57). In co-infected samples, the intensity of N. ceranae infection was always significantly higher than that of N. apis infection (P < 0.001). The infection rate of infected bees in exterior samples was higher than in interior samples in each season; however, the differences were not statistically significant. The species N. ceranae had been present in Hungary already in 2004. Statistical analysis of data shows that the infection level is best represented by sampling exterior bees to establish the proportion of infected bees rather than by determining the mean spore count.

  8. The Earth Observatory Natural Event Tracker (EONET): An API for Matching Natural Events to GIBS Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, K.

    2015-12-01

    Hidden within the terabytes of imagery in NASA's Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) collection are hundreds of daily natural events. Some events are newsworthy, devastating, and visibly obvious at a global scale, others are merely regional curiosities. Regardless of the scope and significance of any one event, it is likely that multiple GIBS layers can be viewed to provide a multispectral, dataset-based view of the event. To facilitate linking between the discrete event and the representative dataset imagery, NASA's Earth Observatory Group has developed a prototype application programming interface (API): the Earth Observatory Natural Event Tracker (EONET). EONET supports an API model that allows users to retrieve event-specific metadata--date/time, location, and type (wildfire, storm, etc.)--and web service layer-specific metadata which can be used to link to event-relevant dataset imagery in GIBS. GIBS' ability to ingest many near real time datasets, combined with its growing archive of past imagery, means that API users will be able to develop client applications that not only show ongoing events but can also look at imagery from before and after. In our poster, we will present the API and show examples of its use.

  9. Polymorphic DNA sequences of the fungal honey bee pathogen Asosphaera apis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pathogenic fungus Ascosphaera apis is ubiquitous in honey bee populations. We used the draft genome assembly of this pathogen to search for polymorphic intergenic loci. Primers were designed for five different loci and tested against a panel of closely related species. Subsequently, sequence var...

  10. Gas chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (GC-API-MS): review.

    PubMed

    Li, Du-Xin; Gan, Lin; Bronja, Amela; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2015-09-03

    Although the coupling of GC/MS with atmospheric pressure ionization (API) has been reported in 1970s, the interest in coupling GC with atmospheric pressure ion source was expanded in the last decade. The demand of a "soft" ion source for preserving highly diagnostic molecular ion is desirable, as compared to the "hard" ionization technique such as electron ionization (EI) in traditional GC/MS, which fragments the molecule in an extensive way. These API sources include atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI), electrospray ionization (ESI) and low temperature plasma (LTP). This review discusses the advantages and drawbacks of this analytical platform. After an introduction in atmospheric pressure ionization the review gives an overview about the history and explains the mechanisms of various atmospheric pressure ionization techniques used in combination with GC such as APCI, APPI, APLI, ESI and LTP. Also new developments made in ion source geometry, ion source miniaturization and multipurpose ion source constructions are discussed and a comparison between GC-FID, GC-EI-MS and GC-API-MS shows the advantages and drawbacks of these techniques. The review ends with an overview of applications realized with GC-API-MS.

  11. Reliability of the Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) Scoring System for the Bender Gestalt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aucone, Ernest J.; Raphael, Alan J.; Golden, Charles J.; Espe-Pfeifer, Patricia; Seldon, Jen; Pospisil, Tanya; Dornheim, Liane; Proctor-Weber, Zoe; Calabria, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Assessed the interrater reliability of the revised Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) (A. Raphael and C. Golden, 1998) scoring system for the Bender Gestalt Test (L. Bender, 1938). Agreement across nine raters exceeded 90% for each of three clinical protocols, and kappa statistics indicated good interrater reliability. (SLD)

  12. Continuous API-crystal coating via coacervation in a tubular reactor.

    PubMed

    Besenhard, M O; Thurnberger, A; Hohl, R; Faulhammer, E; Rattenberger, J; Khinast, J G

    2014-11-20

    We present a proof-of-concept study of a continuous coating process of single API crystals in a tubular reactor using coacervation as a microencapsulation technique. Continuous API crystal coating can have several advantages, as in a single step (following crystallization) individual crystals can be prepared with a functional coating, either to change the release behavior, to protect the API from gastric juice or to modify the surface energetics of the API (i.e., to tailor the hydrophobic/hydrophilic characteristics, flowability or agglomeration tendency, etc.). The coating process was developed for the microencapsulation of a lipophilic core material (ibuprofen crystals of 20 μm- to 100 μm-size), with either hypromellose phthalate (HPMCP) or Eudragit L100-55. The core material was suspended in an aqueous solution containing one of these enteric polymers, fed into the tubing and mixed continuously with a sodium sulfate solution as an antisolvent to induce coacervation. A subsequent temperature treatment was applied to optimize the microencapsulation of crystals via the polymer-rich coacervate phase. Cross-linking of the coating shell was achieved by mixing the processed material with an acidic solution (pH<3). Flow rates, temperature profiles and polymer-to-antisolvent ratios had to be tightly controlled to avoid excessive aggregation, leading to pipe plugging. This work demonstrates the potential of a tubular reactor design for continuous coating applications and is the basis for future work, combining continuous crystallization and coating.

  13. A method for distinctly marking honey bees, Apis mellifera originating from multiple apiary locations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inexpensive and non-intrusive marking methods are essential to track natural behavior of insects for biological experiments. An inexpensive, easy to construct, and easy to install bee marking device is described. The device is mounted at the entrance of a standard honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymen...

  14. Synergistic effects of non-Apis bees and honey bees for pollination services

    PubMed Central

    Brittain, Claire; Williams, Neal; Kremen, Claire; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2013-01-01

    In diverse pollinator communities, interspecific interactions may modify the behaviour and increase the pollination effectiveness of individual species. Because agricultural production reliant on pollination is growing, improving pollination effectiveness could increase crop yield without any increase in agricultural intensity or area. In California almond, a crop highly dependent on honey bee pollination, we explored the foraging behaviour and pollination effectiveness of honey bees in orchards with simple (honey bee only) and diverse (non-Apis bees present) bee communities. In orchards with non-Apis bees, the foraging behaviour of honey bees changed and the pollination effectiveness of a single honey bee visit was greater than in orchards where non-Apis bees were absent. This change translated to a greater proportion of fruit set in these orchards. Our field experiments show that increased pollinator diversity can synergistically increase pollination service, through species interactions that alter the behaviour and resulting functional quality of a dominant pollinator species. These results of functional synergy between species were supported by an additional controlled cage experiment with Osmia lignaria and Apis mellifera. Our findings highlight a largely unexplored facilitative component of the benefit of biodiversity to ecosystem services, and represent a way to improve pollinator-dependent crop yields in a sustainable manner. PMID:23303545

  15. Nosema ceranae spore loads may not provide a good indicator of Apis mellifera health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nosema ceranae, a microsporidia parasite recently transferred from Asian honey bees Apis cerana to European honey bees A. mellifera, has been suspected to be one of the major culprits of the worldwide honey bee colony losses. Spore load is a commonly used criterion to describe the intensity of Nosem...

  16. Effects of Extreme Dilutions of Apis mellifica Preparations on Gene Expression Profiles of Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bigagli, Elisabetta; Luceri, Cristina; Bernardini, Simonetta; Dolara, Piero

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression analysis has been employed in the past to test the effects of high dilutions on cell systems. However, most of the previous studies were restricted to the investigation of few dilutions, making it difficult to explore underlying mechanisms of action. Using whole-genome transcriptomic analysis, we investigated the effects of a wide range of Apis mellifica dilutions on gene expression profiles of human cells. RWPE-1 cells, a nonneoplastic adult human epithelial prostate cell line, were exposed to Apis mellifica preparations (3C, 5C, 7C, 9C, 12C, 15C, and 30C) or to the reference solvent solutions for 24 hours; nonexposed cells were also checked for gene expression variations. Our results showed that even the most diluted solutions retained the ability to trigger significant variations in gene expression. Gene pathway analysis revealed consistent variations in gene expression induced by Apis mellifica when compared to nonexposed reference cells but not to reference solvent solutions. Since the effects of Apis Mellifica at extreme dilutions did not show dose–effect relationships, the biological or functional interpretation of these results remains uncertain. PMID:26788033

  17. APIES: a mission for the exploration of the main asteroid belt using a swarm of microspacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arrigo, P.; Santandrea, S.

    2003-11-01

    APIES (Asteroid Population Investigation & Exploration Swarm) is a mission developed by EADS Astrium in response to the European Space Agency (ESA) recent Invitation to Tender for "swarm" missions, based on the utilisation of a large number of spacecraft working cooperatively to achieve the mission objectives. APIES, currently in its Feasibility Study Phase, is intended to be the first interplanetary swarm mission, designed to explore the asteroid main belt. This is one of the least known parts of the Solar System, yet holding vital information about its evolution and planet formation. APIES aims to characterize a statistically significant sample of asteroids, exploring the main belt in great detail, measuring mass & density and imaging over 100 of these objects, at a stroke more than doubling the number of Solar System bodies visited by man-made spacecraft. Using the latest advances in systems miniaturization, propulsion, onboard autonomy and communications, the APIES mission can achieve these ambitious goals within the framework of a standard ESA mission. The currently ongoing Mission Feasibility Study is part of the General Studies Programme (GSP) of ESA, whose purpose is to evaluate novel missions, concepts, methods, and to identify their research and development needs beyond the programmes currently running.

  18. Reliability of the Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) Scoring System for the Bender Gestalt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aucone, Ernest J.; Raphael, Alan J.; Golden, Charles J.; Espe-Pfeifer, Patricia; Seldon, Jen; Pospisil, Tanya; Dornheim, Liane; Proctor-Weber, Zoe; Calabria, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Assessed the interrater reliability of the revised Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) (A. Raphael and C. Golden, 1998) scoring system for the Bender Gestalt Test (L. Bender, 1938). Agreement across nine raters exceeded 90% for each of three clinical protocols, and kappa statistics indicated good interrater reliability. (SLD)

  19. Ovariole number and ovary activation of Russian honeybee workers (Apis mellifera L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although functionally sterile under normal hive conditions, honeybee workers retain small ovaries. The size of the worker ovaries varies considerably within Apis mellifera and has been linked to individual reproduction and various aspects of social behavior. Here, we report the ovary size of workers...

  20. Foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera, in alfalfa seed production fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted in 2006 and 2007 designed to examine the foraging range of honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in a 15.2 km2 area dominated by a 128.9 ha glyphosate-resistant Roundup Ready® alfalfa seed production field and several non-Roundup Ready seed production fields (totalin...

  1. Characterization of gut bacteria at different developmental stages of Asian honey bees, Apis cerana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous surveys have shown that adult workers of the Asian honey bee Apis cerana harbor four major gut microbes (Bifidobacterium, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, and Lactobacillus). Using quantitative PCR we characterized gut bacterial communities across the life cycle of A. cerana from la...

  2. The development of a short route to the API ropinirole hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Yousuf, Zeshan; Richards, Andrew K; Dwyer, Andrew N; Linclau, Bruno; Harrowven, David C

    2015-11-14

    A four-step, three-stage synthesis of the API ropinirole hydrochloride has been developed from a commercially available naphthalene derivative. The new route has half the step-count and twice the overall yield of the current manufacturing process. Key features of the synthesis are a regioselective Birch reduction and an ozonolysis with concomitant ring closure to induce the required ring contraction.

  3. Identification of clinical yeasts by Vitek MS system compared with API ID 32 C.

    PubMed

    Durán-Valle, M Teresa; Sanz-Rodríguez, Nuria; Muñoz-Paraíso, Carmen; Almagro-Moltó, María; Gómez-Garcés, José Luis

    2014-05-01

    We performed a clinical evaluation of the Vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system with the commercial database version 2.0 for rapid identification of medically important yeasts as compared with the conventional phenotypic method API ID 32 C. We tested 161 clinical isolates, nine isolates from culture collections and five reference strains. In case of discrepant results or no identification with one or both methods, molecular identification techniques were employed. Concordance between both methods was observed with 160/175 isolates (91.42%) and misidentifications by both systems occurred only when taxa were not included in the respective databases, i.e., one isolate of Candida etchellsii was identified as C. globosa by Vitek MS and two isolates of C. orthopsilosis were identified as C. parapsilosis by API ID 32 C. Vitek MS could not identify nine strains (5.14%) and API ID 32 C did not identify 13 (7.42%). Vitek MS was more reliable than API ID 32 C and reduced the time required for the identification of clinical isolates to only a few minutes.

  4. Involvement of Phosphorylated "Apis Mellifera" CREB in Gating a Honeybee's Behavioral Response to an External Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, Katrin B.; Heufelder, Karin; Feige, Janina; Bauer, Paul; Dyck, Yan; Ehrhardt, Lea; Kühnemund, Johannes; Bergmann, Anja; Göbel, Josefine; Isecke, Marlene; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) is involved in neuronal plasticity. Phosphorylation activates CREB and an increased level of phosphorylated CREB is regarded as an indicator of CREB-dependent transcriptional activation. In honeybees ("Apis mellifera") we recently demonstrated a particular high…

  5. The synergistic effects of almond protection fungicides on honey bee (Apis mellifera) forager survival

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The honey bee (Apis mellifera) contributes approximately $17 billion annually in pollination services performed for major agricultural crops in the United States including almond, which is completely dependent on honey bee pollination for nut set. Almond growers face challenges to crop productivity ...

  6. Dispersibility of lactose fines as compared to API in dry powders for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Thalberg, Kyrre; Åslund, Simon; Skogevall, Marcus; Andersson, Patrik

    2016-05-17

    This work investigates the dispersion performance of fine lactose particles as function of processing time, and compares it to the API, using Beclomethasone Dipropionate (BDP) as model API. The total load of fine particles is kept constant in the formulations while the proportions of API and lactose fines are varied. Fine particle assessment demonstrates that the lactose fines have higher dispersibility than the API. For standard formulations, processing time has a limited effect on the Fine Particle Fraction (FPF). For formulations containing magnesium stearate (MgSt), FPF of BDP is heavily influenced by processing time, with an initial increase, followed by a decrease at longer mixing times. An equation modeling the observed behavior is presented. Surprisingly, the dispersibility of the lactose fines present in the same formulation remains unaffected by mixing time. Magnesium analysis demonstrates that MgSt is transferred to the fine particles during the mixing process, thus lubrication both BDP and lactose fines, which leads to an increased FPF. Dry particle sizing of the formulations reveals a loss of fine particles at longer mixing times. Incorporation of fine particles into the carrier surfaces is believed to be behind this, and is hence a mechanism of importance as regards the dispersion performance of dry powders for inhalation.

  7. Asymmetrical Coexistence of Nosema ceranae and N. apis in Honey Bees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Globalization has provided opportunities for parasites/pathogens to cross geographic boundaries and expand to new hosts. Recent studies showed that Nosema ceranae, originally considered as a microsporidian parasite of Eastern honey bees, Apis ceranae, was the disease agent of Nosemosis in European ...

  8. Genetic diversity of the Dwarf honeybee (Apis florea Fabricius, 1787) populations based on microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Asadi, N; Rahimi, A; Ghaheri, M; Kahrizi, D; Bagheri Dehbaghi, M; Khederzadeh, S; Banabazi, M H; Esmaeilkhanian, S; Veisi, B; Geravandi, M; Karim, H; Vaziri, S; Daneshgar, F; Zargooshi, J

    2016-10-31

    Apis florea is one of two species of small, wild honeybee. The present study was conducted to evaluate the genetic diversity of Apis florea honeybee from 48 nests (colonies) using microsatellite markers in the South of Iran. All honeybee samples were analyzed for six microsatellite loci (A88, A107, A7, B124, A113 and A35). The six loci had different numbers of alleles in the sampled colonies ranging from 7 (loci A107) to 3 (loci A7, A35). Gene diversity in Apis florea ranged from 0.491 to 0.595. This range probably reflects the spreading of nests in a large region with a varied climate. Phylogenetic tree showed two distinct clusters including a) Minab region samples and b) Bandar Abbas, Bandar Khamir and Qeshm Island regions. All of these regions are geographically rich, having varied vegetation and climate conditions. Our findings are an important contribution to the methods of studying distribution and conservation of Apis florea.

