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Sample records for powder mixes comprising

  1. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1994-12-06

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figures.

  2. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1995-01-01

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft.

  3. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1995-12-26

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figs.

  4. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1994-01-01

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft.

  5. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1993-05-18

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the p.c.m. must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less p.c.m. per combined weight of silica and p.c.m. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a p.c.m. material. The silica-p.c.m. mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  6. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1993-10-19

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (pcm) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 10 figures.

  7. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1994-02-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 2 figures.

  8. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1992-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  9. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1993-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garmets, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  10. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1993-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7.times.10.sup.-3 to about 7.times.10.sup.-2 microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  11. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1994-01-01

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a PCM material. The silica-PCM mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub.

  12. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1992-04-21

    A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (p.c.m.) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] to about 7 [times] 10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 9 figs.

  13. Neutron detectors comprising boron powder

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell; Makela, Mark F; Spaulding, Randy Jay

    2013-05-21

    High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

  14. Neutron detectors comprising ultra-thin layers of boron powder

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhehul; Morris, Christopher

    2013-07-23

    High-efficiency neutron detector substrate assemblies comprising a first conductive substrate, wherein a first side of the substrate is in direct contact with a first layer of a powder material having a thickness of from about 50 nm to about 250 nm and comprising .sup.10boron, .sup.10boron carbide or combinations thereof, and wherein a conductive material is in proximity to the first layer of powder material; and processes of making said neutron detector substrate assemblies.

  15. Marine biofouling on the fluorocarbon coatings comprising PTFE powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhan-ping; Qi, Yu-hong; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Zheng

    2009-07-01

    Fluorocarbon coatings were developed with respectively 10%, 20% and 30% PTFE powder to prevent marine biofouling. Influence of content of PTFE on microstructures and roughness of coatings was investigated using SEM and roughometer. It was studied that the effects of coating roughness on settlement of benthic diatom and Ectocarpus by using biological microscope, stereo microscope, image processing and spectrophotometer. Results indicated that the surface roughness of coatings decreases and the quantity of benthic diatom and Ectocarpus reduces attaching onto the coating with the increase of content of PTFE in paint studied. Benthic diatoms attached much more on horizontal specimen than on vertical one; they prefer to settle onto the coatings that there are lots of micro-cracks in it. These results are helpful for developing new non-toxic antifouling paints.

  16. Method of drilling with fluid comprising peanut hulls ground to a powder

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, G.T.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a method of carrying out operations wherein a fluid is circulated in a well extending into the ground. It comprises: taking peanut hulls which have been ground to a powder form, adding the ground peanut hulls to a fluid, and circulating the fluid, with the ground peanut hulls added thereto, in the well.

  17. Electrostatic charge interactions in ordered powder mixes.

    PubMed

    Staniforth, J N; Rees, J E

    1982-02-01

    A method is described for measuring the electrostatic charge generated in powders following contact with a plane substrate. The method uses a Faraday well connected to an electrometer and allows the specific charge of powders to be determined. Of the various drugs and excipients studied, most charged electronegatively following contact with glass surfaces, but became electropositive after contact with polyethylene surfaces. The charge interactions of drug and excipient powders modified the behaviour of ordered mixes formed in similar conditions to those of charge measurement. Powders with like charges formed less stable ordered mixes than those in which drug and excipient particles carried opposite charges. Following triboelectrification in an air cyclone constructed of brass, powders had charges at least 100 times greater than those formed after contact with glass surfaces. Optimization of the triboelectric charging conditions allowed ordered mixes to be prepared in which a maximum electronegative charge was applied to the excipient whilst the drug was given a maximum electropositive charge. Studies of segregation/stability showed that ordered mixes subjected to triboelectrification were less prone to segregation than uncharged powders.

  18. Viscous lubricant composition comprising mixed esters and a silicone oil

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, P.J.

    1981-03-03

    A viscous composition capable of substantially retaining its viscosity within a temperature range of from 5*-30* C. Comprising as its components diisopropyl adipate, a mixture of cetyl and stearyl octanoates, glyceryl tribehenate, silicone oil and a surfactant is described.

  19. Modeling of mixing processes: Fluids, particulates, and powders

    SciTech Connect

    Ottino, J.M.; Hansen, S.

    1995-12-31

    Work under this grant involves two main areas: (1) Mixing of Viscous Liquids, this first area comprising aggregation, fragmentation and dispersion, and (2) Mixing of Powders. In order to produce a coherent self-contained picture, we report primarily on results obtained under (1), and within this area, mostly on computational studies of particle aggregation in regular and chaotic flows. Numerical simulations show that the average cluster size of compact clusters grows algebraically, while the average cluster size of fractal clusters grows exponentially; companion mathematical arguments are used to describe the initial growth of average cluster size and polydispersity. It is found that when the system is well mixed and the capture radius independent of mass, the polydispersity is constant for long-times and the cluster size distribution is self-similar. Furthermore, our simulations indicate that the fractal nature of the clusters is dependent upon the mixing.

  20. Mixed fuel composition. [fuel oil, coal powder, and polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Igarashi, T.; Ukigai, T.; Yamamura, M.

    1982-07-13

    A mixed fuel composition comprises (A) a fuel oil, (B) a coal powder having an (H)/(C) ratio according to the coalification band method in the range of 0.4-0.75 and an (O)/(C) ratio in the range of 0.09-0.18 and (C) a partially amidated copolymer obtained by reacting a copolymer of a polymerizable, unsaturated hydrocarbon and maleic anhydride with an aliphatic amine of 2-36 carbon-atoms or a salt thereof as a stabilizer.

  1. Metal oxide superconducting powder comprised of flake-like single crystal particles

    DOEpatents

    Capone, D.W.; Dusek, J.

    1994-10-18

    Powder of a ceramic superconducting material is synthesized such that each particle of the powder is a single crystal having a flake-like, nonsymmetric morphology such that the c-axis is aligned parallel to the short dimension of the flake. Nonflake powder is synthesized by the normal methods and is pressed into pellets or other shapes and fired for excessive times to produce a coarse grained structure. The fired products are then crushed and ground producing the flake-like powder particles which exhibit superconducting characteristics when aligned with the crystal lattice. 3 figs.

  2. Metal oxide superconducting powder comprised of flake-like single crystal particles

    DOEpatents

    Capone, Donald W.; Dusek, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Powder of a ceramic superconducting material is synthesized such that each particle of the powder is a single crystal having a flake-like, nonsymmetric morphology such that the c-axis is aligned parallel to the short dimension of the flake. Nonflake powder is synthesized by the normal methods and is pressed into pellets or other shapes and fired for excessive times to produce a coarse grained structure. The fired products are then crushed and ground producing the flake-like powder particles which exhibit superconducting characteristics when aligned with the crystal lattice.

  3. Low loss Sendust powder cores comprised of particles coated by sodium salt insulating layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ding; Wang, Xian; Nie, Yan; Feng, Zekun; Gong, Rongzhou; Chen, Yajie; Harris, V. G.

    2015-05-01

    Toroid-shaped Sendust powder cores were prepared from cold pressing mechanically pulverized Fe-Si-Al powder that had been coated using an inorganic insulating layer. The present work focuses on the effect of the sodium salt-coated Sendust particles upon the high frequency magnetic properties. Sendust powders, having a particle size range of ˜125 μm, exhibit a high saturation magnetization of 118.9 A.m2/kg and a low coercivity of 56 A/m. The experiments indicate that the sodium-based glass insulating layer synthesized from sodium metaphosphate and sodium metaborate can effectively reduce the change in permeability with frequency or DC bias field, yielding high effective permeability (μe) of ˜113 over a wide frequency range from 10 kHz-1 MHz. Furthermore, the effective permeability is measured at ˜27 at H = 7854 A/m, indicating stable and high effective permeability under a DC bias field. The measurements of permeability under DC bias field indicate a peak in the quality factor (Q) values corresponding to a DC-bias field of 1.5-6 (kA/m) at frequencies from 50 to 200 kHz: The effective permeability remains at ˜74. The sodium salt-coated granular cores demonstrate a core loss of 68 mW/cm3 at Bm = 50 mT and f = 50 kHz: These values compare favorably to those of silicone coated Sendust particles.

  4. NIR Analysis of Powder Mixing Quality in a Ribbon Blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodridge, Chris; Duong, Nhat-Hang; Muzzio, Fernando

    2001-11-01

    We present experimental results on powder mixing performed in a common industrial mixer, the batch ribbon blender. Our experiments explore the effectiveness of this device on mixture quality as a function of fill level, loading pattern, ribbon speed, mixing time, and ribbon angle. We study two powder formulations consisting of common compounds used in food and pharmaceutical processing. Mixture quality is evaluated by core sampling throughout the blender and determining the composition of small samples using NIR spectroscopy. We use the spectra from NIR to calculate the intensity and scale of segregation for the three-dimensional mixing region. The mixing rates in the axial and radial directions are obtained from plots of composition variance vs. mixing time. We examine the effects of ribbon speed and fill level as the main parameters affecting mixing rate. Dead regions that remain isolated from the remainder of the flow are identified.

  5. Processing of PZT ceramics: aqueous mixing procedures for powder consolidation

    SciTech Connect

    Bunker, B.C.; Lamppa, D.L.; Moore, R.H.

    1986-02-01

    Inhomogeneities in chemical compositions and microstructures can result in lot-to-lot variations in the charge release characteristics of ferroelectric lead-zirconate-titanate ceramics. One source of inhomogeneity is agglomeration and selective sedimentation which occurs during aqueous mixing of the constituent oxides. Procedures using electrostatic and steric stabilization of oxide powders were developed for fabricating homogeneous powder compacts. Use of lead carbonate instead of lead oxide minimizes problems encountered using various slurry stabilization techniques.

  6. Magnetic Properties of Amorphous Fe-Si-B Powder Cores Mixed with Pure Iron Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyeon-Jun; Nam, Seul Ki; Kim, Kyu-Sung; Yoon, Sung Chun; Sohn, Keun-Yong; Kim, Mi-Rae; Sul Song, Yong; Park, Won-Wook

    2012-10-01

    Amorphous Fe-Si-B alloy was prepared by melt-spinning, and then the ribbons were pulverized and ball-milled to make the amorphous powder of ˜25 µm in size. Subsequently those were mixed with pure iron powders with an average particle size of 3 µm, and 1.5 wt % water glass diluted by distilled water at the ratio of 1:2. The powder mixtures were cold compacted at 650 MPa in toroid die, and heat treated at 430-440 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere for 1 h and 30 min, respectively. The soft magnetic properties of powder core were investigated using a B-H analyzer and a flux meter at the frequency range of ˜100 kHz. The microstructure was observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the density of the core was measured using the principle of Archimedes. Based on the experimental results, the amorphous powder mixed with pure iron powder showed the improved powder compactability, which resulted in the increased permeability and the reduced core loss.

  7. Calcium carbonate powder containing gentamicin for mixing with bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Coraça-Huber, Débora; Hausdorfer, Johann; Fille, Manfred; Nogler, Michael; Kühn, Klaus-Dieter

    2014-08-01

    Bone grafts are used for reconstructing bone defects caused by implant-associated complications, trauma, and tumors. Surgery with bone allografts is complex and time consuming; therefore, it is prone to a higher infection rate (2.0%-2.5%). In the case of site infection, systemically administered antibiotics cannot reach the infected bone graft. This study evaluated the use of resorbable bone graft substitute powder (HERAFILL; Heraeus Medical GmbH, Wehrheim, Germany) as a bone void-filling material as well as an antibiotic carrier for mixing with bone grafts. The antibiotic activity of the bone chips mixed with HERAFILL powder was measured by drug release tests and bacterial susceptibility with Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus aureus. HERAFILL powder was added to the bone chips (bone chips/HERAFILL; w/w = 1:1), mixed with a spatula, and vortexed for 1 minute. Gentamicin base release was evaluated in phosphate-buffered saline for up to 7 days using B subtilis bioassay. Antimicrobial efficacy was tested with S aureus and S epidermidis. The average amount of gentamicin base released from bone chips mixed with HERAFILL at 0 to 12 hours was 99.66 mg/mL. On day 7, the gentamicin base released 0.42 mg/mL. The elution released from bone chips mixed with HERAFILL promoted the formation of a zone of inhibition on S epidermidis and S aureus plates. This study confirmed the capacity of bone grafts to act as antibiotic carriers once mixed with HERAFILL powder. Bone chips mixed with HERAFILL showed efficacy against S aureus and S epidermidis.

  8. Pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste comprising polyethyleneterephthalate and polyethylene to sequentially recover

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert J.; Chum, Helena L.

    1998-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feedstream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feedstream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent.

  9. 85. BUILDING NO. 561, CANNON POWDER BLENDER, MIXING CORE, 2ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    85. BUILDING NO. 561, CANNON POWDER BLENDER, MIXING CORE, 2ND LEVEL; TOP (3RD) BIN ABOVE, SECOND BIN BELOW. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  10. On mixed binary surfactant systems comprising MEGA 10 and alkyltrimethylammonium bromides: a detailed physicochemical study with a critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Basu Ray, Gargi; Chakraborty, Indranil; Ghosh, Soumen; Moulik, Satya P

    2007-03-15

    Self-aggregation of mixed binary nonionic and ionic surfactants comprising N-methyl-N-decanoyl glucamide (MEGA 10) and alkyltrimethylammonium bromides (C(12)-, C(14)-, and C(16)TAB) has been investigated in detail by different physical methods. The counter-ion binding, aggregation number, and polarity of the mixed micelles have been determined. The results have been analyzed in the light of the theories of Rubingh and Maeda. The thermodynamic parameters of the micellization process have been evaluated and discussed. The interfacial adsorptions of the mixed amphiphiles including their surface excesses and head-group areas have also been evaluated. Based on the head-group areas, the overall shapes of the mixed micelles have been predicted from the estimation of the amphiphile packing parameters.

  11. Method for producing a compressed body of mix-powder for ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okawa, K.

    1983-01-01

    Under the invented method, a compressed body of mix powder for ceramic is produced by mixing and stirring several raw powder materials with mixing liquid such as water, and, in the process of sending the resulted viscous material pressurized at 5 kg/cm to 7 kg/cm, using 1.5 to 2 times the pressure to filter and dehydrate, adjusting the water content to 10 to 20%.

  12. High Temperature Mechanical Behavior of Polycrystalline Alumina from Mixed Nanometer and Micrometer Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2001-01-01

    Sintered aluminum oxide materials were formed using commercial methods from mechanically mixed powders of nano-and micrometer alumina. The powders were consolidated at 1500 and 1600 C with 3.2 and 7.2 ksi applied stress in argon. The conventional micrometer sized powders failed to consolidate. While 100 percent nanometer-sized alumina and its mixture with the micrometer powders achieved less than 99 percent density. Preliminary high temperature creep behavior indicates no super-plastic strains. However high strains (less than 0.65 percent) were generated in the nanometer powder, due to cracks and linked voids initiated by cavitation.

  13. Reconstituted yogurt from yogurt cultured milk powder mix has better overall characteristics than reconstituted yogurt from commercial yogurt powder.

    PubMed

    Song, Lijie; Aryana, Kayanush J

    2014-10-01

    For manufacture of commercial yogurt powder, yogurt has to go through a drying process, which substantially lowers the yogurt culture counts, so the potential health benefits of the yogurt culture bacteria are reduced. Also, upon reconstitution, commercial yogurt powder does not taste like yogurt and has an off-flavor. The objective was to study the microbial, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of reconstituted yogurt from yogurt cultured milk powder (YCMP) mix and reconstituted yogurt from commercial yogurt powder (CYP). The CYP reconstituted yogurt was the control and YCMP mix reconstituted yogurt was the treatment. Microbial and physicochemical characteristics of the CYP reconstituted yogurt and YCMP mix reconstituted yogurt were analyzed daily for the first week and then weekly for a period of 8 wk. Sensory consumer testing of CYP reconstituted yogurt and YCMP mix reconstituted yogurt was conducted with 100 consumers. At 56 d, YCMP mix reconstituted yogurt had 5 log cfu/mL higher counts of Streptococcus thermophilus than the control (CYP reconstituted yogurt). Also, Lactobacillus bulgaricus counts of YCMP mix reconstituted yogurt were 6.55 log cfu/mL at 28 d and were 5.35 log cfu/mL at 56 d, whereas the CYP reconstituted yogurt from 28 d onwards had a count of <10 cfu/mL. The YCMP mix reconstituted yogurt also had significantly higher apparent viscosity and sensory scores for appearance, color, aroma, taste, thickness, overall liking, consumer acceptability, and purchase intent than CYP reconstituted yogurt. Overall, YCMP mix reconstituted yogurt had more desirable characteristics than CYP reconstituted yogurt. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Studies on production, physiochemical and sensory properties of a standard kilishi ingredient mix powder.

    PubMed

    Badau, M H; Igene, J O; Collison, E K; Nkama, I

    1997-05-01

    The quality of kilishi, a sun dried roasted meat product vary considerably due to lack of consistent standardized non meat ingredient portion (spices and condiments) used for its preparation. In this study, an instant standard kilishi ingredient mix powder was developed. The mix powder contained 9.1% moisture, 49.7% protein, 8.3% fat, 3.2% fibre, and 4.4% ash. Particle size of the mix developed was finer than the traditional one. Yield of kilishi increased with increasing concentration of the standard mix powder used for infusion. The highest yield (87%) was obtained at 60% slurry concentration of the mix compared to 59% yield when the traditional paste was used for infusion. Sensory attributes of kilishi produced using 60% slurry concentration of the standard mix was rated better than a commercial kilishi product (P < 0.05).

  15. Potential of fire extinguisher powder as a filler in bituminous mixes.

    PubMed

    Praticò, Filippo Giammaria; Moro, Antonino; Ammendola, Rachele

    2010-01-15

    Fire extinguishers must be maintained at regular intervals and many problems arise when fire-resistant dry powders need replacement. We analyze the potential of fire extinguisher powder (termed REP) as a filler in bituminous mixes. REP and REP-admixed bituminous mixes were subjected to chemical analysis, and the mechanical properties and environmental performances of the mixes were tested. Mixes with different REP contents were prepared. Mechanical performance was adequate and environmental compatibility was achieved. Practical applications and perspectives in rehabilitation, maintenance, and research are outlined.

  16. Mixing order of glidant and lubricant – Influence on powder and tablet properties

    PubMed Central

    Pingali, Kalyana; Mendez, Rafael; Lewis, Daniel; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena; Cuitino, Alberto; Muzzio, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study the effect of mixing order of Cab-O-Sil (CS) and magnesium stearate (MgSt) and microlayers during mixing on blend and tablet properties. A first set of pharmaceutical blend containing Avicel PH200, Pharmatose and micronized acetaminophen was prepared with three mixing orders (mixing order-1: CS added first; mixing order-2: MgSt added first; mixing order-3: CS and MgSt added together). All the blends were subjected to a shear rate of 80 rpm and strain of 40, 160 and 640 revolutions in a controlled shear environment resulting in nine different blends. A second set of nine blends was prepared by replacing Avicel PH200 with Avicel PH102. A total of eighteen blends thus prepared were tested for powder hydrophobicity, powder flow, tablet weight, tablet hardness and tablet dissolution. Results indicated that powder hydrophobicity increased significantly for mixing order-1. Intermediate hydrophobic behavior was found for mixing order-3. Additionally, mixing order 1 resulted in improved powder flow properties, low weight variability, higher average tablet weight and slow drug release rates. Dissolution profiles obtained were found to be strongly dependent not only on the mixing order of flowing agents, but also on the strain and the resulting hydrophobicity. PMID:21356286

  17. Usefulness of a rotation-revolution mixer for mixing powder-liquid reline material.

    PubMed

    Yamaga, Yoshio; Kanatani, Mitsugu; Nomura, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution of bubbles, degree of mixing, flowability and mechanical strength of powder-liquid reline material by manually and with a rotation-revolution (planetary) mixer, and to determine the usefulness of a rotation-revolution mixer for this application. Powder-liquid reline material (Mild Rebaron, GC, Tokyo, Japan) was mixed with a powder to liquid ratio of 1:0.62 according to the manufacturer's instruction. Two methods were used to mix it: mixed by manually ("manual-mixing") and automatically with a rotation-revolution mixer (Super Rakuneru Fine, GC, Tokyo, Japan; "automatic-mixing"). Disc-shaped specimens, 30 mm in diameter and 1.0mm in thickness, were used to observe the distribution of bubbles in at 10× magnifications. Flowability tests were carried out according to the JIS T6521 for denture base hard reline materials. A three point bending test was carried out by a universal testing machine. Elastic modulus and flexural stress at the proportional limit were calculated. A median of 4 bubbles and inhomogeneous were observed in manual-mixed specimens. However, no bubbles and homogeneous were observed in automatic-mixed specimens. Flowability was within the JIS range in all mixing conditions and did not differ significantly across conditions. The elastic modulus was the same for manual-mixed and automatic-mixed specimens. On the other hand, the flexural stress at the proportional limit differed significantly between manual-mixed and automatic-mixed specimens. The results confirm that rotation-revolution mixer is useful for mixing powder-liquid reline material. Automatic-mixing may be recommended for clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pyrolysis and hydrolysis of mixed polymer waste comprising polyethylene-terephthalate and polyethylene to sequentially recover [monomers

    DOEpatents

    Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

    1998-10-13

    A process is described for using fast pyrolysis in a carrier gas to convert a plastic waste feed stream having a mixed polymeric composition in a manner such that pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent occurs prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of said given polymer to its high value monomeric constituent prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting a catalyst and support for treating said feed streams with said catalyst to effect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of said high value monomeric constituent in said temperature program range; differentially heating said feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituent prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents; selecting a second higher temperature range to cause pyrolysis of a different high value monomeric constituent of said plastic waste and differentially heating the feed stream at the higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of the different high value monomeric constituent; and separating the different high value monomeric constituent. 83 figs.

  19. Mechanical Properties Studies of Components Formulation for Mixing Process Contain of Polypropylene, Polyethylene, and Aluminium Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamsi, A.; Dinzi, R.

    2017-03-01

    Certain powder and others components can induce toxic reactions if not properly handled in the mixing stage. During handling, the small particles can become airborne and be trapped in the lungs, another concern is inhomogeneities in the mixing process. Uniform quantities of the particles of the components are needed in all portions of the mixture. This paper reports the results of mechanical properties studies of mixing three components formulation for mixing process. Contain of Polyethylene (PE), Polyprophylene (PP) and Aluminium Powder. Powder mixer, Autodesk mold flow and computer based on excell method was carried out to study the influence of each formulation component on the flow %, PE 20% and Aluminium powder 2%. Macroscopic optic and macro photo was carried out to identify the homogenity of mixing, tensile test for identify the strength of component after mixing. Finally the optimal tensile test with composition PP 785,PE 20% and Aluminium powder 2% at speed 52 rpm, temperature 1500C, the tensile strength 20,92 N/mm2. At temperature 1600C, speed 100 rpm the optimum tensile strength 17,91 N/mm2. The result of simulation autodesk mold flow adviser the filling time 6 seconds. Otherwise on manual hot hidraulic press the time of filling 10 seconds.

  20. Effect of TiN powder mixed in Electrical Discharge Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muttamara, A.; Mesee, J.

    2016-11-01

    Many trials were studied about powder mixed in Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM). The experiments were carried for improving surface characteristics and related to the surface modification. The experiment was carried out using a copper tool electrode and EDMed in titanium nitride (TiN) powder mixed in dielectric fluid. In this research, to obtain the even modified layer, the effects of EDMed conditions were investigated. The EDMed surfaces were observed by SEM. Under the suitable discharge conditions in TiN powder mixed kerosene, the stable thick TiN layer adhered on the workpiece surface. The microcrack length per unit area treated in TiN mixed kerosene was greater than that treated in normal kerosene. Titanium carbon nitride (TiCN) was found on the modified layer by XRD analysis. The effect of the diffusion of carbon during cooling on the characteristics of the recast layer was discussed.

  1. Prediction of tablet hardness based on near infrared spectra of raw mixed powders by chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Makoto; Yamane, Ikuro

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to elucidate the effect of lubricant mixing on tablet hardness by near-infrared (NIR) chemometrics as a basic study of process analytical technology. Formulation cellulose (F-C) consisted of sulpyrine (SP), microcrystalline cellulose (MC), and magnesium stearate (MgSt). Formulation lactose/starch (F-L) consisted of SP bulk drug powder, spray-dried lactose (SL), corn starch (CS), and MgSt. First, F-L and F-C without MgSt were mixed in a twin-shell mixer for 60 min. MgSt was added to the mixed powder, and was mixed for various mixing times, after which the mixed powders were compressed by 8-mm diameter punch and die. NIR spectra of raw mixed powders of F-L and F-C were taken using a reflection type of Fourier transform NIR spectra spectrometer, and chemometric analysis was performed using principal component regression (PCR). The tablet hardnesses of F-L and F-C decreased with increasing mixing time. All NIR spectra of the mixed powders of F-L and F-C fluctuated depending on mixing time. In order to predict tablet hardness before tablet compression, NIR spectra of F-L and F-C mixed powders were analyzed and evaluated for hardness by PCR. The minimum standard error of cross-validation values could be realized by using five- and six-principal component models, respectively. In the cases of F-L and F-C, the relationships between the actual and predicted tablet hardnesses showed straight lines, respectively. In the regression vectors of F-L and FC, the peaks related to hydrogen groups of SP, CS, and MC appeared as positive peaks. In contrast, the peaks related to hydrocarbon due to MgSt appeared as negative peaks in the regression vectors. The calibration models to evaluate the tablet hardness were obtained based on NIR spectra of raw mixed powders by PCR. This approach to predicting tablet hardness prior to compression could be used as a routine test to indicate the quality of the final product without spending time and energy to produce

  2. Sputtering deposition of Al-doped zinc oxide thin films using mixed powder targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshima, Tamiko; Maeda, Takashi; Tanaka, Yuki; Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Yagyu, Yoshihito; Ihara, Takeshi; Suda, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Sputtering deposition generally uses high-density bulk targets. Such a fabrication process has various problems including deterioration of the material during heating and difficulty in mixing a large number of materials in precise proportions. However, these problems can be solved by using a powder target. In this study, we prepared Al-doped ZnO (AZO) as transparent conductive thin films by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering with powder and bulk targets. Both the powder and bulk targets formed crystalline structures. The ZnO (002) peak was observed in the X-ray diffraction measurements. The mean transparency and resistivity of the films prepared with the powder target were 82% and 0.548 Ω · cm, respectively. The deposition rate with the powder target was lower than that with the bulk target.

  3. [Study on key physical properties of granulated products of Andrographis mixed powder by high-speed mixing wet method].

    PubMed

    Liao, Zheng-Gen; Li, Zhe; Ming, Liang-Shan; Luo, Juan; Jiang, Qie-Ying; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Liang, Xin-Li

    2014-10-01

    The impact of key physical properties on granulated products by the high-speed mixing wet method was studied. Andrographis extracts were utilized as the model drug. Four processing methods were adopted to prepare mixed powder of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and starch with the mass ratio 1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:2 by the high-speed mixing wet method. The properties of the prepared granules were evaluated with such indexes as granule yield, the ratio of lumps and fine powder, granule-AOR and granule-HR. The impact of key physical properties on granulated products was analyzed through stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that angle of repose, moisture content, pore volume, density and contact angle with water were key physical properties of the powder. The key physical properties of Chinese medical extracts powder are the important factor impacting granulated products made by the high-speed mixing wet method. In this study, the impact of key physical properties on granulated products of Chinese medical extracts was analyzed from the physical angle.

  4. Physico-chemical properties of instant ogbono (Irvingia gabonensis) mix powder

    PubMed Central

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Ojedokun, Omotayo S; Fasogbon, Beatrice M

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the research is to develop a recipe of instant dry soup mix for easy preparation of ogbono soup. Instant ogbono mix powder was processed using common locally ingredients. Dika kernel powder, dried ugwu leaf, crayfish, stock fish, and a mixture of locust bean, onion, seasoning and Cameroon powder were formulated at different ratios to find the best acceptable ogbono mix powder. The samples were subjected to proximate, functional, vitamin, mineral, and sensory analyses. The formulated sample D with the highest ratio of crayfish and stock fish had the highest value of protein and carbohydrate (24.13 and 35.61%, respectively). The control sample (100% dika kernel powder) was low in moisture content (6.20%) but high in crude fat, other samples followed in this order (control > A > B > C > D) for crude fat. Ash, crude fiber, and carbohydrate showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in all the samples. The functional properties of the sample showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in all the samples with the control having the highest value for the water absorption, swelling capacity, and bulk density which may be due to the high crude fiber and low moisture content recorded for the control sample in the proximate analysis. The mineral content of all the samples were higher than the control with phosphorous having the highest value and iron the least value. Vitamin C was the main dominating vitamin in the sample followed by vitamin B2, vitamin A, and vitamin B3. The sensory evaluation revealed that 100% dika kernel powder gave a good attribute of the soup but with less nutritional composition, while some formulated samples showed a similar attribute with higher nutritional value. Sample A with the highest overall acceptability had the best attribute of ogbono soup. Instant ogbono mix powder has higher nutritional value and easy to cook. PMID:26288723

  5. Physico-chemical properties of instant ogbono (Irvingia gabonensis) mix powder.

    PubMed

    Bamidele, Oluwaseun P; Ojedokun, Omotayo S; Fasogbon, Beatrice M

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of the research is to develop a recipe of instant dry soup mix for easy preparation of ogbono soup. Instant ogbono mix powder was processed using common locally ingredients. Dika kernel powder, dried ugwu leaf, crayfish, stock fish, and a mixture of locust bean, onion, seasoning and Cameroon powder were formulated at different ratios to find the best acceptable ogbono mix powder. The samples were subjected to proximate, functional, vitamin, mineral, and sensory analyses. The formulated sample D with the highest ratio of crayfish and stock fish had the highest value of protein and carbohydrate (24.13 and 35.61%, respectively). The control sample (100% dika kernel powder) was low in moisture content (6.20%) but high in crude fat, other samples followed in this order (control > A > B > C > D) for crude fat. Ash, crude fiber, and carbohydrate showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in all the samples. The functional properties of the sample showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in all the samples with the control having the highest value for the water absorption, swelling capacity, and bulk density which may be due to the high crude fiber and low moisture content recorded for the control sample in the proximate analysis. The mineral content of all the samples were higher than the control with phosphorous having the highest value and iron the least value. Vitamin C was the main dominating vitamin in the sample followed by vitamin B2, vitamin A, and vitamin B3. The sensory evaluation revealed that 100% dika kernel powder gave a good attribute of the soup but with less nutritional composition, while some formulated samples showed a similar attribute with higher nutritional value. Sample A with the highest overall acceptability had the best attribute of ogbono soup. Instant ogbono mix powder has higher nutritional value and easy to cook.

  6. [Correlations between micromeritic properties of mixing powders of danshen extract and formability of their pellets].

    PubMed

    Xtong, Zhi-wei; Luo, Yun; Liao, Zheng-gen; Zhao, Guo-wei; Li, Zhe; Luo, Juan

    2014-11-01

    It was difficult to prepare traditional Chinese medicine pellets due to the adverse characteristics of the herbal extract. In this study, Danshen extract (DS) powder mixed with different proportions of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), lactose and starch were made into pellets by extrusion-spheronization. Particle size, span, bulk density, tapping density, compressibility, Hausner ratio and angle of repose were used to evaluate the micromeritic properties of mixing powders. Feret diameter, aspect ratio, yield, density and friability were used to evaluate the properties of the pellets. The correlations between micromeritic properties of raw material powders and the formability of their pellets were analyzed by cluster analysis, principal component analysis and partial least squares regression analysis. As a result, the particle size of the powders was negatively correlated with the size, density, yield, and was positively correlated with the friability of their pellets. The span, density, compressibility and angle of repose of the powders were positively correlated with the size, density, yield, and were negatively correlated with the friability of their pellets. So there were certain correlations between the micromeritic properties of raw material powders and the properties of their pellets prepared by extrusion-spheronization. This research provided a foundation for the technology and method of traditional Chinese medicine extract pellets.

  7. Foamed lightweight materials made from mixed scrap metal waste powder and sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuen-Sheng; Chiou, Ing-Jia

    2004-10-01

    The porous properties and pozzolanic effects of sewage sludge ash (SSA) make it possible to produce lightweight materials. This study explored the effects of different metallic foaming agents, made from waste aluminium products, on the foaming behaviours and engineering characteristics, as well as the microstructure of sewage sludge ash foamed lightweight materials. The results indicated that aluminium powder and mixed scrap metal waste powder possessed similar chemical compositions. After proper pre-treatment, waste aluminium products proved to be ideal substitutes for metallic foaming agents. Increasing the amount of mixed scrap metal waste by 10-15% compared with aluminium powder would produce a similar foaming ratio and compressive strength. The reaction of the metallic foaming agents mainly produced pores larger than 10 microm, different from the hydration reaction of cement that produced pores smaller than 1 microm mostly. To meet the requirements of the lightweight materials characteristics and the compressive strength, the amount of SSA could be up to 60-80% of the total solids. An adequate amount of aluminium powder is 0.5-0.9% of the total solids. Increasing the fineness of the mixed scrap metal waste powder could effectively reduce the amount required and improve the foaming ratio.

  8. Powder and other divided solids mixing. Scale-up and parametric study of a ribbon blender used in pharmaceutical powders mixing.

    PubMed

    Côté, Pascal; Abatzoglou, Nicolas

    2006-02-01

    This work is aimed at evaluating the effect of ribbon blender operational parameters on mixture quality. Mix quality parameters and blend uniformity limits are enforced by regulatory bodies. These limits have served in this present work as targets for blending end-points. In a laboratory-scale model ribbon blender, built by scaling down a real industrial unit, powder mixtures composed of white and blue microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were blended. Blend uniformity was evaluated using a statistical analysis method under various operating conditions such as loading patterns, blender filling percentage, impeller rotational speeds, and mixing times. It was shown that the filling percentage is the most influential mixing parameter. At high impeller rotational speed, the blending end-point was never reached during experimentation.

  9. Effect of particle shape on the mixing of powders.

    PubMed

    Wong, L W; Pilpel, N

    1990-01-01

    Mixtures were prepared containing 200 g of 600 microns lactose and 0.5 g of 3 microns calcium carbonate of different particle shapes using a Y cone mixer. Measurements were made of the time required to achieve the acceptable standard deviation of mixing sigma A and of the segregation that occurred on subsequently vibrating the mixtures. The time taken to achieve sigma A increased with the irregularity of the particles of both components and the mixtures containing irregular particles segregated less on vibration.

  10. Cold Sprayability of Mixed Commercial Purity Ti Plus Ti6Al4V Metal Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Huseyin; Alomair, Mashael; Wong, Wilson; Vo, Phuong; Yue, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, metallic composite coatings of commercial purity Ti plus Ti6Al4V were produced by cold spraying to explore the effect of mixing on porosity and mechanical properties of the coatings. The coatings were deposited using N2 gas at 800 °C and 4 MPa pressure on 1020 steel substrate. Coating characteristics were studied by examining porosity percentages and Vickers's hardness. The microstructure was examined using optical and electron microscopy techniques. It was observed that mixing metal powders can lead to improvements in cold sprayability, specifically decreases in the porosity of the `matrix' powder. It is shown that a critical addition can significantly influence porosity, but above this critical level, there is a little change in porosity. Hardness differences between the two powders are considered to be the first-order influence, but differences in particle sizes and morphology may also be contributing factors.

  11. Quantitative Determination of Citric and Ascorbic Acid in Powdered Drink Mixes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmann, Samuella B.; Wheeler, Dale E.

    2004-01-01

    A procedure by which the reactions are used to quantitatively determine the amount of total acid, the amount of total ascorbic acid and the amount of citric acid in a given sample of powdered drink mix, are described. A safe, reliable and low-cost quantitative method to analyze consumer product for acid content is provided.

  12. Quantitative Determination of Citric and Ascorbic Acid in Powdered Drink Mixes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmann, Samuella B.; Wheeler, Dale E.

    2004-01-01

    A procedure by which the reactions are used to quantitatively determine the amount of total acid, the amount of total ascorbic acid and the amount of citric acid in a given sample of powdered drink mix, are described. A safe, reliable and low-cost quantitative method to analyze consumer product for acid content is provided.

  13. Preparation of mixed metal thin films by a PVD method using several kinds of powder targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Yoshiaki; Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Ohshima, Tamiko; Yagyu, Yoshihito; Ihara, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Makiko; Plasma process; application Team

    2015-09-01

    Bismuth iron garnet (Bi3Fe5O12) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were prepared by a physical vapor deposition method using mixed metal powder targets. The X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results suggest that crystalline thin films can be prepared using powder targets with quality similar to that of the films prepared using bulk targets. Bi3Fe5O12 films prepared using the pulsed laser deposition method were Bi rich, which may be due to the lower melting temperature of Bi (544 K) compared with that of Fe (1811 K). The mean transparency and resistivity of the AZO films prepared by the sputtering method were approximately 79%-84% and 0.5 - 1.4 ohm/cm, respectively.

  14. Removal of trace organic contaminants by an MBR comprising a mixed culture of bacteria and white-rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Luong N; Hai, Faisal I; Yang, Shufan; Kang, Jinguo; Leusch, Frederic D L; Roddick, Felicity; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

    2013-11-01

    The degradation of 30 trace organic contaminants (TrOC) by a white-rot fungus-augmented membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated. The results show that white-rot fungal enzyme (laccase), coupled with a redox mediator (1-hydroxy benzotriazole, HBT), could degrade TrOC that are resistant to bacterial degradation (e.g. diclofenac, triclosan, naproxen and atrazine) but achieved low removal of compounds (e.g. ibuprofen, gemfibrozil and amitriptyline) that are well removed by conventional activated sludge treatment. Overall, the fungus-augmented MBR showed better TrOC removal compared to a system containing conventional activated sludge. The major role of biodegradation in removal by the MBR was noted. Continuous mediator dosing to MBR may potentially enhance its performance, although not as effectively as for mediator-enhanced batch laccase systems. A ToxScreen3 assay revealed no significant increase in the toxicity of the effluent during MBR treatment of the synthetic wastewater comprising TrOC, confirming that no toxic by-products were produced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of powder/liquid mixing ratio on porosity and translucency of dental porcelains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunlong; Griggs, Jason A; Benham, Adam W

    2004-02-01

    Dental technicians use a variety of techniques when condensing dental porcelains. It is unclear whether these techniques affect the total porosity and translucency of dental porcelains. The objective of this study was to determine whether varying the powder/liquid ratio during condensation affects porosity and translucency of porcelains. Material and methods Duceram LFC dentin, Duceram LFC incisal, IPS Eris dentin, and IPS Eris incisal porcelains were studied. For each specimen, 1.0 g of porcelain powder was mixed with 1 of 3 different volumes of deionized water to form a slurry with a thin, medium, or thick consistency. The slurries were condensed in a plastic syringe mold, fired, and polished to a 3-microm finish to form 12 groups of 4 specimens each (14-mm diameter, 1.10-mm thickness). The apparent density (g/mL) of each specimen was measured using Archimedes method, and the porosity (%) calculated. Each specimen was coupled to standard ceramic tiles using an immersion liquid, and the color shade was measured in CIE Yxy coordinates using a tristimulus colorimeter. Translucency was assessed by calculating the contrast ratio of shade value (Y) in front of black versus white backgrounds. Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparison tests (alpha = .05) were used to test for significant effects of factors. Porcelain type and powder/liquid ratio had a significant interactive effect on the apparent density (P < .001) and on total porosity (P = .003); however, there was no consistent trend. The powder/liquid ratio did not significantly affect translucency (P = .28), but porcelain type had a significant effect on translucency (P < .001). In this in vitro study, total porosity of specimens prepared using 4 porcelains was found to be sensitive to powder/liquid ratio; whereas translucency was found to be insensitive to powder/liquid ratio.

  16. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  17. A self-disinfecting irreversible hydrocolloid impression material mixed with povidone iodine powder

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Hussien Abdalfatah; Asfour, Hani; Shikho, Souaad Abdulelah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to evaluate the effect of adding povidone (PVP) iodine powder with different concentrations to irreversible hydrocolloid on both microbiological and dimensional stability. Materials and Methods: Regular set of (alginate) irreversible hydrocolloid was selected as control group. PVP-iodine powder was mixed with the alginate powder at concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20% by weight (test groups). All specimens were tested for their antimicrobial effect against Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus as well as dimensional stability. Results: The results of test groups showed that concentrations 1, 5, and 10, weight % had little effect against S. mutans and S. aureus microorganisms. While concentrations 15 and 20 weight % had demonstrated greater effect on microbial growth. The mean of dimensional stability in mm of modified alginate with PVP-iodine at 15 and 20 weight % was –0.119 ± 0.255 and –0.035 ± 0.074, respectively. While the mean dimensional stability in mm of unmodified alginate was –0.112 ± 0.176. The results of dimensional stability showed that 15 and 20 concentrations of test groups adversely affect the dimensional stability. The adverse effect was noticed to be significant in concentration 20%, where as it was nonsignificant in 15% concentration. Conclusion: Modified alginate impression material with 15 weight % PVP-iodine powered give the material, a self-disinfected properties with less deteriorating effect on dimensional stability. PMID:28042266

  18. The suppression of enhanced bitterness intensity of macrolide dry syrup mixed with an acidic powder.

    PubMed

    Ishizaka, Toshihiko; Okada, Sachie; Takemoto, Eri; Tokuyama, Emi; Tsuji, Eriko; Mukai, Junji; Uchida, Takahiro

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify a medicine which strongly enhanced the bitterness of clarithromycin dry syrup (CAMD) when administered concomitantly and to develop a method to suppress this enhanced bitterness. The bitterness enhancement was evaluated not only by gustatory sensation tests but also using pH and taste sensor measurements of the mixed sample. A remarkable bitterness enhancement was found when CAMD was mixed with the acidic powder L-carbocysteine. The acidic pH (pH 3.40) of the suspension made from these two preparations, seemed to be due to enhanced release of clarithromycin caused by the dissolution of the alkaline polymer film-coating. Several methods for preventing this bitterness enhancement were investigated. Neither increasing the volume of water taken with the mixture, nor changing the ratio of CAMD:L-carbocysteine in the mixture, were effective in reducing the bitterness intensity of the CAMD/L-carbocysteine mixture. The best way to achieve taste masking was to first administer CAMD mixed with chocolate jelly, which has a neutral pH, followed by the L-carbocysteine suspension. Similar results were obtained for the bitterness suppression of azithromycin fine granules with L-carbocysteine. The chocolate jelly will be useful for taste masking of bitter macrolide drug formulations, when they need to be administered together with acidic drug formulations.

  19. Determination of Protein Content by NIR Spectroscopy in Protein Powder Mix Products.

    PubMed

    Ingle, Prashant D; Christian, Roney; Purohit, Piyush; Zarraga, Veronica; Handley, Erica; Freel, Keith; Abdo, Saleem

    2016-01-01

    Protein is a principal component in commonly used dietary supplements and health food products. The analysis of these products, within the consumer package form, is of critical importance for the purpose of ensuring quality and supporting label claims. A rapid test method was developed using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a compliment to current protein determination by the Dumas combustion method. The NIR method was found to be a rapid, low-cost, and green (no use of chemicals and reagents) complimentary technique. The protein powder samples analyzed in this study were in the range of 22-90% protein. The samples were prepared as mixtures of soy protein, whey protein, and silicon dioxide ingredients, which are common in commercially sold protein powder drink-mix products in the market. A NIR regression model was developed with 17 samples within the constituent range and was validated with 20 independent samples of known protein levels (85-88%). The results show that the NIR method is capable of predicting the protein content with a bias of ±2% and a maximum bias of 3% between NIR and the external Dumas method.

  20. Characterization of ball-milled carbon nanotube dispersed aluminum mixed powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleque, M. A.; Abdullah, U.; Yaacob, I.; Ali, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Currently, carbon nanotube (CNT) is attracting much interest as fibrous materials for reinforcing aluminum matrix composites due to unique properties, such as high strength, elastic modulus, flexibility and high aspect ratios. However, the quality of the dispersion is the major concerning factor which determines the homogeneity of the enhanced mechanical and tribological properties of the composite. This work study and characterized carbon nanotube dispersion in ballmilled CNT-aluminum mixed powders with four different formulations such as 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 wt% CNT under high energy planetary ball milling operations. The ball milling was performed for two hours at constant milling speed of 250 rpm under controlled atmosphere. The characterization is performed using FESEM and EDX analyzer for mapping, elemental and line analysis. The experimental results showed homogeneous dispersion of CNTs in aluminum matrix. The composite mixture showed similar pattern from mapping, elemental and line analysis. Identification of only two peaks proved that controlled atmosphere during milling prevented the formation of inter metallic compounds such as aluminum carbide in the composite mixture. Therefore, this CNT-A1 composite powder mixture can be used for new nano-composite development without any agglomeration problem.

  1. The Quantitative Determination of Food Dyes in Powdered Drink Mixes: A High School or General Science Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmann, Samuella B.; Wheeler, Dale E.

    2004-01-01

    The development of a simple spectro photometric method to quantitatively determine the quantity of FD&C color additives present in powdered drink mixes, are focused by the investigations. Samples containing single dyes of binary mixtures of dyes can be analyzed using this method.

  2. The Quantitative Determination of Food Dyes in Powdered Drink Mixes: A High School or General Science Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmann, Samuella B.; Wheeler, Dale E.

    2004-01-01

    The development of a simple spectro photometric method to quantitatively determine the quantity of FD&C color additives present in powdered drink mixes, are focused by the investigations. Samples containing single dyes of binary mixtures of dyes can be analyzed using this method.

