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Sample records for powdered milk protein

  1. Heat stability of reconstituted, protein-standardized skim milk powders.

    PubMed

    Sikand, V; Tong, P S; Walker, J

    2010-12-01

    We determined the effects of standardization material, protein content, and pH on the heat stability of reconstituted milk made from low-heat (LH) and medium-heat (MH) nonfat dry milk (NDM). Low-heat and MH NDM were standardized downward from 35.5% to 34, 32, and 30% protein by adding either edible lactose powder (ELP) or permeate powder (PP) from skim milk ultrafiltration. These powders were called standardized skim milk powders (SSMP). The LH and MH NDM and SSMP were reconstituted to 9% total solids. Furthermore, subsamples of reconstituted NDM and SSMP samples were set aside to measure heat stability at native (unadjusted) pH, and the rest were adjusted to pH 6.3 to 7.0. Heat stability is defined as heat coagulation time at 140°C of the reconstituted LH or MH NDM and SSMP samples. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times at unadjusted pH values and 2 times at adjusted pH values. At an unadjusted pH, powder type, standardization material, and protein content influenced the heat stability of the samples. Heat stability for reconstituted LH NDM and SSMP was higher than reconstituted MH NDM and SSMP. Generally, decreased heat stability was observed in reconstituted LH or MH SSMP as protein content was decreased by standardization. However, adding ELP to MH SSMP did not significantly change its heat stability. When pH was adjusted to values between 6.3 and 7.0, powder type, standardization material, and pH had a significant effect on heat stability, whereas protein content did not. Maximum heat stability was noted at pH 6.7 for both reconstituted LH NDM and SSMP samples, and at pH 6.6 for both reconstituted MH NDM and SSMP samples. Furthermore, for samples with adjusted pH, higher heat stability was observed for reconstituted LH SSMP containing PP compared with reconstituted milk from LH SSMP containing ELP. However, no statistical difference was observed in the heat stability of reconstituted milk from MH NDM and MH SSMP samples. We conclude that powder type

  2. NIRS and MIRS technique for the determination of protein and fat content in milk powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Feng, Shuijuan; He, Chao; He, Yong

    2008-03-01

    It is very important to detect the protein and fat content in milk powder fast and non-destructively. Near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared(MIR) spectroscopy techniques have been compared and evaluated for the determination of the protein and fat content in milk powder with the use of Least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM). LS-SVM models have been developed by using both NIR and MIR spectra. Both methods have shown good correlations between infrared transmission values and two nutrition contents. MIRS provided better prediction performance over NIRS. It is concluded that infrared spectroscopy technique can quantify of the protein and fat content in milk powder fast and nondestructively. The process is simple and easy to operate than chemistry methods. The results can be beneficial for designing a simple and non-destructive instrument with MIRS or NIRS spectral sensor for the determination of the protein fat content in milk powder.

  3. Direct biosensor immunoassays for the detection of nonmilk proteins in milk powder.

    PubMed

    Haasnoot, W; Olieman, K; Cazemier, G; Verheijen, R

    2001-11-01

    The low prices of some nonmilk proteins make them attractive as potential adulterants in dairy products. An optical biosensor (BIACORE 3000) was used to develop a direct and combined biosensor immunoassay (BIA) for the simultaneous detection of soy, pea, and soluble wheat proteins in milk powders. Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies raised against the three protein sources were immobilized in different flow channels (Fcs) on the biosensor chip (CM5). Dissolved milk powders were injected (20 microL injections at 20 microL min(-1)) through the serially connected Fcs, and the antibody-bound plant proteins were detected directly. The total run time between samples, including a regeneration step with 5 microL of 10 mM HCl, was 5 min. The limits of detection in milk powder were below 0.1% of plant protein in the total milk protein content. The antibodies also recognized some proteins from other plant sources, which made this BIA even more suitable as a broad screening assay for nonmilk proteins. PMID:11714303

  4. The Measurement of Protein in Powdered Milk Products and Infant Formulas: A Review and Recent Developments.

    PubMed

    Elgar, Dave; Evers, Jaap M; Holroyd, Stephen E; Johnson, Richard; Rowan, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are a key nutritional component of both powdered milk and infant formula types of product, and reliable methods for their determination are important for manufacturing and international trade. In this review, we distinguish between methods used for determining protein quality for nutrition purposes and those used for determining chemically defined protein. The former methods cover the ability of a dietary protein source to meet human nutritional requirements for the indispensable amino acids. The latter are chemical methods for the determination of total protein and can be divided into three broad types: total nitrogen determination, direct protein determination, and indirect protein determination. Current techniques and recent developments in each are reviewed. PMID:26823162

  5. Composition of the non-protein nitrogen fraction of goat whole milk powder and goat milk-based infant and follow-on formulae.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Colin G; Mclaren, Robert D; Frost, Deborah; Agnew, Michael; Lowry, Dianne J

    2008-03-01

    The non-protein nitrogen fraction of goat whole milk powder and of infant and follow-on formulae made from goat milk was characterized and compared with cow milk powder and formulae. Goat milk infant formula contained 10% non-protein nitrogen, expressed as a proportion of total nitrogen, compared with 7.1% for cow milk formula. Goat follow-on formula contained 9.3% and cow 7.4% non-protein nitrogen. Urea, at 30%, was quantitatively the most abundant component of the non-protein nitrogen fraction of goat milk and formulae, followed by free amino acids at 7%. Taurine, glycine and glutamic acid were the most abundant free amino acids in goat milk powders. Goat milk infant formula contained 4 mg/100 ml total nucleotide monophosphates, all derived from the goat milk itself. Goat milk has a very different profile of the non-protein nitrogen fraction to cow milk, with several constituents such as nucleotides at concentrations approaching those in human breast milk.

  6. Fast and selective determination of total protein in milk powder via titration of moving reaction boundary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Cheng-ye; Wang, Hou-yu; Liu, Xiao-ping; Fan, Liu-yin; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Cheng-xi

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, moving reaction boundary titration (MRBT) was developed for rapid and accurate quantification of total protein in infant milk powder, from the concept of moving reaction boundary (MRB) electrophoresis. In the method, the MRB was formed by the hydroxide ions and the acidic residues of milk proteins immobilized via cross-linked polyacrylamide gel (PAG), an acid-base indicator was used to denote the boundary motion. As a proof of concept, we chose five brands of infant milk powders to study the feasibility of MRBT method. The calibration curve of MRB velocity versus logarithmic total protein content of infant milk powder sample was established based on the visual signal of MRB motion as a function of logarithmic milk protein content. Weak influence of nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) reagents (e.g., melamine and urea) on MRBT method was observed, due to the fact that MRB was formed with hydroxide ions and the acidic residues of captured milk proteins, rather than the alkaline residues or the NPN reagents added. The total protein contents in infant milk powder samples detected via the MRBT method were in good agreement with those achieved by the classic Kjeldahl method. In addition, the developed method had much faster measuring speed compared with the Kjeldahl method.

  7. Effects of milk powders in milk chocolate.

    PubMed

    Liang, B; Hartel, R W

    2004-01-01

    The physical characteristics of milk powders used in chocolate can have significant impact on the processing conditions needed to make that chocolate and the physical and organoleptic properties of the finished product. Four milk powders with different particle characteristics (size, shape, density) and "free" milk fat levels (easily extracted with organic solvent) were evaluated for their effect on the processing conditions and characteristics of chocolates in which they were used. Many aspects of chocolate manufacture and storage (tempering conditions, melt rheology, hardness, bloom stability) were dependent on the level of free milk fat in the milk powder. However, particle characteristics of the milk powder also influenced the physical and sensory properties of the final products.

  8. Kinetics of enthalpy relaxation of milk protein concentrate powder upon ageing and its effect on solubility.

    PubMed

    Haque, Enamul; Whittaker, Andrew K; Gidley, Michael J; Deeth, Hilton C; Fibrianto, Kiki; Bhandari, Bhesh R

    2012-10-01

    Kinetics of enthalpy relaxation of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powder upon short-term (up to 67 h) storage at 25 °C and aw 0.85, and long-term (up to 48 days) storage at 25 °C and a range of aw values (0-0.85) were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The short-term study showed a rapid recovery of enthalpy for the first 48 h, followed by a slower steady increase with time. The non-exponential β parameter was calculated using the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts function and found to be 0.39. Long-term storage showed that enthalpy relaxation depends on both storage period and water activity. The enthalpy value was much less for lower moisture content (mc) (aw ≤ 0.23, mc ≤ 5.5%) than for higher mc (aw ≥ 0.45, mc ≥ 8%) samples for a particular storage period. The results suggest that the presence of more water molecules, in close proximity to the protein surface facilitates kinetic unfreezing and subsequent motion of molecular segments of protein molecules towards thermodynamic equilibrium. Although de-ageing of stored samples did not reverse storage-induced solubility losses, the timescale of enthalpy relaxation was similar to that of solubility loss. It is suggested that enthalpy relaxation within stored samples allows structural rearrangements that are responsible for subsequent solubility decreases.

  9. Short communication: Proteins in heat-processed skim milk powder have no positive effects on bone loss of ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Du, M; Kong, Y; Wang, C; Gao, H; Han, X; Yi, H; Zhang, L

    2011-06-01

    Milk has positive effects on bone growth. However, the effect of skim milk powder (SMP) on bone properties has not been reported. This study investigated the effect of SMP on bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized and another 10 rats received a sham operation. The OVX rats were randomly separated into 4 groups: OVX control, OVX SMP1 (SMP at 0.04 g/d), OVX SMP2 (SMP at 0.20 g/d), and OVX SMP3 (SMP at 0.40 g/d). Skim milk powder was supplied in the rat diet for 12 wk, and the rats were gavaged once per day. The effects of SMP on calcium content and bone mineral density of femur were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, respectively. Compared with the control, SMP at all dose levels tested had no particular effect on weight:length, calcium content, or bone mineral density of femurs. It was demonstrated that SMP (0.04 to 0.40 g/d) had no positive effect on bone loss in OVX rats, probably because the heat treatment used during SMP processing caused a loss of biological activity in the protein.

  10. A non-targeted UHPLC-UV methid with classical and multi-variate data analysis to detect adulteration of skim milk powder with foreign proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ultra-High performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with single wavelength (215 nm) detection was used to obtain chromatographic profiles of authentic skim milk powder (SMP) and synthetic mixtures of SMP with variable amounts of soy (SPI), pea (PPI), brown rice (BRP), and hydrolyzed wheat protein (...

  11. Proteomic approach based on MALDI-TOF MS to detect powdered milk in fresh cow's milk.

    PubMed

    Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Monopoli, Antonio; Loizzo, Pasqua; Faccia, Michele; Zambonin, Carlo

    2013-02-27

    Milk and cheese are expensive foodstuffs, and their consumption is spread among the population because of their high nutritional value; for this reason they are often subjected to adulterations. Among the common illegal practices, the addition of powdered derivatives seems very difficult to detect because the adulterant materials have almost the same chemical composition of liquid milk. However, the high temperatures (180-200 °C) used for milk powder production could imply the occurrence of some protein modifications (e.g., glycation, lactosylation, oxidation, deamidation, dehydration). The modified proteins or peptides could then be used as markers for the presence of powdered milk. In this work, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was employed to analyze tryptic digests relevant to samples of raw liquid (without heat treatment), commercial liquid, and powdered cow's milk. Samples were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE); differences among liquid and powder milk were detected at this stage and eventually confirmed by MALDI analysis of the in gel digested proteins. Some diagnostic peptides of powdered milk, attributed to modified whey proteins and/or caseins, were identified. Then, a faster procedure was optimized, consisting of the separation of caseins from milk whey and the subsequent in-solution digestion of the two fractions, with the advantage of obtaining almost the same information in a limited amount of time. Finally, analyses were carried out with the fast procedure on liquid milk samples adulterated with powdered milk at different percentages, and diagnostic peptides were detected down to 1% of adulteration level.

  12. Sequential changes of main components in different kinds of milk powders using two-dimensional infrared correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-Qin; Yu, Lu; Xu, Chang-Hua; Noda, Isao; Zhang, Xin-Rong

    2006-11-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional (2D) correlation IR spectroscopy are shown to offer some information about stability and shelf life of milk powders without separation and extraction of individual components in this paper. Temperature has been chosen as the perturbation to monitor the infrared behavior of various milk powders, namely, whole milk powder (WMP), sweet whole milk powder (Sweet WMP), low-fat milk powder (LFMP), and skim milk powder (SMP). The sequential order of changes in protein, fat and carbohydrates (mainly lactose) in milk powders is studied for the first time. The protein changes before the sucrose in WMP, whereas the sucrose changes before the protein in Sweet WMP under temperature perturbation. It is also found that in SMP, carbohydrate changes prior to protein whereas in LFMP and WMP protein changes first as the temperature is increased. The conclusion can provide some useful reference to understand the thermal stability of milk powders.

  13. The decontamination of industrial casein and milk powder by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żegota, H.; Małolepszy, B.

    2008-09-01

    The efficacy of gamma radiation decontamination of industrial casein, a milk protein utilized as a component of many food and non-food products has been studied. Low-fat milk powder was also included with a purpose to study the microflora survival in protein-rich materials. Microbial analysis of the samples prior to irradiation showed that the initial total viable count was higher than 6.0 log cfu g -1 in both casein and milk powders. The contamination of casein with moulds and yeasts was found to be equal to 3.56 log cfu g -1. The counts of coliforms have not exceeded the value of 2.48 log cfu g -1. Radiation processing of casein and milk powder has substantially reduced the microbial population of all samples. The dose of 5 kGy was sufficient to reduce the total microflora and coliforms counts to the level permitted for food products. Survivals of microorganisms were analyzed by the generalized exponential equation, SF =exp[ -D/ Do) α]. Values of an exponent, α, standing for the dispersion parameter, were equal to 0.65 and 0.70 for microorganisms contaminating casein and milk powders, respectively. The numerical value of the dispersion parameter α<1 indicates the concave dependence of a logarithm of surviving fraction versus radiation dose. No difference in microflora survival in irradiated samples tested immediately and in samples stored for 1-month after irradiation has been noticed.

  14. Effects of milk somatic cell counts on some physicochemical and functional characteristics of skim and whole milk powders.

    PubMed

    Sert, Durmuş; Mercan, Emin; Aydemir, Serdar; Civelek, Mustafa

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of milk somatic cell count (SCC) levels on spray-dried milk powders. For this reason, 3 cow milks with different SCC (<300,000, 300,000-700,000, >700,000 SCC/mL) were processed into skim (SMP) and whole milk powder (WMP). The effect of SCC on the physicochemical and functional characteristics of the milk powders and textural properties of set-type yogurts produced from reconstituted milk powders with different SCC was evaluated. A crucial difference was noted between milk powders depending on different SCC. Protein values and ash content of powder samples decreased correlatively with increasing SCC. The hydroxymethylfurfural content of SMP was higher than WMP. We noted an increase in hydroxymethylfurfural content of both SMP and WMP depending on elevated SCC. Solubility index of SMP and WMP was 1.280 to 1.632 and 0.940 to 1.208mL, respectively; with increasing SCC, solubility index was affected adversely. The highest foam stability was determined in SMP containing >700,000 SCC. Bulk density of SMP and WMP was between 0.682 and 0.708 and 0.660 to 0.685g/cm(3), respectively. An increase was observed in scorched particle of both SMP and WMP depending on increasing SCC. We found significant differences in particle size distribution of milk powders produced from milk with SCC at different levels. Although WMP had more uniform and big particle structure, SMP had more specific area. A negative correlation was noted between yogurt texture and SCC. Results indicate that milk SCC has negative influences on milk powder quality. PMID:27179852

  15. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    PubMed

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy.

  16. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method extension to quantify simultaneously melamine and cyanuric acid in egg powder and soy protein in addition to milk products.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Mondal, Ana Mary; Desmarchelier, Aurélien; Konings, Erik; Acheson-Shalom, Ruth; Delatour, Thierry

    2010-11-24

    As a consequence of the adulteration of infant formulas and milk powders with melamine (MEL) in China in 2008, much attention has been devoted to the analysis of MEL [and cyanuric acid (CA)] in dairy products. Several methods based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), or Raman spectroscopy have been described in the literature. However, no method is available for the simultaneous determination of MEL and CA in other raw materials, which are considered as high-risk materials for economically motivated adulteration. The present paper reports the results of an interlaboratory-based performance evaluation conducted with seven laboratories worldwide. The purpose was to demonstrate the ability of a cleanup-free LC-MS/MS method, originally developed for cow's milk and milk-powdered infant formula, to quantify MEL and CA in egg powder and soy protein. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.02 and 0.05 mg/kg for MEL in egg powder and soy protein, respectively. For CA, LOD and LOQ were 0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg in egg powder and 1.0 and 1.50 mg/kg in soy protein, respectively. Recoveries ranged within a 97-113% range for both MEL and CA in egg powder and soy protein. Reproducibility values (RSD(R)) from seven laboratories were within a 5.4-11.7% range for both analytes in the considered matrices. Horwitz ratio (HorRat) values between 0.4 and 0.7 indicate acceptable among-laboratory precision for the method described. PMID:21038852

  17. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method extension to quantify simultaneously melamine and cyanuric acid in egg powder and soy protein in addition to milk products.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Mondal, Ana Mary; Desmarchelier, Aurélien; Konings, Erik; Acheson-Shalom, Ruth; Delatour, Thierry

    2010-11-24

    As a consequence of the adulteration of infant formulas and milk powders with melamine (MEL) in China in 2008, much attention has been devoted to the analysis of MEL [and cyanuric acid (CA)] in dairy products. Several methods based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), or Raman spectroscopy have been described in the literature. However, no method is available for the simultaneous determination of MEL and CA in other raw materials, which are considered as high-risk materials for economically motivated adulteration. The present paper reports the results of an interlaboratory-based performance evaluation conducted with seven laboratories worldwide. The purpose was to demonstrate the ability of a cleanup-free LC-MS/MS method, originally developed for cow's milk and milk-powdered infant formula, to quantify MEL and CA in egg powder and soy protein. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.02 and 0.05 mg/kg for MEL in egg powder and soy protein, respectively. For CA, LOD and LOQ were 0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg in egg powder and 1.0 and 1.50 mg/kg in soy protein, respectively. Recoveries ranged within a 97-113% range for both MEL and CA in egg powder and soy protein. Reproducibility values (RSD(R)) from seven laboratories were within a 5.4-11.7% range for both analytes in the considered matrices. Horwitz ratio (HorRat) values between 0.4 and 0.7 indicate acceptable among-laboratory precision for the method described.

  18. [The thermophilic streptomycetes flora in milk powders and condensed milk products (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Falkowski, J

    1978-08-01

    247 specimens of powdered milk and 165 of condensed milk were tested for their contamination with thermophile Streptomycetes. Colonies of these contaminants were isolated from all specimens of powdered milk and from 73 samples of condensed sweeted milk. The isolated strains corresponded with the following species of thermophilic Streptomycetes: Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Tsiklinsky 1899, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Tsiklinsky 1899 "giant colonies", Micromonospora sp. (Agre et al., 1).

  19. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    PubMed

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  20. Cow's Milk Protein Allergy.

    PubMed

    Mousan, Grace; Kamat, Deepak

    2016-10-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is a common condition encountered in children with incidence estimated as 2% to 7.5% in the first year of life. Formula and breast-fed babies can present with symptoms of CMPA. It is important to accurately diagnose CMPA to avoid the consequences of either under- or overdiagnosis. CMPA is classically categorized into immunoglobulin E (IgE)- or non-IgE-mediated reaction that vary in clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and prognosis. The most commonly involved systems in patients with CMPA are gastrointestinal, skin, and respiratory. Evaluation of CMPA starts with good data gathering followed by testing if indicated. Treatment is simply by avoidance of cow's milk protein (CMP) in the child's or mother's diet, if exclusively breast-feeding. This article reviews the definition, epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, evaluation, management, and prognosis of CMPA and provides an overview of different options for formulas and their indication in the treatment of CMPA.

  1. Cow's Milk Protein Allergy.

    PubMed

    Mousan, Grace; Kamat, Deepak

    2016-10-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is a common condition encountered in children with incidence estimated as 2% to 7.5% in the first year of life. Formula and breast-fed babies can present with symptoms of CMPA. It is important to accurately diagnose CMPA to avoid the consequences of either under- or overdiagnosis. CMPA is classically categorized into immunoglobulin E (IgE)- or non-IgE-mediated reaction that vary in clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and prognosis. The most commonly involved systems in patients with CMPA are gastrointestinal, skin, and respiratory. Evaluation of CMPA starts with good data gathering followed by testing if indicated. Treatment is simply by avoidance of cow's milk protein (CMP) in the child's or mother's diet, if exclusively breast-feeding. This article reviews the definition, epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, evaluation, management, and prognosis of CMPA and provides an overview of different options for formulas and their indication in the treatment of CMPA. PMID:27582492

  2. The use of whey or skimmed milk powder in fortified blended foods for vulnerable groups.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Camilla; Andersen, Gregers S; Jacobsen, Stine; Mølgaard, Christian; Friis, Henrik; Sangild, Per T; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2008-01-01

    Fortified blended foods (FBF), especially corn soy blend, are used as food aid for millions of people worldwide, especially malnourished individuals and vulnerable groups. There are only a few studies evaluating the effect of FBF on health outcomes, and the potential negative effect of antinutrients has not been examined. Different lines of evidence suggest that dairy proteins have beneficial effects on vulnerable groups. Here we review the evidence on the effects of adding whey or skimmed milk powder to FBF used for malnourished infants and young children or people living with HIV or AIDS. Adding whey or skimmed milk powder to FBF improves the protein quality, allowing a reduction in total amount of protein, which could have potential metabolic advantages. It also allows for a reduced content of soy and cereal and thereby a reduction of potential antinutrients. It is possible that adding milk could improve weight gain, linear growth, and recovery from malnutrition, but this needs to be confirmed. Bioactive factors in whey might have beneficial effects on the immune system and muscle synthesis, but evidence from vulnerable groups is lacking. Milk proteins will improve flavor, which is important for acceptability in vulnerable groups. The most important disadvantage is a considerable increase in price. Adding 10-15% milk powder would double the price, which means that such a product should be used only in well-defined vulnerable groups with special needs. The potential beneficial effects of adding milk protein and lack of evidence in vulnerable groups call for randomized intervention studies.

  3. Bifidus milk powder: processing parameter standardization and shelf stability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Selvamuthukumaran, Meenakshisundaram; Muthukumaran, Selva; Shukla, Shiv Shankar

    2016-04-01

    Spray dried bifidus milk powder was prepared by supplementing cow milk with different level of additives to obtain slurry of desired concentration. The slurry was pasteurized, cooled and inoculated with Bifidobacterium bifidum, incubated and dried to produce a bifidus milk powder. Among the various bifidus milk powder prepared, the slurry of mention the level total soluble solids exhibited good organoleptic characteristics and it has been standardized for further analysis. Moisture content, bulk density, insolubility index, hydroxymethyl furfural and thiobarbituric acid value of bifidus milk powder significantly increased, while the reflectance value significantly decreased during storage. The B. bifidum count significantly reduced and the bacterium were not detected at the end of the mention storage duration. As such the sentence is not acceptable in the abstract. The reconstituted bifidus milk powder was considered acceptable with an overall acceptability score of 6.97 on a nine-point Hedonic scale and showed a shelf stability of 120 days at ambient temperature condition (27 ± 2 °C). PMID:27413234

  4. Comparison of Antioxidant Activities of Hydrolysates of Domestic and Imported Skim Milk Powders Treated with Papain

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Go Eun; Chang, Oun Ki; Han, Gi Sung; Ham, Jun Sang; Park, Beom-Young; Jeong, Seok-Geun

    2015-01-01

    Milk proteins have many potential sequences within their primary structure, each with a specific biological activity. In this study, we compared and investigated the bioactivities of hydrolysates of the domestic (A, B) and imported (C, D) skim milk powders generated using papain digestion. MALDI-TOF analysis revealed that all milk powder proteins were intact, indicating no autolysis. Electrophoretic analysis of hydrolysates showed papain treatment caused degradation of milk proteins into peptides of various size. The antioxidant activity of the hydrolysates, determined using 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and total phenolic contents (TPC) assays, increased with incubation times. In all skim milk powders, the antioxidant activities of hydrolysates were highest following 24 h papain treatment (TPC: A, 196.48 μM GE/L; B, 194.52 μM GE/L; C, 194.76 μM GE/L; D, 163.75 μM GE/L; ABTS: A, 75%; B, 72%; C, 72%; D, 57%). The number of peptide derived from skim milk powders, as determined by LC-MS/MS, was 308 for A, 283 for B, 208 for C, and 135 for D. Hydrolysate A had the highest antioxidant activity and the most potential antioxidant peptides amongst the four skim milk powder hydrolysates. A total of 4 β-lactoglobulin, 4 αs1-casein, and 56 β-casein peptide fragments were identified as potential antioxidant peptides in hydrolysate A by LC-MS/MS. These results suggest that domestic skim milk could have applications in various industries, i.e., in the development of functional foods. PMID:26761850

  5. [Surveillance of perchlorate level in wine, seafood, polished rice, milk, powdered milk and yogurt].

    PubMed

    Takatsuki, Satoshi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Matsuda, Rieko

    2011-01-01

    Perchlorate, which may be naturally occurring or artificial in origin, inhibits iodide uptake into the thyroid gland and disturbs thyroid function. In order to investigate perchlorate contamination in foods in Japan, perchlorate levels in 28 wine samples, 20 seafood samples, 10 polished rice samples, 30 milk (include whole milk, composition modified milk, low fat milk, processed milk, milk drink) samples, 10 powdered milk samples and 10 yogurt samples were measured. Perchlorate was found in all wine, milk, powdered milk and yogurt samples tested. Perchlorate levels ranged from 0.2 ng/g to 103 ng/g in wine samples, from 2 ng/g to 11 ng/g in milk samples, from 3 ng/g to 35 ng/g in powdered milk samples, and from 2 ng/g to 11 ng/g in yogurt samples. Perchlorate levels in the seafood samples were under the LOQ (0.8 ng/g) in 8 samples and ranged from 0.8 ng/g to 72 ng/g in 12 samples. In all polished rice samples, perchlorate level was under the LOQ (1.0 ng/g).

  6. Rapid fingerprinting of milk thermal processing history by intact protein mass spectrometry with nondenaturing chromatography.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Phil; Philo, Mark; Watson, Andrew; Mills, E N Clare

    2011-12-14

    Thermal processing of foods results in proteins undergoing conformational changes, aggregation, and chemical modification notably with sugars via the Maillard reaction. This can impact their functional, nutritional, and allergenic properties. Native size-exclusion chromatography with online electrospray mass spectrometry (SEC-ESI-MS) was used to characterize processing-induced changes in milk proteins in a range of milk products. Milk products could be readily grouped into either pasteurized liquid milks, heavily processed milks, or milk powders by SEC behavior, particularly by aggregation of whey proteins by thermal processing. Maillard modification of all major milk proteins by lactose was observed by MS and was primarily present in milk powders. The method developed is a rapid tool for fingerprinting the processing history of milk and has potential as a quality control method for food ingredient manufacture. The method described here can profile milk protein oligomeric state, aggregation, and Maillard modification in a single shot, rapid analysis. PMID:22007861

  7. Flavor and stability of milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Smith, T J; Campbell, R E; Jo, Y; Drake, M A

    2016-06-01

    A greater understanding of the nature and source of dried milk protein ingredient flavor(s) is required to characterize flavor stability and identify the sources of flavors. The objective of this study was to characterize the flavor and flavor chemistry of milk protein concentrates (MPC 70, 80, 85), isolates (MPI), acid and rennet caseins, and micellar casein concentrate (MCC) and to determine the effect of storage on flavor and functionality of milk protein concentrates using instrumental and sensory techniques. Spray-dried milk protein ingredients (MPC, MPI, caseins, MCC) were collected in duplicate from 5 commercial suppliers or manufactured at North Carolina State University. Powders were rehydrated and evaluated in duplicate by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Compounds were identified by comparison of retention indices, odor properties, and mass spectra against reference standards. A subset of samples was selected for further analysis using direct solvent extraction with solvent-assisted flavor extraction, and aroma extract dilution analysis. External standard curves were created to quantify select volatile compounds. Pilot plant manufactured MPC were stored at 3, 25, and 40°C (44% relative humidity). Solubility, furosine, sensory properties, and volatile compound analyses were performed at 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 mo. Milk proteins and caseins were diverse in flavor and exhibited sweet aromatic and cooked/milky flavors as well as cardboard, brothy, tortilla, soapy, and fatty flavors. Key aroma active compounds in milk proteins and caseins were 2-aminoacetophenone, nonanal, 1-octen-3-one, dimethyl trisulfide, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, heptanal, methional, 1-hexen-3-one, hexanal, dimethyl disulfide, butanoic acid, and acetic acid. Stored milk proteins developed animal and burnt sugar flavors over time. Solubility of

  8. Autocrine regulation of milk secretion by a protein in milk.

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, C J; Addey, C V; Boddy, L M; Peaker, M

    1995-01-01

    Frequency or completeness of milk removal from the lactating mammary gland regulates the rate of milk secretion by a mechanism which is local, chemical and inhibitory in nature. Screening of goat's milk proteins in rabbit mammary explant cultures identified a single whey protein of M(r) 7600 able to inhibit synthesis of milk constituents. The active whey protein, which we term FIL (Feedback inhibitor of Lactation), also decreased milk secretion temporarily when introduced into a mammary gland of lactating goats. FIL was synthesized by primary cultures of goat mammary epithelial cells, and was secreted vectorially together with other milk proteins. N-terminal amino acid sequencing indicated that it is a hitherto unknown protein. The evidence indicates that local regulation of milk secretion by milk removal is through autocrine feedback inhibition by this milk protein. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:7826353

  9. [Obtaining condensed milk from a mixture of hydrosoluble extract of soybean powder and cow's milk].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, S M; Serpe, E R

    1991-03-01

    Three formulations of mix concentrated milk with hydrosolubles extract of soybean powder and cow's milk were prepared. The products were condensed up to 31% and 33.65% of solids in a vacuum evaporator at temperature of 45 degrees and 58 degrees C with a vacuum pressure of 540 mmHg. The products obtained were compared with standard concentrated milk through sensory evaluation showing satisfactory characteristics.

  10. Raman-spectroscopy-based chemical contaminant detection in milk powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon S.

    2015-05-01

    Addition of edible and inedible chemical contaminants in food powders for purposes of economic benefit has become a recurring trend. In recent years, severe health issues have been reported due to consumption of food powders contaminated with chemical substances. This study examines the effect of spatial resolution used during spectral collection to select the optimal spatial resolution for detecting melamine in milk powder. Sample depth of 2mm, laser intensity of 200mw, and exposure time of 0.1s were previously determined as optimal experimental parameters for Raman imaging. Spatial resolution of 0.25mm was determined as the optimal resolution for acquiring spectral signal of melamine particles from a milk-melamine mixture sample. Using the optimal resolution of 0.25mm, sample depth of 2mm and laser intensity of 200mw obtained from previous study, spectral signal from 5 different concentration of milk-melamine mixture (1%, 0.5%, 0.1%, 0.05%, and 0.025%) were acquired to study the relationship between number of detected melamine pixels and corresponding sample concentration. The result shows that melamine concentration has a linear relation with detected number of melamine pixels with correlation coefficient of 0.99. It can be concluded that the quantitative analysis of powder mixture is dependent on many factors including physical characteristics of mixture, experimental parameters, and sample depth. The results obtained in this study are promising. We plan to apply the result obtained from this study to develop quantitative detection model for rapid screening of melamine in milk powder. This methodology can also be used for detection of other chemical contaminants in milk powders.

  11. Role of milk protein-based products in some quality attributes of goat milk yogurt.

    PubMed

    Gursel, A; Gursoy, A; Anli, E A K; Budak, S O; Aydemir, S; Durlu-Ozkaya, F

    2016-04-01

    Goat milk yogurts were manufactured with the fortification of 2% (wt/vol) skim goat milk powder (SGMP), sodium caseinate (NaCn), whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or yogurt texture improver (YTI). Yogurts were characterized based on compositional, microbiological, and textural properties; volatile flavor components (with gas chromatography); and sensory analyses during storage (21d at 5 °C). Compared with goat milk yogurt made by using SGMP, the other goat milk yogurt variants had higher protein content and lower acidity values. Goat milk yogurts with NaCn and WPC, in particular, had better physical characteristics. Using WPI caused the hardest structure in yogurt, leading to higher syneresis values. Acetaldehyde and ethanol formation increased with the incorporation of WPI, WPC, or YTI to yogurt milk. The tyrosine value especially was higher in the samples with NaCn and YTI than in the samples with WPC and WPI. Counts of Streptococcus thermophilus were higher than the counts of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, possibly due to a stimulatory effect of milk protein-based ingredients other than SGMP on the growth of S. thermophilus. Yogurt with NaCn was the best accepted among the yogurts. For the parameters used, milk protein-based products such as NaCn or WPC have promising features as suitable ingredients for goat milk yogurt manufacture. PMID:26874417

  12. Role of milk protein-based products in some quality attributes of goat milk yogurt.

    PubMed

    Gursel, A; Gursoy, A; Anli, E A K; Budak, S O; Aydemir, S; Durlu-Ozkaya, F

    2016-04-01

    Goat milk yogurts were manufactured with the fortification of 2% (wt/vol) skim goat milk powder (SGMP), sodium caseinate (NaCn), whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or yogurt texture improver (YTI). Yogurts were characterized based on compositional, microbiological, and textural properties; volatile flavor components (with gas chromatography); and sensory analyses during storage (21d at 5 °C). Compared with goat milk yogurt made by using SGMP, the other goat milk yogurt variants had higher protein content and lower acidity values. Goat milk yogurts with NaCn and WPC, in particular, had better physical characteristics. Using WPI caused the hardest structure in yogurt, leading to higher syneresis values. Acetaldehyde and ethanol formation increased with the incorporation of WPI, WPC, or YTI to yogurt milk. The tyrosine value especially was higher in the samples with NaCn and YTI than in the samples with WPC and WPI. Counts of Streptococcus thermophilus were higher than the counts of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, possibly due to a stimulatory effect of milk protein-based ingredients other than SGMP on the growth of S. thermophilus. Yogurt with NaCn was the best accepted among the yogurts. For the parameters used, milk protein-based products such as NaCn or WPC have promising features as suitable ingredients for goat milk yogurt manufacture.

  13. Short communication: Typing and tracking Bacillaceae in raw milk and milk powder using pyroprinting.

    PubMed

    VanderKelen, Jennifer J; Mitchell, Ryan D; Laubscher, Andrea; Black, Michael W; Goodman, Anya L; Montana, Aldrin K; Dekhtyar, Alexander M; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Kitts, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of fluid and processed milk products with endospore-forming bacteria, such as Bacillaceae, affect milk quality and longevity. Contaminants come from a variety of sources, including the dairy farm environment, transportation equipment, or milk processing machinery. Tracking the origin of bacterial contamination to allow specifically targeted remediation efforts depends on a reliable strain-typing method that is reproducible, fast, easy to use, and amenable to computerized analysis. Our objective was to adapt a recently developed genotype-based Escherichia coli strain-typing method, called pyroprinting, for use in a microbial source-tracking study to follow endospore-forming bacillus bacteria from raw milk to powdered milk. A collection of endospores was isolated from both raw milk and its finished powder, and, after germination, the vegetative cells were subject to the pyroprinting protocol. Briefly, a ribosomal DNA intergenic transcribed spacer present in multiple copies in Bacillaceae genomes was amplified by the PCR. This multicopy locus generated a mixed PCR product that was subsequently subject to pyrosequencing, a quantitative real-time sequencing method. Through a series of enzymatic reactions, each nucleotide incorporation event produces a photon of light that is quantified at each nucleotide dispensation. The pattern of light peaks generated from this mixed template reaction is called a pyroprint. Isolates with pyroprints that match with a Pearson correlation of 0.99 or greater are considered to be in the same group. The pyroprint also contains some sequence data useful for presumptive species-level identification. This method identified groups with isolates from raw milk only, from powdered milk only, or from both sources. This study confirms pyroprinting as a rapid, reproducible, automatically digitized tool that can be used to distinguish bacterial strains into taxonomically relevant groups and, thus, indicate probable origins of bacterial

  14. Short communication: Typing and tracking Bacillaceae in raw milk and milk powder using pyroprinting.

    PubMed

    VanderKelen, Jennifer J; Mitchell, Ryan D; Laubscher, Andrea; Black, Michael W; Goodman, Anya L; Montana, Aldrin K; Dekhtyar, Alexander M; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Kitts, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of fluid and processed milk products with endospore-forming bacteria, such as Bacillaceae, affect milk quality and longevity. Contaminants come from a variety of sources, including the dairy farm environment, transportation equipment, or milk processing machinery. Tracking the origin of bacterial contamination to allow specifically targeted remediation efforts depends on a reliable strain-typing method that is reproducible, fast, easy to use, and amenable to computerized analysis. Our objective was to adapt a recently developed genotype-based Escherichia coli strain-typing method, called pyroprinting, for use in a microbial source-tracking study to follow endospore-forming bacillus bacteria from raw milk to powdered milk. A collection of endospores was isolated from both raw milk and its finished powder, and, after germination, the vegetative cells were subject to the pyroprinting protocol. Briefly, a ribosomal DNA intergenic transcribed spacer present in multiple copies in Bacillaceae genomes was amplified by the PCR. This multicopy locus generated a mixed PCR product that was subsequently subject to pyrosequencing, a quantitative real-time sequencing method. Through a series of enzymatic reactions, each nucleotide incorporation event produces a photon of light that is quantified at each nucleotide dispensation. The pattern of light peaks generated from this mixed template reaction is called a pyroprint. Isolates with pyroprints that match with a Pearson correlation of 0.99 or greater are considered to be in the same group. The pyroprint also contains some sequence data useful for presumptive species-level identification. This method identified groups with isolates from raw milk only, from powdered milk only, or from both sources. This study confirms pyroprinting as a rapid, reproducible, automatically digitized tool that can be used to distinguish bacterial strains into taxonomically relevant groups and, thus, indicate probable origins of bacterial

  15. Associations between milk protein polymorphisms and milk production traits.

    PubMed

    Bovenhuis, H; Van Arendonk, J A; Korver, S

    1992-09-01

    Associations between milk protein genotypes and milk production traits were estimated from 6803 first lactation records. Exact tests of associated hypotheses and unbiased estimates of genotype effects were from an animal model. Milk protein genotype effects were estimated using a model in which each milk protein gene was analyzed separately (single-gene analysis) and a model in which all milk protein genes were analyzed simultaneously (multigene analysis). The results of the two models indicate that some effects ascribed to certain milk protein genes in the single-gene analysis are not effects of the milk protein gene itself but of linked genes. Results from this study and from literature indicate that the kappa-casein gene or a very closely linked gene affects protein percentage, and the beta-lactoglobulin gene or a very closely linked gene affects fat percentage. Furthermore, effects of beta-casein genotypes on milk production, fat percentage, and protein yield were significant, and beta-lactoglobulin genotypes had significant effects on milk production and protein yield. It is less clear whether those effects are due to effects of milk protein genes themselves or to effects of linked genes.

  16. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fat-free goat milk yogurt with added stabilizers and skim milk powder fortification.

    PubMed

    Bruzantin, F P; Daniel, J L P; da Silva, P P M; Spoto, M H F

    2016-05-01

    Goat milk yogurt has a less consistent coagulum compared with cow milk yogurt; furthermore, the presence of goat milk in foodstuffs imparts a characteristic flavor that can restrict its acceptance by consumers. This study aimed to assess and compare the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fat-free goat milk yogurts with added stabilizers or bovine skim milk powder to improve the final product. Four treatment additions were evaluated: (1) a mixture of 0.1% (wt/vol) carrageenan and 0.1% (wt/vol) pectin (treatment CR); (2) 0.5% (wt/vol) pectin (treatment PE); (3) 4.65% (wt/vol) bovine skim milk powder (treatment BM); and (4) control (no stabilizer; treatment CT). The physicochemical parameters were investigated at on d 1 and 5 of storage. The BM treatment presented higher pH and titratable acidity values, resulting in a buffering capacity effect. The total crude protein (CP) and solids-not-fat (SNF) contents were also higher in BM compared with the other evaluated treatments because of the addition of bovine skim milk powder. We detected a reduction in pH values for all treatments. Lower SNF contents were present in the CR and CT treatments, which might be related to a syneresis process during storage; moreover, an increase in total CP was observed for all treatments due to the proteolytic action of the starter culture. Sensory attributes, including appearance (color, consistency, and presence of lumps), texture (consistency, viscosity, and presence of lumps), flavor (bitter, sweet, and characteristic of commercial plain nonfat yogurt), and overall impression were evaluated by quantitative descriptive analysis. The addition of 0.5% (wt/vol) of pectin (PE treatment) strengthened the curd; however, the visual and oral presence of lumps and a higher bitterness score were noted by trained panelists, which resulted in the lowest overall impression score for the PE treatment. In several sensory attributes, the CR treatment was considered similar to the control

  17. Radiation of powdered milk produced at Londrina, PR, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melquiades, F. L.; Appoloni, C. R.

    2001-06-01

    This work deals with the measurement of radioactive activities in powdered milk, with high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry, using a HPGe detector. Preliminary measurements were accomplished to define the kind of the system shield, the geometry of the sample recipient, the size of the sampling and the self absorption correction. It was possible to measure the radionuclides 40K, 137Cs and 208Tl. Tukey's average comparison test was used to check the repeatability of the measurements.

  18. [Detection of Adulteration in Milk Powder with Starch Near Infrared].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning-ning; Shen, Bing-hui; Guan, Jian-jun; Zhao, Zhong-rui; Zhu, Ye-wei; Zhang, Lu-da; Yan, Yan-lu; Zheng, Yu-yan; Dong, Cheng-yu; Kang, Ding-ming

    2015-08-01

    Three China trademarks of milk powder called Mengniu, Yili, Wandashan were taken as testing samples. Each of them mixed varied amount of starch in different gradient, which were consisted of 32 adulterated milk powder samples mixed with starch, was taken as standard samples for constructing predicted model. To those 32 samples, the reflecting spectrum characteristics in middle wave of near infrared spectrum with Near Infrared Spectrum Analyzer (Micro NIR 1700) produced by JDSU Ltd. USA were collected for five repeats in five different days. The time span was nearly two months. Firstly, we build the model used the reflecting spectrum characteristics of those samples with biomimetic pattern recognition (BPR) arithmetic to do the qualitative analysis. The analysis included the reliability of testing result and stability of the model. When we took ninety percent as the evaluation threshold of testing result of CAR (Correct Acceptance Rate) and CRR (Correct Rejection Rate), the lowest starch content of adulterate milk powder in all tested samples which the tested result were bigger than that abovementioned threshold was designated CAR threshold (CAR-T) and CRR threshold (CRR-T). CAR means the correct rate of accepting a sample which is belong to itself, CRR means correct rate of refusing to accept a sample which is not belong to itself. The results were shown that, when we constructed a model based on the near infrared spectrum data from each of three China trademark milk powders, respectively, if we constructed a model with infrared spectrum data tested in a same day, both the CAR-T and CRR-T of adulterate starch content of a sample can reach 0.1% in predicting the remainder infrared spectrum data tested within a same day. The three China trademarks of milk powder had the same result. In addition, when we ignored the trademarks, put the spectrum data of adulterate milk powder samples mixed with the same content of starch of three China trademarks milk powder together

  19. [Detection of Adulteration in Milk Powder with Starch Near Infrared].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning-ning; Shen, Bing-hui; Guan, Jian-jun; Zhao, Zhong-rui; Zhu, Ye-wei; Zhang, Lu-da; Yan, Yan-lu; Zheng, Yu-yan; Dong, Cheng-yu; Kang, Ding-ming

    2015-08-01

    Three China trademarks of milk powder called Mengniu, Yili, Wandashan were taken as testing samples. Each of them mixed varied amount of starch in different gradient, which were consisted of 32 adulterated milk powder samples mixed with starch, was taken as standard samples for constructing predicted model. To those 32 samples, the reflecting spectrum characteristics in middle wave of near infrared spectrum with Near Infrared Spectrum Analyzer (Micro NIR 1700) produced by JDSU Ltd. USA were collected for five repeats in five different days. The time span was nearly two months. Firstly, we build the model used the reflecting spectrum characteristics of those samples with biomimetic pattern recognition (BPR) arithmetic to do the qualitative analysis. The analysis included the reliability of testing result and stability of the model. When we took ninety percent as the evaluation threshold of testing result of CAR (Correct Acceptance Rate) and CRR (Correct Rejection Rate), the lowest starch content of adulterate milk powder in all tested samples which the tested result were bigger than that abovementioned threshold was designated CAR threshold (CAR-T) and CRR threshold (CRR-T). CAR means the correct rate of accepting a sample which is belong to itself, CRR means correct rate of refusing to accept a sample which is not belong to itself. The results were shown that, when we constructed a model based on the near infrared spectrum data from each of three China trademark milk powders, respectively, if we constructed a model with infrared spectrum data tested in a same day, both the CAR-T and CRR-T of adulterate starch content of a sample can reach 0.1% in predicting the remainder infrared spectrum data tested within a same day. The three China trademarks of milk powder had the same result. In addition, when we ignored the trademarks, put the spectrum data of adulterate milk powder samples mixed with the same content of starch of three China trademarks milk powder together

  20. Spore populations among bulk tank raw milk and dairy powders are significantly different.

    PubMed

    Miller, Rachel A; Kent, David J; Watterson, Matthew J; Boor, Kathryn J; Martin, Nicole H; Wiedmann, Martin

    2015-12-01

    To accommodate stringent spore limits mandated for the export of dairy powders, a more thorough understanding of the spore species present will be necessary to develop prospective strategies to identify and reduce sources (i.e., raw materials or in-plant) of contamination. We characterized 1,523 spore isolates obtained from bulk tank raw milk (n=33 farms) and samples collected from 4 different dairy powder-processing plants producing acid whey, nonfat dry milk, sweet whey, or whey protein concentrate 80. The spores isolated comprised 12 genera, at least 44 species, and 216 rpoB allelic types. Bacillus and Geobacillus represented the most commonly isolated spore genera (approximately 68.9 and 12.1%, respectively, of all spore isolates). Whereas Bacillus licheniformis was isolated from samples collected from all plants and farms, Geobacillus spp. were isolated from samples from 3 out of 4 plants and just 1 out of 33 farms. We found significant differences between the spore population isolated from bulk tank raw milk and those isolated from dairy powder plant samples, except samples from the plant producing acid whey. A comparison of spore species isolated from raw materials and finished powders showed that although certain species, such as B. licheniformis, were found in both raw and finished product samples, other species, such as Geobacillus spp. and Anoxybacillus spp., were more frequently isolated from finished powders. Importantly, we found that 8 out of 12 genera were isolated from at least 2 different spore count methods, suggesting that some spore count methods may provide redundant information if used in parallel. Together, our results suggest that (1) Bacillus and Geobacillus are the predominant spore contaminants in a variety of dairy powders, implying that future research efforts targeted at elucidating approaches to reduce levels of spores in dairy powders should focus on controlling levels of spore isolates from these genera; and (2) the spore

  1. Spore populations among bulk tank raw milk and dairy powders are significantly different.

    PubMed

    Miller, Rachel A; Kent, David J; Watterson, Matthew J; Boor, Kathryn J; Martin, Nicole H; Wiedmann, Martin

    2015-12-01

    To accommodate stringent spore limits mandated for the export of dairy powders, a more thorough understanding of the spore species present will be necessary to develop prospective strategies to identify and reduce sources (i.e., raw materials or in-plant) of contamination. We characterized 1,523 spore isolates obtained from bulk tank raw milk (n=33 farms) and samples collected from 4 different dairy powder-processing plants producing acid whey, nonfat dry milk, sweet whey, or whey protein concentrate 80. The spores isolated comprised 12 genera, at least 44 species, and 216 rpoB allelic types. Bacillus and Geobacillus represented the most commonly isolated spore genera (approximately 68.9 and 12.1%, respectively, of all spore isolates). Whereas Bacillus licheniformis was isolated from samples collected from all plants and farms, Geobacillus spp. were isolated from samples from 3 out of 4 plants and just 1 out of 33 farms. We found significant differences between the spore population isolated from bulk tank raw milk and those isolated from dairy powder plant samples, except samples from the plant producing acid whey. A comparison of spore species isolated from raw materials and finished powders showed that although certain species, such as B. licheniformis, were found in both raw and finished product samples, other species, such as Geobacillus spp. and Anoxybacillus spp., were more frequently isolated from finished powders. Importantly, we found that 8 out of 12 genera were isolated from at least 2 different spore count methods, suggesting that some spore count methods may provide redundant information if used in parallel. Together, our results suggest that (1) Bacillus and Geobacillus are the predominant spore contaminants in a variety of dairy powders, implying that future research efforts targeted at elucidating approaches to reduce levels of spores in dairy powders should focus on controlling levels of spore isolates from these genera; and (2) the spore

  2. Effect of sucrose on physical properties of spray-dried whole milk powder.

    PubMed

    Ma, U V Lay; Ziegler, G R; Floros, J D

    2008-11-01

    Spray-dried whole milk powders were prepared from whole condensed milk with various sucrose concentrations (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% w/w), and their glass transition temperature and some physical properties of importance in chocolate manufacture were evaluated. In milk powder samples, the glass transition temperature and free-fat content decreased in a nonlinear manner with sucrose addition. Moreover, increasing sucrose concentration reduced the formation of dents on the particle surface. Addition of sucrose in whole condensed milk increased linearly the apparent particle density and in a nonlinear manner the particle size of spray-dried milk powders. The particle size volume distribution of milk powders with the highest sucrose concentration differed from the log-normal distribution of the other samples due to the formation of large agglomerates. Neither vacuole volume, nor the amorphous state of milk powders was affected by sucrose addition. PMID:19021798

  3. Effect of sucrose on physical properties of spray-dried whole milk powder.

    PubMed

    Ma, U V Lay; Ziegler, G R; Floros, J D

    2008-11-01

    Spray-dried whole milk powders were prepared from whole condensed milk with various sucrose concentrations (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% w/w), and their glass transition temperature and some physical properties of importance in chocolate manufacture were evaluated. In milk powder samples, the glass transition temperature and free-fat content decreased in a nonlinear manner with sucrose addition. Moreover, increasing sucrose concentration reduced the formation of dents on the particle surface. Addition of sucrose in whole condensed milk increased linearly the apparent particle density and in a nonlinear manner the particle size of spray-dried milk powders. The particle size volume distribution of milk powders with the highest sucrose concentration differed from the log-normal distribution of the other samples due to the formation of large agglomerates. Neither vacuole volume, nor the amorphous state of milk powders was affected by sucrose addition.

  4. Radiation dose to Malaysian infants from natural radionuclides via consumption of powdered milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uwatse, Onosohwo Bemigho; Olatunji, Michael Adekunle; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.

    2015-04-01

    Milk is the basic food stuff for the infants because they generally consume more milk on a daily basis as its minerals and proteins are essential for their growth and development, therefore, it is very important to assess the natural radioactivity levels and the associated dose in the widely consumed powered infant's milk. As a result, 14 brands of infant's powdered milk were collected from different supermarkets around Selangor, Malaysia and analysed for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activities. The obtained mean activity of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K are 3.05±1.84, 2.55±2.48 and 99.1±69.5 Bqkg-1, respectively. Among the analysed milk samples, the brand from Philippines (Lactogen) showed low level of radioactivity while Singaporean brand (S26 SMA Gold) showed the highest. The estimated mean annual effective doses due to the ingestion of natural radionuclides in the sampled milk are 635 and 111 µSv for infant ≤ 1y and infant 1-2y, respectively. The obtained dose value does not yet pose any significant radiological hazards to the population under investigation comparing with the 1.0 mSvy-1 recommended by ICRP for all ages.

  5. Radiation dose to Malaysian infants from natural radionuclides via consumption of powdered milk

    SciTech Connect

    Uwatse, Onosohwo Bemigho; Olatunji, Michael Adekunle; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.

    2015-04-24

    Milk is the basic food stuff for the infants because they generally consume more milk on a daily basis as its minerals and proteins are essential for their growth and development, therefore, it is very important to assess the natural radioactivity levels and the associated dose in the widely consumed powered infant’s milk. As a result, 14 brands of infant’s powdered milk were collected from different supermarkets around Selangor, Malaysia and analysed for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K activities. The obtained mean activity of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K are 3.05±1.84, 2.55±2.48 and 99.1±69.5 Bqkg{sup −1}, respectively. Among the analysed milk samples, the brand from Philippines (Lactogen) showed low level of radioactivity while Singaporean brand (S26 SMA Gold) showed the highest. The estimated mean annual effective doses due to the ingestion of natural radionuclides in the sampled milk are 635 and 111 µSv for infant ≤ 1y and infant 1-2y, respectively. The obtained dose value does not yet pose any significant radiological hazards to the population under investigation comparing with the 1.0 mSvy{sup −1} recommended by ICRP for all ages.

  6. Protein Evolution of Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Sagar K; Giuffrida, Francesca; Bertschy, Emmanuelle; De Castro, Antonio; Destaillats, Frédéric; Lee, Le Ye

    2016-01-01

    Given the documented short- and long-term advantages of breastfeeding, human milk (HM) as a sole source of nutrition for the first few months of newborn life is considered a normative standard. Each macroconstituent of HM plays a crucial role in the growth and development of the baby. Lipids are largely responsible for providing more than 50% of the energy as well as providing essential fatty acids and minor lipids that are integral to all cell membranes. Carbohydrates can be broadly divided into lactose and oligosaccharides, which are a readily digestible source of glucose and indigestible nonnutritive components, respectively. Proteins in HM provide essential amino acids indispensable for the growth of infants. What is more interesting is that protein concentration profoundly changes from colostrum to mature milk. In this report, we share data from an observatory, single-center, longitudinal trial assessing the constituents of HM collected 30, 60 and 120 days postpartum from 50 mothers (singleton deliveries: 25 male and 25 female infants). The protein content decreased with evolving stages of lactation from an average of 1.45 to 1.38 g/100 ml. The data did not show any gender differences as it was reported for lipid content at 120 days postpartum by our group. Additionally, we also share consolidated literature data on protein evolution of HM during the first year of lactation. PMID:27336906

  7. Production of coconut protein powder from coconut wet processing waste and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Naik, Aduja; Raghavendra, S N; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2012-07-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been gaining popularity in recent times. During its production, byproducts such as coconut skim milk and insoluble protein are obtained which are underutilized or thrown away to the environment at present. This study deals with utilization of these byproducts to obtain a value-added product, namely, coconut protein powder. When coconut milk was subjected to centrifugation, three phases, namely, fat phase (coconut cream), aqueous phase (coconut skim milk), and solid phase (insoluble protein) were obtained. The coconut skim milk and insoluble protein were mixed and homogenized before spray drying to obtain a dehydrated protein powder. The proximate analysis of the powder showed high protein content (33 % w/w) and low fat content (3 % w/w). Protein solubility was studied as a function of pH and ionic content of solvent. Functional properties such as water hydration capacity, fat absorption capacity, emulsifying properties, wettability, and dispersibility of coconut protein powder were evaluated along with morphological characterization, polyphenol content, and color analysis. Coconut protein powder has shown to have good emulsifying properties and hence has potential to find applications in emulsified foods. Sensory analysis showed high overall quality of the product, indicating that coconut protein powder could be a useful food ingredient.

  8. Production of coconut protein powder from coconut wet processing waste and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Naik, Aduja; Raghavendra, S N; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2012-07-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been gaining popularity in recent times. During its production, byproducts such as coconut skim milk and insoluble protein are obtained which are underutilized or thrown away to the environment at present. This study deals with utilization of these byproducts to obtain a value-added product, namely, coconut protein powder. When coconut milk was subjected to centrifugation, three phases, namely, fat phase (coconut cream), aqueous phase (coconut skim milk), and solid phase (insoluble protein) were obtained. The coconut skim milk and insoluble protein were mixed and homogenized before spray drying to obtain a dehydrated protein powder. The proximate analysis of the powder showed high protein content (33 % w/w) and low fat content (3 % w/w). Protein solubility was studied as a function of pH and ionic content of solvent. Functional properties such as water hydration capacity, fat absorption capacity, emulsifying properties, wettability, and dispersibility of coconut protein powder were evaluated along with morphological characterization, polyphenol content, and color analysis. Coconut protein powder has shown to have good emulsifying properties and hence has potential to find applications in emulsified foods. Sensory analysis showed high overall quality of the product, indicating that coconut protein powder could be a useful food ingredient. PMID:22434355

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides in milk powder.

    PubMed

    Dobrinas, Simona; Soceanu, Alina; Popescu, Viorica; Coatu, Valentina

    2016-05-01

    This Research Communication reports analysis of 37 compounds comprising polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPS and OPPS) in milk powder (one brand each of commercial infant formulae, follow-on formulae and baby formulae purchased from a local supermarket in Romania). The selected analytes were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography with thermionic sensitive detection (GC-TSD). The estimated limits of detection for most target analytes were in the μg/kg level (range 0·001-0·320 µg/kg). The purpose of the study was to determine the selected analytes, to assess the exposure of babies and infants and to produce data for comparison with tolerable limits according to the European Union Regulations. In most of the samples the organochlorine pesticides values were under the limit of detection. Exceptions were heptachlor epoxide and endosulfan sulphate, the last of which was found in all analysed samples at low concentrations. We also found detectable levels of ethoprophos, parathion-methyl, chlorpyrifos, prothiofos, guthion, disulfoton and fenchlorphos in most of the analysed samples. Benzo[a]pyrene, which is used as an indicator for the presence of PAHs, was not detected in selected samples. The low level of exposure to contaminants indicates that there are no health risks for the infants and babies that consume this brand of milk powder formulae. PMID:27210498

  10. Differentiating Milk and Non-milk Proteins by UPLC Amino Acid Fingerprints Combined with Chemometric Data Analysis Techniques.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weiying; Lv, Xiaxia; Gao, Boyan; Shi, Haiming; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2015-04-22

    Amino acid fingerprinting combined with chemometric data analysis was used to differentiate milk and non-milk proteins in this study. Microwave-assisted hydrolysis and ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) were used to obtain the amino acid fingerprints. Both univariate and multivariate chemometrics methods were applied for differentiation. The confidence boundary of amino acid concentration, principal component analysis (PCA), and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of the amino acid fingerprints demonstrated that there were significant differences between milk proteins and inexpensive non-milk protein powders from other biological sources including whey, peanut, corn, soy, fish, egg yolk, beef extract, collagen, and cattle bone. The results indicate that the amino acid compositions with the chemometric techniques could be applied for the detection of potential protein adulterants in milk.

  11. Storage study and quality evaluation of coconut protein powder.

    PubMed

    Naik, Aduja; Prakash, Maya; R, Ravi; Raghavarao, Ksms

    2013-11-01

    Coconut skim milk and insoluble protein are 2 major byproducts in the production of virgin coconut oil. Coconut skim milk was homogenized along with insoluble protein and spray dried to obtain a value-added product, namely, coconut protein powder (CPP). This study deals with the storage study of CPP under different conditions (refrigerated [control], ambient and accelerated). CPP samples were withdrawn periodically at designated intervals of 15 d for accelerated and control, and 30 d for ambient condition. CPP stored at different conditions exhibited marginal moisture uptake (by 0.74 % w/w for control, 0.76 % w/w for ambient, and 1.26 % w/w for accelerated condition) and as a result, had very little effect on the functional properties of the powder. Withdrawn CPP was tested for sensory quality aspects and subjected to instrumental analysis as well. Withdrawn CPP was incorporated as a milk substitute in dessert (Kheer). Quantitative descriptive analysis of the powder and product (Kheer) showed no significant difference in attributes of CPP during the storage period of 2 mo. Electronic nose analysis revealed that CPP samples were not much different with respect to aroma pattern matching, respectively.

  12. Storage study and quality evaluation of coconut protein powder.

    PubMed

    Naik, Aduja; Prakash, Maya; R, Ravi; Raghavarao, Ksms

    2013-11-01

    Coconut skim milk and insoluble protein are 2 major byproducts in the production of virgin coconut oil. Coconut skim milk was homogenized along with insoluble protein and spray dried to obtain a value-added product, namely, coconut protein powder (CPP). This study deals with the storage study of CPP under different conditions (refrigerated [control], ambient and accelerated). CPP samples were withdrawn periodically at designated intervals of 15 d for accelerated and control, and 30 d for ambient condition. CPP stored at different conditions exhibited marginal moisture uptake (by 0.74 % w/w for control, 0.76 % w/w for ambient, and 1.26 % w/w for accelerated condition) and as a result, had very little effect on the functional properties of the powder. Withdrawn CPP was tested for sensory quality aspects and subjected to instrumental analysis as well. Withdrawn CPP was incorporated as a milk substitute in dessert (Kheer). Quantitative descriptive analysis of the powder and product (Kheer) showed no significant difference in attributes of CPP during the storage period of 2 mo. Electronic nose analysis revealed that CPP samples were not much different with respect to aroma pattern matching, respectively. PMID:24245897

  13. Penetration Depth Measurement of Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Light for Milk Powder.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min; Kim, Moon S; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Mo, Changyeun; Esquerre, Carlos; Delwiche, Stephen; Zhu, Qibing

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly common application of the near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging technique to the analysis of food powders has led to the need for optical characterization of samples. This study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of quantifying penetration depth of NIR hyperspectral imaging light for milk powder. Hyperspectral NIR reflectance images were collected for eight different milk powder products that included five brands of non-fat milk powder and three brands of whole milk powder. For each milk powder, five different powder depths ranging from 1 mm-5 mm were prepared on the top of a base layer of melamine, to test spectral-based detection of the melamine through the milk. A relationship was established between the NIR reflectance spectra (937.5-1653.7 nm) and the penetration depth was investigated by means of the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) technique to classify pixels as being milk-only or a mixture of milk and melamine. With increasing milk depth, classification model accuracy was gradually decreased. The results from the 1-mm, 2-mm and 3-mm models showed that the average classification accuracy of the validation set for milk-melamine samples was reduced from 99.86% down to 94.93% as the milk depth increased from 1 mm-3 mm. As the milk depth increased to 4 mm and 5 mm, model performance deteriorated further to accuracies as low as 81.83% and 58.26%, respectively. The results suggest that a 2-mm sample depth is recommended for the screening/evaluation of milk powders using an online NIR hyperspectral imaging system similar to that used in this study. PMID:27023555

  14. Penetration Depth Measurement of Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Light for Milk Powder

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Min; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Mo, Changyeun; Esquerre, Carlos; Delwiche, Stephen; Zhu, Qibing

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly common application of the near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging technique to the analysis of food powders has led to the need for optical characterization of samples. This study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of quantifying penetration depth of NIR hyperspectral imaging light for milk powder. Hyperspectral NIR reflectance images were collected for eight different milk powder products that included five brands of non-fat milk powder and three brands of whole milk powder. For each milk powder, five different powder depths ranging from 1 mm–5 mm were prepared on the top of a base layer of melamine, to test spectral-based detection of the melamine through the milk. A relationship was established between the NIR reflectance spectra (937.5–1653.7 nm) and the penetration depth was investigated by means of the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) technique to classify pixels as being milk-only or a mixture of milk and melamine. With increasing milk depth, classification model accuracy was gradually decreased. The results from the 1-mm, 2-mm and 3-mm models showed that the average classification accuracy of the validation set for milk-melamine samples was reduced from 99.86% down to 94.93% as the milk depth increased from 1 mm–3 mm. As the milk depth increased to 4 mm and 5 mm, model performance deteriorated further to accuracies as low as 81.83% and 58.26%, respectively. The results suggest that a 2-mm sample depth is recommended for the screening/evaluation of milk powders using an online NIR hyperspectral imaging system similar to that used in this study. PMID:27023555

  15. Penetration Depth Measurement of Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Light for Milk Powder.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min; Kim, Moon S; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Mo, Changyeun; Esquerre, Carlos; Delwiche, Stephen; Zhu, Qibing

    2016-03-25

    The increasingly common application of the near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging technique to the analysis of food powders has led to the need for optical characterization of samples. This study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of quantifying penetration depth of NIR hyperspectral imaging light for milk powder. Hyperspectral NIR reflectance images were collected for eight different milk powder products that included five brands of non-fat milk powder and three brands of whole milk powder. For each milk powder, five different powder depths ranging from 1 mm-5 mm were prepared on the top of a base layer of melamine, to test spectral-based detection of the melamine through the milk. A relationship was established between the NIR reflectance spectra (937.5-1653.7 nm) and the penetration depth was investigated by means of the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) technique to classify pixels as being milk-only or a mixture of milk and melamine. With increasing milk depth, classification model accuracy was gradually decreased. The results from the 1-mm, 2-mm and 3-mm models showed that the average classification accuracy of the validation set for milk-melamine samples was reduced from 99.86% down to 94.93% as the milk depth increased from 1 mm-3 mm. As the milk depth increased to 4 mm and 5 mm, model performance deteriorated further to accuracies as low as 81.83% and 58.26%, respectively. The results suggest that a 2-mm sample depth is recommended for the screening/evaluation of milk powders using an online NIR hyperspectral imaging system similar to that used in this study.

  16. Development of a Raman chemical imaging detection method for authenticating skim milk powder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research demonstrated that Raman chemical imaging coupled with a simple image classification algorithm can be used to detect multiple chemical adulterants in skim milk powder. Ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea were mixed into the milk powder as chemical adulterants in the conc...

  17. Raman spectral imaging technique on detection of melamine in skim milk powder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A point-scan Raman spectral imaging system was used for quantitative detection of melamine in milk powder. A sample depth of 2 mm and corresponding laser intensity of 200 mW were selected after evaluating the penetration of a 785 nm laser through milk powder. Horizontal and vertical spatial resoluti...

  18. Raman spectral imaging for quantitative contaminant evaluation in skim milk powder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study uses a point-scan Raman spectral imaging system for quantitative detection of melamine in milk powder. A sample depth of 2 mm and corresponding laser intensity of 200 mW were selected after evaluating the penetration of a 785 nm laser through milk powder. Horizontal and vertical spatial r...

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Strains of Geobacillus stearothermophilus Isolated from a Milk Powder Manufacturing Plant

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Sara A.; Cox, Murray P.; Flint, Steve H.; Lindsay, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Three strains of Geobacillus stearothermophilus (designated A1, P3, and D1) were isolated from a New Zealand milk powder manufacturing plant. Here, we describe their draft genome sequences. This information provided the first genomic insights into the nature of G. stearothermophilus strains present in the milk powder manufacturing environment. PMID:26472822

  20. Investigation of NIR hyperspectral imaging for discriminating melamine in milk powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaping; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Lim, Jongguk; Lee, Hoyoung; Ying, Yibin

    2013-05-01

    Melamine (2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine) contamination of food has become an urgent and broadly recognized issue for which rapid and accurate identification methods are needed by the food industry. In this study, the feasibility and effectiveness of near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging was investigated for detecting melamine in milk powder. Hyperspectral NIR images (144 bands spanning from 990 to 1700 nm) were acquired for Petri dishes containing samples of milk powder mixed with melamine at various concentrations (0.02% to 1%). Spectral bands that showed the most significant differences between pure milk and pure melamine were selected, and two-band difference analysis was applied to the spectrum of each pixel in the sample images to identify melamine particles in milk powders. The resultant images effectively allowed visualization of melamine particle distributions in the samples. The study demonstrated that NIR hyperspectral imaging techniques can qualitatively and quantitatively identify melamine adulteration in milk powders.

  1. [Effect of crystalline metastasis of lactose on hardness of compressed baby milk powder].

    PubMed

    Shibata, Mitsuho; Otsubo, Kazumitsu; Ohara, Mika; Omae, Rika; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the crystalline metastasis of lactose, which is a main component baby milk powder, and the hardness of baby milk powder compressed by humidification followed by drying. Because baby milk powder is manufactured using a spray dryer, lactose in compressed baby milk powder exists in an amorphous (solid dispersion) form. X-ray diffraction measurement showed that this amorphous lactose metastasized to β-form crystalline lactose, and thereafter metastasized to the α-form during the humidification-drying process. As a result of this crystalline metastasis, the hardness of the compressed baby milk powder increased, and then decreased. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed bridging structures between the particles increased and then decreased during the humidification-drying process. This showed that bridging structures between the particles produced by crystalline metastasis of lactose as a result of the humidification-drying process, which leads to an increase in the hardness of the compressed baby milk powder. These results show that the necessary degree of hardness of the porous compressed baby milk powder (necessary for packaging and transportation) resulted from the humidification-drying process. PMID:23123724

  2. Determination of whey adulteration in milk powder by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bilge, Gonca; Sezer, Banu; Eseller, Kemal Efe; Berberoglu, Halil; Topcu, Ali; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2016-12-01

    A rapid and in situ method has been developed to detect and quantify adulterated milk powder through adding whey powder by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The methodology is based on elemental composition differences between milk and whey products. Milk powder, sweet and acid whey powders were produced as standard samples, and milk powder was adulterated with whey powders. Based on LIBS spectra of standard samples and commercial products, species was identified using principle component analysis (PCA) method, and discrimination rate of milk and whey powders was found as 80.5%. Calibration curves were obtained with partial least squares regression (PLS). Correlation coefficient (R(2)) and limit of detection (LOD) values were 0.981 and 1.55% for adulteration with sweet whey powder, and 0.985 and 0.55% for adulteration with acid whey powder, respectively. The results were found to be consistent with the data from inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) method. PMID:27374522

  3. Characterization of proteins by powder diffraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Von Dreele, R.; X-Ray Science Division

    2009-01-01

    A simulation of a protein powder diffraction pattern was stunning in the apparent amount of information that was seen. A subsequent experiment on metmyoglobin gave a powder diffraction pattern that showed very little sample broadening; the peak widths were essentially limited by the instrument resolution. The challenge is to make use of this in protein structure analysis. This talk will recall some of those early experiments and data analyses as well as an overview of current progress and future possibilities.