  9. Differential expression of immune genes of adult honey bee (Apis mellifera) after inoculated by Nosema ceranae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nosema ceranae is a microsporidium parasite infecting adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) and is known to have affects at both the individual and colony level. In this study, the expression levels were measured for four antimicrobial peptide encoding genes that are associated with bee humoral immunity...

  10. Interactions of tropilaelaps mercedesae, honey bee viruses, and immune response in Apis mellifera

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tropilaelaps mites are the major health threat to Apis mellifera colonies in Asia because of their widespread occurrence, rapid population growth and potential ability to transfer bee viruses. Honey bee immune responses in the presence of feeding mites may occur in response to mite feeding, to the ...

  11. A quality by design (QbD) case study on liposomes containing hydrophilic API: II. Screening of critical variables, and establishment of design space at laboratory scale.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoming; Khan, Mansoor A; Burgess, Diane J

    2012-02-28

    Two statistical designs were used in this case study as part of an investigation into the feasibility and the advantages of applying QbD concepts to liposome-based complex parenteral controlled release systems containing a hydrophilic active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The anti-viral drug tenofovir was used as a model compound. First design (Plackett-Burman) was used to screen eight high-risk variables obtained from risk analysis and assess their impact on liposome characteristics (drug encapsulation efficiency, particle size, and physical stability). It was discovered that out of eight high-risk variables only lipid and drug concentration had significant effects on the drug encapsulation efficiency. This allowed the use of a central composite design (CCD) (with more predictive capability) to fully elucidate the relationship between lipid concentration, drug concentration and encapsulation efficiency. On comparing the CCD model generated response surface with additional data points, the accuracy and robustness of the model was confirmed. Using this developed model, the design space for tenofovir liposomes preparation has been established in a laboratory setting, within which the preparation variability is minimized. With regard to sample storage stability, it was shown that at 4°C the prepared tenofovir liposomes, dispersed in aqueous phase, achieved stability for at least 2 years. These principles can be applied to liposomes containing other hydrophilic APIs, and can provide time and cost saving to industrial formulation scientists, and result in a more robust liposome preparation process.

  12. Enabling Mobile Air Quality App Development with an AirNow API

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dye, T.; White, J. E.; Ludewig, S. A.; Dickerson, P.; Healy, A. N.; West, J. W.; Prince, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program works with over 130 participating state, local, and federal air quality agencies to obtain, quality control, and store real-time air quality observations and forecasts. From these data, the AirNow system generates thousands of maps and products each hour. Each day, information from AirNow is published online and in other media to assist the public in making health-based decisions related to air quality. However, an increasing number of people use mobile devices as their primary tool for obtaining information, and AirNow has responded to this trend by publishing an easy-to-use Web API that is useful for mobile app developers. This presentation will describe the various features of the AirNow application programming interface (API), including Representational State Transfer (REST)-type web services, file outputs, and RSS feeds. In addition, a web portal for the AirNow API will be shown, including documentation on use of the system, a query tool for configuring and running web services, and general information about the air quality data and forecasts available. Data published via the AirNow API includes corresponding Air Quality Index (AQI) levels for each pollutant. We will highlight examples of mobile apps that are using the AirNow API to provide location-based, real-time air quality information. Examples will include mobile apps developed for Minnesota ('Minnesota Air') and Washington, D.C. ('Clean Air Partners Air Quality'), and an app developed by EPA ('EPA AirNow').

  13. Quantifying spore viability of the honey bee pathogen Nosema apis using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yan; Lee-Pullen, Tracey F; Heel, Kathy; Millar, A Harvey; Baer, Boris

    2014-05-01

    Honey bees are hosts to more than 80 different parasites, some of them being highly virulent and responsible for substantial losses in managed honey bee populations. The study of honey bee pathogens and their interactions with the bees' immune system has therefore become a research area of major interest. Here we developed a fast, accurate and reliable method to quantify the viability of spores of the honey bee gut parasite Nosema apis. To verify this method, a dilution series with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% live N. apis was made and SYTO 16 and Propidium Iodide (n = 35) were used to distinguish dead from live spores. The viability of spores in each sample was determined by flow cytometry and compared with the current method based on fluorescence microscopy. Results show that N. apis viability counts using flow cytometry produced very similar results when compared with fluorescence microscopy. However, we found that fluorescence microscopy underestimates N. apis viability in samples with higher percentages of viable spores, the latter typically being what is found in biological samples. A series of experiments were conducted to confirm that flow cytometry allows the use of additional fluorescent dyes such as SYBR 14 and SYTOX Red (used in combination with SYTO 16 or Propidium Iodide) to distinguish dead from live spores. We also show that spore viability quantification with flow cytometry can be undertaken using substantially lower dye concentrations than fluorescence microscopy. In conclusion, our data show flow cytometry to be a fast, reliable method to quantify N. apis spore viabilities, which has a number of advantages compared with existing methods. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  14. Pim-2 activates API-5 to inhibit the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells through NF-kappaB pathway.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ke; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Yujun; Gong, Jianping

    2010-06-01

    Pim-2 is proved to be relevant to the tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the mechanism is unclear. We studied the relationship among Pim-2, NF-kappaB and API-5. In our experiment, expression level of the three factors and phosphorylation level of API-5, as well as NF-kappaB activity, were detected in HCC tissues and the nontumorous controls. Then Pim-2 gene was transfected into nontumorous liver cells L02, and Pim-2 SiRNA was transfected into hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2. Parthenolide was added as NF-kappaB inhibitor. The same detections as above were repeated in the cells, along with the apoptosis analysis. We found the levels of Pim-2, NF-kappaB and API-5, as well as NF-kappaB activity, were significantly higher in HCC tissues. Pim-2 level was increased in L02 cells after the transfection of Pim-2 gene, but decreased in HepG2 cells after the transfection of Pim-2 SiRNA. The levels of NF-kappaB and API-5, as well as NF-kappaB activity and API-5 phosphorylation level, were in accordance with Pim-2 level, but could be reversed by Parthenolide. Cell apoptosis rates were negatively correlated with API-5 phosphorylation level. Therefore, we infer that Pim-2 could activate API-5 to inhibit the apoptosis of liver cells, and NF-kappaB is the key regulator.

  15. Fabrication de transistors monoelectroniques pour la detection de charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Jean-Philippe

    Le transistor monoelectro'nique (SET) est un candidat que l'on croyait avoir la capacite de remplacer le transistor des circuits integres actuel (MOSFET). Pour des raisons de faible gain en voltage, d'impedance de sortie elevee et de sensibilite aux fluctuations de charges, il est considere aujourd'hui qu'un hybride tirant profit des deux technologies est plus avantageux. En exploitant sa lacune d'etre sensible aux variations de charge, le SET est davantage utilise dans des applications ou la detection de charge s'avere indispensable, notamment dans les domaines de la bio-detection et de l'informatique quantique. Ce memoire presente une etude du transistor monoelectronique utilise en tant que detecteur de charge. La methode de fabrication est basee sur le procede nanodamascene developpe par Dubuc et al. [11] permettant au transistor monoelectronique de fonctionner a temperature ambiante. La temperature d'operation etant intimement liee a la geometrie du SET, la cle du procede nanodamascene reside dans le polissage chimico-mecanique (CMP) permettant de reduire l'epaisseur des SET jusqu'a des valeurs de quelques nanametres. Dans ce projet de maitrise, nous avons cependant opte pour que le SET soit opere a temperature cryogenique. Une faible temperature d'operation permet le relachement des contraintes de dimensions des dispositifs. En considerant les variations de procedes normales pouvant survenir lors de la fabrication, la temperature d'operation maximale calculee en conception s'etend de 27 K a 90 K, soit une energie de charge de 78 meV a 23 meV. Le gain du detecteur de charge etant dependant de la distance de couplage, les resultats de simulations demontrent que cette distance doit etre de 200 nm pour que la detection de charge soit optimale. Les designs concus sont ensuite fabriques sur substrat d'oxyde de silicium. Les resultats de fabrication de SET temoignent de la robustesse du procede nanodamascene. En effet, les dimensions atteintes experimentalement s

  16. Light- and temperature-regulated BjAPY2 may have a role in stem expansion of Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liwen; Liu, Bin; Li, Junxing; Yu, Ningning; Zou, Xiaoxia; Chen, Liping

    2015-11-01

    Tuber mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. et Coss. var. tumida Tsen et Lee) is an important vegetable crop with a characteristic of expanded stem that is edible. The underlying molecular mechanism of the stem expansion is not well understood. Here, we reported that a total of 51 differentially expressed fragments (DEFs) with three expression patterns during stem expansion of tuber mustard were identified by cDNA-AFLP analysis. Among the DEFs, DEF11 with high homology to Arabidopsis thaliana apyrase 2 (AtAPY2) that encodes an enzyme with ATPase and ADPase activity was development- and tissue-specific. DEF11 was thus renamed as BjAPY2. The expression levels of BjAPY2 increased with the stem expression and were the highest at stage IV, a developmental stage at which the stem expanded most rapidly. In contrast, the BjAPY2 expression levels in leaves were much lower and remained unchanged during leaf development and expansion, suggesting that BjAPY2 was closely associated with the expansion of stems but not of leaves in the tuber mustard. Interestingly, the expression of BjAPY2 was higher in the mustard under short-day (SD) photoperiod (8 h/16 h) than that under long-day (LD) photoperiod (16 h/8 h); similarly, the transcript levels of BjAPY2 were higher in the mustard grown at low temperature (14 °C/12 °C) than that at high temperature (26 °C /24 °C). The SD photoperiod and low temperature were two environmental conditions that favored the mustard stem expansion. Further cloning and analysis of the promoter region of BjAPY2 revealed that there were indeed several types of motifs in the promoter region, including the light and temperature responsive elements. These results suggested that BjAPY2 might play an important role during the stem expansion of the tuber mustard.

  17. Quelle source pour la lithographie dans l'EUV ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccotti, T.

    2005-06-01

    L'impressionnante évolution des performances des circuits intégrés (CI) ces trente dernières années, répond à la désormais célèbre loi de Moore. Selon la prédiction faite en 1975 par le co-fondateur d'Intel Gordon Moore et qui n'a jamais été contredite, le nombre de transistors dans un CI allait doubler tous les 18mois. De simple intuition, la loi de Moore est devenue un impératif à respecter pour l'industrie des CI et des semi-conducteurs en général. La continuité dans les années à venir d'une telle progression technologique permettrait à ce secteur économique de garder, voire augmenter, toute son importance actuelle. Augmenter le nombre des transistors dans les CI signifie principalement réduire leur taille caractéristique de gravure et par conséquent la longueur d'onde utilisée. Depuis 2000, la lithographie dans l'extrême ultraviolet (EUVL) à 13.5 nm est considérée comme la plus prometteuse parmi les technologies appelées à remplacer la lithographie actuelle qui utilise du rayonnement laser à 193 nm comme source de lumière. La réalisation d'une machine lithographique industrielle utilisant du rayonnement EUV nécessite la résolution de nombreux problèmes technologiques qui font, depuis des années, l'objet de plusieurs programmes de recherche dans le monde. Une attention toute particulière est portée à la source de rayonnement EUVcar ses caractéristiques, notamment de puissance et de propreté, vont décider du succès ou pas de l'EUVL. Le cahier des charges d'une source EUV, les différents approches pour y répondre ainsi que leurs limites seront présentés ainsi qu'un état de l'art des performances des sources actuelles.

  18. Ressources pour les personnes atteintes de démence

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Christopher; Feldman, Sid; Schulz, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Résumer les services offerts par la Société Alzheimer et discuter des autres sources de soutien et d’information à la disposition des personnes atteintes de démence. Sources de l’information On a fait une recension dans Ovid MEDLINE à l’aide des expressions dementia, Alzheimer disease, community health services utilization et caregiver stress. Message principal Il a été démontré qu’il est bénéfique aux patients et aux aidants si le diagnostic de la démence est posé tôt dans la maladie. Une consultation auprès de la Société Alzheimer peut aider dans la prise en charge non pharmacologique de la démence au moment du diagnostic et en tout temps durant l’évolution de la maladie. Parmi les services offerts, on peut mentionner des renseignements au sujet de la démence, le soutien aux aidants, la coordination des services communautaires et une grande diversité de ressources écrites à l’intention des patients et des aidants. Là où il est offert, le programme Premier lien peut aider avec l’orientation vers des services en minimisant la nécessité pour les patients ou les aidants de communiquer eux-mêmes avec les filiales locales de la Société. On discute aussi d’autres ressources, y compris les soins de répit et les approches technologiques pour prendre en charge l’errance. Conclusion La Société Alzheimer joue un rôle important dans la prise en charge de la démence et les médecins de famille devraient toujours envisager d’y référer leurs patients au moment du diagnostic, quelle que soit la gravité de l’état. Premier lien, quand il est accessible, peut faciliter le contact avec les services. Des ressources comme les soins de répit et les programmes de jour devraient toujours être considérés lorsqu’ils sont disponibles.

  19. Eprinomectin 'pour-on' and the shedding of Haemonchus contortus eggs in experimentally infected goats.

    PubMed

    Molina, J M; Ruiz, A; Hernández, B; González, J F; Martín, S; Hernández, Y I

    2008-11-01

    The effect of eprinomectin on goats experimentally infected with the nematode Haemonchus contortus was investigated. Faecal analysis showed that a single dose of eprinomectin 'pour-on' delayed the onset of shedding of eggs for 10 to 17 days.

  20. Comparative efficacy of pour-on eprinomectin and ivermectin against Sarcoptes scabiei in buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Nazir, T; Katoch, R; Yadav, Anish; Godara, R

    2016-06-01

    The efficacy of eprinomectin and ivermectin pour-on was evaluated against Sarcoptes scabiei in naturally infested buffaloes. Eighteen animals were allocated into three groups (A, B and C) of six animals each. Animals in group A were treated with eprinomectin (pour-on) @ 0.5 mg/kg; group B with ivermectin (pour-on) @ 0.2 mg/kg while group C served as untreated controls. Skin scrapings were examined on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 post-treatment (PT). Skin scrapings were found free for mites on day 21 PT, with marked clinical improvement in the lesions after day 28 of treatment. Untreated control group continued to show severe progressive lesions throughout the study period. No clinical side-effects of the tested drugs were observed after treatment. This preliminary report on the efficacy of eprinomectin (pour-on) against S. scabiei in buffaloes is encouraging and results could be of considerable importance.

  1. Heat transfer modelling of the saltstone pouring and curing process. Task Number: 93-016-0

    SciTech Connect

    Shadday, M.A. Jr.