  3. Luminescent MOFs comprising mixed tritopic linkers and Cd(II)/Zn(II) nodes for selective detection of organic nitro compounds and iodine capture

    SciTech Connect

    Rachuri, Yadagiri; Bisht, Kamal Kumar; Parmar, Bhavesh; Suresh, Eringathodi

    2015-03-15

    Two CPs ([Cd{sub 3}(BTC){sub 2}(TIB){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}].(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}){sub n} (1) and ([Zn{sub 3}(BTC){sub 2}(TIB){sub 2}].(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}){sub n} (2) composed of tripodal linkers BTC (1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) and TIB (1,3,5-tris(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene) were synthesized via solvothermal route and structurally characterized. Single crystal structural analysis reveals 1 possesses a novel 3D framework structure, whereas 2 represents a previously established compound. Owing to the d{sup 10} configuration of metal nodes and robust 3D frameworks, 1 and 2 exhibit excellent fluorescence properties which have been exploited to sense organic nitro compounds in vapor phase. Compound 1 demonstrates selective sensing of nitromethane over structurally similar methanol with ca. 70 and 43% fluorescence quenching in case of former and later. Similarly, 58% fluorescence quenching was observed in case of nitrobenzene over the structurally resembling toluene for which 30% quenching was observed. Compound 2 did not show any preference for nitro compounds and exhibited comparable fluorescence quenching when exposed to the vapors of nitro or other geometrically resembling organic molecules. Furthermore, adsorption experiments revealed that 1 and 2 can uptake 2.74 and 14.14 wt% molecular iodine respectively in vapor phase which can be released in organic solvents such as hexane and acetonitrile. The maximal iodine uptake in case of 1 and 2 corresponds to 0.15 and 0.80 molecules of iodine per formula unit of respective frameworks. Comprehensive structural description, thermal stability and luminescence behavior for both CPs has also been presented. - Graphical abstract: Two 3D luminescent CPs comprising mixed tripodal ligands have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Iodine encapsulation capacity of synthesized CPs is evaluated and their fluorescence quenching in presence of small organic molecules is exploited for sensing of nitro

  4. Processing and Characterization of Novel Biomimetic Nanoporous Bioceramic Surface on β-Ti Implant by Powder Mixed Electric Discharge Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Chander; Kansal, H. K.; Pabla, B. S.; Puri, Sanjeev

    2015-09-01

    Herein, a β-Ti-based implant was subjected to powder mixed electric discharge machining (PMEDM) for surface modification to produce a novel biomimetic nanoporous bioceramic surface. The microstructure, surface topography, and phase composition of the non-machined and machined (PMEDMed) surfaces were investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The microhardness of the surfaces was measured on a Vickers hardness tester. The corrosion resistance of the surfaces was evaluated via potentiodynamic polarization measurements in simulated body fluid. The application of PMEDM not only altered the surface chemistry, but also imparted the surface with a nanoporous topography or a natural bone-like surface structure. The characterization results confirmed that the alloyed layer mainly comprised bioceramic oxides and carbide phases (TiO2, Nb2O5, ZrO2, SiO2, TiC, NbC, SiC). The microhardness of PMEDMed surface was twofold higher than that of the base material (β-Ti alloy), primarily because of the formation of the hard carbide phases on the machined layer. Electrochemical analysis revealed that PMEDMed surface featured insulative and protective properties and thus displayed higher corrosion resistance ability when compared with the non-machined surface. This result was attributed to the formation of the bioceramic oxides on the machined surface. Additionally, the in vitro biocompatibility of the surfaces was evaluated using human osteoblastic cell line MG-63. PMEDMed surface with a micro-, sub-micro-, and nano-structured topography exhibited bioactivity and improved biocompatibility relative to β-Ti surface. Furthermore, PMEDMed surface enabled better adhesion and growth of MG-63 when compared with the non-machined substrate.

  5. Powder treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Weyand, John D.

    1988-01-01

    (1) A process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder.

  6. Powder treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Weyand, J.D.

    1988-02-09

    Disclosed are: (1) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder. 2 figs.

  7. Optimization of the formulation and technology of pearl millet based 'ready-to-reconstitute' kheer mix powder.

    PubMed

    Bunkar, Durga Shankar; Jha, Alok; Mahajan, Ankur

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the process of manufacturing instant kheer mix based on pearl millet instead of rice. Dairy whitener, pearl millet and powdered sugar were the responses studied by employing the 3-factor Central Composite Rotatable Design. The formulation with 15 g sugar, 30 g dairy whitener and 20 g pearl millet was found suitable for obtaining dry kheer mix. The analyses were based on scores of consistency, cohesiveness, viscosity and overall acceptability. The reconstituted product from the formulated kheer mix had an overall acceptability score of 7.66 and desirability index of 0.7663. The moisture, fat, protein, carbohydrate and ash contents of the dry mix product were 2.8, 4.38, 5.84, 85.88 and 1.1 %, respectively.

  8. Optimization of the EMI shielding effectiveness of fine and ultrafine POFA powder mix with OPC powder using Flower Pollination Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narong, L. C.; Sia, C. K.; Yee, S. K.; Ong, P.; Zainudin, A.; Nor, N. H. M.; Kasim, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    In order to solve the electromagnetic interference (EMI) issue and provide a new application for palm oil fuel ash (POFA), POFA was used as the cement filler for enhancing the EMI absorption of cement-based composites. POFA was refined by using water precipitation for 24 hours to remove the filthiness and distinguish the layer 1 (floated) and layer 2 (sink) of POFA. Both layers POFA were dried for 24 hours at 100 ± 5 °C and grind separately for sieve at 140 μm (Fine) and 45 цш sizes (Ultrafine). The micro structure and element content of the both layers POFA were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) respectively. The results showed layer 1 POFA has potentialities for EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) due to its higher carbon content and porous structure. The study reveals that EMI SE also influenced by the particle size of POFA, where smaller particle size can increase 5 % to 13 % of EMI SE. When the specimen consists of 50% POFA with passing through 45 μm sieve, the EMI was shield -13.08 dB in between 50 MHz to 2 GHz range. Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA) proves that POFA passing 45 μm sieve with 50% mixed to OPC is optimal parameter. The error between experimental and FPA simulation data is below 1.2 for both layers POFA.

  9. The Efficacy of Calcium Hydroxide Powder mixed with 0.2% Chlorhexidine Digluconate or mixed with Normal Saline as Intracanal Medicament in the Treatment of Apical Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Menakaya, Ifeoma N; Adegbulugbe, Ilemobade C; Oderinu, Olabisi H; Shaba, Olufemi P

    2015-08-01

    To compare the efficacy of calcium hydroxide powder mixed with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate or mixed with normal saline as intracanal medicament in the treatment of apical periodontitis. Subjects were 55 in number aged 17 to 60 years. Two-visit conventional root canal treatment was performed on 70 teeth. The teeth were divided by randomization (balloting) into two groups: control group and experimental group, each with 35 teeth treated with calcium hydroxide mixed with normal saline or with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate as intracanal medicament respectively. All treated teeth were evaluated clinically and radiographically for signs and symptom of periapical infection at specified periods postoperatively. Overall efficacy of medicament was rated based on quality guidelines for endodontic treatment by the European Society of Endodontology 2006. A postoperative favorable outcome of 97.1% in the control group and 94.3% in the experimental group was observed at 6-month review. This difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The use of normal saline or 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate to mix calcium hydroxide used as intracanal medicament during endodontic treatment resulted in high postoperative favorable outcomes. Efficacy of 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate as a vehicle for mixing calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament in the treatment of apical periodontitis is comparable to the efficacy of calcium hydroxide mixed with normal saline.

  10. A new special pair model comprising meso-di-p-anisylaminoporphyrin: enhancement of visible-light absorptivities and quantification of electronic communication in mixed-valent cation radical.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Ryota; Nishikawa, Michihiro; Yamamura, Takeshi; Kume, Shoko; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2010-03-28

    Slipped cofacial porphyrin dimer 1(2) with di-p-anisylamino groups on the meso-positions shows characteristic photo- and electroproperties making it suitable as a photosynthetic special pair model: more intense and red-shifted absorptivities in the visible region, and electronic communication between the two porphyrins in mixed-valent cation radical 1(2)(+), which is quantified with an IVCT band analysis.

  11. Observation of localized heating phenomena during microwave heating of mixed powders using in situ x-ray diffraction technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sabelström, N. Hayashi, M.; Watanabe, T.; Nagata, K.

    2014-10-28

    In materials processing research using microwave heating, there have been several observations of various phenomena occurring known as microwave effects. One significant example of such a phenomenon is increased reaction kinetics. It is believed that there is a possibility that this might be caused by localized heating, were some reactants would attain a higher than apparent temperature. To examine whether such thermal gradients are indeed possible, mixed powders of two microwave non-absorbers, alumina and magnesia, were mixed with graphite, a known absorber, and heated in a microwave furnace. During microwave irradiation, the local temperatures of the respective sample constituents were measured using an in situ x-ray diffraction technique. In the case of the alumina and graphite sample, a temperature difference of around 100 °C could be observed.

  12. Synthesis of Mesoporous CaCO3 Powder using Natural Limestone as Ca Ion Source with Solution Mixing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arifin, Zaenal; Lailiyah, Qudsiyyatul; Zainuri, Mochamad; Darminto

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the CaCO3 powder has successfully been synthesized by mixing CaCl2 derived from natural limestone and Na2CO3 in the same molar ratio. The mixing process of two solutions was performed by employing the molar contents of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 M at varying temperatures of 35, 50 and 80°C. The produced CaCO3 microparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The highest content of vaterite phase of the samples is around 96 wt%, resulted from the process using solution of 0.25 M at 35°C. All the samples prepared show mesoporous solids with pore sizes of 3-4 nm and specific surface area of 81-90 m2/g.

  13. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath; Blaugher, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals, such as nitrate salts of thallium, barium, calcium, and copper, which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of thallium in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  14. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, R.

    1998-08-04

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products. 7 figs.

  15. Nonaqueous solution synthesis process for preparing oxide powders of lead zirconate titanate and related materials

    DOEpatents

    Voigt, J.A.; Sipola, D.L.; Tuttle, B.A.; Anderson, M.T.

    1999-06-01

    A process is disclosed for producing powders of perovskite-type compounds which comprises mixing a metal alkoxide solution with a lead acetate solution to form a homogeneous, clear metal solution, adding an oxalic acid/n-propanol solution to this metal solution to form an easily filterable, free-flowing precursor powder and then calcining this powder. This process provides fine perovskite-phase powders with ferroelectric properties which are particularly useful in a variety of electronic applications. 4 figs.

  16. Nonaqueous solution synthesis process for preparing oxide powders of lead zirconate titanate and related materials

    DOEpatents

    Voigt, James A.; Sipola, Diana L.; Tuttle, Bruce A.; Anderson, Mark T.

    1999-01-01

    A process for producing powders of perovskite-type compounds which comprises mixing a metal alkoxide solution with a lead acetate solution to form a homogeneous, clear metal solution, adding an oxalic acid/n-propanol solution to this metal solution to form an easily filterable, free-flowing precursor powder and then calcining this powder. This process provides fine perovskite-phase powders with ferroelectric properties which are particularly useful in a variety of electronic applications.

  17. Strategy towards cost-effective low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells: A mixed-conductive membrane comprised of natural minerals and perovskite oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Chen; Cai, Yixiao; Wang, Baoyuan; Afzal, Muhammad; Zhang, Wei; Soltaninazarlou, Aslan; Zhu, Bin

    2017-02-01

    Our previous work has revealed the feasibility of natural hematite as an electrolyte material for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), tailoring SOFCs to be a more economically competitive energy conversion technology. In the present work, with the aim of exploring more practical uses of natural minerals, a novel composite hematite/LaCePrOx-La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (hematite/LCP-LSCF) has been developed from natural hematite ore, rare-earth mineral LaCePr-carbonate, and perovskite oxide LSCF as a functional membrane in SOFCs. The heterogeneity, nanostructure and mixed-conductive property of the composite were investigated. The results showed that the hematite/LCP-30 wt% LSCF composite possessed balanced ionic and electronic conductivities, with an ionic conductivity as high as 0.153 S cm-1 at 600 °C. The as-designed fuel cell using the hematite/LCP-LSCF membrane exhibited encouraging power outputs of 303 - 662 mW cm-2 at 500 - 600 °C. These findings show that the hematite/LCP-LSCF based fuel cell is a viable strategy for developing cost-effective and practical low-temperature SOFCs (LTSOFCs).

  18. Influence of load on particle size distribution of lactose-crystalline cellulose mixed powder.

    PubMed

    Nakamori, Takahiko; Miyagishim, Atsuo; Nozawa, Yasuo; Sadzuka, Yasuyuki; Sonobe, Takashi

    2008-04-16

    Effects of loads applied to a powdery layer of a mixture of lactose and crystalline cellulose (granules) on the microparticle formation were evaluated. In a 1:1 mixture, the number of particles size, 20 microm or smaller in diameter, was reduced under loading compared with the standard value. It tended to increase with increasing ratio of lactose. In samples with a particle size of 350 microm or less, the shear friction coefficient increased with increase in the load, reached a peak at a mixing ratio of 50%, and decreased with increase in the mixing ratio. These changes were similar to those of the number of particles 20 microm or smaller. These results suggest that particle formation and aggregation under loads are dependent on the mixing rate and that there is a range of mixing rates in which no changes in the particle size distribution are observed.

  19. 3D online submicron scale observation of mixed metal powder's microstructure evolution in high temperature and microwave compound fields.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dan; Xu, Feng; Hu, Xiao-fang; Dong, Bo; Xiao, Yu; Xiao, Ti-qiao

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the influence on the mechanical properties caused by microstructure evolution of metal powder in extreme environment, 3D real-time observation of the microstructure evolution of Al-Ti mixed powder in high temperature and microwave compound fields was realized by using synchrotron radiation computerized topography (SR-CT) technique; the spatial resolution was enhanced to 0.37  μm/pixel through the designed equipment and the introduction of excellent reconstruction method for the first time. The process of microstructure evolution during sintering was clearly distinguished from 2D and 3D reconstructed images. Typical sintering parameters such as sintering neck size, porosity, and particle size of the sample were presented for quantitative analysis of the influence on the mechanical properties and the sintering kinetics during microwave sintering. The neck size-time curve was obtained and the neck growth exponent was 7.3, which indicated that surface diffusion was the main diffusion mechanism; the reason was the eddy current loss induced by the external microwave fields providing an additional driving force for mass diffusion on the particle surface. From the reconstructed images and the curve of porosity and average particle size versus temperature, it was believed that the presence of liquid phase aluminum accelerated the densification and particle growth.

  20. 3D Online Submicron Scale Observation of Mixed Metal Powder's Microstructure Evolution in High Temperature and Microwave Compound Fields

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng; Hu, Xiao-fang; Xiao, Yu; Xiao, Ti-qiao

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the influence on the mechanical properties caused by microstructure evolution of metal powder in extreme environment, 3D real-time observation of the microstructure evolution of Al-Ti mixed powder in high temperature and microwave compound fields was realized by using synchrotron radiation computerized topography (SR-CT) technique; the spatial resolution was enhanced to 0.37 μm/pixel through the designed equipment and the introduction of excellent reconstruction method for the first time. The process of microstructure evolution during sintering was clearly distinguished from 2D and 3D reconstructed images. Typical sintering parameters such as sintering neck size, porosity, and particle size of the sample were presented for quantitative analysis of the influence on the mechanical properties and the sintering kinetics during microwave sintering. The neck size-time curve was obtained and the neck growth exponent was 7.3, which indicated that surface diffusion was the main diffusion mechanism; the reason was the eddy current loss induced by the external microwave fields providing an additional driving force for mass diffusion on the particle surface. From the reconstructed images and the curve of porosity and average particle size versus temperature, it was believed that the presence of liquid phase aluminum accelerated the densification and particle growth. PMID:24737986

  1. Effect of flour-oil composite as powdered fat source in low-fat cake mixes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Excess steam jet-cooked composites containing wheat flour and 30 to 55% canola oil were drum dried and used to replace the oil and part of the flour in low-fat cake mix formulations. Specific gravity and viscosity of cake batters were measured. The cakes were analyzed for crumb grain, color, textu...

  2. Research of the recast layer on implant surface modified by micro-current electrical discharge machining using deionized water mixed with titanium powder as dielectric solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sung-Long; Lin, Ming-Hong; Huang, Guo-Xin; Wang, Chia-Ching

    2014-08-01

    Surface modification of Ti using micro-current electrical discharge machining (MC-EDM) technology at various working parameters was conducted in the present study. A significant decrease in amount of surface cracks for modified Ti in deionized water mixed with concentration of 3 g/l Ti powder dielectric solvent was determined. Increasing the concentration of Ti powder to 6 g/l, no micro-cracks were observed on the modified Ti surfaces at current 0.1 A for short-pulse durations (≤50 μs). Moreover, the thickness of the recast layer increases with increasing current, pulse duration and concentration. Under the same working parameters, the thickness of recast layers on modified Ti enhances to approximately 4-11 μm in the concentration of 6 g/l Ti powder dielectric solvent. When Ti modified at different working parameters in deionized water mixed with Ti powder dielectric solvent, the TiO phase was observed within the recast layers. It was found that the modified Ti at current 0.1 A for 30 μs and 50 μs in a 6 g/l concentration of Ti powder dielectric solvent generates a hydrophilicity surface. Therefore, adding a suitable concentration of Ti powder into the dielectric solvent not only prevent the formation of surface cracks and micro-cracks, but also raise the wettability on the surfaces of Ti during MC-EDM modifications.

  3. Electromagnetic wave absorption properties of Fe73Si16B7Nb3Cu1-based composites mixed with fine charcoal powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sun-I.; Kim, Mi Rae; Sohn, Keun Yong; Park, Won-Wook

    2010-05-01

    Fe73Si16B7Nb3Cu1 soft magnetic powder was crystallized to obtain a nano grain structure and mixed with a fine charcoal powder. The mixtures were tape-cast with polymer-based organic binders to form a sheet-type electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption composite. The EM wave absorption properties of the sheets were investigated using a network analyzer. The results showed that addition of charcoal powder improved the EM-absorbing properties of the composite. The power loss of the EM wave was directly related to the imaginary part of the permeability and permittivity, and it was reviewed in detail. Excellent absorption properties were achieved by adding 5 wt % charcoal powder (-500 mesh) to the Fe-based sheets.

  4. Anti-site mixing and magnetic properties of Fe3Co3Nb2 studied via neutron powder diffraction

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Xiaoshan; Zhang, Xiaozhe; Yin, Yuewei; ...

    2016-11-02

    Here, we studied the crystal structure and magnetic properties of the rare-earth-free intermetallic compound Fe3Co3Nb2, which has recently been demonstrated to have potentially high magnetic anisotropy, using temperature-dependent neutron powder diffraction. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the diffraction spectra reveals a magnetic transition between 300 and 400 K, in agreement with the magnetometry measurements. According to the structural refinement of the paramagnetic state and the substantial magnetic contribution to the diffuse scattering in the ferromagnetic state, the Fe/Co anti-site mixing is so strong that the site occupation for Fe and Co is almost random. The projection of the magnetic momentsmore » turned out to be non-zero along the c axis and in the a–b plane of Fe3Co3Nb2, most likely because of the exchange interactions between the randomly orientated nanograins in the samples. These findings suggest that future studies on the magnetism of Fe3Co3Nb2 need to take the Fe/Co anti-site mixing into account, and the exchange interactions need to be suppressed to obtain large remanence and coercivity.« less

  5. Emissivity Spectra of Meteoritic Powders mixed with Liquid Formamide (NH2COH) at Different Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffaele, S.; Maturilli, A.; D'Amore, M.; Ferrari, S.; Helbert, J.

    2013-12-01

    noticed in the emissivity spectra strong signatures attributable to liquid formamide. We interpret them as being originated from a column of hot vaporized formamide, lying above the sample surface. For all the samples this effect vanished already at 100°C, probably due to complete evaporation of liquid formamide that was deposited on the meteorite sample surfaces. However, all the spectra measured at 100° and 140° C show signs of the presence of formamide, that we infer from comparing them with the 70° C dry measurement of the same sample. For 2 samples out of 3, when heating at 200°C (and only there) a new feature appears at 7.08 μm. This band is very close to a similar band that liquid formamide has at 7.19 μm, and that was even present in all the spectra of wet meteorites taken at 70°C. We interpret this band shift as a possible sign of interaction of formamide with the catalyst (the meteorite powder): the CH bend responsible for that is probably strengthening.

  6. Fabrication of Al/Al3Ti Functionally Graded Materials by Reaction Centrifugal Mixed-Powder Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hadad, Shimaa; Sato, Hisashi; Miura-Fujiwara, Eri; Watanabe, Yoshimi

    2011-01-01

    Formation of compositional gradient in Al/Al3Ti Functionally graded materials (FGMs) fabricated by the centrifugal method (CM) depends mainly on the centrifugal force and the processing temperature. In this study, a novel centrifugal method, reaction centrifugal mixed-powder method (RCMPM), was proposed to fabricate Al/Al3Ti FGMs under fixed centrifugal force (G=80). The effects of RCMPM processing temperature on the formation of Al3Ti intermetallics, its morphology and its distribution in the fabricated Al/Al3Ti FGMs have been investigated. Fine granular Al3Ti were observed at relatively lower processing temperature while the known coarse platelet-like particles of Al3Ti could be achieved at higher casting temperatures. Moreover, Ti3Al intermetallics compound and unreacted Ti phases are also observed along with Al3Ti particles. In addition, distribution of Al3Ti intermetallics size and their volume fraction showed a significant change when the Al/Al3Ti FGMs processed at different temperatures relative to the liquidus temperature of the master alloy.

  7. Dielectric properties and microstructure of sintered BaTiO3 fabricated by using mixed 150-nm and 80-nm powders with various additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Min Wook; Kang, Jae Won; Yeo, Dong Hun; Shin, Hyo Soon; Jeong, Dae Yong

    2015-04-01

    Recently, the use of small-sized BaTiO3 particles for ultra-thin MLCC research has increased as a method for minimizing the dielectric layer's thickness in thick film process. However, when particles smaller than 100 nm are used, the reduced particle size leads to a reduced dielectric constant. The use of nanoparticles, therefore, requires an increase in the amount of additive used due to the increase in the specific surface area, thus increasing the production cost. In this study, a novel method of coating 150-nm and 80-nm BaTiO3 powders with additives and mixing them together was employed, taking advantage of the effect obtained through the use of BaTiO3 particles smaller than 100 nm, to conveniently obtain the desired dielectric constant and thermal characteristics. Also, the microstructure and the dielectric properties were evaluated. The additives Dy, Mn, Mg, Si, and Cr were coated on a 150-nm powder, and the additives Dy, Mn, Mg, and Si were coated on 80-nm powder, followed by mixing at a ratio of 1:1. As a result, the microstructure revealed grain formation according to the liquid-phase additive Si; additionally, densification was well realized. However, non-reducibility was not obtained, and the material became a semiconductor. When the amount of added Mn in the 150-nm powder was increased to 0.2 and 0.3 mol%, insignificant changes in the microstructure were observed, and the bulk density after mixing was found to have increased drastically in comparison to that before mixing. Also, non-reducibility was obtained for certain conditions. The dielectric property was found to be consistent with the densification and the grain size. The mixed composition #1-0.3 had a dielectric constant over 2000, and the result somewhat satisfied the dielectric constant temperature dependency for X6S.

  8. Evaluation of the degree of mixing of combinations of dry syrup, powder, and fine granule products in consideration of particle size distribution using near infrared spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Toyofumi; Matsumoto, Mika; Ohtani, Michiteru; Hayano, Shuichi; Fukami, Toshiro; Tomono, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    We used near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to evaluate the degree of mixing of blended dry syrup (DS) products whose particle sizes are not specified in the Revised 16th Edition of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia, and also evaluated the degree of mixing when powder products or fine granule products were added to DS products. The data obtained were used to investigate the relationship between the particle size distributions of the products studied and the degree of mixing. We found that the particle size distribution characteristics of the 15 DS products studied can be broadly classified into 5 types. Combinations of frequently prescribed products were selected to represent 4 of the 5 particle size distribution types and were blended with a mortar and pestle. The coefficient of variation (CV) decreased as the percent mass of Asverin® Dry Syrup 2% (Asverin-DS) increased in blends of Periactin® Powder 1% (Periactin) and Asverin-DS, indicating an improved degree of mixing (uniformity). In contrast, in blends of Periactin and Mucodyne® DS 33.3%, mixing a combination at a 1:1 mass ratio 40 times resulted in a CV of 20%. Other mixing frequencies and mass ratios resulted in a CV by 50% to 70%, indicating a very poor degree of mixing (poor uniformity). These results suggest that when combining different DSs, or a DS with a powder or fine granule product, the blending obtained with a mortar and pestle improves as the particle size distributions of the components approach each other and as the ranges of the distributions narrow.

  9. Assessing the effects of different dielectrics on environmentally conscious powder-mixed EDM of difficult-to-machine material (WC-Co)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jagdeep; Sharma, Rajiv Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a well-known nontraditional manufacturing process to machine the difficult-to-machine (DTM) materials which have unique hardness properties. Researchers have successfully performed hybridization to improve this process by incorporating powders into the EDM process known as powder-mixed EDM process. This process drastically improves process efficiency by increasing material removal rate, micro-hardness, as well as reducing the tool wear rate and surface roughness. EDM also has some input parameters, including pulse-on time, dielectric levels and its type, current setting, flushing pressure, and so on, which have a significant effect on EDM performance. However, despite their positive influence, investigating the effects of these parameters on environmental conditions is necessary. Most studies demonstrate the use of kerosene oil as dielectric fluid. Nevertheless, in this work, the authors highlight the findings with respect to three different dielectric fluids, including kerosene oil, EDM oil, and distilled water using one-variable-at-a-time approach for machining as well as environmental aspects. The hazard and operability analysis is employed to identify the inherent safety factors associated with powder-mixed EDM of WC-Co.

  10. Transient Liquid Phase Diffusion Bonding of 6061Al-15 wt.% SiC p Composite Using Mixed Cu-Ag Powder Interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Pallab; Pal, Tapan Kumar; Maity, Joydeep

    2016-08-01

    Microstructure and shear strength of transient liquid phase diffusion bonded (560 °C, 0.2 MPa) 6061Al-15 wt.% SiCp extruded composite using a 50-µm-thick mixed Cu-Ag powder interlayer have been investigated. During isothermal solidification that took 2 h for completion, a ternary liquid phase formed due to diffusion of Cu and Ag in Al. Subsequent cooling formed a ternary phase mixture (α-Al + CuAl2 + Ag2Al) upon eutectic solidification. With mixed Cu-Ag powder interlayer, isothermal solidification was faster than for pure Al joints made using a 50-µm-thick Cu foil interlayer and for the composite joints made using a 50-µm-thick Cu foil/powder interlayer under similar conditions. The presence of brittle eutectic phase mixture (CuAl2 + Ag2Al) led to poor joint strength at short TLP bonding times. The mixture disappeared upon isothermal solidification with a 2-h hold yielding improved joint strength even with solidification shrinkage in the joint. Increased holding time (6 h) erased shrinkage via solid state diffusion and yielded the highest joint strength (87 MPa) and fair joint efficiency (83%).

  11. Development of a Rational Design Space for Optimizing Mixing Conditions for Formation of Adhesive Mixtures for Dry-Powder Inhaler Formulations.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Saurabh; Minatovicz, Bruna; Thalberg, Kyrre; Chaudhuri, Bodhisattwa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop guidance toward rational choice of blenders and processing conditions to make robust and high performing adhesive mixtures for dry-powder inhalers and to develop quantitative experimental approaches for optimizing the process. Mixing behavior of carrier (LH100) and AstraZeneca fine lactose in high-shear and low-shear double cone blenders was systematically investigated. Process variables impacting the mixing performance were evaluated for both blenders. The performance of the blenders with respect to the mixing time, press-on forces, static charging, and abrasion of carrier fines was monitored, and for some of the parameters, distinct differences could be detected. A comparison table is presented, which can be used as a guidance to enable rational choice of blender and process parameters based on the user requirements. Segregation of adhesive mixtures during hopper discharge was also investigated.

  12. Expanding performance limit of lithium-ion batteries simply by mixing Al(OH) 3 powder with LiCoO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hochun; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Kim, Dongmyung; Choi, Seungdon

    Mixing a small amount of Al(OH) 3 powder with a LiCoO 2 cathode material is demonstrated to improve markedly the cycle performance and thermal stability of commercial grade LiCoO 2/graphite lithium-ion batteries. Al(OH) 3-mixed LiCoO 2/graphite prismatic cells exhibit excellent capacity retention as high as 95% after 400 cycles with negligible polarization build-up. Moreover, the thermal stability of the cells is greatly improved by Al(OH) 3 mixing, which is confirmed by higher residual and recovery capacity ratios after storage at 90 °C compared with a pristine cell. The beneficial effects of Al(OH) 3 are found to be related mainly to an improvement of the cathode side, which is ascribed to reduced unwanted side-reactions with the electrolyte.

  13. Compositions Comprising Nickel-Titanium, Methods Manufacture Thereof and Articles Comprising the Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glennon, Glenn N. (Inventor); DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Disclosing herein is a method for manufacturing nickel-titanium compositions. The method includes disposing a powdered composition in a mold; the powdered composition comprising nickel and titanium; the titanium being present in an amount of about 38 to about 42 wt % and the nickel being present in an amount of about 58 to about 62 wt %; sintering the powdered composition to produce a sintered preform; compacting the preform; machining the preform to form an article; heat treating the article; the annealing being conducted at a temperature of about 1650.degree. F. to about 1900.degree. F. at a pressure of about 3 Torr to about 5 Kg-f/cm.sup.2 for a time period of about 10 minutes to about 5 hours; and quenching the article.

  14. Application of spray granulation for conversion of mixed phospholipid-bile salt micelles to dry powder form: influence of drug hydrophobicity on nanoparticle reagglomeration

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Qingyuan; Li, Xianyi; Shen, Baode; Xu, He; Shen, Chengying; Dai, Ling; Bai, Jinxia; Yuan, Hailong; Han, Jin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using spray granulation as a drying method to convert phospholipid (PL)-sodium deoxycholate (SDC)-mixed micelles (MMs) containing a water-insoluble drug to a solid dosage form and to evaluate how drugs with significantly different physicochemical properties affect the spray granulation process and subsequent in vitro and in vivo processes. Cucurbitacin B (Cu B) and glycyrrhizin (GL) were used as the model drugs. After spray granulation, the dried Cu B-PL/SDC-MM powder was completely redispersible within 15 minutes in vitro. Meanwhile, the area under the curve during 24 hours (AUC0–24) and peak serum concentration from the dried powder were significantly (P<0.05) lower than the values from Cu B-PL/SDC-MMs in vivo. However, a better result was obtained for GL, ie, the drug was redispersed completely within 5 minutes in vitro. Further, absorption from the dried GL-PL/SDC-MM powder was increased to the same level as that for GL-PL/SDC-MMs in vivo compared with the control group. The difference in these results can be found in Cu B and GL. Cu B nanoparticles reagglomerated when released, resulting in slower redispersibility and less absorption compared with the original PL-SDC-MMs. However, no agglomeration or delay was observed for GL. A possible explanation is the difference in surface hydrophobicity between Cu B and GL. The results of this study not only show that spray granulation is an effective drying technique that can complement spray-drying and freeze-drying, but also confirm that the physicochemical properties of a drug have a significant influence on the in vitro and in vivo performance of the dried powder obtained after spray granulation. PMID:24531119

  15. Biosorption of copper(II) ions onto powdered waste sludge in a completely mixed fed-batch reactor: estimation of design parameters.

    PubMed

    Pamukoglu, Yunus; Kargi, Fikret

    2007-04-01

    Biosorption of Cu(II) ions onto pre-treated powdered waste sludge (PWS) was investigated using a fed-batch operated completely mixed reactor. Fed-batch adsorption experiments were performed by varying the feed flow rate ( 0.075-0.325 l h(-1)), feed copper (II) ion concentrations (50-300 mg l(-1)) and the amount of adsorbent (1-6 g PWS) using fed-batch operation. Breakthrough curves describing the variations of effluent copper ion concentrations with time were determined for different operating conditions. Percent copper ion removals from the aqueous phase decreased, but the biosorbed (solid phase) copper ion concentrations increased with increasing the feed flow rate and Cu(II) concentration. A modified Bohart-Adams equation was used to determine the biosorption capacity of PWS and the rate constant for Cu(II) ion biosorption. Adsorption rate constant in fed-batch operation was an order of magnitude larger than those obtained in adsorption columns because of elimination of mass transfer limitations encountered in the column operations while the biosorption capacity of PWS was comparable with powdered activated (PAC) in column operations. Therefore, a completely mixed reactor operated in fed-batch mode was proven to be more advantageous as compared to adsorption columns due to better contact between the phases yielding faster adsorption rates.

  16. Method for stabilizing low-level mixed wastes at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.

    1997-07-08

    A method to stabilize solid and liquid waste at room temperature is provided comprising combining solid waste with a starter oxide to obtain a powder, contacting the powder with an acid solution to create a slurry, said acid solution containing the liquid waste, shaping the now-mixed slurry into a predetermined form, and allowing the now-formed slurry to set. The invention also provides for a method to encapsulate and stabilize waste containing cesium comprising combining the waste with Zr(OH){sub 4} to create a solid-phase mixture, mixing phosphoric acid with the solid-phase mixture to create a slurry, subjecting the slurry to pressure; and allowing the now pressurized slurry to set. Lastly, the invention provides for a method to stabilize liquid waste, comprising supplying a powder containing magnesium, sodium and phosphate in predetermined proportions, mixing said powder with the liquid waste, such as tritium, and allowing the resulting slurry to set. 4 figs.

  17. Method for stabilizing low-level mixed wastes at room temperature

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Singh, Dileep

    1997-01-01

    A method to stabilize solid and liquid waste at room temperature is provided comprising combining solid waste with a starter oxide to obtain a powder, contacting the powder with an acid solution to create a slurry, said acid solution containing the liquid waste, shaping the now-mixed slurry into a predetermined form, and allowing the now-formed slurry to set. The invention also provides for a method to encapsulate and stabilize waste containing cesium comprising combining the waste with Zr(OH).sub.4 to create a solid-phase mixture, mixing phosphoric acid with the solid-phase mixture to create a slurry, subjecting the slurry to pressure; and allowing the now pressurized slurry to set. Lastly, the invention provides for a method to stabilize liquid waste, comprising supplying a powder containing magnesium, sodium and phosphate in predetermined proportions, mixing said powder with the liquid waste, such as tritium, and allowing the resulting slurry to set.

  18. Method for stabilizing low-level mixed wastes at room temperature

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.

    1997-07-08

    A method to stabilize solid and liquid waste at room temperature is provided comprising combining solid waste with a starter oxide to obtain a powder, contacting the powder with an acid solution to create a slurry, said acid solution containing the liquid waste, shaping the now-mixed slurry into a predetermined form, and allowing the now-formed slurry to set. The invention also provides for a method to encapsulate and stabilize waste containing cesium comprising combining the waste with Zr(OH){sub 4} to create a solid-phase mixture, mixing phosphoric acid with the solid-phase mixture to create a slurry, subjecting the slurry to pressure; and allowing the now pressurized slurry to set. Lastly, the invention provides for a method to stabilize liquid waste, comprising supplying a powder containing magnesium, sodium and phosphate in predetermined proportions, mixing said powder with the liquid waste, such as tritium, and allowing the resulting slurry to set. 4 figs.

  19. Assessing the use of food coloring as an appropriate visual guide for homogenously mixed capsule powders in extemporaneous compounding.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Brittany; Carlson, Christie; Rao, Deepa A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the use of food colors as a visual aid to determine homogeneous mixing in the extemporaneous preparation of capsules. Six different batches of progesterone slow-release 200-mg capsules were prepared by different mixing methods until visually determined as homogeneous based on yellow food coloring distribution in the preparation by the Central Iowa Compounding Pharmacy, Des Moines, Iowa. UV-Vis spectrophotometry was used to extract and evaluate yellow food coloring content in each of these batches and compared to an in-house, small-batch geometric dilution preparation of progesterone slow- release 200-mg capsules. Of the 6 batches tested, only one, which followed the principles of additive dilution and an appropriate mixing time, was both visually and quantitatively homogeneous in the detection of yellow food coloring. The use of food coloring alone is not a valid quality-assurance tool in determining homogeneous mixing. Principles of geometric and/or additive dilution and appropriate mixing times along with the food color can serve as a quality-assurance tool.

  20. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  1. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  2. Method for synthesizing powder materials

    DOEpatents

    Buss, R.J.; Ho, P.

    1988-01-21

    A method for synthesizing ultrafine powder materials, for example, ceramic and metal powders, comprises admitting gaseous reactants from which the powder material is to be formed into a vacuum reaction chamber maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric and at a temperature less than about 400/degree/K (127/degree/C). The gaseous reactants are directed through a glow discharge provided in the vacuum reaction chamber to form the ultrafine powder material. 1 fig.

  3. Anti-site mixing and magnetic properties of Fe3Co3Nb2 studied via neutron powder diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xiaoshan; Zhang, Xiaozhe; Yin, Yuewei; Balasubramanian, Balamurugan; Das, Bhaskar; Liu, Yaohua; Huq, Ashfia; Sellmyer, David

    2016-11-02

    Here, we studied the crystal structure and magnetic properties of the rare-earth-free intermetallic compound Fe3Co3Nb2, which has recently been demonstrated to have potentially high magnetic anisotropy, using temperature-dependent neutron powder diffraction. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the diffraction spectra reveals a magnetic transition between 300 and 400 K, in agreement with the magnetometry measurements. According to the structural refinement of the paramagnetic state and the substantial magnetic contribution to the diffuse scattering in the ferromagnetic state, the Fe/Co anti-site mixing is so strong that the site occupation for Fe and Co is almost random. The projection of the magnetic moments turned out to be non-zero along the c axis and in the a–b plane of Fe3Co3Nb2, most likely because of the exchange interactions between the randomly orientated nanograins in the samples. These findings suggest that future studies on the magnetism of Fe3Co3Nb2 need to take the Fe/Co anti-site mixing into account, and the exchange interactions need to be suppressed to obtain large remanence and coercivity.

  4. Method to blend separator powders

    DOEpatents

    Guidotti, Ronald A.; Andazola, Arthur H.; Reinhardt, Frederick W.

    2007-12-04

    A method for making a blended powder mixture, whereby two or more powders are mixed in a container with a liquid selected from nitrogen or short-chain alcohols, where at least one of the powders has an angle of repose greater than approximately 50 degrees. The method is useful in preparing blended powders of Li halides and MgO for use in the preparation of thermal battery separators.

  5. Articles comprising ferritic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, James M.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture comprises a ferritic stainless steel that includes a near-surface region depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the ferritic stainless steel. The article has a reduced tendency to form an electrically resistive silica layer including silicon derived from the steel when the article is subjected to high temperature oxidizing conditions. The ferritic stainless steel is selected from the group comprising AISI Type 430 stainless steel, AISI Type 439 stainless steel, AISI Type 441 stainless steel, AISI Type 444 stainless steel, and E-BRITE.RTM. alloy, also known as UNS 44627 stainless steel. In certain embodiments, the article of manufacture is a fuel cell interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell.

  6. The use of stratefied sampling of blend and dosage units to demonstrate adequacy of mix for powder blends.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Garth; Clark, Jon; Dietrick, John; Foust, Laura; Garcia, Thomas; Gavini, Muralidhara; Gelber, Loren; Geoffroy, Jean-Marie; Hoblitzell, Jack; Jimenez, Pedro; Mergen, Gerald; Muzzio, Fernando; Planchard, Jerry; Prescott, James; Timmermans, Jozef; Takiar, Neeru

    2003-01-01

    In response to concerns expressed by applicants regarding inconsistent policies in establishing blend uniformity acceptance criteria to demonstrate adequacy of mix, the FDA Office of Generic Drugs (OGD) issued the draft document Guidance for Industry, ANDAs: Blend Uniformity Analysis (August 1999). Both generic and innovator pharmaceutical companies raised a number of concerns following the publication of this document. As a result, the Product Quality Research Institute (PQRI) Blend Uniformity Working Group (BUWG) was established in February 2000. One of the primary goals of this group was to draft a scientifically based alternative to the OGD document. The resulting recommendation addresses both FDA and industry concerns by substantially enhancing product quality assurance without increasing regulatory burden. The PQRI BUWG recommends that these blend and dosage unit uniformity requirements be administered uniformly throughout the industry. PQRI submitted the following recommendation to the FDA on December 31, 2002, providing the Agency with an alternative strategy to consider when drafting future regulatory policy to assess blend and dosage unit uniformity.

  7. Plasma Synthesis of Lithium Based Intercalation Powders for Solid Polymer Electrolyte Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Nelson, Lee O.

    2005-01-04

    The invention relates to a process for preparing lithium intercalation compounds by plasma reaction comprising the steps of: forming a feed solution by mixing lithium nitrate or lithium hydroxide or lithium oxide and the required metal nitrate or metal hydroxide or metal oxide and between 10-50% alcohol by weight; mixing the feed solution with O2 gas wherein the O2 gas atomizes the feed solution into fine reactant droplets, inserting the atomized feed solution into a plasma reactor to form an intercalation powder; and if desired, heating the resulting powder to form a very pure single phase product.

  8. Plasma synthesis of lithium based intercalation powders for solid polymer electrolyte batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Nelson, Lee O.

    2005-01-04

    The invention relates to a process for preparing lithium intercalation compounds by plasma reaction comprising the steps of: forming a feed solution by mixing lithium nitrate or lithium hydroxide or lithium oxide and the required metal nitrate or metal hydroxide or metal oxide and between 10-50% alcohol by weight; mixing the feed solution with O.sub.2 gas wherein the O.sub.2 gas atomizes the feed solution into fine reactant droplets, inserting the atomized feed solution into a plasma reactor to form an intercalation powder; and if desired, heating the resulting powder to from a very pure single phase product.

  9. Phase Evolution and Nucleus Growth Observation of Solid-State BaTiO3 Powder Prepared by High-Energy Bead Milling for Raw Material Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ting-Tai; Huang, Chi-Yuen; Chang, Che-Yuan; Lin, Shih-Pin; Su, Che-Yi; Lee, Chun-Te; Fujimoto, Masayuki

    2011-09-01

    The solid-state synthesis, phase evolution, and nucleus growth of the barium titanate (BaTiO3, BT) powder were investigated in this study. Rapid nucleus growth and precursor phase formation of BT were observed at a relatively low temperature of 600 °C by mixing BaCO3 (2 m2/g) and TiO2 (7 m2/g) with a high-energy bead mill. The decomposition of BaCO3 and the formation of the Ba2TiO4 phase were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). On the basis of this observation, the weight loss observed at 600 °C in the derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) curve could also be explained. Furthermore, with increasing calcination temperature, single cubic BT with less than 80 nm fine nuclei/crystallites was observed at 900 °C, and tetragonal BT (c/a > 1.008) with an average particle size of 0.4 µm was obtained at 1000 °C. With regard to the dielectric properties of sintered ceramics, the relative permittivity (ɛr) increased with calcination temperature, and the Curie point also shifted to a progressively higher temperature. However, BT nucleus samples (with low calcination temperatures of 800 and 900 °C) could not satisfy the X7R requirement (Electric Industries Association Standard, the tolerance of capacitance from -55 to +125 °C is ±15%) until calcination temperature increased to 1000 °C.

  10. High specific surface area nickel mixed oxide powders LaNiO{sub 3} (perovskite) and NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} (spinel) via sol-gel type routes for oxygen electrocatalysis in alkaline media

    SciTech Connect

    El Baydi, M.; Chartier, P.; Koenig, J.F.; Poillerat, G.; Tiwari, S.K. |; Singh, R.N.; Rehspringer, J.L.

    1995-04-01

    A novel sol-gel process of preparation of oxide electrocatalysts is investigated to prepare Ni-containing mixed oxides LaNiO{sub 3} and NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} at moderate temperatures. High surface area (20-55 m{sup 2} g{sup {minus}1}) powders and high roughness electrodes (30-1500) were obtained. Apparent and real electrocatalytical activity are compared and discussed.

  11. A Transient Liquid Phase Sintering Bonding Process Using Nickel-Tin Mixed Powder for the New Generation of High-Temperature Power Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Hongliang; Huang, Jihua; Yang, Jian; Zhou, Shaokun; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Shuhai

    2017-07-01

    A transient liquid phase sintering (TLPS) bonding process, Ni-Sn TLPS bonding was developed for the new generation of power semiconductor packaging. A model Ni/Ni-Sn/Ni sandwiched structure was assembled by using 30Ni-70Sn mixed powder as the reactive system. The results show that the bonding layer is composed of Ni3Sn4 and residual fine Ni particles with a small amount of Ni3Sn2 at 340°C for 240 min, which has a heat-resistant temperature higher than 790°C. The microstructural evolution and thermal characteristic of the bonding layer for various times at 300°C and 340°C were also studied, respectively. This reveals that, after isothermally holding for 240 min at 300°C and for 180 min at 340°C, Sn has been completely transformed into Ni-Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs) and the bonding layer is mainly composed of Ni3Sn4 and residual Ni particles. The analysis result for the mechanical properties of the joint shows that the hardness of the bonding layer at 340°C for 240 min is uniform and that the average value reaches 3.66 GPa, which is close to that of the Ni3Sn4 block material. The shear test shows that, as the holding time increases from 60 min to 180 min at 340°C, because of the existence of Sn, the disparity of shear strength between room temperature and 350°C is large. But when the holding time is 180 min or longer, Sn has been completely transformed into Ni-Sn IMCs. Their performances are very similar whether at room temperature or 350°C.

  12. A Transient Liquid Phase Sintering Bonding Process Using Nickel-Tin Mixed Powder for the New Generation of High-Temperature Power Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Hongliang; Huang, Jihua; Yang, Jian; Zhou, Shaokun; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Shuhai

    2017-02-01

    A transient liquid phase sintering (TLPS) bonding process, Ni-Sn TLPS bonding was developed for the new generation of power semiconductor packaging. A model Ni/Ni-Sn/Ni sandwiched structure was assembled by using 30Ni-70Sn mixed powder as the reactive system. The results show that the bonding layer is composed of Ni3Sn4 and residual fine Ni particles with a small amount of Ni3Sn2 at 340°C for 240 min, which has a heat-resistant temperature higher than 790°C. The microstructural evolution and thermal characteristic of the bonding layer for various times at 300°C and 340°C were also studied, respectively. This reveals that, after isothermally holding for 240 min at 300°C and for 180 min at 340°C, Sn has been completely transformed into Ni-Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs) and the bonding layer is mainly composed of Ni3Sn4 and residual Ni particles. The analysis result for the mechanical properties of the joint shows that the hardness of the bonding layer at 340°C for 240 min is uniform and that the average value reaches 3.66 GPa, which is close to that of the Ni3Sn4 block material. The shear test shows that, as the holding time increases from 60 min to 180 min at 340°C, because of the existence of Sn, the disparity of shear strength between room temperature and 350°C is large. But when the holding time is 180 min or longer, Sn has been completely transformed into Ni-Sn IMCs. Their performances are very similar whether at room temperature or 350°C.

  13. Observation of calcium phosphate powder mixed with an adhesive monomer experimentally developed for direct pulp capping and as a bonding agent.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Yoshiroh; Suzuki, Masaya; Kato, Chikage; Shinkai, Koichi; Ogawa, Masaaki; Yamauchi, Junichi

    2010-01-01

    In this study, morphological shape, elemental distribution and elution properties of Ca, P, Mg in four types of calcium phosphate powder were investigated using SEM, EPMA and ICP-AES. Calcium phosphate powder: OHAp, DCPD, beta-TCP and OCP were observed in the white powder form and in the photopolymerized adhesive monomer they scattered like dispersed fillers in resin composite. In elemental analysis, CaKalpha showed a relatively high concentration in relation to PKalpha. In elution analysis, each calcium phosphate showed different elution of Ca and P. But Mg was almost equal to the detection limit of ICP-AES. Namely it was suggested that reparative dentin formation was effectively promoted under the following conditions: a calcification promoting effect by direct contact of the calcium phosphate powder, an ionic effect of Ca and P eluted from the powder located in the vicinity of the exposed pulp and environmental pH change of the surface in exposed pulp.