  4. Short communication: Rapid antibiotic screening tests detect antibiotic residues in powdered milk products.

    PubMed

    Kneebone, J; Tsang, P C W; Townson, D H

    2010-09-01

    Rapid antibiotic screening tests are widely used in the dairy industry to monitor milk for the presence of antibiotic residues above regulated levels. Given the persistent concern over contamination of milk products with antibiotic residues, we investigated the utility of IDEXX Snap test devices (IDEXX Laboratories Inc., Westbrook, ME) as tools for detecting antibiotic residues in powdered milk products. Five powdered milk products were reconstituted according to manufacturer specification with distilled water: Carnation (Nestlé USA Inc., Solon, OH), Nido youth and Nido adult (Nestlé Mexico Inc., Mexico City, Mexico), ELK (Campina, Eindhoven, the Netherlands), and Regilait (Saint-Martin-Belle-Roche, France). Positive samples were generated by spiking reconstituted milk with penicillin G, cephapirin, or tetracycline to either the European Union-regulated maximum residue limit or the FDA-regulated safe/tolerance level, whichever was lower. Control, unspiked negative milk samples and positive samples were tested with appropriate IDEXX Snap test kits (penicillin G and cephapirin with New Beta-Lactam, tetracycline with New Tetracycline). All samples yielded definitive results consistent with expectations, and there were no instances of false-positive or false-negative readings. These results suggest that both the New Beta-Lactam and New Tetracycline IDEXX Snap test kits effectively detect antibiotic residues in commercially available powdered milk samples and are useful tools for monitoring antibiotic residues in reconstituted powdered milk products. PMID:20723670

  5. Detecting adulterants in milk powder using high-throughput Raman chemical imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study used a line-scan high-throughput Raman imaging system to authenticate milk powder. A 5 W 785 nm line laser (240 mm long and 1 mm wide) was used as a Raman excitation source. The system was used to acquire hyperspectral Raman images in a wavenumber range of 103–2881 cm-1 from the skim milk...

  6. Detection of melamine in milk powders using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging combined with regression coefficient of partial least square regression model.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jongguk; Kim, Giyoung; Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Moon S; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Fu, Xiaping; Baek, Insuck; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-05-01

    Illegal use of nitrogen-rich melamine (C3H6N6) to boost perceived protein content of food products such as milk, infant formula, frozen yogurt, pet food, biscuits, and coffee drinks has caused serious food safety problems. Conventional methods to detect melamine in foods, such as Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), are sensitive but they are time-consuming, expensive, and labor-intensive. In this research, near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging technique combined with regression coefficient of partial least squares regression (PLSR) model was used to detect melamine particles in milk powders easily and quickly. NIR hyperspectral reflectance imaging data in the spectral range of 990-1700nm were acquired from melamine-milk powder mixture samples prepared at various concentrations ranging from 0.02% to 1%. PLSR models were developed to correlate the spectral data (independent variables) with melamine concentration (dependent variables) in melamine-milk powder mixture samples. PLSR models applying various pretreatment methods were used to reconstruct the two-dimensional PLS images. PLS images were converted to the binary images to detect the suspected melamine pixels in milk powder. As the melamine concentration was increased, the numbers of suspected melamine pixels of binary images were also increased. These results suggested that NIR hyperspectral imaging technique and the PLSR model can be regarded as an effective tool to detect melamine particles in milk powders. PMID:26946026

  7. Absorption and Bioavailability of Nano-Size Reduced Calcium Citrate Fortified Milk Powder in Ovariectomized and Ovariectomized-Osteoporosis Rats.

    PubMed

    Erfanian, Arezoo; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Rasti, Babak; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Bin Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Abd Manap, Mohd Yazid

    2015-06-24

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fortification and nano-size reduction on calcium absorption and bioavailability of milk powder formula in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats as a menopause and menopause-osteoporosis model. Skim milk powder and skim milk powder fortified with calcium citrate and the suitable doses of inulin, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and vitamins D3, K1, and B6 were formulated based on the North American and Western European recommended dietary allowances. Optimization on cycle and pressure of high-pressure homogenizer was done to produce nano-fortified milk powder. In vivo study demonstrated that fortification and calcium citrate nano-fortified milk powder increased absorption and bioavailability of calcium, as well as bone stiffness and bone strength in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats. This study successfully developed an effective fortified milk powder for food application.

  8. Absorption and Bioavailability of Nano-Size Reduced Calcium Citrate Fortified Milk Powder in Ovariectomized and Ovariectomized-Osteoporosis Rats.

    PubMed

    Erfanian, Arezoo; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Rasti, Babak; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Bin Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Abd Manap, Mohd Yazid

    2015-06-24

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fortification and nano-size reduction on calcium absorption and bioavailability of milk powder formula in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats as a menopause and menopause-osteoporosis model. Skim milk powder and skim milk powder fortified with calcium citrate and the suitable doses of inulin, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and vitamins D3, K1, and B6 were formulated based on the North American and Western European recommended dietary allowances. Optimization on cycle and pressure of high-pressure homogenizer was done to produce nano-fortified milk powder. In vivo study demonstrated that fortification and calcium citrate nano-fortified milk powder increased absorption and bioavailability of calcium, as well as bone stiffness and bone strength in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats. This study successfully developed an effective fortified milk powder for food application. PMID:26022498

  9. Milk protein polymorphism in Kangayam cattle.

    PubMed

    Jeichitra, V; Kandasamy, N; Panneerselvam, S

    2003-04-01

    This paper reports the milk protein polymorphism, the allele frequencies of variants and the possible linkages among various combinations of milk protein phenotypes in the Kangayam cattle of south India. Milk samples from 156 Kangayam cows were typed by starch gel and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for caseins and whey proteins, respectively. All the four milk protein components studied, alpha(s)1-casein. beta-casein, beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin, exhibited polymorphism with high allele frequencies of 0.9231 +/- 0.0151 for alpha(s)1-casein C, 0.9263 +/- 0.0148 for beta-casein A, 0.9135 +/- 0.0159 for beta-lactoglobulin B and a relatively high frequency of 0.6218 +/- 0.0275 for alpha-lactalbumin A. The mean heterozygosity estimated over all the four milk protein loci was 0.2420. Genetic equilibrium was observed among all the loci studied, except alpha-lactalbumin. Linkage analysis confirmed the non-independence between alpha(s)1- and beta-caseins and between caseins and alpha-lactalbumin phenotypes.

  10. Delayed replantation of rat teeth after use of reconstituted powdered milk as a storage medium.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Cláudia Letícia Vendrame; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Sundefeld, Maria Lúcia Marçal Mazza; Negri, Márcia Regina

    2009-02-01

    Minimal extraoral dry storage period and moist storage for the avulsed tooth are identified as key steps for the treatment protocol of tooth replantation. Among the possible moist storage media, bovine milk has stood out because of its capacity of preserving the integrity of the periodontal ligament (PDL) fibers. This condition has attracted the attention to investigate the use of powdered milk, which is one of the presentation forms of bovine milk, as a feasible storage medium in cases of delayed tooth replantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing process after delayed replantation of rat teeth stored in reconstituted powdered milk and long shelf-life (ultra high temperature) whole milk. Forty maxillary right rat incisors were assigned to four groups (n = 10): group I--the teeth were extracted and immediately replanted into theirs sockets; group II--the teeth were stored for 60 min in 200 ml of freshly reconstituted powdered milk; group III--the teeth were stored for 60 min in 200 ml of long shelf-life whole milk; group IV--the teeth were kept dry for the same time. All procedures were performed at room temperature. Next, the root canals of teeth in groups II, III, and IV were instrumented, filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste, and replanted into their sockets. All animals received systemic antibiotic therapy and were killed by anesthetic overdose 60 days after replantation. The pieces containing the replanted teeth were removed, fixed, decalcified, and paraffin-embedded. Semi-serial 6-microm-thick sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphological analysis. There was statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) between groups I and IV regarding the presence of replacement resorption and PDL remnants on root surface. The powdered milk and long shelf-life whole milk presented similar results to each other and may be indicated as storage media for avulsed teeth.

  11. Protein in Breast Milk May Reduce Hospital Infections in Preemies

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_161498.html Protein in Breast Milk May Reduce Hospital Infections in Preemies Lactoferrin is ... 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A protein in breast milk helps protect premature babies from hospital-acquired infections, ...

  12. Estimation of the protein content of US imports of milk protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K W

    2003-12-01

    Recent declines in milk prices in the United States have sparked renewed concern that imports of milk protein concentrates (MPC) are increasingly entering the United States with very low tariff rates and is having an adverse impact on the US dairy industry. Milk protein concentrates are used in the United States in many different products, including the starter culture of cheese, or in nonstandard cheeses such as baker's cheese, ricotta, Feta and Hispanic cheese, processed cheese foods, and nutritional products. One of the difficult aspects of trying to assess the impact of MPC imports on the US dairy industry is to quantify the protein content of these imports. The protein content of MPC imports typically ranges from 40 to 88%. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology that can be used to estimate the protein content of MPC on a country by country basis. Such an estimate would not only provide information regarding the quantity of protein entering the United States, but would also provide a profile of low- and high-value MPC importers. This is critical for market analysis, since it is the lower valued MPC imports that more directly displaces US-produced skim milk powder.

  13. Treatment of Cow's Milk Protein Allergy

    PubMed Central

    De Greef, Elisabeth; Devreker, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is still a challenge. A systematic literature search was performed using Embase, Medline, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials for the diagnosis and treatment of cow's milk allergy (CMA). Since none of the symptoms of CMPA is specific and since there is no sensitive diagnostic test (except a challenge test), the diagnosis of CMPA remains difficult. A "symptom-based score" is useful in children with symptoms involving different organ systems. The recommended dietary treatment is an extensive cow milk based hydrolysate. Amino acid based formula is recommended in the most severe cases. However, soy infant formula and hydrolysates from other protein sources (rice) are gaining popularity, as they taste better and are cheaper than the extensive cow's milk based hydrolysates. Recent meta-analyses confirmed the safety of soy and estimate that not more than 10-15% of CMPA-infants become allergic to soy. An accurate diagnosis of CMA is still difficult. The revival of soy and the development of rice hydrolysates challenge the extensive cow's milk based extensive hydrolysates as first option and amino acid formula. PMID:24749081

  14. Proteins of human milk. I. Identification of major components

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, N.G.; Powers, M.T.; Tollaksen, S.L.

    1982-04-01

    Traditionally, human milk proteins are identified largely by reference to bovine milk. Hence, to identify the major proteins in human milk, we subjected human and bovine milk, in parallel, to high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis. Isoelectric precipitation at pH 4.6 was our criterion for distinguishing whey proteins from those of the casein complex. The ..cap alpha..- and..beta..-caseins were identified on the basis of relative abundance, relative molecular mass, and relative isoelectric points. No protein disappeared from ISO-DALT patterns of human milk after rennin treatment, and no new protein comparable to bovine para K-casein appeared in the BASO-DALT patterns; this suggests that K-casein is absent from human milk. The proteins identified in human milk patterns include the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. casein families, lactalbumin, albumin, transferrin, IgA, and lactoferrin. Numerous additional proteins seen in patterns for human milk remain to be identified.

  15. Aflatoxin M1 in milk powders: processing, homogeneity and stability testing of certified reference materials.

    PubMed

    Josephs, R D; Ulberth, F; Van Egmond, H P; Emons, H

    2005-09-01

    As part of the certification campaign of three candidate reference materials for the determination of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1) in whole milk powders, homogeneity, short- and long-term stability tests of naturally contaminated milk powders have been performed. The homogeneity of two AfM1-contaminated milk powders was studied by taking samples at regular intervals of the filling sequences and analysing in triplicate for their AfM1 contents by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) using random stratified sampling schemes. The homogeneity testing of an AfM1 'blank' milk powder material was performed by determining the nitrogen content because AfM1 levels were below the limit of detection of the most sensitive determination method. The short-term stability of AfM1-contaminated milk powders was evaluated at three different storage temperatures (4, 18 and 40 degrees C). After storage times of 0, 1, 2 and 4 weeks, samples were investigated using LC-FLD. The long-term stability study comprised of measurements after 0, 6, 12 and 18 months after storage at -20 and 4 degrees C. Analyses were done by LC-FLD. Based on the homogeneity tests, the materials were sufficiently homogenous to serve as certified reference materials. Corresponding uncertainty contributions of 0.23-0.89% were calculated for the homogeneity. The stability measurements showed no significant trends for both short- and long-term stability studies. The long-term stability uncertainties of the AfM1-contaminated milk powders were 7.4 and 6.3%, respectively, for a shelf-life of 6 years and storage at -20 degrees C. Supplementary stability monitoring schemes over a long period of several years are currently ongoing.

  16. Lactobezoar and cows' milk protein intolerance.

    PubMed

    Lemoh, J N; Watt, J

    1980-02-01

    A baby girl of an atopic family who developed eczema, asthma, and cows' milk protein intolerance was found to have a gastric lactobezoar at age 9 1/2 months. She responded well to the removal of the bezoar and to the appropriate dietary treatment.

  17. Lactobezoar and cows' milk protein intolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Lemoh, J N; Watt, J

    1980-01-01

    A baby girl of an atopic family who developed eczema, asthma, and cows' milk protein intolerance was found to have a gastric lactobezoar at age 9 1/2 months. She responded well to the removal of the bezoar and to the appropriate dietary treatment. Images Figure PMID:7189657

  18. Transcriptional enhancer from milk protein genes

    DOEpatents

    Casperson, Gerald F.; Schmidhauser, Christian T.; Bissell, Mina J.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to novel enhancer nucleotide sequences which stimulate transcription of heterologous DNA in cells in culture. The enhancers are derived from major milk protein genes by the process of deletion mapping and functional analysis. The invention also relates to expression vectors containing the novel enhancers.

  19. Correlation between precipitation and geographical location of the δ2H values of the fatty acids in milk and bulk milk powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehtesham, E.; Baisden, W. T.; Keller, E. D.; Hayman, A. R.; Van Hale, R.; Frew, R. D.

    2013-06-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H) have become a tool for food traceability and authentication of agricultural products. The principle is that the isotopic composition of the produce is influenced by environmental and biological factors and hence exhibits a spatial differentiation of δ2H. This study investigates the variation in δ2H values of New Zealand milk, both in the bulk powder and individual fatty acids extracted from milk samples from dairy factories across New Zealand. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to test for relationships between δ2H of bulk milk powder, milk fatty acid and geographical location. Milk powder samples from different regions of New Zealand were found to exhibit patterns in isotopic composition similar to the corresponding regional precipitation associated with their origin. A model of δ2H in precipitation was developed based on measurements between 2007 and 2010 at 51 stations across New Zealand (Frew and Van Hale, 2011). The model uses multiple linear regressions to predict daily δ2H from 2 geographic and 5 rain-weighted climate variables from the 5 × 5 km New Zealand Virtual Climate Station Network (VCSN). To approximate collection radius for a drying facility the modelled values were aggregated within a 50 km radius of each dairy factory and compared to observed δ2H values of precipitation and bulk milk powder. Daily δ2H predictions for the period from August to December for the area surrounding the sample collection sites were highly correlated with the δ2H values of bulk milk powder. Therefore the δ2H value of milk fatty acids demonstrates promise as a tool for determining the provenance of milk powders and products where milk powder is an ingredient. Separation of milk powder origin to geographic sub-regions within New Zealand was achieved. Hydrogen isotope measurements could be used to complement traditional tracking systems in verifying point of origin.

  20. Roles of water and solids composition in the control of glass transition and stickiness of milk powders.

    PubMed

    Silalai, Nattiga; Roos, Yrjö H

    2010-06-01

    Plasticization and glass transition of amorphous components in food powders often result in stickiness and caking. The glass transition temperature (T(g)) of milk powders was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and a viscometer method was used to determine sticky-point temperatures. Water sorption isotherms were established for varying solids compositions. Lactose contents were analyzed by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD) and proteins were identified using SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. Solids composition and water affected both the T(g) and stickiness behavior. Stickiness was governed by carbohydrates and water plasticization. At low protein contents, precrystallization of lactose decreased the sticky point temperature, but increasing protein content in all milk powders decreased stickiness at all water activities. The results showed that glass transition can be used to describe time-dependent stickiness and crystallization phenomena, and it can be used as a parameter to control and reduce stickiness of dairy solids with various compositions. PMID:20629875

  1. Roles of water and solids composition in the control of glass transition and stickiness of milk powders.

    PubMed

    Silalai, Nattiga; Roos, Yrjö H

    2010-06-01

    Plasticization and glass transition of amorphous components in food powders often result in stickiness and caking. The glass transition temperature (T(g)) of milk powders was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and a viscometer method was used to determine sticky-point temperatures. Water sorption isotherms were established for varying solids compositions. Lactose contents were analyzed by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD) and proteins were identified using SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. Solids composition and water affected both the T(g) and stickiness behavior. Stickiness was governed by carbohydrates and water plasticization. At low protein contents, precrystallization of lactose decreased the sticky point temperature, but increasing protein content in all milk powders decreased stickiness at all water activities. The results showed that glass transition can be used to describe time-dependent stickiness and crystallization phenomena, and it can be used as a parameter to control and reduce stickiness of dairy solids with various compositions.

  2. Voltamperometric discrimination of urea and melamine adulterated skimmed milk powder.

    PubMed

    Hilding-Ohlsson, Astrid; Fauerbach, Jonathan A; Sacco, Natalia J; Bonetto, M Celina; Cortón, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen compounds like urea and melamine are known to be commonly used for milk adulteration resulting in undesired intoxication; a well-known example is the Chinese episode occurred in 2008. The development of a rapid, reliable and economic test is of relevance in order to improve adulterated milk identification. Cyclic voltammetry studies using an Au working electrode were performed on adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples from different independent manufacturers. Voltammetric data and their first derivative were subjected to functional principal component analysis (f-PCA) and correctly classified by the KNN classifier. The adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples showed significant differences. Best results of prediction were obtained with first derivative data. Detection limits in milk samples adulterated with 1% of its total nitrogen derived from melamine or urea were as low as 85.0 mg · L(-1) and 121.4 mg · L(-1), respectively. We present this method as a fast and robust screening method for milk adulteration analysis and prevention of food intoxication.

  3. Voltamperometric Discrimination of Urea and Melamine Adulterated Skimmed Milk Powder

    PubMed Central

    Hilding-Ohlsson, Astrid; Fauerbach, Jonathan A.; Sacco, Natalia J.; Bonetto, M. Celina; Cortón, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen compounds like urea and melamine are known to be commonly used for milk adulteration resulting in undesired intoxication; a well-known example is the Chinese episode occurred in 2008. The development of a rapid, reliable and economic test is of relevance in order to improve adulterated milk identification. Cyclic voltammetry studies using an Au working electrode were performed on adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples from different independent manufacturers. Voltammetric data and their first derivative were subjected to functional principal component analysis (f-PCA) and correctly classified by the KNN classifier. The adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples showed significant differences. Best results of prediction were obtained with first derivative data. Detection limits in milk samples adulterated with 1% of its total nitrogen derived from melamine or urea were as low as 85.0 mg·L−1 and 121.4 mg·L−1, respectively. We present this method as a fast and robust screening method for milk adulteration analysis and prevention of food intoxication. PMID:23112709

  4. Surface energy analysis (SEA) and rheology of powder milk dairy products.

    PubMed

    Lapčík, Lubomír; Lapčíková, Barbora; Otyepková, Eva; Otyepka, Michal; Vlček, Jakub; Buňka, František; Salek, Richardos Nikolaos

    2015-05-01

    Results of inverse gas chromatography adsorption/desorption experiments using selected probes on skimmed milk, whey and demineralised whey powder materials are presented. The dispersive component of surface energy was found to be dominant, indicating a low polarity character. Surface energy profiles of demineralised whey and skimmed milk showed a characteristic steep exponential decrease from approximately 170 mJ/m(2) to 60 mJ/m(2) and 140 mJ/m(2) to 45 mJ/m(2), respectively, whereas whey powder exhibited a constant (non-exponential) surface energy at approximately 45 mJ/m(2). The dispersive surface energy of demineralised whey and skimmed milk powder showed a broad distribution ranging from 40 mJ/m(2) to 120 mJ/m(2) and 175 mJ/m(2), respectively. In contrast, the dispersive surface energy distribution for whey was very narrow, ranging from only 42.8 mJ/m(2) to 45 mJ/m(2). The determined yield locus and Mohr's circles indicated that demineralised whey exhibited free flowing powder characteristics, whereas skimmed milk and whey exhibited cohesive powder flow behaviour.

  5. Raman-spectroscopy-based chemical contaminant detection in milk powder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Addition of edible and inedible chemical contaminants in food powders for purposes of economic benefit has become a recurring trend. In recent years, severe health issues have been reported due to consumption of food powders contaminated with chemical substances. This study examines the effect of sp...

  6. Expression of human milk proteins in plants.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2002-06-01

    Human milk proteins are believed to have a multitude of biological activities benefiting the newborn infant. Such functions include antibacterial and antiviral activities, enhancement of the immune system and increased nutrient absorption. To date, only breast-fed infants have been exposed to these proteins. However, by using genetic engineering it is now possible to express these proteins in plants, such as rice, at very high levels. Recombinant human milk proteins can subsequently be added to infant formula and baby foods. Prior to such addition, safety tests and efficacy trials need to be conducted. The safety tests will initially be done in rats and then in humans. The efficacy trials should also evaluate stability against heat treatment (processing), pH (stomach conditions) and proteolytic enzymes (digestion). To date, we have expressed recombinant human lactoferrin, lysozyme and alpha1-antitrypsin in rice at very high expression levels. These recombinant proteins showed a stability and activities similar to those of the native milk proteins, suggesting that they may be able to exert biological activities in infants when added to formula or baby foods.

  7. Mild protein hydrolysation of lactose-free milk further reduces milk-related gastrointestinal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Turpeinen, Anu; Kautiainen, Hanna; Tikkanen, Marja-Leena; Sibakov, Timo; Tossavainen, Olli; Myllyluoma, Eveliina

    2016-05-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms associated with milk are common. Besides lactose, milk proteins may cause symptoms in sensitive individuals. We have developed a method for mild enzymatic hydrolysation of milk proteins and studied the effects of hydrolysed milk on gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with a self-diagnosed sensitive stomach. In a double blind, randomised placebo-controlled study, 97 subjects consumed protein-hydrolysed lactose-free milk or commercially available lactose-free milk for 10 d. Frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms during the study period was reported and a symptom score was calculated. Rumbling and flatulence decreased significantly in the hydrolysed milk group (P < 0·05). Also, the total symptom score was lower in subjects who consumed hydrolysed milk (P < 0·05). No difference between groups was seen in abdominal pain (P = 0·47) or bloating (P = 0·076). The results suggest that mild enzymatic protein hydrolysation may decrease gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with a sensitive stomach.

  8. Short communication: The water footprint of dairy products: case study involving skim milk powder.

    PubMed

    Ridoutt, B G; Williams, S R O; Baud, S; Fraval, S; Marks, N

    2010-11-01

    In the context of global water scarcity and food security concerns, water footprints are emerging as an important sustainability indicator in the agriculture and food sectors. Using a recently developed life cycle assessment-based methodology that takes into account local water stress where operations occur, the normalized water footprints of milk products from South Gippsland, one of Australia's major dairy regions, were 14.4 L/kg of total milk solids in whole milk (at farm gate) and 15.8 L/kg of total milk solids in skim milk powder (delivered to export destination). These results demonstrate that dairy products can be produced with minimal potential to contribute to freshwater scarcity. However, not all dairy production systems are alike and the variability in water footprints between systems and products should be explored to obtain strategic insights that will enable the dairy sector to minimize its burden on freshwater systems from consumptive water use.

  9. A novel preparation of milk protein/polyethylene terephthalate fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J. F.; Zheng, D. D.; Zhong, L.; Zhang, F. X.; Zhang, G. X.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, -NH2 groups were introduced to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers by nitration and reduction method, and then milk protein was grafted on the nitrated and reduced PET (NR PET) fibers by sucrose glycidyl ether crosslinking agent. FTIR suggested the milk protein was successfully grafted on PET fiber surface. SEM images showed a layer of substance covered on the PET fiber surface. DSC demonstrated an excellent thermal stability of milk protein/PET fiber. The moisture regain was improved by milk protein/PET fiber. Moreover, the crease recovery angle and stiffness were retained by the milk protein/PET fabric.

  10. Physicochemical properties of skim milk powders prepared with the addition of mineral chelators.

    PubMed

    Sikand, V; Tong, P S; Vink, Sean; Roy, Soma

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of mineral chelator addition during skim milk powder (SMP) manufacture on the solubility, turbidity, soluble protein, and heat stability (HS). Three chelators (sodium citrate dihydrate, sodium polyphosphate, and disodium EDTA) at 3 different concentrations (5, 15, and 25mM) were added to skim milk concentrate (30% total solids), and the pH was adjusted to 6.65 before spray drying to produce SMP. Spray-dried SMP samples were tested for solubility index (SI). Additionally, samples were reconstituted to contain 9% total solids, adjusted to pH 7.0, and tested for turbidity, protein content from supernatants of ultracentrifuged samples, and HS. Lower SI values were observed for samples treated with 5mM disodium EDTA and sodium polyphosphate than control samples or samples with 5mM sodium citrate dihydrate. Furthermore, lower SI values were observed with an increased level of chelating agents regardless of chelator type. A decreased turbidity value was found with increasing levels of mineral chelating salt treatment. Low turbidity with increasing levels of added chelators may be associated with the dissociation of caseins from micelles. Furthermore, higher protein content was observed in supernatants of ultracentrifuged samples treated with increased level of chelators as compared with the control sample. Higher HS was observed in samples treated with 5mM compared with samples treated with 25mM mineral chelator. The results suggest improved solubility and HS upon addition of mineral chelators to SMP during its manufacture. PMID:27040785

  11. Colorimetric analysis of protein sulfhydryl groups in milk: applications and processing effects.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Apenten, R

    2005-01-01

    Methods for protein sulfhydryl (SH) group analysis in food systems have been largely overlooked. Nevertheless, changes in SH group concentration affect both physical and nutritional characteristics of high protein foods and ingredients. Food scientists and technologists require improved understanding of protein SH chemistry in order to design processes that minimize loss of thiol groups. This article surveys colorimetric methods for food protein SH group analysis with applications to fluid milk and dried milk powder. Most colorimetric assays (chloromeribenzoate, pyridine disulfide, Nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole, papain reactivation assay, etc.) were found to be inferior to the Ellman method based on the use of 5,5'dithio (bis-2 nitro benzoic acid). Techniques for SH group analysis in fluid milk and dried milk powder are described, along with typical results, their interpretations, and current research related to processing effects and the role of milk SH content on a wider range of technological issues, such as development of cooked flavors, fouling and cleaning of plate heat exchanges, protein-protein interactions, and the storage stability. Finally, a number of areas requiring further research are presented.

  12. Presence of aflatoxin M1 in raw, reconstituted, and powdered milk samples collected in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Redouane-Salah, S; Morgavi, D P; Arhab, R; Messaï, A; Boudra, H

    2015-06-01

    Aflatoxins are potent toxic metabolites produced by Aspergillus spp. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a metabolite of aflatoxin B1 that can be present in milk, and it is a public health concern. There is scarce information on the incidence of aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk consumed in Algeria. The presence of AFM1 was investigated in raw milk samples collected between February and October 2011 from 11 dairy farms representative of Algerian production conditions and that were located around Constantine city. Reconstituted and powdered milk samples were purchased from local supermarkets. The analysis was performed by liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity purification. AFM1 was detected in 5 out of 47 samples (11 %) at levels ranging from 9 to 103 ng/L, with one sample exceeding the limit of 50 ng/L set by European regulations. Traces of AFM1 (less than 8 ng/L) were also found in 11 other samples. The incidence of AFM1 contamination was higher in imported powdered milk (29 %) than in raw milk (5 %). Although the concentration of AFM1 in contaminated samples was low, the relatively considerable prevalence found in this exploratory study justifies more detailed and continuous monitoring to reduce consumers' exposure to AFM1.

  13. Novel Approaches to Improve the Intrinsic Microbiological Safety of Powdered Infant Milk Formula

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Robert M.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Hill, Colin; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is recognised as the best form of nutrition for infants. However; in instances where breast-feeding is not possible, unsuitable or inadequate, infant milk formulae are used as breast milk substitutes. These formulae are designed to provide infants with optimum nutrition for normal growth and development and are available in either powdered or liquid forms. Powdered infant formula is widely used for convenience and economic reasons. However; current manufacturing processes are not capable of producing a sterile powdered infant formula. Due to their immature immune systems and permeable gastro-intestinal tracts, infants can be more susceptible to infection via foodborne pathogenic bacteria than other age-groups. Consumption of powdered infant formula contaminated by pathogenic microbes can be a cause of serious illness. In this review paper, we discuss the current manufacturing practices present in the infant formula industry, the pathogens of greatest concern, Cronobacter and Salmonella and methods of improving the intrinsic safety of powdered infant formula via the addition of antimicrobials such as: bioactive peptides; organic acids; probiotics and prebiotics. PMID:25685987

  14. Novel approaches to improve the intrinsic microbiological safety of powdered infant milk formula.

    PubMed

    Kent, Robert M; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Hill, Colin; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2015-02-12

    Human milk is recognised as the best form of nutrition for infants. However; in instances where breast-feeding is not possible, unsuitable or inadequate, infant milk formulae are used as breast milk substitutes. These formulae are designed to provide infants with optimum nutrition for normal growth and development and are available in either powdered or liquid forms. Powdered infant formula is widely used for convenience and economic reasons. However; current manufacturing processes are not capable of producing a sterile powdered infant formula. Due to their immature immune systems and permeable gastro-intestinal tracts, infants can be more susceptible to infection via foodborne pathogenic bacteria than other age-groups. Consumption of powdered infant formula contaminated by pathogenic microbes can be a cause of serious illness. In this review paper, we discuss the current manufacturing practices present in the infant formula industry, the pathogens of greatest concern, Cronobacter and Salmonella and methods of improving the intrinsic safety of powdered infant formula via the addition of antimicrobials such as: bioactive peptides; organic acids; probiotics and prebiotics.

  15. Determination of bovine immunoglobulin G in bovine colostrum powders, bovine milk powders, and dietary supplements containing bovine colostrum products by an automated direct immunoassay with optical biosensor: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Gapper, Leyton

    2013-01-01

    Nine laboratories participated in an AOAC collaborative study to determine bovine immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in selected dairy powders and dietary supplements by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) methodology. Each sample matrix was dissolved in buffer and suitably diluted to fit within the standard curve. The sample extract was injected over a surface functionalized with affinity-purified, polyclonal goat anti-bovine IgG (H+L) antibody; IgG was then detected. SPR detection was used for the direct immunoassay and quantification was made against a calibration curve prepared from bovine serum IgG. Between each standard and sample, the surface was regenerated using 10 mM glycine at pH 1.5. The samples analyzed included the likely matrixes for which the assay would find commercial use, namely, high- and low-protein-content colostrum powders, tablets containing colostrum powder, infant formula containing colostrum powder, and some IgG-containing dairy powders, i.e., milk protein isolate, whey protein concentrate, and skim milk powder. Each laboratory provided data for the study and assayed blind duplicates of seven materials. Due to gross outliers in the majority of results from one laboratory, the data from eight laboratories were used for the statistical analysis. The repeatability RSD (RSDr) values ranged from 3.2 to 7.3%, and the reproducibility RSDR values from 13.0 to 22.6%. PMID:24282942

  16. Donkey milk-based formula: A substitute for patients with cow’s milk protein allergy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cow’s milk protein allergy affects 2-7% of children using cow’s milk formulae. Fifty to eighty percent of them develop allergy to other food items and substitutes. On the search for a safe and affordable substitute, we reviewed the composition of milks of the domestic mammals in close contact with man. Milk constituents studied included fat, protein, lactose, minerals, water, pH, specific gravity and caloric value. Compared to others, donkey milk was found to be closest to breast milk when the amount of 16ml of sunflower is added to one liter of this milk. To our knowledge, no allergy to donkey milk has been reported yet. PMID:27493315

  17. Zinc Absorption from Fortified Milk Powder in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Rosa O; Hambidge, Michael; Baker, Mark; Salgado, Sergio A; Ruiz, Joaquín; García, Hugo S; Calderón de la Barca, Ana M

    2015-11-01

    Zinc (Zn) is essential for development, growth, and reproduction. The Mexican government subsidizes micronutrient-fortified milk for risk groups, with positive effect on the targeted groups' plasma Zn level, inferring a good absorption is achieved although it has not being measured. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of micronutrient-fortified milk intake during 27 days on Zn absorption in adolescent girls from northwest Mexico. Therefore, Zn absorption was evaluated in 14 healthy adolescent girls (14.1 years old) with adequate plasma Zn levels, before and after 27 days of fortified Zn milk intake. Fractional Zn absorption (FZA) was calculated from urinary ratios of stable isotopic Zn tracers administered orally and intravenously on days 0 and 27, and total absorbed Zn (TZA) was calculated. At the beginning, Zn intake was 6.8 ± 0.85 mg/d (mean ± SE), and 50 % of the adolescent girls did not achieve their requirement (7.3 mg/d). Additionally, FZA was negatively correlated with Zn intake (r =-0.61, p = 0.02), while TZA (1.06 mg/d) was insufficient to cover the physiologic requirements of adolescent girls (3.02 mg/d). At the end of the intervention, all the girls reached the Zn intake recommendation and TZA, 3.09 mg/d, which was enough to meet the physiological requirement for 57 % of the adolescent girls. Therefore, the low Zn intake and the Zn status of adolescent girls were positively impacted by Zn-fortified milk intake and its good absorption rate.

  18. Correlation of geographical location with stable isotope values of hydrogen and carbon of fatty acids from New Zealand milk and bulk milk powder.

    PubMed

    Ehtesham, Emad; Hayman, Alan R; McComb, Kiri A; Van Hale, Robert; Frew, Russell D

    2013-09-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of δ²H and δ¹³C of bulk milk powder and milk powder fatty acids to their production region. A total of 46 milk powder samples from across New Zealand were collected and analyzed. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the δ²H and δ¹³C of four fatty acids (C4:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:1) and bulk milk powder were found to be correlated with regional production area. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) models were prepared using different combinations of bulk and fatty acid δ²H and δ¹³C. All models were effective in discriminating samples from the North and South Islands. The LDA model using just fatty acid δ²H and δ¹³C provided the best separation. Therefore, the isotopic composition of the aforementioned fatty acids can be utilized as a good biomarker in milk powder that conveys reliable isotopic information to track milk powders to their regional origin.

  19. [Simultaneous determination of penicillin and their major enzymatic metabolites in milk and milk powder by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Ai, Lianfeng; Guo, Chunhai; Ma, Yusong; Dou, Caiyun

    2013-10-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/ MS) method has been developed for the determination of eight compounds in milk and milk powder. They are four penicillins (penicillin G, penicillin V, amoxicillin and ampicillin) and four major beta-lactamase enzymatic metabolites of them (penilloic acid G, penilloic acid V, amoxiilloic acid and ampilloic acid). The compounds were extracted from the samples with acetonitrile and water, cleaned-up by HLB solid-phase extraction cartridges, and then detected by HPLC-MS/MS and quantified by external standard method. The linearities were satisfactory with the correlation coefficients > 0.99 at the mass concentrations ranging from 4 microg/L to 200 microg/L for penicillins and from 10 microg/L to 500 microg/L for enzymatic metabolites. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification were 5-50 microg/kg (S/N > or = 3) and 8-100 microg/kg (S/N > or = 10), respectively. The average recoveries of the eight compounds were 83.48%-96.97% in milk and 82.70%-95.14% in milk powder. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) in milk and milk powder were 3.86%-10.87% and 3.02%-9.81%, respectively. In conclusion, the established method is convenient, accurate and sensitive so that it can be applied to the determination of penicillin residues and enzymatic metabolites in milk and milk powder.

  20. Association of bovine β-casein protein variant I with milk production and milk protein composition.

    PubMed

    Visker, M H P W; Dibbits, B W; Kinders, S M; van Valenberg, H J F; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to detect new polymorphisms in the bovine β-casein (β-CN) gene and to evaluate association of (new) β-CN protein variants with milk production traits and milk protein composition. Screening of the β-CN gene in genomic DNA from 72 Holstein Friesian (HF) bulls resulted in detection of 19 polymorphisms and revealed the presence of β-CN protein variant I in the Dutch HF population. Studies of association of β-CN protein variants with milk composition usually do not discriminate protein variant I from variant A2. Association of β-CN protein variants with milk composition was studied in 1857 first-lactation HF cows and showed that associations of protein variants A2 and I were quite different for several traits. β-CN protein variant I was significantly associated with protein percentage and protein yield, and with αs1 -casein (αs1 -CN), αs2 -casein (αs2 -CN), κ-casein (κ-CN), α-lactalbumin (α-LA), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), casein index and casein yield. Inferring β-κ-CN haplotypes showed that β-CN protein variant I occurred only with κ-CN variant B. Consequently, associations of β-κ-CN haplotype IB with protein percentage, κ-CN, α-LA, β-LG and casein index are likely resulting from associations of κ-CN protein variant B, while associations of β-κ-CN haplotype IB with αs1 -CN and αs2 -CN seem to be resulting from associations of β-CN variant I.

  1. Long-term consequences of arsenic poisoning during infancy due to contaminated milk powder.

    PubMed

    Dakeishi, Miwako; Murata, Katsuyuki; Grandjean, Philippe

    2006-10-31

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. The main source of exposure is drinking water contaminated by natural geological sources. Current risk assessment is based on the recognized carcinogenicity of arsenic, but neurotoxic risks have been overlooked. In 1955, an outbreak of arsenic poisoning occurred among Japanese infants, with more than 100 deaths. The source was contaminated milk powder produced by the Morinaga company. Detailed accounts of the Morinaga dried milk poisoning were published in Japanese only, and an overview of this poisoning incident and its long-term consequences is therefore presented. From analyses available, the arsenic concentration in milk made from the Morinaga milk powder is calculated to be about 4-7 mg/L, corresponding to daily doses slightly above 500 microg/kg body weight. Lower exposures would result from using diluted milk. Clinical poisoning cases occurred after a few weeks of exposure, with a total dose of about 60 mg. This experience provides clear-cut evidence for hazard assessment of the developmental neurotoxicity. At the present time, more than 600 surviving victims, now in their 50s, have been reported to suffer from severe sequelae, such as mental retardation, neurological diseases, and other disabilities. Along with more recent epidemiological studies of children with environmental arsenic exposures, the data amply demonstrate the need to consider neurotoxicity as a key concern in risk assessment of inorganic arsenic exposure.

  2. Long-term consequences of arsenic poisoning during infancy due to contaminated milk powder

    PubMed Central

    Dakeishi, Miwako; Murata, Katsuyuki; Grandjean, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. The main source of exposure is drinking water contaminated by natural geological sources. Current risk assessment is based on the recognized carcinogenicity of arsenic, but neurotoxic risks have been overlooked. In 1955, an outbreak of arsenic poisoning occurred among Japanese infants, with more than 100 deaths. The source was contaminated milk powder produced by the Morinaga company. Detailed accounts of the Morinaga dried milk poisoning were published in Japanese only, and an overview of this poisoning incident and its long-term consequences is therefore presented. From analyses available, the arsenic concentration in milk made from the Morinaga milk powder is calculated to be about 4–7 mg/L, corresponding to daily doses slightly above 500 μg/kg body weight. Lower exposures would result from using diluted milk. Clinical poisoning cases occurred after a few weeks of exposure, with a total dose of about 60 mg. This experience provides clear-cut evidence for hazard assessment of the developmental neurotoxicity. At the present time, more than 600 surviving victims, now in their 50s, have been reported to suffer from severe sequelae, such as mental retardation, neurological diseases, and other disabilities. Along with more recent epidemiological studies of children with environmental arsenic exposures, the data amply demonstrate the need to consider neurotoxicity as a key concern in risk assessment of inorganic arsenic exposure. PMID:17076881

  3. Aflatoxin M1 in pasteurized, UHT milk and milk powder commercialized in Londrina, Brazil and estimation of exposure.

    PubMed

    Santos, Joice Sifientes Dos; França, Vanessa R; Katto, Shiguedy; Santana, Elsa H W

    2015-09-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is found in milk and other excretion products after aflatoxin B1 intake. AFM1 is carcinogenic to humans, and known levels of dairy product contamination is important to understand the risks to which the population is exposed. The occurrence of AFM1 was evaluated in 42 milk samples commercialized in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil and this rate of occurrence was used to estimate this exposure. AFM1 determination was carried out by ELISA, and was detected in 100% samples at levels ranging from 0.01 to 0.81 microg/kg (mean 0.13 microg/kg). None of the samples presented AFM1 above the maximum permitted level by Brazilian Legislation (0.5 microg/kg for fluid milk and 5 microg/kg for milk powder). The estimated daily intake (EDI) of AFM1 was evaluated, and the average intake was 0.468 ng/kg body weight (b.w.) for adolescents, 0.384 ng/kg b.w. for adults and 0.559 ng/kg b.w. for the elderly. Values of EDI of AFM1 found in Londrina pose a toxicological risk to the population investigated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on estimated AFM1 dietary exposure from Paraná, Brazil.

  4. Exposure Assessment of Infants to Aflatoxin M1 through Consumption of Breast Milk and Infant Powdered Milk in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Angélica T.; Takabayashi-Yamashita, Cássia R.; Ono, Elisabete Y. S.; Bagatin, Artur K.; Rigobello, Fabiana F.; Kawamura, Osamu; Hirooka, Elisa Y.; Itano, Eiko N.

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is an important biomarker that can be used to evaluate aflatoxin exposure in both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure degree of infants to AFM1 through consumption of breast milk and infant powdered milk in Brazil. For this purpose, the estimated daily intake (EDI) for infants was calculated based on the AFM1 levels analyzed in 94 breast milk (BM) samples collected in Southern Brazil, and 16 infant powdered milk (IPM) samples commonly commercialized in Brazil. AFM1 was detected in 5.3% (n = 5) and 43.8% (n = 7) of BM and IPM samples, with mean levels of 0.003 ng/g and 0.011 ng/g, respectively. All the IPM samples showed AFM1 levels lower than those established by the Brazilian guidelines (5 ng/g), and in most of the samples (81.25%) levels were below the maximum limit tolerated by the European Commission (0.025 ng/g). The EDI of AFM1 for infants aged zero to 12 months old showed values from 0.018 to 0.069 ng/kg body weight/day for BM, and 0.078 to 0.306 ng/kg body weight/day for IPM. Hazard index (HI) values for BM and IPM were less than one, except for IPM intended for infants up to one month. In conclusion, the exposure of infants to AFM1 was low, but continuous monitoring of mycotoxin levels is essential to minimize infant health risk. PMID:27589799

  5. Exposure Assessment of Infants to Aflatoxin M₁ through Consumption of Breast Milk and Infant Powdered Milk in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Angélica T; Takabayashi-Yamashita, Cássia R; Ono, Elisabete Y S; Bagatin, Artur K; Rigobello, Fabiana F; Kawamura, Osamu; Hirooka, Elisa Y; Itano, Eiko N

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin M₁ (AFM₁) is an important biomarker that can be used to evaluate aflatoxin exposure in both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure degree of infants to AFM₁ through consumption of breast milk and infant powdered milk in Brazil. For this purpose, the estimated daily intake (EDI) for infants was calculated based on the AFM₁ levels analyzed in 94 breast milk (BM) samples collected in Southern Brazil, and 16 infant powdered milk (IPM) samples commonly commercialized in Brazil. AFM₁ was detected in 5.3% (n = 5) and 43.8% (n = 7) of BM and IPM samples, with mean levels of 0.003 ng/g and 0.011 ng/g, respectively. All the IPM samples showed AFM₁ levels lower than those established by the Brazilian guidelines (5 ng/g), and in most of the samples (81.25%) levels were below the maximum limit tolerated by the European Commission (0.025 ng/g). The EDI of AFM₁ for infants aged zero to 12 months old showed values from 0.018 to 0.069 ng/kg body weight/day for BM, and 0.078 to 0.306 ng/kg body weight/day for IPM. Hazard index (HI) values for BM and IPM were less than one, except for IPM intended for infants up to one month. In conclusion, the exposure of infants to AFM₁ was low, but continuous monitoring of mycotoxin levels is essential to minimize infant health risk. PMID:27589799

  6. Protein degradation in bovine milk caused by Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Åkerstedt, Maria; Wredle, Ewa; Lam, Vo; Johansson, Monika

    2012-08-01

    Streptococcus (Str.) agalactiae is a contagious mastitis bacterium, often associated with cases of subclinical mastitis. Different mastitis bacteria have been evaluated previously from a diagnostic point of view, but there is a lack of knowledge concerning their effect on milk composition. Protein composition is important in achieving optimal yield and texture when milk is processed to fermented products, such as cheese and yoghurt, and is thus of great economic value. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate protein degradation mainly caused by exogenous proteases originating from naturally occurring Str. agalactiae. The samples were incubated at 37°C to imitate degradation caused by the bacteria in the udder. Protein degradation caused by different strains of Str. agalactiae was also investigated. Protein degradation was observed to occur when Str. agalactiae was added to milk, but there were variations between strains of the bacteria. Caseins, the most economically important proteins in milk, were degraded up to 75% in milk inoculated with Str. agalactiae in relation to sterile ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk, used as control milk. The major whey proteins, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, were degraded up to 21% in relation to the sterile control milk. These results suggest that different mastitis bacteria but also different strains of mastitis bacteria should be evaluated from a milk quality perspective to gain knowledge about their ability to degrade the economically important proteins in milk. PMID:22850579

  7. [Proteins of human milk involved in immunological processes].

    PubMed

    Lis, Jolanta; Orczyk-Pawiłowicz, Magdalena; Kątnik-Prastowska, Iwona

    2013-05-31

    Human milk contains a lot of components (i.e. proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, inorganic elements) which provide basic nutrients for infants during the first period of their lives. Qualitative composition of milk components of healthy mothers is similar, but their levels change during lactation stages. Colostrum is the fluid secreted during the first days postpartum by mammary epithelial cells. Colostrum is replaced by transitional milk during 5-15 days postpartum and from 15 days postpartum mature milk is produced. Human milk, apart from nutritional components, is a source of biologically active molecules, i.e. immunoglobulins, growth factors, cytokines, acute phase proteins, antiviral and antibacterial proteins. Such components of human milk are responsible for specific biological activities of human milk. This secretion plays an important role in growth and development of newborns. Bioactive molecules present in the milk support the immature immune system of the newborn and also protect against the development of infection. In this article we describe the pathways involved in the production and secretion of human milk, the state of knowledge on the proteome of human milk, and the contents of components of milk during lactation. Moreover, some growth factors and proteins involved in innate and specific immunity, intercellular communication, immunomodulation, and inflammatory processes have been characterized.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in milk powders marketed in Argentina and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garcia Londoño, Victor A; Garcia, Laura P; Scussel, Vildes M; Resnik, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in milk powder samples commercialised in Argentina and Brazil during 2012. Thirty-one samples were available from the retail market. An HPLC method for the determination of PAHs was applied involving a clean-up step with silica cartridges. Recoveries were greater than 79% for all PAHs analysed. Reproducible determination with adequate detection and quantification limits (LOD and LOQ) were attained by HPLC with fluorescence detection for 14 PAHs. Acenaphthylene was determined with a UV-VIS detector. There is no significant difference in any PAHs or in the sum of them between the Argentinean and Brazilian samples. Therefore, the samples were evaluated together. The highest concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) detected was 0.57 µg kg⁻¹ in milk powder. Contamination of samples expressed as the sum of 15 analysed PAHs varied between 11.8 and 78.4 µg kg⁻¹ and as PAH4 (BaP, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(b)fluoranthene) was between 0.02 and 10.16 µg kg⁻¹. The correlation coefficient for PAH2 (BaP and chrysene) and PAH4 groups was 0.95, for PAH2 and PAH8 it was 0.71, and for PAH4 and PAH8 it was 0.83. All the samples were below the regulatory limit for BaP, but 65% of commercial milk powders do not comply with the European Union limit for PAH4. This is the first report of PAH contamination in powder milk from Argentina and Brazil.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in milk powders marketed in Argentina and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garcia Londoño, Victor A; Garcia, Laura P; Scussel, Vildes M; Resnik, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in milk powder samples commercialised in Argentina and Brazil during 2012. Thirty-one samples were available from the retail market. An HPLC method for the determination of PAHs was applied involving a clean-up step with silica cartridges. Recoveries were greater than 79% for all PAHs analysed. Reproducible determination with adequate detection and quantification limits (LOD and LOQ) were attained by HPLC with fluorescence detection for 14 PAHs. Acenaphthylene was determined with a UV-VIS detector. There is no significant difference in any PAHs or in the sum of them between the Argentinean and Brazilian samples. Therefore, the samples were evaluated together. The highest concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) detected was 0.57 µg kg⁻¹ in milk powder. Contamination of samples expressed as the sum of 15 analysed PAHs varied between 11.8 and 78.4 µg kg⁻¹ and as PAH4 (BaP, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(b)fluoranthene) was between 0.02 and 10.16 µg kg⁻¹. The correlation coefficient for PAH2 (BaP and chrysene) and PAH4 groups was 0.95, for PAH2 and PAH8 it was 0.71, and for PAH4 and PAH8 it was 0.83. All the samples were below the regulatory limit for BaP, but 65% of commercial milk powders do not comply with the European Union limit for PAH4. This is the first report of PAH contamination in powder milk from Argentina and Brazil. PMID:23844580

  10. Spray dried melon seed milk powder: physical, rheological and sensory properties.

    PubMed

    Zungur Bastıoğlu, Aslı; Tomruk, Dilara; Koç, Mehmet; Ertekin, Figen Kaymak

    2016-05-01

    Melon seed milk (MSM) powder was produced by aiming to get alternative vegetable milk from crushed Kırkağaç (Cucumis melo subsp. melo cv. Kırkağaç) and Çeşme (C. melo subsp. melo cv. Çeşme) type melon seeds. MSM was converted to powder form via spray dryer at inlet air temperature of 150 °C, air flow rate of 473 l · h(-1), aspiration ratio of 24 m(3) · h(-1)and feed flow rate of 8 ml · min(-1) in order to extend the shelf life and usage area. The moisture content and water activity of samples changed in range of 2.1 to 2.4 % and 0.260 to 0.310, respectively. Bulk densities and the tapped densities of powders were ranged from 340 to 360 kg · m(-3) and 730 and 740 kg · m(-3). MSM powders showed poor flow behavior as determined from Carr Index. The particle densities of powders ranged between and 1069 kg · m(-3). Wettability time of powders was found as 7 s. The Bingham model was the best model fitted to rheological data of MSM beverages. Sensory evaluation test results showed that, the beverage obtained from reconstituted Kırkağaç powder achieved the highest score by panelists. PMID:27407206

  11. Detection of Yersinia enterocolitica in milk powders by cross-priming amplification combined with immunoblotting analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongwei; Feng, Shaolong; Zhao, Yulong; Wang, Shuo; Lu, Xiaonan

    2015-12-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica (Y. enterocolitica) is frequently isolated from a wide variety of foods and can cause human yersiniosis. Biochemical and culture-based assays are common detection methods, but require a long incubation time and easily misidentify Y. enterocolitica as other non-pathogenic Yersinia species. Alternatively, cross-priming amplification (CPA) under isothermal conditions combined with immunoblotting analysis enables a more sensitive detection in a relatively short time period. A set of specific displacement primers, cross primers and testing primers was designed on the basis of six specific sequences in Y. enterocolitica 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer. Under isothermal condition, amplification and hybridization were conducted simultaneously at 63°C for 60 min. The specificity of CPA was tested for 96 different bacterial strains and 165 commercial milk powder samples. Two red lines were developed on BioHelix Express strip for all of the Y. enterocolitica strains, and one red line was shown for non-Y. enterocolitica strains. The limit of detection of CPA was 10(0)fg for genomic DNA (1000 times more sensitive than PCR assay), 10(1) CFU/ml for pure bacterial culture, and 10(0) CFU per 100 g milk powder with pre-enrichment at 37°C for 24 h. CPA combined with immunoblotting analysis can achieve highly specific and sensitive detection of Y. enterocolitica in milk powder in 90 min after pre-enrichment. PMID:26253307

  12. Detection of Yersinia enterocolitica in milk powders by cross-priming amplification combined with immunoblotting analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongwei; Feng, Shaolong; Zhao, Yulong; Wang, Shuo; Lu, Xiaonan

    2015-12-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica (Y. enterocolitica) is frequently isolated from a wide variety of foods and can cause human yersiniosis. Biochemical and culture-based assays are common detection methods, but require a long incubation time and easily misidentify Y. enterocolitica as other non-pathogenic Yersinia species. Alternatively, cross-priming amplification (CPA) under isothermal conditions combined with immunoblotting analysis enables a more sensitive detection in a relatively short time period. A set of specific displacement primers, cross primers and testing primers was designed on the basis of six specific sequences in Y. enterocolitica 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer. Under isothermal condition, amplification and hybridization were conducted simultaneously at 63°C for 60 min. The specificity of CPA was tested for 96 different bacterial strains and 165 commercial milk powder samples. Two red lines were developed on BioHelix Express strip for all of the Y. enterocolitica strains, and one red line was shown for non-Y. enterocolitica strains. The limit of detection of CPA was 10(0)fg for genomic DNA (1000 times more sensitive than PCR assay), 10(1) CFU/ml for pure bacterial culture, and 10(0) CFU per 100 g milk powder with pre-enrichment at 37°C for 24 h. CPA combined with immunoblotting analysis can achieve highly specific and sensitive detection of Y. enterocolitica in milk powder in 90 min after pre-enrichment.

  13. Relationships of growth hormone gene and milk protein polymorphisms to milk production traits in Simmental cattle.

    PubMed

    Falaki, M; Prandi, A; Corradini, C; Sneyers, M; Gengler, N; Massart, S; Fazzini, U; Burny, A; Portetelle, D; Renaville, R

    1997-02-01

    The importance of milk proteins and the positive effect of administration of growth hormone (GH) on milk production, and the presence in some dairy cattle lines of greater GH concentrations prompted us to examine the presence of restriction fragment length polymorphism at the GH gene using the restriction enzyme TaqI and to investigate associations between this polymorphism in Simmental cows and bulls, as well as milk protein variants in Simmental cows, and milk production traits. Blood and milk were sampled from 279 Italian Simmental cows and semen was collected from 148 bulls of the same breed. Two fragment bands, denoted A and B, of 6200 and 5200 bp respectively, were examined and three patterns, AA, AB and BB, were found in both animal samples. All variants previously reported in other studies, for kappa, beta, and alpha s1-caseins, and beta-lactoglobulin, were found in the cows' samples. For the cows' samples, a BLUP (Best Linear Unbiased Predictor) analysis of results was performed using a REML (Restricted Maximum Likelihood) program and known heritabilities, whereas for bulls we have performed a General Linear Model analysis. The effect of GH gene polymorphism, using TaqI restriction enzyme, on milk production traits was not significant, but bulls of BB pattern had a higher breeding value for milk yield than AA bulls (P < 0.05). For the kappa-casein genotypic effects, cows of AB genotype gave milk with 1.53 +/- 0.70 g/kg less fat than cows of AA genotype. In addition, breeding values for milk protein content were significantly higher in BB bulls, with 0.87 +/- 0.32 and 0.71 +/- 0.34 g/kg more milk protein than AA and AB bulls respectively. Thus, our results revealed a GH gene polymorphism and indicated significant effects of milk protein polymorphisms on milk production traits in the Italian Simmental breed.

  14. Major proteins of the goat milk fat globule membrane.

    PubMed

    Cebo, C; Caillat, H; Bouvier, F; Martin, P

    2010-03-01

    Fat is present in milk as droplets of triglycerides surrounded by a complex membrane derived from the mammary epithelial cell called milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). Although numerous studies have been published on human or bovine MFGM proteins, to date few studies exist on MFGM proteins from goat milk. The objective of this study was thus to investigate the protein composition of the goat MFGM. Milk fat globule membrane proteins from goat milk were separated by 6% and 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE and were Coomassie or periodic acid-Schiff stained. Most of MFGM proteins [mucin-1, fatty acid synthase, xanthine oxidase, butyrophilin, lactadherin (MFG EGF-8, MFG-E8), and adipophilin] already described in cow milk were identified in goat milk using peptide mass fingerprinting. In addition, lectin staining provided a preliminary characterization of carbohydrate structures occurring on MFGM proteins from goat milk depending on alpha(S1)-casein genotype and lactation stage. We provide here first evidence of the presence of O-glycans on fatty acid synthase and xanthine oxidase from goat milk. A prominent difference between the cow and the goat species was demonstrated for lactadherin. Indeed, whereas 2 polypeptide chains were easily identified by peptide mass fingerprinting matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight analysis within bovine MFGM proteins, lactadherin from goat milk consisted of a single polypeptide chain. Another striking observation was the presence of caseins associated with MFGM preparations from goat milk, whereas virtually no caseins were found in MFGM extracts from bovine milk. Taken together, these observations strongly support the existence of a singular secretion mode previously hypothesized in the goat.

  15. Physical properties of ice cream containing milk protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, V B; Wolters, C L; Vodovotz, Y; Ji, T

    2005-03-01

    Two milk protein concentrates (MPC, 56 and 85%) were studied as substitutes for 20 and 50% of the protein content in ice cream mix. The basic mix formula had 12% fat, 11% nonfat milk solids, 15% sweetener, and 0.3% stabilizer/emulsifier blend. Protein levels remained constant, and total solids were compensated for in MPC mixes by the addition of polydextrose. Physical properties investigated included apparent viscosity, fat globule size, melting rate, shape retention, and freezing behavior using differential scanning calorimetry. Milk protein concentrate formulations had higher mix viscosity, larger amount of fat destabilization, narrower ice melting curves, and greater shape retention compared with the control. Milk protein concentrates did not offer significant modifications of ice cream physical properties on a constant protein basis when substituted for up to 50% of the protein supplied by nonfat dry milk. Milk protein concentrates may offer ice cream manufacturers an alternative source of milk solids non-fat, especially in mixes reduced in lactose or fat, where higher milk solids nonfat are needed to compensate other losses of total solids.

  16. Short-term effects of milking frequency on milk yield, milk composition, somatic cell count and milk protein profile in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Torres, Alexandr; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo-Enrique; Morales-delaNuez, Antonio; Sánchez-Macías, Davinia; Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Castro, Noemi; Capote, Juan; Argüello, Anastasio

    2014-08-01

    Goats in Canary Islands are milked once a day by tradition, but in most countries with high technology on farms, goats are milked twice a day, which is known to improve milk yield. Therefore it is important to know whether the increase of milking frequency can improve the production without impairing milk quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the short term effects of three milking frequencies on milk yield, milk composition, somatic cell count (SCC) and milk protein profile in dairy goats traditionally milked once a day. Twelve Majorera goats in early lactation (48±4 d in milk) were used. During a 5-week period, goats were milked once a day (X1) in weeks 1 and 5, twice a day (X2) in weeks 2 and 4, and three times a day (X3) in week 3. Milk recording and sampling were done on the last day of each experimental week. Milk yield increased by 26% from X1 to X2. No differences were obtained when goats were switched from X2 to X3, and from X3 to X2. The goats recovered the production level when they returned to X1. Different patterns of changes in the milk constituents due to the milking frequency effect were observed. Fat percentage increased when switched from X1 to X2, then decreased from X2 to X3, and from X3 to X2, whereas it did not show significant differences from X2 to X1. Milking frequency did not affect the protein and lactose percentages. SCC values were unaffected when goats were milked X1, X2 and X3, but then they increased slightly when milking frequency was returned to X2 and X1. Finally, quantitative analysis showed an increase in intensities of milk protein bands from X1 to X2, but the intensities of casein bands (α(S1)-CN, α(S2)-CN, β-CN, κ-CN) and major whey proteins (α-La, β-Lg) decreased from X2 to X3. PMID:24865131

  17. Quantitative multiresidue analysis of antibiotics in milk and milk powder by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tian, He; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Yangdong; Li, Songli; Jiang, Jindou; Tao, Dali; Zheng, Nan

    2016-10-15

    A simple and fast multiresidue extraction and purification method was developed for the determination of 61 veterinary drugs, belonging to seven classes, in milk and milk powder. The extraction depends on the acetonitrile solvent, followed by a single step to remove lipids with fatty acid chains using a new reversed phase SPE without traditional pre-equilibration and washing steps before eluting SPE. The purifying lipid effect of the present preparation method was evaluated by comparing the response changes of ion peak areas of the milk endogenous metabolites before and after SPE treatment using ultra-fast LC coupled to tandem quadrupole and TOF MS. Subsequently, UPLC coupled to tandem quadrupole MS was performed for the quantitative analysis of milk and milk powder samples spiked with 61 veterinary drugs, including β-lactam, macrolide, amide alcohol, forest amine, sulfanilamide, tetracyclines, and quinolones antibiotics. This method is very simple, fast, sensitive, and selective, and allows the good recoveries of all compounds, with a recovery range of 61.5-118.6%, and coefficients of variation of less than 11.6%. The 61 compounds behave in the dynamic range 0.01-200μgkg(-1), with correlation coefficient >0.99. The limits of quantification for the analytes are in the range 0.01-5.18μgkg(-1). Finally, this method has been successfully applied to the screening of veterinary drugs in 50 commercial bovine milk and milk powder samples, and ceftiofur and ciprofloxacin were detected in some brand samples.

  18. Quantitative multiresidue analysis of antibiotics in milk and milk powder by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tian, He; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Yangdong; Li, Songli; Jiang, Jindou; Tao, Dali; Zheng, Nan

    2016-10-15

    A simple and fast multiresidue extraction and purification method was developed for the determination of 61 veterinary drugs, belonging to seven classes, in milk and milk powder. The extraction depends on the acetonitrile solvent, followed by a single step to remove lipids with fatty acid chains using a new reversed phase SPE without traditional pre-equilibration and washing steps before eluting SPE. The purifying lipid effect of the present preparation method was evaluated by comparing the response changes of ion peak areas of the milk endogenous metabolites before and after SPE treatment using ultra-fast LC coupled to tandem quadrupole and TOF MS. Subsequently, UPLC coupled to tandem quadrupole MS was performed for the quantitative analysis of milk and milk powder samples spiked with 61 veterinary drugs, including β-lactam, macrolide, amide alcohol, forest amine, sulfanilamide, tetracyclines, and quinolones antibiotics. This method is very simple, fast, sensitive, and selective, and allows the good recoveries of all compounds, with a recovery range of 61.5-118.6%, and coefficients of variation of less than 11.6%. The 61 compounds behave in the dynamic range 0.01-200μgkg(-1), with correlation coefficient >0.99. The limits of quantification for the analytes are in the range 0.01-5.18μgkg(-1). Finally, this method has been successfully applied to the screening of veterinary drugs in 50 commercial bovine milk and milk powder samples, and ceftiofur and ciprofloxacin were detected in some brand samples. PMID:27561184

  19. Detection of cow's milk proteins and minor components in human milk using proteomics techniques.

    PubMed

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Varalda, A; Peila, C; Fabris, C; Conti, A; Bertino, E

    2012-10-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are the best characterized food allergens. The aim of this study was to investigate cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, and other minor protein components by proteomics techniques, more sensitive than other techniques used in the past. Sixty-two term and 11 preterm colostrum samples were collected, subjected to a treatment able to increase the concentration of the most diluted proteins and simultaneously to reduce the concentration of the proteins present at high concentration (Proteominer Treatment), and subsequently subjected to the steps of proteomic techniques. The most relevant finding in this study was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in human colostrum, then bovine alpha-1-casein could be considered the cow's milk allergen that is readily secreted in human milk and could be a cause of sensitization to cow's milk in exclusively breastfed predisposed infants. Another interesting result was the detection, at very low concentrations, of proteins previously not described in human milk (galectin-7, the different isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein and the serum amyloid P-component), probably involved in the regulation of the normal cell growth, in the pro-apoptotic function and in the regulation of tissue homeostasis. Further investigations are needed to understand if these families of proteins have specific biological activity in human milk.

  20. Reconstituted yogurt from yogurt cultured milk powder mix has better overall characteristics than reconstituted yogurt from commercial yogurt powder.

    PubMed

    Song, Lijie; Aryana, Kayanush J

    2014-10-01

    For manufacture of commercial yogurt powder, yogurt has to go through a drying process, which substantially lowers the yogurt culture counts, so the potential health benefits of the yogurt culture bacteria are reduced. Also, upon reconstitution, commercial yogurt powder does not taste like yogurt and has an off-flavor. The objective was to study the microbial, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of reconstituted yogurt from yogurt cultured milk powder (YCMP) mix and reconstituted yogurt from commercial yogurt powder (CYP). The CYP reconstituted yogurt was the control and YCMP mix reconstituted yogurt was the treatment. Microbial and physicochemical characteristics of the CYP reconstituted yogurt and YCMP mix reconstituted yogurt were analyzed daily for the first week and then weekly for a period of 8 wk. Sensory consumer testing of CYP reconstituted yogurt and YCMP mix reconstituted yogurt was conducted with 100 consumers. At 56 d, YCMP mix reconstituted yogurt had 5 log cfu/mL higher counts of Streptococcus thermophilus than the control (CYP reconstituted yogurt). Also, Lactobacillus bulgaricus counts of YCMP mix reconstituted yogurt were 6.55 log cfu/mL at 28 d and were 5.35 log cfu/mL at 56 d, whereas the CYP reconstituted yogurt from 28 d onwards had a count of <10 cfu/mL. The YCMP mix reconstituted yogurt also had significantly higher apparent viscosity and sensory scores for appearance, color, aroma, taste, thickness, overall liking, consumer acceptability, and purchase intent than CYP reconstituted yogurt. Overall, YCMP mix reconstituted yogurt had more desirable characteristics than CYP reconstituted yogurt.

  1. Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy Mimicking Acrodermatitis Enteropathica

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, John; Kamalammal, Rugmini; Sait, Mohammed Yaseen; Lohith, Harita

    2014-01-01

    Cow’s milk protein allergy is an adverse immune reaction to one or more of the constituent proteins of milk obtained from any animal, most commonly alpha s 1-casein cow’s milk. In many cases, the allergy is genetic in origin. The infants may experience symptoms within minutes after feeding (rapid onset) or commonly after 7-10 days of consuming the cow’s milk (slower onset). Many children with cow’s milk protein allergy develop symptoms in at least two of the following organ systems: gastrointestinal, skin and respiratory tract. Acrodermatitis Enteropathica (primary or secondary zinc deficiency) can also produce lesions in the skin and also gastro intestinal symptoms which can mimic milk protein allergy and differentiating between these two may be difficult. We are reporting a case of cow’s milk protein allergy in an infant, which was initially diagnosed as Acrodermatitis Enteropathica and treated with zinc. The lesions did not subside completely even after achieving adequate zinc levels, but on stopping the cow’s milk all the symptoms and signs disappeared completely and there was no recurrence on long term follow up. PMID:24783119

  2. [A CASE OF ANAPHYLAXIS IN THE PEDIATRIC PATIENT WITH MILK ALLERGY DUE TO TRACES OF MILK PROTEIN IN THE LACTOSE USED AS AN EXCIPIENT OF INAVIR INHALATION].

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Miki; Kanemitsu, Yoshitomi; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Morikawa, Akimasa; Tomioka, Yoshihisa

    2016-05-01

    The patient was a 6-year-old female with milk allergy and persistent asthma. She experienced anaphylactic reactions just after the inhalation of Inavir (Laninamivir Octanoate Hydrate) to treat flu infection. A skin-prick test showed positive reactions for Inavir inhaler powder and lactose used as an excipient but negative for Laninamivir. Same results were obtained in a drug-stimulated basophil activation test. The lactose excipient in Inavir inhaler powder was supposed to contain milk proteins, which caused anaphylactic reactions. To test this possibility, we examined the contamination of allergic milk proteins in the lactose excipient and found the smear band by silver staining, which was identified as β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) by Western blotting using specific monoclonal antibody and patient's sera. The β-LG in Inavir was supposed to be glycosylated with lactose because the molecular weight was slightly higher than β-LG standard reference as seen in mobility. In fact, the incubation with lactose in vitro tended to increase molecular weight. Following these results, we herein report that the trace amounts of β-LG contaminated in the lactose excipient of Inavir could cause immediate allergic reactions. The risk that the lactose-containing dry powder inhalers cause allergic reactions for patients with cow's milk allergy need to be reminded. In particular, the use for flu patients should be paid careful attention because of increased airway hypersensitivity in those patients. PMID:27193929

  3. [A CASE OF ANAPHYLAXIS IN THE PEDIATRIC PATIENT WITH MILK ALLERGY DUE TO TRACES OF MILK PROTEIN IN THE LACTOSE USED AS AN EXCIPIENT OF INAVIR INHALATION].