    1993-11-01

    A byproduct of the in tank precipitation, ITP, process will be 25 million gallons of low-level salt solution. This salt solution will be mixed with cement and a flyash/slag mixture and solidified in surface vaults in the Z-area Saltstone Facility. The curing process of saltstone involves exothermic reactions, and there is a maximum temperature limit of 90{degree}C for the curing saltstone. If this temperature limit is exceeded, the physical properties of the saltstone can be degraded. A heat transfer model of the saltstone pouring and curing process has been developed that predicts transient temperature distributions in the curing saltstone. The purpose of this model is to predict peak temperatures as functions of the several independent variables in this process: pour temperature, the pour schedule, and seasonal variations in the ambient temperature. The peak temperature of the saltstone is very sensitive to the internal heat generation that accompanies the curing process. Most of the energy is released over a short period of several hours, and the balance is released slowly over a period of time that can be in excess of a month. This long term low level internal heat generation is difficult to measure in laboratory calorimetry tests, and it can significantly influence the peak temperature in the saltstone. Due to the low thermal conductivity of the saltstone, the central region of the poured saltstone will essentially heat up adiabatically. The time dependence of the internal heat generation rate was determined from an analysis of the 1991 pilot pour test. With a pour schedule of eight hours a day and five days a week in the summer, the model predicts that the saltstone will have a peak temperature of 98 C with a pour temperature of 45 C, and a peak temperature of 88 C with a pour temperature of 30 C. With a pour schedule of three days a week, the peak temperature will be 88{degree}C with a pour temperature of 45 C, and 80 C with a pour temperature of 30 C.

  2. Dimensional accuracy of 2 irreversible hydrocolloid alternative impression materials with immediate and delayed pouring.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Usama; Hussein, Bayan; Oko, Andrea; Carey, Jason P; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    To assess dimensional accuracy and stability of 2 irreversible hydrocolloid alternative impression materials with immediate and delayed pouring. Two alternative impression materials, AlgiNot FS and Position Penta Quick, were compared with a traditional irreversible hydrocolloid, Jeltrate Plus antimicrobial alginate. Impressions were made of a metal model with 4 cylinders of known dimensions, with pouring performed immediately or after 4 hours of storage. A digital micrometer was used to measure cylinder diameter on the model and the poured casts. Dimensional changes were analyzed according to American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA) Specification 19 (2004 version) (α=0.05). There were significant differences among the 3 materials, between the 2 pour times and as a function of storage time (multivariate analysis of variance, p<0.001). One-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences between the 2 alternative impression materials, but changes for these materials differed significantly from those for the traditional impression material for immediate (p<0.05) and 4-hour (p<0.001) pouring. Linear dimensional changes for the 2 substitute materials were within the limits of the ANSI/ADA specification. With immediate pouring, both alternative impression materials exhibited minimal dimensional changes, which were maintained or reduced with 4-hour pouring. For both pouring times, these changes were less than 0.5%. The minimal dimensional changes observed with these irreversible hydrocolloid alternative impression materials after 4 hours of storage may save chairside time and help to produce accurate results for procedures such as partial denture framework, surgical guides, and pediatric and orthodontic devices.

  3. Evaluation of the API 20E system for the identification of gram-negative nonfermenters from animal origin.

    PubMed Central

    Devenish, J A; Barnum, D A

    1982-01-01

    The API 20E system was evaluated on isolates from animals of aerobic nonfermentative and cytochrome oxidase positive Gram-negative rods. An accuracy of identification of 80% (214/268 isolates) was achieved for those organisms included in the 1976-1977 API profile index. Members of the genera Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter were identified with 100% accuracy. Organisms not included in the API profile gave either an unacceptable profile number or were incorrectly identified as Moraxella spp. When the inoculum size was increased there was better identification. PMID:7042055

  4. Synthesis and structure verification of the vaccine adjuvant QS-7-Api. Synthetic access to homogeneous Quillaja saponaria immunostimulants.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kai; Adams, Michelle M; Gin, David Y

    2008-05-07

    QS-7-Api is an exceedingly potent immuno-adjuvant isolated from the bark of Quillaja saponaria. It is significantly less toxic than QS-21, a related saponin that is currently the favored adjuvant in anticancer and antiviral vaccine clinical trials. Tedious isolation/purification protocols and uncertainty in its structural constitution have hindered the clinical development of QS-7. A chemical synthesis of QS-7-Api is described, providing structural verification of the adjuvant. A novel semisynthetic sequence to QS-7-Api has also been established, greatly facilitating access to QS-7 for preclinical and clinical evaluation.

  5. Transcriptional markers of sub-optimal nutrition in developing Apis mellifera nurse workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Honey bees (Apis mellifera) contribute substantially to the worldwide economy and ecosystem health as pollinators. Pollen is essential to the bee’s diet, providing protein, lipids, and micronutrients. The dramatic shifts in physiology, anatomy, and behavior that accompany normal worker development are highly plastic and recent work demonstrates that development, particularly the transition from nurse to foraging roles, is greatly impacted by diet. However, the role that diet plays in the developmental transition of newly eclosed bees to nurse workers is poorly understood. To further understand honey bee nutrition and the role of diet in nurse development, we used a high-throughput screen of the transcriptome of 3 day and 8 day old worker bees fed either honey and stored pollen (rich diet) or honey alone (poor diet) within the hive. We employed a three factor (age, diet, age x diet) analysis of the transcriptome to determine whether diet affected nurse worker physiology and whether poor diet altered the developmental processes normally associated with aging. Results Substantial changes in gene expression occurred due to starvation. Diet-induced changes in gene transcription occurring in younger bees were largely a subset of those occurring in older bees, but certain signatures of starvation were only evident 8 day old workers. Of the 18,542 annotated transcripts in the A. mellifera genome, 150 transcripts exhibited differential expression due to poor diet at 3d of age compared with 17,226 transcripts that differed due to poor diet at 8d of age, and poor diet caused more frequent down-regulation of gene expression in younger bees compared to older bees. In addition, the age-related physiological changes that accompanied early adult development differed due to the diet these young adult bees were fed. More frequent down-regulation of gene expression was observed in developing bees fed a poor diet compared to those fed an adequate diet. Functional

  6. Transcriptional markers of sub-optimal nutrition in developing Apis mellifera nurse workers.

    PubMed

    Corby-Harris, Vanessa; Jones, Beryl M; Walton, Alexander; Schwan, Melissa R; Anderson, Kirk E

    2014-02-15

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) contribute substantially to the worldwide economy and ecosystem health as pollinators. Pollen is essential to the bee's diet, providing protein, lipids, and micronutrients. The dramatic shifts in physiology, anatomy, and behavior that accompany normal worker development are highly plastic and recent work demonstrates that development, particularly the transition from nurse to foraging roles, is greatly impacted by diet. However, the role that diet plays in the developmental transition of newly eclosed bees to nurse workers is poorly understood. To further understand honey bee nutrition and the role of diet in nurse development, we used a high-throughput screen of the transcriptome of 3 day and 8 day old worker bees fed either honey and stored pollen (rich diet) or honey alone (poor diet) within the hive. We employed a three factor (age, diet, age x diet) analysis of the transcriptome to determine whether diet affected nurse worker physiology and whether poor diet altered the developmental processes normally associated with aging. Substantial changes in gene expression occurred due to starvation. Diet-induced changes in gene transcription occurring in younger bees were largely a subset of those occurring in older bees, but certain signatures of starvation were only evident 8 day old workers. Of the 18,542 annotated transcripts in the A. mellifera genome, 150 transcripts exhibited differential expression due to poor diet at 3d of age compared with 17,226 transcripts that differed due to poor diet at 8d of age, and poor diet caused more frequent down-regulation of gene expression in younger bees compared to older bees. In addition, the age-related physiological changes that accompanied early adult development differed due to the diet these young adult bees were fed. More frequent down-regulation of gene expression was observed in developing bees fed a poor diet compared to those fed an adequate diet. Functional analyses also suggest that

  7. Introducing a Web API for Dataset Submission into a NASA Earth Science Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroni, D. F.; Quach, N.; Francis-Curley, W.

    2016-12-01

    As the landscape of data becomes increasingly more diverse in the domain of Earth Science, the challenges of managing and preserving data become more onerous and complex, particularly for data centers on fixed budgets and limited staff. Many solutions already exist to ease the cost burden for the downstream component of the data lifecycle, yet most archive centers are still racing to keep up with the influx of new data that still needs to find a quasi-permanent resting place. For instance, having well-defined metadata that is consistent across the entire data landscape provides for well-managed and preserved datasets throughout the latter end of the data lifecycle. Translators between different metadata dialects are already in operational use, and facilitate keeping older datasets relevant in today's world of rapidly evolving metadata standards. However, very little is done to address the first phase of the lifecycle, which deals with the entry of both data and the corresponding metadata into a system that is traditionally opaque and closed off to external data producers, thus resulting in a significant bottleneck to the dataset submission process. The ATRAC system was the NOAA NCEI's answer to this previously obfuscated barrier to scientists wishing to find a home for their climate data records, providing a web-based entry point to submit timely and accurate metadata and information about a very specific dataset. A couple of NASA's Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) have implemented their own versions of a web-based dataset and metadata submission form including the ASDC and the ORNL DAAC. The Physical Oceanography DAAC is the most recent in the list of NASA-operated DAACs who have begun to offer their own web-based dataset and metadata submission services to data producers. What makes the PO.DAAC dataset and metadata submission service stand out from these pre-existing services is the option of utilizing both a web browser GUI and a RESTful API to

  8. Refinement of primary Si grains in Al-20%Si alloy slurry through serpentine channel pouring process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhi-kai; Mao, Wei-min; Liu, Zhi-yong; Wang, Dong; Yue, Rui

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a serpentine channel pouring process was used to prepare the semi-solid Al-20%Si alloy slurry and refine primary Si grains in the alloy. The effects of the pouring temperature, number of curves in the serpentine channel, and material of the serpentine channel on the size of primary Si grains in the semi-solid Al-20%Si alloy slurry were investigated. The results showed that the pouring temperature, number of the curves, and material of the channel strongly affected the size and distribution of the primary Si grains. The pouring temperature exerted the strongest effect, followed by the number of the curves and then the material of the channel. Under experimental conditions of a four-curve copper channel and a pouring temperature of 701°C, primary Si grains in the semi-solid Al-20%Si alloy slurry were refined to the greatest extent, and the lath-like grains were changed into granular grains. Moreover, the equivalent grain diameter and the average shape coefficient of primary Si grains in the satisfactory semi-solid Al-20%Si alloy slurry were 24.4 μm and 0.89, respectively. Finally, the refinement mechanism and distribution rule of primary Si grains in the slurry prepared through the serpentine channel pouring process were analyzed and discussed.

  9. Solution saline hypertonique pour la bronchiolite chez les bébés

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Simran; Goldman, Ran D.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question J’ai récemment reçu le rapport du congé de l’hôpital d’un patient de 1 an admis pour une bronchiolite. On y indiquait qu’il avait été traité, entre autres, avec une solution saline hypertonique inhalée. Cette thérapie est-elle recommandée pour les enfants en milieu de soins aigus? Réponse La bronchiolite, causée principalement par le virus respiratoire syncytial, est très commune en hiver. C’est la cause la plus fréquente d’hospitalisation durant l’enfance. Plusieurs bonnes études ont été effectuées au cours de la dernière décennie sur l’utilisation d’une solution saline hypertonique nébulisée pour la prise en charge de la bronchiolite; toutefois, leurs résultats sont conflictuels. Quoiqu’il puisse y avoir un rôle pour la solution saline hypertonique nébulisée chez les enfants hospitalisés pour une bronchiolite pendant plus de 3 jours, ce traitement dans d’autres milieux ne confère pas suffisamment de bienfaits pour recommander son utilisation.

  10. Accuracy of Multiple Pour Cast from Various Elastomer Impression Methods.

    PubMed

    Haralur, Satheesh B; Saad Toman, Majed; Ali Al-Shahrani, Abdullah; Ali Al-Qarni, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    The accurate duplicate cast obtained from a single impression reduces the profession clinical time, patient inconvenience, and extra material cost. The stainless steel working cast model assembly consisting of two abutments and one pontic area was fabricated. Two sets of six each custom aluminum trays were fabricated, with five mm spacer and two mm spacer. The impression methods evaluated during the study were additional silicone putty reline (two steps), heavy-light body (one step), monophase (one step), and polyether (one step). Type IV gypsum casts were poured at the interval of one hour, 12 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours. The resultant cast was measured with traveling microscope for the comparative dimensional accuracy. The data obtained were subjected to Analysis of Variance test at significance level <0.05. The die obtained from two-step putty reline impression techniques had the percentage of variation for the height -0.36 to -0.97%, while diameter was increased by 0.40-0.90%. The values for one-step heavy-light body impression dies, additional silicone monophase impressions, and polyether were -0.73 to -1.21%, -1.34%, and -1.46% for the height and 0.50-0.80%, 1.20%, and -1.30% for the width, respectively.

  11. Accuracy of Multiple Pour Cast from Various Elastomer Impression Methods

    PubMed Central

    Saad Toman, Majed; Ali Al-Shahrani, Abdullah; Ali Al-Qarni, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    The accurate duplicate cast obtained from a single impression reduces the profession clinical time, patient inconvenience, and extra material cost. The stainless steel working cast model assembly consisting of two abutments and one pontic area was fabricated. Two sets of six each custom aluminum trays were fabricated, with five mm spacer and two mm spacer. The impression methods evaluated during the study were additional silicone putty reline (two steps), heavy-light body (one step), monophase (one step), and polyether (one step). Type IV gypsum casts were poured at the interval of one hour, 12 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours. The resultant cast was measured with traveling microscope for the comparative dimensional accuracy. The data obtained were subjected to Analysis of Variance test at significance level <0.05. The die obtained from two-step putty reline impression techniques had the percentage of variation for the height −0.36 to −0.97%, while diameter was increased by 0.40–0.90%. The values for one-step heavy-light body impression dies, additional silicone monophase impressions, and polyether were −0.73 to −1.21%, −1.34%, and −1.46% for the height and 0.50–0.80%, 1.20%, and −1.30% for the width, respectively. PMID:28096815

  12. Vitellogenins Are New High Molecular Weight Components and Allergens (Api m 12 and Ves v 6) of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris Venom

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Simon; Seismann, Henning; McIntyre, Mareike; Ollert, Markus; Wolf, Sara; Bantleon, Frank I.; Spillner, Edzard

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives Anaphylaxis due to hymenoptera stings is one of the most severe clinical outcomes of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Although allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings are often considered as a general model for the underlying principles of allergic disease, venom immunotherapy is still hampered by severe systemic side effects and incomplete protection. The identification and detailed characterization of all allergens of hymenoptera venoms might result in an improvement in this field and promote the detailed understanding of the allergological mechanism. Our aim was the identification and detailed immunochemical and allergological characterization of the low abundant IgE-reactive 200 kDa proteins of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom. Methods/Principal Findings Tandem mass spectrometry-based sequencing of a 200 kDa venom protein yielded peptides that could be assigned to honeybee vitellogenin. The coding regions of the honeybee protein as well as of the homologue from yellow jacket venom were cloned from venom gland cDNA. The newly identified 200 kDa proteins share a sequence identity on protein level of 40% and belong to the family of vitellogenins, present in all oviparous animals, and are the first vitellogenins identified as components of venom. Both vitellogenins could be recombinantly produced as soluble proteins in insect cells and assessed for their specific IgE reactivity. The particular vitellogenins were recognized by approximately 40% of sera of venom-allergic patients even in the absence of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. Conclusion With the vitellogenins of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom a new homologous pair of venom allergens was identified and becomes available for future applications. Due to their allergenic properties the honeybee and the yellow jacket venom vitellogenin were designated as allergens Api m 12 and Ves v 6, respectively. PMID:23626765

  13. Vitellogenins are new high molecular weight components and allergens (Api m 12 and Ves v 6) of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom.