  14. Method for synthesizing ultrafine powder materials

    DOEpatents

    Buss, Richard J.; Ho, Pauline

    1988-01-01

    A method for synthesizing ultrafine powder materials, for example, ceramic and metal powders, comprises admitting gaseous reactants from which the powder material is to be formed into a vacuum reaction chamber maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric and at a temperature less than about 400.degree. K. (127.degree.C.). The gaseous reactants are directed through a glow discharge provided in the vacuum reaction chamber to form the ultrafine powder material.

  15. Magnetic and microstructural modification of the Nd-Fe-B sintered magnet by mixed DyF3/DyHx powder doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Seong-Rae; Kim, Hyo-Jun; Lee, Min-Woo; Jang, Tae-Suk

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the magnetic and microstructural properties of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets doped with DyF3, DyHx, and a mixture of DyF3 and DyHx powders. In the DyHx-doped magnet, diffusion of Dy occurs predominantly via grain boundary diffusion. However, the proportion of Dy being diffused by lattice diffusion is increased in the DyF3-doped magnet due to the different influences of F- and H+ ions. The detailed mechanism of the microstructural changes in terms of the diffusional behavior of Dy induced by the DyF3 and DyHx powder doping is discussed. The formation of a Dy-segregated Nd-rich oxide phase (RE-rich, Dy-Nd-O) was suppressed only in the DyF3-doped magnet, and the (00L) alignment of Nd2Fe14B grains in the sintered magnet increased when it was doped with the DyHx powder. We obtained the optimum microstructural and magnetic properties of the Nd-Fe-B sintered magnet through doping with a mixture of DyF3 and DyHx powders, which compensated for the drawbacks of using each powder alone.

  16. 29 CFR 452.12 - Organizations comprised of government employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... comprised of government employees. An organization composed entirely of government employees (other than... in part for the purpose of “dealing with employers,” an organization composed entirely of government... Act and other locals which are mixed or are composed entirely of employees covered by the Act would...

  17. Slip casting nano-particle powders for making transparent ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Soules, Thomas F.; Landingham, Richard Lee; Hollingsworth, Joel P.

    2011-04-12

    A method of making a transparent ceramic including the steps of providing nano-ceramic powders in a processed or unprocessed form, mixing the powders with de-ionized water, the step of mixing the powders with de-ionized water producing a slurry, sonifing the slurry to completely wet the powder and suspend the powder in the de-ionized water, separating very fine particles from the slurry, molding the slurry, and curing the slurry to produce the transparent ceramic.

  18. [Impact of directly compressed auxiliary materials on powder property of fermented cordyceps powder].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Hua; Yue, Guo-Chao; Guan, Yong-Mei; Yang, Ming; Zhu, Wei-Feng

    2014-01-01

    To investigate such physical indexes as hygroscopicity, angle of repose, bulk density, fillibility of compression of mixed powder of directly compressed auxiliary materials and fermented cordyceps powder by using micromeritic study methods. The results showed that spray-dried lactose Flowlac100 and microcrystalline cellulose Avicel PH102 had better effect in liquidity and compressibility on fermented cordyceps powder than pregelatinized starch. The study on the impact of directly compressed auxiliary materials on the powder property of fermented cordyceps powder had guiding significant to the research of fermented cordyceps powder tablets, and could provide basis for the development of fermented cordyceps powder tablets.

  19. Method for molding ceramic powders

    DOEpatents

    Janney, M.A.

    1990-01-16

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, where after the product may be sintered.

  20. Method for molding ceramic powders

    DOEpatents

    Janney, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant for the metal-containing powder, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one multifunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and an organic solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, whereafter the product may be sintered.

  1. Process for preparing titanium nitride powder

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, C.E.

    1988-06-17

    A process for making titanium nitride powder by reaction of titanium phosphates with sodium cyanide. The process of this invention may comprise mixing one or more phosphates of Ti with a cyanide salt in the absence of oxygen and heating to a temperature sufficient to cause reaction to occur. In the preferred embodiment the ratio of cyanide salt to Ti should be at least 2 which results in the major Ti-containing product being TiN rather than sodium titanium phosphate byproducts. The process is an improvement over prior processes since the byproducts are water soluble salts of sodium which can easily be removed from the preferred TiN product by washing. 2 tabs.

  2. Cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising lignin

    DOEpatents

    Fenn, David; Bowman, Mark P; Zawacky, Steven R; Van Buskirk, Ellor J; Kamarchik, Peter

    2013-07-30

    A cationic electrodepositable coating composition is disclosed. The present invention in directed to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising a lignin-containing cationic salt resin, that comprises (A) the reaction product of: lignin, an amine, and a carbonyl compound; (B) the reaction product of lignin, epichlorohydrin, and an amine; or (C) combinations thereof.

  3. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-03-06

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

  4. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOEpatents

    Welbon, William W.

    1983-01-01

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

  5. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOEpatents

    Welbon, W.W.

    1983-11-08

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder. 2 figs.

  6. Powder collection apparatus/method

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Terpstra, Robert L.; Moore, Jeffery A.

    1994-01-11

    Device for separating and collecting ultrafine atomized powder from the gas stream of a gas atomizing apparatus comprises a housing having an interior wall oriented at an angle relative to horizontal so as to form a downwardly converging, conical expansion chamber, an inlet conduit communicated to the expansion chamber proximate an upper region thereof for receiving the gas stream, and an outlet proximate a lower region of the expansion chamber. The inlet conduit is oriented at a compound inclined angle (with respect to horizontal) selected to promote separation and collection of powder from the gas stream in the expansion chamber. The compound angle comprises a first entrance angle that is greater than the angle of repose of the powder on the housing interior wall such that any powder accumulation in the inlet conduit tends to flow down the wall toward the outlet. The second angle is selected generally equal to the angle of the housing interior wall measured from the same horizontal plane so as to direct the gas stream into the expansion chamber generally tangent to the housing interior wall to establish a downward swirling gas stream flow in the expansion chamber. A powder collection container is communicated to the outlet of the expansion chamber to collect the powder for further processing.

  7. Powder collection apparatus/method

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, I.E.; Terpstra, R.L.; Moore, J.A.

    1994-01-11

    Device for separating and collecting ultrafine atomized powder from the gas stream of a gas atomizing apparatus comprises a housing having an interior wall oriented at an angle relative to horizontal so as to form a downwardly converging, conical expansion chamber, an inlet conduit communicated to the expansion chamber proximate an upper region thereof for receiving the gas stream, and an outlet proximate a lower region of the expansion chamber. The inlet conduit is oriented at a compound inclined angle (with respect to horizontal) selected to promote separation and collection of powder from the gas stream in the expansion chamber. The compound angle comprises a first entrance angle that is greater than the angle of repose of the powder on the housing interior wall such that any powder accumulation in the inlet conduit tends to flow down the wall toward the outlet. The second angle is selected generally equal to the angle of the housing interior wall measured from the same horizontal plane so as to direct the gas stream into the expansion chamber generally tangent to the housing interior wall to establish a downward swirling gas stream flow in the expansion chamber. A powder collection container is communicated to the outlet of the expansion chamber to collect the powder for further processing. 4 figures.

  8. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.

    2001-01-01

    A biaxially textured alloy article comprises Ni powder and at least one powder selected from the group consisting of Cr, W, V, Mo, Cu, Al, Ce, YSZ, Y, Rare Earths, (RE), MgO, CeO.sub.2, and Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; compacted and heat treated, then rapidly recrystallized to produce a biaxial texture on the article. In some embodiments the alloy article further comprises electromagnetic or electro-optical devices and possesses superconducting properties.

  9. Multi-wavelength emission through self-induced second-order wave-mixing processes from a Nd3+ doped crystalline powder random laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, André L.; Jerez, Vladimir; Maia, Lauro J. Q.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; de Araújo, Cid B.

    2015-09-01

    Random lasers (RLs) based on neodymium ions (Nd3+) doped crystalline powders rely on multiple light scattering to sustain laser oscillation. Although Stokes and anti-Stokes Nd3+ RLs have been demonstrated, the optical gain obtained up to now was possibly not large enough to produce self-frequency conversion. Here we demonstrate self-frequency upconversion from Nd3+ doped YAl3(BO3)4 monocrystals excited at 806 nm, in resonance with the Nd3+ transition 4I9/2 → 4F5/2. Besides the observation of the RL emission at 1062 nm, self-converted second-harmonic at 531 nm, and self-sum-frequency generated emission at 459 nm due to the RL and the excitation laser at 806 nm, are reported. Additionally, second-harmonic of the excitation laser at 403 nm was generated. These results exemplify the first multi-wavelength source of radiation owing to nonlinear optical effect in a Nd3+ doped crystalline powder RL. Contrary to the RLs based on dyes, this multi-wavelength light source can be used in photonic devices due to the large durability of the gain medium.

  10. A study of the oriented composites with the conductive segregated structure obtained via solid-phase processing of the UHMWPE reactor powder mixed with the carbon nanofillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Oleg V.; Kechek'yan, Alexander S.; Shevchenko, Vitaly G.; Kurkin, Tikhon S.; Golubev, Evgeny K.; Karpushkin, Evgeny A.; Sergeev, Vladimir G.; Ozerin, Alexander N.

    2016-05-01

    Electrically conductive oriented polymer nano-composites of different compositions, based on the reactor powder of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with a special morphology, filled with particles of nanostructured graphite (NG), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and electrically conductive carbon black (CB), were investigated. Polymer composites were obtained via compaction of the mechanical mixture of the polymer and filler powder, followed by uniaxial deformation of the material under homogeneous shear (HS) conditions (all of the processing stages were conducted at room temperature). Resulted composites possess a high tensile strength, high level of the electrical conductivity and low percolation threshold, owing it to the formation of the segregated conductive structure, The influence of the type of nanosized carbon filler, degree of the deformation under HS condition, temperature and etc. on the electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of strengthened conductive composites oriented under homogeneous shear conditions was investigated. Changes in the electrical conductivity of oriented composite materials during reversible "tension-shrinkage" cycles along the orientation axis direction were studied. A theoretical approach, describing the process of transformation of the conductive system as a response on polymer phase deformation and volume change, was proposed, based on the data received from the analysis of the conductivity behavior during the uniaxial deformation and thermal treatment of composites.

  11. A study of the oriented composites with the conductive segregated structure obtained via solid-phase processing of the UHMWPE reactor powder mixed with the carbon nanofillers

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Oleg V.; Kechek’yan, Alexander S.; Shevchenko, Vitaly G.; Kurkin, Tikhon S.; Golubev, Evgeny K.; Ozerin, Alexander N.; Karpushkin, Evgeny A.; Sergeev, Vladimir G.

    2016-05-18

    Electrically conductive oriented polymer nano-composites of different compositions, based on the reactor powder of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with a special morphology, filled with particles of nanostructured graphite (NG), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and electrically conductive carbon black (CB), were investigated. Polymer composites were obtained via compaction of the mechanical mixture of the polymer and filler powder, followed by uniaxial deformation of the material under homogeneous shear (HS) conditions (all of the processing stages were conducted at room temperature). Resulted composites possess a high tensile strength, high level of the electrical conductivity and low percolation threshold, owing it to the formation of the segregated conductive structure, The influence of the type of nanosized carbon filler, degree of the deformation under HS condition, temperature and etc. on the electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of strengthened conductive composites oriented under homogeneous shear conditions was investigated. Changes in the electrical conductivity of oriented composite materials during reversible “tension–shrinkage” cycles along the orientation axis direction were studied. A theoretical approach, describing the process of transformation of the conductive system as a response on polymer phase deformation and volume change, was proposed, based on the data received from the analysis of the conductivity behavior during the uniaxial deformation and thermal treatment of composites.

  12. Multi-wavelength emission through self-induced second-order wave-mixing processes from a Nd3+ doped crystalline powder random laser

    PubMed Central

    Moura, André L.; Jerez, Vladimir; Maia, Lauro J. Q.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; de Araújo, Cid B.

    2015-01-01

    Random lasers (RLs) based on neodymium ions (Nd3+) doped crystalline powders rely on multiple light scattering to sustain laser oscillation. Although Stokes and anti-Stokes Nd3+ RLs have been demonstrated, the optical gain obtained up to now was possibly not large enough to produce self-frequency conversion. Here we demonstrate self-frequency upconversion from Nd3+ doped YAl3(BO3)4 monocrystals excited at 806 nm, in resonance with the Nd3+ transition 4I9/2 → 4F5/2. Besides the observation of the RL emission at 1062 nm, self-converted second-harmonic at 531 nm, and self-sum-frequency generated emission at 459 nm due to the RL and the excitation laser at 806 nm, are reported. Additionally, second-harmonic of the excitation laser at 403 nm was generated. These results exemplify the first multi-wavelength source of radiation owing to nonlinear optical effect in a Nd3+ doped crystalline powder RL. Contrary to the RLs based on dyes, this multi-wavelength light source can be used in photonic devices due to the large durability of the gain medium. PMID:26334517

  13. In situ elaboration of a binary Ti-26Nb alloy by selective laser melting of elemental titanium and niobium mixed powders.

    PubMed

    Fischer, M; Joguet, D; Robin, G; Peltier, L; Laheurte, P

    2016-05-01

    Ti-Nb alloys are excellent candidates for biomedical applications such as implantology and joint replacement because of their very low elastic modulus, their excellent biocompatibility and their high strength. A low elastic modulus, close to that of the cortical bone minimizes the stress shielding effect that appears subsequent to the insertion of an implant. The objective of this study is to investigate the microstructural and mechanical properties of a Ti-Nb alloy elaborated by selective laser melting on powder bed of a mixture of Ti and Nb elemental powders (26 at.%). The influence of operating parameters on porosity of manufactured samples and on efficacy of dissolving Nb particles in Ti was studied. The results obtained by optical microscopy, SEM analysis and X-ray microtomography show that the laser energy has a significant effect on the compactness and homogeneity of the manufactured parts. Homogeneous and compact samples were obtained for high energy levels. Microstructure of these samples has been further characterized. Their mechanical properties were assessed by ultrasonic measures and the Young's modulus found is close to that of classically elaborated Ti-26 Nbingot.

  14. Possibility of Extrusion of Wood Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, Tsunehisa; Takakura, Norio; Iizuka, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko; Kanayama, Kouzou

    Extrusion tests of mixed wood powders of cryptomeria with the Japanese cypress are carried out at various temperatures in order to confirm the possibility of near net shape forming of wood powders. Effects of extrusion temperature, extrusion ratio, moisture content and particle size of the mixed wood powders on the flow characteristics, bending strength, hardness and bulk density of extruded products are discussed. The experimental results show that the fluidity of the mixed powders and the bending strength and bulk density of extruded products increase with increasing temperature and moisture content of powders. However, when the extrusion temperature is too high, the bending strength and bulk density of extruded products tend to decrease due to bubbles generated in the extruded product.

  15. METHOD OF PRODUCING SHAPED BODIES FROM POWDERED METALS

    DOEpatents

    Blainey, A.

    1960-05-31

    A method is given for enclosing a body of uranium in a sheath of compacted beryllium or zirconium powder and comprises enveloping the body with uncompacted powder and pressing at a temperature above the beta - gamma transition point of uranium, thereby causing the uranium to flow and isotropically compress the powder.

  16. Absorption composition comprising zinc titanate for removal of hydrogen sulfide from fluid streams

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, D.R.

    1991-09-03

    This paper describes an absorbing composition. It comprises: zinc, titante, alumina, silica and a promoter prepared by calcining a mixture of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide in the presence of free oxygen at a temperature in the range of from about 650{degrees} C. to about 1050{degrees} C. to form zinc titante, mixing the thus-formed zinc titante in a powdered form with a silicated alumina hydrosol to form a mixture, adding ammonium hydroxide to convert the mixture to a hydrogel, drying and thereafter calcining the hydrogel to form a hydrogel derived composition of zinc titanate, alumina, and silica, adding a promoter metal selected from the group consisting of phosphorus, tungsten, molybdenum, metals of Group VIII of the Periodic Table, and mixtures of any two or more thereof to the hydrogel derived composition of zinc titante, alumina, and silica, and calcining the hydrogel derived composition of zinc titanate, alumina, and silica to which the promoter metal has been added to form the absorbing composition, wherein the promoter metal is present in the hydrogel derived absorbing composition in the oxide form.

  17. Characterization of ultrafine Ag-Cu powders

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.Q.; Chen, T.B

    2002-08-15

    Supersaturated, ultrafine Ag-Cu powders prepared by arc discharge method were characterized by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. Peak shape analysis and Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction pattern were applied to better refine the structure of the Ag-Cu powders. Experimental results indicate that the as-prepared Ag-Cu powders are mainly comprised of three fcc phases with different Ag contents. Besides, small particles with low-symmetry structures were also observed in the specimen. The formation of the Ag-Cu powders is discussed.

  18. Sensor devices comprising field-structured composites

    DOEpatents

    Martin, James E.; Hughes, Robert C.; Anderson, Robert A.

    2001-02-27

    A new class of sensor devices comprising field-structured conducting composites comprising a textured distribution of conducting magnetic particles is disclosed. The conducting properties of such field-structured materials can be precisely controlled during fabrication so as to exhibit a large change in electrical conductivity when subject to any environmental influence which changes the relative volume fraction. Influences which can be so detected include stress, strain, shear, temperature change, humidity, magnetic field, electromagnetic radiation, and the presence or absence of certain chemicals. This behavior can be made the basis for a wide variety of sensor devices.

  19. Biocatalytic material comprising multilayer enzyme coated fiber

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA; Kwak, Ja Hun [Richland, WA; Grate, Jay W [West Richland, WA

    2009-11-03

    The present invention relates generally to high stability, high activity biocatalytic materials and processes for using the same. The materials comprise enzyme aggregate coatings having high biocatalytic activity and stability useful in heterogeneous environment. These new materials provide a new biocatalytic immobilized enzyme system with applications in bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensors, and biofuel cells.

  20. Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals

    DOEpatents

    El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Hopkins, Patrick; Reinke, Charles; Kim, Bongsang

    2013-08-13

    Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals can simultaneously have a large Seebeck coefficient, high electrical conductivity, and low thermal conductivity. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials can enable improved thermoelectric devices, such as thermoelectric generators and coolers, with improved performance. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials and devices can be fabricated using techniques that are compatible with standard microelectronics.

  1. Reduction Expansion Synthesis for Magnetic Alloy Powders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    21 1. Preparation of Precursors ...19 Magnetic Agglomeration of AlNiCo Alloys..............................................20 Figure 9. Metal Powder Precursors in Mortar...Prior to Mixing .................................22 Figure 10. Precursor Slurry in Alumina Boat for Heating ..........................................23

  2. Formation mechanism of LiFePO 4/C composite powders investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Kuei-Feng; Hu, Shao-Kang; Chen, Chinh-Hsiang; Cheng, Ming-Yao; Tsay, Sun-Yuan; Chou, Tse-Chuan; Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    The local structure and oxidation states for both the precursors and the LiFePO 4/C composite powders were investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to provide a deep insight into their formation mechanism. It was found that the local structure and oxidation states of the precursors and the synthesized LiFePO 4/C powders as well as the electrochemical properties of the synthesized powders were strongly influenced by the R ratio (R: molar ratio of citric acid to total metal ions). The oxidation states of iron ions of the precursors for R = 1 and 0.75 consist mainly of Fe(II) and traces of Fe(III). However, the oxidation state of iron ions of the precursor for R = 0.5 comprises mainly of Fe(III). The oxidation state of iron ions of all the synthesized powders is Fe(II). The structure of the precursors and the synthesized powders for R = 1 and 0.75 is more ordering than that for R = 0.5. It is in good agreement with the observation of the cation mixing obtained from the Riteveld analysis of the XRD data. The better the electrochemical performance is, the more ordering the structure or the less the cation mixing. However, the effect of the R values on the carbon content is also essential for the electrochemical properties of the synthesized LiFePO 4/C composite powders. Increasing the carbon content leads to the increase in the electronic conductivity but impedes the Li + ion diffusion of the composite materials. Consequently, the powders synthesized at the optimal R ratio of 0.75 exhibited the highest initial capacity, about 150 mAh g -1 when cycled at 1/40 C rate at room temperature. The structural scheme of the precursors and the synthesized powders and the formation mechanism of the LiFePO 4/C composite powders are also addressed in this work.

  3. Energetic powder

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Danen, Wayne C.

    2003-12-23

    Fluoroalkylsilane-coated metal particles. The particles have a central metal core, a buffer layer surrounding the core, and a fluoroalkylsilane layer attached to the buffer layer. The particles may be prepared by combining a chemically reactive fluoroalkylsilane compound with an oxide coated metal particle having a hydroxylated surface. The resulting fluoroalkylsilane layer that coats the particles provides them with excellent resistance to aging. The particles can be blended with oxidant particles to form energetic powder that releases chemical energy when the buffer layer is physically disrupted so that the reductant metal core can react with the oxidant.

  4. Ceramic Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In developing its product line of specialty ceramic powders and related products for government and industrial customers, including companies in the oil, automotive, electronics and nuclear industries, Advanced Refractory Technologies sought technical assistance from NERAC, Inc. in specific areas of ceramic materials and silicon technology, and for assistance in identifying possible applications of these materials in government programs and in the automotive and electronics industry. NERAC conducted a computerized search of several data bases and provided extensive information in the subject areas requested. NERAC's assistance resulted in transfer of technologies that helped ART staff develop a unique method for manufacture of ceramic materials to precise customer specifications.

  5. Catalysts comprising magnesium and a transition metal

    SciTech Connect

    Bujadoux, K.

    1984-10-09

    A catalyst comprising the product obtained by bringing into contact a compound of magnesium comprising at least one species selected from the group consisting of magnesium monohalides (MgX), halo-magnesium hydrides (HMgX) and magnesium hydride (MgH/sub 2/), X being a halogen and the said species MgX or HMgX being obtained by thermal decomposition of a powdery organo-magnesium halide R/sub 1/MgX wherein R/sub 1/ is an organic radical; and at least one halide of a transistion metal selected from the group consisting of titanium and vanadium, the valency of said metal in said halide being lower than or equal to 3, the quantities being such that the atomic ratio of magnesium to said transistion metal is between 1 and 25, and a catalyst system including the catalyst that is suitable for use in the polymerization of olefins and particularly ethylene.

  6. Downhole transmission system comprising a coaxial capacitor

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, David R; Pixton, David S; Johnson, Monte L; Bartholomew, David B; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Rawle, Michael

    2011-05-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a plurality of data transmission elements. A coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer conductor is disposed within a passage in the downhole component such that at least one capacitor is disposed in the passage and having a first terminal coupled to the inner conductor and a second terminal coupled to the outer conductor. Preferably the transmission element comprises an electrically conducting coil. Preferably, within the passage a connector is adapted to electrically connect the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and the lead wire. The coaxial capacitor may be disposed between and in electrically communication with the connector and the passage. In another embodiment a connector is adapted to electrical connect a first and a second portion of the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and a coaxial capacitor is in electrical communication with the connector and the passage.

  7. Nanophosphor composite scintillators comprising a polymer matrix

    DOEpatents

    Muenchausen, Ross Edward; Mckigney, Edward Allen; Gilbertson, Robert David

    2010-11-16

    An improved nanophosphor composite comprises surface modified nanophosphor particles in a solid matrix. The nanophosphor particle surface is modified with an organic ligand, or by covalently bonding a polymeric or polymeric precursor material. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during formation of the composite material. The improved nanophosphor composite may be used in any conventional scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  8. Modular Habitats Comprising Rigid and Inflatable Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2010-01-01

    Modular, lightweight, fully equipped buildings comprising hybrids of rigid and inflatable structures can be assembled on Earth and then transported to and deployed on the Moon for use as habitats. Modified versions of these buildings could also prove useful on Earth as shelters that can be rapidly and easily erected in emergency situations and/or extreme environments: examples include shelters for hurricane relief and for Antarctic exploration.

  9. Ionic liquid-assisted synthesis of thorned gold plates comprising three-branched nanotip arrays.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yao; Song, Yin; Huang, Teng; Qi, Limin

    2011-03-14

    Hierarchically structured, thorned gold plates comprising regular, three-branched nanotip arrays were synthesized by a facile, one-pot reduction process in mixed solvents of the ionic liquid [BMIM][PF(6)] and formamide without additives.

  10. The influence of chicken eggshell powder as a buffer on biohydrogen production from rotten orange (Citrus nobilis var. microcarpa) with immobilized mixed culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damayanti, Astrilia; Sarto, Syamsiah, Siti; Sediawan, Wahyudi B.

    2017-06-01

    This research observed the influence of chicken eggshell on hydrogen production from anaerobic fermentation of rotten orange (Citrus nobilis var. microcarpa) using batch method at 36 °C and pH 7. Fermentation material were varied in several types, the first type was meat and peel of oranges with VS of 59.152 g.L-1 in A, B, C, and D compositions. The second type was orange meat added with peel (OMP) with VS of 36.852 g.L-1. The immobilized ingredients used in the experiment consisted of 2 % (w/v) alginate and active carbon with the ratio of 1:1. 3.2 g chicken eggshell powder was added to the first type of material (substrates A, B, C, and D). Results showed that pH during fermentation process using chicken eggshell as a buffer was constant at 5.5; however, without the use of chicken eggshell, the pH decreased to 3.8 and increased slightly before it stayed stable at 4.0. The total amount of gas produced in sample using the chicken eggshell was 46,35 mL.mg VS-1 and in sample produced without the eggshell, it was 3,4 mL.mg VS-1. The production of hydrogen in substrate that used chicken eggshell was 1,276 mL.gVS-1 in average on the first day. Meanwhile, for the substrate with no addition of chicken eggshell, the average production of hydrogen was 0,163 mL.gVS-1. The reduction of volatile solid (VS) in sample that used chicken eggshell was 24 %, while in sample produced without addition of chicken eggshell, the reduction was 12 %. The liquid compounds (VFA) produced in the fermentation using chicken eggshell were acetic acid and butyric acid. Meanwhile, without addition of chicken eggshell, the products were acetic acid, butyric acid, and propionic acid. This study shows that addition of chicken eggshell as a buffer effectively contributed to hydrogen production during fermentation of rotten oranges.

  11. New technology for separating resin powder and fiberglass powder from fiberglass-resin powder of waste printed circuit boards.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Gao, Bei; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-05-06

    New recycling technologies have been developed lately to enhance the value of the fiberglass powder-resin powder fraction (FRP) from waste printed circuit boards. The definite aim of the present paper is to present some novel methods that use the image forces for the separation of the resin powder and fiberglass powder generated from FRP during the corona electrostatic separating process. The particle shape charactization and particle trajectory simulation were performed on samples of mixed non-metallic particles. The simulation results pointed out that particles of resin powder and particles of fiberglass powder had different detach trajectories at the conditions of the same size and certain device parameters. An experiment carried out using a corona electrostatic separator validated the possibility of sorting these particles based on the differences in their shape characteristics. The differences in the physical properties of the different types of particles provided the technical basis for the development of electrostatic separation technologies for the recycling industry.

  12. Phototropic liquid crystals comprising one component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolewska, Anna; Zawada, Joanna; Bartkiewicz, Stanislaw; Galewski, Zbigniew

    2013-09-01

    Phototropic liquid crystals (PtLC), in which the phase transition can be controlled by the light, are a new class of liquid crystal materials possessing number of potential applications, especially in photonic devices. So far a significant majority of PtLC materials has been realized by the doping a classical liquid crystal with a photochromic dye. Here we report PtLCs comprising a single compound. Liquid-crystalline and photochromic properties have been accomplished in alkylo-alkoxy derivatives of azobenzene. Such compounds show a rich polymorphism which can be controlled by the light. The phenomenon of the photochemical phase transition has been investigated by means of holographic grating recording.

  13. Fibrous composites comprising carbon nanotubes and silica

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Huisheng; Zhu, Yuntian Theodore; Peterson, Dean E.; Jia, Quanxi

    2011-10-11

    Fibrous composite comprising a plurality of carbon nanotubes; and a silica-containing moiety having one of the structures: (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NR.sub.1R.sub.2) or (SiO).sub.3Si--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--NCO; where n is from 1 to 6, and R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each independently H, CH.sub.3, or C.sub.2H.sub.5.

  14. A layered mixed zirconium phosphate/phosphonate with exposed carboxylic and phosphonic groups: X-ray powder structure and proton conductivity properties.

    PubMed

    Donnadio, Anna; Nocchetti, Morena; Costantino, Ferdinando; Taddei, Marco; Casciola, Mario; da Silva Lisboa, Fábio; Vivani, Riccardo

    2014-12-15

    A novel mixed zirconium phosphate/phosphonate based on glyphosine, of formula Zr2(PO4)H5(L)2·H2O [L = (O3PCH2)2NCH2COO], was synthesized in mild conditions. The compound has a layered structure that was solved ab initio from laboratory PXRD data. It crystallizes in the monoclinic C2/c space group with the following cell parameters: a = 29.925(3), b = 8.4225(5), c = 9.0985(4) Å, and β = 98.474(6)°. Phosphate groups are placed inside the sheets and connect the zirconium atoms in a tetradentate fashion, while uncoordinated carboxylate and P-OH phosphonate groups are exposed on the layer surface. Due to the presence of these acidic groups, the compound showed remarkable proton conductivity properties, which were studied in a wide range of temperature and relative humidity (RH). The conductivity is strongly dependent on RH and reaches 1 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 140 °C and 95% RH. At this RH, the activation energy of conduction is 0.15 eV in the temperature range 80-140 °C. The similarities of this structure with related structures already reported in the literature were also discussed.

  15. Synthesis of nanophasic CoFe2O4 powder by self-igniting solution combustion method using mix up fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan Babu, D.; Venkatesan, K.

    2017-06-01

    The nanophasic cobalt ferrite was prepared by self-igniting solution combustion method. Mix up of fuel approach by fuel lean condition was employed for the combustion reaction to prepare the nanosized cobalt ferrite for the first time. Alanine and glycine were chosen as fuels for the combustion reaction. It was found that there was a remarkable changes in structural parameters and its magnetic behaviour of the as-prepared samples. XRD and Raman analysis were used to confirm the cubic spinel structure of the material. Rough surface morphology was turn up into porous type of morphology, when the alanine and glycine ratio of 30:20 used for the combustion reaction. TEM micrographs confirmed the particle size, shape and its lattice arrangements of the cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. The SAED pattern confirmed the crystalline nature of the as-prepared material. The saturation magnetization values were increased from 9 emu/g to 15 emu/g, when increasing the alanine and glycine ratio from 10:40 to 30:20 for the combustion reaction. It describes that the combination of alanine and glycine (30:20) was gained the maximum heat during the combustion reaction, so that these kind of results were obtained from the as-prepared condition.

  16. Atom probe tomography analysis of WC powder.

    PubMed

    Weidow, Jonathan

    2013-09-01

    A tantalum doped tungsten carbide powder, (W,Ta)C, was prepared with the purpose to maximise the amount of Ta in the hexagonal mixed crystal carbide. Atom probe tomography (APT) was considered to be the best technique to quantitatively measure the amount of Ta within this carbide. As the carbide powder consisted in the form of very small particles (<1 μm), a method to produce APT specimens of such a powder was developed. The powder was at first embedded in copper and a FIB-SEM workstation was used to make an in-situ lift-out from a selected powder particle. The powder particle was then deposited on a post made from a WC-Co based cemented carbide specimen. With the use of a laser assisted atom probe, it was shown that the method is working and the Ta content of the (W,Ta)C could be measured quantitatively.

  17. Atomization methods for forming magnet powders

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, C.H.; Branagan, D.J.; Hyde, T.A.

    2000-02-08

    The invention encompasses methods of utilizing atomization, methods for forming magnet powders, methods for forming magnets, and methods for forming bonded magnets. The invention further encompasses methods for simulating atomization conditions. In one aspect, the invention includes an atomization method for forming a magnet powder comprising: (a) forming a melt comprising R{sub 2.1}Q{sub 13.9}B{sub 1}, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; (b) atomizing the melt to form generally spherical alloy powder granules having an internal structure comprising at least one of a substantially amorphous phase or a substantially nanocrystalline phase; and (c) heat treating the alloy powder to increase an energy product of the alloy powder; after the heat treatment, the alloy powder comprising an energy product of at least 10 MGOe. In another aspect, the invention includes a magnet comprising R, Q, B, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; the magnet comprising an internal structure comprising R{sub 2.1}Q{sub 13.9}B{sub 1}.

  18. Atomization methods for forming magnet powders

    DOEpatents

    Sellers, Charles H.; Branagan, Daniel J.; Hyde, Timothy A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention encompasses methods of utilizing atomization, methods for forming magnet powders, methods for forming magnets, and methods for forming bonded magnets. The invention further encompasses methods for simulating atomization conditions. In one aspect, the invention includes an atomization method for forming a magnet powder comprising: a) forming a melt comprising R.sub.2.1 Q.sub.13.9 B.sub.1, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; b) atomizing the melt to form generally spherical alloy powder granules having an internal structure comprising at least one of a substantially amorphous phase or a substantially nanocrystalline phase; and c) heat treating the alloy powder to increase an energy product of the alloy powder; after the heat treatment, the alloy powder comprising an energy product of at least 10 MGOe. In another aspect, the invention includes a magnet comprising R, Q, B, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; the magnet comprising an internal structure comprising R.sub.2.1 Q.sub.13.9 B.sub.1.

  19. Enhancement of thermal stability of porous bodies comprised of stainless steel or an alloy

    DOEpatents

    Bischoff, Brian L.; Sutton, Theodore G.; Judkins, Roddie R.; Armstrong, Timothy R.; Adcock, Kenneth D.

    2010-11-09

    A method for treating a porous item constructed of metal powder, such as a powder made of Series 400 stainless steel, involves a step of preheating the porous item to a temperature of between about 700 and 900.degree. C. degrees in an oxidizing atmosphere and then sintering the body in an inert or reducing atmosphere at a temperature which is slightly below the melting temperature of the metal which comprises the porous item. The thermal stability of the resulting item is enhanced by this method so that the item retains its porosity and metallic characteristics, such as ductility, at higher (e.g. near-melting) temperatures.

  20. Electromagnetic radiation absorbers and modulators comprising polyaniline

    DOEpatents

    Epstein, Arthur J.; Ginder, John M.; Roe, Mitchell G.; Hajiseyedjavadi, Hamid

    1992-01-01

    A composition for absorbing electromagnetic radiation, wherein said electromagnetic radiation possesses a wavelength generally in the range of from about 1000 Angstroms to about 50 meters, wherein said composition comprises a polyaniline composition of the formula ##STR1## where y can be equal to or greater than zero, and R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are independently selected from the group containing of H, --OCH.sub.3, --CH.sub.3, --F, --Cl, --Br, --I, NR.sup.3 .sub.2, --NHCOR.sup.3, --OH, --O.sup.-, SR.sup.3, --OCOR.sup.3, --NO.sub.2, --COOH, --COOR.sup.3, --COR.sup.3, --CHO, and --CN, where R.sup.3 is a C.sub.1 to C.sub.8 alkyl, aryl or aralkyl group.

  1. Insulating Materials Comprising Polysilazane, Methods of Forming Such Insulating Materials, and Precursor Formulations Comprising Polysilazane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Robert S. (Inventor); Fuller, Michael E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods of forming an insulating material comprising combining a polysilazane, a cross-linking compound, and a gas-generating compound to form a reaction mixture, and curing the reaction mixture to form a modified polysilazane. The gas-generating compound may be water, an alcohol, an amine, or combinations thereof. The cross-linking compound may be an isocyanate, an epoxy resin, or combinations thereof. The insulating material may include a matrix comprising one of a reaction product of a polysilazane and an isocyanate and a reaction product of a polysilazane and an epoxy resin. The matrix also comprises a plurality of interconnected pores produced from one of reaction of the polysilazane and the isocyanate and from reaction of the polysilazane and the epoxy resin. A precursor formulation that comprises a polysilazane, a cross-linking compound, and a gas-generating compound is also disclosed.

  2. Resin-Powder Dispenser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standfield, Clarence E.

    1994-01-01

    Resin-powder dispenser used at NASA's Langley Research Center for processing of composite-material prepregs. Dispenser evenly distributes powder (resin polymer and other matrix materials in powder form) onto wet uncured prepregs. Provides versatility in distribution of solid resin in prepreg operation. Used wherever there is requirement for even, continuous distribution of small amount of powder.

  3. Preparation of titanium diboride powder

    DOEpatents

    Brynestad, Jorulf; Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1985-01-01

    Finely-divided titanium diboride or zirconium diboride powders are formed by reacting gaseous boron trichloride with a material selected from the group consisting of titanium powder, zirconium powder, titanium dichloride powder, titanium trichloride powder, and gaseous titanium trichloride.

  4. Preparation of metal diboride powders

    DOEpatents

    Brynestad, J.; Bamberger, C.E.

    Finely-divided titanium diboride or zirconium diboride powders are formed by reacting gaseous boron trichloride with a material selected from the group of consisting of titanium powder, zirconium powder, titanium dichloride powder, titanium trichloride powder, and gaseous titanium trichloride.

  5. Process for preparing fine grain silicon carbide powder

    DOEpatents

    Wei, G.C.

    Method of producing fine-grain silicon carbide powder comprises combining methyltrimethoxysilane with a solution of phenolic resin, acetone and water or sugar and water, gelling the resulting mixture, and then drying and heating the obtained gel.

  6. Magnetorheological Fluids with Carbonyl and Water Atomized Iron Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombard, Antonio J. F.; Teodoro, João Victor R.

    Our aim in this work was to propose the use of a ternary blend of two carbonyl iron powder CIP, mixed with water atomized iron powder (WAIP), to reduce the off-state viscosity, without prejudice of MRF performance in terms of yield stress and torque output. The idea of mix water atomized iron powder with carbonyl iron powder is not new. The US Pat. # 5,900,184 by Weiss et al. (1999) describes that a binary blend, half-to-half, can reduces the viscosity of MRF in the absence of magnetic field, and increase the torque output under field.

  7. Dispersant for aqueous slurry of coal powder

    SciTech Connect

    Moriyama, N.; Watanabe, S.; Yamamura, M.

    1982-05-18

    A dispersant for forming an aqueous slurry of coal powder having a good flowability, which comprises as the active ingredient at least one member selected from sulfonation products of polycyclic aromatic compounds which may have a hydrocarbon group as a substituent, salts thereof and formaldehyde condensates thereof.

  8. Precision powder feeder

    DOEpatents

    Schlienger, M. Eric; Schmale, David T.; Oliver, Michael S.

    2001-07-10

    A new class of precision powder feeders is disclosed. These feeders provide a precision flow of a wide range of powdered materials, while remaining robust against jamming or damage. These feeders can be precisely controlled by feedback mechanisms.

  9. Composite powder particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Donald S. (Inventor); MacDowell, Louis G. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A liquid coating composition including a coating vehicle and composite powder particles disposed within the coating vehicle. Each composite powder particle may include a magnesium component, a zinc component, and an indium component.

  10. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    SciTech Connect

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  11. Gas generation retarded aluminum powder for oil field cements

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, D.L.; Burkhalter, J.F.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a method of forming a gas generation retarded oil field cement. It consists of the following steps: dry blending a hydraulic cement with an essentially dry gas generation retarded aluminum powder to form a mixture; the gas generation retarded aluminum powder being formed by: dissolving an effective amount of an aluminum reaction rate retarder in an organic solvent, the retarder being selected from the group consisting of sorbitan monooleate, glycerol monoricinoleate, sorbitan monoricinoleate, sorbitan monotallate, pentaerythritol monoricinoleate, sorbitan monoisostearate, glycerol monostearate, sorbitan monostearate and mixtures thereof; mixing aluminum powder with the resulting solution whereby the aluminum powder is wetted with the solution; and then drying the aluminum powder by vacuum evaporating and removing the organic solvent therefrom; and mixing the cement retarded aluminum powder mixture with a sufficient amount of water to form a pumpable cement slurry.

  12. Calibration sampling paradox in near infrared spectroscopy: a case study of multi-component powder blend.

    PubMed

    Karande, A D; Liew, C V; Heng, P W S

    2010-08-16

    The objective of this study was to illustrate the sampling paradox resulting from the different strategies of spectral acquisition while preparing and implementing the calibration models for prediction of blend components in multi-component cohesive blends. A D-optimal mixture design was used to create 24 blending runs of the formulation consisting of chlorpheniramine maleate, lactose, microcrystalline cellulose and magnesium stearate. Three strategies: (a) laboratory mixing and static spectral acquisition, (b) IBC mixing and static spectral acquisition and (c) IBC mixing and dynamic spectral acquisition were investigated for obtaining the most relevant and representative calibration samples. An optical head comprising a sapphire window mounted on the lid of the IBC was used for static and dynamic NIR spectral acquisition of the powder blends. For laboratory mixed samples, powders were blended for fixed period of 30 min and later on scanned for NIR spectra. For IBC mixed blends, the spectral acquisition was carried out in-line for 2 min and stopped for static spectral acquisition. The same cycle was repeated for the next 28 min. Partial least square (PLS) calibration models for each component were built and ranked according to their calibration statistics. Optimal calibration models were selected from each strategy for each component and used for in-line prediction of blend components of three independent test runs. Although excellent statistics were obtained for the PLS models from the three strategies, significant discrepancies were observed during prediction of the independent blends in real time. Models built using IBC mixed blends and dynamic spectral acquisition resulted in the most accurate predictions for all the blend components, whereas models prepared using static spectral acquisition (laboratory mixed and IBC) showed erroneous prediction results. The prediction performance differences between the models obtained using the different strategies could be

  13. Joining of parts via magnetic heating of metal aluminum powders

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Ian

    2013-05-21

    A method of joining at least two parts includes steps of dispersing a joining material comprising a multi-phase magnetic metal-aluminum powder at an interface between the at least two parts to be joined and applying an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The AMF has a magnetic field strength and frequency suitable for inducing magnetic hysteresis losses in the metal-aluminum powder and is applied for a period that raises temperature of the metal-aluminum powder to an exothermic transformation temperature. At the exothermic transformation temperature, the metal-aluminum powder melts and resolidifies as a metal aluminide solid having a non-magnetic configuration.

  14. Sonochemical synthesis of calcium phosphate powders.

    PubMed

    de Campos, M; Müller, F A; Bressiani, A H A; Bressiani, J C; Greil, P

    2007-05-01

    beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and biphasic calcium phosphate powders (BCP), consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and beta-TCP, were synthesized by thermal decomposition of precursor powders obtained from neutralization method. The precursor powders with a Ca/P molar ratio of 1.5 were prepared by adding an orthophosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) solution to an aqueous suspension containing calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)). Mixing was carried out by vigorous stirring and under sonochemical irradiation at 50 kHz, respectively. Glycerol and D-glucose were added to evaluate their influence on the precipitation of the resulting calcium phosphate powders. After calcination at 1000 degrees C for 3 h BCP nanopowders of various HA/beta-TCP ratio were obtained.

  15. Agglomeration of food powder and applications.

    PubMed

    Dhanalakshmi, K; Ghosal, S; Bhattacharya, S

    2011-05-01

    Agglomeration has many applications in food processing and major applications include easy flow table salt, dispersible milk powder and soup mix, instant chocolate mix, beverage powder, compacted cubes for nutritional-intervention program, health bars using expanded/puffed cereals, etc. The main purpose of agglomeration is to improve certain physical properties of food powders such as bulk density, flowability, dispersability, and stability. Agglomerated products are easy to use by the consumers and hence are preferred over the traditional non-agglomerated products that are usually non-flowable in nature. The properties of food agglomerates and the process of agglomeration like employing pressure, extrusion, rewetting, spray-bed drying, steam jet, heat/sintering, and binders have been reviewed. The physical and instant properties of agglomerated food products have also been discussed.

  16. Coated silicon comprising material for protection against environmental corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazel, Brian Thomas (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, an article is disclosed. The article comprises a gas turbine engine component substrate comprising a silicon material; and an environmental barrier coating overlying the substrate, wherein the environmental barrier coating comprises cerium oxide, and the cerium oxide reduces formation of silicate glass on the substrate upon exposure to corrodant sulfates.

  17. Minimum ignition energy of nano and micro Ti powder in the presence of inert nano TiO₂ powder.

    PubMed

    Chunmiao, Yuan; Amyotte, Paul R; Hossain, Md Nur; Li, Chang

    2014-06-15

    The inerting effect of nano-sized TiO2 powder on ignition sensitivity of nano and micro Ti powders was investigated with a Mike 3 apparatus. "A little is not good enough" is also suitable for micro Ti powders mixed with nano-sized solid inertants. MIE of the mixtures did not significantly increase until the TiO2 percentage exceeded 50%. Nano-sized TiO2 powders were ineffective as an inertant when mixed with nano Ti powders, especially at higher dust loadings. Even with 90% nano TiO2 powder, mixtures still showed high ignition sensitivity because the statistic energy was as low as 2.1 mJ. Layer fires induced by ignited but unburned metal particles may occur for micro Ti powders mixed with nano TiO2 powders following a low level dust explosion. Such layer fires could lead to a violent dust explosion after a second dispersion. Thus, additional attention is needed to prevent metallic layer fires even where electric spark potential is low. In the case of nano Ti powder, no layer fires were observed because of less flammable material involved in the mixtures investigated, and faster flame propagation in nanoparticle clouds.

  18. Method for forming biaxially textured articles by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2002-01-01

    A method of preparing a biaxially textured alloy article comprises the steps of preparing a mixture comprising Ni powder and at least one powder selected from the group consisting of Cr, W, V, Mo, Cu, Al, Ce, YSZ, Y, Rare Earths, (RE), MgO, CeO.sub.2, and Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; compacting the mixture, followed by heat treating and rapidly recrystallizing to produce a biaxial texture on the article. In some embodiments the alloy article further comprises electromagnetic or electro-optical devices and possesses superconducting properties.

  19. Method for preparing metal powder, device for preparing metal powder, method for processing spent nuclear fuel

    DOEpatents

    Park, Jong-Hee [Clarendon Hills, IL

    2011-11-29

    A method for producing metal powder is provided the comprising supplying a molten bath containing a reducing agent, contacting a metal oxide with the molten bath for a time and at a temperature sufficient to reduce the metal in the metal oxide to elemental metal and produce free oxygen; and isolating the elemental metal from the molten bath.

  20. Granulation of fine powder

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Ching-Fong

    2016-08-09

    A mixture of fine powder including thorium oxide was converted to granulated powder by forming a first-green-body and heat treating the first-green-body at a high temperature to strengthen the first-green-body followed by granulation by crushing or milling the heat-treated first-green-body. The granulated powder was achieved by screening through a combination of sieves to achieve the desired granule size distribution. The granulated powder relies on the thermal bonding to maintain its shape and structure. The granulated powder contains no organic binder and can be stored in a radioactive or other extreme environment. The granulated powder was pressed and sintered to form a dense compact with a higher density and more uniform pore size distribution.