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Miki; Kanemitsu, Yoshitomi; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Morikawa, Akimasa; Tomioka, Yoshihisa

    2016-05-01

    The patient was a 6-year-old female with milk allergy and persistent asthma. She experienced anaphylactic reactions just after the inhalation of Inavir (Laninamivir Octanoate Hydrate) to treat flu infection. A skin-prick test showed positive reactions for Inavir inhaler powder and lactose used as an excipient but negative for Laninamivir. Same results were obtained in a drug-stimulated basophil activation test. The lactose excipient in Inavir inhaler powder was supposed to contain milk proteins, which caused anaphylactic reactions. To test this possibility, we examined the contamination of allergic milk proteins in the lactose excipient and found the smear band by silver staining, which was identified as β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) by Western blotting using specific monoclonal antibody and patient's sera. The β-LG in Inavir was supposed to be glycosylated with lactose because the molecular weight was slightly higher than β-LG standard reference as seen in mobility. In fact, the incubation with lactose in vitro tended to increase molecular weight. Following these results, we herein report that the trace amounts of β-LG contaminated in the lactose excipient of Inavir could cause immediate allergic reactions. The risk that the lactose-containing dry powder inhalers cause allergic reactions for patients with cow's milk allergy need to be reminded. In particular, the use for flu patients should be paid careful attention because of increased airway hypersensitivity in those patients.

  4. Green synthesized gold nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide for sensitive determination of chloramphenicol in milk, powdered milk, honey and eye drops.

    PubMed

    Karthik, R; Govindasamy, Mani; Chen, Shen-Ming; Mani, Veerappan; Lou, Bih-Show; Devasenathipathy, Rajkumar; Hou, Yu-Shen; Elangovan, A

    2016-08-01

    A simple and rapid green synthesis using Bischofia javanica Blume leaves as reducing agent was developed for the preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). AuNPs decorated graphene oxide (AuNPs/GO) was prepared and employed for the sensitive amperometric determination of chloramphenicol. The green biosynthesis requires less than 40s to reduce gold salts to AuNPs. The formations of AuNPs and AuNPs/GO were evaluated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopies, UV-Visible and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction studies, and electrochemical methods. AuNPs/GO composite film modified electrode was fabricated and shown excellent electrocatalytic ability towards chloramphenicol. Under optimal conditions, the amperometric sensing platform has delivered wide linear range of 1.5-2.95μM, low detection limit of 0.25μM and high sensitivity of 3.81μAμM(-1)cm(-2). The developed sensor exhibited good repeatability and reproducibility, anti-interference ability and long-term storage stability. Practical feasibility of the sensor has been demonstrated in food samples (milk, powdered milk and honey) and pharmaceutical sample (eye drops). The green synthesized AuNPs/GO composite has great potential for analysis of food samples in food safety measures.

  5. Evaluation of industrial dairy waste (milk dust powder) for acetone-butanol-ethanol production by solventogenic Clostridium species.

    PubMed

    Ujor, Victor; Bharathidasan, Ashok Kumar; Cornish, Katrina; Ezeji, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka

    2014-01-01

    Readily available inexpensive substrate with high product yield is the key to restoring acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation to economic competitiveness. Lactose-replete cheese whey tends to favor the production of butanol over acetone. In the current study, we investigated the fermentability of milk dust powder with high lactose content, for ABE production by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii. Both microorganisms produced 7.3 and 5.8 g/L of butanol respectively, with total ABE concentrations of 10.3 and 8.2 g/L, respectively. Compared to fermentation with glucose, fermentation of milk dust powder increased butanol to acetone ratio by 16% and 36% for C. acetobutylicum and C. beijerinckii, respectively. While these results demonstrate the fermentability of milk dust powder, the physico-chemical properties of milk dust powder appeared to limit sugar utilization, growth and ABE production. Further work aimed at improving the texture of milk dust powder-based medium would likely improve lactose utilization and ABE production.

  6. Wide Range of Biotin (Vitamin H) Content in Foodstuffs and Powdered Milks as Assessed by High-performance Affinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Kou; Katsumata, Noriyuki; Abe, Kiyomi; Hirano, Masahiko; Yoshikawa, Kazuyuki; Ogata, Tsutomu; Horikawa, Reiko; Nagamine, Takeaki

    2009-01-01

    The biotin (vitamin H) contents of various foodstuffs were determined by using a newly developed high-performance affinity chromatography with a trypsin-treated avidin-bound column. Biotin was derivatized with 9-anthryldiazomethane (ADAM) to fluorescent biotin-ADAM ester. A wide range of biotin contents were found in various foodstuffs depending upon the species (strain), season, organ (of plants and animals), geography, freshness, preparation method and storage method. Among the foodstuffs and fermented foods tested, it was found that wide distributions of biotin content were observed in powdered milk, natto, sake (rice wine), beer, edible oil and sea weed. Since powdered milk is important for child health and development, 14 kinds of powdered and special milks for use in children’s diseases were intensively measured. We found that several special milk powders for children with allergies contained low levels of free biotin. Use of these powdered milks caused skin diseases and alopecia in some patients possessing thermolabile serum biotinidase, and administration of free biotin improved their symptoms dramatically. Therefore, it is essential to estimate the total and free biotin contents on each foodstuff in order to improve effective biotin intake and support better health and quality of life for people. PMID:24790379

  7. Characterization of lactosylated proteins of infant formula powders using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Marvin, Laure F; Parisod, Véronique; Fay, Laurent B; Guy, Philippe A

    2002-08-01

    Infant formula powders were analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) to assess the whey proteins quality, which may be altered by the heat treatment used during the processing conditions. Lactosylation was found to be the major chemical modification occurring in whey proteins. In parallel, a two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis was performed on the milk sample and the entire protein patterns were analyzed by nano-ESI-MS after cutting the different gel spots and in-gel trypsin digestion. A highly selective and specific tandem MS technique has been developed to characterize and localize up to ten lactosylation sites in beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) and alpha(S2)-casein. alpha-Lactalbumin (alpha-La), with five lactosylated peptides, was found to be an interesting protein marker in the milk powder sample to detect chemical modification induced by the processing/storage conditions.

  8. Bioactive properties of milk proteins in humans: A review.

    PubMed

    Nongonierma, Alice B; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that milk protein consumption has benefits in terms of promoting human health. This review assesses the intervention studies which have evaluated potential health enhancing effects in humans following the ingestion of milk proteins. The impact of milk protein ingestion has been studied to asses their satiating, hypotensive, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant and insulinotropic properties as well as their impact on morphological modifications (e.g., muscle and fat mass) in humans. Consistent health promoting effects appear to have been observed in certain instances (i.e., muscle protein synthesis, insulinotropic and hypotensive activity). However, controversial outcomes have also been reported (i.e., antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antioxidant properties). Several factors including interindividual differences, the timing of protein ingestion as well as the potency of the active components may explain these differences. In addition, processing conditions have been reported, in certain instances, to affect milk protein structure and therefore modify their bioactive potential. It is thought that the health promoting properties of milk proteins are linked to the release of bioactive peptides (BAPs) during gastrointestinal digestion. There is a need for further research to develop a more in-depth understanding on the possible mechanisms involved in the observed physiological effects. In addition, more carefully controlled and appropriately powered human intervention studies are required to demonstrate the health enhancing properties of milk proteins in humans.

  9. Protein composition affects variation in coagulation properties of buffalo milk.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Gervaso, M; Rostellato, R; Coletta, A; Carnier, P

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects exerted by the content of casein and whey protein fractions on variation of pH, rennet-coagulation time (RCT), curd-firming time (K20), and curd firmness of Mediterranean buffalo individual milk. Measures of milk protein composition and assessment of genotypes at CSN1S1 and CSN3 were obtained by reversed-phase HPLC analysis of 621 individual milk samples. Increased content of αS1-casein (CN) was associated with delayed coagulation onset and increased K20, whereas average pH, RCT, and K20 decreased when β-CN content increased. Milk with low κ-CN content exhibited low pH and RCT relative to milk with high content of κ-CN. Increased content of glycosylated κ-CN was associated with unfavorable effects on RCT. Effects of milk protein composition on curd firmness were less important than those on pH, RCT, and K20. Likely, this occurred as a consequence of the very short RCT of buffalo milk, which guaranteed a complete strengthening of the curd even in the restricted 31 min time of analysis of coagulation properties and for samples initially showing soft curds. Effects of CSN1S1-CSN3 genotypes on coagulation properties were not to be entirely ascribed to existing variation in milk protein composition associated with polymorphisms at CSN1S1 and CSN3 genes. Although the role of detailed milk protein composition in variation of cheese yield needs to be further investigated, findings of this study suggest that modification of the relative content of specific CN fractions can relevantly influence the behavior of buffalo milk during processing.

  10. Protein composition affects variation in coagulation properties of buffalo milk.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Gervaso, M; Rostellato, R; Coletta, A; Carnier, P

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects exerted by the content of casein and whey protein fractions on variation of pH, rennet-coagulation time (RCT), curd-firming time (K20), and curd firmness of Mediterranean buffalo individual milk. Measures of milk protein composition and assessment of genotypes at CSN1S1 and CSN3 were obtained by reversed-phase HPLC analysis of 621 individual milk samples. Increased content of αS1-casein (CN) was associated with delayed coagulation onset and increased K20, whereas average pH, RCT, and K20 decreased when β-CN content increased. Milk with low κ-CN content exhibited low pH and RCT relative to milk with high content of κ-CN. Increased content of glycosylated κ-CN was associated with unfavorable effects on RCT. Effects of milk protein composition on curd firmness were less important than those on pH, RCT, and K20. Likely, this occurred as a consequence of the very short RCT of buffalo milk, which guaranteed a complete strengthening of the curd even in the restricted 31 min time of analysis of coagulation properties and for samples initially showing soft curds. Effects of CSN1S1-CSN3 genotypes on coagulation properties were not to be entirely ascribed to existing variation in milk protein composition associated with polymorphisms at CSN1S1 and CSN3 genes. Although the role of detailed milk protein composition in variation of cheese yield needs to be further investigated, findings of this study suggest that modification of the relative content of specific CN fractions can relevantly influence the behavior of buffalo milk during processing. PMID:23684020

  11. Effect of yogurt and bifidus yogurt fortified with skim milk powder, condensed whey and lactose-hydrolysed condensed whey on serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Beena, A; Prasad, V

    1997-08-01

    The possible hypocholesterolaemic properties of milk and fermented milk products have been investigated in groups of albino rats given a basal diet, basal diet plus cholesterol, and basal diet plus cholesterol together with whole milk or standard or bifidus yogurt. The yogurts were fortified with skim milk powder, condensed whey or lactose-hydrolysed condensed whey. After 30 d, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were measured in serum. Whole milk and ordinary yogurt had no hypocholesterolaemic effect, but standard yogurt containing lactose-hydrolysed condensed whey and all bifidus yogurts lowered serum cholesterol. In general, yogurts changed HDL-cholesterol little, but tended to raise triacylglycerols. There was marked lowering of LDL-cholesterol in rats given either type of yogurt fortified with whey proteins. This study has demonstrated in a rat model that bifidus yogurts and yogurts fortified with whey proteins can reduce total and LDL-cholesterol, and suggests that if they have the same effect in human subjects they have potential value in cholesterol-lowering diets.

  12. Concentrate reduction and sequential roughage offer to dairy cows: effects on milk protein yield, protein efficiency and milk quality.

    PubMed

    Leiber, Florian; Dorn, Katharina; Probst, Johanna K; Isensee, Anne; Ackermann, Nick; Kuhn, Anton; Spengler Neff, Anet

    2015-08-01

    An experiment was conducted during 6 weeks to evaluate effects of a reduced dietary level of protein-rich concentrates in a moderate dairy production system on cows' performance, protein efficiency and milk quality including fatty acid profiles. Twenty-three lactating cows (Swiss Fleckvieh) were assigned either to a group receiving on average 2.4 kg/d individually fed concentrates (Prot+, n = 12) or to a group receiving no individually fed concentrates (Prot-, n = 11). All cows had ad-libitum access to a total mixed ration (TMR) mainly based on grass and maize silage, hay and little potatoes and soybean cake. In weeks 4-6 of the experiment, part of the hay was excluded from the TMR, and fed separately in the morning. Individual feed intake and milk yield were recorded during weeks 3 and 6 of the experiment; at the same time feed, faeces and milk samples were collected twice per week for analyses. Data were processed in linear mixed models. Omission of individual concentrates in Prot- was fully compensated by higher roughage intake in terms of dry matter. Crude protein (CP) and net energy intake was almost maintained. Despite a lower apparent CP digestibility in Prot-, the ratio of milk protein to ingested CP was the same in both groups, indicating a higher ruminal utilisation of degraded CP in Prot-. This corresponded with lower milk urea concentrations in Prot-. Milk quality was affected in terms of lower concentrations of linoleic and conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat of Prot-. Concentrations of odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in milk were increased in Prot-. Sequential offer of hay and TMR did not lead to considerable effects in intake, efficiency and milk quality. In conclusion, the results indicate that the efficiency of feed protein utilisation for milk protein is not impaired if concentrates are reduced in a moderate- to low-input dairy production system. PMID:25876988

  13. Aqueous two-phase partitioning of milk proteins. Application to human protein C secreted in pig milk.

    PubMed

    Cole, K D; Lee, T K; Lubon, H

    1997-01-01

    Milk of transgenic pigs secreting recombinant human Protein C (rHPC) was used as a model system to determine the utility of aqueous two-phase extraction systems (ATPS) for the initial step in the purification of proteins from milk. The major challenges in purification of recombinant proteins from milk are removal of casein micelles (that foul processing equipment) and elimination of the host milk proteins from the final product. When milk was partitioned in ATPS composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and ammonium sulfate (AS), the phases were clarified and most of the caseins precipitated at the interphase. The partition coefficients of the major milk proteins and rHPC were dependent upon the molecular weight of the PEG used in the ATPS. Higher-partition coefficients of the major whey proteins, beta-lactoglobulin, and alpha-lactalbumin were observed in ATPS made up of lower molecular-weight PEG (1000 or 1450) as compared to systems using higher molecular-weight PEG. Lowering the pH of the ATPS from 7.5 to 6.0 resulted in increased precipitation of the caseins and decreased their concentration in both phases. rHPC had a partition coefficient of 0.04 in a system composed of AS and PEG 1450. The rHPC in pig milk was shown to be highly heterogenous by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The heterogeneity was owing to inefficient proteolytic processing of the single chain to the heterodimeric form and differences in glycosylation and other post-translational processing. Differential partitioning of the multiple forms of purified rHPC in the ATPS was not observed. rHPC after processing in ATPS was recovered in a clear phase free of most major milk proteins. ATPS are useful as the initial processing step in the purification of recombinant proteins from milk because clarification and enrichment in combined in a single step. PMID:9382491

  14. Redox proteomics of fat globules unveils broad protein lactosylation and compositional changes in milk samples subjected to various technological procedures.

    PubMed

    Arena, Simona; Renzone, Giovanni; Novi, Gianfranco; Scaloni, Andrea

    2011-10-19

    The Maillard reaction between lactose and proteins occurs during thermal treatment of milk and lactosylated β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin and caseins have widely been used to monitor the quality of dairy products. We recently demonstrated that a number of other whey milk proteins essential for nutrient delivery, defense against bacteria/virus and cellular proliferation become lactosylated during milk processing. The extent of their modification is associated with the harshness of product manufacturing. Since fat globule proteins are also highly important for the health-beneficial properties of milk, an evaluation of their lactosylation is crucial for a complete understanding of aliment nutritional characteristics. This is more important when milk is the unique dietary source, as in the infant diet. To this purpose, a sequential proteomic procedure involving an optimized milk fat globule (MFG) preparation/electrophoretic resolution, shot-gun analysis of gel portions for protein identification, selective trapping of lactosylated peptides by phenylboronate chromatography and their analysis by nanoLC-ESI-electron transfer dissociation (ETD) tandem MS was used for systematic characterization of fat globule proteins in milk samples subjected to various manufacturing procedures. Significant MFG protein compositional changes were observed between samples, highlighting the progressive adsorption of caseins and whey proteins on the fat globule surface as result of the technological process used. A significant lactosylation of MFG proteins was observed in ultra-high temperature sterilized and powdered for infant nutrition milk preparations, which well paralleled with the harshness of thermal treatment. Globally, this study allowed the identification of novel 157 non-redundant modification sites and 35 MFG proteins never reported so far as being lactosylated, in addition to the 153 ones ascertained here as present on other 21 MFG-adsorbed proteins whose nature was already

  15. Methionine sulfoxide profiling of milk proteins to assess the influence of lipids on protein oxidation in milk.

    PubMed

    Wüst, Johannes; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-06-15

    Thermal treatment of milk and milk products leads to protein oxidation, mainly the formation of methionine sulfoxide. Reactive oxygen species, responsible for the oxidation, can be generated by Maillard reaction, autoxidation of sugars, or lipid peroxidation. The present study investigated the influence of milk fat on methionine oxidation in milk. For this purpose, quantitative methionine sulfoxide profiling of all ten methionine residues of β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and αs1-casein was carried out by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS-sMRM). Analysis of defatted and regular raw milk samples after heating for up to 8 min at 120 °C and analysis of ultrahigh-temperature milk samples with 0.1%, 1.5%, and 3.5% fat revealed that methionine oxidation of the five residues of the whey proteins and of residues M 123, M 135, and M 196 of αs1-casein was not affected or even suppressed in the presence of milk fat. Only the oxidation of residues M 54 and M 60 of αs1-casein was promoted by lipids. In evaporated milk samples, formation of methionine sulfoxide was hardly influenced by the fat content of the samples. Thus, it can be concluded that lipid oxidation products are not the major cause of methionine oxidation in milk.

  16. [Determination of docosahexaenoic acid in milk powder by gas chromatography using acid hydrolysis].

    PubMed

    Shao, Shiping; Xiang, Dapeng; Li, Shuang; Xi, Xinglin; Chen, Wenrui

    2015-11-01

    A method to determine docosahexenoic acid (DHA) in milk powder by gas chromatography was established. The milk powder samples were hydrolyzed with hydrochloric acid, extracted to get total fatty acids by Soxhlet extractor, then esterified with potassium hydroxide methanol solution to form methyl esters, and treated with sodium hydrogen sulfate. The optimal experiment conditions were obtained from orthogonal experiment L9(3(3)) which performed with three factors and three levels, and it requires the reaction performed with 1 mol/L potassium hydroxide solution at 25 degrees C for 5 min. The derivative treated with sodium hydrogen sulfate was separated on a column of SP-2560 (100 m x 0.25 mm x 0.20 μm), and determined in 55 min by temperature programming-gas chromatography. Good linearity was obtained in the range 5.0-300 mg/L with the correlation coefficient of 0.999 9. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 3.4%, 1.2% and 1.1% for the seven repeated experiments of 10, 50 and 100 mg/L of DHA, respectively. The limit of detection was 2 mg/kg, and the recoveries of DHA were in the range of 90.4%-93.5%. The results are satisfactory through the tests of practical samples. PMID:26939370

  17. Review: Milk Proteins as Nanocarrier Systems for Hydrophobic Nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Kimpel, Florian; Schmitt, Joachim J

    2015-11-01

    Milk proteins and milk protein aggregates are among the most important nanovehicles in food technology. Milk proteins have various functional properties that facilitate their ability to carry hydrophobic nutraceutical substances. The main functional transport properties that were examined in the reviewed studies are binding of molecules or ions, surface activity, aggregation, gelation, and interaction with other polymers. Hydrophobic binding has been investigated using caseins and isolated β-casein as well as whey proteins. Surface activity of caseins has been used to create emulsion-based carrier systems. Furthermore, caseins are able to self-assemble into micelles, which can incorporate molecules. Gelation and interaction with other polymers can be used to encapsulate molecules into protein networks. The release of transported substances mainly depends on pH and swelling behavior of the proteins. The targeted use of nanocarrier systems requires specific knowledge about the binding mechanisms between the proteins and the carried substances in a certain food matrix. PMID:26467442

  18. Comparison of a Powdered, Acidified Liquid, and Non-Acidified Liquid Human Milk Fortifier on Clinical Outcomes in Premature Infants.

    PubMed

    Thoene, Melissa; Lyden, Elizabeth; Weishaar, Kara; Elliott, Elizabeth; Wu, Ruomei; White, Katelyn; Timm, Hayley; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-01-01

    We previously compared infant outcomes between a powdered human milk fortifier (P-HMF) vs. acidified liquid HMF (AL-HMF). A non-acidified liquid HMF (NAL-HMF) is now commercially available. The purpose of this study is to compare growth and outcomes of premature infants receiving P-HMF, AL-HMF or NAL-HMF. An Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved retrospective chart review compared infant outcomes (born < 2000 g) who received one of three HMF. Growth, enteral nutrition, laboratory and demographic data were compared. 120 infants were included (P-HMF = 46, AL-HMF = 23, NAL-HMF = 51). AL-HMF infants grew slower in g/day (median 23.66 vs. P-HMF 31.27, NAL-HMF 31.74 (p < 0.05)) and in g/kg/day, median 10.59 vs. 15.37, 14.03 (p < 0.0001). AL-HMF vs. NAL-HMF infants were smaller at 36 weeks gestational age (median 2046 vs. 2404 g, p < 0.05). However AL-HMF infants received more daily calories (p = 0.21) and protein (p < 0.0001), mean 129 cal/kg, 4.2 g protein/kg vs. P-HMF 117 cal/kg, 3.7 g protein/kg , NAL-HMF 120 cal/kg, 4.0 g protein/kg. AL-HMF infants exhibited lower carbon dioxide levels after day of life 14 and 30 (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0038). Three AL-HMF infants (13%) developed necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) vs. no infants in the remaining groups (p = 0.0056). A NAL-HMF is the most optimal choice for premature human milk-fed infants in a high acuity neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). PMID:27472359

  19. Comparison of a Powdered, Acidified Liquid, and Non-Acidified Liquid Human Milk Fortifier on Clinical Outcomes in Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Thoene, Melissa; Lyden, Elizabeth; Weishaar, Kara; Elliott, Elizabeth; Wu, Ruomei; White, Katelyn; Timm, Hayley; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-01-01

    We previously compared infant outcomes between a powdered human milk fortifier (P-HMF) vs. acidified liquid HMF (AL-HMF). A non-acidified liquid HMF (NAL-HMF) is now commercially available. The purpose of this study is to compare growth and outcomes of premature infants receiving P-HMF, AL-HMF or NAL-HMF. An Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved retrospective chart review compared infant outcomes (born < 2000 g) who received one of three HMF. Growth, enteral nutrition, laboratory and demographic data were compared. 120 infants were included (P-HMF = 46, AL-HMF = 23, NAL-HMF = 51). AL-HMF infants grew slower in g/day (median 23.66 vs. P-HMF 31.27, NAL-HMF 31.74 (p < 0.05)) and in g/kg/day, median 10.59 vs. 15.37, 14.03 (p < 0.0001). AL-HMF vs. NAL-HMF infants were smaller at 36 weeks gestational age (median 2046 vs. 2404 g, p < 0.05). However AL-HMF infants received more daily calories (p = 0.21) and protein (p < 0.0001), mean 129 cal/kg, 4.2 g protein/kg vs. P-HMF 117 cal/kg, 3.7 g protein/kg , NAL-HMF 120 cal/kg, 4.0 g protein/kg. AL-HMF infants exhibited lower carbon dioxide levels after day of life 14 and 30 (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0038). Three AL-HMF infants (13%) developed necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) vs. no infants in the remaining groups (p = 0.0056). A NAL-HMF is the most optimal choice for premature human milk-fed infants in a high acuity neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). PMID:27472359

  20. Early post parturient changes in milk acute phase proteins.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Funmilola C; Waterston, Mary; Hastie, Peter; Haining, Hayley; Eckersall, P David

    2016-08-01

    The periparturient period is one of the most critical periods in the productive life of a dairy cow, and is the period when dairy cows are most susceptible to developing new intramammary infections (IMI) leading to mastitis. Acute phase proteins (APP) such as haptoglobin (Hp), mammary associated serum amyloid A3 (M-SAA3) and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been detected in milk during mastitis but their presence in colostrum and milk in the immediate postpartum period has had limited investigation. The hypothesis was tested that APP are a constituent of colostrum and milk during this period. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to determine each APP's concentration in colostrum and milk collected daily from the first to tenth day following calving in 22 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Haptoglobin was assessed in individual quarters and composite milk samples while M-SAA3 and CRP concentration were determined in composite milk samples. Change in Hp in relation to the high abundance proteins during the transition from colostrum to milk were evaluated by 1 and 2 dimension electrophoresis and western blot. In 80% of the cows all APPs were detected in colostrum on the first day following parturition at moderately high levels but gradually decreased to minimal values in the milk by the 6th day after calving. The remaining cows (20%) showed different patterns in the daily milk APP concentrations and when an elevated level is detected could reflect the presence of IMI. Demonstration that APP are present in colostrum and milk following parturition but fall to low levels within 4 days means that elevated APP after this time could be biomarkers of post parturient mastitis allowing early intervention to reduce disease on dairy farms. PMID:27600971

  1. Reservoir and routes of transmission of Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.) in a milk powder-producing plant.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, C; Braun, P; Hammer, P

    2011-08-01

    Several outbreaks of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) have been described as food-borne illness in neonates and infants. Powdered infant formula has been identified as a source of infection, especially in hospital nurseries, where a bulk of formula nutrient is prepared for the whole day and instructions for preparation are not always followed correctly. Neonates who are underweight or immunosuppressed are especially at risk for an E. sakazakii infection. Considering that milk powder is the main ingredient of powdered infant formula, we analyzed the incidence and distribution of E. sakazakii in a milk powder-producing plant. We looked specifically at the spray-drying towers and roller dryers. Selected isolates from samples taken from the environment and final product were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to investigate the epidemiology of the organism within the production area of the plant. Seven pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types were detected in the spray-drying area, which presumably entered the plant through an aperture for process air and an improperly controlled roller shutter. Furthermore, textile filters for exhaust air of both the spray-drying towers were identified as internal reservoirs of the pathogen. For economic reasons, powder from the textile filters is reintroduced into the product flow; this can contaminate the final product. For the production of milk powder to be used as an ingredient of powdered infant formula, it was suggested to terminate the process of reintroducing the filtered powder into the product flow. A second transmission route was identified in the roller dryer section of the factory. It could be shown that contaminated milk concentrate could pass the process unheated, thus leading to a contamination of the product with E. sakazakii.

  2. Hydrolysis by Alcalase Improves Hypoallergenic Properties of Goat Milk Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sung-Seob; Lee, Won-Jae; Kim, Jin-Wook; Ha, Ho-Kyung; Yoo, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Goat milk is highly nutritious and is consumed in many countries, but the development of functional foods from goat milk has been slow compared to that for other types of milk. The aim of this study was to develop a goat milk protein hydrolysate (GMPH) with enhanced digestibility and better hypoallergenic properties in comparison with other protein sources such as ovalbumin and soy protein. Goat milk protein was digested with four commercial food-grade proteases (separately) under various conditions to achieve the best hydrolysis of αs -casein and β-lactoglobulin. It was shown that treatment with alcalase (0.4%, 60℃ for 30 min) effectively degraded these two proteins, as determined by SDS-PAGE, measurement of nonprotein nitrogen content, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Hydrolysis with alcalase resulted in a significant decrease in β-lactoglobulin concentration (almost to nil) and a ~40% reduction in the level of αs-casein. Quantification of histamine and TNF-α released from HMC-1 cells (human mast cell line) showed that the GMPH did not induce an allergic response when compared to the control. Hence, the GMPH may be useful for development of novel foods for infants, the elderly, and convalescent patients, to replace cow milk. PMID:27621693

  3. Hydrolysis by Alcalase Improves Hypoallergenic Properties of Goat Milk Protein.

    PubMed

    Jung, Tae-Hwan; Yun, Sung-Seob; Lee, Won-Jae; Kim, Jin-Wook; Ha, Ho-Kyung; Yoo, Michelle; Hwang, Hyo-Jeong; Jeon, Woo-Min; Han, Kyoung-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Goat milk is highly nutritious and is consumed in many countries, but the development of functional foods from goat milk has been slow compared to that for other types of milk. The aim of this study was to develop a goat milk protein hydrolysate (GMPH) with enhanced digestibility and better hypoallergenic properties in comparison with other protein sources such as ovalbumin and soy protein. Goat milk protein was digested with four commercial food-grade proteases (separately) under various conditions to achieve the best hydrolysis of αs -casein and β-lactoglobulin. It was shown that treatment with alcalase (0.4%, 60℃ for 30 min) effectively degraded these two proteins, as determined by SDS-PAGE, measurement of nonprotein nitrogen content, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Hydrolysis with alcalase resulted in a significant decrease in β-lactoglobulin concentration (almost to nil) and a ~40% reduction in the level of αs-casein. Quantification of histamine and TNF-α released from HMC-1 cells (human mast cell line) showed that the GMPH did not induce an allergic response when compared to the control. Hence, the GMPH may be useful for development of novel foods for infants, the elderly, and convalescent patients, to replace cow milk.

  4. Hydrolysis by Alcalase Improves Hypoallergenic Properties of Goat Milk Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sung-Seob; Lee, Won-Jae; Kim, Jin-Wook; Ha, Ho-Kyung; Yoo, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Goat milk is highly nutritious and is consumed in many countries, but the development of functional foods from goat milk has been slow compared to that for other types of milk. The aim of this study was to develop a goat milk protein hydrolysate (GMPH) with enhanced digestibility and better hypoallergenic properties in comparison with other protein sources such as ovalbumin and soy protein. Goat milk protein was digested with four commercial food-grade proteases (separately) under various conditions to achieve the best hydrolysis of αs -casein and β-lactoglobulin. It was shown that treatment with alcalase (0.4%, 60℃ for 30 min) effectively degraded these two proteins, as determined by SDS-PAGE, measurement of nonprotein nitrogen content, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Hydrolysis with alcalase resulted in a significant decrease in β-lactoglobulin concentration (almost to nil) and a ~40% reduction in the level of αs-casein. Quantification of histamine and TNF-α released from HMC-1 cells (human mast cell line) showed that the GMPH did not induce an allergic response when compared to the control. Hence, the GMPH may be useful for development of novel foods for infants, the elderly, and convalescent patients, to replace cow milk.

  5. Hydrolysis by Alcalase Improves Hypoallergenic Properties of Goat Milk Protein.

    PubMed

    Jung, Tae-Hwan; Yun, Sung-Seob; Lee, Won-Jae; Kim, Jin-Wook; Ha, Ho-Kyung; Yoo, Michelle; Hwang, Hyo-Jeong; Jeon, Woo-Min; Han, Kyoung-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Goat milk is highly nutritious and is consumed in many countries, but the development of functional foods from goat milk has been slow compared to that for other types of milk. The aim of this study was to develop a goat milk protein hydrolysate (GMPH) with enhanced digestibility and better hypoallergenic properties in comparison with other protein sources such as ovalbumin and soy protein. Goat milk protein was digested with four commercial food-grade proteases (separately) under various conditions to achieve the best hydrolysis of αs -casein and β-lactoglobulin. It was shown that treatment with alcalase (0.4%, 60℃ for 30 min) effectively degraded these two proteins, as determined by SDS-PAGE, measurement of nonprotein nitrogen content, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Hydrolysis with alcalase resulted in a significant decrease in β-lactoglobulin concentration (almost to nil) and a ~40% reduction in the level of αs-casein. Quantification of histamine and TNF-α released from HMC-1 cells (human mast cell line) showed that the GMPH did not induce an allergic response when compared to the control. Hence, the GMPH may be useful for development of novel foods for infants, the elderly, and convalescent patients, to replace cow milk. PMID:27621693

  6. Analysis of crystallized lactose in milk powder by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yu; Zhou, Qun; Zhang, Yan-ling; Chen, Jian-bo; Sun, Su-qin; Noda, Isao

    2010-06-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is used in combination with two-dimensional (2D) correlation IR spectroscopy to conduct rapid non-destructive quantitative research in milk powder without additional separation steps. The experiments conducted in both FT-IR and 2D FT-IR spectra suggest that characteristic spectroscopic features of milk powder containing different carbohydrate can be detected, and then determine the type of carbohydrate. To predict the approximate content of lactose while the carbohydrate is lactose, different amount of crystallized lactose has been added to the reference milk powder. The correlation coefficient could be used to determine the content of crystallized lactose in milk powder. The method provides a rapid and convenient means for assessing the quality of milk powder.

  7. Effect of precipitation, geographical location and biosynthesis on New Zealand milk powder bulk and fatty acids D/H ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, R.; Emad Ehtesham, R.; Van Hale, R.; Hayman, A.; Baisden, T.

    2012-04-01

    D/H ratio measurements provide useful information for the investigation of biogeochemical influences on natural and agricultural produce, particularly with application to food traceability and authentication. Numerous studies have shown that variation of a product's D/H ratio is influenced by both environmental factors and biological processes. This study investigates the D/H ratio of New Zealand milk powder and individual fatty acids, and causal determinants of isotopic variation. One of the key environmental factors is precipitation, and the D/H ratio "isoscaping" of NZ has been undertaken. New Zealand provides a unique geography for these kinds of study in terms of proximity to the ocean and natural geographical variability from sea level to elevations as high as 3700 m. Milk powder samples were collected from different geographical regions from milk processing units, which were supplied by producers in the immediate region. H/D ratios of bulk milk powder and of individual fatty acids were determined. Initial comparison of the precipitation and milk powder bulk D/H data show a very good differentiation from north to southernmost parts of New Zealand and a relation between rain and milk bulk D/H abundance ratio. Almost 98% of milk FAs are in the form of triglycerides that have been extracted and hydrolysed to free FAs. Free FAs were esterified and analyzed with GC-IRMS. Individual FAs show variation in D/H ratio, and all values are depleted relative to the precipitation data. The difference in D/H ratio amongst individual FAs reflects the geographical environment and biological processes i.e. micro-organisms activity in the rumen of the cow. Short chain FAs (less than 8 carbons), particularly C4 (Butyric acid), appear to be key determinants. The variation in the data can be rationalized using statistical multivariate analysis.

  8. Preconcentration of milk proteins using octadecylated monolithic silica microchip.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Eman; Welham, Kevin

    2013-10-10

    Sample preparation is a bottleneck in systems for chemical analysis and it is a required step in order to remove interference and preconcentrate the target analytes. Much research in recent years has focused on porous monolithic materials since they are highly permeable to liquid flow and show high mass transfer compared with common packed beds. This study has focused on the use of a glass microchip containing an inorganic silica-based monolithic material modified with octadecyl groups for preconcentration of milk proteins from skimmed cows' milk that vary in molecular weight, hydrophobicity, and abundance. Comparison between the fabricated device and a commercial cartridge for the preconcentration of proteins in skimmed cows' milk showed the ability of the device to successfully enrich protein mixtures from the sample. The three replicate experiments showed that the RSD of the mass to charge ratio of milk proteins ranged from 0.01 to 0.46%. In addition, it was found that there were no significant differences between the observed and reported masses of the milk proteins and the relative percentage error of the molecular masses ranged between 0.03 and 0.90%. The fact that the small amounts of sample required and short sample preparation time suggest that this new microfluidic device may be a viable alternative to existing procedures for protein extraction from real samples. PMID:24070482

  9. Effect of milk on the urinary excretion of microbial phenolic acids after cocoa powder consumption in humans.

    PubMed

    Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Llorach, Rafael; Khan, Nasiruddin; Monagas, Maria; Rotches-Ribalta, Maria; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa; Estruch, Ramon; Tinahones, Francisco J; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2010-04-28

    Health effects of cocoa flavonols depend on their bioavailability, which is strongly influenced by the food matrix and the degree of flavanol polymerization. The effect of milk on the bioavailability of cocoa flavanoids considering phase II metabolites of epicatechin has been the subject of considerable debate. This work studies the effect of milk at the colonic microbial metabolism level of the nonabsorbed flavanol fraction that reaches the colon and is metabolized by the colonic microbiota into various phenolic acids. Twenty-one human volunteers followed a diet low in polyphenols for at least 48 h before taking, in a random order, 40 g of cocoa powder dissolved either in 250 mL of whole milk or in 250 mL of water. Urine samples were collected before the intake and during three different periods (0-6, 6-12, and 12-24 h). Phenolic acids were analyzed by LC-MS/MS after solid-phase extraction. Of the 15 metabolites assessed, the excretion of 9 phenolic acids was affected by the intake of milk. The urinary concentration of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic, protocatechuic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, 4-hydroxyhippuric, hippuric, caffeic, and ferulic acids diminished after the intake of cocoa with milk, whereas urinary concentrations of vanillic and phenylacetic acids increased. In conclusion, milk partially affects the formation of microbial phenolic acids derived from the colonic degradation of procyanidins and other compounds present in cocoa powder.

  10. [Recent progress of dry powder inhalation of proteins and peptides].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie-yu; Zhang, Lan; Mao, Shi-rui

    2015-07-01

    To provide theoretical and practical basis for the successful formulation design of physically-mixed inhalation dry powder of proteins and peptides, related references were collected, analyzed and summarized. In this review drug micronization technology and commonly used carriers for inhalation dry powder preparation were introduced. For proteins and peptides, supercritical fluid technology and spray-drying are more suitable because of their capabilities of keeping drug activity. Being approved by U. S. Food and Drug Administration, lactose has been extensively used as carriers in many inhalation products. Formulation and process factors influencing drug deposition in the lung, including carrier properties, drug-carrier ratio, blending order, mixing methods, mixing time and the interaction between drug and carrier, were elucidated. The size, shape and surface properties of carries all influence the interaction between drug and carrier. Besides, influence of micromeritic properties of the dry powder, such as particle size, shape, density, flowability, charge, dispersibility and hygroscopicity, on drug deposition in the lung was elaborated. Among these particle size plays the most crucial role in particle deposition in the lung. Moreover, based on the mechanisms of powder dispersity, some strategies to improve drug lung deposition were put forward, such as adding carrier fines, adding adhesive-controlling materials and reprocessing micronized drug. In order to design physically-mixed inhalation dry powder for proteins and peptides with high lung deposition, it is essential to study drug-carriers interactions systematically and illustrate the potential influence of formulation, process parameters and micromeritic properties of the powder. PMID:26552141

  11. Assessment of the effect of methionine supplementation and inclusion of hydrolyzed wheat protein in milk protein-based milk replacers on the performance of intensively fed Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Castro, J J; Hwang, G H; Saito, A; Vermeire, D A; Drackley, J K

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare 2 milk replacers containing only milk proteins with or without supplemental Met, and to compare a milk replacer containing hydrolyzed wheat protein at 4.5% of dry matter (DM) and supplemental Lys and Met against the 2 all-milk-protein formulas, by assessing their effect on the growth performance, efficiency, and plasma urea nitrogen of pre-weaning Holstein calves. Thus, 57 Holstein calves were allotted to the following 3 treatments: (1) a skim milk plus whey protein concentrate-based milk replacer (SMWP) containing about 2.6% Lys and 0.6% Met on a DM basis; (2) SMWP + M based on skim milk and whey proteins, containing about 2.6% Lys, and supplemental Met to reach 0.9% on a DM basis; and (3) a skim milk plus whey protein concentrate plus 4.5% of the DM as hydrolyzed wheat protein based milk replacer (HWP + LM) where the wheat protein replaced 50% of the whey protein concentrate, and also contained supplemental Lys and Met to match the profile of SMWP + M (i.e., Lys 2.6 and Met 0.9% on DM basis). No difference in any of the responses was observed by supplementing the milk protein based formula with Met or when hydrolyzed wheat protein was added to the formula. Results indicate that (1) a milk replacer based on skim milk protein and whey protein with a Lys concentration of ~2.6% does not benefit from Met supplementation, and (2) milk replacer containing 4.5% of the DM as hydrolyzed wheat protein and supplemented with Lys and Met can support the same growth performance as milk protein-based formulas. PMID:27179863

  12. Assessment of the effect of methionine supplementation and inclusion of hydrolyzed wheat protein in milk protein-based milk replacers on the performance of intensively fed Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Castro, J J; Hwang, G H; Saito, A; Vermeire, D A; Drackley, J K

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare 2 milk replacers containing only milk proteins with or without supplemental Met, and to compare a milk replacer containing hydrolyzed wheat protein at 4.5% of dry matter (DM) and supplemental Lys and Met against the 2 all-milk-protein formulas, by assessing their effect on the growth performance, efficiency, and plasma urea nitrogen of pre-weaning Holstein calves. Thus, 57 Holstein calves were allotted to the following 3 treatments: (1) a skim milk plus whey protein concentrate-based milk replacer (SMWP) containing about 2.6% Lys and 0.6% Met on a DM basis; (2) SMWP + M based on skim milk and whey proteins, containing about 2.6% Lys, and supplemental Met to reach 0.9% on a DM basis; and (3) a skim milk plus whey protein concentrate plus 4.5% of the DM as hydrolyzed wheat protein based milk replacer (HWP + LM) where the wheat protein replaced 50% of the whey protein concentrate, and also contained supplemental Lys and Met to match the profile of SMWP + M (i.e., Lys 2.6 and Met 0.9% on DM basis). No difference in any of the responses was observed by supplementing the milk protein based formula with Met or when hydrolyzed wheat protein was added to the formula. Results indicate that (1) a milk replacer based on skim milk protein and whey protein with a Lys concentration of ~2.6% does not benefit from Met supplementation, and (2) milk replacer containing 4.5% of the DM as hydrolyzed wheat protein and supplemented with Lys and Met can support the same growth performance as milk protein-based formulas.

  13. Prevalence of thermoduric bacteria and spores in nonfat dry milk powders of Midwest origin.

    PubMed

    Buehner, Kimberly P; Anand, Sanjeev; Djira, Gemechis D

    2015-05-01

    Samples of nonfat dry milk powder were analyzed for the presence of heat-resistant bacteria. The samples were collected from Midwest manufacturing companies and were evaluated for the presence of spores, thermoduric bacteria, and the total bacterial count. Three companies were included in this study, and results showed differences between each of the companies in the heat-resistant microbial groups tested. Company 3 had the highest levels of total spores and thermoduric bacteria: 3.6±0.14 and 3.5±0.13 log cfu/g, respectively. Interestingly, this company did not have the highest total bacterial count but rather the second lowest total bacterial count for the group, perhaps because of the higher proportion of thermophiles present in the powders from this company. The average level of total bacterial counts was 2.57±0.07 log cfu/g. Isolates obtained from the samples were identified by mass spectrometry, and all of the companies showed Bacillus licheniformis as the most prevalent bacterial species identified.

  14. Effect of parity, days in milk, and milk yield on detailed milk protein composition in Mediterranean water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Gervaso, M; Coletta, A; Carnier, P

    2012-08-01

    The effects of some nongenetic factors on milk protein fraction contents and relative proportions were estimated in 606 individual milk samples of Mediterranean water buffalo. Content of α(S1)-casein (CN), α(S2)-CN, β-CN, γ-CN, κκ-CN, glycosylated κ-CN (glyco-κ-CN), α-lactalbumin, and β-lactoglobulin was measured by reversed-phase HPLC. Relative contents of α(S1)-CN%, α(S2)-CN%, β-CN%, and κ-CN% were, respectively, 32.1, 17.1, 34.5, and 15.7%, whereas γ-CN% accounted for 0.6% of total casein content. Increasing total casein content in milk would result in a greater proportion of β-CN% at the expense of all of the other major casein fractions, especially of κ-CN%. Values of α(S2)-CN%, β-CN%, and γ-CN% tended to decrease with parity, although their variations were not significant, whereas α(S1)-CN% and glyco-κ-CN% showed the opposite trend. Contents of most protein fractions showed the typical trends observed for milk components as lactation progressed, with high contents in early lactation, a minimum in midlactation, followed by a gradual increase toward the latter part of lactation. Values of α(S1)-CN% increased during lactation, whereas α(S2)-CN% decreased. The proportion of β-CN% had its maximum value between 60 and 160 d of lactation, followed by a decrease, whereas κ-CN% had its minimum value in early lactation (<60 d) and remained relatively constant in the period of mid and late lactation. Glyco-κ-CN% and β-lactoglobulin% decreased in the first part of lactation, to reach their minimum values in midlactation, followed by an increase. Milk of top-producing buffaloes, compared with that of low-producing ones, had a significantly greater value of β-CN% and glyco-κ-CN%, and lower proportion of α(S1)-CN%. The possible effect exerted by protein genetic variants in affecting variation of milk protein fraction contents and relative proportions should be further considered to better get insight into buffalo milk protein composition. PMID

  15. Effect of parity, days in milk, and milk yield on detailed milk protein composition in Mediterranean water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Gervaso, M; Coletta, A; Carnier, P

    2012-08-01

    The effects of some nongenetic factors on milk protein fraction contents and relative proportions were estimated in 606 individual milk samples of Mediterranean water buffalo. Content of α(S1)-casein (CN), α(S2)-CN, β-CN, γ-CN, κκ-CN, glycosylated κ-CN (glyco-κ-CN), α-lactalbumin, and β-lactoglobulin was measured by reversed-phase HPLC. Relative contents of α(S1)-CN%, α(S2)-CN%, β-CN%, and κ-CN% were, respectively, 32.1, 17.1, 34.5, and 15.7%, whereas γ-CN% accounted for 0.6% of total casein content. Increasing total casein content in milk would result in a greater proportion of β-CN% at the expense of all of the other major casein fractions, especially of κ-CN%. Values of α(S2)-CN%, β-CN%, and γ-CN% tended to decrease with parity, although their variations were not significant, whereas α(S1)-CN% and glyco-κ-CN% showed the opposite trend. Contents of most protein fractions showed the typical trends observed for milk components as lactation progressed, with high contents in early lactation, a minimum in midlactation, followed by a gradual increase toward the latter part of lactation. Values of α(S1)-CN% increased during lactation, whereas α(S2)-CN% decreased. The proportion of β-CN% had its maximum value between 60 and 160 d of lactation, followed by a decrease, whereas κ-CN% had its minimum value in early lactation (<60 d) and remained relatively constant in the period of mid and late lactation. Glyco-κ-CN% and β-lactoglobulin% decreased in the first part of lactation, to reach their minimum values in midlactation, followed by an increase. Milk of top-producing buffaloes, compared with that of low-producing ones, had a significantly greater value of β-CN% and glyco-κ-CN%, and lower proportion of α(S1)-CN%. The possible effect exerted by protein genetic variants in affecting variation of milk protein fraction contents and relative proportions should be further considered to better get insight into buffalo milk protein composition.

  16. OMICS-rooted studies of milk proteins, oligosaccharides and lipids.

    PubMed

    Casado, Begoña; Affolter, Michael; Kussmann, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Milk has co-evolved with mammals and mankind to nourish their offspring and is a biological fluid of unique complexity and richness. It contains all necessary nutrients for the growth and development of the newborn. Structure and function of biomolecules in milk such as the macronutrients (glyco-) proteins, lipids, and oligosaccharides are central topics in nutritional research. Omics disciplines such as proteomics, glycomics, glycoproteomics, and lipidomics enable comprehensive analysis of these biomolecule components in food science and industry. Mass spectrometry has largely expanded our knowledge on these milk bioactives as it enables identification, quantification and characterization of milk proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. In this article, we describe the biological importance of milk macronutrients and review the application of proteomics, glycomics, glycoproteomics, and lipidomics to the analysis of milk. Proteomics is a central platform among the Omics tools that have more recently been adapted and applied to nutrition and health research in order to deliver biomarkers for health and comfort as well as to discover beneficial food bioactives.

  17. [Determination of fructo-oligosaccharides in milk powder by high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/electrostatic field orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Ding, Tao; Xu, Suli; Wu, Bin; Shen, Chongyu; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yan; Fei, Xiaoqing

    2015-10-01

    A method of high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/electrostatic field Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q/Orbitrap MS) was developed to determine fructo-oligosaccharides in milk powder. The milk powder samples were dissolved in deionized water. Subsequently, an aqueous solution of zinc acetate was used to precipitate protein. After centrifugation, the final aqueous solution was filtered by a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane with pore size of 0.22 μm. The analytes were separated on a Carbohydrate column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 2.6 μm) through gradient elution with the combination of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution. The target-MS/MS templates were performed at isolation window of m/z 4.0 and collision energy of 30 eV in positive mode to extract the accurate product ion mass of analytes. Under the optimal condition, 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and 1-F-β-fructofuranosyl nystose (GF4) were well separated and the accuracy of extracted mass routinely detected was below 5 x 10(-6) (5 ppm). The whole analysis time is only ten minutes. The detection limits for GF2 and GF3 were 100 μg/kg, and the detection limit for GF4 was 55 μg/kg. Good linearities were obtained in their respective linear ranges with correlation coefficients higher than 0.998. The average recoveries at three spiked levels (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) were in the range of 75.8%-107.3% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 1.6% - 8.3%. The proposed method is simple, sensitive, fast and only in need of precipitation of proteins. The interference of matrix can be eliminated through the selection of product ion. The results were convenient and reliable and thus can be used in the large batch determination of any milk powder. PMID:26930960

  18. [Determination of fructo-oligosaccharides in milk powder by high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/electrostatic field orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Ding, Tao; Xu, Suli; Wu, Bin; Shen, Chongyu; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yan; Fei, Xiaoqing

    2015-10-01

    A method of high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/electrostatic field Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q/Orbitrap MS) was developed to determine fructo-oligosaccharides in milk powder. The milk powder samples were dissolved in deionized water. Subsequently, an aqueous solution of zinc acetate was used to precipitate protein. After centrifugation, the final aqueous solution was filtered by a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane with pore size of 0.22 μm. The analytes were separated on a Carbohydrate column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 2.6 μm) through gradient elution with the combination of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution. The target-MS/MS templates were performed at isolation window of m/z 4.0 and collision energy of 30 eV in positive mode to extract the accurate product ion mass of analytes. Under the optimal condition, 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and 1-F-β-fructofuranosyl nystose (GF4) were well separated and the accuracy of extracted mass routinely detected was below 5 x 10(-6) (5 ppm). The whole analysis time is only ten minutes. The detection limits for GF2 and GF3 were 100 μg/kg, and the detection limit for GF4 was 55 μg/kg. Good linearities were obtained in their respective linear ranges with correlation coefficients higher than 0.998. The average recoveries at three spiked levels (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) were in the range of 75.8%-107.3% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 1.6% - 8.3%. The proposed method is simple, sensitive, fast and only in need of precipitation of proteins. The interference of matrix can be eliminated through the selection of product ion. The results were convenient and reliable and thus can be used in the large batch determination of any milk powder.

  19. [Incomplete antigens derived from milk proteins in the serum of infants allergic to milk].

    PubMed

    Vanella, L M; de González Lascano, A M; Miguez, V M

    1978-01-01

    1. Sera of 22 children with cow's milk clinical hypersensitivity were studied to demonstrate the presence of substances immunologically related with milk. They were compared with 23 controls. The infants of both groups were feed with bovine milk. The immunogenic capacity of cow's milk and their major proteins were experimentally investigated. 2. Specific rabbit antisera were obtained by injection of antigens with incomplete Freund adjuvant. Double difussion gel, passive hemagglutination and ultramicromethod for the determination of antigen antibody precipitated were performed. 3. Immunogenicity was proved by precipitation and hemagglutination methods. by precipitation cow's milk antigens were present in 5 of 22 sera of antigenic patients, in 3 of them ALA antigens were present and in only 1 of them, caseina were present. By hemagglutination, 12 of 22 allergic infants showed ALA and BLG and 11 caseine (C). In 2 of 7 controls, beta lactoglobuline (BLG) was present and in an other one C. It was possible to detect incomplete antigens related with ALA, BLG, and C in allergic infants as well as controls. A significative difference was found for BLG (P less than 0.01) and it was highest (P less than 0.003) in infants with protein calorie malnutrition. 4. It is concluded that sensitization depends not only on stimulation of incomplete or complete antigens, as were observed in this study but on the host's capacity to form citrotropic antibody in humoral hypersensitivity or to stimulate lymphocytes in cellular immunity field.

  20. COMPARISON OF CHILDREN'S FOLLOW-ON INSTANT POWDERED COW'S MILK FORMULA, BUFFALO MILK FORMULA AND CHICKEN-BASED FORMULA ON ENAMEL MICROHARDNESS OF BOVINE TEETH IN VITRO.

    PubMed

    Vongsavan, Kadkao; Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Surarit, Rudee

    2016-03-01

    Dental caries are a major public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of children's follow-on instant powdered cow's milk formula, buffalo milk formula and a chicken-based formula on microhardness of bovine enamel with artificial caries-like lesions. Forty bovine teeth were each placed in acrylic blocks and the enamel surfaces were polished to create flat 5 x 5 millimeter surfaces. The teeth surfaces were then demineralized using 0.1M lactic acid (pH 4.5) to achieve an enamel microhardness of 35-65 Vickers Hardness Numbers (VHN). All specimens were then randomly allocated into one of 4 groups (n=10/group). For remineralization, each group was soaked in a different kind of milk formula for 2 hours at 37°C except group 1 which was a negative control (artificial saliva) group. Group 2 was soaked in Murrah™ buffalo milk formula (a positive control ), group 3 in S-26-Promil-Gold™ (cow's milk formula) and group 4 in a chicken-based formula (Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University). The microhardness of the specimens was then measured again. Data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and paired t-test with a 95% confidence interval. After exposure to the formula, the mean VHN for each study group was significantly higher (paired t-test, p < 0.05) except for group 1 (p = 0.345). The mean VHN for the the Murrah™ buffalo milk formula, the chicken-based formula and the S-26-Promil-Gold™ formula group were not significantly different from each other (one-way ANOVA, p > 0.05). In conclusion, S-26-Promil-Gold™ follow-on cow milk formula, Murrah™ buffalo milk formula and the chicken-based formula all increased bovine enamel microhardness after soaking for 2 hours. PMID:27244971

  1. Effects of partially replacing skimmed milk powder with dairy ingredients on rheology, sensory profiling, and microstructure of probiotic stirred-type yogurt during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Marafon, A P; Sumi, A; Granato, D; Alcântara, M R; Tamime, A Y; Nogueira de Oliveira, M

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the quality of stirred-type skim milk probiotic yogurt fortified by partially replacing skim milk powder (SMP) with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and sodium caseinate (Na-CN) during cold storage for 28 d compared with nonfortified yogurt. The rheological properties (as measured using dynamic oscillation) and sensory profiles of probiotic yogurts were greatly enhanced when SMP (i.e., 45%) was replaced with WPC and Na-CN. Higher values of mechanical parameters related to storage and loss modulus and consistent microstructure were found in the fortified yogurts. The acidification profile was not affected by supplementation of the solids in the milk base, and the viable counts of probiotic microbiota were high and satisfactory. These positive characteristics of probiotic yogurts were maintained until the end of the storage period. The microstructure of the fortified yogurt showed some differences compared with the nonfortified product, which were due to changes in chemical composition of the milk base in addition to the colloidal characteristics of the product.

  2. Enterotoxigenic Bacillus spp. DNA fingerprint revealed in naturally contaminated nonfat dry milk powder using rep-PCR.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Robin M; McKillip, John L

    2006-01-01

    Dry milk powders and functional ingredients frequently contain high levels of viable bacterial spores, some of which may result in growth of toxigenic Bacillus spp. in reconstituted and temperature-abused foods. Samples from nonfat dry milk (NFDM), infant milk formula (IMF), coffee creamer, lecithin, and cocoa powder were subjected to a short heat treatment followed by enrichment in tryptone phosphate glucose yeast extract (TPGY) broth at 32 degrees C for 12-25 hours to obtain cell densities of 10(6) CFU ml(-1). DNA was extracted using a modification of established protocol, leading to the development of an optimized method for each food system. Purified DNA was amplified by rep-PCR using extragenic sequence-targeting primers and optimized for each food. PCR fingerprints from each food were analyzed electrophoretically for banding patterns earlier correlated to that of enterotoxigenic Bacillus spp. and Bacillus cereus positive control DNA fingerprints. Reverse passive latex agglutination (RPLA) and Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Tecra Diagnostics) confirmed the presence of HBL and NHE enterotoxin production in NFDM, Coffee creamer, infant milk formula, and two lecithin samples but not in cocoa powder. These results demonstrate the utility of rep-PCR not only as a tool for bacterial genotyping, but a unique means of quality control and hygiene monitoring in food microbiology.

  3. Protein profile of mature soybean seeds and prepared soybean milk.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caruso, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Chiara; Samperi, Roberto; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Zenezini Chiozzi, Riccardo; Laganà, Aldo

    2014-10-01

    The soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is economically the most important bean in the world, providing a wide range of vegetable proteins. Soybean milk is a colloidal solution obtained as water extract from swelled and ground soybean seeds. Soybean proteins represent about 35-40% on a dry weight basis and they are receiving increasing attention with respect to their health effects. However, the soybean is a well-recognized allergenic food, and therefore, it is urgent to define its protein components responsible for the allergenicity in order to develop hypoallergenic soybean products for sensitive people. The main aim of this work was the characterization of seed and milk soybean proteome and their comparison in terms of protein content and specific proteins. Using a shotgun proteomics approach, 243 nonredundant proteins were identified in mature soybean seeds.

  4. Thermal properties of milk fat, xanthine oxidase, caseins and whey proteins in pulsed electric field-treated bovine whole milk.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Oey, Indrawati; Everett, David W

    2016-09-15

    Thermodynamics of milk components (milk fat, xanthine oxidase, caseins and whey proteins) in pulsed electric field (PEF)-treated milk were compared with thermally treated milk (63 °C for 30 min and 73 °C for 15s). PEF treatments were applied at 20 or 26 kV cm(-1) for 34 μs with or without pre-heating of milk (55 °C for 24s), using bipolar square wave pulses in a continuous mode of operation. PEF treatments did not affect the final temperatures of fat melting (Tmelting) or xanthine oxidase denaturation (Tdenaturation), whereas thermal treatments increased both the Tmelting of milk fat and the Tdenaturation for xanthine oxidase by 2-3 °C. Xanthine oxidase denaturation was ∼13% less after PEF treatments compared with the thermal treatments. The enthalpy change (ΔH of denaturation) of whey proteins decreased in the treated-milk, and denaturation increased with the treatment intensity. New endothermic peaks in the calorimetric thermograms of treated milk revealed the formation of complexes due to interactions between MFGM (milk fat globule membrane) proteins and skim milk proteins. Evidence for the adsorption of complexes onto the MFGM surface was obtained from the increase in surface hydrophobicity of proteins, revealing the presence of unfolded hydrophobic regions. PMID:27080877

  5. Quantitative proteomic analysis of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins in human and bovine colostrum and mature milk samples through iTRAQ labeling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Cong, Min; Peng, Xiuming; Wu, Junrui; Wu, Rina; Liu, Biao; Ye, Wenhui; Yue, Xiqing

    2016-05-18

    Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins have many functions. To explore the different proteomics of human and bovine MFGM, MFGM proteins were separated from human and bovine colostrum and mature milk, and analyzed by the iTRAQ proteomic approach. A total of 411 proteins were recognized and quantified. Among these, 232 kinds of differentially expressed proteins were identified. These differentially expressed proteins were analyzed based on multivariate analysis, gene ontology (GO) annotation and KEGG pathway. Biological processes involved were response to stimulus, localization, establishment of localization, and the immune system process. Cellular components engaged were the extracellular space, extracellular region parts, cell fractions, and vesicles. Molecular functions touched upon were protein binding, nucleotide binding, and enzyme inhibitor activity. The KEGG pathway analysis showed several pathways, including regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, neurotrophin signaling pathway, leukocyte transendothelial migration, tight junction, complement and coagulation cascades, vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway, and adherens junction. These results enhance our understanding of different proteomes of human and bovine MFGM across different lactation phases, which could provide important information and potential directions for the infant milk powder and functional food industries. PMID:27159491

  6. Milk protein polymorphism in Danish dairy cattle and the influence of genetic variants on milk yield.

    PubMed

    Bech, A M; Kristiansen, K R

    1990-02-01

    In milk samples from 549 cows of the breeds Danish Jersey, Red Danish Dairy Cattle (RDM), and Black and White Danish Dairy Cattle (SDM) the genetic polymorphisms of the alpha-s1, beta and k-casein and beta=lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) loci were determined by isoelectric focusing in agarose gels. The results of the screening were compared with results obtained by Larsen and Thymann. In addition, the genetic linkage of the three casein loci was studied , and the association between milk protein genotypes and yields in first and second lactations of milk, fat and protein were investigated. The distribution of genotypes of all four milk protein systems was different from breed to breed. For Jersey cows, significant differences in the gene frequencies from the results of the 1966 investigation were found for alpha-s1 and k-casein and beta-Lg. For SDM cows a change in the k-casein frequency had occurred whereas for RDM cows no changes were found. Linkage between some of the casein loci was found within all three breeds. For the RDM breed the possible linkage between alpha-s1-casein and the other caseins could not be tested because nearly all the cows were homozygous for the alpha-s1-casein-B genotypes. beta-Casein genotypes were associated with yield parameters in all breeds. The A2A2 genotype of this protein gave higher yields of milk, fat, and protein in the second lactation than the A1A1 genotype.

  7. Effect of method of feeding protein and protein insolubility on milk production by Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Baxter, H D; Montgomery, M J; Waldo, D R; Owen, J R

    1983-10-01

    Each of two feeding trials used 32 first and second lactation Jersey cows to evaluate four methods of protein supplementation of corn silage: A) 20% crude protein grain mixture, B) 1.36 kg of soybean meal replaced an equal amount of grain mixture, C) 2.27 kg of alfalfa-orchardgrass hay daily and 16% crude protein grain mixture, and D) 2.72 kg of soybean meal mixed with the silage daily. Concentrates were fed at 1 to 4 kg fat-corrected milk for treatments A, B, and C. All cows received 1.18 kg of 16% crude protein concentrate mixture daily in the milking parlor. Protein contents, as percents of dry matter intake, for respective treatments were 12.9, 15.0, 12.7, and 17.2. Treatments did not differ significantly for milk production, fat-corrected milk, and change of body weight; however, percents milk fat for 1.36 and 2.72 kg soybean meal were higher. In trial 2, protein insolubility of ration components was determined by four extracting methods: A) autoclaved rumen fluid, B) sodium chloride solution, C) Burroughs' solution, and D) boiling water. Insoluble protein intake determined by autoclaved rumen fluid and hot water methods accounted for more of the variance of milk and fat-corrected milk production than total protein intake.

  8. The use of radiolabelled milk proteins to study thermally-induced interactions in milk systems

    SciTech Connect

    Noh, B.

    1988-01-01

    Heat induced complexes between milk proteins are of considerable importance in determining the heat stability and rennin clottability of milk products. Thiol-disulfide interchange reactions have been suggested as the principal reaction mechanism for complex formation. Studies to data have not adequately established the mechanism and stoichiometry of complex formation in situ in total milk system. Tracer amounts of {sup 14}C-{beta}-lactoglobulin and {alpha}-lactalbumin were heated under various conditions. After clotting with rennet, radioactivity retained in the curd was counted to estimate extent of interaction of {beta}-lactoglobulin with casein. {sup 14}C- and {sup 3}H-Methyl labelled proteins were used for the preparation of radiolabelled artificial casein micelles. These micelles with radiolabelled whey proteins were heated and heat-induced complexes were separated on Sephacryl S-300 eluting with 6 M guanidine hydrochloride to break all non-covalent bonds. Further separation of the protein complexes was obtained using CPG-10 or Sephacryl S-1000. The ratios of {sup 3}H to {sup 14}C labelled proteins in the protein complexes suggested that the stoichiometries of k-, {alpha}{sub s2}-casein, {beta}-lactoglobulin and {alpha}-lactalbumin in the heat-induced complexes varied as a function of the heat treatment.

  9. Characterising variances of milk powder and instrumentation for the development of a non-targeted, Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics detection method for the evaluation of authenticity.

    PubMed

    Karunathilaka, Sanjeewa R; Farris, Samantha; Mossoba, Magdi M; Moore, Jeffrey C; Yakes, Betsy Jean

    2016-06-01

    There is a need to develop rapid tools to screen milk products for economically motivated adulteration. An understanding of the physiochemical variability within skim milk powder (SMP) and non-fat dry milk (NFDM) is the key to establishing the natural differences of these commodities prior to the development of non-targeted detection methods. This study explored the sources of variance in 71 commercial SMP and NFDM samples using Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis (PCA) and characterised the largest number of commercial milk powders acquired from a broad number of international manufacturers. Spectral pre-processing using a gap-segment derivative transformation (gap size = 5, segment width = 9, fourth derivative) in combination with sample normalisation was necessary to reduce the fluorescence background of the milk powder samples. PC scores plots revealed no clear trends for various parameters, including day of analysis, powder type, supplier and processing temperatures, while the largest variance was due to irreproducibility in sample positioning. Significant chemical sources of variances were explained by using the spectral features in the PC loadings plots where four samples from the same manufacturer were determined to likely contain an additional component or lactose anomers, and one additional sample was identified as an outlier and likely containing an adulterant or differing quality components. The variance study discussed herein with this large, diverse set of milk powders holds promise for future use as a non-targeted screening method that could be applied to commercial milk powders.

  10. Characterising variances of milk powder and instrumentation for the development of a non-targeted, Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics detection method for the evaluation of authenticity.

    PubMed

    Karunathilaka, Sanjeewa R; Farris, Samantha; Mossoba, Magdi M; Moore, Jeffrey C; Yakes, Betsy Jean

    2016-06-01

    There is a need to develop rapid tools to screen milk products for economically motivated adulteration. An understanding of the physiochemical variability within skim milk powder (SMP) and non-fat dry milk (NFDM) is the key to establishing the natural differences of these commodities prior to the development of non-targeted detection methods. This study explored the sources of variance in 71 commercial SMP and NFDM samples using Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis (PCA) and characterised the largest number of commercial milk powders acquired from a broad number of international manufacturers. Spectral pre-processing using a gap-segment derivative transformation (gap size = 5, segment width = 9, fourth derivative) in combination with sample normalisation was necessary to reduce the fluorescence background of the milk powder samples. PC scores plots revealed no clear trends for various parameters, including day of analysis, powder type, supplier and processing temperatures, while the largest variance was due to irreproducibility in sample positioning. Significant chemical sources of variances were explained by using the spectral features in the PC loadings plots where four samples from the same manufacturer were determined to likely contain an additional component or lactose anomers, and one additional sample was identified as an outlier and likely containing an adulterant or differing quality components. The variance study discussed herein with this large, diverse set of milk powders holds promise for future use as a non-targeted screening method that could be applied to commercial milk powders. PMID:27167451

  11. Milk protein and the restoration of fluid balance after exercise.

    PubMed

    James, Lewis

    2012-01-01

    Sweat is produced during exercise to help dissipate some of the extra heat produced due to an increase in metabolic rate. Inadequate drink ingestion during exercise means athletes finish exercise hypohydrated and when the time between exercise bouts is short, effective rehydration strategies will be necessary to prevent subsequent performance impairment. For complete rehydration, drink volume must be sufficient to replace sweat losses as well as the additional water losses during recovery. Once a sufficient volume of drink is ingested it is the drink composition that dictates the rehydration success of the drink. It is well known that addition of sodium and some other nutrients to rehydration drinks enhances fluid balance restoration after exercise, but the effects of milk proteins have been less well documented. Skimmed milk is an effective post-exercise rehydration solution and enhances the restoration of fluid balance after exercise-induced dehydration to a greater extent than a carbohydrate-electrolyte sports drink. Whilst there are a number of factors in skimmed milk that might be responsible for this enhancement of rehydration, it appears that some of the effect is due to the milk protein, as milk protein has been shown to be more effective for post-exercise rehydration than an isoenergetic amount of carbohydrate. Whilst the effects of whey protein on post-exercise rehydration are equivocal, whey protein addition to a carbohydrate-electrolyte rehydration solution certainly does not impair rehydration. Therefore, in situations where protein ingestion after exercise might be advantageous for the athlete, this protein might also enhance restoration of fluid balance.

  12. Lateral flow test strip based on colloidal selenium immunoassay for rapid detection of melamine in milk, milk powder, and animal feed.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhizeng; Zhi, Dejuan; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Hailong; Wang, Xin; Ru, Yi; Li, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Although high melamine (MEL) intake has been proven to cause serious health problems, MEL is sometimes illegally added to milk products and animal feed, arousing serious food safety concerns. A satisfactory method of detecting MEL in onsite or in-home testing is in urgent need of development. This work aimed to explore a rapid, convenient, and cost-effective method of identifying MEL in milk products or other food by colloidal selenium-based lateral flow immunoassay. Colloidal selenium was synthesized by L-ascorbic acid to reduce seleninic acid at room temperature. After conjugation with a monoclonal antibody anti-MEL, a test strip was successfully prepared. The detection limit of the test strip reached 150 μg/kg, 1,000 μg/kg, and 800 μg/kg in liquid milk, milk powder, and animal feed, respectively. No cross-reactions with homologues cyanuric acid, cyanurodiamide, or ammelide were found. Moreover, the MEL test strip can remain stable after storage for 1 year at room temperature. Our results demonstrate that the colloidal selenium MEL test strip can detect MEL in adulterated milk products or animal feed conveniently, rapidly, and sensitively. In contrast with a colloidal gold MEL test strip, the colloidal selenium MEL test strip was easy to prepare and more cost-efficient.