    PubMed

    Blank, Simon; Seismann, Henning; McIntyre, Mareike; Ollert, Markus; Wolf, Sara; Bantleon, Frank I; Spillner, Edzard

    2013-01-01

    Anaphylaxis due to hymenoptera stings is one of the most severe clinical outcomes of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Although allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings are often considered as a general model for the underlying principles of allergic disease, venom immunotherapy is still hampered by severe systemic side effects and incomplete protection. The identification and detailed characterization of all allergens of hymenoptera venoms might result in an improvement in this field and promote the detailed understanding of the allergological mechanism. Our aim was the identification and detailed immunochemical and allergological characterization of the low abundant IgE-reactive 200 kDa proteins of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom. Tandem mass spectrometry-based sequencing of a 200 kDa venom protein yielded peptides that could be assigned to honeybee vitellogenin. The coding regions of the honeybee protein as well as of the homologue from yellow jacket venom were cloned from venom gland cDNA. The newly identified 200 kDa proteins share a sequence identity on protein level of 40% and belong to the family of vitellogenins, present in all oviparous animals, and are the first vitellogenins identified as components of venom. Both vitellogenins could be recombinantly produced as soluble proteins in insect cells and assessed for their specific IgE reactivity. The particular vitellogenins were recognized by approximately 40% of sera of venom-allergic patients even in the absence of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. With the vitellogenins of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom a new homologous pair of venom allergens was identified and becomes available for future applications. Due to their allergenic properties the honeybee and the yellow jacket venom vitellogenin were designated as allergens Api m 12 and Ves v 6, respectively.

  14. The major royal jelly proteins 8 and 9 (Api m 11) are glycosylated components of Apis mellifera venom with allergenic potential beyond carbohydrate-based reactivity.

    PubMed

    Blank, S; Bantleon, F I; McIntyre, M; Ollert, M; Spillner, E

    2012-06-01

    As hymenoptera venoms are one of the allergen sources causing the highest incidence of anaphylaxis and sometimes fatal consequences, the detailed characterization of all venom allergens is imperative for design of component-resolved diagnostic approaches and improved intervention strategies. Our aim was the immunochemical characterization of major royal jelly proteins (MRJP) 8 and 9, both components identified in honeybee venom (HBV) and putative allergens. Both MRJPs were recombinantly produced as soluble differentially glycosylated proteins providing a defined degree of reactivity to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD) in insect cells. Allergen-specific IgE(sIgE) reactivity of HBV-allergic patients was analysed by ELISA and immunoblotting. MRJP8 and MRJP9 were identified as venom components by MS-based proteomic analyses. In a population of 47 HBV-allergic patients, reactivities with CCD-carrying MRJPs were in the range of 56% (61%), underlining the contribution of CCDs to allergen-binding. Beyond CCD-reactivity, 15% of patients showed sIgE reactivity with MRJP8 and 34% with MRJP9 respectively. These reactivities roughly in the range of Api m 2 render the MRJPs minor, but important allergens. The glycosylated MRJP8 and MRJP9 of HBV have IgE-sensitizing potential in HBV-allergic patients beyond CCD reactivity and have to be considered as allergens, which might be potentially important for a fraction of venom allergic patients. They are valuable tools to elucidate individual component-resolved reactivity profiles of venom allergic patients and to provide insights into the role of particular venom components. Due to their allergenic properties, MRJP8 and MRJP9 were designated as isoallergens Api m 11.0101 and Api m 11.0201 respectively. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Long-Term Temporal Trends of Nosema spp. Infection Prevalence in Northeast Germany: Continuous Spread of Nosema ceranae, an Emerging Pathogen of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera), but No General Replacement of Nosema apis

    PubMed Central

    Gisder, Sebastian; Schüler, Vivian; Horchler, Lennart L.; Groth, Detlef; Genersch, Elke

    2017-01-01

    The Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) is widely used as commercial pollinator in worldwide agriculture and, therefore, plays an important role in global food security. Among the parasites and pathogens threatening health and survival of honey bees are two species of microsporidia, Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. Nosema ceranae is considered an emerging pathogen of the Western honey bee. Reports on the spread of N. ceranae suggested that this presumably highly virulent species is replacing its more benign congener N. apis in the global A. mellifera population. We here present a 12 year longitudinal cohort study on the prevalence of N. apis and N. ceranae in Northeast Germany. Between 2005 and 2016, a cohort of about 230 honey bee colonies originating from 23 apiaries was sampled twice a year (spring and autumn) resulting in a total of 5,600 bee samples which were subjected to microscopic and molecular analysis for determining the presence of infections with N. apis or/and N. ceranae. Throughout the entire study period, both N. apis- and N. ceranae-infections could be diagnosed within the cohort. Logistic regression analysis of the prevalence data demonstrated a significant increase of N. ceranae-infections over the last 12 years, both in autumn (reflecting the development during the summer) and in spring (reflecting the development over winter) samples. Cell culture experiments confirmed that N. ceranae has a higher proliferative potential than N. apis at 27° and 33°C potentially explaining the increase in N. ceranae prevalence during summer. In autumn, characterized by generally low infection prevalence, this increase was accompanied by a significant decrease in N. apis-infection prevalence. In contrast, in spring, the season with a higher prevalence of infection, no significant decrease of N. apis infections despite a significant increase in N. ceranae infections could be observed. Therefore, our data do not support a general advantage of N. ceranae over N

  16. Long-Term Temporal Trends of Nosema spp. Infection Prevalence in Northeast Germany: Continuous Spread of Nosema ceranae, an Emerging Pathogen of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera), but No General Replacement of Nosema apis.

    PubMed

    Gisder, Sebastian; Schüler, Vivian; Horchler, Lennart L; Groth, Detlef; Genersch, Elke

    2017-01-01

    The Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) is widely used as commercial pollinator in worldwide agriculture and, therefore, plays an important role in global food security. Among the parasites and pathogens threatening health and survival of honey bees are two species of microsporidia, Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. Nosema ceranae is considered an emerging pathogen of the Western honey bee. Reports on the spread of N. ceranae suggested that this presumably highly virulent species is replacing its more benign congener N. apis in the global A. mellifera population. We here present a 12 year longitudinal cohort study on the prevalence of N. apis and N. ceranae in Northeast Germany. Between 2005 and 2016, a cohort of about 230 honey bee colonies originating from 23 apiaries was sampled twice a year (spring and autumn) resulting in a total of 5,600 bee samples which were subjected to microscopic and molecular analysis for determining the presence of infections with N. apis or/and N. ceranae. Throughout the entire study period, both N. apis- and N. ceranae-infections could be diagnosed within the cohort. Logistic regression analysis of the prevalence data demonstrated a significant increase of N. ceranae-infections over the last 12 years, both in autumn (reflecting the development during the summer) and in spring (reflecting the development over winter) samples. Cell culture experiments confirmed that N. ceranae has a higher proliferative potential than N. apis at 27° and 33°C potentially explaining the increase in N. ceranae prevalence during summer. In autumn, characterized by generally low infection prevalence, this increase was accompanied by a significant decrease in N. apis-infection prevalence. In contrast, in spring, the season with a higher prevalence of infection, no significant decrease of N. apis infections despite a significant increase in N. ceranae infections could be observed. Therefore, our data do not support a general advantage of N. ceranae over N

  17. OpenSearch (ECHO-ESIP) & REST API for Earth Science Data Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, A.; Cechini, M.; Pilone, D.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation will provide a brief technical overview of OpenSearch, the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federated Search framework, and the REST architecture; discuss NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHOuse’s (ECHO) implementation lessons learned; and demonstrate the simplified usage of these technologies. SOAP, as a framework for web service communication has numerous advantages for Enterprise applications and Java/C# type programming languages. As a technical solution, SOAP has been a reliable framework on top of which many applications have been successfully developed and deployed. However, as interest grows for quick development cycles and more intriguing “mashups,” the SOAP API loses its appeal. Lightweight and simple are the vogue characteristics that are sought after. Enter the REST API architecture and OpenSearch format. Both of these items provide a new path for application development addressing some of the issues unresolved by SOAP. ECHO has made available all of its discovery, order submission, and data management services through a publicly accessible SOAP API. This interface is utilized by a variety of ECHO client and data partners to provide valuable capabilities to end users. As ECHO interacted with current and potential partners looking to develop Earth Science tools utilizing ECHO, it became apparent that the development overhead required to interact with the SOAP API was a growing barrier to entry. ECHO acknowledged the technical issues that were being uncovered by its partner community and chose to provide two new interfaces for interacting with the ECHO metadata catalog. The first interface is built upon the OpenSearch format and ESIP Federated Search framework. Leveraging these two items, a client (ECHO-ESIP) was developed with a focus on simplified searching and results presentation. The second interface is built upon the Representational State Transfer (REST) architecture. Leveraging the REST architecture, a

  18. An Update to the EARTHTIME Argon Intercalibration Pipette System (APIS): Smoking from the Same Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrin, B. D.; Swisher, C. C., III; Hemming, S. R.; Renne, P. R.; Deino, A. L.; Hodges, K. V.; Van Soest, M. C.; Heizler, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Background: An initial 40Ar/39Ar inter-calibration experiment, using two of the most commonly used 40Ar/39Ar mineral standards, Fish Canyon (FC, ~28.2 Ma) and Alder Creek (AC, ~1.2 Ma) sanidines, revealed significant inter-laboratory inconsistencies. The reported ages for the AC sanidines range from 1.173 to 1.200 Ma (FC 28.02) (±~2%), ~4 times greater than the reported precisions. These experiments have motivated the 40Ar/39Ar community to reevaluate procedures and subsequent informal lab intercalibrations experiments are in better agreement, but discrepancies remain that need to be addressed. Experiment: In an effort to isolate the causes of these inconsistencies, an Argon Intercalibration Pipette System (APIS) was designed and constructed. The APIS system consists of three gas canisters; one containing atmospheric Ar and the other two canisters contain 40Ar/39Ar ratios that represent FC and AC. The volumes of the pipettes, bulbs and manifold are determined to within 0.4% and both systems were initially filled to the same pressure with Ar standard gases. Each canister has 4x10-10 moles of 40Ar, is equipped with a 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 cc pipettes and can deliver increments from 0.1-0.7 cc. APIS-1 was designated as the traveling unit that is brought to participating labs, APIS-2 is the reserve/master standard. Early Results and Impressions: APIS-1 has been to four labs (Rutgers, LDEO, New Mexico Tech, and BGC) and is heading to ASU. Early APIS experimental data indicate that the inter-laboratory 40Ar/39Ar age results can meet or exceed the EARTHTIME goal of ±1‰ precision. The inter-laboratory comparisons are ongoing, and will include additional laboratories of opportunity. Lastly, the development of additional mineral standards that "fill in" the age gaps between the existing mineral standards would significantly improve attempting to achieve interlaboratory agreement at the ±1‰ level

  19. Molecular mechanisms underlying formation of long-term reward memories and extinction memories in the honeybee (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera) has long served as an invertebrate model organism for reward learning and memory research. Its capacity for learning and memory formation is rooted in the ecological need to efficiently collect nectar and pollen during summer to ensure survival of the hive during winter. Foraging bees learn to associate a flower's characteristic features with a reward in a way that resembles olfactory appetitive classical conditioning, a learning paradigm that is used to study mechanisms underlying learning and memory formation in the honeybee. Due to a plethora of studies on appetitive classical conditioning and phenomena related to it, the honeybee is one of the best characterized invertebrate model organisms from a learning psychological point of view. Moreover, classical conditioning and associated behavioral phenomena are surprisingly similar in honeybees and vertebrates, suggesting a convergence of underlying neuronal processes, including the molecular mechanisms that contribute to them. Here I review current thinking on the molecular mechanisms underlying long-term memory (LTM) formation in honeybees following classical conditioning and extinction, demonstrating that an in-depth analysis of the molecular mechanisms of classical conditioning in honeybees might add to our understanding of associative learning in honeybees and vertebrates. PMID:25225299

  20. Molecular mechanisms underlying formation of long-term reward memories and extinction memories in the honeybee (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2014-10-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera) has long served as an invertebrate model organism for reward learning and memory research. Its capacity for learning and memory formation is rooted in the ecological need to efficiently collect nectar and pollen during summer to ensure survival of the hive during winter. Foraging bees learn to associate a flower's characteristic features with a reward in a way that resembles olfactory appetitive classical conditioning, a learning paradigm that is used to study mechanisms underlying learning and memory formation in the honeybee. Due to a plethora of studies on appetitive classical conditioning and phenomena related to it, the honeybee is one of the best characterized invertebrate model organisms from a learning psychological point of view. Moreover, classical conditioning and associated behavioral phenomena are surprisingly similar in honeybees and vertebrates, suggesting a convergence of underlying neuronal processes, including the molecular mechanisms that contribute to them. Here I review current thinking on the molecular mechanisms underlying long-term memory (LTM) formation in honeybees following classical conditioning and extinction, demonstrating that an in-depth analysis of the molecular mechanisms of classical conditioning in honeybees might add to our understanding of associative learning in honeybees and vertebrates. © 2014 Eisenhardt; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  1. Facile LC-UV methods for simultaneous monitoring of ciprofloxacin and rosuvastatin in API, formulations and human serum.

    PubMed

    Arayne, M Saeed; Sultana, Najma; Tabassum, Arman

    2015-02-01

    An efficient, selective and cost-effective liquid chromatographic assay was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of ciprofloxacin and rosuvastatin in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API), pharmaceutical formulations and in human serum. The chromatographic system consisted of mobile phase methanol-water, 90:10 v/v at pH 3.0 adjusted with o-phosphoric acid, pumped at 1.0 mL/min through a prepacked Purospher Star C18 (5 µm, 25 × 0.46 cm) column and effluent was monitored at the isosbestic point (255 nm) as well as at the λmax of individual drugs (243 and 271 nm). The method was validated over a linear concentration range of 0.25-15 µg/mL for ciprofloxacin and 0.33-20 µg/mL for rosuvastatin (r(2)  ≥ 0.999). The ranges of reliable response (limits of detection and quantitation) for ciprofloxacin were 3-15 and 9-45 ng/mL and 17-29 and 52-88 ng/mL, respectively, for rosuvastatin in all API, pharmaceutical formulations and human serum. Analytical recovery from human serum was >98% and relative standard deviation (RSD) was <2. The accuracies were 97.13-102.55 and 97.41-101.31% and precisions in RSD were 0.04-1.90 and 0.02-1.23% for ciprofloxacin and rosuvastatin, respectively. No matrix interferences, ion suppression/enhancement and carry-over were detected. The total assay run time was less than 5 min. In another study, for optimum performance the detector was programmed for multiwavelength scanning at the absorption maxima of each component. Consequently, the linearity range was improved and limit of detection and quantitation values were down to 1-4 and 4-12 ng/mL for ciprofloxacin and 3-5 and 9-15 ng/mL for rosuvastatin, respectively. The validation parameters fitted ICH guidelines through the isosbestic and individual λmax approach. The small sample volume and simplicity of preparation make this method suitable for use in human serum samples, pharmaceutical formulations, quality control, drug

  2. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping

    PubMed Central

    Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Hannan, Mohammed A.; Owayss, Ayman A.; Engel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only Apis mellifera jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from Apis mellifera jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies. PMID:22140343

  3. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping.

    PubMed

    Alqarni, Abdulaziz S; Hannan, Mohammed A; Owayss, Ayman A; Engel, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: videEngel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only Apis mellifera jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from Apis mellifera jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.