  1. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital.

  2. Process for synthesizing compounds from elemental powders and product

    DOEpatents

    Rabin, Barry H.; Wright, Richard N.

    1993-01-01

    A process for synthesizing intermetallic compounds from elemental powders. The elemental powders are initially combined in a ratio which approximates the stoichiometric composition of the intermetallic compound. The mixed powders are then formed into a compact which is heat treated at a controlled rate of heating such that an exothermic reaction between the elements is initiated. The heat treatment may be performed under controlled conditions ranging from a vacuum (pressureless sintering) to compression (hot pressing) to produce a desired densification of the intermetallic compound. In a preferred form of the invention, elemental powders of Fe and Al are combined to form aluminide compounds of Fe.sub.3 Al and FeAl.

  3. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-05

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of ternary mixtures consisting of: Ni powder, Cu powder, and Al powder, Ni powder, Cr powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, W powder and Al powder; Ni powder, V powder, and Al powder; Ni powder, Mo powder, and Al powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  4. 9 CFR 590.544 - Spray process powder; definitions and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... removed from the primary or main drying chamber while the drying unit is in operation. (2) Secondary... bag collector chamber while the drying unit is in operation. (3) Sweep-down powder is that powder... continuously discharged and mixed with the primary powder by methods approved by the Administrator. (c) Edible...

  5. Synthesis of nanoscale magnesium diboride powder

    DOE PAGES

    Finnemore, D. K.; Marzik, J. V.

    2015-12-18

    A procedure has been developed for the preparation of small grained magnesium diboride (MgB2) powder by reacting nanometer size boron powder in a magnesium vapor. Plasma synthesized boron powder that had particle sizes ranging from 20 to 300nm was mixed with millimeter size chunks of Mg by rolling stoichiometric amounts of the powders in a sealed cylindrical container under nitrogen gas. This mixture then was placed in a niobium reaction vessel, evacuated, and sealed by e-beam welding. The vessel was typically heated to approximately 830°C for several hours. The resulting MgB2 particles have a grain size in the 200 nmmore » to 800 nm range. Agglomerates of loosely bound particles could be broken up by light grinding in a mortar and pestle. At 830°C, many particles are composed of several grains grown together so that the average particle size is about twice the average grain size. Furthermore, experiments were conducted primarily with undoped boron powder, but carbon-doped boron powder showed very similar results.« less

  6. Synthesis of nanoscale magnesium diboride powder

    SciTech Connect

    Finnemore, D. K.; Marzik, J. V.

    2015-12-18

    A procedure has been developed for the preparation of small grained magnesium diboride (MgB2) powder by reacting nanometer size boron powder in a magnesium vapor. Plasma synthesized boron powder that had particle sizes ranging from 20 to 300nm was mixed with millimeter size chunks of Mg by rolling stoichiometric amounts of the powders in a sealed cylindrical container under nitrogen gas. This mixture then was placed in a niobium reaction vessel, evacuated, and sealed by e-beam welding. The vessel was typically heated to approximately 830°C for several hours. The resulting MgB2 particles have a grain size in the 200 nm to 800 nm range. Agglomerates of loosely bound particles could be broken up by light grinding in a mortar and pestle. At 830°C, many particles are composed of several grains grown together so that the average particle size is about twice the average grain size. Furthermore, experiments were conducted primarily with undoped boron powder, but carbon-doped boron powder showed very similar results.

  7. Synthesis of nanoscale magnesium diboride powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finnemore, D. K.; Marzik, J. V.

    2015-12-01

    A procedure has been developed for the preparation of small grained magnesium diboride (MgB2) powder by reacting nanometer size boron powder in a magnesium vapor. Plasma synthesized boron powder that had particle sizes ranging from 20 to 300nm was mixed with millimeter size chunks of Mg by rolling stoichiometric amounts of the powders in a sealed cylindrical container under nitrogen gas. This mixture then was placed in a niobium reaction vessel, evacuated, and sealed by e-beam welding. The vessel was typically heated to approximately 830°C for several hours. The resulting MgB2 particles have a grain size in the 200 nm to 800 nm range. Agglomerates of loosely bound particles could be broken up by light grinding in a mortar and pestle. At 830°C, many particles are composed of several grains grown together so that the average particle size is about twice the average grain size. Experiments were conducted primarily with undoped boron powder, but carbon-doped boron powder showed very similar results.

  8. Compositions comprising enhanced graphene oxide structures and related methods

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, Priyank Vijaya; Bardhan, Neelkanth M.; Belcher, Angela; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2016-12-27

    Embodiments described herein generally relate to compositions comprising a graphene oxide species. In some embodiments, the compositions advantageously have relatively high oxygen content, even after annealing.

  9. Nanosized hydroxyapatite powder synthesized from eggshell and phosphoric acid.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Jin; Yoon, Young-Soo; Lee, Myung-Hyun; Oh, Nam-Sik

    2007-11-01

    The present research describes synthesis of highly sinterable, nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HAp) powders using a wet chemical route with recycled eggshell and phosphoric acid as calcium and phosphorous sources. The raw eggshell was easily turned to CaO by the calcining process, and phosphoric acid was mixed with the calcined eggshell by the wet, ball-milling method. The crystalline development and microstructures of the synthesized powders and sintered samples were examined by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The observed phases on the powder synthesis process were dependent on the mixing ratio (wt%) of the calcined eggshell to phosphoric acid and the heating temperature. The ball-milled, nano-sized HAp powder, which has an average particle size of 70 nm, was fully densified at 1300 degrees C for 1h. The Ca/P ratio for stoichiometric composition of HAp was controlled by adjustment of the mixing ratio.

  10. Mixing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Green, Norman W.

    1982-06-15

    Method of mixing particulate materials comprising contacting a primary source and a secondary source thereof whereby resulting mixture ensues; preferably at least one of the two sources has enough motion to insure good mixing and the particulate materials may be heat treated if desired. Apparatus for such mixing comprising an inlet for a primary source, a reactor communicating therewith, a feeding means for supplying a secondary source to the reactor, and an inlet for the secondary source. Feeding means is preferably adapted to supply fluidized materials.

  11. Sol-gel synthesis and densification of aluminoborosilicate powders. Part 1: Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Jeffrey; Selvaduray, Guna; Leiser, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    Aluminoborosilicate powders high in alumina content were synthesized by the sol-gel process utilizing various methods of preparation. Properties and microstructural effects related to these syntheses were examined. After heating to 600 C for 2 h in flowing air, the powders were amorphous with the metal oxides comprising 87 percent of the weight and uncombusted organics the remainder. DTA of dried powders revealed a T(sub g) at approximately 835 C and an exotherm near 900 C due to crystallization. Powders derived from aluminum secbutoxide consisted of particles with a mean diameter 5 microns less than those from aluminum isopropoxide. Powders synthesized with aluminum isopropoxide produced agglomerates comprised of rod shaped particulates while powders made with the secbutoxide precursor produced irregular glassy shards. Compacts formed from these powders required different loadings for equivalent densities according to the method of synthesis.

  12. Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, J.E.; Korth, G.E.

    1985-06-27

    A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block. 4 figs.

  13. Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, John E.; Korth, Gary E.

    1986-01-01

    A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block.

  14. Identification and evaluation of composition in food powder using point-scan Raman spectral imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study used Raman spectral imaging coupled with self-modeling mixture analysis (SMA) for identification of three components mixed into a complex food powder mixture. Vanillin, melamine, and sugar were mixed together at 10 different concentration levels (spanning 1% to 10%, w/w) into powdered non...

  15. Sintering titanium powders

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Alman, David E.

    2005-09-01

    Recently, there has been renewed interest in low-cost titanium. Near-net-shape powder metallurgy offers the potential of manufacturing titanium articles without costly and difficult forming and machining operations; hence, processing methods such as conventional press-and-sinter, powder forging and powder injection molding are of interest. The sintering behavior of a variety of commercial and experimental titanium powders was studied. Commercial powders were acquired that were produced different routes: (i) sponge fines from the primary titanium processing; (ii) via the hydride-dehydride process; and (iii) gas atomization. The influence of vacuum sintering time (0.5 to 32 hrs) and temperature (1200, 1275 or 1350°C) on the microstructure (porosity present) of cold pressed powders was studied. The results are discussed in terms of the difference in powder characteristics, with the aim of identify the characteristics required for full density via press-and-sinter processing. Near-net-shape tensile bars were consolidated via cold pressed and sintered. After sintering, a sub-set of the tensile bars was hot-isostatic pressed (HIPed). The microstructure and properties of the bars were compared in the sintered and HIPed conditions.

  16. Compaction of Titanium Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen,J; Jablonski, Paul, J

    2011-05-01

    Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines<150 {micro}m,<75 {micro}m, and<45 {micro}m; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH]<75 {micro}m and<45 {micro}m; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

  17. Compaction of Titanium Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen J. Gerdemann; Paul D. Jablonski

    2010-11-01

    Accurate modeling of powder densification has been an area of active research for more than 60 years. The earliest efforts were focused on linearization of the data because computers were not readily available to assist with curve-fitting methods. In this work, eight different titanium powders (three different sizes of sponge fines <150 μm, <75 μm, and < 45 μm; two different sizes of a hydride-dehydride [HDH] <75 μm and < 45 μm; an atomized powder; a commercially pure [CP] Ti powder from International Titanium Powder [ITP]; and a Ti 6 4 alloy powder) were cold pressed in a single-acting die instrumented to collect stress and deformation data during compaction. From these data, the density of each compact was calculated and then plotted as a function of pressure. The results show that densification of all the powders, regardless of particle size, shape, or chemistry, can be modeled accurately as the sum of an initial density plus the sum of a rearrangement term and a work-hardening term. These last two terms are found to be a function of applied pressure and take the form of an exponential rise.

  18. Completion and workover fluid for oil and gas wells comprising ground peanut hulls

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, G.T.

    1993-07-20

    A method is described of carrying out operations in a bore hole extending into the subsurface formations, comprising the steps of forming a slurry comprising a liquid fluid; a sealing agent of ground peanut hulls of particles of a size distribution such that at least 30% but no more than 80% of said particles will be retained on a 100 standard sieve mesh; and a viscosifier to carry and suspend said sealing agent, and circulating said slurry in said bore hole. A dry mixture is described for mixing with a fluid to be circulated in a bore hole, comprising: a sealing agent of ground peanut hulls of particles of a size distribution such that at least 30% but no more than 80% of said particles will retained on a 100 standard sieve mesh, and a viscosifier to carry and suspend said sealing agent.

  19. Methods to characterize the structure of food powders - a review.

    PubMed

    Ho, Thao M; Truong, Tuyen; Bhandari, Bhesh R

    2017-04-01

    Food powders can exist in amorphous, crystalline or mixed structure depending on the order of molecular arrangement in the powder particle matrices. In food production, the structure of powders has a greatly effect on their stability, functionality, and applicability. The undesirable structure of powders can be accidentally formed during production. Therefore, characterization of powder structure as well as quantification of amorphous-crystalline proportions presenting in the powders are essential to control the quality of products during storage and further processing. For these purposes, many analytical techniques with large differences in the degree of selectivity and sensitivity have been developed. In this review, differences in the structure of food powders are described with a focus being placed on applications of amorphous powders. Essentially, applicability of common analytical techniques including X-ray, microscopic, vapor adsorption, thermal, and spectroscopic approaches for quantitative and qualitative structural characterization of food powders is also discussed.

  20. Fe-based nanocrystalline powder cores with ultra-low core loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangyue; Lu, Zhichao; Lu, Caowei; Li, Deren

    2013-12-01

    Melt-spun amorphous Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si15.5B7 alloy strip was crushed to make flake-shaped fine powders. The passivated powders by phosphoric acid were mixed with organic and inorganic binder, followed by cold compaction to form toroid-shaped bonded powder-metallurgical magnets. The powder cores were heat-treated to crystallize the amorphous structure and to control the nano-grain structure. Well-coated phosphate-oxide insulation layer on the powder surface decreased the the core loss with the insulation of each powder. FeCuNbSiB nanocrystalline alloy powder core prepared from the powder having phosphate-oxide layer exhibits a stable permeability up to high frequency range over 2 MHz. Especially, the core loss could be reduced remarkably. At the other hand, the softened inorganic binder in the annealing process could effectively improve the intensity of powder cores.

  1. Development of Passive Hydrogen Separation Membranes made from Co-Synthesized Nanoscale Cermet Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, John S.; Thomsen, Ed C.; Canfield, Nathan L.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Weil, K. Scott; Pederson, Larry R.

    2007-11-26

    A powder comprised of nickel oxide and proton-conducting Nd- and Zr-doped barium cerate with a particle size on the order of 10 nm has been co-synthesized using the glycine-nitrate combustion process. The two compositions are intimately mixed with no significant elemental substitution between them after synthesis. The resulting powder must be calcined at 1000 degrees C to ensure complete reaction of the cerate components. Among the barium cerate compositions investigated, the 30 per cent Zr- and 15 per cent Nd-doped material exhibited the best combination of chemical stability in CO2 and conductivity in hydrogen environments. At least 35 vol percent Ni is required to achieve percolation in the composites. When sintering is carried out in an atmosphere which promotes reduction of nickel oxide to nickel metal, the result is a mixed conducting composite which has potential use as a hydrogen separation membrane. Composites with a relative density of 98.9 per cent and submicron grains have been prepared by hot pressing.

  2. Immunogenic compositions comprising human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mosaic Nef proteins

    DOEpatents

    Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos, NM; Perkins, Simon [Los Alamos, NM; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy [Los Alamos, NM; Fischer, William M [Los Alamos, NM; Theiler, James [Los Alamos, NM; Letvin, Norman [Boston, MA; Haynes, Barton F [Durham, NC; Hahn, Beatrice H [Birmingham, AL; Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos, NM; Kuiken, Carla [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-02-21

    The present invention relates to mosaic clade M HIV-1 Nef polypeptides and to compositions comprising same. The polypeptides of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  3. Method to fabricate silicon chromatographic column comprising fluid ports

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Heller, Edwin J.; Adkins, Douglas R.

    2004-03-02

    A new method for fabricating a silicon chromatographic column comprising through-substrate fluid ports has been developed. This new method enables the fabrication of multi-layer interconnected stacks of silicon chromatographic columns.

  4. Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Hsing-Lin [Los Alamos, NM; Jeon, Sea Ho [Dracut, MA; Mack, Nathan H [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-04-03

    Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

  5. Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Hsing-Lin [Los Alamos, NM; Jeon, Sea Ho [Dracut, MA; Mack, Nathan H [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-08-02

    Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

  6. 7. Detail view of reinforced concrete archrings comprising dam's upstream ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail view of reinforced concrete arch-rings comprising dam's upstream face. Impressions of the wooden formwork used in construction are visible in the concrete. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. POWDER COAT APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses an investigation of critical factors that affect the use of powder coatings on the environment, cost, quality, and production. The investigation involved a small business representative working with the National Defense Center for Environmental Excellence (ND...

  8. Talcum powder poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... powder As a filler in street drugs, like heroin Other products may also contain talc. ... have developed serious lung damage and cancer. Injecting heroin that contains talc into a vein may lead ...

  9. OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: aka OIL SOLUTIONS POWDER, SPILL GREEN LS, this miscellaneous oil spill control agent used in cleanups initially behaves like a synthetic sorbent, then as a solidifier as the molecular microencapsulating process occurs.

  10. POWDER COAT APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses an investigation of critical factors that affect the use of powder coatings on the environment, cost, quality, and production. The investigation involved a small business representative working with the National Defense Center for Environmental Excellence (ND...

  11. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarik, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Powdered enzymes were transformed into their insoluble magnetic derivatives retaining their catalytic activity. Enzyme powders (e.g., trypsin and lipase) were suspended in various liquid media not allowing their solubilization (e.g., saturated ammonium sulfate and highly concentrated polyethylene glycol solutions, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol) and subsequently cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Magnetic modification was successfully performed at low temperature in a freezer (-20 °C) using magnetic iron oxides nano- and microparticles prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis from ferrous sulfate. Magnetized cross-linked enzyme powders were stable at least for two months in water suspension without leakage of fixed magnetic particles. Operational stability of magnetically responsive enzymes during eight repeated reaction cycles was generally without loss of enzyme activity. Separation of magnetically modified cross-linked powdered enzymes from reaction mixtures was significantly simplified due to their magnetic properties.

  12. Aluminum powder applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gurganus, T.B.

    1995-08-01

    Aluminum powders have physical and metallurgical characteristics related to their method of manufacture that make them extremely important in a variety of applications. They can propel rockets, improve personal hygiene, increase computer reliability, refine exotic alloys, and reduce weight in the family sedan or the newest Air Force fighter. Powders formed into parts for structural and non-structural applications hold the key to some of the most exciting new developments in the aluminum future.

  13. Coal hydroconversion process comprising solvent extraction (OP-3472)

    SciTech Connect

    Stuntz, G.F.; Culross, C.C.; Reynolds, S.D.

    1991-06-25

    This patent describes a process for hydroconverting coal to produce a carbonaceous liquid. It comprises forming a mixture comprising coal particles, carbon monoxide and water in a pretreatment zone and heating the mixture to a temperature within the range of about 550{degrees} to 700{degrees} F and under a system pressure of at least about 1800 psi for a period of time sufficient to cause an increase in the solubility of the coal in organic solvent, the weight ratio of liquid water to coal present during the heating stage being at least about 0.5:1; extracting the pretreated coal with an organic solvent in an extraction zone to obtain from the coal an extract, comprising a substantial amount of soluble hydrocarbonaceous materials, and a residue comprising substantially all of the inorganic ash; forming a mixture comprising the extract and a catalyst, wherein the catalyst is comprised of dispersed particles of a sulfided metal containing compound, the metal being selected from the group consisting of Groups VA, VIA, VIIA and VIIIA of the Periodic Table of Elements and mixtures thereof; and treating the mixture of coal extract and catalyst with a hydrogen-containing gas under coal hydroconversion conditions, in a hydroconversion zone to obtain a hydrocarbonaceous liquid.

  14. Magnetically coupled system for mixing

    DOEpatents

    Miller, III, Harlan; Meichel, George; Legere, Edward; Malkiel, Edwin; Woods, Robert Paul; Ashley, Oliver; Katz, Joseph; Ward, Jason; Petersen, Paul

    2014-04-01

    The invention provides a mixing system comprising a magnetically coupled drive system and a foil for cultivating algae, or cyanobacteria, in an open or enclosed vessel. The invention provides effective mixing, low energy usage, low capital expenditure, and ease of drive system component maintenance while maintaining the integrity of a sealed mixing vessel.

  15. Magnetically coupled system for mixing

    DOEpatents

    Miller, III, Harlan; Meichel, George; Legere, Edward; Malkiel, Edwin; Woods, Robert Paul; Ashley, Oliver; Katz, Joseph; Ward, Jason; Petersen, Paul

    2015-09-22

    The invention provides a mixing system comprising a magnetically coupled drive system and a foil for cultivating algae, or cyanobacteria, in an open or enclosed vessel. The invention provides effective mixing, low energy usage, low capital expenditure, and ease of drive system component maintenance while maintaining the integrity of a sealed mixing vessel.

  16. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-26

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  17. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2004-09-28

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  18. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goval, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-06-07

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  19. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-19

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  20. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-07-29

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  1. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-05-10

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  2. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2004-09-14

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  3. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2005-01-25

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  4. Biaxially textured articles formed by powder metallurgy

    DOEpatents

    Goyal, Amit; Williams, Robert K.; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2003-08-19

    A biaxially textured alloy article having a magnetism less than pure Ni includes a rolled and annealed compacted and sintered powder-metallurgy preform article, the preform article having been formed from a powder mixture selected from the group of mixtures consisting of: at least 60 at % Ni powder and at least one of Cr powder, W powder, V powder, Mo powder, Cu powder, Al powder, Ce powder, YSZ powder, Y powder, Mg powder, and RE powder; the article having a fine and homogeneous grain structure; and having a dominant cube oriented {100}<100> orientation texture; and further having a Curie temperature less than that of pure Ni.

  5. Cement mixing with vibrator

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.E.

    1991-07-09

    This patent describes a method of cementing a casing string in a bore hole of a well. It comprises introducing water and dry cement material into a mixing vessel; mixing the water and dry cement material in the mixing vessel to form a cement slurry, the slurry including lumps of the dry cement material, the mixing including steps of: agitating the slurry; and while agitating the slurry, transmitting vibrational energy into the slurry and thereby aiding disintegration and subsequent wetting of the lumps of the dry cement material in the slurry; and pumping the slurry into an annulus between the casing string and the bore hole.

  6. Sonochemical synthesis of nanoscale mixed-ligands lead(II) coordination polymers as precursors for preparation of Pb(2)(SO(4))O and PbO nanoparticles; thermal, structural and X-ray powder diffraction studies.

    PubMed

    Fard-Jahromi, Mohammad Jafar Soltanian; Morsali, Ali

    2010-02-01

    Nano-structures of two new Pb(II) two-dimensional coordination polymers, [Pb(micro-4-pyc)(micro-NCS)(micro-H(2)O)](n) (1) and [Pb(micro-4-pyc)(micro-N(3))(micro-H(2)O)](n) (2), 4-Hpyc=4-pyridinecarboxylic acid were synthesized by a sonochemical method. The new nano-structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectroscopy and elemental analyses. Compounds 1 and 2 were structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and consist of two-dimensional polymeric units. The thermal stability of compounds 1 and 2 were studied by thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analyses and compared. Pb(2)(SO(4))O and PbO nanoparticles were obtained by calcination of the nano-structures of compounds 1 and 2 at 600 degrees C, respectively.

  7. Compositions, methods, and systems comprising fluorous-soluble polymers

    DOEpatents

    Swager, Timothy M.; Lim, Jeewoo; Takeda, Yohei

    2015-10-13

    The present invention generally relates to compositions, methods, and systems comprising polymers that are fluorous-soluble and/or organize at interfaces between a fluorous phase and a non-fluorous phase. In some embodiments, emulsions or films are provided comprising a polymer. The polymers, emulsions, and films can be used in many applications, including for determining, treating, and/or imaging a condition and/or disease in a subject. The polymer may also be incorporated into various optoelectronic device such as photovoltaic cells, organic light-emitting diodes, organic field effect transistors, or the like. In some embodiments, the polymers comprise pi-conjugated backbones, and in some cases, are highly emissive.

  8. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  9. Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading stirling thermodynamic units

    SciTech Connect

    Backhaus, Scott; Swift, Greg

    2013-06-25

    The present invention includes a thermoacoustic assembly and method for improved efficiency. The assembly has a first stage Stirling thermal unit comprising a main ambient heat exchanger, a regenerator and at least one additional heat exchanger. The first stage Stirling thermal unit is serially coupled to a first end of a quarter wavelength long coupling tube. A second stage Stirling thermal unit comprising a main ambient heat exchanger, a regenerator, and at least one additional heat exchanger, is serially coupled to a second end of the quarter wavelength long coupling tube.

  10. Device for preparing combinatorial libraries in powder metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shoufeng; Evans, Julian R G

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a powder-metering, -mixing, and -dispensing mechanism that can be used as a method for producing large numbers of samples for metallurgical evaluation or electrical or mechanical testing from multicomponent metal and cermet powder systems. It is designed to make use of the same commercial powders that are used in powder metallurgy and, therefore, to produce samples that are faithful to the microstructure of finished products. The particle assemblies produced by the device could be consolidated by die pressing, isostatic pressing, laser sintering, or direct melting. The powder metering valve provides both on/off and flow rate control of dry powders in open capillaries using acoustic vibration. The valve is simple and involves no relative movement, avoiding seizure with fine powders. An orchestra of such valves can be arranged on a building platform to prepare multicomponent combinatorial libraries. As with many combinatorial devices, identification and evaluation of sources of mixing error as a function of sample size is mandatory. Such an analysis is presented.

  11. Preparation of barium hexaferrite powders using oxidized steel scales waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septiani, Ardita; Idayanti, Novrita; Kristiantoro, Tony

    2016-02-01

    Research on preparation of barium hexaferrite powders has been done using Hot Strip Mill scales as raw materials. Hot Strip Mill scales are oxidized steel scales waste from steel industrial process. The method used for preparing the barium hexaferrite powders was solid state reaction method. Oxidized steel scales were milled using ball mill for 10 hours, then screened through a 250 mesh sieve to obtain powders with maximum size of 63 µm. Powders were roasted at 600°C temperature for 4 hours to obtain hematite (Fe2O3) phase. Roasted powders were then mixed with barium carbonate, and were subsequently milled for 16 hours. After mixing, powders were calcined with an increasing rate of 10°C/min and maintained at 1100°C for 3 hours. Calcination process was performed to acquire barium hexaferrite phase. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) characterization in conjunction with RIR analysis showed that 85 wt. % of barium hexaferrite is formed. The magnetic properties of powders were characterized using Permagraph. It is found the value of remanent induction is 1.09 kG, coercivity of 2.043 kOe, and the maximum energy product of 0.25 MGOe.

  12. Sapropterin Dihydrochloride Mixed With Common Foods and Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Jurecki, Elaina R.; Cunningham, Amy; Mahoney, John J.; Tingley, Douglas; Chung, Stanley; James, Neil; Cohen-Pfeffer, Jessica L.

    2014-01-01

    Sapropterin dihydrochloride is used to lower blood phenylalanine levels in tetrahydrobiopterin-responsive phenylketonuria in conjunction with a phenylalanine-restricted diet. This study investigated the solubility and stability of sapropterin tablets and a sapropterin powder formulation when mixed in selected beverages and foods. Solubility was partial for the tablets and complete for the powder. The stability testing showed that 93% or more of active sapropterin dihydrochloride is present at 1 hour after either tablets or powders are mixed with certain foods and beverages. Mixing sapropterin powder with foods and beverages might facilitate its administration in patients who have difficulty swallowing the drug according to prescribing information. PMID:25382934

  13. Multifunctional Nanofibers Comprised of Conducting and Ferroelectric Polymer Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-04

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Work on this proposal concentrated on studying the following polymers : poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (PVDF...prepare thin films and electrospinning to prepare fine fibers of these polymers . The goal was to make devices and sensors. Using an atomic force...2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Multifunctional nanofibers comprised of conducting and ferroelectric polymer composites The

  14. Non-aqueous liquid compositions comprising ion exchange polymers

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Lee, Kwan-Soo; Rockward, Tommy Q. T.

    2011-07-19

    Compositions, and methods of making thereof, comprising from about 1% to about 5% of a perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomer or a hydrocarbon-based ionomer; and from about 95% to about 99% of a solvent, said solvent consisting essentially of a polyol; wherein said composition is substantially free of water and wherein said ionomer is uniformly dispersed in said solvent.

  15. Non-aqueous liquid compositions comprising ion exchange polymers

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Lee, Kwan-Soo; Rockward, Tommy Q. T.

    2013-03-12

    Compositions, and methods of making thereof, comprising from about 1% to about 5% of a perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomer or a hydrocarbon-based ionomer; and from about 95% to about 99% of a solvent, said solvent consisting essentially of a polyol; wherein said composition is substantially free of water and wherein said ionomer is uniformly dispersed in said solvent.

  16. Non-cementitious compositions comprising vaterite and methods thereof

    DOEpatents

    Devenney, Martin; Fernandez, Miguel; Morgan, Samuel O.

    2015-09-15

    Non-cementitious compositions and products are provided. The compositions of the invention include a carbonate additive comprising vaterite such as reactive vaterite. Additional aspects of the invention include methods of making and using the non-cementitious compositions and products.

  17. Substrate comprising a nanometer-scale projection array

    DOEpatents

    Cui, Yi; Zhu, Jia; Hsu, Ching-Mei; Connor, Stephen T; Yu, Zongfu; Fan, Shanhui; Burkhard, George

    2012-11-27

    A method for forming a substrate comprising nanometer-scale pillars or cones that project from the surface of the substrate is disclosed. The method enables control over physical characteristics of the projections including diameter, sidewall angle, and tip shape. The method further enables control over the arrangement of the projections including characteristics such as center-to-center spacing and separation distance.

  18. Estimation of the Number of Microbial Species Comprising a Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Sample Sizes .................68 19. Minimum Sample Sizes Require to Equate Non-Parametric and Parametric Estimation Methods...63 PARAMETRIC ESTIMATION OF NUMBER OF SPECIES COMPRISING A POPULATION I. Introduction Background The current state of the environment...estimation of the number of species which are currently used include both parametric and non- parametric estimation techniques. There are advantages and

  19. Effect of boric acid on the properties of Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}·LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} composite cathode powders prepared by large-scale spray pyrolysis with droplet classifier

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Young Jun; Choi, Seung Ho; Sim, Chul Min; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kang, Yun Chan

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Spherical shape Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}·LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} composite cathode powders are prepared by large-scale spray pyrolysis with droplet classifier. ► Boric acid improves the morphological and electrochemical properties of the composite cathode powders. ► The discharge capacity of the composite cathode powders decreases from 217 to 196 mAh g{sup −1} by the 30th cycle. -- Abstract: Spherically shaped 0.3Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}·0.7LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} composite cathode powders with filled morphology and narrow size distribution are prepared by large-scale spray pyrolysis. A droplet classification reduces the standard deviation of the size distribution of the composite cathode powders. Addition of boric acid improves the morphological properties of the product powders by forming a lithium borate glass material with low melting temperature. The optimum amount of boric acid dissolved in the spray solution is 0.8 wt% of the composite powders. The powders prepared from the spray solution with 0.8 wt% boric acid have a mixed layered crystal structure comprising Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} and LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} phases, thus forming a composite compound. The initial charge and discharge capacities of the composite cathode powders prepared from the 0.8 wt% boric acid spray solution are 297 and 217 mAh g{sup −1}, respectively. The discharge capacity of the powders decreases from 217 to 196 mAh g{sup −1} by the 30th cycle, in which the capacity retention is 90%.

  20. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

  1. Low Temperature Powder Coating

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-09

    Patterson AFB, OH David Piatkowski, Chris Mahendra NAVAIR James Davila, Chris Geib SAIC Beavercreek, OH O G D E N A I R L O G I S T I C S C E N T...PUBLICATIONS Geib , C.W., Davila J.A., Patterson W., et al. “Low Temperature Cure Powder Coating, ESTCP Project WP-0614.” Joint Services Environmental...Management Conference, Columbus, Ohio. 21 – 24 May 2007. Geib , C.W., Davila J.A., Patterson W., et al. “Advances and Testing of Powder Coatings for Aerospace

  2. Powder towpreg process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.; Marchello, Joseph M.

    1991-01-01

    The process for dry powder impregnation of carbon fiber tows being developed at LaRC overcomes many of the difficulties associated with melt, solution, and slurry prepregging. In the process, fluidized powder is deposited on spread tow bundles and fused to the fibers by radiant heating. Impregnated tows have been produced for preform, weaving, and composite materials applications. Design and operating data correlations were developed for scale up of the process to commercial operation. Bench scale single tow experiments at tow speeds up to 50 cm/sec have demonstrated that the process can be controlled to produce weavable towpreg. Samples were woven and molded into preform material of good quality.

  3. Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000°F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

  4. Microgravity acoustic mixing for particle cloud combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic; Rubinstein, Robert I.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations of acoustic mixing procedures designed to uniformly distribute fuel particles in a combustion tube for application in the proposed Particle Cloud Combustion Experiment (PCCE) are described. Two acoustic mixing methods are investigated: mixing in a cylindrical tube using high frequency spinning modes generated by suitably phased, or quadrature speakers, and acoustic premixing in a sphere. Quadrature mixing leads to rapid circumferential circulation of the powder around the tube. Good mixing is observed in the circulating regions. However, because axial inhomogeneities are necessarily present in the acoustic field, this circulation does not extend throughout the tube. Simultaneous operation of the quadrature-speaker set and the axial-speaker was observed to produce considerably enhanced mixing compared to operation of the quadrature-speaker set alone. Mixing experiments using both types of speakers were free of the longitudinal powder drift observed using axial-speakers alone. Vigorous powder mixing was obtained in the sphere for many normal modes: however, in no case was the powder observed to fill the sphere entirely. Theoretical analysis indicated that mixing under steady conditions cannot fill more than a hemisphere except under very unusual conditions. Premixing in a hemisphere may be satisfactory; otherwise, complete mixing in microgravity might be possible by operating the speaker in short bursts. A general conclusion is that acoustic transients are more likely to produce good mixing than steady state conditions. The reason is that in steady conditions, flow structures like nodal planes are possible and often even unavoidable. These tend to separate the mixing region into cells across which powder cannot be transferred. In contrast, transients not only are free of such structures, they also have the characteristics, desirable for mixing, of randomness and disorder. This conclusion is corroborated by mixing

  5. Demystifying Mystery Powders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotar, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Describes science activities which use simple chemical tests to distinguish between materials and to determine some of their properties. Explains the water, iodine, heat, acid, baking soda, acid/base indicator, glucose, and sugar tests. Includes activities to enhance chemical testing and a list of suggested powders for use. (RT)

  6. Demystifying Mystery Powders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotar, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Describes science activities which use simple chemical tests to distinguish between materials and to determine some of their properties. Explains the water, iodine, heat, acid, baking soda, acid/base indicator, glucose, and sugar tests. Includes activities to enhance chemical testing and a list of suggested powders for use. (RT)

  7. Studies of Composition and performance of mountain sand concrete powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, ZH; Li, XG; Nie, X. P.; Wang, J. C.; Shuai, S. X.

    2017-02-01

    We have designed experiments to study the effect of gravel and sand on different labels of concrete. The result show that the compressive strength can be improved by increasing the proportion of mortar in low-grade concrete and increasing the proportion of stone in high-grade concrete. Tests showed that the powder of gravel and sand can significantly improve the mixing performance of concrete. The correlation of performance indicators with the strength of fresh concrete was also analyzed. The results in this research have important guiding significance for the design of concrete mix ratio and the application of powder in concrete.

  8. Non-precious metal catalysts prepared from precursor comprising cyanamide

    DOEpatents

    Chung, Hoon Taek; Zelenay, Piotr

    2015-10-27

    Catalyst comprising graphitic carbon and methods of making thereof; said graphitic carbon comprising a metal species, a nitrogen-containing species and a sulfur containing species. A catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction for an alkaline fuel cell was prepared by heating a mixture of cyanamide, carbon black, and a salt selected from an iron sulfate salt and an iron acetate salt at a temperature of from about 700.degree. C. to about 1100.degree. C. under an inert atmosphere. Afterward, the mixture was treated with sulfuric acid at elevated temperature to remove acid soluble components, and the resultant mixture was heated again under an inert atmosphere at the same temperature as the first heat treatment step.

  9. Ion-based materials comprising planar charged species.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bin; Maeda, Hiromitsu

    2013-05-14

    Materials comprising planar units have the propensity to form stacking assemblies with nanoscale architectures and intriguing properties. In this feature article, some recent examples of ion-based materials comprising positively and negatively charged planar species are described. Various ion-based solid and soft materials can be formed by planar charged species alone or with the aid of other components. It is more challenging to prepare planar anions than planar cations; however, the noncovalent association of electronically neutral planar anion receptors and anions is an efficient strategy for the preparation of planar anions. Suitable candidates include dipyrrolyldiketone boron complexes, which exhibit the formation of various receptor-anion complexes and can be used to fabricate advanced materials in combination with countercations. Ion-based materials consisting of planar charged components have potential as electrically conductive materials, resulting from the ordered arrangement of the planar charged species.

  10. Recyclable organic solar cells on substrates comprising cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

    DOEpatents

    Kippelen, Bernard; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Zhou, Yinhua; Moon, Robert; Youngblood, Jeffrey P

    2015-12-01

    Recyclable organic solar cells are disclosed herein. Systems and methods are further disclosed for producing, improving performance, and for recycling the solar cells. In certain example embodiments, the recyclable organic solar cells disclosed herein include: a first electrode; a second electrode; a photoactive layer disposed between the first electrode and the second electrode; an interlayer comprising a Lewis basic oligomer or polymer disposed between the photoactive layer and at least a portion of the first electrode or the second electrode; and a substrate disposed adjacent to the first electrode or the second electrode. The interlayer reduces the work function associated with the first or second electrode. In certain example embodiments, the substrate comprises cellulose nanocrystals that can be recycled. In certain example embodiments, one or more of the first electrode, the photoactive layer, and the second electrode may be applied by a film transfer lamination method.

  11. Fuel compositions comprising coal-liquid fuel mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, T.; Niimi, H.; Nobe, T.; Wada, T.

    1981-01-20

    The invention provides: a fuel composition comprising 100 parts by weight of a coal-liquid fuel mixture and 0.02 to 1.0 part by weight of at least one additive selected from the group consisting of dibenzylidene sorbitol, ditoluylidene sorbitol, tribenzylidene sorbitol, tritoluylidene sorbitol and hydrogenated castor oil; and a fuel composition comprising 100 parts by weight of a coal-liquid fuel mixture, 0.02 to 1.0 part by weight of at least one additive selected from the group consisting of dibenzylidene sorbitol, ditoluylidene sorbitol, tribenzylidene sorbitol, tritoluylidene sorbitol and hydrogenated castor oil, and 1 to 10 parts by weight of water. The composition shows high stability over a prolonged period of time, preventing the separation into layers of the components.

  12. High temperature battery cell comprising stress free hollow fiber bundle

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, J. N.; Revak, T. T.; Rossini, F. J.

    1985-04-16

    Thermal stressing of hollow fibers constituting the electrolyte-separator in a high temperature battery cell, and of certain other elements thereof, is avoided by suspending the assembly comprising the anolyte tank, the tube-sheet, the hollow fibers and a cathodic current collector-distributor within the casing and employing a limp connection between the collector-distributor and the cathode terminal of the cell.

  13. Laser production of articles from powders

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Milewski, John O.; Cremers, David A.; Nemec, Ronald B.; Barbe, Michael R.

    1998-01-01

    Method and apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. Preferably the tool path and other parameters of the deposition process are established using computer-aided design and manufacturing techniques. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of a deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which a deposition head which delivers the laser beam and powder to the deposition zone moves along the tool path.

  14. Laser production of articles from powders

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, G.K.; Milewski, J.O.; Cremers, D.A.; Nemec, R.B.; Barbe, M.R.

    1998-11-17

    Method and apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. Preferably the tool path and other parameters of the deposition process are established using computer-aided design and manufacturing techniques. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of a deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which a deposition head which delivers the laser beam and powder to the deposition zone moves along the tool path. 20 figs.

  15. Method and article of manufacture corresponding to a composite comprised of ultra nonacrystalline diamond, metal, and other nanocarbons useful for thermoelectric and other applications

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    2010-05-18

    One provides (101) disperse ultra-nanocrystalline diamond powder material that comprises a plurality of substantially ordered crystallites that are each sized no larger than about 10 nanometers. One then reacts (102) these crystallites with a metallic component. The resultant nanowire is then able to exhibit a desired increase with respect to its ability to conduct electricity while also substantially preserving the thermal conductivity behavior of the disperse ultra-nanocrystalline diamond powder material. The reaction process can comprise combining (201) the crystallites with one or more metal salts in an aqueous solution and then heating (203) that aqueous solution to remove the water. This heating can occur in a reducing atmosphere (comprising, for example, hydrogen and/or methane) to also reduce the salt to metal.

  16. Lead-free precussion primer mixes based on metastable interstitial composite (MIC) technology

    DOEpatents

    Dixon, George P.; Martin, Joe A.; Thompson, Don

    1998-01-01

    A lead-free percussion primer composition and a percussion cup containing e composition. The lead-free percussion primer composition is comprised of a mixture of about 45 wt % aluminum powder having an outer coating of aluminum oxide and molybdenum trioxide powder or a mixture of about 50 wt % aluminum powder having an outer coating of aluminum oxide and polytetrafluoroethylene powder. The aluminum powder, molybdenum trioxide powder and polytetrafluoroethylene powder has a particle size of 0.1 .mu.m or less, more preferably a particle size of from about 200-500 angstroms.

  17. Enhanced ferromagnetism in BiFeO3 powders by rapid combustion of graphite powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qingyu; Hu, Cheng; Wang, Ji; Du, Jun

    2017-05-01

    The magnetoelectric applications of BiFeO3 are strongly limited by the very weak ferromagnetism, due to the cycloidal modulated antiferromagnetic structure. In this paper, a rapid combustion method was adopted to prepare BiFeO3 powders. The amorphous BiFeO3 precursors prepared by sol-gel method were mixed with graphite powders and calcined at 350 °C for 5 minutes. BiFeO3 powders were crystallized well with grain size of 30 nm due to the local high temperature during the rapid combustion of graphite powders in short time, and the high crystallinity was confirmed by the Raman spectra. Clear room temperature ferromagnetism has been observed, with significantly large coercivity of 0.19 kOe and magnetization of 0.48 emu/g at 10 kOe, which is much larger than that of BiFeO3 powders sintered at 600 °C (negligible small coercivity and 0.092 emu/g at 10 kOe). The enhancement of ferromagnetism has been attributed to the suppression of the cancellation of canted spins due to the much smaller crystallite size than the cycloidal modulation period.

  18. Synthesis and consolidation of γ-Ni-Fe nanoalloy powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. S.; Nam, J. G.; Knorr, P.

    1999-04-01

    The present work studies the synthesis and consolidation of γ-Ni-Fe nanoalloy powder by the mechano-chemical process comprising high-energy ball-milling of NiO-Fe2O3 powder and a subsequent hydrogen reduction process. To examine the formation mechanism of the nanoalloy powder, the effect of the oxide powder char-acteristics on the reduction process and alloying was investigated by varying the ball-milling time. The reduction process and the alloying of the γ-Ni-Fe phase proved to accelerate as the ball-milling time increased. However, prolonged milling (for 30 hours) retarded the reduction of Fe2O3 as well as the alloying process. The densification process of the Ni-Fe nanoalloy powder strongly depended on the degree of agglomeration which results in enhancing homogeneous sintering. The limited densification of the nanoalloy powder originates from the high degree of particle agglomeration. While intra-agglomerate porosity is easily eliminated in the course of sintering, it is found to resist densification. The limitation of the sintered density could be overcome by increasing the green density of the powder compacts. Full density was achieved by starting with a green density of 72% theoretical density.

  19. Vacuum powder injector and method of impregnating fiber with powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Working, Dennis C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus uniformly impregnate stranded material with dry powder such as low solubility, high melt flow polymer powder to produce, for example, composite prepregs. The stranded material is expanded in an impregnation chamber by an influx of air so that the powder, which may enter through the same inlet as the air, penetrates to the center of the stranded material. The stranded material then is contracted for holding the powder therein. The stranded material and powder may be pulled through the impregnation chamber in the same direction by vacuum. Larger particles of powder which do not fully penetrate the stranded material may be combed into the stranded material and powder which does not impregnate the stranded material may be collected and reused.

  20. Improvements on effective permittivity measurements of powdered alumina: Implications for bulk permittivity properties of asteroid regoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickson, Dylan; Sotodeh, Shahroukh; Daly, Michael G.; Ghent, Rebecca; Nolan, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate measurements of the dielectric properties of materials are essential in constraining interpretations of radar observations of planetary bodies. For bodies whose surfaces are comprised of regolith this requires an understanding of the behaviour of the bulk permittivity of powders. In this research we measure the effective permittivity of powdered aluminium oxide (or alumina, Al2O3) in a 7 mm and 14 mm (diameter) coaxial airline at 7.5 GHz for multiple samples with varying grain size. The dielectric constant of alumina is extracted from these measurements using the Bruggeman (Effective Medium Approximation) mixing equation. We develop a model to account for heterogeneity within the airline, specifically in regards to local variation in porosity. The results of the model show good correlation to experimental data and effectively correct for grain size effects on the measured bulk permittivity. We show that particle shape can have a significant impact on the output of the model and can be accounted for by modelling particles as ellipsoids rather than perfect spheres, where the depolarization factor must be measured and averaged for a specific sample batch.

  1. Investigation of production conditions and powder properties of AUC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tel, H.; Eral, M.

    1996-07-01

    Ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC) powders are prepared by adding 25% ammonium carbonate solution into the uranyl nitrate (UNH) solutions purified with TBP extraction from dissolution of the Canada originated U 3O 8 commercial concentrate. AUC powders are identified by chemical analysis, TGA/DTG analysis, IR analysis and by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The effects of the precipitation conditions on the powder properties are determined. The particle size of AUC increases with the C/U ratio and temperature while it decreases with the increasing uranium concentration. The mixing rate and the addition rate of ammonium carbonate does not have a considerable effect on the particle size. The reactor and the mixing type have great effects on the flowability of the AUC powders. The most flowable powders are obtained in a conical and air agitated reactor. The flowability of these powders is 2.5 g/s with a specific surface area of 5.59 m 2/g and particle size of 4 μm. UO 2 converted via AUC is also very flowable (3 g/s) with a specific surface area of 5.1 m 2/g.

  2. Multilayer Electroactive Polymer Composite Material Comprising Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electroactive material comprises multiple layers of electroactive composite with each layer having unique dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties that define an electromechanical operation thereof when affected by an external stimulus. For example, each layer can be (i) a 2-phase composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation, or (ii) a 3-phase composite having the elements of the 2-phase composite and further including a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic incorporated in the polymer matrix.

  3. System comprising interchangeable electronic controllers and corresponding methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Glen F. (Inventor); Salazar, George A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system comprising an interchangeable electronic controller is provided with programming that allows the controller to adapt a behavior that is dependent upon the particular type of function performed by a system or subsystem component. The system reconfigures the controller when the controller is moved from one group of subsystem components to another. A plurality of application programs are provided by a server from which the application program for a particular electronic controller is selected. The selection is based on criteria such as a subsystem component group identifier that identifies the particular type of function associated with the system or subsystem group of components.

  4. Advanced powder processing

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, M.A.

    1997-04-01

    Gelcasting is an advanced powder forming process. It is most commonly used to form ceramic or metal powders into complex, near-net shapes. Turbine rotors, gears, nozzles, and crucibles have been successfully gelcast in silicon nitride, alumina, nickel-based superalloy, and several steels. Gelcasting can also be used to make blanks that can be green machined to near-net shape and then high fired. Green machining has been successfully applied to both ceramic and metal gelcast blanks. Recently, the authors have used gelcasting to make tooling for metal casting applications. Most of the work has centered on H13 tool steel. They have demonstrated an ability to gelcast and sinter H13 to near net shape for metal casting tooling. Also, blanks of H13 have been cast, green machined into complex shape, and fired. Issues associated with forming, binder burnout, and sintering are addressed.

  5. Processing polymeric powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throne, James L.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of uniformly and continuously depositing and sinter-fusing nominal 0.1 to 40 microns dimensioned electrostatically charged polymer powder particles onto essentially uniformly spread 5 to 20 micron grounded continuous fiber tow to produce a respoolable thermoplastic composite two-preg was formulated at NASA Langley. The process was reduced to practice under a NASA grant at the University of Akron this spring. The production of tow-preg is called phase 1. The production of ultrafine polymer powders from 5 to 10 percent (wt) polymer solids in solvent is considered. This is phase 0 and is discussed. The production of unitape from multi tow-pregs was also considered. This is phase 2 and is also discussed. And another approach to phase 1, also proposed last summer, was scoped. This is phase 1A and is also discussed.