  13. Rapid screening of mycotoxins in liquid milk and milk powder by automated size-exclusion SPE-UPLC-MS/MS and quantification of matrix effects over the whole chromatographic run.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiupin; Li, Peiwu

    2015-04-15

    An automated, size-exclusion solid phase extraction (SPE)-UPLC-MS/MS protocol without pre-treatment of samples was developed to screen for four mycotoxins (OTA, ZEN, AFB1, and AFM1) in liquid milk and milk powder. Firstly, a mixed macropore-silica gel cartridge was established as a size-exclusion SPE column. The proposed methodology could be a candidate in green analytical chemistry because it saves on manpower and organic solvent. Permanent post-column infusion of mycotoxin standards was used to quantify matrix effects throughout the chromatographic run. Matrix-matched calibration could effectively compensate for matrix effects, which may be caused by liquid milk or milk powder matrix. Recovery of the four mycotoxins in fortified liquid milk was in the range 89-120% and RSD 2-9%. The LOD for the four mycotoxins in liquid milk and milk powder were 0.05-2 ng L(-1) and 0.25-10 ng kg(-1), respectively. The LOQ for the four mycotoxins in liquid milk and milk powder were 0.1-5 ng L(-1) and 0.5-25 ng kg(-1), respectively.

  14. The analysis of carbohydrates in milk powder by a new "heart-cutting" two-dimensional liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Hou, Xiaofang; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Yunan; He, Langchong

    2014-03-01

    In this study, a new"heart-cutting" two-dimensional liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of carbohydrate contents in milk powder was presented. In this two dimensional liquid chromatography system, a Venusil XBP-C4 analysis column was used in the first dimension ((1)D) as a pre-separation column, a ZORBAX carbohydrates analysis column was used in the second dimension ((2)D) as a final-analysis column. The whole process was completed in less than 35min without a particular sample preparation procedure. The capability of the new two dimensional HPLC method was demonstrated in the determination of carbohydrates in various brands of milk powder samples. A conventional one dimensional chromatography method was also proposed. The two proposed methods were both validated in terms of linearity, limits of detection, accuracy and precision. The comparison between the results obtained with the two methods showed that the new and completely automated two dimensional liquid chromatography method is more suitable for milk powder sample because of its online cleanup effect involved.

  15. Partial calcium depletion during membrane filtration affects gelation of reconstituted milk protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Eshpari, H; Jimenez-Flores, R; Tong, P S; Corredig, M

    2015-12-01

    Milk protein concentrate powders (MPC) with improved rehydration properties are often manufactured using processing steps, such as acidification and high-pressure processing, and with addition of other ingredients, such as sodium chloride, during their production. These steps are known to increase the amount of serum caseins or modify the mineral equilibrium, hence improving solubility of the retentates. The processing functionality of the micelles may be affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of partial acidification by adding glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) to skim milk during membrane filtration on the structural changes of the casein micelles by observing their chymosin-induced coagulation behavior, as such coagulation is affected by both the supramolecular structure of the caseins and calcium equilibrium. Milk protein concentrates were prepared by preacidification with GDL to pH 6 using ultrafiltration (UF) and diafiltration (DF) followed by spray-drying. Reconstituted UF and DF samples (3.2% protein) treated with GDL showed significantly increased amounts of soluble calcium and nonsedimentable caseins compared with their respective controls, as measured by ion chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE electrophoresis, respectively. The primary phase of chymosin-induced gelation was not significantly different between treatments as measured by the amount of caseino-macropeptide released. The rheological properties of the reconstituted MPC powders were determined immediately after addition of chymosin, both before and after dialysis against skim milk, to ensure similar serum composition for all samples. Reconstituted samples before dialysis showed no gelation (defined as tan δ=1), and after re-equilibration only control UF and DF samples showed gelation. The gelation properties of reconstituted MPC powders were negatively affected by the presence of soluble casein, and positively affected by the amount of both soluble and insoluble

  16. Development of a method to characterize high-protein dairy powders using an ultrasonic flaw detector.

    PubMed

    Hauser, M; Amamcharla, J K

    2016-02-01

    Dissolution behavior of high-protein dairy powders plays a critical role for achieving functional and nutritional characteristics of a finished food product. Current methods for evaluating powder dissolution properties are time consuming, difficult to reproduce, and subjective. Ultrasound spectroscopy is a rapid and precise method, but requires expensive equipment and skilled technicians to carry out the tests. In the present study, an ultrasonic flaw detector (UFD) was used as an economical alternative to characterize the powder dissolution properties. The objective of study was to develop a method to characterize the dissolution behavior of milk protein concentrate (MPC) using a UFD. The experimental setup included a UFD connected to a 1-MHz immersion transducer that was kept a constant distance from a reflector plate. To validate the method, 2 batches of MPC80 from a commercial manufacturer were procured and stored at 25 and 40°C for 4 wk. Focus beam reflectance measurement and solubility index were used as reference methods. Relative ultrasound velocity and ultrasound attenuation were acquired during the dissolution of MPC samples. To characterize the MPC dissolution, 4 parameters including standard deviation of relative velocity, area under the attenuation curve, and peak attenuation were extracted from ultrasound data. As the storage temperature and time increased, the area under the attenuation curve and peak height decreased, indicating a loss of solubility. The proposed UFD-based method was able to capture the changes in dissolution of MPC during storage at 25 and 40°C. It was observed that a high-quality MPC had a low standard deviation and a larger area under the attenuation curve. As the MPC aged at 40°C, the particle dispersion rate decreased and, consequently, an increase in standard deviation and reduction in area were observed. Overall, the UFD can be a low-cost method to characterize the dissolution behavior of high-protein dairy powders.

  17. Deciphering the Genetic Blueprint behind Holstein Milk Proteins and Production

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Taeheon; Son, Jun Kyu; Yoon, Ho-Baek; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Jeong, Jin Young; Cho, Yong-Min; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Lim, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Kwanghyeon; Kim, Tae-Hun; Kwon, Eung Gi; Nam, Jungrye; Kwak, Woori; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2014-01-01

    Holstein is known to provide higher milk yields than most other cattle breeds, and the dominant position of Holstein today is the result of various selection pressures. Holstein cattle have undergone intensive selection for milk production in recent decades, which has left genome-wide footprints of domestication. To further characterize the bovine genome, we performed whole-genome resequencing analysis of 10 Holstein and 11 Hanwoo cattle to identify regions containing genes as outliers in Holstein, including CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN3, and KIT whose products are likely involved in the yield and proteins of milk and their distinctive black-and-white markings. In addition, genes indicative of positive selection were associated with cardiovascular disease, which is related to simultaneous propagation of genetic defects, also known as inbreeding depression in Holstein. PMID:24920005

  18. Temperature effect on lactose crystallization, maillard reactions, and lipid oxidation in whole milk powder.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Marianne K; Lauridsen, Lene; Skibsted, Leif H; Risbo, Jens

    2005-09-01

    Whole milk powder with an initial water content of 4.4% (w/w) and a water activity of 0.23 stored in hermetically sealed vials for up to 147 days below (37 and 45 degrees C) and above (55 degrees C) the glass transition temperature (T(g) determined to have the value 48 degrees C) showed a strong temperature dependence for quality deterioration corresponding to energies of activation close to 200 kJ/mol for most deteriorative processes. The glass transition was found not to cause any deviation from Arrhenius temperature dependence. Lactose crystallization, which occurred as a gradual process as monitored by isothermal calorimetry, is concluded to liberate bound water (a(w) increase to 0.46) with a modest time delay (approximately 2 days at 55 degrees C) and with concomitant surface browning as evidenced by an increasing Hunter b-value. Browning and formation of bound hydroxymethyl-furfural determined by HPLC seem to be coupled, while formation of another Maillard reaction product, furosine, occurred gradually and was initiated prior to crystallization. Initiation of lipid oxidation, as detected by lipid-derived radicals (high g-value ESR spectra), and progression of lipid oxidation, as detected by headspace GC, seem not to be affected by lactose crystallization and browning, and no indication of browning products acting as antioxidants could be determined. PMID:16131114

  19. Evaluation of a rapid protein analyzer for determination of protein in milk and cream.

    PubMed

    Amamcharla, J K; Metzger, L E

    2010-08-01

    Accurate and rapid measurement of the protein content of milk is important from both a product quality and an economic standpoint. The Sprint rapid protein analyzer (CEM Corporation, Matthews, NC) is a commercial system based on a dye-binding technique and can be used for rapid measurement of protein in foods. The objective of the present study was to compare the Sprint method with the reference method (Kjeldahl method). Milk and cream samples were analyzed in duplicate for true protein and crude protein (CP) using the reference method as well as the rapid method. Method comparison statistics (regression analysis, graphical representation, standard deviation of residuals, repeatability, and so on) were used to evaluate the agreement between the 2 methods. Regression coefficients and the intercepts were not significantly different from 1 and zero for CP measurement in milk and cream, respectively. The average coefficient of variance between the duplicate CP measurements for the Sprint method was found to be 0.40, 0.49, and 0.76 for milk, light cream, and heavy cream, respectively. True protein measurement in milk and cream also followed a similar trend. Overall, there exists a sufficient level of agreement between the Sprint rapid protein analyzer and Kjeldahl method for true protein and CP measurement of milk and cream samples.

  20. A RAPD based study revealing a previously unreported wide range of mesophilic and thermophilic spore formers associated with milk powders in China.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Faizan A; Li, Yun; Liu, TongJie; Flint, Steve; Zhang, Guohua; He, GuoQing

    2016-01-18

    Aerobic spore forming bacteria are potential milk powder contaminants and are viewed as indicators of poor quality. A total of 738 bacteria, including both mesophilic and thermophilic, isolated from twenty-five powdered milk samples representative of three types of milk powders in China were analyzed based on the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) protocol to provide insight into species diversity. Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent bacterium with greatest diversity (~43% of the total isolates) followed by Geobacillus stearothermophilus (~21% of the total isolates). Anoxybacillus flavithermus represented only 8.5% of the total profiles. Interestingly, actinomycetes represented a major group of the isolates with the predominance of Laceyella sacchari followed by Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, altogether comprising of 7.3% of the total isolates. Out of the nineteen separate bacterial species (except five unidentified groups) recovered and identified from milk powders, twelve proved to belong to novel or previously unreported species in milk powders. Assessment and characterization of the harmful effects caused by this particular micro-flora on the quality and safety of milk powders will be worth doing in the future. PMID:26555161

  1. [Detection of toxigenic genes nheA, nheB and nheC in Bacillus cereus strains isolated from powdered milk samples in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Rojas, Jonathan; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Pérez, Cristian; Chaves, Carolina; Arias, María Laura

    2014-09-01

    Powdered milk is a frequently consumed product that does not need to be kept under cold conditions. Nevertheless, different microorganisms may contaminate it. Powdered milk is a highly consumed product by Costa Rican population, and Bacillus cereus is a potentially pathogenic bacteria associated to it, with the ability to develop toxins depending on the presence of the respective codifying genes. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of the toxigenic genes nheA, nheB and nheC from B. cereus strains, found in powdered milk sold at the Costa Rican national market. Five different lots of ten brands of powdered milk, distributed in the metropolitan area of San José, Costa Rica were analyzed. B cereus load was quantified using the Most Probable Number technique and identified using the Vitek system. The presence of the toxigenic genes was determined using the PCR technique. The isolation frequency of this bacteria in the powdered milk samples analyzed reached 50%, with populations ranging from 3 to > 100 MPN/g. Five out from nineteen strains were found positive for the three toxigenic genes, indicating contamination with potentially toxigenic B. cereus in powdered milk distributed in the national market, and an important risk for public. health.

  2. Rapid and sensitive detection of the food allergen glycinin in powdered milk using a lateral flow colloidal gold immunoassay strip test.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Deng, Ruiguang; Zhang, Gaiping; Li, Qingmei; Yang, Jifei; Sun, Yaning; Li, Zhixi; Hu, Xiaofei

    2015-03-01

    A rapid immunochromatographic lateral flow test strip in a sandwich format was developed with the colloidal gold-labeled mouse antiglycinin monoclonal antibody (mAb) and rabbit antiglycinin polyclonal antibody (pAb) to specifically identify glycinin, a soybean allergen. The test strip is composed of a sample pad, a conjugate reagent pad, an absorbent pad, and a test membrane containing a control line and a test line. This test strip has high sensitivity, and results can be obtained within 10 min without sophisticated procedures. The limit of detection (LOD) of the test strip was calculated to be 0.69 mg/kg using an optical density scanner that measures relative optical density. The assay showed high specificity for glycinin, with no cross-reactions with other soybean proteins or other food allergens. The recoveries of the lateral flow test strip in detecting glycinin in powdered milk samples ranged between 80.5 and 89.9% with relative standard deviations of less than 5.29% (intra-assay) and 6.72% (interassay). Therefore, the test strip is useful as a quantitative, semiquantitative, or qualitative detection method for glycinin in powdered milk. In addition, the test strip can be used to detect glycinin in other processed foods and may be a valuable tool in identifying effective approaches for reducing the impact of glycinin.

  3. Disorder in milk proteins: caseins, intrinsically disordered colloids.

    PubMed

    Redwan, Elrashdy M; Xue, Bin; Almehdar, Hussein A; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    This article opens a series of reviews on the abundance and roles of intrinsic disorder in milk proteins. The focus of this introductory article on caseins is symbolic, since caseins were among the first recognized functional unfolded proteins and since they are definitely the most disordered, the most abundant, and the most studied of all milk proteins. In eutherian milks, the casein family includes at least three and usually four major members (αs1-, αs2-, β-, and κ-caseins) that are unrelated in sequence. However, in some species, two different αS2-casein genes are active, and therefore the total number of caseins can be as high as five. These proteins have found a number of uses in food industry. The functional repertoire of caseins ranges from nutritional function to involvement in the improving and/or maintaining cardiovascular health, to crucial contribution to the milk capacity to transport calcium phosphate, to serve as molecular chaperones, and to protect the mother's mammary gland against amyloidoses and ectopic calcification. An intricate feature of caseins is their ability to assemble to colloidal protein particles, casein micelles, serving to sequester and transport amorphous calcium phosphate. These and many other functions of caseins are obviously dependent on their intrinsically disordered nature and are controlled by various posttranslational modifications. Since various aspects of casein structure and function are rather well studied and since several recent reviews emphasized the functional roles of caseins' intrinsic disorder, the major goal of this article is to show how intrinsic disorder is encoded in the amino acid sequences of these proteins.

  4. Comparison of soymilk, powdered milk, Hank's balanced salt solution and tap water on periodontal ligament cell survival.

    PubMed

    Moazami, Fariborz; Mirhadi, Hosein; Geramizadeh, Bita; Sahebi, Safoura

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of soymilk, powdered milk, and Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) to maintain human periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability in vitro. PDL cells were obtained from extracted healthy third molars and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagles medium (DMEM). The cultures were exposed for 1, 2, 4, and 8 h to experimental solutions (tap water served as negative control and DMEM as positive control) at 37°C. The viable cells were then counted using the trypan blue exclusion technique. Data were analyzed by using one-way anova, post hoc Scheffe and two-way anova test. Statistical analysis showed that HBSS, powdered baby formula, and soymilk maintain cell viability equally well in different periods of times. Tap water cannot keep cells viable as well as other solutions. Soymilk and powdered baby formula can be recommended as suitable storage media for avulsed teeth for up to 8 h.

  5. Sensitivity and specificity enhanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay by rational hapten modification and heterogeneous antibody/coating antigen combinations for the detection of melamine in milk, milk powder and feed samples.

    PubMed

    Cao, Biyun; Yang, Hong; Song, Juan; Chang, Huafang; Li, Shuqun; Deng, Anping

    2013-11-15

    The adulteration of food products with melamine has led to an urgent requirement for sensitive, specific, rapid and reliable quantitative/screening methods. To enhance the sensitivity and specificity of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of melamine in milk, milk powder and feed samples, rational hapten modification and heterogeneous antibody/coating antigen combinations were adopted. Three melamine derivatives with different length of carboxylic spacer at the end were synthesized and linked to carrier proteins for the production of immunogens and coating antigens. Monoclonal antibody against melamine was produced by hybridoma technology. Under optimal experimental conditions, the standard curves of the ELISAs for melamine were constructed in range of 0.1-100 ng mL(-1). The sensitivity was 10-300 times enhanced compared to those in the published literatures. The cross-reactivity values of the ELISAs also demonstrated the assays exhibited high specificity. Five samples were spiked with melamine at different concentrations and detected by the ELISA. The recovery rates of 72.8-123.0% and intra-assay coefficients of variation of 0.8-18.9% (n=3) were obtained. The ELISA for milk sample was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography with a high correlation coefficient of 0.9902 (n=6). The proposed ELISA was proven to be a feasible quantitative/screening method for melamine analysis.

  6. Screening of adulterants in milk powder using a high-throughput Raman chemical imaging method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milk is one of the most common targets for economically motivated adulteration. Adulterants in milk can cause illness and death when consumed, thus rapid and accurate detection method is needed for authenticating milk products. Our previous studies based on a point-scan Raman imaging system have dem...

  7. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Cameron J; McGregor, Robin A; D'Souza, Randall F; Thorstensen, Eric B; Markworth, James F; Fanning, Aaron C; Poppitt, Sally D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-10-21

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring (13)C₆ phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h(-1) in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p < 0.001) to 0.057% ± 0.018% and 0.052% ± 0.024% h(-1) in the milk and whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein.

  8. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; McGregor, Robin A.; D’Souza, Randall F.; Thorstensen, Eric B.; Markworth, James F.; Fanning, Aaron C.; Poppitt, Sally D.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring 13C6 phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p < 0.001) to 0.057% ± 0.018% and 0.052% ± 0.024% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein. PMID:26506377

  9. Genomic analysis of the major bovine milk protein genes.

    PubMed

    Threadgill, D W; Womack, J E

    1990-12-11

    The genomic arrangement of the major bovine milk protein genes has been determined using a combination of physical mapping techniques. The major milk proteins consist of the four caseins, alpha s1 (CASAS1), alpha s2 (CASAS2), beta (CASB), and kappa (CASK), as well as the two major whey proteins, alpha-lactalbumin (LALBA) and beta-lactoglobulin (LGB). A panel of bovine X hamster hybrid somatic cells analyzed for the presence or absence of bovine specific restriction fragments revealed the genes coding for the major milk proteins to reside on three chromosomes. The four caseins were assigned to syntenic group U15 and localized to bovine chromosome 6 at q31-33 by in situ hybridization. LALBA segregated with syntenic group U3, while LGB segregated with U16. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis confirmed genetic mapping results indicating tight linkage of the casein genes. The four genes reside on less than 200 kb of DNA in the order CASAS1-CASB-CASAS2-CASK. Multiple restriction fragment length polymorphisms were also found at the six loci in three breeds of cattle.

  10. Functional Characteristics of Milk Protein Concentrates and Their Modification.

    PubMed

    Uluko, Hankie; Liu, Lu; Lv, Jia-Ping; Zhang, Shu-Wen

    2016-05-18

    A major deterrent to the usage of milk protein concentrate (MPC), a high-protein milk product with increasing demand as a food and sports drink ingredient, has been its poor functional characteristics when compared with other milk protein products such as whey protein concentrate and sodium caseinates. This review discusses the recent research on functional properties of MPC, focusing on factors that may contribute to the poor functional characteristics before, during, and after production. Current research, methods employed, and new understanding on the causes of poor solubility of MPC at mild temperatures (about 20°C) has been presented, including loss of solubility during storage as these areas have received unprecedented attention over the past decade, and also affects other useful functional properties of MPC, such as emulsifying properties, gelation, and foaming. Processing methods, which include heat treatment, high-pressure application, microwave heating, ultrasound application, and enzyme and salts modification, have been used or have potential to modify or improve the functional properties of MPCs. Future research on the effects of these processing methods on the functional properties, including effects of enzyme hydrolysis on bitterness and bioactivity, has also been discussed. PMID:26048645

  11. Functional Characteristics of Milk Protein Concentrates and Their Modification.

    PubMed

    Uluko, Hankie; Liu, Lu; Lv, Jia-Ping; Zhang, Shu-Wen

    2016-05-18

    A major deterrent to the usage of milk protein concentrate (MPC), a high-protein milk product with increasing demand as a food and sports drink ingredient, has been its poor functional characteristics when compared with other milk protein products such as whey protein concentrate and sodium caseinates. This review discusses the recent research on functional properties of MPC, focusing on factors that may contribute to the poor functional characteristics before, during, and after production. Current research, methods employed, and new understanding on the causes of poor solubility of MPC at mild temperatures (about 20°C) has been presented, including loss of solubility during storage as these areas have received unprecedented attention over the past decade, and also affects other useful functional properties of MPC, such as emulsifying properties, gelation, and foaming. Processing methods, which include heat treatment, high-pressure application, microwave heating, ultrasound application, and enzyme and salts modification, have been used or have potential to modify or improve the functional properties of MPCs. Future research on the effects of these processing methods on the functional properties, including effects of enzyme hydrolysis on bitterness and bioactivity, has also been discussed.

  12. [Proteolysis of milk proteins in young children].

    PubMed

    Nikolaevskaia, V R; Chernikov, M P

    1984-01-01

    Distinct pancreatic activity was observed in duodenal chyme of newly born children. Rapid evacuation of protein from stomach was noted in artificial feeding. The tryptic activity was increased in duodenal contents after the introduction of artificial feeding. Amino acids were mainly liberated in the course of cavitary digestion of proteins. Some of the amino acids (cysteine, phenylalanine) were absorbed in a bound form. PMID:6528540

  13. Variation in the bovine FABP4 gene affects milk yield and milk protein content in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, H.; Cheng, L.; Azimu, W.; Hodge, S.; Edwards, G. R.; Hickford, J. G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) bind long-chain fatty acids and are involved in their intracellular transport. Of the known bovine FABP genes, FABP4 has been mapped to a region on chromosome 14 that contains quantitative trait loci for milk traits. This study investigated the association of FABP4 haplotypes with milk production traits in 719 Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cows. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis of a variable region of the gene revealed three haplotypes (A, B and C). Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified: two in exon 3 and three in intron 3. A was associated (P = 0.032) with increased milk protein percentage (present: 4.00 ± 0.02%; absent: 3.95 ± 0.02%) and B was associated (P = 0.009) with increased milk yield (present: 23.81 ± 0.23 kg/d; absent: 23.06 ± 0.21 kg/d), but tended to be associated with a decrease in protein percentage and an increase in protein yield. Cows with genotypes AA, AB and AC produced less milk, but with a higher protein percentage than BC cows. This suggest that FABP4 affects milk yield and milk protein content, both economically important traits, and that further study of this gene is warranted. PMID:26067182

  14. A 90-day safety study in Sprague-Dawley rats fed milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) derived from transgenic cloned cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cui; Wang, Jian Wu; Huang, Kun Lun; He, XiaoYun; Chen, Xiu Ping; Sun, Hong; Yu, Tian; Che, Hui Lian

    2011-10-01

    Transgenic cloned animals expressing beneficial human nutritional traits offer a new strategy for large-scale production of some kinds of functional substances. In some cases, the required safety testing for genetically modified (GM) foods do not seem appropriate for human food safety, though regulations do not seem to provide alternatives. A 90-day rat feeding study is the core study for the safety assessment of GM foods. The test material in this 90-day study was prepared nonfat milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF), which was expressed in transgenic cloned cattle. Groups of 10 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a nutritionally balanced purified diet containing 7.5, 15, or 30% transgenic or conventional milk powder for 90 days. A commercial AIN93G diet was used as an additional control group. Clinical, biological, and pathological parameters were compared between groups. The only significant effect of treatment was higher mean ferritin and Fe(+) concentrations for both male and female rats fed the transgenic milk powder diets, as compared to rats fed nontransgenic milk diets or the commercial diet. The results of the present study are consistent with previous research, which indicates that milk powder containing rhLF derived from healthy transgenic cloned cattle is as safe as conventional milk powder.

  15. Considerations in meeting protein needs of the human milk-fed preterm infant.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julie; Hanson, Corrine; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2014-08-01

    Preterm infants provided with sufficient nutrition to achieve intrauterine growth rates have the greatest potential for optimal neurodevelopment. Although human milk is the preferred feeding for preterm infants, unfortified human milk provides insufficient nutrition for the very low-birth-weight infant. Even after fortification with human milk fortifier, human milk often fails to meet the high protein needs of the smallest preterm infants, and additional protein supplementation must be provided. Although substantial evidence exists to support quantitative protein goals for human milk-fed preterm infants, the optimal type of protein for use in human milk fortification remains uncertain. This question was addressed through a PubMed literature search of prospective clinical trials conducted since 1990 in preterm or low-birth-weight infant populations. The following 3 different aspects of protein quality were evaluated: whey-to-casein ratio, hydrolyzed versus intact protein, and bovine milk protein versus human milk protein. Because of a scarcity of current studies conducted with fortified human milk, studies examining protein quality using preterm infant formulas were included to address certain components of the clinical question. Twenty-six studies were included in the review study. No definite advantage was found for any specific whey-to-casein ratio. Protein hydrolyzate products with appropriate formulations can support adequate growth and biochemical indicators of nutrition status and may reduce gastrointestinal transit time, gastroesophageal reflux events, and later incidence of atopic dermatitis in some infants. Plasma amino acid levels similar to those of infants fed exclusive human milk-based diets can be achieved with products composed of a mixture of bovine proteins, peptides, and amino acids formulated to replicate the amino acid composition of human milk. Growth and biochemical indicators of nutrition status are similar for infants fed human milk

  16. Towards proteomic analysis of milk proteins in historical building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuckova, S.; Crhova, M.; Vankova, L.; Hnizda, A.; Hynek, R.; Kodicek, M.

    2009-07-01

    The addition of proteinaceous binders to mortars and plasters has a long tradition. The protein additions were identified in many sacral and secular historical buildings. For this method of peptide mass mapping, three model mortar samples with protein additives were prepared. These samples were analysed fresh (1-2 weeks old) and after 9 months of natural ageing. The optimal duration of tryptic cleavage (2 h) and the lowest amount of material needed for relevant analysis of fresh and weathered samples were found; the sufficient amounts of weathered and fresh mortars were set to 0.05 and 0.005 g. The list of main tryptic peptides coming from milk additives (bovine milk, curd, and whey), their relative intensities and theoretical amino acid sequences assignment is presented. Several sequences have been "de novo" confirmed by mass spectrometry.

  17. Properties of milk protein gels formed by phosphates.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, R; Lucey, J A

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the properties of gels that were formed by adding emulsifying salts, such as tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP), to reconstituted milk protein concentrate solution. The pH of a 51 g/L milk protein concentrate solution was adjusted to 5.8 after adding TSPP. Milk protein concentrate solutions were placed in glass jars and allowed to stand at 25 degrees C for 24 h. Gels with the highest breaking force were formed when TSPP was added at a concentration of 6.7 mM, whereas no gel was formed when TSPP was added at concentrations of < or =2.9 or > or =10.5 mM. Several other phosphate-based emulsifying salts were tested but for these emulsifying salts, gelation only occurred after several days or at greater gelation temperatures. No gelation was observed for trisodium citrate. Gelation induced by TSPP was dependent on pH, and the breaking force of gel was greatest at pH 6.0. Furthermore, when the concentration of milk protein concentrate in solution was increased to 103 g/L, the breaking force of the gel increased, and a clearly defined network between caseins could be observed by using confocal scanning laser microscopy. These results suggest that TSPP-induced gelation occurs when the added TSPP acts with calcium as a cross-linking agent between dispersed caseins and when the balance between (a reduced) electrostatic repulsion and (enhanced) attractive (hydrophobic) interactions becomes suitable for aggregation and eventual gelation of casein molecules.

  18. BIOPOLYMERS FROM POLYLACTIC ACID AND MILK PROTEINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a commercially available biodegradable polymer derived from lactic acid and is used in many nonfood products as an alternative to petrochemical-derived polymers. However, its physical properties limit its use in many applications. Using dairy proteins to substitute for por...

  19. Effect of Asparagus racemosus (shatavari) extract on physicochemical and functional properties of milk and its interaction with milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Veena, N; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R R B; Katara, Antariksh; Rastogi, Subha; Rawat, A K S

    2015-02-01

    The effects of interaction of Asparagus racemosus (shatavari) with milk constituents and physico-chemical and functional characteristics of milk was studied. Addition of freeze dried aqueous shatavari extract at a concentration of 1 g /100 ml of milk showed a decrease in pH, rennet coagulation time and an increase in acidity, viscosity and heat stability at maximum. The extract also imparted brown colour to milk and showed an increase in a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values but a decrease in L* (lightness) value. Proteins in milk were modified by reaction with shatavari extract. The derivatives formed were characterized in terms of SDS-PAGE. Electrophoretic pattern of sodium caseinate and whey containing 1% shatavari herb extract did not show any difference in band pattern i.e. there was no difference in mobility based on size of the proteins, but the intensity (width) of bands differed. PMID:25694736

  20. Rapid non-invasive quality control of semi-finished products for the food industry by direct injection mass spectrometry headspace analysis: the case of milk powder, whey powder and anhydrous milk fat.

    PubMed

    Makhoul, Salim; Yener, Sine; Khomenko, Iuliia; Capozzi, Vittorio; Cappellin, Luca; Aprea, Eugenio; Scampicchio, Matteo; Gasperi, Flavia; Biasioli, Franco

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we demonstrated the suitability of direct injection mass spectrometry headspace analysis for rapid non-invasive quality control of semi-finished dairy ingredients, such as skim milk powder (SMP), whole milk powder (WMP), whey powder (WP) and anhydrous milk fat (AMF), which are widely used as ingredients in the food industry. In this work, for the first time, we applied proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) with a time-of-flight (ToF) analyzer for the rapid and non-invasive analysis of volatile compounds in different samples of SMP, WMP, WP and AMF. We selected different dairy ingredients in various concrete situations (e.g. same producer and different expiration times, different producers and same days of storage, different producers) based on their sensory evaluation. PTR-ToF-MS allowed the separation and characterization of different samples based on the volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles. Statistically significant differences in VOC content were generally coherent with differences in sensory evaluation, particularly for SMP, WMP and WP. The good separation of SMP samples from WMP samples suggested the possible application of PTR-ToF-MS to detect possible cases of adulteration of dairy ingredients for the food industry. Our findings demonstrate the efficient and rapid differentiation of dairy ingredients on the basis of the released VOCs via PTR-ToF-MS analysis and suggest this method as a versatile tool (1) for the facilitation/optimization of the selection of dairy ingredients in the food industry and (2) and for the prompt innovation in the production of dairy ingredients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27628758

  1. Improvement of microwave-assisted digestion of milk powder with diluted nitric acid using oxygen as auxiliary reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzi, Cezar A.; Barin, Juliano S.; Garcia, Edivaldo E.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.; Dressler, Valderi L.; Flores, Erico M. M.

    2011-05-01

    The feasibility of using diluted HNO 3 solutions under oxygen pressure for decomposition of whole and non-fat milk powders and whey powder samples has been evaluated. Digestion efficiency was evaluated by determining the carbon content in solution (digests) and the determination of Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb and Zn was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and Hg by chemical vapor generation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Samples (up to 500 mg) were digested using HNO 3 solutions (1 to 14 mol L - 1 ) and the effect of oxygen pressure was evaluated between 2.5 and 20 bar. It was possible to perform the digestion of 500 mg of milk powder using 2 mol L - 1 HNO 3 with oxygen pressure ranging from 7.5 to 20 bar with resultant carbon content in digests lower than 1700 mg L - 1 . Using optimized conditions, less than 0.86 mL of concentrated nitric acid (14 mol L - 1 ) was enough to digest 500 mg of sample. The accuracy was evaluated by determination of metal concentrations in certified reference materials, which presented an agreement better than 95% (Student's t test, P < 0.05) for all the analytes.

  2. Multiresidue analysis of 30 organochlorine pesticides in milk and milk powder by gel permeation chromatography-solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guocan; Han, Chao; Liu, Yi; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Meiwen; Wang, Chengjun; Shen, Yan

    2014-10-01

    A method for simultaneous determination of the 30 organochlorine pesticides (OCP) in milk and milk powder samples has been developed. Prior to the gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis, the residual OCP in samples were extracted with n-hexane and acetone mixture (1/1, vol/vol) and cleaned up by gel permeation chromatography and solid phase extraction. Selected reaction monitoring mode was used for gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric data acquisition to identify and quantify the OCP. To avoid the matrix effects, matrix-matched calibration solutions ranging from 2 to 50 ng/mL were used to record the calibration curve. Limits of quantification of all OCP were 0.8 μg/kg. With the exception of endrin, limits of quantification are significantly lower than maximum residue limits set by the European Union and China. The average recoveries were in the range of 70.1 to 114.7% at 3 spiked concentration levels (0.8, 2.0, and 10.0 μg/kg) with residual standard deviation lower than 12.9%. The developed method was successfully applied to analyze the OCP in commercial milk products.

  3. Immunochemical assessment of aflatoxin M1 in milk powder consumed by infants in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C A; Germano, P M; Bird, C; Pinto, C A

    1997-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 was surveyed in 300 samples of whole milk powder consumed by infants at municipal schools and nurseries in São Paulo, Brazil. The analyses were performed by using commercially available test systems of a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples were reconstituted in water (1:8), centrifuged at 1630 x gav for 15 min, and submitted directly to the assay without clean-up procedures. Results showed 33 (11%) positive samples for aflatoxin M1 at levels of 0.10-1.00 ng/ml (mean: 0.27 +/- 0.20 ng/ml). By using data on milk consumption patterns for 4-month-old children (highest intake), a mean daily intake of 3.7 ng/kg body weight/day was estimated. The implications of these data on human health are discussed. PMID:9059577

  4. The kinetics of Maillard reaction in lactose-hydrolysed milk powder and related systems containing carbohydrate mixtures.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Gabriela B; Pereyra Gonzales, Adriana S; Leiva, Graciela E; Malec, Laura S

    2013-12-15

    The kinetics of Maillard reaction in lactose-hydrolysed skim milk powder and related systems containing carbohydrate mixtures were analysed. The effect of the increase of water activity and temperature during storage of the commercial product was also evaluated. In systems with two and three carbohydrates, a marked decrease of the reaction rate was observed when monosaccharides were partially replaced by lactose, notwithstanding the fact that the former still remained in a higher proportion than lysine. The rate of available lysine loss in lactose-hydrolysed milk was mostly affected by the presence of galactose. The reaction rate constants at aw 0.52 and at 37 and 50 °C were higher than at aw 0.33. However, no significant differences were observed at 60 °C. Temperature is the most important factor to be controlled in order to minimise nutritional deterioration during storage.

  5. The kinetics of Maillard reaction in lactose-hydrolysed milk powder and related systems containing carbohydrate mixtures.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Gabriela B; Pereyra Gonzales, Adriana S; Leiva, Graciela E; Malec, Laura S

    2013-12-15

    The kinetics of Maillard reaction in lactose-hydrolysed skim milk powder and related systems containing carbohydrate mixtures were analysed. The effect of the increase of water activity and temperature during storage of the commercial product was also evaluated. In systems with two and three carbohydrates, a marked decrease of the reaction rate was observed when monosaccharides were partially replaced by lactose, notwithstanding the fact that the former still remained in a higher proportion than lysine. The rate of available lysine loss in lactose-hydrolysed milk was mostly affected by the presence of galactose. The reaction rate constants at aw 0.52 and at 37 and 50 °C were higher than at aw 0.33. However, no significant differences were observed at 60 °C. Temperature is the most important factor to be controlled in order to minimise nutritional deterioration during storage. PMID:23993550

  6. Secretion of Human Protein C in Mouse Milk

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chae-Won; Kang, Myung-Hwa; Min, Kwan-Sik

    2015-01-01

    To determine the production of recombinant human protein C (rec-hPC) in milk, we created two homozygous mice lines for the goat β-casein/hPC transgene. Females and males of both lines (#10 and #11) displayed normal growth, fertility, and lactated normally. The copy number of the transgene was about fivefold higher in #10 line as compared to #11 line. mRNA expression of the transgene was only detected in the mammary glands of both lines. Furthermore, mRNA expression was fourfold higher on day 7 than on day 1 during lactation. Northern blot analysis of mRNA expression in the #10 line of transgenic (Tg) mice indicated a strong expression of the transgene in the mammary glands after seven days of lactation. Comparison of rec-hPC protein level with that of mRNA in the mammary glands showed a very similar pattern. A 52-kDa band corresponding to the hPC protein was strongly detected in mammary glands of the #10 line during lactation. We also detected two bands of heavy chain and one weak band of light chain in the milk of the #10 and #11 lines. One single band at 52 kDa was detected from CHO cells transfected with hPC cDNA. hPC was mainly localized in the alveolar epithelial cell of the mammary glands. The protein is strongly expressed in the cytoplasm of the cultured mammary gland tissue. hPC protein produced in milk ranged from 2 to 28 ng/mL. These experiments indicated that rec-hPC can be produced at high levels in mice mammary glands. PMID:25749471

  7. Determination of Dicyandiamide in Powdered Milk Using Direct Analysis in Real Time Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liya; Yong, Wei; Liu, Jiahui; Wang, Sai; Chen, Qilong; Guo, Tianyang; Zhang, Jichuan; Tan, Tianwei; Su, Haijia; Dong, Yiyang

    2015-08-01

    The direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization source coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS) system has the capability to desorb analytes directly from samples without sample cleanup or chromatographic separation. In this work, a method based on DART/Q-TOF MS/MS has been developed for rapid identification of dicyandiamide (DCD) present in powdered milk. Simple sample extraction procedure employing acetonitrile-water (80:20, v/v) mixture was followed by direct, high-throughput determination of sample extracts spread on a steel mesh of the transmission module by mass spectrometry under ambient conditions. The method has been evaluated for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of DCD in powdered milk. Variables including experimental apparatus, DART gas heater temperature, sample presentation speed, and vacuum pressure were investigated. The quantitative method was validated with respect to linearity, sensitivity, repeatability, precision, and accuracy by using external standards. After optimization of these parameters, a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 μg kg-1 was obtained for DCD with a linear working range from 100 to 10000 μg kg-1 and a satisfactory correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9997. Good recovery (80.08%-106.47%) and repeatability (RSD = 3.0%-5.4%) were achieved for DCD. The DART/Q-TOF MS/MS-based method provides a rapid, efficient, and powerful scheme to analyze DCD in powdered milk with limited sample preparation, thus reducing time and complexity of quality control.

  8. Association between milk protein gene variants and protein composition traits in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Huang, W; Peñagaricano, F; Ahmad, K R; Lucey, J A; Weigel, K A; Khatib, H

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify DNA markers in the 4 casein genes (CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2, and CSN3) and the 2 major whey protein genes (LALBA and LGB) that show associations with milk protein profile measured by reverse-phase HPLC. Fifty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were genotyped for cows in a unique resource population consisting of purebred Holstein and (Holstein × Jersey) × Holstein crossbred animals. Seven traits were analyzed, including concentrations of α(S)-casein (CN), β-CN, κ-CN, α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and 2 additional secondary traits, the total concentration of the above 5 milk proteins and the α(S)-CN to β-CN ratio. A substantial fraction of phenotypic variation could be explained by the additive genetic component for the 7 milk protein composition traits studied. Moreover, several SNP were significantly associated with all examined traits at an experiment-wise error rate of 0.05, except for α-lactalbumin. Importantly, the significant SNP explained a large proportion of the phenotypic variation of milk protein composition. Our findings could be used for selecting animals that produce milk with desired composition or desired processing and manufacturing properties.

  9. Spore test parameters matter: Mesophilic and thermophilic spore counts detected in raw milk and dairy powders differ significantly by test method.

    PubMed

    Kent, D J; Chauhan, K; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M; Martin, N H

    2016-07-01

    United States dairy industry exports have steadily risen in importance over the last 10yr, with dairy powders playing a particularly critical role. Currently, approximately half of US-produced nonfat dry milk and skim milk powder is exported. Reaching new and expanding existing export markets relies in part on the control of endospore-forming bacteria in dairy powders. This study reports baseline mesophilic and thermophilic spore counts and spore populations from 55 raw material samples (primarily raw milk) and 33 dairy powder samples from dairy powder processors across the United States. Samples were evaluated using various spore testing methodologies and included initial heat treatments of (1) 80°C for 12 min; (2) 100°C for 30 min; and (3) 106°C for 30 min. Results indicate that significant differences in both the level and population of spores were found for both raw milk and dairy powders with the various testing methods. Additionally, on average, spore counts were not found to increase significantly from the beginning to the end of dairy powder processing, most likely related to the absence of biofilm formation by processing plant-associated sporeformers (e.g., Anoxybacillus sp.) in the facilities sampled. Finally, in agreement with other studies, Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent sporeformer in both raw materials and dairy powders, highlighting the importance of this organism in developing strategies for control and reduction of spore counts in dairy powders. Overall, this study emphasizes the need for standardization of spore enumeration methodologies in the dairy powder industry.

  10. Spore test parameters matter: Mesophilic and thermophilic spore counts detected in raw milk and dairy powders differ significantly by test method.

    PubMed

    Kent, D J; Chauhan, K; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M; Martin, N H

    2016-07-01

    United States dairy industry exports have steadily risen in importance over the last 10yr, with dairy powders playing a particularly critical role. Currently, approximately half of US-produced nonfat dry milk and skim milk powder is exported. Reaching new and expanding existing export markets relies in part on the control of endospore-forming bacteria in dairy powders. This study reports baseline mesophilic and thermophilic spore counts and spore populations from 55 raw material samples (primarily raw milk) and 33 dairy powder samples from dairy powder processors across the United States. Samples were evaluated using various spore testing methodologies and included initial heat treatments of (1) 80°C for 12 min; (2) 100°C for 30 min; and (3) 106°C for 30 min. Results indicate that significant differences in both the level and population of spores were found for both raw milk and dairy powders with the various testing methods. Additionally, on average, spore counts were not found to increase significantly from the beginning to the end of dairy powder processing, most likely related to the absence of biofilm formation by processing plant-associated sporeformers (e.g., Anoxybacillus sp.) in the facilities sampled. Finally, in agreement with other studies, Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent sporeformer in both raw materials and dairy powders, highlighting the importance of this organism in developing strategies for control and reduction of spore counts in dairy powders. Overall, this study emphasizes the need for standardization of spore enumeration methodologies in the dairy powder industry. PMID:27085396

  11. Study of human allergic milk whey protein from different mammalian species using computational method

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Shikha Jaiprakash; KK, Appu Kuttan; Singh, Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, safety and quality assessment of food used for human consumption have to consider by its possible contribution to the maintenance or improvement of the consumer's health. Milk is an important food with many nutrients. Cow milk is an important source of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals for the growing child as well as adults. But, numerous cow milk proteins have been implicated in allergic responses and most of these have been shown to contain multiple allergic epitopes. The present study disclosed best alternatives to cow milk, which are not allergic and as good as cow milk in nutritional value. The in silico analysis of casein (alpha s1, alpha s2, beta and kappa) and beta-lactoglobulin, unveils that sheep milk is a more suitable alternate to cow milk for allergic infants and buffalo milk for allergic adult humans. PMID:23275703

  12. Diagnosis and clinical observation of lactose-free milk powder on treatment of neonatal diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingyan; Chang, Jing; Yao, Aimei; Hu, Yulian; Yuan, Yuxiao; Yu, Fengqin; Ma, Zhanmin; Wang, Guangzhou; Zhao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal lactose intolerance syndrome is a series of digestive system symptoms caused by the lack of lactase, and could not fully digest the lactose in breast milk or cow milk. Lactose is one of the disaccharides mainly existed in mammalian milk. Lactose content in breast milk is 7.2g/100ml, cow milk is 4.7g/100ml. Dairy products are the main energy sources for the newborn, and lactose provides 20% energy for infants. During the growth of the newborn, lactose not only play a significant role in energy supply, but also involve in the development of the brain growing. This study mainly studied the lactose development features, the reasons for lactose intolerance, and the measures to treat lactose deficiency.

  13. Diagnosis and clinical observation of lactose-free milk powder on treatment of neonatal diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingyan; Chang, Jing; Yao, Aimei; Hu, Yulian; Yuan, Yuxiao; Yu, Fengqin; Ma, Zhanmin; Wang, Guangzhou; Zhao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal lactose intolerance syndrome is a series of digestive system symptoms caused by the lack of lactase, and could not fully digest the lactose in breast milk or cow milk. Lactose is one of the disaccharides mainly existed in mammalian milk. Lactose content in breast milk is 7.2g/100ml, cow milk is 4.7g/100ml. Dairy products are the main energy sources for the newborn, and lactose provides 20% energy for infants. During the growth of the newborn, lactose not only play a significant role in energy supply, but also involve in the development of the brain growing. This study mainly studied the lactose development features, the reasons for lactose intolerance, and the measures to treat lactose deficiency. PMID:27005497

  14. Identification of goat milk powder by manufacturer using multiple chemical parameters.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Rebecca J; Prosser, Colin G; Wakefield, Joshua W

    2016-02-01

    Concentrations of multiple elements and ratios of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were measured and combined to create a chemical fingerprint of production batches of goat whole milk powder (WMP) produced by different manufacturers. Our objectives were to determine whether or not differences exist in the chemical fingerprint among samples of goat WMP produced at different sites, and assess temporal changes in the chemical fingerprint in product manufactured at one site. In total, 58 samples of goat WMP were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as well as isotope ratio mass spectrometry and a suite of 13 elements (Li, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cs, and Ba), δ(13)C, and δ(15)N selected to create the chemical fingerprint. Differences in the chemical fingerprint of samples between sites and over time were assessed using principal components analysis and canonical analysis of principal coordinates. Differences in the chemical fingerprints of samples between production sites provided a classification success rate (leave-one-out classification) of 98.1%, providing a basis for using the approach to test the authenticity of product manufactured at a site. Within one site, the chemical fingerprint of samples produced at the beginning of the production season differed from those produced in the middle and late season, driven predominantly by lower concentrations of Na, Mg, K, Mn, and Rb, and higher concentrations of Ba and Cu. This observed temporal variability highlights the importance of obtaining samples from throughout the season to ensure a representative chemical fingerprint is obtained for goat WMP from a single manufacturing site. The reconstitution and spray drying of samples from one manufacturer by the other manufacturer enabled the relative influence of the manufacturing process on the chemical fingerprint to be examined. It was found that such reprocessing altered the chemical fingerprint, although the degree of alteration

  15. Identification of goat milk powder by manufacturer using multiple chemical parameters.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Rebecca J; Prosser, Colin G; Wakefield, Joshua W

    2016-02-01

    Concentrations of multiple elements and ratios of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were measured and combined to create a chemical fingerprint of production batches of goat whole milk powder (WMP) produced by different manufacturers. Our objectives were to determine whether or not differences exist in the chemical fingerprint among samples of goat WMP produced at different sites, and assess temporal changes in the chemical fingerprint in product manufactured at one site. In total, 58 samples of goat WMP were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as well as isotope ratio mass spectrometry and a suite of 13 elements (Li, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cs, and Ba), δ(13)C, and δ(15)N selected to create the chemical fingerprint. Differences in the chemical fingerprint of samples between sites and over time were assessed using principal components analysis and canonical analysis of principal coordinates. Differences in the chemical fingerprints of samples between production sites provided a classification success rate (leave-one-out classification) of 98.1%, providing a basis for using the approach to test the authenticity of product manufactured at a site. Within one site, the chemical fingerprint of samples produced at the beginning of the production season differed from those produced in the middle and late season, driven predominantly by lower concentrations of Na, Mg, K, Mn, and Rb, and higher concentrations of Ba and Cu. This observed temporal variability highlights the importance of obtaining samples from throughout the season to ensure a representative chemical fingerprint is obtained for goat WMP from a single manufacturing site. The reconstitution and spray drying of samples from one manufacturer by the other manufacturer enabled the relative influence of the manufacturing process on the chemical fingerprint to be examined. It was found that such reprocessing altered the chemical fingerprint, although the degree of alteration

  16. Urea concentration in collared peccary milk as an indicator of protein nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Grant, W E; Varner, L W

    1987-07-01

    Milk urea nitrogen (UN) concentration was examined as a possible index to protein-energy intake in female collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu). Captive adults were bred and assigned to one of four experimental diets through gestation and lactation. Females fed a high protein diet produced milk with UN concentrations exceeding those of low-protein-fed females. A low energy intake tended to elevate UN concentrations in milk.

  17. Whey protein/polysaccharide-stabilized oil powders for topical application-release and transdermal delivery of salicylic acid from oil powders compared to redispersed powders.

    PubMed

    Kotzé, Magdalena; Otto, Anja; Jordaan, Anine; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2015-08-01

    Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions are commonly converted into solid-like powders in order to improve their physical and chemical stabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether whey protein/polysaccharide-stabilized o/w emulsions could be converted into stable oil powders by means of freeze-drying. Moreover, during this study, the effects of pH and polymer type on release and trans(dermal) delivery of salicylic acid, a model drug, from these oil powders were investigated and compared to those of the respective template emulsions and redispersed oil powders. Physical characterization of the various formulations was performed, such as droplet size analysis and oil leakage, and relationships drawn with regards to release and trans(dermal) delivery. The experimental outcomes revealed that the oil powders could be redispersed in water without changing the release characteristics of salicylic acid. pH and polymer type affected the release of salicylic acid from the oil powders, template emulsions, and redispersed powders similarly. Contrary, the transdermal delivery from the oil powders and from their respective redispersed oil powders was differently affected by pH and polymer type. It was hypothesized that the release had been influenced by the electrostatic interactions between salicylic acid and emulsifiers, whereas the transdermal performance could have been determined by the particle or aggregate sizes of the formulations.

  18. Effects of Whey, Caseinate, or Milk Protein Ingestion on Muscle Protein Synthesis after Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Atsushi; Nakayama, Kyosuke; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Nagata, Masashi; Ikegami, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein (WP) is characterized as a “fast” protein and caseinate (CA) as a “slow” protein according to their digestion and absorption rates. We hypothesized that co-ingestion of milk proteins (WP and CA) may be effective for prolonging the muscle protein synthesis response compared to either protein alone. We therefore compared the effect of ingesting milk protein (MP) to either WP or CA alone on muscle protein synthesis after exercise in rats. We also compared the effects of these milk-derived proteins to a control, soy protein (SP). Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for two hours. Immediately after exercise, one of the following four solutions was administered: WP, CA, MP, or SP. Individual rats were euthanized at designated postprandial time points and triceps muscle samples collected for measurement of the protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR). FSR tended to increase in all groups post-ingestion, although the initial peaks of FSR occurred at different times (WP, peak time = 60 min, FSR = 7.76%/day; MP, peak time = 90 min, FSR = 8.34%/day; CA, peak time = 120 min, FSR = 7.85%/day). Milk-derived proteins caused significantly greater increases (p < 0.05) in FSR compared with SP at different times (WP, 60 min; MP, 90 and 120 min; CA, 120 min). Although statistical analysis could not be performed, the calculated the area under the curve (AUC) values for FSR following this trend were: MP, 534.61; CA, 498.22; WP, 473.46; and SP, 406.18. We conclude that ingestion of MP, CA or WP causes the initial peak time in muscle protein synthesis to occur at different times (WP, fast; MP, intermediate; CA, slow) and the dairy proteins have a superior effect on muscle protein synthesis after exercise compared with SP. PMID:27271661

  19. Effects of Whey, Caseinate, or Milk Protein Ingestion on Muscle Protein Synthesis after Exercise.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Atsushi; Nakayama, Kyosuke; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Nagata, Masashi; Ikegami, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-03

    Whey protein (WP) is characterized as a "fast" protein and caseinate (CA) as a "slow" protein according to their digestion and absorption rates. We hypothesized that co-ingestion of milk proteins (WP and CA) may be effective for prolonging the muscle protein synthesis response compared to either protein alone. We therefore compared the effect of ingesting milk protein (MP) to either WP or CA alone on muscle protein synthesis after exercise in rats. We also compared the effects of these milk-derived proteins to a control, soy protein (SP). Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for two hours. Immediately after exercise, one of the following four solutions was administered: WP, CA, MP, or SP. Individual rats were euthanized at designated postprandial time points and triceps muscle samples collected for measurement of the protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR). FSR tended to increase in all groups post-ingestion, although the initial peaks of FSR occurred at different times (WP, peak time = 60 min, FSR = 7.76%/day; MP, peak time = 90 min, FSR = 8.34%/day; CA, peak time = 120 min, FSR = 7.85%/day). Milk-derived proteins caused significantly greater increases (p < 0.05) in FSR compared with SP at different times (WP, 60 min; MP, 90 and 120 min; CA, 120 min). Although statistical analysis could not be performed, the calculated the area under the curve (AUC) values for FSR following this trend were: MP, 534.61; CA, 498.22; WP, 473.46; and SP, 406.18. We conclude that ingestion of MP, CA or WP causes the initial peak time in muscle protein synthesis to occur at different times (WP, fast; MP, intermediate; CA, slow) and the dairy proteins have a superior effect on muscle protein synthesis after exercise compared with SP.

  20. Metabolic effects of milk protein intake strongly depend on pre-existing metabolic and exercise status.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C; Schmitz, Gerd; John, Swen; Carrera-Bastos, Pedro; Lindeberg, Staffan; Cordain, Loren

    2013-01-01

    Milk protein intake has recently been suggested to improve metabolic health. This Perspective provides evidence that metabolic effects of milk protein intake have to be regarded in the context of the individual's pre-existing metabolic and exercise status. Milk proteins provide abundant branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and glutamine. Plasma BCAAs and glutamine are increased in obesity and insulin resistance, but decrease after gastric bypass surgery resulting in weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity. Milk protein consumption results in postprandial hyperinsulinemia in obese subjects, increases body weight of overweight adolescents and may thus deteriorate pre-existing metabolic disturbances of obese, insulin resistant individuals. PMID:24225036

  1. Metabolic effects of milk protein intake strongly depend on pre-existing metabolic and exercise status

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Milk protein intake has recently been suggested to improve metabolic health. This Perspective provides evidence that metabolic effects of milk protein intake have to be regarded in the context of the individual’s pre-existing metabolic and exercise status. Milk proteins provide abundant branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and glutamine. Plasma BCAAs and glutamine are increased in obesity and insulin resistance, but decrease after gastric bypass surgery resulting in weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity. Milk protein consumption results in postprandial hyperinsulinemia in obese subjects, increases body weight of overweight adolescents and may thus deteriorate pre-existing metabolic disturbances of obese, insulin resistant individuals. PMID:24225036

  2. Reliable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of coconut milk proteins in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Surojanametakul, Vipa; Doi, Hirotoshi; Shibata, Haruki; Mizumura, Tasuku; Takahashi, Toshio; Varanyanond, Warunee; Wannapinpong, Sirinrat; Shoji, Masahiro; Ito, Tatsuhiko; Tamura, Hirotoshi

    2011-03-23

    This study was designed to develop a novel sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection and quantification of coconut milk proteins in processed foods. The developed sandwich ELISA was able to detect coconut milk proteins from various coconut milk products and did not show any cross-reactivity with 41 of 42 kinds of popularly used food ingredients, thus reflecting great specificity for coconut milk proteins. In addition, the established ELISA is highly sensitive and allowed the detection of 0.31 μg/g of coconut milk protein in complex food matrices. This proposed assay could serve as a useful tool for the detection of the presence of hidden coconut milk proteins in processed foods. PMID:21329352

  3. The aggregation behavior and interactions of yak milk protein under thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, T T; Guo, Z W; Liu, Z P; Feng, Q Y; Wang, X L; Tian, Q; Ren, F Z; Mao, X Y

    2016-08-01

    The aggregation behavior and interactions of yak milk protein were investigated after heat treatments. Skim yak milk was heated at temperatures in the range of 65 to 95°C for 10 min. The results showed that the whey proteins in yak milk were denatured after heat treatment, especially at temperatures higher than 85°C. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE analysis indicated that heat treatment induced milk protein denaturation accompanied with aggregation to a certain extent. When the heating temperature was 75 and 85°C, the aggregation behavior of yak milk proteins was almost completely due to the formation of disulfide bonds, whereas denatured α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin interacted with κ-casein. When yak milk was heated at 85 and 95°C, other noncovalent interactions were found between proteins including hydrophobic interactions. The particle size distributions and microstructures demonstrated that the heat stability of yak milk proteins was significantly lowered by heat treatment. When yak milk was heated at 65 and 75°C, no obvious changes were found in the particle size distribution and microstructures in yak milk. When the temperature was 85 and 95°C, the particle size distribution shifted to larger size trend and aggregates were visible in the heated yak milk.

  4. Interaction of milk whey protein with common phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Dandan; Sun, Jing; Guo, Huiyuan; Ding, Qingbo; Liu, Ruihai; Ren, Fazheng

    2014-01-01

    Phenolics-rich foods such as fruit juices and coffee are often consumed with milk. In this study, the interactions of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin with the phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and coumalic acid) were examined. Fluorescence, CD, and FTIR spectroscopies were used to analyze the binding modes, binding constants, and the effects of complexation on the conformation of whey protein. The results showed that binding constants of each whey protein-phenolic acid interaction ranged from 4 × 105 to 7 × 106 M-n and the number of binding sites n ranged from 1.28 ± 0.13 to 1.54 ± 0.34. Because of these interactions, the conformation of whey protein was altered, with a significant reduction in the amount of α-helix and an increase in the amounts of β-sheet and turn structures.

  5. Analysis of volatile compounds in powdered milk for infant nutrition by direct desorption (CIS4-TDU) and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Francesca, Ieri; Patrizia, Pinelli; Luca, Calamai; Federico, Marotta; Annalisa, Romani

    2015-08-15

    Direct thermal desorption coupled with the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (TDU-CIS4-GC-MS) technique applied to powdered milk was used as a novel approach for the characterization and quantification, as relative abundance, of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The aim of this study was to exploit the potential applications and setup conditions of the CIS4-TDU-GC-MS technique for the identification of oxidized or non-oxidized samples of powdered milk for infant nutrition, subjected to accelerated aging through the changes in their VOCs profile over time. Thermal desorption at 30°C and subsequent cryotrapping at -40°C with a Gerstel Liner-in-Liner system allowed a direct thermal desorption and cryotrapping of VOCs without any memory effect, thus avoiding sample preparation and contamination. The analyses led to the identification of several characteristic off-flavors in the oxidized samples, which were used as molecular markers to discriminate samples with different oxidation degrees. Finally, VOC contaminants possibly present in the packaging can also be identified with this technique.

  6. Analysis of volatile compounds in powdered milk for infant nutrition by direct desorption (CIS4-TDU) and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Francesca, Ieri; Patrizia, Pinelli; Luca, Calamai; Federico, Marotta; Annalisa, Romani

    2015-08-15

    Direct thermal desorption coupled with the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (TDU-CIS4-GC-MS) technique applied to powdered milk was used as a novel approach for the characterization and quantification, as relative abundance, of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The aim of this study was to exploit the potential applications and setup conditions of the CIS4-TDU-GC-MS technique for the identification of oxidized or non-oxidized samples of powdered milk for infant nutrition, subjected to accelerated aging through the changes in their VOCs profile over time. Thermal desorption at 30°C and subsequent cryotrapping at -40°C with a Gerstel Liner-in-Liner system allowed a direct thermal desorption and cryotrapping of VOCs without any memory effect, thus avoiding sample preparation and contamination. The analyses led to the identification of several characteristic off-flavors in the oxidized samples, which were used as molecular markers to discriminate samples with different oxidation degrees. Finally, VOC contaminants possibly present in the packaging can also be identified with this technique. PMID:25966402

  7. Multi-residue determination of 115 veterinary drugs and pharmaceutical residues in milk powder, butter, fish tissue and eggs using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dasenaki, Marilena E; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2015-06-23

    A simple and sensitive multi-residue method for the determination of 115 veterinary drugs and pharmaceuticals, belonging in more than 20 different classes, in butter, milk powder, egg and fish tissue has been developed. The method involves a simple generic solid-liquid extraction step (solvent extraction, SE) with 0.1% formic acid in aqueous solution of EDTA 0.1% (w/v)-acetonitrile (ACN)-methanol (MeOH) (1:1:1, v/v) with additional ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Precipitation of lipids and proteins was promoted by subjecting the extracts at very low temperature (-23°C) for 12h. Further cleanup with hexane ensures fat removal from the matrix. Analysis was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Two separate runs were performed for positive and negative ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Particular attention was devoted to extraction optimization: different sample-to-extracting volume ratios, different concentrations of formic acid in the extraction solvent and different ultrasonic extraction temperatures were tested in butter, egg and milk powder samples. The method was also applied in fish tissue samples. It was validated, on the basis of international guidelines, for all four matrices. Quantitative analysis was performed by means of standard addition calibration. For over 80% of the analytes, the recoveries were between 50% and 120% in all matrices studied, with RSD values in the range of 1-18%. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.008 μg kg(-1) (oxfendazole in butter) to 3.15 μg kg(-1) (hydrochlorthiazide in egg). The evaluated method provides reliable screening, quantification, and identification of 115 veterinary drug and pharmaceutical residues in foods of animal origin and has been successfully applied in real samples.

  8. Simultaneous Measurement of Zinc, Copper, Lead and Cadmium in Baby Weaning Food and Powder Milk by DPASV.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abdolazim; Behzad, Masoomeh; Norouzi, Narges; Oveisi, Morvarid; Jannat, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Apart from the breast milk, infant formula and baby weaning food have a special role in infant diet. Infants and young children are very susceptible to amount of trace elements. Copper and zinc are two elements that add in infant food. Lead and cadmium are heavy metals that enter to food chain unavoidably. DPASV is a benefit and applicable method for measurement of trace elements in food products. In this study, concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in four brands of baby food (rice and wheat based) and powder milk was analyzed with DPASV and polarograph set. Total Mean ± SE of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in baby foods (n = 240) were 11.86 ± 1.474 mg/100g, 508.197 ± 83.154 μg/100g, 0.445 ± 0.006, 0.050 ± 0.005 mg/Kg respectively. Also these amount in powder milk (n = 240) were 3.621± 0.529 mg/100g, 403.822 ± 133.953 μg/100g, 0.007 ± 0.003, 0.060 ± 0.040 mg/Kg respectively. Zinc level in baby food type I was higher than lablled value (P = 0.030), but in other brands was not difference. Concentration of copper in all of samples was in labeled range (P > 0.05). In each four products, level of lead and cadmium were lower than the standard limit (P < 0.05). Amount of zinc and lead in baby food I, had difference versus other products. Concentration of zinc, camium in baby food type I, was higher than type II (P = 0.043, 0.001 respectively). Concentration of lead and cadmium in baby food type II, was higher than infant formulas, but are in standard limit.

  9. The composition and functional properties of whey protein concentrates produced from buttermilk are comparable with those of whey protein concentrates produced from skimmed milk.

    PubMed

    Svanborg, Sigrid; Johansen, Anne-Grethe; Abrahamsen, Roger K; Skeie, Siv B

    2015-09-01

    The demand for whey protein is increasing in the food industry. Traditionally, whey protein concentrates (WPC) and isolates are produced from cheese whey. At present, microfiltration (MF) enables the utilization of whey from skim milk (SM) through milk protein fractionation. This study demonstrates that buttermilk (BM) can be a potential source for the production of a WPC with a comparable composition and functional properties to a WPC obtained by MF of SM. Through the production of WPC powder and a casein- and phospholipid (PL)-rich fraction by the MF of BM, sweet BM may be used in a more optimal and economical way. Sweet cream BM from industrial churning was skimmed before MF with 0.2-µm ceramic membranes at 55 to 58°C. The fractionations of BM and SM were performed under the same conditions using the same process, and the whey protein fractions from BM and SM were concentrated by ultrafiltration and diafiltration. The ultrafiltration and diafiltration was performed at 50°C using pasteurized tap water and a membrane with a 20-kDa cut-off to retain as little lactose as possible in the final WPC powders. The ultrafiltrates were subsequently spray dried, and their functional properties and chemical compositions were compared. The amounts of whey protein and PL in the WPC powder from BM (BMWPC) were comparable to the amounts found in the WPC from SM (SMWPC); however, the composition of the PL classes differed. The BMWPC contained less total protein, casein, and lactose compared with SMWPC, as well as higher contents of fat and citric acid. No difference in protein solubility was observed at pH values of 4.6 and 7.0, and the overrun was the same for BMWPC and SMWPC; however, the BMWPC made less stable foam than SMWPC.

  10. Cheese production using kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kanellaki, Maria

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of kefir culture entrapped in casein and in whey protein as starter cultures for the production of Feta-type cheese. Microbiological analysis showed that counts of enterobacteria, coliforms, and staphylococci were significantly reduced due to kefir culture. In addition, the effect of kefir culture on the formation of volatile compounds, such as esters, organic acids, alcohols, carbonyl compounds, and lactones, was also investigated using the SPME GC/MS technique. Cheese samples produced with kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins presented improved profile of aroma-related compounds. Principal component analysis of the results indicated that the volatile composition of the different cheese types was dependent on the nature of the starter culture. Finally, the sensory evaluation showed that the products produced with kefir culture had a soft, fine taste, and were of improved quality.

  11. A novel dispersive micro solid phase extraction using PCX as the sorbent for the determination of melamine and cyromazine in milk and milk powder by UHPLC-HRMS/MS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dawei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Miao, Hong; Wu, Yongning

    2015-03-01

    A novel dispersive micro solid phase extraction (DMSPE) cleanup method based on the PCX sorbent (a kind of cation exchange polymer material) was applied to the analysis of melamine and cyromazine residues in milk and milk powder, and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) was used as instrument detection. Milk powder samples were first extracted with 1% formic acid in acetonitrile/water (1:1 v/v), and milk samples were cleaned up directly without any pre-extraction. Then, melamine and cyromazine in the extracts or milk were adsorbed to the PCX powder. Subsequently, the analytes in PCX sorbent were eluted with ammonium hydroxide/acetonitrile (2.5:97.5 v/v) through a simple unit device equipped with 1 mL syringe and 0.22 μm nylon syringe filter. All the samples were analyzed by UHPLC-HRMS/MS on a Waters Acquity BEH HILIC column with 0.1% formic acid and 4mM ammonium formate in water/acetonitrile as the mobile phase with gradient elution. The matrix effect, recovery, and repeatability, within laboratory reproducibility, CCα and CCβ of the DMSPE cleanup method were investigated. The proposed method provided a significant improvement for the determination of melamine and cyromazine in milk and milk powder in terms of efficient, rapid, economical, and miniaturized sample preparation methods, which yielded fewer matrix effects compared with SPE method. The established cleanup method is expected to be widely applied for the sample preparation of alkaline contaminants at trace levels in the future. PMID:25618651

  12. Analysis of polymorphisms in milk proteins from cloned and sexually reproduced goats.

    PubMed

    Xing, H; Shao, B; Gu, Y Y; Yuan, Y G; Zhang, T; Zang, J; Cheng, Y

    2015-12-08

    This study evaluates the relationship between the genotype and milk protein components in goats. Milk samples were collected from cloned goats and normal white goats during different postpartum (or abortion) phases. Two cloned goats, originated from the same somatic line of goat mammary gland epithelial cells, and three sexually reproduced normal white goats with no genetic relationships were used as the control. The goats were phylogenetically analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The milk protein components were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that despite the genetic fingerprints being identical, the milk protein composition differed between the two cloned goats. The casein content of cloned goat C-50 was significantly higher than that of cloned goat C-4. Conversely, although the genetic fingerprints of the normal white goats N-1, N-2, and N-3 were not identical, the milk protein profiles did not differ significantly in their milk samples (obtained on postpartum day 15, 20, 25, 30, and 150). These results indicated an association between milk protein phenotypes and genetic polymorphisms, epigenetic regulation, and/or non-chromosomal factors. This study extends the knowledge of goat milk protein polymorphisms, and provides new strategies for the breeding of high milk-yielding goats.

  13. Analysis of polymorphisms in milk proteins from cloned and sexually reproduced goats.

    PubMed

    Xing, H; Shao, B; Gu, Y Y; Yuan, Y G; Zhang, T; Zang, J; Cheng, Y

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between the genotype and milk protein components in goats. Milk samples were collected from cloned goats and normal white goats during different postpartum (or abortion) phases. Two cloned goats, originated from the same somatic line of goat mammary gland epithelial cells, and three sexually reproduced normal white goats with no genetic relationships were used as the control. The goats were phylogenetically analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The milk protein components were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that despite the genetic fingerprints being identical, the milk protein composition differed between the two cloned goats. The casein content of cloned goat C-50 was significantly higher than that of cloned goat C-4. Conversely, although the genetic fingerprints of the normal white goats N-1, N-2, and N-3 were not identical, the milk protein profiles did not differ significantly in their milk samples (obtained on postpartum day 15, 20, 25, 30, and 150). These results indicated an association between milk protein phenotypes and genetic polymorphisms, epigenetic regulation, and/or non-chromosomal factors. This study extends the knowledge of goat milk protein polymorphisms, and provides new strategies for the breeding of high milk-yielding goats. PMID:26662412

  14. Soy milk powder supplemented with phytosterol esters reduced serum cholesterol level in hypercholesterolemia independently of lipoprotein E genotype: a random clinical placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shan; Zhang, Ran; Ji, Ya-Cheng; Hao, Jia-Yin; Ma, Wei-Wei; Chen, Xu-Dong; Xiao, Rong; Yu, Huan-Ling

    2016-08-01

    Phytosterols (PSs) are reported to lower the serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations enriched in some fatty foods, such as margarine. However, these high-fat foods are not very suitable for older people. Soy milk is the favorite food for elderly people in China; therefore, we hypothesized that the consumption of soy milk powder supplemented with PSs would decrease the serum cholesterol levels in older Chinese people independent of the genotypes of apolipoprotein E (ApoE). Mild to moderate hyperlipidemic patients (n = 170) were recruited from different communities and treated with placebo soy milk powder or 3.4 g PS esters-enriched soy milk powder (2.0 g/d free PS in 30 g soy milk powder). The fasting serum lipid profiles at the baseline and after 3 and 6 months of intervention were measured. The ApoE genotype was also determined. After 3 months of PS intervention, the serum lipid profile was not changed significantly in either group. The serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non- high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased by 9.3%, 11.4%, and 12.6%, respectively, in the PS group at the end of the intervention (6 months) compared with the control group, whereas the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels were not affected significantly. In the PS group, both the ApoE3 and ApoE4 carriers had a similar response to PS consumption. These findings suggested that PS-fortified soy milk powder was effective in lowering the serum cholesterol levels in older Chinese volunteers with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia in both the ApoE3 and ApoE4 carriers.