  4. Analysis of API2-MALT1 fusion, trisomies, and immunoglobulin VH genes in pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hongjing; Nakayama, Takahisa; Sakuma, Hidenori; Yamada, Seiji; Sato, Fumihiko; Takino, Hisashi; Okabe, Mitsukuni; Fujiyoshi, Yukio; Hattori, Hideo; Inagaki, Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    Pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is unique in that chronic inflammation is rare and that API2-MALT1 fusion, resulting from t(11;18)(q21;q21), occurs frequently. In this study, we examined 20 cases for API2-MALT1 fusion using the multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and looked for trisomy 3, trisomy 18, and abnormalities of MALT1 and IGH genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. In addition, we analyzed VH genes by subcloning of the monoclonal polymerase chain reaction products. Of 20 cases studied, we detected gene abnormalities in 16: API2-MALT1 fusion in 9, trisomy 3 in 5, trisomy 18 in 4, MALT1 abnormality in 13, and IGH abnormality in 1. MALT1 gene abnormalities were concordant with API2-MALT1 fusion or trisomy 18. One case showed API2-MALT1 fusion and trisomy 3. On detection of API2-MALT1 fusion and trisomies, we were able to divide our cases into 3 groups, API2-MALT1 positive, trisomy positive, and no detectable gene abnormality, suggesting that tumor development had processed along different genetic pathways. All 20 cases were analyzed for VH genes. Most of the VH genes selected by the lymphomas belonged to the VH3 family, but there was no restriction to any particular VH fragment. Of interest, VH genes were unmutated in 7 cases, suggesting that T-cell-independent extrafollicular B-cell maturation may be important in the development of this lymphoma. In addition, both mutated and unmutated tumor cases were found to carry the API2-MALT1 fusion and trisomy 3. This observation suggests that these gene abnormalities may occur in microenvironments found before or outside of follicular germinal centers.

  5. Software Defined GPS API: Development and Implementation of GPS Correlator Architectures Using MATLAB with Focus on SDR Implementations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-18

    and Implementation of GPS Correlator Architectures Using MATLAB with Focus on SDR Implementations The Software Defined GPS API was created with the...documentation. 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 SDR ...Implementation of GPS Correlator Architectures Using MATLAB with Focus on SDR Implementations Report Title The Software Defined GPS API was created

  6. Test-retest reliability of the Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) scoring system for the Bender Gestalt in chronic schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Aucone, E J; Wagner, E E; Raphael, A J; Golden, C J; Espe-Pfeifer, P; Dornheim, L; Seldon, J; Pospisil, T; Proctor-Weber, Z; Calabria, M

    2001-09-01

    This study assesses the test-retest reliability of the revised Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) scoring system for the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT). The API system identifies 207 possible distortions in a BGT protocol. Test-retest reliability for 40 schizophrenic patients tested twice with a mean interval of 6.4 years (SD=3.8 years) was good, ranging from .71 to .80. Further reliability and validity studies are needed to further demonstrate the effectiveness of the system.

  7. Juvenile hormone titer in capped worker brood of Apis mellifera and reproduction in the bee mite Varroa jacobsoni.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, P; Rachinsky, A; Strambi, A; Strambi, C; Röpstorf, P

    1990-05-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) titers were recorded from fifth instar worker larvae of Apis mellifera carnica, Apis mellifera lamarckii, and Africanized honeybees kept under temperate and tropical climatic conditions. No differences in hormone titer according to honeybee race or climatic conditions were determined. However, the rate of reproduction of the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa jacobsoni, on larvae of the different honeybee races was highly variable. The possible role of honeybee JH in control of the parasite's reproduction is discussed.

  8. Api m 10, a genuine A. mellifera venom allergen, is clinically relevant but underrepresented in therapeutic extracts.

    PubMed

    Blank, S; Seismann, H; Michel, Y; McIntyre, M; Cifuentes, L; Braren, I; Grunwald, T; Darsow, U; Ring, J; Bredehorst, R; Ollert, M; Spillner, E

    2011-10-01

    Generalized systemic reactions to stinging hymenoptera venom constitute a potentially fatal condition in venom-allergic individuals. Hence, the identification and characterization of all allergens is imperative for improvement of diagnosis and design of effective immunotherapeutic approaches. Our aim was the immunochemical characterization of the carbohydrate-rich protein Api m 10, an Apis mellifera venom component and putative allergen, with focus on the relevance of glycosylation. Furthermore, the presence of Api m 10 in honeybee venom (HBV) and licensed venom immunotherapy preparations was addressed. Api m 10 was produced as soluble, aglycosylated protein in Escherichia coli and as differentially glycosylated protein providing a varying degree of fucosylation in insect cells. IgE reactivity and basophil activation of allergic patients were analyzed. For detection of Api m 10 in different venom preparations, a monoclonal human IgE antibody was generated. Both, the aglycosylated and the glycosylated variant of Api m 10 devoid of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD), exhibited IgE reactivity with approximately 50% of HBV-sensitized patients. A corresponding reactivity could be documented for the activation of basophils. Although the detection of the native protein in crude HBV suggested content comparable to other relevant allergens, three therapeutical HBV extracts lacked detectable amounts of this component. Api m 10 is a genuine allergen of A. mellifera venom with IgE sensitizing potential in a significant fraction of allergic patients independent of CCD reactivity. Thus, Api m 10 could become a key element for component-resolved diagnostic tests and improved immunotherapeutic approaches in hymenoptera venom allergy. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. The API2-MALT1 fusion exploits TNFR pathway-associated RIP1 ubiquitination to promote oncogenic NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Rosebeck, S; Rehman, A O; Apel, I J; Kohrt, D; Appert, A; O'Donnell, M A; Ting, A T; Du, M-Q; Baens, M; Lucas, P C; McAllister-Lucas, L M

    2014-05-08

    The API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein is created by the recurrent t(11;18)(q21;q21) chromosomal translocation in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. We identified receptor interacting protein-1 (RIP1) as a novel API2-MALT1-associated protein, and demonstrate that RIP1 is required for API2-MALT1 to stimulate canonical nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). API2-MALT1 promotes ubiquitination of RIP1 at lysine (K) 377, which is necessary for full NF-κB activation. Furthermore, we found that TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) recruitment is required for API2-MALT1 to induce RIP1 ubiquitination, NF-κB activation and cellular transformation. Although both TRAF2 and RIP1 interact with the API2 moiety of API2-MALT1, this moiety alone is insufficient to induce RIP1 ubiquitination or activate NF-κB, indicating that API2-MALT1-dependent RIP1 ubiquitination represents a gain of function requiring the concerted actions of both the API2 and MALT1 moieties of the fusion. Intriguingly, constitutive RIP1 ubiquitination was recently demonstrated in several solid tumors, and now our study implicates RIP1 ubiquitination as a critical component of API2-MALT1-dependent lymphomagenesis.

  10. Defensive behaviour of Apis mellifera against Vespa velutina in France: testing whether European honeybees can develop an effective collective defence against a new predator.

    PubMed

    Arca, Mariangela; Papachristoforou, Alexandros; Mougel, Florence; Rortais, Agnès; Monceau, Karine; Bonnard, Olivier; Tardy, Pascal; Thiéry, Denis; Silvain, Jean-François; Arnold, Gérard

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the prey-predator interactions between the European honeybee, Apis mellifera, and the invasive yellow-legged hornet, Vespa velutina, which first invaded France in 2004 and thereafter spread to neighbouring European countries (Spain, Portugal and Italy). Our goal was to determine how successfully honeybees are able to defend their colonies against their new predator in Europe. Experiments were conducted in the southwest of France-the point of entry of the hornet in Europe-under natural and semi-controlled field conditions. We investigated a total of eight apiaries and 95 colonies subjected to either low or high levels of predation. We analyzed hornet predatory behaviour and collective response of colonies under attack. The results showed that A. mellifera in France exhibit an inefficient and unorganized defence against V. velutina, unlike in other regions of Europe and other areas around the globe where honeybees have co-evolved with their natural Vespa predators.

  11. Point set registration: coherent point drift.

    PubMed

    Myronenko, Andriy; Song, Xubo

    2010-12-01

    Point set registration is a key component in many computer vision tasks. The goal of point set registration is to assign correspondences between two sets of points and to recover the transformation that maps one point set to the other. Multiple factors, including an unknown nonrigid spatial transformation, large dimensionality of point set, noise, and outliers, make the point set registration a challenging problem. We introduce a probabilistic method, called the Coherent Point Drift (CPD) algorithm, for both rigid and nonrigid point set registration. We consider the alignment of two point sets as a probability density estimation problem. We fit the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) centroids (representing the first point set) to the data (the second point set) by maximizing the likelihood. We force the GMM centroids to move coherently as a group to preserve the topological structure of the point sets. In the rigid case, we impose the coherence constraint by reparameterization of GMM centroid locations with rigid parameters and derive a closed form solution of the maximization step of the EM algorithm in arbitrary dimensions. In the nonrigid case, we impose the coherence constraint by regularizing the displacement field and using the variational calculus to derive the optimal transformation. We also introduce a fast algorithm that reduces the method computation complexity to linear. We test the CPD algorithm for both rigid and nonrigid transformations in the presence of noise, outliers, and missing points, where CPD shows accurate results and outperforms current state-of-the-art methods.

  12. TogoWS: integrated SOAP and REST APIs for interoperable bioinformatics Web services.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Toshiaki; Nakao, Mitsuteru; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2010-07-01

    Web services have become widely used in bioinformatics analysis, but there exist incompatibilities in interfaces and data types, which prevent users from making full use of a combination of these services. Therefore, we have developed the TogoWS service to provide an integrated interface with advanced features. In the TogoWS REST (REpresentative State Transfer) API (application programming interface), we introduce a unified access method for major database resources through intuitive URIs that can be used to search, retrieve, parse and convert the database entries. The TogoWS SOAP API resolves compatibility issues found on the server and client-side SOAP implementations. The TogoWS service is freely available at: http://togows.dbcls.jp/.

  13. TogoWS: integrated SOAP and REST APIs for interoperable bioinformatics Web services

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Toshiaki; Nakao, Mitsuteru; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2010-01-01

    Web services have become widely used in bioinformatics analysis, but there exist incompatibilities in interfaces and data types, which prevent users from making full use of a combination of these services. Therefore, we have developed the TogoWS service to provide an integrated interface with advanced features. In the TogoWS REST (REpresentative State Transfer) API (application programming interface), we introduce a unified access method for major database resources through intuitive URIs that can be used to search, retrieve, parse and convert the database entries. The TogoWS SOAP API resolves compatibility issues found on the server and client-side SOAP implementations. The TogoWS service is freely available at: http://togows.dbcls.jp/. PMID:20472643

  14. Insights into social insects from the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    2006-10-26

    Here we report the genome sequence of the honeybee Apis mellifera, a key model for social behaviour and essential to global ecology through pollination. Compared with other sequenced insect genomes, the A. mellifera genome has high A+T and CpG contents, lacks major transposon families, evolves more slowly, and is more similar to vertebrates for circadian rhythm, RNA interference and DNA methylation genes, among others. Furthermore, A. mellifera has fewer genes for innate immunity, detoxification enzymes, cuticle-forming proteins and gustatory receptors, more genes for odorant receptors, and novel genes for nectar and pollen utilization, consistent with its ecology and social organization. Compared to Drosophila, genes in early developmental pathways differ in Apis, whereas similarities exist for functions that differ markedly, such as sex determination, brain function and behaviour. Population genetics suggests a novel African origin for the species A. mellifera and insights into whether Africanized bees spread throughout the New World via hybridization or displacement.

  15. Insights into social insects from the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Here we report the genome sequence of the honeybee Apis mellifera, a key model for social behaviour and essential to global ecology through pollination. Compared with other sequenced insect genomes, the A. mellifera genome has high A+T and CpG contents, lacks major transposon families, evolves more slowly, and is more similar to vertebrates for circadian rhythm, RNA interference and DNA methylation genes, among others. Furthermore, A. mellifera has fewer genes for innate immunity, detoxification enzymes, cuticle-forming proteins and gustatory receptors, more genes for odorant receptors, and novel genes for nectar and pollen utilization, consistent with its ecology and social organization. Compared to Drosophila, genes in early developmental pathways differ in Apis, whereas similarities exist for functions that differ markedly, such as sex determination, brain function and behaviour. Population genetics suggests a novel African origin for the species A. mellifera and insights into whether Africanized bees spread throughout the New World via hybridization or displacement. PMID:17073008

  16. Temporal genetic structure of a drone congregation area of the giant Asian honeybee (Apis dorsata).

    PubMed

    Kraus, F B; Koeniger, N; Tingek, S; Moritz, R F A

    2005-12-01

    The giant Asian honeybee (Apis dorsata), like all other members of the genus Apis, has a complex mating system in which the queens and males (drones) mate at spatially defined drone congregation areas (DCAs). Here, we studied the temporal genetic structure of a DCA of A. dorsata over an 8-day time window by the genotyping of sampled drones with microsatellite markers. Analysis of the genotypic data revealed a significant genetic differentiation between 3 sampling days and indicated that the DCA was used by at least two subpopulations at all days in varying proportions. The estimation of the number of colonies which used the DCA ranged between 20 and 40 colonies per subpopulation, depending on the estimation procedure and population. The overall effective population size was estimated as high as N (e)=140. The DCA seems to counteract known tendencies of A. dorsata for inbreeding within colony aggregations by facilitating gene flow among subpopulations and increasing the effective population size.

  17. Temporal genetic structure of a drone congregation area of the giant Asian honeybee ( Apis dorsata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, F. B.; Koeniger, N.; Tingek, S.; Moritz, R. F. A.

    2005-12-01

    The giant Asian honeybee ( Apis dorsata), like all other members of the genus Apis, has a complex mating system in which the queens and males (drones) mate at spatially defined drone congregation areas (DCAs). Here, we studied the temporal genetic structure of a DCA of A. dorsata over an 8-day time window by the genotyping of sampled drones with microsatellite markers. Analysis of the genotypic data revealed a significant genetic differentiation between 3 sampling days and indicated that the DCA was used by at least two subpopulations at all days in varying proportions. The estimation of the number of colonies which used the DCA ranged between 20 and 40 colonies per subpopulation, depending on the estimation procedure and population. The overall effective population size was estimated as high as N e=140. The DCA seems to counteract known tendencies of A. dorsata for inbreeding within colony aggregations by facilitating gene flow among subpopulations and increasing the effective population size.

  18. Genetic reincarnation of workers as queens in the Eastern honeybee Apis cerana.

    PubMed

    Holmes, M J; Tan, K; Wang, Z; Oldroyd, B P; Beekman, M

    2015-01-01

    Thelytokous parthenogenesis, or the asexual production of female offspring, is rare in the animal kingdom, but relatively common in social Hymenoptera. However, in honeybees, it is only known to be ubiquitous in one subspecies of Apis mellifera, the Cape honeybee, A. mellifera capensis. Here we report the appearance of queen cells in two colonies of the Eastern honeybee Apis cerana that no longer contained a queen or queen-produced brood to rear queens from. A combination of microsatellite genotyping and the timing of the appearance of these individuals excluded the possibility that they had been laid by the original queen. Based on the genotypes of these individuals, thelytokous production by natal workers is the most parsimonious explanation for their existence. Thus, we present the first example of thelytoky in a honeybee outside A. mellifera. We discuss the evolutionary and ecological consequences of thelytoky in A. cerana, in particular the role thelytoky may play in the recent invasions by populations of this species.

  19. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals mite (Varroa destructor) resistance-related proteins in Eastern honeybees (Apis cerana).