  6. Guided wave propagation and scattering in pipeworks comprising elbows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkali, Marouane El; Lhémery, Alain; Baronian, Vahan; Berthelot, François

    2014-02-01

    Guided waves (GW) are used to inspect pipeworks in various industries. Specific features of pipeworks lead to complex scattering phenomena. Simulations tools able to handle such a complexity must be developed to help interpretation and to optimize testing configurations. They must handle both long range propagation and local scattering phenomena. Here, a modal formulation is derived to deal with pipeworks comprising arbitrarily curved elbows linking otherwise straight pipes. First, the semi-analytic finite element method is extended in curvilinear coordinates to predict guided modes in elbows. Then, GW scattering at the junction of a straight pipe with an elbow is investigated. Modal solutions in both parts being known, the mode matching method is derived to compute modal reflection and transmission coefficients given as elements of a scattering matrix. Further, the global scattering matrix of a pipework comprising an arbitrary number of elbows linking straight pipes is considered. A general formulation presented in this conference series is used which handles multiple scattering phenomena that possibly arise. Interestingly, the computation of both modal solution and the scattering matrix with mode-matching method only requires meshing the pipe section. Examples illustrate the various steps.

  7. Photovoltaic device comprising compositionally graded intrinsic photoactive layer

    DOEpatents

    Hoffbauer, Mark A; Williamson, Todd L

    2013-04-30

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making photovoltaic devices comprising at least one compositionally graded photoactive layer, said method comprising providing a substrate; growing onto the substrate a uniform intrinsic photoactive layer having one surface disposed upon the substrate and an opposing second surface, said intrinsic photoactive layer consisting essentially of In.sub.1-xA.sub.xN,; wherein: i. 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1; ii. A is gallium, aluminum, or combinations thereof; and iii. x is at least 0 on one surface of the intrinsic photoactive layer and is compositionally graded throughout the layer to reach a value of 1 or less on the opposing second surface of the layer; wherein said intrinsic photoactive layer is isothermally grown by means of energetic neutral atom beam lithography and epitaxy at a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less using neutral nitrogen atoms having a kinetic energy of from about 1.0 eV to about 5.0 eV, and wherein the intrinsic photoactive layer is grown at a rate of from about 5 nm/min to about 100 nm/min.

  8. A reconfigurable on-line learning spiking neuromorphic processor comprising 256 neurons and 128K synapses

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Ning; Mostafa, Hesham; Corradi, Federico; Osswald, Marc; Stefanini, Fabio; Sumislawska, Dora; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Implementing compact, low-power artificial neural processing systems with real-time on-line learning abilities is still an open challenge. In this paper we present a full-custom mixed-signal VLSI device with neuromorphic learning circuits that emulate the biophysics of real spiking neurons and dynamic synapses for exploring the properties of computational neuroscience models and for building brain-inspired computing systems. The proposed architecture allows the on-chip configuration of a wide range of network connectivities, including recurrent and deep networks, with short-term and long-term plasticity. The device comprises 128 K analog synapse and 256 neuron circuits with biologically plausible dynamics and bi-stable spike-based plasticity mechanisms that endow it with on-line learning abilities. In addition to the analog circuits, the device comprises also asynchronous digital logic circuits for setting different synapse and neuron properties as well as different network configurations. This prototype device, fabricated using a 180 nm 1P6M CMOS process, occupies an area of 51.4 mm2, and consumes approximately 4 mW for typical experiments, for example involving attractor networks. Here we describe the details of the overall architecture and of the individual circuits and present experimental results that showcase its potential. By supporting a wide range of cortical-like computational modules comprising plasticity mechanisms, this device will enable the realization of intelligent autonomous systems with on-line learning capabilities. PMID:25972778

  9. A reconfigurable on-line learning spiking neuromorphic processor comprising 256 neurons and 128K synapses.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Ning; Mostafa, Hesham; Corradi, Federico; Osswald, Marc; Stefanini, Fabio; Sumislawska, Dora; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Implementing compact, low-power artificial neural processing systems with real-time on-line learning abilities is still an open challenge. In this paper we present a full-custom mixed-signal VLSI device with neuromorphic learning circuits that emulate the biophysics of real spiking neurons and dynamic synapses for exploring the properties of computational neuroscience models and for building brain-inspired computing systems. The proposed architecture allows the on-chip configuration of a wide range of network connectivities, including recurrent and deep networks, with short-term and long-term plasticity. The device comprises 128 K analog synapse and 256 neuron circuits with biologically plausible dynamics and bi-stable spike-based plasticity mechanisms that endow it with on-line learning abilities. In addition to the analog circuits, the device comprises also asynchronous digital logic circuits for setting different synapse and neuron properties as well as different network configurations. This prototype device, fabricated using a 180 nm 1P6M CMOS process, occupies an area of 51.4 mm(2), and consumes approximately 4 mW for typical experiments, for example involving attractor networks. Here we describe the details of the overall architecture and of the individual circuits and present experimental results that showcase its potential. By supporting a wide range of cortical-like computational modules comprising plasticity mechanisms, this device will enable the realization of intelligent autonomous systems with on-line learning capabilities.

  10. Lactose/beta-lactoglobulin interaction during storage of model whey powders.

    PubMed

    Thomas, M E C; Scher, J; Desobry, S

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence or absence of interaction between lactose and beta-lactoglobulin during storage of model whey powders at different water activities (a(w)). Model whey powders were prepared by colyophilization of lactose with increasing quantities of beta-lactoglobulin. These colyophilized beta-lactoglobulin:lactose powders, assigned as BL powders, were stored from 0.11 to 0.95 a(w). The water sorption behavior of BL powders was studied gravimetrically, and the state of lactose was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Before storage, BL powders were amorphous. After storage, a loss of water was observed on moisture sorption isotherms of BL powders. It was related to the formation of lactose crystals, detected by DSC and SEM analysis, and to the structural collapse of the powders. Water loss due to lactose crystallization was shifted to higher a(w) with increasing beta-lactoglobulin content in BL powders. Moreover, kinetics of moisture sorption demonstrated that beta-lactoglobulin was also responsible for a slower crystallization process in BL powders. Then, the water sorption behavior of BL powders was very different from the behavior of the 2 compounds mixed after separate lyophilization. All these results pointed out interaction between lactose and beta-lactoglobulin, which appeared during lyophilization and still occurred during storage. This lactose/beta-lactoglobulin interaction stabilized model whey powders against lactose crystallization.

  11. Binder-Jet Printing of Fine Stainless Steel Powder with Varied Final Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaee, Mohsen; Tridas, Eric M.; Crane, Nathan B.

    2017-03-01

    Binder jetting is an additive manufacturing process that produces weak porous parts that are strengthened through sintering and/or infiltration. This article reports on two different methods of preparing fine 316 stainless steel powder and their impact on the final sintered density and dimensions relative to direct printing into <22 micron powder . The first method uses agglomerates of fine powder. In the second, nylon 12 powders are mixed with the steel powder as a fugitive space holder to increase porosity. Sintered density and sintering shrinkage of agglomerate material are shown to vary with the density of the spread powder bed. Nevertheless, with added nylon, the shrinkage correlates with the shrinkage of the base steel powder, whereas the density depends on the quantity of the nylon. Thus, it is possible to create varied sintered density with compatible shrinkage levels—a key step toward creating binder-jetting systems with spatially controlled porosity.

  12. Synthesis and improved explosion behaviors of aluminum powders coated with nano-sized nickel film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Tae; Kim, Dong Won; Kim, Soo Hyung; Kim, Chang Kee; Choi, Yoon Jeong

    2017-09-01

    Nickel (Ni) materials with a thickness of a few hundred nm were homogeneously coated on the surfaces of aluminum (Al) powders by an electroless plating process. The Ni-coated Al powders show characteristic interfacial structures mixed of Ni, Al and O instead of densely packed Al oxide at the surface. The explosion test of the Ni-coated Al powders utilizing flame ignition showed that the powders had a 3.6 times enhanced pressurization rate of 405 kPa/ms compared to 111 kPa/ms of uncoated Al powders. It was found that this is due to a feasible diffusion of oxygen atoms into the Al powders through the thin and rough interfacial layers present at the Ni/Al interface. These results clearly indicate that nano-sized Ni film introduced instead of surface oxide acts as a very profitable layer to achieve efficient combustion behaviors by a rapid oxidation of Al powders.

  13. Effect of composition on physical properties of food powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szulc, Karolina; Lenart, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents an influence of raw material composition and technological process applied on selected physical properties of food powders. Powdered multi-component nutrients were subjected to the process of mixing, agglomeration, coating, and drying. Wetting liquids ie water and a 15% water lactose solution, were used in agglomeration and coating. The analyzed food powders were characterized by differentiated physical properties, including especially: particle size, bulk density, wettability, and dispersibility. The raw material composition of the studied nutrients exerted a statistically significant influence on their physical properties. Agglomeration as well as coating of food powders caused a significant increase in particle size, decreased bulk density, increased apparent density and porosity, and deterioration in flowability in comparison with non-agglomerated nutrients.

  14. Process for synthesizing compounds from elemental powders and product

    DOEpatents

    Rabin, B.H.; Wright, R.N.

    1993-12-14

    A process for synthesizing intermetallic compounds from elemental powders is described. The elemental powders are initially combined in a ratio which approximates the stoichiometric composition of the intermetallic compound. The mixed powders are then formed into a compact which is heat treated at a controlled rate of heating such that an exothermic reaction between the elements is initiated. The heat treatment may be performed under controlled conditions ranging from a vacuum (pressureless sintering) to compression (hot pressing) to produce a desired densification of the intermetallic compound. In a preferred form of the invention, elemental powders of Fe and Al are combined to form aluminide compounds of Fe[sub 3] Al and FeAl. 25 figures.

  15. Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite powders

    DOEpatents

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Weimer, Alan W.; Carroll, Daniel F.; Eisman, Glenn A.; Cochran, Gene A.; Susnitzky, David W.; Beaman, Donald R.; Nilsen, Kevin J.

    1996-06-11

    Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

  16. Study on Raman spectral imaging method for simultaneous estimation of ingredients concentration in food powder

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated the potential of point scan Raman spectral imaging method for estimation of different ingredients and chemical contaminant concentration in food powder. Food powder sample was prepared by mixing sugar, vanillin, melamine and non-dairy cream at 5 different concentrations in a ...

  17. Development of a Raman chemical imaging detection method for authenticating skim milk powder

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This research demonstrated that Raman chemical imaging coupled with a simple image classification algorithm can be used to detect multiple chemical adulterants in skim milk powder. Ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea were mixed into the milk powder as chemical adulterants in the conc...

  18. Screening of adulterants in powdered foods and ingredients using line-scan Raman chemical imaging.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A newly developed line-scan Raman imaging system using a 785 nm line laser was used to authenticate powdered foods and ingredients. The system was used to collect hyperspectral Raman images in the range of 102–2865 wavenumber from three representative food powders mixed with selected adulterants eac...

  19. Gelled liquid oxygen/metal powder monopropellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickman, John H.; James, Eric

    1992-01-01

    Al, Al-80/Mg-20 wt pct, Si, and Fe powders were mixed with LOX and gelled with 2-3 wt pct Cab-o-Sil to viscosities of 100 to 900 cps, at shear rates of up to 300/sec. These monopropellants were burned in a cylinder that was submerged in a liquid nitrogen bath. Ambient pressure data have shown that the monopropellants were extinguished when the flame front reached regions that had been submerged under the liquid nitrogen. Burning occurred in a pulsed fashion, and was most nearly steady in the case of the Al-Mg mixture. No sparking or energetic burning occurred in any of the cases tested.

  20. Marine bacteria comprise a possible indicator of drowning in seawater.

    PubMed

    Kakizaki, Eiji; Takahama, Keiichi; Seo, Yasuhisa; Kozawa, Shuji; Sakai, Masahiro; Yukawa, Nobuhiro

    2008-04-07

    To investigate the effectiveness of marine bacteria as a new marker of drowning in seawater, we determined the optimal conditions of media required to selectively detect marine bacteria and applied the technique to drowned cadavers. We incubated model blood samples (n=20 per group) mixed with seawater, river, tap or muddy water on agar plates (Todd Hewitt, TH; Marine 2216, M2216) and determined the NaCl concentration required to selectively detect marine bacteria. We also used TCBS agar plates without manipulation to isolate Vibrio spp. Among the culture media, TH agar was superior. Bioluminescent colonies were detected only in blood mixed with seawater. Blue colonies stained using the cytochrome oxidase test (COT), were detected in blood mixed with both sea and river water. However when the NaCl concentration was above 4%, COT stained colonies were detectable only in blood mixed with seawater. We subsequently used 2, 3 and 4% NaCl in TH and TCBS agar to examine blood from victims who had drowned in seawater (n=8) and in fresh water (n=7), as well as from victims who died near aquatic environments (non drowned; dry-land control, n=7). Bioluminescent colonies were detectable on 2-4% NaCl TH agar only from two victims that drowned in seawater. Bioluminescent colonies did not grow on TCBS agar. Blue colonies from all cadavers that had drowned in seawater (8/8) and in four of those that had drowned in fresh water (4/7) proliferated on TH agar containing 2% and/or 3% NaCl, but at 4% NaCl such colonies were detected only from cadavers that had drowned in seawater (8/8). Colonies from only one cadaver from seawater grew on TCBS agar. Furthermore, neither bioluminescent nor blue colonies were detected on TH agar containing 4% NaCl in samples from two cadavers found in an estuary (brackish water) who were thought to have been carried from areas of fresh water. Homologous analyses of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the dominant colonies on TH agar containing 4% NaCl were

  1. 21 CFR 520.763b - Dithiazanine iodide powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.763b Dithiazanine...) Conditions of use. (1) Dithiazanine iodide powder is administered to dogs by mixing the proper dosage in the dog's food, using the following dosage schedule for various parasite infestations: Milligrams per...

  2. 21 CFR 520.763b - Dithiazanine iodide powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.763b Dithiazanine... of use. (1) Dithiazanine iodide powder is administered to dogs by mixing the proper dosage in the dog... should be used cautiously, if at all, in dogs with reduced renal function. (3) Federal law restricts this...

  3. PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE-POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON-WET AIR REGENERATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigation summarized in the report was undertaken to evaluate the performance of powdered activated carbon (PAC) technology used in conjunction with wet air regeneration (WAR) at municipal wastewater treatment plants. Excessive ash concentrations accumulated in the mixed ...

  4. PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE-POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON-WET AIR REGENERATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigation summarized in the report was undertaken to evaluate the performance of powdered activated carbon (PAC) technology used in conjunction with wet air regeneration (WAR) at municipal wastewater treatment plants. Excessive ash concentrations accumulated in the mixed ...

  5. Polythiophenes Comprising Conjugated Pendants for Polymer Solar Cells: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsing-Ju; Chen, Chih-Ping; Jeng, Ru-Jong

    2014-01-01

    Polythiophene (PT) is one of the widely used donor materials for solution-processable polymer solar cells (PSCs). Much progress in PT-based PSCs can be attributed to the design of novel PTs exhibiting intense and broad visible absorption with high charge carrier mobility to increase short-circuit current density (Jsc), along with low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) levels to achieve large open circuit voltage (Voc) values. A promising strategy to tailor the photophysical properties and energy levels via covalently attaching electron donor and acceptor pendants on PTs backbone has attracted much attention recently. The geometry, electron-donating capacity, and composition of conjugated pendants are supposed to be the crucial factors in adjusting the conformation, energy levels, and photovoltaic performance of PTs. This review will go over the most recent approaches that enable researchers to obtain in-depth information in the development of PTs comprising conjugated pendants for PSCs. PMID:28788575

  6. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising laser micromachined porous support

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Han [Waltham, MA; LaConti, Anthony B [Lynnfield, MA; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K [Natick, MA; McCallum, Thomas J [Ashland, MA

    2011-01-11

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 5 microns, are made by laser micromachining and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  7. Antimalarial activity of compounds comprising a primary benzene sulfonamide fragment.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Katherine T; Fisher, Gillian M; Sumanadasa, Subathdrage D M; Skinner-Adams, Tina; Moeker, Janina; Lopez, Marie; Poulsen, Sally-Ann

    2013-11-15

    Despite the urgent need for effective antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action no new chemical class of antimalarial drug has been approved for use since 1996. To address this, we have used a rational approach to investigate compounds comprising the primary benzene sulfonamide fragment as a potential new antimalarial chemotype. We report the in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum drug sensitive (3D7) and resistant (Dd2) parasites for a panel of fourteen primary benzene sulfonamide compounds. Our findings provide a platform to support the further evaluation of primary benzene sulfonamides as a new antimalarial chemotype, including the identification of the target of these compounds in the parasite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hot water supply apparatus comprising a thermodynamic circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Chapelle, J.A.; Levacher, J.; Sanzey, E.; Vironneau, P.

    1982-12-21

    A hot water supply apparatus comprises a thermodynamic circuit having a compressor, a condensor for heat exchange between the thermodynamic fluid in the circuit and a high temperature source. That circuit further includes an evaporator arranged for heat exchange with a non-freezable heat carrying fluid which is circulated in a solar energy collecting circuit. A tank receives a body of water for heat storage. An heat exchanger is arranged in the circuit for circulation of the heat carrying fluid and is physically located above the tank. It may be combined with the evaporator. A pump directs a flow of water from the storage tank to sprinkling means associated with the heat exchanger whereby the apparatus operates as ice manufacturing device under severe cold conditions, when there is insufficient heating energy available from the sun.

  9. Dynamical configurations of celestial systems comprised of multiple irregular bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yu; Zhang, Yun; Baoyin, Hexi; Li, Junfeng

    2016-09-01

    This manuscript considers the main features of the nonlinear dynamics of multiple irregular celestial body systems. The gravitational potential, static electric potential, and magnetic potential are considered. Based on the three established potentials, we show that three conservative values exist for this system, including a Jacobi integral. The equilibrium conditions for the system are derived and their stability analyzed. The equilibrium conditions of a celestial system comprised of n irregular bodies are reduced to 12n - 9 equations. The dynamical results are applied to simulate the motion of multiple-asteroid systems. The simulation is useful for the study of the stability of multiple irregular celestial body systems and for the design of spacecraft orbits to triple-asteroid systems discovered in the solar system. The dynamical configurations of the five triple-asteroid systems 45 Eugenia, 87 Sylvia, 93 Minerva, 216 Kleopatra, and 136617 1994CC, and the six-body system 134340 Pluto are calculated and analyzed.

  10. Characterization of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic powders produced by water atomization and powder heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Tongsri, Ruangdaj; Yotkaew, Thanyaporn; Krataitong, Rungtip; Wila, Pongsak; Sir-on, Autcharaporn; Muthitamongkol, Pennapa; Tosangthum, Nattaya

    2013-12-15

    Since the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic shows its importance in industrial applications, the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic-containing powders, produced by a powder processing route with a high production rate, were characterized. The route consisted of water atomization of an alloy melt (Cu–61 wt.% Sn) and subsequent heat treatment of the water-atomized powders. Characterization of the water-atomized powders and their heated forms was conducted by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Fine water-atomized powder microstructures consisted of primary hexagonal η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} dendrites coexisting with interdendritic η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + β-Sn eutectic. Solidification of fine melt droplets was governed by surface nucleation and growth of the primary hexagonal η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} dendrites followed by η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + β-Sn eutectic solidification of the remnant liquid. In coarse melt droplets, nucleation and growth of primary ε-Cu{sub 3}Sn dendrites were followed by peritectic reaction (ε-Cu{sub 3}Sn + liquid → η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5}) or direct crystallization of η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} phase from the undercooled melt. Finally, the η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + β-Sn eutectic solidification of the remnant liquid occurred. Heating of the water-atomized powders at different temperatures resulted in microstructural homogenization. The water-atomized powders with mixed phases were transformed to powders with single monoclinic ή-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} phase. - Highlights: • The Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic powder production route was proposed. • Single phase Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} powders could be by water atomization and heating. • Water-atomized Cu–Sn powders contained mixed Cu–Sn phases. • Solidification and heat treatment of water-atomized Cu–Sn powders are explained.

  11. A Novel Self-Assembling Al-based Composite Powder with High Hydrogen Generation Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Yuheng; Liu, Hongxin; Yang, Tao; Chen, Xinren; Yang, Shuiyuan; Liu, Xingjun

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a novel self-assembling hydrogen generation powder comprised of 80Al-10Bi-10Sn wt.% was prepared using the gas atomization method and then collected in an air environment. The morphological and hydrolysis properties of the powders were investigated. The results indicated that the powders formed unique core/shell microstructures with cracked surfaces and (Bi, Sn)-rich phases distributed on the Al grain boundaries. The powders exhibited good oxidation resistance and reacted violently with distilled water at temperatures as low as 0 °C. Furthermore, at 30 °C, the powders exhibited a hydrogen conversion yield of 91.30% within 16 minutes. The hydrogen produced by this powder could be directly used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The mechanisms of the hydrolysis reactions were also analyzed.

  12. A Novel Self-Assembling Al-based Composite Powder with High Hydrogen Generation Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Yuheng; Liu, Hongxin; Yang, Tao; Chen, Xinren; Yang, Shuiyuan; Liu, Xingjun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a novel self-assembling hydrogen generation powder comprised of 80Al-10Bi-10Sn wt.% was prepared using the gas atomization method and then collected in an air environment. The morphological and hydrolysis properties of the powders were investigated. The results indicated that the powders formed unique core/shell microstructures with cracked surfaces and (Bi, Sn)-rich phases distributed on the Al grain boundaries. The powders exhibited good oxidation resistance and reacted violently with distilled water at temperatures as low as 0 °C. Furthermore, at 30 °C, the powders exhibited a hydrogen conversion yield of 91.30% within 16 minutes. The hydrogen produced by this powder could be directly used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The mechanisms of the hydrolysis reactions were also analyzed. PMID:26616602

  13. Chemical Reduction Synthesis of Iron Aluminum Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurita-Méndez, N. N.; la Torre, G. Carbajal-De; Ballesteros-Almanza, L.; Villagómez-Galindo, M.; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Espinosa-Medina, M. A.

    In this study, a chemical reduction synthesis method of iron aluminum (FeAl) nano-dimensional intermetallic powders is described. The process has two stages: a salt reduction and solvent evaporation by a heat treatment at 1100°C. The precursors of the synthesis are ferric chloride, aluminum foil chips, a mix of Toluene/THF in a 75/25 volume relationship, and concentrated hydrochloric acid as initiator of the reaction. The reaction time was 20 days, the product obtained was dried at 60 °C for 2 h and calcined at 400, 800, and 1100 °C for 4 h each. To characterize and confirm the obtained synthesis products, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used. The results of morphology and chemical characterization of nano-dimensional powders obtained showed a formation of agglomerated particles of a size range of approximately 150 nm to 1.0 μm. Composition of powders was identified as corundum (Al2O3), iron aluminide (FeAl3), and iron-aluminum oxides (Fe0. 53Al0. 47)2O3 phases. The oxide phases formation were associated with the reaction of atmospheric concentration-free oxygen during synthesis and sintering steps, reducing the concentration of the iron aluminum phase.

  14. Coupled-mode-theory framework for nonlinear resonators comprising graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopoulos, Thomas; Tsilipakos, Odysseas; Grivas, Nikolaos; Kriezis, Emmanouil E.

    2016-12-01

    A general framework combining perturbation theory and coupled-mode theory is developed for analyzing nonlinear resonant structures comprising dispersive bulk and sheet materials. To allow for conductive sheet materials, a nonlinear current term is introduced in the formulation in addition to the more common nonlinear polarization. The framework is applied to model bistability in a graphene-based traveling-wave resonator system exhibiting third-order nonlinearity. We show that the complex conductivity of graphene disturbs the equality of electric and magnetic energies on resonance (a condition typically taken for granted), due to the reactive power associated with the imaginary part of graphene's surface conductivity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the dispersive nature of conductive materials must always be taken into account, since it significantly impacts the nonlinear response. This is explained in terms of the energy stored in the surface current, which is zeroed-out when linear dispersion is neglected. The results obtained with the proposed framework are compared with full-wave nonlinear finite-element simulations with excellent agreement. Very low characteristic power for bistability is obtained, indicating the potential of graphene for nonlinear applications.

  15. Coupled-mode-theory framework for nonlinear resonators comprising graphene.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Thomas; Tsilipakos, Odysseas; Grivas, Nikolaos; Kriezis, Emmanouil E

    2016-12-01

    A general framework combining perturbation theory and coupled-mode theory is developed for analyzing nonlinear resonant structures comprising dispersive bulk and sheet materials. To allow for conductive sheet materials, a nonlinear current term is introduced in the formulation in addition to the more common nonlinear polarization. The framework is applied to model bistability in a graphene-based traveling-wave resonator system exhibiting third-order nonlinearity. We show that the complex conductivity of graphene disturbs the equality of electric and magnetic energies on resonance (a condition typically taken for granted), due to the reactive power associated with the imaginary part of graphene's surface conductivity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the dispersive nature of conductive materials must always be taken into account, since it significantly impacts the nonlinear response. This is explained in terms of the energy stored in the surface current, which is zeroed-out when linear dispersion is neglected. The results obtained with the proposed framework are compared with full-wave nonlinear finite-element simulations with excellent agreement. Very low characteristic power for bistability is obtained, indicating the potential of graphene for nonlinear applications.

  16. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising plasma etched porous support

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Han; LaConti, Anthony B.

    2010-10-05

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 0.1 to 5 microns, are made by plasma etching and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  17. STREPTOMYCES SPECIES COMPRISING THE BLUE-SPORE SERIES

    PubMed Central

    Trejo, W. H.; Bennett, R. E.

    1963-01-01

    Trejo, W. H. (Squibb Institute for Medical Research, New Brunswick, N.J.) and R. E. Bennett. Streptomyces species comprising the blue-spore series. J. Bacteriol. 85:676–690. 1963.—The objective of this study was to define and delimit the streptomycetes of the blue-spored (Viridochromogenes) series. The series, as defined in this study, includes 11 blue and blue-green species. The green-spored species were excluded on the basis of morphology as well as color. It was proposed that NRRL B-1511 be designated as the neotype strain of Streptomyces viridochromogenes (Krainsky) Waksman and Henrici, and that IMRU 3761 be designated as the neotype for Streptomyces cyaneus (Krassilnikov) Waksman. Evidence was presented to show that physiological criteria cannot be used to differentiate these organisms below the series level. The major characteristics of the Viridochromogenes series are blue to blue-green spores borne in spirals, and chromogenicity (melanin-positive). Reverse color and spore morphology provide a basis for separation below the series level. Images PMID:14042949

  18. Effects of thermal blooming on systems comprised of tiled subapertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leakeas, Charles L.; Bartell, Richard J.; Krizo, Matthew J.; Fiorino, Steven T.; Cusumano, Salvatore J.; Whiteley, Matthew R.

    2010-04-01

    Laser weapon systems comprise of tiled subapertures are rapidly emerging in the directed energy community. The Air Force Institute of Technology Center for Directed Energy (AFIT/CDE), under sponsorship of the HEL Joint Technology Office has developed performance models of such laser weapon system configurations consisting of tiled arrays of both slab and fiber subapertures. These performance models are based on results of detailed waveoptics analyses conducted using WaveTrain. Previous performance model versions developed in this effort represent system characteristics such as subaperture shape, aperture fill factor, subaperture intensity profile, subaperture placement in the primary aperture, subaperture mutual coherence (piston), subaperture differential jitter (tilt), and beam quality wave-front error associated with each subaperture. The current work is a prerequisite for the development of robust performance models for turbulence and thermal blooming effects for tiled systems. Emphasis is placed on low altitude tactical scenarios. The enhanced performance model developed will be added to AFIT/CDE's HELEEOS parametric one-on-one engagement level model via the Scaling for High Energy Laser and Relay Engagement (SHaRE) toolbox.

  19. STREPTOMYCES SPECIES COMPRISING THE BLUE-SPORE SERIES.

    PubMed

    TREJO, W H; BENNETT, R E

    1963-03-01

    Trejo, W. H. (Squibb Institute for Medical Research, New Brunswick, N.J.) and R. E. Bennett. Streptomyces species comprising the blue-spore series. J. Bacteriol. 85:676-690. 1963.-The objective of this study was to define and delimit the streptomycetes of the blue-spored (Viridochromogenes) series. The series, as defined in this study, includes 11 blue and blue-green species. The green-spored species were excluded on the basis of morphology as well as color. It was proposed that NRRL B-1511 be designated as the neotype strain of Streptomyces viridochromogenes (Krainsky) Waksman and Henrici, and that IMRU 3761 be designated as the neotype for Streptomyces cyaneus (Krassilnikov) Waksman. Evidence was presented to show that physiological criteria cannot be used to differentiate these organisms below the series level. The major characteristics of the Viridochromogenes series are blue to blue-green spores borne in spirals, and chromogenicity (melanin-positive). Reverse color and spore morphology provide a basis for separation below the series level.

  20. Perceptions of human attractiveness comprising face and voice cues.

    PubMed

    Wells, Timothy; Baguley, Thom; Sergeant, Mark; Dunn, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    In human mate choice, sexually dimorphic faces and voices comprise hormone-mediated cues that purportedly develop as an indicator of mate quality or the ability to compete with same-sex rivals. If preferences for faces communicate the same biologically relevant information as do voices, then ratings of these cues should correlate. Sixty participants (30 male and 30 female) rated a series of opposite-sex faces, voices, and faces together with voices for attractiveness in a repeated measures computer-based experiment. The effects of face and voice attractiveness on face-voice compound stimuli were analyzed using a multilevel model. Faces contributed proportionally more than voices to ratings of face-voice compound attractiveness. Faces and voices positively and independently contributed to the attractiveness of male compound stimuli although there was no significant correlation between their rated attractiveness. A positive interaction and correlation between attractiveness was shown for faces and voices in relation to the attractiveness of female compound stimuli. Rather than providing a better estimate of a single characteristic, male faces and voices may instead communicate independent information that, in turn, provides a female with a better assessment of overall mate quality. Conversely, female faces and voices together provide males with a more accurate assessment of a single dimension of mate quality.

  1. Effect of Powder-Suspended Dielectric on the EDM Characteristics of Inconel 625

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talla, Gangadharudu; Gangopadhyay, S.; Biswas, C. K.

    2016-02-01

    The current work attempts to establish the criteria for powder material selection by investigating the influence of various powder-suspended dielectrics and machining parameters on various EDM characteristics of Inconel 625 (a nickel-based super alloy) which is nowadays regularly used in aerospace, chemical, and marine industries. The powders include aluminum (Al), graphite, and silicon (Si) that have significant variation in their thermo-physical characteristics. Results showed that powder properties like electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, density, and hardness play a significant role in changing the machining performance and the quality of the machined surface. Among the three powders, highest material removal rate was observed for graphite powder due to its high electrical and thermal conductivities. Best surface finish and least radial overcut (ROC) were attained using Si powder. Maximum microhardness was found for Si due to its low thermal conductivity and high hardness. It is followed by graphite and aluminum powders. Addition of powder to the dielectric has increased the crater diameter due to expansion of plasma channel. Powder-mixed EDM (PMEDM) was also effective in lowering the density of surface cracks with least number of cracks obtained with graphite powder. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated possible formation of metal carbides along with grain growth phenomenon of Inconel 625 after PMEDM.

  2. Polymer powder prepregging: Scoping study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Throne, James L.

    1988-01-01

    Early on, it was found that NEAT LARC-TPI thermoplastic polyimide powder behaved elastoplastically at pressures to 20 ksi and temperatures to 260 degrees celcius (below MP). At high resin assay, resin powder could be continuously cold-flowed around individual carbon fibers in a metal rolling mill. At low resin assay (2:1, C:TPI), fiber breakage was prohibitive. Thus, although processing of TPI below MP would be quite unique, it appears that the polymer must be melted and flowed to produce low resin assay prepreg. Fiber tow was spread to 75 mm using a venturi slot tunnel. This allowed intimate powder/fiber interaction. Two techniques were examined for getting room temperature powder onto the room temperature fiber surface. Electrostatic powder coating allows the charged powder to cling tenaciously to the fiber, even while heated with a hot air gun to above its melt temperature. A variant of the wet slurry coating process was also explored. The carbon fibers are first wetted with water. Then dry powder is sprinkled onto the wet tow and doctor-rolled between the fibers. The wet structure is then taken onto a heated roll, with hot air guns drying and sinter-melting the powder onto the fiber surfaces. In both cases SEM shows individual fibers coated with powder particles that have melted in place and flowed along the fiber surface via surface tension.

  3. A major advance in powder metallurgy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian E.; Stiglich, Jacob J., Jr.; Kaplan, Richard B.; Tuffias, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    Ultramet has developed a process which promises to significantly increase the mechanical properties of powder metallurgy (PM) parts. Current PM technology uses mixed powders of various constituents prior to compaction. The homogeneity and flaw distribution in PM parts depends on the uniformity of mixing and the maintenance of uniformity during compaction. Conventional PM fabrication processes typically result in non-uniform distribution of the matrix, flaw generation due to particle-particle contact when one of the constituents is a brittle material, and grain growth caused by high temperature, long duration compaction processes. Additionally, a significant amount of matrix material is usually necessary to fill voids and create 100 percent dense parts. In Ultramet's process, each individual particle is coated with the matrix material, and compaction is performed by solid state processing. In this program, Ultramet coated 12-micron tungsten particles with approximately 5 wt percent nickel/iron. After compaction, flexure strengths were measured 50 percent higher than those achieved in conventional liquid phase sintered parts (10 wt percent Ni/Fe). Further results and other material combinations are discussed.

  4. The rat pineal gland comprises an endocannabinoid system.

    PubMed

    Koch, Marco; Habazettl, Iris; Dehghani, Faramarz; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2008-11-01

    In the mammalian pineal gland, the rhythm in melatonin biosynthesis depends on the norepinephrine (NE)-driven regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), the penultimate enzyme of melatonin biosynthesis. A recent study showed that phytocannabinoids like tetrahydrocannabinol reduce AANAT activity and attenuate NE-induced melatonin biosynthesis in rat pineal glands, raising the possibility that an endocannabinoid system is present in the pineal gland. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed cannabinoid (CB) receptors and specific enzymes for endocannabinoid biosynthesis or catabolism in rat pineal glands and cultured pinealocytes. Immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses revealed the presence of CB1 and CB2 receptor proteins, of N-acyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine hydrolyzing phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), an enzyme catalyzing endocannabinoid biosynthesis and of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an endocannabinoid catabolizing enzyme, in pinealocytes, and in pineal sympathetic nerve fibers identified by double immunofluorescence with an antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase. The immunosignals for the CB2 receptor, NAPE-PLD, and FAAH found in pinealocytes did not vary under a 12 hr light:12 hr dark cycle. The CB1 receptor immunoreaction in pinealocytes was significantly reduced at the end of the light phase [zeitgeber time (ZT) 12]. The immunosignal for NAPE-PLD found in pineal sympathetic nerve fibers was reduced in the middle of the dark phase (ZT 18). Stimulation of cultured pinealocytes with NE affected neither the subcellular distribution nor the intensity of the immunosignals for the investigated CB receptors and enzymes. In summary, the pineal gland comprises indispensable compounds of the endocannabinoid system indicating that endocannabinoids may be involved in the control of pineal physiology.

  5. Novel route for preparation of high voltage varistor powder

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, A.; Sharma, B.P.

    1997-11-01

    A novel technique for preparing ZnO varistor powder is described. It involves preparation of gel by adding citric acid to nitrate solution of varistor constituents. The gel on subsequent calcination forms submicron reactive varistor powder that exhibits the homogeneity and stoichiometric control associated with the chemical methods of preparation. SEM and BET surface area measurements show the resultant powder to comprise crystallite of submicron size. High field varistors with good nonlinear coefficient result from sintering at 1,150 C for 1 hour. The high value of nonlinear coefficient of the varistor sample can be attributed to the more uniform distribution of dopants and formation of more varistor active grain boundaries. The electrical characteristics of the citrate gel derived varistor are compared to those of a varistor sample prepared through the urea route.

  6. Preparation of lead-zirconium-titanium film and powder by electrodeposition

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Ginley, David S.

    1995-01-01

    A process for the preparation of lead-zirconium-titanium (PZT) film and powder compositions. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath, providing soluble salts of lead, zirconium and titanium metals to this bath, electrically energizing the bath to thereby direct ions of each respective metal to a substrate electrode and cause formation of metallic particles as a recoverable film of PZT powder on the electrode, and also recovering the resultant film as a powder. Recovery of the PZT powder can be accomplished by continually energizing the bath to thereby cause powder initially deposited on the substrate-electrode to drop therefrom into the bath from which it is subsequently removed. A second recovery alternative comprises energizing the bath for a period of time sufficient to cause PZT powder deposition on the substrate-electrode only, from which it is subsequently recovered. PZT film and powder so produced can be employed directly in electronic applications, or the film and powder can be subsequently oxidized as by an annealing process to thereby produce lead-zirconium-titanium oxide for use in electronic applications.

  7. Preparation of lead-zirconium-titanium film and powder by electrodeposition

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, R.N.; Ginley, D.S.

    1995-10-31

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of lead-zirconium-titanium (PZT) film and powder compositions. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath, providing soluble salts of lead, zirconium and titanium metals to this bath, electrically energizing the bath to thereby direct ions of each respective metal to a substrate electrode and cause formation of metallic particles as a recoverable film of PZT powder on the electrode, and also recovering the resultant film as a powder. Recovery of the PZT powder can be accomplished by continually energizing the bath to thereby cause powder initially deposited on the substrate-electrode to drop therefrom into the bath from which it is subsequently removed. A second recovery alternative comprises energizing the bath for a period of time sufficient to cause PZT powder deposition on the substrate-electrode only, from which it is subsequently recovered. PZT film and powder so produced can be employed directly in electronic applications, or the film and powder can be subsequently oxidized as by an annealing process to thereby produce lead-zirconium-titanium oxide for use in electronic applications. 4 figs.

  8. Method and apparatus for scrubbing a gas containing powdered particles

    SciTech Connect

    Eversdijk, B.P.; Kamphuts, G.G.

    1981-03-24

    A scrubber is disclosed for separating powder particles from a gas stream comprising a closed vertical cylindrical housing having a tangential inlet for the gas stream and a concentric discharge pipe passing through the top of the housing for the removal of the purified gas stream; in which means are provided for flushing the lower portion of the inner wall of the housing. The flushing means comprises an annular gutter surrounding the housing and communicating with said inner wall by means of a large number of narrow passages. The level of the gutter is well above the lower end of the discharge pipe.

  9. Sinterable Ceramic Powders from Laser-Heated Gases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    toughness ( Nitriding kinetics RBSN oxidation kinetics I SiC sintering kinetics , Particle surface chemistr Oxide melt density Anhydrous dispers Oxide melt...materials. Pure anhydrous solvent and solvent-dispersant systems were identified that could be used to fully disperse Si and SIC powders. Stabilization...powders (1), SiH4 mixed with methane (CH 4 ) or ethylene (C2H4) is used to make SiC (3), and SiH4 nixed with amonia is used to make Si 3 N4 (1,4). Under

  10. Process for preparing fine grain silicon carbide powder

    DOEpatents

    Wei, G.C.

    Finely divided silicon carbide powder is obtained by mixing colloidal silica and unreacted phenolic resin in either acetone or methanol, evaporating solvent from the obtained solution to form a gel, drying and calcining the gel to polymerize the phenolic resin therein, pyrolyzing the dried and calcined gel at a temperature in the range of 500 to 1000/sup 0/C, and reacting silicon and carbon in the pyrolyzed gel at a temperature in the range of 1550 to 1700/sup 0/C to form the powder.

  11. Method of freeform fabrication by selective gelation of powder suspensions

    DOEpatents

    Baskaran, Suresh; Graff, Gordon L.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a novel method for freeform fabrication. Specifically, the method of solid freeform fabrication has the steps of: (a) preparing a slurry by mixing powder particles with a suspension medium and a gelling polysaccharide; (b) making a layer by depositing an amount of said powder slurry in a confined region; (c) hardening a selected portion of the layer by applying a gelling agent to the selected portion; and (d) repeating steps (b) and (c) to make successive layers and forming a layered object. In many applications, it is desirable to remove unhardened material followed by heating to remove gellable polysaccharide then sintering.

  12. Method of freeform fabrication by selective gelation of powder suspensions

    DOEpatents

    Baskaran, S.; Graff, G.L.

    1997-12-09

    The present invention is a novel method for freeform fabrication. Specifically, the method of solid freeform fabrication has the steps of: (a) preparing a slurry by mixing powder particles with a suspension medium and a gelling polysaccharide; (b) making a layer by depositing an amount of said powder slurry in a confined region; (c) hardening a selected portion of the layer by applying a gelling agent to the selected portion; and (d) repeating steps (b) and (c) to make successive layers and forming a layered object. In many applications, it is desirable to remove unhardened material followed by heating to remove gellable polysaccharide then sintering. 2 figs.

  13. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Powdered Drug Reconstitution in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant; Johnston, Smith; Marshburn, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Owing to the high cost of transporting mass into space, and the small volume available for equipment in the Space Shuttle Orbiter and the International Space Station, refrigeration space is extremely limited. For this reason, there exists strong motivation for transporting certain drugs in powdered form so that they do not require refrigeration. When needed, the powdered drug will be mixed with saline to obtain a liquid form that may be injected intravenously. While this is a relatively simple task in a 1-G environment, there are some difficulties that may be encountered in 0-G. In non-accelerated spaceflight, gravitational and inertial forces are eliminated allowing other smaller forces, such as capillary forces and surface tension, to dominate the behavior of fluids. For instance, water slowly ejected from a straw will tend to form a sphere, while fluid in a container will tend to wet the inside surface forming a highly rounded meniscus. Initial attempts at mixing powdered drugs with saline in microgravity have shown a tendency toward forming foamy emulsions instead of the desired homogeneous solution. The predominance of adhesive forces between the drug particles and the interface tensions at the gas/liquid and solid/liquid interfaces drastically reduce the rate of deaggregation of the drug powder and also reduce the rate of absorption of saline by the powder mass. In addition, the capillary forces cause the saline to wet the inside of the container, thus trapping air bubbles within the liquid. The rate of dissolution of a powder drug is directly proportional to the amount of surface area of the solid that is exposed to liquid solvent. The surface area of drug that is in contact with the liquid is greatly reduced in microgravity and, as a result, the dissolution rate is reduced as well. The KC-135 research described here was aimed at evaluating the extent to which it is possible to perform drug reconstitution in the weightlessness of parabolic flight using

  14. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Powdered Drug Reconstitution in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant; Johnston, Smith; Marshburn, Tom

    1999-01-01

    Owing to the high cost of transporting mass into space, and the small volume available for equipment in the Space Shuttle Orbiter and the International Space Station, refrigeration space is extremely limited. For this reason, there exists strong motivation for transporting certain drugs in powdered form so that they do not require refrigeration. When needed, the powdered drug will be mixed with saline to obtain a liquid form that may be injected intravenously. While this is a relatively simple task in a 1-G environment, there are some difficulties that may be encountered in 0-G. In non-accelerated spaceflight, gravitational and inertial forces are eliminated allowing other smaller forces, such as capillary forces and surface tension, to dominate the behavior of fluids. For instance, water slowly ejected from a straw will tend to form a sphere, while fluid in a container will tend to wet the inside surface forming a highly rounded meniscus. Initial attempts at mixing powdered drugs with saline in microgravity have shown a tendency toward forming foamy emulsions instead of the desired homogeneous solution. The predominance of adhesive forces between the drug particles and the interface tensions at the gas/liquid and solid/liquid interfaces drastically reduce the rate of deaggregation of the drug powder and also reduce the rate of absorption of saline by the powder mass. In addition, the capillary forces cause the saline to wet the inside of the container, thus trapping air bubbles within the liquid. The rate of dissolution of a powder drug is directly proportional to the amount of surface area of the solid that is exposed to liquid solvent. The surface area of drug that is in contact with the liquid is greatly reduced in microgravity and, as a result, the dissolution rate is reduced as well. The KC-135 research described here was aimed at evaluating the extent to which it is possible to perform drug reconstitution in the weightlessness of parabolic flight using

  15. Nozzle mixing apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Mensink, D.L.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a nozzle device for causing two fluids to mix together. In particular, a spray nozzle comprise two hollow, concentric housings, an inner housing and an outer housing. The inner housing has a channel formed therethrough for a first fluid. Its outer surface cooperates with the interior surface of the outer housing to define the second channel for a second fluid. The outer surface of the inner housing and the inner surface of the outer housing each carry a plurality of vanes that interleave but do not touch, each vane of one housing being between two vanes of the other housing. The vanes are curved and the inner surface of the outer housing and the outer surface of the inner housing converge to narrow the second channel. The shape of second channel results in a swirling, accelerating second fluid that will impact the first fluid just past the end of the nozzle where mixing will take place.

  16. Mound powder loader, Mod 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gress, A.V. Jr.

    1985-08-21

    At the investigation of Sandia Albuquerque, a semiautomatic powder loader was designed and fabricated for pyrotechnics devices. The basic functions of the system were to load a precise, measured amount of powder into a charge holder and to compact the mixture to a specified density. This report documents the history, rationale, design, and performance of the Mod 1 loader.

  17. Minimum ignition temperature of nano and micro Ti powder clouds in the presence of inert nano TiO2 powder.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chunmiao; Amyotte, Paul R; Hossain, Md Nur; Li, Chang

    2014-06-30

    Minimum ignition temperature (MIT) of micro Ti powder increased gradually with increases in nano-sized TiO2 employed as an inertant. Solid TiO2 inertant significantly reduced ignition hazard of micro Ti powder in contact with hot surfaces. The MIT of nano Ti powder remained low (583 K), however, even with 90% TiO2. The MIT of micro Ti powder, when mixed with nano Ti powder at concentrations as low as 10%, decreased so dramatically that its application as a solid fuel may be possible. A simple MIT model was proposed for aggregate particle size estimation and better understanding of the inerting effect of nano TiO2 on MIT. Estimated particle size was 1.46-1.51 μm larger than that in the 20-L sphere due to poor dispersion in the BAM oven. Calculated MITs were lower than corresponding empirically determined values for micro Ti powder because nano-sized TiO2 coated the micro Ti powder, thereby decreasing its reaction kinetics. In the case of nano Ti powder, nano-sized TiO2 facilitated dispersion of nano Ti powder which resulted in a calculated MIT that was greater than the experimentally determined value.