  15. Soy milk powder supplemented with phytosterol esters reduced serum cholesterol level in hypercholesterolemia independently of lipoprotein E genotype: a random clinical placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shan; Zhang, Ran; Ji, Ya-Cheng; Hao, Jia-Yin; Ma, Wei-Wei; Chen, Xu-Dong; Xiao, Rong; Yu, Huan-Ling

    2016-08-01

    Phytosterols (PSs) are reported to lower the serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations enriched in some fatty foods, such as margarine. However, these high-fat foods are not very suitable for older people. Soy milk is the favorite food for elderly people in China; therefore, we hypothesized that the consumption of soy milk powder supplemented with PSs would decrease the serum cholesterol levels in older Chinese people independent of the genotypes of apolipoprotein E (ApoE). Mild to moderate hyperlipidemic patients (n = 170) were recruited from different communities and treated with placebo soy milk powder or 3.4 g PS esters-enriched soy milk powder (2.0 g/d free PS in 30 g soy milk powder). The fasting serum lipid profiles at the baseline and after 3 and 6 months of intervention were measured. The ApoE genotype was also determined. After 3 months of PS intervention, the serum lipid profile was not changed significantly in either group. The serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non- high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased by 9.3%, 11.4%, and 12.6%, respectively, in the PS group at the end of the intervention (6 months) compared with the control group, whereas the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels were not affected significantly. In the PS group, both the ApoE3 and ApoE4 carriers had a similar response to PS consumption. These findings suggested that PS-fortified soy milk powder was effective in lowering the serum cholesterol levels in older Chinese volunteers with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia in both the ApoE3 and ApoE4 carriers. PMID:27440543

  16. Effect of mechanical denaturation on surface free energy of protein powders.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Mohammad Amin; Grimsey, Ian M; Forbes, Robert T; Blagbrough, Ian S; Conway, Barbara R

    2016-10-01

    Globular proteins are important both as therapeutic agents and excipients. However, their fragile native conformations can be denatured during pharmaceutical processing, which leads to modification of the surface energy of their powders and hence their performance. Lyophilized powders of hen egg-white lysozyme and β-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae were used as models to study the effects of mechanical denaturation on the surface energies of basic and acidic protein powders, respectively. Their mechanical denaturation upon milling was confirmed by the absence of their thermal unfolding transition phases and by the changes in their secondary and tertiary structures. Inverse gas chromatography detected differences between both unprocessed protein powders and the changes induced by their mechanical denaturation. The surfaces of the acidic and basic protein powders were relatively basic, however the surface acidity of β-galactosidase was higher than that of lysozyme. Also, the surface of β-galactosidase powder had a higher dispersive energy compared to lysozyme. The mechanical denaturation decreased the dispersive energy and the basicity of the surfaces of both protein powders. The amino acid composition and molecular conformation of the proteins explained the surface energy data measured by inverse gas chromatography. The biological activity of mechanically denatured protein powders can either be reversible (lysozyme) or irreversible (β-galactosidase) upon hydration. Our surface data can be exploited to understand and predict the performance of protein powders within pharmaceutical dosage forms. PMID:27434157

  17. Effect of mechanical denaturation on surface free energy of protein powders.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Mohammad Amin; Grimsey, Ian M; Forbes, Robert T; Blagbrough, Ian S; Conway, Barbara R

    2016-10-01

    Globular proteins are important both as therapeutic agents and excipients. However, their fragile native conformations can be denatured during pharmaceutical processing, which leads to modification of the surface energy of their powders and hence their performance. Lyophilized powders of hen egg-white lysozyme and β-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae were used as models to study the effects of mechanical denaturation on the surface energies of basic and acidic protein powders, respectively. Their mechanical denaturation upon milling was confirmed by the absence of their thermal unfolding transition phases and by the changes in their secondary and tertiary structures. Inverse gas chromatography detected differences between both unprocessed protein powders and the changes induced by their mechanical denaturation. The surfaces of the acidic and basic protein powders were relatively basic, however the surface acidity of β-galactosidase was higher than that of lysozyme. Also, the surface of β-galactosidase powder had a higher dispersive energy compared to lysozyme. The mechanical denaturation decreased the dispersive energy and the basicity of the surfaces of both protein powders. The amino acid composition and molecular conformation of the proteins explained the surface energy data measured by inverse gas chromatography. The biological activity of mechanically denatured protein powders can either be reversible (lysozyme) or irreversible (β-galactosidase) upon hydration. Our surface data can be exploited to understand and predict the performance of protein powders within pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  18. Cows' milk protein-sensitive enteropathy. Combined clinical and histological criteria for diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, N; Robinson, M J; Prathap, K; Sumithran, E; Yadav, M

    1978-01-01

    Cows' milk protein enteropathy is recognised as a significant cause of persistent diarrhoea and malabsorption in young infants, but there are as yet no generally accepted diagnostic criteria. A combined clinical and histological approach to the diagnosis of cows' milk protein-sensitive enteropathy has been used in 15 patients, and the following set of criteria are proposed. (1) Clinical disease (diarrhoea with or without vomiting) while receiving cows' milk protein. (2) Clinical improvement on a diet free of cows' milk protein. (3) Normal or mildly abnormal histology of jejunal mucosa when taken 6-8 weeks after symptoms subside. (4) Histological relapse, with or without clinical relapse, after re-exposure to cows' milk protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:564668

  19. Effects of enzymatic dephosphorylation on infant in vitro gastrointestinal digestibility of milk protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dasong; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Yun; Hu, Jinhua; Lu, Naiyan; Regenstein, Joe M; Wang, Miao; Zhou, Peng

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the effects of dephosphorylation extent on infant in vitro gastric clotting property and gastrointestinal digestibility of milk protein concentrate. Dephosphorylation was affected by phosphatase type and incubation pH. A series of milk protein concentrate with 0-69% dephosphorylation were obtained by incubation with calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase at pH 6.5 for 0-420 min. Both β- and αs1-caseins in the modified milk protein concentrate showed multiply dephosphorylated isoforms with different numbers of phosphate groups depending on the extent of dephosphorylation. With increased dephosphorylation of milk protein concentrate, the gastric clotting extent decreased and the gastrointestinal digestibility increased under infant in vitro conditions. These results suggested the potential of developing a dephosphorylated milk protein concentrate, with improved gastric clotting property and gastrointestinal digestibility, to simulate the multiply phosphorylated patterns of human casein and hence to further the humanization of infant formula on a molecular level.

  20. Effect of summer season on milk protein fractions in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Bernabucci, U; Basiricò, L; Morera, P; Dipasquale, D; Vitali, A; Piccioli Cappelli, F; Calamari, L

    2015-03-01

    Milk characteristics are affected by heat stress, but very little information is available on changes of milk protein fractions and their relationship with cheesemaking properties of milk. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of hot season on milk protein fractions and cheesemaking properties of milk for Grana Padano cheese production. The study was carried out in a dairy farm with a cheese factory for transforming the milk to Grana Padano cheese. The study was carried out from June 2012 to May 2013. Temperature and relative humidity of the inside barn were recorded daily during the study period using 8 electronic data loggers programmed to record every 30 min. Constant managerial conditions were maintained during the experimental periods. During the experimental period, feed and diet characteristics, milk yield, and milk characteristics were recorded in summer (from June 29 to July 27, 2012), winter (from January 25 to March 8, 2013), and spring (from May 17 to May 31, 2013). Milk yield was recorded and individual milk samples were taken from 25 cows selected in each season during the p.m. milking. Content of fat, proteins, caseins (CN), lactose and somatic cell count (SCC), titratable acidity, and milk rennet coagulation properties were determined on fresh samples. Milk protein fraction concentrations were determined by the sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. Data were tested for nonnormality by the Shapiro-Wilk test. In case of nonnormality, parameters were normalized by log or exponential transformation. The data were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA using a mixed model procedure. For all the main milk components (fat, protein, total solids, and solids-not-fat), the lowest values were observed in the summer and the greatest values were observed in the winter. Casein fractions, with the exception of γ-CN, showed the lowest values in the summer and the greatest values in the winter. The content of IgG and serum albumin was greater in summer

  1. Effect of summer season on milk protein fractions in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Bernabucci, U; Basiricò, L; Morera, P; Dipasquale, D; Vitali, A; Piccioli Cappelli, F; Calamari, L

    2015-03-01

    Milk characteristics are affected by heat stress, but very little information is available on changes of milk protein fractions and their relationship with cheesemaking properties of milk. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of hot season on milk protein fractions and cheesemaking properties of milk for Grana Padano cheese production. The study was carried out in a dairy farm with a cheese factory for transforming the milk to Grana Padano cheese. The study was carried out from June 2012 to May 2013. Temperature and relative humidity of the inside barn were recorded daily during the study period using 8 electronic data loggers programmed to record every 30 min. Constant managerial conditions were maintained during the experimental periods. During the experimental period, feed and diet characteristics, milk yield, and milk characteristics were recorded in summer (from June 29 to July 27, 2012), winter (from January 25 to March 8, 2013), and spring (from May 17 to May 31, 2013). Milk yield was recorded and individual milk samples were taken from 25 cows selected in each season during the p.m. milking. Content of fat, proteins, caseins (CN), lactose and somatic cell count (SCC), titratable acidity, and milk rennet coagulation properties were determined on fresh samples. Milk protein fraction concentrations were determined by the sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. Data were tested for nonnormality by the Shapiro-Wilk test. In case of nonnormality, parameters were normalized by log or exponential transformation. The data were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA using a mixed model procedure. For all the main milk components (fat, protein, total solids, and solids-not-fat), the lowest values were observed in the summer and the greatest values were observed in the winter. Casein fractions, with the exception of γ-CN, showed the lowest values in the summer and the greatest values in the winter. The content of IgG and serum albumin was greater in summer

  2. Novel methods to study the effect of protein content and dissolution temperature on the solubility of milk protein concentrate: Focused beam reflectance and ultrasonic flaw detector-based methods.

    PubMed

    Hauser, M; Amamcharla, J K

    2016-05-01

    Processing, storage, dissolution conditions, and the composition of milk protein concentrates (MPC) affect the solubility of high-protein dairy powders. Increasing the storage temperature and time decrease the solubility of MPC and milk protein isolates (MPI). The MPC and MPI are popular ingredients in high-protein food products and have a variety of protein contents. In addition, the dissolution temperature has been shown to affect the solubility of the powders. This study focused on determining how protein content and dissolution temperature affect the solubility of MPC and MPI. For this study, 11 powders were obtained from a commercial manufacturer. The powders were classified as A, B, C, and D, and they had a mean protein content of 85, 87, 88, and 90%, respectively. A 5% (wt/wt) concentration of powder was dissolved in water at 40 and 48°C. The solubility of the MPC and MPI samples were characterized using an ultrasonic flaw detector (UFD) and focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM). The UFD and FBRM data were collected every 15 and 10 s, respectively, for 1,800 s. At both dissolution temperatures, the UFD and FBRM data showed that the solubility decreased as the protein content increased. Powders A and B were found to be more soluble because they had a lower relative velocity standard deviation, high area under the attenuation curve, high peak height, and low peak time. With the FBRM, the fine and medium particle count decreased and large particle count increased as the protein content increased. Powders dissolved at 48°C typically had a lower relative velocity standard deviation, higher area under the attenuation curve, higher peak height, and lower peak time than the powders dissolved at 40°C. The FBRM showed that powders dissolved at 48°C reached a stable counts before the powders dissolved at 40°C. Overall, the study showed that increasing the protein content led to a reduction in solubility and increasing the dissolution temperature improved the

  3. Novel methods to study the effect of protein content and dissolution temperature on the solubility of milk protein concentrate: Focused beam reflectance and ultrasonic flaw detector-based methods.

    PubMed

    Hauser, M; Amamcharla, J K

    2016-05-01

    Processing, storage, dissolution conditions, and the composition of milk protein concentrates (MPC) affect the solubility of high-protein dairy powders. Increasing the storage temperature and time decrease the solubility of MPC and milk protein isolates (MPI). The MPC and MPI are popular ingredients in high-protein food products and have a variety of protein contents. In addition, the dissolution temperature has been shown to affect the solubility of the powders. This study focused on determining how protein content and dissolution temperature affect the solubility of MPC and MPI. For this study, 11 powders were obtained from a commercial manufacturer. The powders were classified as A, B, C, and D, and they had a mean protein content of 85, 87, 88, and 90%, respectively. A 5% (wt/wt) concentration of powder was dissolved in water at 40 and 48°C. The solubility of the MPC and MPI samples were characterized using an ultrasonic flaw detector (UFD) and focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM). The UFD and FBRM data were collected every 15 and 10 s, respectively, for 1,800 s. At both dissolution temperatures, the UFD and FBRM data showed that the solubility decreased as the protein content increased. Powders A and B were found to be more soluble because they had a lower relative velocity standard deviation, high area under the attenuation curve, high peak height, and low peak time. With the FBRM, the fine and medium particle count decreased and large particle count increased as the protein content increased. Powders dissolved at 48°C typically had a lower relative velocity standard deviation, higher area under the attenuation curve, higher peak height, and lower peak time than the powders dissolved at 40°C. The FBRM showed that powders dissolved at 48°C reached a stable counts before the powders dissolved at 40°C. Overall, the study showed that increasing the protein content led to a reduction in solubility and increasing the dissolution temperature improved the

  4. [Analysis of Spirulina powder by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and calculation of protein content].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Jing; Xu, Chang-Hua; Li, Wei-Ming; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Qun; Li, An; Zhao, Yue-Liang; Ha, Yi-Ming; Sun, Su-Qin

    2013-04-01

    Spirulina, Spirulina powder and dextrin standard were analyzed and identified by Infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The main components, protein (1 657 and 1 537 cm(-1)) and carbohydrate (1 069 and 1054 cm(-1)), had distinct fingerprint characteristics of IR spectra. By comparing the IR spectra of Spirulina, Spirulina powder and dextrin standard, the dominant nutrition in Spirulina powder was identified as protein and carbohydrate. The dominant accessory added in Spirulina powder was dextrin. Comparing the IR spectra of Spirulina powder from 28 different factories and figuring out the correlation provides the information about the amount of accessory. A standard curve of the ratio of absorption peak intensities to protein content was constructed to accurately determine the amount of protein in Spirulina powder.

  5. A proteomic perspective on the changes in milk proteins due to high somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Boeren, S; van Hooijdonk, A C M; Vervoort, J M; Hettinga, K A

    2015-08-01

    Although cows with subclinical mastitis have no difference in the appearance of their milk, milk composition and milk quality are altered because of the inflammation. To know the changes in milk quality with different somatic cell count (SCC) levels, 5 pooled bovine milk samples with SCC from 10(5) to 10(6) cells/mL were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using both one-dimension sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE and filter-aided sample preparation coupled with dimethyl labeling, both followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Minor differences were found on the qualitative level in the proteome from milk with different SCC levels, whereas the concentration of milk proteins showed remarkable changes. Not only immune-related proteins (cathelicidins, IGK protein, CD59 molecule, complement regulatory protein, lactadherin), but also proteins with other biological functions (e.g., lipid metabolism: platelet glycoprotein 4, butyrophilin subfamily 1 member A1, perilipin-2) were significantly different in milk from cows with high SCC level compared with low SCC level. The increased concentration of protease inhibitors in the milk with higher SCC levels may suggest a protective role in the mammary gland against protease activity. Prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase showed a linear relation with SCC, which was confirmed with an ELISA. However, the correlation coefficient was lower in individual cows compared with bulk milk. These results indicate that prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase may be used as an indicator to evaluate bulk milk quality and thereby reduce the economic loss in the dairy industry. The results from this study reflect the biological phenomena occurring during subclinical mastitis and in addition provide a potential indicator for the detection of bulk milk with high SCC. PMID:26094216

  6. Two types of radicals in whole milk powder. Effect of lactose crystallization, lipid oxidation, and browning reactions.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Marianne K; Lauridsen, Lene; Skibsted, Leif H; Risbo, Jens

    2005-03-01

    Whole milk powder was stored in closed vials at 60 degrees C to induce crystallization of lactose within a short time scale. After an induction period of 3-4 days simultaneous crystallization of lactose, increase of water activity, formation of browning products, and increase of radical content took place. Radicals detected before lactose crystallization were characterized by a narrow ESR spectrum (g = 2.006) and could be depleted by removal of oxygen and therefore were assigned to oxidation processes. Late-stage radicals present after crystallization of lactose gave much wider spectra (g = 2.0048) and were independent of oxygen availability and assigned to late-stage Maillard reaction products. The study indicates that the processes of lactose crystallization, browning, and formation of radical species (g = 2.0048) are strongly coupled, while lipid oxidation is less dependent on the other processes. PMID:15740077

  7. Biosynthesis of milk fat, protein, and lactose: roles of transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Johan S; Lohakare, Jayant; Bionaz, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The demand for high-quality milk is increasing worldwide. The efficiency of milk synthesis can be improved by taking advantage of the accumulated knowledge of the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of genes coding for proteins involved in the synthesis of fat, protein, and lactose in the mammary gland. Research in this area is relatively new, but data accumulated in the last 10 years provide a relatively clear picture. Milk fat synthesis appears to be regulated, at least in bovines, by an interactive network between SREBP1, PPARγ, and LXRα, with a potential role for other transcription factors, such as Spot14, ChREBP, and Sp1. Milk protein synthesis is highly regulated by insulin, amino acids, and amino acid transporters via transcriptional and posttranscriptional routes, with the insulin-mTOR pathway playing a central role. The transcriptional regulation of lactose synthesis is still poorly understood, but it is clear that glucose transporters play an important role. They can also cooperatively interact with amino acid transporters and the mTOR pathway. Recent data indicate the possibility of nutrigenomic interventions to increase milk fat synthesis by feeding long-chain fatty acids and milk protein synthesis by feeding amino acids. We propose a transcriptional network model to account for all available findings. This model encompasses a complex network of proteins that control milk synthesis with a cross talk between milk fat, protein, and lactose regulation, with mTOR functioning as a central hub.

  8. Compositional analysis of protein content in milk with near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Weihong; Yang, Xiaoli; Li, Chao; Liu, Haiying

    2006-02-01

    A fast analytical method was introduced based on near-infrared (NIR) technology in this paper. The protein content was measured in short order using the near-infrared transmission spectroscopy (1000-1700nm) of milk. There were several waves of milk's NIR spectroscopy selected. By correlating the spectrum data of the waves selected and the protein content in milk, a calibration model was established. The protein content could be measured by importing the spectrum data to the calibration model. In this model there were several parameters, which were the spectrum data of the waves selected. Then, the method how to select the waves best was introduced and the characteristic waves of milk were selected by utilizing genetic algorithm. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model between the spectroscopy and the protein content was presented for milk samples, and the predictive repeatability was also researched.

  9. Milk protein composition and stability changes affected by iron in water sources.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aili; Duncan, Susan E; Knowlton, Katharine F; Ray, William K; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2016-06-01

    Water makes up more than 80% of the total weight of milk. However, the influence of water chemistry on the milk proteome has not been extensively studied. The objective was to evaluate interaction of water-sourced iron (low, medium, and high levels) on milk proteome and implications on milk oxidative state and mineral content. Protein composition, oxidative stability, and mineral composition of milk were investigated under conditions of iron ingestion through bovine drinking water (infused) as well as direct iron addition to commercial milk in 2 studies. Four ruminally cannulated cows each received aqueous infusions (based on water consumption of 100L) of 0, 2, 5, and 12.5mg/L Fe(2+) as ferrous lactate, resulting in doses of 0, 200, 500 or 1,250mg of Fe/d, in a 4×4Latin square design for a 14-d period. For comparison, ferrous sulfate solution was directly added into commercial retail milk at the same concentrations: control (0mg of Fe/L), low (2mg of Fe/L), medium (5mg of Fe/L), and high (12.5mg of Fe/L). Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis was applied to characterize milk protein composition. Oxidative stability of milk was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for malondialdehyde, and mineral content was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For milk from both abomasal infusion of ferrous lactate and direct addition of ferrous sulfate, an iron concentration as low as 2mg of Fe/L was able to cause oxidative stress in dairy cattle and infused milk, respectively. Abomasal infusion affected both caseins and whey proteins in the milk, whereas direct addition mainly influenced caseins. Although abomasal iron infusion did not significantly affect oxidation state and mineral balance (except iron), it induced oxidized off-flavor and partial degradation of whey proteins. Direct

  10. Milk protein composition and stability changes affected by iron in water sources.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aili; Duncan, Susan E; Knowlton, Katharine F; Ray, William K; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2016-06-01

    Water makes up more than 80% of the total weight of milk. However, the influence of water chemistry on the milk proteome has not been extensively studied. The objective was to evaluate interaction of water-sourced iron (low, medium, and high levels) on milk proteome and implications on milk oxidative state and mineral content. Protein composition, oxidative stability, and mineral composition of milk were investigated under conditions of iron ingestion through bovine drinking water (infused) as well as direct iron addition to commercial milk in 2 studies. Four ruminally cannulated cows each received aqueous infusions (based on water consumption of 100L) of 0, 2, 5, and 12.5mg/L Fe(2+) as ferrous lactate, resulting in doses of 0, 200, 500 or 1,250mg of Fe/d, in a 4×4Latin square design for a 14-d period. For comparison, ferrous sulfate solution was directly added into commercial retail milk at the same concentrations: control (0mg of Fe/L), low (2mg of Fe/L), medium (5mg of Fe/L), and high (12.5mg of Fe/L). Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis was applied to characterize milk protein composition. Oxidative stability of milk was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for malondialdehyde, and mineral content was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For milk from both abomasal infusion of ferrous lactate and direct addition of ferrous sulfate, an iron concentration as low as 2mg of Fe/L was able to cause oxidative stress in dairy cattle and infused milk, respectively. Abomasal infusion affected both caseins and whey proteins in the milk, whereas direct addition mainly influenced caseins. Although abomasal iron infusion did not significantly affect oxidation state and mineral balance (except iron), it induced oxidized off-flavor and partial degradation of whey proteins. Direct

  11. Determination of Protein Content by NIR Spectroscopy in Protein Powder Mix Products.

    PubMed

    Ingle, Prashant D; Christian, Roney; Purohit, Piyush; Zarraga, Veronica; Handley, Erica; Freel, Keith; Abdo, Saleem

    2016-01-01

    Protein is a principal component in commonly used dietary supplements and health food products. The analysis of these products, within the consumer package form, is of critical importance for the purpose of ensuring quality and supporting label claims. A rapid test method was developed using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a compliment to current protein determination by the Dumas combustion method. The NIR method was found to be a rapid, low-cost, and green (no use of chemicals and reagents) complimentary technique. The protein powder samples analyzed in this study were in the range of 22-90% protein. The samples were prepared as mixtures of soy protein, whey protein, and silicon dioxide ingredients, which are common in commercially sold protein powder drink-mix products in the market. A NIR regression model was developed with 17 samples within the constituent range and was validated with 20 independent samples of known protein levels (85-88%). The results show that the NIR method is capable of predicting the protein content with a bias of ±2% and a maximum bias of 3% between NIR and the external Dumas method. PMID:26960288

  12. Cooling causes changes in the distribution of lipoprotein lipase and milk fat globule membrane proteins between the skim milk and cream phase.

    PubMed

    Dickow, J A; Larsen, L B; Hammershøj, M; Wiking, L

    2011-02-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and free fatty acid levels were studied in freshly milked, uncooled milk from individual Danish Holstein or Jersey cows, or after storage for up to 24h at either a cooling temperature (4°C) or at the milking temperature (31°C). Upon cooling for up to 24h, LPL activity increased in the cream phase, whereas the activity in the skim milk was steady, as observed for Jersey cows, or increased, as seen for the Holsteins. Storage at 31°C decreased the LPL activity in both the cream phase and the skim milk phase. The increase in free fatty acid levels was found to depend on LPL activity, incubation temperature, substrate availability, and incubation time. Furthermore, the migration of milk proteins between the skim milk phase and the cream phase upon cooling of milk from Jersey cows or from Danish Holstein cows was studied using proteomic methods involving 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Proteins associated with the milk fat globules were isolated from all milk fractions and analyzed. Major changes in the distributions of proteins between the skim milk phase and the cream phase were observed after cooling at 4°C for 4h, where a total of 29 proteins between the 2 breeds was found to change their association with the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) significantly. Among these, the MFGM proteins adipophilin, fatty acid-binding protein, and lactadherin, as well as the non-MFGM proteins β-casein, lactoferrin, and heat shock protein-71, were identified. Adipophilin, lactadherin, and lactoferrin were quantitatively more associated with the MFGM upon cold storage at 4°C, whereas β-casein, fatty acid-binding protein, and heat shock protein-71 were found to be less associated with the MFGM upon cold storage.

  13. Effect of β-lactoglobulin A and B whey protein variants on cheese yield potential of a model milk system.

    PubMed

    Meza-Nieto, M A; González-Córdova, A F; Piloni-Martini, J; Vallejo-Cordoba, B

    2013-01-01

    Cheese yield mainly depends on the amount and proportion of milk constituents; however, genetic variants of the proteins present in milk may also have an important effect. The objective of this research was to study the effect of the variants A and B of β-lactoglobulin (LG) on cheese yield using a model system consisting of skim milk powder fortified with different levels of a mixture containing α-lactalbumin and β-LG genetic variants (A, B, or A-B) in a 1:2 ratio. Fortified milk samples were subjected to pasteurization at 65 °C for 30 min. Miniature cheeses were made by acidifying (pH=5.9) fortified milk and incubating with rennet for 1h at 32 °C. The clot formed was cut, centrifuged at 2,600 × g for 30 min at 20 °C and drained for determining cheese yield. Cheese-yielding capacity was expressed as actual yield (grams of cheese curd per 100g of milk) and dry weight yield (grams of dried cheese curd per 100g of milk). Free-zone capillary electrophoresis was used for determining β-LG A or B recovery in the curd during rennet-induced coagulation. The presence of β-LG variant B resulted in a significantly higher actual and dried weight cheese yield than when A or A-B were present at levels ≤ 0.675% of whey protein (WP) addition. Results of free-zone capillary electrophoresis allowed us to infer that β-LG B associates with the casein micelles during renneting, as shown by an increase in the recovery of this variant in the curd when β-LG B was added up to a maximum at 0.45% (equivalent to 0.675% WP). In general, actual or dried weight cheese yield increased as WP addition was increased from 0.225 to 0.675%. However, when WP addition ranged from 0.675 to 0.90%, a drastic drop in cheese yield was observed. This behavior may be because an increase in the aggregation of casein micelles with a concomitant inclusion of whey protein in the gel occurs at low levels of WP addition, whereas once the association of WP with the casein micelles reach a saturation point

  14. Interlaboratory Study of ELISA Kits for the Detection of Egg and Milk Protein in Processed Foods.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shigeki; Yagi, Takahiro; Kato, Ayako; Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Akimoto, Masanobu; Arihara, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    The labeling of seven specific allergenic ingredients (egg, milk, wheat, buckwheat, peanut, shrimp, and crab) is mandatory in Japan. To ensure proper labeling, two kinds of ELISA kits using polyclonal antibodies have been developed. However, we developed two novel ELISA kits using monoclonal antibodies with improved specificity, the Allergeneye ELISA Egg (AE-Egg) and Allergeneye ELISA Milk (AE-Milk) Kits, to detect egg and milk proteins in processed foods, respectively. Five types of processed food containing 10 mg/kg of egg or milk soluble protein were prepared for an interlaboratory study of the performance of these kits. The kits showed a relatively high reproducibility level of interlaboratory precision (AE-Egg RSDR, 3.7-5.7%; AE-Milk RSDR, 6.8-10.5%) and satisfied the recovery rate stipulated by Japanese guidelines (AE-Egg, 61.6-89.3%; AE-Milk, 52.1-67%) for all processed foods. Our results suggest that the AE-Egg and AE-Milk Kits are precise and reliable tools for detecting egg or milk proteins in processed foods.

  15. Blood-derived proteins in milk at start of lactation: Indicators of active or passive transfer.

    PubMed

    Wall, Samantha K; Gross, Josef J; Kessler, Evelyne C; Villez, Kris; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2015-11-01

    Colostrum has a different composition compared with milk in established lactation. This difference is in part due to the partially open blood-milk barrier, which, when closed, is designed to prevent the interdiffusion of blood and milk components. In the first days of lactation, α-lactalbumin (α-LA), a milk protein, is typically present in blood and several blood-derived proteins are also present in milk, such as IgG1, IgG2, serum albumin (SA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). With the exception of IgG1, which is known to be transferred by active transcellular transport, the other proteins are thought to pass paracellularly through the temporarily open barrier. Along with an exchange of blood and milk components, somatic cell count (SCC) is typically high in colostrum. The decline of these proteins and SCC can be used as indicators to determine transcellular or paracellular transport. Two hypotheses were tested. The first hypothesis was that the decline curve for a protein or SCC would be the same as IgG1, indicating transcellular transport, or the decline curve would be different than IgG1, indicating paracellular transport. The second hypothesis was that the decline curves of SCC and all proteins that are thought to have paracellular transport would be the same. Ten Holstein cows were milked at 4 h after parturition, the next 5 consecutive milkings, and the afternoon milking on d 5, 8, 10, and 14 of lactation for a total of 10 milking time points, and sequential jugular blood samples were also taken. Blood and milk samples were analyzed for the concentrations of LDH, SA, IgG1, IgG2, and α-LA and milk samples were measured for SCC. Protein concentration and SCC curves were generated from all 10 time points and were evaluated using the tau time constant model to determine the rate of decline of the slope of each protein. When examining the first hypothesis, the concentration of IgG1 declined significantly faster in the milk than the proteins IgG2 and LDH, but

  16. Penetration depth measurement of near-infrared hyperspectral imaging light for milk powder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasingly common application of near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging technique to the analysis of food powders has led to the need for optical characterization of samples. This study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of quantifying penetration depth of NIR hyperspectral imaging ligh...

  17. Detection and characterisation of Complement protein activity in bovine milk by bactericidal sequestration assay.

    PubMed

    Maye, Susan; Stanton, Catherine; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Kelly, Philip M

    2015-08-01

    While the Complement protein system in human milk is well characterised, there is little information on its presence and activity in bovine milk. Complement forms part of the innate immune system, hence the importance of its contribution during milk ingestion to the overall defences of the neonate. A bactericidal sequestration assay, featuring a Complement sensitive strain, Escherichia coli 0111, originally used to characterise Complement activity in human milk was successfully applied to freshly drawn bovine milk samples, thus, providing an opportunity to compare Complement activities in both human and bovine milks. Although not identical in response, the levels of Complement activity in bovine milk were found to be closely comparable with that of human milk. Differential counts of Esch. coli 0111 after 2 h incubation were 6.20 and 6.06 log CFU/ml, for raw bovine and human milks, respectively - the lower value representing a stronger Complement response. Exposing bovine milk to a range of thermal treatments e.g. 42, 45, 65, 72, 85 or 95 °C for 10 min, progressively inhibited Complement activity by increasing temperature, thus confirming the heat labile nature of this immune protein system. Low level Complement activity was found, however, in 65 and 72 °C heat treated samples and in retailed pasteurised milk which highlights the outer limit to which high temperature, short time (HTST) industrial thermal processes should be applied if retention of activity is a priority. Concentration of Complement in the fat phase was evident following cream separation, and this was also reflected in the further loss of activity recorded in low fat variants of retailed pasteurised milk. Laboratory-based churning of the cream during simulated buttermaking generated an aqueous (buttermilk) phase with higher levels of Complement activity than the fat phase, thus pointing to a likely association with the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) layer.

  18. Immunomodulatory and hypoallergenic properties of milk protein hydrolysates in ICR mice.

    PubMed

    Pan, D D; Wu, Z; Liu, J; Cao, X Y; Zeng, X Q

    2013-08-01

    Approximately 2.5% of young children are allergic to cow milk. In this study, milk protein hydrolysates made from full-cream milk via enzymatic hydrolysis played a positive role in regulating the immune system of ICR mice. Milk protein hydrolysates enhanced immunity in mice by stimulating host immunity, probably by increasing the weight of certain immune system organs, improving the level of hemolysin in serum, and enhancing the phagocytosis of macrophages. Milk protein hydrolysates have the capability to reduce type I hypersensitivity by decreasing IgE levels, IL-4 in serum, and the release of histamine and bicarbonate in peritoneal mast cells, as well as enhancing transforming growth factor-β levels in the serum of ovalbumin-sensitized mice.

  19. Dataset of milk whey proteins of two indigenous greek goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-01

    Due to its rarity and unique biological traits, as well as its growing financial value, milk of dairy Greek small ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. For the construction of the present dataset, cutting-edge proteomics methodologies were employed, in order to investigate and characterize, for the first time, the milk whey proteome from the two indigenous Greek goat breeds, Capra prisca and Skopelos. In total 822 protein groups were identified in milk whey of the two breeds, The present data are further discussed in the research article "Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics" [1].

  20. Dataset of milk whey proteins of two indigenous greek goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-01

    Due to its rarity and unique biological traits, as well as its growing financial value, milk of dairy Greek small ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. For the construction of the present dataset, cutting-edge proteomics methodologies were employed, in order to investigate and characterize, for the first time, the milk whey proteome from the two indigenous Greek goat breeds, Capra prisca and Skopelos. In total 822 protein groups were identified in milk whey of the two breeds, The present data are further discussed in the research article "Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics" [1]. PMID:27508219

  1. Effect of dairy powder rehydration state on gel formation during yogurt process.

    PubMed

    Karam, Marie Celeste; Gaiani, Claire; Barbar, Reine; Hosri, Chadi; Scher, Joel

    2012-08-01

    Protein fortification and solubilisation into the milk base are important parameters enhancing yogurt texture. In this study, the milk base prepared from reconstituted skim milk powder was fortified with 2% of 'aged' (1 year old) or 'fresh' micellar casein (MC) powder. Micellar casein powders were left to rehydrate at 20°C for different times (5 or 180, 300, 480, 900 or 1440 min) before acidification with glucono-delta-lactone. The rehydration of the MC powders into milk was monitored with a granulo-morphometer equipment, thus, for the first time, allowing the elucidation of MC rehydration process into an opaque environment such as milk. Whereas the gel point was delayed proportionally to the powder rehydration length, the storage modulus appears unaffected. Besides, the gelation onset was not altered by the powder age.

  2. Bioavailability of milk protein-derived bioactive peptides: a glycaemic management perspective.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy; Drummond, Elaine; Brennan, Lorraine

    2016-06-01

    Milk protein-derived peptides have been reported to have potential benefits for reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, what the active components are and whether intact peptides exert this bioactivity has received little investigation in human subjects. Furthermore, potentially useful bioactive peptides can be limited by low bioavailability. Various peptides have been identified in the gastrointestinal tract and bloodstream after milk-protein ingestion, providing valuable insights into their potential bioavailability. However, these studies are currently limited and the structure and sequence of milk peptides exerting bioactivity for glycaemic management has received little investigation in human subjects. The present article reviews the bioavailability of milk protein-derived peptides in human studies to date, and examines the evidence on milk proteins and glycaemic management, including potential mechanisms of action. Areas in need of advancement are identified. Only by establishing the bioavailability of milk protein-derived peptides, the active components and the mechanistic pathways involved can the benefits of milk proteins for the prevention or management of type 2 diabetes be fully realised in future.

  3. Effects of feeding level and protein content of milk replacer on the performance of dairy herd replacements.

    PubMed

    Morrison, S J; Wicks, H C F; Fallon, R J; Twigge, J; Dawson, L E R; Wylie, A R G; Carson, A F

    2009-11-01

    It has been suggested that United Kingdom recommendations for feeding the neonatal calf (500 g milk replacer (MR)/day; 200-230 g CP/kg milk powder) are inadequate to sustain optimal growth rates in early life. The current study was undertaken with 153 high genetic merit, male and female Holstein-Friesian calves (PIN2000 = £48) born between September and March, with heifers reared and bred to calve at 24 months of age. Calves were allocated to one of four pre-weaning dietary treatments arranged in a 2 MR feeding level (5 v. 10 l/day) × 2 MR protein content (210 v. 270 g CP/kg dry matter (DM)) factorial design. MR was reconstituted at a rate of 120 g/l of water, throughout, and was offered via computerised automated milk feeders. Calves were introduced to pre-weaning diets at 5 days of age and weaned at day 56. During the first 56 days of life, calves offered 10 l MR/day had significantly higher liveweight gains (P < 0.001) than calves fed 5 l MR/day. No significant differences in liveweight gain were found between calves fed 210 g CP/kg DM MR and those fed 270 g CP/kg DM MR from birth to day 56. Differences in live weight and body size due to feeding level disappeared by day 90. Neither MR feeding level nor MR CP content affected age at first service or age at successful service, and with no milk production effects, the results indicate no post-weaning benefits of increased nutrition during the milk-feeding period in dairy heifers.

  4. Effects of milk protein loci on first lactation production in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Lin, C Y; McAllister, A J; Ng-Kwai-Hang, K F; Hayes, J F

    1986-03-01

    A total of 920 cows of Holstein-based H line, Ayrshire-based A line, and cross-bred C line between H and A lines was used to determine the genotypic and gene frequencies of milk protein types and to study the relationships of milk protein loci to first lactation yields. Effects of milk protein loci on first lactation performance were examined using classification and gene substitution models. Gene frequencies at the five milk protein loci studied were similar to those reported in the literature. Gene substitution at alpha s1-casein locus showed the greatest effects on first lactation yields compared to those at other milk protein loci. Unfortunately, the favorable B allele at this locus is almost fixed (the frequency of the B allele = .955), a result of long-term selection for high milk production in dairy cattle. The extremely high frequency of a favorable allele at the alpha s1-casein locus imposes a limitation for further genetic improvement at this locus unless a more favorable mutation can be induced. Although favorable alleles at beta-casein, kappa-casein, and beta-lactoglobulin loci exerted smaller effects on first lactation performance than those at the alpha s1-casein locus, their moderate frequencies in the current population can be raised to improve lactation yields through milk protein typing. The combined contribution of the four milk protein loci accounted for 8.9% of phenotypic variance in milk yield, 8.6% in protein yield, ad 5.0% in fat yield.

  5. Bioactive Proteins in Human Milk: Health, Nutrition, and Implications for Infant Formulas.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Breast milk confers many benefits to the newborn and developing infant. There is substantial support for better long-term outcomes, such as less obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, in breastfed compared with formula-fed infants. More short-term outcomes, such as incidence and duration of illness, nutrient status, and cognitive development during the first year of life also demonstrate benefits of breastfeeding. Several proteins in breast milk, including lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, milk fat globule membrane proteins, and osteopontin, have been shown to have bioactivities that range from involvement in the protection against infection to the acquisition of nutrients from breast milk. In some cases, bovine counterparts of these proteins exert similar bioactivities. It is possible by dairy technology to add protein fractions highly enriched in these proteins to infant formula.

  6. Microstructural Changes in High-Protein Nutrition Bars Formulated with Extruded or Toasted Milk Protein Concentrate.

    PubMed

    Banach, J C; Clark, S; Lamsal, B P

    2016-02-01

    Milk protein concentrates with more than 80% protein (that is, MPC80) are underutilized as the primary protein source in high-protein nutrition bars as they impart crumbliness and cause hardening during storage. High-protein nutrition bar texture changes are often associated with internal protein aggregations and macronutrient phase separation. These changes were investigated in model high-protein nutrition bars formulated with MPC80 and physically modified MPC80s. High-protein nutrition bars formulated with extruded MPC80s hardened slower than those formulated with toasted or unmodified MPC80. Extruded MPC80 had reduced free sulfhydryl group exposure, whereas measurable increases were seen in the toasted MPC80. High-protein nutrition bar textural performance may be related to the number of exposed free sulfhydryl groups in MPC80. Protein aggregations resulting from ingredient modification and high-protein nutrition bar storage were studied with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Disulfide-based protein aggregations and changes in free sulfhydryl concentration were not consistently relatable to high-protein nutrition bar texture change. However, the high-protein nutrition bars formulated with extruded MPC80 were less prone to phase separations, as depicted by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and underwent less texture change during storage than those formulated with toasted or unmodified MPC80.

  7. Effects of continuous milking during a field trial on productivity, milk protein yield and health in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Köpf, M; Gellrich, K; Küchenhoff, H; Meyer, H H D; Kliem, H

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this field study with an automatic milking system was to evaluate the effects of omitting the dry period on health and productivity during the subsequent lactation in dairy cows. A total of 98 German Simmental cows of six Southern German farms were assigned randomly to two experimental groups: The first group was dried-off 56 days before calving (D for dried-off, n=49), and the second group was milked continuously during this period until calving (CM for continuous milking, n=49). From the latter a third group emerged, including cows that dried-off themselves spontaneously (DS for dried-off spontaneously, n=14). Blood serum values of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and IGF-1 showed most pronounced fluctuations in D cows. Over the entire study period, the concentrations of BHBA and NEFA were markedly lower in the CM and DS groups. Furthermore, IGF-1 concentration was lowest for D cows and also decrease in back fat thickness was more pronounced. Mean concentration of milk protein was markedly higher in CM and DS cows (3.70% and 3.71%) compared with D cows (3.38%). Owing to the lower 305-day milk yield (-15.6%) and the lower total milk yield (-3.1%), the total amount of produced protein in the subsequent lactation was 2.5% (6.8 kg) lower, although the additional protein amount in CM cows from week -8 to calving was 35.7 kg. The greatest benefit resulted from positive effects on fertility and the lower incidence of diseases: CM cows had their first oestrus 1 week earlier compared with D cows, they also conceived earlier and showed a significantly lower risk of developing hypocalcaemia, ketosis and puerperal disorders. The present study showed that the costs of medical treatment and milk losses were twice as high in D cows, compared with CM and DS cows, and thus the reduced costs because of the more stable health outweighed the financial losses of milk yield by +18.49 € per cow and lactation. PMID:26263029

  8. Consuming transgenic goats' milk containing the antimicrobial protein lysozyme helps resolve diarrhea in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Caitlin A; Garas Klobas, Lydia C; Maga, Elizabeth A; Murray, James D

    2013-01-01

    Childhood diarrhea is a significant problem in many developing countries and E. coli is a main causative agent of diarrhea in young children. Lysozyme is an antimicrobial protein highly expressed in human milk, but not ruminant milk, and is thought to help protect breastfeeding children against diarrheal diseases. We hypothesized that consumption of milk from transgenic goats which produce human lysozyme (hLZ-milk) in their milk would accelerate recovery from bacterial-induced diarrhea. Young pigs were used as a model for children and infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli. Once clinical signs of diarrhea developed, pigs were fed hLZ-milk or non-transgenic control goat milk three times a day for two days. Clinical observations and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed. Animals were euthanized and samples collected to assess differences in histology, cytokine expression and bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph node. Pigs consuming hLZ-milk recovered from clinical signs of infection faster than pigs consuming control milk, with significantly improved fecal consistency (p = 0.0190) and activity level (p = 0.0350). The CBC analysis showed circulating monocytes (p = 0.0413), neutrophils (p = 0.0219), and lymphocytes (p = 0.0222) returned faster to pre-infection proportions in hLZ-milk fed pigs, while control-fed pigs had significantly higher hematocrit (p = 0.027), indicating continuing dehydration. In the ileum, pigs fed hLZ-milk had significantly lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 (p = 0.0271), longer intestinal villi (p<0.0001), deeper crypts (p = 0.0053), and a thinner lamina propria (p = 0.0004). These data demonstrate that consumption of hLZ-milk helped pigs recover from infection faster, making hLZ-milk an effective treatment of E. coli-induced diarrhea.

  9. Consuming Transgenic Goats' Milk Containing the Antimicrobial Protein Lysozyme Helps Resolve Diarrhea in Young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Caitlin A.; Garas Klobas, Lydia C.; Maga, Elizabeth A.; Murray, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood diarrhea is a significant problem in many developing countries and E. coli is a main causative agent of diarrhea in young children. Lysozyme is an antimicrobial protein highly expressed in human milk, but not ruminant milk, and is thought to help protect breastfeeding children against diarrheal diseases. We hypothesized that consumption of milk from transgenic goats which produce human lysozyme (hLZ-milk) in their milk would accelerate recovery from bacterial-induced diarrhea. Young pigs were used as a model for children and infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli. Once clinical signs of diarrhea developed, pigs were fed hLZ-milk or non-transgenic control goat milk three times a day for two days. Clinical observations and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed. Animals were euthanized and samples collected to assess differences in histology, cytokine expression and bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph node. Pigs consuming hLZ-milk recovered from clinical signs of infection faster than pigs consuming control milk, with significantly improved fecal consistency (p = 0.0190) and activity level (p = 0.0350). The CBC analysis showed circulating monocytes (p = 0.0413), neutrophils (p = 0.0219), and lymphocytes (p = 0.0222) returned faster to pre-infection proportions in hLZ-milk fed pigs, while control-fed pigs had significantly higher hematocrit (p = 0.027), indicating continuing dehydration. In the ileum, pigs fed hLZ-milk had significantly lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 (p = 0.0271), longer intestinal villi (p<0.0001), deeper crypts (p = 0.0053), and a thinner lamina propria (p = 0.0004). These data demonstrate that consumption of hLZ-milk helped pigs recover from infection faster, making hLZ-milk an effective treatment of E. coli-induced diarrhea. PMID:23516474

  10. Effect of long-term bovine somatotropin (sometribove) treatment on nitrogen (protein) distribution in Jersey milk.

    PubMed

    Kindstedt, P S; Pell, A N; Rippe, J K; Tsang, D S; Hartnell, G F

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-six Jersey cows were assigned randomly to one of two treatments. Twelve cows received biweekly subcutaneous injection of 500 mg of sometribove, USAN (recombinant methionyl bovine somatotropin), beginning 60 +/- 3 d postpartum and continuing throughout one lactation. Fourteen control animals received injections of placebo carrier. Milk samples were taken biweekly on weeks alternate to injection when differences in milk components were expected to be greatest compared with controls. The milk samples were analyzed for total nitrogen, noncasein nitrogen, and non-protein nitrogen. The average SCC for control and treatment groups was 44,000 +/- 47,000 and 56,000 +/- 65,000. Milk from sometribove-treated cows was significantly lower in total protein (3.92, 4.12%), true protein (3.74, 3.95%), and casein (3.11, 3.34%) than that from control cows on d 8 of the 14 d injection cycle. Casein as a percentage of true protein was lower (83.38, 84.52%), and non-protein nitrogen as a percentage of total nitrogen was higher (4.61, 4.26%) in milk from treated cows. The theoretical yield of Cheddar cheese was ca. .07% less for milk from treated cows than from control cows due to ca. 1% less casein as a percentage of true protein in the former. The differences in nitrogen distribution represent the response during the middle of the injection cycle when milk output was the highest and milk protein the lowest rather than the average response for the injection cycle. The results of the study indicate minimal impact on the cheese manufacturer because in practice milk is commingled from many dairies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Melamine detection by mid- and near-infrared (MIR/NIR) spectroscopy: a quick and sensitive method for dairy products analysis including liquid milk, infant formula, and milk powder.

    PubMed

    Balabin, Roman M; Smirnov, Sergey V

    2011-07-15

    Melamine (2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine) is a nitrogen-rich chemical implicated in the pet and human food recalls and in the global food safety scares involving milk products. Due to the serious health concerns associated with melamine consumption and the extensive scope of affected products, rapid and sensitive methods to detect melamine's presence are essential. We propose the use of spectroscopy data-produced by near-infrared (near-IR/NIR) and mid-infrared (mid-IR/MIR) spectroscopies, in particular-for melamine detection in complex dairy matrixes. None of the up-to-date reported IR-based methods for melamine detection has unambiguously shown its wide applicability to different dairy products as well as limit of detection (LOD) below 1 ppm on independent sample set. It was found that infrared spectroscopy is an effective tool to detect melamine in dairy products, such as infant formula, milk powder, or liquid milk. ALOD below 1 ppm (0.76±0.11 ppm) can be reached if a correct spectrum preprocessing (pretreatment) technique and a correct multivariate (MDA) algorithm-partial least squares regression (PLS), polynomial PLS (Poly-PLS), artificial neural network (ANN), support vector regression (SVR), or least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM)-are used for spectrum analysis. The relationship between MIR/NIR spectrum of milk products and melamine content is nonlinear. Thus, nonlinear regression methods are needed to correctly predict the triazine-derivative content of milk products. It can be concluded that mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy can be regarded as a quick, sensitive, robust, and low-cost method for liquid milk, infant formula, and milk powder analysis.

  12. Identification of prolactin and growth hormone binding proteins in rabbit milk.

    PubMed Central

    Postel-Vinay, M C; Belair, L; Kayser, C; Kelly, P A; Djiane, J

    1991-01-01

    Two distinct soluble proteins that specifically bind 125I-labeled human growth hormone (GH) are identified in the supernatant of ultracentrifuged rabbit milk, using HPLC gel filtration. The higher molecular weight proteins is GH specific, whereas the other one is specific for prolactin (PRL). The PRL-binding protein has a very high affinity for the hormone, almost 10 times higher than the affinity of the mammary gland membrane receptor. The PRL-binding protein is immunoprecipitated by a monoclonal antibody against the PRL receptor; another monoclonal antibody, which inhibits the PRL binding to mammary gland membranes, is a poor competitor for the PRL binding to the milk protein. These findings suggest that the milk PRL-binding protein corresponds to the binding domain of the receptor, but also that the conformation of the receptor and of the binding protein might differ. The milk and the plasma GH-binding proteins have a similar binding affinity. In cross-linking experiments using 125I-labeled human GH, the Mr of the GH-binding protein and of the PRL-binding protein were estimated to be 51,000 and 33,000, respectively. The binding proteins identified in the present work are probably responsible for the transport of their specific ligands in the milk. It is also conceivable that they have a role in the effects of GH and PRL in the mammary gland and/or the intestine of the young. Images PMID:1862093

  13. Expression of Active Fluorophore Proteins in the Milk of Transgenic Pigs Bypassing the Secretory Pathway.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Ayan; Garrels, Wiebke; Talluri, Thirumala R; Tiedemann, Daniela; Bősze, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Kues, Wilfried A

    2016-01-01

    We describe the expression of recombinant fluorescent proteins in the milk of two lines of transgenic pigs generated by Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated genetic engineering. The Sleeping Beauty transposon consisted of an ubiquitously active CAGGS promoter driving a fluorophore cDNA, encoding either Venus or mCherry. Importantly, the fluorophore cDNAs did not encode for a signal peptide for the secretory pathway, and in previous studies of the transgenic animals a cytoplasmic localization of the fluorophore proteins was found. Unexpectedly, milk samples from lactating sows contained high levels of bioactive Venus or mCherry fluorophores. A detailed analysis suggested that exfoliated cells of the mammary epithelium carried the recombinant proteins passively into the milk. This is the first description of reporter fluorophore expression in the milk of livestock, and the findings may contribute to the development of an alternative concept for the production of bioactive recombinant proteins in the udder. PMID:27086548

  14. Expression of Active Fluorophore Proteins in the Milk of Transgenic Pigs Bypassing the Secretory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Ayan; Garrels, Wiebke; Talluri, Thirumala R.; Tiedemann, Daniela; Bősze, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Kues, Wilfried A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the expression of recombinant fluorescent proteins in the milk of two lines of transgenic pigs generated by Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated genetic engineering. The Sleeping Beauty transposon consisted of an ubiquitously active CAGGS promoter driving a fluorophore cDNA, encoding either Venus or mCherry. Importantly, the fluorophore cDNAs did not encode for a signal peptide for the secretory pathway, and in previous studies of the transgenic animals a cytoplasmic localization of the fluorophore proteins was found. Unexpectedly, milk samples from lactating sows contained high levels of bioactive Venus or mCherry fluorophores. A detailed analysis suggested that exfoliated cells of the mammary epithelium carried the recombinant proteins passively into the milk. This is the first description of reporter fluorophore expression in the milk of livestock, and the findings may contribute to the development of an alternative concept for the production of bioactive recombinant proteins in the udder. PMID:27086548

  15. The effects of increasing amounts of milk replacer powder added to whole milk on feed intake and performance in dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, R A; Machado, F S; Campos, M M; Furini, P M; Rufino, S R A; Pereira, L G R; Tomich, T R; Coelho, S G

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on feed intake, heifer performance, and health of increasing the total solids (TS) content of liquid feed (whole milk) by adding increasing amounts of milk replacer powder during the pre- and postweaning periods. Crossbred Holstein-Gyr heifers (n=60) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n=15 per group), which consisted of different TS concentrations: 12.5, 15.0, 17.5, and 20.0% of liquid feed. Heifers received 6 L of liquid feed per day, divided into 2 equal meals (0800 and 1600h) and provided in buckets, from 5 to 55d of age. From 56 to 59d of age, the total amount of liquid feed was reduced by half, maintaining only morning feedings. Heifers were weaned at 60d and monitored until 90d of age. Water and starter were provided ad libitum during the entire experiment. Corn silage was included in the diet during the postweaning period (70d of age). Feed intake and health scores were evaluated daily. Body weight and body frame development were recorded weekly. Starting at 14d, ruminal pH was measured every other week. Laboratory analysis determined that the actual TS contents of the liquid feed were 13.5, 16.1, 18.2, and 20.4%, for the proposed 12.5, 15.0, 17.5, and 20.0% TS treatments, respectively. The osmolality of liquid feed treatments was 265 to 533mOsm/L. Intake of liquid feed was similar among treatments from 4wk of age. During the preweaning period, starter intake, fecal score, and days with diarrhea were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH at weaning averaged 6.2 and was similar among treatments. Increasing concentrations of TS in the liquid feed were associated with linear increases in average daily gain, final body weight, and growth performance, but linear decreases in feed efficiency. During the postweaning period, intake of starter, corn silage, and water were similar among treatments, as well as average daily gain and feed efficiency. Final body weight and growth performance during the postweaning period

  16. Effect of nitrogen flushing and storage temperature on flavor and shelf-life of whole milk powder.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, M A; Hess, S J; Drake, M A

    2009-06-01

    The US industry standard for shelf-life of whole milk powder (WMP) is 6 to 9 mo, although previous research has demonstrated flavor changes by 3 mo at ambient storage. This study evaluated the influence of packaging atmosphere, storage temperature, and storage time on WMP shelf-life using sensory and instrumental techniques. Two commercial batches of WMP were repackaged in plastic laminate pouches with air or nitrogen and stored at 2 degrees C or 23 degrees C for 1 yr. Descriptive analysis was conducted using a 10-member trained panel; volatile analysis was performed using solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Consumer acceptance (n = 75) was conducted every 3 mo with reconstituted WMP and white and milk chocolate made from each treatment. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with Fisher's LSD, Pearson correlation analysis, and principal component analysis. Air-stored WMP had higher peroxide values, lipid oxidation volatiles, and grassy and painty flavors than nitrogen-flushed WMP. Storage temperature did not affect levels of straight chain lipid oxidation volatiles; 23 degrees C storage resulted in higher cooked and milkfat flavors and lower levels of grassy flavor compared with 2 degrees C storage. Consumer acceptance was negatively correlated with lipid oxidation volatiles and painty flavor. Nitrogen flushing prevented the development of painty flavor in WMP stored up to 1 yr at either temperature, resulting in chocolate with high consumer acceptance. Nitrogen flushing can be applied to extend the shelf life of WMP for use in chocolate; storage temperature also plays a role, but to a lesser extent.

  17. Plant proteins in milk replacers for rearing buffalo calves. I. Effect of replacing half of the milk proteins by plant proteins on the preweaning performance of buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    el-Ashry, M A; el-Serafy, A M; Zaki, A A; Soliman, H

    1988-01-01

    In an experiment, 12 female and 8 male buffalo calves aged 3 to 4 weeks with an average of 65.2 kg live body weight were divided into 4 equal groups. Group 1 received dried skim milk plus non-milk fat. In groups 2, 3, and 4, 50% of the milk protein were replaced by American soybean flour, Egyptian soya meal, or corn glutine. Scouring occurred in all groups during the first three weeks. Death losses occurred in group 2 (2 calves) and 4 (1 calf). During the first three experimental weeks the calves consumed on average 828, 868, 847, 696 g dry matter (DM) as liquids. The average daily gain (ADG) was 229, 215, 252, 48 g/d, respectively. The energy consumption reached 4.1, 4.6, 3.8, 16.6 TDN/kg ADG. During the second period, the calves consumed 1.57, 1.45, 1.55, 1.65 kg DM as liquid and solid feedstuff. Up to a live body weight of 90 kg they had a daily increase of 695, 611, 593, 600 g. The energy used amounted to 1.98, 2.08, 2.28, 2.40 TDN/kg ADG. The apparent digestibility of the crude protein was 95, 92, 91, 92% during the first period and 81, 77, 76, 73% during the second period. PMID:3395319

  18. Prediction of individual milk proteins including free amino acids in bovine milk using mid-infrared spectroscopy and their correlations with milk processing characteristics.

    PubMed

    McDermott, A; Visentin, G; De Marchi, M; Berry, D P; Fenelon, M A; O'Connor, P M; Kenny, O A; McParland, S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mid-infrared spectroscopy in predicting milk protein and free amino acid (FAA) composition in bovine milk. Milk samples were collected from 7 Irish research herds and represented cows from a range of breeds, parities, and stages of lactation. Mid-infrared spectral data in the range of 900 to 5,000 cm(-1) were available for 730 milk samples; gold standard methods were used to quantify individual protein fractions and FAA of these samples with a view to predicting these gold standard protein fractions and FAA levels with available mid-infrared spectroscopy data. Separate prediction equations were developed for each trait using partial least squares regression; accuracy of prediction was assessed using both cross validation on a calibration data set (n=400 to 591 samples) and external validation on an independent data set (n=143 to 294 samples). The accuracy of prediction in external validation was the same irrespective of whether undertaken on the entire external validation data set or just within the Holstein-Friesian breed. The strongest coefficient of correlation obtained for protein fractions in external validation was 0.74, 0.69, and 0.67 for total casein, total β-lactoglobulin, and β-casein, respectively. Total proteins (i.e., total casein, total whey, and total lactoglobulin) were predicted with greater accuracy then their respective component traits; prediction accuracy using the infrared spectrum was superior to prediction using just milk protein concentration. Weak to moderate prediction accuracies were observed for FAA. The greatest coefficient of correlation in both cross validation and external validation was for Gly (0.75), indicating a moderate accuracy of prediction. Overall, the FAA prediction models overpredicted the gold standard values. Near-unity correlations existed between total casein and β-casein irrespective of whether the traits were based on the gold standard (0.92) or mid

  19. Characterization of near-infrared spectral variance in the authentication of skim and nonfat dry milk powder collection using ANOVA-PCA, pooled-ANOVA, and partial least-squares regression.

    PubMed

    Harnly, James M; Harrington, Peter B; Botros, Lucy L; Jablonski, Joseph; Chang, Claire; Bergana, Marti Mamula; Wehling, Paul; Downey, Gerard; Potts, Alan R; Moore, Jeffrey C

    2014-08-13

    Forty-one samples of skim milk powder (SMP) and nonfat dry milk (NFDM) from 8 suppliers, 13 production sites, and 3 processing temperatures were analyzed by NIR diffuse reflectance spectrometry over a period of 3 days. NIR reflectance spectra (1700-2500 nm) were converted to pseudoabsorbance and examined using (a) analysis of variance-principal component analysis (ANOVA-PCA), (b) pooled-ANOVA based on data submatrices, and (c) partial least-squares regression (PLSR) coupled with pooled-ANOVA. ANOVA-PCA score plots showed clear separation of the samples with respect to milk class (SMP or NFDM), day of analysis, production site, processing temperature, and individual samples. Pooled-ANOVA provided statistical levels of significance for the separation of the averages, some of which were many orders of magnitude below 10⁻³. PLSR showed that the correlation with Certificate of Analysis (COA) concentrations varied from a weak coefficient of determination (R²) of 0.32 for moisture to moderate R² values of 0.61 for fat and 0.78 for protein for this multinational study. In this study, pooled-ANOVA was applied for the first time to PLS modeling and demonstrated that even though the calibration models may not be precise, the contribution of the protein peaks in the NIR spectra accounted for the largest proportion of the variation despite the inherent imprecision of the COA values.

  20. Comparative proteomics of milk fat globule membrane proteins from transgenic cloned cattle.

    PubMed

    Sui, Shunchao; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Jianwu; Zhang, Ran; Guo, Chengdong; Yu, Tian; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    The use of transgenic livestock is providing new methods for obtaining pharmaceutically useful proteins. However, the protein expression profiles of the transgenic animals, including expression of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins, have not been well characterized. In this study, we compared the MFGM protein expression profile of the colostrum and mature milk from three lines of transgenic cloned (TC) cattle, i.e., expressing recombinant human α-lactalbumin (TC-LA), lactoferrin (TC-LF) or lysozyme (TC-LZ) in the mammary gland, with those from cloned non-transgenic (C) and conventionally bred normal animals (N). We identified 1, 225 proteins in milk MFGM, 166 of which were specifically expressed only in the TC-LA group, 265 only in the TC-LF group, and 184 only in the TC-LZ group. There were 43 proteins expressed only in the transgenic cloned animals, but the concentrations of these proteins were below the detection limit of silver staining. Functional analysis also showed that the 43 proteins had no obvious influence on the bovine mammary gland. Quantitative comparison revealed that MFGM proteins were up- or down-regulated more than twofold in the TC and C groups compared to N group: 126 in colostrum and 77 in mature milk of the TC-LA group; 157 in colostrum and 222 in mature milk of the TC-LF group; 49 in colostrum and 98 in mature milk of the TC-LZ group; 98 in colostrum and 132 in mature milk in the C group. These up- and down-regulated proteins in the transgenic animals were not associated with a particular biological function or pathway, which appears that expression of certain exogenous proteins has no general deleterious effects on the cattle mammary gland.

  1. Effects of milk protein genotypes on the variation for milk production traits of Holstein and Jersey cows in California.

    PubMed

    Ojala, M; Famula, T R; Medrano, J F

    1997-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to form appropriate composite kappa-beta-alpha(s1)-CN genotypes in order to assess which genotypes were favorably associated with first lactation milk production, fat and protein percentages, and fat and protein production for data of 916 Holstein and 116 Jersey cows. Multiple-trait animal models were used with assumed fixed effects for herd, year and season of calving, age at calving, days open, composite kappa-beta-alpha(s1)-CN genotypes, and beta-LG genotypes. The differences between the beta-LG genotypes for production traits were not statistically significant for either breed. The proportion of phenotypic variance that was due to the composite kappa-beta-alpha(s1)-Cn genotypes was 5% for milk production, 4% for protein production, and 3% for fat percentage. The kappa-beta-alpha(s1)-CN genotype ABA1A2BB was superior to the comparable AAA1A2BB and ABA1A1BB genotypes by 252 and 338 kg for first lactation milk yield, respectively, and 8.7 and 11.5 kg for protein yield, respectively. Thus, neither the beta-CN A2 allele nor the kappa-CN B allele alone had a positive effect on milk and protein production, but the joint effect was strongly positive. These results may be explained by epistatic effects between the kappa-CN and beta-CN loci and possibly by closely linked quantitative trait loci with favorable alleles on the kappa-beta-alpha(s1)-CN BA2B haplotype.

  2. The immunopathogenesis of cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The most frequent symptoms among the manifestations of cow milk protein allergy (CMPA) are gastrointestinal. CMPA pathogenesis involves immunological mechanisms with participation of immunocompetent cells and production of immunoglobulin E (IgE). Nevertheless, recent studies have been focused on the description of other forms of CMPA, not-mediated by IgE reactions, mostly involving the T lymphocite immune system. Thus, in this field it is important to note how different kind of cells are involved in the immunopathogenesis of CMPA, such as antigen-specific T cells, T regulatory cells, cytokines secreted by the different T lymphocite subsets, B lymphocytes, antingen-presenting cells, mast cells, that together orchestrate the complex mechanism leading to the phenotipic expression of CMPA. The progress in the diagnosis of immunologic disorders allowed the recent literature to develop new models for immuno-mediate disorders, involving new cells (such as Treg cells) and thus allowing the acquisition of a new vision of the pathogenesis of atopic diseases. The aim of this review is to describe the immunopathogenetic aspects of CMPA in view of these new discoveries in the immunologic field, considering the immunologic pathway at the basis of both IgE- and not-IgE mediated CMPA. PMID:22824011

  3. FT-Raman and chemometric tools for rapid determination of quality parameters in milk powder: Classification of samples for the presence of lactose and fraud detection by addition of maltodextrin.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Júnior, Paulo Henrique; de Sá Oliveira, Kamila; de Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Rocha; De Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Cappa; Stephani, Rodrigo; Pinto, Michele da Silva; de Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes; Perrone, Ítalo Tuler

    2016-04-01

    FT-Raman spectroscopy has been explored as a quick screening method to evaluate the presence of lactose and identify milk powder samples adulterated with maltodextrin (2.5-50% w/w). Raman measurements can easily differentiate samples of milk powder, without the need for sample preparation, while traditional quality control methods, including high performance liquid chromatography, are cumbersome and slow. FT-Raman spectra were obtained from samples of whole lactose and low-lactose milk powder, both without and with addition of maltodextrin. Differences were observed between the spectra involved in identifying samples with low lactose content, as well as adulterated samples. Exploratory data analysis using Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis was also developed to classify samples with PCA and PLS-DA. The PLS-DA models obtained allowed to correctly classify all samples. These results demonstrate the utility of FT-Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics to infer about the quality of milk powder.

  4. Minor milk constituents are affected by protein concentration and forage digestibility in the feed ration.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Torben; Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted in order to investigate if selected minor milk components would be indicative for the nutritional situation of the cow. Forty-eight dairy cows were offered a high digestible ration vs. a lower digestible ration combined with 2 protein levels in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAG), uric acid and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured and correlated mutually and towards other milking parameters (yield, h since last milking, days in milk (DIM), urea, etc). The variation range of the suggested variables were broad, a fact that may support their utilisation as predictive parameters. The content of milk metabolites was significantly affected by the change in rations as milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, uric acid, and the ratio cholesterol: triacylglycerides increased with higher energy intake while BHBA and TAG decreased. The content of some of the milk metabolites changed during 24 h day/night periods: BHBA, cholesterol, uric acid and TAG increased whereas free glucose decreased in the night period. Certain associations between milk metabolites and calculated energy parameters like ECM, body condition score (BCS), and body weight gain were found, however, these associations were to some extent explained by an interaction with DIM, just as changes in milk metabolites during a 24 h period seems to interfere. It is concluded that the practical use of the suggested milk variables should be based on more than one metabolite and that stage of lactation and possibly time of the day where the milk is collected should be incorporated in predictive models.

  5. Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of bioactive milk proteins in the intestine of newborns.

    PubMed

    Chatterton, Dereck E W; Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Bering, Stine Brandt; Sangild, Per Torp

    2013-08-01

    The human newborn infant is susceptible to gut inflammatory disorders. In particular, growth-restricted infants or infants born prematurely may develop a severe form of intestinal inflammation known as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), which has a high mortality. Milk provides a multitude of proteins with anti-inflammatory properties and in this review we gather together some recent significant advances regarding the isolation and proteomic identification of these minor constituents of both human and bovine milk. We introduce the process of inflammation, with a focus on the immature gut, and describe how a multitude of milk proteins act against the inflammatory process according to both in vitro and in vivo studies. We highlight the effects of milk proteins such as caseins, and of whey proteins such as alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, lactoferrin, osteopontin, immunoglobulins, trefoil factors, lactoperoxidase, superoxide dismutase, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, alkaline phosphatase, and growth factors (TGF-β, IGF-I and IGF-II, EGF, HB-EGF). The effects of milk fat globule proteins, such as TLR-2, TLR-4, sCD14 and MFG-E8/lactadherin, are also discussed. Finally, we indicate how milk proteins could be useful for the prophylaxis and therapy of intestinal inflammation in infants and children.