    PubMed

    Ji, T; Shen, F; Liu, Z; Yin, L; Shen, J; Liang, Q; Luo, Y X

    2015-08-21

    The mite (Varroa destructor) has become the greatest threat to apiculture worldwide. As the original host of the mite, Apis cerana can effectively resist the mite. An increased understanding of the resistance mechanisms of Eastern honeybees against V. destructor may help researchers to protect other species against these parasites. In this study, the proteomes of 4 Apis cerana colonies were analyzed using an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation technology. We determined the differences in gene and protein expression between susceptible and resistant colonies that were either unchallenged or challenged by V. destructor. The results showed that a total of 1532 proteins were identified. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis suggested that the transcription factors and basic metabolic and respiratory processes were efficient and feasible factors controlling this resistance, and 12 differentially expressed proteins were identified in Venn analysis. The results were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. This study may provide insight into the genetic mechanisms underlying the resistance of honeybee to mites.

  20. Beginning the 21st century with advanced Automatic Parts Identification (API)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Fred; Roxby, Don

    1994-01-01

    Under the direction of the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama, the development and commercialization of an advanced Automated Parts Indentification (API) system is being undertaken by Rockwell International Corporation. The new API system is based on a variable sized, machine-readable, two-dimensioanl matrix symbol that can be applied directly onto most metallic and nonmetallic materials using safe, permanent marking methods. Its checkerboard-like structure is the most space efficient of all symbologies. This high data-density symbology can be applied to products of different material sizes and geometries using application-dependent, computer-driven marking devices. The high fidelity markings produced by these devices can then be captured using a specially designed camera linked to any IBM-compatible computer. Applications of compressed symbology technology will reduce costs and improve quality, productivity, and processes in a wide variety of federal and commercial applications.

  1. Beginning the 21st century with advanced automatic part identification (API): updated May 1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, Fred; Roxby, Don

    1994-10-01

    Under the direction of the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama, the development and commercialization of an advanced Automated Part Identification (API) system is being undertaken by the Rockwell Aerospace Division. The new API system is based on a variable sized, machine-readable, matrix symbol that can be applied directly onto most metallic and nonmetallic materials using safe, permanent marking methods. Its checkerboard-like structure is the most space efficient of all symbologies. This high data- density symbology can be applied to products of different material sizes and geometries using application-dependent, computer-driven marking devices. The high fidelity markings produced by these devices can then be captured using a camera linked to a IBM-compatible microcomputer. Application of Compressed Symbology technology will reduce costs and improve quality, productivity, and processes in a wide variety of federal and commercial applications.

  2. Evaluation of the modified API 20C system for identification of clinically important yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Buesching, W J; Kurek, K; Roberts, G D

    1979-01-01

    The modified API 20C system (Analytab Products, Inc.) containing 19 carbohydrate assimilation tests was used to identify stock cultures of clinical isolates and routine clinical isolates from the Mayo Clinic mycology laboratory. The system provided correct identifications for 96% of the 505 organisms tested. The API 20C represents a commercial system useful for the identification of yeasts from clinical specimens. Although reliable, it is not a complete system and must be used in conjunction with microscopic morphological features for definitive identification. Since the system requires 72 h for identification, it is not designed for the rapid presumptive identification of such organisms as Cryptococcus neoformans; other biochemical tests must be used for this purpose. PMID:383742

  3. Bauschinger effect on API 5L B and X56 steel plates under repeating bending load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Icho Y.; Korda, Akhmad A.

    2017-01-01

    During steel pipe fabrication, hot rolled coil steel will undergo coiling and uncoiling process, where the steel plate is bent repeatedly. When cyclic loading is imposed on steel, tensile and compressive stress will occur in it resulting in softening caused by Bauschinger effect. This research is focused on Bauschinger effect and cyclic loading during coiling and uncoiling process on API 5L B and API 5L X56 steel. Both types of steel were given repeated bend loading with variation in loading cycle and the curvature radius. The steel's response was then observed by using tensile testing, microhardness testing, and microstructure observation. A decrease in yield strength is observed during lower cycles and on smaller radii. After higher loading cycle, the yield strength of the steel was increased. Microhardness testing also reported similar results on the subsurface part of the steel where loading is at its highest.

  4. SeqLib: a C ++ API for rapid BAM manipulation, sequence alignment and sequence assembly.

    PubMed

    Wala, Jeremiah; Beroukhim, Rameen

    2017-03-01

    We present SeqLib, a C ++ API and command line tool that provides a rapid and user-friendly interface to BAM/SAM/CRAM files, global sequence alignment operations and sequence assembly. Four C libraries perform core operations in SeqLib: HTSlib for BAM access, BWA-MEM and BLAT for sequence alignment and Fermi for error correction and sequence assembly. Benchmarking indicates that SeqLib has lower CPU and memory requirements than leading C ++ sequence analysis APIs. We demonstrate an example of how minimal SeqLib code can extract, error-correct and assemble reads from a CRAM file and then align with BWA-MEM. SeqLib also provides additional capabilities, including chromosome-aware interval queries and read plotting. Command line tools are available for performing integrated error correction, micro-assemblies and alignment.

  5. In vitro inhibitory activity of essential oil vapors against Ascosphaera apis.

    PubMed

    Kloucek, Pavel; Smid, Jakub; Flesar, Jaroslav; Havlik, Jaroslav; Titera, Dalibor; Rada, Vojtech; Drabek, Ondrej; Kokoska, Ladislav

    2012-02-01

    This work evaluates the in vitro inhibitory activity of 70 essential oils (EOs) in the vapor phase for the control of Chalkbrood disease caused by Ascosphaera apis Maassen ex Claussen (Olive et Spiltoir). Two wild strains isolated from infected honey bee colonies together with one standard collection strain were tested by the microatmosphere method. From 70 EOs, 39 exhibited an antifungal effect against A. apis standard and wild strains. The greatest antifungal action was observed for EO vapors from Armoracia rusticana, followed by Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon flexosus, Origanum vulgare and Allium sativum. An investigation of chemical composition by GC-MS revealed, that the most active EOs contained allyl isothiocyanate, citral, carvacrol and diallyl sulfides as the main constituents. The chemical composition plays a key role, as activities of different EOs from the same botanical species were different according to their composition.

  6. Pheromonal dominance and the selection of a socially parasitic honeybee worker lineage (Apis mellifera capensis Esch.).

    PubMed

    Dietemann, V; Neumann, P; Härtel, S; Pirk, C W W; Crewe, R M

    2007-05-01

    The recent invasion by self-replicating socially parasitic Cape honeybee workers, Apis mellifera capensis, of colonies of the neighbouring African subspecies Apis mellifera scutellata represents an opportunity to study evolution of intraspecific parasitism in real time. As honeybee workers compete pheromonally for reproductive dominance, and as A. m. capensis workers readily produce queen-like pheromones, we hypothesized that these semiochemicals promoted the evolution of intraspecific social parasitism. Remarkably, the offspring of a single worker became established as a parasite in A. m. scutellata's range. This could have resulted from extreme selection among different clonal parasitic worker lineages. Using pheromonal contest experiments, we show that the selected parasitic lineage dominates in the production of mandibular gland pheromones over all other competitors to which it is exposed. Our results suggest that mandibular gland pheromones played a key role in the evolution of intraspecific social parasitism in the honeybee and in the selection of a single genotype of parasitic workers.

  7. Innovations en vaccinologie: enjeux et perspectives pour l’Afrique

    PubMed Central

    Diop, Doudou; Sanicas, Melvin

    2017-01-01

    La vaccination est incontestablement l’une des interventions de santé publique les plus efficaces et les plus rentables qui soient. Les vaccins continuent de révolutionner notre capacité à prévenir les maladies et à améliorer la santé. Avec toutes les avancées technologiques, nous sommes en mesure d’étendre les avantages des vaccins à plus de gens et de fournir une meilleure protection contre les maladies infectieuses mortelles. Toutefois, avec le développement incessant de nouvelles souches microbiennes à travers le monde, la recherche en vaccinologie se doit d’innover continuellement. D’énormes progrès ont été réalisés pour améliorer la couverture vaccinale et introduire de nouveaux vaccins en Afrique. De nouveaux types de vaccins associés à des outils de vectorisation, d’administration et de délivrance spécifiques mais aussi des adjuvants susceptibles de moduler finement la réponse immunitaire sont attendus dans le futur. En Afrique, il est nécessaire de développer une approche régionale afin de répondre efficacement aux nombreux défis. Une meilleure information, la formation des personnels de santé en vaccinologie et des recherches bien ciblées sont les clés des futurs accomplissements dans le domaine. PMID:28690749

  8. Matériaux pour la combustion catalytique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunot, C.

    2002-04-01

    La combustion catalytique est l'une des technologies les plus prometteuses pour réaliser une combustion ultra-propre des hydrocarbures et notamment du gaz naturel. Aujourd'hui, cependant, les produits commerciaux utilisant cette technologie sont peu nombreux et le plus souvent réservés à des applications basse température (500-700°C) à cause de la limitation liée à la durée de vie des catalyseurs utilisés (métaux précieux). Le développement de cette technologie est donc intimement lié à des défis “matériaux”, et notamment à l'obtention de catalyseurs actifs et durables au moins plusieurs milliers d'heures à des températures comprises entre 700 et 1 100°C. Or les catalyseurs de type métaux précieux, très actifs y compris à basse température, ont une durée de vie (maintien de leur activité catalytique dans le temps) d'autant plus limitée que la température de l'application est élevée. A l'inverse, les catalyseurs de type pérovskite ou hexaaluminate, dont la durée de vie à haute température est satisfaisante, présentent une activité plus faible qui rend notamment l'amorçage de la combustion catalytique délicate. C'est pourquoi les solutions potentielles sont à rechercher non seulement du côté matériaux de catalyseurs mais aussi du côté ingénierie et conception des matériels associés.

  9. Honeybee glands as possible infection reservoirs of Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis in naturally infected forager bees.

    PubMed

    Copley, T R; Jabaji, S H

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis are present in different gland tissues of honeybee, Apis mellifera L. and to monitor spore presence and quantity in these glands in naturally infected hives from July 2009 to July 2010 in Quebec, Canada. Nosema spp. were quantified using duplex quantitative real-time PCR in the thoracic salivary, hypopharyngeal, mandibular glands, and venom sac and glands of A. mellifera over a period of 8 months. Both Nosema species were present in all the glands as single or mixed species; however, N. apis was not present as single-species detections in the salivary glands (see Table 2). Nosema ceranae was more prevalent throughout the 8 months. Significant correlative relationships were established for N. ceranae and N. apis levels in the honeybee glands and those found within the intestines of forager honeybees. Overall, the seasonality of N. ceranae and N. apis in the different glands tightly followed the seasonal patterns in the honeybee guts. Nosema ceranae and N. apis are not tissue specific, and honeybee glands have potential to become a useful indicator of the extent of disease in the colony and may represent a potential infection reservoir. First report of spore load quantification of Nosema spp. in different honeybee glands. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Novel insights into excipient effects on the biopharmaceutics of APIs from different BCS classes: Lactose in solid oral dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Kubbinga, Marlies; Moghani, Laura; Langguth, Peter

    2014-09-30

    Excipients encompass a wide range of properties that are of importance for the resulting drug product. Regulatory guidelines on biowaivers for immediate release formulations require an in depth understanding of the biopharmaceutic effects of excipients in order to establish bioequivalence between two different products carrying the same API based on dissolution tests alone. This paper describes a new approach in evaluating biopharmaceutic excipient effects. Actually used quantities of a model excipient, lactose, formulated in combination with APIs from different BCS classes were evaluated. The results suggest that companies use different (relative) amounts depending on the characteristics of the API. The probability of bioinequivalence due to a difference in lactose content between test and reference products was classified as low for BCS class I APIs and medium for BCS class II and III APIs, whereas a high probability was assigned to the combination of lactose and BCS class IV APIs. If repeated for other excipients, this retrospective, top-down approach may lead to a new database and more widespread applications of the biowaiver approach.

  11. The Aerodynamic Characteristics of .50 Ball, M33, API, M8, and APIT, M20 Ammunition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Drag Measurements for the APIT, M20 Projectile ........ .. 62 Vi vii INUXIIO1NA.M.LY u.LI IIIANK. I. Introduction The caliber .50 Armor Piercing...Incendiary (API, MS) and Armor Piercing Incendiary Tracer (APIT, M20) munitions were developed in 1943-44, for wartime service use in various versions of the...Hitchcock, H.P., "Aerodynamic Data for Spinning Projectiles," US Army Balistic Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, BRL Report No

  12. Protease activity of the API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein in MALT lymphoma development and treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosebeck, Shaun; Lucas, Peter C; McAllister-Lucas, Linda M

    2011-05-01

    Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a prototypical cancer that occurs in the setting of chronic inflammation and an important model for understanding how deregulated NF-κB transcriptional activity contributes to malignancy. Most gastric MALT lymphomas require ongoing antigenic stimulation for continued tumor growth, and Stage I disease is usually cured by eradicating the causative microorganism, Helicobacter pylori, with antibiotics. However, in a subset of MALT lymphomas, chromosomal translocations are acquired that render the lymphoma antigen-independent. The recurrent translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) is associated with failure to respond to antibiotic therapy and increased rate of dissemination. This translocation creates the API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein, which comprises the amino terminus of inhibitor of apoptosis 2 (API2 or cIAP2) fused to the carboxy terminus of MALT1. A common characteristic of chromosomal translocations in MALT lymphoma, including t(11;18), is that genes involved in the regulation of the NF-κB transcription factor are targeted by the translocations, and these genetic perturbations thereby result in deregulated, constitutive NF-κB stimulation. In the last decade, great insights into the roles of API2 and MALT1 in NF-κB signaling have been made. For example, recent pivotal studies have uncovered the long sought-after proteolytic activity of MALT1 and have demonstrated its critical involvement in the survival of certain lymphomas. Here, we review the current understanding of the role of MALT1 in normal lymphocyte function and lymphomagenesis. We then highlight our recent work that has revealed an intriguing link between the proteolytic activity of the API2-MALT1 fusion and its ability to influence lymphomagenesis by cleaving a key NF-κB regulatory protein, NF-κB-inducing kinase.

  13. Accuracy of Burkholderia pseudomallei Identification Using the API 20NE System and a Latex Agglutination Test▿

    PubMed Central

    Amornchai, Premjit; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Mahakhunkijcharoen, Yuvadee; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Currie, Bart J.; Newton, Paul N.; van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Wongratanacheewin, Surasakdi; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2007-01-01

    In an evaluation of the API 20NE for the identification of Burkholderia spp., 792/800 (99%) Burkholderia pseudomallei and 17/19 (89%) B. cepacia isolates were correctly identified but 10 B. mallei and 98 B. thailandensis isolates were not correctly identified. A latex agglutination test was positive for 796/800 (99.5%) B. pseudomallei isolates and negative for 120 other oxidase-positive gram-negative bacilli. PMID:17804660

  14. Home Energy Scoring Tools (website) and Application Programming Interfaces, APIs (aka HEScore)

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan; Bourassa, Norm; Rainer, Leo

    2012-05-01

    A web-based residential energy rating tool with APIs that runs the LBNL website: Provides customized estimates of residential energy use and energy bills based on building description information provided by the user. Energy use is estimated using engineering models developed at LBNL. Space heating and cooling use is based on the DOE-2. 1E building simulation model. Other end-users (water heating, appliances, lighting, and misc. equipment) are based on engineering models developed by LBNL.

  15. libChEBI: an API for accessing the ChEBI database.