  18. Incorporation of Rubber Powder as Filler in a New Dry-Hybrid Technology: Rheological and 3D DEM Mastic Performances Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Vignali, Valeria; Mazzotta, Francesco; Sangiorgi, Cesare; Simone, Andrea; Lantieri, Claudio; Dondi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the use of crumb rubber as modifier or additive within asphalt concretes has allowed obtaining mixtures able to bind high performances to recovery and reuse of discarded tires. To date, the common technologies that permit the reuse of rubber powder are the wet and dry ones. In this paper, a dry-hybrid technology for the production of Stone Mastic Asphalt mixtures is proposed. It allows the use of the rubber powder as filler, replacing part of the limestone one. Fillers are added and mixed with a high workability bitumen, modified with SBS (styrene-butadiene-styrene) polymer and paraffinic wax. The role of rubber powder and limestone filler within the bituminous mastic has been investigated through two different approaches. The first one is a rheological approach, which comprises a macro-scale laboratory analysis and a micro-scale DEM simulation. The second, instead, is a performance approach at high temperatures, which includes Multiple Stress Creep Recovery tests. The obtained results show that the rubber works as filler and it improves rheological characteristics of the polymer modified bitumen. In particular, it increases stiffness and elasticity at high temperatures and it reduces complex modulus at low temperatures. PMID:28773965

  19. Incorporation of Rubber Powder as Filler in a New Dry-Hybrid Technology: Rheological and 3D DEM Mastic Performances Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Vignali, Valeria; Mazzotta, Francesco; Sangiorgi, Cesare; Simone, Andrea; Lantieri, Claudio; Dondi, Giulio

    2016-10-18

    In recent years, the use of crumb rubber as modifier or additive within asphalt concretes has allowed obtaining mixtures able to bind high performances to recovery and reuse of discarded tires. To date, the common technologies that permit the reuse of rubber powder are the wet and dry ones. In this paper, a dry-hybrid technology for the production of Stone Mastic Asphalt mixtures is proposed. It allows the use of the rubber powder as filler, replacing part of the limestone one. Fillers are added and mixed with a high workability bitumen, modified with SBS (styrene-butadiene-styrene) polymer and paraffinic wax. The role of rubber powder and limestone filler within the bituminous mastic has been investigated through two different approaches. The first one is a rheological approach, which comprises a macro-scale laboratory analysis and a micro-scale DEM simulation. The second, instead, is a performance approach at high temperatures, which includes Multiple Stress Creep Recovery tests. The obtained results show that the rubber works as filler and it improves rheological characteristics of the polymer modified bitumen. In particular, it increases stiffness and elasticity at high temperatures and it reduces complex modulus at low temperatures.

  20. Apparatus for producing nanoscale ceramic powders

    DOEpatents

    Helble, Joseph J.; Moniz, Gary A.; Morse, Theodore F.

    1995-09-05

    An apparatus provides high temperature and short residence time conditions for the production of nanoscale ceramic powders. The apparatus includes a confinement structure having a multiple inclined surfaces for confining flame located between the surfaces so as to define a flame zone. A burner system employs one or more burners to provide flame to the flame zone. Each burner is located in the flame zone in close proximity to at least one of the inclined surfaces. A delivery system disposed adjacent the flame zone delivers an aerosol, comprising an organic or carbonaceous carrier material and a ceramic precursor, to the flame zone to expose the aerosol to a temperature sufficient to induce combustion of the carrier material and vaporization and nucleation, or diffusion and oxidation, of the ceramic precursor to form pure, crystalline, narrow size distribution, nanophase ceramic particles.

  1. Apparatus for producing nanoscale ceramic powders

    DOEpatents

    Helble, Joseph J.; Moniz, Gary A.; Morse, Theodore F.

    1997-02-04

    An apparatus provides high temperature and short residence time conditions for the production of nanoscale ceramic powders. The apparatus includes a confinement structure having a multiple inclined surfaces for confining flame located between the surfaces so as to define a flame zone. A burner system employs one or more burners to provide flame to the flame zone. Each burner is located in the flame zone in close proximity to at least one of the inclined surfaces. A delivery system disposed adjacent the flame zone delivers an aerosol, comprising an organic or carbonaceous carrier material and a ceramic precursor, to the flame zone to expose the aerosol to a temperature sufficient to induce combustion of the carrier material and vaporization and nucleation, or diffusion and oxidation, of the ceramic precursor to form pure, crystalline, narrow size distribution, nanophase ceramic particles.

  2. Coal stratigraphy of northern and central Powder River basin

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, M.W.; Biewick, L.H.; Molina, C.L.; Pierce, F.W.

    1986-08-01

    Reconstructed stratigraphic frameworks contribute to understanding depositional and structural history of Paleocene rocks in the Powder River basin. By correlating Fort Union Formation coal beds from Foster Creek, Montana, 100 mi southward to near Gillette, Wyoming, they reconstructed the framework from Terret up through Anderson coal beds, about 1700 ft of stratigraphic section. This framework comprises intersecting stratigraphic sections showing distribution of thick coal beds and sandstones across the study area. Coal beds from Terret up through Knobloch are thickest in northern Powder River basin. Stratigraphically above in the Cache through Wall section, the coal beds are thickest farther south in Moorhead and northern Spotted Horse coalfields. Otter through Anderson coal beds are thickest still farther south in central Powder River basin. Principal coal beds had been mapped in individual local coal fields and identified by local names. They have correlated the coal beds and connected these stratigraphic sections (framework) with stratigraphic frameworks from the southern Powder River basin to provide an integrated picture of coal deposition. Large coal swamps existed in Fort Union time, first in northern Powder River basin and successively farther southward. Basin margins were tectonically active during the Paleocene. Clastic sedimentation resulting from this tectonism may have created conditions controlling peat deposition. Intermittently, peat deposition was interrupted across large areas by a great influx of clastic sediments. At other times, peat deposits were cut by narrow channels as drainage systems changed course.

  3. High Resolution Powder Diffraction and Structure Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, D. E.

    1999-04-23

    It is clear that high-resolution synchrotrons X-ray powder diffraction is a very powerful and convenient tool for material characterization and structure determination. Most investigations to date have been carried out under ambient conditions and have focused on structure solution and refinement. The application of high-resolution techniques to increasingly complex structures will certainly represent an important part of future studies, and it has been seen how ab initio solution of structures with perhaps 100 atoms in the asymmetric unit is within the realms of possibility. However, the ease with which temperature-dependence measurements can be made combined with improvements in the technology of position-sensitive detectors will undoubtedly stimulate precise in situ structural studies of phase transitions and related phenomena. One challenge in this area will be to develop high-resolution techniques for ultra-high pressure investigations in diamond anvil cells. This will require highly focused beams and very precise collimation in front of the cell down to dimensions of 50 {micro}m or less. Anomalous scattering offers many interesting possibilities as well. As a means of enhancing scattering contrast it has applications not only to the determination of cation distribution in mixed systems such as the superconducting oxides discussed in Section 9.5.3, but also to the location of specific cations in partially occupied sites, such as the extra-framework positions in zeolites, for example. Another possible application is to provide phasing information for ab initio structure solution. Finally, the precise determination of f as a function of energy through an absorption edge can provide useful information about cation oxidation states, particularly in conjunction with XANES data. In contrast to many experiments at a synchrotron facility, powder diffraction is a relatively simple and user-friendly technique, and most of the procedures and software for data analysis

  4. Metal-Assisted Laser-Induced Gas Plasma for the Direct Analysis of Powder Using Pulse CO2 Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khumaeni, A.; Lie, Z. S.; Kurniawan, K. H.; Kagawa, K.

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of powder samples available in small quantities has been carried out using metal-assisted gas plasma by utilizing a transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser. The powder was homogeneously mixed with Si grease, and the mixed powder was painted on a metal subtarget. When a TEA CO2 laser was directly focused on the metal subtarget at atmospheric pressure of He gas, a high-temperature He gas plasma was induced. It is assumed that the powder particles were vaporized to be effectively atomized and excited in the gas plasma region. This method has been employed in the rapid analyses of elements in organic and inorganic powder samples present in small quantities. Detection of trace elements of Cr and Pb has been successfully made by using the supplement powder and loam soil, respectively. The detection limits of Pb in loam soil were approximately 20 mg/kg.

  5. Yield behavior of metal powder assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Stuart; Abou-Chedid, Georges

    1994-03-01

    W E PRESENT EXPERIMENTAL data on the compaction of powder metals using two powder systems with different powder particle morphologies. The data have been collected using biaxial and triaxial compaction systems that load powders radially in deformation space. Our results indicate that several current models proposed for powder metal compaction do not represent actual constitutive behavior. Additionally, the powders tested demonstrate a strong dependence on powder morphology and a possible associated dependence on interparticle cohesion. This dependence on cohesion may necessitate the use of an additional state variable beyond those of relative density and particle hardening ordinarily used to represent powder yield behavior.

  6. Feeder For Oxygen-Sensitive Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodford, William H.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Power, Christopher A.; Burns, David H.

    1993-01-01

    Powder feeder for oxygen-sensitive powders facilitates transfer of powder while protecting it against oxidation. Sight gauge enables continuous monitoring of level to which feeder filled with powder, as well as for visual monitoring of quality powder. Coupling mates with specially designed containers, in which powders packaged under vacuum or inert gas. Eliminating need for unncessary handling of powders and attendant risk of contamination by oxygen. Internal funnel unloads unused powder from feeder in vacuum or inert-gas atmosphere. Pressure gauge monitors pressure of inert backfill gas.

  7. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A.; Kollie, T.G.; Weaver, F.J.

    1996-01-02

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm{sup 3} and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m{sup 2}/g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraalkyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders. 2 figs.

  8. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1995-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  9. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1994-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2 /g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  10. Silica powders for powder evacuated thermal insulating panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Weaver, Fred J.

    1996-01-01

    A powder evacuated thermal insulating panel using generally spherical and porous silica particles of a median size less than about 100 nanometers in diameter, a pour packing density of about 0.4 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3 and an external surface area in the range of about 90 to 600 m.sup.2/ g is described. The silica powders are prepared by reacting a tetraakyl silicate with ammonia and water in an alcohol solvent, distilling the solution after the reaction to remove the ammonia and recover the alcohol. The resulting aqueous slurry was dried, ball-milled, and dried again to provide the silica particles with defined internal and external porosity. The nanometer size and the large external surface area of the silica particles along with the internal and external porosity of the silica particles provide powder evacuated thermal insulating panels with significantly higher R-values than obtainable using previously known silica powders.

  11. Shock compaction of molybdenum powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Kostka, D.; Vreeland, T., Jr.; Schwarz, R. B.; Kasiraj, P.

    1983-01-01

    Shock recovery experiments which were carried out in the 9 to 12 GPa range on 1.4 distension Mo and appear adequate to compact to full density ( 45 (SIGMA)m) powders were examined. The stress levels, however, are below those calculated to be from 100 to approx. 22 GPa which a frictional heating model predicts are required to consolidate approx. 10 to 50 (SIGMA)m particles. The model predicts that powders that have a distension of m=1.6 shock pressures of 14 to 72 GPa are required to consolidate Mo powders in the 50 to 10 (SIGMA)m range.

  12. Nondestructive assay confirmatory assessment experiments: mixed oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lemming, J.F.

    1980-04-30

    The confirmatory assessment experiments demonstrate traceable nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of plutonium in mixed oxide powder using commercially available spontaneous-fission assay systems. The experiments illustrate two major concepts: the production of calibration materials using calorimetric assay, and the use of paired measurements for measurement assurance. Two batches of well-characterized mixed oxide powder were used to establish the random and systematic error components. The major components of an NDA measurement assurance technique to establish and maintain traceability are identified and their functions are demonstrated. 20 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Recovery of yttrium from cathode ray tubes and lamps' fluorescent powders: experimental results and economic simulation.

    PubMed

    Innocenzi, V; De Michelis, I; Ferella, F; Vegliò, F

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, yttrium recovery from fluorescent powder of lamps and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) is described. The process for treating these materials includes the following: (a) acid leaching, (b) purification of the leach liquors using sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, (c) precipitation of yttrium using oxalic acid, and (d) calcinations of oxalates for production of yttrium oxides. Experimental results have shown that process conditions necessary to purify the solutions and recover yttrium strongly depend on composition of the leach liquor, in other words, whether the powder comes from treatment of CRTs or lamp. In the optimal experimental conditions, the recoveries of yttrium oxide are about 95%, 55%, and 65% for CRT, lamps, and CRT/lamp mixture (called MIX) powders, respectively. The lower yields obtained during treatments of MIX and lamp powders are probably due to the co-precipitation of yttrium together with other metals contained in the lamps powder only. Yttrium loss can be reduced to minimum changing the experimental conditions with respect to the case of the CRT process. In any case, the purity of final products from CRT, lamps, and MIX is greater than 95%. Moreover, the possibility to treat simultaneously both CRT and lamp powders is very important and interesting from an industrial point of view since it could be possible to run a single plant treating fluorescent powder coming from two different electronic wastes.

  14. Recovery of yttrium from cathode ray tubes and lamps’ fluorescent powders: experimental results and economic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Innocenzi, V. De Michelis, I.; Ferella, F.; Vegliò, F.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Fluorescent powder of lamps. • Fluorescent powder of cathode ray rubes. • Recovery of yttrium from fluorescent powders. • Economic simulation for the processes to recover yttrium from WEEE. - Abstract: In this paper, yttrium recovery from fluorescent powder of lamps and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) is described. The process for treating these materials includes the following: (a) acid leaching, (b) purification of the leach liquors using sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, (c) precipitation of yttrium using oxalic acid, and (d) calcinations of oxalates for production of yttrium oxides. Experimental results have shown that process conditions necessary to purify the solutions and recover yttrium strongly depend on composition of the leach liquor, in other words, whether the powder comes from treatment of CRTs or lamp. In the optimal experimental conditions, the recoveries of yttrium oxide are about 95%, 55%, and 65% for CRT, lamps, and CRT/lamp mixture (called MIX) powders, respectively. The lower yields obtained during treatments of MIX and lamp powders are probably due to the co-precipitation of yttrium together with other metals contained in the lamps powder only. Yttrium loss can be reduced to minimum changing the experimental conditions with respect to the case of the CRT process. In any case, the purity of final products from CRT, lamps, and MIX is greater than 95%. Moreover, the possibility to treat simultaneously both CRT and lamp powders is very important and interesting from an industrial point of view since it could be possible to run a single plant treating fluorescent powder coming from two different electronic wastes.

  15. Manufacture of nonfat yogurt from a high milk protein powder.

    PubMed

    Mistry, V V; Hassan, H N

    1992-04-01

    Nonfat yogurts were manufactured from skim milk fortified with a new high milk protein powder. The powder, containing approximately 84% milk protein, was added to skim milk to obtain 5.2 to 11.3% total protein, 11.1 to 15% total solids, and 1.6 to 7.9% lactose in the yogurt mix. Mixes were homogenized, pasteurized at 90 degrees C for 10 min, and fermented with a yogurt culture at 42 degrees C to pH 4.6. Controls were made from the same skim milk fortified with NDM to approximately 14% total solids. Yogurts made with the protein powder and containing 5.6% protein were similar in firmness to the control and had good flavor when fresh and after 2 wk of storage. Yogurts with more than 5.6% protein were too firm and had an astringent flavor. Acetaldehyde content of all yogurts was comparable with that of the control, and fat content ranged from .18 to .33%. As the protein content of yogurts increased, the porosity of yogurts, as seen by scanning electron microscopy, decreased. Good quality nonfat yogurts can be produced by supplementing skim milk with a high milk protein powder up to 5.6% protein. The added protein assists in providing a firm body and minimal whey separation without the use of stabilizers.

  16. Ceramic powder for sintering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akiya, H.; Saito, A.

    1984-01-01

    Surface activity of ceramic powders such as MgO and Al2O3, for use in sintering with sp. emphasis on their particle size, shape, particle size distribution, packing, and coexisting additives and impurities are reviewed.

  17. Rotary powder feed through apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for increasing the uniformity of solids within a solids fabrication system, such as a direct light fabrication (DLF) system in which gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention provides a feed through interface wherein gas entrained powders input from stationary input lines are coupled to a rotating head of the fabrication system. The invention eliminates the need to provide additional slack in the feed lines to accommodate head rotation, and therefore reduces feed line bending movements which induce non-uniform feeding of gas entrained powder to a rotating head.

  18. Method for Production of Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M. (Inventor); Sircar, Subhasish (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for producing oxides of metals and of metal alloys. The metal or alloy is placed in an oxygen atmosphere in a combustion chamber and ignited. Products of the combustion include one or more oxides of the metal or alloy in powdered form. In one embodiment of the invention a feeder is provided whereby material to be oxidized by combustion can be achieved into a combustion chamber continuously. A product remover receives the powder product of the combustion.

  19. Luminescence of powdered uranium glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eubanks, A. G.; Mcgarrity, J. M.; Silverman, J.

    1974-01-01

    Measurement of cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence efficiencies in powdered borosilicate glasses having different particle size and different uranium content. Excitation with 100 to 350 keV electrons and with 253.7 nm light was found to produce identical absolute radiant exitance spectra in powdered samples. The most efficient glass was one containing 29.4 wt% B2O3, 58.8 wt% SiO2, 9.8 wt% Na2O and 2.0 wt% UO2.

  20. Pressurized Anneal of Consolidated Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemir, David Charles (Inventor); Rubio, Edward S. (Inventor); Beck, Jan Bastian (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods for producing a dense, well bonded solid material from a powder may include consolidating the powder utilizing any suitable consolidation method, such as explosive shockwave consolidation. The systems and methods may also include a post-processing thermal treatment that exploits a mismatch between the coefficients of thermal expansion between the consolidated material and the container. Due to the mismatch in the coefficients, internal pressure on the consolidated material during the heat treatment may be increased.

  1. Luminescence of powdered uranium glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eubanks, A. G.; Mcgarrity, J. M.; Silverman, J.

    1974-01-01

    Measurement of cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence efficiencies in powdered borosilicate glasses having different particle size and different uranium content. Excitation with 100 to 350 keV electrons and with 253.7 nm light was found to produce identical absolute radiant exitance spectra in powdered samples. The most efficient glass was one containing 29.4 wt% B2O3, 58.8 wt% SiO2, 9.8 wt% Na2O and 2.0 wt% UO2.

  2. Method to evaluate the dustiness of pharmaceutical powders.

    PubMed

    Boundy, Maryanne; Leith, David; Polton, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    The trend among pharmaceutical companies to develop selective drugs of high potency has pushed the industry to consider the potential of each hazardous ingredient to become airborne. Dustiness issues are not unique to the pharmaceutical industry, but are relevant to any industry where powdered materials are mixed, transferred and handled. Interest in dustiness is also driven by concerns for worker health, the potential for plant explosions and the prevention of product loss. Unlike other industries, the pharmaceutical industry is limited by the milligram quantity of powdered material available for testing during product development. These needs have led to the development of a bench-top dustiness tester that requires only 10 mg of powder and fully contains the generated aerosol. The powder is dispersed within a 5.7 liter glass chamber that contains a respirable mass sampler and a closed-face sampler to quantify the respirable and total dust that are generated with a given energy input. The tester distinguished differences in dustiness levels of five different powders. Finer powders were dustier, and the respirable dust percentage was always less than that for total dust. Four testers have been built and evaluated using pharmaceutical grade lactose. Dustiness measurements determined using all four testers were comparable. The pharmaceutical industry uses surrogates such as lactose to represent active compounds in tests that estimate the dust concentration likely to occur in a new manufacturing operation. Differences between the dustiness of the active compound and its surrogate challenge the relevance of the surrogate tests to represent true exposures in the workplace. The tester can determine the dustiness of both the active compound and its surrogate, and the resultant ratio can help to interpret dust concentrations from surrogate tests. Further, dustiness information may allow the pharmaceutical researcher to select powder formulations that present low airborne

  3. Chemical preparation of powders and films for high temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunker, B. C.; Voigt, J. A.; Lamppa, D. L.; Doughty, D. H.; Venturini, E. L.; Kwak, J. F.; Ginley, D. S.; Headley, T. J.; Harrington, M. S.; Eatough, M. O.

    A precipitation process has been developed to prepare precursor powders which can be calcined and sintered to form high critical temperature superconductors such as YBa(sub 2)Cu(sub 3)O(sub 7-x). Precursor powders are prepared using a continuous precipitation system in which a solution containing highly soluble salts of the desired metal cations is rapidly and completely mixed with a solution containing precipitating anions such as hydroxide and carbonate ions. The resulting amorphous powder can be calcined to form submicron particles of desired superconducting phases which are useful in preparing inks for the ink-jet printing of superconducting interconnects. The powders can be redissolved in organic solvents to form solutions which can be used in spin or dip coating substrates with thin superconducting films. Finally, the powders have been used to prepare bulk ceramics which exhibit the highest reported critical currents of any chem-prep ceramics. Bulk samples prepared from chloride doped precursors exhibit large, oriented grains and extensive flux pinning.

  4. Not "out of Nantucket": Babesia microti in southern New England comprises at least two major populations.

    PubMed

    Goethert, Heidi K; Telford, Sam R

    2014-12-10

    Deer tick-transmitted human babesiosis due to Babesia microti appears to be expanding its distribution and prevalence in the northeastern United States. One hypothesis for this emergence is the introduction of parasites into new sites from areas of long-standing transmission, such as Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. We developed a typing system based on variable number tandem repeat loci that distinguished individual B. microti genotypes. We thereby analyzed the population structure of parasites from 11 sites, representing long-standing and newly emerging transmission in southern New England (northeastern United States), and compared their haplotypes and allele frequencies to determine the most probable number of B. microti populations represented by our enzootic collections. We expected to find evidence for a point source introduction across southern New England, with all parasites clearly derived from Nantucket, the site with the most intense longstanding transmission. B. microti in southern New England comprises at least two major populations, arguing against a single source. The Nantucket group comprises Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket and nearby Cape Cod. The Connecticut/Rhode Island (CT/RI) group consists of all the samples from those states along with samples from emerging sites in Massachusetts. The expansion of B. microti in the southern New England mainland is not due to parasites from the nearby terminal moraine islands (Nantucket group), but rather from the CT/RI group. The development of new B. microti foci is likely due to a mix of local intensification of transmission within relict foci across southern New England as well as long distance introduction events.

  5. Ceramic powder synthesis by spray pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Messing, G.L.; Zhang, Shi Chang; Jayanthi, G.V. . Particulate Materials Center)

    1993-11-01

    A variety of spray pyrolysis (SP) techniques have been developed to directly produce ceramic powders from solutions. This paper reviews the current status of these processes in terms of the process parameters that enable the formation of particles with controlled morphology and composition. A model incorporating solute diffusion in the droplet and solvent evaporation from the droplet surface is presented to establish the critical parameters leading to solid particle formation. The model illustrates that solid particles can be obtained if solutes with high solubility and a large difference between the critical supersaturation and equilibrium concentration are used and if the process is designed to avoid solvent boiling. It is demonstrated that mixed metal oxide, non-oxide, and composite particles that are solid, hollow, porous, or fibrous can be produced by modifying the precursor characteristics, solution properties, and process parameters. The physical and chemical flexibility of SP processes offers numerous opportunities for the controlled synthesis of advanced ceramic powders and films. However, production rates are limited by the need to produce <5-[mu]m-diameter droplets and to avoid subsequent droplet coagulation. Developments in process controls, atomization, and system design are required for wider commercialization of SP-type processes.

  6. From powders to bulk metallic glass composites.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Lisa; Champion, Yannick; Pippan, Reinhard

    2017-07-27

    One way to adjust the properties of materials is by changing its microstructure. This concept is not easily applicable on bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), because they do not consist of grains or different phases and so their microstructure is very homogeneous. One obvious way to integrate inhomogeneities is to produce bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs). Here we show how to generate BMGCs via high-pressure torsion (HPT) starting from powders (amorphous Zr-MG and crystalline Cu). Using this approach, the composition can be varied and by changing the applied shear strains, the refinement of the microstructure is adjustable. This process permits to produce amorphous/crystalline composites where the scale of the phases can be varied from the micro- to the nanometer regime. Even mixing of the two phases and the generation of new metallic glasses can be achieved. The refinement of microstructure increases the hardness and a hardness higher than the initial BMG can be obtained.

  7. Early-age volume changes of extrudable reactive powder concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkaoui, K.; Courtial, M.; Dunstetter, F.; Khelidj, A.; Mounanga, P.; de Noirfontaine, M. N.

    2010-06-01

    This article presents a study on the early-age autogenous deformations of Extrudable Reactive Powder Concretes (ERPCs), especially designed for the making of concrete pipes by extrusion. Different ERPC mixtures, with variable amounts of polycarboxylate superplasticizer (SP), have been investigated. Results on 28-day mechanical properties, early-age hydration rate, autogenous shrinkage and premature cracking risk are analyzed and discussed in relation with the ERPC mix parameters.

  8. 30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Black powder. 56.6901 Section 56.6901 Mineral....6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a desired result cannot be...) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally enclosed cargo space while...

  9. 30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Black powder. 57.6901 Section 57.6901 Mineral...-Surface and Underground § 57.6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a... dimension stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally...

  10. 21 CFR 73.1647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.1647 Section 73.1647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1647 Copper powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive copper powder is a very fine free-flowing metallic powder prepared from virgin electrolytic copper....

  11. 21 CFR 73.1647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.1647 Section 73.1647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1647 Copper powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive copper powder is a very fine free-flowing metallic powder prepared from virgin electrolytic copper....

  12. 21 CFR 73.1647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.1647 Section 73.1647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1647 Copper powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive copper powder is a very fine free-flowing metallic powder prepared from virgin electrolytic copper....

  13. 30 CFR 57.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black powder. 57.6901 Section 57.6901 Mineral...-Surface and Underground § 57.6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a... dimension stone. (b) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6901 - Black powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black powder. 56.6901 Section 56.6901 Mineral....6901 Black powder. (a) Black powder shall be used for blasting only when a desired result cannot be...) Containers of black powder shall be— (1) Nonsparking; (2) Kept in a totally enclosed cargo space while...

  15. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Katz, J.L.; Chenghung Hung.

    1993-12-07

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions. 14 figures.

  16. Ceramic oxide powders and the formation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Katz, Joseph L.; Hung, Cheng-Hung

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic oxide powders and a method for their preparation. Ceramic oxide powders are obtained using a flame process whereby two or more precursors of ceramic oxides are introduced into a counterflow diffusion flame burner wherein said precursors are converted into ceramic oxide powders. The morphology, particle size, and crystalline form of the ceramic oxide powders are determined by process conditions.

  17. Powder particles assembly using electron beam for creation of multi-functional materials

    SciTech Connect

    Shinya, Norio; Egashira, Mitsuru; Fudouzi, Hiroshi

    1994-12-31

    Concepts and key technologies for assembling powder particles into multi-functional materials have been investigated. As each powder particle has at least one function, it may be possible to integrate the functions of particles into a multiple and systematized function by assembling several kinds of powder particles. Some preliminary experiments for the powder particles assembly were carried out. Main results are as follows: (1) Powder particles of Au(400{micro}m) and SiO{sub 2}(5{micro}m) were electrified positively and negatively, respectively. The SiO{sub 2} particles attached to the Au particles and covered almost their surfaces by mixing of both powder particles. This ordered mixture of the particles were expected to be applied to development of the multi-functional materials. (2) Powder particles of Au(400{micro}m) were coated with a conducting polymer, polypyrrole. The coated particles showed non-linear current-voltage behaviors by Schottky barrier at metal/conducting polymer contacts. This suggests that a new type of varistor can be developed using the coated particles. (3) Electrified patterns were drawn on CaTiO{sub 3} substrates using electron beam scanning. SiO{sub 2} powder particles, which were scattered over the electrified patterns, formed to the figures of patterns. It was thought that these techniques make it possible to assemble powder particles into devices and multi-functional materials.

  18. The effects of erroneous mixing of zinc carboxylate cements.

    PubMed

    Hahnel, Sebastian; Behr, Michael; Rosentritt, Martin; Kopzon, Vladim; Buergers, Ralf; Handel, Gerhard

    2010-03-01

    The mechanical properties of luting agents are determined by the mixing ratio of powder and liquid. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the therapeutic range of zinc carboxylate cements by investigating the mechanical properties of such cements when formulated using erroneous powder/liquid ratios. Using the recommended powder/liquid ratio as a standard, four different mixing ratios (25% and 50% more or less powder) were used to prepare each carboxylate cement (Aqualox, Carboco, Durelon). A veneering composite (Sinfony) was used as control. Vickers hardness and three-body abrasion were evaluated. In each carboxylate cement, both a 25% and 50% increase in liquid content resulted in significantly lower Vickers hardness, whereas a higher powder content altered the saturation concentration but did not result in increased hardness; this effect was particularly obvious in Carboco. Durelon showed a linear relationship between wear and powder/liquid ratio, whereas Carboco and Aqualox displayed a more exponential increase in wear in mixings with an increased liquid content. The mechanical properties of carboxylate cements were altered in mixtures with an increased liquid content, but not in those with a high powder content. Mixing ratio errors greater than 25% may significantly affect the clinical performance of carboxylate cements.

  19. Preparation of ceramic grade UO 2 powder by atomization from uranyl nitrate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lainetti, P.; Riella, H. Gracher

    1991-02-01

    The thermal denitration of a nitrate solution by direct conversion to a ceramic grade uranium dioxide powder, in a furnace that combines atomization nozzle and gas stirred bed, is an attractive method because no liquid waste products are formed and it has relative simplicity. The UO 2 powder characteristics, such as size, shape, specific surface area and sinterability as a function of procedural variables were determined. This technique has been developed in the pelleting pilot plant of the IPEN/CNEN-SP and it appears to be practical and economically feasible for wet recovery of rejected UO 2 powders and pellets from production process, with the recovered powder being directly mixed to the powder from the AUC reduction process.

  20. Improved permeability of Fe based amorphous magnetic powder cores by adding Permalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Zheng, Z. G.; Yu, H. Y.; Zeng, D. C.

    2017-09-01

    This paper focuses on improving the permeability of Fe-Si-B based amorphous magnetic powder cores by addition of micron-sized ferromagnetic crystalline metal particles (Permalloy). The effects of Permalloy content, size and the amount of insulation on magnetic properties and density were investigated. The results showed that the Fe based amorphous powder cores prepared with 15 wt.% Permalloy (<15 μm particle size) have higher permeability and relatively low core loss. Furthermore, compared with Fe-Si-B based amorphous powder, the saturation magnetization of mix powder increases by 60.7%, while the magnetic powder cores coated with 3 wt.% coating agent (DC805) have low core loss of 57 W/kg at 100 kHz for Bm = 500Oe.

  1. Effects of Fineness of Rubber Powder on Micro-Surfacing Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jinke; Ye, Yali; Cai, Chuanfeng; Zhao, Wei

    2017-06-01

    In order to research the effects of fineness of rubber powder on micro-surfacing, the control variable method was used. Through a series of basic performance tests, performance indexes such as mixing time, cohesion torque, wet track abrasion value and load wheel sand value were studied. The results showed that waste rubber powder with 40 mesh had good effects on non-construction time, anti-wear performance, the density and water sealed performance of micro-surfacing.

  2. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of Nd2Fe14B powder prepared by using high energy milling from elements metal Nd,Fe,B powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramlan; Muljadi; Sardjono, P.; Gulo, F.; Setiabudidaya, D.

    2016-11-01

    The Nd2Fe14B powder has been made by using High Energy Milling (HEM) from mixed metal powders Iron (Fe), Neodymium (Nd) and Boron (B). The Nd, Fe and B powders were mixed according stoichiometric composition (atomic ratio Nd:Fe:B = 2: 14: 1) and milled and milling time was varied in 10, 20, and 40 hours by using HEM. Toluene liquid was used as milling media to protect of metal powders from oxygen. The measurement result of x- ray diffraction show that the optimum Nd2Fe14B phase already formed about 69,46% after milling 40 hours with crystallite size about 25.64 nm. The magnetic properties of milled powders were measured by using VSM at room temperature. The highest value of magnetic properties are obtained at powder milled in 40 hours, at this condition, it is obtained Ms = 122 emu/g, Mr = 81 emu/g, Hc = 5.54 kOe and BHmax = 11.01 MGOe.

  3. PROCESS OF FORMING POWDERED MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Glatter, J.; Schaner, B.E.

    1961-07-14

    A process of forming high-density compacts of a powdered ceramic material is described by agglomerating the powdered ceramic material with a heat- decompossble binder, adding a heat-decompossble lubricant to the agglomerated material, placing a quantity of the material into a die cavity, pressing the material to form a compact, pretreating the compacts in a nonoxidizing atmosphere to remove the binder and lubricant, and sintering the compacts. When this process is used for making nuclear reactor fuel elements, the ceramic material is an oxide powder of a fissionsble material and after forming, the compacts are placed in a cladding tube which is closed at its ends by vapor tight end caps, so that the sintered compacts are held in close contact with each other and with the interior wall of the cladding tube.

  4. Powder metal technologies and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Eisen, W.B.; Ferguson, B.L.; German, R.M.; Iacocca, R.; Lee, P.W.; Madan, D.; Moyer, K.; Sanderow, H.; Trudel, Y.

    1998-12-31

    This volume is: (1) a completely updated and expanded edition in all areas of powder production, sampling, characterization, shaping, consolidation, sintering, quality control, machining, heat treating, and P/M applications; (2) single source for practical engineering information on sintering practices, tool design, P/M metallography, dimensional control, part design, powders, binders, lubricants, and the processing, properties, and performance of P/M materials in different production technologies and applications; (3) comprehensive coverage of P/M technologies and applications including warm compaction, injection molding, rapid prototyping, thermal spray forming, reactive sintering, and P/M gears, bearings, high-performance parts, composites, machine parts, electric contacts, magnetic materials, metallic foams, hardfacing powders, automotive parts, and more.

  5. Effects Of Additions Of TiO2 Powder On The Electromagnetic Wave Absorbing Properties Of Fe-Based Nanocrystalline P/M Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, S. J.; Cho, H. J.; Cho, E. K.; Lee, J. J.; Sohn, K. Y.; Park, W. W.

    2008-04-01

    Fe-based nanocrystalline powder sheets mixed with TiO2 additives have been studied to improve the characteristics of electromagnetic wave absorber. The Fe-based flake powders crystallized at 550 ° for 1 h were mixed with a nano-sized and a micro-sized TiO2 powders using ball mill, and then tape-cast with binder. Absorbing properties of the fabricated sheet samples, including the complex permittivity and permeability, were measured by network analyzer. Consequently, as the amount of high dielectric TiO2 powder increased, the properties of electromagnetic wave absorption was improved due to the increase of dielectric loss.

  6. Application of powder X-ray diffraction in studying the compaction behavior of bulk pharmaceutical powders.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Rebanta; Selbo, Jon; Amidon, Gregory E; Hawley, Michael

    2005-11-01

    This study investigates the effects of crystal lattice deformation on the powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns of compressed polycrystalline specimen (compacts/tablets) made from molecular, crystalline powders. The displacement of molecules and the corresponding adjustment of interplanar distances (d-spacings) between diffracting planes of PNU-288034 and PNU-177553, which have crystal habits with a high aspect ratio favoring preferred orientation during tableting, are demonstrated by shifts in the diffracted peak positions. The direction of shift in diffracted peak positions suggests a reduction of interplanar d-spacing in the crystals of PNU-288034 and PNU-177553 following compaction. There is also a general reduction of peak intensities following compression at the different compressive loads. The lattice strain representing the reduction in d-spacing is proportional to the original d-spacing of the uncompressed sample suggesting that, as with systems that obey a simple Hooke's law relationship, the further apart the planes of atoms/molecules within the lattice are, the easier it is for them to approach each other under compressive stresses. For a third model compound comprising more equant-shaped crystals of PNU-141659, the shift in diffracted peak positions are consistent with an expansion of lattice spacing after compression. This apparent anomaly is supported by the PXRD studies of the bulk powder consisting of fractured crystals where also, the shift in peak position suggests expansion of the lattice planes. Thus the crystals of PNU-141659 may be fracturing under the compressive loads used to produce the compacts. Additional studies are underway to relate the PXRD observations with the bulk tableting properties of these model compounds.

  7. Adsorption of arsenate on untreated dolomite powder.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, G M; Mehawej, M

    2007-09-05

    Raw dolomite powder was evaluated for its efficiency in adsorbing As(V) from water. An experimental setup comprised of a fluidized dolomite powder bed was used to assess the impact of various test variables on the efficiency of removal of As(V). Test influents including distilled water (DW), synthetic groundwater (SGW) and filtered sewage effluent (FSE) were employed to assess the effect of influent parameters on the adsorption process and the quality of the effluent generated. Dolomite exhibited good As(V) removal levels for distilled water (>92%) and synthetic ground water (>84%) influents at all initial As(V) concentrations tested (0.055-0.600 ppm). Breakthrough of dolomite bed occurred after 45 bed volumes for DW and 20 bed volumes for SGW influents with complete breakthrough taking place at more than 300 bed volumes. As(V) removal from FSE influents was relatively unsuccessful as compared to the DW and SGW influents. Partial removal in the order of 32% from filtered sewage effluent at initial concentration of 0.6 mg/L started at 75 bed volumes and gradually stopped at 165 bed volumes. Varying degrees of As(V) adsorption capacities were observed by the different test influents employed, which indicate that the adsorption of As(V) is adversely affected by competing species, mainly sulfates and phosphates present in the influent. The adsorptive behavior of dolomite was described by fitting data generated from the study into the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Both models described well the adsorption of dolomite. The average isotherm adsorptive capacity was determined at 5.02 mug/g. Regeneration of the dolomite bed can be achieved with the use of caustic soda solution at a pH of 10.5.

  8. Potential toxicants in alginate powders.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, J F

    1980-08-01

    Twenty-five dental alginate impression powders were obtained locally and analysed for Pb, Zn, Ba, Cd, As, Be, Hg, Sb, and V contents by atomic absorption spectroscopy; also total fluoride was determined by a conventional wet-way procedure. In addition, some lead containing powders were investigated for the lead content of the aerosol and that extractable from the surface of the set material by aqueous solutions. The results are detailed and concern is expressed at a possible hazard to health, mainly by inhalation of these materials.

  9. Chemical Reactions in Turbulent Mixing Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-15

    GROUP Turbulence, shear layers, jets, mixing, combustion , 21 ni numerical simulation, light detection diagnostics 21 02 9. ABSTRACT (Conmmna on...mixing chemical reactions and combustion processes in turbulent, subsonic and supersonic flows. This program is comprised of several efforts. In...permit the full chemical kinetics of the combustion process to be incorporated. Our recent analytical efforts have concentrated on a 20

  10. Estimating growth and yield of mixed stands

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; Burnell C. Fischer

    1989-01-01

    A mixed stand is defined as one in which no single species comprises more than 80 percent of the stocking. The growth estimation methods described below can be used not only in mixed stands but in almost any stand, regardless of species composition, age structure, or size structure. The methods described are necessary to accommodate the complex species mixtures and...

  11. A Preliminary Study On Chemical And Physical Properties Of Coconut Shell Powder As A Filler In Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syazani Leman, Alif; Shahidan, Shahiron; Syamir Senin, Mohamad; Izzati Raihan Ramzi Hannan, Nurul

    2016-11-01

    Coconut Shell Powder were obtained from coconut shell that had been discarded and grinded until it become in a form of powder. This study were conducted to determine the chemical and physical properties of coconut shell powder to be used as a filler inside concrete. In order to do that, an experimental setup of X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Particle Size Distribution, Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM), Density, and Specific Gravity were conducted. The coconut shell powder consist mostly carbon (C) and potassium oxide (K2O). The presents of silicon dioxide (SiO2) is crucial in order to be mix with concrete. The size of the coconut shell is ranging from 600μm and below. From all the testing, it is show that the coconut shell powder can be use in mixing with concrete as a filler.

  12. Metal-air cell comprising an electrolyte with a room temperature ionic liquid and hygroscopic additive

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Cody A.; Krishnan, Ramkumar; Tang, Toni; Wolfe, Derek

    2014-08-19

    An electrochemical cell comprising an electrolyte comprising water and a hydrophobic ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. A hydrophilic or hygroscopic additive modulates the hydrophobicity of the ionic liquid to maintain a concentration of the water in the electrolyte is between 0.001 mol % and 25 mol %.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline Al 2024-B4C composite powders by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varol, T.; Canakci, A.

    2013-06-01

    In the present work, the effect of milling parameters on the morphology and microstructure of nanostructure Al2024-B4C composite powders obtained by mechanical alloying (MA) was studied. The effects of milling time and B4C content on the morphology, microstructure and particle size of nanostructure Al2024-B4C composite powders have been investigated. Different amounts of B4C particles (0, 5, 10 and 20 wt.%) were mixed with Al2024 powders and milled in a planetary ball mill for 30, 60, 120, 300, 420 and 600 min. Al 2024-B4C composite powders were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), laser particle-size analyzer, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and the Vickers microhardness test. The results showed that the nanostructure Al2024-B4C composite powders were produced when they were milled for 600 min. The size of composite powder in the milled powder mixture was affected by the milling time and content of B4C particles. Moreover, it was observed that when MA reached a steady state, the properties of composite powders were stabilized.

  14. POWDER COATINGS: A TECHNOLOGY REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1995, surface coatings accounted for nearly 2.55 million Mg of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions nationally, which is more than 12% of VOC emissions from all sources. In recent years, powder coatings have been steadily gaining popularity as an alternative to solvent-bo...

  15. Explosively driven low-density foams and powders

    DOEpatents

    Viecelli, James A [Orinda, CA; Wood, Lowell L [Simi Valley, CA; Ishikawa, Muriel Y [Livermore, CA; Nuckolls, John H [Danville, CA; Pagoria, Phillip F [Livermore, CA

    2010-05-04

    Hollow RX-08HD cylindrical charges were loaded with boron and PTFE, in the form of low-bulk density powders or powders dispersed in a rigid foam matrix. Each charge was initiated by a Comp B booster at one end, producing a detonation wave propagating down the length of the cylinder, crushing the foam or bulk powder and collapsing the void spaces. The PdV work done in crushing the material heated it to high temperatures, expelling it in a high velocity fluid jet. In the case of boron particles supported in foam, framing camera photos, temperature measurements, and aluminum witness plates suggest that the boron was completely vaporized by the crush wave and that the boron vapor turbulently mixed with and burned in the surrounding air. In the case of PTFE powder, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of residues recovered from fragments of a granite target slab suggest that heating was sufficient to dissociate the PTFE to carbon vapor and molecular fluorine which reacted with the quartz and aluminum silicates in the granite to form aluminum oxide and mineral fluoride compounds.

  16. Powder lubrication of faults by powder rolls in gouge zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Madden, A. S.; Reches, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Powder-lubrication by fault gouge can be an effective mechanism of dynamic weakening of faults (Reches & Lockner, 2010); however, the physical mechanisms of this lubrication are poorly understood. While the flow of coarse-grained (> 100 μm) materials, e.g. glass beads or quartz sand, was extensively studied, the flow of fine-grained (< 1 μm) powders, e.g., fault-gouge and nano-powders, have remained enigmatic. We report here experimental results of a new efficient mechanism for powder lubrication. We conducted friction tests on high-velocity rotary shear apparatus (Reches & Lockner, 2010). Two types of experimental faults were tested: (1) faults made of solid, igneous rocks (granite, tonalite and diorite); and (2) fault-zones made of 2-3 mm thick layer of granular materials (oolites, calcite or gypsum) sheared in a confined cell. We performed 21 runs with total slip of 0.14-13 m, normal stress of 1.2-14.5 MPa, slip velocity of 0.012-0.97 m/s. The ultra-microscopic (SEM and AFM) analysis of the experimental slip surfaces revealed two outstanding features in 17 out of the 21 experiments: (1) localized fault-slip along Principal Slip Zones (PSZs) that are composed of a dense, shiny, cohesive crust, 0.5-1 micron thick, that overlaid a porous substrate, and (2) elongated rolls composed of gouge-powder into three-dimensional structures of closely-packed powder grains, (20-50 nm in size). The rolls are cylindrical, 0.75-1.4 micron wide, and 1.7-30 micron long, with smooth outer surface, and laminated, concentric layers of compacted grains. The rolls were exclusively found on the PSZs. Many rolls were destroyed fracturing and smearing on the PSZ, suggesting that the rolls underwent a life cycle of formation and destruction. Significant macroscopic friction reduction was measured in experiments with observed rolls, and no (or minor) friction reduction in the four experiments without rolls. The final, reduced friction coefficients have a general reciprocal relation to the

  17. Mixed Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... community Use our Virtual Library Treatment and outcomes back to top Because most people with mixed dementia are diagnosed with a single type of dementia, physicians often base their prescribing decisions on the type of dementia ...

  18. Reutilization of granite powder as an amendment and fertilizer for acid soils.

    PubMed

    Barral Silva, M T; Silva Hermo, B; García-Rodeja, E; Vázquez Freire, N

    2005-11-01

    The properties of granite powders--a granite manufacturing waste product-were analyzed to assess their potential use as amendments and fertilizers on acid soils. Two types of powders were characterized: one produced during cutting of granite with a diamond-edged disc saw, comprising only rock powder, the other produced during cutting with a multi-blade bandsaw, containing calcium hydroxide and metal filings added during the cutting procedure. The acid neutralizing capacity of the granite powders was assessed in short- (2-3 h) and medium-term (1-30 d) experiments. The powders showed a buffering capacity at around pH 8, which corresponded to the rapid dissolution of basic cations, and another buffering effect at pH<4.5, attributable to the dissolution of Fe and Al. The acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) determined in the short-term experiments, to a final pH of 4.5, varied between 5 and 61 cmol H+kg(-1) powder. The ANC to pH 4.5 obtained in the medium-term experiments was much higher than that obtained in the short-term experiments, reaching a maximum ANC value of 200 cmol H+kg(-1) powder. There was no great difference in the neutralizing capacity determined at between 1 and 30 d. The most abundant elements in acid solutions obtained at the end of medium-term experiments were Mg and Ca for disc saw powders, whereas Ca and Fe (at pH<5) were the most soluble elements in the bandsaw powders. The rapid release of these cations suggests the possible effective use of the granite powders as a source of nutrients on being added to acid soils.

  19. The effect of lubricants on powder flowability for pharmaceutical application.

    PubMed

    Morin, Garett; Briens, Lauren

    2013-09-01

    Pharmaceutical tablets are manufactured through a series of batch steps finishing with compression into a form using a tablet press. Lubricants are added to the powder mixture prior to the tabletting step to ensure that the tablet is ejected properly from the press. The addition of lubricants also affects tablet properties and can affect the behavior of the powder mixture. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of lubricants on powder flowability as flowability into the tablet press is critical. Four lubricants (magnesium stearate, magnesium silicate, stearic acid, and calcium stearate) were mixed, in varying amounts, with spray-dried lactose. In addition, magnesium stearate was also mixed with placebo granules from a high-shear granulator. Measurements based on avalanche behavior indicated flowability potential and dynamic density and were more sensitive to changes in the mixture and provided a more accurate and reproducible indication of flowability than traditional static measurements. Of the tested lubricants, magnesium stearate provided the best increase in flowability even in the low amounts commonly added in formulations.