  6. Greater Mortality and Morbidity in Extremely Preterm Infants Fed a Diet Containing Cow Milk Protein Products

    PubMed Central

    Schanler, Richard J.; Lee, Martin L.; Rechtman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Provision of human milk has important implications for the health and outcomes of extremely preterm (EP) infants. This study evaluated the effects of an exclusive human milk diet on the health of EP infants during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. Subjects and Methods: EP infants <1,250 g birth weight received a diet consisting of either human milk fortified with a human milk protein-based fortifier (HM) (n=167) or a diet containing variable amounts of milk containing cow milk-based protein (CM) (n=93). Principal outcomes were mortality, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), growth, and duration of parenteral nutrition (PN). Results: Mortality (2% versus 8%, p=0.004) and NEC (5% versus 17%, p=0.002) differed significantly between the HM and CM groups, respectively. For every 10% increase in the volume of milk containing CM, the risk of sepsis increased by 17.9% (p<0.001). Growth rates were similar between groups. The duration of PN was 8 days less in the subgroup of infants receiving a diet containing <10% CM versus ≥10% CM (p<0.02). Conclusions: An exclusive human milk diet, devoid of CM-containing products, was associated with lower mortality and morbidity in EP infants without compromising growth and should be considered as an approach to nutritional care of these infants. PMID:24867268

  7. Bioactive Functions of Milk Proteins: a Comparative Genomics Approach.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Julie A; Modepalli, Vengama; Enjapoori, Ashwanth Kumar; Bisana, Swathi; Abud, Helen E; Lefevre, Christophe; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2014-12-01

    The composition of milk includes factors required to provide appropriate nutrition for the growth of the neonate. However, it is now clear that milk has many functions and comprises bioactive molecules that play a central role in regulating developmental processes in the young while providing a protective function for both the suckled young and the mammary gland during the lactation cycle. Identifying these bioactives and their physiological function in eutherians can be difficult and requires extensive screening of milk components that may function to improve well-being and options for prevention and treatment of disease. New animal models with unique reproductive strategies are now becoming increasingly relevant to search for these factors.

  8. The Reasearch on the Anti-Fatigue Effect of Whey Protein Powder in Basketball Training

    PubMed Central

    Ronghui, Sun

    2015-01-01

    In order to observe the effects of whey protein powder on hematological indexes of players majoring in physical education in the basketball training, the authors divided the players randomly into a control group and a nutrition group. Athletes complete the 30 minutes quantitative exercise using cycle ergometer respectively before the trial and after one month trial. Then we exsanguinated immediately after exercise, extracted heparin and measured hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume and other hematological indices. The results showed that after taking whey protein powder, the HB, RBC, HCT of nutrition group was significantly higher that the control group. This suggests that in high-intensity training, taking whey protein powder can cause changes of HB, RBC and HCT in human body, meanwhile MCV essentially the same. So whey protein powder can improve exercise capacity, and has anti-fatigue effect. PMID:26998184

  9. The Reasearch on the Anti-Fatigue Effect of Whey Protein Powder in Basketball Training.

    PubMed

    Ronghui, Sun

    2015-01-01

    In order to observe the effects of whey protein powder on hematological indexes of players majoring in physical education in the basketball training, the authors divided the players randomly into a control group and a nutrition group. Athletes complete the 30 minutes quantitative exercise using cycle ergometer respectively before the trial and after one month trial. Then we exsanguinated immediately after exercise, extracted heparin and measured hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume and other hematological indices. The results showed that after taking whey protein powder, the HB, RBC, HCT of nutrition group was significantly higher that the control group. This suggests that in high-intensity training, taking whey protein powder can cause changes of HB, RBC and HCT in human body, meanwhile MCV essentially the same. So whey protein powder can improve exercise capacity, and has anti-fatigue effect.

  10. Characterization of milk proteins-lutein complexes and the impact on lutein chemical stability.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jiang; Fan, Yuting; Yokoyama, Wallace; Zhang, Yuzhu; Zhao, Liqing

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the interaction of WPI (whey protein isolate) and SC (sodium caseinate) with hydrophobic lutein was investigated through UV-vis spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) as well as fluorescence. The effects on lutein's chemical stability were also examined. The decrease of turbidity of lutein suggested that lutein's aqueous solubility was improved after binding with milk proteins. CD analysis indicated lutein had little impact on the secondary structures of both proteins. Different preparation methods have significant impacts on the binding constant. Fluorescence results indicated that WPI and SC interact with lutein by hydrophobic contacts. Milk proteins have protective effects on lutein against oxidation and decomposition, and SC showed better capability in protecting lutein from oxidation than WPI during 16 days storage. The lutein's chemical stability was increased with increasing of proteins concentration. The results indicated that milk proteins may act as effective carriers for lipophilic nutraceuticals.

  11. Rapid Quantification of Melamine in Different Brands/Types of Milk Powders Using Standard Addition Net Analyte Signal and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Multivariate calibration (MVC) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have demonstrated potential for rapid analysis of melamine in various dairy products. However, the practical application of ordinary MVC can be largely restricted because the prediction of a new sample from an uncalibrated batch would be subject to a significant bias due to matrix effect. In this study, the feasibility of using NIR spectroscopy and the standard addition (SA) net analyte signal (NAS) method (SANAS) for rapid quantification of melamine in different brands/types of milk powders was investigated. In SANAS, the NAS vector of melamine in an unknown sample as well as in a series of samples added with melamine standards was calculated and then the Euclidean norms of series standards were used to build a straightforward univariate regression model. The analysis results of 10 different brands/types of milk powders with melamine levels 0~0.12% (w/w) indicate that SANAS obtained accurate results with the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) values ranging from 0.0012 to 0.0029. An additional advantage of NAS is to visualize and control the possible unwanted variations during standard addition. The proposed method will provide a practically useful tool for rapid and nondestructive quantification of melamine in different brands/types of milk powders. PMID:27525154

  12. Fast screening and secure confirmation of milk powder adulteration with maltodextrin via electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry [ESI(+)-MS] and selective enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Sanvido, Gustavo B; Garcia, Jerusa S; Corilo, Yuri E; Vaz, Boniek G; Zacca, Jorge J; Cosso, Ricardo G; Eberlin, Marcos N; Peter, Martin G

    2010-09-01

    Direct-infusion electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry [ESI(+)-MS] of several milk powder samples, confiscated by the Brazilian Federal Police, showed ions accounting for sodiated and potassiated molecules of disaccharides (m/z 365 and 381) as well as trisaccharides (m/z 527 and 543), whereas monosaccharide ions were not detected. The trisaccharide ions were not detected in samples of genuine milk powder, raising the suspicion that their presence indicates adulteration by the addition of maltodextrin. In control samples, maltose and maltotriose were hydrolyzed by alpha-glucosidase and not beta-galactosidase, whereas lactose was resistant to alpha-glucosidase but was hydrolyzed with beta-galactosidase. Samples suspected of being adulterated behaved in the same fashion, confirming the presence of maltose and maltotriose or maltodextrin. Direct-infusion ESI-MS is shown therefore to provide rapid screening of milk powder for adulteration with maltodextrin, whereas its combination with selective enzymatic hydrolysis provides highly reliable confirmation for unambiguous results.

  13. [Determination of five triazine herbicides in infant milk powder by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ionic liquid-based homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyuan; Yao, Di; Li, Na; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2015-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the determination of five triazine herbicides in infant milk powders. The ionic liquid was used as microextraction solvent. The separation of the herbicides was performed on an Eclipse XDB-C18 column using acetonitrile and water as mobile phases in gradient mode. The effects of homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction conditions on the experimental results were investigated in detail. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the calibration curves for determining the analytes were linear and the correlation coefficients were ≥ 0.9992. The limits of detection for cyanazine, desmetryn, terbumeton, terbuthylazine and dimethametryn were 12.1, 13.8, 11.8, 14.6 and 13.7 μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of the analytes spiked in four infant milk powders ranged from 92.2% to 103.2% and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6%. This method is sensitive, simple, and suitable for the determination of triazine herbicides in milk powder samples. PMID:26672205

  14. Rapid Quantification of Melamine in Different Brands/Types of Milk Powders Using Standard Addition Net Analyte Signal and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bang-Cheng; Cai, Chen-Bo; Shi, Wei; Xu, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Multivariate calibration (MVC) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have demonstrated potential for rapid analysis of melamine in various dairy products. However, the practical application of ordinary MVC can be largely restricted because the prediction of a new sample from an uncalibrated batch would be subject to a significant bias due to matrix effect. In this study, the feasibility of using NIR spectroscopy and the standard addition (SA) net analyte signal (NAS) method (SANAS) for rapid quantification of melamine in different brands/types of milk powders was investigated. In SANAS, the NAS vector of melamine in an unknown sample as well as in a series of samples added with melamine standards was calculated and then the Euclidean norms of series standards were used to build a straightforward univariate regression model. The analysis results of 10 different brands/types of milk powders with melamine levels 0~0.12% (w/w) indicate that SANAS obtained accurate results with the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) values ranging from 0.0012 to 0.0029. An additional advantage of NAS is to visualize and control the possible unwanted variations during standard addition. The proposed method will provide a practically useful tool for rapid and nondestructive quantification of melamine in different brands/types of milk powders. PMID:27525154

  15. [Determination of five triazine herbicides in infant milk powder by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ionic liquid-based homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyuan; Yao, Di; Li, Na; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2015-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the determination of five triazine herbicides in infant milk powders. The ionic liquid was used as microextraction solvent. The separation of the herbicides was performed on an Eclipse XDB-C18 column using acetonitrile and water as mobile phases in gradient mode. The effects of homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction conditions on the experimental results were investigated in detail. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the calibration curves for determining the analytes were linear and the correlation coefficients were ≥ 0.9992. The limits of detection for cyanazine, desmetryn, terbumeton, terbuthylazine and dimethametryn were 12.1, 13.8, 11.8, 14.6 and 13.7 μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of the analytes spiked in four infant milk powders ranged from 92.2% to 103.2% and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6%. This method is sensitive, simple, and suitable for the determination of triazine herbicides in milk powder samples.

  16. Application of effective wavelengths and BP neural network for the discrimination of varieties of instant milk tea powders using visible and near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fei; He, Yong; Wang, Li

    2007-11-01

    In order to implement the fast discrimination of different milk tea powders with different internal qualities, visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy combined with effective wavelengths (EWs) and BP neural network (BPNN) was investigated as a new approach. Five brands of milk teas were obtained and 225 samples were selected randomly for the calibration set, while 75 samples for the validation set. The EWs were selected according to x-loading weights and regression coefficients by PLS analysis after some preprocessing. A total of 18 EWs (400, 401, 452, 453, 502, 503, 534, 535, 594, 595, 635, 636, 688, 689, 987, 988, 995 and 996 nm) were selected as the inputs of BPNN model. The performance was validated by the calibration and validation sets. The threshold error of prediction was set as +/-0.1 and an excellent precision and recognition ratio of 100% for calibration set and 98.7% for validation set were achieved. The prediction results indicated that the EWs reflected the main characteristics of milk tea of different brands based on Vis/NIR spectroscopy and BPNN model, and the EWs would be useful for the development of portable instrument to discriminate the variety and detect the adulteration of instant milk tea powders.

  17. Comparison of heat and pressure treatments of skim milk, fortified with whey protein concentrate, for set yogurt preparation: effects on milk proteins and gel structure.

    PubMed

    Needs, E C; Capellas, M; Bland, A P; Manoj, P; MacDougal, D; Paul, G

    2000-08-01

    Heat (85 degrees C for 20 min) and pressure (600 MPa for 15 min) treatments were applied to skim milk fortified by addition of whey protein concentrate. Both treatments caused > 90 % denaturation of beta-lactoglobulin. During heat treatment this denaturation took place in the presence of intact casein micelles; during pressure treatment it occurred while the micelles were in a highly dissociated state. As a result micelle structure and the distribution of beta-lactoglobulin were different in the two milks. Electron microscopy and immunolabelling techniques were used to examine the milks after processing and during their transition to yogurt gels. The disruption of micelles by high pressure caused a significant change in the appearance of the milk which was quantified by measurement of the colour values L*, a* and b*. Heat treatment also affected these characteristics. Casein micelles are dynamic structures, influenced by changes to their environment. This was clearly demonstrated by the transition from the clusters of small irregularly shaped micelle fragments present in cold pressure-treated milk to round, separate and compact micelles formed on warming the milk to 43 degrees C. The effect of this transition was observed as significant changes in the colour indicators. During yogurt gel formation, further changes in micelle structure, occurring in both pressure and heat-treated samples, resulted in a convergence of colour values. However, the microstructure of the gels and their rheological properties were very different. Pressure-treated milk yogurt had a much higher storage modulus but yielded more readily to large deformation than the heated milk yogurt. These changes in micelle structure during processing and yogurt preparation are discussed in terms of a recently published micelle model.

  18. Content and evolution of potential furfural compounds in commercial milk-based infant formula powder after opening the packet.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Servín, Jorge L; de la Torre Carbot, Karina; García-Gasca, Teresa; Castellote, Ana I; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Potential furfural compounds were examined by RP-HPLC-DAD in 20 commercial milk-based powdered infant formula (IF) brands from local markets from Paris, France; DF, Mexico; Copenhagen, Denmark; England, UK; and Barcelona, Spain. We traced the evolution of these compounds after the packets had been opened at 0, 30 and 70 days of storage at room temperature (≈25 °C; minimum 23 °C and maximum 25.5 °C). All formula brands were analysed during the first 3-5 months of their shelf life. The mean values of all IFs for potential 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF)+2-furaldehyde (F) were 1115.2 μg/100 g (just opened), 1157.6 μg/100 g (30 days) and 1344.5 μg/100 g of product (70 days). In general, slight increases of potential furfural contents were observed in most of the studied IFs, which suggests that the Maillard reaction increases after opening the packets. The main furfural compound found was HMF, as expected. The range of potential HMF consumed for an infant about 6 months old feeding only on formula was estimated between 0.63 mg and 3.25 mg per day.

  19. A sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for the quantification of melamine residue in milk powder using the Mannich reaction in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Rima, Jamil; Assaker, Karine; El Omar, Fawaz; karim, Chawki bou

    2013-11-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a spectrofluorimetric method for the quantitative determination of melamine. The method was based on the complexation of melamine with a mixture of formaldehyde and chemicals including a ketone group, as described by the Mannich reaction. The complex was determined by spectrofluorimetric measurement as it is characterized by specific spectroscopic properties that are related to the chromophore of the ketone compounds. 1,3-Diphenylpropane-1,3-dione (DPPD) was tested as a ketone compound. The fluorescence spectrum of the complex presented a maximum of absorption at 325 nm.A quenching of the fluorescence occurred when melamine was added into the solution. The kinetic of fluorescence quenching was followed to determine quantitatively the melamine concentration. An internal standard was added to quantify melamine. The method was tested to determine the level of melamine in contaminated milk powder. The recovery value was 97% and the limit of detection was 0.007 μg mL(-1.)

  20. Soft computing modelling of moisture sorption isotherms of milk-foxtail millet powder and determination of thermodynamic properties.

    PubMed

    Simha, H V Vikram; Pushpadass, Heartwin A; Franklin, Magdaline Eljeeva Emerald; Kumar, P Arun; Manimala, K

    2016-06-01

    Moisture sorption isotherms of spray-dried milk-foxtail millet powder were determined at 10, 25 and 40 °C. Sorption data was fitted using classical and soft-computing approaches. The isotherms were of type II, and equilibrium moisture content (EMC) was temperature dependent. The BET monolayer moisture content decreased from 3.30 to 2.67 % as temperature increased from 10 to 40 °C. Amongst the classical models, Ferro-Fontan gave the best fit of EMC-aw data. However, the Sugeno-type adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with generalized bell-shaped membership function performed better than artificial neural network and classical models with RMSE as low as 0.0099. The isosteric heat of sorption decreased from 150.32 kJ mol(-1) at 1 % moisture content to 44.11 kJ mol(-1) at 15 % moisture. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory was validated, and the isokinetic and harmonic mean temperatures were determined as 333.1 and 297.5 K, respectively. PMID:27478226

  1. Isolation and Identification Enterobacter asburiae from Consumed Powdered Infant Formula Milk (PIF) in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).

    PubMed

    Mardaneh, Jalal; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. It is an opportunistic pathogen that its strains are isolated from a variety of clinical and environmental specimens. Since powdered infant formula milk (PIF) is not a sterile product, it is an excellent medium for bacterial growth. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify E. asburiae from PIF in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and determine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of this bacterium. A total 125 PIF samples were purchased from drug stores between June 2011 to March 2012. E. asburiae was isolated according to FDA method. For final confirmation, biochemical tests embedded in the API-20E system were used. The drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. Out of the 125 PIF samples investigated, 2 (1.6%) samples were positive for E. asburiae. All isolated strains were uniformly susceptible to aztreonam, cefotaxim, amikacin, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, meropenem, tetracycline, ceftazidime, and colistin. Variable susceptibility was seen to the some antimicrobial agents tested. Each country should categorize its own designed guidelines for the preparation and handling of PIF adapted to the local environment. Moreover, the pathogenesis of the E. asburiae in infants hospitalized in NICU and other groups such as immunosuppressed patients and HIV infected individuals is uncertain and requires further study. PMID:26853289

  2. Isolation and Identification Enterobacter asburiae from Consumed Powdered Infant Formula Milk (PIF) in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).

    PubMed

    Mardaneh, Jalal; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. It is an opportunistic pathogen that its strains are isolated from a variety of clinical and environmental specimens. Since powdered infant formula milk (PIF) is not a sterile product, it is an excellent medium for bacterial growth. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify E. asburiae from PIF in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and determine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of this bacterium. A total 125 PIF samples were purchased from drug stores between June 2011 to March 2012. E. asburiae was isolated according to FDA method. For final confirmation, biochemical tests embedded in the API-20E system were used. The drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. Out of the 125 PIF samples investigated, 2 (1.6%) samples were positive for E. asburiae. All isolated strains were uniformly susceptible to aztreonam, cefotaxim, amikacin, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, meropenem, tetracycline, ceftazidime, and colistin. Variable susceptibility was seen to the some antimicrobial agents tested. Each country should categorize its own designed guidelines for the preparation and handling of PIF adapted to the local environment. Moreover, the pathogenesis of the E. asburiae in infants hospitalized in NICU and other groups such as immunosuppressed patients and HIV infected individuals is uncertain and requires further study.

  3. Production and properties of health-promoting proteins and peptides from bovine colostrum and milk.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, H J

    2013-01-01

    The high nutritive value and diverse functional properties of milk proteins are well known. Beyond these qualities, milk proteins have attracted growing scientific and commercial interest as a source of biologically active molecules. Such proteins are found in abundance in colostrum which is the initial milk secreted by mammalian species during late pregnancy and the first few days after birth of the offspring. The best characterized colostrum-based bioactive proteins include alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and growth factors. All of them can nowadays be enriched and purified on an industrial scale from bovine colostral whey or cheese whey. These native proteins exhibit a wide range of biological activities that are known to affect the digestive function, metabolic responses to absorbed nutrients, growth and development of organs and disease resistance. Also, some of these proteins may prove beneficial in reduction of the risks of chronic human diseases reflected by the metabolic syndrome. It is speculated that such potentially beneficial effects are partially attributed to bioactive peptides derived from intact proteins. These peptides can be liberated during gastrointestinal digestion or fermentation of milk by starter cultures. The efficacy of a few peptides has been established in animal and human studies and the number of commercial products supplemented with specific milk peptides is envisaged to increase on global markets. Bovine colostrum appears as a highly potential source of biologically active native proteins and peptide fractions for inclusion as health-promoting ingredients in various food applications. PMID:24200017

  4. Short communication: radio frequency dielectric heating of nonfat dry milk affects solubility and whey protein nitrogen index.

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Michael, M; Phebus, R K; Thippareddi, H; Subbiah, J; Birla, S L; Schmidt, K A

    2013-03-01

    The US infant formula market is estimated at over $3.5 billion, of which 75% are dairy-based formulas. Dried dairy powders pose a significant food safety risk, with Cronobacter sakazakii and Salmonella spp. being pathogens of particular concern. Radio frequency dielectric heating (RFDH) can provide rapid, uniform heat treatment of dry powders; thus, it potentially may be used as a postprocess lethality treatment for nonfat dry milk (NDM) or powdered infant formula. Because RFDH is a heat treatment, the functionality of the NDM may be altered and should be evaluated. High heat- and low heat-NDM were RFDH processed at temperatures ranging from 75 to 90°C for 5 to 125 min. Products were then assessed for whey protein nitrogen index (WPNI), solubility, and color. In low heat-NDM, RFDH decreased WPNI and solubility if the process was done at ≥ 80°C; however, in high heat-NDM, RFDH had a greater effect on solubility than WPNI and some color properties were altered. Further investigation of RFDH is merited to validate its application as a pathogen control process for NDM across processing parameters that result in acceptable functional properties for infant formula and other food products containing NDM.

  5. Characterization of near infrared spectral variance in the authentication of skim and nonfat dry milk powder collection using ANOVA-PCA, Pooled-ANOVA, and partial least squares regression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-one samples of skim milk powder (SMP) and non-fat dry milk (NFDM) from 8 suppliers, 13 production sites, and 3 processing temperatures were analyzed by NIR diffuse reflectance spectrometry over a period of three days. NIR reflectance spectra (1700-2500 nm) were converted to pseudo-absorbance ...

  6. Dataset of milk whey proteins of three indigenous Greek sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-01

    The importance and unique biological traits, as well as the growing financial value, of milk from small Greek ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. In this regard the construction of a reference dataset of the milk of the Greek sheep breeds is of great interest. In order to obtain such a dataset we employed cutting-edge proteomics methodologies to investigate and characterize, the proteome of milk from the three indigenous Greek sheep breeds Mpoutsko, Karagouniko and Chios. In total, more than 1300 protein groups were identified in milk whey from these breeds, reporting for the first time the most detailed proteome dataset of this precious biological material. The present results are further discussed in the research paper "Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics" (Anagnostopoulos et al. 2016) [1]. PMID:27508236

  7. Dataset of milk whey proteins of three indigenous Greek sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-01

    The importance and unique biological traits, as well as the growing financial value, of milk from small Greek ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. In this regard the construction of a reference dataset of the milk of the Greek sheep breeds is of great interest. In order to obtain such a dataset we employed cutting-edge proteomics methodologies to investigate and characterize, the proteome of milk from the three indigenous Greek sheep breeds Mpoutsko, Karagouniko and Chios. In total, more than 1300 protein groups were identified in milk whey from these breeds, reporting for the first time the most detailed proteome dataset of this precious biological material. The present results are further discussed in the research paper "Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics" (Anagnostopoulos et al. 2016) [1].

  8. Development and validation of a method for the quantification of milk proteins in food products based on liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Lutter, Petra; Parisod, Véronique; Weymuth, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The protection of allergic consumers is crucial to the food industry. Therefore, accurate methods for the detection of food allergens are required. Targeted detection of selected molecules by MS combines high selectivity with accurate quantification. A confirmatory method based on LC/selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-MS/MS was established and validated for the quantification of milk traces in food. Tryptic peptides of the major milk proteins beta-lactoglobulin, beta-casein, alphaS2-casein, and K-casein were selected as quantitative markers. Precise quantification was achieved using internal standard peptides containing isotopically labeled amino acids. For each peptide, qualifier and quantifier fragments were selected according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. A simple sample preparation method was established without immunoaffinity or SPE enrichment steps for food matrixes containing different amounts of protein, such as baby food, breakfast cereals, infant formula, and cereals. Intermediate reproducibility, repeatability, accuracy, and measurement uncertainty were determined for each matrix. LOD values of 0.2-0.5 mg/kg, e.g., for beta-lactoglobulin, were comparable to those obtained with ELISA kits. An LOQ of approximately 5 mg/kg, expressed as mass fraction skim milk powder, was validated in protein-rich infant cereals. The obtained validation data show that the described LC/SRM-MS/MS approach can serve as a confirmatory method for the determination of milk traces in selected food matrixes. PMID:21919337

  9. Whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci for bovine milk protein composition.

    PubMed

    Schopen, G C B; Koks, P D; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H; Visker, M H P W

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for milk protein composition in 849 Holstein-Friesian cows originating from seven sires. One morning milk sample was analysed for the major milk proteins using capillary zone electrophoresis. A genetic map was constructed with 1341 single nucleotide polymorphisms, covering 2829 centimorgans (cM) and 95% of the cattle genome. The chromosomal regions most significantly related to milk protein composition (P(genome) < 0.05) were found on Bos taurus autosomes (BTA) 6, 11 and 14. The QTL on BTA6 was found at about 80 cM, and affected alpha(S1)-casein, alpha(S2)-casein, beta-casein and kappa-casein. The QTL on BTA11 was found at 124 cM, and affected beta-lactoglobulin, and the QTL on BTA14 was found at 0 cM, and affected protein percentage. The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the QTL was 3.6% for beta-casein and 7.9% for kappa-casein on BTA6, 28.3% for beta-lactoglobulin on BTA11, and 8.6% for protein percentage on BTA14. The QTL affecting alpha(S2)-casein on BTA6 and 17 showed a significant interaction. We investigated the extent to which the detected QTL affecting milk protein composition could be explained by known polymorphisms in beta-casein, kappa-casein, beta-lactoglobulin and DGAT1 genes. Correction for these polymorphisms decreased the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the QTL previously found on BTA6, 11 and 14. Thus, several significant QTL affecting milk protein composition were found, of which some QTL could partially be explained by polymorphisms in milk protein genes.

  10. The Homeodomain Protein Ladybird Late Regulates Synthesis of Milk Proteins during Pregnancy in the Tsetse Fly (Glossina morsitans)

    PubMed Central

    Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Benoit, Joshua B.; Michalkova, Veronika; Patrick, Kevin R.; Krause, Tyler B.; Aksoy, Serap

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of tissue and development specific gene expression patterns underlies the functional specialization of organs in multi-cellular organisms. In the viviparous tsetse fly (Glossina), the female accessory gland is specialized to generate nutrients in the form of a milk-like secretion to support growth of intrauterine larva. Multiple milk protein genes are expressed specifically in the female accessory gland and are tightly linked with larval development. Disruption of milk protein synthesis deprives developing larvae of nutrients and results in extended larval development and/or in abortion. The ability to cause such a disruption could be utilized as a tsetse control strategy. Here we identify and delineate the regulatory sequence of a major milk protein gene (milk gland protein 1:mgp1) by utilizing a combination of molecular techniques in tsetse, Drosophila transgenics, transcriptomics and in silico sequence analyses. The function of this promoter is conserved between tsetse and Drosophila. In transgenic Drosophila the mgp1 promoter directs reporter gene expression in a tissue and stage specific manner orthologous to that of Glossina. Analysis of the minimal required regulatory region of mgp1, and the regulatory regions of other Glossina milk proteins identified putative homeodomain protein binding sites as the sole common feature. Annotation and expression analysis of Glossina homeodomain proteins identified ladybird late (lbl) as being accessory gland/fat body specific and differentially expressed between lactating/non-lactating flies. Knockdown of lbl in tsetse resulted in a significant reduction in transcript abundance of multiple milk protein genes and in a significant loss of fecundity. The role of Lbl in adult reproductive physiology is previously unknown. These results suggest that Lbl is part of a conserved reproductive regulatory system that could have implications beyond tsetse to other vector insects such as mosquitoes. This system is critical

  11. Selenoprotein P Is the Major Selenium Transport Protein in Mouse Milk

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kristina E.; Motley, Amy K.; Winfrey, Virginia P.; Burk, Raymond F.

    2014-01-01

    Selenium is transferred from the mouse dam to its neonate via milk. Milk contains selenium in selenoprotein form as selenoprotein P (Sepp1) and glutathione peroxidase-3 (Gpx3) as well as in non-specific protein form as selenomethionine. Selenium is also present in milk in uncharacterized small-molecule form. We eliminated selenomethionine from the mice in these experiments by feeding a diet that contained sodium selenite as the source of selenium. Selenium-replete dams with deletion of Sepp1 or Gpx3 were studied to assess the effects of these genes on selenium transfer to the neonate. Sepp1 knockout caused a drop in milk selenium to 27% of the value in wild-type milk and a drop in selenium acquisition by the neonates to 35%. In addition to decreasing milk selenium by eliminating Sepp1, deletion of Sepp1 causes a decline in whole-body selenium, which likely also contributes to the decreased transfer of selenium to the neonate. Deletion of Gpx3 did not decrease milk selenium content or neonate selenium acquisition by measurable amounts. Thus, when the dam is fed selenium-adequate diet (0.25 mg selenium/kg diet), milk Sepp1 transfers a large amount of selenium to neonates but the transfer of selenium by Gpx3 is below detection by our methods. PMID:25068390

  12. Effect of different levels of mangosteen peel powder supplement on the performance of dairy cows fed concentrate containing yeast fermented cassava chip protein.

    PubMed

    Polyorach, Sineenart; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) peel powder (MSP) supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed a concentrate containing yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP). Four crossbred dairy cows (50 % Holstein-Friesian and 50 % Thai native breed) in mid-lactation, 404 ± 50.0 kg of body weight and 90 ± 5 day in milk with daily milk production of 9 ± 2.0 kg/day, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to receive 4 dietary treatments. The treatments were different levels of MSP supplementation at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/head/day. Rice straw was used as a roughage source and fed ad libitum to all cows, and concentrate containing YEFECAP at 200 g/kg concentrate was offered corresponding to concentrate to milk yield ratio at 1:2. Results revealed that feed intake, apparent nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and temperature, and total volatile fatty acid were not significantly affected by MSP supplementation (P > 0.05). However, increasing levels of MSP supplementation increased molar proportion of propionate while ammonia-nitrogen, acetate, and acetate to propionate ratio were decreased (P < 0.01). Moreover, milk production and economic return were increased linearly (P < 0.01) with the increasing level of MSP supplementation. The present findings suggested that supplementation of MSP especially at 300 g/head/day with concentrate containing YEFECAP at 200 g/kg could improve rumen fermentation efficiency, milk production and protein content, and economical return of lactating dairy cows fed on rice straw. PMID:26205904

  13. Plant protein in milk replacers for rearing buffalo calves. II. Effect of replacing 75% of the milk proteins by plant proteins on the preweaning performance of buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    el-Ashry, M A; el-Serafy, A M; Zaki, A A

    1988-01-01

    In an experiment, 9 female and 6 male buffalo calves at the age of 3 to 4 weeks were divided into 3 groups. The animals were given milk replacers in which 75% of the dried skim milk protein had been replaced by American soybean flour (ASP), Egyptian soya meal (ESP), or corn glutine (GP). Scouring occurred in all groups during the first 3 weeks of the experiment, continuing up to the fourth week in groups ESP and GP. In groups ESP and GP one calf each died. During the first 3 weeks of the experiment, the calves consumed on average 747, 631, 787 g dry matter (DM) as liquids. They achieved live weight gains of 314, 83, -286 g/d, with significant differences between the groups. The digestibility of the crude protein was 73, 74, 70%. During the second period--up to 70 or 62.5 kg live body weight--only groups ASP and ESP were investigated. The calves consumed 1.64 or 1.66 kg DM/d as liquid and dry feedstuff. The average daily weight gain was 3.87 or 3.50 TDN/kg ADG. During this period, the crude protein was digested by 76 or 73%. PMID:3202820

  14. Investigating the genetic polymorphism of sheep milk proteins: a useful tool for dairy production.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Maria; Laudadio, Vito; Dario, Cataldo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2014-12-01

    Sheep is the second most important dairy species after cow worldwide, and especially in the Mediterranean and Middle East regions. In some countries, the difficult environmental conditions require a peculiar adaptation and, in these contexts, sheep are able to provide higher quality protein than cattle. In the least-developed countries, the amount of dairy sheep and ovine milk production is progressively increasing. In order to improve dairy productions, in particular those with local connotations, it is necessary to obtain in-depth information regarding milk quality and rheological properties. The genetic polymorphisms of milk proteins are often associated with quantitative and qualitative parameters in milk and are potential candidate markers that should be included in breeding strategies similar to those already available for cattle. Due to the current and growing interest in this topic and considering the large amount of new information, the aim of this study was to review the literature on sheep milk protein polymorphisms with a particular emphasis on recent findings in order to give scientists useful support. Moreover, the effects of different protein variants on milk yield and composition are discussed.

  15. Effects of wheat protein in milk replacers on abomasal emptying rate in calves.

    PubMed

    Wittek, T; Ernstberger, M; Muckenhuber, M; Flöck, M

    2016-04-01

    Diarrhoea is a condition with tremendous impact on calf health. Infectious agents play a dominant role; however, non-infective factors may also contribute to pathogenesis of diarrhoea. One factor, the abomasal emptying rate, is mainly influenced by the composition of feed. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of different protein sources in milk replacers on abomasal emptying rate and clinical parameters. The effect of increasing age of the calves on abomasal emptying was also evaluated. The study compared abomasal emptying rates and clinical parameters in calves, which were fed either milk replacer containing only whey protein or one which partially contained wheat protein. Abomasal emptying rate was estimated by ultrasonography. Ten calves were used in the study over 18 days, and each calf was fed 3 periods of 3 days length using different milk replacers in an alternating crossover design. The abomasum was emptied significantly faster when the wheat protein containing milk replacer was fed (half-emptying time wheat protein 49.1 ± 4.1 min, half-emptying time milk protein 59.1 ± 7.4 min); however, clinical parameters and weight gain did not differ between the feeding regimes. Age did not significantly influence abomasal emptying rate. As milk replacers containing wheat proteins increased abomasal emptying rate, they may have a higher potential to initiate diarrhoea, especially if high volumes are fed. Thus, the feeding regimes are likely to be even more important when such milk replacers are used.

  16. Milk protein responses in dairy cows to changes in postruminal supplies of arginine, isoleucine, and valine.

    PubMed

    Haque, M N; Rulquin, H; Lemosquet, S

    2013-01-01

    An ideal profile of essential AA (EAA) can improve the efficiency of metabolizable protein (or PDIE, the equivalent in the INRA feeding system) utilization in dairy cows. Compared with other EAA, existing recommendations for the requirements of Arg, Ile, and Val are few and inconsistent. Four multiparous Holstein dairy cows at 22±6 wk of lactation received 4 treatments (duodenal infusions of 445±22.4 g/d of an EAA mixture complementing a low-protein diet in a 4×4 Latin square design with a period length of 1 wk). The control treatment provided a balanced supply (in % of PDIE) of 5.1% Arg, 5.2% Ile, and 5.9% Val, whereas in the 3 subsequent treatments of -Arg, -Ile, and -Val, the concentrations of these 3 EAA were reduced to 3.5, 4.1, and 4.5%, respectively. All treatments were made isonitrogenous and were balanced to provide 7 other EAA (Lys, Met, His, Leu, Phe, Thr, and Trp), according to the recommendations described in the literature. Combined, the diet and the infusions provided 14.3±0.1% crude protein on a dry matter basis, and 66.0±1.2 g of PDIE/Mcal of net energy for lactation. Neither dry matter intake (19.2 kg/d) nor milk yield (30.4±0.4 kg/d) was affected by treatments. The -Arg and -Ile treatments did not modify milk protein synthesis or the efficiency of N utilization. However, the -Val treatment decreased milk protein content by 4.9% and milk crude protein content by 4.3%, and tended to decrease the efficiency of N use for milk protein yield by 3.7% (compared with the control). These effects of Val were related to a decrease in the plasma concentration of Val as well as a trend toward decreasing plasma concentrations of Met, His, and the sum of all EAA and nonessential AA in the -Val treatment, which indicates a different utilization of all AA in response to the Val deficit. The deletion of Ile, compared with the deletion of Val, tended to decrease the milk protein-to-fat ratio by 3.8%. In conclusion, the supply of Arg at 3.5% of PDIE was not

  17. Gene-culture coevolution between cattle milk protein genes and human lactase genes.

    PubMed

    Beja-Pereira, Albano; Luikart, Gordon; England, Phillip R; Bradley, Daniel G; Jann, Oliver C; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Chamberlain, Andrew T; Nunes, Telmo P; Metodiev, Stoitcho; Ferrand, Nuno; Erhardt, Georg

    2003-12-01

    Milk from domestic cows has been a valuable food source for over 8,000 years, especially in lactose-tolerant human societies that exploit dairy breeds. We studied geographic patterns of variation in genes encoding the six most important milk proteins in 70 native European cattle breeds. We found substantial geographic coincidence between high diversity in cattle milk genes, locations of the European Neolithic cattle farming sites (>5,000 years ago) and present-day lactose tolerance in Europeans. This suggests a gene-culture coevolution between cattle and humans.

  18. Proteomic profiling of microbial transglutaminase-induced polymerization of milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, J F; Pan, P H

    2012-02-01

    Microbial transglutaminase (MTGase)-induced polymerization of individual milk proteins during incubation was investigated using a proteomics-based approach. The addition of MTGase (0.25-2.0 units/mL) caused the milk proteins to polymerize after a 3-h incubation period. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE analysis showed that the total intensities of the protein bands that corresponded to α(S)-casein, β-casein, and κ-casein decreased from 8,245.6, 6,677.2, and 586.6 arbitrary units to 1,911.7, 0.0, and 66.2 arbitrary units, respectively. Components with higher molecular weights were observed, and the intensity of these proteins increased after 3h of incubation. These results support that inter- or intramolecular crosslinking occurred in the casein proteins of MTGase-treated milk. Two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis indicated that isomers of β-casein, κ-casein, a fraction of serum albumin, α(S1)-casein, α(S2)-casein, β-lactoglobulin, and α-lactalbumin in the milk were polymerized following incubation with MTGase. In addition, MTGase-induced polymerization occurred earlier for β-casein and κ-casein isomers than for other milk proteins.

  19. Disorder in milk proteins: structure, functional disorder, and biocidal potentials of lactoperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Almehdar, Hussein A; El-Fakharany, Esmail M; Uversky, Vladimir N; Redwan, Elrashdy M

    2015-01-01

    This article continues a series of reviews on the abundance and roles of intrinsic disorder in milk proteins. Besides caseins, which are the major proteinaceous constituents of any milk that can be isolated by isoelectric precipitation, milk contains a set of soluble whey proteins, such as β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, serum albumin, immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, glycomacropeptide, and proteose peptone (the last two are soluble casein derivatives). Lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase (LPO) are known to possess prominent biocidal activity, serving as efficient antibiotics and antiviral agents against a wide spectrum of bacteria, fungi, and viruses. LPO is a heme-containing peroxidase expressed as preproprotein. The mature protein has a single catalytic domain, structure of which is known for a protein isolated from several species. Functionally, LPO is a crucial component of the LPO system that includes LPO, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and thiocyanate (SCN(-)), being a well-studied, naturally occurring antimicrobial system in milk that is effective against many microorganisms and some viruses. Although various aspects of LPO structure and function are rather well studied and were subjects of several recent reviews, the abundance and potential functional roles of intrinsically disordered regions in this protein have never being addressed as of yet. The major goal of this article is to fill this gap and to show how intrinsic disorder is encoded in the amino acid sequence of LPO, and how intrinsic disorder is related to functions of this important milk protein.

  20. Fluorescence sensor array for identification of commercial milk samples according to their thermal treatments.

    PubMed

    Mungkarndee, Radeemada; Techakriengkrai, Ittipon; Tumcharern, Gamolwan; Sukwattanasinitt, Mongkol

    2016-04-15

    Identification of processed milk is of importance for commercial and legal concerns. The fluorescence response patterns induced by fluorophore/protein interactions allow a possible discrimination of processed milk samples corresponding to their thermal treatment. The fluorescence responses of 4 fluorophores upon addition of commercial milk samples in 96-well plate are measured in the range of 400-600 nm using the excitation wavelength at 375 nm. The pattern recognition of the 53,126 fluorescence responses (4 fluorophores×41 wavelengths×4 thermally processed milks×3 brands×3 lots×3 bottles×3 repeats) are analyzed by multivariate statistical methods. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) successfully recognizes the milk samples according to their thermal processing, i.e. pasteurized milk, sterilized milk, UHT fresh milk and recombined milk (UHT milk having milk powder), with 100% classification accuracy in a cross validation using a leave-one-out technique. PMID:26616941

  1. Monotreme lactation protein is highly expressed in monotreme milk and provides antimicrobial protection.

    PubMed

    Enjapoori, Ashwantha Kumar; Grant, Tom R; Nicol, Stewart C; Lefèvre, Christophe M; Nicholas, Kevin R; Sharp, Julie A

    2014-10-01

    Monotremes (platypus and echidna) are the descendants of the oldest ancestor of all extant mammals distinguished from other mammals by mode of reproduction. Monotremes lay eggs following a short gestation period and after an even briefer incubation period, altricial hatchlings are nourished over a long lactation period with milk secreted by nipple-less mammary patches located on the female's abdomen. Milk is the sole source of nutrition and immune protection for the developing young until weaning. Using transcriptome and mass spectrometry analysis of milk cells and milk proteins, respectively, a novel Monotreme Lactation Protein (MLP) was identified as a major secreted protein in milk. We show that platypus and short-beaked echidna MLP genes show significant homology and are unique to monotremes. The MLP transcript was shown to be expressed in a variety of tissues; however, highest expression was observed in milk cells and was expressed constitutively from early to late lactation. Analysis of recombinant MLP showed that it is an N-linked glycosylated protein and biophysical studies predicted that MLP is an amphipathic, α-helical protein, a typical feature of antimicrobial proteins. Functional analysis revealed MLP antibacterial activity against both opportunistic pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and commensal Enterococcus faecalis bacteria but showed no effect on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Salmonella enterica. Our data suggest that MLP is an evolutionarily ancient component of milk-mediated innate immunity absent in other mammals. We propose that MLP evolved specifically in the monotreme lineage supporting the evolution of lactation in these species to provide bacterial protection, at a time when mammals lacked nipples.

  2. Monotreme Lactation Protein Is Highly Expressed in Monotreme Milk and Provides Antimicrobial Protection

    PubMed Central

    Enjapoori, Ashwantha Kumar; Grant, Tom R.; Nicol, Stewart C.; Lefèvre, Christophe M.; Nicholas, Kevin R.; Sharp, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Monotremes (platypus and echidna) are the descendants of the oldest ancestor of all extant mammals distinguished from other mammals by mode of reproduction. Monotremes lay eggs following a short gestation period and after an even briefer incubation period, altricial hatchlings are nourished over a long lactation period with milk secreted by nipple-less mammary patches located on the female’s abdomen. Milk is the sole source of nutrition and immune protection for the developing young until weaning. Using transcriptome and mass spectrometry analysis of milk cells and milk proteins, respectively, a novel Monotreme Lactation Protein (MLP) was identified as a major secreted protein in milk. We show that platypus and short-beaked echidna MLP genes show significant homology and are unique to monotremes. The MLP transcript was shown to be expressed in a variety of tissues; however, highest expression was observed in milk cells and was expressed constitutively from early to late lactation. Analysis of recombinant MLP showed that it is an N-linked glycosylated protein and biophysical studies predicted that MLP is an amphipathic, α-helical protein, a typical feature of antimicrobial proteins. Functional analysis revealed MLP antibacterial activity against both opportunistic pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and commensal Enterococcus faecalis bacteria but showed no effect on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Salmonella enterica. Our data suggest that MLP is an evolutionarily ancient component of milk-mediated innate immunity absent in other mammals. We propose that MLP evolved specifically in the monotreme lineage supporting the evolution of lactation in these species to provide bacterial protection, at a time when mammals lacked nipples. PMID:25245409

  3. Monotreme lactation protein is highly expressed in monotreme milk and provides antimicrobial protection.

    PubMed

    Enjapoori, Ashwantha Kumar; Grant, Tom R; Nicol, Stewart C; Lefèvre, Christophe M; Nicholas, Kevin R; Sharp, Julie A

    2014-10-01

    Monotremes (platypus and echidna) are the descendants of the oldest ancestor of all extant mammals distinguished from other mammals by mode of reproduction. Monotremes lay eggs following a short gestation period and after an even briefer incubation period, altricial hatchlings are nourished over a long lactation period with milk secreted by nipple-less mammary patches located on the female's abdomen. Milk is the sole source of nutrition and immune protection for the developing young until weaning. Using transcriptome and mass spectrometry analysis of milk cells and milk proteins, respectively, a novel Monotreme Lactation Protein (MLP) was identified as a major secreted protein in milk. We show that platypus and short-beaked echidna MLP genes show significant homology and are unique to monotremes. The MLP transcript was shown to be expressed in a variety of tissues; however, highest expression was observed in milk cells and was expressed constitutively from early to late lactation. Analysis of recombinant MLP showed that it is an N-linked glycosylated protein and biophysical studies predicted that MLP is an amphipathic, α-helical protein, a typical feature of antimicrobial proteins. Functional analysis revealed MLP antibacterial activity against both opportunistic pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and commensal Enterococcus faecalis bacteria but showed no effect on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Salmonella enterica. Our data suggest that MLP is an evolutionarily ancient component of milk-mediated innate immunity absent in other mammals. We propose that MLP evolved specifically in the monotreme lineage supporting the evolution of lactation in these species to provide bacterial protection, at a time when mammals lacked nipples. PMID:25245409

  4. Bioactive Functions of Milk Proteins: a Comparative Genomics Approach.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Julie A; Modepalli, Vengama; Enjapoori, Ashwanth Kumar; Bisana, Swathi; Abud, Helen E; Lefevre, Christophe; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2014-12-01

    The composition of milk includes factors required to provide appropriate nutrition for the growth of the neonate. However, it is now clear that milk has many functions and comprises bioactive molecules that play a central role in regulating developmental processes in the young while providing a protective function for both the suckled young and the mammary gland during the lactation cycle. Identifying these bioactives and their physiological function in eutherians can be difficult and requires extensive screening of milk components that may function to improve well-being and options for prevention and treatment of disease. New animal models with unique reproductive strategies are now becoming increasingly relevant to search for these factors. PMID:26115887

  5. Milk Proteins, Peptides, and Oligosaccharides: Effects against the 21st Century Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Chia-Chien; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; Fernández-Tomé, Samuel; Weinborn, Valerie; Barile, Daniela; de Moura Bell, Juliana María Leite Nobrega

    2015-01-01

    Milk is the most complete food for mammals, as it supplies all the energy and nutrients needed for the proper growth and development of the neonate. Milk is a source of many bioactive components, which not only help meeting the nutritional requirements of the consumers, but also play a relevant role in preventing various disorders. Milk-derived proteins and peptides have the potential to act as coadjuvants in conventional therapies, addressing cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders, intestinal health, and chemopreventive properties. In addition to being a source of proteins and peptides, milk contains complex oligosaccharides that possess important functions related to the newborn's development and health. Some of the health benefits attributed to milk oligosaccharides include prebiotic probifidogenic effects, antiadherence of pathogenic bacteria, and immunomodulation. This review focuses on recent findings demonstrating the biological activities of milk peptides, proteins, and oligosaccharides towards the prevention of diseases of the 21st century. Processing challenges hindering large-scale production and commercialization of those bioactive compounds have been also addressed. PMID:25789308

  6. Bioactive peptides derived from human milk proteins--mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yasuaki; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2014-05-01

    Human milk contains a multitude of bioactive proteins with very diverse functions, which are beneficial for the rapidly growing neonate. The large variety of bioactivities is accomplished by the combination of bioactive proteins per se and gastrointestinal release of bioactive peptides derived from them. The bioactivities exerted by these peptides include enhancement of mineral absorption, immunomodulation, opioid, antihypertensive and antimicrobial activities. Notably, several of the activities are not attributed to the parental proteins, but exclusively to released bioactive peptides. This article reviews studies on bioactive peptides derived from major human milk proteins, such as caseins, α-lactalbumin and lactoferrin, during gastrointestinal digestion. Studies of bovine milk counterparts are also cited as a comparison.

  7. Separation and quantification of water buffalo milk protein fractions and genetic variants by RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, Valentina; Giantin, Mery; Rostellato, Roberta; Dacasto, Mauro; Carnier, Paolo

    2013-01-15

    A RP-HPLC method, developed for the separation and quantification of the most common genetic variants of bovine milk proteins, was successfully applied to the analysis of water buffalo milk. All the most common buffalo casein and whey proteins fractions, as well as their genetic variants, were detected and separated simultaneously in 40 min. Purified buffalo proteins were used as calibration standards and a total of 536 individual milk samples were analysed for protein composition. α(S1)-, α(S2)-, βγ-, and κ-casein were 32.2%, 15.8%, 36.5%, and 15.5%, respectively, of total casein content, whereas content of β-Lactoglobulin was approximately 1.3 times as high as that of α-Lactalbumin. The existence of a polymorphism of κ-casein was demonstrated in Mediterranean water buffalo and α(S1)- and κ-casein genetic variants were successfully detected by RP-HPLC.

  8. Association of milk protein types with growth and reproductive performance of dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Lin, C Y; McAllister, A J; Ng-Kwai-Hang, K F; Hayes, J F; Batra, T R; Lee, A J; Roy, G L; Vesely, J A; Wauthy, J M; Winter, K A

    1987-01-01

    A total of 890 heifers was used to study the effects of four milk protein loci (alpha S1-casein, beta-casein, kappa-casein, and beta-lactoglobulin) on heifer growth and reproduction. The additive effects of gene substitutions at the four milk protein loci were significant only in 4 of 56 cases for all traits studied. Dominance effects at alpha S1-casein, beta-casein, and kappa-casein loci were not significant for any traits except beta-casein locus on body weight at first calving. Heifers with AB type of beta-lactoglobulin showed greater body weights and measurements and gestation length than the AA or BB type, indicating an overdominance effect. Heifers with AB type of beta-lactoglobulin were significantly younger at first conception and at first freshening and had fewer number of days from first service to conception than the AA or BB type, indicating underdominance effect. Thus, beta-lactoglobulin locus shows overdominance, underdominance, or no dominance, depending upon the traits considered. The four milk protein loci contributed more dominance variance than additive variance to total phenotypic variance. This might account for the existence of milk protein polymorphism in the cattle population. The combined genotypes of the four milk protein loci showed significant effects on 2 of 14 traits studied.

  9. Effects of phenylalanine and threonine oligopeptides on milk protein synthesis in cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, M M; Wu, Y M; Liu, H Y; Liu, J X

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of phenylalanine (Phe) and threonine (Thr) oligopeptides on αs1 casein gene expression and milk protein synthesis in bovine mammary epithelial cells. Primary mammary epithelial cells were obtained from Holstein dairy cows and incubated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium-F12 medium (DMEM/F12) containing lactogenic hormones (prolactin and glucocorticoids). Free Phe (117 μg/ml) was substituted partly with peptide-bound Phe (phenylalanylphenylalanine, phenylalanyl threonine, threonyl-phenylalanyl-phenylalanine) in the experimental media. After incubation with experimental medium, cells were collected for gene expression analysis and medium was collected for milk protein or amino acid determination. The results showed that peptide-bound Phe at 10% (11.7 μg/ml) significantly enhanced αs1 casein gene expression and milk protein synthesis as compared with equivalent amount of free Phe. When 10% Phe was replaced by phenylalanylphenylalanine, the disappearance of most essential amino acids increased significantly, and gene expression of peptide transporter 2 and some amino acid transporters was significantly enhanced. These results indicate that the Phe and Thr oligopeptides are important for milk protein synthesis, and peptide-bound amino acids could be utilised more efficiently in milk protein synthesis than the equivalent amount of free amino acids.

  10. New Milk Protein-Derived Peptides with Potential Antimicrobial Activity: An Approach Based on Bioinformatic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Dziuba, Bartłomiej; Dziuba, Marta

    2014-01-01

    New peptides with potential antimicrobial activity, encrypted in milk protein sequences, were searched for with the use of bioinformatic tools. The major milk proteins were hydrolyzed in silico by 28 enzymes. The obtained peptides were characterized by the following parameters: molecular weight, isoelectric point, composition and number of amino acid residues, net charge at pH 7.0, aliphatic index, instability index, Boman index, and GRAVY index, and compared with those calculated for known 416 antimicrobial peptides including 59 antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from milk proteins listed in the BIOPEP database. A simple analysis of physico-chemical properties and the values of biological activity indicators were insufficient to select potentially antimicrobial peptides released in silico from milk proteins by proteolytic enzymes. The final selection was made based on the results of multidimensional statistical analysis such as support vector machines (SVM), random forest (RF), artificial neural networks (ANN) and discriminant analysis (DA) available in the Collection of Anti-Microbial Peptides (CAMP database). Eleven new peptides with potential antimicrobial activity were selected from all peptides released during in silico proteolysis of milk proteins. PMID:25141106

  11. [Effectiveness of the use of iodized milk protein to improve girls' sufficiency with iodine].

    PubMed

    Bol'shakova, L S; Lisitsin, A B; Chernukha, I M; Zubtsov, Iu N; Litvinova, E V

    2014-01-01

    The work presents the results of the research capabilities of the use of iodized milk protein as a component of food supplement and enriched food product for the correction of iodine sufficiency in girls. Milk iodinated protein was produced by the enzyme-effective iodization of amino acid residues of cow's milk whey proteins. The study involved 30 girls, whose average age was 19.9 +/- 1.4 years. Participants of observation were divided into three groups, for 10 people each. The first group received daily serving of meat cutlets (50g), enriched with dairy iodinated protein. Iodine content in the finished minced was 100 mcg. The second group received iodinated milk protein in the form of food supplement with iodine content of 100 mcg. The third group was a control one. The duration of observations was 30 days. To assess the effectiveness of measures the concentration of iodine in urine, blood levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine have been determined, changes in cognitive processes (memory and attention) with the use of psychological tests have been evaluated. Studies have shown the effectiveness of using of iodized milk protein for the correction of iodine deficiency in girls. The use of iodized protein, as part of the enriched product and in the form of food supplement increased urinary iodine level and had a positive influence on the state of the hypophysial-thyroid system. In addition, the use of iodized milk protein helped to improve the cognitive functions of the students, which can be considered as an additional positive effect of correction of iodine deficiency.

  12. Neurological and neuropsychological functions in adults with a history of developmental arsenic poisoning from contaminated milk powder.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Ohta, Hitoshi; Bellinger, David C; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    During the summer of 1955, mass arsenic poisoning of bottle-fed infants occurred in the western part of Japan due to contaminated milk powder, and more than 100 died; some childhood victims were later found to suffer from neurological sequelae in adolescence. This unique incident enabled us to explore infancy as a critical period of arsenic exposure in regard to developmental neurotoxicity and its possible persistence through adulthood. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the association between developmental arsenic exposure and the neurological outcomes more than 50 years later. We conducted a retrospective cohort study during the period from April 2012 to February 2013 in two hospitals in Okayama Prefecture, Japan. The study sample consisted of 50 individuals: 27 known poisoning victims from Okayama Prefecture, and 23 non-exposed local controls of similar age. In addition to neurological examination, we adapted a battery of neurophysiological and neuropsychological tests to identify the types of brain functions affected by early-life arsenic exposure. While limited abnormalities were found in the neurophysiological tests, neuropsychological deficits were observed. Except for Finger tapping, all test scores in the exposed group--Vocabulary and Block Design from Wechsler Adults Intelligent Scale III, Design memory subtest from Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning 2, and Grooved pegboard test--were substantially below those obtained by the unexposed. The exposed group showed average performance at least 1.2 standard deviations below the average for the controls. Exposed participants performed less well than controls, even after exclusion of subjects with recognized disabilities or those with a high level of education. Adults who had suffered arsenic poisoning during infancy revealed neuropsychological dysfunctions, even among those subjects not recognized as having disabilities. Developmental neurotoxicity due to arsenic likely results in permanent

  13. Neurological and neuropsychological functions in adults with a history of developmental arsenic poisoning from contaminated milk powder.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Ohta, Hitoshi; Bellinger, David C; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    During the summer of 1955, mass arsenic poisoning of bottle-fed infants occurred in the western part of Japan due to contaminated milk powder, and more than 100 died; some childhood victims were later found to suffer from neurological sequelae in adolescence. This unique incident enabled us to explore infancy as a critical period of arsenic exposure in regard to developmental neurotoxicity and its possible persistence through adulthood. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the association between developmental arsenic exposure and the neurological outcomes more than 50 years later. We conducted a retrospective cohort study during the period from April 2012 to February 2013 in two hospitals in Okayama Prefecture, Japan. The study sample consisted of 50 individuals: 27 known poisoning victims from Okayama Prefecture, and 23 non-exposed local controls of similar age. In addition to neurological examination, we adapted a battery of neurophysiological and neuropsychological tests to identify the types of brain functions affected by early-life arsenic exposure. While limited abnormalities were found in the neurophysiological tests, neuropsychological deficits were observed. Except for Finger tapping, all test scores in the exposed group--Vocabulary and Block Design from Wechsler Adults Intelligent Scale III, Design memory subtest from Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning 2, and Grooved pegboard test--were substantially below those obtained by the unexposed. The exposed group showed average performance at least 1.2 standard deviations below the average for the controls. Exposed participants performed less well than controls, even after exclusion of subjects with recognized disabilities or those with a high level of education. Adults who had suffered arsenic poisoning during infancy revealed neuropsychological dysfunctions, even among those subjects not recognized as having disabilities. Developmental neurotoxicity due to arsenic likely results in permanent

  14. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on in vitro digestion of milk proteins and fats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) is increasing in popularity in the food industry. Its ability to modify milk proteins and fats suggests that it may be useful in creating foods that suppress appetite; however, its effect on the digestibility of proteins and fats is unclear. The...

  15. Free Maillard Reaction Products in Milk Reflect Nutritional Intake of Glycated Proteins and Can Be Used to Distinguish "Organic" and "Conventionally" Produced Milk.

    PubMed

    Schwarzenbolz, Uwe; Hofmann, Thomas; Sparmann, Nina; Henle, Thomas

    2016-06-22

    Using LC-MS/MS and isotopically labeled standard substances, quantitation of free Maillard reaction products (MRPs), namely, N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), 5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (pyrraline, PYR), N(δ)-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H), and N(ε)-fructosyllysine (FL), in bovine milk was achieved. Considerable variations in the amounts of the individual MRPs were found, most likely as a consequence of the nutritional uptake of glycated proteins. When comparing commercial milk samples labeled as originating from "organic" or "conventional" farming, respectively, significant differences in the content of free PYR (organic milk, 20-300 pmol/mL; conventional milk, 400-1000 pmol/mL) were observed. An analysis of feed samples indicated that rapeseed and sugar beet are the main sources for MRPs in conventional farming. Furthermore, milk of different dairy animals (cow, buffalo, donkey, goat, ewe, mare, camel) as well as for the first time human milk was analyzed for free MRPs. The distribution of their concentrations, with FL and PYR as the most abundant in human milk and with a high individual variability, also points to a nutritional influence. As the components of concentrated feed do not belong to the natural food sources of ruminants and equidae, free MRPs in milk might serve as indicators for an adequate animal feeding in near-natural farming and can be suitable parameters to distinguish between an "organic" and "conventional" production method of milk. PMID:27213835

  16. Effect of homogenization and pasteurization on the structure and stability of whey protein in milk.

    PubMed

    Qi, Phoebe X; Ren, Daxi; Xiao, Yingping; Tomasula, Peggy M

    2015-05-01

    The effect of homogenization alone or in combination with high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization or UHT processing on the whey fraction of milk was investigated using highly sensitive spectroscopic techniques. In pilot plant trials, 1-L quantities of whole milk were homogenized in a 2-stage homogenizer at 35°C (6.9 MPa/10.3 MPa) and, along with skim milk, were subjected to HTST pasteurization (72°C for 15 s) or UHT processing (135°C for 2 s). Other whole milk samples were processed using homogenization followed by either HTST pasteurization or UHT processing. The processed skim and whole milk samples were centrifuged further to remove fat and then acidified to pH 4.6 to isolate the corresponding whey fractions, and centrifuged again. The whey fractions were then purified using dialysis and investigated using the circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared, and Trp intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. Results demonstrated that homogenization combined with UHT processing of milk caused not only changes in protein composition but also significant secondary structural loss, particularly in the amounts of apparent antiparallel β-sheet and α-helix, as well as diminished tertiary structural contact. In both cases of homogenization alone and followed by HTST treatments, neither caused appreciable chemical changes, nor remarkable secondary structural reduction. But disruption was evident in the tertiary structural environment of the whey proteins due to homogenization of whole milk as shown by both the near-UV circular dichroism and Trp intrinsic fluorescence. In-depth structural stability analyses revealed that even though processing of milk imposed little impairment on the secondary structural stability, the tertiary structural stability of whey protein was altered significantly. The following order was derived based on these studies: raw whole>HTST, homogenized, homogenized and pasteurized>skimmed and pasteurized, and skimmed UHT

  17. Lactobacillus gasseri requires peptides, not proteins or free amino acids, for growth in milk.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, K; Matsunaga, K; Takihiro, S; Moritoki, A; Ryuto, S; Kawai, Y; Masuda, T; Miyamoto, T

    2015-03-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri is a widespread commensal lactic acid bacterium inhabiting human mucosal niches and has many beneficial effects as a probiotic. However, L. gasseri is difficult to grow in milk, which hurts usability for the food industry. It had been previously reported that supplementation with yeast extract or proteose peptone, including peptides, enables L. gasseri to grow well in milk. In this study, our objective was to confirm peptide requirement of L. gasseri and evaluate efficacy of peptide release by enzymatic proteolysis on growth of L. gassei in milk. Three strains of L. gasseri did not grow well in modified DeMan, Rogosa, Sharpe broth without any nitrogen sources (MRS-N), but addition of a casein-derived peptide mixture, tryptone, promoted growth. In contrast, little effect was observed after adding casein or a casein-derived amino acid mixture, casamino acids. These results indicate that L. gasseri requires peptides, not proteins or free amino acids, among milk-derived nitrogen sources for growth. Lactobacillus gasseri JCM 1131T hardly had growth capacity in 6 kinds of milk-based media: bovine milk, human milk, skim milk, cheese whey, modified MRS-N (MRSL-N) supplemented with acid whey, and MRSL-N supplemented with casein. Moreover, treatment with digestive proteases, particularly pepsin, to release peptides made it grow well in each milk-based medium. The pepsin treatment was the most effective for growth of strain JCM 1131T in skim milk among the tested food-grade proteases such as trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, calf rennet, ficin, bromelain, and papain. As well as strain JCM 1131T, pepsinolysis of milk improved growth of other L. gasseri strains and some strains of enteric lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus reuteri. These results suggest that some relatives of L. gasseri also use peptides as desirable nitrogen sources, and that milk may be a good supplier of nutritious

  18. Quality of buffalo milk as affected by dietary protein level and flaxseed supplementation.

    PubMed

    Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effects of protein level and flaxseed supplementation on the yield and quality of buffalo milk. In particular, the fatty acid profile of milk from buffalo cows subjected to different diets has been investigated. A 2×3 factorial design was tested with buffalo cows receiving 2 dietary crude protein (CP) and 3 flaxseed (FS) supplementation levels. Treatments were (1) low dietary CP level [12% of dry matter (DM)] and no flaxseed supplementation (LP); (2) low dietary CP level (12% of DM) and low flaxseed supplementation (500g/d) (LPFS500); (3) low dietary CP level (12% of DM) and moderate flaxseed supplementation (1,000g/d) (LPFS1000); (4) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and no flaxseed supplementation (MP); (5) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and low flaxseed supplementation (500g/d) (MPFS500); and (6) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and moderate flaxseed supplementation (1,000g/d) (MPFS1000). Milk protein and casein were affected by flaxseed supplementation being higher in MP, intermediate in LP, and lower in flaxseed-supplemented diets. However, the results from the present study highlighted that low protein diets sustained milk yield, protein, and casein synthesis in milk when whole flaxseed was administered. Short-chain fatty acids, in particular C8:0 and C10:0, were the lowest in milk from buffalo cows fed the highest level of flaxseed supplementation. Medium-chain fatty acids were the lowest in FS1000, intermediate in FS500, and the highest in the HP and LP groups. Long-chain fatty acids were the highest in FS1000, intermediate in FS500 groups, and the lowest in milk from buffalo receiving no flaxseed supplementation. Protein level of the diet influenced the percentage of C18:0, which was higher in MP than LP groups. Total conjugated linoleic acid content evidenced the same trend of long-chain fatty acids, with an increase of about 7% in FL500 and of 22% in FL1000 than the control. Apart from

  19. Quality of buffalo milk as affected by dietary protein level and flaxseed supplementation.

    PubMed

    Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effects of protein level and flaxseed supplementation on the yield and quality of buffalo milk. In particular, the fatty acid profile of milk from buffalo cows subjected to different diets has been investigated. A 2×3 factorial design was tested with buffalo cows receiving 2 dietary crude protein (CP) and 3 flaxseed (FS) supplementation levels. Treatments were (1) low dietary CP level [12% of dry matter (DM)] and no flaxseed supplementation (LP); (2) low dietary CP level (12% of DM) and low flaxseed supplementation (500g/d) (LPFS500); (3) low dietary CP level (12% of DM) and moderate flaxseed supplementation (1,000g/d) (LPFS1000); (4) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and no flaxseed supplementation (MP); (5) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and low flaxseed supplementation (500g/d) (MPFS500); and (6) moderate dietary CP level (15% of DM) and moderate flaxseed supplementation (1,000g/d) (MPFS1000). Milk protein and casein were affected by flaxseed supplementation being higher in MP, intermediate in LP, and lower in flaxseed-supplemented diets. However, the results from the present study highlighted that low protein diets sustained milk yield, protein, and casein synthesis in milk when whole flaxseed was administered. Short-chain fatty acids, in particular C8:0 and C10:0, were the lowest in milk from buffalo cows fed the highest level of flaxseed supplementation. Medium-chain fatty acids were the lowest in FS1000, intermediate in FS500, and the highest in the HP and LP groups. Long-chain fatty acids were the highest in FS1000, intermediate in FS500 groups, and the lowest in milk from buffalo receiving no flaxseed supplementation. Protein level of the diet influenced the percentage of C18:0, which was higher in MP than LP groups. Total conjugated linoleic acid content evidenced the same trend of long-chain fatty acids, with an increase of about 7% in FL500 and of 22% in FL1000 than the control. Apart from

  20. Use of layer silicate for protein crystallization: effects of Micromica and chlorite powders in hanging drops.

    PubMed

    Takehara, Masahide; Ino, Keita; Takakusagi, Yoichi; Oshikane, Hiroyuki; Nureki, Osamu; Ebina, Takeo; Mizukami, Fujio; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2008-02-15

    Two kinds of layer silicate powder, Micromica and chlorite, were used to aid protein crystallization by the addition to hanging drops. Using appropriate crystallization buffers, Micromica powder facilitated crystal growth speed for most proteins tested in this study. Furthermore, the addition of Micromica powder to hanging drops allowed the successful crystallization of lysozyme, catalase, concanavalin A, and trypsin even at low protein concentrations and under buffer conditions that otherwise would not generate protein crystals. Except for threonine synthase and apoferritin, the presence of chlorite delayed crystallization but induced the formation of large crystals. X-ray analysis of thaumatin crystals generated by our novel procedure gave better quality data than did that of crystals obtained by a conventional hanging drop method. Our results suggest that the speed of crystal growth and the quality of the corresponding X-ray data may be inversely related, at least for the formation of thaumatin crystals. The effect of Micromica and chlorite powders and the application of layer silicate powder for protein crystallization are discussed.

  1. Studies of composition and major protein level in milk and colostrum of mares.

    PubMed

    Pecka, Ewa; Dobrzański, Zbigniew; Zachwieja, Andrzej; Szulc, Tadeusz; Czyż, Katarzyna

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the changes in composition and physicochemical features (pH, density, thermostability and acidity) of mare colostrum and milk, and of protein fraction contribution (serum albumin, β-casein, γ-casein, α-lactalbumin, G class immunoglobulins) depending on lactation stage. The research material was colostrum and milk samples from 12 Arabian mares. Colostrum samples were collected within 2 h after parturition and milk samples were collected twice, in the 3rd and 6th weeks of lactation. The level of basic milk components decreased significantly (only lactose content increased) as compared to colostrum. Total bacteria count and somatic cell count decreased significantly with an increase in resistance and urea level. The changes observed were connected to differentiated contribution of particular protein fractions and their relative proportions. Lower levels of γ-casein (P ≤ 0.05), β-casein, serum albumin as well as α-lactalbumin were observed in colostrum as compared to those in milk. Any relationship between lactation stage and β-casein content was observed. Serum albumin and α-lactalbumin content increased in subsequent milkings. The level of G class immunoglobulins decreased significantly and its highest level was noted in colostrum. Any significant differences between the 3rd and 6th lactation weeks were obtained. PMID:22339698

  2. Multidimensional microchip-capillary electrophoresis device for determination of functional proteins in infant milk formula.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruige; Wang, Zhiping; Fung, Ying Sing

    2015-01-01

    Functional proteins have been found in infant milk formula as supplements, added by an increasing number of manufacturers. Their supplementations are expected to be controlled and monitored. Here, we describe a microchip-integrated CE method for the determination of these low levels of functional proteins in a protein-rich sample matrix. On-chip isoelectric focusing (IEF) is used to separate high-abundance proteins from low-abundance proteins instead of using some complicated time-consuming protein purification process. After that, transient isotachophoresis hyphenated capillary zone electrophoresis (t-ITP-CZE) can preconcentrate, separate, and analyze transferred functional proteins in the embedded capillary under UV detection. PMID:25673487

  3. Multidimensional microchip-capillary electrophoresis device for determination of functional proteins in infant milk formula.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruige; Wang, Zhiping; Fung, Ying Sing

    2015-01-01

    Functional proteins have been found in infant milk formula as supplements, added by an increasing number of manufacturers. Their supplementations are expected to be controlled and monitored. Here, we describe a microchip-integrated CE method for the determination of these low levels of functional proteins in a protein-rich sample matrix. On-chip isoelectric focusing (IEF) is used to separate high-abundance proteins from low-abundance proteins instead of using some complicated time-consuming protein purification process. After that, transient isotachophoresis hyphenated capillary zone electrophoresis (t-ITP-CZE) can preconcentrate, separate, and analyze transferred functional proteins in the embedded capillary under UV detection.