    PubMed

    Swainston, Neil; Hastings, Janna; Dekker, Adriano; Muthukrishnan, Venkatesh; May, John; Steinbeck, Christoph; Mendes, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    ChEBI is a database and ontology of chemical entities of biological interest. It is widely used as a source of identifiers to facilitate unambiguous reference to chemical entities within biological models, databases, ontologies and literature. ChEBI contains a wealth of chemical data, covering over 46,500 distinct chemical entities, and related data such as chemical formula, charge, molecular mass, structure, synonyms and links to external databases. Furthermore, ChEBI is an ontology, and thus provides meaningful links between chemical entities. Unlike many other resources, ChEBI is fully human-curated, providing a reliable, non-redundant collection of chemical entities and related data. While ChEBI is supported by a web service for programmatic access and a number of download files, it does not have an API library to facilitate the use of ChEBI and its data in cheminformatics software. To provide this missing functionality, libChEBI, a comprehensive API library for accessing ChEBI data, is introduced. libChEBI is available in Java, Python and MATLAB versions from http://github.com/libChEBI, and provides full programmatic access to all data held within the ChEBI database through a simple and documented API. libChEBI is reliant upon the (automated) download and regular update of flat files that are held locally. As such, libChEBI can be embedded in both on- and off-line software applications. libChEBI allows better support of ChEBI and its data in the development of new cheminformatics software. Covering three key programming languages, it allows for the entirety of the ChEBI database to be accessed easily and quickly through a simple API. All code is open access and freely available.

  16. Studies of the eddy structure in the lower ionosphere by the API technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhmetieva, Nataliya V.; Grigoriev, Gennadii I.; Lapin, Victor G.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new application of the API technique to study of turbulent phenomena in the lower ionosphere. The main objective of these studies is experimental diagnostics of natural ordered eddy structures at the altitudes of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, such as those that occur when internal gravity waves propagate in stratified flows in the atmospheric boundary layer. To this end, we considered the impact of eddy motions in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere on the relaxation time and the frequency of the signal scattered by periodic irregularities. Theoretical study of eddy structures base on experiments using SURA heating facility (56,14 N; 44,1 W). It is known, artificial periodic irregularities (APIs) are formed in the field of the powerful standing wave as a result of the interference of the incident wave and reflected from the ionosphere (Belikovich et al., Ionospheric Research by Means of Artificial Periodic Irregularities - 2002. Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany. Copernicus GmbH. 160 p.). The relaxation or decay of the periodic structure is specified by the ambipolar diffusion process. The atmospheric turbulence causes reduction of the amplitude and decay time of the API scattered signal in comparison with the diffusion time. We found a relation between the eddy period and the characteristic decay time of scattered signal, for which the synchronism of the waves scattered by a periodic structure is broken. Besides, it is shown, when the eddy structure moves by a horizontal wind exists at these heights, the frequency of the radio wave scattered by API structure will periodically increase and decrease compared with the frequency of the radiated diagnostic (probing) radio-wave. The work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation under grant No 14-12-00556.

  17. Manipulating API and AOD data to distinguish transportation of aerosol at high altitude in Penang, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, F.; Lim, H. S.; Abdullah, K.; Yoon, T. L.; Matjafri, M. Z.; Holben, B.

    2014-02-01

    Air pollution index (API) is an index commonly used in Malaysia to determine the air quality level. It is a ground truth data measurement which is unable to unambiguously quantify air quality level at higher atmosphere. On the other hand, aerosol optical depth (AOD) from AERONET data obtained using sun photometer provides reading of the air quality for a column of atmosphere from ground surface. We first determine the quantitative correlation between the API and AOD data collected in Penang, Malaysia, between January - September, 2012, using two independent methods, one based on regression analysis and the other interpolation. Our purpose is to establish a systematic numerical procedure to determine whether aerosol transported in high altitude from other location has occurred. Two independent methods for establishing the quantitative relationship between the API and AOD data were used as a way to facilitate the verification of our approach. In our method, data from southwest monsoon period (August to September) were used as "calibration dataset" to establish the quantitative correlation between the AOD and API data. The established calibrated coefficients is then used to predict the AOD of other months, which are then compared against the data actually measured. Discrepancy between the predicted and measured AOD data can then be interpreted as an indication of whether the atmosphere at high altitude is polluted by aerosol transported from other location. If the predicted AOD is much larger than that measured, back trajectory analysis was applied to identify the aerosol transported source. This procedure is very helpful to investigate the aerosol transportation and distribution patterns during monsoon and non monsoon periods.

  18. Short reads from honey bee (Apis sp.) sequencing projects reflect microbial associate diversity.

    PubMed

    Gerth, Michael; Hurst, Gregory D D

    2017-01-01

    High throughput (or 'next generation') sequencing has transformed most areas of biological research and is now a standard method that underpins empirical study of organismal biology, and (through comparison of genomes), reveals patterns of evolution. For projects focused on animals, these sequencing methods do not discriminate between the primary target of sequencing (the animal genome) and 'contaminating' material, such as associated microbes. A common first step is to filter out these contaminants to allow better assembly of the animal genome or transcriptome. Here, we aimed to assess if these 'contaminations' provide information with regard to biologically important microorganisms associated with the individual. To achieve this, we examined whether the short read data from Apis retrieved elements of its well established microbiome. To this end, we screened almost 1,000 short read libraries of honey bee (Apis sp.) DNA sequencing project for the presence of microbial sequences, and find sequences from known honey bee microbial associates in at least 11% of them. Further to this, we screened ∼500 Apis RNA sequencing libraries for evidence of viral infections, which were found to be present in about half of them. We then used the data to reconstruct draft genomes of three Apis associated bacteria, as well as several viral strains de novo. We conclude that 'contamination' in short read sequencing libraries can provide useful genomic information on microbial taxa known to be associated with the target organisms, and may even lead to the discovery of novel associations. Finally, we demonstrate that RNAseq samples from experiments commonly carry uneven viral loads across libraries. We note variation in viral presence and load may be a confounding feature of differential gene expression analyses, and as such it should be incorporated as a random factor in analyses.

  19. Home Energy Scoring Tools (website) and Application Programming Interfaces, APIs (aka HEScore)

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan; Bourassa, Norm; Rainer, Leo

    2016-04-22

    A web-based residential energy rating tool with APIs that runs the LBNL website: Provides customized estimates of residential energy use and energy bills based on building description information provided by the user. Energy use is estimated using engineering models developed at LBNL. Space heating and cooling use is based on the DOE-2. 1E building simulation model. Other end-users (water heating, appliances, lighting, and misc. equipment) are based on engineering models developed by LBNL.

  20. A new record of phoretic mites on honey bee Apis mellifera L. in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abou Senna, F M

    1997-12-01

    Five species of mites, belonging to different families, were found infesting honeybee workers, Apis mellifera L., in different apiaries in Al-Gharbiya Governorate, Nile Delta. All the identified species except Varroa jacobsoni Oudemans (Varroidae) are new records for the phoretic bee mites in Egypt. These are Neocypholaelaps indica Evans (Ameroseiidae), Pediculochelus raulti Lavoipiere (Pediculochelidae), Tarsonemus indoapis Lindquist (Tarsonemidae) and Chaetodactylus osmiae (dufour) (Chaetodactylidae). The host parasite relationship was discussed. A brief diagnosis with diagrammatic illustrations is given.

  1. Cloning and characterization of a third isoform of corazonin in the honey bee Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Verleyen, Peter; Baggerman, Geert; Mertens, Inge; Vandersmissen, Tim; Huybrechts, Jurgen; Van Lommel, Alfons; De Loof, Arnold; Schoofs, Liliane

    2006-03-01

    The precursor of the insect hormone corazonin has been cloned from the honey bee Apis mellifera. The precursor predicts a novel isoform of corazonin, pQTFTYSHGWTNamide, which was confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry. Although Apis corazonin differs only by a glutamine/threonine substitution from [His7]-corazonin, it is considerably less active in the dark color inducing assay on albino locusts. Whole mount fluorescence immunohistochemistry of the central nervous system of the honey bee showed a pattern similar to the ones described for other insects. Four neurons of the lateral protocerebrum project axons towards the retrocerebral complex. It is unlikely that Apis corazonin is present in all hymenopteran species since the presence of this peptide could not be demonstrated by means of mass spectrometry in the retrocerebral complex of the red wood ant Formica rufa and the wasp Vespula saxonica. Instead, we found masses corresponding with [Arg7]- and [His7]-corazonin respectively, suggesting that some of the corazonin isoforms originated late during evolution in different insect orders.

  2. APIS : an interactive database of HST-UV observations of the outer planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, Laurent; Henry, Florence; Prangé, Renée; Le Sidaner, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Remote UV measurement of the outer planets offer a wealth of informations on rings, moons, planetary atmospheres and magnetospheres. Auroral emissions in particular provide highly valuable constraints on the auroral processes at work and the underlying coupling between the solar wind, the magnetosphere, the ionosphere and the moons. Key observables provided by high resolution spectro-imaging include the spatial topology and the dynamics of active magnetic field lines, the radiated and the precipitated powers or the energy of precipitating particles. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) acquired thousands of Far-UV spectra and images of the aurorae of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus since 1993, feeding in numerous magnetospheric studies. But their use remains generally limited, owing to the difficulty to access and use raw and value-added data. APIS, the egyptian god of fertilization, is also the acronym of a new database (Auroral Planetary Imaging and Spectroscopy), aimed at facilitating the use of HST planetary auroral observations. APIS is based at the Virtual Observatory (VO) of Paris and provides a free and interactive access to a variety of high level data through a simple research interface and standard VO tools (as Aladin, Specview). We will present the capabilities of APIS and illustrate them with several examples.

  3. APIS : an interactive database of HST-UV observations of the outer planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, L.; Henry, F.; Prangé, R.; Le Sidaner, P.

    2013-09-01

    Remote UV measurement of the outer planets are a wealth of informations on rings, moons, planetary atmospheres and magnetospheres. Auroral emissions in particular provide highly valuable constraints on the auroral processes at work and the underlying coupling between the solar wind, the magnetosphere, the ionosphere and the moons. Key observables provided by high resolution spectro-imaging include the spatial topology and the dynamics of active magnetic field lines, the radiated and the precipitated powers or the energy of precipitating particles. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) acquired thousands of Far-UV spectra and images of the aurorae of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus since 1993, feeding in numerous magnetospheric studies. But their use remains generally limited, owing to the difficulty to access and use raw and value-added data. APIS, the egyptian god of fertilization, is also the acronym of a new database (Auroral Planetary Imaging and Spectroscopy, Figure 1), aimed at facilitating the use of HST planetary auroral observations. APIS is based at the Virtual Observatory (VO) of Paris and provides a free and interactive access to a variety of high level data through a simple research interface and standard VO tools. We will present the capabilities of APIS and illustrate them with several examples.

  4. [Analysis of different pipe corrosion by ESEM and bacteria identification by API in pilot distribution network].

    PubMed

    Wu, Qing; Zhao, Xinhua; Yu, Qing; Li, Jun

    2008-07-01

    To understand the corrosion of different material water supply pipelines and bacterium in drinking water and biofilms. A pilot distribution network was built and water quality detection was made on popular pipelines of galvanized iron pipe, PPR and ABS plastic pipes by ESEM (environmental scanning electron microscopy). Bacterium in drinking water and biofilms were identified by API Bacteria Identification System 10s and 20E (Biomerieux, France), and pathogenicity of bacterium were estimated. Galvanized zinc pipes were seriously corroded; there were thin layers on inner face of PPR and ABS plastic pipes. 10 bacterium (got from water samples) were identified by API10S, in which 7 bacterium were opportunistic pathogens. 21 bacterium (got from water and biofilms samples) were identified by API20E, in which 5 bacterium were pathogens and 11 bacterium were opportunistic pathogens and 5 bacteria were not reported for their pathogenicities to human beings. The bacterial water quality of drinking water distribution networks were not good. Most bacterium in drinking water and biofilms on the inner face of pipeline of the drinking water distribution network were opportunistic pathogens, it could cause serious water supply accident, if bacteria spread in suitable conditions. In the aspect of pipe material, old pipelines should be changed by new material pipes.

  5. Comparative development and tissue tropism of Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Fone; Solter, Leellen F

    2013-05-01

    The two etiological agents of nosema disease in honey bees, Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia: Nosematidae), reproduce in the midgut tissues of the host. N. apis is tissue specific but the development and tissue tropism of N. ceranae is not well understood. Our investigations compared development of the two phylogenetically related pathogens in all major host tissues. Using microscopy, PCR and qPCR quantification to evaluate tissue tropism of infected bees in communal cages and of individually restrained infected bees, we found no detectable spores in cephalic or other body tissues except midgut tissues. Nosema DNA was detected in Malpighian tubules but the tubules could not be separated from the alimentary tract without release of spores from the midgut. Nosema DNA was not detected in hemolymph sampled from the head capsule or the abdomen of infected bees. We confirmed that N. ceranae only develops in midgut tissues. Spores of both species released from host midgut cells accumulated in the hindgut lumen, and we noted differences in numbers and ratios of spore types and in growth curves between the two pathogens. N. apis reached a consistent level of spore production after 12 days post inoculation (dpi); N. ceranae spore production increased linearly from 12 to 20 dpi and the number of mature N. ceranae spores was consistently higher.

  6. High mobility group (HMG-box) genes in the honeybee fungal pathogen Ascosphaera apis.

    PubMed

    Aronstein, K A; Murray, K D; de León, J H; Qin, X; Weinstock, G M

    2007-01-01

    The genome of the honeybee fungal pathogen Ascosphaera apis (Maassen) encodes three putative high mobility group (HMG-box) transcription factors. The predicted proteins (MAT1-2, STE11 and HTF), each of which contain a single strongly conserved HMG-box, exhibit high similarity to mating type proteins and STE11-like transcription factors previously identified in other ascomycete fungi, some of them important plant and human pathogens. In this study we characterized the A. apis HMG-box containing genes and analyzed the structure of the mating type locus (MAT1-2) and its flanking regions. The MAT1-2 locus contains a single gene encoding a protein with an HMG-box. We also have determined the transcriptional patterns of all three HMG-box containing genes in both mating type idiomorphs and discuss a potential role of these transcription factors in A. apis development and reproduction. A multiplex PCR method with primers amplifying mat1-2-1 and Ste11 gene fragments is described. This new method allows for identification of a single mating type idiomorph and might become an essential tool for applied and basic research of chalkbrood disease in honeybees.

  7. Apis - a Digital Inventory of Archaeological Heritage Based on Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doneus, M.; Forwagner, U.; Liem, J.; Sevara, C.

    2017-08-01

    Heritage managers are in need of dynamic spatial inventories of archaeological and cultural heritage that provide them with multipurpose tools to interactively understand information about archaeological heritage within its landscape context. Specifically, linking site information with the respective non-invasive prospection data is of increasing importance as it allows for the assessment of inherent uncertainties related to the use and interpretation of remote sensing data by the educated and knowledgeable heritage manager. APIS, the archaeological prospection information system of the Aerial Archive of the University of Vienna, is specifically designed to meet these needs. It provides storage and easy access to all data concerning aerial photographs and archaeological sites through a single GIS-based application. Furthermore, APIS has been developed in an open source environment, which allows it to be freely distributed and modified. This combination in one single open source system facilitates an easy workflow for data management, interpretation, storage, and retrieval. APIS and a sample dataset will be released free of charge under creative commons license in near future.

  8. Deformed wing virus associated with Tropilaelaps mercedesae infesting European honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Forsgren, Eva; de Miranda, Joachim R; Isaksson, Mats; Wei, Shi; Fries, Ingemar

    2009-02-01

    Mites in the genus Tropilaelaps (Acari: Laelapidae) are ectoparasites of the brood of honey bees (Apis spp.). Different Tropilaelaps subspecies were originally described from Apis dorsata, but a host switch occurred to the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, for which infestations can rapidly lead to colony death. Tropilaelaps is hence considered more dangerous to A. mellifera than the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. Honey bees are also infected by many different viruses, some of them associated with and vectored by V. destructor. In recent years, deformed wing virus (DWV) has become the most prevalent virus infection in honey bees associated with V. destructor. DWV is distributed world-wide, and found wherever the Varroa mite is found, although low levels of the virus can also be found in Varroa free colonies. The Varroa mite transmits viral particles when feeding on the haemolymph of pupae or adult bees. Both the Tropilaelaps mite and the Varroa mite feed on honey bee brood, but no observations of DWV in Tropilaelaps have so far been reported. In this study, quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to show the presence of DWV in infested brood and Tropilaelaps mercedesae mites collected in China, and to demonstrate a close quantitative association between mite-infested pupae of A. mellifera and DWV infections. Phylogenetic analysis of the DWV sequences recovered from matching pupae and mites revealed considerable DWV sequence heterogeneity and polymorphism. These polymorphisms appeared to be associated with the individual brood cell, rather than with a particular host.

  9. Genetic variation and widespread dispersal of Nosema ceranae in Apis mellifera apiaries from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Medici, Sandra Karina; Sarlo, Edgardo Gabriel; Porrini, Martín Pablo; Braunstein, Martín; Eguaras, Martín Javier

    2012-02-01

    Using molecular techniques, we documented the presence of Nosema ceranae in honeybees (Apis mellífera) from Argentina. Samples were collected from A. mellifera colonies in 38 districts of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Molecular characterization was achieved with a multiplex PCR-based method, which allows parallel diagnosis of N. ceranae and N. osema apis. N. ceranae was identified in all the samples analyzed. Moreover, coinfections with N. apis were detected in Balcarce and Maipú districts. We identified three rRNA sequence variants of N. ceranae, which may represent diverse sources of bee importation. The results suggest that N. ceranae is widely distributed in Argentina and that the genetic variation observed between the different isolates could be related with the difference in the symptomatology found previously by our work group. Our results highlight the need to re-assess the health protocols currently in force so that they recognize N. ceranae as the main causal agent of Nosemosis in this country.

  10. Nosema neumanni n. sp. (Microsporidia, Nosematidae), a new microsporidian parasite of honeybees, Apis mellifera in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Chemurot, Moses; De Smet, Lina; Brunain, Marleen; De Rycke, Riet; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2017-07-19

    The microsporidium Nosema neumanni n. sp., a new parasite of the honeybee Apis mellifera is described based on its ultra-structural and molecular characteristics. Structures resembling microsporidian spores were found by microscopic examination of honeybees from Uganda. Molecular confirmation failed when PCR primers specific for Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae were used, but was successful with primers covering the whole family of Nosematidae. We performed transmission electron microscopy and found typical microsporidian spores which were smaller (length: 2.36±0.14μm and width: 1.78±0.06μm; n=6) and had fewer polar filament coils (10-12) when compared to those of known species infecting honeybees. The entire 16S SSU rRNA region was amplified, cloned and sequenced and was found to be unique with the highest resemblance (97% identity) to N. apis. The incidence of N. neumanni n. sp. in Ugandan honeybees was found to be much higher than of the two other Nosema species. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  11. A Comparative Study of Relational Learning Capacity in Honeybees (Apis mellifera) and Stingless Bees (Melipona rufiventris)

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Antonio Mauricio; de Souza, Deisy das Graças; Reinhard, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Background Learning of arbitrary relations is the capacity to acquire knowledge about associations between events or stimuli that do not share any similarities, and use this knowledge to make behavioural choices. This capacity is well documented in humans and vertebrates, and there is some evidence it exists in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). However, little is known about whether the ability for relational learning extends to other invertebrates, although many insects have been shown to possess excellent learning capacities in spite of their small brains. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a symbolic matching-to-sample procedure, we show that the honeybee Apis mellifera rapidly learns arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, reaching 68.2% correct choice for pattern-colour relations and 73.3% for colour-pattern relations. However, Apis mellifera does not transfer this knowledge to the symmetrical relations when the stimulus order is reversed. A second bee species, the stingless bee Melipona rufiventris from Brazil, seems unable to learn the same arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, although it exhibits excellent discrimination learning. Conclusions/Significance Our results confirm that the capacity for learning arbitrary relations is not limited to vertebrates, but even insects with small brains can perform this learning task. Interestingly, it seems to be a species-specific ability. The disparity in relational learning performance between the two bee species we tested may be linked to their specific foraging and recruitment strategies, which evolved in adaptation to different environments. PMID:23251542

  12. A comparative study of relational learning capacity in honeybees (Apis mellifera) and stingless bees (Melipona rufiventris).

    PubMed

    Moreno, Antonio Mauricio; de Souza, Deisy das Graças; Reinhard, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Learning of arbitrary relations is the capacity to acquire knowledge about associations between events or stimuli that do not share any similarities, and use this knowledge to make behavioural choices. This capacity is well documented in humans and vertebrates, and there is some evidence it exists in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). However, little is known about whether the ability for relational learning extends to other invertebrates, although many insects have been shown to possess excellent learning capacities in spite of their small brains. Using a symbolic matching-to-sample procedure, we show that the honeybee Apis mellifera rapidly learns arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, reaching 68.2% correct choice for pattern-colour relations and 73.3% for colour-pattern relations. However, Apis mellifera does not transfer this knowledge to the symmetrical relations when the stimulus order is reversed. A second bee species, the stingless bee Melipona rufiventris from Brazil, seems unable to learn the same arbitrary relations between colours and patterns, although it exhibits excellent discrimination learning. Our results confirm that the capacity for learning arbitrary relations is not limited to vertebrates, but even insects with small brains can perform this learning task. Interestingly, it seems to be a species-specific ability. The disparity in relational learning performance between the two bee species we tested may be linked to their specific foraging and recruitment strategies, which evolved in adaptation to different environments.

  13. APIES: A mission for the exploration of the main asteroid belt using a swarm of microsatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arrigo, P.; Santandrea, S.

    2006-10-01

    APIES (Asteroid Population Investigation and Exploration Swarm) is a mission developed by EADS Astrium in response to a European Space Agency (ESA) Call for Ideas for "swarm" missions, based on the utilization of a large number of spacecraft working cooperatively to achieve the mission objectives. The APIES baseline concept is centred on a "swarm" of 19 BElt Explorer (BEE) identical microsatellites, weighing less than 45 kg each, including their scientific payload, visiting over 100 Main Belt asteroids in multiple flybys. The BEEs are carried to the asteroid belt by a Hub and Interplanetary VEhicle (HIVE), a conventional spacecraft launched with a Soyuz-Fregat rocket, using solar electric propulsion for the transfer to the asteroid belt and acting as communication hub and control centre for the mission after the swarm deployment. Using the latest advances in systems miniaturization, propulsion, onboard autonomy and communications, the APIES mission can achieve its ambitious goal within the framework of a standard ESA mission, representing a novel mission concept example, whose feasibility is essentially linked to the use of microsatellite technology, enabling the achievement of science objectives unattainable with conventional spacecraft.

  14. Super-Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources: Application and Coupling to API Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Rahman, Md Matiur; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2014-01-01

    Pressurizing the ionization source to gas pressure greater than atmospheric pressure is a new tactic aimed at further improving the performance of atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources. In principle, all API sources, such as ESI, APCI and AP-MALDI, can be operated at pressure higher than 1 atm if suitable vacuum interface is available. The gas pressure in the ion source can have different role for different ionization. For example, in the case of ESI, stable electrospray could be sustained for high surface tension liquid (e.g., pure water) under super-atmospheric pressure, owing to the absence of electric discharge. Even for nanoESI, which is known to work well with aqueous solution, its stability and sensitivity were found to be enhanced, particularly in the negative mode when the ion source was pressurized. For the gas phase ionization like APCI, measurement of gaseous compound also showed an increase in ion intensity with the ion source pressure until an optimum pressure at around 4-5 atm. The enhancement was due to the increased collision frequency among reactant ion and analyte that promoted the ion/molecule reaction and a higher intake rate of gas to the mass spectrometer. Because the design of vacuum interface for API instrument is based on the upstream pressure of 1 atm, some coupling aspects need to be considered when connecting the high pressure ion source to the mass spectrometer. Several coupling strategies are discussed in this paper.

  15. Polyoxylglycerides and glycerides: effects of manufacturing parameters on API stability, excipient functionality and processing.

    PubMed

    Jannin, Vincent; Rodier, Jean-David; Musakhanian, Jasmine

    2014-05-15

    Lipid-based formulations are a viable option to address modern drug delivery challenges such as increasing the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), or sustaining the drug release of molecules intended for chronic diseases. Esters of fatty acids and glycerol (glycerides) and polyethylene-glycols (polyoxylglycerides) are two main classes of lipid-based excipients used by oral, dermal, rectal, vaginal or parenteral routes. These lipid-based materials are more and more commonly used in pharmaceutical drug products but there is still a lack of understanding of how the manufacturing processes, processing aids, or additives can impact the chemical stability of APIs within the drug product. In that regard, this review summarizes the key parameters to look at when formulating with lipid-based excipients in order to anticipate a possible impact on drug stability or variation of excipient functionality. The introduction presents the chemistry of natural lipids, fatty acids and their properties in relation to the extraction and refinement processes. Then, the key parameters during the manufacturing process influencing the quality of lipid-based excipients are provided. Finally, their critical characteristics are discussed in relation with their intended functionality and ability to interact with APIs and others excipients within the formulation.

  16. Super-Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources: Application and Coupling to API Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Rahman, Md. Matiur; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2014-01-01

    Pressurizing the ionization source to gas pressure greater than atmospheric pressure is a new tactic aimed at further improving the performance of atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources. In principle, all API sources, such as ESI, APCI and AP-MALDI, can be operated at pressure higher than 1 atm if suitable vacuum interface is available. The gas pressure in the ion source can have different role for different ionization. For example, in the case of ESI, stable electrospray could be sustained for high surface tension liquid (e.g., pure water) under super-atmospheric pressure, owing to the absence of electric discharge. Even for nanoESI, which is known to work well with aqueous solution, its stability and sensitivity were found to be enhanced, particularly in the negative mode when the ion source was pressurized. For the gas phase ionization like APCI, measurement of gaseous compound also showed an increase in ion intensity with the ion source pressure until an optimum pressure at around 4–5 atm. The enhancement was due to the increased collision frequency among reactant ion and analyte that promoted the ion/molecule reaction and a higher intake rate of gas to the mass spectrometer. Because the design of vacuum interface for API instrument is based on the upstream pressure of 1 atm, some coupling aspects need to be considered when connecting the high pressure ion source to the mass spectrometer. Several coupling strategies are discussed in this paper. PMID:26819896

  17. SAGA: A Simple API for Grid Applications -- High-Level ApplicationProgramming on the Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Goodale, Tom; Jha, Shantenu; Kaiser, Hartmut; Kielmann, Thilo; Kleijer, Pascal; von Laszewski, Gregor; Lee, Craig; Merzky, Andre; Rajic,Hrabri; Shalf, John

    2006-05-31

    Grid technology has matured considerably over the past fewyears. Progress in both implementation and standardization is reaching alevel of robustness that enables production quality deployments of gridservices in the academic research community with heightened interest andearly adoption in the industrial community. Despite this progress, gridapplications are far from ubiquitous, and new applications require anenormous amount of programming effort just to see first light. A keyimpediment to accelerated deployment of grid applications is the scarcityof high-level application programming abstractions that bridge the gapbetween existing grid middle-ware and application-level needs. The SimpleAPI for Grid Applications (SAGA [1]) is a GGF standardization effort thataddresses this particular gap by providing a simple, stable, and uniformprogramming interface that integrates the most common grid programmingabstractions. These most common abstractions were identified through theanalysis of several existing and emerging Grid applications. In thisarticle, we present the SAGA effort, describe its relationship to otherGrid API efforts within the GGF community, and introduce the first draftof the API using some application programming examples.

  18. CernVM WebAPI - Controlling Virtual Machines from the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalampidis, I.; Berzano, D.; Blomer, J.; Buncic, P.; Ganis, G.; Meusel, R.; Segal, B.

    2015-12-01

    Lately, there is a trend in scientific projects to look for computing resources in the volunteering community. In addition, to reduce the development effort required to port the scientific software stack to all the known platforms, the use of Virtual Machines (VMs)u is becoming increasingly popular. Unfortunately their use further complicates the software installation and operation, restricting the volunteer audience to sufficiently expert people. CernVM WebAPI is a software solution addressing this specific case in a way that opens wide new application opportunities. It offers a very simple API for setting-up, controlling and interfacing with a VM instance in the users computer, while in the same time offloading the user from all the burden of downloading, installing and configuring the hypervisor. WebAPI comes with a lightweight javascript library that guides the user through the application installation process. Malicious usage is prohibited by offering a per-domain PKI validation mechanism. In this contribution we will overview this new technology, discuss its security features and examine some test cases where it is already in use.

  19. The flight physiology of reproductives of Africanized, European, and hybrid honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jon F; Taylor, Orley R; Hall, H Glenn

    2005-01-01

    Neotropical African honeybees (Apis mellifera scutellata), in the process of spreading throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas, hybridize with and mostly replace European honeybees (primarily Apis mellifera mellifera and Apis mellifera ligustica). To help understand this process, we studied the effect of lineage (African, European, or hybrid) on the flight physiology of honeybee reproductives. Flight metabolic rates were higher in queens and drones of African lineage than in European or hybrid bees, as has been previously found for foraging workers. These differences were associated with higher thorax/body mass ratios and higher thorax-specific metabolic rates in African lineage bees. Queens were reared in common colonies, so these metabolic and morphological differences are likely to be genetic in origin. African drones had higher wing beat frequencies and thorax temperatures than European or hybrid bees. Hybrids were intermediate for many parameters, but hybrid queen mass-specific flight metabolic rates were low relative to Africans and were nonlinearly affected by the proportion of African lineage, consistent with some negative heterosis for this trait.

  20. Proteomic analysis of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) pupae head development.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Aijuan; Li, Jianke; Begna, Desalegn; Fang, Yu; Feng, Mao; Song, Feifei

    2011-01-01

    The honeybee pupae development influences its future adult condition as well as honey and royal jelly productions. However, the molecular mechanism that regulates honeybee pupae head metamorphosis is still poorly understood. To further our understand of the associated molecular mechanism, we investigated the protein change of the honeybee pupae head at 5 time-points using 2-D electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Accordingly, 58 protein spots altered their expression across the 5 time points (13-20 days), of which 36 proteins involved in the head organogenesis were upregulated during early stages (13-17 days). However, 22 proteins involved in regulating the pupae head neuron and gland development were upregulated at later developmental stages (19-20 days). Also, the functional enrichment analysis further suggests that proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, development, cytoskeleton and protein folding were highly involved in the generation of organs and development of honeybee pupal head. Furthermore, the constructed protein interaction network predicted 33 proteins acting as key nodes of honeybee pupae head growth of which 9 and 4 proteins were validated at gene and protein levels, respectively. In this study, we uncovered potential protein species involved in the formation of honeybee pupae head development along with their specific temporal requirements. This first proteomic result allows deeper understanding of the proteome profile changes during honeybee pupae head development and provides important potential candidate proteins for future reverse genetic research on honeybee pupae head development to improve the performance of related organs.