  20. Tailored Core Shell Cathode Powders for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, Scott

    2015-03-23

    In this Phase I SBIR project, a “core-shell” composite cathode approach was evaluated for improving SOFC performance and reducing degradation of lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) cathode materials, following previous successful demonstrations of infiltration approaches for achieving the same goals. The intent was to establish core-shell cathode powders that enabled high performance to be obtained with “drop-in” process capability for SOFC manufacturing (i.e., rather than adding an infiltration step to the SOFC manufacturing process). Milling, precipitation and hetero-coagulation methods were evaluated for making core-shell composite cathode powders comprised of coarse LSCF “core” particles and nanoscale “shell” particles of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) or praseodymium strontium manganite (PSM). Precipitation and hetero-coagulation methods were successful for obtaining the targeted core-shell morphology, although perfect coverage of the LSCF core particles by the LSM and PSM particles was not obtained. Electrochemical characterization of core-shell cathode powders and conventional (baseline) cathode powders was performed via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) half-cell measurements and single-cell SOFC testing. Reliable EIS testing methods were established, which enabled comparative area-specific resistance measurements to be obtained. A single-cell SOFC testing approach also was established that enabled cathode resistance to be separated from overall cell resistance, and for cathode degradation to be separated from overall cell degradation. The results of these EIS and SOFC tests conclusively determined that the core-shell cathode powders resulted in significant lowering of performance, compared to the baseline cathodes. Based on the results of this project, it was concluded that the core-shell cathode approach did not warrant further investigation.

  1. Spheroidized Hydroxyapatite (HA) Powders Plasma Spraying of Combustion Flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khor, K. A.; Wang, Y.; Cheang, P.

    1998-06-01

    Tailoring powder characteristics to suit the plasma spray process can alleviate difficulties associated with the preparation of hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings. Commercial HA feedstock normally exhibit an angular morphology and a wide particle size range that present difficulties in powder transport from the powder hopper to the plasma spray gun and in nonuniform melting of the powders in the plasma flame. Hence, combustion flame spheroidized hydroxyapatite (SHA) was used as the feedstock for plasma spraying. Spherical particles within a narrow particle size range are found to be more effective for the plasma spray processes. Results show coatings generated from spheroidized HA powders have unique surface and microstructure characteristics. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation of the coating surface revealed well-formed splats that spread and flatten into disc configurations with no disintegration, reflecting adequate melting of the HA in the plasma and subsequent deposition consistency. The surface topography is generally flat with good overlapping of subsequent spreading droplets. Porosity in the form of macropores is substantially reduced. The cross-section microstructure reveals a dense coating comprised of randomly stacked lamellae. The tensile bond strengths of the SHA coatings, phase composition, and characteristics of the coatings generated with different particle sizes (125 to 75 µm, 45 to 75 µm, 20 to 45 µm, and 5 to 20 µm) showed that a high bond strength of ˜16 MPa can be obtained with SHA in the size range from 20 to 45 µm. This can be improved further by a postspray treatment by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). However, larger particle size ranges exhibited higher degrees of crystallinity and relatively higher HA content among the various calcium phosphate phases found in the coatings.

  2. Polymer quenched prealloyed metal powder

    DOEpatents

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Fleischhauer, Grier; German, Randall M.

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3 % Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  3. [Detection of Adulteration in Milk Powder with Starch Near Infrared].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning-ning; Shen, Bing-hui; Guan, Jian-jun; Zhao, Zhong-rui; Zhu, Ye-wei; Zhang, Lu-da; Yan, Yan-lu; Zheng, Yu-yan; Dong, Cheng-yu; Kang, Ding-ming

    2015-08-01

    Three China trademarks of milk powder called Mengniu, Yili, Wandashan were taken as testing samples. Each of them mixed varied amount of starch in different gradient, which were consisted of 32 adulterated milk powder samples mixed with starch, was taken as standard samples for constructing predicted model. To those 32 samples, the reflecting spectrum characteristics in middle wave of near infrared spectrum with Near Infrared Spectrum Analyzer (Micro NIR 1700) produced by JDSU Ltd. USA were collected for five repeats in five different days. The time span was nearly two months. Firstly, we build the model used the reflecting spectrum characteristics of those samples with biomimetic pattern recognition (BPR) arithmetic to do the qualitative analysis. The analysis included the reliability of testing result and stability of the model. When we took ninety percent as the evaluation threshold of testing result of CAR (Correct Acceptance Rate) and CRR (Correct Rejection Rate), the lowest starch content of adulterate milk powder in all tested samples which the tested result were bigger than that abovementioned threshold was designated CAR threshold (CAR-T) and CRR threshold (CRR-T). CAR means the correct rate of accepting a sample which is belong to itself, CRR means correct rate of refusing to accept a sample which is not belong to itself. The results were shown that, when we constructed a model based on the near infrared spectrum data from each of three China trademark milk powders, respectively, if we constructed a model with infrared spectrum data tested in a same day, both the CAR-T and CRR-T of adulterate starch content of a sample can reach 0.1% in predicting the remainder infrared spectrum data tested within a same day. The three China trademarks of milk powder had the same result. In addition, when we ignored the trademarks, put the spectrum data of adulterate milk powder samples mixed with the same content of starch of three China trademarks milk powder together

  4. IMPROVED PRODUCTION OF POWDER METALLURGY ITEMS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    POWDER METALLURGY, *POWDER ALLOYS , MATERIAL FORMING, PRODUCTION, NICKEL ALLOYS , CHROMIUM ALLOYS , COBALT ALLOYS , SINTERING, FORGING, PARTICLE SIZE...HIGH TEMPERATURE, SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, HOT WORKING, HEAT TREATMENT, MICROSTRUCTURE, HARDNESS, MOLYBDENUM ALLOYS , TITANIUM ALLOYS , ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS , CARBON ALLOYS .

  5. Acoustic Band Gap Formation in Two-Dimensional Locally Resonant Sonic Crystals Comprised of Helmholtz Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalmers, L.; Elford, D. P.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Swallowe, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    We present a new type of sonic crystal technology offering a novel method of achieving broad acoustic band gaps. The proposed design of a locally resonating sonic crystal (LRSC) is constructed from "C"-shaped Helmholtz resonators as opposed to traditional solid scattering units. This unique construction enables a two band gap system to be generated in which the first -- a Bragg type band gap, arises due to the periodic nature of the crystal, whilst the second gap results from resonance of the air column within the resonators. The position of this secondary band gap is found to be dependent upon the dimensions of the resonating cavity. The band gap formation is investigated theoretically using finite element methods, and confirmed through experimental testing. It is noted that the resonance band gaps detected cover a much broader frequency range (in the order of kHz) than has been achieved to date. In addition the possibility of overlapping such a wide band gap with the characteristic Bragg gap generated by the structure itself could yield gaps of even greater range. A design of sonic crystal is proposed, that comprises of several resonators with differing cavity sizes. Such a structure generates multiple resonance gaps corresponding to the various resonator sizes, which may be overlapped to form yet larger band gaps. This multiple resonance gap system can occur in two configurations. Firstly a simple mixed array can be created by alternating resonator sizes in the array and secondly using a System coined the Matryoshka (Russian doll) array in which the resonators are distributed inside one another. The proposed designs of LRSC's offer a real potential for acoustic shielding using sonic crystals, as both the size and position of the band gaps generated can be controlled. This is an application which has been suggested and investigated for several years with little progress. Furthermore the frequency region attenuated by resonance is unrelated to the crystals lattice

  6. Acoustic Band Gap Formation in Two-Dimensional Locally Resonant Sonic Crystals Comprised of Helmholtz Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalmers, L.; Elford, D. P.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Swallowe, G. M.

    We present a new type of sonic crystal technology offering a novel method of achieving broad acoustic band gaps. The proposed design of a locally resonating sonic crystal (LRSC) is constructed from "C"-shaped Helmholtz resonators as opposed to traditional solid scattering units. This unique construction enables a two band gap system to be generated in which the first — a Bragg type band gap, arises due to the periodic nature of the crystal, whilst the second gap results from resonance of the air column within the resonators. The position of this secondary band gap is found to be dependent upon the dimensions of the resonating cavity. The band gap formation is investigated theoretically using finite element methods, and confirmed through experimental testing. It is noted that the resonance band gaps detected cover a much broader frequency range (in the order of kHz) than has been achieved to date. In addition the possibility of overlapping such a wide band gap with the characteristic Bragg gap generated by the structure itself could yield gaps of even greater range. A design of sonic crystal is proposed, that comprises of several resonators with differing cavity sizes. Such a structure generates multiple resonance gaps corresponding to the various resonator sizes, which may be overlapped to form yet larger band gaps. This multiple resonance gap system can occur in two configurations. Firstly a simple mixed array can be created by alternating resonator sizes in the array and secondly using a system coined the Matryoshka (Russian doll) array in which the resonators are distributed inside one another. The proposed designs of LRSC's offer a real potential for acoustic shielding using sonic crystals, as both the size and position of the band gaps generated can be controlled. This is an application which has been suggested and investigated for several years with little progress. Furthermore the frequency region attenuated by resonance is unrelated to the crystals

  7. Effect of disintegrants on the properties of multiparticulate tablets comprising starch pellets and excipient granules.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Samata; De Beer, Thomas; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris

    2012-01-17

    A design of experiments (DOE) approach (2-level full factorial design) was used to investigate the effect of several formulation and process variables on the properties of fast disintegrating tablets comprising starch-based pellets and excipient granules and to optimize and validate the design space. The percentage of starch pellets (30-50%, w/w), type of disintegrants (Ac-di-sol, Explotab, Polyplasdone), percentage of external disintegrant (4-8%, w/w) and compression force (5-15 kN) were the evaluated factors (24 runs+9 centre points=33 experiments), while tablet hardness, friability and disintegration time were the studied tablet properties (responses). Starch pellets were prepared by extrusion-spheronisation. Excipient granules containing microcrystalline cellulose, lactose, internal disintegrant (8%) and polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 (4%) were prepared by wet granulation. Pellets, granules (700-1000 μm) and external disintegrant were mixed and compressed into oblong tablets (17.1mm long, 8.2mm wide). Evaluation of the effects calculated from the DOE results showed that a lower concentration of starch pellets and higher compression force were required to yield tablets with a high hardness, a low friability (<1%) and short disintegration time (<3 min). Polyplasdone granules had the lowest porosity and friability which was reflected in the DOE study, where the Polyplasdone-containing tablets were harder, less friable and disintegrated faster compared to Ac-di-sol and Explotab-containing tablets. Monte carlo simulations at the optimal factor settings (30% starch pellets, 4% Polyplasdone and 10 kN compression force) indicated that a robust system was formed as the probability to exceed the limits was low for all responses. Validation of the design space (at optimal settings) showed that the results predicted via the DOE models correlated well with the observed experimental data.

  8. Effect of incorporation of pumpkin (Cucurbita moshchata) powder and guar gum on the rheological properties of wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Himani; Grewal, Raj Bala; Goyal, Ankit; Upadhyay, Neelam; Prakash, Saurabh

    2014-10-01

    The present study was carried out to study the effect of incorporation of fibre rich pumpkin powder and guar gum on the farinographic characteristics of wheat flour. The flour and pumpkin powder were assessed for proximate composition, total dietary fibre, minerals and β-carotene. Pumpkin powder contained appreciable amount of fibre, minerals and β-carotene. The effects of incorporation of different levels of pumpkin powder and guar gum along with pumpkin powder on farinographic characteristics were studied. Dough development time, dough stability, time to break down and farinograph quality number increased whereas mixing tolerance index decreased with incorporation of pumpkin powder (> 5 %) and guar gum (1.0 and 1.5 %) along with pumpkin powder in the flour. Resistance to extension as well as extensibility of dough prepared increased significantly by adding pumpkin powder (5-15 %) whereas increase in resistance to extension only was noticed with inclusion of guar gum (0.5-1.5 %) to flour containing 5 % pumpkin powder. Results indicated that pumpkin can be processed to powder that can be utilized with guar gum for value addition.

  9. Influence of the method of blending an antibiotic powder with an acrylic bone cement powder on physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the cured cement.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Gladius; Janna, Si; Bhattaram, Anuradha

    2005-07-01

    Two variants of antibiotic powder-loaded acrylic bone cements (APLBCs) are widely used in primary total joint replacements. In the United States, the antibiotic is manually blended with the powder of the cement at the start of the procedure, while, in Europe, pre-packaged commercially-available APLBCs (in which the blending is carried out using an industrial mixer) are used. Our objective was to investigate the influence of the method of blending gentamicin sulphate with the powder of the Cemex XL formulation on a wide collection of properties of the cured cement. The blending methods used were manual mixing (the MANUAL Set), use of a small-scale, easy-to-use, commercially-available mechanical powder mixer, OmoMix 1 (the MECHANICAL Set), and use of a large-scale industrial mixer (Cemex Genta) [the INDUSTRIAL Set]. In the MECHANICAL and MANUAL Sets, the blending time was 3 min. In preparing the test specimens for each set, the blended powder used contained 4.22 wt% of the gentamicin powder. The properties determined were the strength, modulus, and work-to-fracture (all obtained under four-point bending), plane-strain fracture toughness, Weibull mean fatigue life (fatigue conditions: +/-15 MPa; 2 Hz), activation energy and frequency factor for the cement polymerization process (both determined using differential scanning calorimetry, at heating rates of 5, 10, 15, and 20 Kmin(-1)), the diffusion coefficient for the absorption of phosphate buffered saline, PBS, at 37 degrees C, and the rate of elution of the gentamicin into PBS, at 37 degrees C (E). Also determined were the particle size, particle size distribution, and morphology of the blended powders and of the gentamicin. For each of the cured cement properties (except for E), there is no statistically significant difference between the means for the 3 cements, a finding that parallels the observation that there are no significant differences in either the mean particle size or the morphology of the blended cement

  10. 21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.2647 Section 73.2647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2647 Copper powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive copper powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73...

  11. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum. It...

  12. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum. It...

  13. 21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73.2645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of...

  14. 21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73.2645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of...

  15. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum. It...

  16. 21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73.2645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of...

  17. 21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73.2645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of...

  18. 21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73.2645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of...

  19. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum. It...

  20. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum. It...

  1. 21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bronze powder. 73.2646 Section 73.2646 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive bronze powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73...

  2. 21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bronze powder. 73.2646 Section 73.2646 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive bronze powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73...

  3. 21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bronze powder. 73.2646 Section 73.2646 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive bronze powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73...

  4. 21 CFR 73.2646 - Bronze powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bronze powder. 73.2646 Section 73.2646 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2646 Bronze powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive bronze powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73...

  5. The influence of operational parameters and feed preparation in a convective batch ribbon powder mixer.

    PubMed

    Yeow, Sin Tung; Shahar, Asnawi; Abdul Aziz, Norashikin; Anuar, Mohd Shamsul; Yusof, Yus Aniza; Taip, Farah Saleena

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of feed preparation characteristics and operational parameters on mixing homogeneity in a convective batch ribbon mixer. Lactose 100M, lactose 200M, ascorbic acid, and zinc oxide powders were used for the mixing study. Operational parameters studied were rotational speed and mixing time. The feed preparations studied were the use of preblending and the particle size of the feed materials. The blends of ascorbic acid, zinc oxide, and lactose were prepared with preblending and without preblending, prior to mixing at different blender rotation speeds and mixing times. Chemical tests were performed to measure the homogeneity of the ascorbic acid in the model mixture. With preblending, a mixture with lactose 200M achieved the required homogeneity in a shorter period of time at a lower rotational speed. The results indicated that the homogeneity of the mixtures was influenced by the blender rotation speed and mixing time. Better mixing can be obtained with higher rotation speeds and longer mixing time. It was also observed that preblending and smaller feed particle size achieved the required homogeneity in a shorter period of time at a lower rotational speed. These results illustrate that using binders with a smaller particle size and a preblending technique improves the mixing process in a convective batch ribbon powder mixer. However, prolonged periods of high-speed mixing will lead to mixture segregation.

  6. The influence of operational parameters and feed preparation in a convective batch ribbon powder mixer

    PubMed Central

    Yeow, Sin Tung; Shahar, Asnawi; Aziz, Norashikin Abdul; Anuar, Mohd Shamsul; Yusof, Yus Aniza; Taip, Farah Saleena

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of feed preparation characteristics and operational parameters on mixing homogeneity in a convective batch ribbon mixer. Methods Lactose 100M, lactose 200M, ascorbic acid, and zinc oxide powders were used for the mixing study. Operational parameters studied were rotational speed and mixing time. The feed preparations studied were the use of preblending and the particle size of the feed materials. The blends of ascorbic acid, zinc oxide, and lactose were prepared with preblending and without preblending, prior to mixing at different blender rotation speeds and mixing times. Chemical tests were performed to measure the homogeneity of the ascorbic acid in the model mixture. Results With preblending, a mixture with lactose 200M achieved the required homogeneity in a shorter period of time at a lower rotational speed. Conclusion The results indicated that the homogeneity of the mixtures was influenced by the blender rotation speed and mixing time. Better mixing can be obtained with higher rotation speeds and longer mixing time. It was also observed that preblending and smaller feed particle size achieved the required homogeneity in a shorter period of time at a lower rotational speed. These results illustrate that using binders with a smaller particle size and a preblending technique improves the mixing process in a convective batch ribbon powder mixer. However, prolonged periods of high-speed mixing will lead to mixture segregation. PMID:22162640

  7. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) investigations of ancient Egyptian cosmetic powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeb, C.; Walter, P.; Castaing, J.; Penhoud, P.; Veyssière, P.

    The processing technologies available during the time of ancient Egypt are of present concern to the field of Archaeology and Egyptology. Materials characterization is the best tool for establishing the processing history of archaeological objects. In this study, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used, in addition to other techniques, for phase identification and study of the microstructure and characteristic defect structures in ancient Egyptian cosmetic powders. These powders generally consist of a mix of Pb-containing mineral phases: galena (PbS), cerussite (PbCO3), and phosgenite (Pb2Cl2CO3), among others. Modern materials are fabricated according to recipes found in ancient texts to mimic the processing of ancient times and to compare with the archaeological specimens. In particular, a comparison between the dislocation structures of PbS crystals deformed in the laboratory and PbS from archaeological specimens from the collections of the Louvre Museum is presented .

  8. Irradiation stability of folic Acid in powder and aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Michel M; Marchioni, Eric; Bergaentzle, Martine; Zhao, Minjie; Kuntz, Florent; Hahn, Emeline; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C H

    2011-02-23

    This study attempts to examine the folic acid stability after irradiation treatment, under different physical states, pH values, and atmosphere conditions. Aqueous folic acid samples, folic acid in powder, and wheat flour fortified with folic acid were irradiated by an electron beam (E-beam) between 0 (control) and 10.0 kGy. It was realized that the physical state of folic acid plays an important role on its stability toward E-beam processing, being largely unstable in solution, no matter the pH and atmosphere conditions assayed. Otherwise, folic acid in powder showed huge irradiation stability, even when mixed in a dry food matrix, such as fortified wheat flour samples.

  9. Effect of powder characteristics on oral tablet disintegration.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Fujii, Makiko; Watanabe, Ken-ichi; Tsukamoto, Masashi; Shibata, Yusuke; Kondoh, Masuo; Watanabe, Yoshiteru

    2009-01-05

    This report describes an investigation of the factors affecting disintegration time in the mouth (DTM) of rapidly disintegrating tablets. The relation between DTM and stationary time of upper punch displacement (STP) was examined using a tableting process analyzer (TabAll). Results indicated that the bulk density of mixed excipient powder used for tablet preparation affects both DTM and STP. As the value of bulk density increased, STP became longer and DTM shorter. The results of a combination of granules and powder with or without a drug showed liner relation between apparent volume (reciprocal of bulk density) and DTM (r(2)=0.7332). For a DTM less than 60 s, a formulation with a bulk density greater 0.5 g/mL should be chosen with a compression force of 5 kN. The hardness of tablets could be greater than 3 kg if at least one high-compressibility excipient was used in the formulation.

  10. Silicosis Caused by Chronic Inhalation of Snail Shell Powder

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Woo; Lee, Byung Ook; Lee, Jae Hee; Park, Sung Woon; Kim, Bo Min; Choi, Jae Chol; Shin, Jong Wook; Park, In Won; Choi, Byoung Whui

    2012-01-01

    A 70-yr-old woman visited our hospital for shortness of breath. Chest CT showed ground glass opacity and traction bronchiectasis at right middle, lower lobe and left lingular division. Video-assisted thoracic surgical biopsy at right lower lobe and pathologic examination revealed mixed dust pneumoconiosis. Polarized optical microscopy showed lung lesions were consisted of silica and carbon materials. She was a housewife and never been exposed to silica dusts occupationally. She has taken freshwater snails as a health-promoting food for 40 yr and ground shell powder was piled up on her backyard where she spent day-time. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of snail shell and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy of lung lesion revealed that silica occupies important portion. Herein, we report the first known case of silicosis due to chronic inhalation of shell powder of freshwater snail. PMID:22219621

  11. Analysis of Diffusional Solidification in a Wide-Gap Brazing Powder Mixture Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, Stephen F.; Murray, D. Clark; Bouthillier, Alain

    2016-12-01

    The diffusional solidification (DS) of a mixed powder system, consisting of pure Ni base metal powder and BNi-2 braze powder, suitable for wide-gap brazing was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and parallel microstructural examination. It was determined that very little interdiffusion between the powders developed in the solid state prior to braze powder melting. Once liquid formed, rapid DS occurred such that, when the powders were loosely mixed together, only 20 to 50 wt pct of the potential liquid fraction actually developed, leading to poor densification. Separating the braze and Ni into a layered structure leads to less DS, increased liquid formation ( i.e., 35 to 80 wt pct of the potential liquid fraction) and improved densification. The rate of isothermal solidification in layered structures consisting of 30 and 40 wt pct BNi-2 braze material was determined using DSC. After 30 minutes of braze time at 1323 K (1050 °C), complete IS occurred, thus avoiding the formation of a continuous network of large borides. The final microstructure of the IS mixtures consisted of a continuous matrix of solid solution Ni, with isolated and dispersed borides.

  12. Pyrolysis characteristics of the mixture of printed circuit board scraps and coal powder.

    PubMed

    Hao, Juan; Wang, Haifeng; Chen, Shuhe; Cai, Bin; Ge, Linhan; Xia, Wencheng

    2014-10-01

    Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and infrared spectroscopy were used to analyze the pyrolysis characteristics of printed circuit board scraps (PCBs), coal powder and their mixtures under nitrogen atmosphere. The experimental results show that there is a large difference between waste PCBs and coal powder in pyrolysis processing. The pyrolysis properties of the mixing samples are the result of interaction of the PCBs and coal powder, which is influenced by the content of mixture. The degree of pyrolysis and pyrolysis properties of the mixture are much better than that of the single component. The TG and the differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves of the PCBs mixed with coal powder move towards the high-temperature zone with increasing amount of coal powder and subsequently the DTG peak also becomes wider. The Coats-Redfern integral method was used to determine the kinetic parameters of pyrolysis reaction mechanism with the different proportion of mixture. The gas of pyrolysis mainly composes of CO2, CO, H2O and some hydrocarbon. The bromide characteristic absorption peak has been detected obviously in the pyrolysis gas of PCBs. On the contrary, the absorption peak of the bromide is not obvious in pyrolysis gas of the PCBs samples adding 40% coal powder.

  13. Gelatin powders accelerate the resorption of calcium phosphate cement and improve healing in the alveolar ridge.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Goichi; Sugita, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Katsutoshi; Yoshida, Waka; Ikada, Yoshito; Sobajima, Satoshi; Neo, Masashi; Maeda, Hatsuhiko; Kinoshita, Yukihiko

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to show the effectiveness of combining calcium phosphate cement and gelatin powders to promote bone regeneration in the canine mandible. We mixed gelatin powders with calcium phosphate cement to create a macroporous composite. In four beagle dogs, two saddle-type bone defects were created on each side of the mandible, and calcium phosphate cement alone or calcium phosphate cement containing composite gelatin powders was implanted in each of the defects. After a healing period of six months, mandibles were removed for µCT and histological analyses. The µCT and histological analyses showed that at experimental sites at which calcium phosphate cement alone had been placed new bone had formed only around the periphery of the residual calcium phosphate cement and that there had been little or no ingrowth into the calcium phosphate cement. On the other hand, at experimental sites at which calcium phosphate cement containing composite gelatin powders had been placed, we observed regenerated new bone in the interior of the residual calcium phosphate cement as well as around its periphery. The amount of resorption of calcium phosphate cement and bone regeneration depended on the mixing ratio of gelatin powders to calcium phosphate cement. New bone replacement was significantly better in the sites treated with calcium phosphate cement containing composite gelatin powders than in those treated with calcium phosphate cement alone.

  14. Ion mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, S.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1983-01-01

    Recent experimental studies of the ion-mixing phenomenon are summarized. Ion mixing is differentiated from ion implantation and shown to be a useful technique for overcoming the sputter-dependent limitations of implantation processes. The fundamental physical principles of ion/solid interactions are explored. The basic experimental configurations currently in use are characterized: bilayered samples, multilayered samples, and samples with a thin marker layer. A table listing the binary systems (metal-semiconductor or metal-metal) which have been investigated using each configuration is presented. Results are discussed, and some sample data are plotted. The prospects for future application of ion mixing to the alteration of solid surface properties are considered. Practical applications are seen as restricted by economic considerations to the production of small, expensive components or to fields (such as the semiconductor industry) which already have facilities for ion implantation.

  15. Electrolyte membrane, methods of manufacture thereof and articles comprising the same

    DOEpatents

    Tamaki, Ryo; Rice, Steven Thomas; Yeager, Gary William

    2013-11-05

    Disclosed herein is a method of forming an electrolyte membrane comprising forming a mixture; the mixture comprising a polyhydroxy compound, an aromatic polyhalide compound and an alkali metal hydroxide; disposing the mixture on a porous substrate; reacting the mixture to form a crosslinked proton conductor; and sulfonating the proton conductor. Disclosed herein too is an article comprising a porous substrate; and a sulfonated crosslinked proton conductor disposed within pores of the porous substrate.

  16. Electrolyte membrane, methods of manufacture thereof and articles comprising the same

    DOEpatents

    Tamaki, Ryo [Santa Clarita, CA; Rice, Steven Thomas [Scotia, NY; Yeager, Gary William [Rexford, NY

    2012-06-12

    Disclosed herein is a method of forming an electrolyte membrane comprising forming a mixture; the mixture comprising a polyhydroxy compound, an aromatic polyhalide compound and an alkali metal hydroxide; disposing the mixture on a porous substrate; reacting the mixture to form a proton conductor; and crosslinking the proton conductor to form a cross-linked proton-conducting network. Disclosed herein too is an article comprising a porous substrate; and a crosslinked proton conductor disposed on the porous substrate.

  17. Wetter for fine dry powder

    DOEpatents

    Hall, James E.; Williams, Everett H.

    1977-01-01

    A system for wetting fine dry powders such as bentonite clay with water or other liquids is described. The system includes a wetting tank for receiving water and a continuous flow of fine powder feed. The wetting tank has a generally square horizontal cross section with a bottom end closure in the shape of an inverted pyramid. Positioned centrally within the wetting tank is a flow control cylinder which is supported from the walls of the wetting tank by means of radially extending inclined baffles. A variable speed motor drives a first larger propeller positioned immediately below the flow control cylinder in a direction which forces liquid filling the tank to flow downward through the flow control cylinder and a second smaller propeller positioned below the larger propeller having a reverse pitch to oppose the flow of liquid being driven downward by the larger propeller.

  18. Particle adhesion in powder coating

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, M.K.; Wankum, D.L.; Knutson, M.; Williams, S.; Banerjee, S.

    1996-12-31

    Electrostatic powder coating is a widely used industrial painting process. It has three major advantages: (1) it provides high quality durable finish, (2) the process is environmentally friendly and does not require the use of organic solvents, and (3) it is economically competitive. The adhesion of electrostatically deposited polymer paint particles on the grounded conducting substrate depends upon many parameters: (a) particle size and shape distributions, (b) electrostatic charge distributions, (c) electrical resistivity, (d) dielectric strength of the particles, (e) thickness of the powder film, (f) presence and severity of the back corona, and (g) the conductivity and surface properties of the substrate. The authors present a model on the forces of deposition and adhesion of corona charged particles on conducting substrates.

  19. Developments in Titanium Powder Metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froes, F. H.; Eylon, D.; Eichelman, G. E.; Burte, H. M.

    1980-02-01

    The high buy-to-fly ratio associated with many titanium components, combined with forging and machining difficulties, and recent availability problems, has led to a strong drive for near-net titanium shape fabrication. A very promising method of attaining this goal is powder metallurgy. Two major approaches are considered in this article: the "elemental" and "pre-alloyed" powder methods. Shape-making capability and mechanical properties of both technologies are presented. Consideration is given to the cost-effectiveness of the processes and mechanical performance compared to conventional fabrication methods. Design philosophies, modified to include the presence of foreign particles in the compacted article, are discussed. Emerging advances in the technology are presented and future developments forecast.

  20. Friction Stir Processing of Al with Mechanically Alloyed Al-TiO2-Graphite Powder: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beygi, R.; Mehrizi, M. Zarezadeh; Eisaabadi B, G.

    2017-03-01

    Commercial pure aluminum was friction stir processed with Al-TiO2-graphite mixture pre-placed into a groove in Al. Two kinds of powders were used as starting particles for friction stir processing; as-mixed powder and 60-h ball-milled powder. Characterization by XRD, SEM and EDS analysis showed that with as-mixed powder an Al composite reinforced with Al3Ti and Al2O3 was produced. Graphite particles were remained in the matrix unchanged. Using 60-h ball-milled powder as starting particle in friction stir processing, resulted in an Al composite reinforced with TiC-Al2O3 nanoparticles dispersed uniformly into the matrix having the size of 100 nm on average. In this state, the microhardness values obtained in the stir zone were higher than those ones obtained using as-mixed powders. The mechanism of phases formation during friction stir processing with two different kinds of powders are elaborated and discussed in this study. Also the mechanical properties of samples were investigated.

  1. Friction Stir Processing of Al with Mechanically Alloyed Al-TiO2-Graphite Powder: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beygi, R.; Mehrizi, M. Zarezadeh; Eisaabadi B, G.

    2017-02-01

    Commercial pure aluminum was friction stir processed with Al-TiO2-graphite mixture pre-placed into a groove in Al. Two kinds of powders were used as starting particles for friction stir processing; as-mixed powder and 60-h ball-milled powder. Characterization by XRD, SEM and EDS analysis showed that with as-mixed powder an Al composite reinforced with Al3Ti and Al2O3 was produced. Graphite particles were remained in the matrix unchanged. Using 60-h ball-milled powder as starting particle in friction stir processing, resulted in an Al composite reinforced with TiC-Al2O3 nanoparticles dispersed uniformly into the matrix having the size of 100 nm on average. In this state, the microhardness values obtained in the stir zone were higher than those ones obtained using as-mixed powders. The mechanism of phases formation during friction stir processing with two different kinds of powders are elaborated and discussed in this study. Also the mechanical properties of samples were investigated.

  2. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a quinone compound and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a quinone compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  3. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a heterocyclic compound and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2016-08-02

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a heterocyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  4. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a dioxy compound and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Sweeney, Matthew; Xu, Feng; Quinlan, Jason

    2016-07-19

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a dioxy compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  5. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicycle compound and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2015-06-16

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  6. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound and uses thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2016-10-04

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  7. Porous Materials by Powder Metallurgy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-30

    generally determine porosity and pore size of the resulting porous material. The beads can be microballoons, which are hollow inside, or they can be...proved jYi- --*;V--, - one QUALITY INSPECTED 0 Applicant: Everett Patent Application Serial Number: Navy Case Number: 78,529 5 Porous Materials...By Powder Metallurgy Background of Invention Field of Invention: This invention pertains to porous material fabrication by controlling pore size

  8. Dry PMR-15 Resin Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Roberts, Gary D.

    1988-01-01

    Shelf lives of PMR-15 polymides lengthened. Procedure involves quenching of monomer reactions by vacuum drying of PRM-15 resin solutions at 70 to 90 degree F immediately after preparation of solutions. Absence of solvent eliminates formation of higher esters and reduces formation of imides to negligible level. Provides fully-formulated dry PMR-15 resin powder readily dissolvable in solvent at room temperature immediately before use. Resins used in variety of aerospace, aeronautical, and commercial applications.

  9. [Advances in studies on bear bile powder].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chao-fan; Gao, Guo-jian; Liu, Ying

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a detailed analysis was made on relevant literatures about bear bile powder in terms of chemical component, pharmacological effect and clinical efficacy, indicating bear bile powder's significant pharmacological effects and clinical application in treating various diseases. Due to the complex composition, bear bile powder is relatively toxic. Therefore, efforts shall be made to study bear bile powder's pharmacological effects, clinical application, chemical composition and toxic side-effects, with the aim to provide a scientific basis for widespread reasonable clinical application of bear bile powder.

  10. System Applies Polymer Powder To Filament Tow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.; Snoha, John J.; Marchello, Joseph M.

    1993-01-01

    Polymer powder applied uniformly and in continuous manner. Powder-coating system applies dry polymer powder to continuous fiber tow. Unique filament-spreading technique, combined with precise control of tension on fibers in system, ensures uniform application of polymer powder to web of spread filaments. Fiber tows impregnated with dry polymer powders ("towpregs") produced for preform-weaving and composite-material-molding applications. System and process valuable to prepreg industry, for production of flexible filament-windable tows and high-temperature polymer prepregs.

  11. Egg Shell and Oyster Shell Powder as Alternatives for Synthetic Phosphate: Effects on the Quality of Cooked Ground Pork Products

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the optimal ratio of natural calcium powders (oyster shell and egg shell calcium) as synthetic phosphate replacers in pork products. Ground pork samples were subjected to six treatments, as follows: control (−) (no phosphate added), control (+) (0.3% phosphate blend added), treatment 1 (0.5% oyster shell calcium powder added), treatment 2 (0.3% oyster shell calcium powder and 0.2% egg shell calcium powder added), treatment 3 (0.2% oyster shell calcium powder and 0.3% egg shell calcium powder added), and treatment 4 (0.5% egg shell calcium powder added). The addition of natural calcium powders resulted in an increase in the pH values of meat products, regardless of whether they were used individually or mixed. The highest cooking loss was observed (p<0.05) in the negative control samples, whereas the cooking loss in samples with natural calcium powder added was similar (p>0.05) to that in the positive control samples. CIE L* values decreased as the amount of added egg shell calcium powder increased. CIE a* values were higher (p<0.05) in samples containing natural calcium powder (treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4) than in the positive control. The combination of oyster shell calcium powder and egg shell powder (treatment 2 or 3) was effective for the improvement of textural properties of the pork products. The findings show that the combined use of 0.2% oyster shell calcium and 0.3% egg shell calcium should enable the replacement of synthetic phosphate in the production of cooked pork products with desirable qualities. PMID:28943770

  12. Egg Shell and Oyster Shell Powder as Alternatives for Synthetic Phosphate: Effects on the Quality of Cooked Ground Pork Products.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min Guk; Bae, Su Min; Jeong, Jong Youn

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the optimal ratio of natural calcium powders (oyster shell and egg shell calcium) as synthetic phosphate replacers in pork products. Ground pork samples were subjected to six treatments, as follows: control (-) (no phosphate added), control (+) (0.3% phosphate blend added), treatment 1 (0.5% oyster shell calcium powder added), treatment 2 (0.3% oyster shell calcium powder and 0.2% egg shell calcium powder added), treatment 3 (0.2% oyster shell calcium powder and 0.3% egg shell calcium powder added), and treatment 4 (0.5% egg shell calcium powder added). The addition of natural calcium powders resulted in an increase in the pH values of meat products, regardless of whether they were used individually or mixed. The highest cooking loss was observed (p<0.05) in the negative control samples, whereas the cooking loss in samples with natural calcium powder added was similar (p>0.05) to that in the positive control samples. CIE L* values decreased as the amount of added egg shell calcium powder increased. CIE a* values were higher (p<0.05) in samples containing natural calcium powder (treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4) than in the positive control. The combination of oyster shell calcium powder and egg shell powder (treatment 2 or 3) was effective for the improvement of textural properties of the pork products. The findings show that the combined use of 0.2% oyster shell calcium and 0.3% egg shell calcium should enable the replacement of synthetic phosphate in the production of cooked pork products with desirable qualities.

  13. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOEpatents

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-06-11

    Disclosed is a thin film heterojunction solar cell, said heterojunction comprising a p-type I-III-IV[sub 2] chalcopyrite substrate and an overlying layer of an n-type ternary mixed metal compound wherein said ternary mixed metal compound is applied to said substrate by introducing the vapor of a first metal compound to a vessel containing said substrate from a first vapor source while simultaneously introducing a vapor of a second metal compound from a second vapor source of said vessel, said first and second metals comprising the metal components of said mixed metal compound; independently controlling the vaporization rate of said first and second vapor sources; reducing the mean free path between vapor particles in said vessel, said gas being present in an amount sufficient to induce homogeneity of said vapor mixture; and depositing said mixed metal compound on said substrate in the form of a uniform composition polycrystalline mixed metal compound. 5 figs.

  14. Amorphous rare earth magnet powders

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, C.H.; Branagan, D.J.; Hyde, T.A.; Lewis, L.H.; Panchanathan, V.

    1996-08-01

    Gas atomization (GA) processing does not generally have a high enough cooling rate to produce the initial amorphous microstructure needed to obtain optimal magnetic properties in RE{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B alloys. Phase separation and an underquenched microstructure result from detrimental {alpha}-Fe precipitation, and the resulting magnetic domain structure is very coarse. Additionally, there is a dramatic dependence of the magnetic properties on the cooling rate (and therefore the particle size) and the powders can be sensitive to environmental degradation. Alloy compositions designed just for GA (as opposed to melt spinning) are necessary to produce an amorphous structure that can be crystallized to result in a fine structure with magnetic properties which are independent of particle size. The addition of titanium and carbon to the melt has been found to change the solidification process sufficiently to result in an ``overquenched`` state in which most of the powder size fractions have an amorphous component. Crystallization with a brief heat treatment produces a structure which has improved magnetic properties, in part due to the ability to use compositions with higher Fe contents without {alpha}-Fe precipitation. Results from magnetometry, magnetic force microscopy, and x-ray analyses will be used to contrast the microstructure, domain structure, and magnetic properties of this new generation of amorphous powders with their multiphase predecessors.

  15. Anti-Corrosive Powder Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Donald; MacDowell, Louis, III

    2005-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) seeks partners for a new approach in protecting embedded steel surfaces from corrosion. Corrosion of reinforced steel in concrete structures is a significant problem for NASA structures at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) because of the close proximity of the structures to salt spray from the nearby Atlantic Ocean. In an effort to minimize the damage to such structures, coatings were developed that could be applied as liquids to the external surfaces of a substrate in which the metal structures were embedded. The Metallic Pigment Powder Particle technology was developed by NASA at KSC. This technology combines the metallic materials into a uniform particle. The resultant powder can be sprayed simultaneously with a liquid binder onto the surface of concrete structures with a uniform distribution of the metallic pigment for optimum cathodic protection of the underlying steel in the concrete. Metallic Pigment Powder Particle technology improves upon the performance of an earlier NASA technology Liquid Galvanic Coating (U.S. Patent No. 6,627,065).

  16. Phase diagram of crushed powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodard, Sébastien; Jalbaud, Olivier; Saurel, Richard; Burtschell, Yves; Lapebie, Emmanuel

    2016-12-01

    Compression of monodisperse powder samples in quasistatic conditions is addressed in a pressure range such that particles fragmentation occurs while the solid remains incompressible (typical pressure range of 1-300 MPa for glass powders). For a granular bed made of particles of given size, the existence of three stages is observed during compression and crush up. First, classical compression occurs and the pressure of the granular bed increases along a characteristic curve as the volume decreases. Then, a critical pressure is reached for which fragmentation begins. During the fragmentation process, the granular pressure stays constant in a given volume range. At the end of this second stage, 20%-50% of initial grains are reduced to finer particles, depending on the initial size. Then the compression undergoes the third stage and the pressure increases along another characteristic curve, in the absence of extra fragmentation. The present paper analyses the analogies between the phase transition in liquid-vapour systems and powder compression with crush-up. Fragmentation diagram for a soda lime glass is determined by experimental means. The analogues of the saturation pressure and latent heat of phase change are determined. Two thermodynamic models are then examined to represent the crush-up diagram. The first one uses piecewise functions while the second one is of van der Waals type. Both equations of state relate granular pressure, solid volume fraction, and initial particle diameter. The piecewise functions approach provides reasonable representations of the phase diagram while the van der Waals one fails.

  17. Identification of additive components in powdered milk by NIR imaging methods.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Min, Shungeng; Duan, Jia; Wu, Lijun; Li, Qianqian

    2014-02-15

    The express assay of excessive additives in powdered milk is of vital necessity, especially during industrial production. Near-infrared microscopy provides chemical information on the spatial distribution and cluster side of components in milk-based products when materials are mixed together. Distributions of two additive components and one banned chemical in powdered milk were simulated in this study. The distribution of inorganic additive ZnSO4 was identified using the relationship imaging mode. The distribution image of lactose was obtained by assigning the wavenumber region and by using principal component analysis coupled with correlation coefficient imaging. In addition, classical least square regression was employed to quantify the banned additive, melamine, in the powdered milk. Lastly, the detection limit of melamine in powdered milk was determined using the relationship imaging mode. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of NIR hyperspectral imaging for discriminating melamine in milk powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaping; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Lim, Jongguk; Lee, Hoyoung; Ying, Yibin

    2013-05-01

    Melamine (2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine) contamination of food has become an urgent and broadly recognized issue for which rapid and accurate identification methods are needed by the food industry. In this study, the feasibility and effectiveness of near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging was investigated for detecting melamine in milk powder. Hyperspectral NIR images (144 bands spanning from 990 to 1700 nm) were acquired for Petri dishes containing samples of milk powder mixed with melamine at various concentrations (0.02% to 1%). Spectral bands that showed the most significant differences between pure milk and pure melamine were selected, and two-band difference analysis was applied to the spectrum of each pixel in the sample images to identify melamine particles in milk powders. The resultant images effectively allowed visualization of melamine particle distributions in the samples. The study demonstrated that NIR hyperspectral imaging techniques can qualitatively and quantitatively identify melamine adulteration in milk powders.

  19. Liquefaction and dechlorination of hydrothermally treated waste mixture containing plastics with glass powder.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Motoyuki; Shimizu, Takayuki; Komatsu, Akihiro; Kakuta, Yusuke; Hirano, Katsumi

    2011-03-15

    Additive effects of glass powder upon the product yields and chlorine distribution after liquefaction of hydrothermally pretreated mixed waste (HMW) are compared with liquefaction of HMW with any one of water, quartz sand, or glass powder plus water. As a result, addition of either water or quartz sand did not affect liquefaction and dechlorination of HMW. Further, water (5 g) addition did not enhance liquefaction and dechlorination of HMW with glass powder. On the other hand, after liquefaction of HMW with glass powder, the yields of chlorine in the gas and water insoluble constituents decreased and the chlorine yield in the water-soluble constituent increased significantly. Because sodium in glass powder dissolved in a small amount (0.5 g) of water resulted from dehydration of HMW during liquefaction. Further, hydrogen chloride derived from polyvinylchloride in HMW was neutralized by ion exchange between H(+) and Na(+) dissolved in a small amount of water forming NaCl in the Residue (water-soluble) constituent. Therefore, most of chlorine in HMW was removed easily by water extraction of the Residue constituent after liquefaction of HMW with glass powder. Further, upgrading of HMW into the oil constituent was enhanced due to inhibition of production of chlorine containing organic compounds. Accordingly, it was clarified that glass powder was the most effective additive for liquefaction and dechlorination of HMW.

  20. Capillary Drop Penetration Method to Characterize the Liquid Wetting of Powders.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhanjie; Wang, Yifan; Muzzio, Fernando J; Callegari, Gerardo; Drazer, German

    2017-01-10

    We present a method to characterize the wettability of powders, based on the penetration dynamics of a sessile drop deposited on a slightly compressed powder bed. First, we show that a direct comparison of the wetting properties of different liquids is possible without having to solve the three-dimensional liquid penetration problem, by considering the appropriate dimensionless variables. We show that the contact area between the sessile drop and the powder bed remains constant during most of the penetration process and demonstrate that as a result, the evolution of the dimensionless penetration volume is given by a universal function of the dimensionless time, with no dimensionless parameters. Then, using a reference liquid that completely wets the powder, it is possible to obtain an effective contact angle for a test liquid of interest, independent of other properties of the powder bed, such as permeability and a characteristic pore size. We apply the proposed method to estimate the contact angle of water with different powder blends, by using silicone oil as the reference liquid. Finally, to highlight the potential of the proposed method to characterize pharmaceutical powders, we consider a blend of lactose, acetaminophen, and a small amount of lubricant (magnesium stearate). The proposed method adequately captures a significant decrease in hydrophilicity that results from exposing the blend to excessive mixing, a well-known effect in the pharmaceutical industry.

  1. Effect of cholesterol on the properties of spray-dried lysozyme-loaded liposomal powders.

    PubMed

    Charnvanich, Dusadee; Vardhanabhuti, Nontima; Kulvanich, Poj

    2010-06-01

    The influence of cholesterol (Chol) in the liposomal bilayer on the properties of inhalable protein-loaded liposomal powders prepared by spray-drying technique was investigated. Lysozyme (LSZ) was used as a model protein. Feed solution for spray drying was prepared by direct mixing of aqueous solution of LSZ with mannitol solution and empty liposome dispersions composed of hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine and Chol at various molar ratios. The spray-dried powders were characterized with respect to morphology, thermal property, and crystallinity using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction, respectively. Most formulations gave slightly aggregated, spherical particles, and percentage yields of the spray-dried powders decreased with increasing Chol content. Degree of particle aggregation depended on the powder composition. The powders spontaneously formed liposomes which efficiently entrapped LSZ after reconstitution with HEPES buffered saline (HBS) at 37 degrees C. Lysozyme entrapment efficiency and size distribution of the reconstituted liposomes were evaluated after the powders were reconstituted with HBS. Increasing Chol content resulted in a decrease in size of the reconstituted liposomes and an increase in entrapment efficiency of LSZ. These results correlated with thermal behaviors of the reconstituted liposomes. Biological activity of LSZ was not affected by the spray-drying process. It was also demonstrated that LSZ-loaded liposomal powders could be produced without the need to preload the LSZ into liposomes prior to spray-drying process.

  2. Dry powder segregation and flowability: Experimental and numerical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ely, David R.