  4. Human Milk Galectin-3 Binding Protein and Breastfeeding-Associated HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Christina S.; Kim, Hae-Young; Autran, Chloe; Kim, Jae H.; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Thea, Donald M.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.; Kuhn, Louise; Bode, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of milk from 247 HIV-infected Zambian mothers showed that Galectin-3 Binding Protein (Gal3BP) concentrations were significantly higher among HIV-infected mothers who transmitted HIV through breastfeeding (6.51±2.12 ug/mL) than among non-transmitters but were also correlated with higher milk and plasma HIV RNA copies/ml and lower CD4+ cell counts. The association between Gal3BP and postnatal transmission was attenuated after adjustment for milk and plasma HIV load and CD4+ cell counts. This suggests that although milk Gal3BP is a marker of advanced maternal disease, it does not independently modify transmission risk. PMID:23899964

  5. Technical note: A portable on-chip assay system for absorbance and plasmonic detection of protein hormone in milk.

    PubMed

    Ozhikandathil, Jayan; Badilescu, Simona; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports a portable device and method to extract and detect protein hormone in milk samples. Recombinant protein hormone spiked into milk samples was extracted by solid-phase extraction, and detection was carried out using the plasmonic property of gold nanoislands deposited on a glass substrate. Trace levels of hormone spiked in milk were analyzed by their optical absorbance property using a microfluidic chip. We built a portable assay system using disposable lab-on-chip devices. The proposed method is able to detect spiked recombinant protein hormone in milk at concentrations as low as 5ng/mL.

  6. Identification and characterization of cow's milk proteins from the rat intestinal lymph using a proteomic strategy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xundou; Wei, Lilong; Jia, Lulu; Li, Menglin; Zhu, Lisi; Liu, Liu; Gao, Youhe

    2013-09-01

    Food proteins were considered to be absorbed into the body after being digested to amino acids, dipeptides, and tripeptides. However, there are studies indicating that some proteins can pass through the intestinal epithelium under normal physiological conditions, perhaps not in sufficient quantities to be of nutritional importance, but in quantities that may be antigenically or biologically active. In the present study, rat intestinal lymph samples were collected using a modified lymph fistula rat model in fasting and cow's milk postprandial states. Low molecular weight proteins were enriched by ultrafiltration and differential solubilization, separated by 1D-SDS-PAGE, digested in-gel based on molecular weight, and identified using nano-LC-MS/MS. In the postprandial rat intestinal lymph, nine bovine-specific proteins (false discovery rate ≤1%) were identified in different molecular weight regions. Most proteins identified in lymph were highly abundant proteins in the milk, such as β-lactoglobulin and caseins. Seven of the nine identified bovine-specific proteins are allergens in milk. This strategy can be used to search for proteins that can enter the intestinal lymph and analyze their common features. Understanding the common features of these proteins might help to develop protein drugs taken orally, so that therapeutic proteins might embody fusion domains for cross-barrier transport or translocation.

  7. A Peptidomic Analysis of Human Milk Digestion in the Infant Stomach Reveals Protein-Specific Degradation Patterns123

    PubMed Central

    Dallas, David C.; Guerrero, Andrés; Khaldi, Nora; Borghese, Robyn; Bhandari, Aashish; Underwood, Mark A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; German, J. Bruce; Barile, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In vitro digestion of isolated milk proteins results in milk peptides with a variety of actions. However, it remains unclear to what degree protein degradation occurs in vivo in the infant stomach and whether peptides previously annotated for bioactivity are released. This study combined nanospray LC separation with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, comprehensive structural libraries, and informatics to analyze milk from 3 human mothers and the gastric aspirates from their 4- to 12-d-old postpartum infants. Milk from the mothers contained almost 200 distinct peptides, demonstrating enzymatic degradation of milk proteins beginning either during lactation or between milk collection and feeding. In the gastric samples, 649 milk peptides were identified, demonstrating that digestion continues in the infant stomach. Most peptides in both the intact milk and gastric samples were derived from β-casein. The numbers of peptides from β-casein, lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, lactadherin, κ-casein, serum albumin, bile salt–associated lipase, and xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase were significantly higher in the gastric samples than in the milk samples (P < 0.05). A total of 603 peptides differed significantly in abundance between milk and gastric samples (P < 0.05). Most of the identified peptides have previously identified biologic activity. Gastric proteolysis occurs in the term infant in the first 2 wk of life, releasing biologically active milk peptides with immunomodulatory and antibacterial properties of clinical relevance to the proximal intestinal tract. Data are available via ProteomeXchange (identifier PXD000688). PMID:24699806

  8. Intradermal powder immunization with protein-containing vaccines.

    PubMed

    Weissmueller, Nikolas T; Schiffter, Heiko A; Pollard, Andrew J

    2013-06-01

    The central importance for global public health policy of delivering life-saving vaccines for all children makes the development of efficacious and safe needle-free alternatives to hypodermic needles, preferably in a thermostable form, a matter of pressing urgency. This paper comprehensively reviews past in vivo studies on intradermal powder immunization with vaccine formulations that do not require refrigeration. Particular emphasis is given to the immune response in relation to antigen adjuvantation. While needle-free intradermal delivery of vaccines induces a predominantly Th2-type immune response, adjuvants powerfully enhance and modulate the magnitude and nature of the elicited immune response at various effector sites.

  9. Rumen microorganisms, methane production, and microbial protein synthesis affected by mangosteen peel powder supplement in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Polyorach, Sineenart; Wanapat, Metha; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-03-01

    Four crossbred dairy cows (50 % Holstein-Friesian × 50 % Thai native), 404 ± 50.0 kg of body weight (4 years old) and 90 ± 5 day in milk with daily milk production of 9 ± 2.0 kg/day, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study the effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) peel powder (MSP) supplementation on rumen microorganisms, methane production, and microbial protein synthesis fed concentrate containing yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP). The treatments were different levels of MSP supplementation at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/head/day. Rice straw was used as a roughage source fed ad libitum, and concentrate containing YEFECAP at 200 g/kg concentrate was offered corresponding to concentrate-to-milk-yield ratio at 1:2. A quantitative real-time PCR approach was used to determine the population densities of ruminal microorganisms. The results revealed that supplementation of MSP did not affect on Fibrobactor succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and Ruminococcus albus (P > 0.05). However, total bacteria was linearly increased (P < 0.01) while methanogens and protozoal population were linearly decreased (P < 0.01) with increasing level of MSP supplementation. Increasing level of MSP supplement could decrease rumen methane production from 27.5 to 23.7 mmol/100 ml(3). Furthermore, cows that received MSP at 300 g/head/day had the highest microbial crude protein and efficiency of rumen microbial N synthesis (416.8 g/day and 16.2 g/kg organic matter truly digested in the rumen (OMDR), respectively). In conclusion, supplementation of MSP at 300 g/head/day with YEFECAP as a protein source in the concentrate mixture revealed an enhancement of rumen fermentation and methane reduction in lactating dairy cows.

  10. Milk and Protein Intake by Pregnant Women Affects Growth of Foetus

    PubMed Central

    Borazjani, Fatemeh; Kulkarni, Shanuak S.

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the effects of the daily intake of milk and protein by pregnant women on foetal growth and determined the growth pattern and velocity of growth. A total of 504 ultrasound observations from 156 respondents were collected following a cross-sectional design in the last trimester of pregnancy; majority of them were in the last month of pregnancy. De facto and purposive sampling was done, and direct interviews of affluent pregnant women were conducted. Kruskal-Wallis test shows that majority of the respondents had tendency to consume 155.65 to 465.17 mL of milk per day, resulting in better and higher foetal growth. Most respondents consumed about 50-70 g of protein per day, and the foetal growth measurements, such as abdomen-circumference, femur length, biparietal diameter, and head-circumference, on an average, were higher in the same group. Quadratic regression model exhibited that all the traits of growth pattern in Model 1 (low milk and protein intake) appeared to have more mode of decline, in contrast to Model 2 (more milk and protein intake), which shows better growth. In addition, velocity of growth pattern was obtained through the first derivative of quadratic regression of growth pattern. Moreover, 95% confidence interval calculated for regression line slope of Model 1 and Model 2 showed that the estimation point (2 B2) of Model 1 does not lay into 95% CI of Model 2; so, statistical significance assorted and also the same trend conversely hold for Model 2. The rate of growth was highly influenced by maternal milk and protein intake. These findings suggest that contribution of common nutrients or other nutritional factors present in milk and protein promote the growth of foetus. PMID:24592584

  11. [Inversion of True Protein Content in Milk Based on Hyperspectral Data].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian-qian; Tan, Kun

    2015-12-01

    As an indispensable drink of people's daily life, milk's quality has been also increasingly concerned by consumers. Rapid and accurate detection of milk and its products is the indispensable step for improving the quality of milk and daily products in production. However, traditional methods cannot meet the need. In this paper, rapid quantitative detection of true protein in pure milk was studied by using visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR) reflectance spectroscopy (350-2500 nm). The spectral data and the protein content data of the pure milk samples were collected by ASD spectrometer and CEM rapid protein analyzer, respectively. Based on the analysis and comparison of different spectrum preprocessing methods and band selection methods, the feature bands were determined. Finally, using the Principle Component Regression (PCR) and Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) model, the regression models between the reflectance spectroscopy and the protein content in milk were presented for pure milk samples and the predictive ability was also analyzed. In this way, the optimal inversion model for true protein content in milk was established. The results were shown as follows: (1) In the process of spectral pretreatment, the combination of multiple scatter correction and second derivative achieved a better result; (2) Compared with the modeling of whole spectral, appropriate variable optimization models had the ability to improve the accuracy of the inversion results and reduce the modeling time; (3) The analysis results between PCR model and LS-SVM model demonstrated that the prediction accuracy of LS-SVM model was better than PCR model. The coefficient of determination (R(P)²) of PCR and LS-SVM were 0.952 2 and 0.958 0 respectively, and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of PCR and LS-SVM were 0.048 7 and 0.048 2 respectively. The result of this research is expected to provide a novel method for nondestructive and rapid detection of true protein in milk

  12. Proteomic profiling of camel and cow milk proteins under heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Felfoul, Imène; Jardin, Julien; Gaucheron, Frédéric; Attia, Hamadi; Ayadi, M A

    2017-02-01

    Cow and camel milk proteins before and after heat treatment at 80°C for 60min were identified using LC/MS and LC-MS/MS following monodimensional electrophoresis. The database used for the identification of camel and cow proteins was set from http://www.uniprot.org/. The obtained results showed that, after heating, camel milk at 80°C for 60min, camel α-lactalbumin (α-la) and peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) were not detected while camel serum albumin (CSA) was significantly diminished. When heating cow milk at 80°C for 60min, α-lactalbumin (α-la) and β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) were not significantly detected. Moreover, 19 protein bands from SDS-PAGE were analyzed and a total of 45 different proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS. Casein fractions were kept intact under a heat treatment of 80°C during 60min of both camel and cow milks. Camel and bovine whey proteins were affected by a heat treatment of 80°C for 60min. PMID:27596405

  13. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy of mechanically milled protein fibre powders and their free volume aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, K.; Sellaiyan, S.; Rajkhowa, R.; Tsuzuki, T.; Lin, T.; Smith, S. V.; Wang, X.; Uedono, A.

    2013-06-01

    The present study reports the fabrication of ultra-fine powders from animal protein fibres such as cashmere guard hair, merino wool and eri silk along with their free volume aspects. The respectively mechanically cleaned, scoured and degummed cashmere guard hair, wool and silk fibres were converted into dry powders by a process sequence: Chopping, Attritor Milling, and Spray Drying. The fabricated protein fibre powders were characterised by scanning electron microscope, particle size distribution and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The PALS results indicated that the average free volume size in protein fibres increased on their wet mechanical milling with a decrease in the corresponding intensities leading to a resultant decrease in their fractional free volumes.

  14. Effect of two pasteurization methods on the protein content of human milk.

    PubMed

    Baro, Cristina; Giribaldi, Marzia; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Dellavalle, Giuseppina; Conti, Amedeo; Tonetto, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Coscia, Alessandra; Fabris, Claudio; Moro, Guido Eugenio; Cavallarin, Laura; Bertino, Enrico

    2011-06-01

    The Holder method is the recommended pasteurization method for human milk banks, as it ensures the microbiological safety of human milk (HM). The loss of some biologically active milk components, due to the heat treatment, is a main limit to the diffusion of donor HM. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization may be an alternative to maintain the nutritional and immunological quality of HM. The aim of the present study was to compare the impact of Holder and HTST pasteurization on the HM protein profile. The protein patterns of HTST-treated milk and raw milk were similar. The Holder method modified bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin and components of the immune system. The HTST method preserved the integrity of bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin and, to some extent, of IgAs. Holder pasteurization decreased the amount of bile salt-stimulated lipase and inactivated the remaining molecules, while the HTST method did not alter its activity. Pasteurization increased the bioavailable lysine quantity. HTST pasteurization seems to better retain the protein profile and some of the key active components of donor HM.

  15. EFFECT OF ABOMASAL INFUSION OF FORMATE ON MILK PROTEIN OF COWS FED A METHIONINE-DEFICIENT DIET

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon from formate is transferred to the methyl group of Met in milk protein via the folate cycle. We hypothesized that post-ruminal formate infusion to dairy cows would partially compensate for dietary Met deficiency and enhance milk protein production. Six midlactation cows were used in a balance...

  16. Simultaneous determination of bromine and iodine in milk powder for adult and infant nutrition by plasma based techniques after digestion using microwave-induced combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picoloto, Rochele S.; Doneda, Morgana; Flores, Eder L. M.; Mesko, Marcia F.; Flores, Erico M. M.; Mello, Paola A.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, bromine and iodine determination in milk powder for adult and infant nutrition was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after digestion by microwave-induced combustion (MIC). Contrarily to previous works using MIC, a higher sample mass was digested (700 mg). Water and ammonium hydroxide (10 to 100 mmol L- 1) were investigated as absorbing solutions and accurate results were achieved using a 25 mmol L- 1 NH4OH solution. Moreover, the high stability of analytes after digestion (up to 30 days) using this solution was observed. The accuracy of the proposed MIC method was evaluated using certified and reference materials of milk powder (NIST 1549 and NIST 8435). No statistical difference was observed between results obtained by MIC-ICP-MS and reference values. Results for samples were also compared with those obtained by ICP-OES and no statistical difference was observed. Microwave-assisted alkaline extraction (MW-AE) was also evaluated for milk powder using NH4OH and tetramethylammonium hydroxide solutions. Solutions obtained after digestion by MIC (whole milk powder) presented low carbon content in digests (< 25 mg L- 1) while solutions obtained after alkaline extraction presented up to 10,000 mg L- 1 of C. MIC method was preferable in view of the possibility of obtaining solutions with low carbon content even using a relatively high sample mass (up to 700 mg) avoiding additional dilution prior to ICP-MS analysis, thus allowing better detection limits. Limits of detection obtained by MIC-ICP-MS were 0.007 and 0.003 μg g- 1 for Br and I, respectively, while for MW-AE were 0.1 and 0.05 μg g- 1 respectively for Br and I. Among the main advantages of the proposed method are the use of diluted alkaline solutions that is in agreement with green analytical chemistry recommendations, the high stability of analytes in solution and the suitability of digests for

  17. Stability of milk fat globule membrane proteins toward human enzymatic gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Le, T T; Van de Wiele, T; Do, T N H; Debyser, G; Struijs, K; Devreese, B; Dewettinck, K; Van Camp, J

    2012-05-01

    The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fraction refers to the thin film of polar lipids and membrane proteins that surrounds fat globules in milk. It is its unique biochemical composition that renders MFGM with some beneficial biological activities, such as anti-adhesive effects toward pathogens. However, a prerequisite for the putative bioactivity of MFGM is its stability during gastrointestinal digestion. We, therefore, subjected MFGM material, isolated from raw milk, to an in vitro enzymatic gastrointestinal digestion. Sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE, in combination with 2 staining methods, Coomassie Blue and periodic acid Schiff staining, was used to evaluate polypeptide patterns of the digest, whereas mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of specific MFGM proteins. Generally, it was observed that glycoproteins showed higher resistance to endogenous proteases compared with non-glycosylated proteins. Mucin 1 displayed the highest resistance to digestion and a considerable part of this protein was still detected at its original molecular weight after gastric and small intestine digestion. Cluster of differentiation 36 was also quite resistant to pepsin. A significant part of periodic acid Schiff 6/7 survived the gastric digestion, provided that the lipid moiety was not removed from the MFGM material. Overall, MFGM glycoproteins are generally more resistant to gastrointestinal digestion than serum milk proteins and the presence of lipids, besides glycosylation, may protect MFGM glycoproteins from gastrointestinal digestion. This gastrointestinal stability makes MFGM glycoproteins amenable to further studies in which their putative health-promoting effects can be explored.

  18. Development of a certified reference material (NMIJ CRM 7512-a) for the determination of trace elements in milk powder.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanbei; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Miyashita, Shin-ichi; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Inagaki, Kazumi; Chiba, Koichi; Hioki, Akiharu

    2013-01-01

    A certified reference material (CRM), NMIJ CRM 7512-a, was developed for the determination of trace elements in milk powder. At least three independent analytical methods were applied to characterize the certified value of each element; all of these analytical methods were based on microwave acid digestions and carried out using different analytical instruments. The certified value was given on a dry-mass basis, where the dry-mass correction factor was obtained by drying the sample at 65°C for 15 to 25 h. The certified values in the units of mass fractions for 13 elements were as follows: Ca, 8.65 (0.38) g kg(-1); Fe, 0.104 (0.007) g kg(-1); K, 8.41 (0.33) g kg(-1); Mg, 0.819 (0.024) g kg(-1); Na, 1.87 (0.09) g kg(-1); P, 5.62 (0.23) g kg(-1); Ba, 0.449 (0.013) mg kg(-1); Cu, 4.66 (0.23) mg kg(-1); Mn, 0.931 (0.032) mg kg(-1); Mo, 0.223 (0.012) mg kg(-1); Rb, 8.93 (0.31) mg kg(-1); Sr, 5.88 (0.20) mg kg(-1); and Zn, 41.3 (1.4) mg kg(-1), where the numbers in the parentheses are the expanded uncertainties with a coverage factor of 2. The expanded uncertainties were estimated considering the contribution of the analytical methods, the method-to-method variance, the sample homogeneity, the dry-mass correction factor, and the concentrations of the standard solutions for calibration. The concentrations of As (2.1 μg kg(-1)), Cd (0.2 μg kg(-1)), Cr (1.3 μg kg(-1)), Pb (0.3 μg kg(-1)), and Y (64 μg kg(-1)) were given as information values for the present CRM.

  19. Mapping quantitative trait loci for milk production and genetic polymorphisms of milk proteins in dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Barillet, Francis; Arranz, Juan-José; Carta, Antonello

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present recent advances in the molecular dissection of complex traits in dairy sheep and discuss their possible impact on breeding schemes. In the first step, we review the literature data on genetic polymorphisms and the effects of sheep alphas1-casein and beta-lactoglobulin loci. It is concluded that the results are rather inconsistent and cannot be used in dairy sheep selection. In a second step, we describe the strategy implemented in France, Italy and Spain taking advantage of the genetic maps for QTL detection. These studies were part of a European project, called "genesheepsafety", which investigated both milk production and functional traits. Preliminary QTL results are presented for production traits.

  20. Detection of melamine in milk powders using Near-Infrared Hyperspectral imaging combined with regression coefficient of partial least square regression model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Illegal use of nitrogen-rich melamine (C3H6N6) to boost perceived protein content of food products such as milk, infant formula, frozen yogurt, pet food, biscuits, and coffee drinks has caused serious food safety problems. Conventional methods to detect melamine in foods, such as Enzyme-linked immun...

  1. Effects of extended dry storage of powdered infant milk formula on susceptibility of Enterobacter sakazakii to hot water and ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Shaker, Reyad R; Ayyash, Mutamed M; Olaimat, Amin N; Al-Hasan, Ashraf S Abu; Kadora, Khaled M; Holley, Richard A

    2008-05-01

    Infant milk formula has been identified as a potential source of Enterobacter sakazakii, which has been implicated in neonatal meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis. This study was undertaken to determine whether the length of E. sakazakii storage in powdered infant milk formula (PIMF) affected the ability of the pathogen to survive subsequent reconstitution of the powder with hot water or treatment with gamma radiation. Five E. sakazakii strains were mixed individually with PIMF and kept for up to 12 months at 25 degrees C. After storage PIMF was reconstituted with water at 60 to 100 degrees C or was exposed to < or = 5 kGy of gamma radiation. Without any treatment secondary to drying, E. sakazakii counts decreased < 1 log/g after 1 month but decreased about 4 log/g during storage for 8 to 12 months. Dry storage decreased thermal resistance but increased resistance of E. sakazakii to ionizing radiation in PIMF. Reconstitution of contaminated powder with water at 70 degrees C after 1 month of dry storage reduced E. sakazakii viability slightly, > 2 log/g, and after powder was stored for 12 months all E. sakazakii strains were eliminated. In contrast, desiccation substantially increased the resistance of E. sakazakii strains to ionizing radiation. Although the D-value for E. sakazakii IMF1 following overnight storage in PIMF was 0.98 kGy, > 4 kGy was required to kill 1.5 log/g of the same strain that had survived 12 months in dry PIMF. Results suggested that low-dose irradiation will more effectively eliminate E. sakazakii from PIMF if the treatment is applied shortly after PIMF manufacture.

  2. Physicochemical behavior of oil-in-water emulsions: influence of milk protein mixtures, glycerol ester mixtures and fat characteristics.

    PubMed

    Granger, C; Barey, P; Veschambre, P; Cansell, M

    2005-05-25

    Different emulsions based on two protein mixtures (skim milk powder (SMP) and functional dairy proteins (FDP)), two mono-di-glyceride mixtures (MDG) (saturated and partially unsaturated), three fats (hydrogenated and refined coconut oils and refined palm oil) were studied to investigate the interactions occurring between the oil phase, low molecular weight emulsifiers and proteins. Immediately following the emulsification process, high diameters of fat globules were obtained in FDP-based systems, relevant of an aggregation phenomenon. At this stage, the fat globule size characteristics were dependent on the emulsifier and fat types present in the formulation. In contrast, SMP-based emulsions were characterized by low proportions of aggregated particles regardless the formulations. Ageing (24 h at 4 degrees C) promoted disaggregation in FDP formulations, while SMP emulsions were well stabilized. Just after the homogenization step, less proteins were required to stabilize the globule interface in FDP systems as compared to SMP ones. Only with SMP, the amount of protein load at the fat globule surface was influenced by the oil nature and/or by the emulsifier type. A competitive adsorption of caseins, over whey proteins, was demonstrated in the case of FDP. The ageing period promoted a displacement of the proteins adsorbed at the oil droplet interface, suggesting a disruption of the interfacial protein interactions. This disruption was more marked with SMP than with FDP and, in both cases, was more or less influenced by the emulsifier and oil phase natures. The variations of the viscosity and rheological parameters (elastic and viscous moduli) were not dependent on one specific component of the formulation. PMID:15893224

  3. Electrolyte-free milk protein solution influences sodium and fluid retention in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Kengo; Kato, Yoshiho; Usami, Ayako; Yamada, Mari; Yamamura, Asuka; Fushiki, Tohru; Seyama, Yousuke

    2013-01-01

    Milk is an effective post-exercise rehydration drink that maintains the net positive fluid balance. However, it is unclear which components are responsible for this effect. We assessed the effect of milk protein solution (MPS) obtained by dialysis on body fluid retention. Milk, MPS, milk electrolyte solution (MES), sports drink and water were administered to male Wistar rats at a dose of 6 ml/rat after treadmill exercise. Total body fluid retention was assessed by urine volume 4 h after administration of hydrating liquids. The rate of gastric emptying was evaluated by a tracer method using (13)C-labelled acetate. Plasma osmolality, Na and K levels, and urinary Na and K were measured by HPLC and osmometry, respectively. The gastric emptying rate was not delayed by MPS. During 4 h of rehydration, cumulative urine volumes differed significantly between treatment groups (P < 0·05) with 4·9, 2·2 and 3·4 ml from water-, milk- and MPS-fed rats, respectively. Thus, MPS elicited 50 % of the total body fluid retention of milk. Plasma aldosterone levels were significantly higher in MPS- and milk-fed rats compared with water-fed rats. Plasma osmolality was maintained at higher levels in MPS-fed rats than in water- and MES-fed rats (P < 0·05). Cumulative urine Na excretion was also suppressed in the milk- and MPS-fed groups compared with the MES-fed group. Our results demonstrate that MPS obtained by dialysis clearly affects net body water balance without affecting gastric emptying after exercise. This effect was attributed to retention of Na and water, and maintenance of plasma osmolality.

  4. Severe Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome to Cow's Milk in Infants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Geng, Lanlan; Xu, Zhaohui; Chen, Peiyu; Friesen, Craig A; Gong, Sitang; Li, Ding-You

    2015-12-22

    Cow's milk is the most common cause of food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES). The aim of this study was to examine the clinical features and treatment outcomes of infants with severe FPIES to cow's milk. We reviewed all infants ≤ 12 months of age who were hospitalized and diagnosed with severe FPIES to cow's milk between 1 January 2011 and 31 August 2014 in a tertiary Children's Medical Center in China. Patients' clinical features, feeding patterns, laboratory tests, and treatment outcomes were reviewed. A total of 12 infants met the inclusion criteria. All infants presented with diarrhea, edema, and hypoalbuminemia. Other main clinical manifestations included regurgitation/vomiting, skin rashes, low-grade fever, bloody and/or mucous stools, abdominal distention, and failure to thrive. They had clinical remission with resolution of diarrhea and significant increase of serum albumin after elimination of cow's milk protein (CMP) from the diet. The majority of infants developed tolerance to the CMP challenge test after 12 months of avoidance. In conclusion, we reported the clinical experience of 12 infants with severe FPIES to cow's milk, which resulted in malnutrition, hypoproteinemia, and failure to thrive. Prompt treatment with CMP-free formula is effective and leads to clinical remission of FPIES in infants.

  5. Severe Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome to Cow’s Milk in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Geng, Lanlan; Xu, Zhaohui; Chen, Peiyu; Friesen, Craig A.; Gong, Sitang; Li, Ding-You

    2015-01-01

    Cow’s milk is the most common cause of food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES). The aim of this study was to examine the clinical features and treatment outcomes of infants with severe FPIES to cow’s milk. We reviewed all infants ≤12 months of age who were hospitalized and diagnosed with severe FPIES to cow’s milk between 1 January 2011 and 31 August 2014 in a tertiary Children’s Medical Center in China. Patients’ clinical features, feeding patterns, laboratory tests, and treatment outcomes were reviewed. A total of 12 infants met the inclusion criteria. All infants presented with diarrhea, edema, and hypoalbuminemia. Other main clinical manifestations included regurgitation/vomiting, skin rashes, low-grade fever, bloody and/or mucous stools, abdominal distention, and failure to thrive. They had clinical remission with resolution of diarrhea and significant increase of serum albumin after elimination of cow’s milk protein (CMP) from the diet. The majority of infants developed tolerance to the CMP challenge test after 12 months of avoidance. In conclusion, we reported the clinical experience of 12 infants with severe FPIES to cow’s milk, which resulted in malnutrition, hypoproteinemia, and failure to thrive. Prompt treatment with CMP-free formula is effective and leads to clinical remission of FPIES in infants. PMID:26703722

  6. Effects of dietary cottonseed oil and tannin supplements on protein and fatty acid composition of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Aprianita, Aprianita; Donkor, Osaana N; Moate, Peter J; Williams, S Richard O; Auldist, Martin J; Greenwood, Jae S; Hannah, Murray C; Wales, William J; Vasiljevic, Todor

    2014-05-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diets supplemented with cottonseed oil, Acacia mearnsii-condensed tannin extract, and a combination of both on composition of bovine milk. Treatment diets included addition of cottonseed oil (800 g/d; CSO), condensed tannin from Acacia mearnsii (400 g/d; TAN) or a combination of cottonseed oil (800 g/d) and condensed tannin (400 g/d; CPT) with a diet consisting of 6·0 kg dry matter (DM) of concentrates and alfalfa hay ad libitum, which also served as the control diet (CON). Relative to the CON diet, feeding CSO and CPT diets had a minor impact on feed intake and yield of lactose in milk. These diets increased yields of milk and protein in milk. In contrast to the TAN diet, the CSO and CPT diets significantly decreased milk fat concentration and altered milk fatty acid composition by decreasing the proportion of saturated fatty acids but increasing proportions of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The CPT diet had a similar effect to the CSO diet in modifying fatty acid profile. Overall, reduction in milk fat concentration and changes in milk fatty acid profile were probably due to supplementation of linoleic acid-rich cottonseed oil. The TAN diet had no effect on feed intake, milk yield and milk protein concentration. However, a reduction in the yields of protein and lactose occurred when cows were fed this diet. Supplemented tannin had no significant effect on fat concentration and changes in fatty acid profile in milk. All supplemented diets did not affect protein concentration or composition, nitrogen concentration, or casein to total protein ratio of the resulting milk.

  7. Growth and plasma amino acid concentrations in very low birthweight infants fed either human milk protein fortified human milk or a whey-predominant formula.

    PubMed

    Moro, G; Fulconis, F; Minoli, I; Pohlandt, F; Räihä, N

    1989-01-01

    In a prospective, study involving 20 VLBW-infants (AGA), divided into two study groups of 10 infants, we have evaluated the effects on growth and metabolism of human milk fortified with ultrafiltrated human milk protein and a whey-predominant (whey/casein = 60/40) formula containing 2 g/dl of protein. The study was initiated at a mean age of 30 days when an oral intake of 180 ml/kg/d was tolerated and continued until a weight of 2 kg was reached. The protein intake in both groups was about 3.7 g/kg/d. All infants in both groups reached intrauterine rates of growth for the age, weight gain 18.0 g/kg/d, and length 1.2 cm/week. BUN, acid-base status, total protein and albumin were normal and similar in the two groups. Plasma levels of threonine, glycine, citrulline and methionine were significantly greater in the formula-fed infants. Taurine and proline had higher concentrations in the protein fortified human milk group. There was good tolerance of protein from both sources but the differences in plasma amino acid profiles suggest that the dietary protein quality in formulas for preterm infants must be further modified, if the goal of formula feeding is to achieve metabolic indices of protein metabolism similar to those found when human milk protein is used.

  8. Proteolytic activity of Enterococcus faecalis VB63F for reduction of allergenicity of bovine milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Biscola, V; Tulini, F L; Choiset, Y; Rabesona, H; Ivanova, I; Chobert, J-M; Todorov, S D; Haertlé, T; Franco, B D G M

    2016-07-01

    With the aim of screening proteolytic strains of lactic acid bacteria to evaluate their potential for the reduction of allergenicity of the major bovine milk proteins, we isolated a new proteolytic strain of Enterococcus faecalis (Ent. faecalis VB63F) from raw bovine milk. The proteases produced by this strain had strong activity against caseins (αS1-, αS2-, and β-casein), in both skim milk and sodium caseinate. However, only partial hydrolysis of whey proteins was observed. Proteolysis of Na-caseinate and whey proteins, observed after sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, was confirmed by analysis of peptide profiles by reversed-phase HPLC. Inhibition of proteolysis with EDTA indicated that the proteases produced by Ent. faecalis VB63F belonged to the group of metalloproteases. The optimal conditions for their activity were 42°C and pH 6.5. The majority of assessed virulence genes were absent in Ent. faecalis VB63F. The obtained results suggest that Ent. faecalis VB63F could be efficient in reducing the immunoreactivity of bovine milk proteins. PMID:27179865

  9. Effects of Different Protein Supplements on Milk Production and Nutrient Utilization in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen (8 ruminally cannulated) multiparous and 8 primiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in 6 replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares to test the effects of feeding supplemental protein as urea, solvent soybean meal (SSBM), cottonseed meal (CSM), or canola meal (CM) on milk production, nutrient utili...

  10. Amaltheys: A fluorescence-based analyzer to assess cheese milk denatured whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Lacotte, Pierre; Gomez, Franck; Bardeau, Floriane; Muller, Sabine; Acharid, Abdelhaq; Quervel, Xavier; Trossat, Philippe; Birlouez-Aragon, Inès

    2015-10-01

    The cheese industry faces many challenges to optimize cheese yield and quality. A very precise standardization of the cheese milk is needed, which is achieved by a fine control of the process and milk composition. Thorough analysis of protein composition is important to determine the amount of protein that will be retained in the curd or lost in the whey. The fluorescence-based Amaltheys analyzer (Spectralys Innovation, Romainville, France) was developed to assess pH 4.6-soluble heat-sensitive whey proteins (sWP*) in 5 min. These proteins are those that can be denatured upon heat-treatment and further retained in the curd after coagulation. Monitoring of sWP* in milk and subsequent adaptation of the process is a reliable solution to achieve stable cheese yield and quality. Performance of the method was evaluated by an accredited laboratory on a 0 to 7 g/L range. Accuracy compared with the reference Kjeldahl method is also provided with a standard error of 0.25 g/L. Finally, a 4-mo industrial trial in a cheese plant is described, where Amaltheys was used as a process analytical technology to monitor sWP* content in ingredients and final cheese milk. Calibration models over quality parameters of final cheese were also built from near-infrared and fluorescence spectroscopic data. The Amaltheys analyzer was found to be a rapid, compact, and accurate device to help implementation of standardization procedures in the dairy industry.

  11. Low levels of aflatoxin B1, ricin and milk enhance recombinant protein production in mammalian cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changing the optimal tissue culture medium by adding low levels of environmental stress such as 1 µM of the fungal toxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), 1 ng of the castor bean protein toxin ricin in transduced mammalian cells or 1% reconstituted milk enhances transcription and increases production of the foll...

  12. Minor component effects on the determination of fat, protein, and lactose in milk by FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hop, E.; Lutz, E. T.; Luinge, Hendrik J.; de Jong, E. A.; van Hemert, H. A.

    1994-01-01

    The determination of fat, protein and lactose in milk by infrared spectrometry may be affected by the presence of minor components absorbing in interfering spectral regions. The size of these effects is reported. Also, analyses with conventional filter infrared spectrometers are compared with newly developed FT-IR based methods in combination with multivariate calibration techniques.

  13. Milk proteins-derived bioactive peptides in dairy products: molecular, biological and methodological aspects.

    PubMed

    Dziuba, Bartłomiej; Dziuba, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Proteins are one of the primary components of the food, both in terms of nutrition and function. They are main source of amino acids, essential for synthesis of proteins, and also source of energy. Additionally, many proteins exhibit specific biological activities, which may have effect on functional or pro-health properties of food products. These proteins and their hydrolysis products, peptides, may influence the properties of food and human organism. The number of commercially available food products containing bioactive peptides is very low, apart from that milk proteins are their rich source. It could be supposed that number of available products with declared activity will rise in near future because of observed strong uptrend on interest in such products. Molecular and biological properties of milk proteins, as precursors of bioactive peptides was characterised in the work. Therefore, the strategy of research and obtaining of such peptides both in laboratory and industrial scale, as well as the range of their commercial application, was presented. Several examples of research efforts presenting high potential to develop new products containing bioactive peptides from milk proteins and predetermined as nutraceuticals was described.

  14. Rheological, physical and sensorial evaluation of cookies supplemented with dairy powders.

    PubMed

    Sert, Durmuş; Demir, M Kürşat; Ertaş, Nilgün

    2016-04-01

    The effect of dairy powders (skim milk powder, butter milk powder, sodium caseinate, yoghurt powder, milk powder and colostrum powder) on cookie quality was studied. Cookies were tested for aw, calorimetric energy, diameter, thickness, spread ratio, breaking strength, colour, dough consistency and sensory evaluation. The lowest aw values were obtained for cookies containing colostrum powder; also the highest calorimetric energy values were obtained from the colostrum powder-added cookies. Diameter values of cookies with the addition of skim milk powder, butter milk powder, yoghurt powder and milk powder were higher than that of sodium caseinate and colostrum powder. The lowest spread ratio was measured in the cookie samples with added skim milk powder. The addition of yoghurt powder gave the highest breaking strength of cookies. Cookies with sodium caseinate addition exhibited the highest lightness (L*) values than the other cookies with different dairy powders. Cookies prepared with butter milk powder received the highest scores for colour, appearance, texture, crispness and overall acceptability.

  15. The impact of genetic polymorphisms on the protein composition of ruminant milks.

    PubMed

    Martin, Patrice; Szymanowska, Małgorzata; Zwierzchowski, Lech; Leroux, Christine

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to give an overview of our current knowledge on the polymorphisms occurring in genes coding for milk proteins and responsible for quantitative variability in their expression, thus influencing the protein composition of livestock ruminant milk. The overall genomic organisation of the 6 main ruminant milk protein genes: alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin and the four caseins (alpha(s1), alpha(s2), beta and kappa), their chromosomal location and their expression pattern are first summarised before presenting general mechanisms controlling gene expression both at the transcriptional and the post-transcriptional levels. Polymorphisms found in cis-regulatory elements, mainly within the 5'-flanking region of the genes encoding beta-lactoglobulin and alpha(s1)- and alpha(s2)-caseins, have been found, in cattle, to influence their transcription rate. In addition, polymorphisms found in the transcription unit, within intron as well as exon sequences, have been shown to be responsible for defects in the processing of primary transcripts and/or the export of messenger RNA to the cytoplasm. Mutations responsible for the occurrence of premature stop codons in alpha(s1)- and beta-casein mRNAs have been shown to be associated both with a decrease in the level of the relevant transcripts and the existence of multiple forms of messengers due to alternative splicing (exon skipping, usage of cryptic splice sites). Such a situation, well-exemplified by the gene encoding alpha(s1)-casein in the goat, may have dramatic biological consequences (secretion pathway, casein micelle structure, fat content, etc.) by modifying the message and accordingly the primary structure of the protein as well as its expression. Since some of these polymorphisms dramatically affect technological properties of milk, including cheese yields and organoleptic characteristics, methods mainly based on the PCR technique have been designed and applied in selection and breeding

  16. Evaluation of bromine and iodine content of milk whey proteins combining digestion by microwave-induced combustion and ICP-MS determination.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Sabrina Vieira; Picoloto, Rochele Sogari; Flores, Erico Marlon Moraes; Wagner, Roger; dos Santos Richards, Neila Silvia Pereira; Barin, Juliano Smanioto

    2016-01-01

    The bromine and iodine content of whey protein concentrate (WPC), hydrolysate (WPH), and isolate (WPI) was evaluated combining microwave-induced combustion (MIC) digestion with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) determination. MIC digestion allowed the decomposition of up to 500 mg of samples using diluted NH4OH solution (25 mmol L(-1)) for absorption of analytes, assuring the compatibility with ICP-MS determination. Accuracy was evaluated using milk powder certified reference material (NIST 8435) with good agreements for Br and I (102% and 105%, respectively). For Br and I, the limit of quantification obtained by ICP-MS was 7 and 281 times lower in comparison with ion chromatography determination, respectively. Iodine could be enriched in whey protein production and up to 70% of the tolerable upper intake level was found, thus revealing the need to monitor it in whey proteins. On the other hand, the concentration of Br was below its acceptable daily intake.

  17. Milk digesta and milk protein fractions influence the adherence of Lactobacillus gasseri R and Lactobacillus casei FMP to human cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Volstatova, Tereza; Havlik, Jaroslav; Potuckova, Miroslava; Geigerova, Martina

    2016-08-10

    Adhesion to the intestinal epithelium is considered an important feature of probiotic bacteria, which may increase their persistence in the intestine, allowing them to exert their beneficial health effect or promote the colonisation process. However, this feature might be largely dependent on the host specificity or diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of selected milks and milk protein fractions on the ability of selected lactobacilli to adhere to the cells of an intestinal model based on co-culture Caco-2/HT29-MTX cell lines. Most milk digesta did not significantly affect bacterial adhesion except for UHT-treated milk and sheep milk. The presence of UHT-treated milk digesta reduced the adhesion of Lactobacillus gasseri R by 61% but not that of Lactobacillus casei FMP. However, sheep milk significantly increased the adherence of L. casei FMP (P < 0.05) but not of L. gasseri R. Among the protein fractions, rennet casein (RCN) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) showed reproducible patterns and strain-specific effects on bacterial adherence. While RCN reduced the adherence of L. gasseri R to <50% compared to the control, it did not have a significant effect on L. casei FMP. In contrast, BSA reduced L. casei FMP adherence to a higher extent than that of L. gasseri R. Whey protein (WH) tended to increase the adherence of both strains by 130%-180%. Recently, interactions between the host diet and its microbiota have attracted considerable interest. Our results may explain one of the aspects of the role of milk in the development of microbiota or support of probiotic supplements. Based on our data, we conclude that the persistence of probiotic strains supplemented as part of dairy food or constitutional microbiota in the gut might be affected negatively or positively by the food matrix through complex strain or concentration dependent effects. PMID:27435508

  18. Milk digesta and milk protein fractions influence the adherence of Lactobacillus gasseri R and Lactobacillus casei FMP to human cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Volstatova, Tereza; Havlik, Jaroslav; Potuckova, Miroslava; Geigerova, Martina

    2016-08-10

    Adhesion to the intestinal epithelium is considered an important feature of probiotic bacteria, which may increase their persistence in the intestine, allowing them to exert their beneficial health effect or promote the colonisation process. However, this feature might be largely dependent on the host specificity or diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of selected milks and milk protein fractions on the ability of selected lactobacilli to adhere to the cells of an intestinal model based on co-culture Caco-2/HT29-MTX cell lines. Most milk digesta did not significantly affect bacterial adhesion except for UHT-treated milk and sheep milk. The presence of UHT-treated milk digesta reduced the adhesion of Lactobacillus gasseri R by 61% but not that of Lactobacillus casei FMP. However, sheep milk significantly increased the adherence of L. casei FMP (P < 0.05) but not of L. gasseri R. Among the protein fractions, rennet casein (RCN) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) showed reproducible patterns and strain-specific effects on bacterial adherence. While RCN reduced the adherence of L. gasseri R to <50% compared to the control, it did not have a significant effect on L. casei FMP. In contrast, BSA reduced L. casei FMP adherence to a higher extent than that of L. gasseri R. Whey protein (WH) tended to increase the adherence of both strains by 130%-180%. Recently, interactions between the host diet and its microbiota have attracted considerable interest. Our results may explain one of the aspects of the role of milk in the development of microbiota or support of probiotic supplements. Based on our data, we conclude that the persistence of probiotic strains supplemented as part of dairy food or constitutional microbiota in the gut might be affected negatively or positively by the food matrix through complex strain or concentration dependent effects.

  19. Genetic parameters for milk, fat and protein yields in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis Artiodactyla, Bovidae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for test-day milk, fat and protein yields and 305-day-yields in Murrah buffaloes. 4,757 complete lactations of Murrah buffaloes were analyzed. Co-variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method. The models included additive direct genetic and permanent environmental effects as random effects, and the fixed effects of contemporary group, milking number and age of the cow at calving as linear and quadratic covariables. Contemporary groups were defined by herd-year-month of test for test-day yields and by herd-year-season of calving for 305-day yields. The heritability estimates obtained by two-trait analysis ranged from 0.15 to 0.24 for milk, 0.16 to 0.23 for protein and 0.13 to 0.22 for fat, yields. Genetic and phenotypic correlations were all positive. The observed population additive genetic variation indicated that selection might be an effective tool in changing population means in milk, fat and protein yields. PMID:21637608

  20. Study of the protein-bound fraction of calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc in bovine milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Fernando V.; Lopes, Gisele S.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.; Souza, Gilberto B.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.

    2001-10-01

    Two approaches were used to study the interaction of Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn with bovine milk proteins by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES). Selective separations in bovine milk samples were accomplished employing an acid protein precipitation using 100 g l -1 trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and an enzymatic protein hydrolysis using 50 g l -1 pepsin (PEP) solution, respectively. The results were compared with total mineral contents determined after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The results obtained by enzymatic and acid precipitation evidenced the different interaction forms of Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn in the system formed by milk components. Iron was not solubilized by the TCA treatment, but was recovered completely after the enzymatic treatment. Quantitative recoveries of Ca, Mg and Zn were obtained using both approaches, showing that these analytes were bound to milk compounds affected by either treatment. Calcium, Mg and Zn are mainly associated with colloidal calcium phosphate and Fe is bound to the backbone of the casein polypeptide chain, cleaved by pepsin enzyme. The proposed approaches could be used to assess the complexity of these chemical interactions.

  1. Cow's milk protein allergy and other food hypersensitivities in infants.

    PubMed

    Venter, Carina

    2009-01-01

    Food hypersensitivity (FHS) is the umbrella term used to describe both food allergy, which involves the immune system, and food intolerances, which do not. It is therefore important that the diagnosis is made by a specialist health care professional such as a paediatrician or allergist. Some experienced dietitians and health visitors may be able to assist in making a diagnosis. The diagnostic work-up includes a medical history and blood tests/skin tests (where applicable). A food and symptom diary followed by a special test diet to identify the foods causing the infant's symptoms may also be needed. Once a diagnosis is made, dietary advice should be given to eliminate or reduce the intake of the offending foods. For cow's milk hypersensitivity in infants, this will include choosing the most appropriate specialised infant formula. PMID:19953752

  2. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  3. Increased Milk Protein Concentration in a Rehydration Drink Enhances Fluid Retention Caused by Water Reabsorption in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kentaro; Saito, Yuri; Ashida, Kinya; Yamaji, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Oda, Munehiro

    2015-01-01

    A fluid-retention effect is required for beverages that are designed to prevent dehydration. That is, fluid absorbed from the intestines should not be excreted quickly; long-term retention is desirable. Here, we focused on the effect of milk protein on fluid retention, and propose a new effective oral rehydration method that can be used daily for preventing dehydration. We first evaluated the effects of different concentrations of milk protein on fluid retention by measuring the urinary volumes of rats fed fluid containing milk protein at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10%. We next compared the fluid-retention effect of milk protein-enriched drink (MPD) with those of distilled water (DW) and a sports drink (SD) by the same method. Third, to investigate the mechanism of fluid retention, we measured plasma insulin changes in rats after ingesting these three drinks. We found that the addition of milk protein at 5 or 10% reduced urinary volume in a dose-dependent manner. Ingestion of the MPD containing 4.6% milk protein resulted in lower urinary volumes than DW and SD. MPD also showed a higher water reabsorption rate in the kidneys and higher concentrations of plasma insulin than DW and SD. These results suggest that increasing milk protein concentration in a beverage enhances fluid retention, which may allow the possibility to develop rehydration beverages that are more effective than SDs. In addition, insulin-modifying renal water reabsorption may contribute to the fluid-retention effect of MPD.

  4. Increased Milk Protein Concentration in a Rehydration Drink Enhances Fluid Retention Caused by Water Reabsorption in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kentaro; Saito, Yuri; Ashida, Kinya; Yamaji, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Oda, Munehiro

    2015-01-01

    A fluid-retention effect is required for beverages that are designed to prevent dehydration. That is, fluid absorbed from the intestines should not be excreted quickly; long-term retention is desirable. Here, we focused on the effect of milk protein on fluid retention, and propose a new effective oral rehydration method that can be used daily for preventing dehydration. We first evaluated the effects of different concentrations of milk protein on fluid retention by measuring the urinary volumes of rats fed fluid containing milk protein at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10%. We next compared the fluid-retention effect of milk protein-enriched drink (MPD) with those of distilled water (DW) and a sports drink (SD) by the same method. Third, to investigate the mechanism of fluid retention, we measured plasma insulin changes in rats after ingesting these three drinks. We found that the addition of milk protein at 5 or 10% reduced urinary volume in a dose-dependent manner. Ingestion of the MPD containing 4.6% milk protein resulted in lower urinary volumes than DW and SD. MPD also showed a higher water reabsorption rate in the kidneys and higher concentrations of plasma insulin than DW and SD. These results suggest that increasing milk protein concentration in a beverage enhances fluid retention, which may allow the possibility to develop rehydration beverages that are more effective than SDs. In addition, insulin-modifying renal water reabsorption may contribute to the fluid-retention effect of MPD. PMID:26235579

  5. Chemical characteristics and enhanced hepatoprotective activities of Maillard reaction products derived from milk protein-sugar system.

    PubMed

    Oh, Nam Su; Young Lee, Ji; Lee, Hyun Ah; Joung, Jae Yeon; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Sae Hun; Kim, Younghoon; Lee, Kwang Won

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics, antioxidative properties, and hepatoprotective effects of Maillard reaction products (MRP) from milk protein reacted with sugars. The MRP were obtained from milk protein, whey protein concentrates and sodium caseinate, using 2 types of sugars, lactose and glucose, by heating the mixture at 55°C for 7d in a sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Changes in the chemical modification of the milk protein were monitored by measuring the protein-bound carbonyls and PAGE protein profiles. The results showed that the amount of protein-bound carbonyls increased after Maillard reaction (MR). In addition, sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE analysis indicated a formation of high-molecular weight complexes through MR. The modification sites induced by MR of milk protein were monitored by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of tryptic-digested gel spots of MRP. As a result, modification and their localization in AA sequence of MRP was identified. Also, the MRP showed higher antioxidant activities than the intact milk protein, and they reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species production and inhibited the depletion of the reduced glutathione concentrations in the HepG2 cells. In particular, glucose-sodium caseinate MRP showed the highest biological activities among all MRP. Therefore, these results suggest that the MRP from milk protein reacting with sugars possess effective antioxidant activity and have a protective ability against oxidative damage.

  6. Influences of different thermal processings in milk, bovine meat and frog protein structure.

    PubMed

    Coura Oliveira, Tatiana; Lopes Lima, Samuel; Bressan, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have associated the digestibility of proteins to its imunogenic potential. Though, it was objectified to evaluate the impact of the thermal processing with high and low temperatures on the proteins structure of three types of foods, by means of the digestibility in vitro and electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida. The pasteurize was observed in such a way, firing 95 ºC during 15 minutes, how much freeze dried causes qualitative and quantitative modifications of constituent proteins of the food. The most sensible proteins to the increasing thermal processing order were beef, frog meat, and the last, cow milk.

  7. Association of milk protein genes with fertilization rate and early embryonic development in Holstein dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Peñagaricano, Francisco; Khatib, Hasan

    2012-02-01

    Concomitant with intensive selection for increased milk yield, reproductive performance of dairy cows has declined in the last decades, in part due to an unfavourable genetic relationship between these traits. Given that the six main milk protein genes (i.e. whey proteins and caseins) are directly involved in milk production and hence have been a target of the strong selection aimed at improving milk yield in dairy cattle, we hypothesized that these genes could show selection footprints associated with fertility traits. In this study, we used an in-vitro fertilization (IVF) system to test genetic association between 66 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the four caseins (αS1-casein, αS2-casein, β-casein and κ-casein) and the two whey protein genes (α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin) with fertilization rate and early embryonic development in the Holstein breed. A total of 6893 in-vitro fertilizations were performed and a total of 4661 IVF embryos were produced using oocytes from 399 ovaries and semen samples from 12 bulls. Associations between SNPs and fertility traits were analysed using a mixed linear model with genotype as fixed effect and ovary and bull as random effects. A multiple testing correction approach was used to account for the correlation between SNPs due to linkage disequilibrium. After correction, polymorphisms in the LALBA and LGB genes showed significant associations with fertilization success and blastocyst rate. No significant associations were detected between SNPs located in the casein region and IVF fertility traits. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the association between whey protein genes and fertility have not yet been characterized, this study provides the first evidence of association between these genes and fertility traits. Furthermore, these results could shed light on the antagonistic relationship that exists between milk yield and fertility in dairy cattle.

  8. Separation of recombinant human protein C from transgenic animal milk using immobilized metal affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dalton, J C; Bruley, D F; Kang, K A; Drohan, W N

    1997-01-01

    Protein C is an important serine protease due to its ability to proteolytically cleave activated Factors V and VIII. Excess coagulation and blood agglutination can lead to plugged capillaries, thereby reducing oxygen transport to interstitial tissues. To treat patients with hereditary and acquired protein C deficiency would require a greater amount of Protein C than that available from human plasma. However, the potential demand for this protein could be met by the production of human protein C from transgenic animal mammary glands. Thus, research into inexpensive, efficient methods to purify proteins from transgenic animal milk will be a critical area of study for the large scale production of protein C. Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) is a novel method for the purification of protein C. A proposed method of purification is to take advantage of protein C's strong metal ion binding characteristics with IMAC to assist in the separation from transgenic animal milk. The separation procedure is benchmarked against current systems in use by the American Red Cross for purification of Protein C from transgenic porcine milk. Common problems in developing separation schemes for new therapeutics are the initial availability of the product (protein), and time-to-market concerns. Extensive experimental tests for scaleable purification schemes are often cost and time prohibitive. In order to optimize an IMAC protocol with minimal waste of time and resources, total quality management tools have been adopted. Initial experiments were designed to choose buffer conditions, eluents, immobilized valence metals, and flow rates using Taguchi experimental design, which is a total quality management (TQM) tool. One of the values of Taguchi methods lies in the use of Latin orthogonal sets. Through the use of the orthogonal sets, the total number of experiments may be reduced, shortening the focus time on optimal conditions.

  9. The effect of high and low levels of supplementation on milk production, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and milk protein fractions in late-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Reid, M; O'Donovan, M; Murphy, J P; Fleming, C; Kennedy, E; Lewis, E

    2015-08-01

    To fill the feed deficit in the autumn/late lactation period in a seasonal grazing system, supplementation is required. This study aimed to investigate the use of baled grass silage or concentrate as supplementation to grazing dairy cows in late lactation. Eighty-four grass-based spring-calving dairy cows, averaging 212d in milk, were allocated to 1 of 6 treatments [high grass allowance (HG), low grass allowance (LG), grass with a low concentrate allocation (GCL), grass with a low grass silage allocation (GSL), grass with a high concentrate allocation (GCH), and grass with a high grass silage allocation (GSH)] to measure the effects of using baled grass silage or concentrate as supplements to grazed grass. Effects on intake, milk yield, milk composition and N fractions, and N utilization efficiency were measured. Treatments HG and LG received 17 and 14kg of dry matter (DM) grass/cow per d, respectively. Treatments GCL and GSL were offered 14kg of DM grass/cow per d and 3kg of DM of supplementation/cow per d. Treatments GCH and GSH were offered 11kg of DM grass/cow per d and 6kg of DM of supplementation/cow per d. Milk yield was greatest in the GCH treatment and milk solids yield was greatest in both concentrate-supplemented treatments. The HG and LG treatments excreted a greater quantity of N as a proportion of N intake than the supplemented treatments. The HG treatment also excreted the greatest total quantity of N. This indicates an improvement in N utilization efficiency when supplementation is offered compared with grazing only. Offering 6kg of DM of either grass silage or concentrate as supplementation decreased milk true protein concentration compared with offering a grass-only diet. This suggests that increasing the proportion of supplementation relative to grass may negatively affect milk processability, which is associated with milk true protein concentration.

  10. Long-term effects of ad libitum whole milk prior to weaning and prepubertal protein supplementation on skeletal growth rate and first-lactation milk production.

    PubMed

    Moallem, U; Werner, D; Lehrer, H; Zachut, M; Livshitz, L; Yakoby, S; Shamay, A

    2010-06-01

    Our objectives were to determine the effects of rapid growth rate during the preweaning period and prepubertal protein supplementation on long-term growth pattern and milk production during the first lactation. Forty-six Israeli Holstein heifer calves were fed either milk replacer (MR) or whole milk (WM) from 4 to 60 d age. Calves had free access to WM or MR for 30 min twice daily and free-choice water and starter mix for the entire day. From weaning until 150 d of age, all heifers were fed the same ration. At 150 d of age the heifers were divided into 2 subgroups, with one subgroup supplemented with an additional 2% protein until 320 d of age. Thereafter, all heifers were housed and fed together until calving. Another cluster of 20 heifers was raised on MR and WM treatments and 3 animals from each nursery treatment were slaughtered at 60 d and 10 mo age to determine effects of nursery treatment on organ and adipose tissue mass. Prior to weaning, the MR heifers consumed 0.12 kg/d more DM than the WM heifers, but metabolizable energy intake was not different. Body weight at weaning and average daily gain during the preweaning period were 3.1 kg and 0.074 kg/d higher, respectively, in the WM treatment than in the MR treatment, with no differences in other measurements. Nursery feeding treatment and added protein had no effect on growth rate in the prepubertal period, but the postweaning difference in BW between the WM and MR heifers remained throughout the entire rearing period. The age at first insemination was 23 d earlier and age at pregnancy and first calving was numerically lower for the WM heifers than for the MR heifers. Adipose tissue weights at weaning were doubled in the WM calves. First-lactation milk production and 4% fat-corrected milk were 10.3 and 7.1% higher, respectively, for WM heifers than for MR heifers, whereas prepubertal added protein tended to increase milk yield. In conclusion, preweaning WM at high feeding rates appears to have long

  11. Evaluation of microchip material and surface treatment options for IEF of allergenic milk proteins on microchips.

    PubMed

    Poitevin, Martine; Shakalisava, Yuliya; Miserere, Sandrine; Peltre, Gabriel; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Descroix, Stephanie

    2009-12-01

    The use of glass and PDMS microchips has been investigated to perform rapid and efficient separation of allergenic whey proteins by IEF. To decrease EOF and to limit protein adsorption, two coating procedures have been compared. The first one consists in immobilizing hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and the second one poly(dimethylacrylamide-co-allyl glycidyl ether) (PDMA-AGE). EOF limitation has been evaluated using frontal electrophoresis of a fluorescent marker of known effective mobility. EOF velocity was decreased by a factor about 100 and 30, respectively. pH gradient formation has been evaluated for each microchip using fluorescent pI markers. It was demonstrated that as expected a coating was essential to avoid pH gradient drift. Both coatings were efficient on glass microchips, but only PDMA-AGE allowed satisfying focusing of pI markers on PDMS microchips. Fluorescent covalent and noncovalent labelings of milk proteins have been compared by IEF on slab-gels. IEF separation of three major allergenic whey proteins [beta-lactoglobulin A (pI 5.25) and B (pI 5.35) and alpha-lactalbumin (pI 4.2-4.5)] was performed in both microchips. Milk proteins were separated with better resolution and shorter analysis time than by classical CIEF. Finally, better resolutions for milk allergens separation were obtained on glass microchips.

  12. [Determination of total protein content in soya-bean milk via visual moving reaction boundary titration].

    PubMed

    Guo, Chengye; Wang, Houyu; Zhang, Lei; Fan, Liuyin; Cao, Chengxi

    2013-11-01

    A visual, rapid and accurate moving reaction boundary titration (MRBT) method was used for the determination of the total protein in soya-bean milk. During the process, moving reaction boundary (MRB) was formed by hydroxyl ions in the catholyte and soya-bean milk proteins immobilized in polyacrylamide gel (PAG), and an acid-base indicator was used to denote the boundary motion. The velocity of MRB has a relationship with protein concentration, which was used to obtain a standard curve. By paired t-test, there was no significant difference of the protein content between MRBT and Kjeldahl method at 95% confidence interval. The procedure of MRBT method required about 10 min, and it had linearity in the range of 2.0-14.0 g/L, low limit of detection (0.05 g/L), good precision (RSD of intra-day < 1.90% and inter-day < 4.39%), and high recoveries (97.41%-99.91%). In addition, non-protein nitrogen (NPN) such as melamine added into the soya-bean milk had weak influence on MRBT results.

  13. Supporting Production of Milk and Milk Components on Low Protein Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is increasing interest in minimizing crude protein (CP) content of diets fed to dairy cows to reduce production costs and to improve environmental sustainability. Dietary CP not utilized for production is lost largely in the urine, the most polluting form of excretory nitrogen (N). Because mic...

  14. Selenium content of milk and milk products of Turkey. II.

    PubMed

    Yanardağ, R; Orak, H

    1999-04-01

    Selenium content of 1028 milk and milk products of Turkey are presented in this study. The selenium content of human milk (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk), various kinds of milk [cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, paper boxes (3%, 1.5%, 0.012% fat), bottled milk, condensed milk (10% fat), mineral added milk (1.6%), and banana, strawberry, and chocolate milk] and milk products (kefir, yogurt, Ayran, various cheese, coffee cream, ice cream, butter, margarine, milk powder, and fruit yogurt) in Turkey were determined by a spectrofluorometric method. The selenium levels of cow milks collected from 57 cities in Turkey were also determined. Selenium levels in cow milk varied with geographical location in Turkey and were found to be lowest for Van and highest for Aksaray. The results [milk (cow, sheep, goat, buffalo and human) and milks products] were compared with literature data from different countries.

  15. Effects of calcium soaps and rumen undegradable protein on the milk production and composition of dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Casals, R; Caja, G; Such, X; Torre, C; Calsamiglia, S

    1999-05-01

    Forty-eight Manchega dairy ewes were used during a complete lactation in a 2 x 2 factorial design to determine the effects of supplementing diets with fat (calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids, CSFA) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP) on milk production and composition. Factors tested were amounts of CSFA (0 or 200 g/kg) and RUP (300 or 450 g/kg crude protein) in the concentrate. RUP was altered by adding a mixture of maize gluten meal and blood meal. Lactation was divided into one nursing period (period 1, weeks 1-4), and three milking periods (periods 2-4, weeks 5-8, 9-14 and 15-21). Concentrates were given at 0.8 kg/d during periods 1 and 2, and at 0.6 kg/d in periods 3 and 4. Ewes grazed rotationally in an Italian rye-grass pasture and received a daily supplement of 0.8 kg vetch-oat hay during period 1, and 0.3 kg lucerne hay during periods 2-4. For the whole lactation, supplemental fat markedly increased milk fat content (+23%) and yield (+16%), and decreased milk protein content (-9%). The positive effect of feeding CSFA on milk fat content was more evident at the beginning of lactation; however, its negative effect on milk protein was more pronounced in late lactation. Supplementary RUP had little effect, increasing milk protein content only in period 3, when the crude protein content of pasture was lower. Milk yield and lamb growth were not affected by dietary treatments. The results indicated that CSFA can be useful for increasing the milk fat content of dairy ewes at pasture, which may help farmers to produce milk reaching the minimum requirements of fat content for the cheese industry.

  16. Milk production response to varying protein supply is independent of forage digestibility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Alstrup, L; Weisbjerg, M R; Hymøller, L; Larsen, M K; Lund, P; Nielsen, M O

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this experiment was to examine whether the positive response in milk production to increased crude protein (CP) supply in dairy cows was dependent on the digestibility of the forage. Forty-eight lactating Danish Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 4 rations: (1) high digestibility and high CP concentration (HdHp), (2) high digestibility and low CP concentration (HdLp), (3) low digestibility and high CP concentration (LdHp), and (4) low digestibility and low CP concentration (LdLp). All rations contained 30% corn silage, 25% grass-clover silage, and 45% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Different digestibilities were obtained by replacing a high-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a high-digestible corn silage with a low-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a low-digestible corn silage. Organic matter digestibilities were 79.8 and 74.7% in the high- and low-digestibility rations, respectively. Dietary CP concentration in the ration was increased by substituting barley and sugar beet pulp with rapeseed meal and soybean meal, whereby CP increased from 13.9 to 14.0% (Lp) to 15.7 to 16.0% (Hp). All cows were offered 3 kg of the same concentrate per day in the automatic milking system in addition to the mixed ration. Every feeding period lasted 3 wk, and DM intake and milk yield were measured in the last week in each period, and milk samples for determining milk composition, including fatty acid content, and blood samples were taken during the last 3d of each period. Dry matter intake increased by 2.2 kg/d on Hd compared with Ld and by 0.7 kg/d on Hp compared with Lp. The positive effect on DM intake was reflected in the energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield, as a higher ration digestibility increased the ECM yield by 1.7 kg/d and a higher CP concentration increased it by 1.2 kg/d. We detected no interaction between forage digestibility and CP concentration on milk production. Reduced digestibility was

  17. Technical note: comparing calibration methods for determination of protein in goat milk by ultraviolet spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rukke, E O; Olsen, E F; Devold, T; Vegarud, G; Isaksson, T

    2010-07-01

    A rapid spectroscopic method to determine total protein in bovine and buffalo milk using UV spectra of guanidine-hydrochloride mixed milk has previously been reported and validated. The method was based on mixed calibration samples and univariate calibrations of fourth derivative (4D) spectra. In this study the same method was compared and tested for determination of total protein in goat milk. Calculations based on multivariate calibration (partial least squares regression) on full spectra of goat milk were used. The method was tested on 2 UV instruments. The comparison resulted in a significantly more robust (i.e., better) transferability between UV instruments for the partial least squares regression method on full spectra compared with previous univariate calibration of 4D spectra. Local (1 instrument) calibrations gave similar, significantly not different (chi-squared test) cross-validated prediction error results for the 2 methods. It can be concluded that there is no need for fourth derivation. Partial least squares regression on full spectra was equal or superior to using the 4D spectra.

  18. Technical note: comparing calibration methods for determination of protein in goat milk by ultraviolet spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rukke, E O; Olsen, E F; Devold, T; Vegarud, G; Isaksson, T

    2010-07-01

    A rapid spectroscopic method to determine total protein in bovine and buffalo milk using UV spectra of guanidine-hydrochloride mixed milk has previously been reported and validated. The method was based on mixed calibration samples and univariate calibrations of fourth derivative (4D) spectra. In this study the same method was compared and tested for determination of total protein in goat milk. Calculations based on multivariate calibration (partial least squares regression) on full spectra of goat milk were used. The method was tested on 2 UV instruments. The comparison resulted in a significantly more robust (i.e., better) transferability between UV instruments for the partial least squares regression method on full spectra compared with previous univariate calibration of 4D spectra. Local (1 instrument) calibrations gave similar, significantly not different (chi-squared test) cross-validated prediction error results for the 2 methods. It can be concluded that there is no need for fourth derivation. Partial least squares regression on full spectra was equal or superior to using the 4D spectra. PMID:20630209

  19. Nonculture-based identification of bacteria in milk by protein fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, Juliana Regina; Braga, Patricia Aparecida Campos; Ferreira, Christina Ramires; Kostrzewa, Markus; Maier, Thomas; Wegemann, Beatrix; Böettcher, Viktoria; Eberlin, Marcos N; dos Santos, Marcos Veiga

    2012-08-01

    Traditional methods for bacterial identification include Gram staining, culturing, and biochemical assays for phenotypic characterization of the causative organism. These methods can be time-consuming because they require in vitro cultivation of the microorganisms. Recently, however, it has become possible to obtain chemical profiles for lipids, peptides, and proteins that are present in an intact organism, particularly now that new developments have been made for the efficient ionization of biomolecules. MS has therefore become the state-of-the-art technology for microorganism identification in microbiological clinical diagnosis. Here, we introduce an innovative sample preparation method for nonculture-based identification of bacteria in milk. The technique detects characteristic profiles of intact proteins (mostly ribosomal) with the recently introduced MALDI Sepsityper(TM) Kit followed by MALDI-MS. In combination with a dedicated bioinformatics software tool for databank matching, the method allows for almost real-time and reliable genus and species identification. We demonstrate the sensitivity of this protocol by experimentally contaminating pasteurized and homogenized whole milk samples with bacterial loads of 10(3) -10(8) colony-forming units (cfu) of laboratory strains of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. For milk samples contaminated with a lower bacterial load (10(4) cfu mL(-1) ), bacterial identification could be performed after initial incubation at 37°C for 4 h. The sensitivity of the method may be influenced by the bacterial species and count, and therefore, it must be optimized for the specific application. The proposed use of protein markers for nonculture-based bacterial identification allows for high-throughput detection of pathogens present in milk samples. This method could therefore be useful in the veterinary practice and in the dairy industry, such as for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis and for the

  20. Is caseinomacropeptide from milk proteins, an inhibitor of gastric secretion?

    PubMed

    Guilloteau, Paul; Romé, Véronique; Delaby, Luc; Mendy, François; Roger, Loic; Chayvialle, Jean Alain

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study, in vivo, the effect of the ingestion of not glycosylated caseinomacropeptide (CMP) on gastric secretion. In Experiments #1 and #2, 7 calves fitted with a gastric pouch received either a diet without CMP (C diet) or C diet in which CMP was introduced (equal to and 5 folds that of CMP quantity contained in cow milk, diets CMP1 and CMP5, respectively). In Experiment #3, 2 calves (with gastric pouch) were fed C diet followed by an "iv perfusion" of CMP. In Experiment #4, 25 calves fed either C, CMP1 or CMP5 diets were fitted with a blood catheter for sample collections. The quantities of daily gastric secretions seemed few modified by CMP ingestion but the profile of these secretions was changed along the day. The most important result is that CMP can inhibit gastric secretions (mainly hydrochloric acid) stimulated by the meal, but there was no dose-dependent response. No similar observations were obtained after perfusion of CMP in jugular vein. CMP was not detected in blood. Results obtained in our experiments are not in favor of its significant intestinal absorption. Gastrin, somatostatin and VIP could be implicated in the mechanisms of regulation.

  1. Effect of prior dietary exposure to cows' milk protein on antigen-specific and nonspecific cellular proliferation in mice.

    PubMed

    Brix, Susanne; Magyar, Orit H; Barkholt, Vibeke; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2005-05-01

    The impact of dietary components on the immune system is gaining increased attention in the effort to develop safe food products, some even with health-promoting potential, as well as to improve the basic understanding of the immunomodulatory potential of common food components. In such studies, which are mainly based on experiments in vitro, it is important to be able to differentiate nonspecific activation of immune cells induced by dietary components from ex vivo restimulation of antigen-specific cells that might be present in cell cultures owing to prior dietary exposure to the antigens in cell donors. Focusing on the immunostimulatory potential of cows' milk proteins and peptides, we studied the impact of prior dietary exposure to cows' milk on proliferation of murine immune cells upon ex vivo stimulation with bovine milk proteins. Nonspecific proliferation induced by beta-casein peptides was further assessed on cells from mice bred on a cows'-milk-free diet. Regarding the dietary effect, we found that prior oral intake of cows' milk proteins affected cell proliferation induced by culturing with cows' milk proteins in vitro, as spleen cells from mice fed a milk-containing diet showed a significantly greater proliferative response than did cells from mice bred on a cows'-milk-free diet. Studies of immune enhancing potentials of beta-casein peptides showed that some peptides stimulate proliferation of immune cells nonspecifically. In conclusion, these findings stress the importance of employing immune cells from mice unexposed to cows' milk for studies of the immunomodulating capacity of cows' milk proteins and peptides, in order to rule out the interference caused by antigen-specific immune responses. By using such cells, we here show that some beta-casein peptides possess the potential to induce proliferation in immune cells in a nonspecific manner. PMID:15909688

  2. Calling Biomarkers in Milk Using a Protein Microarray on Your Smartphone.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Susann K J; Tokarski, Christian; Lang, Stefan N; van Ginkel, Leendert A; Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan; Nielen, Michel W F

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the concept of a protein microarray-based fluorescence immunoassay for multiple biomarker detection in milk extracts by an ordinary smartphone. A multiplex immunoassay was designed on a microarray chip, having built-in positive and negative quality controls. After the immunoassay procedure, the 48 microspots were labelled with Quantum Dots (QD) depending on the protein biomarker levels in the sample. QD-fluorescence was subsequently detected by the smartphone camera under UV light excitation from LEDs embedded in a simple 3D-printed opto-mechanical smartphone attachment. The somewhat aberrant images obtained under such conditions, were corrected by newly developed Android-based software on the same smartphone, and protein biomarker profiles were calculated. The indirect detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in milk extracts based on altered biomarker profile of anti-rbST antibodies was selected as a real-life challenge. RbST-treated and untreated cows clearly showed reproducible treatment-dependent biomarker profiles in milk, in excellent agreement with results from a flow cytometer reference method. In a pilot experiment, anti-rbST antibody detection was multiplexed with the detection of another rbST-dependent biomarker, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Milk extract IGF-1 levels were found to be increased after rbST treatment and correlated with the results obtained from the reference method. These data clearly demonstrate the potential of the portable protein microarray concept towards simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers. We envisage broad application of this 'protein microarray on a smartphone'-concept for on-site testing, e.g., in food safety, environment and health monitoring.

  3. Calling Biomarkers in Milk Using a Protein Microarray on Your Smartphone.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Susann K J; Tokarski, Christian; Lang, Stefan N; van Ginkel, Leendert A; Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan; Nielen, Michel W F

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the concept of a protein microarray-based fluorescence immunoassay for multiple biomarker detection in milk extracts by an ordinary smartphone. A multiplex immunoassay was designed on a microarray chip, having built-in positive and negative quality controls. After the immunoassay procedure, the 48 microspots were labelled with Quantum Dots (QD) depending on the protein biomarker levels in the sample. QD-fluorescence was subsequently detected by the smartphone camera under UV light excitation from LEDs embedded in a simple 3D-printed opto-mechanical smartphone attachment. The somewhat aberrant images obtained under such conditions, were corrected by newly developed Android-based software on the same smartphone, and protein biomarker profiles were calculated. The indirect detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in milk extracts based on altered biomarker profile of anti-rbST antibodies was selected as a real-life challenge. RbST-treated and untreated cows clearly showed reproducible treatment-dependent biomarker profiles in milk, in excellent agreement with results from a flow cytometer reference method. In a pilot experiment, anti-rbST antibody detection was multiplexed with the detection of another rbST-dependent biomarker, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Milk extract IGF-1 levels were found to be increased after rbST treatment and correlated with the results obtained from the reference method. These data clearly demonstrate the potential of the portable protein microarray concept towards simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers. We envisage broad application of this 'protein microarray on a smartphone'-concept for on-site testing, e.g., in food safety, environment and health monitoring. PMID:26308444

  4. Calling Biomarkers in Milk Using a Protein Microarray on Your Smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Susann K. J.; Tokarski, Christian; Lang, Stefan N.; van Ginkel, Leendert A.; Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan; Nielen, Michel W. F.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the concept of a protein microarray-based fluorescence immunoassay for multiple biomarker detection in milk extracts by an ordinary smartphone. A multiplex immunoassay was designed on a microarray chip, having built-in positive and negative quality controls. After the immunoassay procedure, the 48 microspots were labelled with Quantum Dots (QD) depending on the protein biomarker levels in the sample. QD-fluorescence was subsequently detected by the smartphone camera under UV light excitation from LEDs embedded in a simple 3D-printed opto-mechanical smartphone attachment. The somewhat aberrant images obtained under such conditions, were corrected by newly developed Android-based software on the same smartphone, and protein biomarker profiles were calculated. The indirect detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in milk extracts based on altered biomarker profile of anti-rbST antibodies was selected as a real-life challenge. RbST-treated and untreated cows clearly showed reproducible treatment-dependent biomarker profiles in milk, in excellent agreement with results from a flow cytometer reference method. In a pilot experiment, anti-rbST antibody detection was multiplexed with the detection of another rbST-dependent biomarker, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Milk extract IGF-1 levels were found to be increased after rbST treatment and correlated with the results obtained from the reference method. These data clearly demonstrate the potential of the portable protein microarray concept towards simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers. We envisage broad application of this ‘protein microarray on a smartphone’-concept for on-site testing, e.g., in food safety, environment and health monitoring. PMID:26308444

  5. alpha-Lactalbumin-enriched low-protein infant formulas: a comparison to breast milk feeding.

    PubMed

    Heine, W; Radke, M; Wutzke, K D; Peters, E; Kundt, G

    1996-09-01

    Tryptophan (TRP) is the limiting amino acid in low-protein infant formulas. This is mainly due to lower alpha-lactalbumin (alpha LA) content in cow's milk whey as compared with human milk protein. To study the effect of alpha LA-enrichment on the TRP supply, cross-over studies were carried out in 20 healthy infants up to 3 months of age. In this study, two protein-reduced (1.3%) infant formulas (moderate TRP content of 1.88% and higher TRP content of 2.10%) were alternately fed over a 2 week period in two groups of infants. Serum TRP levels of the formula-fed infants with the higher TRP content did not differ significantly from an exclusively breastfed control group of 11 infants (10.5 +/- 4.8 versus 10.9 +/- 4.7 mg l-1, p = 0.841), whereas levels of the formula-fed infants with the moderate TRP content were significantly lower (7.4 +/- 3.9, p = 0.038). The supplementation of alpha LA resulting in a higher TRP supply to low-protein diets is a further step towards the production of infant formulas more closely adapted to human breast milk.

  6. Genetic differences among native and modern cattle breeds in Lithuania based on milk protein loci polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Peciulaitiene, N; Miseikiene, R; Baltrenaite, L; Miceikiene, I

    2007-01-01

    The intrabreed and interbreed genetic diversity of Lithuanian cattle breeds - two native, namely Lithuanian Light Grey and Lithuanian White-Backed and two modern, namely Lithuanian Red and Lithuanian Black and White was investigated by determination of genetic markers: 4 milk protein systems, Alpha(s1)-casein, Kappa-casein, Beta-casein and Beta-lactoglobulin, which are comprised of 12 different milk protein types. According to results, the B type of Alpha(s1)-casein was found as predominant in all four studied breeds. The most common A and B types of Kappa-casein were found at high frequency in all investigated cattle breeds. All investigated Lithuanian dairy cattle breeds had high frequency of Beta-lactoglobulin whey protein B types, with the highest frequency in Lithuanian Red breed, and the lowest in Lithuanian Light Grey. After investigation the diversity of alleles and genotypes of milk proteins in Lithuanian dairy cattle breeds was determined that, Lithuanian Red breed was distinguished private C allele and BC genotype of Beta-lactoglobulin and CC genotype of Alpha(s1)-casein. The interbreed genetic diversity was estimated by a principal component analysis (PCA). The first principal component (PC) explains 63.39% and the second principal component (PC) explains 33.67% of the genetics diversity between the breeds. Principal component analysis, suggests the hypothesis that native Lithuanian White Backed and Lithuanian Light Grey breeds still have traits tracing to old native populations.

  7. Separation and quantification of water buffalo milk protein fractions and genetic variants by RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, Valentina; Giantin, Mery; Rostellato, Roberta; Dacasto, Mauro; Carnier, Paolo

    2013-01-15

    A RP-HPLC method, developed for the separation and quantification of the most common genetic variants of bovine milk proteins, was successfully applied to the analysis of water buffalo milk. All the most common buffalo casein and whey proteins fractions, as well as their genetic variants, were detected and separated simultaneously in 40 min. Purified buffalo proteins were used as calibration standards and a total of 536 individual milk samples were analysed for protein composition. α(S1)-, α(S2)-, βγ-, and κ-casein were 32.2%, 15.8%, 36.5%, and 15.5%, respectively, of total casein content, whereas content of β-Lactoglobulin was approximately 1.3 times as high as that of α-Lactalbumin. The existence of a polymorphism of κ-casein was demonstrated in Mediterranean water buffalo and α(S1)- and κ-casein genetic variants were successfully detected by RP-HPLC. PMID:23122071

  8. Influence of casein as a percentage of true protein and protein level on color and texture of milks containing 1 and 2% fat.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Noriko; Barbano, David M; Drake, MaryAnne

    2016-07-01

    Combinations of fresh liquid microfiltration retentate of skim milk, ultrafiltered retentate and permeate produced from microfiltration permeate, cream, and dried lactose monohydrate were used to produce a matrix of 20 milks. The milks contained 5 levels of casein as a percentage of true protein of about 5, 25, 50, 75, and 80% and 4 levels of true protein of 3.0, 3.76, 4.34, and 5.0% with constant lactose percentage of 5%. The experiment was replicated twice and repeated for both 1 and 2% fat content. Hunter color measurements, relative viscosity, and fat globule size distribution were measured, and a trained panel documented appearance and texture attributes on all milks. Overall, casein as a percentage of true protein had stronger effects than level of true protein on Hunter L, a, b values, relative viscosity, and fat globule size when using fresh liquid micellar casein concentrates and milk serum protein concentrates produced by a combination of microfiltration and ultrafiltration. As casein as a percentage of true protein increased, the milks became more white (higher L value), less green (lower negative a value), and less yellow (lower b value). Relative viscosity increased and d(0.9) generally decreased with increasing casein as a percentage of true protein. Panelists perceived milks with increasing casein as a percentage of true protein as more white, more opaque, and less yellow. Panelists were able to detect increased throat cling and mouthcoating with increased casein as a percentage of true protein in 2% milks, even when differences in appearance among milks were masked.

  9. Protein oxidative changes in whole and skim milk after ultraviolet or fluorescent light exposure.

    PubMed

    Scheidegger, D; Pecora, R P; Radici, P M; Kivatinitz, S C

    2010-11-01

    We investigated how protein changes occur, at the primary or higher structural levels, when proteins are exposed to UV or fluorescent (FL) light while in the complex matrix, milk. Whole milk (WM) or skim milk (SM) samples were exposed to FL or UV light from 0 to 24h at 4°C. Protein oxidation was evaluated by the formation of protein carbonyls (PC), dityrosine bond (DiTyr), and changes in molecular weight (protein fragmentation and polymerization). Oxidative changes in AA residues were measured by PC. Dityrosine and N'-formylkynurenine (NFK), a carbonylation derivative of Trp, were measured by fluorometry. Protein carbonyls increased as a function of irradiation time for both WM and SM. The initial rate for PC formation by exposure to FL light (0.25 or 0.27 nmol/h for WM and SM, respectively) was slower than that following exposure to UV light (1.95 or 1.20 nmol/h, respectively). The time course of NFK formation resembled that of PC. After 24h of UV exposure, SM had significantly higher levels of NFK than did WM. In contrast, WM samples irradiated with UV had higher levels of DiTyr than did SM samples, indicating different molecular pathways. The formation of intra- or intermolecular DiTyr bonds could be indicative of changes in the tertiary structure or oligomerization of proteins. The existence of NFK suggests the occurrence of protein fragmentation. Thus, proteolysis and oligomerization were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. After 24h of exposing WM to UV or FL light, all the proteins were affected by both types of light, as evidenced by loss of material in most of the bands. Aggregates were produced only by UV irradiation. Hydrolysis by pepsin and enzyme-induced coagulation by rennet were performed to evaluate altered biological properties of the oxidized proteins. No effect on pepsin digestion or rennet coagulation was found in irradiated SM or WM. The oxidative status of proteins in milk and dairy products is of interest to the dairy industry and

  10. "Whey" proteins of milk of the red (Macropus rufus) and eastern grey (Macropus giganteus) kangaroo.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, H A; Muller, V J; Treacy, G B

    1983-01-01

    1. A comparison is made of gel electrophoretic patterns of the "whey" proteins of the milk of red (Macropus rufus) and eastern grey (Macropus giganteus) kangaroos at various stages of lactation. Qualitative and quantitative changes occur with time during the mature phase of lactation of both types. Their onset is related solely to the stage of lactation. "Whey" proteins are isolated and characterised and the nature of protein changes determined for the first time. 2. The anodic electrophoretic pattern is divided into 6 main zones (designated A F in order of decreasing mobility) and 2 cathodic zones (G and H) that are only detected in the milk of M. giganteus. 3. Zones A, B and C are milk specific. Zone B is present throughout lactation in both species and is an alpha-lactalbumin. Zones A and C are present only in late lactation, zone C, usually, but not always, appearing first. Zone A is an alpha-lactalbumin in M. giganteus, but is not an alpha-lactalbumin in M. rufus. Zone C appears to be the same protein in both species and is possibly a beta-lactoglobulin. 4. Zone D is kangaroo serum albumin and zone E is possibly a beta 2-microglobulin. Zone F contains three main iron (III) binding bands whose relative intensity varies with stage of lactation. Their intensity differs from the corresponding blood serum transferrin bands. 5. Zone H of Macropus giganteus is a lysozyme. 6. Lactose is present in the milk, but is not the principal sugar. 7. The significance of the results is discussed.

  11. Synthesis of milk specific fatty acids and proteins by dispersed goat mammary-gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, H O; Tornehave, D; Knudsen, J

    1986-01-01

    The method now described for preparation of dispersed lactating goat mammary-gland cells gives a high yield of morphologically and functionally normal mammary cells. The cells synthesize specific goat milk fatty acids in the right proportions, and they respond to hormones by increased protein synthesis. The cells can be frozen and thawed without losing the above properties, which makes them an excellent tool for metabolic and hormonal studies. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:3800930

  12. The preparation and properties of folate-binding protein from cow's milk.

    PubMed Central

    Salter, D N; Scott, K J; Slade, H; Andrews, P

    1981-01-01

    An improved affinity-chromatographic method for the preparation of folate-binding protein from cow's milk is described. Under dissociating conditions the protein appeared homogeneous in the ultracentrifuge, with a molecular weight of 35 000 +/- 1500, but it was heterogeneous on electrophoresis and ion-exchange chromatography and evidently consisted of several glycoproteins with similar molecular weights that all bound folic acid. Overall, the protein contained a high proportion of half-cystine (18 residues/molecule) and 10.3% of carbohydrate. At saturation it bound approx. 1 mol of folate/mol of protein at pH 7.2. Equilibrium-dialysis measurements of the binding of folic acid and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to the purified protein gave non-linear Scatchard plots, the shapes of which depended on pH. The results were interpreted in terms of ligand binding to a polymerizing system in which the affinity of ligand for monomer was greater than its affinity for polymer. When the protein concentration was similar to that in cow's milk, dissociation constants (Kd) for folate and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate were 3 nM and 5 nM respectively at pH 7.2 and 37 degrees C, whereas Kd for the binding of folate to monomer was about 50 pM. The properties of the binding protein are discussed in relation to its possible role in folate absorption in the gut. PMID:7305943

  13. Effect of beta-casein, kappa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin genotypes on concentration of milk protein variants.

    PubMed

    Hallén, E; Wedholm, A; Andrén, A; Lundén, A

    2008-04-01

    Individual mid-lactation milk samples were collected from 116 cows of the Swedish Red and Swedish Holstein breeds with known genotypes of beta-casein, kappa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin. Detailed milk protein composition and allele-specific expression of beta-casein, kappa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin proteins in milk were analysed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Aggregate beta-/kappa-casein genotype was significantly associated with the kappa-casein concentration in milk. The lowest kappa-casein concentration was found in milk of cows with genotypes including kappa-casein E (A(1)A(2)/AE, A(1)A(1)/AE) and also A(2)A(2)/AA milk, whereas highest levels were associated with genotypes including kappa-casein B. Casein number was positively and concentration of beta-lactoglobulin negatively associated with the beta-lactoglobulin BB genotype. In heterozygote cows, beta-casein A(1) and beta-lactoglobulin A proteins were found at higher concentrations in milk compared with the protein variant encoded by the alternative allele at these loci, whereas kappa-casein A and B variants were found at similar concentrations in heterozygote AB cows.

  14. Detection of viable enterotoxin-producing Bacillus cereus and analysis of toxigenicity from ready-to-eat foods and infant formula milk powder by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihong; Feng, Lixia; Xu, Hengyi; Liu, Chengwei; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Bacillus cereus is responsible for several outbreaks of foodborne diseases due to its emetic toxin and enterotoxin. Enterotoxins, cytotoxin K (CytK), nonhemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe), and hemolysin BL (Hbl), have been recorded in several diarrheal cases due to food poisoning from B. cereus. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and accurate method that combines multiplex PCR with propidium monoazide to selectively detect viable cells of enterotoxin-producing B. cereus in milk powder, noodles, and rice, and investigate the distribution of enterotoxins in 62 strains of B. cereus in Jiangxi province, China. The specificity of primers of 3 enterotoxins (i.e., cytK, nheA, and hblD) of B. cereus was verified by inclusivity and exclusivity tests using single PCR. Upon optimization of multiplex PCR conditions, it was found that the detection limit of viable cells was 10(2) cfu/mL of B. cereus in pure culture. By enrichment for 3 or 4 h and propidium monoazide pretreatment, a protocol for detection of viable cells as low as 2.2×10(1) cfu/g in spiked food (e.g., milk powder, noodles, and rice) was established and proved valid even under the interference of non-Bacillus cereus at as high as 10(5) cfu/g. Moreover, the protocol based on multiplex PCR for detection was applied for the analysis of distribution of toxin gene of B. cereus, and the results showed a regional feature for toxin gene distribution, indicating that potential toxigenicity of B. cereus should be evaluated further.

  15. [Research on constructing phylogenetics trees of ruminants basing on the database of milk protein gene sequences].

    PubMed

    Fan, B L; Li, N; Wu, C X

    2000-01-01

    Primers designed according to the sequences of four milk protein genes of cow Bos taurus (alpha-lactoalbumin, beta-lactoglobin, beta- and kappa-casein) were used to amplify the full length gene of alpha-lactalbumin in yak Bos grunniens (2999 bp), water buffalo Bubalus arnee bubalis (278 bp), partial sequence of this gene in red deer cervus elaphs xanthopygus (1582 bp), 5' and 3' flanking region of beta-lactoglobin gene (2167 bp and 1096 bp in length respectively), 5'-flanking region and exon VIII to exon IX of beta-casein gene (987 bp and 1096 bp in length respectively), exonIV of kappa-casein gene (780 bp). All the amplified DNA fragments were cloned and the Nt sequences were determined. Phylogenetic tree containing 20 species (or subspecies) of ruminantia suborder was constructed according to the partial sequence of kappa-casein gene exon IV (363 bp in length), which shows good monophyly of the Bovidae. And trees constructed according to other milk protein genes indicate that all the milk protein genes have good features for drawing phylogenetics tree at least among species belonging to different subfamilies.

  16. TLR2-targeted secreted proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis are protective as powdered pulmonary vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tyne, Anneliese S; Chan, John Gar Yan; Shanahan, Erin R; Atmosukarto, Ines; Chan, Hak-Kim; Britton, Warwick J; West, Nicholas P

    2013-09-13

    Despite considerable research efforts towards effective treatments, tuberculosis (TB) remains a staggering burden on global health. Suitably formulated sub-unit vaccines offer potential as safe and effective generators of protective immunity. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens, cutinase-like proteins (Culp) 1 and 6 and MPT83, were conjugated directly to the novel adjuvant Lipokel (Lipotek Pty Ltd), a TLR2 ligand that delivers antigen to immune cells in a self-adjuvanting context. Protein-Lipokel complexes were formulated as dry powders for pulmonary delivery directly to the lungs of mice by intra-tracheal insufflation, leading to recruitment of neutrophils and antigen presenting cell populations to the lungs at 72 h, that persisted at 7 days post immunisation. Significant increases in the frequency of activated dendritic cells were observed in the mediastinal lymph node (MLN) at 1 and 4 weeks after homologous boosting with protein-Lipokel vaccine. This was associated with the increased recruitment of effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes to the MLN and systemic antigen-specific, IFN-γ producing T-lymphocyte and IgG responses. Notably, pulmonary immunisation with either Culp1-6-Lipokel or MPT83-Lipokel powder vaccines generated protective responses in the lungs against aerosol M. tuberculosis challenge. The successful combination of TLR2-targeting and dry powder vaccine formulation, together with important practical benefits, offers potential for pulmonary vaccination against M. tuberculosis. PMID:23880366

  17. Combined effects of soy isoflavones and milk basic protein on bone mineral density in hind-limb unloaded mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yu; Tousen, Yuko; Nishide, Yoriko; Tadaishi, Miki; Kato, Ken; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2016-03-01

    We examined whether the combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein both are reported to be effective for bone metabolism, prevents bone loss induced by skeletal hind-limb unloading in mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were divided into six groups (n = 6-8 each): (1) normally housed group, (2) loading group, (3) hind-limb unloading group fed a control diet, (4) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates diet, (5) hind-limb unloading group fed a 1.0% milk basic protein diet, and (6) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates and 1.0% milk basic protein diet. After 3 weeks, femoral bone mineral density was markedly reduced in unloading mice. The combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein showed cooperative effects in preventing bone loss and milk basic protein inhibited the increased expression of osteogenic genes in bone marrow cells in unloading mice. These results suggest that the combination of soy isoflavone and milk basic protein may be useful for bone health in subjects with disabling conditions as well as astronauts. PMID:27013781

  18. Combined effects of soy isoflavones and milk basic protein on bone mineral density in hind-limb unloaded mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yu; Tousen, Yuko; Nishide, Yoriko; Tadaishi, Miki; Kato, Ken; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether the combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein both are reported to be effective for bone metabolism, prevents bone loss induced by skeletal hind-limb unloading in mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were divided into six groups (n = 6–8 each): (1) normally housed group, (2) loading group, (3) hind-limb unloading group fed a control diet, (4) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates diet, (5) hind-limb unloading group fed a 1.0% milk basic protein diet, and (6) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates and 1.0% milk basic protein diet. After 3 weeks, femoral bone mineral density was markedly reduced in unloading mice. The combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein showed cooperative effects in preventing bone loss and milk basic protein inhibited the increased expression of osteogenic genes in bone marrow cells in unloading mice. These results suggest that the combination of soy isoflavone and milk basic protein may be useful for bone health in subjects with disabling conditions as well as astronauts. PMID:27013781

  19. Cows' milk protein-sensitive enteropathy. An important factor in prolonging diarrhoea of acute infective enteritis in early infancy.

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, N; Robinson, M J; Sumithran, E; Lam, S K; Puthucheary, S D; Yadav, M

    1978-01-01

    The possible role of cows' milk protein in prolonging diarrhoea in very young infants with acute infective enteritis was studied in 14 infants, 9 under the age of 2 months and 5 older than 6 months. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from the stools of 4 infants from the younger age group. After appropriate initial treatment the infants were maintained on a cows' milk protein-free formula. 6 weeks later jejunal biopsies were performed before and 24 hours after challenge with a low lactose cows' milk protein formula. The immunoglobulin and complement levels in the serum and duodenal juice were also estimated at these times. Attempts to isolate bacterial and viral pathogens in stools were again made in all patients. The 5 older infants clinically tolerated cows' milk protein and their pre- and postchallenge jejunal biopsies were within normal limits. However, significant histological changes were observed in the postchallenge jejunal biopsies of all 9 infants under 2 months of age. In addition, 5 of these infants developed diarrhoea. This suggests that the jejunal mucosa of very young infants previously fed a cows' milk protein-based formula and who contract infective enteritis suffers damage when rechallenged with cows' milk protein. PMID:646417

  20. Combined effects of soy isoflavones and milk basic protein on bone mineral density in hind-limb unloaded mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yu; Tousen, Yuko; Nishide, Yoriko; Tadaishi, Miki; Kato, Ken; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2016-03-01

    We examined whether the combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein both are reported to be effective for bone metabolism, prevents bone loss induced by skeletal hind-limb unloading in mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were divided into six groups (n = 6-8 each): (1) normally housed group, (2) loading group, (3) hind-limb unloading group fed a control diet, (4) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates diet, (5) hind-limb unloading group fed a 1.0% milk basic protein diet, and (6) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates and 1.0% milk basic protein diet. After 3 weeks, femoral bone mineral density was markedly reduced in unloading mice. The combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein showed cooperative effects in preventing bone loss and milk basic protein inhibited the increased expression of osteogenic genes in bone marrow cells in unloading mice. These results suggest that the combination of soy isoflavone and milk basic protein may be useful for bone health in subjects with disabling conditions as well as astronauts.

  1. Validation of a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric method to determine six polyether ionophores in raw, UHT, pasteurized and powdered milk.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mararlene Ulberg; Spisso, Bernardete Ferraz; Jacob, Silvana do Couto; Monteiro, Mychelle Alves; Ferreira, Rosana Gomes; Carlos, Betânia de Souza; da Nóbrega, Armi Wanderley

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to validate a method developed for the determination of six antibiotics from the polyether ionophore class (lasalocid, maduramicin, monensin, narasin, salinomycin and semduramicin) at residue levels in raw, UHT, pasteurized and powdered milk using QuEChERS extraction and high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The validation was conducted under an in-house laboratory protocol that is primarily based on 2002/657/EC Decision, but takes in account the variability of matrix sources. Overall recoveries between 93% and 113% with relative standard deviations up to 16% were obtained under intermediate precision conditions. CCα calculated values did not exceed 20% the Maximum Residue Limit for monensin and 25% the Maximum Levels for all other substances. The method showed to be simple, fast and suitable for verifying the compliance of raw and processed milk samples regarding the limits recommended by Codex Alimentarius and those adopted in European Community for polyether ionophores. PMID:26593474

  2. Improving clarity and stability of skim milk powder dispersions by dissociation of casein micelles at pH 11.0 and acidification with citric acid.

    PubMed

    Pan, Kang; Zhong, Qixin

    2013-09-25

    Casein micelles in milk cause turbidity and have poor stability at acidic conditions. In this study, skim milk powder dispersions were alkalized to pH 10.0 or 11.0, corresponding to reduced particle mass. In the following acidification with hydrochloric or citric acid, the re-formation of casein particles was observed. The combination of treatment at pH 11.0 and acidification with citric acid resulted in dispersions with the lowest turbidity and smallest particles, which enabled translucent dispersions at pH 5.5-7.0, corresponding to discrete nanoparticles. The concentration of ionic calcium was lower when acidified with citric acid than hydrochloric acid, corresponding to smaller particles with less negative zeta potential. The pH 11.0 treatment followed by acidification with citric acid also resulted in smaller particles than the simple chelating effects (directly implementing sodium citrate). The produced casein nanoparticles with reduced dimensions can be used for beverage and other novel applications.

  3. Effect of bleaching permeate from microfiltered skim milk on 80% serum protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rachel E; Adams, Michael C; Drake, Maryanne; Barbano, David M

    2013-03-01

    Whey proteins that have been removed before the cheese-making process are referred to as "native" whey proteins or milk serum proteins. Because serum proteins isolated directly from milk are not exposed to the cheese-making process, they are free from functional or sensory effects arising from this process. Whey proteins used in food and beverage applications are largely derived from annatto-colored Cheddar cheese. Some of the annatto is left in the whey and this color is converted to a colorless compound by bleaching. The effect of bleaching serum proteins on flavor and functionality of spray-dried protein provides a platform to investigate the effect of bleaching free from the confounding effects of cheese manufacture. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the sensory and functional properties of 80% milk serum protein concentrate (SPC80) produced from bleached and unbleached microfiltration (MF) permeate made from skim milk with and without added annatto color. Colored and uncolored MF permeates were bleached with benzoyl peroxide (BP) or hydrogen peroxide (HP), ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried. The SPC80 from unbleached colored and uncolored MF permeates were manufactured as controls. All treatments were manufactured in triplicate. All SPC80 were evaluated by sensory testing, instrumental analyses, functionality, color, and proximate analysis. The HP-bleached SPC80 was higher in lipid oxidation compounds than BP-bleached or unbleached SPC80, specifically hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, decanal, and 2,3-octadienone. The HP treatments were higher in aroma intensity and cardboard and fatty flavors compared with the unbleached and BP-bleached SPC80. The SPC80 bleached with BP had lower concentrations of norbixin compared with SPC80 bleached with HP. Functionality testing demonstrated that HP treatments had more soluble protein after 10min of heating at 90°C and pH 4.6 and pH 7 compared with the no bleach and BP treatments, regardless

  4. Alpha-ketoglutarate enhances milk protein synthesis by porcine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qian; He, Liuqin; Hou, Yongqing; Chen, Jiashun; Duan, Yehui; Deng, Dun; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong; Yao, Kang

    2016-09-01

    Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG), a key intermediate in the Krebs cycle, has been reported to promote protein synthesis through activating mechanistic targeting of rapamycin (mTOR) in enterocytes. The study tested the hypothesis that AKG may enhance growth and milk protein synthesis in porcine mammary epithelial cells (PMECs). PMECs were cultured for 96 h in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's-F12 Ham medium (DMEM-F12) containing prolactin (2 µg/ml) and AKG (0 or 1.5 mM). At the end of 96-h culture, the abundance of apoptosis-related proteins (caspase-3, caspase-9), milk-specific proteins (α-lactalbumin and β-casein), mTOR signaling proteins (mTOR, p-mTOR, PERK, p-PERK, eIF2a, P70S6K and p-P70S6K), and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-associated proteins (BiP and CHOP) in PMEC were determined. Addition of AKG dose-dependently enhanced cell viability in the absence or presence of prolactin, with optimal concentrations of AKG being at 1.0 and 1.5 mM, respectively. In the presence of prolactin, addition of 1.5 mM AKG: (1) decreased (P < 0.05) the abundance of caspase-3 and caspase-9 by 21 and 39 %; (2) enhanced (P < 0.05) the phosphorylation of p-mTOR and p-P70S6K by 39 and 89 %, respectively; (3) increased (P < 0.05) the production of β-casein and α-lactalbumin by 16 and 20 %, respectively; (4) attenuated (P < 0.05) the expression of CHOP by 34 % but promoted (P < 0.05) the expression of BiP by 46 %; (5) increased (P < 0.05) the secretion of lactose by 15 %, when compared to the 0 mM AKG group. Rapamycin (50 nM; an inhibitor of mTOR) attenuated (P < 0.05) the stimulatory effect of AKG on mTOR signaling and syntheses of milk protein and lactose, while relieving (P < 0.05) an inhibitory effect of AKG on expression of proteins related to ERS. Collectively, our results indicate that AKG enhances milk protein production by modulating mTOR and ERS signaling pathways in PMECs. PMID:27188418

  5. Alpha-ketoglutarate enhances milk protein synthesis by porcine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qian; He, Liuqin; Hou, Yongqing; Chen, Jiashun; Duan, Yehui; Deng, Dun; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong; Yao, Kang

    2016-09-01

    Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG), a key intermediate in the Krebs cycle, has been reported to promote protein synthesis through activating mechanistic targeting of rapamycin (mTOR) in enterocytes. The study tested the hypothesis that AKG may enhance growth and milk protein synthesis in porcine mammary epithelial cells (PMECs). PMECs were cultured for 96 h in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's-F12 Ham medium (DMEM-F12) containing prolactin (2 µg/ml) and AKG (0 or 1.5 mM). At the end of 96-h culture, the abundance of apoptosis-related proteins (caspase-3, caspase-9), milk-specific proteins (α-lactalbumin and β-casein), mTOR signaling proteins (mTOR, p-mTOR, PERK, p-PERK, eIF2a, P70S6K and p-P70S6K), and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-associated proteins (BiP and CHOP) in PMEC were determined. Addition of AKG dose-dependently enhanced cell viability in the absence or presence of prolactin, with optimal concentrations of AKG being at 1.0 and 1.5 mM, respectively. In the presence of prolactin, addition of 1.5 mM AKG: (1) decreased (P < 0.05) the abundance of caspase-3 and caspase-9 by 21 and 39 %; (2) enhanced (P < 0.05) the phosphorylation of p-mTOR and p-P70S6K by 39 and 89 %, respectively; (3) increased (P < 0.05) the production of β-casein and α-lactalbumin by 16 and 20 %, respectively; (4) attenuated (P < 0.05) the expression of CHOP by 34 % but promoted (P < 0.05) the expression of BiP by 46 %; (5) increased (P < 0.05) the secretion of lactose by 15 %, when compared to the 0 mM AKG group. Rapamycin (50 nM; an inhibitor of mTOR) attenuated (P < 0.05) the stimulatory effect of AKG on mTOR signaling and syntheses of milk protein and lactose, while relieving (P < 0.05) an inhibitory effect of AKG on expression of proteins related to ERS. Collectively, our results indicate that AKG enhances milk protein production by modulating mTOR and ERS signaling pathways in PMECs.

  6. Disorder in Milk Proteins: α -Lactalbumin. Part A. Structural Properties and Conformational Behavior.

    PubMed

    Permyakov, Eugene A; Permyakov, Serge E; Breydo, Leonid; Redwan, Elrashdy M; Almehdar, Hussein A; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-01-01

    This is a first part of the two-part article that continues a series of reviews on the abundance and roles of intrinsic disorder in milk proteins. We introduce here α-lactalbumin, a small (Mr 14 200), simple, acidic (pI 4-5), Ca(2+)-binding protein that might constitute up to 20% of total milk protein. Although function (it is one of the two components of lactose synthase that catalyzes the final step of the lactose biosynthesis in the lactating mammary gland), structure (protein has two domains, a large α -helical domain and a small β -sheet domain connected by a calcium binding loop), and folding mechanisms (α-lactalbumin is well-known as a classic example of the molten globule state) of this model globular protein are relatively well understood, α-lactalbumin continues to surprise researchers and clearly continues to have high discovery potential. The goal of this review is to summarize some recent advances in the field of α-lactalbumin research and to analyze the peculiarities of the "intrinsic disorder code" of this protein. PMID:26956441

  7. A nine-country study of the protein content and amino acid composition of mature human milk

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ping; Gao, Ming; Burgher, Anita; Zhou, Tian Hui; Pramuk, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have evaluated protein and amino acid levels in human milk. However, research in this area has been limited by small sample sizes and study populations with little ethnic or racial diversity. Objective Evaluate the protein and amino acid composition of mature (≥30 days) human milk samples collected from a large, multinational study using highly standardized methods for sample collection, storage, and analysis. Design Using a single, centralized laboratory, human milk samples from 220 women (30–188 days postpartum) from nine countries were analyzed for amino acid composition using Waters AccQ-Tag high-performance liquid chromatography and total nitrogen content using the LECO FP-528 nitrogen analyzer. Total protein was calculated as total nitrogen×6.25. True protein, which includes protein, free amino acids, and peptides, was calculated from the total amino acids. Results Mean total protein from individual countries (standard deviation [SD]) ranged from 1,133 (125.5) to 1,366 (341.4) mg/dL; the mean across all countries (SD) was 1,192 (200.9) mg/dL. Total protein, true protein, and amino acid composition were not significantly different across countries except Chile, which had higher total and true protein. Amino acid profiles (percent of total amino acids) did not differ across countries. Total and true protein concentrations and 16 of 18 amino acid concentrations declined with the stage of lactation. Conclusions Total protein, true protein, and individual amino acid concentrations in human milk steadily decline from 30 to 151 days of lactation, and are significantly higher in the second month of lactation compared with the following 4 months. There is a high level of consistency in the protein content and amino acid composition of human milk across geographic locations. The size and diversity of the study population and highly standardized procedures for the collection, storage, and analysis of human milk support the validity and

  8. Novel determination of protein, fat, and lactose of milk by liquid scintillation counter

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, R.C.; Shand, J.H.; West, I.G.

    1981-01-01

    A method for routine determination of protein, fat, and lactose contents of milk is based on the ability of a scintillation counter to measure coloration or opalescence through attenuation of photons emitted from sealed miniature carbon-14 and hydrogen-3 radioactive standards. A series of simplified and accurate analytical procedures enable full advantage to be taken of the automatic facilities on the modern liquid scintillation counter. The methods provide several advantages over existing procedures. Accuracy of quantification was high as assessed by comparing the results with those derived by recommended Kjeldahl, Gerber, and colorimetric procedures for protein, fat, and lactose determinations, respectively.

  9. Preparation of iron bound succinylated milk protein concentrate and evaluation of its stability.

    PubMed

    Shilpashree, B G; Arora, Sumit; Sharma, Vivek; Bajaj, Rajesh Kumar; Tomar, S K

    2016-04-01

    Major problems associated with the fortification of soluble iron salts include chemical reactivity and incompatibility with other components. Milk protein concentrate (MPC) are able to bind significant amount of iron due to the presence of both casein and whey protein. MPC in its native state possess very poor solubility, therefore, succinylated derivatives of MPC (succ. MPC) were also used for the preparation of protein-iron complex. Preparation of the complex involved centrifugation (to remove insoluble iron), ultrafiltration (to remove unbound iron) and lyophilisation (to attain in dry form). Iron binding ability of MPC enhanced significantly (P<0.05) upon succinylation. Stability of bound iron from both varieties of complexes was monitored under different conditions encountered during processing. Higher stability (P<0.05) of bound iron was observed in succ. MPC-iron complex than native protein complex. This method could be adopted for the production of stable iron enriched protein, an organic iron source. PMID:26593557

  10. Preparation of iron bound succinylated milk protein concentrate and evaluation of its stability.

    PubMed

    Shilpashree, B G; Arora, Sumit; Sharma, Vivek; Bajaj, Rajesh Kumar; Tomar, S K

    2016-04-01

    Major problems associated with the fortification of soluble iron salts include chemical reactivity and incompatibility with other components. Milk protein concentrate (MPC) are able to bind significant amount of iron due to the presence of both casein and whey protein. MPC in its native state possess very poor solubility, therefore, succinylated derivatives of MPC (succ. MPC) were also used for the preparation of protein-iron complex. Preparation of the complex involved centrifugation (to remove insoluble iron), ultrafiltration (to remove unbound iron) and lyophilisation (to attain in dry form). Iron binding ability of MPC enhanced significantly (P<0.05) upon succinylation. Stability of bound iron from both varieties of complexes was monitored under different conditions encountered during processing. Higher stability (P<0.05) of bound iron was observed in succ. MPC-iron complex than native protein complex. This method could be adopted for the production of stable iron enriched protein, an organic iron source.

  11. Milk from different species: Relationship between protein fractions and inflammatory response in infants affected by generalized epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Ciliberti, M G; Figliola, L; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Polito, A N

    2016-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of protein fractions from bovine, caprine, and ovine milk on production of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBC) from infants with generalized epilepsy. Bovine, caprine, and ovine bulk milks were pasteurized and analyzed for chemical composition. Then, PBMC were isolated from 10 patients with generalized epilepsy (5 males; mean age 33.6±5.4mo). Production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-10, IL-6, and IL-1β was studied in cultured PBMC (from infants with epilepsy and controls) stimulated by bovine, caprine, and ovine milk and casein and whey protein fractions, and levels of ROS and RNS were measured in the culture supernatant. The ability of PBMC to secrete cytokines in response to milk and protein fraction stimulation may predict the secretion of soluble factor TNF-α in the bloodstream of challenged patients. Bovine, caprine, and ovine bulk milks induced low-level production of IL-10 by cultured PBMC in at least 50% of cases; the same behavior was observed in both casein and whey protein fractions for all species studied. Bovine and ovine milk and their casein fractions induced production of lower levels of IL-1β in 80% of patients, whereas caprine milk and its casein fraction induced the highest levels in 80% of patients. The amount of IL-6 detected after stimulation of PBMC by milk and its fractions for all species was lower than that of other proinflammatory cytokines. In the bovine, total free radicals were higher in bulk milk and lower in the casein fraction, whereas the whey protein fraction showed an intermediate level; in caprine, ROS/RNS levels were not different among milk fractions, whereas ovine had higher levels for bulk milk and casein than the whey protein fraction. Lower levels of ROS/RNS detected in PBMC cultured with caprine milk fraction could be responsible for the lower levels of

  12. Milk from different species: Relationship between protein fractions and inflammatory response in infants affected by generalized epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Ciliberti, M G; Figliola, L; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Polito, A N

    2016-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of protein fractions from bovine, caprine, and ovine milk on production of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBC) from infants with generalized epilepsy. Bovine, caprine, and ovine bulk milks were pasteurized and analyzed for chemical composition. Then, PBMC were isolated from 10 patients with generalized epilepsy (5 males; mean age 33.6±5.4mo). Production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-10, IL-6, and IL-1β was studied in cultured PBMC (from infants with epilepsy and controls) stimulated by bovine, caprine, and ovine milk and casein and whey protein fractions, and levels of ROS and RNS were measured in the culture supernatant. The ability of PBMC to secrete cytokines in response to milk and protein fraction stimulation may predict the secretion of soluble factor TNF-α in the bloodstream of challenged patients. Bovine, caprine, and ovine bulk milks induced low-level production of IL-10 by cultured PBMC in at least 50% of cases; the same behavior was observed in both casein and whey protein fractions for all species studied. Bovine and ovine milk and their casein fractions induced production of lower levels of IL-1β in 80% of patients, whereas caprine milk and its casein fraction induced the highest levels in 80% of patients. The amount of IL-6 detected after stimulation of PBMC by milk and its fractions for all species was lower than that of other proinflammatory cytokines. In the bovine, total free radicals were higher in bulk milk and lower in the casein fraction, whereas the whey protein fraction showed an intermediate level; in caprine, ROS/RNS levels were not different among milk fractions, whereas ovine had higher levels for bulk milk and casein than the whey protein fraction. Lower levels of ROS/RNS detected in PBMC cultured with caprine milk fraction could be responsible for the lower levels of

  13. Marked effect of beta-lactoglobulin polymorphism on the ratio of casein to total protein in milk.

    PubMed

    Lundén, A; Nilsson, M; Janson, L

    1997-11-01

    The relationship between genetic variants for milk protein and the composition of milk was analyzed on 4475 repeated milk samples from individual cows; 371 dairy cows of the Swedish Red and White breed and 204 cows of the Swedish Holstein breed were used. The registrations included percentages of casein, protein, fat, and lactose in combination with milk yield and SCC. The genotype of individual cows for alpha(s1)-CN, beta-CN, kappa-CN, and beta-LG was determined by alkaline and acidic PAGE. A mixed animal model was used for the analysis; beta-LG and aggregate casein genotypes were included simultaneously as separate fixed effects in the statistical model. The results suggest a positive additive effect of the beta-LG B allele on casein content and on the ratio of casein to total protein. For the latter trait, the beta-LG genotype accounted for a relatively large part of the phenotypic variance, corresponding to a reduction in residual variance of 11% when included in the model. The corresponding value for casein content was 0.5%. The lack of unfavorable associations between milk protein variants and the traits included in this study makes the beta-LG gene an obvious candidate when the breeding objective is improved conversion of milk protein into cheese.

  14. Protein quality and quantity in cow's milk-based formula for healthy term infants: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Macé, Katherine; Steenhout, Philippe; Klassen, Petra; Donnet, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The development of infant formula with optimized protein quality and quantity has been, and still is, the subject of intense investigation. A better understanding of the protein composition of breast milk and infant needs in association with technological breakthroughs in cow's milk fractionation, has led to the development of infant formulas with a protein content that is closer to that of human milk. Today, infant formulas with a protein/energy ratio of 1.8 g/100 kcal are commercially available. These formulas have been shown to be safe and nutritionally adequate for term infants. However, the short-term and potentially long-term metabolic benefits of formulas with reduced protein content have still to be elucidated and are currently under investigation. In addition to providing amino acids as building blocks for growth, milk is the source of numerous bioactive factors/hormones which are involved in multiple physiological processes. Continuous efforts are being made to identify new bioactive compounds in human milk. However, a better understanding of their biological functions in suckling infants as well as a comparison with their bovine counterparts are needed. Technological processes, which preserve some bioactive factors in cow's milk already exist. These processes could be applied to infant formulas.

  15. Relationship between content of crude protein in rations for dairy cows and milk yield, concentration of urea in milk and ammonia emissions.

    PubMed

    Frank, B; Swensson, C

    2002-07-01

    During recent decades, efforts have been made in several countries to diminish the negative environmental influence of dairy production. The main focus has been on nitrogen and phosphorus. Modern dairy production in Western Europe is often based on imported feed-stuffs, mostly protein-rich feeds. In Sweden at least, it is wished that the use of imported feedstuffs in animal production will decrease due to the risk of contamination with Salmonella and the ban of using GMO crops in Swedish dairy production. An experiment was carried out to investigate whether a lower content of crude protein in the diet would decrease the ammonia release from cow manure and whether a well-balanced diet using only feedstuffs of Swedish origin would maintain milk production. Five treatments were arranged in a Latin square design. Two different protein supplements made of ingredients of Swedish origin were each fed at two protein levels, and a fifth imported commercial protein mix was fed at the higher level. The treatments with low protein levels (13.1 to 13.5%) had a significantly lower milk yield, kilograms of ECM, but, on the other hand the net profit, milk income minus feed cost was nearly the same in all treatments except diet C, which had lower feed cost but also lower net profit due to lower milk yield. The content of urea in milk was higher with diets high in crude protein (17%) content. A decreased protein level in the diets did not influence the content of casein or whey protein, but the commercial concentrate showed a tendency to give lower values than the Swedish mixtures. The low protein diets gave significantly lower ammonia release from manure compared with the high protein diets. There were no production differences between the diets of Swedish feeds compared with the imported control. The readily fermentable beet pulp should have helped cows use the higher N diet more efficiently and increased the response. This gives the rumen microbes a possibility to match the

  16. Gamma irradiation influence on physical properties of milk proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieśla, K.; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.; Tien, C. Le

    2004-09-01

    Gamma irradiation was found to be an effective method for the improvement of both barrier and mechanical properties of the edible films and coatings based on calcium and sodium caseinates alone or combined with some globular proteins. Our current studies concern gamma irradiation influence on the physical properties of calcium caseinate-whey protein isolate-glycerol (1:1:1) solutions and gels, used for films preparation. Irradiation of solutions was carried out with Co-60 gamma rays applying 0 and 32 kGy dose. The increase in viscosity of solutions was found after irradiation connected to induced crosslinking. Lower viscosity values were detected, however, after heating of the solutions irradiated with a 32 kGy dose than after heating of the non-irradiated ones regarding differences in the structure of gels and resulting in different temperature-viscosity curves that were recorded for the irradiated and the non-irradiated samples during heating and cooling. Creation of less stiff but better ordered gels after irradiation arises probably from reorganisation of aperiodic helical phase and β-sheets, in particular from increase of β-strands, detected by FTIR. Films obtained from these gels are characterised by improved barrier properties and mechanical resistance and are more rigid than those prepared from the non-irradiated gels. The route of gel creation was investigated for the control and the irradiated samples during heating and the subsequent cooling.

  17. Purification and identification of lactoperoxidase in milk basic proteins as an inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Morita, Y; Ono, A; Serizawa, A; Yogo, K; Ishida-Kitagawa, N; Takeya, T; Ogawa, T

    2011-05-01

    A milk protein fraction with alkaline isoelectric points (milk basic protein, MBP) inhibits both bone resorption and osteoclastogenesis for in vitro models. We previously identified bovine angiogenin as a component of MBP that inhibits bone resorption. However, purified angiogenin had no effect on osteoclastogenesis, suggesting that MBP contains unidentified component(s) that inhibit osteoclast formation. In this study, we purified lactoperoxidase (LPO) as the predominant inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis in MBP. The LPO treatment downregulated levels of reactive oxygen species in osteoclasts. Signaling by receptor activator of NF-kappa-B ligand/receptor activator of NF-kappa-B (RANKL/RANK) was downregulated in LPO-treated cells, and, in particular, the ubiquitination of tumor necrosis factor receptor associate factor 6 (TRAF6) and activation of downstream signaling cascades (JNK, p38, ERK, and NFκB) were suppressed. Ultimately, LPO treatment led to decreased expression of c-Fos and NFAT2. These results suggest that MBP contains at least 2 components that independently suppress bone resorption through a unique mechanism: angiogenin inhibits bone resorption and LPO inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. These data explain many of the positive aspects of milk consumption on bone health.

  18. Focusing on casein gene cluster and protein profile in Garganica goat milk.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, Marzia; Santillo, Antonella; d'Angelo, Francesca; Sevi, Agostino

    2009-02-01

    A survey was carried out in eight goat dairy farms, a total of 71 individual Garganica goat milk samples were collected for genomic DNA extraction. Casein alleles and haplotype frequencies of Garganica population were estimated. Individual milks were also analysed for chemical composition, rheological properties, and protein profile. The strong A* allele of CSN1S1 was predominant in the population investigated, the weak allele F of CSN1S1 showed a relatively high frequency and the null alleles N and 01 were first observed in this breed. At CSN1S2 locus the strong A* allele was the most frequent, followed by the F allele and the null allele. The strong A* allele was predominant at CSN2 locus, and relatively high incidence of null allele 0 was observed. CSN3 locus was monomorphic for B* allele. The exact test of sample differentiation based on haplotype frequencies discriminate the farms into two groups characterized by the highest frequency of strong (S-CSN1S1) or weak (W-CSN1S1) alleles at CSN1S1. Protein and casein contents were higher in the group characterized by strong allele than in the group with weak allele at CSN1S1. The 2D electrophoresis technique was performed to screen goat casein variability at the protein level and to evaluate global casein genotype (alphas1, alphas2, beta and kappa-CN). Gels displayed the protein profile associated with casein genotype, and demonstrated differences in the protein expression deriving from interactions between loci. The variability of goat casein loci in Garganica goat breed could be exploited to differentiate the population on the basis of milk utilization and could represent a strategy to preserve the genotype of this autochthonous breed.

  19. Preventive effect of fermented Maillard reaction products from milk proteins in cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Oh, N S; Kwon, H S; Lee, H A; Joung, J Y; Lee, J Y; Lee, K B; Shin, Y K; Baick, S C; Park, M R; Kim, Y; Lee, K W; Kim, S H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dual effect of Maillard reaction and fermentation on the preventive cardiovascular effects of milk proteins. Maillard reaction products (MRP) were prepared from the reaction between milk proteins, such as whey protein concentrates (WPC) and sodium caseinate (SC), and lactose. The hydrolysates of MRP were obtained from fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB; i.e., Lactobacillus gasseri H10, L. gasseri H11, Lactobacillus fermentum H4, and L. fermentum H9, where human-isolated strains were designated H1 to H15), which had excellent proteolytic and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities (>20%). The antioxidant activity of MRP was greater than that of intact proteins in assays of the reaction with 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and trivalent ferric ions; moreover, the effect of MRP was synergistically improved by fermentation. The Maillard reaction dramatically increased the level of antithrombotic activity and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) inhibitory effect of milk proteins, but did not change the level of activity for micellar cholesterol solubility. Furthermore, specific biological properties were enhanced by fermentation. Lactobacillus gasseri H11 demonstrated the greatest activity for thrombin and HMGR inhibition in Maillard-reacted WPC, by 42 and 33%, respectively, whereas hydrolysates of Maillard-reacted SC fermented by L. fermentum H9 demonstrated the highest reduction rate for micellar cholesterol solubility, at 52%. In addition, the small compounds that were likely released by fermentation of MRP were identified by size-exclusion chromatography. Therefore, MRP and hydrolysates of fermented MRP could be used to reduce cardiovascular risks.

  20. Expression of Plant Sweet Protein Brazzein in the Milk of Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Sen; Song, Hong; Pang, Daxin; Zou, Qingjian; Li, Li; Yan, Quanmei; Fan, Nana; Zhao, Xiangjie; Yu, Hao; Li, Zhanjun; Wang, Haijun; Gao, Fei; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Lai, Liangxue

    2013-01-01

    Sugar, the most popular sweetener, is essential in daily food. However, excessive sugar intake has been associated with several lifestyle-related diseases. Finding healthier and more economical alternatives to sugars and artificial sweeteners has received increasing attention to fulfill the growing demand. Brazzein, which comes from the pulp of the edible fruit of the African plant Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baill, is a protein that is 2,000 times sweeter than sucrose by weight. Here we report the production of transgenic mice that carry the optimized brazzein gene driven by the goat Beta-casein promoter, which specifically directs gene expression in the mammary glands. Using western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, we confirmed that brazzein could be efficiently expressed in mammalian milk, while retaining its sweetness. This study presents the possibility of producing plant protein–sweetened milk from large animals such as cattle and goats. PMID:24155905

  1. Protein profile and alpha-lactalbumin concentration in the milk of standard and transgenic goats expressing recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, H; Schirm, M; Deslauriers, J; Turcotte, C; Bordignon, V

    2009-08-01

    The expression of recombinant proteins of pharmaceutical interest in the milk of transgenic farm animals can result in phenotypes exhibiting compromised lactation performance, as a result of the extraordinary demand placed on the mammary gland. In this study, we investigated differences in the protein composition of milk from control and transgenic goats expressing recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase. In Experiment 1, the milk was characterized by gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in order to identify protein bands that were uniquely visible in the transgenic milk and/or at differing band densities compared with controls. Differences in protein content were additionally evaluated by computer assisted band densitometry. Proteins identified in the transgenic milk only included serum proteins (i.e. complement component 3b, ceruloplasmin), a cytoskeleton protein (i.e. actin) and a stress-induced protein (94 kDA glucose-regulated protein). Proteins exhibiting evident differences in band density between the transgenic and control groups included immunoglobulins, serum albumin, beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin. These results were found to be indicative of compromised epithelial tight junctions, premature mammary cell death, and protein synthesis stress resulting from transgene expression. In Experiment 2, the concentration of alpha-lactalbumin was determined using the IDRing assay and was found to be significantly reduced on day 1 of lactation in transgenic goats (4.33 +/- 0.97 vs. 2.24 +/- 0.25 mg/ml, P < 0.01), but was not different from non-transgenic controls by day 30 (0.99 +/- 0.46 vs. 0.90 +/- 0.11 mg/ml, P > 0.05). We concluded that a decreased/delayed expression of the alpha-lactalbumin gene may be the cause for the delayed start of milk production observed in this herd of transgenic goats.

  2. Quantitation and Identification of Intact Major Milk Proteins for High-Throughput LC-ESI-Q-TOF MS Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Delphine; Elkins, Aaron; Condina, Mark R.; Ezernieks, Vilnis; Rochfort, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Cow’s milk is an important source of proteins in human nutrition. On average, cow’s milk contains 3.5% protein. The most abundant proteins in bovine milk are caseins and some of the whey proteins, namely beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, and serum albumin. A number of allelic variants and post-translationally modified forms of these proteins have been identified. Their occurrence varies with breed, individuality, stage of lactation, and health and nutritional status of the animal. It is therefore essential to have reliable methods of detection and quantitation of these proteins. Traditionally, major milk proteins are quantified using liquid chromatography (LC) and ultra violet detection method. However, as these protein variants co-elute to some degree, another dimension of separation is beneficial to accurately measure their amounts. Mass spectrometry (MS) offers such a tool. In this study, we tested several RP-HPLC and MS parameters to optimise the analysis of intact bovine proteins from milk. From our tests, we developed an optimum method that includes a 20-28-40% phase B gradient with 0.02% TFA in both mobile phases, at 0.2 mL/min flow rate, using 75°C for the C8 column temperature, scanning every 3 sec over a 600–3000 m/z window. The optimisations were performed using external standards commercially purchased for which ionisation efficiency, linearity of calibration, LOD, LOQ, sensitivity, selectivity, precision, reproducibility, and mass accuracy were demonstrated. From the MS analysis, we can use extracted ion chromatograms (EICs) of specific ion series of known proteins and integrate peaks at defined retention time (RT) window for quantitation purposes. This optimum quantitative method was successfully applied to two bulk milk samples from different breeds, Holstein-Friesian and Jersey, to assess differences in protein variant levels. PMID:27749892

  3. Safety and efficacy of a new extensively hydrolyzed formula for infants with cow's milk protein allergy.

    PubMed

    Niggemann, B; von Berg, A; Bollrath, C; Berdel, D; Schauer, U; Rieger, C; Haschke-Becher, E; Wahn, U

    2008-06-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is best treated by complete elimination of cow's milk from the diet. For infants with CMPA who cannot be breast-fed, formulas based on extensively hydrolyzed proteins or on amino acids are the preferred substitutes for cow's milk-based formulas. In this study, we compared the tolerance and growth of infants with CMPA who were fed a new extensively hydrolyzed formula containing lactose (eHF) with those who were fed an amino acid formula (AAF). This was a prospective, multi-center, randomized, reference-controlled study. Seventy-seven infants <12 months old with suspected CMPA were enrolled. In 66 of these, CMPA was confirmed by oral challenge in a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) or by a medical history of severe allergic reaction to cow's milk and a positive skin prick test. These infants were then tested for their reaction to eHF and AAF in a DBPCFC. All infants tolerated both formulas and were randomized to receive either eHF (n = 34) or AAF (n = 32) for 180 days. Growth (weight, length, and head circumference) and tolerance [skin, gastro-intestinal, and respiratory tract symptoms of allergy] were evaluated after 30, 60, 90, and 180 days. There were no significant differences between the two groups in any of the growth measurements. Length and head circumference were similar to Euro-growth standards, but weight was slightly lower. Gastro-intestinal and respiratory tract symptoms of allergy were also similar in the two groups. However, whereas SCORAD scores for atopic dermatitis remained constant throughout the study in infants-fed eHF, there was a slight decrease in those fed AAF. Infants-fed eHF had significantly fewer incidents of vomiting than infants-fed AAF and a significantly higher frequency of soft stools. The new eHF is safe and well tolerated in infants diagnosed with CMPA. PMID:18167160

  4. A Milk Protein, Casein, as a Proliferation Promoting Factor in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Woo; Kim, Joo-Young; Kim, You-Sun; Lee, Sang Jin; Chung, Moon Kee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Despite most epidemiologic studies reporting that an increase in milk intake affects the growth of prostate cancer, the results of experimental studies are not consistent. In this study, we investigated the proliferation of prostate cancer cells treated with casein, the main protein in milk. Materials and Methods Prostate cancer cells (LNCaP and PC3), lung cancer cells (A459), stomach cancer cells (SNU484), breast cancer cells (MCF7), immortalized human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293), and immortalized normal prostate cells (RWPE1) were treated with either 0.1 or 1 mg/mL of α-casein and total casein extracted from bovine milk. Treatments were carried out in serum-free media for 72 hours. The proliferation of each cell line was evaluated by an 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results α-Casein and total casein did not affect the proliferations of RWPE1, HEK293, A459, SNU484, MCF7, HEK293, or RWPE1 cells. However, PC3 cells treated with 1 mg/mL of α-casein and casein showed increased proliferation (228% and 166%, respectively), and the proliferation of LNCaP cells was also enhanced by 134% and 142%, respectively. The proliferation mechanism of α-casein in PC3 and LNCaP cells did not appear to be related to the induction of Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), since the level of IGF-1 did not change upon the supplementation of casein. Conclusions The milk protein, casein, promotes the proliferation of prostate cancer cells such as PC3 and LNCaP. PMID:25237656

  5. Evaluation of the synergistic effects of milk proteins in a rapid viscosity analyzer.

    PubMed

    Stephani, Rodrigo; Borges de Souza, Alisson; Leal de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto; Perrone, Ítalo Tuler; Fernandes de Carvalho, Antônio; Cappa de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando

    2015-12-01

    Protein systems (PS) are routinely used by companies from Brazil and around the globe to improve the texture, yield, and palatability of processed foods. Understanding the synergistic behavior among the different protein structures of these systems during thermal treatment under the influence of pH can help to better define optimum conditions for products and processes. The interpretation of the reactions and interactions that occur simultaneously among the protein constituents of these systems as dispersions during thermal processing is still a major challenge. Here, using a rapid viscosity analyzer, we observed the rheological changes in the startup viscosities of 5 PS obtained by combining varying proportions of milk protein concentrate and whey protein concentrate under different conditions of pH (5.0, 6.5, and 7.0) and heat processing (85°C/15min and 95°C/5min). The solutions were standardized to 25% of total solids and 17% of protein. Ten analytical parameters were used to characterize each of the startup-viscosity ramps for 35 experiments conducted in a 2×3 × 5 mixed planning matrix, using principal component analysis to interpret behavioral similarities. The study showed the clear influence of pH 5.5 in the elevation of the initial temperature of the PS startup viscosity by at least 5°C, as well as the effect of different milk protein concentrate:whey protein concentrate ratios above 15:85 at pH 7.0 on the viscographic profile curves. These results suggested that the primary agent driving the changes was the synergism among the reactions and interactions of casein with whey proteins during processing. This study reinforces the importance of the rapid viscosity analyzer as an analytical tool for the simulation of industrial processes involving PS, and the use of the startup viscosity ramp as a means of interpreting the interactions of system components with respect to changes related to the treatment temperature.

  6. Effect of soluble calcium and lactose on limiting flux and serum protein removal during skim milk microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael C; Hurt, Emily E; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    The tendency of calcium to promote microfiltration (MF) membrane fouling is well documented, but the role of lactose has not been studied. Milk protein concentrate that is 85% protein on a dry basis (MPC85) contains less calcium and lactose than skim milk. Our objectives were to determine the effects of skim milk soluble calcium and lactose concentrations on the limiting fluxes (LF) and serum protein (SP) removal factors of 0.1-µm ceramic graded permeability membranes. The MF was fed with 3 different milks: skim milk, liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein content of skim milk with reverse osmosis water (MPC), and liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein and lactose contents of skim milk with reverse osmosis water and lactose monohydrate (MPC+L). Retentate and permeate were continuously recycled to the feed tank. The LF for each feed was determined by increasing flux once per hour from 55 kg·m(-2)·h(-1) until flux did not increase with increasing transmembrane pressure. Temperature, pressure drop across the membrane length, and protein concentration in the retentate recirculation loop were maintained at 50°C, 220 kPa, and 8.77 ± 0.2%, respectively. Experiments were replicated 3 times and the Proc GLM procedure of SAS was used for statistical analysis. An increase in LF between skim milk (91 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) and MPC+L (124 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) was associated with a reduction in soluble calcium. The LF of MPC+L was lower than the LF of MPC (137 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) due to the higher viscosity contributed by lactose. Permeates produced from the MPC and MPC+L contained more protein than the skim milk permeate due to the transfer of caseins from the micelles into the reduced-calcium sera of the MPC and MPC+L. A SP removal factor was calculated by dividing true protein in the permeate by SP in the permeate portion of the feed to describe the ease of SP passage through the membrane. No differences in SP removal factors were detected among the

  7. Short-term administration of rhGH increases markers of cellular proliferation, but not milk protein gene expression in normal lactating women.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth hormone is one of few pharmacologic agents known to augment milk production in humans. We hypothesized that recombinant human GH (rhGH) increases the expression of cell proliferation and milk protein synthesis genes. Sequential milk and blood samples collected over four days were obtained fro...

  8. A 12-month feeding study of reproduction/development in rats fed meat/milk powder supplemented diets derived from the progeny of cloned cattle produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Makiko; Itoh, Masaya; Ito, Yoshihiko; Watanabe, Shinya

    2008-10-01

    The present 12-month feeding study was carried out with rat groups fed a diet supplemented with meat or milk (meat/milk) derived from the progeny of clones produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. It was conducted to obtain data concerning the chronic toxicities of these edible products during the process of development and reproduction in rats fed such products. The rats were subjected to clinical observations for general health condition and examinations such as sensory/reflex function, grip strength, motor activity, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology and urinalysis. Moreover, sexually matured rats fed the test diets were mated and examined for items such as the reproductive performances of the dams and health of their pups. After the feeding period, factors related to rat health status, based on the findings for hematology, blood biochemistry, necropsy, organ weight and histology, were examined. There were no biologically significant differences in these factors between the rat groups fed meat/milk powder supplemented diets derived from the progeny and those fed meat/milk powder supplemented diets derived from conventionally bred cattle. Therefore, the present chronic toxicity study suggests that meat and milk derived from the progeny of SCNT cattle might be equivalent to those derived from conventionally bred cattle in use as dietary supplements for rats.

  9. Use of dry milk protein concentrate in pizza cheese manufactured by culture or direct acidification.

    PubMed

    Shakeel-Ur-Rehman; Farkye, N Y; Yim, B

    2003-12-01

    Milk protein concentrate (MPC) contains high concentrations of casein and calcium and low concentrations of lactose. Enrichment of cheese milk with MPC should, therefore, enhance yields and improve quality. The objectives of this study were: 1) to compare pizza cheese made by culture acidification using standardized whole milk (WM) plus skim milk (SM) versus WM plus MPC; and 2) compare cheese made using WM + MPC by culture acidification to that made by direct acidification. The experimental design is as follows: vat 1 = WM + SM + culture (commercial thermophilic lactic acid bacteria), vat 2 = WM + MPC + culture, and vat 3 = WM + MPC + direct acid (2% citric acid). Each cheese milk was standardized to a protein-to-fat ratio of approximately 1.4. The experiment was repeated three times. Yield and composition of cheeses were determined by standard methods, whereas the proteolysis was assessed by urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and water-soluble N contents. Meltability of the cheeses was determined during 1 mo of storage, in addition to pizza making. The addition of MPC improved the yields from 10.34 +/- 0.57% in vat 1 cheese to 14.50 +/- 0.84% and 16.65 +/- 2.23%, respectively, in vats 2 and 3 and cheeses. The percentage of fat and protein recoveries showed insignificant differences between the treatments, but TS recoveries were in the order, vat 2 > vat 3 > vat 1. Most of the compositional parameters were significantly affected by the different treatments. Vat 2 cheese had the highest calcium and lowest lactose contencentrations. Vat 3 cheese had the best meltability. Vat 1 cheese initially had better meltability than vat 2 cheese; however, the difference became insignificant after 28 d of storage at 4 degrees C. Vat 3 cheese had the softest texture and produced large-sized blisters when baked on pizza. The lowest and highest levels of proteolysis were found in vats 2 and 3 cheeses, respectively. The study demonstrates the use of MPC in pizza cheese

  10. Short communication: Multi-trait estimation of genetic parameters for milk protein composition in the Danish Holstein.

    PubMed

    Gebreyesus, G; Lund, M S; Janss, L; Poulsen, N A; Larsen, L B; Bovenhuis, H; Buitenhuis, A J

    2016-04-01

    Genetic parameters were estimated for the major milk proteins using bivariate and multi-trait models based on genomic relationships between animals. The analyses included, apart from total protein percentage, αS1-casein (CN), αS2-CN, β-CN, κ-CN, α-lactalbumin, and β-lactoglobulin, as well as the posttranslational sub-forms of glycosylated κ-CN and αS1-CN-8P (phosphorylated). Standard errors of the estimates were used to compare the models. In total, 650 Danish Holstein cows across 4 parities and days in milk ranging from 9 to 481d were selected from 21 herds. The multi-trait model generally resulted in lower standard errors of heritability estimates, suggesting that genetic parameters can be estimated with high accuracy using multi-trait analyses with genomic relationships for scarcely recorded traits. The heritability estimates from the multi-trait model ranged from low (0.05 for β-CN) to high (0.78 for κ-CN). Genetic correlations between the milk proteins and the total milk protein percentage were generally low, suggesting the possibility to alter protein composition through selective breeding with little effect on total milk protein percentage.

  11. A process efficiency assessment of serum protein removal from milk using ceramic graded permeability microfiltration membrane.

    PubMed

    Tremblay-Marchand, D; Doyen, A; Britten, M; Pouliot, Y

    2016-07-01

    Microfiltration (MF) is a well-known process that can be used in the dairy industry to separate caseins from serum proteins (SP) in skim milk using membranes with a pore diameter of 0.1μm. Graded permeability ceramic membranes have been studied widely as means of improving milk fractionation by overcoming problems encountered with other MF membranes. The ideal operating parameters for process efficiency in terms of membrane selectivity, permeate flux, casein loss, SP transmission, energy consumption, and dilution with water remain to be determined for this membrane. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of transmembrane pressure (TMP), volumetric concentration factor (VCF), and diafiltration on overall process efficiency. Skim milk was processed using a pilot-scale MF system equipped with 0.72-m(2) graded