    Dry powder blending is a very important industrial and physical process used in the production of numerous pharmaceutical dosage forms such as tablets, capsules, and dry powder aerosols. Key aspects of this unit operation are process monitoring and control. Process control is particularly difficult due to the complexity of particle-particle interactions, which arise from the adhesion/cohesion characteristics of interfaces and morphological characteristics such as particle size, shape, and dispersity. The effects of such characteristics need to be understood in detail in order to correlate individual particle properties to bulk powder properties. The present dissertation numerically and experimentally quantifies the mixing process to rationalize particle-particle interactions. In particular, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to non-invasively characterize in real-time the blending processes and thus investigate the dynamics of blending under different operating conditions. A novel image analysis technique was developed to quantify the scale of segregation from images obtained non-destructively via near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI). Although NIR-CI data acquisition times are too long for real-time data collection, NIR-CI has an advantage, in that it provides the spatial distribution of the drug. Therefore, NIRS and NIR-CI are complementary techniques for investigating the complex process of blending dry powders and assessing end-product quality. Additionally, the discrete element method was used to investigate the effect of powder cohesion on the packing fraction. Simulations indicated an exponential relationship between the random loose packing fraction and cohesive forces. Specifically, the packing fraction decreased asymptotically with increased ratio of cohesive force to particle weight. Thus, increasing this force ratio above a critical value has negligible impact on the packing fraction. Such result directly impacts the Hausner ratio flowability

  3. Spherical Granule Production from Micronized Saltwort (Salicornia herbacea) Powder as Salt Substitute

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Myung-Gon; Lee, Gyu-Hee

    2013-01-01

    The whole saltwort plant (Salicornia herbacea) was micronized to develop the table salt substitute. The micronized powder was mixed with distilled water and made into a spherical granule by using the fluid-bed coater (SGMPDW). The SGMPDW had superior flowability to powder; however, it had low dispersibility. To increase the dispersibility of SGMPDW, the micronized powder was mixed with the solution, which contained various soluble solid contents of saltwort aqueous extract (SAE), and made into a spherical granule (SGMPSAE). The SGMPSAE prepared with the higher percentages of solid content of SAE showed improved dispersibility in water and an increase in salty taste. The SGMPSAE prepared with 10% SAE was shown to possess the best physicochemical properties and its relative saltiness compared to NaCl (0.39). In conclusion, SGMPSAEs can be used as a table salt substitute and a functional food material with enhanced absorptivity and convenience. PMID:24471111

  4. Spherical Granule Production from Micronized Saltwort (Salicornia herbacea) Powder as Salt Substitute.

    PubMed

    Shin, Myung-Gon; Lee, Gyu-Hee

    2013-03-01

    The whole saltwort plant (Salicornia herbacea) was micronized to develop the table salt substitute. The micronized powder was mixed with distilled water and made into a spherical granule by using the fluid-bed coater (SGMPDW). The SGMPDW had superior flowability to powder; however, it had low dispersibility. To increase the dispersibility of SGMPDW, the micronized powder was mixed with the solution, which contained various soluble solid contents of saltwort aqueous extract (SAE), and made into a spherical granule (SGMPSAE). The SGMPSAE prepared with the higher percentages of solid content of SAE showed improved dispersibility in water and an increase in salty taste. The SGMPSAE prepared with 10% SAE was shown to possess the best physicochemical properties and its relative saltiness compared to NaCl (0.39). In conclusion, SGMPSAEs can be used as a table salt substitute and a functional food material with enhanced absorptivity and convenience.

  5. Quil A-lipid powder formulations releasing ISCOMs and related colloidal structures upon hydration.

    PubMed

    Demana, Patrick H; Davies, Nigel M; Hook, Sarah; Rades, Thomas

    2005-03-02

    The aim of the present study was to prepare solid Quil A-cholesterol-phospholipid formulations (as powder mixtures or compressed to pellets) by physical mixing or by freeze-drying of aqueous dispersions of these components in ratios that allow spontaneous formation of ISCOMs and other colloidal structures upon hydration. The effect of addition of excess cholesterol to the lipid mixtures on the release of a model antigen (PE-FITC-OVA) from the pellets was also investigated. Physical properties were evaluated by X-ray powder diffractometry (XPRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and polarized light microscopy (PLM). Characterization of aqueous colloidal dispersions was performed by negative staining transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Physically mixed powders (with or without PE-FITC-OVA) and pellets prepared from the same powders did not spontaneously form ISCOM matrices and related colloidal structures such as worm-like micelles, ring-like micelles, lipidic/layered structures and lamellae (hexagonal array of ring-like micelles) upon hydration as expected from the pseudo-ternary diagram for aqueous mixtures of Quil A, cholesterol and phospholipid. In contrast, spontaneous formation of the expected colloids was demonstrated for the freeze-dried lipid mixtures. Pellets prepared by compression of freeze-dried powders released PE-FITC-OVA slower than those prepared from physically mixed powders. TEM investigations revealed that the antigen was released in the form of colloidal particles (ISCOMs) from pellets prepared by compression of freeze-dried powders. The addition of excess cholesterol slowed down the release of antigen. The findings obtained in this study are important for the formulation of solid Quil A-containing lipid articles as controlled particulate adjuvant containing antigen delivery systems.

  6. Electrode material comprising graphene-composite materials in a graphite network

    DOEpatents

    Kung, Harold H.; Lee, Jung K.

    2017-08-08

    A durable electrode material suitable for use in Li ion batteries is provided. The material is comprised of a continuous network of graphite regions integrated with, and in good electrical contact with a composite comprising graphene sheets and an electrically active material, such as silicon, wherein the electrically active material is dispersed between, and supported by, the graphene sheets.

  7. Electrode material comprising graphene-composite materials in a graphite network

    DOEpatents

    Kung, Harold H.; Lee, Jung K.

    2014-07-15

    A durable electrode material suitable for use in Li ion batteries is provided. The material is comprised of a continuous network of graphite regions integrated with, and in good electrical contact with a composite comprising graphene sheets and an electrically active material, such as silicon, wherein the electrically active material is dispersed between, and supported by, the graphene sheets.

  8. Ball bearings comprising nickel-titanium and methods of manufacture thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor); Glennon, Glenn N. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a friction reducing nickel-titanium composition. The nickel-titanium composition includes a first phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.45:0.55 to about 0.55:0.45; a second phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.70:0.30 to about 0.80:0.20; and a third phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.52:0.48 to about 0.62:0.38. A bearing for reducing friction comprising a nickel-titanium composition comprising a first phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.45:0.55 to about 0.55:0.45; a second phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.70:0.30 to about 0.80:0.20; and a third phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.52:0.48 to about 0.62:0.38; where the bearing is free from voids and pinholes.

  9. Expandable mixing section gravel and cobble eductor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Arthur L.; Krawza, Kenneth I.

    1997-01-01

    In a hydraulically powered pump for excavating and transporting slurries in hich it is immersed, the improvement of a gravel and cobble eductor including an expandable mixing section, comprising: a primary flow conduit that terminates in a nozzle that creates a water jet internal to a tubular mixing section of the pump when water pressure is applied from a primary supply flow; a tubular mixing section having a center line in alignment with the nozzle that creates a water jet; a mixing section/exit diffuser column that envelopes the flexible liner; and a secondary inlet conduit that forms an opening at a bas portion of the column and adjacent to the nozzle and water jet to receive water saturated gravel as a secondary flow that mixes with the primary flow inside of the mixing section to form a combined total flow that exits the mixing section and decelerates in the exit diffuser.

  10. HIGH TEMPERATURE SORPTION OF CESIUM AND STRONTIUM ON DISPERSED KAOLINITE POWDERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of cesium and strontium on kaolinite powders was investigated as a means to minimize the emissions of these metals during certain high-temperature processes currently being developed to isolate and dispose of radiological and mixed wastes. In this work, nonradioactive aq...

  11. HIGH TEMPERATURE SORPTION OF CESIUM AND STRONTIUM ON DISPERSED KAOLINITE POWDERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of cesium and strontium on kaolinite powders was investigated as a means to minimize the emissions of these metals during certain high-temperature processes currently being developed to isolate and dispose of radiological and mixed wastes. In this work, nonradioactive aq...

  12. Asymmetric hybridization in Rhododendron agastum: a hybrid taxon comprising mainly F1s in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Hong-Guang; Milne, Richard I.; Sun, Hang

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Rhododendron (Ericaceae) is a large woody genus in which hybridization is thought to play an important role in evolution and speciation, particularly in the Sino-Himalaya region where many interfertile species often occur sympatrically. Rhododendron agastum, a putative hybrid species, occurs in China, western Yunnan Province, in mixed populations with R. irroratum and R. delavayi. Methods Material of these taxa from two sites 400 km apart (ZhuJianYuan, ZJY and HuaDianBa, HDB) was examined using cpDNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) loci, to test the possibility that R. agastum was in fact a hybrid between two of the other species. Chloroplast trnL-F and trnS-trnG sequences together distinguished R. irroratum, R. delavayi and some material of R. decorum, which is also considered a putative parent of R. agastum. Key Results All 14 R. agastum plants from the HDB site had the delavayi cpDNA haplotype, whereas at the ZJY site 17 R. agastum plants had this haplotype and four had the R. irroratum haplotype. R. irroratum and R. delavayi are distinguished by five unequivocal point mutations in their ITS sequences; every R. agastum accession had an additive pattern (double peaks) at each of these sites. Data from AFLP loci were acquired for between ten and 21 plants of each taxon from each site, and were analysed using a Bayesian approach implemented by the program NewHybrids. The program confirmed the identity of all accessions of R. delavayi, and all R. irroratum except one, which was probably a backcross. All R. agastum from HDB and 19 of 21 from ZJY were classified as F1 hybrids; the other two could not be assigned a class. Conclusions Rhododendron agastum represents populations of hybrids between R. irroratum and R. delavayi, which comprise mostly or only F1s, at the two sites examined. The sites differ in that at HDB there was no detected variation in cpDNA type or hybrid class

  13. Method of making metal oxide ceramic powders by using a combustible amino acid compound

    DOEpatents

    Pederson, Larry R.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    1992-01-01

    This invention is directed to the formation of homogeneous, aqueous precursor mixtures of at least one substantially soluble metal salt and a substantially soluble, combustible co-reactant compound, typically an amino acid. This produces, upon evaporation, a substantially homogeneous intermediate material having a total solids level which would support combustion. The homogeneous intermediate material essentially comprises highly dispersed or solvated metal constituents and the co-reactant compound. The intermediate material is quite flammable. A metal oxide powder results on ignition of the intermediate product which combusts same to produce the product powder.

  14. Method for molding ceramic powders using a water-based gel casting process

    DOEpatents

    Jenny, Mark A.; Omalete, Ogbemi O.

    1992-09-08

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one monofunctional monomer and at least one difunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and a aqueous solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, whereafter the product may be sintered.

  15. Method for molding ceramic powders using a water-based gel casting

    DOEpatents

    Janney, Mark A.; Omatete, Ogbemi O.

    1991-07-02

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one monofunctional monomer and at least one difunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and a aqueous solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product any be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, whereafter the product may be sintered.

  16. Method of making metal oxide ceramic powders by using a combustible amino acid compound

    DOEpatents

    Pederson, L.R.; Chick, L.A.; Exarhos, G.J.

    1992-05-19

    This invention is directed to the formation of homogeneous, aqueous precursor mixtures of at least one substantially soluble metal salt and a substantially soluble, combustible co-reactant compound, typically an amino acid. This produces, upon evaporation, a substantially homogeneous intermediate material having a total solids level which would support combustion. The homogeneous intermediate material essentially comprises highly dispersed or solvated metal constituents and the co-reactant compound. The intermediate material is quite flammable. A metal oxide powder results on ignition of the intermediate product which combusts same to produce the product powder.

  17. Characterisation and deposition studies of recrystallised lactose from binary mixtures of ethanol/butanol for improved drug delivery from dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Martin, Gary P; Ticehurst, Martyn D; Royall, Paul; Mohammad, Mohammad A; Murphy, John; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2011-03-01

    Dry powder inhaler formulations comprising commercial lactose-drug blends can show restricted detachment of drug from lactose during aerosolisation, which can lead to poor fine particle fractions (FPFs) which are suboptimal. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the crystallisation of lactose from different ethanol/butanol co-solvent mixtures could be employed as a method of altering the FPF of salbutamol sulphate from powder blends. Lactose particles were prepared by an anti-solvent recrystallisation process using various ratios of the two solvents. Crystallised lactose or commercial lactose was mixed with salbutamol sulphate and in vitro deposition studies were performed using a multistage liquid impinger. Solid-state characterisation results showed that commercial lactose was primarily composed of the α-anomer whilst the crystallised lactose samples comprised a α/β mixture containing a lower number of moles of water per mole of lactose compared to the commercial lactose. The crystallised lactose particles were also less elongated and more irregular in shape with rougher surfaces. Formulation blends containing crystallised lactose showed better aerosolisation performance and dose uniformity when compared to commercial lactose. The highest FPF of salbutamol sulphate (38.0 ± 2.5%) was obtained for the lactose samples that were crystallised from a mixture of ethanol/butanol (20:60) compared to a FPF of 19.7 ± 1.9% obtained for commercial lactose. Engineered lactose carriers with modified anomer content and physicochemical properties, when compared to the commercial grade, produced formulations which generated a high FPF.

  18. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    ocean as it responds to mesoscale forcing. APPROACH Figure 1: MVP system deployed from stern of R/V Endeavor in Sargasso Sea . My approach for...therefore requires integrative efforts with other sea -going investigators and numerical modelers. The Lateral Mixing Experiment project was an ideal...also participated in the sea -going part of this project, taking my group on the R/V Endeavor in June 2011. Our role was to sample around the center of

  19. Preparation of powders suitable for conversion to useful .beta.-aluminas

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Peter E. D.

    1982-01-01

    A process for forming a precursor powder which, when suitably pressed and sintered forms highly pure, densified .beta.- or .beta."-alumina, comprising the steps of: (1) forming a suspension (or slurry) of Bayer-derived Al(OH).sub.3 in a water-miscible solvent; (2) adding an aqueous solution of a Mg compound, a Li compound, a Na compound or mixtures thereof to the Bayer-derived Al(OH).sub.3 suspension while agitating the mixture formed thereby, to produce a gel; (3) drying the gel at a temperature above the normal boiling point of water to produce a powder material; (4) lightly ball milling and sieving said powder material; and (5) heating the ball-milled and sieved powder material at a temperature of between 350.degree. to 900.degree. C. to form the .beta.- or .beta."-alumina precursor powder. The precursor powder, thus formed, may be subsequently isopressed at a high pressure and sintered at an elevated temperature to produce .beta.- or .beta."-alumina. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

  20. Cohering Behavior of Coal Ash with Pellet Scrap Powder and Relationship Between Coal Ash and Kiln Ringing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yong-bin; Zhang, Yan; Zhong, Qiang; Jiang, Tao; Li, Qian; Xu, Bin

    The occurrence of different ringing behaviors in oxidized pellet kiln for two kinds of coal (A and B) with similar properties, is difficult to explain based on the relationship between kiln ringing and coal properties. In this paper, the interaction of coal ash with pellet scrap powder was considered by studying the cohering behavior of powders consisting of them. The results showed that the cohering briquette strength of pellet scrap powder increased considerably when mixed with a small amount of coal ash; a maximum could be reached when the mass percent ratio of coal ash was 1.5%; the strength of powder mixed with coal B ash was always higher in same firing system. This obviously illustrated that coal B caused a more serious ringing problem. The relevant mechanism was that the stronger reactivity of coal B ash made cohering briquette have a more perfect crystallization and a more compact structure.

  1. [Identication of pearl powder and conch powder from different origins by differential scanning calorimetry].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Li, Ming-hua; Yu, Kun-zi; Dong, Ya-juan; Zhang, Nan-ping; Hu, Xiao-ru; Wei, Feng; Ma, Shuang-cheng

    2015-04-01

    The paper is aimed to establish a methods for identication of pearl powder and conch powder from different origins. Hermetic aluminum pan was used to encapsulate samples. The optimal testing conditions were: heating rate 10 degrees C x min(-1), sample weight 3 mg and nitrogen gas flow rate 40 mL x min(-1). The enthalpy values of pearl powder and conch powder was obvious different. Identication of pearl powder and conch powder by DSC is a practical method for its accuracy, convenience and practificality.

  2. [Study on physical properties of titanium alloy sample fabricated with vacuum-sintered powder metallurgy].

    PubMed

    Ding, X; Liang, X; Chao, Y; Han, X

    2000-06-01

    To investigate the physical properties of titanium alloy fabricated with vacuum-sintered powder metallurgy. The titanium powders of three different particle sizes(-160mesh, -200 - +300mesh, -300mesh) were selected, and mixed with copper and aluminum powder in different proportions. Two other groups were made up of titanium powder(-200 - +300mesh) plated with copper and tin. The build-up and, condensation method and a double-direction press with a metal mold were used. The green compacts were sintered at 1000 degrees C for 15 minutes in a vacuum furnace at 0.025 Pa. In the double-direction press, the specimens were compacted at the pressure of 100 MPa, 200 MPa and 300 MPa respectively. Then the linear shrinkage ratio and the opening porosity of the sintered compacts were evaluated respectively. 1. The linear shrinkage ratio of specimens decreased with the increased compacted pressure(P < 0.05). There was no significant difference among the linear shrinkage ratios of three different titanium powders at the same compacted pressure(P > 0.05), but that of titanium powder plated with copper and tin was higher than those of other specimens without plating(P < 0.05). 2. The opening porosity of specimens decreased with the increased compacted pressure(P < 0.05). Three different sized particle of titanium powder did not affect the opening porosity at the same compacted pressure(P > 0.05). The composition of titanium-based metal powder mixtures and the compacted pressures affect the physical properties of sintered compacts. Titanium powder plated with copper and tin is compacted and sintered easily, and the physical properties of sintered compacts are greatly improved.

  3. Enhancement of aged and denatured fingerprints using the cyanoacrylate fuming technique following dusting with amino acid-containing powders.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Carly; Almond, Matthew J; Baum, John V; Bond, John W

    2013-03-01

    We have carried out experiments to investigate the aging of latent fingerprints deposited on black PVC over a period of 4-15 weeks. A thumbprint was used in each case and before deposition of the print the donor rubbed their thumb around their nose to add sebaceous deposits. We have studied the effect of heat, light, and moisture and we find that moisture is the most significant factor in the degradation of the latent print. We have attempted to enhance these latent prints by dusting with valine powder or powders composed of valine mixed with gold or red fluorescent commercial fingerprint powders. To make a direct comparison between "treated" and "untreated" prints, the prints were cut in half with one-half being "treated" and one-half not. Our studies show the best results being obtained when powders of valine and red fluorescent powders are applied prior to cyanoacrylate fuming. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Analysis of copper mixed kerosene servotherm in EDM of Monel 400™

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandakumar, P. A.; Molla, Baya; Biruke, Fisha; Aravind, S.

    2017-05-01

    Powder mixed electro discharge machine process (PMEDM) is a hybrid machine process where a conductive powders is mixed to the dielectric fluid to facilitate effective machining of advanced material. This present study focused on performance of copper mixed kerosene servotherm as dielectric medium in EDM of Monel 400TM. The ratio of kerosene sevothermis 75 : 25. The copper powder was mixed with dielectric medium of kerosene servothem of 6g, 8g and 10 g respectively. This mixture was analyzed using different current rate of 8 amps, 10 amps and 12 amps to know the performance characteristics by using material removal rate, tool wear rate, diameter overcut, surface finish and dimensional accuracy. Based on the experimental investigation it is concluded that copper powder of 10g with 10 amps performed well than that of all other parameters.

  5. Powdered aluminum and oxygen rocket propellants: Subscale combustion experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Mike L.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum combined with oxygen has been proposed as a potential lunar in situ propellant for ascent/descent and return missions for future lunar exploration. Engine concepts proposed to use this propellant have not previously been demonstrated, and the impact on performance from combustion and two-phase flow losses could only be estimated. Therefore, combustion tests were performed for aluminum and aluminum/magnesium alloy powders with oxygen in subscale heat-sink rocket engine hardware. The metal powder was pneumatically injected, with a small amount of nitrogen, through the center orifice of a single element O-F-O triplet injector. Gaseous oxygen impinged on the fuel stream. Hot-fire tests of aluminum/oxygen were performed over a mixture ratio range of 0.5 to 3.0, and at a chamber pressure of approximately 480 kPa (70 psia). The theoretical performance of the propellants was analyzed over a mixture ratio range of 0.5 to 5.0. In the theoretical predictions the ideal one-dimensional equilibrium rocket performance was reduced by loss mechanisms including finite rate kinetics, two-dimensional divergence losses, and boundary layer losses. Lower than predicted characteristic velocity and specific impulse performance efficiencies were achieved in the hot-fire tests, and this was attributed to poor mixing of the propellants and two-phase flow effects. Several tests with aluminum/9.8 percent magnesium alloy powder did not indicate any advantage over the pure aluminum fuel.

  6. Metal powder absorptivity: Modeling and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, C. D.; Mitchell, S. C.; Rubenchik, A. M.; Wu, S. S. Q.

    2016-08-10

    Here, we present results of numerical modeling and direct calorimetric measurements of the powder absorptivity for a number of metals. The modeling results generally correlate well with experiment. We show that the powder absorptivity is determined, to a great extent, by the absorptivity of a flat surface at normal incidence. Our results allow the prediction of the powder absorptivity from normal flat-surface absorptivity measurements.

  7. Metallurgical Characterization of Aluminum Powder Consolidation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    At02 165 METALLURGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ALUMINUM POWDER 1/$ CONSOLIDATION(U) MCDONNELL DOUGLAS RESEARCH LABS ST LOUIS MO S M SASTRY ET AL MAY 87...METALLURGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ALUMINUM POWDER CONSOLIDATION (0 S. M. L. Sastry R. J. Lederich T. C. Peng .o J. E. O’Neal I McDonnell Douglas...W ETALLURGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ALUMINUM Final Technical Report POWDER CONSOLIDATION 1 Sep. 1983-1 Mar. 1987 6. PERFORMING ORqG. REPORT NUMBER 7

  8. Metal powder absorptivity: Modeling and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, C. D.; Mitchell, S. C.; Rubenchik, A. M.; Wu, S. S. Q.

    2016-08-10

    Here, we present results of numerical modeling and direct calorimetric measurements of the powder absorptivity for a number of metals. The modeling results generally correlate well with experiment. We show that the powder absorptivity is determined, to a great extent, by the absorptivity of a flat surface at normal incidence. Our results allow the prediction of the powder absorptivity from normal flat-surface absorptivity measurements.

  9. Heat storage material comprising lithium chlorate-trihydrate and a nucleating agent

    SciTech Connect

    Gawron, K.; Schroder, J.

    1980-02-19

    A heat storage material comprising lithium chlorate-trihydrate as the heat storage medium and potassium perchlorate and/or sodium, potassium or barium hexafluorosilicate as the nucleating agent to reduce supercooling.

  10. Thermally stable drilling fluid additive comprised of a copolymer of catechol-based monomer

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, A.D.

    1986-06-17

    A water soluble polymer is described having thermal stability and exhibiting utility as an aqueous drilling fluid additive comprising: (a) a major portion of a catechol based monomer; (b) a minor portion of a dicarboxylic acid monomer.

  11. Nanolipoprotein particles comprising a natural rubber biosynthetic enzyme complex and related products, methods and systems

    DOEpatents

    Hoeprich, Paul D.; Whalen, Maureen

    2016-04-05

    Provided herein are nanolipoprotein particles that comprise a biosynthetic enzyme more particularly an enzyme capable of catalyzing rubber or other rubbers polymerization, and related assemblies, devices, methods and systems.

  12. Using Remote Sensing and Radar Meteorological Data to Support Watershed Assessments Comprising Integrated Environmental Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meteorological (MET) data required by watershed assessments comprising Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) traditionally have been provided by land-based weather (gauge) stations, although these data may not be the most appropriate for adequate spatial and temporal resolution...

  13. Using Remote Sensing and Radar MET Data to Support Watershed Assessments Comprising IEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meteorological (MET) data required by watershed assessments that comprise Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) have traditionally been provided by land-based weather (gauge) stations; although these data may not be most appropriate for describing adequate spatial and temporal...

  14. Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes Comprising Magnetically Sensitive Metal Oxides in Nanofluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Haiping (Inventor); Peterson, G. P. " Bud" (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is a nanoparticle mixture or suspension or nanofluid comprising nonmagnetically sensitive nanoparticles, magnetically sensitive nanoparticles, and surfactant(s). The present invention also relates to methods of preparing and using the same.

  15. Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes Comprising Magnetically Sensitive Metal Oxides in Nanofluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Haiping (Inventor); Peterson, G. P. 'Bud' (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a nanoparticle mixture or suspension or nanofluid comprising nonmagnetically sensitive nanoparticles, magnetically sensitive nanoparticles, and surfactant(s). The present invention also relates to methods of preparing and using the same.

  16. Using Remote Sensing and Radar MET Data to Support Watershed Assessments Comprising IEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meteorological (MET) data required by watershed assessments that comprise Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) have traditionally been provided by land-based weather (gauge) stations; although these data may not be most appropriate for describing adequate spatial and temporal...

  17. Using Remote Sensing and Radar Meteorological Data to Support Watershed Assessments Comprising Integrated Environmental Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meteorological (MET) data required by watershed assessments comprising Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) traditionally have been provided by land-based weather (gauge) stations, although these data may not be the most appropriate for adequate spatial and temporal resolution...

  18. Dendritic microstructure in argon atomized superalloy powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.; Kumar, Mahundra

    1986-01-01

    The dendritic microstructure of atomized nickel base superalloy powders (Ni-20 pct Cr, NIMONIC-80A, ASTROALOY, and ZHS6-K) was studied. Prealloyed vacuum induction melted ingots were argon-atomized, the powders were cooled to room temperature, and various powder-size fractions were examined by optical metallography. Linear correlations were obtained for the powder size dependence of the secondary dendrite arm spacing, following the expected d-alpha (R) to the m power dependence on the particle size for all four superalloy compositions. However, the Ni-20 pct Cr alloy, which had much coarser arm spacing as compared to the other three alloys, had a much larger value of m.

  19. Metal powder reactions in ball milling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arias, A.

    1976-01-01

    On milling chromium powder in three metal chlorides and either chromium or nickel powders in ten organic liquids representative of nine different functional groups, the powders always reacted with the liquids and became contaminated with elements from them. The milled powders had specific surface areas ranging from 0.14 to 37 sq m/g, and the total contamination with elements from the milling liquid ranged from 0.01 to 56 wt%. In most milling runs, compounds resulting from substitution, addition, or elimination reactions formed in or from the milling liquid, and in most runs with organic liquids H2, CH4, and CO2 were generated.

  20. How to freeze drop oscillations with powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, Jeremy; Zhu, Ying; Vakarelski, Ivan; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2012-11-01

    We present experiments that show when a water drop impacts onto a bed of fine, hydrophobic powder, the final form of the drop can be very different from the spherical form with which it impacts. For all drop impact speeds, the drop rebounds due to the hydrophobic nature of the powder. However, we observe that above a critical impact speed, the drop undergoes a permanent deformation to a highly non-spherical shape with a complete coverage of powder, thus creating a deformed liquid marble. This powder coating acts to freeze the drop oscillations during rebound.

  1. Synthesis of mullite powders by acrylamide polymerization.

    SciTech Connect

    Sin, A.; Picciolo, J. J.; Lee, R. H.; Gutierrez-Mora, F.; Goretta, K. C.; Energy Technology; INPG-CNRS

    2001-09-01

    Mullite (3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {center_dot} 2SiO{sub 2}) ceramics and composites are widely used. Synthesis of mullite powders, especially those that can be readily sintered, remains a focus of much current research. In support of recent efforts to fabricate mullite fibrous monoliths and to use superplastic flow to join ceramics, we have looked to synthesize reactive mullite powders. Recent advances in application of acrylamide polymers to ceramic synthesis offer promise of obtaining large quantities of high-quality powder at relatively low cost. We report here on synthesis from acrylamide monomers of mullite powders of two interesting particle sizes.

  2. Composites comprising silicon carbide fibers dispersed in magnesia-aluminate matrix and fabrication thereof and of other composites by sinter forging

    DOEpatents

    Panda, Prakash C.; Seydel, Edgar R.; Raj, Rishi

    1989-10-03

    A novel ceramic-ceramic composite of a uniform dispersion of silicon carbide fibers in a matrix of MgO.multidot.nAl.sub.2 O.sub.3 wherein n ranges from about 1 to about 4.5, said composite comprising by volume from 1 to 50% silicon carbide fibers and from 99 to 50% MgO.multidot.nAl.sub.2 O.sub.3. The composite is readily fabricated by forming a powder comprising a uniform dispersion of silicon carbide fibers in poorly crystalline phase comprising MgO and Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in a mole ratio of n and either (a) hot pressing or preferably (b) cold pressing to form a preform and then forging utilizing a temperature in the range of 1100.degree. C. to 1900.degree. C. and a strain rate ranging from about 10.sup.-5 seconds .sup.-1 to about 1 seconds .sup.-1 so that surfaces cracks do not appear to obtain a shear deformation greater than 30%.

  3. Coated phosphors, methods of making them, and articles comprising the same

    DOEpatents

    Lyons, Robert Joseph

    2013-02-19

    Compositions comprising a phosphor and a compound having the formula R.sub.1R.sub.2M, wherein R.sub.1 is a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, arylalkyl, heteroarylalkyl, alkoxy, alkoxyl, acyl heterocycle, haloalkyl, oxaalkyl, or silyl; R.sub.2 is a sulfate, sulfonate, or carboxylate and M is an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal are provided. Phosphors coated with the compound, methods of making the coated phosphors and articles comprising the compositions are provided.

  4. Kinetic energy density and agglomerate abrasion rate during blending of agglomerates into powders.

    PubMed

    Willemsz, Tofan A; Hooijmaijers, Ricardo; Rubingh, Carina M; Tran, Thanh N; Frijlink, Henderik W; Vromans, Herman; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees

    2012-01-23

    Problems related to the blending of a cohesive powder with a free flowing bulk powder are frequently encountered in the pharmaceutical industry. The cohesive powder often forms lumps or agglomerates which are not dispersed during the mixing process and are therefore detrimental to blend uniformity. Achieving sufficient blend uniformity requires that the blending conditions are able to break up agglomerates, which is often an abrasion process. This study was based on the assumption that the abrasion rate of agglomerates determines the required blending time. It is shown that the kinetic energy density of the moving powder bed is a relevant parameter which correlates with the abrasion rate of agglomerates. However, aspects related to the strength of agglomerates should also be considered. For this reason the Stokes abrasion number (St(Abr)) has been defined. This parameter describes the ratio between the kinetic energy density of the moving powder bed and the work of fracture of the agglomerate. The St(Abr) number is shown to predict the abrasion potential of agglomerates in the dry-mixing process. It appeared possible to include effects of filler particle size and impeller rotational rate into this concept. A clear relationship between abrasion rate of agglomerates and the value of St(Abr) was demonstrated.

  5. Investigation of Properties of Powder Injection-Molded Steatites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urtekin, L.; Uslan, I.; Tuc, B.

    2012-03-01

    In this study, the mechanical and micro-structural properties of injection-molded steatites were investigated experimentally. Initially, steatite powders and binders of polyethylene glycol (PEG), polypropylene (PP), and stearic aside (SA) were mixed to prepare the feedstock. The mixing powders were granulated using the extruder. The short granules in cylindrical shapes were used as the feedstock in the injection-molding operations. Solvent- and thermal-debinding processes were applied to the green samples after the molding. The samples were sintered at 1300 °C for 4 h, and a theoretical density of 98-99% was achieved. Three-point bending and tensile tests were performed on the samples which were sintered at 1200-1300 °C. The maximum three-point bending and tensile strength values were found as 154 and 47 MPa, respectively. The morphology of fractured surface was done by scanning electron microscopy whereas porosity investigations were carried out using the same microscopy. Grain growth and structure on the specimens were also investigated using transmission electron microscopy.

  6. Chemical Reactions in Turbulent Mixing Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-15

    investigations of turbulent mixing, chemical reaction and combustion processes in turbulent, subsonic and supersonic flows. The program was comprised of...34) n•4I Abstract The purpose of this research is to conduct fundamental investigations of tur- bulent mixing, chemical reaction and combustion processes ...Another issue to consider is that different data- processing used on the different sets of data might result in differences between sets of data. To this end

  7. Mixing insert for foam dispensing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, W. G. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A device for mixing foam ingredients is described. The device comprises an arrangement of lands situated about a cylindrical elongated shaft-like member with each land having a slot. The slots of alternate lands are positioned 180 deg from each other so that as the ingredients flow through the mixing chamber they flow from adjacent one side of the housing to the other dividing as such passes around the shaft-like member.

  8. Production of coconut protein powder from coconut wet processing waste and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Naik, Aduja; Raghavendra, S N; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2012-07-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been gaining popularity in recent times. During its production, byproducts such as coconut skim milk and insoluble protein are obtained which are underutilized or thrown away to the environment at present. This study deals with utilization of these byproducts to obtain a value-added product, namely, coconut protein powder. When coconut milk was subjected to centrifugation, three phases, namely, fat phase (coconut cream), aqueous phase (coconut skim milk), and solid phase (insoluble protein) were obtained. The coconut skim milk and insoluble protein were mixed and homogenized before spray drying to obtain a dehydrated protein powder. The proximate analysis of the powder showed high protein content (33 % w/w) and low fat content (3 % w/w). Protein solubility was studied as a function of pH and ionic content of solvent. Functional properties such as water hydration capacity, fat absorption capacity, emulsifying properties, wettability, and dispersibility of coconut protein powder were evaluated along with morphological characterization, polyphenol content, and color analysis. Coconut protein powder has shown to have good emulsifying properties and hence has potential to find applications in emulsified foods. Sensory analysis showed high overall quality of the product, indicating that coconut protein powder could be a useful food ingredient.

  9. The use of glass powder as a partial Portland cement replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, Jaroslav; Pavlíková, Milena; Tydlitát, Vratislav; Scheinherrová, Lenka; Rovnaníková, Pavla; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2017-07-01

    Finely grinded waste glass powder can become material having suitable properties from the point of view of particle size and pozzolanic activity. Glass powder incorporation into cement paste and cement-based composites can bring improvement in porous structure resulting in increased mechanical strength and durability characteristics. On this account, two types of recycled glass powder are investigated in the presented paper as a possible partial Portland cement substitutes in cement blends. For raw glass powders, basic physical parameters and chemical composition are measured. The studied glass powders are applied as 5, 10 and 20 mass% of Portland cement replacement in cement paste mix composition, whereas water/binder ratio of 0.3 is used for all studied pastes. Fresh paste mixtures are characterized using initial and final setting time measurement. For hardened pastes cured 28 days in water, bulk density, matrix density, total open porosity and mechanical properties represented by flexural and compressive strength are accessed. Portlandite consumption by the pozzolanic reaction is monitored with TGA. The obtained results show effectiveness of a borosilicate glass powder that acts as a pozzolanic active admixture. This resulted in improvement of mechanical characteristics for cement substitution up to 10 mass%.

  10. Elemental analysis of powders with surface-assisted thin film laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ye; Cheung, Hoi Ching; Zheng, Ronger; Ma, Qianli; Chen, Yanping; Delepine-Gilon, Nicole; Yu, Jin

    2016-10-01

    We have developed in this work a method of elemental analysis of powdered materials with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). This method requires simple sample preparation. Powders are first mixed into a 75 cSt base oil to obtain a paste which is then smeared onto the polished surface of a solid state substrate, aluminum plate for instance, in the form of a uniform thin film. The prepared sample is ablated by a high energy infrared (IR at 1064 nm) nanosecond laser pulse. The laser beam transmits through the coating layer of the material to be analyzed and induces a strong plasma from the substrate. The initial plasma interacts in turn with the coating layer, leading to the vaporization and excitation of the incorporated powder particles. The subsequent emission from the plasma includes emission lines of the elements contained in the powder, which is preferentially captured by a suitable detection system. The analysis of the recorded spectrum allows the concentration determination of the targeted elements in the powder. We first applied the method on a cellulose powder of 20 μm typical particle size. The powder was spiked with titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles for Ti concentrations ranging from 25 ppm to 5000 ppm by weight. Calibration graphs were thus built to deduce figures-of-merit parameters such as the coefficient of determination (R2) and the limits of detection and quantification (LoD and LoQ). We optimized especially the choice of reference line for spectrum normalization, which resulted in better analytical performances. In the second step, two sets of powders, the aforementioned cellulose powder and an alumina powder with average particle size of ≤ 10 μm, were spiked with TiO2 nanoparticles. We then assessed the matrix effect between these two different powders for the determination of Ti by comparing their calibration curves. Our results show universal calibration curve in Ti determination in the two tested matrices. The results are

  11. Using mineral trioxide aggregate powder as an apical barrier: a bacterial leakage study.

    PubMed

    Milani, Amin Salem; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Pakdel, Mahdi Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been used successfully for the treatment of necrotic immature teeth as part of a 2-step apical barrier. Recently, some researchers have used MTA powder instead of wet-mix MTA. It has also been used in a single-step approach in order to decrease the number of patient appointments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial microleakage of MTA powder in comparison with wet-mix MTA, in single or 2-step barrier approaches. This ex vivo study was carried out on 70 extracted single-rooted teeth. The canals were enlarged to simulate immature teeth. The prepared specimens were assigned to 4 experimental (n = 15) and 2 control (n = 5) groups. In Group 1, a wet paper point was placed in the canal following placement of wet-mix MTA. In Group 2, a dry paper point was placed on wet-mix MTA. In Group 3, the samples were treated similar to Group 1, but MTA powder was used instead of wet-mix MTA. In Group 4, the same procedures were followed as Group 3 except that a dry paper point was used. Microleakage of the samples was compared using a 2-chamber bacterial leakage apparatus. Results showed that there were no significant differences in the number of leaked samples or rate of leakage over time (P > 0.05) among the experimental groups. It can be concluded that MTA used in a single step approach has the same resistance against bacterial penetration as in a 2-step approach, and MTA powder provides the same sealing ability as wet-mix MTA.

  12. Ultrasonic sensing of powder densification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yichi; Wadley, Haydn N. G.; Parthasarathi, Sanjai

    1992-01-01

    An independent scattering theory has been applied to the interpretation of ultrasonic velocity measurements made on porous metal samples produced either by a cold or a high-temperature compaction process. The results suggest that the pores in both processes are not spherical, an aspect ration of 1:3 fitting best with the data for low (less than 4 percent) pore volume fractions. For the hot compacted powders, the pores are smooth due to active diffusional processes during processing. For these types of voids, the results can be extended to a pore fraction of 10 percent, at which point voids form an interconnected network that violates the model assumptions. The cold pressed samples are not as well predicted by the theory because of poor particle bonding.

  13. Rapid Synthesis of a Near-β Titanium Alloy by Blended Elemental Powder Metallurgy (BEPM) with Induction Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Mingtu; Gabbitas, Brian

    2015-10-01

    A near-β Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al alloy was produced by blended elemental powder metallurgy combining warm compaction and induction sintering. Two Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al powder compacts with different oxygen content were manufactured by mixing PREP and HDH Ti powders with Cr and AlV master alloy powders, respectively. The effect of isothermal holding time, at a sintering temperature of 1573 K (1300 °C), on pore characteristics and compositional homogeneity was investigated in this study. Pore coarsening by Ostwald ripening occurred with an increase in the isothermal holding time and Kirkendall voids were produced by a reaction between Ti and Cr. After an isothermal holding time of 10 minutes, the two sintered powder compacts had a homogeneous composition. Ti/AlV and Ti/Cr diffusion couples were used to predict the distribution of alloying elements, and the binary Ti-V, Ti-Al, and Ti-Cr interdiffusion coefficients were consistent with the distribution of alloying elements after isothermal holding. The mechanical properties of sintered powder compacts, prepared using PREP Ti powder as the raw powder, were optimized by sintered density and pore size.

  14. Electrochemical properties of MnS-C and MnO-C composite powders prepared via spray drying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Kyung Min; Cho, Jung Sang; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-11-01

    Spherical micron-sized MnS-C and MnO-C composite powders are successfully prepared by post-treating the spray-dried precursor powders. Dextrin, which is used as the carbon source material, plays a key role in the preparation of the composite powders with regular morphologies; the bare MnS and MnO powders prepared from the spray solution without dextrin have irregular morphologies. The MnS-C composite powders prepared from the spray solution containing 17 g L-1 of dextrin have mixed crystal structures of α- and γ-MnS phases. These powders exhibit superior electrochemical properties compared with those of their MnS and MnO-C counterparts. For example, at a current density of 0.5 A g-1, the MnO-C powders have a 100th-cycle discharge capacity of 321 mA h g-1; the corresponding discharge capacities of the MnS powders prepared from spray solutions containing 0, 17, and 50 g L-1 of dextrin are 501, 786, and 636 mA h g-1, respectively.

  15. N-type nano-silicon powders with ultra-low electrical resistivity as anode materials in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Zhihao; Zhou, Lang; Jin, Chenxin; Xu, Guojun; Liu, Liekai; Tang, Hao; Li, Xiaomin; Sun, Fugen; Huang, Haibin; Yuan, Jiren

    2017-06-01

    N-type silicon wafers with electrical resistivity of 0.001 Ω cm were ball-milled to powders and part of them was further mechanically crushed by sand-milling to smaller particles of nano-size. Both the sand-milled and ball-milled silicon powders were, respectively, mixed with graphite powder (silicon:graphite = 5:95, weight ratio) as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Electrochemical measurements, including cycle and rate tests, present that anode using sand-milled silicon powder performed much better. The first discharge capacity of sand-milled silicon anode is 549.7 mAh/g and it is still up to 420.4 mAh/g after 100 cycles. Besides, the D50 of sand-milled silicon powder shows ten times smaller in particle size than that of ball-milled silicon powder, and they are 276 nm and 2.6 μm, respectively. In addition, there exist some amorphous silicon components in the sand-milled silicon powder excepting the multi-crystalline silicon, which is very different from the ball-milled silicon powder made up of multi-crystalline silicon only.

  16. Investigation of Shock-Induced Chemical Reactions in Mo-Si Powder Mixtures Using Instrumented Experiments with PVDF Stress Gauges

    SciTech Connect

    Vandersall, K S; Thadhani, N N

    2001-05-29

    Shock-induced chemical reactions in {approx}58% dense Mo+2Si powder mixtures were investigated using time-resolved instrumented experiments, employing PVDF-piezoelectric stress gauges placed at the front and rear surfaces of the powders to measure the input and propagated stresses, and wave speed through the powder mixture. Experiments performed on the powders at input stresses less than 4 GPa, showed characteristics of powder densification and dispersed propagated wave stress profiles with rise time > {approx}40 nanoseconds. At input stress between 4-6 GPa, the powder mixtures showed a sharp rise time (<{approx}10 ns) of propagated wave profile and an expanded state of products revealing evidence of shock-induced chemical reaction. At input stresses greater than 6 GPa, the powder mixtures showed a slower propagated-stress-wave rise time and transition to a low-compressibility (melt) state indicating lack of shock-induced reaction. The results illustrate that premature melting of Si, at input stresses less than the crush-strength of the powder mixtures, restricts mixing between reactants and inhibits ''shock-induced'' reaction initiation.

  17. a Novel Method to Synthesis of β-TCP/HA Biphasic Nanocrystalline Powder by Using Bovine Bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavangarian, F.; Emadi, R.; Roohani Esfahani, S. I.

    Nanocrystalline biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) powder was synthesized from natural bovine bone via a very economic process. The bovine bone was annealed at 900°C for 2 h and elemental compositions were qualitatively identified by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The calcined bovine bone was powdered and mixed with calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4·2H2O, DCPD). After that, the prepared powder was uniaxially pressed into pellets. The pellets were annealed at 900-1200°C and then crushed to obtain nanocrystalline BCP powder. The morphology and microstructure of the BCP powder were studied by SEM. The results showed that the prepared powder consisted of small size and highly agglomerated particles. X-ray diffraction method was utilized to characterize the phase formation and crystallite size of prepared powder. The crystallite sizes of BCP powder calculated by using XRD data were in the range of 20-60 nm.

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Combustion of a Mixture of Ultradisperse Aluminum Powder with Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainov, A. Yu.; Krainov, D. A.; Poryazov, V. A.

    2016-03-01

    The authors present a physicomathematical model of combustion of a mixed solid fuel in the form of a mixture of ultradisperse aluminum powder with gel-like water. The model takes account of the combustion of aluminum particles in steam, the motion of combustion products, and the lag of the velocity of motion of the particles behind that of the gas. The results of calculating the combustion rate are consistent with experimental data on the dependence of the rate of combustion of the mixture of ultradisperse aluminum powder with water on pressure.

  19. Ammonia formation caused by the presence of water in the wet grinding of silicon nitride powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanno, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Kuwahara, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Si3 N4 powder (amorphous, alpha-, and beta-Si3 N4) was mixed with MeOH containing 8.87 mol. % H2O and ground. The NH3 generation rapidly increased after a grinding time of 100 hours. Silicon nitride sintered material was chosen as one of the high temperature, high strength structural materials and studies of the control of the raw material powder, preparation of the sintered body (finding the right assistant, hot press, high pressure sintering, fracture toughness and oxidation at high temperature were performed.

  20. The characteristics of particle charging and deposition during powder coating processes with ultrafine powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiangbo; Zhu, Jingxu Jesse; Zhang, Hui

    2009-03-01

    In a preceding work, the mechanisms of particle charging and deposition during powder coating processes were explored with coarse polyurethane powder. In this paper, the developed mechanisms were further examined with ultrafine polyurethane powder in order to meet the growing needs for ultrafine powder in finishing industries. This study first verified the previous findings in particle deposition, which account for a cone-shaped pattern formed by deposited particles on the substrate and a rise in particle accumulation in the fringe region. It was further demonstrated with ultrafine powder that, as disclosed by using coarse powder, the primary charging of in-flight particles competes with back corona in particle deposition processes, and the highest deposition efficiency is a compromise by balancing their effects. In comparison with coarse powder, ultrafine powder presents a faster reduction in the deposition rate with extended spraying duration, but shows some superiority in the uniformity of the deposited layer. In the case of charging characteristics of the deposited particles, it was further substantiated with ultrafine powder that the secondary charging mechanism takes predominance in determining the distribution of local charge-to-mass ratios. It was also disclosed that ultrafine powder shows a decreasing charge-to-mass ratio with increased charging voltage in the deposited layer, opposite to the increasing tendency of coarse powder. However, it was commonly demonstrated by both coarse and ultrafine powders that the charge-to-mass ratio of the deposited particles decreases with the extended spraying durations. In comparison, ultrafine powder is more likely to produce uniform charge-to-mass ratio distributions in the deposited layer, which contrast sharply with the ones associated with the coarse powder. In conclusion, it is believed that this study supplements the preceding study and is of great help in providing a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms