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Sample records for powdered milk protein

  1. Evaluation of milk powder quality by protein oxidative modifications.

    PubMed

    Scheidegger, Dana; Radici, Paola M; Vergara-Roig, Víctor A; Bosio, Noelia S; Pesce, Silvia F; Pecora, Rolando P; Romano, José C P; Kivatinitz, Silvia C

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the present research was to evaluate commercially available milk powders according to their protein oxidative modifications and antioxidant capacity, and to evaluate if these characteristics are related to physical quality parameters such as dispersibility or stability during storage. Fifteen commercially processed spray-dried milk powders were evaluated: 6 whole milk powders (WMP), 4 skim milk powders (SMP), and 5 infant formula powders (IFP). Protein oxidative status was measured as protein carbonyl (PC) content, dityrosine content, and extent of protein polymerization. The level of PC was slightly lower in SMP than in WMP, whereas IFP had more than twice as much PC as WMP (2.8 ± 0.4, 2.1 ± 0.2, and 6.5 ± 1.3 nmol/mg of protein for WMP, SMP, and IFP, respectively). No differences were detected in dityrosine accumulation. Although all the possible pairs of parameters were tested for correlations, we found that 4 parameters were linked: PC, whey content, protein aggregate level, and dispersibility. After 9 mo of storage at -20°C or room temperature, all milk samples were analyzed to evaluate changes in protein oxidative status (PC, dityrosine, and protein integrity) and related parameters. Compared with the initial condition, PC increased in all tested samples after 9 mo of storage at -20°C or at room temperature. Stored milk powders had increased PC and decreased dispersibility compared with prestorage levels. Our results highlight the importance of protein oxidative status in milk powder and its relationship to other related quality parameters, such as protein integrity and dispersibility. Our findings suggest that the understanding of such relationships could help in developing quality differentiation for different types of milk powders in the product market.

  2. Manufacture of nonfat yogurt from a high milk protein powder.

    PubMed

    Mistry, V V; Hassan, H N

    1992-04-01

    Nonfat yogurts were manufactured from skim milk fortified with a new high milk protein powder. The powder, containing approximately 84% milk protein, was added to skim milk to obtain 5.2 to 11.3% total protein, 11.1 to 15% total solids, and 1.6 to 7.9% lactose in the yogurt mix. Mixes were homogenized, pasteurized at 90 degrees C for 10 min, and fermented with a yogurt culture at 42 degrees C to pH 4.6. Controls were made from the same skim milk fortified with NDM to approximately 14% total solids. Yogurts made with the protein powder and containing 5.6% protein were similar in firmness to the control and had good flavor when fresh and after 2 wk of storage. Yogurts with more than 5.6% protein were too firm and had an astringent flavor. Acetaldehyde content of all yogurts was comparable with that of the control, and fat content ranged from .18 to .33%. As the protein content of yogurts increased, the porosity of yogurts, as seen by scanning electron microscopy, decreased. Good quality nonfat yogurts can be produced by supplementing skim milk with a high milk protein powder up to 5.6% protein. The added protein assists in providing a firm body and minimal whey separation without the use of stabilizers.

  3. Rapid turbidimetric detection of milk powder adulteration with plant proteins.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Peter F; Farris, Samantha M; Mossoba, Magdi M

    2014-02-19

    Development of assays to screen milk for economically motivated adulteration with foreign proteins has been stalled since 2008 due to strong international reactions to the melamine poisoning incident in China and the surveillance emphasis placed on low molecular weight nitrogen-rich adulterants. New screening assays are still needed to detect high molecular weight foreign protein adulterants and characterize this understudied potential risk. A rapid turbidimetric method was developed to screen milk powder for adulteration with insoluble plant proteins. Milk powder samples spiked with 0.03-3% by weight of soy, pea, rice, and wheat protein isolates were extracted in 96-well plates, and resuspended pellet solution absorbance was measured. Limits of detection ranged from 100 to 200 μg, or 0.1-0.2% of the sample weight, and adulterant pellets were visually apparent even at ∼0.1%. Extraction recoveries ranged from 25 to 100%. Assay sensitivity and simplicity indicate that it would be ideally suitable to rapidly screen milk samples in resource poor environments where adulteration with plant protein is suspected.

  4. Differences of protein fractions among fresh, frozen and powdered donkey milk.

    PubMed

    Polidori, Paolo; Vincenzetti, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Recently donkey milk has been the focus of several studies because of its special nutritional properties and composition, which is very close to human milk. When a mother cannot breastfeed, or chooses not to breastfeed, the use of a milk substitute must provide the best option to meet the nutritional and health needs of the infant. Donkey milk has been widely used in the past to replace human milk, because chemical composition and protein content are close to that of human milk, and also because the allergenicity of donkey milk is low. The recent studies of the paediatric scientists have demonstrated that infant formulae, which are based on dairy cows milk, are less adapted than donkey milk. In fact, donkey's milk digestibility is higher than cows' milk and similar to human milk, because of the high whey proteins content and the few casein content. Since donkey milk supply is related to its seasonal availability during the year, in this study were evaluated the effects of a specific technological treatment (spray-dryer) and a particular storage temperature (-20 degrees C) on the protein fractions of donkey milk. The results obtained in fresh, frozen and powdered donkey milk showed different values in total proteins, caseins, whey proteins and lysozyme content. The article presents some promising patents on protein fractions among fresh, frozen and powdered donkey milk.

  5. NIRS and MIRS technique for the determination of protein and fat content in milk powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Feng, Shuijuan; He, Chao; He, Yong

    2008-03-01

    It is very important to detect the protein and fat content in milk powder fast and non-destructively. Near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared(MIR) spectroscopy techniques have been compared and evaluated for the determination of the protein and fat content in milk powder with the use of Least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM). LS-SVM models have been developed by using both NIR and MIR spectra. Both methods have shown good correlations between infrared transmission values and two nutrition contents. MIRS provided better prediction performance over NIRS. It is concluded that infrared spectroscopy technique can quantify of the protein and fat content in milk powder fast and nondestructively. The process is simple and easy to operate than chemistry methods. The results can be beneficial for designing a simple and non-destructive instrument with MIRS or NIRS spectral sensor for the determination of the protein fat content in milk powder.

  6. Modified water solubility of milk protein concentrate powders through the application of static high pressure treatment.

    PubMed

    Udabage, Punsandani; Puvanenthiran, Amirtha; Yoo, Jin Ah; Versteeg, Cornelis; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2012-02-01

    The effects of high pressure (HP) treatment (100-400 MPa at 10-60 °C) on the solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders were tested. The solubility, measured at 20 °C, of fresh MPC powders made with no HP treatment was 66%. It decreased by 10% when stored for 6 weeks at ambient temperature (~20 °C) and continued to decrease to less than 50% of its initial solubility after 12 months of storage. Of the combinations of pressure and heat used, a pressure of 200 MPa at 40 °C applied to the concentrate before spray drying was found to be the most beneficial for improved solubility of MPC powders. This combination of pressure/heat improved the initial cold water solubility to 85%. The solubility was maintained at this level after 6 weeks storage at ambient temperature and 85% of the initial solubility was preserved after 12 months. The improved solubility of MPC powders on manufacture and on storage are attributed to an altered surface composition arising from an increased concentration of non-micellar casein in the milk due to HP treatment prior to drying. The improved solubility of high protein powders (95% protein) made from blends of sodium caseinate and whey protein isolate compared with MPC powders (~85% protein) made from ultrafiltered/diafiltered milk confirmed the detrimental role of micellar casein on solubility. The results suggest that increasing the non-micellar casein content by HP treatment of milk or use of blends of sodium caseinate and whey proteins are strategies that may be used to obtain high protein milk powders with enhanced solubility.

  7. Effects of heating on the secondary structure of proteins in milk powders using mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ye, M P; Zhou, R; Shi, Y R; Chen, H C; Du, Y

    2017-01-01

    Milk powder is an important source of protein for adults and children. Protein is very sensitive to heat, which may influence people's usage of nutrients in milk powder. In this study, we describe the temperature-induced secondary structure of protein in milk powders. In this study, whole milk powder containing 24% protein and infant formula containing 11% protein were heated from 25 to 100°C. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectra in the mid-infrared range 400-4,000cm(-1) were used to evaluate the heat effect on the secondary structure of protein in these 2 milk powders. The spectral changes as a function of temperature were maintained by difference spectra, second-derivative spectra and Gauss curve-fitted spectra. The secondary structures of protein in the whole milk powder began to change at 70°C and in the infant formula at 50°C. The β-sheet and β-turn structures in the whole milk powder both decreased in the range of 70 to 85°C, whereas α-helix structures increased. The loss of β-sheet and β-turn may contribute to the formation of α-helix in the whole milk powder. In infant formula powder, the β-sheet structure showed a decrease and then increase, whereas the β-turn structure showed an increase and then decrease in the range of 50 to 75°C, and no change was found for α-helix structures. This implies that heating may induce the transformation from β-sheet to β-turn. Overall, whole milk powder had better temperature stability than infant formula powder, probably because of the lower content of lipid in the former than in the latter. These results help us understand the thermal stability of protein in milk powder.

  8. The Measurement of Protein in Powdered Milk Products and Infant Formulas: A Review and Recent Developments.

    PubMed

    Elgar, Dave; Evers, Jaap M; Holroyd, Stephen E; Johnson, Richard; Rowan, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are a key nutritional component of both powdered milk and infant formula types of product, and reliable methods for their determination are important for manufacturing and international trade. In this review, we distinguish between methods used for determining protein quality for nutrition purposes and those used for determining chemically defined protein. The former methods cover the ability of a dietary protein source to meet human nutritional requirements for the indispensable amino acids. The latter are chemical methods for the determination of total protein and can be divided into three broad types: total nitrogen determination, direct protein determination, and indirect protein determination. Current techniques and recent developments in each are reviewed.

  9. Composition of the non-protein nitrogen fraction of goat whole milk powder and goat milk-based infant and follow-on formulae.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Colin G; Mclaren, Robert D; Frost, Deborah; Agnew, Michael; Lowry, Dianne J

    2008-03-01

    The non-protein nitrogen fraction of goat whole milk powder and of infant and follow-on formulae made from goat milk was characterized and compared with cow milk powder and formulae. Goat milk infant formula contained 10% non-protein nitrogen, expressed as a proportion of total nitrogen, compared with 7.1% for cow milk formula. Goat follow-on formula contained 9.3% and cow 7.4% non-protein nitrogen. Urea, at 30%, was quantitatively the most abundant component of the non-protein nitrogen fraction of goat milk and formulae, followed by free amino acids at 7%. Taurine, glycine and glutamic acid were the most abundant free amino acids in goat milk powders. Goat milk infant formula contained 4 mg/100 ml total nucleotide monophosphates, all derived from the goat milk itself. Goat milk has a very different profile of the non-protein nitrogen fraction to cow milk, with several constituents such as nucleotides at concentrations approaching those in human breast milk.

  10. Fast and selective determination of total protein in milk powder via titration of moving reaction boundary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Cheng-ye; Wang, Hou-yu; Liu, Xiao-ping; Fan, Liu-yin; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Cheng-xi

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, moving reaction boundary titration (MRBT) was developed for rapid and accurate quantification of total protein in infant milk powder, from the concept of moving reaction boundary (MRB) electrophoresis. In the method, the MRB was formed by the hydroxide ions and the acidic residues of milk proteins immobilized via cross-linked polyacrylamide gel (PAG), an acid-base indicator was used to denote the boundary motion. As a proof of concept, we chose five brands of infant milk powders to study the feasibility of MRBT method. The calibration curve of MRB velocity versus logarithmic total protein content of infant milk powder sample was established based on the visual signal of MRB motion as a function of logarithmic milk protein content. Weak influence of nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) reagents (e.g., melamine and urea) on MRBT method was observed, due to the fact that MRB was formed with hydroxide ions and the acidic residues of captured milk proteins, rather than the alkaline residues or the NPN reagents added. The total protein contents in infant milk powder samples detected via the MRBT method were in good agreement with those achieved by the classic Kjeldahl method. In addition, the developed method had much faster measuring speed compared with the Kjeldahl method.

  11. Immunodetection of added glycomacropeptide in milk formulas and milk powders.

    PubMed

    Oancea, Simona; Stoia, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed the detection of fraudulent manipulation of milk powder with a low cost component--whey powder, by applying the immunochromatographic assay to identify glycomacropeptide. Five commercial milk powder samples of various brands from the national market were analyzed: lactose enriched milk powder type 26, two whole milk powders, vitamin enriched milk powder and full cream milk powder. Our results showed additional whey (1-2%) in 60% of the selected samples after casein removal by precipitation with 20% trichloracetic acid. Another investigated sample--the enriched UHT milk for children aged 4-12 years--proved addition of whey. Other two commercial toddler formula milk powder samples of different brands were used for comparison for the presence of glycomacropeptide. The first sample which was regularly labeled as containing whey protein concentrate was found positive for glycomacropeptide in accordance with the label information, while the second one not containing whey proteins as specified by the product label, was found negative for glycomacropeptide, these two samples being in accordance with the actual legislation.

  12. Protein conformational modifications and kinetics of water-protein interactions in milk protein concentrate powder upon aging: effect on solubility.

    PubMed

    Haque, Enamul; Bhandari, Bhesh R; Gidley, Michael J; Deeth, Hilton C; Møller, Sandie M; Whittaker, Andrew K

    2010-07-14

    Protein conformational modifications and water-protein interactions are two major factors believed to induce instability of protein and eventually affect the solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powder. To test these hypotheses, MPC was stored at different water activities (a(w) 0.0-0.85) and temperatures (25 and 45 degrees C) for up to 12 weeks. Samples were examined periodically to determine solubility, change in protein conformation by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and principal component analysis (PCA), and water status (interaction of water with the protein molecule/surface) by measuring the transverse relaxation time (T(2)) with proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR). The solubility of MPC decreased significantly with aging, and this process was enhanced by increasing water activity (a(w)) and storage temperature. Minor changes in protein secondary structure were observed with FTIR, which indicated some degree of unfolding of protein molecules. PCA of the FTIR data was able to discriminate samples according to moisture content and storage period. Partial least-squares (PLS) analysis showed some correlation between FTIR spectral feature and solubility. The NMR T(2) results indicated the presence of three distinct populations of water molecules, and the proton signal intensity and T(2) values of proton fractions varied with storage conditions (humidity, temperature) and aging. Results suggest that protein/protein interactions may be initiated by unfolding of protein molecules that eventually affects solubility.

  13. Effects of milk powders in milk chocolate.

    PubMed

    Liang, B; Hartel, R W

    2004-01-01

    The physical characteristics of milk powders used in chocolate can have significant impact on the processing conditions needed to make that chocolate and the physical and organoleptic properties of the finished product. Four milk powders with different particle characteristics (size, shape, density) and "free" milk fat levels (easily extracted with organic solvent) were evaluated for their effect on the processing conditions and characteristics of chocolates in which they were used. Many aspects of chocolate manufacture and storage (tempering conditions, melt rheology, hardness, bloom stability) were dependent on the level of free milk fat in the milk powder. However, particle characteristics of the milk powder also influenced the physical and sensory properties of the final products.

  14. Nontargeted detection of adulteration of skim milk powder with foreign proteins using UHPLC-UV.

    PubMed

    Jablonski, Joseph E; Moore, Jeffrey C; Harnly, James M

    2014-06-04

    Chromatographic profiles of skim milk powder (SMP) and mixtures of SMP with soy (SPI), pea (PPI), brown rice (BRP), and hydrolyzed wheat protein (HWPI) isolates were obtained by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with 215 nm detection. Two data analysis approaches were compared for their utility to classify samples as authentic or adulterated. The t test approach evaluated data points exceeding the 99% confidence limit of the mean authentic SMP chromatogram and used data points from the entire chromatogram. The other approach used the multivariate Q statistic from a SIMCA model of authentic samples to determine adulteration and used a selected retention window to obtain best classifications. Q-Statistic and t test correctly classified adulteration of SMP with SPI at the 1% and 3% levels, respectively, while minimizing false classifications of authentic SMP. Detection of SMP adulterated with PPI, BRP, and HWPI was possible at higher adulteration levels.

  15. Raman spectroscopic quantification of milk powder constituents.

    PubMed

    McGoverin, C M; Clark, A S S; Holroyd, S E; Gordon, K C

    2010-07-12

    Raman spectroscopy has significant potential for the quantification of food products. Milk powder is an important foodstuff and ingredient that is produced on large scale (over 20 million tonnes per annum). Raman spectroscopy, unlike near- and mid-infrared spectroscopies, has not been used extensively to quantify milk powder constituents. The effect of sample presentation on spectroscopic calibrations of protein and fat for 136 New Zealand milk powders was assessed using Raman spectroscopy. Prediction models were produced to quantify a protein concentration range of 32.19-37.65% w/w for skim milk powder, and a protein concentration range of 23.34-25.02% w/w and a fat concentration range of 26.26-29.68% w/w for whole milk powder (where ratios of prediction to deviation exceeded 2.6 with one exception). The resultant calibrations were not influenced by sample orientation; the sample temperature during data collection did affect the calibrations. Calcium fortification in the form of calcium carbonate was identified within a sub-set of samples, reinforcing the efficacy of Raman spectroscopy for identifying both crystalline and non-crystalline constituents within milk powder.

  16. Kinetics of enthalpy relaxation of milk protein concentrate powder upon ageing and its effect on solubility.

    PubMed

    Haque, Enamul; Whittaker, Andrew K; Gidley, Michael J; Deeth, Hilton C; Fibrianto, Kiki; Bhandari, Bhesh R

    2012-10-01

    Kinetics of enthalpy relaxation of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powder upon short-term (up to 67 h) storage at 25 °C and aw 0.85, and long-term (up to 48 days) storage at 25 °C and a range of aw values (0-0.85) were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The short-term study showed a rapid recovery of enthalpy for the first 48 h, followed by a slower steady increase with time. The non-exponential β parameter was calculated using the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts function and found to be 0.39. Long-term storage showed that enthalpy relaxation depends on both storage period and water activity. The enthalpy value was much less for lower moisture content (mc) (aw ≤ 0.23, mc ≤ 5.5%) than for higher mc (aw ≥ 0.45, mc ≥ 8%) samples for a particular storage period. The results suggest that the presence of more water molecules, in close proximity to the protein surface facilitates kinetic unfreezing and subsequent motion of molecular segments of protein molecules towards thermodynamic equilibrium. Although de-ageing of stored samples did not reverse storage-induced solubility losses, the timescale of enthalpy relaxation was similar to that of solubility loss. It is suggested that enthalpy relaxation within stored samples allows structural rearrangements that are responsible for subsequent solubility decreases.

  17. Particle Size of Milk Protein Concentrate Powder Affects the Texture of High-Protein Nutrition Bars During Storage.

    PubMed

    Banach, J C; Clark, S; Lamsal, B P

    2017-03-07

    Milk protein concentrate powder with 85% protein (MPC85) was jet-milled to give 2 particle size distributions (that is, JM-Coarse and JM-Fine) or freeze-dried (FD), in order to improve the functional properties of MPC85 for use in high-protein nutrition (HPN) bars. Volume-weighted mean diameter decreased from 86 μm to 49, 22, and 8 μm in FD, JM-Coarse, and JM-Fine, respectively (P < 0.05). The MPC85 powders modified by jet-milling and freeze-drying were significantly denser than the control MPC85 (P < 0.05). Volume of occluded air in the modified powders decreased (P < 0.05) by an order of magnitude, yet only FD possessed a lower volume of interstitial air (P < 0.05). Particle size reduction and freeze-drying MPC85 decreased its water holding capacity and improved its dispersibility by at least 20%. Contact angle measurements showed that these modifications increased initial hydrophobicity and did not improve wettability. HPN bars made from JM-Fine or FD were firmer by 40 or 17 N, respectively, than the control on day 0 (P < 0.05). HPN bar maximum compressive force increased by 38%, 33%, and 242% after 42 d at 32 °C when formulated with JM-Fine, FD, or control MPC85, respectively. HPN bars prepared with JM-Fine were less crumbly than those formulated with control or FD MPC85. Physically altering the particle structure of MPC85 improved its ability to plasticize within HPN bars and this improved their cohesiveness and textural stability.

  18. [Application of infrared spectroscopy technique to protein content fast measurement in milk powder based on support vector machines].

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Cao, Fang; Feng, Shui-Juan; He, Yong

    2008-05-01

    In the present study, the JASCO Model FTIR-4 000 fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Japan) was used, with a valid range of 7 800-350 cm(-1). Seven brands of milk powder were bought in a local supermarket. Milk powder was compressed into a uniform tablet with a diameter of 5 mm and a thickness of 2 mm, and then scanned by the spectrometer. Each sample was scanned 40 times and the data were averaged. About 60 samples were measured for each brand, and data for 409 samples were obtained. NIRS analysis was based on the range of 4 000 to 6 666 cm(-1), while MIRS analysis was between 400 and 4 000 cm(-1). The protein content was determined by kjeldahl method and the factor 6.38 was used to convert the nitrogen values to protein. The protein content value is the weight of protein per 100 g of milk powder. The NIR data of the milk powder exhibited slight differences. Univariate analysis was not really appropriate for analyzing the data sets. From NIRS region, it could be observed that the trend of different curves is similar. The one around 4 312 cm(-1) embodies the vibration of protein. From MIRS region, it could be determined that there are many differences between transmission value curves. Two troughs around 1 545 and 1 656 cm(-1) stand for the vibration of amide I and II bands of protein. The smoothing way of Savitzky-Golay with 3 segments and zero polynomials and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) were applied for denoising. First 8 important principle components (PCs), which were obtained from principle component analysis (PCA), were the optimal input feature subset. Least-squares support vector machines was applied to build the protein prediction model based on infrared spectral transmission value. The prediction result was better than that of traditional PLS regression model as the determination coefficient for prediction (R(p)2) is 0.951 7 and root mean square error for prediction (RMSEP) is 0.520 201. These indicate that LS-SVM is a powerful tool for

  19. Characterization of high-milk-protein powders upon rehydration under various salt concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hussain, R; Gaiani, C; Aberkane, L; Scher, J

    2011-01-01

    Rehydration of native micellar casein and native whey isolate protein powders was followed in different ionic environments. Solutions of NaCl and CaCl2 in the concentration range of 0 to 12% (wt%) were used as rehydration media. The rehydration profiles obtained were interpreted in terms of wetting, swelling, and dispersion stages by using a turbidity method. Two behaviors were observed depending on the salt concentration. For native micellar casein powder, a significant change was observed between 3 and 6% NaCl and between 0.75 and 1.5% CaCl2. The first behavior (low salt concentration) presents a typical rehydration profile: quick wetting, swelling, and long dispersion stage. The dispersion stage of the second behavior (high salt concentration) was significantly shortened, indicating a strong modification of the protein backbone. The rehydration of whey protein powder was less influenced by salts. At low salt concentrations, a typical profile for whey powders was observed: wetting with lump formation and no swelling followed by a quick dispersion. At high CaCl2 concentrations, no turbidity stabilization was observed, indicating a possible protein unfolding and denaturation. Additionally, the changes in secondary structures of the 2 proteins upon salt increase were followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confirmed the different profiles observed.

  20. Estimation of whey protein in casein coprecipitate and milk powder by high-performance liquid chromatography quantification of cysteine.

    PubMed

    Ballin, Nicolai Z

    2006-06-14

    An analytical high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescence method for indirect measuring of whey protein in casein coprecipitate and milk powder was developed. Samples were hydrolyzed with HCl, and cysteyl residues were derivatized with 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid and 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate. The cysteine content was used to calculate the percentage of whey protein in commercial samples with use of European Union Regulation cysteine reference values in both casein and whey protein. Method validation studies were performed for caseinates and milk powder, and results indicate that the present HPLC approach can be applied as a fast method with a standard deviation of repeatability between 3.3 and 9.5%. Applicability was studied by analysis of 40 commercial caseinate samples, and all complied to European legislation with a content of whey protein not exceeding 5%. Finally, an approach used to estimate the cysteine amount in pure casein by comparison of calculated and experimental values questions the generally accepted cysteine reference value in casein, which is most likely an overestimation.

  1. Short communication: Proteins in heat-processed skim milk powder have no positive effects on bone loss of ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Du, M; Kong, Y; Wang, C; Gao, H; Han, X; Yi, H; Zhang, L

    2011-06-01

    Milk has positive effects on bone growth. However, the effect of skim milk powder (SMP) on bone properties has not been reported. This study investigated the effect of SMP on bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized and another 10 rats received a sham operation. The OVX rats were randomly separated into 4 groups: OVX control, OVX SMP1 (SMP at 0.04 g/d), OVX SMP2 (SMP at 0.20 g/d), and OVX SMP3 (SMP at 0.40 g/d). Skim milk powder was supplied in the rat diet for 12 wk, and the rats were gavaged once per day. The effects of SMP on calcium content and bone mineral density of femur were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, respectively. Compared with the control, SMP at all dose levels tested had no particular effect on weight:length, calcium content, or bone mineral density of femurs. It was demonstrated that SMP (0.04 to 0.40 g/d) had no positive effect on bone loss in OVX rats, probably because the heat treatment used during SMP processing caused a loss of biological activity in the protein.

  2. A non-targeted UHPLC-UV methid with classical and multi-variate data analysis to detect adulteration of skim milk powder with foreign proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ultra-High performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with single wavelength (215 nm) detection was used to obtain chromatographic profiles of authentic skim milk powder (SMP) and synthetic mixtures of SMP with variable amounts of soy (SPI), pea (PPI), brown rice (BRP), and hydrolyzed wheat protein (...

  3. The decontamination of industrial casein and milk powder by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żegota, H.; Małolepszy, B.

    2008-09-01

    The efficacy of gamma radiation decontamination of industrial casein, a milk protein utilized as a component of many food and non-food products has been studied. Low-fat milk powder was also included with a purpose to study the microflora survival in protein-rich materials. Microbial analysis of the samples prior to irradiation showed that the initial total viable count was higher than 6.0 log cfu g -1 in both casein and milk powders. The contamination of casein with moulds and yeasts was found to be equal to 3.56 log cfu g -1. The counts of coliforms have not exceeded the value of 2.48 log cfu g -1. Radiation processing of casein and milk powder has substantially reduced the microbial population of all samples. The dose of 5 kGy was sufficient to reduce the total microflora and coliforms counts to the level permitted for food products. Survivals of microorganisms were analyzed by the generalized exponential equation, SF =exp[ -D/ Do) α]. Values of an exponent, α, standing for the dispersion parameter, were equal to 0.65 and 0.70 for microorganisms contaminating casein and milk powders, respectively. The numerical value of the dispersion parameter α<1 indicates the concave dependence of a logarithm of surviving fraction versus radiation dose. No difference in microflora survival in irradiated samples tested immediately and in samples stored for 1-month after irradiation has been noticed.

  4. Detection of milk powder and caseinates in Halloumi cheese.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, L; Cattaneo, S; Masotti, F; Psathas, G

    2010-08-01

    Halloumi cheese is traditionally manufactured from fresh milk. Nevertheless, dried dairy ingredients are sometimes illegally added to increase cheese yield. Lysinoalanine and furosine are newly formed molecules generated by heating and drying milk protein components. The levels of these molecular markers in the finished Halloumi have been investigated to verify their suitability to reveal the addition of skim milk powder and calcium caseinate to cheese milk. Because of the severe heating conditions applied in curd cooking, genuine Halloumi cheeses (n=35), representative of the Cyprus production, were characterized by levels of lysinoalanine (mean value=8.1 mg/100g of protein) and furosine (mean value=123 mg/100g of protein) unusual for natural cheeses. Despite the variability of the values, a good correlation between the 2 parameters (R=0.975) has been found in all cheeses, considering both the fresh and mature cheeses as well as those obtained from curd submitted to a prolonged cooking following a traditional practice adopted by a very small number of manufacturers. Experimental cheeses made by adding as low as 5% of skim milk powder, or calcium caseinate, or both, to cheese milk fell outside the prediction limits at +/-2 standard deviation of the above-reported correlation regardless of curd cooking conditions or ripening length. This correlation may be adopted as a reliable index of Halloumi cheese genuineness.

  5. [Making tablets of powdered milk and the physical properties].

    PubMed

    Shibata, Mitsuho; Otsubo, Kazumitsu; Nakane, Shota; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    Compressed baby milk powder has proven to be very convenient for parents due to the ease with which it can be handled, and the fact that use of a measuring scoop is not necessary. The purpose of this study was to develop a compressed baby milk powder and analyze the resulting physical properties. The basic production process consisted of the following steps: 1) molding milk powder by low compression pressure, 2) humidification at 25°C·97%RH and 3) drying with use of a desiccant. No chemical additives were used for solidification; therefore the chemical composition of the compressed milk powder is identical to the base milk powder. The important properties of the compressed milk powder are both ready solubility and the strength of the solid. The compressed milk powder obtained at low pressure was too brittle for practical use, but the strength was increased by humidification followed by drying. During the humidification process, the powder particles located close to the surface of the compressed milk powder partially dissolve resulting in bridging structures between the particles, leading to an increase in strength. Both specific surface area and the volume ratio of the compressed milk powder decreased. Testing showed that caking between the particles occurred following humidification, and that the volume of caking affected the ease with which the compressed milk powder dissolves in water.

  6. Time resolved fluorescence of cow and goat milk powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandao, Mariana P.; de Carvalho dos Anjos, Virgílio; Bell., Maria José V.

    2017-01-01

    Milk powder is an international dairy commodity. Goat and cow milk powders are significant sources of nutrients and the investigation of the authenticity and classification of milk powder is particularly important. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to distinguish chemical composition and structure modifications could assist develop a portable and non-destructive methodology to perform milk powder classification and determine composition. This study goal is to differentiate milk powder samples from cows and goats using fluorescence lifetimes. The samples were excited at 315 nm and the fluorescence intensity decay registered at 468 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes of 1.5 ± 0.3, 6.4 ± 0.4 and 18.7 ± 2.5 ns for goat milk powder; and 1.7 ± 0.3, 6.9 ± 0.2 and 29.9 ± 1.6 ns for cow's milk powder. We discriminate goat and cow powder milk by analysis of variance using Fisher's method. In addition, we employed quadratic discriminant analysis to differentiate the milk samples with accuracy of 100%. Our results suggest that time-resolved fluorescence can provide a new method to the analysis of powder milk and its composition.

  7. Use of fluorometry for determination of skim milk powder adulteration in fresh milk.

    PubMed

    Guan, Rong-fa; Liu, Dong-hong; Ye, Xing-qian; Yang, Kai

    2005-11-01

    A FAST (fluorescence of advanced Maillard products and Soluble Tryptophan) method for identification of reconstituted milk made from skim milk powder in the fresh milk was developed. Considering milk and skim milk powders variations from different seasons and countries, milk was collected from different dairy farms in different seasons and skim milk powders were collected from different countries to measure the Tryptophan (Trp), advanced Maillard products (AMP) fluorescence values. The results showed that there were differences (P<0.01) between raw and reconstituted milk. The plot of values in each mixed level of raw and reconstituted milk had a correlation coefficient >0.97. The FAST method is a simple, rapid, low-cost and sensitive method enabling the detection of 5% reconstituted milk in fresh milk. The measurement of the Trp, AMP fluorescence values and calculation of the FAST index is a suitable method for large-scale monitoring of fresh milk samples.

  8. Use of fluorometry for determination of skim milk powder adulteration in fresh milk*

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Rong-fa; Liu, Dong-hong; Ye, Xing-qian; Yang, Kai

    2005-01-01

    A FAST (fluorescence of advanced Maillard products and Soluble Tryptophan) method for identification of reconstituted milk made from skim milk powder in the fresh milk was developed. Considering milk and skim milk powders variations from different seasons and countries, milk was collected from different dairy farms in different seasons and skim milk powders were collected from different countries to measure the Tryptophan (Trp), advanced Maillard products (AMP) fluorescence values. The results showed that there were differences (P<0.01) between raw and reconstituted milk. The plot of values in each mixed level of raw and reconstituted milk had a correlation coefficient >0.97. The FAST method is a simple, rapid, low-cost and sensitive method enabling the detection of 5% reconstituted milk in fresh milk. The measurement of the Trp, AMP fluorescence values and calculation of the FAST index is a suitable method for large-scale monitoring of fresh milk samples. PMID:16252345

  9. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    PubMed

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy.

  10. [Study on quality detection of milk powder based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIR)].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing-Zhu; Wang, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Chao; Xu, Yun

    2007-09-01

    The traditional NIR model was usually built according to various parameters of an individual type of milk powder so that it's really time-consuming. To simplify the application of NIR in real-time quality detection of milk powder, it was proposed in the present paper to build NIR models for a sample set composed of different types of milk powder. With 70 samples provided by one manufacturer, 6 NIR models including acidity, fat, lactose, sucrose, protein and ash, were built by optimizing algorithms. The results indicated that these NIR models except the acidity model have good stability and high prediction ability (RSD<10%, RPD>3).

  11. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method extension to quantify simultaneously melamine and cyanuric acid in egg powder and soy protein in addition to milk products.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Mondal, Ana Mary; Desmarchelier, Aurélien; Konings, Erik; Acheson-Shalom, Ruth; Delatour, Thierry

    2010-11-24

    As a consequence of the adulteration of infant formulas and milk powders with melamine (MEL) in China in 2008, much attention has been devoted to the analysis of MEL [and cyanuric acid (CA)] in dairy products. Several methods based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), or Raman spectroscopy have been described in the literature. However, no method is available for the simultaneous determination of MEL and CA in other raw materials, which are considered as high-risk materials for economically motivated adulteration. The present paper reports the results of an interlaboratory-based performance evaluation conducted with seven laboratories worldwide. The purpose was to demonstrate the ability of a cleanup-free LC-MS/MS method, originally developed for cow's milk and milk-powdered infant formula, to quantify MEL and CA in egg powder and soy protein. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.02 and 0.05 mg/kg for MEL in egg powder and soy protein, respectively. For CA, LOD and LOQ were 0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg in egg powder and 1.0 and 1.50 mg/kg in soy protein, respectively. Recoveries ranged within a 97-113% range for both MEL and CA in egg powder and soy protein. Reproducibility values (RSD(R)) from seven laboratories were within a 5.4-11.7% range for both analytes in the considered matrices. Horwitz ratio (HorRat) values between 0.4 and 0.7 indicate acceptable among-laboratory precision for the method described.

  12. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    PubMed

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  13. Modification of the analysis of parathyroid hormone-related protein in milk and concentrations of this protein in commercial milk and milk products in Japan.

    PubMed

    Onda, K; Yamaguchi, M; Ohashi, M; Sato, R; Ochiai, H; Iriki, T; Wada, Y

    2010-05-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), which causes hypercalcemia associated with malignant tumors, is known to be present in milk. Gene expression of PTHrP in the mammary gland increases markedly during parturition and with the onset of lactation. Even when circulating PTHrP levels are extremely low or below the detection limit, milk PTHrP levels are remarkably high. Parathyroid hormone-related protein derived from the mammary gland is assumed to play a role in maintaining the maternal calcium homeostasis and calcium transport from blood to milk. In previous studies that determined the PTHrP concentrations in milk, the pretreatments and diluent composition were not standardized. Here, we investigated the effect of various pretreatment procedures and diluent constitutions and the consequent PTHrP concentrations in commercial milk and milk products in Japan. Significant differences were found in PTHrP concentrations in raw milk samples subjected to different combinations of pretreatments (mixing, centrifugation, acidification, and heating) and diluents (0pM standard solution of PTHrP, plasma treated with protease inhibitors, and original diluent). We measured the PTHrP concentrations in normal liquid milk, processed milk, milk drinks, formulated milk powders, and skim milk powder by using the appropriate combination of pretreatment (acidification) and diluent (plasma treated with protease inhibitors). The PTHrP concentration in normal liquid milk, processed milk, and skim milk powder was as high as that in raw milk (>5nM), whereas that in milk drinks differed considerably. The PTHrP concentration in infant formulas (<2nM) was lower than that in the other milk products. These results indicate that a certain amount of PTHrP is ingested when milk and milk products are consumed.

  14. The use of whey or skimmed milk powder in fortified blended foods for vulnerable groups.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Camilla; Andersen, Gregers S; Jacobsen, Stine; Mølgaard, Christian; Friis, Henrik; Sangild, Per T; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2008-01-01

    Fortified blended foods (FBF), especially corn soy blend, are used as food aid for millions of people worldwide, especially malnourished individuals and vulnerable groups. There are only a few studies evaluating the effect of FBF on health outcomes, and the potential negative effect of antinutrients has not been examined. Different lines of evidence suggest that dairy proteins have beneficial effects on vulnerable groups. Here we review the evidence on the effects of adding whey or skimmed milk powder to FBF used for malnourished infants and young children or people living with HIV or AIDS. Adding whey or skimmed milk powder to FBF improves the protein quality, allowing a reduction in total amount of protein, which could have potential metabolic advantages. It also allows for a reduced content of soy and cereal and thereby a reduction of potential antinutrients. It is possible that adding milk could improve weight gain, linear growth, and recovery from malnutrition, but this needs to be confirmed. Bioactive factors in whey might have beneficial effects on the immune system and muscle synthesis, but evidence from vulnerable groups is lacking. Milk proteins will improve flavor, which is important for acceptability in vulnerable groups. The most important disadvantage is a considerable increase in price. Adding 10-15% milk powder would double the price, which means that such a product should be used only in well-defined vulnerable groups with special needs. The potential beneficial effects of adding milk protein and lack of evidence in vulnerable groups call for randomized intervention studies.

  15. Melamine milk powder and infant formula sold in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Schoder, Dagmar

    2010-09-01

    This is the first study proving the existence of melamine in milk powder and infant formula exported to the African market. A total of 49 milk powder batches were collected in Dar-es-Salaam (Tanzania, East Africa), the center of international trade in East Africa, which serves as a commercial bottleneck and shipment hub for sub-Saharan, Central, and East Africa. Two categories of samples were collected between October and December 2008, immediately after the melamine contamination of Chinese products became public: (i) market brands of all international companies supplying the East African market and (ii) illegally sold products from informal channels. Melamine concentration was determined with the AgraQuant Melamine Sensitive Assay. Despite the national import prohibition of Chinese milk products and unlabeled milk powder in Tanzania, 11% (22 of 200) of inspected microretailers sold milk powder on the local black market. Manufacturers could be identified for only 55% (27) of the 49 investigated batches. Six percent (3 of 49) of all samples and 11% (3 of 27) of all international brand name products tested revealed melamine concentrations up to 5.5 mg/kg of milk powder. This amount represents about twice the tolerable daily intake as suggested by the U.S Food and Drug Administration. Based on our study, we can assume that the number of affected children in Africa is substantial.

  16. [Surveillance of perchlorate level in wine, seafood, polished rice, milk, powdered milk and yogurt].

    PubMed

    Takatsuki, Satoshi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Matsuda, Rieko

    2011-01-01

    Perchlorate, which may be naturally occurring or artificial in origin, inhibits iodide uptake into the thyroid gland and disturbs thyroid function. In order to investigate perchlorate contamination in foods in Japan, perchlorate levels in 28 wine samples, 20 seafood samples, 10 polished rice samples, 30 milk (include whole milk, composition modified milk, low fat milk, processed milk, milk drink) samples, 10 powdered milk samples and 10 yogurt samples were measured. Perchlorate was found in all wine, milk, powdered milk and yogurt samples tested. Perchlorate levels ranged from 0.2 ng/g to 103 ng/g in wine samples, from 2 ng/g to 11 ng/g in milk samples, from 3 ng/g to 35 ng/g in powdered milk samples, and from 2 ng/g to 11 ng/g in yogurt samples. Perchlorate levels in the seafood samples were under the LOQ (0.8 ng/g) in 8 samples and ranged from 0.8 ng/g to 72 ng/g in 12 samples. In all polished rice samples, perchlorate level was under the LOQ (1.0 ng/g).

  17. Determination of fluoride concentration in powdered milk in Iran 2010.

    PubMed

    Hossein Mahvi, Amir; Ghanbarian, Maryam; Ghanbarian, Marjan; Khosravi, Ahmad; Ghanbarian, Masoud

    2012-04-01

    High concentrations of fluoride (F) in powdered milk (formula milk) can have adverse health effects on the body. The F concentration in powdered milk was analysed in Iran in 2010. A total of twelve commercial brands of highly consumed powdered milk were selected to analyse the F content through the standard F ion-selective electrode method. From each brand, three samples with different production dates were selected. The means and standard deviation for F concentration in all the samples was 1·73 (sd 0·3) μg F/g. The minimum and maximum F content in powdered milk brands Humana2 and Humana3 was 1·32 (sd 0·1) and 2·36 (sd 0·3) μg F/g, respectively. The study revealed that there was no significant difference in F concentration in the samples that belonged to various dates. Humana3 had a high F concentration (with an average of 2·36 (sd 0·3) μg F/g), which can be a risk factor for increased dental fluorosis, especially when being prepared using water with a high content of F.

  18. Role of milk protein-based products in some quality attributes of goat milk yogurt.

    PubMed

    Gursel, A; Gursoy, A; Anli, E A K; Budak, S O; Aydemir, S; Durlu-Ozkaya, F

    2016-04-01

    Goat milk yogurts were manufactured with the fortification of 2% (wt/vol) skim goat milk powder (SGMP), sodium caseinate (NaCn), whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or yogurt texture improver (YTI). Yogurts were characterized based on compositional, microbiological, and textural properties; volatile flavor components (with gas chromatography); and sensory analyses during storage (21d at 5 °C). Compared with goat milk yogurt made by using SGMP, the other goat milk yogurt variants had higher protein content and lower acidity values. Goat milk yogurts with NaCn and WPC, in particular, had better physical characteristics. Using WPI caused the hardest structure in yogurt, leading to higher syneresis values. Acetaldehyde and ethanol formation increased with the incorporation of WPI, WPC, or YTI to yogurt milk. The tyrosine value especially was higher in the samples with NaCn and YTI than in the samples with WPC and WPI. Counts of Streptococcus thermophilus were higher than the counts of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, possibly due to a stimulatory effect of milk protein-based ingredients other than SGMP on the growth of S. thermophilus. Yogurt with NaCn was the best accepted among the yogurts. For the parameters used, milk protein-based products such as NaCn or WPC have promising features as suitable ingredients for goat milk yogurt manufacture.

  19. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fat-free goat milk yogurt with added stabilizers and skim milk powder fortification.

    PubMed

    Bruzantin, F P; Daniel, J L P; da Silva, P P M; Spoto, M H F

    2016-05-01

    Goat milk yogurt has a less consistent coagulum compared with cow milk yogurt; furthermore, the presence of goat milk in foodstuffs imparts a characteristic flavor that can restrict its acceptance by consumers. This study aimed to assess and compare the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fat-free goat milk yogurts with added stabilizers or bovine skim milk powder to improve the final product. Four treatment additions were evaluated: (1) a mixture of 0.1% (wt/vol) carrageenan and 0.1% (wt/vol) pectin (treatment CR); (2) 0.5% (wt/vol) pectin (treatment PE); (3) 4.65% (wt/vol) bovine skim milk powder (treatment BM); and (4) control (no stabilizer; treatment CT). The physicochemical parameters were investigated at on d 1 and 5 of storage. The BM treatment presented higher pH and titratable acidity values, resulting in a buffering capacity effect. The total crude protein (CP) and solids-not-fat (SNF) contents were also higher in BM compared with the other evaluated treatments because of the addition of bovine skim milk powder. We detected a reduction in pH values for all treatments. Lower SNF contents were present in the CR and CT treatments, which might be related to a syneresis process during storage; moreover, an increase in total CP was observed for all treatments due to the proteolytic action of the starter culture. Sensory attributes, including appearance (color, consistency, and presence of lumps), texture (consistency, viscosity, and presence of lumps), flavor (bitter, sweet, and characteristic of commercial plain nonfat yogurt), and overall impression were evaluated by quantitative descriptive analysis. The addition of 0.5% (wt/vol) of pectin (PE treatment) strengthened the curd; however, the visual and oral presence of lumps and a higher bitterness score were noted by trained panelists, which resulted in the lowest overall impression score for the PE treatment. In several sensory attributes, the CR treatment was considered similar to the control

  20. Rapid detection of whey in milk powder samples by spectrophotometric and multivariate calibration.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Bruna Mara Aparecida; de Carvalho, Lorendane Millena; dos Reis Coimbra, Jane Sélia; Minim, Luis Antônio; de Souza Barcellos, Edilton; da Silva Júnior, Willer Ferreira; Detmann, Edenio; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto

    2015-05-01

    A rapid method for the detection and quantification of the adulteration of milk powder by the addition of whey was assessed by measuring glycomacropeptide protein using mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR). Fluid milk samples were dried and then spiked with different concentrations of GMP and whey. Calibration models were developed using multivariate techniques, from spectral data. For the principal component analysis and discriminant analysis, excellent percentages of correct classification were achieved in accordance with the increase in the proportion of whey samples. For partial least squares regression analysis, the correlation coefficient (r) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) in the best model were 0.9885 and 1.17, respectively. The rapid analysis, low cost monitoring and high throughput number of samples tested per unit time indicate that MIR spectroscopy may hold potential as a rapid and reliable method for detecting milk powder frauds using cheese whey.

  1. Short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy of milk powder for brand identification and component analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, D; Feng, S; He, Y

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the present paper was to provide new insight into the short-wave near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic analysis of milk powder. Near-infrared spectra in the 800- to 1,025-nm region of 350 samples were analyzed to determine the brands and quality of milk powders. Brand identification was done by a least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) model coupled with fast fixed-point independent component analysis (ICA). The correct answer rate of the ICA-LS-SVM model reached as high as 98%, which was better than that of the LS-SVM (95%). Contents of fat, protein, and carbohydrate were determined by the LS-SVM and ICA-LS-SVM models. Both processes offered good determination performance for analyzing the main components in milk powder based on short-wave NIR spectra. The coefficients of determination for prediction and root mean square error of prediction of ICA-LS-SVM were 0.983, 0.231, and 0.982, and 0.161, 0.980, and 0.410, respectively, for the 3 components. However, there were less than 10 input variables in the ICA-LS-SVM model compared with 225 in the LS-SVM model. Thus, the processing time was much shorter and the model was simpler. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the short-wave NIR region is promising for fast and reliable determination of the brand and main components in milk powder.

  2. Determination of whey adulteration in milk powder by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bilge, Gonca; Sezer, Banu; Eseller, Kemal Efe; Berberoglu, Halil; Topcu, Ali; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2016-12-01

    A rapid and in situ method has been developed to detect and quantify adulterated milk powder through adding whey powder by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The methodology is based on elemental composition differences between milk and whey products. Milk powder, sweet and acid whey powders were produced as standard samples, and milk powder was adulterated with whey powders. Based on LIBS spectra of standard samples and commercial products, species was identified using principle component analysis (PCA) method, and discrimination rate of milk and whey powders was found as 80.5%. Calibration curves were obtained with partial least squares regression (PLS). Correlation coefficient (R(2)) and limit of detection (LOD) values were 0.981 and 1.55% for adulteration with sweet whey powder, and 0.985 and 0.55% for adulteration with acid whey powder, respectively. The results were found to be consistent with the data from inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) method.

  3. [Detection of Adulteration in Milk Powder with Starch Near Infrared].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning-ning; Shen, Bing-hui; Guan, Jian-jun; Zhao, Zhong-rui; Zhu, Ye-wei; Zhang, Lu-da; Yan, Yan-lu; Zheng, Yu-yan; Dong, Cheng-yu; Kang, Ding-ming

    2015-08-01

    Three China trademarks of milk powder called Mengniu, Yili, Wandashan were taken as testing samples. Each of them mixed varied amount of starch in different gradient, which were consisted of 32 adulterated milk powder samples mixed with starch, was taken as standard samples for constructing predicted model. To those 32 samples, the reflecting spectrum characteristics in middle wave of near infrared spectrum with Near Infrared Spectrum Analyzer (Micro NIR 1700) produced by JDSU Ltd. USA were collected for five repeats in five different days. The time span was nearly two months. Firstly, we build the model used the reflecting spectrum characteristics of those samples with biomimetic pattern recognition (BPR) arithmetic to do the qualitative analysis. The analysis included the reliability of testing result and stability of the model. When we took ninety percent as the evaluation threshold of testing result of CAR (Correct Acceptance Rate) and CRR (Correct Rejection Rate), the lowest starch content of adulterate milk powder in all tested samples which the tested result were bigger than that abovementioned threshold was designated CAR threshold (CAR-T) and CRR threshold (CRR-T). CAR means the correct rate of accepting a sample which is belong to itself, CRR means correct rate of refusing to accept a sample which is not belong to itself. The results were shown that, when we constructed a model based on the near infrared spectrum data from each of three China trademark milk powders, respectively, if we constructed a model with infrared spectrum data tested in a same day, both the CAR-T and CRR-T of adulterate starch content of a sample can reach 0.1% in predicting the remainder infrared spectrum data tested within a same day. The three China trademarks of milk powder had the same result. In addition, when we ignored the trademarks, put the spectrum data of adulterate milk powder samples mixed with the same content of starch of three China trademarks milk powder together

  4. Spore populations among bulk tank raw milk and dairy powders are significantly different.

    PubMed

    Miller, Rachel A; Kent, David J; Watterson, Matthew J; Boor, Kathryn J; Martin, Nicole H; Wiedmann, Martin

    2015-12-01

    To accommodate stringent spore limits mandated for the export of dairy powders, a more thorough understanding of the spore species present will be necessary to develop prospective strategies to identify and reduce sources (i.e., raw materials or in-plant) of contamination. We characterized 1,523 spore isolates obtained from bulk tank raw milk (n=33 farms) and samples collected from 4 different dairy powder-processing plants producing acid whey, nonfat dry milk, sweet whey, or whey protein concentrate 80. The spores isolated comprised 12 genera, at least 44 species, and 216 rpoB allelic types. Bacillus and Geobacillus represented the most commonly isolated spore genera (approximately 68.9 and 12.1%, respectively, of all spore isolates). Whereas Bacillus licheniformis was isolated from samples collected from all plants and farms, Geobacillus spp. were isolated from samples from 3 out of 4 plants and just 1 out of 33 farms. We found significant differences between the spore population isolated from bulk tank raw milk and those isolated from dairy powder plant samples, except samples from the plant producing acid whey. A comparison of spore species isolated from raw materials and finished powders showed that although certain species, such as B. licheniformis, were found in both raw and finished product samples, other species, such as Geobacillus spp. and Anoxybacillus spp., were more frequently isolated from finished powders. Importantly, we found that 8 out of 12 genera were isolated from at least 2 different spore count methods, suggesting that some spore count methods may provide redundant information if used in parallel. Together, our results suggest that (1) Bacillus and Geobacillus are the predominant spore contaminants in a variety of dairy powders, implying that future research efforts targeted at elucidating approaches to reduce levels of spores in dairy powders should focus on controlling levels of spore isolates from these genera; and (2) the spore

  5. Antihypertensive Peptides from Milk Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jäkälä, Pauliina; Vapaatalo, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    Dietary proteins possess a wide range of nutritional and functional properties. They are used as a source of energy and amino acids, which are needed for growth and development. Many dietary proteins, especially milk proteins, contain physiologically active peptides encrypted in the protein sequence. These peptides may be released during gastrointestinal digestion or food processing and once liberated, cause different physiological functions. Milk-derived bioactive peptides are shown to have antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, antioxidative and mineral-binding properties. During the fermentation of milk with certain lactobacilli, two interesting tripeptides Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro are released from casein to the final product. These lactotripeptides have attenuated the development of hypertension in several animal models and lowered blood pressure in clinical studies. They inhibit ACE in vitro at micromolar concentrations, protect endothelial function in vitro and reduce arterial stiffness in humans. Thus, milk as a traditional food product can after certain processing serve as a functional food and carry specific health-promoting effects, providing an option to control blood pressure. PMID:27713251

  6. Effect of sucrose on physical properties of spray-dried whole milk powder.

    PubMed

    Ma, U V Lay; Ziegler, G R; Floros, J D

    2008-11-01

    Spray-dried whole milk powders were prepared from whole condensed milk with various sucrose concentrations (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% w/w), and their glass transition temperature and some physical properties of importance in chocolate manufacture were evaluated. In milk powder samples, the glass transition temperature and free-fat content decreased in a nonlinear manner with sucrose addition. Moreover, increasing sucrose concentration reduced the formation of dents on the particle surface. Addition of sucrose in whole condensed milk increased linearly the apparent particle density and in a nonlinear manner the particle size of spray-dried milk powders. The particle size volume distribution of milk powders with the highest sucrose concentration differed from the log-normal distribution of the other samples due to the formation of large agglomerates. Neither vacuole volume, nor the amorphous state of milk powders was affected by sucrose addition.

  7. Environmental impacts of milk powder and butter manufactured in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, William; Goggins, Jamie; Clifford, Eoghan; Zhan, Xinmin

    2017-02-01

    The abolition of the milk quota system that was in place in Europe was abolished in 2015, which instigated an immediate increase in milk production in many European countries. This increase will aid in addressing the world's ever growing demand for food, but will incur increased stresses on the environmental impact and sustainability of the dairy industry. In this study, an environmental life cycle assessment was performed in order to estimate the environmental impacts associated with the manufacture of milk powder and butter in the Republic of Ireland. A farm gate to processing factory gate analysis, which includes raw milk transportation, processing into each product and packaging, is assessed in this study. Operational data was obtained from 5 dairy processing factories that produce milk powder (4 of which also produce butter). Results for each environmental impact category are presented per kilogram of product. Energy consumption (raw milk transportation and on-site electrical and thermal energy usage) contributes, on average, 89% and 78% of the total global warming potential, for milk powder and butter respectively, for the life cycle stages assessed. Similarly, energy consumption contributes, on average, 86% and 96% of the total terrestrial acidification potential for milk powder and butter respectively, for these life cycle stages. Emissions associated with wastewater treatment contribute approximately 10% and 40% to the total freshwater eutrophication potential and marine eutrophication potential, respectively, for both milk powder and butter production. In addition, packaging materials also has a significant contribution to these environmental impact categories for butter production. Results were also presented for three milk powder products being manufactured by the factories surveyed: skim milk powder, whole milk powder and full fat milk powder. The analysis presented in this paper helps to identify opportunities to reduce the environmental impacts

  8. Radiation dose to Malaysian infants from natural radionuclides via consumption of powdered milk

    SciTech Connect

    Uwatse, Onosohwo Bemigho; Olatunji, Michael Adekunle; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.

    2015-04-24

    Milk is the basic food stuff for the infants because they generally consume more milk on a daily basis as its minerals and proteins are essential for their growth and development, therefore, it is very important to assess the natural radioactivity levels and the associated dose in the widely consumed powered infant’s milk. As a result, 14 brands of infant’s powdered milk were collected from different supermarkets around Selangor, Malaysia and analysed for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K activities. The obtained mean activity of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K are 3.05±1.84, 2.55±2.48 and 99.1±69.5 Bqkg{sup −1}, respectively. Among the analysed milk samples, the brand from Philippines (Lactogen) showed low level of radioactivity while Singaporean brand (S26 SMA Gold) showed the highest. The estimated mean annual effective doses due to the ingestion of natural radionuclides in the sampled milk are 635 and 111 µSv for infant ≤ 1y and infant 1-2y, respectively. The obtained dose value does not yet pose any significant radiological hazards to the population under investigation comparing with the 1.0 mSvy{sup −1} recommended by ICRP for all ages.

  9. Radiation dose to Malaysian infants from natural radionuclides via consumption of powdered milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uwatse, Onosohwo Bemigho; Olatunji, Michael Adekunle; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.

    2015-04-01

    Milk is the basic food stuff for the infants because they generally consume more milk on a daily basis as its minerals and proteins are essential for their growth and development, therefore, it is very important to assess the natural radioactivity levels and the associated dose in the widely consumed powered infant's milk. As a result, 14 brands of infant's powdered milk were collected from different supermarkets around Selangor, Malaysia and analysed for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activities. The obtained mean activity of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K are 3.05±1.84, 2.55±2.48 and 99.1±69.5 Bqkg-1, respectively. Among the analysed milk samples, the brand from Philippines (Lactogen) showed low level of radioactivity while Singaporean brand (S26 SMA Gold) showed the highest. The estimated mean annual effective doses due to the ingestion of natural radionuclides in the sampled milk are 635 and 111 µSv for infant ≤ 1y and infant 1-2y, respectively. The obtained dose value does not yet pose any significant radiological hazards to the population under investigation comparing with the 1.0 mSvy-1 recommended by ICRP for all ages.

  10. A high calcium, skim milk powder diet results in a lower fat mass in male, energy-restricted, obese rats more than a low calcium, casein, or soy protein diet.

    PubMed

    Eller, Lindsay K; Reimer, Raylene A

    2010-07-01

    The combination of dairy protein and dietary calcium (Ca) may enhance weight loss more effectively than either compound alone. Our purpose in this study was to determine the effect of various protein sources [skim milk powder (SMP), whey, casein, and soy protein isolate (SPI)] and 2 levels of Ca [low, 0.67% Ca (LC) or high, 2.4% Ca (HC)] on weight loss. Sixty-four 12-wk-old Sprague-Dawley, diet-induced obese rats were assigned to 1 of 8 energy-restricted (ER) diets for 4 wk with 1 of the 4 protein sources and either LC or HC concentrations. Rats were ER to 70% of the ad libitum food and energy intake of a reference group (n = 8) fed the AIN-93M diet. The interaction between dietary protein and Ca affected final body weight and fat mass (FM) (P < 0.05). FM was less in rats fed SMP-HC than in those fed casein-LC or SPI-LC. Lean body mass was greater in rats fed SMP than in those fed whey. Rats fed HC diets had a lower plasma glucagon area under the curve (AUC) than those fed LC diets. The blood glucose AUC, homeostatic model of insulin resistance, and the expression of certain hepatic genes involved in energy metabolism were affected by protein and Ca. These data suggest that consuming a diet containing SMP and HC is associated with a lower FM in obese, male, ER rats than in diets containing casein or SPI and LC; however, the role of SMP and Ca in glucose homeostasis remains to be determined.

  11. [Determination of melamine in milk and milk powder by high performance capillary electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Rao, Qinxiong; Tong, Jing; Guo, Ping; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xiaowei; Ding, Shuangyang

    2008-11-01

    A high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) method has been established for the separation of melamine in milk and milk powder. The separation was carried out on a fused-silica uncoated capillary column (58.5 cm x 75 microm). The sample was injected by hydrodynamic injection (3.5 kPa (35 mbar) x 8 s) at a temperature of 25 degrees C. The analysis was completed in about 6 min in 40 mmol/L Na2HPO4-20 mmol/L citric acid buffer (pH 2.6) at 25 kV of separation voltage and 232 nm of detection wavelength. The linear range of melamine was 1 - 100 mg/kg, and the correlation coefficient was higher than 0. 997. The limits of quantification (LOQs) in milk and milk powder were 0.5 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg, respectively. The average recoveries were in the range of 72.2% -97.3% in the spiked range of the concentration of LOQs and 50 mg/kg, and the relative standard deviations were between 2.1% and 3.9%.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides in milk powder.

    PubMed

    Dobrinas, Simona; Soceanu, Alina; Popescu, Viorica; Coatu, Valentina

    2016-05-01

    This Research Communication reports analysis of 37 compounds comprising polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPS and OPPS) in milk powder (one brand each of commercial infant formulae, follow-on formulae and baby formulae purchased from a local supermarket in Romania). The selected analytes were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography with thermionic sensitive detection (GC-TSD). The estimated limits of detection for most target analytes were in the μg/kg level (range 0·001-0·320 µg/kg). The purpose of the study was to determine the selected analytes, to assess the exposure of babies and infants and to produce data for comparison with tolerable limits according to the European Union Regulations. In most of the samples the organochlorine pesticides values were under the limit of detection. Exceptions were heptachlor epoxide and endosulfan sulphate, the last of which was found in all analysed samples at low concentrations. We also found detectable levels of ethoprophos, parathion-methyl, chlorpyrifos, prothiofos, guthion, disulfoton and fenchlorphos in most of the analysed samples. Benzo[a]pyrene, which is used as an indicator for the presence of PAHs, was not detected in selected samples. The low level of exposure to contaminants indicates that there are no health risks for the infants and babies that consume this brand of milk powder formulae.

  13. Production of coconut protein powder from coconut wet processing waste and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Naik, Aduja; Raghavendra, S N; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2012-07-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been gaining popularity in recent times. During its production, byproducts such as coconut skim milk and insoluble protein are obtained which are underutilized or thrown away to the environment at present. This study deals with utilization of these byproducts to obtain a value-added product, namely, coconut protein powder. When coconut milk was subjected to centrifugation, three phases, namely, fat phase (coconut cream), aqueous phase (coconut skim milk), and solid phase (insoluble protein) were obtained. The coconut skim milk and insoluble protein were mixed and homogenized before spray drying to obtain a dehydrated protein powder. The proximate analysis of the powder showed high protein content (33 % w/w) and low fat content (3 % w/w). Protein solubility was studied as a function of pH and ionic content of solvent. Functional properties such as water hydration capacity, fat absorption capacity, emulsifying properties, wettability, and dispersibility of coconut protein powder were evaluated along with morphological characterization, polyphenol content, and color analysis. Coconut protein powder has shown to have good emulsifying properties and hence has potential to find applications in emulsified foods. Sensory analysis showed high overall quality of the product, indicating that coconut protein powder could be a useful food ingredient.

  14. Penetration Depth Measurement of Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Light for Milk Powder.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min; Kim, Moon S; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Mo, Changyeun; Esquerre, Carlos; Delwiche, Stephen; Zhu, Qibing

    2016-03-25

    The increasingly common application of the near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging technique to the analysis of food powders has led to the need for optical characterization of samples. This study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of quantifying penetration depth of NIR hyperspectral imaging light for milk powder. Hyperspectral NIR reflectance images were collected for eight different milk powder products that included five brands of non-fat milk powder and three brands of whole milk powder. For each milk powder, five different powder depths ranging from 1 mm-5 mm were prepared on the top of a base layer of melamine, to test spectral-based detection of the melamine through the milk. A relationship was established between the NIR reflectance spectra (937.5-1653.7 nm) and the penetration depth was investigated by means of the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) technique to classify pixels as being milk-only or a mixture of milk and melamine. With increasing milk depth, classification model accuracy was gradually decreased. The results from the 1-mm, 2-mm and 3-mm models showed that the average classification accuracy of the validation set for milk-melamine samples was reduced from 99.86% down to 94.93% as the milk depth increased from 1 mm-3 mm. As the milk depth increased to 4 mm and 5 mm, model performance deteriorated further to accuracies as low as 81.83% and 58.26%, respectively. The results suggest that a 2-mm sample depth is recommended for the screening/evaluation of milk powders using an online NIR hyperspectral imaging system similar to that used in this study.

  15. Penetration Depth Measurement of Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Light for Milk Powder

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Min; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Mo, Changyeun; Esquerre, Carlos; Delwiche, Stephen; Zhu, Qibing

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly common application of the near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging technique to the analysis of food powders has led to the need for optical characterization of samples. This study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of quantifying penetration depth of NIR hyperspectral imaging light for milk powder. Hyperspectral NIR reflectance images were collected for eight different milk powder products that included five brands of non-fat milk powder and three brands of whole milk powder. For each milk powder, five different powder depths ranging from 1 mm–5 mm were prepared on the top of a base layer of melamine, to test spectral-based detection of the melamine through the milk. A relationship was established between the NIR reflectance spectra (937.5–1653.7 nm) and the penetration depth was investigated by means of the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) technique to classify pixels as being milk-only or a mixture of milk and melamine. With increasing milk depth, classification model accuracy was gradually decreased. The results from the 1-mm, 2-mm and 3-mm models showed that the average classification accuracy of the validation set for milk-melamine samples was reduced from 99.86% down to 94.93% as the milk depth increased from 1 mm–3 mm. As the milk depth increased to 4 mm and 5 mm, model performance deteriorated further to accuracies as low as 81.83% and 58.26%, respectively. The results suggest that a 2-mm sample depth is recommended for the screening/evaluation of milk powders using an online NIR hyperspectral imaging system similar to that used in this study. PMID:27023555

  16. Storage study and quality evaluation of coconut protein powder.

    PubMed

    Naik, Aduja; Prakash, Maya; R, Ravi; Raghavarao, Ksms

    2013-11-01

    Coconut skim milk and insoluble protein are 2 major byproducts in the production of virgin coconut oil. Coconut skim milk was homogenized along with insoluble protein and spray dried to obtain a value-added product, namely, coconut protein powder (CPP). This study deals with the storage study of CPP under different conditions (refrigerated [control], ambient and accelerated). CPP samples were withdrawn periodically at designated intervals of 15 d for accelerated and control, and 30 d for ambient condition. CPP stored at different conditions exhibited marginal moisture uptake (by 0.74 % w/w for control, 0.76 % w/w for ambient, and 1.26 % w/w for accelerated condition) and as a result, had very little effect on the functional properties of the powder. Withdrawn CPP was tested for sensory quality aspects and subjected to instrumental analysis as well. Withdrawn CPP was incorporated as a milk substitute in dessert (Kheer). Quantitative descriptive analysis of the powder and product (Kheer) showed no significant difference in attributes of CPP during the storage period of 2 mo. Electronic nose analysis revealed that CPP samples were not much different with respect to aroma pattern matching, respectively.

  17. Raman spectral imaging technique on detection of melamine in skim milk powder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A point-scan Raman spectral imaging system was used for quantitative detection of melamine in milk powder. A sample depth of 2 mm and corresponding laser intensity of 200 mW were selected after evaluating the penetration of a 785 nm laser through milk powder. Horizontal and vertical spatial resoluti...

  18. Raman spectral imaging for quantitative contaminant evaluation in skim milk powder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study uses a point-scan Raman spectral imaging system for quantitative detection of melamine in milk powder. A sample depth of 2 mm and corresponding laser intensity of 200 mW were selected after evaluating the penetration of a 785 nm laser through milk powder. Horizontal and vertical spatial r...

  19. Development of a Raman chemical imaging detection method for authenticating skim milk powder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research demonstrated that Raman chemical imaging coupled with a simple image classification algorithm can be used to detect multiple chemical adulterants in skim milk powder. Ammonium sulfate, dicyandiamide, melamine, and urea were mixed into the milk powder as chemical adulterants in the conc...

  20. Differentiating Milk and Non-milk Proteins by UPLC Amino Acid Fingerprints Combined with Chemometric Data Analysis Techniques.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weiying; Lv, Xiaxia; Gao, Boyan; Shi, Haiming; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2015-04-22

    Amino acid fingerprinting combined with chemometric data analysis was used to differentiate milk and non-milk proteins in this study. Microwave-assisted hydrolysis and ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) were used to obtain the amino acid fingerprints. Both univariate and multivariate chemometrics methods were applied for differentiation. The confidence boundary of amino acid concentration, principal component analysis (PCA), and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of the amino acid fingerprints demonstrated that there were significant differences between milk proteins and inexpensive non-milk protein powders from other biological sources including whey, peanut, corn, soy, fish, egg yolk, beef extract, collagen, and cattle bone. The results indicate that the amino acid compositions with the chemometric techniques could be applied for the detection of potential protein adulterants in milk.

  1. [Determination of melamine in milk powder and milk by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    He, Qiaosang; Liu, Minfang; Huang, Liying; Yang, Yuanyuan; Liao, Shangfu

    2008-11-01

    The analytical method of melamine in milk and milk powder by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was established. The sample was purified by a cation exchange solid-phase extraction column, separated on a Diamonsil C18 column (4.6 mm x 200 mm, 5 microm) with acetonitrile-0.01 mol/L sodium heptanesulfonate (pH 3.3) (10:90, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, and determined by a photodiode array detector. A linear calibration curve was obtained in the concentration range of 1 - 500 mg/L. The qualification limit was 0.2 mg/kg, and the quantification limit was 1 mg/kg. The recovery was 81.4% -83.7%.

  2. [Effect of crystalline metastasis of lactose on hardness of compressed baby milk powder].

    PubMed

    Shibata, Mitsuho; Otsubo, Kazumitsu; Ohara, Mika; Omae, Rika; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the crystalline metastasis of lactose, which is a main component baby milk powder, and the hardness of baby milk powder compressed by humidification followed by drying. Because baby milk powder is manufactured using a spray dryer, lactose in compressed baby milk powder exists in an amorphous (solid dispersion) form. X-ray diffraction measurement showed that this amorphous lactose metastasized to β-form crystalline lactose, and thereafter metastasized to the α-form during the humidification-drying process. As a result of this crystalline metastasis, the hardness of the compressed baby milk powder increased, and then decreased. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed bridging structures between the particles increased and then decreased during the humidification-drying process. This showed that bridging structures between the particles produced by crystalline metastasis of lactose as a result of the humidification-drying process, which leads to an increase in the hardness of the compressed baby milk powder. These results show that the necessary degree of hardness of the porous compressed baby milk powder (necessary for packaging and transportation) resulted from the humidification-drying process.

  3. Health-Related Aspects of Milk Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Davoodi, Seyed Hossein; Shahbazi, Roghiyeh; Esmaeili, Saeideh; Sohrabvandi, Sara; Mortazavian, AmirMohamamd; Jazayeri, Sahar; Taslimi, Aghdas

    2016-01-01

    Milk is an important component of a balanced diet and contains numerous valuable constituents. Considerable acclaimed health benefits of milk are related to its proteins, not only for their nutritive value but also for their biological properties. Scientific evidence suggests that anticarcinogenic activities, antihypertensive properties, immune system modulation, and other metabolic features of milk, are affiliated with its proteins (intact proteins or its derivatives). In this article, the main health-related aspects of milk proteins, such as anticarcinogenic, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, anticariogenic, antihypertensive, and hypocholesterolemic effects are reviewed. Collectively, the findings indicate the effectiveness of milk proteins on reduction of risk factors for cancer, cardiovascular diseases and overall improvement of health aspects. PMID:27980594

  4. Qualitative and quantitative identification of adulteration of milk powder using DNA extracted with a novel method.

    PubMed

    Liao, J; Liu, Y F; Ku, T; Liu, M H; Huang, Y

    2017-03-01

    The extraction of high-quality DNA from processed dairy products is often the crucial step in an authentication process by PCR-based methods. In this study, we optimized a novel DNA extraction method for milk powder and used the extracted DNA for identification of milk powder based on PCR analysis. The DNA quality was assessed by amplifying target sequences from mitochondrial genes, as well as by monitoring the yield, purity, and integrity of the extracted DNA. In addition, a laboratory adulteration model of milk powder was detected by PCR-based methods (PCR and real-time PCR) using primers targeting the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. Results showed that a sufficient amount and quality of DNA could be isolated from milk powder with this method. Both PCR and real-time PCR detection of cow milk compositions in goat milk powder further confirmed the DNA extracted with this extraction method could be widely used in addressing milk powder adulterant by a PCR-based method.

  5. Powder infant formula milk contaminated with Enterobacter sakazakii.

    PubMed

    Oonaka, Kenji; Furuhata, Katsunori; Hara, Motonobu; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2010-03-01

    To clarify the route and source of Enterobacter sakazakii infection in a basic study, we analyzed powder infant formula milk (PIF), which may be an important source of infantile infection, regarding contamination with Enterobacteriaceae including this type of bacteria, and conducted drug sensitivity tests with various antimicrobial agents. Enterobacteriaceae was isolated 36 (24.2%) of 149 PIF samples. These comprised of 12 (19.7%) of 61 domestically produced samples and 24 (27.3%) of 88 imported samples. E. sakazakii was isolated in 9 (6.6%) of the 149 PIF samples. These comprised 4 (6.6%) of 61 domestically produced samples and 5 (5.7%) of 88 imported samples. In 8 of the 9 samples in which E. sakazakii was isolated, the bacterial levels were estimated to be 0.36 MPN/100 g. However, one imported sample showed a bacterial level of 0.91 MPN/100 g. In the drug sensitivity tests of E. sakazakii isolated from PIF, we compared the MIC(90) values. E. sakazakii was highly sensitive to 9 agents: cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, cefpirome, cefozopran, gentamicin, meropenem, and ciprofloxacin, and moderately sensitive to 5 agents: piperacillin, erythromycin, minocycline, chloramphenicol, and rifampicin. However, it was resistant to 2 agents, ampicillin and lincomycin.

  6. Detecting adulterants in milk powder using high-throughput Raman chemical imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study used a line-scan high-throughput Raman imaging system to authenticate milk powder. A 5 W 785 nm line laser (240 mm long and 1 mm wide) was used as a Raman excitation source. The system was used to acquire hyperspectral Raman images in a wavenumber range of 103–2881 cm-1 from the skim milk...

  7. Detection of melamine in milk powders using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging combined with regression coefficient of partial least square regression model.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jongguk; Kim, Giyoung; Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Moon S; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Fu, Xiaping; Baek, Insuck; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-05-01

    Illegal use of nitrogen-rich melamine (C3H6N6) to boost perceived protein content of food products such as milk, infant formula, frozen yogurt, pet food, biscuits, and coffee drinks has caused serious food safety problems. Conventional methods to detect melamine in foods, such as Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), are sensitive but they are time-consuming, expensive, and labor-intensive. In this research, near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging technique combined with regression coefficient of partial least squares regression (PLSR) model was used to detect melamine particles in milk powders easily and quickly. NIR hyperspectral reflectance imaging data in the spectral range of 990-1700nm were acquired from melamine-milk powder mixture samples prepared at various concentrations ranging from 0.02% to 1%. PLSR models were developed to correlate the spectral data (independent variables) with melamine concentration (dependent variables) in melamine-milk powder mixture samples. PLSR models applying various pretreatment methods were used to reconstruct the two-dimensional PLS images. PLS images were converted to the binary images to detect the suspected melamine pixels in milk powder. As the melamine concentration was increased, the numbers of suspected melamine pixels of binary images were also increased. These results suggested that NIR hyperspectral imaging technique and the PLSR model can be regarded as an effective tool to detect melamine particles in milk powders.

  8. Absorption and Bioavailability of Nano-Size Reduced Calcium Citrate Fortified Milk Powder in Ovariectomized and Ovariectomized-Osteoporosis Rats.

    PubMed

    Erfanian, Arezoo; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Rasti, Babak; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Bin Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Abd Manap, Mohd Yazid

    2015-06-24

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fortification and nano-size reduction on calcium absorption and bioavailability of milk powder formula in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats as a menopause and menopause-osteoporosis model. Skim milk powder and skim milk powder fortified with calcium citrate and the suitable doses of inulin, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and vitamins D3, K1, and B6 were formulated based on the North American and Western European recommended dietary allowances. Optimization on cycle and pressure of high-pressure homogenizer was done to produce nano-fortified milk powder. In vivo study demonstrated that fortification and calcium citrate nano-fortified milk powder increased absorption and bioavailability of calcium, as well as bone stiffness and bone strength in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats. This study successfully developed an effective fortified milk powder for food application.

  9. Effect of milk pretreatment on the whey composition and whey powder functionality.

    PubMed

    Outinen, M; Rantamäki, P; Heino, A

    2010-01-01

    Changes in cheese production processes may have a significant effect on subsequent whey composition and functionality. To control these changes is important since whey is commonly processed into ingredients used in numerous applications in the food industry. In this study, the characteristics of 4 demineralized whey powders (DWPs) were studied. DWPs were produced from partially high-temperature heat-treated (HH), ultrafiltered (UF), or ultrafiltered high-temperature heat-treated (UFHH) milk. DWP produced from pasteurized milk was used as a reference (REF). All experiments were carried out on industrial scale. The quantity of nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) in total protein (TP) was elevated by HH, and reduced by UF treatment. Whey protein content of whey was significantly elevated by UF, but reduced when HH treatment was applied. The volume and total solids of UFHH whey were significantly reduced compared to REF and HH wheys, but the chemical composition was comparable. There were no significant differences in the degree of denaturation, viscosity, water-binding capacity, emulsifying capacity, or emulsion stability of the DWPs, but heat stability was significantly elevated by UF treatment.

  10. Simultaneous determination of urea and melamine in milk powder by nonlinear chemical fingerprint technique.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yongjie; Dong, Wenbin; Bao, Hongliang; Fang, Yue; Fan, Cheng

    2017-04-15

    This paper proposed a nonlinear chemical fingerprint method for simultaneous determination of urea and melamine in milk powder using "H(+)+Ce(4+)+BrO3(-)+malonic acid" as reaction system. A multiple linear relationship was obtained between the adulterants content in milk powder and inductive time of corresponding mixed milk powder. System analysis model established with classical least squares (CLS) method was then used to calculate the content of urea and melamine in milk powder. The method was successfully applied to milk powder samples and had good recoveries in the range of 99.17-100.25%, with the relative standard deviation (RSD) in the range of 0.60-4.12%. The limits of detection for urea and melamine were 0.33μg·g(-1) and 0.05μg·g(-1), respectively. The limits of quantification were 1.11μg·g(-1) and 0.18μg·g(-1), respectively. The results indicated that the new method was feasible and had the advantages of low cost, simple operation and without pretreatment of samples.

  11. Comparative study of particle structure evolution during water sorption: skim and whole milk powders.

    PubMed

    Murrieta-Pazos, I; Gaiani, C; Galet, L; Cuq, B; Desobry, S; Scher, J

    2011-10-01

    Surface composition of dairy powders influences significantly a quantity of functional properties such as rehydration, caking, agglomeration. Nevertheless, the kinetic of water uptake by the powders was never directly related to the structure and the composition of the surface. In this work, the effect of relative humidity on the structural reorganization of two types of dairy powder was studied. The water-powder interaction for industrial whole milk powder, and skim milk powder was studied using dynamic vapor sorption. The water sorption isotherms were fitted with a Brunner-Emmet-Teller model and each stage of the sorption curve was analyzed with a Fickian diffusion. The water content in the monolayer predicted for each powder and the moisture diffusivity calculated were discussed and compared. Concurrently, powders microstructure and powders surface under variable relative humidity were assessed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray and atomic force microscopy. A correlation between the data obtained from the sorption isotherms and the modifications of structure allowed us to conclude that powder microstructure and chemical state of the components could play an important role in determining the water diffusivity.

  12. Milk secretion: The role of SNARE proteins.

    PubMed

    Truchet, Sandrine; Chat, Sophie; Ollivier-Bousquet, Michèle

    2014-03-01

    During lactation, polarized mammary epithelial secretory cells (MESCs) secrete huge quantities of the nutrient molecules that make up milk, i.e. proteins, fat globules and soluble components such as lactose and minerals. Some of these nutrients are only produced by the MESCs themselves, while others are to a great extent transferred from the blood. MESCs can thus be seen as a crossroads for both the uptake and the secretion with cross-talks between intracellular compartments that enable spatial and temporal coordination of the secretion of the milk constituents. Although the physiology of lactation is well understood, the molecular mechanisms underlying the secretion of milk components remain incompletely characterized. Major milk proteins, namely caseins, are secreted by exocytosis, while the milk fat globules are released by budding, being enwrapped by the apical plasma membrane. Prolactin, which stimulates the transcription of casein genes, also induces the production of arachidonic acid, leading to accelerated casein transport and/or secretion. Because of their ability to form complexes that bridge two membranes and promote their fusion, SNARE (Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor Attachment Protein Receptor) proteins are involved in almost all intracellular trafficking steps and exocytosis. As SNAREs can bind arachidonic acid, they could be the effectors of the secretagogue effect of prolactin in MESCs. Indeed, some SNAREs have been observed between secretory vesicles and lipid droplets suggesting that these proteins could not only orchestrate the intracellular trafficking of milk components but also act as key regulators for both the coupling and coordination of milk product secretion in response to hormones.

  13. Roles of water and solids composition in the control of glass transition and stickiness of milk powders.

    PubMed

    Silalai, Nattiga; Roos, Yrjö H

    2010-06-01

    Plasticization and glass transition of amorphous components in food powders often result in stickiness and caking. The glass transition temperature (T(g)) of milk powders was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and a viscometer method was used to determine sticky-point temperatures. Water sorption isotherms were established for varying solids compositions. Lactose contents were analyzed by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD) and proteins were identified using SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. Solids composition and water affected both the T(g) and stickiness behavior. Stickiness was governed by carbohydrates and water plasticization. At low protein contents, precrystallization of lactose decreased the sticky point temperature, but increasing protein content in all milk powders decreased stickiness at all water activities. The results showed that glass transition can be used to describe time-dependent stickiness and crystallization phenomena, and it can be used as a parameter to control and reduce stickiness of dairy solids with various compositions.

  14. Surface energy analysis (SEA) and rheology of powder milk dairy products.

    PubMed

    Lapčík, Lubomír; Lapčíková, Barbora; Otyepková, Eva; Otyepka, Michal; Vlček, Jakub; Buňka, František; Salek, Richardos Nikolaos

    2015-05-01

    Results of inverse gas chromatography adsorption/desorption experiments using selected probes on skimmed milk, whey and demineralised whey powder materials are presented. The dispersive component of surface energy was found to be dominant, indicating a low polarity character. Surface energy profiles of demineralised whey and skimmed milk showed a characteristic steep exponential decrease from approximately 170 mJ/m(2) to 60 mJ/m(2) and 140 mJ/m(2) to 45 mJ/m(2), respectively, whereas whey powder exhibited a constant (non-exponential) surface energy at approximately 45 mJ/m(2). The dispersive surface energy of demineralised whey and skimmed milk powder showed a broad distribution ranging from 40 mJ/m(2) to 120 mJ/m(2) and 175 mJ/m(2), respectively. In contrast, the dispersive surface energy distribution for whey was very narrow, ranging from only 42.8 mJ/m(2) to 45 mJ/m(2). The determined yield locus and Mohr's circles indicated that demineralised whey exhibited free flowing powder characteristics, whereas skimmed milk and whey exhibited cohesive powder flow behaviour.

  15. Voltamperometric Discrimination of Urea and Melamine Adulterated Skimmed Milk Powder

    PubMed Central

    Hilding-Ohlsson, Astrid; Fauerbach, Jonathan A.; Sacco, Natalia J.; Bonetto, M. Celina; Cortón, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen compounds like urea and melamine are known to be commonly used for milk adulteration resulting in undesired intoxication; a well-known example is the Chinese episode occurred in 2008. The development of a rapid, reliable and economic test is of relevance in order to improve adulterated milk identification. Cyclic voltammetry studies using an Au working electrode were performed on adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples from different independent manufacturers. Voltammetric data and their first derivative were subjected to functional principal component analysis (f-PCA) and correctly classified by the KNN classifier. The adulterated and non-adulterated milk samples showed significant differences. Best results of prediction were obtained with first derivative data. Detection limits in milk samples adulterated with 1% of its total nitrogen derived from melamine or urea were as low as 85.0 mg·L−1 and 121.4 mg·L−1, respectively. We present this method as a fast and robust screening method for milk adulteration analysis and prevention of food intoxication. PMID:23112709

  16. Raman-spectroscopy-based chemical contaminant detection in milk powder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Addition of edible and inedible chemical contaminants in food powders for purposes of economic benefit has become a recurring trend. In recent years, severe health issues have been reported due to consumption of food powders contaminated with chemical substances. This study examines the effect of sp...

  17. Proteins of human milk. I. Identification of major components

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, N.G.; Powers, M.T.; Tollaksen, S.L.

    1982-04-01

    Traditionally, human milk proteins are identified largely by reference to bovine milk. Hence, to identify the major proteins in human milk, we subjected human and bovine milk, in parallel, to high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis. Isoelectric precipitation at pH 4.6 was our criterion for distinguishing whey proteins from those of the casein complex. The ..cap alpha..- and..beta..-caseins were identified on the basis of relative abundance, relative molecular mass, and relative isoelectric points. No protein disappeared from ISO-DALT patterns of human milk after rennin treatment, and no new protein comparable to bovine para K-casein appeared in the BASO-DALT patterns; this suggests that K-casein is absent from human milk. The proteins identified in human milk patterns include the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. casein families, lactalbumin, albumin, transferrin, IgA, and lactoferrin. Numerous additional proteins seen in patterns for human milk remain to be identified.

  18. Transcriptional enhancer from milk protein genes

    DOEpatents

    Casperson, Gerald F.; Schmidhauser, Christian T.; Bissell, Mina J.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to novel enhancer nucleotide sequences which stimulate transcription of heterologous DNA in cells in culture. The enhancers are derived from major milk protein genes by the process of deletion mapping and functional analysis. The invention also relates to expression vectors containing the novel enhancers.

  19. Transcriptional enhancer from milk protein genes

    SciTech Connect

    Casperson, G.F.; Schmidhauser, C.T.; Bissell, M.J.

    1999-12-21

    The invention relates to novel enhancer nucleotide sequences which stimulate transcription of heterologous DNA in cells in culture. The enhancers are derived from major milk protein genes by the process of deletion mapping and functional analysis. The invention also relates to expression vectors containing the novel enhancers.

  20. Mild protein hydrolysation of lactose-free milk further reduces milk-related gastrointestinal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Turpeinen, Anu; Kautiainen, Hanna; Tikkanen, Marja-Leena; Sibakov, Timo; Tossavainen, Olli; Myllyluoma, Eveliina

    2016-05-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms associated with milk are common. Besides lactose, milk proteins may cause symptoms in sensitive individuals. We have developed a method for mild enzymatic hydrolysation of milk proteins and studied the effects of hydrolysed milk on gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with a self-diagnosed sensitive stomach. In a double blind, randomised placebo-controlled study, 97 subjects consumed protein-hydrolysed lactose-free milk or commercially available lactose-free milk for 10 d. Frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms during the study period was reported and a symptom score was calculated. Rumbling and flatulence decreased significantly in the hydrolysed milk group (P < 0·05). Also, the total symptom score was lower in subjects who consumed hydrolysed milk (P < 0·05). No difference between groups was seen in abdominal pain (P = 0·47) or bloating (P = 0·076). The results suggest that mild enzymatic protein hydrolysation may decrease gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with a sensitive stomach.

  1. Novel Approaches to Improve the Intrinsic Microbiological Safety of Powdered Infant Milk Formula

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Robert M.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Hill, Colin; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Human milk is recognised as the best form of nutrition for infants. However; in instances where breast-feeding is not possible, unsuitable or inadequate, infant milk formulae are used as breast milk substitutes. These formulae are designed to provide infants with optimum nutrition for normal growth and development and are available in either powdered or liquid forms. Powdered infant formula is widely used for convenience and economic reasons. However; current manufacturing processes are not capable of producing a sterile powdered infant formula. Due to their immature immune systems and permeable gastro-intestinal tracts, infants can be more susceptible to infection via foodborne pathogenic bacteria than other age-groups. Consumption of powdered infant formula contaminated by pathogenic microbes can be a cause of serious illness. In this review paper, we discuss the current manufacturing practices present in the infant formula industry, the pathogens of greatest concern, Cronobacter and Salmonella and methods of improving the intrinsic safety of powdered infant formula via the addition of antimicrobials such as: bioactive peptides; organic acids; probiotics and prebiotics. PMID:25685987

  2. A novel preparation of milk protein/polyethylene terephthalate fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, J. F.; Zheng, D. D.; Zhong, L.; Zhang, F. X.; Zhang, G. X.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, -NH2 groups were introduced to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers by nitration and reduction method, and then milk protein was grafted on the nitrated and reduced PET (NR PET) fibers by sucrose glycidyl ether crosslinking agent. FTIR suggested the milk protein was successfully grafted on PET fiber surface. SEM images showed a layer of substance covered on the PET fiber surface. DSC demonstrated an excellent thermal stability of milk protein/PET fiber. The moisture regain was improved by milk protein/PET fiber. Moreover, the crease recovery angle and stiffness were retained by the milk protein/PET fabric.

  3. The effect of milk protein on the bioavailability of cocoa polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Keogh, J B; McInerney, J; Clifton, P M

    2007-04-01

    In order to determine whether milk proteins interact with cocoa polyphenols to modulate the uptake and concentration of polyphenols in plasma, 24 middle-aged men and women consumed 2 g of chocolate polyphenols, plus sugar and cocoa butter in 200 mL water, on 2 occasions. On 1 occasion, the chocolate mix contained 2.45 g of milk proteins. Blood samples were taken fasting and at regular intervals for 8 h. Catechin and epicatechins levels were measured in these samples and no differences were seen in average concentrations between the 2 treatments. Milk protein caused a slight increase in concentration at the early time points and a decrease at the later time points. In conclusion, milk powder did not influence the average concentration of polyphenols. While it slightly accelerated absorption, this is of no physiological significance.

  4. Milk protein concentrations in galactorrhoeic mammary secretions.

    PubMed

    Yap, P L; Pryde, E A; McClelland, D B

    1980-02-01

    Milk protein concentrations were determined either by double antibody radioimmunoassay (IgA) or single radial immunodiffusion (IgG, lactoferrin, lysozyme and albumin) in the mammayr secretions of one nulliparous and three parous female patients with galactorrhoea due to hyperprolactinaemia. Concentrations of all the proteins studied were found to be similar to the concentrations observed in post-partum colostrum. In particular, secretory IgA was the only form of IgA detected in galactorrhoeic secretions. It is suggested that hyperprolactinaemia alone can result in increased mammary synthesis of the milk proteins since the steroid changes associated with a full-term pregnancy and delivery of the placenta did not immediately precede the galactorrhoea in three of the four patients studied.

  5. Determination of bovine immunoglobulin G in bovine colostrum powders, bovine milk powders, and dietary supplements containing bovine colostrum products by an automated direct immunoassay with optical biosensor: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Gapper, Leyton

    2013-01-01

    Nine laboratories participated in an AOAC collaborative study to determine bovine immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in selected dairy powders and dietary supplements by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) methodology. Each sample matrix was dissolved in buffer and suitably diluted to fit within the standard curve. The sample extract was injected over a surface functionalized with affinity-purified, polyclonal goat anti-bovine IgG (H+L) antibody; IgG was then detected. SPR detection was used for the direct immunoassay and quantification was made against a calibration curve prepared from bovine serum IgG. Between each standard and sample, the surface was regenerated using 10 mM glycine at pH 1.5. The samples analyzed included the likely matrixes for which the assay would find commercial use, namely, high- and low-protein-content colostrum powders, tablets containing colostrum powder, infant formula containing colostrum powder, and some IgG-containing dairy powders, i.e., milk protein isolate, whey protein concentrate, and skim milk powder. Each laboratory provided data for the study and assayed blind duplicates of seven materials. Due to gross outliers in the majority of results from one laboratory, the data from eight laboratories were used for the statistical analysis. The repeatability RSD (RSDr) values ranged from 3.2 to 7.3%, and the reproducibility RSDR values from 13.0 to 22.6%.

  6. Zinc Absorption from Fortified Milk Powder in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Rosa O; Hambidge, Michael; Baker, Mark; Salgado, Sergio A; Ruiz, Joaquín; García, Hugo S; Calderón de la Barca, Ana M

    2015-11-01

    Zinc (Zn) is essential for development, growth, and reproduction. The Mexican government subsidizes micronutrient-fortified milk for risk groups, with positive effect on the targeted groups' plasma Zn level, inferring a good absorption is achieved although it has not being measured. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of micronutrient-fortified milk intake during 27 days on Zn absorption in adolescent girls from northwest Mexico. Therefore, Zn absorption was evaluated in 14 healthy adolescent girls (14.1 years old) with adequate plasma Zn levels, before and after 27 days of fortified Zn milk intake. Fractional Zn absorption (FZA) was calculated from urinary ratios of stable isotopic Zn tracers administered orally and intravenously on days 0 and 27, and total absorbed Zn (TZA) was calculated. At the beginning, Zn intake was 6.8 ± 0.85 mg/d (mean ± SE), and 50 % of the adolescent girls did not achieve their requirement (7.3 mg/d). Additionally, FZA was negatively correlated with Zn intake (r =-0.61, p = 0.02), while TZA (1.06 mg/d) was insufficient to cover the physiologic requirements of adolescent girls (3.02 mg/d). At the end of the intervention, all the girls reached the Zn intake recommendation and TZA, 3.09 mg/d, which was enough to meet the physiological requirement for 57 % of the adolescent girls. Therefore, the low Zn intake and the Zn status of adolescent girls were positively impacted by Zn-fortified milk intake and its good absorption rate.

  7. Commercial Milk Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Kit Reactivities to Purified Milk Proteins and Milk-Derived Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ivens, Katherine O; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L

    2016-07-01

    Numerous commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits exist to quantitatively detect bovine milk residues in foods. Milk contains many proteins that can serve as ELISA targets including caseins (α-, β-, or κ-casein) and whey proteins (α-lactalbumin or β-lactoglobulin). Nine commercially-available milk ELISA kits were selected to compare the specificity and sensitivity with 5 purified milk proteins and 3 milk-derived ingredients. All of the milk kits were capable of quantifying nonfat dry milk (NFDM), but did not necessarily detect all individual protein fractions. While milk-derived ingredients were detected by the kits, their quantitation may be inaccurate due to the use of different calibrators, reference materials, and antibodies in kit development. The establishment of a standard reference material for the calibration of milk ELISA kits is increasingly important. The appropriate selection and understanding of milk ELISA kits for food analysis is critical to accurate quantification of milk residues and informed risk management decisions.

  8. [Simultaneous determination of penicillin and their major enzymatic metabolites in milk and milk powder by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Ai, Lianfeng; Guo, Chunhai; Ma, Yusong; Dou, Caiyun

    2013-10-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/ MS) method has been developed for the determination of eight compounds in milk and milk powder. They are four penicillins (penicillin G, penicillin V, amoxicillin and ampicillin) and four major beta-lactamase enzymatic metabolites of them (penilloic acid G, penilloic acid V, amoxiilloic acid and ampilloic acid). The compounds were extracted from the samples with acetonitrile and water, cleaned-up by HLB solid-phase extraction cartridges, and then detected by HPLC-MS/MS and quantified by external standard method. The linearities were satisfactory with the correlation coefficients > 0.99 at the mass concentrations ranging from 4 microg/L to 200 microg/L for penicillins and from 10 microg/L to 500 microg/L for enzymatic metabolites. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification were 5-50 microg/kg (S/N > or = 3) and 8-100 microg/kg (S/N > or = 10), respectively. The average recoveries of the eight compounds were 83.48%-96.97% in milk and 82.70%-95.14% in milk powder. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) in milk and milk powder were 3.86%-10.87% and 3.02%-9.81%, respectively. In conclusion, the established method is convenient, accurate and sensitive so that it can be applied to the determination of penicillin residues and enzymatic metabolites in milk and milk powder.

  9. Donkey milk-based formula: A substitute for patients with cow’s milk protein allergy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cow’s milk protein allergy affects 2-7% of children using cow’s milk formulae. Fifty to eighty percent of them develop allergy to other food items and substitutes. On the search for a safe and affordable substitute, we reviewed the composition of milks of the domestic mammals in close contact with man. Milk constituents studied included fat, protein, lactose, minerals, water, pH, specific gravity and caloric value. Compared to others, donkey milk was found to be closest to breast milk when the amount of 16ml of sunflower is added to one liter of this milk. To our knowledge, no allergy to donkey milk has been reported yet. PMID:27493315

  10. Exposure Assessment of Infants to Aflatoxin M1 through Consumption of Breast Milk and Infant Powdered Milk in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Angélica T.; Takabayashi-Yamashita, Cássia R.; Ono, Elisabete Y. S.; Bagatin, Artur K.; Rigobello, Fabiana F.; Kawamura, Osamu; Hirooka, Elisa Y.; Itano, Eiko N.

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is an important biomarker that can be used to evaluate aflatoxin exposure in both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure degree of infants to AFM1 through consumption of breast milk and infant powdered milk in Brazil. For this purpose, the estimated daily intake (EDI) for infants was calculated based on the AFM1 levels analyzed in 94 breast milk (BM) samples collected in Southern Brazil, and 16 infant powdered milk (IPM) samples commonly commercialized in Brazil. AFM1 was detected in 5.3% (n = 5) and 43.8% (n = 7) of BM and IPM samples, with mean levels of 0.003 ng/g and 0.011 ng/g, respectively. All the IPM samples showed AFM1 levels lower than those established by the Brazilian guidelines (5 ng/g), and in most of the samples (81.25%) levels were below the maximum limit tolerated by the European Commission (0.025 ng/g). The EDI of AFM1 for infants aged zero to 12 months old showed values from 0.018 to 0.069 ng/kg body weight/day for BM, and 0.078 to 0.306 ng/kg body weight/day for IPM. Hazard index (HI) values for BM and IPM were less than one, except for IPM intended for infants up to one month. In conclusion, the exposure of infants to AFM1 was low, but continuous monitoring of mycotoxin levels is essential to minimize infant health risk. PMID:27589799

  11. Comparison of three immunosensor methods (surface plasmon resonance, screen-printed and classical amperometric immunosensors) for immunoglobulin G determination in human serum and animal or powdered milks.

    PubMed

    Tomassetti, Mauro; Martini, Elisabetta; Campanella, Luigi; Favero, Gabriele; Carlucci, Luciano; Mazzei, Franco

    2013-01-25

    Within the framework of research carried out by our team aimed at developing new immunological methods to determine proteins such as immunoglobulins G in different biological matrixes, for instance, serum and milk, tests were performed on several immunosensors based on different transducer types, i.e. amperometric (classical or screen-printed) electrodes for hydrogen peroxide. Lastly the feasibility of constructing immunosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was investigated. "Competitive" immunological procedures were used in the first two cases. Conversely, the surface plasmon resonance transduction technique allowed a "direct" measurement. Applications were performed on human serum, powdered milks for babies and particularly on several animal milks, in the case of buffalo milk seeking a routine control method to identify possible inflammatory affections in the animals.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in milk powders marketed in Argentina and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garcia Londoño, Victor A; Garcia, Laura P; Scussel, Vildes M; Resnik, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in milk powder samples commercialised in Argentina and Brazil during 2012. Thirty-one samples were available from the retail market. An HPLC method for the determination of PAHs was applied involving a clean-up step with silica cartridges. Recoveries were greater than 79% for all PAHs analysed. Reproducible determination with adequate detection and quantification limits (LOD and LOQ) were attained by HPLC with fluorescence detection for 14 PAHs. Acenaphthylene was determined with a UV-VIS detector. There is no significant difference in any PAHs or in the sum of them between the Argentinean and Brazilian samples. Therefore, the samples were evaluated together. The highest concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) detected was 0.57 µg kg⁻¹ in milk powder. Contamination of samples expressed as the sum of 15 analysed PAHs varied between 11.8 and 78.4 µg kg⁻¹ and as PAH4 (BaP, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(b)fluoranthene) was between 0.02 and 10.16 µg kg⁻¹. The correlation coefficient for PAH2 (BaP and chrysene) and PAH4 groups was 0.95, for PAH2 and PAH8 it was 0.71, and for PAH4 and PAH8 it was 0.83. All the samples were below the regulatory limit for BaP, but 65% of commercial milk powders do not comply with the European Union limit for PAH4. This is the first report of PAH contamination in powder milk from Argentina and Brazil.

  13. Binding and measuring natural rubber latex proteins on glove powder.

    PubMed

    Tomazic-Jezic, Vesna J; Lucas, Anne D; Sanchez, Beatriz A

    2004-01-01

    Cornstarch used as a donning powder on natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves adsorbs NRL proteins. During glove use, powder-carried proteins can be aerosolized and can cause allergic reactions in NRL sensitized individuals. The amount of NRL proteins bound to glove powder and its relative relationship to the total amount of proteins on the glove has not been studied, due to the difficulty in measuring proteins on powder. Using the ELISA inhibition assay for NRL proteins [Standard test method for the immunological measurement of antigenic protein in natural rubber and its products. In: The Annual Book of ASTM Standards; ASTM: West Conshohocken, PA, 2000; ASTM D 64-0] we have investigated possible protocol modifications in order to include measurement of proteins bound to glove powder, as well as the water-extractable glove proteins. Possible interference of the starch itself was evaluated by adding clean cornstarch to the assay. No significant interference was observed with powder concentrations below 5 mg/mL. We analyzed 19 extracts of powdered surgical and examination gloves before and after removal of the particulate component. Comparison of NRL glove extracts with, and without, the cornstarch powder fraction indicated significant variations in the ratios of powder-bound protein and corresponding water-extractable protein. The ratios did not appear to correlate with either the total protein on the glove, the glove weight, or the total amount of powder on the glove. However, when virgin glove powders were exposed to NRL proteins, binding was proportional to the protein concentration in the suspension. Temperature in the range from 4 degrees C to 37 degrees C, did not affect binding intensity, while a higher pH resulted in a higher level of protein associated with, or bound to, the starch. The major differences in the propensity for NRL protein binding were observed among different glove powders. The data indicate that the amount of protein that binds to glove powder

  14. Relationships between milk protein composition, milk protein variants, and cow fertility traits in Dutch Holstein-Friesian cattle.

    PubMed

    Demeter, R M; Markiewicz, K; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H

    2010-11-01

    Selective breeding can change milk protein composition to improve the manufacturing properties of milk. However, the effects of such breeding strategies on other economically important traits should be investigated before implementation. The objectives of this study were to examine the association between cow fertility traits and (1) milk protein composition and (2) milk protein variants (β-lactoglobulin, β-casein, κ-casein, and β-κ-casein) in commercial Dutch Holstein-Friesian cattle. Data on 1,644 first-lactation cows were analyzed by fitting linear mixed models. Greater relative concentration of α(S1)-casein within total milk protein had a positive phenotypic relationship with nonreturn rates and calving rate after first insemination. Furthermore, results showed virtually no significant relationship between cow fertility and concentration of other milk proteins or milk protein variants. Results of this study can be used to assess the correlated effects of breeding for improved milk protein composition on reproduction, thereby allowing for better evaluation of breeding programs before implementation. Our findings suggest that selecting cows based on milk protein composition or milk protein variants for improved manufacturing properties would have no negative influence on reproductive performance.

  15. Feasibility of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy to detect tetracyclines hydrochloride in infant milk powder.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jianyuan; Xie, Lijuan; Ying, Yibin

    2014-12-02

    We report the use of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to detect tetracyclines hydrochloride (TCsH) in infant milk powder for the first time. Four kinds of TCsH exhibited their unique spectral features in the region of 0.3-1.8 THz. The main spectral features of these TCsH were still detectable when mixed with infant milk powder with concentrations at 1%-50%, even in the ternary mixtures. The results from chemometrics analysis showed that qualitative and quantitative detection of TCsH in infant milk powder could be successfully achieved. The residual predictive deviation (RPD) values of all these TCsH models were all higher than 2, indicating these models were considered good and could be used in screening purposes. The RPD values of TCH, DTCH, and CTCH models were higher than 3, which were considered excellent for prediction purposes. These preliminary results indicated that THz-TDS combined with chemometrics analysis was suitable for detecting the presence of TCsH residues in a food matrix.

  16. Irradiation dose detection of irradiated milk powder using visible and near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Kong, W W; Zhang, C; Liu, F; Gong, A P; He, Y

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the possibility of applying visible and near-infrared spectroscopy to the quantitative detection of irradiation dose of irradiated milk powder. A total of 150 samples were used: 100 for the calibration set and 50 for the validation set. The samples were irradiated at 5 different dose levels in the dose range 0 to 6.0 kGy. Six different pretreatment methods were compared. The prediction results of full spectra given by linear and nonlinear calibration methods suggested that Savitzky-Golay smoothing and first derivative were suitable pretreatment methods in this study. Regression coefficient analysis was applied to select effective wavelengths (EW). Less than 10 EW were selected and they were useful for portable detection instrument or sensor development. Partial least squares, extreme learning machine, and least squares support vector machine were used. The best prediction performance was achieved by the EW-extreme learning machine model with first-derivative spectra, and correlation coefficients=0.97 and root mean square error of prediction=0.844. This study provided a new approach for the fast detection of irradiation dose of milk powder. The results could be helpful for quality detection and safety monitoring of milk powder.

  17. Direct determination of moisture in powder milk using near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, R; Singh, Parul; Mehrotra, Ranjana

    2006-01-01

    Moisture content in commercially available milk powder was investigated using near infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with an Indian low-cost dispersive NIR spectrophotometer. Different packets of milk powder of the same batch were procured from the market. Forty-five samples with moisture range 4-10% were prepared in the laboratory. Spectra of the samples were collected in the wavelength region 800-2500 nm. Moisture values of all the samples were simultaneously determined by Karl Fischer (KF) titration. These KF values were used as reference for developing calibration model using partial least squares regression (PLSR) method. The calibration and validation statistics are R cal2:0.9942, RMSEC:0.1040, and R val2:0.9822, RMSEV:0.1730. Five samples of unknown moisture contents were taken for NIR prediction using developed calibration model. The agreement between NIR predicted results and those of Karl Fischer values is appreciable. The result shows that the instrument can be successfully used for the determination of moisture content in milk powder.

  18. Detection of Yersinia enterocolitica in milk powders by cross-priming amplification combined with immunoblotting analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongwei; Feng, Shaolong; Zhao, Yulong; Wang, Shuo; Lu, Xiaonan

    2015-12-02

    Yersinia enterocolitica (Y. enterocolitica) is frequently isolated from a wide variety of foods and can cause human yersiniosis. Biochemical and culture-based assays are common detection methods, but require a long incubation time and easily misidentify Y. enterocolitica as other non-pathogenic Yersinia species. Alternatively, cross-priming amplification (CPA) under isothermal conditions combined with immunoblotting analysis enables a more sensitive detection in a relatively short time period. A set of specific displacement primers, cross primers and testing primers was designed on the basis of six specific sequences in Y. enterocolitica 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer. Under isothermal condition, amplification and hybridization were conducted simultaneously at 63°C for 60 min. The specificity of CPA was tested for 96 different bacterial strains and 165 commercial milk powder samples. Two red lines were developed on BioHelix Express strip for all of the Y. enterocolitica strains, and one red line was shown for non-Y. enterocolitica strains. The limit of detection of CPA was 10(0)fg for genomic DNA (1000 times more sensitive than PCR assay), 10(1) CFU/ml for pure bacterial culture, and 10(0) CFU per 100 g milk powder with pre-enrichment at 37°C for 24 h. CPA combined with immunoblotting analysis can achieve highly specific and sensitive detection of Y. enterocolitica in milk powder in 90 min after pre-enrichment.

  19. Impact of the Skim Milk Powder Manufacturing Process on the Flavor of Model White Chocolate.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ashleigh; Grandison, Alistair S; Ryan, Angela; Festring, Daniel; Methven, Lisa; Parker, Jane K

    2017-02-15

    Milk powder is an important ingredient in the confectionery industry, but its variable nature has consequences for the quality of the final confectionary product. This paper demonstrates that skim milk powders (SMP) produced using different (but typical) manufacturing processes, when used as ingredients in the manufacture of model white chocolates, had a significant impact on the sensory and volatile profiles of the chocolate. SMP was produced from raw bovine milk using either low or high heat treatment, and a model white chocolate was prepared from each SMP. A directional discrimination test with naïve panelists showed that the chocolate prepared from the high heat SMP had more caramel/fudge character (p < 0.0001), and sensory profiling with an expert panel showed an increase in both fudge (p < 0.05) and condensed milk (p < 0.05) flavor. Gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry and GC-olfactometry of both the SMPs and the model chocolates showed a concomitant increase in Maillard-derived volatiles which are likely to account for this change in flavor.

  20. [Proteins of human milk involved in immunological processes].

    PubMed

    Lis, Jolanta; Orczyk-Pawiłowicz, Magdalena; Kątnik-Prastowska, Iwona

    2013-05-31

    Human milk contains a lot of components (i.e. proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, inorganic elements) which provide basic nutrients for infants during the first period of their lives. Qualitative composition of milk components of healthy mothers is similar, but their levels change during lactation stages. Colostrum is the fluid secreted during the first days postpartum by mammary epithelial cells. Colostrum is replaced by transitional milk during 5-15 days postpartum and from 15 days postpartum mature milk is produced. Human milk, apart from nutritional components, is a source of biologically active molecules, i.e. immunoglobulins, growth factors, cytokines, acute phase proteins, antiviral and antibacterial proteins. Such components of human milk are responsible for specific biological activities of human milk. This secretion plays an important role in growth and development of newborns. Bioactive molecules present in the milk support the immature immune system of the newborn and also protect against the development of infection. In this article we describe the pathways involved in the production and secretion of human milk, the state of knowledge on the proteome of human milk, and the contents of components of milk during lactation. Moreover, some growth factors and proteins involved in innate and specific immunity, intercellular communication, immunomodulation, and inflammatory processes have been characterized.

  1. Quantitative multiresidue analysis of antibiotics in milk and milk powder by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tian, He; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Yangdong; Li, Songli; Jiang, Jindou; Tao, Dali; Zheng, Nan

    2016-10-15

    A simple and fast multiresidue extraction and purification method was developed for the determination of 61 veterinary drugs, belonging to seven classes, in milk and milk powder. The extraction depends on the acetonitrile solvent, followed by a single step to remove lipids with fatty acid chains using a new reversed phase SPE without traditional pre-equilibration and washing steps before eluting SPE. The purifying lipid effect of the present preparation method was evaluated by comparing the response changes of ion peak areas of the milk endogenous metabolites before and after SPE treatment using ultra-fast LC coupled to tandem quadrupole and TOF MS. Subsequently, UPLC coupled to tandem quadrupole MS was performed for the quantitative analysis of milk and milk powder samples spiked with 61 veterinary drugs, including β-lactam, macrolide, amide alcohol, forest amine, sulfanilamide, tetracyclines, and quinolones antibiotics. This method is very simple, fast, sensitive, and selective, and allows the good recoveries of all compounds, with a recovery range of 61.5-118.6%, and coefficients of variation of less than 11.6%. The 61 compounds behave in the dynamic range 0.01-200μgkg(-1), with correlation coefficient >0.99. The limits of quantification for the analytes are in the range 0.01-5.18μgkg(-1). Finally, this method has been successfully applied to the screening of veterinary drugs in 50 commercial bovine milk and milk powder samples, and ceftiofur and ciprofloxacin were detected in some brand samples.

  2. Reconstituted yogurt from yogurt cultured milk powder mix has better overall characteristics than reconstituted yogurt from commercial yogurt powder.

    PubMed

    Song, Lijie; Aryana, Kayanush J

    2014-10-01

    For manufacture of commercial yogurt powder, yogurt has to go through a drying process, which substantially lowers the yogurt culture counts, so the potential health benefits of the yogurt culture bacteria are reduced. Also, upon reconstitution, commercial yogurt powder does not taste like yogurt and has an off-flavor. The objective was to study the microbial, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of reconstituted yogurt from yogurt cultured milk powder (YCMP) mix and reconstituted yogurt from commercial yogurt powder (CYP). The CYP reconstituted yogurt was the control and YCMP mix reconstituted yogurt was the treatment. Microbial and physicochemical characteristics of the CYP reconstituted yogurt and YCMP mix reconstituted yogurt were analyzed daily for the first week and then weekly for a period of 8 wk. Sensory consumer testing of CYP reconstituted yogurt and YCMP mix reconstituted yogurt was conducted with 100 consumers. At 56 d, YCMP mix reconstituted yogurt had 5 log cfu/mL higher counts of Streptococcus thermophilus than the control (CYP reconstituted yogurt). Also, Lactobacillus bulgaricus counts of YCMP mix reconstituted yogurt were 6.55 log cfu/mL at 28 d and were 5.35 log cfu/mL at 56 d, whereas the CYP reconstituted yogurt from 28 d onwards had a count of <10 cfu/mL. The YCMP mix reconstituted yogurt also had significantly higher apparent viscosity and sensory scores for appearance, color, aroma, taste, thickness, overall liking, consumer acceptability, and purchase intent than CYP reconstituted yogurt. Overall, YCMP mix reconstituted yogurt had more desirable characteristics than CYP reconstituted yogurt.

  3. Evaluation of powdered infant formula milk as chelating agent for copper under simulated gastric conditions of a baby's stomach.

    PubMed

    Arancibia, Verónica; Peña, Claudia; Segura, Rodrigo

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the complexing capacity of four types of powdered commercial milks with copper(II) using square wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Two were types of cow milk adapted for babies under one year (A and B), one was soymilk (C) and the other was normal milk (D). Milk solutions were prepared following the instructions shown on the milk container, and they were mixed with a pepsin solution simulating a baby's stomach conditions (pepsin and salts concentration, pH and temperature). Complexing capacity was determined by titrating milk samples with aliquots of a standard copper solution until the peak current due to solvated or free copper ions was increasing. Assuming a 1:1 copper-milk complex, the apparent stability constant was found using the pseudopolarogram method. The log K'(Cu-milk) values were 4.9, 5.0, 3.0 and 5.1 for A, B, C and D types of milk, respectively. Voltammograms of the milk solution as a function of copper added show that the binding properties of the four types of powdered milk studied were different and that saturation of the four types, occurs at different copper concentrations. Concentrations obtained were: 4.9, 5.8, 1.1 and 10.1 mM for A, B, C and D types, respectively. The best complexing agent was the solution prepared with powdered milk D and the worst was that of C. This is important for the bioavailability of this element as a micronutrient.

  4. Rapid screening for detection and differentiation of detergent powder adulteration in infant milk formula by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Tay, Manjun; Fang, Guihua; Chia, Poh Ling; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2013-10-10

    Reports of infant milk formula adulteration by detergent powders as economic frauds and poisoning incidents are common as detergents are readily available and are inexpensive household items. Liquid chromatography (LC)-Qtrap and LC-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) in combination with chemometrics were effectively employed to detect the presence of detergent powder adulterated in infant milk formula. Partial least square analysis (PLS) regression was also utilized to quantify the amount of detergent powder in adulterated infant milk formula without the need to purchase any standards. Dodecylbenzenesulfonate (C12-LAS) was identified and verified as the marker which existed in detergent powder using LC-QTOF-MS. The amount of C12-LAS present in the admixture was successfully quantified through standard addition method.

  5. Short-term effects of milking frequency on milk yield, milk composition, somatic cell count and milk protein profile in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Torres, Alexandr; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo-Enrique; Morales-delaNuez, Antonio; Sánchez-Macías, Davinia; Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Castro, Noemi; Capote, Juan; Argüello, Anastasio

    2014-08-01

    Goats in Canary Islands are milked once a day by tradition, but in most countries with high technology on farms, goats are milked twice a day, which is known to improve milk yield. Therefore it is important to know whether the increase of milking frequency can improve the production without impairing milk quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the short term effects of three milking frequencies on milk yield, milk composition, somatic cell count (SCC) and milk protein profile in dairy goats traditionally milked once a day. Twelve Majorera goats in early lactation (48±4 d in milk) were used. During a 5-week period, goats were milked once a day (X1) in weeks 1 and 5, twice a day (X2) in weeks 2 and 4, and three times a day (X3) in week 3. Milk recording and sampling were done on the last day of each experimental week. Milk yield increased by 26% from X1 to X2. No differences were obtained when goats were switched from X2 to X3, and from X3 to X2. The goats recovered the production level when they returned to X1. Different patterns of changes in the milk constituents due to the milking frequency effect were observed. Fat percentage increased when switched from X1 to X2, then decreased from X2 to X3, and from X3 to X2, whereas it did not show significant differences from X2 to X1. Milking frequency did not affect the protein and lactose percentages. SCC values were unaffected when goats were milked X1, X2 and X3, but then they increased slightly when milking frequency was returned to X2 and X1. Finally, quantitative analysis showed an increase in intensities of milk protein bands from X1 to X2, but the intensities of casein bands (α(S1)-CN, α(S2)-CN, β-CN, κ-CN) and major whey proteins (α-La, β-Lg) decreased from X2 to X3.

  6. Detection of cow's milk proteins and minor components in human milk using proteomics techniques.

    PubMed

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Varalda, A; Peila, C; Fabris, C; Conti, A; Bertino, E

    2012-10-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are the best characterized food allergens. The aim of this study was to investigate cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, and other minor protein components by proteomics techniques, more sensitive than other techniques used in the past. Sixty-two term and 11 preterm colostrum samples were collected, subjected to a treatment able to increase the concentration of the most diluted proteins and simultaneously to reduce the concentration of the proteins present at high concentration (Proteominer Treatment), and subsequently subjected to the steps of proteomic techniques. The most relevant finding in this study was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in human colostrum, then bovine alpha-1-casein could be considered the cow's milk allergen that is readily secreted in human milk and could be a cause of sensitization to cow's milk in exclusively breastfed predisposed infants. Another interesting result was the detection, at very low concentrations, of proteins previously not described in human milk (galectin-7, the different isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein and the serum amyloid P-component), probably involved in the regulation of the normal cell growth, in the pro-apoptotic function and in the regulation of tissue homeostasis. Further investigations are needed to understand if these families of proteins have specific biological activity in human milk.

  7. [Rapid analysis of melamine in milk and milk powder using QuEChERS approach coupled with weak cation exchange chromatography].

    PubMed

    Wei, Jie; Guo, Zhimou; Shen, Aijin; Zhang, Feifang; Liang, Xinmiao

    2011-07-01

    A simple, rapid method for the determination of melamine in milk and milk powder was developed using QuEChERS approach coupled with weak cation exchange chromatography (WCX). The samples were extracted and cleaned-up by medicinal alcohol and lipid adsorbent (LAS) simultaneously, then centrifuged and filtered for high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis. The separation was performed on a WCX column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with 2 mmol/L KH2 PO4 (pH 3.8) as mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.5 mL/min and the detection wavelength was 208 nm. The injection volume was 20 microL and the column temperature was 30 degrees C. Under the optimized conditions, good linearity was obtained in the range of 0.02-20 mg/L with a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.999 9. For samples spiked with melamine standard in the range of 1-50 mg/kg, the average recoveries of standard in the milk and milk powder were 98.9%-105.2% and 86.4%-102.9%, respectively. The relative standard deviations were 0.9%-3.4% and 1.5%-6.7%, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N > or = 3) were 0.05 mg/kg (milk) and 0.1 mg/kg (milk powder). The present method is green due to not use of the toxic organic solvents.

  8. Green synthesized gold nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide for sensitive determination of chloramphenicol in milk, powdered milk, honey and eye drops.

    PubMed

    Karthik, R; Govindasamy, Mani; Chen, Shen-Ming; Mani, Veerappan; Lou, Bih-Show; Devasenathipathy, Rajkumar; Hou, Yu-Shen; Elangovan, A

    2016-08-01

    A simple and rapid green synthesis using Bischofia javanica Blume leaves as reducing agent was developed for the preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). AuNPs decorated graphene oxide (AuNPs/GO) was prepared and employed for the sensitive amperometric determination of chloramphenicol. The green biosynthesis requires less than 40s to reduce gold salts to AuNPs. The formations of AuNPs and AuNPs/GO were evaluated by scanning electron and atomic force microscopies, UV-Visible and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction studies, and electrochemical methods. AuNPs/GO composite film modified electrode was fabricated and shown excellent electrocatalytic ability towards chloramphenicol. Under optimal conditions, the amperometric sensing platform has delivered wide linear range of 1.5-2.95μM, low detection limit of 0.25μM and high sensitivity of 3.81μAμM(-1)cm(-2). The developed sensor exhibited good repeatability and reproducibility, anti-interference ability and long-term storage stability. Practical feasibility of the sensor has been demonstrated in food samples (milk, powdered milk and honey) and pharmaceutical sample (eye drops). The green synthesized AuNPs/GO composite has great potential for analysis of food samples in food safety measures.

  9. [A CASE OF ANAPHYLAXIS IN THE PEDIATRIC PATIENT WITH MILK ALLERGY DUE TO TRACES OF MILK PROTEIN IN THE LACTOSE USED AS AN EXCIPIENT OF INAVIR INHALATION].

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Miki; Kanemitsu, Yoshitomi; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Morikawa, Akimasa; Tomioka, Yoshihisa

    2016-05-01

    The patient was a 6-year-old female with milk allergy and persistent asthma. She experienced anaphylactic reactions just after the inhalation of Inavir (Laninamivir Octanoate Hydrate) to treat flu infection. A skin-prick test showed positive reactions for Inavir inhaler powder and lactose used as an excipient but negative for Laninamivir. Same results were obtained in a drug-stimulated basophil activation test. The lactose excipient in Inavir inhaler powder was supposed to contain milk proteins, which caused anaphylactic reactions. To test this possibility, we examined the contamination of allergic milk proteins in the lactose excipient and found the smear band by silver staining, which was identified as β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) by Western blotting using specific monoclonal antibody and patient's sera. The β-LG in Inavir was supposed to be glycosylated with lactose because the molecular weight was slightly higher than β-LG standard reference as seen in mobility. In fact, the incubation with lactose in vitro tended to increase molecular weight. Following these results, we herein report that the trace amounts of β-LG contaminated in the lactose excipient of Inavir could cause immediate allergic reactions. The risk that the lactose-containing dry powder inhalers cause allergic reactions for patients with cow's milk allergy need to be reminded. In particular, the use for flu patients should be paid careful attention because of increased airway hypersensitivity in those patients.

  10. Characterization of lactosylated proteins of infant formula powders using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Marvin, Laure F; Parisod, Véronique; Fay, Laurent B; Guy, Philippe A

    2002-08-01

    Infant formula powders were analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) to assess the whey proteins quality, which may be altered by the heat treatment used during the processing conditions. Lactosylation was found to be the major chemical modification occurring in whey proteins. In parallel, a two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis was performed on the milk sample and the entire protein patterns were analyzed by nano-ESI-MS after cutting the different gel spots and in-gel trypsin digestion. A highly selective and specific tandem MS technique has been developed to characterize and localize up to ten lactosylation sites in beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) and alpha(S2)-casein. alpha-Lactalbumin (alpha-La), with five lactosylated peptides, was found to be an interesting protein marker in the milk powder sample to detect chemical modification induced by the processing/storage conditions.

  11. Bioactive proteins in human milk: mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2010-02-01

    Human milk contains a multitude of bioactive proteins, with very diverse functions. Some of these proteins are involved in the synthesis and expression of milk, but the majority appears to have evolved to provide physiological activities in the breast-fed infant. These activities are exerted by a wide variety of mechanisms and have largely been unraveled by in vitro studies. To be active in the gastrointestinal tract, these proteins must be able to resist proteolytic degradation, at least for some time. We have evaluated the human milk proteins lactoferrin, haptocorrin, alpha(1)-antitrypsin, and transforming growth factor -beta in an in vitro digestion model, mimicking the conditions of the infant gastrointestinal milieu. These bioactive proteins are resistant against proteolysis and can remain intact or as larger fragments through passage of the gastrointestinal tract. In vitro digestibility assays can be helpful to assess which human milk proteins can resist proteolysis and to what extent.

  12. Mass spectrometric analysis of free fatty acids in infant milk powders by frozen pretreatment coupled with isotope-labeling derivatization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tianxiao; Leng, Jiapeng; Peng, Yaoshan; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Yinlong

    2016-03-01

    In combination with frozen pretreatment and carboxyl group derivatization, a novel workflow was developed for the determination of free fatty acids in milk powder. The workflow showed a significantly enhanced performance for comprehensive free fatty acid analysis owing to a highly efficient frozen extraction method. In addition, the advantages of the workflow also involved high sensitivity and great tolerance to a complex matrix. Characteristic fragment ions of derivatization reagents also provide clear evidence for the qualitative analysis of free fatty acids. Fourteen types of free fatty acids in a number of domestic and overseas infant milk powders have been successfully detected. The content of free fatty acids in the different samples was different, which probably indicates the diverse quality of infant milk powder. The workflow is expected to be a pragmatic tool for the analysis of free fatty acids in intricate matrices.

  13. Detection and quantification of adulterants in milk powder using a high-throughput Raman chemical imaging technique.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon S; Chao, Kuanglin; Dhakal, Sagar; Lee, Hoonsoo; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Mo, Changyeun

    2017-02-01

    Milk is a vulnerable target for economically motivated adulteration. In this study, a line-scan high-throughput Raman imaging system was used to authenticate milk powder. A 5 W 785 nm line laser (240 mm long and 1 mm wide) was used as a Raman excitation source. The system was used to acquire hyperspectral Raman images in a wave number range of 103-2881 cm(-)(1) from the skimmed milk powder mixed with two nitrogen-rich adulterants (i.e., melamine and urea) at eight concentrations (w/w) from 50 to 10,000 ppm. The powdered samples were put in sample holders with a surface area of 150 ×100 mm and a depth of 2 mm for push-broom image acquisition. Varying fluorescence signals from the milk powder were removed using a correction method based on adaptive iteratively reweighted penalised least squares. Image classifications were conducted using a simple thresholding method applied to single-band fluorescence-corrected images at unique Raman peaks selected for melamine (673 cm(-)(1)) and urea (1009 cm(-)(1)). Chemical images were generated by combining individual binary images of melamine and urea to visualise identification, spatial distribution and morphological features of the two adulterant particles in the milk powder. Limits of detection for both melamine and urea were estimated in the order of 50 ppm. High correlations were found between pixel concentrations (i.e., percentages of the adulterant pixels in the chemical images) and mass concentrations of melamine and urea, demonstrating the potential of the high-throughput Raman chemical imaging method for the detection and quantification of adulterants in the milk powder.

  14. [Determination of nucleotides in infant formula milk powder by ion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Ye, Mingli; Pan, Guangwen; Hu, Zhongyang; Wang, Qiong

    2010-09-01

    A method was developed for the determination of nucleotides in infant formula milk powder by ion chromatography (IC). The separation was performed on an IonPac AS16 column with KOH solution as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and 25 degrees C. The detection wavelength was set at 260 nm and the sample injection volume was 25 microL. There were good linear relationships between the mass concentrations and the peak areas of cytidine monophosphate (CMP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP), uridine monophosphate (UMP), inosine monophosphate (IMP) and guanosine monophosphate (GMP) in the ranges of 0.09-50, 0.06-50, 0.06-50, 0.09-50, 0.06-50 mg/L, respectively. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) of CMP, AMP, UMP, IMP and GMP were 0.03, 0.02, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.02 mg/L, respectively. The method has been applied for the determination of the five nucleotides in infant formula milk powder with the recoveries of 92.5%-102.4%. This method is rapid, simple and suitable for the determination of real samples.

  15. [Determination of lutein in infant formula milk powder using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Huang, Junrong; Zhang, Li; Feng, Feng; Ling, Yun; Chu, Xiaogang; Li, Hongliang

    2013-12-01

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (U-HPLC) method for the determination of lutein in the infant formula milk powder was developed. The sample was extracted with acetone and defatted using freezing centrifugation method. The U-HPLC separation was achieved using a YMC Carotenoid C30 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 3 microm) with the mixture of methanol/methyl tert-butyl ether (70: 30, v/v) as the mobile phase under isocratic elution. The flow rate was 0.5 mL/min and the column oven temperature was 25 degrees C. The injection volume was 5 microL. It was detected on a photodiode array detector at a wavelength of 445 nm. The results showed that the linear range was 20-500 microg/L (r = 0.9999), and the limit of quantification was 20 microg/L. The mean recoveries of lutein varied from 97.9% to 104.4% spiked at 50, 250 and 2,000 microg/kg. The established method is simple, accurate and sensitive for the rapid determination of lutein in infant formula milk powder.

  16. Determination of cyanuric acid in milk powder by anion-exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Hou, Shengjie; Ding, Mingyu; Zhang, Jinghua

    2010-01-01

    An anion-exchange chromatographic method has been developed for simultaneous analysis of cyanuric acid (CA) and five inorganic anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO(3)(-), HPO(4)(2-) and SO(4)(2-)) in milk powder. The separation was achieved within 15 min on an anion-exchange column with simple elution of Na(2)CO(3)/NaHCO(3) buffer as mobile phase. Furthermore, the effect of the total concentration of Na(2)CO(3)/NaHCO(3) buffer on the retention of five inorganic anions was more obvious than that on CA retention, which indicated that CA retention on anion-exchange column depends not only on anion-exchange interaction but also on hydrophobic interactions between CA and anion-exchange column. The linear range of the calibration curve for CA was 0.1-100 mg L(-1). The detection limit calculated at S/N = 3 was 0.083 mg L(-1). The method was successfully applied to the analysis of CA in milk powder.

  17. Trace elements and their distribution in protein fractions of camel milk in comparison to other commonly consumed milks.

    PubMed

    Al-Awadi, F M; Srikumar, T S

    2001-08-01

    Studies on camels' milk, whether with respect to concentration or bioavailability of trace elements from this milk, are limited and warrant further investigation. The object of this study was to analyse the concentration and distribution of zinc, copper, selenium, manganese and iron in camel milk compared to those in human milk, cows' milk and infant formula under similar experimental conditions. Camels' milk and cows' milk were collected from local farms, human milk samples were obtained from healthy donors in Kuwait and infant formula was purchased locally. Milk fractionation was performed by ultra-centrifugation and gelcolumn chromatography. The concentration of trace elements was analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry and that of protein was determined spectrophotometrically. The concentration of manganese and iron in camels' milk was remarkably higher (7-20-fold and 4-10-fold, respectively) than in human milk, cows' milk and infant formula. The zinc content of camels' milk was higher than that of human milk but slightly lower than in cows' milk and infant formula. The concentration of copper in camels' milk was similar to that of cows' milk but lower than in human milk and infant formula. The selenium content of camels' milk was comparable to those of other types of milk, Approximately 50-80% of zinc, copper and manganese in camels' milk were associated with the casein fraction, similar to that of cows' milk, The majority of selenium and iron in camels' milk was in association with the low molecular weight fraction, It is recommended that camels' milk be considered as a potential source of manganese, selenium and iron, perhaps not only for infants, but also for other groups suspected of mild deficiency of these elements. Further investigations are required to confirm this proposal.

  18. Relationships between milks differentiated on native milk fat globule characteristics and fat, protein and calcium compositions.

    PubMed

    Couvreur, S; Hurtaud, C

    2017-03-01

    Many studies have shown that milk fat globule (MFG) diameter varies in dairy cows in relation to diet and/or breed. However, the mechanisms governing the size of the fat globules remain hypothetical. Our objective was to determine the variable biochemical characteristics (fat, protein, fatty acids (FA), casein and calcium (Ca) contents) between individual milk which differed in both MFG diameter and membrane content, in order to speculate about the links between milk synthesis and MFG secretion. With this aim, we built five databases of individual milk samples from 21 experiments performed between 2003 and 2011. Three of them grouped data from trials dealing with breed/diet effects and included information about: (i) MFG size/membrane, fat and protein contents (n=982), (ii) previous parameters plus FA profile (n=529) and (iii) previous parameters plus true protein composition and calcium contents (n=101). A hierarchical clustering analysis performed on these three databases yielded four groups differing in the MFG characteristics. We observed significant differences among groups for the following parameters: (i) fat content and fat : protein ratio; (ii) de novo and polyunsaturated FA contents; (iii) Ca contents. These relationships could result from potential process regulating the synthesis and secretion of MFG: (i) the apical membrane turnover for MFG secretion and (ii) cytoplasmic lipid droplet formation in the lactocyte during its migration from the basal to the apical pole. The two other databases grouped data from trials dealing with milking frequency (n=211), milking kinetics and milk type (residual v. cisternal) (n=224). They were used to study the relationships between the size of the MFG and milk composition for high native fat contents (from 60 up to 100 g/kg in residual milks). We observed curvilinear relationships between the size of the MFG and fat content, as well as with the fat : protein ratio. This result suggests that MFG diameter reaches a

  19. Following the digestion of milk proteins from mother to baby.

    PubMed

    Holton, Thérèse A; Vijayakumar, Vaishnavi; Dallas, David C; Guerrero, Andrés; Borghese, Robyn A; Lebrilla, Carlito B; German, J Bruce; Barile, Daniela; Underwood, Mark A; Shields, Denis C; Khaldi, Nora

    2014-12-05

    Little is known about the digestive process in infants. In particular, the chronological activity of enzymes across the course of digestion in the infant remains largely unknown. To create a temporal picture of how milk proteins are digested, enzyme activity was compared between intact human milk samples from three mothers and the gastric samples from each of their 4-12 day postpartum infants, 2 h after breast milk ingestion. The activities of 7 distinct enzymes are predicted in the infant stomach based on their observed cleavage pattern in peptidomics data. We found that the same patterns of cleavage were evident in both intact human milk and gastric milk samples, demonstrating that the enzyme activities that begin in milk persist in the infant stomach. However, the extent of enzyme activity is found to vary greatly between the intact milk and gastric samples. Overall, we observe that milk-specific proteins are cleaved at higher levels in the stomach compared to human milk. Notably, the enzymes we predict here only explain 78% of the cleavages uniquely observed in the gastric samples, highlighting that further investigation of the specific enzyme activities associated with digestion in infants is warranted.

  20. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in all forms, including condensed, derivative, dry, evaporated, goat’s milk and milk from other animals, lowfat, malted, ... avoid milk from other domestic animals. For example, goat's milk protein is similar to cow's milk protein ...

  1. Comparison of a Powdered, Acidified Liquid, and Non-Acidified Liquid Human Milk Fortifier on Clinical Outcomes in Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Thoene, Melissa; Lyden, Elizabeth; Weishaar, Kara; Elliott, Elizabeth; Wu, Ruomei; White, Katelyn; Timm, Hayley; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-01-01

    We previously compared infant outcomes between a powdered human milk fortifier (P-HMF) vs. acidified liquid HMF (AL-HMF). A non-acidified liquid HMF (NAL-HMF) is now commercially available. The purpose of this study is to compare growth and outcomes of premature infants receiving P-HMF, AL-HMF or NAL-HMF. An Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved retrospective chart review compared infant outcomes (born < 2000 g) who received one of three HMF. Growth, enteral nutrition, laboratory and demographic data were compared. 120 infants were included (P-HMF = 46, AL-HMF = 23, NAL-HMF = 51). AL-HMF infants grew slower in g/day (median 23.66 vs. P-HMF 31.27, NAL-HMF 31.74 (p < 0.05)) and in g/kg/day, median 10.59 vs. 15.37, 14.03 (p < 0.0001). AL-HMF vs. NAL-HMF infants were smaller at 36 weeks gestational age (median 2046 vs. 2404 g, p < 0.05). However AL-HMF infants received more daily calories (p = 0.21) and protein (p < 0.0001), mean 129 cal/kg, 4.2 g protein/kg vs. P-HMF 117 cal/kg, 3.7 g protein/kg , NAL-HMF 120 cal/kg, 4.0 g protein/kg. AL-HMF infants exhibited lower carbon dioxide levels after day of life 14 and 30 (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0038). Three AL-HMF infants (13%) developed necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) vs. no infants in the remaining groups (p = 0.0056). A NAL-HMF is the most optimal choice for premature human milk-fed infants in a high acuity neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). PMID:27472359

  2. Comparison of a Powdered, Acidified Liquid, and Non-Acidified Liquid Human Milk Fortifier on Clinical Outcomes in Premature Infants.

    PubMed

    Thoene, Melissa; Lyden, Elizabeth; Weishaar, Kara; Elliott, Elizabeth; Wu, Ruomei; White, Katelyn; Timm, Hayley; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-07-26

    We previously compared infant outcomes between a powdered human milk fortifier (P-HMF) vs. acidified liquid HMF (AL-HMF). A non-acidified liquid HMF (NAL-HMF) is now commercially available. The purpose of this study is to compare growth and outcomes of premature infants receiving P-HMF, AL-HMF or NAL-HMF. An Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved retrospective chart review compared infant outcomes (born < 2000 g) who received one of three HMF. Growth, enteral nutrition, laboratory and demographic data were compared. 120 infants were included (P-HMF = 46, AL-HMF = 23, NAL-HMF = 51). AL-HMF infants grew slower in g/day (median 23.66 vs. P-HMF 31.27, NAL-HMF 31.74 (p < 0.05)) and in g/kg/day, median 10.59 vs. 15.37, 14.03 (p < 0.0001). AL-HMF vs. NAL-HMF infants were smaller at 36 weeks gestational age (median 2046 vs. 2404 g, p < 0.05). However AL-HMF infants received more daily calories (p = 0.21) and protein (p < 0.0001), mean 129 cal/kg, 4.2 g protein/kg vs. P-HMF 117 cal/kg, 3.7 g protein/kg , NAL-HMF 120 cal/kg, 4.0 g protein/kg. AL-HMF infants exhibited lower carbon dioxide levels after day of life 14 and 30 (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0038). Three AL-HMF infants (13%) developed necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) vs. no infants in the remaining groups (p = 0.0056). A NAL-HMF is the most optimal choice for premature human milk-fed infants in a high acuity neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

  3. Quantitative analysis of cow whole milk and whey powder adulteration percentage in goat and sheep milk products by isotopic dilution-ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xing; Zhang, Jingshun; Lai, Shiyun; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Yirong; Mo, Weimin; Ren, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a method for quantification of cow's whey and whole milk powder in goat or sheep milk products including infant formula. A ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was established for simultaneous quantification of four caseins and two major whey proteins by detecting their signature peptides, which were able to act as markers for differentiating goat or sheep from cow whey and whole milk powder in infant formulas. The signature peptides were screened based on the computational prediction by Biolynx software, and confirmed by database searching after analysis of liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS). The isotopic-labeled signature peptide was used as internal standard to compensate the matrix effect. The limits of quantification were 0.01-0.05 g/100 g for target proteins. The observed recovery rates ranged from 82.3 to 116.6 % and the reproducibility was excellent (RSD <12 %) at different spiking levels. The RSDs of intra- and inter-day precision were 2.8-6.2 and 3.3-9.8 %, respectively. The multiple reaction monitoring method was successfully applied to milk powder with different composition, showing high specificity and accuracy in detection of species involved. The calculating formula was designed to assess the composition of adulteration in the actual detection of infant formulas. These results highlight applicability of this method for the detection of infant formulas with complicated matrix.

  4. [Determination of dicyandiamide, melamine and cyanuric acid in milk and milk powder by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Yun, Huan; Yan, Hua; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Jianhui; Lu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Xin

    2013-05-01

    A method for the determination of dicyandiamide (DCD), melamine (MEL) and cyanuric acid (CY) in milk and milk powder has been developed by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). After extracted by 5% (mass fraction) trichloroacetic acid, the samples were loaded onto an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm) and separated using acetonitrile and ammonium acetate as mobile phases in a gradient elution mode. The electrospray was operated in the positive mode and negative mode, and monitored by the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The calibration curves showed a good linearity in the range of 5.0 - 200.0 microg/L, and the correlation coefficients (r) were not less than 0.995. When the spiked levels were 0.02, 0.10 and 0.20 mg/kg, the recoveries of DCD, MEL and CY in milk ranged from 60.0%. to 105.8%, with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 4.2% - 13.6%; while the spiked levels were 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 mg/kg in milk powder, the recoveries ranged from 78.0% to 115.0% with the RSDs of 2.7% - 7.5%. The limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N = 10) were 0.02 mg/kg for milk samples and 0.05 mg/kg for milk powder samples. The results indicate that the method is simple, rapid, sensitive and suitable for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of DCD, MEL and CY in milk and dairy product samples.

  5. Liposomal dry powders as aerosols for pulmonary delivery of proteins.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dongmei; Hickey, Anthony J

    2005-12-21

    The purpose of this research was to develop liposomal dry powder aerosols for protein delivery. The delivery of stable protein formulations is essential for protein subunit vaccine delivery, which requires local delivery to macrophages in the lungs. Beta-glucuronidase (GUS) was used as a model protein to evaluate dry powder liposomes as inhaled delivery vehicles. Dimyristoyl phosphatylcholine:cholesterol (7:3) was selected as the liposome composition. The lyophilization of liposomes, micronization of the powders, aerosolization using a dry powder inhaler (DPI), and in vitro aerodynamic fine particle fraction upon collection in a twin-stage liquid impinger were evaluated. After lyophilization and jet-milling, the total amount of GUS and its activity, representing encapsulation efficiency and stability, were evaluated. The GUS amount and activity were measured and compared with freshly-prepared liposomes in the presence of mannitol, 43% of initial GUS amount, 29% of GUS activity after lyophilization and 36% of GUS amount, 22% of activity after micronization were obtained. Emitted doses from dry powder inhaler were 53%, 58%, 66%, and 73% for liposome powder:mannitol carrier ratios of 1:0, 1:4, 1:9, and 1:19. Fifteen percent of the liposome particles were less than 6.4 mum in aerodynamic diameter. The results demonstrate that milled liposome powders containing protein molecules can be aerosolized effectively at a fixed flow rate. Influences of different cryoprotectants on lyophilization of protein liposome formulations are reported. The feasibility of using liposomal dry powder aerosols for protein delivery has been demonstrated but further optimization is required in the context of specific therapeutic proteins.

  6. [Quantitative determination of the protein content of milk by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. 3. The protein content of whole milk].

    PubMed

    Reichardt, W; Schüler, E

    1987-01-01

    It is possible to determine the protein content of unskimmed milk after dilution with a detergent solution by measuring of absorbance at 210 and 220 nm. If milk samples are not elder than 36 h the difference A210-A220 shows a high correlation to the values of Kjeldahl nitrogen analysis (r = 0.97). Similar coincidence was found to the values of absorbance measurements in skimmed milk (A210: r = 0.98; A235-A280: r = 0.96). With decreasing age of unskimmed milk samples the coincidence diminished. Absorbance data measured at 210, 215, 220, 225, 235 and 280 nm as well as the differences A215-A225 and A235-A280 do not much agree with analogous results from skimmed milk. Elderly creamed milk samples allow the determination of protein content from milk plasma. It could be proved by Kjeldahl nitrogen analysis, that differences in the nitrogen content of unskimmed and skimmed milk depend on the nitrogen-loss during centrifugation, on the protein content and the protein-fat-ratio.

  7. Host-defence-related proteins in cows' milk.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, T T; Smolenski, G A; Harris, D P; Gupta, S K; Haigh, B J; Broadhurst, M K; Molenaar, A J; Stelwagen, K

    2012-03-01

    Milk is a source of bioactive molecules with wide-ranging functions. Among these, the immune properties have been the best characterised. In recent years, it has become apparent that besides the immunoglobulins, milk also contains a range of minor immune-related proteins that collectively form a significant first line of defence against pathogens, acting both within the mammary gland itself as well as in the digestive tract of the suckling neonate. We have used proteomics technologies to characterise the repertoire of host-defence-related milk proteins in detail, revealing more than 100 distinct gene products in milk, of which at least 15 are known host-defence-related proteins. Those having intrinsic antimicrobial activity likely function as effector proteins of the local mucosal immune defence (e.g. defensins, cathelicidins and the calgranulins). Here, we focus on the activities and biological roles of the cathelicidins and mammary serum amyloid A. The function of the immune-related milk proteins that do not have intrinsic antimicrobial activity is also discussed, notably lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, RNase4, RNase5/angiogenin and cartilage-glycoprotein 39 kDa. Evidence is shown that at least some of these facilitate recognition of microbes, resulting in the activation of innate immune signalling pathways in cells associated with the mammary and/or gut mucosal surface. Finally, the contribution of the bacteria in milk to its functionality is discussed. These investigations are elucidating how an effective first line of defence is achieved in the bovine mammary gland and how milk contributes to optimal digestive function in the suckling calf. This study will contribute to a better understanding of the health benefits of milk, as well as to the development of high-value ingredients from milk.

  8. Effect of precipitation, geographical location and biosynthesis on New Zealand milk powder bulk and fatty acids D/H ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, R.; Emad Ehtesham, R.; Van Hale, R.; Hayman, A.; Baisden, T.

    2012-04-01

    D/H ratio measurements provide useful information for the investigation of biogeochemical influences on natural and agricultural produce, particularly with application to food traceability and authentication. Numerous studies have shown that variation of a product's D/H ratio is influenced by both environmental factors and biological processes. This study investigates the D/H ratio of New Zealand milk powder and individual fatty acids, and causal determinants of isotopic variation. One of the key environmental factors is precipitation, and the D/H ratio "isoscaping" of NZ has been undertaken. New Zealand provides a unique geography for these kinds of study in terms of proximity to the ocean and natural geographical variability from sea level to elevations as high as 3700 m. Milk powder samples were collected from different geographical regions from milk processing units, which were supplied by producers in the immediate region. H/D ratios of bulk milk powder and of individual fatty acids were determined. Initial comparison of the precipitation and milk powder bulk D/H data show a very good differentiation from north to southernmost parts of New Zealand and a relation between rain and milk bulk D/H abundance ratio. Almost 98% of milk FAs are in the form of triglycerides that have been extracted and hydrolysed to free FAs. Free FAs were esterified and analyzed with GC-IRMS. Individual FAs show variation in D/H ratio, and all values are depleted relative to the precipitation data. The difference in D/H ratio amongst individual FAs reflects the geographical environment and biological processes i.e. micro-organisms activity in the rumen of the cow. Short chain FAs (less than 8 carbons), particularly C4 (Butyric acid), appear to be key determinants. The variation in the data can be rationalized using statistical multivariate analysis.

  9. The effect of spray-drying parameters on the flavor of nonfat dry milk and milk protein concentrate 70.

    PubMed

    Park, Curtis W; Stout, Mark A; Drake, MaryAnne

    2016-12-01

    Unit operations during production influence the sensory properties of nonfat dry milk (NFDM) and milk protein concentrate (MPC). Off-flavors in dried dairy ingredients decrease consumer acceptance of ingredient applications. Previous work has shown that spray-drying parameters affect physical and sensory properties of whole milk powder and whey protein concentrate. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inlet temperature and feed solids concentration on the flavor of NFDM and MPC 70% (MPC70). Condensed skim milk (50% solids) and condensed liquid MPC70 (32% solids) were produced using pilot-scale dairy processing equipment. The condensed products were then spray dried at either 160, 210, or 260°C inlet temperature and 30, 40, or 50% total solids for NFDM and 12, 22, or 32% for MPC70 in a randomized order. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times. Flavor of the NFDM and MPC70 was evaluated by sensory and instrumental volatile compound analyses. Surface free fat, particle size, and furosine were also analyzed. Both main effects (30, 40, and 50% solids and 160, 210, and 260°C inlet temperature) and interactions between solids concentration and inlet temperature were investigated. Interactions were not significant. In general, results were consistent for NFDM and MPC70. Increasing inlet temperature and feed solids concentration increased sweet aromatic flavor and decreased cardboard flavor and associated lipid oxidation products. Increases in furosine with increased inlet temperature and solids concentration indicated increased Maillard reactions during drying. Particle size increased and surface free fat decreased with increasing inlet temperature and solids concentration. These results demonstrate that increasing inlet temperatures and solids concentration during spray drying decrease off-flavor intensities in NFDM and MPC70 even though the heat treatment is greater compared with low temperature and low solids.

  10. Exploring authentic skim milk powder variance for the development of nontargeted adulterant detection methods using NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multinational collaborative team led by the US Pharmacopeial Convention is currently investigating the potential of NIR spectroscopy for nontargeted detection of adulterants in skim milk powder. The development of a compendial method is challenged by the range of authentic or nonadulterated skim m...

  11. Comparison of composition, sensory, and volatile components of thirty-four percent whey protein and milk serum protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Evans, J; Zulewska, J; Newbold, M; Drake, M A; Barbano, D M

    2009-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify and compare the composition, flavor, and volatile components of serum protein concentrate (SPC) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) containing about 34% protein made from the same milk to each other and to commercial 34% WPC from 6 different factories. The SPC and WPC were manufactured in triplicate with each pair of serum and traditional whey protein manufactured from the same lot of milk. At each replication, SPC and WPC were spray dried (SD) and freeze dried (FD) to determine the effect of the heat used in spray drying on sensory properties. A trained sensory panel documented the sensory profiles of rehydrated SD or FD powders. Volatile components were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Whey protein concentrates had higher fat content, calcium, and glycomacropeptide content than SPC. Color differences (Hunter L, a, b) were not evident between SPC and WPC powders, but when rehydrated, SPC solutions were clear, whereas WPC solutions were cloudy. No consistent differences were documented in sensory profiles of SD and FD SPC and WPC. The SD WPC had low but distinct buttery (diacetyl) and cardboard flavors, whereas the SD SPC did not. Sensory profiles of both rehydrated SD products were bland and lower in overall aroma and cardboard flavor compared with the commercial WPC. Twenty-nine aroma impact compounds were identified in the SPC and WPC. Lipid and protein oxidation products were present in both products. The SPC and WPC manufactured in this study had lower total volatiles and lower concentrations of many lipid oxidation compounds when compared with commercial WPC. Our results suggest that when SPC and WPC are manufactured under controlled conditions in a similar manner from the same milk using the same ultrafiltration equipment, there are few sensory

  12. Hydrolysis by Alcalase Improves Hypoallergenic Properties of Goat Milk Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sung-Seob; Lee, Won-Jae; Kim, Jin-Wook; Ha, Ho-Kyung; Yoo, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Goat milk is highly nutritious and is consumed in many countries, but the development of functional foods from goat milk has been slow compared to that for other types of milk. The aim of this study was to develop a goat milk protein hydrolysate (GMPH) with enhanced digestibility and better hypoallergenic properties in comparison with other protein sources such as ovalbumin and soy protein. Goat milk protein was digested with four commercial food-grade proteases (separately) under various conditions to achieve the best hydrolysis of αs -casein and β-lactoglobulin. It was shown that treatment with alcalase (0.4%, 60℃ for 30 min) effectively degraded these two proteins, as determined by SDS-PAGE, measurement of nonprotein nitrogen content, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Hydrolysis with alcalase resulted in a significant decrease in β-lactoglobulin concentration (almost to nil) and a ~40% reduction in the level of αs-casein. Quantification of histamine and TNF-α released from HMC-1 cells (human mast cell line) showed that the GMPH did not induce an allergic response when compared to the control. Hence, the GMPH may be useful for development of novel foods for infants, the elderly, and convalescent patients, to replace cow milk. PMID:27621693

  13. [Determination of nicotinamide in formula milk powder using liquid chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ting; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Liu, Jun

    2007-11-01

    It is important to determine trace compounds in complex matrices. Internal standards are often introduced to circumvent loss of analytes during the preparation to achieve accurate measurement. Isotope internal standards are better than other types of internal standards, due to its high similarity to analyte in chemical properties. By introducing isotope-labeled nicotinamide, as an internal standard, a method for determining nicotinamide in formula milk powder by liquid chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS) was developed with a relative standard deviation of 0.94%. The results suggested that the developed LC-IDMS method has high accuracy, high specificity, high repeatability, and is suitable for the determination of vitamins in complex matrices. This method was used to perform international comparison for CCQM-P78, and the result was consistent with that of international laboratories.

  14. Apoptosis induced by a human milk protein.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, A; Zhivotovsky, B; Orrenius, S; Sabharwal, H; Svanborg, C

    1995-08-15

    To the breast-fed infant, human milk is more than a source of nutrients; it furnishes a wide array of molecules that restrict microbes, such as antibodies, bactericidins, and inhibitors of bacterial adherence. However, it has rarely been considered that human milk may also contain substances bioactive toward host cells. While investigating the effect of human milk on bacterial adherence to a human lung cancer cell line, we were surprised to discover that the milk killed the cells. Analysis of this effect revealed that a component of milk in a particular physical state--multimeric alpha-lact-albumin--is a potent Ca(2+)-elevating and apoptosis-inducing agent with broad, yet selective, cytotoxic activity. Multimeric alpha-lactalbumin killed all transformed, embryonic, and lymphoid cells tested but spared mature epithelial elements. These findings raise the possibility that milk contributes to mucosal immunity not only by furnishing antimicrobial molecules but also by policing the function of lymphocytes and epithelium. Finally, analysis of the mechanism by which multimeric alpha-lactalbumin induces apoptosis in transformed epithelial cells could lead to the design of antitumor agents.

  15. Comparison of composition and sensory properties of 80% whey protein and milk serum protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Evans, J; Zulewska, J; Newbold, M; Drake, M A; Barbano, D M

    2010-05-01

    Milk serum protein concentrates (SPC) are proteins found in cheese whey that are removed directly from milk. Because SPC are not exposed to the cheese-making process, enzymatic or chemical reactions that can lead to off-flavors are reduced. The objectives of this study were to identify and compare the composition, flavor, and volatile components of 80% protein SPC and whey protein concentrates (WPC). Each pair of 80% SPC and WPC was manufactured from the same lot of milk and this was replicated 3 times. At each replication, spray-dried product from each protein source was collected. Commercial 80% WPC were also collected from several manufacturers for sensory and volatile analyses. A trained sensory panel documented the sensory profiles of the rehydrated powders. Volatile components were extracted by solid-phase microextraction and solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Consumer acceptance testing of acidified 6% protein beverages made with 80% SPC and WPC produced in the pilot plant and with WPC from commercial sources was conducted. The SPC was lower in fat and had a higher pH than the WPC produced in the pilot plant or commercial WPC. Few sensory differences were found between the rehydrated SPC and WPC manufactured in this study, but their flavor profiles were distinct from the flavor of rehydrated commercial WPC. The pilot-plant WPC had higher concentrations of lipid oxidation products compared with SPC, which may be related to the higher fat content of WPC. There was a large difference in appearance between 80% SPC and WPC: solutions of SPC were clear and those of WPC were opaque. Concentrations of lipid oxidation products in commercial WPC were generally higher than those in pilot-plant SPC or WPC. Sensory profiles of the peach-flavored protein beverage included cereal, free fatty acid, and soapy flavors and bitter taste in beverages made from pilot

  16. Human milk proteins: an interactomics and updated functional overview.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Angelo; Scaloni, Andrea; Zolla, Lello

    2010-07-02

    Milk and milk fractions are characterized by a wide array of proteins, whose concentration spans across several orders of magnitude. By exploiting a combined approach based on functional gene ontology enrichment (FatiGO/Babelomics), hierarchical clustering, and pathway and network analyses, we merged data from literature dealing with protein-oriented studies on human milk. A total of 285 entries defined a nonredundant list upon comparison with the Ingenuity Knowledge Base from the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. Results were compared with an inventory of bovine milk proteins gathered from dedicated proteomic studies. A protein core of 106 proteins was found, with most of the entries associated to three main biological functions, namely nutrient transport/lipid metabolism, concretization of the immune system response and cellular proliferation processes. Our analyses confirm and emphasize that the biological role of the human milk proteins is not only limited to the provision of external nutrients and defense molecules against pathogens to the suckling but also to the direct stimulation of the growth of neonate tissues/organs and to the development of a proper independent immune system, both through the induction of a number of molecular cascades associated with cell proliferation/differentiation. The latter aspects were previously investigated by single-molecule dedicated studies, missing the holistic view that results from our analysis.

  17. [Determination of fructo-oligosaccharides in milk powder by high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/electrostatic field orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Ding, Tao; Xu, Suli; Wu, Bin; Shen, Chongyu; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yan; Fei, Xiaoqing

    2015-10-01

    A method of high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/electrostatic field Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q/Orbitrap MS) was developed to determine fructo-oligosaccharides in milk powder. The milk powder samples were dissolved in deionized water. Subsequently, an aqueous solution of zinc acetate was used to precipitate protein. After centrifugation, the final aqueous solution was filtered by a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane with pore size of 0.22 μm. The analytes were separated on a Carbohydrate column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 2.6 μm) through gradient elution with the combination of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution. The target-MS/MS templates were performed at isolation window of m/z 4.0 and collision energy of 30 eV in positive mode to extract the accurate product ion mass of analytes. Under the optimal condition, 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and 1-F-β-fructofuranosyl nystose (GF4) were well separated and the accuracy of extracted mass routinely detected was below 5 x 10(-6) (5 ppm). The whole analysis time is only ten minutes. The detection limits for GF2 and GF3 were 100 μg/kg, and the detection limit for GF4 was 55 μg/kg. Good linearities were obtained in their respective linear ranges with correlation coefficients higher than 0.998. The average recoveries at three spiked levels (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) were in the range of 75.8%-107.3% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 1.6% - 8.3%. The proposed method is simple, sensitive, fast and only in need of precipitation of proteins. The interference of matrix can be eliminated through the selection of product ion. The results were convenient and reliable and thus can be used in the large batch determination of any milk powder.

  18. Soy- and rice-based processed complementary food increases nutrient intakes in infants and is equally acceptable with or without added milk powder.

    PubMed

    Paul, Keriann H; Dickin, Katherine L; Ali, Nadra S; Monterrosa, Eva C; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2008-10-01

    Processed complementary foods (PCF) might mitigate several complementary feeding barriers in developing countries. Efficacy trials, however, have not shown substantial improvements in child growth, possibly due to inadequate formative research to assess acceptability and identify pitfalls. Milk powder might improve palatability of PCF but incurs a higher cost. We compared the acceptability of an instant soy-rice PCF without (SR) and with (SRM) milk powder. Best practices for formative evaluation of PCF are not established. We therefore compared findings from randomized trials of SR vs. SRM in 1-d sensory tests (n = 71 mother-infant dyads) vs. Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs), a 2-wk in-home mixed methods evaluation (n = 54 dyads). TIPs included interviews, disappearance rates, observations, and 24-h dietary recalls to assess acceptance, consumption of the 50 g/d ration, and impact on diet. Although mothers preferred SRM to SR in the sensory tests, children in the TIPs consumed >50 g/d of SR (87 +/- 9 g/d) and SRM (89 +/- 8 g/d) with no difference between the foods (P = 0.55). Despite some replacement of family food, energy (574 kJ/d; P < 0.001) and protein (19 g protein/d; P < 0.001) increased in both groups. Mothers' preferences for milk, more sugar in SR, and preparation with hot water were concerns raised in the sensory tests that proved insignificant in TIPs. However, TIPs uncovered new concerns of overconsumption and food safety. We found milk did not improve the acceptability of the soy-rice PCF and recommend TIPs as a useful tool for formative research of PCF interventions.

  19. COMPARISON OF CHILDREN'S FOLLOW-ON INSTANT POWDERED COW'S MILK FORMULA, BUFFALO MILK FORMULA AND CHICKEN-BASED FORMULA ON ENAMEL MICROHARDNESS OF BOVINE TEETH IN VITRO.

    PubMed

    Vongsavan, Kadkao; Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Surarit, Rudee

    2016-03-01

    Dental caries are a major public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of children's follow-on instant powdered cow's milk formula, buffalo milk formula and a chicken-based formula on microhardness of bovine enamel with artificial caries-like lesions. Forty bovine teeth were each placed in acrylic blocks and the enamel surfaces were polished to create flat 5 x 5 millimeter surfaces. The teeth surfaces were then demineralized using 0.1M lactic acid (pH 4.5) to achieve an enamel microhardness of 35-65 Vickers Hardness Numbers (VHN). All specimens were then randomly allocated into one of 4 groups (n=10/group). For remineralization, each group was soaked in a different kind of milk formula for 2 hours at 37°C except group 1 which was a negative control (artificial saliva) group. Group 2 was soaked in Murrah™ buffalo milk formula (a positive control ), group 3 in S-26-Promil-Gold™ (cow's milk formula) and group 4 in a chicken-based formula (Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University). The microhardness of the specimens was then measured again. Data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and paired t-test with a 95% confidence interval. After exposure to the formula, the mean VHN for each study group was significantly higher (paired t-test, p < 0.05) except for group 1 (p = 0.345). The mean VHN for the the Murrah™ buffalo milk formula, the chicken-based formula and the S-26-Promil-Gold™ formula group were not significantly different from each other (one-way ANOVA, p > 0.05). In conclusion, S-26-Promil-Gold™ follow-on cow milk formula, Murrah™ buffalo milk formula and the chicken-based formula all increased bovine enamel microhardness after soaking for 2 hours.

  20. Short communication: Effects of nanofiltration and evaporation on the physiochemical properties of milk protein during processing of milk protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jialu; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Shaozong; Liu, Chang; Li, Yan; Li, Haimei; Zhang, Liebing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of nanofiltration and evaporation concentration technologies on the physiochemical properties of milk protein concentrate (MPC) during processing. Skim milk, ultrafiltered milk, evaporated milk, nanofiltered milk, evaporated MPC, and nanofiltered MPC samples were collected at different processing stages. Chemical composition, microstructure of casein micelles, free sulfhydryl content, and surface hydrophobicity of the samples were determined. The insolubility index of MPC was also determined. Casein micelles aggregated compactly after evaporation while surface hydrophobicity increased and free sulfhydryl content decreased in evaporated milk compared with skim milk. However, the microstructure of the casein micelles was relatively undisturbed after nanofiltration, with reduced surface hydrophobicity and free sulfhydryl content. No significant difference was found in chemical composition between the 2 MPC preparations: approximately 61.40% protein and 28.49% lactose. In addition, the particulate microstructures of both MPC were similar. However, the insolubility index of evaporated MPC was significantly (0.58mL) higher than that of nanofiltered MPC. Nanofiltration may be an effective way to improve the solubility of MPC products.

  1. Effects of partially replacing skimmed milk powder with dairy ingredients on rheology, sensory profiling, and microstructure of probiotic stirred-type yogurt during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Marafon, A P; Sumi, A; Granato, D; Alcântara, M R; Tamime, A Y; Nogueira de Oliveira, M

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the quality of stirred-type skim milk probiotic yogurt fortified by partially replacing skim milk powder (SMP) with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and sodium caseinate (Na-CN) during cold storage for 28 d compared with nonfortified yogurt. The rheological properties (as measured using dynamic oscillation) and sensory profiles of probiotic yogurts were greatly enhanced when SMP (i.e., 45%) was replaced with WPC and Na-CN. Higher values of mechanical parameters related to storage and loss modulus and consistent microstructure were found in the fortified yogurts. The acidification profile was not affected by supplementation of the solids in the milk base, and the viable counts of probiotic microbiota were high and satisfactory. These positive characteristics of probiotic yogurts were maintained until the end of the storage period. The microstructure of the fortified yogurt showed some differences compared with the nonfortified product, which were due to changes in chemical composition of the milk base in addition to the colloidal characteristics of the product.

  2. Amino acid supplementation of calf milk replacers containing plasma protein.

    PubMed

    Morrison, S Y; Campbell, J M; Drackley, J K

    2017-03-22

    We determined the effects of calf milk replacers containing 0, 5, or 10% bovine plasma protein (PP), either without or with the supplemental amino acids (AA) Ile and Thr, on growth and health of male Holstein calves (n = 104) for 56 d. Milk replacers were formulated to contain 22% crude protein (CP), 20% fat, and 2.0% Lys. Milk replacers (12.5% solids) were fed at a rate of 1.5% of body weight (BW) on a dry matter basis during wk 1 and 1.75% of BW beginning on d 8. Starter was introduced on d 36 so that effects of PP and AA balance in milk replacers could be isolated. Intake, respiratory scores, and fecal scores were measured daily. Body weight and stature were measured weekly and blood serum samples were obtained during wk 4. Treatments had no effects on intakes of dry matter, CP, or metabolizable energy. During wk 6 and 8, BW was less as PP inclusion increased without AA supplementation compared with the other treatments. In wk 7, calves fed the higher level of PP without AA had lower BW than calves fed either the lower level of PP without supplemented AA or the higher inclusion of PP with supplemented AA. Average daily gain and gain:feed were lowest for calves fed the higher inclusion of PP without supplemented AA; heart girth in wk 7 was smallest for those calves. During the first 21 d, occurrence of scours was greater in calves fed the control milk replacer than in calves fed milk replacers containing the higher inclusion of PP either without or with supplemental AA. Occurrence of scours was also greater for the lower inclusion of PP compared with the higher inclusion of PP when AA were supplemented. Throughout the 56-d experiment, the chance of antibiotic treatment was greater for calves fed the control milk replacer than for all other treatments except the higher inclusion of PP without supplemental AA. Additionally, chance of antibiotic treatment was greater for the higher inclusion of PP without supplemental AA than for other milk replacers with PP. Calves

  3. Composition of interfacial layers in complex food emulsions before and after aeration: effect of egg to milk protein ratio.

    PubMed

    Martinet, V; Valentini, C; Casalinho, J; Schorsch, C; Vaslin, S; Courthaudon, J-L

    2005-01-01

    Whipped emulsions were prepared at pilot scale from fresh milk, whole egg, and other ingredients, for example, sugars and stabilizers (starch, polysaccharides). Egg content was varied: 4 recipes were studied differing in their egg to milk protein ratio (0, 0.25, 0.38, and 0.68). Protein and fat contents were kept constant by adjusting the recipes with skim-milk powder and fresh cream. Emulsions were prepared by high-pressure homogenization and whipped on a pilot plant. Particle-size distribution determined by laser-light scattering showed an extensive aggregation of fat globules in both mix and whipped emulsions, regardless of recipe. Amount of protein adsorbed at the oil-water interface and protein composition of adsorbed layer were determined after isolation of fat globules. Protein load is strongly increased by the presence of egg in formula. Values obtained for the whipped emulsions were dramatically lower than those obtained for the mix by a factor of 2 to 3. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE indicated a preferential adsorption of egg proteins over milk proteins at the oil-water interface, regardless of recipe. This phenomenon was more marked in aerated than in unaerated emulsions, showing evidence for desorption of some milk proteins during whipping. Egg proteins stabilize mainly the fat globule surface and ensure emulsion stability before whipping. Air bubble size distribution in whipped emulsions was measured after 15 d storage. When the egg to milk protein ratio is decreased to 0.25, large air cells appear in whipped emulsions during storage, indicating mousse destabilization. The present work allows linking the protein composition of adsorbed layers at the fat globule surface to mousse formula and mousse stability.

  4. Rapid screening of mycotoxins in liquid milk and milk powder by automated size-exclusion SPE-UPLC-MS/MS and quantification of matrix effects over the whole chromatographic run.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiupin; Li, Peiwu

    2015-04-15

    An automated, size-exclusion solid phase extraction (SPE)-UPLC-MS/MS protocol without pre-treatment of samples was developed to screen for four mycotoxins (OTA, ZEN, AFB1, and AFM1) in liquid milk and milk powder. Firstly, a mixed macropore-silica gel cartridge was established as a size-exclusion SPE column. The proposed methodology could be a candidate in green analytical chemistry because it saves on manpower and organic solvent. Permanent post-column infusion of mycotoxin standards was used to quantify matrix effects throughout the chromatographic run. Matrix-matched calibration could effectively compensate for matrix effects, which may be caused by liquid milk or milk powder matrix. Recovery of the four mycotoxins in fortified liquid milk was in the range 89-120% and RSD 2-9%. The LOD for the four mycotoxins in liquid milk and milk powder were 0.05-2 ng L(-1) and 0.25-10 ng kg(-1), respectively. The LOQ for the four mycotoxins in liquid milk and milk powder were 0.1-5 ng L(-1) and 0.5-25 ng kg(-1), respectively.

  5. Lateral flow test strip based on colloidal selenium immunoassay for rapid detection of melamine in milk, milk powder, and animal feed.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhizeng; Zhi, Dejuan; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Hailong; Wang, Xin; Ru, Yi; Li, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Although high melamine (MEL) intake has been proven to cause serious health problems, MEL is sometimes illegally added to milk products and animal feed, arousing serious food safety concerns. A satisfactory method of detecting MEL in onsite or in-home testing is in urgent need of development. This work aimed to explore a rapid, convenient, and cost-effective method of identifying MEL in milk products or other food by colloidal selenium-based lateral flow immunoassay. Colloidal selenium was synthesized by L-ascorbic acid to reduce seleninic acid at room temperature. After conjugation with a monoclonal antibody anti-MEL, a test strip was successfully prepared. The detection limit of the test strip reached 150 μg/kg, 1,000 μg/kg, and 800 μg/kg in liquid milk, milk powder, and animal feed, respectively. No cross-reactions with homologues cyanuric acid, cyanurodiamide, or ammelide were found. Moreover, the MEL test strip can remain stable after storage for 1 year at room temperature. Our results demonstrate that the colloidal selenium MEL test strip can detect MEL in adulterated milk products or animal feed conveniently, rapidly, and sensitively. In contrast with a colloidal gold MEL test strip, the colloidal selenium MEL test strip was easy to prepare and more cost-efficient.

  6. Lateral flow test strip based on colloidal selenium immunoassay for rapid detection of melamine in milk, milk powder, and animal feed

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhizeng; Zhi, Dejuan; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Hailong; Wang, Xin; Ru, Yi; Li, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Although high melamine (MEL) intake has been proven to cause serious health problems, MEL is sometimes illegally added to milk products and animal feed, arousing serious food safety concerns. A satisfactory method of detecting MEL in onsite or in-home testing is in urgent need of development. This work aimed to explore a rapid, convenient, and cost-effective method of identifying MEL in milk products or other food by colloidal selenium-based lateral flow immunoassay. Colloidal selenium was synthesized by L-ascorbic acid to reduce seleninic acid at room temperature. After conjugation with a monoclonal antibody anti-MEL, a test strip was successfully prepared. The detection limit of the test strip reached 150 μg/kg, 1,000 μg/kg, and 800 μg/kg in liquid milk, milk powder, and animal feed, respectively. No cross-reactions with homologues cyanuric acid, cyanurodiamide, or ammelide were found. Moreover, the MEL test strip can remain stable after storage for 1 year at room temperature. Our results demonstrate that the colloidal selenium MEL test strip can detect MEL in adulterated milk products or animal feed conveniently, rapidly, and sensitively. In contrast with a colloidal gold MEL test strip, the colloidal selenium MEL test strip was easy to prepare and more cost-efficient. PMID:24729705

  7. Short communication: interaction of bovine milk protein with chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ying; Li, Xuefen; Wang, Zongyi; Zheng, Han; Zhang, Qi; Huo, Ran; Chen, Xiangning; Han, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products are considered as nutrient-dense foods and consumed by many people in western countries, as well as an increasing number of Asian people. Excessive and frequent application of pesticides on vegetables and fruits leads to a potential health hazard to consumers. The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos has been reported to bind with human and bovine serum albumin. Thus, it is necessary to explore the interaction between food protein and chlorpyrifos. In this study, equilibrium dialysis and fluorescence spectra were used to demonstrate binding of milk proteins to chlorpyrifos. The amount of milk protein bound was 0.03±0.01mg/g. Moreover, the milk protein-chlorpyrifos complexes were stable at pH 3.5to 9.5 and ion concentrations from 0.1 to 1.0M. The amount of chlorpyrifos bound to milk proteins decreased to 50% after being in vitro digested by pepsin and trypsin. The results showed that the interaction between food proteins and the pesticide might partially remove the insecticide and reduce the concentration of pesticide absorbed into the blood and, thus, alleviate the corresponding toxicity.

  8. Protein profile of mature soybean seeds and prepared soybean milk.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caruso, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Chiara; Samperi, Roberto; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Zenezini Chiozzi, Riccardo; Laganà, Aldo

    2014-10-08

    The soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is economically the most important bean in the world, providing a wide range of vegetable proteins. Soybean milk is a colloidal solution obtained as water extract from swelled and ground soybean seeds. Soybean proteins represent about 35-40% on a dry weight basis and they are receiving increasing attention with respect to their health effects. However, the soybean is a well-recognized allergenic food, and therefore, it is urgent to define its protein components responsible for the allergenicity in order to develop hypoallergenic soybean products for sensitive people. The main aim of this work was the characterization of seed and milk soybean proteome and their comparison in terms of protein content and specific proteins. Using a shotgun proteomics approach, 243 nonredundant proteins were identified in mature soybean seeds.

  9. Identification of lipid synthesis and secretion proteins in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Boeren, Sjef; Vervoort, Jacques; Hettinga, Kasper

    2014-02-01

    Lactation physiology is a process that is only partly understood. Proteomics techniques have shown to be useful to help advance the knowledge on lactation physiology in human and rodent species but have not been used as major tools for dairy cows, except for mastitis. In this paper, advanced non-targeted proteomics techniques (Filter aided sample preparation and NanoLC-Orbitrap-MS/MS) were applied to study the milk fat globule membrane and milk serum fraction, resulting in the identification of 246 proteins. Of these, 23 transporters and enzymes were related to lipid synthesis and secretion in mammary gland and their functions are discussed in detail. The identification of these intracellular transporters and enzymes in milk provides a possibility of using milk itself to study lipid synthesis and secretion pathways. This full-scale scan of milk proteins by using non-targeted proteomic analysis helps to reveal the important proteins involved in lipid synthesis and secretion for further examination in targeted studies.

  10. Proteomic tools to characterize the protein fraction of Equidae milk.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Guy; Mahé, Marie-Françoise; Leroux, Christine; Martin, Patrice

    2004-08-01

    The principal components of the protein fraction in pony mare's milk have been successfully identified and partially characterized using proteomic tools. Skimmed pony mare's milk was fractionated by either reversed phase-high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) on a C4 column or a bi-dimensional separation technique coupling RP-HPLC in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in the second dimension (two-dimensional RP-HPLC/SDS-PAGE). The fractions thus obtained were analyzed by Edman N-terminal microsequencing and mass determination, with or without tryptic digestion, on a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight spectrometer. Based on the sequence and molecular mass information obtained, identifications were achieved through a protein database search using homology or pattern research algorithms. This methodological approach was shown to be rapid, efficient and reliable in identifying the principal proteins in pony mare's milk. kappa-, alpha(s1)-, alpha(s2)-, and beta-casein, lysozyme C, alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin I and II were thus identified. alpha(s1) and beta-caseins displayed polymorphic patterns, probably due to alternative splicing processes leading to casual exon skipping events involving exons 7 and 14 in alpha(s1)-casein and exon 5 in beta-casein. Edman N-terminal microsequencing over 35 amino acid residues, for pony alpha(s1)-casein, clearly demonstrated the occurrence, in Equidae, of a splicing pattern similar to that reported in rodents, characterized by the constitutive outsplicing of exon 5. Pony mare's milk SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC patterns were compared with those obtained for other milks (cow, goat and human), as were the relative levels of caseins and major whey proteins in these milks. Our results provide further evidence to support the notion that Equidae milk is closer to human breast milk than milk from bovine and caprine with respect to the casein and

  11. Least-squares support vector machines and near infrared spectroscopy for quantification of common adulterants in powdered milk.

    PubMed

    Borin, Alessandra; Ferrão, Marco Flôres; Mello, Cesar; Maretto, Danilo Althmann; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2006-10-02

    This paper proposes the use of the least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) as an alternative multivariate calibration method for the simultaneous quantification of some common adulterants (starch, whey or sucrose) found in powdered milk samples, using near-infrared spectroscopy with direct measurements by diffuse reflectance. Due to the spectral differences of the three adulterants a nonlinear behavior is present when all groups of adulterants are in the same data set, making the use of linear methods such as partial least squares regression (PLSR) difficult. Excellent models were built using LS-SVM, with low prediction errors and superior performance in relation to PLSR. These results show it possible to built robust models to quantify some common adulterants in powdered milk using near-infrared spectroscopy and LS-SVM as a nonlinear multivariate calibration procedure.

  12. The use of radiolabelled milk proteins to study thermally-induced interactions in milk systems

    SciTech Connect

    Noh, B.

    1988-01-01

    Heat induced complexes between milk proteins are of considerable importance in determining the heat stability and rennin clottability of milk products. Thiol-disulfide interchange reactions have been suggested as the principal reaction mechanism for complex formation. Studies to data have not adequately established the mechanism and stoichiometry of complex formation in situ in total milk system. Tracer amounts of {sup 14}C-{beta}-lactoglobulin and {alpha}-lactalbumin were heated under various conditions. After clotting with rennet, radioactivity retained in the curd was counted to estimate extent of interaction of {beta}-lactoglobulin with casein. {sup 14}C- and {sup 3}H-Methyl labelled proteins were used for the preparation of radiolabelled artificial casein micelles. These micelles with radiolabelled whey proteins were heated and heat-induced complexes were separated on Sephacryl S-300 eluting with 6 M guanidine hydrochloride to break all non-covalent bonds. Further separation of the protein complexes was obtained using CPG-10 or Sephacryl S-1000. The ratios of {sup 3}H to {sup 14}C labelled proteins in the protein complexes suggested that the stoichiometries of k-, {alpha}{sub s2}-casein, {beta}-lactoglobulin and {alpha}-lactalbumin in the heat-induced complexes varied as a function of the heat treatment.

  13. Determination of flavor enhancers in milk powder by one-step sample preparation and two-dimensional liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Yunan; Hou, Xiaofang; He, Langchong

    2014-04-01

    Maltol, ethyl maltol, vanillin, and ethyl vanillin are important food additives as flavor enhancers. To quantify the four additives in milk powder, a novel 2D liquid chromatographic (2DLC) method was developed in this article. In such a 2DLC system, the target fractions eluted from the first dimensional column (C4) are stored onto the trapping column (C8) for subsequent analysis; after that, they were switched into the second dimensional column (C18) by a two-position six-port switching valve. A one-step sample preparation method was used prior to 2DLC chromatographic analysis, which was easy and convenient. After optimization of all experimental parameters, the new method was validated in terms of linearity, LODs, and LOQs, intra- and interday precision, and accuracy. A conventional single-dimensional liquid chromatographic method was also proposed in this work for comparison. In order to evaluate the applicability of the new 2DLC method, five brands of commercial milk powder samples (n = 8) were analyzed. Vanillin and ethyl vanillin were detected in two samples, respectively. It is showed that the 2DLC method is effective in quality control programs of milk powder products.

  14. The analysis of carbohydrates in milk powder by a new "heart-cutting" two-dimensional liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Hou, Xiaofang; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Yunan; He, Langchong

    2014-03-01

    In this study, a new"heart-cutting" two-dimensional liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of carbohydrate contents in milk powder was presented. In this two dimensional liquid chromatography system, a Venusil XBP-C4 analysis column was used in the first dimension ((1)D) as a pre-separation column, a ZORBAX carbohydrates analysis column was used in the second dimension ((2)D) as a final-analysis column. The whole process was completed in less than 35min without a particular sample preparation procedure. The capability of the new two dimensional HPLC method was demonstrated in the determination of carbohydrates in various brands of milk powder samples. A conventional one dimensional chromatography method was also proposed. The two proposed methods were both validated in terms of linearity, limits of detection, accuracy and precision. The comparison between the results obtained with the two methods showed that the new and completely automated two dimensional liquid chromatography method is more suitable for milk powder sample because of its online cleanup effect involved.

  15. Non-targeted detection of milk powder adulteration using Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics: melamine case study.

    PubMed

    Karunathilaka, Sanjeewa R; Farris, Samantha; Mossoba, Magdi M; Moore, Jeffrey C; Yakes, Betsy Jean

    2017-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics was explored as a rapid, non-targeted screening method for the detection of milk powder (MP) adulteration using melamine as an example contaminant. Raman spectroscopy and an unsupervised pattern-recognition method, principal component analysis (PCA), allowed for the differentiation of authentic MPs from adulterated ones at concentrations > 1.0% for dry-blended (DB) samples and > 0.30% for wet-blended (WB) ones. Soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA), a supervised pattern-recognition method, was also used to classify test samples as adulterated or authentic. Combined statistics at a 97% confidence level from the SIMCA models correctly classified adulteration of MP with melamine at concentrations ≥ 0.5% for DB samples and ≥ 0.30% for WB ones, while no false-positives from authentic MPs were found when the spectra in the 600-700 cm(-)(1) range were pre-processed using standard normal variate (SNV) followed by a gap-segment derivatisation. The combined technique of Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics proved to be a useful tool for the rapid and cost-efficient non-targeted detection of adulteration in MP at per cent spiking levels.

  16. A RAPD based study revealing a previously unreported wide range of mesophilic and thermophilic spore formers associated with milk powders in China.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Faizan A; Li, Yun; Liu, TongJie; Flint, Steve; Zhang, Guohua; He, GuoQing

    2016-01-18

    Aerobic spore forming bacteria are potential milk powder contaminants and are viewed as indicators of poor quality. A total of 738 bacteria, including both mesophilic and thermophilic, isolated from twenty-five powdered milk samples representative of three types of milk powders in China were analyzed based on the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) protocol to provide insight into species diversity. Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent bacterium with greatest diversity (~43% of the total isolates) followed by Geobacillus stearothermophilus (~21% of the total isolates). Anoxybacillus flavithermus represented only 8.5% of the total profiles. Interestingly, actinomycetes represented a major group of the isolates with the predominance of Laceyella sacchari followed by Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, altogether comprising of 7.3% of the total isolates. Out of the nineteen separate bacterial species (except five unidentified groups) recovered and identified from milk powders, twelve proved to belong to novel or previously unreported species in milk powders. Assessment and characterization of the harmful effects caused by this particular micro-flora on the quality and safety of milk powders will be worth doing in the future.

  17. Development of a method to characterize high-protein dairy powders using an ultrasonic flaw detector.

    PubMed

    Hauser, M; Amamcharla, J K

    2016-02-01

    Dissolution behavior of high-protein dairy powders plays a critical role for achieving functional and nutritional characteristics of a finished food product. Current methods for evaluating powder dissolution properties are time consuming, difficult to reproduce, and subjective. Ultrasound spectroscopy is a rapid and precise method, but requires expensive equipment and skilled technicians to carry out the tests. In the present study, an ultrasonic flaw detector (UFD) was used as an economical alternative to characterize the powder dissolution properties. The objective of study was to develop a method to characterize the dissolution behavior of milk protein concentrate (MPC) using a UFD. The experimental setup included a UFD connected to a 1-MHz immersion transducer that was kept a constant distance from a reflector plate. To validate the method, 2 batches of MPC80 from a commercial manufacturer were procured and stored at 25 and 40°C for 4 wk. Focus beam reflectance measurement and solubility index were used as reference methods. Relative ultrasound velocity and ultrasound attenuation were acquired during the dissolution of MPC samples. To characterize the MPC dissolution, 4 parameters including standard deviation of relative velocity, area under the attenuation curve, and peak attenuation were extracted from ultrasound data. As the storage temperature and time increased, the area under the attenuation curve and peak height decreased, indicating a loss of solubility. The proposed UFD-based method was able to capture the changes in dissolution of MPC during storage at 25 and 40°C. It was observed that a high-quality MPC had a low standard deviation and a larger area under the attenuation curve. As the MPC aged at 40°C, the particle dispersion rate decreased and, consequently, an increase in standard deviation and reduction in area were observed. Overall, the UFD can be a low-cost method to characterize the dissolution behavior of high-protein dairy powders.

  18. Functional and technological properties of camel milk proteins: a review.

    PubMed

    Hailu, Yonas; Hansen, Egon Bech; Seifu, Eyassu; Eshetu, Mitiku; Ipsen, Richard; Kappeler, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    This review summarises current knowledge on camel milk proteins, with focus on significant peculiarities in protein composition and molecular properties. Camel milk is traditionally consumed as a fresh or naturally fermented product. Within the last couple of years, an increasing quantity is being processed in dairy plants, and a number of consumer products have been marketed. A better understanding of the technological and functional properties, as required for product improvement, has been gained in the past years. Absence of the whey protein β-LG and a low proportion of к-casein cause differences in relation to dairy processing. In addition to the technological properties, there are also implications for human nutrition and camel milk proteins are of interest for applications in infant foods, for food preservation and in functional foods. Proposed health benefits include inhibition of the angiotensin converting enzyme, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties as well as an antidiabetogenic effect. Detailed investigations on foaming, gelation and solubility as well as technological consequences of processing should be investigated further for the improvement of camel milk utilisation in the near future.

  19. Amino acid nutrition beyond methionine and lysine for milk protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amino acids are involved in many important physiological processes affecting the production, health, and reproduction of high-producing dairy cows. Most research and recommendations for lactating dairy cows has focused on methionine and lysine for increasing milk protein yield. This is because these...

  20. Longitudinal evolution of true protein, amino acids and bioactive proteins in breast milk: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo; Erdmann, Peter; Thakkar, Sagar K; Sauser, Julien; Destaillats, Frédéric

    2017-03-01

    The protein content of breast milk provides a foundation for estimating protein requirements of infants. Because it serves as a guideline for regulatory agencies issuing regulations for infant formula composition, it is critical that information on the protein content of breast milk is reliable. We have therefore carried out a meta-analysis of the protein and amino acid contents of breast milk and how they evolve during lactation. As several bioactive proteins are not completely digested in the infant and therefore represent "non-utilizable" protein, we evaluated the quantity, mechanism of action and digestive fate of several major breast milk proteins. A better knowledge of the development of the protein contents of breast milk and to what extent protein utilization changes with age of the infant will help improve understanding of protein needs in infancy. It is also essential when designing the composition of infant formulas, particularly when the formula uses a "staging" approach in which the composition of the formula is modified in stages to reflect changes in breast milk and changing requirements as the infant ages.

  1. Effect of adjusted pH prior to ultrafiltration of skim milk on membrane performance and physical functionality of milk protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Luo, X; Vasiljevic, T; Ramchandran, L

    2016-02-01

    Processing conditions during ultrafiltration of skim milk influence properties of the casein micelle and thereby the physical properties of milk protein concentrate (MPC). The aim of the study was to establish the effects of pH adjustment of skim milk feed to obtain MPC with desired emulsification properties. The ultrafiltration was conducted using commercially pasteurized skim milk with the pH adjusted to 6.7 (control), 6.3, 5.9, or 5.5 at 15°C until a volume concentration factor of 5 was reached. Effects of pH adjustment on selected physico-chemical properties (Ca content, particle size, ζ-potential) and functionalities (solubility, heat stability, emulsification capacity, and stability) of MPC were determined. Lowering the feed pH solubilized colloidal calcium phosphate that substantially contributed to modifying the properties of casein. This caused a reduction in the particle size while increasing the net negative charge. The structural modifications in proteins were manifested in the Fourier transform infrared spectra. Subsequent concentration did not induce any further protein structural changes. Such modifications to the casein micelles and colloidal calcium phosphate negatively affected the solubility and heat stability of the corresponding MPC powders. However, the emulsion activity index improved only until the pH of the feed was lowered to 5.9 and declined when pH was dropped to 5.5, followed with the loss of stability. Readjusting the pH of MPC powder dispersions to 6.7 restored their surface properties and thereby their functionality. Lowering the feed pH also negatively affected the membrane performance by clogging the membrane pores and lowering the flux, particularly at pH 5.5. Adjusting pH to 5.9 produced MPC with optimum emulsifying properties with minimal influence on membrane performance.

  2. Proteomic analysis of cow, yak, buffalo, goat and camel milk whey proteins: quantitative differential expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongxin; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Lingyun

    2013-04-05

    To aid in unraveling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the whey proteome in cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. This analysis is the first to produce proteomic data for the milk from the above-mentioned animal species: 211 proteins have been identified and 113 proteins have been categorized according to molecular function, cellular components, and biological processes based on gene ontology annotation. The results of principal component analysis showed significant differences in proteomic patterns among goat, camel, cow, buffalo, and yak milk. Furthermore, 177 differentially expressed proteins were submitted to advanced hierarchical clustering. The resulting clustering pattern included three major sample clusters: (1) cow, buffalo, and yak milk; (2) goat, cow, buffalo, and yak milk; and (3) camel milk. Certain proteins were chosen as characterization traits for a given species: whey acidic protein and quinone oxidoreductase for camel milk, biglycan for goat milk, uncharacterized protein (Accession Number: F1MK50 ) for yak milk, clusterin for buffalo milk, and primary amine oxidase for cow milk. These results help reveal the quantitative milk whey proteome pattern for analyzed species. This provides information for evaluating adulteration of specific specie milk and may provide potential directions for application of specific milk protein production based on physiological differences among animal species.

  3. Rapid and sensitive detection of the food allergen glycinin in powdered milk using a lateral flow colloidal gold immunoassay strip test.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Deng, Ruiguang; Zhang, Gaiping; Li, Qingmei; Yang, Jifei; Sun, Yaning; Li, Zhixi; Hu, Xiaofei

    2015-03-04

    A rapid immunochromatographic lateral flow test strip in a sandwich format was developed with the colloidal gold-labeled mouse antiglycinin monoclonal antibody (mAb) and rabbit antiglycinin polyclonal antibody (pAb) to specifically identify glycinin, a soybean allergen. The test strip is composed of a sample pad, a conjugate reagent pad, an absorbent pad, and a test membrane containing a control line and a test line. This test strip has high sensitivity, and results can be obtained within 10 min without sophisticated procedures. The limit of detection (LOD) of the test strip was calculated to be 0.69 mg/kg using an optical density scanner that measures relative optical density. The assay showed high specificity for glycinin, with no cross-reactions with other soybean proteins or other food allergens. The recoveries of the lateral flow test strip in detecting glycinin in powdered milk samples ranged between 80.5 and 89.9% with relative standard deviations of less than 5.29% (intra-assay) and 6.72% (interassay). Therefore, the test strip is useful as a quantitative, semiquantitative, or qualitative detection method for glycinin in powdered milk. In addition, the test strip can be used to detect glycinin in other processed foods and may be a valuable tool in identifying effective approaches for reducing the impact of glycinin.

  4. Comparison of soymilk, powdered milk, Hank's balanced salt solution and tap water on periodontal ligament cell survival.

    PubMed

    Moazami, Fariborz; Mirhadi, Hosein; Geramizadeh, Bita; Sahebi, Safoura

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of soymilk, powdered milk, and Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) to maintain human periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability in vitro. PDL cells were obtained from extracted healthy third molars and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagles medium (DMEM). The cultures were exposed for 1, 2, 4, and 8 h to experimental solutions (tap water served as negative control and DMEM as positive control) at 37°C. The viable cells were then counted using the trypan blue exclusion technique. Data were analyzed by using one-way anova, post hoc Scheffe and two-way anova test. Statistical analysis showed that HBSS, powdered baby formula, and soymilk maintain cell viability equally well in different periods of times. Tap water cannot keep cells viable as well as other solutions. Soymilk and powdered baby formula can be recommended as suitable storage media for avulsed teeth for up to 8 h.

  5. Partial calcium depletion during membrane filtration affects gelation of reconstituted milk protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Eshpari, H; Jimenez-Flores, R; Tong, P S; Corredig, M

    2015-12-01

    Milk protein concentrate powders (MPC) with improved rehydration properties are often manufactured using processing steps, such as acidification and high-pressure processing, and with addition of other ingredients, such as sodium chloride, during their production. These steps are known to increase the amount of serum caseins or modify the mineral equilibrium, hence improving solubility of the retentates. The processing functionality of the micelles may be affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of partial acidification by adding glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) to skim milk during membrane filtration on the structural changes of the casein micelles by observing their chymosin-induced coagulation behavior, as such coagulation is affected by both the supramolecular structure of the caseins and calcium equilibrium. Milk protein concentrates were prepared by preacidification with GDL to pH 6 using ultrafiltration (UF) and diafiltration (DF) followed by spray-drying. Reconstituted UF and DF samples (3.2% protein) treated with GDL showed significantly increased amounts of soluble calcium and nonsedimentable caseins compared with their respective controls, as measured by ion chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE electrophoresis, respectively. The primary phase of chymosin-induced gelation was not significantly different between treatments as measured by the amount of caseino-macropeptide released. The rheological properties of the reconstituted MPC powders were determined immediately after addition of chymosin, both before and after dialysis against skim milk, to ensure similar serum composition for all samples. Reconstituted samples before dialysis showed no gelation (defined as tan δ=1), and after re-equilibration only control UF and DF samples showed gelation. The gelation properties of reconstituted MPC powders were negatively affected by the presence of soluble casein, and positively affected by the amount of both soluble and insoluble

  6. Circulating antibodies to cow's milk proteins in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, D. P.; Truelove, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    Sera from patients with ulcerative colitis (51), Crohn's disease (30), hypolactasia (13), untreated adult coeliac disease (11), irritable colon syndrome (24), and sera from 38 healthy control subjects were tested for antibodies to the principal cow's milk proteins—casein, α-lactalbumin, and β-lactoglobulin. The red-cell-linked antigen-antiglobulin reaction was used to determine the titres of direct agglutinating antibodies and IgA and IgG incomplete antibodies. Apart from patients with coeliac disease, direct agglutinating antibodies were found infrequently and then in low titres. Approximately 50% of subjects had low titres of IgA and IgG antibodies. However, the titres found in sera from patients with ulcerative colitis did not differ from those found in the control subjects or in patients with Crohn's disease, hypolactasia, or irritable colon syndrome. Patients with untreated coeliac disease frequently had high antibody titres to the milk proteins. In all subjects tested, incomplete antibodies of IgA or IgG immunoglobulin class occurred with equal frequency. The frequent occurrence in adults of low titres of antibodies to the milk proteins may be due to continued absorption of minute amounts of protein. Absorption of allergens may be facilitated by mucosal damage, such as that of coeliac disease, with stimulation of antibody production. At the present time, however, there is little evidence to suggest that milk allergy is a factor in the aetiology of ulcerative colitis. PMID:5087069

  7. Identification of lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins in porcine milk

    PubMed Central

    Shahriar, Farshid; Gordon, John R.; Simko, Elemir

    2006-01-01

    Septicemia and endotoxemia initiated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are relatively common in suckling and weaned piglets. Maternal milk is a source of both nutrition and immune protection for piglets. Passive transfer of colostral antibodies is necessary for protection of neonatal piglets against diseases, but the concentration of immunoglobulins in milk rapidly declines during the 1st wk of lactation in all mammals. We hypothesized, therefore, that nonimmunoglobulin substances in milk contribute to the innate protection of neonates against septicemia during the suckling period. Using LPS-affinity chromatography for isolation of LPS-binding proteins and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry for their identification, we identified in porcine milk the following proteins with LPS-binding capacity: lactoferrin, soluble CD14, serum amyloid A, α-S1 casein, β-casein, and κ-casein. For lactoferrin, α-S1 casein, and κ-casein, in vitro pepsin digestion did not inhibit LPS-binding activity, whereas combined digestion with pepsin and pancreatin abolished it. The biologic functions of these LPS-binding proteins and peptides were not determined. PMID:17042375

  8. Deciphering the genetic blueprint behind Holstein milk proteins and production.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Taeheon; Son, Jun Kyu; Yoon, Ho-Baek; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Jeong, Jin Young; Cho, Yong-Min; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Lim, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Kwanghyeon; Kim, Tae-Hun; Kwon, Eung Gi; Nam, Jungrye; Kwak, Woori; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2014-05-14

    Holstein is known to provide higher milk yields than most other cattle breeds, and the dominant position of Holstein today is the result of various selection pressures. Holstein cattle have undergone intensive selection for milk production in recent decades, which has left genome-wide footprints of domestication. To further characterize the bovine genome, we performed whole-genome resequencing analysis of 10 Holstein and 11 Hanwoo cattle to identify regions containing genes as outliers in Holstein, including CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN3, and KIT whose products are likely involved in the yield and proteins of milk and their distinctive black-and-white markings. In addition, genes indicative of positive selection were associated with cardiovascular disease, which is related to simultaneous propagation of genetic defects, also known as inbreeding depression in Holstein.

  9. Evaluation of a rapid protein analyzer for determination of protein in milk and cream.

    PubMed

    Amamcharla, J K; Metzger, L E

    2010-08-01

    Accurate and rapid measurement of the protein content of milk is important from both a product quality and an economic standpoint. The Sprint rapid protein analyzer (CEM Corporation, Matthews, NC) is a commercial system based on a dye-binding technique and can be used for rapid measurement of protein in foods. The objective of the present study was to compare the Sprint method with the reference method (Kjeldahl method). Milk and cream samples were analyzed in duplicate for true protein and crude protein (CP) using the reference method as well as the rapid method. Method comparison statistics (regression analysis, graphical representation, standard deviation of residuals, repeatability, and so on) were used to evaluate the agreement between the 2 methods. Regression coefficients and the intercepts were not significantly different from 1 and zero for CP measurement in milk and cream, respectively. The average coefficient of variance between the duplicate CP measurements for the Sprint method was found to be 0.40, 0.49, and 0.76 for milk, light cream, and heavy cream, respectively. True protein measurement in milk and cream also followed a similar trend. Overall, there exists a sufficient level of agreement between the Sprint rapid protein analyzer and Kjeldahl method for true protein and CP measurement of milk and cream samples.

  10. A 90-day safety study in Sprague-Dawley rats fed milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) derived from transgenic cloned cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cui; Wang, Jian Wu; Huang, Kun Lun; He, XiaoYun; Chen, Xiu Ping; Sun, Hong; Yu, Tian; Che, Hui Lian

    2011-10-01

    Transgenic cloned animals expressing beneficial human nutritional traits offer a new strategy for large-scale production of some kinds of functional substances. In some cases, the required safety testing for genetically modified (GM) foods do not seem appropriate for human food safety, though regulations do not seem to provide alternatives. A 90-day rat feeding study is the core study for the safety assessment of GM foods. The test material in this 90-day study was prepared nonfat milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF), which was expressed in transgenic cloned cattle. Groups of 10 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a nutritionally balanced purified diet containing 7.5, 15, or 30% transgenic or conventional milk powder for 90 days. A commercial AIN93G diet was used as an additional control group. Clinical, biological, and pathological parameters were compared between groups. The only significant effect of treatment was higher mean ferritin and Fe(+) concentrations for both male and female rats fed the transgenic milk powder diets, as compared to rats fed nontransgenic milk diets or the commercial diet. The results of the present study are consistent with previous research, which indicates that milk powder containing rhLF derived from healthy transgenic cloned cattle is as safe as conventional milk powder.

  11. The balance between caseins and whey proteins in cow's milk determines its allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Lara-Villoslada, F; Olivares, M; Xaus, J

    2005-05-01

    Cow's milk allergy is quite common in the first years of human life. Protein composition plays an important role in this pathology, particularly the casein/whey protein ratio. It is known that milks from different species have different sensitization capacities although their protein sources are quite similar. Thus, the objective of this work was to compare the allergenicity of native cow's milk and milk with a modified ratio of casein and whey proteins in a murine model of atopy. Twenty-four Balb/c mice were orally sensitized to native cow's milk or modified cow's milk with a casein/whey protein ratio of 40:60. During the sensitization period, the number of mice suffering from diarrhea was significantly higher in the native cow's milk-sensitized group than in the modified milk-sensitized group. Once mice were killed, plasma histamine levels were shown to be significantly higher in native cow's milk-sensitized mice. In addition, cow's milk proteins induced a higher lymphocyte sensitization in the native milk-sensitized mice, with a significant increase in the specific proliferation ratio of these cells. These results suggest that the balance between caseins and whey proteins plays an important role in the sensitization capacity of cow's milk, and its modification might be a way to reduce the allergenicity of cow's milk.

  12. In vivo digestomics of milk proteins in human milk and infant formula using a suckling rat pup model.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yasuaki; Phinney, Brett S; Weber, Darren; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-02-01

    Human milk is the optimal mode of infant feeding for the first several months of life, and infant formulas serve as an alternative when breast-feeding is not possible. Milk proteins have a balanced amino acid composition and some of them provide beneficial bioactivities in their intact forms. They also encrypt a variety of bioactive peptides, possibly contributing to infant health and growth. However, there is limited knowledge of how milk proteins are digested in the gastrointestinal tract and bioactive peptides are released in infants. A peptidomic analysis was conducted to identify peptides released from milk proteins in human milk and infant formula, using a suckling rat pup model. Among the major milk proteins targeted, α-lactalbumin and β-casein in human milk, and β-lactoglobulin and β-casein in infant formula were the main sources of peptides, and these peptides covered large parts of the parental proteins' sequences. Release of peptides was concentrated to specific regions, such as residues 70-92 of β-casein in human milk, residues 39-55 of β-lactoglobulin in infant formula, and residues 57-96 and 145-161 of β-CN in infant formula, where resistance to gastrointestinal digestion was suggested. In the context of bioactive peptides, release of fragments containing known bioactive peptides was confirmed, such as β-CN-derived opioid and antihypertensive peptides. It is therefore likely that these fragments are of biological significance in neonatal health and development.

  13. Disorder in milk proteins: caseins, intrinsically disordered colloids.

    PubMed

    Redwan, Elrashdy M; Xue, Bin; Almehdar, Hussein A; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    This article opens a series of reviews on the abundance and roles of intrinsic disorder in milk proteins. The focus of this introductory article on caseins is symbolic, since caseins were among the first recognized functional unfolded proteins and since they are definitely the most disordered, the most abundant, and the most studied of all milk proteins. In eutherian milks, the casein family includes at least three and usually four major members (αs1-, αs2-, β-, and κ-caseins) that are unrelated in sequence. However, in some species, two different αS2-casein genes are active, and therefore the total number of caseins can be as high as five. These proteins have found a number of uses in food industry. The functional repertoire of caseins ranges from nutritional function to involvement in the improving and/or maintaining cardiovascular health, to crucial contribution to the milk capacity to transport calcium phosphate, to serve as molecular chaperones, and to protect the mother's mammary gland against amyloidoses and ectopic calcification. An intricate feature of caseins is their ability to assemble to colloidal protein particles, casein micelles, serving to sequester and transport amorphous calcium phosphate. These and many other functions of caseins are obviously dependent on their intrinsically disordered nature and are controlled by various posttranslational modifications. Since various aspects of casein structure and function are rather well studied and since several recent reviews emphasized the functional roles of caseins' intrinsic disorder, the major goal of this article is to show how intrinsic disorder is encoded in the amino acid sequences of these proteins.

  14. Associations between individual cow factors and milk-protein production.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, J M; Martin, S W; Lissemore, K D; Leslie, K E; Gibson, J P; Scott, H M; Kelton, D F

    1998-02-06

    Associations between stage of lactation, cow characteristics, and protein production were evaluated using data from a 2-year period on 75 Ontario, 5 Alberta, and 3 Nova Scotia dairy farms. Individual-cow protein production was defined by 305-day protein yield and by the estimated breeding value for protein yield. Lactation curves for average daily protein yield were computed by parity, breed, and season of calving. Mean protein yield was highest in early lactation. However, there was no pronounced peak in daily protein yield. Parity was positively associated with 305-day protein yield and negatively associated with the estimated breeding values for protein yield. First-calf heifers had lower protein yields in early lactation and a slower rate of decline in protein yield in late lactation, as compared to later parity cows. Holstein cows had higher unadjusted protein yields and lower protein yields after adjusting for milk yield than other breeds. Holstein cows had significantly higher protein yields early in lactation compared to other breeds, but the rate of decline in protein production in late lactation was also greater. Season was associated with 305-day protein yield; the highest protein yields occurred in cows calving in the fall and winter months, but these cows had the greatest rate of decline in protein production in late lactation.

  15. Simulation of protonic fluctuations in hydrated protein powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Careri, Giorgio; Milotti, Edoardo

    2003-05-01

    Protons migrating on the surface of weakly hydrated protein powders provide a percolating mesoscopic system which exhibits charge fluctuations near room temperature. In this paper, we describe a simple numerical model where the statistical redistribution of protons on a space distribution of identical side chains lying on a spherical protein surface is varied by random ionization-recombination process to investigate the noise power spectrum of the fluctuating dipole moment, the ergodicity of this system, and the occurrence of localized or extended proton distributions. The case of lysozyme is considered to this end.

  16. Rapid non-invasive quality control of semi-finished products for the food industry by direct injection mass spectrometry headspace analysis: the case of milk powder, whey powder and anhydrous milk fat.

    PubMed

    Makhoul, Salim; Yener, Sine; Khomenko, Iuliia; Capozzi, Vittorio; Cappellin, Luca; Aprea, Eugenio; Scampicchio, Matteo; Gasperi, Flavia; Biasioli, Franco

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we demonstrated the suitability of direct injection mass spectrometry headspace analysis for rapid non-invasive quality control of semi-finished dairy ingredients, such as skim milk powder (SMP), whole milk powder (WMP), whey powder (WP) and anhydrous milk fat (AMF), which are widely used as ingredients in the food industry. In this work, for the first time, we applied proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) with a time-of-flight (ToF) analyzer for the rapid and non-invasive analysis of volatile compounds in different samples of SMP, WMP, WP and AMF. We selected different dairy ingredients in various concrete situations (e.g. same producer and different expiration times, different producers and same days of storage, different producers) based on their sensory evaluation. PTR-ToF-MS allowed the separation and characterization of different samples based on the volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles. Statistically significant differences in VOC content were generally coherent with differences in sensory evaluation, particularly for SMP, WMP and WP. The good separation of SMP samples from WMP samples suggested the possible application of PTR-ToF-MS to detect possible cases of adulteration of dairy ingredients for the food industry. Our findings demonstrate the efficient and rapid differentiation of dairy ingredients on the basis of the released VOCs via PTR-ToF-MS analysis and suggest this method as a versatile tool (1) for the facilitation/optimization of the selection of dairy ingredients in the food industry and (2) and for the prompt innovation in the production of dairy ingredients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Improvement of microwave-assisted digestion of milk powder with diluted nitric acid using oxygen as auxiliary reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzi, Cezar A.; Barin, Juliano S.; Garcia, Edivaldo E.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.; Dressler, Valderi L.; Flores, Erico M. M.

    2011-05-01

    The feasibility of using diluted HNO 3 solutions under oxygen pressure for decomposition of whole and non-fat milk powders and whey powder samples has been evaluated. Digestion efficiency was evaluated by determining the carbon content in solution (digests) and the determination of Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb and Zn was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and Hg by chemical vapor generation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Samples (up to 500 mg) were digested using HNO 3 solutions (1 to 14 mol L - 1 ) and the effect of oxygen pressure was evaluated between 2.5 and 20 bar. It was possible to perform the digestion of 500 mg of milk powder using 2 mol L - 1 HNO 3 with oxygen pressure ranging from 7.5 to 20 bar with resultant carbon content in digests lower than 1700 mg L - 1 . Using optimized conditions, less than 0.86 mL of concentrated nitric acid (14 mol L - 1 ) was enough to digest 500 mg of sample. The accuracy was evaluated by determination of metal concentrations in certified reference materials, which presented an agreement better than 95% (Student's t test, P < 0.05) for all the analytes.

  18. Milk-derived proteins and peptides in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Artym, Jolanta; Zimecki, Michał

    2013-08-06

    Clinical trials are reviewed, involving proteins and peptides derived from milk (predominantly bovine), with the exception of lactoferrin, which will be the subject of another article. The most explored milk fraction is α-lactalbumin (LA), which is often applied with glycomacropeptide (GMP) - a casein degradation product. These milk constituents are used in health-promoting infant and adult formulae as well as in a modified form (HAMLET) to treat cancer. Lactoperoxidase (LCP) is used as an additive to mouth hygiene products and as a salivary substitute. Casein derivatives are applied, in addition, in the dry mouth syndrome. On the other hand, casein hydrolysates, containing active tripeptides, found application in hypertension and in type 2 diabetes. Lysozyme is routinely used for food conservation and in pharmaceutical products. It was successfully used in premature infants with concomitant diseases to improve health parameters. When used as prophylaxis in patients with scheduled surgery, it significantly reduced the incidence of hepatitis resulting from blood transfusion. Lysozyme was also used in infected children as an antimicrobial agent showing synergistic effects in combination with different antibiotics. Proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) was introduced to therapy of Alzheimer's disease patients. The therapeutic value of PRP was proved in several clinical trials and supported by studies on its mechanism of action. Concentrated immunoglobulin preparations from colostrum and milk of hyperimmunized cows showed efficacy in prevention of infections by bacteria, viruses and protozoa. A nutrition formula with milk-derived TGF-β2 (Modulen IBD®) found application in treatment of pediatric Crohn's disease. In conclusion, the preparations containing milk-derived products are safe and effective measures in prevention and treatment of infections as well as autoimmune and neoplastic diseases.

  19. Prolactin receptor and signal transduction to milk protein genes

    SciTech Connect

    Djiane, J.; Daniel, N.; Bignon, C.

    1994-06-01

    After cloning of the mammary gland prolactin (PRL) receptor cDNA, a functional assay was established using co-transfection of PRL receptor cDNA together with a milk protein promoter/chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) construct in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Different mutants of the PRL receptor were tested in this CAT assay to delimit the domains in the receptor necessary for signal transduction to milk protein genes. In CHO cells stably transfected with PRL receptor cDNA, high numbers of PRL receptor are expressed. By metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation, expressed PRL receptor was identified as a single species of 100 kDa. Using these cells, we analyzed the effects of PRL on intracellular free Ca{sup ++} concentration. PRL stimulates Ca{sup ++} entry and induces secondary Ca{sup ++} mobilization. The entry of Ca{sup ++} is a result of an increase in K{sup +} conductance that hyperpolarizes the membranes. We have also analyzed tyrosine phosphorylation induced by PRL. In CHO cells stably transfected with PRL receptor cDNA, PRL induced a very rapid and transient tyrosine phosphorylation of a 100-kDa protein which is most probably the PRL receptor. The same finding was obtained in mammary membranes after PRL injection to lactating rabbits. Whereas tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and lavendustin were without effect, PRL stimulation of milk protein gene promoters was partially inhibited by 2 {mu}M herbimycin in CHO cells co-transfected with PRL receptor cDNA and the {Beta} lactoglobulin CAT construct. Taken together these observations indicate that the cytoplasmic domain of the PRL receptor interacts with one or several tyrosine kinases, which may represent early postreceptor events necessary for PRL signal transduction to milk protein genes. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Variation in the bovine FABP4 gene affects milk yield and milk protein content in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, H.; Cheng, L.; Azimu, W.; Hodge, S.; Edwards, G. R.; Hickford, J. G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) bind long-chain fatty acids and are involved in their intracellular transport. Of the known bovine FABP genes, FABP4 has been mapped to a region on chromosome 14 that contains quantitative trait loci for milk traits. This study investigated the association of FABP4 haplotypes with milk production traits in 719 Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cows. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis of a variable region of the gene revealed three haplotypes (A, B and C). Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified: two in exon 3 and three in intron 3. A was associated (P = 0.032) with increased milk protein percentage (present: 4.00 ± 0.02%; absent: 3.95 ± 0.02%) and B was associated (P = 0.009) with increased milk yield (present: 23.81 ± 0.23 kg/d; absent: 23.06 ± 0.21 kg/d), but tended to be associated with a decrease in protein percentage and an increase in protein yield. Cows with genotypes AA, AB and AC produced less milk, but with a higher protein percentage than BC cows. This suggest that FABP4 affects milk yield and milk protein content, both economically important traits, and that further study of this gene is warranted. PMID:26067182

  1. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Cameron J; McGregor, Robin A; D'Souza, Randall F; Thorstensen, Eric B; Markworth, James F; Fanning, Aaron C; Poppitt, Sally D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-10-21

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring (13)C₆ phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h(-1) in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p < 0.001) to 0.057% ± 0.018% and 0.052% ± 0.024% h(-1) in the milk and whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein.

  2. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; McGregor, Robin A.; D’Souza, Randall F.; Thorstensen, Eric B.; Markworth, James F.; Fanning, Aaron C.; Poppitt, Sally D.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring 13C6 phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p < 0.001) to 0.057% ± 0.018% and 0.052% ± 0.024% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein. PMID:26506377

  3. Multiresidue analysis of 30 organochlorine pesticides in milk and milk powder by gel permeation chromatography-solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guocan; Han, Chao; Liu, Yi; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Meiwen; Wang, Chengjun; Shen, Yan

    2014-10-01

    A method for simultaneous determination of the 30 organochlorine pesticides (OCP) in milk and milk powder samples has been developed. Prior to the gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis, the residual OCP in samples were extracted with n-hexane and acetone mixture (1/1, vol/vol) and cleaned up by gel permeation chromatography and solid phase extraction. Selected reaction monitoring mode was used for gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric data acquisition to identify and quantify the OCP. To avoid the matrix effects, matrix-matched calibration solutions ranging from 2 to 50 ng/mL were used to record the calibration curve. Limits of quantification of all OCP were 0.8 μg/kg. With the exception of endrin, limits of quantification are significantly lower than maximum residue limits set by the European Union and China. The average recoveries were in the range of 70.1 to 114.7% at 3 spiked concentration levels (0.8, 2.0, and 10.0 μg/kg) with residual standard deviation lower than 12.9%. The developed method was successfully applied to analyze the OCP in commercial milk products.

  4. Considerations in meeting protein needs of the human milk-fed preterm infant.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julie; Hanson, Corrine; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2014-08-01

    Preterm infants provided with sufficient nutrition to achieve intrauterine growth rates have the greatest potential for optimal neurodevelopment. Although human milk is the preferred feeding for preterm infants, unfortified human milk provides insufficient nutrition for the very low-birth-weight infant. Even after fortification with human milk fortifier, human milk often fails to meet the high protein needs of the smallest preterm infants, and additional protein supplementation must be provided. Although substantial evidence exists to support quantitative protein goals for human milk-fed preterm infants, the optimal type of protein for use in human milk fortification remains uncertain. This question was addressed through a PubMed literature search of prospective clinical trials conducted since 1990 in preterm or low-birth-weight infant populations. The following 3 different aspects of protein quality were evaluated: whey-to-casein ratio, hydrolyzed versus intact protein, and bovine milk protein versus human milk protein. Because of a scarcity of current studies conducted with fortified human milk, studies examining protein quality using preterm infant formulas were included to address certain components of the clinical question. Twenty-six studies were included in the review study. No definite advantage was found for any specific whey-to-casein ratio. Protein hydrolyzate products with appropriate formulations can support adequate growth and biochemical indicators of nutrition status and may reduce gastrointestinal transit time, gastroesophageal reflux events, and later incidence of atopic dermatitis in some infants. Plasma amino acid levels similar to those of infants fed exclusive human milk-based diets can be achieved with products composed of a mixture of bovine proteins, peptides, and amino acids formulated to replicate the amino acid composition of human milk. Growth and biochemical indicators of nutrition status are similar for infants fed human milk

  5. Influence of processing on functionality of milk and dairy proteins.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Mary Ann; Udabage, Punsandani

    2007-01-01

    The inherent physical functionality of dairy ingredients makes them useful in a range of food applications. These functionalities include their solubility, water binding, viscosity, gelation, heat stability, renneting, foaming, and emulsifying properties. The suitability of dairy ingredients for an application can be further tailored by altering the structure of the proteins using appropriate processes. The processes discussed include physical modification (heat treatment, acidification, addition of mineral slats, homogenization, and shear), enzymatic modification (renneting, hydrolysis, and transglutamination), and chemical modification (use of chemical agents and the Maillard reaction). Emerging food processes (high pressure and ultrasound) are also discussed. The challenges for using dairy ingredients for the delivery of nutrients and bioactive components, while maintaining physical functionality, are also highlighted. There is a need for continued research into the fundamental aspects of milk proteins and their responses to various stresses for further differentiation of milk products and for the delivery of ingredients with consistent quality for target applications.

  6. Towards proteomic analysis of milk proteins in historical building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuckova, S.; Crhova, M.; Vankova, L.; Hnizda, A.; Hynek, R.; Kodicek, M.

    2009-07-01

    The addition of proteinaceous binders to mortars and plasters has a long tradition. The protein additions were identified in many sacral and secular historical buildings. For this method of peptide mass mapping, three model mortar samples with protein additives were prepared. These samples were analysed fresh (1-2 weeks old) and after 9 months of natural ageing. The optimal duration of tryptic cleavage (2 h) and the lowest amount of material needed for relevant analysis of fresh and weathered samples were found; the sufficient amounts of weathered and fresh mortars were set to 0.05 and 0.005 g. The list of main tryptic peptides coming from milk additives (bovine milk, curd, and whey), their relative intensities and theoretical amino acid sequences assignment is presented. Several sequences have been "de novo" confirmed by mass spectrometry.

  7. Determination of Dicyandiamide in Powdered Milk Using Direct Analysis in Real Time Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liya; Yong, Wei; Liu, Jiahui; Wang, Sai; Chen, Qilong; Guo, Tianyang; Zhang, Jichuan; Tan, Tianwei; Su, Haijia; Dong, Yiyang

    2015-08-01

    The direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization source coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS) system has the capability to desorb analytes directly from samples without sample cleanup or chromatographic separation. In this work, a method based on DART/Q-TOF MS/MS has been developed for rapid identification of dicyandiamide (DCD) present in powdered milk. Simple sample extraction procedure employing acetonitrile-water (80:20, v/v) mixture was followed by direct, high-throughput determination of sample extracts spread on a steel mesh of the transmission module by mass spectrometry under ambient conditions. The method has been evaluated for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of DCD in powdered milk. Variables including experimental apparatus, DART gas heater temperature, sample presentation speed, and vacuum pressure were investigated. The quantitative method was validated with respect to linearity, sensitivity, repeatability, precision, and accuracy by using external standards. After optimization of these parameters, a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 μg kg-1 was obtained for DCD with a linear working range from 100 to 10000 μg kg-1 and a satisfactory correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9997. Good recovery (80.08%-106.47%) and repeatability (RSD = 3.0%-5.4%) were achieved for DCD. The DART/Q-TOF MS/MS-based method provides a rapid, efficient, and powerful scheme to analyze DCD in powdered milk with limited sample preparation, thus reducing time and complexity of quality control.

  8. Determination of Dicyandiamide in Powdered Milk Using Direct Analysis in Real Time Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liya; Yong, Wei; Liu, Jiahui; Wang, Sai; Chen, Qilong; Guo, Tianyang; Zhang, Jichuan; Tan, Tianwei; Su, Haijia; Dong, Yiyang

    2015-08-01

    The direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization source coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS) system has the capability to desorb analytes directly from samples without sample cleanup or chromatographic separation. In this work, a method based on DART/Q-TOF MS/MS has been developed for rapid identification of dicyandiamide (DCD) present in powdered milk. Simple sample extraction procedure employing acetonitrile-water (80:20, v/v) mixture was followed by direct, high-throughput determination of sample extracts spread on a steel mesh of the transmission module by mass spectrometry under ambient conditions. The method has been evaluated for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of DCD in powdered milk. Variables including experimental apparatus, DART gas heater temperature, sample presentation speed, and vacuum pressure were investigated. The quantitative method was validated with respect to linearity, sensitivity, repeatability, precision, and accuracy by using external standards. After optimization of these parameters, a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 μg kg(-1) was obtained for DCD with a linear working range from 100 to 10000 μg kg(-1) and a satisfactory correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.9997. Good recovery (80.08%-106.47%) and repeatability (RSD = 3.0%-5.4%) were achieved for DCD. The DART/Q-TOF MS/MS-based method provides a rapid, efficient, and powerful scheme to analyze DCD in powdered milk with limited sample preparation, thus reducing time and complexity of quality control.

  9. Cow's milk protein allergy in children: a practical guide.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Baldi, Francesco; Bendandi, Barbara; Calzone, Luigi; Marani, Miris; Pasquinelli, Pamela

    2010-01-15

    A joint study group on cow's milk allergy was convened by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Allergy and by the Emilia-Romagna Working Group for Paediatric Gastroenterology to focus best practice for diagnosis, management and follow-up of cow's milk allergy in children and to offer a common approach for allergologists, gastroenterologists, general paediatricians and primary care physicians.The report prepared by the study group was discussed by members of Working Groups who met three times in Italy. This guide is the result of a consensus reached in the following areas. Cow's milk allergy should be suspected in children who have immediate symptoms such as acute urticaria/angioedema, wheezing, rhinitis, dry cough, vomiting, laryngeal edema, acute asthma with severe respiratory distress, anaphylaxis. Late reactions due to cow's milk allergy are atopic dermatitis, chronic diarrhoea, blood in the stools, iron deficiency anaemia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, constipation, chronic vomiting, colic, poor growth (food refusal), enterocolitis syndrome, protein-losing enteropathy with hypoalbuminemia, eosinophilic oesophagogastroenteropathy. An overview of acceptable means for diagnosis is included. According to symptoms and infant diet, three different algorithms for diagnosis and follow-up have been suggested.

  10. The Future of Milk Protein Texturization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion processing and texturization of soy and other vegetable proteins developed in the 1970’s paved the way for the benefits the food industry is reaping now in their ability to deliver multi-functional products such as meat and seafood analogues. Our work at the USDA Agricultural Research Ser...

  11. Spore test parameters matter: Mesophilic and thermophilic spore counts detected in raw milk and dairy powders differ significantly by test method.

    PubMed

    Kent, D J; Chauhan, K; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M; Martin, N H

    2016-07-01

    United States dairy industry exports have steadily risen in importance over the last 10yr, with dairy powders playing a particularly critical role. Currently, approximately half of US-produced nonfat dry milk and skim milk powder is exported. Reaching new and expanding existing export markets relies in part on the control of endospore-forming bacteria in dairy powders. This study reports baseline mesophilic and thermophilic spore counts and spore populations from 55 raw material samples (primarily raw milk) and 33 dairy powder samples from dairy powder processors across the United States. Samples were evaluated using various spore testing methodologies and included initial heat treatments of (1) 80°C for 12 min; (2) 100°C for 30 min; and (3) 106°C for 30 min. Results indicate that significant differences in both the level and population of spores were found for both raw milk and dairy powders with the various testing methods. Additionally, on average, spore counts were not found to increase significantly from the beginning to the end of dairy powder processing, most likely related to the absence of biofilm formation by processing plant-associated sporeformers (e.g., Anoxybacillus sp.) in the facilities sampled. Finally, in agreement with other studies, Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent sporeformer in both raw materials and dairy powders, highlighting the importance of this organism in developing strategies for control and reduction of spore counts in dairy powders. Overall, this study emphasizes the need for standardization of spore enumeration methodologies in the dairy powder industry.

  12. Whey protein/polysaccharide-stabilized oil powders for topical application-release and transdermal delivery of salicylic acid from oil powders compared to redispersed powders.

    PubMed

    Kotzé, Magdalena; Otto, Anja; Jordaan, Anine; du Plessis, Jeanetta

    2015-08-01

    Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions are commonly converted into solid-like powders in order to improve their physical and chemical stabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether whey protein/polysaccharide-stabilized o/w emulsions could be converted into stable oil powders by means of freeze-drying. Moreover, during this study, the effects of pH and polymer type on release and trans(dermal) delivery of salicylic acid, a model drug, from these oil powders were investigated and compared to those of the respective template emulsions and redispersed oil powders. Physical characterization of the various formulations was performed, such as droplet size analysis and oil leakage, and relationships drawn with regards to release and trans(dermal) delivery. The experimental outcomes revealed that the oil powders could be redispersed in water without changing the release characteristics of salicylic acid. pH and polymer type affected the release of salicylic acid from the oil powders, template emulsions, and redispersed powders similarly. Contrary, the transdermal delivery from the oil powders and from their respective redispersed oil powders was differently affected by pH and polymer type. It was hypothesized that the release had been influenced by the electrostatic interactions between salicylic acid and emulsifiers, whereas the transdermal performance could have been determined by the particle or aggregate sizes of the formulations.

  13. Identification of goat milk powder by manufacturer using multiple chemical parameters.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Rebecca J; Prosser, Colin G; Wakefield, Joshua W

    2016-02-01

    Concentrations of multiple elements and ratios of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were measured and combined to create a chemical fingerprint of production batches of goat whole milk powder (WMP) produced by different manufacturers. Our objectives were to determine whether or not differences exist in the chemical fingerprint among samples of goat WMP produced at different sites, and assess temporal changes in the chemical fingerprint in product manufactured at one site. In total, 58 samples of goat WMP were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as well as isotope ratio mass spectrometry and a suite of 13 elements (Li, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cs, and Ba), δ(13)C, and δ(15)N selected to create the chemical fingerprint. Differences in the chemical fingerprint of samples between sites and over time were assessed using principal components analysis and canonical analysis of principal coordinates. Differences in the chemical fingerprints of samples between production sites provided a classification success rate (leave-one-out classification) of 98.1%, providing a basis for using the approach to test the authenticity of product manufactured at a site. Within one site, the chemical fingerprint of samples produced at the beginning of the production season differed from those produced in the middle and late season, driven predominantly by lower concentrations of Na, Mg, K, Mn, and Rb, and higher concentrations of Ba and Cu. This observed temporal variability highlights the importance of obtaining samples from throughout the season to ensure a representative chemical fingerprint is obtained for goat WMP from a single manufacturing site. The reconstitution and spray drying of samples from one manufacturer by the other manufacturer enabled the relative influence of the manufacturing process on the chemical fingerprint to be examined. It was found that such reprocessing altered the chemical fingerprint, although the degree of alteration

  14. Diagnosis and clinical observation of lactose-free milk powder on treatment of neonatal diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingyan; Chang, Jing; Yao, Aimei; Hu, Yulian; Yuan, Yuxiao; Yu, Fengqin; Ma, Zhanmin; Wang, Guangzhou; Zhao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal lactose intolerance syndrome is a series of digestive system symptoms caused by the lack of lactase, and could not fully digest the lactose in breast milk or cow milk. Lactose is one of the disaccharides mainly existed in mammalian milk. Lactose content in breast milk is 7.2g/100ml, cow milk is 4.7g/100ml. Dairy products are the main energy sources for the newborn, and lactose provides 20% energy for infants. During the growth of the newborn, lactose not only play a significant role in energy supply, but also involve in the development of the brain growing. This study mainly studied the lactose development features, the reasons for lactose intolerance, and the measures to treat lactose deficiency.

  15. Bioactive Proteins in Human Milk-Potential Benefits for Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-03-01

    Human milk contains many bioactive proteins that are likely to be involved in the better outcomes of breast-fed infants compared with those fed infant formula. Bovine milk proteins or protein fractions may be able to provide some of these benefits and may, therefore, be used for preterm infants. Recombinant human milk proteins are likely to exert bioactivities similar to those of the native human milk proteins, but considerable research is needed before they can be used in routine care of preterm infants.

  16. [Intensity of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidative modification of goat and cow milk].

    PubMed

    Vysokogorskiĭ, V E; Gavrilova, N B; Arkhipenko, Iu A

    2014-01-01

    Indices of free-radical peroxidation have been estimated: intensity of lipid per- oxidation and protein oxidative modification of goat and cow milk of specific breeds of forest-steppe zone of Omsk region. The obtained results indicate that processes of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidative destruction in goat and cow milk of different breeds occur with different gradation. The content of carbonile derivatives in goat milk of Saan breed 1.4 (0.95; 1.5) u/ml was lower than in cow's milk of black-and-white breed 4.6 (1.1; 6.0) u/ml (p = 0.005) what could be caused by large content of protein thiol groups of this kind of milk and lower quantity of amino acid residues that are available for carbonylation. This kind of milk is characterized by higher SH-group content than cow milk for 31% and Switzerland goat milk for 20% (p = 0.005). The content of cetodiens and attached triens in isopropanol phase of the lipid extract of goat milk of Swiss breed is lower by 30% than in cow milk. In isopropanol phase of the milk lipid extracts contain- ing phospholipids the level of Schiff grounding did not differ. The results obtained prove that goat milk contain less protein subjected to oxidative modification.

  17. Fourier transform infared spectroscopy investigation of protein conformation in spray-dried protein/trehalose powders.

    PubMed

    French, Donna L; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Li, Tiansheng

    2004-03-01

    Spray drying is a way to generate protein solids (powders), which is also true for lyophilization. Sugars are used to protect proteins from conformational changes and chemical degradations arising from drying processes and storage conditions such as the humidity. The influence of trehalose and humidity on the conformation and hydration of spray-dried recombinant human granolucyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) and recombinant consensus interferon-alpha (rConIFN) was investigated using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy. The spectral analysis of spray-dried powders in the amide I region demonstrated that trehalose stabilized the alpha-helical conformation of both rhG-CSF and rConIFN proteins. Exposure of the pure protein powders to 33% relative humidity (RH) resulted in the formation of beta sheets and loss of turns but no change in alpha-helical structure. Trehalose reduced the magnitude of the changes in beta sheets and turns. Exposure of the pure protein powders to 75% RH resulted in the loss of alpha-helical conformation with a corresponding increase in beta structures (beta sheets and turns). Trehalose did not protect proteins from the loss of alpha-helical structures, but it reduced the formation of antiparallel beta sheets. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange (H-D exchange) was used to further characterize these hydration-induced conformational changes. At 33% RH the percent exchange of the protein decreased with increasing trehalose content, indicating a greater protection of the protein from H-D exchange by a higher concentration of trehalose. Such protection correlates with decreased conformational changes of the protein by trehalose at this humidity. At 75% RH the degree of H-D exchange of the protein was insensitive to the powder composition in all powders. Surprisingly, the H-D exchange of trehalose was low at about 20-25%, which was nearly independent of the protein/trehalose ratio and humidity, indicating that the exchangeable protons on trehalose

  18. Analysis of volatile compounds in powdered milk for infant nutrition by direct desorption (CIS4-TDU) and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Francesca, Ieri; Patrizia, Pinelli; Luca, Calamai; Federico, Marotta; Annalisa, Romani

    2015-08-15

    Direct thermal desorption coupled with the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (TDU-CIS4-GC-MS) technique applied to powdered milk was used as a novel approach for the characterization and quantification, as relative abundance, of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The aim of this study was to exploit the potential applications and setup conditions of the CIS4-TDU-GC-MS technique for the identification of oxidized or non-oxidized samples of powdered milk for infant nutrition, subjected to accelerated aging through the changes in their VOCs profile over time. Thermal desorption at 30°C and subsequent cryotrapping at -40°C with a Gerstel Liner-in-Liner system allowed a direct thermal desorption and cryotrapping of VOCs without any memory effect, thus avoiding sample preparation and contamination. The analyses led to the identification of several characteristic off-flavors in the oxidized samples, which were used as molecular markers to discriminate samples with different oxidation degrees. Finally, VOC contaminants possibly present in the packaging can also be identified with this technique.

  19. Associations between milk protein concentration at various stages of lactation and reproductive performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Morton, J M; Auldist, M J; Douglas, M L; Macmillan, K L

    2016-12-01

    Milk protein concentration has been positively associated with a range of measures of reproductive performance in dairy cows. These beneficial associations are most likely due to factors affecting both milk protein concentration and reproductive performance possibly being mediated, in part, by energy balance during early lactation. However, it is likely that factors other than energy balance are also involved in these relationships. A retrospective single cohort study was conducted using subsets of data collected from 74 dairy herds with seasonal or split calving patterns. Associations between milk protein concentration at various stages of lactation and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows were assessed using random effects logistic regression and survival analysis with milk protein concentration during the cow's breeding period fitted as a time-varying covariate. The beneficial associations between milk protein concentration and each of the 4 selected indices for measuring reproductive performance were evident when milk protein concentration was derived for each 30-d period from calving up to 300d in milk. For the first 150d of lactation the adjusted odds ratios were highest from 31 to 60d and only slightly lower for all periods up to 150d of lactation. Estimated associations for 31 to 60d were stronger than for 0 to 30d. In addition, milk protein concentration during a cow's breeding period was positively associated with the subsequent daily hazard of conception, even after adjusting for milk protein concentration in the cow's first or second month of lactation. Milk protein concentrations from 0 to 30d of lactation were less closely correlated with concentrations measured at subsequent 30-d intervals; correlations were closer between other periods in lactation. These results indicate that the association between milk protein concentration and reproductive performance is partly due to factors other than the extent of negative energy balance in early

  20. [Quantitative determination of the protein content of milk by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. 3. Determination of proteins in preserved milk samples].

    PubMed

    Reichardt, W; Schüler, E; Sieber, L; Schüler, E

    1987-01-01

    It is reported upon the results of the quantitative estimation of protein content from preserved milk by means of ultraviolet spectrophotometry. In addition to the preservation by boric acid, bronopol, copper sulphate, potassium dichromate and ammonium peroxodisulphate storage at temperatures below 0 degrees C and freeze drying were tested. Besides bronopol and copper sulphate especially physical preservation methods proves fit for the protein estimation by measurements of absorbance at 210 nm, 235 and 280 nm or 210 and 220 nm. It is recommended to use solutions and filters of quartz with evaluated absorbance in daily calibrating of the spectrophotometer.

  1. Differential digestion of human milk proteins in a simulated stomach model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Cundiff, Judy K; Maria, Sarah D; McMahon, Robert J; Wickham, Martin S J; Faulks, Richard M; van Tol, Eric A F

    2014-02-07

    A key element in understanding how human milk proteins support the health and development of the neonate is to understand how individual proteins are affected during digestion. In the present study, a dynamic gastric model was used to simulate infant gastric digestion of human milk, and a subsequent proteomic approach was applied to study the behavior of individual proteins. A total of 413 human milk proteins were quantified in this study. This approach demonstrated a high degree of variability in the susceptibility of human milk proteins to gastric digestion. Specifically this study reports that lipoproteins are among the class of slowly digested proteins during gastric processes. The levels of integral lysozyme C and partial lactadherin in milk whey increase over digestion. Mucins, ribonuclease 4, and macrophage mannose receptor 1 are also resistant to gastric digestion. The retention or enhancement in whey protein abundance can be ascribed to the digestive release of milk-fat-globule-membrane or immune-cell enclosed proteins that are not initially accessible in milk. Immunoglobulins are more resistant to digestion compared to total milk proteins, and within the immunoglobulin class IgA and IgM are more resistant to digestion compared to IgG. The gastric digestion of milk proteins becomes more apparent from this study.

  2. Determination of total fat in milk- and soy-based infant formula powder by supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    LaCroix, Denis E; Wolf, Wayne R

    2003-01-01

    Commercially available simple benchtop systems using CO2 supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) eliminate expensive organic solvent disposal problems and offer potential to meet a demand for rapid, accurate high-volume gravimetric determinations of total fat content of infant formula powders. A Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) approach was used to evaluate the performance characteristics of instrumental SFE extraction for determination of total gravimetric fat in infant formula. The established DQOs included the following: ACCURACY: Correct values were obtained for a suitable reference material, SRM 1846 Infant Formula [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD]. RUGGEDNESS: Variables were defined as (1) extraction time (35 min optimum); (2) ratio of sample size to diatomaceous earth support material (1 g sample/2 g support); (3) ratio of distilled water to alcohol (50% isopropanol optimum for both milk- and soy-based infant formula samples); (4) extraction flow rate was 3-3.5 mL/min optimum. PRECISION: Relative standard deviations of multiple determinations fell within the Horwitz limits of acceptability of < or = 2.8% at the level of analyte determined (0.34-2.5% obtained). SCOPE OF APPLICABILITY: Includes milk- and soy-based infant formula powders. Research data were obtained by use of a commercially available fat analyzer. Samples of the SRM, 2 commercial milk-based and 3 commercial soy-based infant formula products were distributed to 2 additional collaborating laboratories. Very good agreement was obtained among the submitting and collaborating laboratories for these samples. The use of clearly defined DQOs to establish method performance characteristics, along with the commercially available reference material, provided the mechanism for verification and validation of analytical methodology.

  3. Simultaneous Measurement of Zinc, Copper, Lead and Cadmium in Baby Weaning Food and Powder Milk by DPASV.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abdolazim; Behzad, Masoomeh; Norouzi, Narges; Oveisi, Morvarid; Jannat, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Apart from the breast milk, infant formula and baby weaning food have a special role in infant diet. Infants and young children are very susceptible to amount of trace elements. Copper and zinc are two elements that add in infant food. Lead and cadmium are heavy metals that enter to food chain unavoidably. DPASV is a benefit and applicable method for measurement of trace elements in food products. In this study, concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in four brands of baby food (rice and wheat based) and powder milk was analyzed with DPASV and polarograph set. Total Mean ± SE of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in baby foods (n = 240) were 11.86 ± 1.474 mg/100g, 508.197 ± 83.154 μg/100g, 0.445 ± 0.006, 0.050 ± 0.005 mg/Kg respectively. Also these amount in powder milk (n = 240) were 3.621± 0.529 mg/100g, 403.822 ± 133.953 μg/100g, 0.007 ± 0.003, 0.060 ± 0.040 mg/Kg respectively. Zinc level in baby food type I was higher than lablled value (P = 0.030), but in other brands was not difference. Concentration of copper in all of samples was in labeled range (P > 0.05). In each four products, level of lead and cadmium were lower than the standard limit (P < 0.05). Amount of zinc and lead in baby food I, had difference versus other products. Concentration of zinc, camium in baby food type I, was higher than type II (P = 0.043, 0.001 respectively). Concentration of lead and cadmium in baby food type II, was higher than infant formulas, but are in standard limit.

  4. Multi-residue determination of 115 veterinary drugs and pharmaceutical residues in milk powder, butter, fish tissue and eggs using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dasenaki, Marilena E; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2015-06-23

    A simple and sensitive multi-residue method for the determination of 115 veterinary drugs and pharmaceuticals, belonging in more than 20 different classes, in butter, milk powder, egg and fish tissue has been developed. The method involves a simple generic solid-liquid extraction step (solvent extraction, SE) with 0.1% formic acid in aqueous solution of EDTA 0.1% (w/v)-acetonitrile (ACN)-methanol (MeOH) (1:1:1, v/v) with additional ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Precipitation of lipids and proteins was promoted by subjecting the extracts at very low temperature (-23°C) for 12h. Further cleanup with hexane ensures fat removal from the matrix. Analysis was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Two separate runs were performed for positive and negative ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Particular attention was devoted to extraction optimization: different sample-to-extracting volume ratios, different concentrations of formic acid in the extraction solvent and different ultrasonic extraction temperatures were tested in butter, egg and milk powder samples. The method was also applied in fish tissue samples. It was validated, on the basis of international guidelines, for all four matrices. Quantitative analysis was performed by means of standard addition calibration. For over 80% of the analytes, the recoveries were between 50% and 120% in all matrices studied, with RSD values in the range of 1-18%. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.008 μg kg(-1) (oxfendazole in butter) to 3.15 μg kg(-1) (hydrochlorthiazide in egg). The evaluated method provides reliable screening, quantification, and identification of 115 veterinary drug and pharmaceutical residues in foods of animal origin and has been successfully applied in real samples.

  5. Milk yield and milk composition responses to change in predicted net energy and metabolizable protein: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Daniel, J B; Friggens, N C; Chapoutot, P; Van Laar, H; Sauvant, D

    2016-12-01

    Using a meta-analysis of literature data, this study aimed to quantify the dry matter (DM) intake response to changes in diet composition, and milk responses (yield, milk component yields and milk composition) to changes in dietary net energy for lactation (NEL) and metabolizable protein (MP) in dairy cows. From all studies included in the database, 282 experiments (825 treatments) with experimentally induced changes in either NEL or MP content were kept for this analysis. These treatments covered a wide range of diet characteristics and therefore a large part of the plausible NEL and MP contents and supplies that can be expected in practical situations. The average MP and NEL contents were, respectively (mean±SD), 97±12 g/kg DM and 6.71±0.42 MJ/kg DM. On a daily supply basis, there were high between-experiment correlations for MP and NEL above maintenance. Therefore, supplies of MP and NEL above maintenance were, respectively, centred on MP supply for which MP efficiency into milk protein is 0.67, and NEL above maintenance supply for which the ratio of NEL milk/NEL above maintenance is 1.00 (centred variables were called MP67 and NEL100). The majority of the selected studies used groups of multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows in mid lactation, milked twice a day. Using a mixed model, between- and within-experiment variation was split to estimate DM intake and milk responses. The use of NEL100 and MP67 supplies substantially improved the accuracy of the prediction of milk yield and milk component yields responses with, on average, a 27% lower root mean square error (RMSE) relative to using dietary NEL and MP contents as predictors. For milk composition (g/kg), the average RMSE was only 3% lower on a supply basis compared with a concentration basis. Effects of NEL and MP supplies on milk yield and milk component yields responses were additive. Increasing NEL supply increases energy partitioning towards body reserve, whereas increasing MP supply increases the

  6. Molybdenum disulfide nanosheets coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite for highly sensitive determination of chloramphenicol in food samples milk, honey and powdered milk.

    PubMed

    Govindasamy, Mani; Chen, Shen-Ming; Mani, Veerappan; Devasenathipathy, Rajkumar; Umamaheswari, Rajaji; Joseph Santhanaraj, K; Sathiyan, Anandaraj

    2017-01-01

    We have described a hybrid material that consists of molybdenum disulfide nanosheets (MoS2) coated on functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) for sensitive and selective determination of chloramphenicol (CAP). The MoS2/f-MWCNTs nanocomposite was successfully prepared through a hydrothermal process and its structure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The MoS2/f-MWCNTs nanocomposite holds excellent electrochemical properties and it displays excellent electrocatalytic ability to CAP. Under optimized working conditions, the nanocomposite film modified electrode responds linearly to CAP in the concentration range of 0.08-1392μM. The detection limit was obtained as 0.015μM (±0.003). The electrode has high level of selectivity in presence of large excess concentrations of interfering species. In addition, the modified electrode offers satisfactory repeatability, reproducibility and stability. The practical applicability of the electrode was demonstrated in food samples such as, milk, powdered milk and honey samples and the recoveries are agreeable which clearly revealed its practical feasibility in food analysis.

  7. Effects of Whey, Caseinate, or Milk Protein Ingestion on Muscle Protein Synthesis after Exercise.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Atsushi; Nakayama, Kyosuke; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Nagata, Masashi; Ikegami, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-03

    Whey protein (WP) is characterized as a "fast" protein and caseinate (CA) as a "slow" protein according to their digestion and absorption rates. We hypothesized that co-ingestion of milk proteins (WP and CA) may be effective for prolonging the muscle protein synthesis response compared to either protein alone. We therefore compared the effect of ingesting milk protein (MP) to either WP or CA alone on muscle protein synthesis after exercise in rats. We also compared the effects of these milk-derived proteins to a control, soy protein (SP). Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for two hours. Immediately after exercise, one of the following four solutions was administered: WP, CA, MP, or SP. Individual rats were euthanized at designated postprandial time points and triceps muscle samples collected for measurement of the protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR). FSR tended to increase in all groups post-ingestion, although the initial peaks of FSR occurred at different times (WP, peak time = 60 min, FSR = 7.76%/day; MP, peak time = 90 min, FSR = 8.34%/day; CA, peak time = 120 min, FSR = 7.85%/day). Milk-derived proteins caused significantly greater increases (p < 0.05) in FSR compared with SP at different times (WP, 60 min; MP, 90 and 120 min; CA, 120 min). Although statistical analysis could not be performed, the calculated the area under the curve (AUC) values for FSR following this trend were: MP, 534.61; CA, 498.22; WP, 473.46; and SP, 406.18. We conclude that ingestion of MP, CA or WP causes the initial peak time in muscle protein synthesis to occur at different times (WP, fast; MP, intermediate; CA, slow) and the dairy proteins have a superior effect on muscle protein synthesis after exercise compared with SP.

  8. Effects of Whey, Caseinate, or Milk Protein Ingestion on Muscle Protein Synthesis after Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Atsushi; Nakayama, Kyosuke; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Nagata, Masashi; Ikegami, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein (WP) is characterized as a “fast” protein and caseinate (CA) as a “slow” protein according to their digestion and absorption rates. We hypothesized that co-ingestion of milk proteins (WP and CA) may be effective for prolonging the muscle protein synthesis response compared to either protein alone. We therefore compared the effect of ingesting milk protein (MP) to either WP or CA alone on muscle protein synthesis after exercise in rats. We also compared the effects of these milk-derived proteins to a control, soy protein (SP). Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for two hours. Immediately after exercise, one of the following four solutions was administered: WP, CA, MP, or SP. Individual rats were euthanized at designated postprandial time points and triceps muscle samples collected for measurement of the protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR). FSR tended to increase in all groups post-ingestion, although the initial peaks of FSR occurred at different times (WP, peak time = 60 min, FSR = 7.76%/day; MP, peak time = 90 min, FSR = 8.34%/day; CA, peak time = 120 min, FSR = 7.85%/day). Milk-derived proteins caused significantly greater increases (p < 0.05) in FSR compared with SP at different times (WP, 60 min; MP, 90 and 120 min; CA, 120 min). Although statistical analysis could not be performed, the calculated the area under the curve (AUC) values for FSR following this trend were: MP, 534.61; CA, 498.22; WP, 473.46; and SP, 406.18. We conclude that ingestion of MP, CA or WP causes the initial peak time in muscle protein synthesis to occur at different times (WP, fast; MP, intermediate; CA, slow) and the dairy proteins have a superior effect on muscle protein synthesis after exercise compared with SP. PMID:27271661

  9. Proteomic characterization of human milk whey proteins during a twelve-month lactation period.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yalin; Alvarado, Rudy; Phinney, Brett; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2011-04-01

    Human milk is a rich source of bioactive proteins that support the early growth and development of the newborn. Although the major components of the protein fraction in human milk have been studied, the expression and relative abundance of minor components have received limited attention. We examined the expression of low-abundance proteins in the whey fraction of human milk and their dynamic changes over a twelve-month lactation period. The low-abundance proteins were enriched by ProteoMiner beads, and protein identification was performed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred and fifteen proteins were identified, thirty-eight of which have not been previously reported in human colostrum or milk. We also for the first time described differences in protein patterns among the low-abundance proteins during lactation. These results enhance our knowledge about the complexity of the human milk proteome, which constitutes part of the advantages to the breast-fed infant.

  10. Effect of microparticulated whey proteins on milk coagulation properties.

    PubMed

    Sturaro, A; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M; Varotto, A; De Marchi, M

    2014-11-01

    The enhancement of milk coagulation properties (MCP) and the reuse of whey produced by the dairy industry are of great interest to improve the efficiency of the cheese-making process. Native whey proteins (WP) can be aggregated and denatured to obtain colloidal microparticulated WP (MWP). The objective of this study was to assess the effect of MWP on MCP; namely, rennet coagulation time (RCT), curd-firming time, and curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition. Six concentrations of MWP (vol/vol; 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 9.0%) were added to 3 bulk milk samples (collected and analyzed during 3 d), and a sample without MWP was used as control. Within each day of analysis, 6 replicates of MCP for each treatment were obtained, changing the position of the treatment in the rack. For control samples, 2 replicates per day were performed. In addition to MCP, WP fractions were measured on each treatment during the 3 d of analysis. Milk coagulation properties were measured on 144 samples by using a Formagraph (Foss Electric, Hillerød, Denmark). Increasing the amount of MWP added to milk led to a longer RCT. In particular, significant differences were found between RCT of the control samples (13.5 min) and RCT of samples with 3.0% (14.6 min) or more MWP. A similar trend was observed for curd-firming time, which was shortest in the control samples and longest in samples with 9.0% MWP (21.4 min). No significant differences were detected for curd firmness at 30 min across concentrations of MWP. Adjustments in cheese processing should be made when recycling MWP, in particular during the coagulation process, by prolonging the time of rennet activity before cutting the curd.

  11. [Therapeutic properties of proteins and peptides from colostrum and milk].

    PubMed

    Zimecki, Michał; Artym, Jolanta

    2005-01-01

    Colostrum and milk are rich in proteins and peptides which play a crucial role in innate immunity when transferred to the offspring and may accelerate maturation of the immune system in neonates. The immunotropic properties of these proteins prompted investigators research their potential application in prevention and therapy. Lactoferrin (LF) exhibits antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitice, and antitumoral activities. It is protective with regard to intestinal epithelium, promotes bone growth, and accelerates the recovery of immune system function in immunocompromised animals. LF was tried in the treatment of hepatitis C infection and the intestinal form of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). A proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) demonstrated a variety of immunotropic functions, including the promotion of T-cell maturation and inhibition of autoimmune disorders. PRP, in the form of chewable tablets (Colostrinin) was recently found to improve or stabilize the health status of Alzheimer's disease patients. Casein and casein-derived peptides showed protective activities in enamel demineralization and as caries-preventing agents. The protein hydrolyzates were also protective in diabetic animals, reduced tumor growth, had antihypertensive activity and diminished colicky symptoms in infants. Glycomacropeptide (GMP), a peptide derived from kappa-casein, exhibited various antibacterial and antithrombotic activities. Alpha-lactalbumin (LA) demonstrated antiviral, antitumoral and anti-stress properties. LA-enriched diets were anxiolytic, lowered blood pressure in rats, prevented diarrhea, and led to a better weight gain in malnourished children. HAMLET, a complex of LA and oleic acid, was effective in patients with cutaneous papillomas. Lysozyme found application in infant formulas, the treatment of periodentitis, and the prevention of tooth decay. Milk enriched in lysozyme was used in feeding premature infants suffering from concomitant diseases. Interesting

  12. The aggregation behavior and interactions of yak milk protein under thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, T T; Guo, Z W; Liu, Z P; Feng, Q Y; Wang, X L; Tian, Q; Ren, F Z; Mao, X Y

    2016-08-01

    The aggregation behavior and interactions of yak milk protein were investigated after heat treatments. Skim yak milk was heated at temperatures in the range of 65 to 95°C for 10 min. The results showed that the whey proteins in yak milk were denatured after heat treatment, especially at temperatures higher than 85°C. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE analysis indicated that heat treatment induced milk protein denaturation accompanied with aggregation to a certain extent. When the heating temperature was 75 and 85°C, the aggregation behavior of yak milk proteins was almost completely due to the formation of disulfide bonds, whereas denatured α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin interacted with κ-casein. When yak milk was heated at 85 and 95°C, other noncovalent interactions were found between proteins including hydrophobic interactions. The particle size distributions and microstructures demonstrated that the heat stability of yak milk proteins was significantly lowered by heat treatment. When yak milk was heated at 65 and 75°C, no obvious changes were found in the particle size distribution and microstructures in yak milk. When the temperature was 85 and 95°C, the particle size distribution shifted to larger size trend and aggregates were visible in the heated yak milk.

  13. Combining proteomic tools to characterize the protein fraction of llama (Lama glama) milk.

    PubMed

    Saadaoui, Besma; Bianchi, Leonardo; Henry, Céline; Miranda, Guy; Martin, Patrice; Cebo, Christelle

    2014-05-01

    Llamas belong to the Camelidae family along with camels. While dromedary camel milk has been broadly characterized, data on llama milk proteins are scarce. The objective of this study was thus to investigate the protein composition of llama milk. Skimmed llama milk proteins were first characterized by a 2D separation technique coupling RP-HPLC in the first dimension with SDS-PAGE in the second dimension (RP-HPLC/SDS-PAGE). Llama milk proteins, namely caseins (αs1 -, αs2 -, β-, and κ-caseins), α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, and serum albumin, were identified using PMF. Llama milk proteins were also characterized by online LC-ESI-MS analysis. This approach allowed attributing precise molecular masses for most of the previously MS-identified llama milk proteins. Interestingly, α-lactalbumin exhibits distinct chromatographic behaviors between llama and dromedary camel milk. De novo sequencing of the llama α-lactalbumin protein by LC coupled with MS/MS (LC-MS/MS) showed the occurrence of two amino acid substitutions (R62L/I and K89L/I) that partly explained the higher hydrophobicity of llama α-lactalbumin compared with its dromedary counterpart. Taken together, these results provide for the first time a thorough description of the protein fraction of Lama glama milk.

  14. Interaction of milk whey protein with common phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Dandan; Sun, Jing; Guo, Huiyuan; Ding, Qingbo; Liu, Ruihai; Ren, Fazheng

    2014-01-01

    Phenolics-rich foods such as fruit juices and coffee are often consumed with milk. In this study, the interactions of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin with the phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and coumalic acid) were examined. Fluorescence, CD, and FTIR spectroscopies were used to analyze the binding modes, binding constants, and the effects of complexation on the conformation of whey protein. The results showed that binding constants of each whey protein-phenolic acid interaction ranged from 4 × 105 to 7 × 106 M-n and the number of binding sites n ranged from 1.28 ± 0.13 to 1.54 ± 0.34. Because of these interactions, the conformation of whey protein was altered, with a significant reduction in the amount of α-helix and an increase in the amounts of β-sheet and turn structures.

  15. Comparison of the principal proteins in bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Katharina; O'Connor, Paula M; Huppertz, Thom; Ross, R Paul; Kelly, Alan L

    2012-05-01

    Proteomic analysis of bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk highlighted significant interspecies differences. Camel milk was found to be devoid of β-lactoglobulin, whereas β-lactoglobulin was the major whey protein in bovine, buffalo, caprine, and equine milk. Five different isoforms of κ-casein were found in camel milk, analogous to the micro-heterogeneity observed for bovine κ-casein. Several spots observed in 2D-electrophoretograms of milk of all species could tentatively be identified as polypeptides arising from the enzymatic hydrolysis of caseins. The understanding gained from the proteomic comparison of these milks may be of relevance both in terms of identifying sources of hypoallergenic alternatives to bovine milk and detection of adulteration of milk samples and products.

  16. Detection and quantitation of pea and soy-derived proteins in calf milk replacers.

    PubMed

    Schoonderwoerd, M; Misra, V

    1989-01-01

    Preruminant calves on several farms had diarrhea nonresponsive to treatment and were doing poorly, despite being fed a high quality calf milk replacer. Because these reconstituted milk replacers always had a sediment, they were suspected of containing insoluble nonmilk-derived proteins. Microscopic examination of the milk replacer, however, did not show any evidence of starch granules. We therefore analyzed the samples by SDS PAGE. We were able to identify and quantitate pea protein in calf milk replacers in which all the protein was supposedly milk-derived. We were also able to differentiate polypeptides derived from pea and soy. We concluded that PAGE is a sensitive technique for detecting nonmilk-derived proteins in calf milk replacers.

  17. Invited review: milk protein polymorphisms in cattle: effect on animal breeding and human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Caroli, A M; Chessa, S; Erhardt, G J

    2009-11-01

    The 6 main milk proteins in cattle are encoded by highly polymorphic genes characterized by several nonsynonymous and synonymous mutations, with up to 47 protein variants identified. Such an extensive variation was used for linkage analysis with the description of the casein cluster more than 30 yr ago and has been applied to animal breeding for several years. Casein haplotype effects on productive traits have been investigated considering information on the whole casein complex. Moreover, mutations within the noncoding sequences have been shown to affect the specific protein expression and, as a consequence, milk composition and cheesemaking. Milk protein variants are also a useful tool for breed characterization, diversity, and phylogenetic studies. In addition, they are involved in various aspects of human nutrition. First, the occurrence of alleles associated with a reduced content of different caseins might be exploited for the production of milk with particular nutritional qualities; that is, hypoallergenic milk. On the other hand, the frequency of these alleles can be decreased by selection of sires using simple DNA tests, thereby increasing the casein content in milk used for cheesemaking. Furthermore, the biological activity of peptides released from milk protein digestion can be affected by amino acid exchanges or deletions resulting from gene mutations. Finally, the gene-culture coevolution between cattle milk protein genes and human lactase genes, which has been recently highlighted, is impressive proof of the nonrandom occurrence of milk protein genetic variation over the centuries.

  18. Effect of mechanical denaturation on surface free energy of protein powders.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Mohammad Amin; Grimsey, Ian M; Forbes, Robert T; Blagbrough, Ian S; Conway, Barbara R

    2016-10-01

    Globular proteins are important both as therapeutic agents and excipients. However, their fragile native conformations can be denatured during pharmaceutical processing, which leads to modification of the surface energy of their powders and hence their performance. Lyophilized powders of hen egg-white lysozyme and β-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae were used as models to study the effects of mechanical denaturation on the surface energies of basic and acidic protein powders, respectively. Their mechanical denaturation upon milling was confirmed by the absence of their thermal unfolding transition phases and by the changes in their secondary and tertiary structures. Inverse gas chromatography detected differences between both unprocessed protein powders and the changes induced by their mechanical denaturation. The surfaces of the acidic and basic protein powders were relatively basic, however the surface acidity of β-galactosidase was higher than that of lysozyme. Also, the surface of β-galactosidase powder had a higher dispersive energy compared to lysozyme. The mechanical denaturation decreased the dispersive energy and the basicity of the surfaces of both protein powders. The amino acid composition and molecular conformation of the proteins explained the surface energy data measured by inverse gas chromatography. The biological activity of mechanically denatured protein powders can either be reversible (lysozyme) or irreversible (β-galactosidase) upon hydration. Our surface data can be exploited to understand and predict the performance of protein powders within pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  19. The composition and functional properties of whey protein concentrates produced from buttermilk are comparable with those of whey protein concentrates produced from skimmed milk.

    PubMed

    Svanborg, Sigrid; Johansen, Anne-Grethe; Abrahamsen, Roger K; Skeie, Siv B

    2015-09-01

    The demand for whey protein is increasing in the food industry. Traditionally, whey protein concentrates (WPC) and isolates are produced from cheese whey. At present, microfiltration (MF) enables the utilization of whey from skim milk (SM) through milk protein fractionation. This study demonstrates that buttermilk (BM) can be a potential source for the production of a WPC with a comparable composition and functional properties to a WPC obtained by MF of SM. Through the production of WPC powder and a casein- and phospholipid (PL)-rich fraction by the MF of BM, sweet BM may be used in a more optimal and economical way. Sweet cream BM from industrial churning was skimmed before MF with 0.2-µm ceramic membranes at 55 to 58°C. The fractionations of BM and SM were performed under the same conditions using the same process, and the whey protein fractions from BM and SM were concentrated by ultrafiltration and diafiltration. The ultrafiltration and diafiltration was performed at 50°C using pasteurized tap water and a membrane with a 20-kDa cut-off to retain as little lactose as possible in the final WPC powders. The ultrafiltrates were subsequently spray dried, and their functional properties and chemical compositions were compared. The amounts of whey protein and PL in the WPC powder from BM (BMWPC) were comparable to the amounts found in the WPC from SM (SMWPC); however, the composition of the PL classes differed. The BMWPC contained less total protein, casein, and lactose compared with SMWPC, as well as higher contents of fat and citric acid. No difference in protein solubility was observed at pH values of 4.6 and 7.0, and the overrun was the same for BMWPC and SMWPC; however, the BMWPC made less stable foam than SMWPC.

  20. Comparison of functional properties of 34% and 80% whey protein and milk serum protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Luck, P J; Vardhanabhuti, B; Yong, Y H; Laundon, T; Barbano, D M; Foegeding, E A

    2013-09-01

    This study compared the functional properties of serum protein concentrate (SPC) with whey protein concentrate (WPC) made from the same milk and with commercial WPC. The experimental SPC and WPC were produced at 34% or 80% protein from the same lot of milk. Protein contents of WPC and SPC were comparable; however, fat content was much lower in SPC compared with WPC and commercial WPC. The effect of drying methods (freeze vs. spray drying) was studied for 34% WPC and SPC. Few differences due to drying method were found in turbidity and gelation; however, drying method made a large difference in foam formation for WPC but not SPC. Between pH 3 and 7, SPC was found to have lower turbidity than WPC; however, protein solubility was similar between SPC and WPC. Foaming and gelation properties of SPC were better than those of WPC. Differences in functional properties may be explained by differences in composition and extent of denaturation or aggregation.

  1. [Analysis of Spirulina powder by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and calculation of protein content].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Jing; Xu, Chang-Hua; Li, Wei-Ming; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Qun; Li, An; Zhao, Yue-Liang; Ha, Yi-Ming; Sun, Su-Qin

    2013-04-01

    Spirulina, Spirulina powder and dextrin standard were analyzed and identified by Infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The main components, protein (1 657 and 1 537 cm(-1)) and carbohydrate (1 069 and 1054 cm(-1)), had distinct fingerprint characteristics of IR spectra. By comparing the IR spectra of Spirulina, Spirulina powder and dextrin standard, the dominant nutrition in Spirulina powder was identified as protein and carbohydrate. The dominant accessory added in Spirulina powder was dextrin. Comparing the IR spectra of Spirulina powder from 28 different factories and figuring out the correlation provides the information about the amount of accessory. A standard curve of the ratio of absorption peak intensities to protein content was constructed to accurately determine the amount of protein in Spirulina powder.

  2. Analysis of polymorphisms in milk proteins from cloned and sexually reproduced goats.

    PubMed

    Xing, H; Shao, B; Gu, Y Y; Yuan, Y G; Zhang, T; Zang, J; Cheng, Y

    2015-12-08

    This study evaluates the relationship between the genotype and milk protein components in goats. Milk samples were collected from cloned goats and normal white goats during different postpartum (or abortion) phases. Two cloned goats, originated from the same somatic line of goat mammary gland epithelial cells, and three sexually reproduced normal white goats with no genetic relationships were used as the control. The goats were phylogenetically analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The milk protein components were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that despite the genetic fingerprints being identical, the milk protein composition differed between the two cloned goats. The casein content of cloned goat C-50 was significantly higher than that of cloned goat C-4. Conversely, although the genetic fingerprints of the normal white goats N-1, N-2, and N-3 were not identical, the milk protein profiles did not differ significantly in their milk samples (obtained on postpartum day 15, 20, 25, 30, and 150). These results indicated an association between milk protein phenotypes and genetic polymorphisms, epigenetic regulation, and/or non-chromosomal factors. This study extends the knowledge of goat milk protein polymorphisms, and provides new strategies for the breeding of high milk-yielding goats.

  3. Cheese production using kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kanellaki, Maria

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of kefir culture entrapped in casein and in whey protein as starter cultures for the production of Feta-type cheese. Microbiological analysis showed that counts of enterobacteria, coliforms, and staphylococci were significantly reduced due to kefir culture. In addition, the effect of kefir culture on the formation of volatile compounds, such as esters, organic acids, alcohols, carbonyl compounds, and lactones, was also investigated using the SPME GC/MS technique. Cheese samples produced with kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins presented improved profile of aroma-related compounds. Principal component analysis of the results indicated that the volatile composition of the different cheese types was dependent on the nature of the starter culture. Finally, the sensory evaluation showed that the products produced with kefir culture had a soft, fine taste, and were of improved quality.

  4. Immunological studies in cows' milk protein-sensitive enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, M; Iyngkaran, N

    1981-01-01

    55 infants, aged between 1 and 13 months, who presented with persistent diarrhoea were placed on a diet free of cows' milk protein. The clinical condition of the infants improved and 6-8 weeks later each was challenged with low-lactose cows' milk. The following investigations were performed before and 24 hours after provocation: jejunal biopsy, serum and duodenal juice levels of complement C3 and C4, C3-activator, and immunoglobulins A, G, M, and D. Three groups were recognised on postchallenge clinical symptoms together with histological changes in the jejunal mucosa: group 1 (n=10 infants) with no clinical or mucosal abnormality, group 2 (n=18 infants) with mucosal abnormalities but lacking clinical symptoms, and group 3 (n=27 infants) with mucosal abnormalities and clinical symptoms; but in group 3 symptoms were delayed for over 24 hours in 7 infants, and in the remaining 20 infants symptoms appeared within 24 hours. After provocation the serum IgG levels were decreased in 3 infants in group 1, 12 in group 2, and 17 in group 3. The mean serum IgA and IgM levels were higher in group 1 compared with group 2 or 3; pre- and postchallenge mean serum immunoglobulin levels, complement, and complement activator levels were of equal magnitude in all three groups. A depletion of serum complement C3 level was observed in 4 (group 1), 4 (group 2), and 13 (group 3) infants 24 hours after provocation with cows' milk; the fall in serum IgG was often associated with depletion of complement in serum. This suggests the involvement in some infants of IgG-mediated complement-consuming immune reactions in the development of the damage in the intestinal mucosa. After challenge, exudation of IgG and IgA occurred irrespective of the presence or absence of mucosal damage and was not always associated with the decrease in serum IgG concentration. Because of the variable conditions present in the intestinal lumen it is suggested that the level of immunoglobulins in duodenal juice is not a

  5. Genotyping of present-day and historical Geobacillus species isolates from milk powders by high-resolution melt analysis of multiple variable-number tandem-repeat loci.

    PubMed

    Seale, R Brent; Dhakal, Rajat; Chauhan, Kanika; Craven, Heather M; Deeth, Hilton C; Pillidge, Christopher J; Powell, Ian B; Turner, Mark S

    2012-10-01

    Spores of thermophilic Geobacillus species are a common contaminant of milk powder worldwide due to their ability to form biofilms within processing plants. Genotyping methods can provide information regarding the source and monitoring of contamination. A new genotyping method was developed based on multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) in conjunction with high-resolution melt analysis (MLV-HRMA) and compared to the currently used method, randomized amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR). Four VNTR loci were identified and used to genotype 46 Geobacillus isolates obtained from retailed powder and samples from 2 different milk powder processing plants. These 46 isolates were differentiated into 16 different groups using MLV-HRMA (D = 0.89). In contrast, only 13 RAPD-PCR genotypes were identified among the 46 isolates (D = 0.79). This new method was then used to analyze 35 isolates obtained from powders with high spore counts (>10(4) spores · g(-1)) from a single processing plant together with 27 historical isolates obtained from powder samples processed in the same region of Australia 17 years ago. Results showed that three genotypes can coexist in a single processing run, while the same genotypes observed 17 years ago are present today. While certain genotypes could be responsible for powders with high spore counts, there was no correlation to specific genotypes being present in powder plants and retailed samples. In conclusion, the MLV-HRMA method is useful for genotyping Geobacillus spp. to provide insight into the prevalence and persistence of certain genotypes within milk powder processing plants.

  6. Novel methods to study the effect of protein content and dissolution temperature on the solubility of milk protein concentrate: Focused beam reflectance and ultrasonic flaw detector-based methods.

    PubMed

    Hauser, M; Amamcharla, J K

    2016-05-01

    Processing, storage, dissolution conditions, and the composition of milk protein concentrates (MPC) affect the solubility of high-protein dairy powders. Increasing the storage temperature and time decrease the solubility of MPC and milk protein isolates (MPI). The MPC and MPI are popular ingredients in high-protein food products and have a variety of protein contents. In addition, the dissolution temperature has been shown to affect the solubility of the powders. This study focused on determining how protein content and dissolution temperature affect the solubility of MPC and MPI. For this study, 11 powders were obtained from a commercial manufacturer. The powders were classified as A, B, C, and D, and they had a mean protein content of 85, 87, 88, and 90%, respectively. A 5% (wt/wt) concentration of powder was dissolved in water at 40 and 48°C. The solubility of the MPC and MPI samples were characterized using an ultrasonic flaw detector (UFD) and focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM). The UFD and FBRM data were collected every 15 and 10 s, respectively, for 1,800 s. At both dissolution temperatures, the UFD and FBRM data showed that the solubility decreased as the protein content increased. Powders A and B were found to be more soluble because they had a lower relative velocity standard deviation, high area under the attenuation curve, high peak height, and low peak time. With the FBRM, the fine and medium particle count decreased and large particle count increased as the protein content increased. Powders dissolved at 48°C typically had a lower relative velocity standard deviation, higher area under the attenuation curve, higher peak height, and lower peak time than the powders dissolved at 40°C. The FBRM showed that powders dissolved at 48°C reached a stable counts before the powders dissolved at 40°C. Overall, the study showed that increasing the protein content led to a reduction in solubility and increasing the dissolution temperature improved the

  7. Temporal and spatial distribution of Cronobacter isolates in a milk powder processing plant determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hein, Ingeborg; Gadzov, Boris; Schoder, Dagmar; Foissy, Helmut; Malorny, Burkhard; Wagner, Martin

    2009-03-01

    A milk powder processing line was sampled for the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and the opportunistic neonatal pathogen Cronobacter at six different sampling sites during an 11-month period. The highest number of Enterobacteriaceae-positive samples was recovered from the raw milk concentrate before pasteurization (78.2%) and from nonproduct samples of the processing line (86.5%), which included swabs from the drying tower and screw conveyers, swabs from the explosion chamber, waste water after the automated cleaning-in-place procedure, air filter cut-outs, and floor samples underneath the outlet of the packaging machine. The prepackaged and packaged final product was contaminated at a rate of 6.6% and 7.1%, respectively. The prevalence of Cronobacter in the prefinal product and the prepackaged and packaged final product was 14.3%, 3.8%, and 2.1%, respectively. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of 133 Cronobacter isolates yielded 40 different PFGE profiles. Long-term persistence in the processing line of some of these PFGE profiles was observed. Comparison of the PFGE profiles recovered at different sampling sites revealed the supply air as a potential source for extrinsic Cronobacter contamination. In addition, recovery of the same PFGE profiles before and after CIP events followed by heat treatment indicated the inefficiency of these hygiene measures to completely eliminate Cronobacter from all areas of the processing line. This information provides an essential basis for developing control and prevention strategies concerning this opportunistic pathogen.

  8. Effect of summer season on milk protein fractions in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Bernabucci, U; Basiricò, L; Morera, P; Dipasquale, D; Vitali, A; Piccioli Cappelli, F; Calamari, L

    2015-03-01

    Milk characteristics are affected by heat stress, but very little information is available on changes of milk protein fractions and their relationship with cheesemaking properties of milk. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of hot season on milk protein fractions and cheesemaking properties of milk for Grana Padano cheese production. The study was carried out in a dairy farm with a cheese factory for transforming the milk to Grana Padano cheese. The study was carried out from June 2012 to May 2013. Temperature and relative humidity of the inside barn were recorded daily during the study period using 8 electronic data loggers programmed to record every 30 min. Constant managerial conditions were maintained during the experimental periods. During the experimental period, feed and diet characteristics, milk yield, and milk characteristics were recorded in summer (from June 29 to July 27, 2012), winter (from January 25 to March 8, 2013), and spring (from May 17 to May 31, 2013). Milk yield was recorded and individual milk samples were taken from 25 cows selected in each season during the p.m. milking. Content of fat, proteins, caseins (CN), lactose and somatic cell count (SCC), titratable acidity, and milk rennet coagulation properties were determined on fresh samples. Milk protein fraction concentrations were determined by the sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. Data were tested for nonnormality by the Shapiro-Wilk test. In case of nonnormality, parameters were normalized by log or exponential transformation. The data were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA using a mixed model procedure. For all the main milk components (fat, protein, total solids, and solids-not-fat), the lowest values were observed in the summer and the greatest values were observed in the winter. Casein fractions, with the exception of γ-CN, showed the lowest values in the summer and the greatest values in the winter. The content of IgG and serum albumin was greater in summer

  9. Effects of enzymatic dephosphorylation on infant in vitro gastrointestinal digestibility of milk protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dasong; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Yun; Hu, Jinhua; Lu, Naiyan; Regenstein, Joe M; Wang, Miao; Zhou, Peng

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the effects of dephosphorylation extent on infant in vitro gastric clotting property and gastrointestinal digestibility of milk protein concentrate. Dephosphorylation was affected by phosphatase type and incubation pH. A series of milk protein concentrate with 0-69% dephosphorylation were obtained by incubation with calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase at pH 6.5 for 0-420 min. Both β- and αs1-caseins in the modified milk protein concentrate showed multiply dephosphorylated isoforms with different numbers of phosphate groups depending on the extent of dephosphorylation. With increased dephosphorylation of milk protein concentrate, the gastric clotting extent decreased and the gastrointestinal digestibility increased under infant in vitro conditions. These results suggested the potential of developing a dephosphorylated milk protein concentrate, with improved gastric clotting property and gastrointestinal digestibility, to simulate the multiply phosphorylated patterns of human casein and hence to further the humanization of infant formula on a molecular level.

  10. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of the human milk proteome: contribution of protein fractionation.

    PubMed

    Mangé, A; Bellet, V; Tuaillon, E; Van de Perre, P; Solassol, J

    2008-12-15

    In-depth analysis of the milk proteome by mass spectrometry is challenged by the presence of few high-abundance proteins that interfere with the detection of lower-abundance proteins. Here, we evaluated the proteomic analysis of milk samples following a strong anion exchange fractionation procedure using denaturating conditions ensuring the disruption of protein-protein interactions. Crude whey or skim milk and their different resulting fractions were analyzed by protein chip array mass spectrometry. Using protein chip array mass spectrometry, several high-abundance proteins were localized in distinct fractions increasing the total number of unique peptides and proteins detected. This total number increased by about 20-30% by combining different chromatographic surface arrays used for capture. Reproducible results were obtained in human skim milk and whey; however this approach was not successful with milk fat globule membrane and required refinement. Hence, milk profiling by anion exchange fractionation combined to protein chip array mass spectrometry represents a promising tool to detect unknown low-abundance milk proteins that may ultimately prove useful as biomarkers of diseases transmitted by breastfeeding.

  11. Milk protein profiles in response to Streptococcus agalactiae subclinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pongthaisong, Pongphol; Katawatin, Suporn; Thamrongyoswittayakul, Chaiyapas; Roytrakul, Sittiruk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the milk protein profiles of normal milk and those of milk during the course of subclinical mastitis, caused by natural Streptococcus agalactiae infection. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry were used to assess protein profiles and to identify the proteins. The results showed that S. agalactiae subclinical mastitis altered the protein profiles of milk. Following Mascot database matching, 11 and 12 protein types were identified in the milk collected from healthy and S. agalactiae subclinical mastitic udders, respectively. The distinct presence of the antibacterial protein cathelicidin-1 was detected in infected milk samples, which in turn was highly correlated to the severity of subclinical mastitis as represented by the milk somatic cell count (r = 0.616), but not the bacterial count. The protein profile of milk reveals changes in the host response to S. agalactiae intramammary infection; cathelicidin-1 could therefore serve as a biomarker for the detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows.

  12. Penetration depth measurement of near-infrared hyperspectral imaging light for milk powder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasingly common application of near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging technique to the analysis of food powders has led to the need for optical characterization of samples. This study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of quantifying penetration depth of NIR hyperspectral imaging ligh...

  13. Determination of Protein Content by NIR Spectroscopy in Protein Powder Mix Products.

    PubMed

    Ingle, Prashant D; Christian, Roney; Purohit, Piyush; Zarraga, Veronica; Handley, Erica; Freel, Keith; Abdo, Saleem

    2016-01-01

    Protein is a principal component in commonly used dietary supplements and health food products. The analysis of these products, within the consumer package form, is of critical importance for the purpose of ensuring quality and supporting label claims. A rapid test method was developed using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a compliment to current protein determination by the Dumas combustion method. The NIR method was found to be a rapid, low-cost, and green (no use of chemicals and reagents) complimentary technique. The protein powder samples analyzed in this study were in the range of 22-90% protein. The samples were prepared as mixtures of soy protein, whey protein, and silicon dioxide ingredients, which are common in commercially sold protein powder drink-mix products in the market. A NIR regression model was developed with 17 samples within the constituent range and was validated with 20 independent samples of known protein levels (85-88%). The results show that the NIR method is capable of predicting the protein content with a bias of ±2% and a maximum bias of 3% between NIR and the external Dumas method.

  14. Breast milk jaundice: in vitro inhibition of rat liver bilirubin-uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase activity and Z protein-bromosulfophthalein binding by human breast milk.

    PubMed

    Foliot, A; Ploussard, J P; Housset, E; Christoforov

    1976-06-01

    Twenty-four samples of breast milk from nine mothers of infants suffering from breast milk jaundice were studied. Eight samples of milk from mothers of nonjaundiced infants, along with five formula milks enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids, served as controls. Milks from mothers with jaundiced infants had no inhibitory effect when assayed immediately after thawing. However, after these milk samples were stores at 4 degrees, they strongly inhibited bilirubin conjugation (80.3% inhibition of uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UDPGT) activity) and bromosulfophthalein (BSP) binding to cytoplasmic Z protein (dye binding inhibited 82.1%). There was no effect on BSP binding to Y protein (see Table 1). Heating the milk to 56 degrees modified the results in the following manner; when the milk was heated immediately after thawing, no inhibitory effect was seen, even after storage for 96 hr. On the other hand, when the milk was first stored at 96 hr and then heated, it had the same inhibitory effects as the milks which were stored without heating. The present study shows that pathologic breast milk will inhibit BSP-Z protein binding only when stored under conditions that also cause the appearance of the capacity to inhibit bilirubin conjugation in vitro, as well as causing the liberation of nonesterified fatty acids. Thus, the appearance of this inhibitory capacity in vitro seems linked to the lipolytic activity particular to pathologic milks.

  15. Health-promoting properties of bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins in infant food: a review.

    PubMed

    Raikos, Vassilios; Dassios, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    Milk proteins have attracted extensive interest in terms of their bioavailability following ingestion. Enzymatic digestion of dairy products generates numerous peptides with various biological activities. Both human milk and infant formulas based on cow's milk are potential sources of bioactive peptides. This review aims to present current knowledge on the formation and fate of bioactive peptides from milk feeds intended for infants. Emphasis is placed on the source of the bioactive peptides with the nutritional impact of human milk and cow milk-based formulas on infant health being critically discussed from that perspective. Furthermore, the effect of processing and in vitro or in vivo digestion on the release and availability of peptides with bioactive sequences is evaluated. Considerable differences with respect to bioavailability and metabolic effects between the biologically active fragments generated following ingestion of human milk and infant formulas are documented. Peptides from milk protein of bovine origin could be a valuable supplement to human milk as multiple health-promoting properties are attributed to peptide fractions identified in standard cow milk-based infant formulas.

  16. Cooling causes changes in the distribution of lipoprotein lipase and milk fat globule membrane proteins between the skim milk and cream phase.

    PubMed

    Dickow, J A; Larsen, L B; Hammershøj, M; Wiking, L

    2011-02-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and free fatty acid levels were studied in freshly milked, uncooled milk from individual Danish Holstein or Jersey cows, or after storage for up to 24h at either a cooling temperature (4°C) or at the milking temperature (31°C). Upon cooling for up to 24h, LPL activity increased in the cream phase, whereas the activity in the skim milk was steady, as observed for Jersey cows, or increased, as seen for the Holsteins. Storage at 31°C decreased the LPL activity in both the cream phase and the skim milk phase. The increase in free fatty acid levels was found to depend on LPL activity, incubation temperature, substrate availability, and incubation time. Furthermore, the migration of milk proteins between the skim milk phase and the cream phase upon cooling of milk from Jersey cows or from Danish Holstein cows was studied using proteomic methods involving 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Proteins associated with the milk fat globules were isolated from all milk fractions and analyzed. Major changes in the distributions of proteins between the skim milk phase and the cream phase were observed after cooling at 4°C for 4h, where a total of 29 proteins between the 2 breeds was found to change their association with the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) significantly. Among these, the MFGM proteins adipophilin, fatty acid-binding protein, and lactadherin, as well as the non-MFGM proteins β-casein, lactoferrin, and heat shock protein-71, were identified. Adipophilin, lactadherin, and lactoferrin were quantitatively more associated with the MFGM upon cold storage at 4°C, whereas β-casein, fatty acid-binding protein, and heat shock protein-71 were found to be less associated with the MFGM upon cold storage.

  17. Changes in the surface protein of the fat globules during homogenization and heat treatment of concentrated milk.

    PubMed

    Ye, Aiqian; Anema, Skelte G; Singh, Harjinder

    2008-08-01

    The changes in milk fat globules and fat globule surface proteins of both low-preheated and high-preheated concentrated milks, which were homogenized at low or high pressure, were examined. The average fat globule size decreased with increasing homogenization pressure. The total surface protein (mg m-2) of concentrated milk increased after homogenization, the extent of the increase being dependent on the temperature and the pressure of homogenization, as well as on the preheat treatment. The concentrates obtained from high-preheated milks had higher surface protein concentration than the concentrates obtained from low-preheated milks after homogenization. Concentrated milks heat treated at 79 degrees C either before or after homogenization had greater amounts of fat globule surface protein than concentrated milks heat treated at 50 or 65 degrees C. This was attributed to the association of whey protein with the native MFGM (milk fat globule membrane) proteins and the adsorbed skim milk proteins. Also, at the same homogenization temperature and pressure, the amount of whey protein on the fat globule surface of the concentrated milk that was heated after homogenization was greater than that of the concentrated milk that was heated before homogenization. The amounts of the major native MFGM proteins did not change during homogenization, indicating that the skim milk proteins did not displace the native MFGM proteins but adsorbed on to the newly formed surface.

  18. [Powdered milk enriched with iron and ascorbic acid as an intervention measure for treating iron deficiency anemia in children seen at a Basic Health Care Unit].

    PubMed

    Torres, M A; Sato, K; Juliano, Y; Queiroz, S de S

    1996-06-01

    This study was undertaken to verify the influence of the use of iron and Vitamin C fortified powdered whole milk on the hemoglobin levels of 238 children, aged 6 to 18 months, seen at a Basic Health Care Unit in the State of São Paulo. The powdered milk was fortified with 9 mg of iron (ferrous sulfate) and 65 mg of Vitamin C for each 100 g of powder. 4 kg/month were distributed to children under one year and 2 kg/month to those over one year of age. Clinical, anthropometric and hematological (hemoglobin level measurements) evaluations were performed at the onset of the study and at three month intervals after the beginning of the supplementation. At the end of the trial, there was still enough milk available to extend the intervention for a group of 39 children who had presented the worst evolution in the first six months. At the onset of the study, 72.6% of the children presented anemia. After 3 and 6 months, these percentages had decreased to 38.9% and 18.5%, respectively. Among the children that were followed-up for 9 months, their were only 2.5% who presented anemia at the end of the intervention. The highest prevalences were found in the 6 to 12 months age group and the best results in the 10 to 18 month group. There was intrafamilial dilution of the milk in 30.7% of the cases. With or without intrafamilial milk sharing, there were significant decreases in anemia occurrences with no differences between the two groups. The use of fortified milk did not affect the children nutritional condition. This study permitted the conclusion that the fortification of foodstuffs, besides being the method of election for the prevention of iron deficiency, is an excellent alternative for the treatment of and recovery from iron deficient anemia in children under two years of age.

  19. Detection and characterisation of Complement protein activity in bovine milk by bactericidal sequestration assay.

    PubMed

    Maye, Susan; Stanton, Catherine; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Kelly, Philip M

    2015-08-01

    While the Complement protein system in human milk is well characterised, there is little information on its presence and activity in bovine milk. Complement forms part of the innate immune system, hence the importance of its contribution during milk ingestion to the overall defences of the neonate. A bactericidal sequestration assay, featuring a Complement sensitive strain, Escherichia coli 0111, originally used to characterise Complement activity in human milk was successfully applied to freshly drawn bovine milk samples, thus, providing an opportunity to compare Complement activities in both human and bovine milks. Although not identical in response, the levels of Complement activity in bovine milk were found to be closely comparable with that of human milk. Differential counts of Esch. coli 0111 after 2 h incubation were 6.20 and 6.06 log CFU/ml, for raw bovine and human milks, respectively - the lower value representing a stronger Complement response. Exposing bovine milk to a range of thermal treatments e.g. 42, 45, 65, 72, 85 or 95 °C for 10 min, progressively inhibited Complement activity by increasing temperature, thus confirming the heat labile nature of this immune protein system. Low level Complement activity was found, however, in 65 and 72 °C heat treated samples and in retailed pasteurised milk which highlights the outer limit to which high temperature, short time (HTST) industrial thermal processes should be applied if retention of activity is a priority. Concentration of Complement in the fat phase was evident following cream separation, and this was also reflected in the further loss of activity recorded in low fat variants of retailed pasteurised milk. Laboratory-based churning of the cream during simulated buttermaking generated an aqueous (buttermilk) phase with higher levels of Complement activity than the fat phase, thus pointing to a likely association with the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) layer.

  20. Melamine detection by mid- and near-infrared (MIR/NIR) spectroscopy: a quick and sensitive method for dairy products analysis including liquid milk, infant formula, and milk powder.

    PubMed

    Balabin, Roman M; Smirnov, Sergey V

    2011-07-15

    Melamine (2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine) is a nitrogen-rich chemical implicated in the pet and human food recalls and in the global food safety scares involving milk products. Due to the serious health concerns associated with melamine consumption and the extensive scope of affected products, rapid and sensitive methods to detect melamine's presence are essential. We propose the use of spectroscopy data-produced by near-infrared (near-IR/NIR) and mid-infrared (mid-IR/MIR) spectroscopies, in particular-for melamine detection in complex dairy matrixes. None of the up-to-date reported IR-based methods for melamine detection has unambiguously shown its wide applicability to different dairy products as well as limit of detection (LOD) below 1 ppm on independent sample set. It was found that infrared spectroscopy is an effective tool to detect melamine in dairy products, such as infant formula, milk powder, or liquid milk. ALOD below 1 ppm (0.76±0.11 ppm) can be reached if a correct spectrum preprocessing (pretreatment) technique and a correct multivariate (MDA) algorithm-partial least squares regression (PLS), polynomial PLS (Poly-PLS), artificial neural network (ANN), support vector regression (SVR), or least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM)-are used for spectrum analysis. The relationship between MIR/NIR spectrum of milk products and melamine content is nonlinear. Thus, nonlinear regression methods are needed to correctly predict the triazine-derivative content of milk products. It can be concluded that mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy can be regarded as a quick, sensitive, robust, and low-cost method for liquid milk, infant formula, and milk powder analysis.

  1. Effects of thermal treatments on donkey milk nutritional characteristics.

    PubMed

    Polidori, Paolo; Vincenzetti, Silvia

    2013-12-01

    Human breast milk is the best nutritional support to ensure right development and influence immune status of the newborn infant. However, when it is not possible to breast feed it may be necessary to use commercial infant formulas that mimic, where possible, the levels and types of nutrients present in human milk. Despite this, some formula-fed infants develop allergy and/or atopic disease compared to breast-fed infants. Most infants with cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) develop symptoms before 1 month of age, often within 1 week after introduction of cow's milk-based formula. Donkey milk may be considered a good substitute for cow's milk in feeding children with CMPA since its composition is very similar to human milk. An in-depth analysis of the donkey milk protein profile has been performed in this study. The interest was focused on the milk proteins considered safe for the prevention and treatment of various disorders in human. Since donkey milk supply is related to its seasonal availability during the year, in this study were evaluated the effects of different thermal treatments on the protein fractions of donkey milk. The results obtained in fresh, frozen, powdered and lyophilized donkey milk showed different values in total proteins, caseins, whey proteins and lysozyme content. This study demonstrated the possibility of using lyophilization in order to maintain the nutritional characteristics of donkey milk. The article presents some promising patents on the effects of thermal treatments on donkey milk nutritional characteristics.

  2. [Effect of proteins from bovine milk serum on the multiplication of human cancerous cells].

    PubMed

    Bourtourault, M; Buléon, R; Sampérez, S; Jouan, P

    1991-01-01

    The addition of bovine milk whey to the culture medium of human cancerous cells (MCF-7 and PC-3) results in a significant reduction of cells growth. Milk whey acts more efficiently on MCF-7 than on PC-3 growth. The inhibition could be due to a protein. Its identification is now on progress.

  3. Effects of temperature and supplementation with skim milk powder on microbial and proteolytic properties during storage of cottage cheese.

    PubMed

    Oh, Nam Su; Lee, Hyun Ah; Myung, Jae Hee; Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Shin, Yong Kook; Baick, Seung Chun

    2014-06-28

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of temperature and supplementation with skim milk powder (SMP) on the microbial and proteolytic properties during the storage of cottage cheese. Cottage cheese was manufactured using skim milk with 2% SMP and without SMP as the control, and then stored at 5°C or 12°C during 28 days. The chemical composition of the cottage cheese and the survival of the cheese microbiota containing starter lactic acid bacteria (SLAB) and non-starter culture lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) were evaluated. In addition, changes in the concentration of lactose and lactic acid were analyzed, and proteolysis was evaluated through the measurement of acid soluble nitrogen (ASN) and nonprotein nitrogen (NPN), as well as electrophoresis profile analysis. The counts of SLAB and NSLAB increased through the addition of SMP and with a higher storage temperature (12°C), which coincided with the results of the lactose decrease and lactic acid production. Collaborating with these microbial changes, of the end of storage for 28 days, the level of ASN in samples at 12°C was higher than those at 5°C. The NPN content was also progressively increased in all samples stored at 12°C. Taken together, the rate of SLAB and NSLAB proliferation during storage at 12°C was higher than at 5°C, and consequently it led to increased proteolysis in the cottage cheese during storage. However, it was relatively less affected by SMP fortification. These findings indicated that the storage temperature is the important factor for the quality of commercial cottage cheese.

  4. Bioavailability of milk protein-derived bioactive peptides: a glycaemic management perspective.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy; Drummond, Elaine; Brennan, Lorraine

    2016-06-01

    Milk protein-derived peptides have been reported to have potential benefits for reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, what the active components are and whether intact peptides exert this bioactivity has received little investigation in human subjects. Furthermore, potentially useful bioactive peptides can be limited by low bioavailability. Various peptides have been identified in the gastrointestinal tract and bloodstream after milk-protein ingestion, providing valuable insights into their potential bioavailability. However, these studies are currently limited and the structure and sequence of milk peptides exerting bioactivity for glycaemic management has received little investigation in human subjects. The present article reviews the bioavailability of milk protein-derived peptides in human studies to date, and examines the evidence on milk proteins and glycaemic management, including potential mechanisms of action. Areas in need of advancement are identified. Only by establishing the bioavailability of milk protein-derived peptides, the active components and the mechanistic pathways involved can the benefits of milk proteins for the prevention or management of type 2 diabetes be fully realised in future.

  5. Proteomic characterization of human milk fat globule membrane proteins during a 12 month lactation period.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yalin; Alvarado, Rudy; Phinney, Brett; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2011-08-05

    The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) contains proteins which have been implicated in a variety of health benefits. Milk fat globule membrane proteins were isolated from human milk during a 12 month lactation period and subjected to in-solution digestion and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Data were pooled, and our results showed that 191 proteins were identified. Relative quantification of the identified MFGM proteins during the course of lactation was performed by label free spectral counting and differentiation expression analysis, which showed some proteins decreasing during the course of lactation whereas some increased or remained at a relatively constant level. The human MFGM proteins are distributed between intracellular, extracellular, and membrane-associated proteins, and they are mainly involved in cell communication and signal transduction, immune function, metabolism and energy production. This study provides more insights into the dynamic composition of human MFGM proteins, which in turn will enhance our understanding of the physiological significance of MFGM proteins.

  6. Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins and their health beneficial potentials: an update.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Ravinder; Behare, Pradip; Rana, Rajiv; Kumar, Ashwani; Kumar, Manoj; Arora, Sanu; Morotta, Fransesco; Jain, Shalini; Yadav, Hariom

    2011-01-01

    It has been well recognized that dietary proteins provide a rich source of biologically active peptides. Today, milk proteins are considered the most important source of bioactive peptides and an increasing number of bioactive peptides have been identified in milk protein hydrolysates and fermented dairy products. Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins offer a promising approach for the promotion of health by means of a tailored diet and provide interesting opportunities to the dairy industry for expansion of its field of operation. The potential health benefits of milk protein-derived peptides have been a subject of growing commercial interest in the context of health-promoting functional foods. Hence, these peptides are being incorporated in the form of ingredients in functional and novel foods, dietary supplements and even pharmaceuticals with the purpose of delivering specific health benefits.

  7. Bioactive Proteins in Human Milk: Health, Nutrition, and Implications for Infant Formulas.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Breast milk confers many benefits to the newborn and developing infant. There is substantial support for better long-term outcomes, such as less obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, in breastfed compared with formula-fed infants. More short-term outcomes, such as incidence and duration of illness, nutrient status, and cognitive development during the first year of life also demonstrate benefits of breastfeeding. Several proteins in breast milk, including lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, milk fat globule membrane proteins, and osteopontin, have been shown to have bioactivities that range from involvement in the protection against infection to the acquisition of nutrients from breast milk. In some cases, bovine counterparts of these proteins exert similar bioactivities. It is possible by dairy technology to add protein fractions highly enriched in these proteins to infant formula.

  8. FT-Raman and chemometric tools for rapid determination of quality parameters in milk powder: Classification of samples for the presence of lactose and fraud detection by addition of maltodextrin.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Júnior, Paulo Henrique; de Sá Oliveira, Kamila; de Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Rocha; De Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Cappa; Stephani, Rodrigo; Pinto, Michele da Silva; de Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes; Perrone, Ítalo Tuler

    2016-04-01

    FT-Raman spectroscopy has been explored as a quick screening method to evaluate the presence of lactose and identify milk powder samples adulterated with maltodextrin (2.5-50% w/w). Raman measurements can easily differentiate samples of milk powder, without the need for sample preparation, while traditional quality control methods, including high performance liquid chromatography, are cumbersome and slow. FT-Raman spectra were obtained from samples of whole lactose and low-lactose milk powder, both without and with addition of maltodextrin. Differences were observed between the spectra involved in identifying samples with low lactose content, as well as adulterated samples. Exploratory data analysis using Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis was also developed to classify samples with PCA and PLS-DA. The PLS-DA models obtained allowed to correctly classify all samples. These results demonstrate the utility of FT-Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics to infer about the quality of milk powder.

  9. Characterization of near-infrared spectral variance in the authentication of skim and nonfat dry milk powder collection using ANOVA-PCA, pooled-ANOVA, and partial least-squares regression.

    PubMed

    Harnly, James M; Harrington, Peter B; Botros, Lucy L; Jablonski, Joseph; Chang, Claire; Bergana, Marti Mamula; Wehling, Paul; Downey, Gerard; Potts, Alan R; Moore, Jeffrey C

    2014-08-13

    Forty-one samples of skim milk powder (SMP) and nonfat dry milk (NFDM) from 8 suppliers, 13 production sites, and 3 processing temperatures were analyzed by NIR diffuse reflectance spectrometry over a period of 3 days. NIR reflectance spectra (1700-2500 nm) were converted to pseudoabsorbance and examined using (a) analysis of variance-principal component analysis (ANOVA-PCA), (b) pooled-ANOVA based on data submatrices, and (c) partial least-squares regression (PLSR) coupled with pooled-ANOVA. ANOVA-PCA score plots showed clear separation of the samples with respect to milk class (SMP or NFDM), day of analysis, production site, processing temperature, and individual samples. Pooled-ANOVA provided statistical levels of significance for the separation of the averages, some of which were many orders of magnitude below 10⁻³. PLSR showed that the correlation with Certificate of Analysis (COA) concentrations varied from a weak coefficient of determination (R²) of 0.32 for moisture to moderate R² values of 0.61 for fat and 0.78 for protein for this multinational study. In this study, pooled-ANOVA was applied for the first time to PLS modeling and demonstrated that even though the calibration models may not be precise, the contribution of the protein peaks in the NIR spectra accounted for the largest proportion of the variation despite the inherent imprecision of the COA values.

  10. Simultaneous Determination of 2- and 3-MCPD Esters in Infant Formula Milk Powder by Solid-Phase Extraction and GC-MS Analysis.

    PubMed

    2016-04-07

    The objective of this study was to establish a method for detecting fatty acid esters of chloropropanols [including 2-monochloropropane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD) ester and 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) ester] in infant milk powder using isotope dilution and GC-MS. The fat fraction in infant milk powder samples was extracted and treated with sodium methylate-methanol to cleave the ester bonds of the 2- and 3-MCPD esters. The resultant 2- and 3-MCPDs in the samples were purified with matrix solid-phase liquid-liquid extraction and derivatized with heptafluorobutyryl imidazole for GC-MS analysis. Standard samples of deuterium isotope-labeled 2- and 3-MCPD palmitic acid double esters and stearic acid double esters were used as the internal standards. We also detected 2- and 3-MCPD ester contents in 88 commercial samples of infant formula milk powder using this system. The detection system we established showed a good linearity of 2- and 3-MCPD ester contents in serially diluted standard solutions within the concentration range 25-1000 μg/L, with r(2) > 0.9995 and an LOD of 30 μg/kg for both of the MCPD esters. The recoveries of the two MCPD esters spiked at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/kg in blank infant formula milk ranged from 98.2 to 110.5%, with RSDs <4.8%, suggesting good accuracy and reliability of this method. In the 88 commercial infant formula milk powder samples, the mean content of 2-MCPD ester was 41 μg/kg (0-52 μg/kg) and that of 3-MCPD was 185 μg/kg (0-316 μg/kg). Based on these results, we estimated the exposure levels of the two MCPD esters in infants fed on formula milk, and the results indicate potential health risks of consuming formula milk products contaminated by the two MCPD esters.

  11. Proteomic and functional analyses reveal MAPK1 regulates milk protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Li-Min; Li, Qing-Zhang; Huang, Jian-Guo; Gao, Xue-Jun

    2012-12-27

    L-Lysine (L-Lys) is an essential amino acid that plays fundamental roles in protein synthesis. Many nuclear phosphorylated proteins such as Stat5 and mTOR regulate milk protein synthesis. However, the details of milk protein synthesis control at the transcript and translational levels are not well known. In this current study, a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)/MS-based proteomic technology was used to identify phosphoproteins responsible for milk protein synthesis in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs). The effect of L-Lys on DCMECs was analyzed by CASY technology and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The results showed that cell proliferation ability and β-casein expression were enhanced in DCMECs treated with L-Lys. By phosphoproteomics analysis, six proteins, including MAPK1, were identified up-expressed in DCMECs treated with 1.2 mM L-Lys for 24 h, and were verified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot. Overexpression and siRNA inhibition of MAPK1 experiments showed that MAPK1 upregulated milk protein synthesis through Stat5 and mTOR pathway. These findings that MAPK1 involves in regulation of milk synthesis shed new insights for understanding the mechanisms of milk protein synthesis.

  12. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of a Powder Model of the Intrinsically Disordered Protein Tau.

    PubMed

    Fichou, Yann; Heyden, Matthias; Zaccai, Giuseppe; Weik, Martin; Tobias, Douglas J

    2015-10-01

    The tau protein, whose aggregates are involved in Alzheimer's disease, is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) that regulates microtubule activity in neurons. An IDP lacks a single, well-defined structure and, rather, constantly exchanges among multiple conformations. In order to study IDP dynamics, the combination of experimental techniques, such as neutron scattering, and computational techniques, such as molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, is a powerful approach. Amorphous hydrated powder samples have been very useful for studying protein internal dynamics experimentally, e.g., using neutron scattering. Thus, there is demand for realistic in silico models of hydrated protein powders. Here we present an MD simulation analysis of a powder hydrated at 0.4 g water/g protein of the IDP tau in the temperature range 20-300 K. By comparing with neutron scattering data, we identify the protein-water interface as the predominant feature determining IDP dynamics. The so-called protein dynamical transition is shown to be attenuated, but not suppressed, in the parts of the protein that are not exposed to the solvent. In addition, we find similarities in the mean-squared displacements of the core of a globular protein and "dry" clusters formed by the IDP in hydrated powders. Thus, the ps to ns dynamics of proteins in hydrated powders originate mainly from those residues in contact with solvent. We propose that by measuring the dynamics of protein assemblies, such as aggregates, one might assess qualitatively their state of hydration.

  13. Microstructural Changes in High-Protein Nutrition Bars Formulated with Extruded or Toasted Milk Protein Concentrate.

    PubMed

    Banach, J C; Clark, S; Lamsal, B P

    2016-02-01

    Milk protein concentrates with more than 80% protein (that is, MPC80) are underutilized as the primary protein source in high-protein nutrition bars as they impart crumbliness and cause hardening during storage. High-protein nutrition bar texture changes are often associated with internal protein aggregations and macronutrient phase separation. These changes were investigated in model high-protein nutrition bars formulated with MPC80 and physically modified MPC80s. High-protein nutrition bars formulated with extruded MPC80s hardened slower than those formulated with toasted or unmodified MPC80. Extruded MPC80 had reduced free sulfhydryl group exposure, whereas measurable increases were seen in the toasted MPC80. High-protein nutrition bar textural performance may be related to the number of exposed free sulfhydryl groups in MPC80. Protein aggregations resulting from ingredient modification and high-protein nutrition bar storage were studied with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Disulfide-based protein aggregations and changes in free sulfhydryl concentration were not consistently relatable to high-protein nutrition bar texture change. However, the high-protein nutrition bars formulated with extruded MPC80 were less prone to phase separations, as depicted by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and underwent less texture change during storage than those formulated with toasted or unmodified MPC80.

  14. A microfiltration process to maximize removal of serum proteins from skim milk before cheese making.

    PubMed

    Nelson, B K; Barbano, D M

    2005-05-01

    Microfiltration (MF) is a membrane process that can separate casein micelles from milk serum proteins (SP), mainly beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin. Our objective was to develop a multistage MF process to remove a high percentage of SP from skim milk while producing a low concentration factor retentate from microfiltration (RMF) with concentrations of soluble minerals, nonprotein nitrogen (NPN), and lactose similar to the original skim milk. The RMF could be blended with cream to standardize milk for traditional Cheddar cheese making. Permeate from ultrafiltration (PUF) obtained from the ultrafiltration (UF) of permeate from MF (PMF) of skim milk was successfully used as a diafiltrant to remove SP from skim milk before cheese making, while maintaining the concentration of lactose, NPN, and nonmicellar calcium. About 95% of the SP originally in skim milk was removed by combining one 3 x MF stage and two 3 x PUF diafiltration stages. The final 3 x RMF can be diluted with PUF to the desired concentration of casein for traditional cheese making. The PMF from the skim milk was concentrated in a UF system to yield an SP concentrate with protein content similar to a whey protein concentrate, but without residuals from cheese making (i.e., rennet, culture, color, and lactic acid) that can produce undesirable functional and sensory characteristics in whey products. Additional processing steps to this 3-stage MF process for SP removal are discussed to produce an MF skim retentate for a continuous cottage cheese manufacturing process.

  15. Experimental and Modelling Study of the Denaturation of Milk Protein by Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Qian, Fang; Sun, Jiayue; Cao, Di; Tuo, Yanfeng; Jiang, Shujuan; Mu, Guangqing

    2017-01-01

    Heat treatment of milk aims to inhibit the growth of microbes, extend the shelf-life of products and improve the quality of the products. Heat treatment also leads to denaturation of whey protein and the formation of whey protein-casein polymer, which has negative effects on milk product. Hence the milk heat treatment conditions should be controlled in milk processing. In this study, the denaturation degree of whey protein and the combination degree of whey protein and casein when undergoing heat treatment were also determined by using the Native-PAGE and SDS-PAGE analysis. The results showed that the denaturation degree of whey protein and the combination degree of whey protein with casein extended with the increase of the heat-treated temperature and time. The effects of the heat-treated temperature and heat-treated time on the denaturation degree of whey protein and on the combination degree of whey protein and casein were well described using the quadratic regression equation. The analysis strategy used in this study reveals an intuitive and effective measure of the denaturation degree of whey protein, and the changes of milk protein under different heat treatment conditions efficiently and accurately in the dairy industry. It can be of great significance for dairy product proteins following processing treatments applied for dairy product manufacturing.

  16. Experimental and Modelling Study of the Denaturation of Milk Protein by Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Fang; Sun, Jiayue; Cao, Di; Tuo, Yanfeng; Jiang, Shujuan; Mu, Guangqing

    2017-01-01

    Heat treatment of milk aims to inhibit the growth of microbes, extend the shelf-life of products and improve the quality of the products. Heat treatment also leads to denaturation of whey protein and the formation of whey protein-casein polymer, which has negative effects on milk product. Hence the milk heat treatment conditions should be controlled in milk processing. In this study, the denaturation degree of whey protein and the combination degree of whey protein and casein when undergoing heat treatment were also determined by using the Native-PAGE and SDS-PAGE analysis. The results showed that the denaturation degree of whey protein and the combination degree of whey protein with casein extended with the increase of the heat-treated temperature and time. The effects of the heat-treated temperature and heat-treated time on the denaturation degree of whey protein and on the combination degree of whey protein and casein were well described using the quadratic regression equation. The analysis strategy used in this study reveals an intuitive and effective measure of the denaturation degree of whey protein, and the changes of milk protein under different heat treatment conditions efficiently and accurately in the dairy industry. It can be of great significance for dairy product proteins following processing treatments applied for dairy product manufacturing. PMID:28316470

  17. Multiparous cows categorized by milk protein concentration and energy-corrected milk yield during early lactation--metabolism, productivity and effect of a short-term feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Sigl, T; Gellrich, K; Meyer, H H D; Kaske, M; Wiedemann, S

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study milk productivity, metabolic adaptation and effect of a short-term feed restriction (FR) on key performance indicators during early lactation in cows classified according to energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield and milk protein concentration. Twenty-three multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows were categorized in four groups according to respective averaged values on Days 23-25 postpartum: high ECM yield and high protein concentration; low ECM yield and low protein concentration; high ECM yield and low protein concentration and low ECM yield and high protein concentration. Dry matter intake was reduced to 68.3% for three subsequent days. Our results showed that short-time FR in early lactation succeeded in enhancing energy deficit of cows in all groups. Milk fat, milk protein and lactose concentrations as well as milk fat yield were not influenced by FR. Several hepatic genes encoding for enzymes involved in catabolism of amino acids, β-oxidation, gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis as well as mRNA encoding for insulin receptor showed increased transcript abundances after FR, primarily in cows with high milk yield and low milk protein concentration.

  18. Rapid Quantification of Melamine in Different Brands/Types of Milk Powders Using Standard Addition Net Analyte Signal and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Multivariate calibration (MVC) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have demonstrated potential for rapid analysis of melamine in various dairy products. However, the practical application of ordinary MVC can be largely restricted because the prediction of a new sample from an uncalibrated batch would be subject to a significant bias due to matrix effect. In this study, the feasibility of using NIR spectroscopy and the standard addition (SA) net analyte signal (NAS) method (SANAS) for rapid quantification of melamine in different brands/types of milk powders was investigated. In SANAS, the NAS vector of melamine in an unknown sample as well as in a series of samples added with melamine standards was calculated and then the Euclidean norms of series standards were used to build a straightforward univariate regression model. The analysis results of 10 different brands/types of milk powders with melamine levels 0~0.12% (w/w) indicate that SANAS obtained accurate results with the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) values ranging from 0.0012 to 0.0029. An additional advantage of NAS is to visualize and control the possible unwanted variations during standard addition. The proposed method will provide a practically useful tool for rapid and nondestructive quantification of melamine in different brands/types of milk powders. PMID:27525154

  19. [Determination of five triazine herbicides in infant milk powder by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ionic liquid-based homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyuan; Yao, Di; Li, Na; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2015-07-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography coupled with homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the determination of five triazine herbicides in infant milk powders. The ionic liquid was used as microextraction solvent. The separation of the herbicides was performed on an Eclipse XDB-C18 column using acetonitrile and water as mobile phases in gradient mode. The effects of homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction conditions on the experimental results were investigated in detail. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the calibration curves for determining the analytes were linear and the correlation coefficients were ≥ 0.9992. The limits of detection for cyanazine, desmetryn, terbumeton, terbuthylazine and dimethametryn were 12.1, 13.8, 11.8, 14.6 and 13.7 μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of the analytes spiked in four infant milk powders ranged from 92.2% to 103.2% and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6%. This method is sensitive, simple, and suitable for the determination of triazine herbicides in milk powder samples.

  20. Comparative measurements of mineral elements in milk powders with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lei, W Q; El Haddad, J; Motto-Ros, V; Gilon-Delepine, N; Stankova, A; Ma, Q L; Bai, X S; Zheng, L J; Zeng, H P; Yu, J

    2011-07-01

    Mineral elements contained in commercially available milk powders, including seven infant formulae and one adult milk, were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The purpose of this work was, through a direct comparison of the analytical results, to provide an assessment of the performance of LIBS, and especially of the procedure of calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS), to deal with organic compounds such as milk powders. In our experiments, the matrix effect was clearly observed affecting the analytical results each time laser ablation was employed for sampling. Such effect was in addition directly observed by determining the physical parameters of the plasmas induced on the different samples. The CF-LIBS procedure was implemented to deduce the concentrations of Mg and K with Ca as the internal reference element. Quantitative analytical results with CF-LIBS were validated with ICP-AES measurements and nominal concentrations specified for commercial milks. The obtained good results with the CF-LIBS procedure demonstrate its capacity to take into account the difference in physical parameters of the plasma in the calculation of the concentrations of mineral elements, which allows a significant reduction of the matrix effect related to laser ablation. We finally discuss the way to optimize the implementation of the CF-LIBS procedure for the analysis of mineral elements in organic materials.

  1. Application of effective wavelengths and BP neural network for the discrimination of varieties of instant milk tea powders using visible and near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fei; He, Yong; Wang, Li

    2007-11-01

    In order to implement the fast discrimination of different milk tea powders with different internal qualities, visible and near infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy combined with effective wavelengths (EWs) and BP neural network (BPNN) was investigated as a new approach. Five brands of milk teas were obtained and 225 samples were selected randomly for the calibration set, while 75 samples for the validation set. The EWs were selected according to x-loading weights and regression coefficients by PLS analysis after some preprocessing. A total of 18 EWs (400, 401, 452, 453, 502, 503, 534, 535, 594, 595, 635, 636, 688, 689, 987, 988, 995 and 996 nm) were selected as the inputs of BPNN model. The performance was validated by the calibration and validation sets. The threshold error of prediction was set as +/-0.1 and an excellent precision and recognition ratio of 100% for calibration set and 98.7% for validation set were achieved. The prediction results indicated that the EWs reflected the main characteristics of milk tea of different brands based on Vis/NIR spectroscopy and BPNN model, and the EWs would be useful for the development of portable instrument to discriminate the variety and detect the adulteration of instant milk tea powders.

  2. Vitamin A Activity of Rice-based Weaning Foods Enriched with Germinated Cowpea Flour, Banana, Pumpkin and Milk Powder.

    PubMed

    Hashim, N; Pongjata, J

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the effect of different drying methods on vitamin A activity of formulated weaning food. Weaned foods on vitamin A activity of formulated using treated cowpea flour, locally available rice flour, banana-pumpkin, skim milk powder and sugar in the ratio 35:35:15:15:5. Treated cowpea flour consisted of original cowpea flour, 24 h germinated cowpea flour. Each treated flour was mixed separately with the other ingredients and cooked into a slurry. Each mixture was either oven-dried or freeze-dried to produce a dry flaky mixture. The carotenoid composition of the product was determined by HPLC. Vitamin A activity of oven-dried weaning food was significantly reduced (p<0.05) compared to freeze-dried weaning food. The freeze-dried weaning foods showed a higher retinol equivalent than oven-dried weaning foods for all treatments. The results of the study found that an intake of 100 g of freeze-dried weaning foods enriched with banana-pumpkin and cowpea flour provided an adequate amount of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of vitamin A for infants.

  3. Soft computing modelling of moisture sorption isotherms of milk-foxtail millet powder and determination of thermodynamic properties.

    PubMed

    Simha, H V Vikram; Pushpadass, Heartwin A; Franklin, Magdaline Eljeeva Emerald; Kumar, P Arun; Manimala, K

    2016-06-01

    Moisture sorption isotherms of spray-dried milk-foxtail millet powder were determined at 10, 25 and 40 °C. Sorption data was fitted using classical and soft-computing approaches. The isotherms were of type II, and equilibrium moisture content (EMC) was temperature dependent. The BET monolayer moisture content decreased from 3.30 to 2.67 % as temperature increased from 10 to 40 °C. Amongst the classical models, Ferro-Fontan gave the best fit of EMC-aw data. However, the Sugeno-type adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with generalized bell-shaped membership function performed better than artificial neural network and classical models with RMSE as low as 0.0099. The isosteric heat of sorption decreased from 150.32 kJ mol(-1) at 1 % moisture content to 44.11 kJ mol(-1) at 15 % moisture. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory was validated, and the isokinetic and harmonic mean temperatures were determined as 333.1 and 297.5 K, respectively.

  4. Isolation and Identification Enterobacter asburiae from Consumed Powdered Infant Formula Milk (PIF) in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).

    PubMed

    Mardaneh, Jalal; Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. It is an opportunistic pathogen that its strains are isolated from a variety of clinical and environmental specimens. Since powdered infant formula milk (PIF) is not a sterile product, it is an excellent medium for bacterial growth. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify E. asburiae from PIF in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and determine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of this bacterium. A total 125 PIF samples were purchased from drug stores between June 2011 to March 2012. E. asburiae was isolated according to FDA method. For final confirmation, biochemical tests embedded in the API-20E system were used. The drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. Out of the 125 PIF samples investigated, 2 (1.6%) samples were positive for E. asburiae. All isolated strains were uniformly susceptible to aztreonam, cefotaxim, amikacin, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, meropenem, tetracycline, ceftazidime, and colistin. Variable susceptibility was seen to the some antimicrobial agents tested. Each country should categorize its own designed guidelines for the preparation and handling of PIF adapted to the local environment. Moreover, the pathogenesis of the E. asburiae in infants hospitalized in NICU and other groups such as immunosuppressed patients and HIV infected individuals is uncertain and requires further study.

  5. Content and evolution of potential furfural compounds in commercial milk-based infant formula powder after opening the packet.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Servín, Jorge L; de la Torre Carbot, Karina; García-Gasca, Teresa; Castellote, Ana I; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Potential furfural compounds were examined by RP-HPLC-DAD in 20 commercial milk-based powdered infant formula (IF) brands from local markets from Paris, France; DF, Mexico; Copenhagen, Denmark; England, UK; and Barcelona, Spain. We traced the evolution of these compounds after the packets had been opened at 0, 30 and 70 days of storage at room temperature (≈25 °C; minimum 23 °C and maximum 25.5 °C). All formula brands were analysed during the first 3-5 months of their shelf life. The mean values of all IFs for potential 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF)+2-furaldehyde (F) were 1115.2 μg/100 g (just opened), 1157.6 μg/100 g (30 days) and 1344.5 μg/100 g of product (70 days). In general, slight increases of potential furfural contents were observed in most of the studied IFs, which suggests that the Maillard reaction increases after opening the packets. The main furfural compound found was HMF, as expected. The range of potential HMF consumed for an infant about 6 months old feeding only on formula was estimated between 0.63 mg and 3.25 mg per day.

  6. Expression of Active Fluorophore Proteins in the Milk of Transgenic Pigs Bypassing the Secretory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Ayan; Garrels, Wiebke; Talluri, Thirumala R.; Tiedemann, Daniela; Bősze, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán; Kues, Wilfried A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the expression of recombinant fluorescent proteins in the milk of two lines of transgenic pigs generated by Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated genetic engineering. The Sleeping Beauty transposon consisted of an ubiquitously active CAGGS promoter driving a fluorophore cDNA, encoding either Venus or mCherry. Importantly, the fluorophore cDNAs did not encode for a signal peptide for the secretory pathway, and in previous studies of the transgenic animals a cytoplasmic localization of the fluorophore proteins was found. Unexpectedly, milk samples from lactating sows contained high levels of bioactive Venus or mCherry fluorophores. A detailed analysis suggested that exfoliated cells of the mammary epithelium carried the recombinant proteins passively into the milk. This is the first description of reporter fluorophore expression in the milk of livestock, and the findings may contribute to the development of an alternative concept for the production of bioactive recombinant proteins in the udder. PMID:27086548

  7. The Reasearch on the Anti-Fatigue Effect of Whey Protein Powder in Basketball Training

    PubMed Central

    Ronghui, Sun

    2015-01-01

    In order to observe the effects of whey protein powder on hematological indexes of players majoring in physical education in the basketball training, the authors divided the players randomly into a control group and a nutrition group. Athletes complete the 30 minutes quantitative exercise using cycle ergometer respectively before the trial and after one month trial. Then we exsanguinated immediately after exercise, extracted heparin and measured hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume and other hematological indices. The results showed that after taking whey protein powder, the HB, RBC, HCT of nutrition group was significantly higher that the control group. This suggests that in high-intensity training, taking whey protein powder can cause changes of HB, RBC and HCT in human body, meanwhile MCV essentially the same. So whey protein powder can improve exercise capacity, and has anti-fatigue effect. PMID:26998184

  8. Characterization of near infrared spectral variance in the authentication of skim and nonfat dry milk powder collection using ANOVA-PCA, Pooled-ANOVA, and partial least squares regression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-one samples of skim milk powder (SMP) and non-fat dry milk (NFDM) from 8 suppliers, 13 production sites, and 3 processing temperatures were analyzed by NIR diffuse reflectance spectrometry over a period of three days. NIR reflectance spectra (1700-2500 nm) were converted to pseudo-absorbance ...

  9. Investigation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Bacillus licheniformis Strains Isolated from Retail Powdered Infant Milk Formulae.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Begley, Máire; Clifford, Tanya; Deasy, Thérèse; Considine, Kiera; O'Connor, Paula; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the potential antimicrobial activity of ten Bacillus licheniformis strains isolated from retail infant milk formulae against a range of indicator (Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Listeria innocua) and clinically relevant (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli) microorganisms. Deferred antagonism assays confirmed that all B. licheniformis isolates show antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive target organisms. PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses indicated that four of the B. licheniformis isolates produce the bacteriocin lichenicidin. The remaining six isolates demonstrated a higher antimicrobial potency than lichenicidin-producing strains. Further analyses identified a peptide of ~1,422 Da as the most likely bioactive responsible for the antibacterial activity of these six isolates. N-terminal sequencing of the ~1,422 Da peptide from one strain identified it as ILPEITXIFHD. This peptide shows a high homology to the non-ribosomal peptides bacitracin and subpeptin, known to be produced by Bacillus spp. Subsequent PCR analyses demonstrated that the six B. licheniformis isolates may harbor the genetic machinery needed for the synthesis of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase similar to those involved in production of subpeptin and bacitracin, which suggests that the ~1,422 Da peptide might be a variant of subpeptin and bacitracin.

  10. Prediction of individual milk proteins including free amino acids in bovine milk using mid-infrared spectroscopy and their correlations with milk processing characteristics.

    PubMed

    McDermott, A; Visentin, G; De Marchi, M; Berry, D P; Fenelon, M A; O'Connor, P M; Kenny, O A; McParland, S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mid-infrared spectroscopy in predicting milk protein and free amino acid (FAA) composition in bovine milk. Milk samples were collected from 7 Irish research herds and represented cows from a range of breeds, parities, and stages of lactation. Mid-infrared spectral data in the range of 900 to 5,000 cm(-1) were available for 730 milk samples; gold standard methods were used to quantify individual protein fractions and FAA of these samples with a view to predicting these gold standard protein fractions and FAA levels with available mid-infrared spectroscopy data. Separate prediction equations were developed for each trait using partial least squares regression; accuracy of prediction was assessed using both cross validation on a calibration data set (n=400 to 591 samples) and external validation on an independent data set (n=143 to 294 samples). The accuracy of prediction in external validation was the same irrespective of whether undertaken on the entire external validation data set or just within the Holstein-Friesian breed. The strongest coefficient of correlation obtained for protein fractions in external validation was 0.74, 0.69, and 0.67 for total casein, total β-lactoglobulin, and β-casein, respectively. Total proteins (i.e., total casein, total whey, and total lactoglobulin) were predicted with greater accuracy then their respective component traits; prediction accuracy using the infrared spectrum was superior to prediction using just milk protein concentration. Weak to moderate prediction accuracies were observed for FAA. The greatest coefficient of correlation in both cross validation and external validation was for Gly (0.75), indicating a moderate accuracy of prediction. Overall, the FAA prediction models overpredicted the gold standard values. Near-unity correlations existed between total casein and β-casein irrespective of whether the traits were based on the gold standard (0.92) or mid

  11. Comparative proteomics of milk fat globule membrane proteins from transgenic cloned cattle.

    PubMed

    Sui, Shunchao; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Jianwu; Zhang, Ran; Guo, Chengdong; Yu, Tian; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    The use of transgenic livestock is providing new methods for obtaining pharmaceutically useful proteins. However, the protein expression profiles of the transgenic animals, including expression of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins, have not been well characterized. In this study, we compared the MFGM protein expression profile of the colostrum and mature milk from three lines of transgenic cloned (TC) cattle, i.e., expressing recombinant human α-lactalbumin (TC-LA), lactoferrin (TC-LF) or lysozyme (TC-LZ) in the mammary gland, with those from cloned non-transgenic (C) and conventionally bred normal animals (N). We identified 1, 225 proteins in milk MFGM, 166 of which were specifically expressed only in the TC-LA group, 265 only in the TC-LF group, and 184 only in the TC-LZ group. There were 43 proteins expressed only in the transgenic cloned animals, but the concentrations of these proteins were below the detection limit of silver staining. Functional analysis also showed that the 43 proteins had no obvious influence on the bovine mammary gland. Quantitative comparison revealed that MFGM proteins were up- or down-regulated more than twofold in the TC and C groups compared to N group: 126 in colostrum and 77 in mature milk of the TC-LA group; 157 in colostrum and 222 in mature milk of the TC-LF group; 49 in colostrum and 98 in mature milk of the TC-LZ group; 98 in colostrum and 132 in mature milk in the C group. These up- and down-regulated proteins in the transgenic animals were not associated with a particular biological function or pathway, which appears that expression of certain exogenous proteins has no general deleterious effects on the cattle mammary gland.

  12. Minor milk constituents are affected by protein concentration and forage digestibility in the feed ration.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Torben; Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted in order to investigate if selected minor milk components would be indicative for the nutritional situation of the cow. Forty-eight dairy cows were offered a high digestible ration vs. a lower digestible ration combined with 2 protein levels in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAG), uric acid and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured and correlated mutually and towards other milking parameters (yield, h since last milking, days in milk (DIM), urea, etc). The variation range of the suggested variables were broad, a fact that may support their utilisation as predictive parameters. The content of milk metabolites was significantly affected by the change in rations as milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, uric acid, and the ratio cholesterol: triacylglycerides increased with higher energy intake while BHBA and TAG decreased. The content of some of the milk metabolites changed during 24 h day/night periods: BHBA, cholesterol, uric acid and TAG increased whereas free glucose decreased in the night period. Certain associations between milk metabolites and calculated energy parameters like ECM, body condition score (BCS), and body weight gain were found, however, these associations were to some extent explained by an interaction with DIM, just as changes in milk metabolites during a 24 h period seems to interfere. It is concluded that the practical use of the suggested milk variables should be based on more than one metabolite and that stage of lactation and possibly time of the day where the milk is collected should be incorporated in predictive models.

  13. Molecular characterization of two novel milk proteins in the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans morsitans)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guangxiao; Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Lohs, Claudia; Aksoy, Serap

    2009-01-01

    Tsetse reproduction is unique among insects due to the small numbers of offspring the flies produce and because the female fly carries and nourishes her offspring for their entire immature development. Larval nourishment is supplied by the female as a “milk” substance synthesized by a specialized accessory gland. The milk consists of ~50% fat and ~50% protein. Two milk proteins were identified as the Major Milk gland Protein (GmmMGP) and Transferrin (GmmTsf). Here we describe the identification of two novel gene transcripts (gmmmgp2 and gmmmgp3) produced by the milk gland tissue. These putative secretory products bear no homology to known proteins in the NCBI nr database. Transcripts for these genes can only be detected in the milk gland and their temporal expression correlates with larval development. Functional analysis of these products by RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown analysis shows that GmmMGP2 is critical to reproductive function. The protein appears to affect ovulation, suggesting that it may play a regulatory role in the tsetse reproductive cycle. GmmMGP3 knockdown lacks a phenotype, suggesting its function as a milk protein is possibly redundant. PMID:20136662

  14. Quantitation of human milk proteins and their glycoforms using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM).

    PubMed

    Huang, Jincui; Kailemia, Muchena J; Goonatilleke, Elisha; Parker, Evan A; Hong, Qiuting; Sabia, Rocchina; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2017-01-01

    Human milk plays a substantial role in the child growth, development and determines their nutritional and health status. Despite the importance of the proteins and glycoproteins in human milk, very little quantitative information especially on their site-specific glycosylation is known. As more functions of milk proteins and other components continue to emerge, their fine-detailed quantitative information is becoming a key factor in milk research efforts. The present work utilizes a sensitive label-free MRM method to quantify seven milk proteins (α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin M, α1-antitrypsin, and lysozyme) using their unique peptides while at the same time, quantifying their site-specific N-glycosylation relative to the protein abundance. The method is highly reproducible, has low limit of quantitation, and accounts for differences in glycosylation due to variations in protein amounts. The method described here expands our knowledge about human milk proteins and provides vital details that could be used in monitoring the health of the infant and even the mother. Graphical Abstract The glycopeptides EICs generated from QQQ.

  15. Enterobacter sakazakii in food and beverages (other than infant formula and milk powder).

    PubMed

    Friedemann, Miriam

    2007-05-01

    The ubiqitous microorganism Enterobacter sakazakii is a rare contaminant of infant formula and may cause severe systemic infection in neonates. So far, other food is not known to cause E. sakazakii-infections. The scarce information about the ecology of E. sakazakii and the uncertainty concerning the source of infection in children and adults warrant a summary of the current knowledge about the presence of this opportunistic microorganism in food other than infant formula. This review systematizes publications on the presence of E. sakazakii in food and beverages until June 2006. Food other than infant formula has been rarely investigated for the presence of E. sakazakii. Nevertheless, this microorganism could be isolated from a wide spectrum of food and food ingredients. E. sakazakii was isolated from plant food and food ingredients like cereal, fruit and vegetables, legume products, herbs and spices as well as from animal food sources like milk, meat and fish and products made from these foods. The spectrum of E. sakazakii-contaminated food covers both raw and processed food. The kind of processing of E. sakazakii-contaminated food was not restricted to dry products. Fresh, frozen, ready-to-eat, fermented and cooked food products as well as beverages and water suitable for the preparation of food, were found to be contaminated by E. sakazakii. Although E. sakazakii-contaminated food do not have general public health significance, measures for prevention should consider the presence of E. sakazakii in food, food ingredients, their processing and preparation as possible source of contamination, colonization or infection.

  16. Manganese binding proteins in human and cow's milk

    SciTech Connect

    Loennerdal, B.; Keen, C.L.; Hurley, L.S.

    1985-03-01

    Manganese nutrition in the neonatal period is poorly understood, due in part to a lack of information on the amount of manganese in infant foods and its bioavailability. Since the molecular localization of an element in foods is one determinant of its subsequent bioavailability, a study was made of the binding of manganese in human and cow's milk. An extrinsic label of /sup 54/Mn was shown to equilibrate isotopically with native manganese in milks and formulas. Milk samples were separated into fat, casein and whey by ultracentrifugation. In human milk, the major part (71%) of manganese was found in whey, 11% in casein and 18% in the lipid fraction. In contrast, in cow's milk, 32% of total manganese was in whey, 67% in casein and 1% in lipid. Within the human whey fraction, most of the manganese was bound to lactoferrin, while in cow's whey, manganese was mostly complexed to ligands with molecular weights less than 200. The distribution of manganese in formulas was closer to that of human milk than of cow's milk. The bioavailability of manganese associated with lactoferrin, casein and low molecular weight complexes needs to be assessed.

  17. Bioactive Functions of Milk Proteins: a Comparative Genomics Approach.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Julie A; Modepalli, Vengama; Enjapoori, Ashwanth Kumar; Bisana, Swathi; Abud, Helen E; Lefevre, Christophe; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2014-12-01

    The composition of milk includes factors required to provide appropriate nutrition for the growth of the neonate. However, it is now clear that milk has many functions and comprises bioactive molecules that play a central role in regulating developmental processes in the young while providing a protective function for both the suckled young and the mammary gland during the lactation cycle. Identifying these bioactives and their physiological function in eutherians can be difficult and requires extensive screening of milk components that may function to improve well-being and options for prevention and treatment of disease. New animal models with unique reproductive strategies are now becoming increasingly relevant to search for these factors.

  18. Effect of different levels of mangosteen peel powder supplement on the performance of dairy cows fed concentrate containing yeast fermented cassava chip protein.

    PubMed

    Polyorach, Sineenart; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) peel powder (MSP) supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed a concentrate containing yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP). Four crossbred dairy cows (50 % Holstein-Friesian and 50 % Thai native breed) in mid-lactation, 404 ± 50.0 kg of body weight and 90 ± 5 day in milk with daily milk production of 9 ± 2.0 kg/day, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to receive 4 dietary treatments. The treatments were different levels of MSP supplementation at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/head/day. Rice straw was used as a roughage source and fed ad libitum to all cows, and concentrate containing YEFECAP at 200 g/kg concentrate was offered corresponding to concentrate to milk yield ratio at 1:2. Results revealed that feed intake, apparent nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH and temperature, and total volatile fatty acid were not significantly affected by MSP supplementation (P > 0.05). However, increasing levels of MSP supplementation increased molar proportion of propionate while ammonia-nitrogen, acetate, and acetate to propionate ratio were decreased (P < 0.01). Moreover, milk production and economic return were increased linearly (P < 0.01) with the increasing level of MSP supplementation. The present findings suggested that supplementation of MSP especially at 300 g/head/day with concentrate containing YEFECAP at 200 g/kg could improve rumen fermentation efficiency, milk production and protein content, and economical return of lactating dairy cows fed on rice straw.

  19. Human milk galectin-3 binding protein and breast-feeding-associated HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Chan, Christina S; Kim, Hae-Young; Autran, Chloe; Kim, Jae H; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Thea, Donald M; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Kuhn, Louise; Bode, Lars

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of milk from 247 HIV-infected Zambian mothers showed that galectin-3 binding protein concentrations were significantly higher among HIV-infected mothers who transmitted HIV through breast-feeding (6.51 ± 2.12 μg/mL) than among nontransmitters but were also correlated with higher milk and plasma HIV RNA copies/mL and lower CD4+ cell counts. The association between galectin-3 binding protein and postnatal transmission was attenuated after adjustment for milk and plasma HIV load and CD4+ cell counts. This suggests that although milk galectin-3 binding protein is a marker of advanced maternal disease, it does not independently modify transmission risk.

  20. Characterization of milk proteins-lutein complexes and the impact on lutein chemical stability.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jiang; Fan, Yuting; Yokoyama, Wallace; Zhang, Yuzhu; Zhao, Liqing

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the interaction of WPI (whey protein isolate) and SC (sodium caseinate) with hydrophobic lutein was investigated through UV-vis spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) as well as fluorescence. The effects on lutein's chemical stability were also examined. The decrease of turbidity of lutein suggested that lutein's aqueous solubility was improved after binding with milk proteins. CD analysis indicated lutein had little impact on the secondary structures of both proteins. Different preparation methods have significant impacts on the binding constant. Fluorescence results indicated that WPI and SC interact with lutein by hydrophobic contacts. Milk proteins have protective effects on lutein against oxidation and decomposition, and SC showed better capability in protecting lutein from oxidation than WPI during 16 days storage. The lutein's chemical stability was increased with increasing of proteins concentration. The results indicated that milk proteins may act as effective carriers for lipophilic nutraceuticals.

  1. External cavity-quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) spectroscopy for protein analysis in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Kuligowski, Julia; Schwaighofer, Andreas; Alcaráz, Mirta Raquel; Quintás, Guillermo; Mayer, Helmut; Vento, Máximo; Lendl, Bernhard

    2017-04-22

    The analytical determination of bovine milk proteins is important in food and non-food industrial applications and yet, rather labour-intensive wet-chemical, low-throughput methods have been employed since decades. This work proposes the use of external cavity-quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) spectroscopy for the simultaneous quantification of the most abundant bovine milk proteins and the total protein content based on the chemical information contained in mid-infrared (IR) spectral features of the amide I band. Mid-IR spectra of protein standard mixtures were used for building partial least squares (PLS) regression models. Protein concentrations in commercial bovine milk samples were calculated after chemometric compensation of the matrix contribution employing science-based calibration (SBC) without sample pre-processing. The use of EC-QCL spectroscopy together with advanced multivariate data analysis allowed the determination of casein, α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin and total protein content within several minutes.

  2. Effects of protein and peptide addition on lipid oxidation in powder model system.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Young; Murakami, Hiroshi; Mori, Tomohiko; Matsumura, Yasuki

    2005-01-12

    The effect of protein and peptide addition on the oxidation of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (EPE) encapsulated by maltodextrin (MD) was investigated. The encapsulated lipid (powder lipid) was prepared in two steps, i.e., mixing of EPE with MD solutions (+/- protein and peptides) to produce emulsions and freeze-drying of the resultant emulsions. EPE oxidation in MD powder progressed more rapidly in the humid state [relative humidity (RH) = 70%] than in the dry state (RH = 10%). The addition of soy protein, soy peptide, and gelatin peptides improved the oxidation stability of EPE encapsulated by MD, and the inhibition of lipid oxidation by the protein and the peptides was more dramatic in the humid state. Especially, the oxidation of EPE was almost perfectly suppressed when the lipid was encapsulated with MD + soy peptide during storage in the humid state for 7 days. Several physical properties such as the lipid particle size of the emulsions, the fraction of nonencapsulated lipids, scanning electron microscopy images of powder lipids, and the mobility of the MD matrix were investigated to find the modification of encapsulation behavior by the addition of the protein and peptides, but no significant change was observed. On the other hand, the protein and peptides exhibited a strong radical scavenging activity in the powder systems as well as in the solution systems. These results suggest that a chemical mechanism such as radical scavenging ability plays an important role in the suppression of EPE oxidation in MD powder by soy proteins, soy peptides, and gelatin peptides.

  3. Development of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin E antibodies to cow's milk proteins and ovalbumin after a temporary neonatal exposure to hydrolyzed and whole cow's milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Juvonen, P; Månsson, M; Kjellman, N I; Björkstén, B; Jakobsson, I

    1999-08-01

    The ingestion of food antigens usually results in the induction of oral tolerance, but the clinical and immunologic consequences of brief exposure to cow's milk proteins during the neonatal period are not well-documented. The aim of this work was to study immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG responses to cow's milk proteins and ovalbumin after exposure during the first three days of life in infants who were otherwise exclusively breast-fed. A group of 129 infants was randomly assigned at birth to one of three feeding regimens: human milk (HM), cow's milk formula (CMF), or a casein hydrolysate formula (CHF), during the first three days of life. They were then all exclusively breast-fed for a varying period of time and followed for two years. Serum IgG and IgE antibodies to cow's milk proteins and ovalbumin (OVA) were analyzed in blood samples obtained at birth, at 4 days and at 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 months of age. The levels of IgG antibodies to beta-lactoglobulin (IgG-BLG) and bovine serum albumin (IgG-BSA) were higher in the CMF and the HM groups than in the CHF group for up to two years. This was particularly obvious for IgG-BLG in infants who started weaning before two months. The levels of IgG antibodies to casein (IgG-CAS) were higher in the CMF group, as compared with the CHF group at 8 and 12 months. The levels of IgG antibodies to OVA were similar in all three feeding groups. The levels of IgE antibodies to CAS or OVA were similar in the three feeding groups. Exposure to cow's milk during the first three days of life stimulated IgG antibody production to cow's milk proteins and this was still obvious at 2 years of age, while feeding with a casein hydrolysate during the first three days of life was associated with low levels of IgG antibodies to cow's milk proteins.

  4. Fluorescence sensor array for identification of commercial milk samples according to their thermal treatments.

    PubMed

    Mungkarndee, Radeemada; Techakriengkrai, Ittipon; Tumcharern, Gamolwan; Sukwattanasinitt, Mongkol

    2016-04-15

    Identification of processed milk is of importance for commercial and legal concerns. The fluorescence response patterns induced by fluorophore/protein interactions allow a possible discrimination of processed milk samples corresponding to their thermal treatment. The fluorescence responses of 4 fluorophores upon addition of commercial milk samples in 96-well plate are measured in the range of 400-600 nm using the excitation wavelength at 375 nm. The pattern recognition of the 53,126 fluorescence responses (4 fluorophores×41 wavelengths×4 thermally processed milks×3 brands×3 lots×3 bottles×3 repeats) are analyzed by multivariate statistical methods. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) successfully recognizes the milk samples according to their thermal processing, i.e. pasteurized milk, sterilized milk, UHT fresh milk and recombined milk (UHT milk having milk powder), with 100% classification accuracy in a cross validation using a leave-one-out technique.

  5. Photolytic Cross-Linking to Probe Protein-Protein and Protein-Matrix Interactions in Lyophilized Powders.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Lavanya K; Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2015-09-08

    Protein structure and local environment in lyophilized formulations were probed using high-resolution solid-state photolytic cross-linking with mass spectrometric analysis (ssPC-MS). In order to characterize structure and microenvironment, protein-protein, protein-excipient, and protein-water interactions in lyophilized powders were identified. Myoglobin (Mb) was derivatized in solution with the heterobifunctional probe succinimidyl 4,4'-azipentanoate (SDA) and the structural integrity of the labeled protein (Mb-SDA) confirmed using CD spectroscopy and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Mb-SDA was then formulated with and without excipients (raffinose, guanidine hydrochloride (Gdn HCl)) and lyophilized. The freeze-dried powder was irradiated with ultraviolet light at 365 nm for 30 min to produce cross-linked adducts that were analyzed at the intact protein level and after trypsin digestion. SDA-labeling produced Mb carrying up to five labels, as detected by LC-MS. Following lyophilization and irradiation, cross-linked peptide-peptide, peptide-water, and peptide-raffinose adducts were detected. The exposure of Mb side chains to the matrix was quantified based on the number of different peptide-peptide, peptide-water, and peptide-excipient adducts detected. In the absence of excipients, peptide-peptide adducts involving the CD, DE, and EF loops and helix H were common. In the raffinose formulation, peptide-peptide adducts were more distributed throughout the molecule. The Gdn HCl formulation showed more protein-protein and protein-water adducts than the other formulations, consistent with protein unfolding and increased matrix interactions. The results demonstrate that ssPC-MS can be used to distinguish excipient effects and characterize the local protein environment in lyophilized formulations with high resolution.

  6. Composition, yield, and functionality of reduced-fat Oaxaca cheese: effects of using skim milk or a dry milk protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Caro, I; Soto, S; Franco, M J; Meza-Nieto, M; Alfaro-Rodríguez, R H; Mateo, J

    2011-02-01

    The effect of adding either skim milk or a commercial dry milk protein concentrate (MPC) to whole milk on the composition, yield, and functional properties of Mexican Oaxaca cheese were investigated. Five batches of Oaxaca cheeses were produced. One batch (the control) was produced from whole milk containing 3.5% fat and 9% nonfat solids (SNF). Two batches were produced from milk standardized with skim milk to 2.7 and 1.8% fat, maintaining the SNF content at 9%. In the other 2 batches, an MPC (40% protein content) was used to standardize the milk to a SNF content of 10 and 11%, maintaining the milk fat content at 3.5%. The use of either skim milk or MPC caused a significant decrease in the fat percentage in cheese. The use of skim milk or MPC showed a nonsignificant tendency to lower total solids and fat recoveries in cheese. Actual, dry matter, and moisture-adjusted cheese yields significantly decreased with skim milk addition, but increased with MPC addition. However, normalized yields adjusted to milk fat and protein reference levels did not show significant differences between treatments. Considering skim milk-added and control cheeses, actual yield increased with cheese milk fat content at a rate of 1.34 kg/kg of fat (R=0.88). In addition, cheese milk fat and SNF:fat ratio proved to be strong individual predictors of cheese moisture-adjusted yield (r(2) ≈ 0.90). Taking into account the results obtained from control and MPC-added cheeses, a 2.0-kg cheese yield increase rate per kg of milk MPC protein was observed (R=0.89), with TS and SNF being the strongest predictors for moisture adjusted yield (r(2) ≈ 0.77). Reduced-fat Oaxaca cheese functionality differed from that of controls. In unmelted reduced-fat cheeses, hardness and springiness increased. In melted reduced-fat cheeses, meltability and free oil increased, but stretchability decreased. These changes were related to differences in cheese composition, mainly fat in dry matter and calcium in SNF.

  7. An adjuvant-free mouse model to evaluate the allergenicity of milk whey protein.

    PubMed

    Gonipeta, B; Parvataneni, S; Tempelman, R J; Gangur, V

    2009-10-01

    Milk allergy is the most common type of food allergy in humans with the potential for fatality. An adjuvant-free mouse model would be highly desirable as a preclinical research tool to develop novel hypoallergenic or nonallergenic milk products. Here we describe an adjuvant-free mouse model of milk allergy that uses transdermal sensitization followed by oral challenge with milk protein. Groups of BALB/c mice were exposed to milk whey protein via a transdermal route, without adjuvant. Systemic IgG1 and IgE antibody responses to transdermal exposure as well as systemic anaphylaxis and hypothermia response to oral protein challenge were studied. Transdermal exposure resulted in a time- and dose-dependent induction of significant IgE and IgG1 antibody responses. Furthermore, oral challenge of sensitized mice resulted in significant clinical symptoms of systemic anaphylaxis within 1 h and significant hypothermia at 30 min postchallenge. To study the underlying mechanism, we examined allergen-driven spleen cell T-helper 2 cytokine (IL-4) responses. There was a robust dose- and time-dependent activation of memory IL-4 responses in allergic mice but not in healthy control mice. These data demonstrate for the first time a novel transdermal sensitization followed by oral challenge mouse model of milk allergy that does not use adjuvant. It is expected that this model may be used not only to study mechanisms of milk allergy, but also to evaluate novel milk products for allergenic potential and aid in the production of hypo- or nonallergenic milk products.

  8. Investigating the genetic polymorphism of sheep milk proteins: a useful tool for dairy production.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Maria; Laudadio, Vito; Dario, Cataldo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2014-12-01

    Sheep is the second most important dairy species after cow worldwide, and especially in the Mediterranean and Middle East regions. In some countries, the difficult environmental conditions require a peculiar adaptation and, in these contexts, sheep are able to provide higher quality protein than cattle. In the least-developed countries, the amount of dairy sheep and ovine milk production is progressively increasing. In order to improve dairy productions, in particular those with local connotations, it is necessary to obtain in-depth information regarding milk quality and rheological properties. The genetic polymorphisms of milk proteins are often associated with quantitative and qualitative parameters in milk and are potential candidate markers that should be included in breeding strategies similar to those already available for cattle. Due to the current and growing interest in this topic and considering the large amount of new information, the aim of this study was to review the literature on sheep milk protein polymorphisms with a particular emphasis on recent findings in order to give scientists useful support. Moreover, the effects of different protein variants on milk yield and composition are discussed.

  9. Neurological and neuropsychological functions in adults with a history of developmental arsenic poisoning from contaminated milk powder.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Ohta, Hitoshi; Bellinger, David C; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    During the summer of 1955, mass arsenic poisoning of bottle-fed infants occurred in the western part of Japan due to contaminated milk powder, and more than 100 died; some childhood victims were later found to suffer from neurological sequelae in adolescence. This unique incident enabled us to explore infancy as a critical period of arsenic exposure in regard to developmental neurotoxicity and its possible persistence through adulthood. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the association between developmental arsenic exposure and the neurological outcomes more than 50 years later. We conducted a retrospective cohort study during the period from April 2012 to February 2013 in two hospitals in Okayama Prefecture, Japan. The study sample consisted of 50 individuals: 27 known poisoning victims from Okayama Prefecture, and 23 non-exposed local controls of similar age. In addition to neurological examination, we adapted a battery of neurophysiological and neuropsychological tests to identify the types of brain functions affected by early-life arsenic exposure. While limited abnormalities were found in the neurophysiological tests, neuropsychological deficits were observed. Except for Finger tapping, all test scores in the exposed group--Vocabulary and Block Design from Wechsler Adults Intelligent Scale III, Design memory subtest from Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning 2, and Grooved pegboard test--were substantially below those obtained by the unexposed. The exposed group showed average performance at least 1.2 standard deviations below the average for the controls. Exposed participants performed less well than controls, even after exclusion of subjects with recognized disabilities or those with a high level of education. Adults who had suffered arsenic poisoning during infancy revealed neuropsychological dysfunctions, even among those subjects not recognized as having disabilities. Developmental neurotoxicity due to arsenic likely results in permanent

  10. A rapid analytical method for cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in fortified infant formula, milk and milk powder using Diels-Alder derivatisation and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, Grant A

    2012-05-01

    A method for analysing vitamin D(3) (VD3, cholecalciferol) has been established and validated. This method is rapid and cost effective and is intended for use in quality control in the manufacture of fortified infant formulae and milk powders. Milk or reconstituted milk powder was solubilised in methanol and extracted in one step into isooctane, which was separated by centrifugation. A portion of the isooctane layer was then transferred, and an aliquot of 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione was added to derivatise VD3. The analyte was then re-extracted into a small volume of acetonitrile and analysed by reverse-phase chromatography. Detection was by triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using a selective transition, m/z 560 → 298. An internal standard, deuterium-labelled VD3, was used to correct for losses in extraction and any variation in derivatisation and ionisation efficiencies. The method has been subjected to a single-laboratory validation and has been found to be linear, highly selective and accurate with respect to National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 1849, analyte spiking experiments and comparison with an LC-UV-based method. The repeatability standard deviation was 4.23 %. Significantly for routine laboratories, the method returns results within 2 h, generates minimal waste and minimises health and safety concerns to the analyst.

  11. Chromatographic separation and detection of contaminants from whole milk powder using a chitosan-modified silver nanoparticles surface-enhanced Raman scattering device.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Lv, Di Y; Zhu, Qing X; Li, Hao; Chen, Hui; Wu, Mian M; Chai, Yi F; Lu, Feng

    2017-06-01

    Methods for the on-site analysis of food contaminants are in high demand. Although portable Raman spectroscopy is commonly used to test food on-site, it can be challenge to achieve this goal with rapid detection and inexpensive substrate. In this study, we detected trace food contaminants in samples of whole milk powder using the methods that combined chromatography with surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection (SERS). We developed a simple and efficient technique to fabricate the paper with chitosan-modified silver nanoparticles as a SERS-active substrate. The soaking time of paper and the concentration of chitosan solution were optimized for chromatographic separation and SERS detection. We then studied the separation properties for real applications including complex sample matrices, and detected melamine at 1mg/L, dicyandiamide at 100mg/L and sodium sulfocyanate at 10mg/L in whole milk powder. As such, our methods have great potential for field-based detection of milk contaminants.

  12. Proteomic characterization of specific minor proteins in the human milk casein fraction.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yalin; Alvarado, Rudy; Phinney, Brett; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2011-12-02

    Human milk contains many bioactive proteins that are likely to support the early development of the newborn. The aim of this study was to identify whether there are specific minor proteins associated with the human milk casein micelle prepared by the acid precipitation method. Protein identification was performed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Eighty-two proteins were identified in the casein micelle, 18 of which are not present in their whey compartment. Thirty-two of these proteins specifically associated with the casein micelle have not previously been identified in human milk or colostrum. Proteins involved in immune function comprised the major part (28%) of total proteins, and another significant part is involved in metabolism/energy production (22%). Most of the proteins were of extracellular or cytoplasmic origin (accounting for 50 and 29%, respectively). This study indicates that various soluble proteins should be considered as part of the casein compartment, prepared by the acid precipitation method. The data provide new insight not only into the proteomic profile of the human milk casein micelle and its physiological significance, but also into the proper proportion of casein and casein-associated proteins to use in infant formula.

  13. Diet, cow's milk protein antibodies and the risk of IDDM in Finnish children. Childhood Diabetes in Finland Study Group.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, S M; Saukkonen, T; Savilahti, E; Ylönen, K; Räsänen, L; Aro, A; Knip, M; Tuomilehto, J; Akerblom, H K

    1994-04-01

    Associations of infant feeding patterns and milk consumption with cow's milk protein antibody titres were studied in 697 newly-diagnosed diabetic children, 415 sibling-control children and 86 birth-date- and sex-matched population-based control children in the nationwide "Childhood Diabetes in Finland" study. IgA and IgG antibody titres to the proteins of cow's milk formula, BLG and BSA, and IgM antibody titres to cow's milk formula proteins were measured by ELISA. Several inverse correlations were observed between the duration of breast-feeding or age at introduction of dairy products and antibody titres, and positive correlations were observed between milk consumption and antibody titres in all three populations studied. Multivariate analyses which included the infant feeding variables, milk consumption and current age simultaneously showed that the earlier the introduction of dairy products and the greater the consumption of milk was, the higher several antibody titres were. High IgA antibody titres to cow's milk formula were associated with a greater risk of IDDM both among diabetic-population-control and diabetic-sibling-control pairs when adjusted for other cow's milk antibody titres, dietary variables and in diabetic-sibling-control pairs also for ICA. The results suggest that young age at introduction of dairy products and high milk consumption during childhood increase the levels of cow's milk antibodies and that high IgA antibodies to cow's milk formula are independently associated with increased risk of IDDM.

  14. Monotreme lactation protein is highly expressed in monotreme milk and provides antimicrobial protection.

    PubMed

    Enjapoori, Ashwantha Kumar; Grant, Tom R; Nicol, Stewart C; Lefèvre, Christophe M; Nicholas, Kevin R; Sharp, Julie A

    2014-09-22

    Monotremes (platypus and echidna) are the descendants of the oldest ancestor of all extant mammals distinguished from other mammals by mode of reproduction. Monotremes lay eggs following a short gestation period and after an even briefer incubation period, altricial hatchlings are nourished over a long lactation period with milk secreted by nipple-less mammary patches located on the female's abdomen. Milk is the sole source of nutrition and immune protection for the developing young until weaning. Using transcriptome and mass spectrometry analysis of milk cells and milk proteins, respectively, a novel Monotreme Lactation Protein (MLP) was identified as a major secreted protein in milk. We show that platypus and short-beaked echidna MLP genes show significant homology and are unique to monotremes. The MLP transcript was shown to be expressed in a variety of tissues; however, highest expression was observed in milk cells and was expressed constitutively from early to late lactation. Analysis of recombinant MLP showed that it is an N-linked glycosylated protein and biophysical studies predicted that MLP is an amphipathic, α-helical protein, a typical feature of antimicrobial proteins. Functional analysis revealed MLP antibacterial activity against both opportunistic pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and commensal Enterococcus faecalis bacteria but showed no effect on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Salmonella enterica. Our data suggest that MLP is an evolutionarily ancient component of milk-mediated innate immunity absent in other mammals. We propose that MLP evolved specifically in the monotreme lineage supporting the evolution of lactation in these species to provide bacterial protection, at a time when mammals lacked nipples.

  15. Monotreme Lactation Protein Is Highly Expressed in Monotreme Milk and Provides Antimicrobial Protection

    PubMed Central

    Enjapoori, Ashwantha Kumar; Grant, Tom R.; Nicol, Stewart C.; Lefèvre, Christophe M.; Nicholas, Kevin R.; Sharp, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Monotremes (platypus and echidna) are the descendants of the oldest ancestor of all extant mammals distinguished from other mammals by mode of reproduction. Monotremes lay eggs following a short gestation period and after an even briefer incubation period, altricial hatchlings are nourished over a long lactation period with milk secreted by nipple-less mammary patches located on the female’s abdomen. Milk is the sole source of nutrition and immune protection for the developing young until weaning. Using transcriptome and mass spectrometry analysis of milk cells and milk proteins, respectively, a novel Monotreme Lactation Protein (MLP) was identified as a major secreted protein in milk. We show that platypus and short-beaked echidna MLP genes show significant homology and are unique to monotremes. The MLP transcript was shown to be expressed in a variety of tissues; however, highest expression was observed in milk cells and was expressed constitutively from early to late lactation. Analysis of recombinant MLP showed that it is an N-linked glycosylated protein and biophysical studies predicted that MLP is an amphipathic, α-helical protein, a typical feature of antimicrobial proteins. Functional analysis revealed MLP antibacterial activity against both opportunistic pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and commensal Enterococcus faecalis bacteria but showed no effect on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Salmonella enterica. Our data suggest that MLP is an evolutionarily ancient component of milk-mediated innate immunity absent in other mammals. We propose that MLP evolved specifically in the monotreme lineage supporting the evolution of lactation in these species to provide bacterial protection, at a time when mammals lacked nipples. PMID:25245409

  16. Milk Proteins, Peptides, and Oligosaccharides: Effects against the 21st Century Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Chia-Chien; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; Fernández-Tomé, Samuel; Weinborn, Valerie; Barile, Daniela; de Moura Bell, Juliana María Leite Nobrega

    2015-01-01

    Milk is the most complete food for mammals, as it supplies all the energy and nutrients needed for the proper growth and development of the neonate. Milk is a source of many bioactive components, which not only help meeting the nutritional requirements of the consumers, but also play a relevant role in preventing various disorders. Milk-derived proteins and peptides have the potential to act as coadjuvants in conventional therapies, addressing cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders, intestinal health, and chemopreventive properties. In addition to being a source of proteins and peptides, milk contains complex oligosaccharides that possess important functions related to the newborn's development and health. Some of the health benefits attributed to milk oligosaccharides include prebiotic probifidogenic effects, antiadherence of pathogenic bacteria, and immunomodulation. This review focuses on recent findings demonstrating the biological activities of milk peptides, proteins, and oligosaccharides towards the prevention of diseases of the 21st century. Processing challenges hindering large-scale production and commercialization of those bioactive compounds have been also addressed. PMID:25789308

  17. [Use of an amino-acid-based formula in the treatment of cow's milk protein allergy and multiple food allergy syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kanny, G; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Flabbee, J; Hatahet, R; Virion, J M; Morisset, M; Guenard, L

    2002-03-01

    Food allergy to cow's milk proteins (APLV) is frequently found in young infants. Treatment is by starting an elimination diet. Different substitution products have been proposed: soya milk, partial hydrolysate of the proteins of lactoserum, powdered casein hydrolysate, hydrolysed soya and pork collagen. Allergic reactions to soya milk, hydrolysates of lactoserum proteins, powdered casein hydrolysates and hydrolysates of soya have been described. The study that we present evaluates the effect on the natural development of these allergies of a formula based on amino-acids (Neocate) in 26 patients who presented a syndrome of multiple allergies one of which was a food allergy to milk. Twenty-five of them had a severe atopic dermatitis, isolated (14 cases), or associated with gastro-intestinal troubles (6) break in the growth curve (5), anaphylactic reactions (2), one asthma (1). One child had a chronic diarrhoea associated with a weight plateau. Evaluation 2 or 3 months later showed a significant improvement of the atopic dermatitis. Return of the stature-weight growth was noted in 4 children from 5, the check in one was reported as due to a initially unrecognised allergy to gluten. The recovery of the APLV was shown by double-blind oral provocation test in 20/23 children between 11 and 37 months (22 +/- 9). Duration of administration of Neonate was between 6 to 19 months (12 + 5) months. This study confirmed the beneficial effect of the amino-acid formula on weight gain, gastro-intestinal troubles and development of atopic dermatitis. The level of recovery of APLV of 86% at the age of 2 years is better than that reported in the syndrome of multiple food allergies of 22%. The influence of this diet on the development of other food allergies remains to be evaluated.

  18. Bioactive peptides derived from human milk proteins--mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yasuaki; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2014-05-01

    Human milk contains a multitude of bioactive proteins with very diverse functions, which are beneficial for the rapidly growing neonate. The large variety of bioactivities is accomplished by the combination of bioactive proteins per se and gastrointestinal release of bioactive peptides derived from them. The bioactivities exerted by these peptides include enhancement of mineral absorption, immunomodulation, opioid, antihypertensive and antimicrobial activities. Notably, several of the activities are not attributed to the parental proteins, but exclusively to released bioactive peptides. This article reviews studies on bioactive peptides derived from major human milk proteins, such as caseins, α-lactalbumin and lactoferrin, during gastrointestinal digestion. Studies of bovine milk counterparts are also cited as a comparison.

  19. Determination of iodide and thiocyanate in powdered milk and infant formula by on-line enrichment ion chromatography with photodiode array detection.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Richard A; Anderson, David L

    2008-07-25

    Thiocyanate ranks after perchlorate as a potent inhibitor of iodide uptake by the thyroid but may be more concentrated in some food items such as milk products as to supersede perchlorate as the goitrogen of concern. A column-switching anion-exchange chromatographic method with UV spectral detection was developed to measure and confirm iodide and thiocyanate in powders of dry milk and infant formula. An aqueous solution was subjected to centrifugal ultrafiltration, the ultrafiltrate was cleaned up on a carbon solid-phase extraction column, and an aliquot was transferred to a precolumn for enrichment and subsequent injection onto an analytical column. In infant formula samples, thiocyanate was found at 2.0-5.1 mg/kg in five of seven milk-based products and was not found in the other two nor in three soy-based products tested (0.2 mg/kg LOQ); iodide was found at 0.3-1.3mg/kg (0.04 mg/kg LOQ). In 13 dry milk samples, thiocyanate was found at 27-38 mg/kg (1 mg/kg LOQ), and iodide was found at 1.8-3.2 mg/kg (0.2 mg/kg LOQ).

  20. Isolation and identification of a high molecular weight protein in sow milk.

    PubMed

    Qin, Y; Qi, N; Tang, Y; He, J; Li, X; Gu, F; Zou, S

    2015-05-01

    A high molecular weight protein (HMWP) was isolated and purified from sow milk, and some of its biochemical characteristics and biological functions were identified. The origin of HMWP was also investigated. The molecular weight of HMWP was determined to be about 115 000 and 114 800 by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration, respectively. The sequence of 10 amino acids in N-terminal of HMWP was Ala-Leu-Val-Gln-Ser-Cys-Leu-Asn-Leu-Val. The sequence was blasted against GenBank. No protein showed significant similarity with this sequence suggesting the HMWP may be novel. The result of liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) also proved HMWP could be a novel protein. By amino acid assay, HMWP was rich in glutamate (including glutamine), cysteine, glycine, aspartic acid (including asparagines) and proline. The content of hydrophobic amino acids (Ala, Val, Leu, Ile, Met, Phe and Pro) was lower at 18.59% of the total amino acids suggesting HMWP has high solubility in water. Western blots of lectins were used to identify the kinds of carbohydrate residues attached to HMWP qualitatively. The result showed that HMWP was a kind of glycoprotein containing N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuNAc), mannose (Man) and/or N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). By isoelectric focusing, HMWP pI was found to be 5.1. Compared with milk fat globule membrane protein (MFGMP) isolated from the sow milk in SDS-PAGE, MFGMP did not contain HMWP. HMWP was assumed to be a secretory milk protein. HMWP was not found in bovine, goat, rabbit or human milk in SDS-PAGE gel suggesting HMWP may be unique to sow milk. By Western blot, HMWP could be detected in sow milk, not in sow serum, which suggests it is synthesized and secreted by the mammary gland. HMWP concentrations in sows milk were the lowest in the first day of lactation, rose significantly during lactation 1 to 7 days. The HMWP content of sows milk remained relatively constant ((1.95±0.13) g/l) during lactation 7 to 20 days. HMWP significantly inhibited

  1. [Effectiveness of the use of iodized milk protein to improve girls' sufficiency with iodine].

    PubMed

    Bol'shakova, L S; Lisitsin, A B; Chernukha, I M; Zubtsov, Iu N; Litvinova, E V

    2014-01-01

    The work presents the results of the research capabilities of the use of iodized milk protein as a component of food supplement and enriched food product for the correction of iodine sufficiency in girls. Milk iodinated protein was produced by the enzyme-effective iodization of amino acid residues of cow's milk whey proteins. The study involved 30 girls, whose average age was 19.9 +/- 1.4 years. Participants of observation were divided into three groups, for 10 people each. The first group received daily serving of meat cutlets (50g), enriched with dairy iodinated protein. Iodine content in the finished minced was 100 mcg. The second group received iodinated milk protein in the form of food supplement with iodine content of 100 mcg. The third group was a control one. The duration of observations was 30 days. To assess the effectiveness of measures the concentration of iodine in urine, blood levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine have been determined, changes in cognitive processes (memory and attention) with the use of psychological tests have been evaluated. Studies have shown the effectiveness of using of iodized milk protein for the correction of iodine deficiency in girls. The use of iodized protein, as part of the enriched product and in the form of food supplement increased urinary iodine level and had a positive influence on the state of the hypophysial-thyroid system. In addition, the use of iodized milk protein helped to improve the cognitive functions of the students, which can be considered as an additional positive effect of correction of iodine deficiency.

  2. Rapid determination of melamine and cyanuric acid in milk powder using direct analysis in real time-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Rosmus, Jan; Popping, Bert; Hajslova, Jana

    2010-06-18

    The use of fast semi-automated method employing direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) for analysis of melamine (MEL) and cyanuric acid (CYA) in milk powder and milk based products has been demonstrated in this study. Simple sample extraction procedure employing methanol-5% aqueous formic acid mixture, which enabled disruption of melamine-cyanurate complex, was followed by direct, high-throughput (30s per run) examination of sample extracts spread on a glass rod by mass spectrometry under ambient conditions, without any prior chromatographic separation. After optimization of instrument parameter settings, limits of detection (LODs) 170 and 450microgkg(-1) were achieved for MEL and CYA, respectively. In the final phase of study, the possibility of minimizing spectral interference, thus improving method performance characteristics through the use of ultrahigh resolving power offered by Orbitrap based mass analyzer is demonstrated.

  3. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in bovine milk during experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the current study were to profile changes in protein composition using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) on whey samples from a group of 8 cows prior to and 18 hours after infection with Escherichia coli, and to identify differentially expressed milk proteins by peptide seq...

  4. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing on in vitro digestion of milk proteins and fats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) is increasing in popularity in the food industry. Its ability to modify milk proteins and fats suggests that it may be useful in creating foods that suppress appetite; however, its effect on the digestibility of proteins and fats is unclear. The...

  5. Multidrug transporter ABCG2/breast cancer resistance protein secretes riboflavin (vitamin B2) into milk.

    PubMed

    van Herwaarden, Antonius E; Wagenaar, Els; Merino, Gracia; Jonker, Johan W; Rosing, Hilde; Beijnen, Jos H; Schinkel, Alfred H

    2007-02-01

    The multidrug transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is strongly induced in the mammary gland during pregnancy and lactation. We here demonstrate that BCRP is responsible for pumping riboflavin (vitamin B(2)) into milk, thus supplying the young with this important nutrient. In Bcrp1(-/-) mice, milk secretion of riboflavin was reduced >60-fold compared to that in wild-type mice. Yet, under laboratory conditions, Bcrp1(-/-) pups showed no riboflavin deficiency due to concomitant milk secretion of its cofactor flavin adenine dinucleotide, which was not affected. Thus, two independent secretion mechanisms supply vitamin B(2) equivalents to milk. BCRP is the first active riboflavin efflux transporter identified in mammals and the first transporter shown to concentrate a vitamin into milk. BCRP activity elsewhere in the body protects against xenotoxins by reducing their absorption and mediating their excretion. Indeed, Bcrp1 activity increased excretion of riboflavin into the intestine and decreased its systemic availability in adult mice. Surprisingly, the paradoxical dual utilization of BCRP as a xenotoxin and a riboflavin pump is evolutionarily conserved among mammals as diverse as mice and humans. This study establishes the principle that an ABC transporter can transport a vitamin into milk and raises the possibility that other vitamins and nutrients are likewise secreted into milk by ABC transporters.

  6. Soluble Milk Protein Supplementation with Moderate Physical Activity Improves Locomotion Function in Aging Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lafoux, Aude; Baudry, Charlotte; Bonhomme, Cécile; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Huchet, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a loss of muscle mass and functional capacity. Present study was designed to compare the impact of specific dairy proteins on muscular function with or without a low-intensity physical activity program on a treadmill in an aged rat model. We investigated the effects of nutritional supplementation, five days a week over a 2-month period with a slow digestible protein, casein or fast digestible proteins, whey or soluble milk protein, on strength and locomotor parameters in sedentary or active aged Wistar RjHan rats (17–19 months of age). An extensive gait analysis was performed before and after protein supplementation. After two months of protein administration and activity program, muscle force was evaluated using a grip test, spontaneous activity using an open-field and muscular mass by specific muscle sampling. When aged rats were supplemented with proteins without exercise, only minor effects of different diets on muscle mass and locomotion were observed: higher muscle mass in the casein group and improvement of stride frequencies with soluble milk protein. By contrast, supplementation with soluble milk protein just after physical activity was more effective at improving overall skeletal muscle function in old rats compared to casein. For active old rats supplemented with soluble milk protein, an increase in locomotor activity in the open field and an enhancement of static and dynamic gait parameters compared to active groups supplemented with casein or whey were observed without any differences in muscle mass and forelimb strength. These results suggest that consumption of soluble milk protein as a bolus immediately after a low intensity physical activity may be a suitable nutritional intervention to prevent decline in locomotion in aged rats and strengthen the interest to analyze the longitudinal aspect of locomotion in aged rodents. PMID:27973615

  7. Simultaneous determination of bromine and iodine in milk powder for adult and infant nutrition by plasma based techniques after digestion using microwave-induced combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picoloto, Rochele S.; Doneda, Morgana; Flores, Eder L. M.; Mesko, Marcia F.; Flores, Erico M. M.; Mello, Paola A.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, bromine and iodine determination in milk powder for adult and infant nutrition was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after digestion by microwave-induced combustion (MIC). Contrarily to previous works using MIC, a higher sample mass was digested (700 mg). Water and ammonium hydroxide (10 to 100 mmol L- 1) were investigated as absorbing solutions and accurate results were achieved using a 25 mmol L- 1 NH4OH solution. Moreover, the high stability of analytes after digestion (up to 30 days) using this solution was observed. The accuracy of the proposed MIC method was evaluated using certified and reference materials of milk powder (NIST 1549 and NIST 8435). No statistical difference was observed between results obtained by MIC-ICP-MS and reference values. Results for samples were also compared with those obtained by ICP-OES and no statistical difference was observed. Microwave-assisted alkaline extraction (MW-AE) was also evaluated for milk powder using NH4OH and tetramethylammonium hydroxide solutions. Solutions obtained after digestion by MIC (whole milk powder) presented low carbon content in digests (< 25 mg L- 1) while solutions obtained after alkaline extraction presented up to 10,000 mg L- 1 of C. MIC method was preferable in view of the possibility of obtaining solutions with low carbon content even using a relatively high sample mass (up to 700 mg) avoiding additional dilution prior to ICP-MS analysis, thus allowing better detection limits. Limits of detection obtained by MIC-ICP-MS were 0.007 and 0.003 μg g- 1 for Br and I, respectively, while for MW-AE were 0.1 and 0.05 μg g- 1 respectively for Br and I. Among the main advantages of the proposed method are the use of diluted alkaline solutions that is in agreement with green analytical chemistry recommendations, the high stability of analytes in solution and the suitability of digests for

  8. Lactobacillus gasseri requires peptides, not proteins or free amino acids, for growth in milk.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, K; Matsunaga, K; Takihiro, S; Moritoki, A; Ryuto, S; Kawai, Y; Masuda, T; Miyamoto, T

    2015-03-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri is a widespread commensal lactic acid bacterium inhabiting human mucosal niches and has many beneficial effects as a probiotic. However, L. gasseri is difficult to grow in milk, which hurts usability for the food industry. It had been previously reported that supplementation with yeast extract or proteose peptone, including peptides, enables L. gasseri to grow well in milk. In this study, our objective was to confirm peptide requirement of L. gasseri and evaluate efficacy of peptide release by enzymatic proteolysis on growth of L. gassei in milk. Three strains of L. gasseri did not grow well in modified DeMan, Rogosa, Sharpe broth without any nitrogen sources (MRS-N), but addition of a casein-derived peptide mixture, tryptone, promoted growth. In contrast, little effect was observed after adding casein or a casein-derived amino acid mixture, casamino acids. These results indicate that L. gasseri requires peptides, not proteins or free amino acids, among milk-derived nitrogen sources for growth. Lactobacillus gasseri JCM 1131T hardly had growth capacity in 6 kinds of milk-based media: bovine milk, human milk, skim milk, cheese whey, modified MRS-N (MRSL-N) supplemented with acid whey, and MRSL-N supplemented with casein. Moreover, treatment with digestive proteases, particularly pepsin, to release peptides made it grow well in each milk-based medium. The pepsin treatment was the most effective for growth of strain JCM 1131T in skim milk among the tested food-grade proteases such as trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, calf rennet, ficin, bromelain, and papain. As well as strain JCM 1131T, pepsinolysis of milk improved growth of other L. gasseri strains and some strains of enteric lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus reuteri. These results suggest that some relatives of L. gasseri also use peptides as desirable nitrogen sources, and that milk may be a good supplier of nutritious

  9. Effect of homogenization and pasteurization on the structure and stability of whey protein in milk.

    PubMed

    Qi, Phoebe X; Ren, Daxi; Xiao, Yingping; Tomasula, Peggy M

    2015-05-01

    The effect of homogenization alone or in combination with high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization or UHT processing on the whey fraction of milk was investigated using highly sensitive spectroscopic techniques. In pilot plant trials, 1-L quantities of whole milk were homogenized in a 2-stage homogenizer at 35°C (6.9 MPa/10.3 MPa) and, along with skim milk, were subjected to HTST pasteurization (72°C for 15 s) or UHT processing (135°C for 2 s). Other whole milk samples were processed using homogenization followed by either HTST pasteurization or UHT processing. The processed skim and whole milk samples were centrifuged further to remove fat and then acidified to pH 4.6 to isolate the corresponding whey fractions, and centrifuged again. The whey fractions were then purified using dialysis and investigated using the circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared, and Trp intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. Results demonstrated that homogenization combined with UHT processing of milk caused not only changes in protein composition but also significant secondary structural loss, particularly in the amounts of apparent antiparallel β-sheet and α-helix, as well as diminished tertiary structural contact. In both cases of homogenization alone and followed by HTST treatments, neither caused appreciable chemical changes, nor remarkable secondary structural reduction. But disruption was evident in the tertiary structural environment of the whey proteins due to homogenization of whole milk as shown by both the near-UV circular dichroism and Trp intrinsic fluorescence. In-depth structural stability analyses revealed that even though processing of milk imposed little impairment on the secondary structural stability, the tertiary structural stability of whey protein was altered significantly. The following order was derived based on these studies: raw whole>HTST, homogenized, homogenized and pasteurized>skimmed and pasteurized, and skimmed UHT

  10. Food allergy and the potential allergenicity-antigenicity of microparticulated egg and cow's milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Sampson, H A; Cooke, S K

    1990-08-01

    Approximately 3-4 million Americans experience food allergic reactions at some time in their lives. In the pediatric population, eggs and milk are most frequently implicated in food allergic reactions. The most well-understood adverse reactions to foods are secondary to the development of IgE antibodies to specific food antigens. Once an individual becomes sensitized (i.e., makes specific IgE antibodies), ingestion of the food may lead to a variety of cutaneous, respiratory, and/or gastrointestinal symptoms, and anaphylactic shock. The use of SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analyses with sera from documented food allergic patients provide a very sensitive indicator of the antigenic/allergic composition of various foods. As demonstrated in a study of infant formulas of hydrolyzed cow's milk protein, the absence of demonstrable bands on SDS-PAGE gels and immunoblots correlates with an inability to provoke an allergic response. In addition, it was demonstrated that SDS-PAGE with silver staining could detect protein fractions at a concentration of 50-100 ng/ml, a concentration below which allergic individuals are unlikely to react. These studies confirmed that patients clinically allergic to egg and/or cow's milk possess IgE and IgG antibodies to protein fractions in egg and cow's milk, as well as the microparticulated egg/cow's milk proteins, Simplesse and Beta IL. Compared to egg and cow's milk, there is no evidence that the Simplesse or Beta IL test materials possess any "novel" protein fractions or antigens. In addition, there is no evidence that these microparticulated proteins result in increased immunologic activity, as determined by the intensity of protein band staining.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Aerosolization properties, surface composition and physical state of spray-dried protein powders.

    PubMed

    Bosquillon, Cynthia; Rouxhet, Paul G; Ahimou, François; Simon, Denis; Culot, Christine; Préat, Véronique; Vanbever, Rita

    2004-10-19

    Powder aerosols made of albumin, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and a protein stabilizer (lactose, trehalose or mannitol) were prepared by spray-drying and analyzed for aerodynamic behavior, surface composition and physical state. The powders exited a Spinhaler inhaler as particle aggregates, the size of which depending on composition, spray-drying parameters and airflow rate. However, due to low bulk powder tap density (<0.15 g/cm3), the aerodynamic size of a large fraction of aggregates remained respirable (<5 microm). Fine particle fractions ranged between 21% and 41% in an Andersen cascade impactor operated at 28.3 l/min, with mannitol and lactose providing the most cohesive and free-flowing powders, respectively. Particle surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed a surface enrichment with DPPC relative to albumin for powders prepared under certain spray-drying conditions. DPPC self-organized in a gel phase in the particle and no sugar or mannitol crystals were detected by X-ray diffraction. Water sorption isotherms showed that albumin protected lactose from moisture-induced crystallization. In conclusion, a proper combination of composition and spray-drying parameters allowed to obtain dry powders with elevated fine particle fractions (FPFs) and a physical environment favorable to protein stability.

  12. Effect of Milk Proteins on Adhesion of Bacteria to Stainless Steel Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, L.-M.; Lo, M. F.; Adams, M. R.; Chamberlain, A. H. L.

    1999-01-01

    Stainless steel coupons were treated with skim milk and subsequently challenged with individual bacterial suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas fragi, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Serratia marcescens. The numbers of attached bacteria were determined by direct epifluorescence microscopy and compared with the attachment levels on clean stainless steel with two different surface finishes. Skim milk was found to reduce adhesion of S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, and S. marcescens. P. fragi and E. coli attached in very small numbers to the clear surfaces, making the effect of any adsorbed protein layer difficult to assess. Individual milk proteins α-casein, β-casein, κ-casein, and α-lactalbumin were also found to reduce the adhesion of S. aureus and L. monocytogenes. The adhesion of bacteria to samples treated with milk dilutions up to 0.001% was investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine the proportion of nitrogen in the adsorbed films. Attached bacterial numbers were inversely related to the relative atomic percentage of nitrogen on the surface. A comparison of two types of stainless steel surface, a 2B and a no. 8 mirror finish, indicated that the difference in these levels of surface roughness did not greatly affect bacterial attachment, and reduction in adhesion to a milk-treated surface was still observed. Cross-linking of adsorbed proteins partially reversed the inhibition of bacterial attachment, indicating that protein chain mobility and steric exclusion may be important in this phenomenon. PMID:10508087

  13. A peptidomic analysis of human milk digestion in the infant stomach reveals protein-specific degradation patterns.

    PubMed

    Dallas, David C; Guerrero, Andrés; Khaldi, Nora; Borghese, Robyn; Bhandari, Aashish; Underwood, Mark A; Lebrilla, Carlito B; German, J Bruce; Barile, Daniela

    2014-06-01

    In vitro digestion of isolated milk proteins results in milk peptides with a variety of actions. However, it remains unclear to what degree protein degradation occurs in vivo in the infant stomach and whether peptides previously annotated for bioactivity are released. This study combined nanospray LC separation with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, comprehensive structural libraries, and informatics to analyze milk from 3 human mothers and the gastric aspirates from their 4- to 12-d-old postpartum infants. Milk from the mothers contained almost 200 distinct peptides, demonstrating enzymatic degradation of milk proteins beginning either during lactation or between milk collection and feeding. In the gastric samples, 649 milk peptides were identified, demonstrating that digestion continues in the infant stomach. Most peptides in both the intact milk and gastric samples were derived from β-casein. The numbers of peptides from β-casein, lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, lactadherin, κ-casein, serum albumin, bile salt-associated lipase, and xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase were significantly higher in the gastric samples than in the milk samples (P < 0.05). A total of 603 peptides differed significantly in abundance between milk and gastric samples (P < 0.05). Most of the identified peptides have previously identified biologic activity. Gastric proteolysis occurs in the term infant in the first 2 wk of life, releasing biologically active milk peptides with immunomodulatory and antibacterial properties of clinical relevance to the proximal intestinal tract. Data are available via ProteomeXchange (identifier PXD000688).

  14. Development of a certified reference material (NMIJ CRM 7512-a) for the determination of trace elements in milk powder.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanbei; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Miyashita, Shin-ichi; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Inagaki, Kazumi; Chiba, Koichi; Hioki, Akiharu

    2013-01-01

    A certified reference material (CRM), NMIJ CRM 7512-a, was developed for the determination of trace elements in milk powder. At least three independent analytical methods were applied to characterize the certified value of each element; all of these analytical methods were based on microwave acid digestions and carried out using different analytical instruments. The certified value was given on a dry-mass basis, where the dry-mass correction factor was obtained by drying the sample at 65°C for 15 to 25 h. The certified values in the units of mass fractions for 13 elements were as follows: Ca, 8.65 (0.38) g kg(-1); Fe, 0.104 (0.007) g kg(-1); K, 8.41 (0.33) g kg(-1); Mg, 0.819 (0.024) g kg(-1); Na, 1.87 (0.09) g kg(-1); P, 5.62 (0.23) g kg(-1); Ba, 0.449 (0.013) mg kg(-1); Cu, 4.66 (0.23) mg kg(-1); Mn, 0.931 (0.032) mg kg(-1); Mo, 0.223 (0.012) mg kg(-1); Rb, 8.93 (0.31) mg kg(-1); Sr, 5.88 (0.20) mg kg(-1); and Zn, 41.3 (1.4) mg kg(-1), where the numbers in the parentheses are the expanded uncertainties with a coverage factor of 2. The expanded uncertainties were estimated considering the contribution of the analytical methods, the method-to-method variance, the sample homogeneity, the dry-mass correction factor, and the concentrations of the standard solutions for calibration. The concentrations of As (2.1 μg kg(-1)), Cd (0.2 μg kg(-1)), Cr (1.3 μg kg(-1)), Pb (0.3 μg kg(-1)), and Y (64 μg kg(-1)) were given as information values for the present CRM.

  15. Effect of κ-casein B relative content in bulk milk κ-casein on Montasio, Asiago, and Caciotta cheese yield using milk of similar protein composition.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Cecchinato, A; Di Martino, G; De Marchi, M; Gallo, L; Carnier, P

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect exerted by the relative content of κ-casein (κ-CN) B in bulk milk κ-CN on coagulation properties and cheese yield of 3 Italian cheese varieties (Montasio, Asiago, and Caciotta). Twenty-four cheese-making experiments were carried out in 2 industrial and 1 small-scale dairy plant. Detailed protein composition of bulk milk of 380 herds providing milk to these dairies was analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC. To obtain 2 experimental milks differing in the relative content of κ-CN B in κ-CN, herds were selected on the basis of bulk milk protein composition and relative content of κ-CN genetic variants. Milk was collected and processed separately for the 2 groups of selected herds. A difference of 20% in the relative content of κ-CN B in κ-CN was obtained for the 2 experimental milks for Montasio and a difference of 15% for Asiago and Caciotta. The 2 experimental milks were of similar protein and CN content, casein number, pH, CN composition, and β-CN genetic composition. For each cheese-making trial, amounts of milk, ranging from 2,000 to 6,000kg, were manufactured. Each vat contained milk collected at least from 4 dairy herds. Cheese yield after brining and at the end of the aging was recorded. Milk with a greater proportion of κ-CN B in κ-CN (HIGHB) exhibited similar coagulation properties and greater cheese yield compared with milk with a lower proportion of κ-CN B in κ-CN (LOWB). The increased cheese yield observed for HIGHB when manufacturing Montasio cheese was ascribed to a greater fat content compared with LOWB. The probability of HIGHB giving a cheese yield 5% greater than that of LOWB ranged from 51 to 67% for Montasio cheese, but was less than 21% for Asiago and Caciotta cheeses. Variation in relative content of κ-CN B in κ-CN content did not relevantly affect industrial cheese yield when milks of similar CN composition were processed. An indirect effect due to the increased κ-CN content of κ

  16. Proteomic Profiling Comparing the Effects of Different Heat Treatments on Camel (Camelus dromedarius) Milk Whey Proteins.

    PubMed

    Benabdelkamel, Hicham; Masood, Afshan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O; Alzahrani, Dunia A; Alrabiah, Deema K; AlYahya, Sami A; Alfadda, Assim A

    2017-03-28

    Camel milk is consumed in the Middle East because of its high nutritional value. Traditional heating methods and the duration of heating affect the protein content and nutritional quality of the milk. We examined the denaturation of whey proteins in camel milk by assessing the effects of temperature on the whey protein profile at room temperature (RT), moderate heating at 63 °C, and at 98 °C, for 1 h. The qualitative and quantitative variations in the whey proteins before and after heat treatments were determined using quantitative 2D-difference in gel electrophoresis (DIGE)-mass spectrometry. Qualitative gel image analysis revealed a similar spot distribution between samples at RT and those heated at 63 °C, while the spot distribution between RT and samples heated at 98 °C differed. One hundred sixteen protein spots were determined to be significantly different (p < 0.05 and a fold change of ≥1.2) between the non-heated and heated milk samples. Eighty protein spots were decreased in common in both the heat-treated samples and an additional 25 spots were further decreased in the 98 °C sample. The proteins with decreased abundance included serum albumin, lactadherin, fibrinogen β and γ chain, lactotransferrin, active receptor type-2A, arginase-1, glutathione peroxidase-1 and, thiopurine S, etc. Eight protein spots were increased in common to both the samples when compared to RT and included α-lactalbumin, a glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule. Whey proteins present in camel milk were less affected by heating at 63 °C than at 98 °C. This experimental study showed that denaturation increased significantly as the temperature increased from 63 to 98 °C.

  17. Detection of melamine in milk powders using Near-Infrared Hyperspectral imaging combined with regression coefficient of partial least square regression model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Illegal use of nitrogen-rich melamine (C3H6N6) to boost perceived protein content of food products such as milk, infant formula, frozen yogurt, pet food, biscuits, and coffee drinks has caused serious food safety problems. Conventional methods to detect melamine in foods, such as Enzyme-linked immun...

  18. Proteomic profiling of camel and cow milk proteins under heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Felfoul, Imène; Jardin, Julien; Gaucheron, Frédéric; Attia, Hamadi; Ayadi, M A

    2017-02-01

    Cow and camel milk proteins before and after heat treatment at 80°C for 60min were identified using LC/MS and LC-MS/MS following monodimensional electrophoresis. The database used for the identification of camel and cow proteins was set from http://www.uniprot.org/. The obtained results showed that, after heating, camel milk at 80°C for 60min, camel α-lactalbumin (α-la) and peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) were not detected while camel serum albumin (CSA) was significantly diminished. When heating cow milk at 80°C for 60min, α-lactalbumin (α-la) and β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) were not significantly detected. Moreover, 19 protein bands from SDS-PAGE were analyzed and a total of 45 different proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS. Casein fractions were kept intact under a heat treatment of 80°C during 60min of both camel and cow milks. Camel and bovine whey proteins were affected by a heat treatment of 80°C for 60min.

  19. Milk proteins as a source of tryptophan-containing bioactive peptides.

    PubMed

    Nongonierma, Alice B; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2015-07-01

    Tryptophan (W) is an essential amino acid which is primarily required for protein synthesis. It also acts as a precursor of key biomolecules for human health (serotonin, melatonin, tryptamine, niacin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), phosphorylated NAD (NADP), quinolinic acid, kynureric acid, etc.). Among dietary proteins, milk proteins are particularly rich in W. W residues within milk proteins may be released by proteolytic/peptidolytic enzymes either as a free amino acid or as part of peptide sequences. Different W-containing peptides originating from milk proteins have been shown in vitro to display a wide range of bioactivities such as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition along with antioxidant, antidiabetic and satiating related properties. Free W has been shown in certain instances to have an effect on cognition and the aforementioned bioactive properties. However, a higher bioactive potency has generally been observed with specific W-containing peptides compared to free W. Since W is thermolabile, the impact of processing on the stability of W-containing peptides needs to be considered. Milk protein-derived W-containing peptides may have significant potential as natural health promoting agents in humans.

  20. Effects of a supra-sustained gelatin-milk protein diet compared with (supra-)sustained milk protein diets on body-weight loss.

    PubMed

    Hochstenbach-Waelen, Ananda; Soenen, Stijn; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2011-05-01

    Diets higher in protein content result in increased satiety and energy expenditure. In the short term, gelatin showed stronger hunger suppression and less subsequent energy intake compared with other proteins. The present study investigated whether a supra-sustained gelatin-milk protein (GMP) diet promotes weight loss compared with a sustained milk protein (SMP) diet and a supra-sustained milk protein (SSMP) diet during an 8-week diet period. A total of seventy-two healthy subjects (31·2 (sd 4·8) kg/m2; 43 (sd 10) years) followed one of the three diets in a subject-specific amount: SMP, SSMP or GMP diet. During weeks 1-4, energy intake was 100 % of individual energy requirement: 10, 40 and 50 % of energy (En %) as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SMP diet), and 20, 30 and 50 En % as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SSMP diet or GMP diet). During weeks 5-8, energy intake was 33 % of individual energy requirement: 30, 35 and 35 En % as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SMP diet), and 60, 5 and 35 En % as protein, fat and carbohydrate, respectively (SSMP diet or GMP diet). Thus, absolute protein intake was kept constant throughout per subject. Significant decreases in BMI (P < 0·0001) were similar between the GMP ( - 1·7 (sd 0·5) kg/m2) and the SMP ( - 2·1 (sd 0·8) kg/m2) and SSMP ( - 1·6 (sd 0·5) kg/m2) diets. Decreases in fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM) and FM %, and increases in FFM % were similar between the GMP and both control diets. Changes in RQ differed (P < 0·05) between the GMP ( - 0·01 (sd 0·06)) and SSMP ( - 0·04 (sd 0·04)) diets. Changes in HDL concentrations differed (P < 0·05) between the GMP ( - 0·21 (sd 0·18) mmol/l) and the SMP and SSMP diets ( - 0·08 (sd 0·18) mmol/l and - 0·09 (sd 0·26) mmol/l, respectively). In conclusion, a gelatin-milk protein diet does not induce more beneficial effects during an 8-week weight-loss period compared with a SMP or

  1. Effect of two pasteurization methods on the protein content of human milk.

    PubMed

    Baro, Cristina; Giribaldi, Marzia; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Dellavalle, Giuseppina; Conti, Amedeo; Tonetto, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Coscia, Alessandra; Fabris, Claudio; Moro, Guido Eugenio; Cavallarin, Laura; Bertino, Enrico

    2011-06-01

    The Holder method is the recommended pasteurization method for human milk banks, as it ensures the microbiological safety of human milk (HM). The loss of some biologically active milk components, due to the heat treatment, is a main limit to the diffusion of donor HM. High-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization may be an alternative to maintain the nutritional and immunological quality of HM. The aim of the present study was to compare the impact of Holder and HTST pasteurization on the HM protein profile. The protein patterns of HTST-treated milk and raw milk were similar. The Holder method modified bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin and components of the immune system. The HTST method preserved the integrity of bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin and, to some extent, of IgAs. Holder pasteurization decreased the amount of bile salt-stimulated lipase and inactivated the remaining molecules, while the HTST method did not alter its activity. Pasteurization increased the bioavailable lysine quantity. HTST pasteurization seems to better retain the protein profile and some of the key active components of donor HM.

  2. Potential clinical applications of multi-functional milk proteins and peptides in cancer management.

    PubMed

    Chen, H Y F; Mollstedt, O; Tsai, Men-Hwei; Kreider, R B

    2014-01-01

    The progression of cancer involves multiple changes that alter intracellular signaling to promote cell proliferation. Subsequent remodeling of the tumor microenvironment enhances metastasis by manipulating the immune system. Research in the past decade has shown that milk proteins and peptides are often multi-functional, exerting activities such as anti-microbial, immunomodulatory, cancer cell apoptosis, anti-metastasis, and antioxidant effects. Several milk-derived biologics, such as HAMLET (human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) and the human recombinant form of lactoferrin, already demonstrated promising results in clinical trials. Lactoferricin peptide analogs are in early clinical development as antimicrobial agents and cancer immunotherapies. In addition, milk proteins and peptides are well tolerated and many exhibit oral bioavailability; thus they may complement standard therapies to boost overall success in cancer treatments. Lactoferrin, colostrum, and specific milk-derived peptide fractions are currently being developed as clinical nutrition for cancer prevention and chemotherapy protection. This review highlights the potential applications of milk proteins and peptides as pharmaceutical drug candidates and clinical nutrition in the overall management of cancer.

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF PROTEIN FRACTIONS OF MILK COWS CASEIN COMPLEX.

    PubMed

    Iukalo, A V

    2015-01-01

    To date, dozens of biologically active peptides formed during proteolysis of casein fractions have been discovered. The use of these peptides is closely related to the necessity of their rapid identification. The aim of this work was the development of an electrophoresis system for rapid identification of individual fractions in serial studies and the separation of the milk casein complex. Considering the abnormal nature of the interaction of caseins with the sodium dodecyl sulfate and similar values of their molecular masses, the anode electrophoresis system in a homogeneous polyacrylamide gel was taken as a basis. Caseins, in this system, are separated according to their charge and located on the electrophoregram in accordance with the modern classification. Urea was used as a disaggregating agent in gel. It was shown that the use of Studier type apparatus for electrophoresis with changeable dimensions of electrophoretic chamber significantly reduces (to 45 min) the time for identification of casein fractions. This method may be useful for rapid identification of casein fractions, as well as for rapid analysis of natural milk and milk products.

  4. Manufacture of modified milk protein concentrate utilizing injection of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Marella, Chenchaiah; Salunke, P; Biswas, A C; Kommineni, A; Metzger, L E

    2015-06-01

    Dried milk protein concentrate is produced from skim milk using a combination of processes such as ultrafiltration (UF), evaporation or nanofiltration, and spray drying. It is well established that dried milk protein concentrate (MPC) that contains 80% (MPC80) and greater protein content (relative to dry matter) can lose solubility during storage as a result of protein-protein interactions and formation of insoluble complexes. Previous studies have shown that partial replacement of calcium with sodium improves MPC80 functionality and prevents the loss in solubility during storage. Those studies have used pH adjustment with the addition of acids, addition of monovalent salts, or ion exchange treatment of UF retentate. The objective of this study was to use carbon dioxide to produce MPC80 with improved functionality. In this study, reduced-calcium MPC80 (RCMPC) was produced from skim milk that was subjected to injection of 2,200 ppm of CO2 before UF, along with additional CO2 injection at a flow rate of 1.5 to 2 L/min during UF. A control MPC80 (CtrlMPC) was also produced from the same lot of skim milk without injection of CO2. The above processes were replicated 3 times, using different lots of skim milk for each replication. All the UF retentates were spray dried using a pilot-scale dryer. Skim milk and UF retentates were tested for ζ-potential (net negative charge), particle size, and viscosity. All the MPC were stored at room (22±1°C) and elevated (40°C) temperatures for 6 mo. Solubility was measured by dissolving the dried MPC in water at 22°C and at 10°C (cold solubility). Injection of CO2 and the resultant solubilization of calcium phosphate had a significant effect on UF performance, resulting in 10 and 20% loss in initial and average flux, respectively. Processing of skim milk with injection of CO2 also resulted in higher irreversible fouling resistances. Compared with control, the reduced-calcium MPC had 28 and 34% less ash and calcium, respectively

  5. EFFECT OF ABOMASAL INFUSION OF FORMATE ON MILK PROTEIN OF COWS FED A METHIONINE-DEFICIENT DIET

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon from formate is transferred to the methyl group of Met in milk protein via the folate cycle. We hypothesized that post-ruminal formate infusion to dairy cows would partially compensate for dietary Met deficiency and enhance milk protein production. Six midlactation cows were used in a balance...

  6. Stability of whey protein hydrolysate powders: effects of relative humidity and temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Liu, Dasong; Chen, Xiaoxia; Chen, Yingjia; Labuza, Theodore P

    2014-05-01

    Whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) is now considered as an important and special dairy protein ingredient for its nutritional and functional properties. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of environmental relative humidity (RH) and storage temperature on the physicochemical stability of three WPH powders with hydrolysis degrees (DH) of 5.2%, 8.8% and 14.9%, respectively. The water sorption isotherms of the three WPH powders fitted the Guggenheim-Andersson-DeBoer model well. An increase in water content leaded to a decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg), following a linear Tg vs log water content relationship. Moreover, an increase in DH caused the decrease in Tg at the same water content. Changes in microstructure and colour occurred significantly when the WPH powders were stored at high environmental RH or temperature, especially for those with high DH.

  7. Sensitive determination of melamine in milk and powdered infant formula samples by high-performance liquid chromatography using dabsyl chloride derivatization followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Faraji, M; Adeli, M

    2017-04-15

    A new and sensitive pre-column derivatization with dabsyl chloride followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the analysis of melamine (MEL) in raw milk and powdered infant formula samples by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with visible detection. Derivatization with dabsyl chloride leads to improving sensitivity and hydrophobicity of MEL. Under optimum conditions of derivatization and microextraction steps, the method yielded a linear calibration curve ranging from 1.0 to 500μgL(-1) with a determination coefficient (R(2)) of 0.9995. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.1 and 0.3μgL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD%) for intra-day (repeatability) and inter-day (reproducibility) at 25 and 100μgL(-1) levels of MEL was less than 7.0% (n=6). Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the preconcentration and determination of MEL in different raw milk and powdered infant formula, and satisfactory results were obtained (relative recovery ⩾94%).

  8. Optimized extraction method for LC-MS determination of bisphenol A, melamine and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in selected soft drinks, syringes, and milk powder.

    PubMed

    Khedr, Alaa

    2013-07-01

    Described below is an optimized solid-phase extraction method (SPE) for the simultaneous determination of three hazardous plastic additives. Two high-performance liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric (HPLC-ESI-MS) methods were developed and validated to estimate the melamine (MEL), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and bisphenol A (BPA) contents in drinking water, syringes, soft drinks, and dry milk powder. One extraction procedure optimally recovered all three substances from the different matrices. Two extraction columns were combined and included a silica gel LiChroprep RP-2 column (20:1, g/g, top column) and a Sep-Pak with a C18 column (500mg, bottom column). The analytical column was an Agilent Eclipse XDB-C8 column, 4.6mm×150mm, 5μm, maintained at 50±2°C. MEL and DEHP were monitored by positive triple quad mass spectrometry (TQ-MS) using an acidic mobile phase, while BPA was monitored by negative TQ-MS using a mobile phase containing a 0.05% ammonia solution. The general linear range of the three compounds ranged from 12 to 1000pg/μL in the injected solution (25μL). The average extraction recoveries were within the range of 83.0-102.5%. Relatively high concentrations of BPA and DEHP were found in the milk powder and sterile syringes.

  9. Application of mass spectrometry for the detection of glycation and oxidation products in milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Meltretter, Jasmin; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2008-04-01

    Protein mass spectometry techniques, such as electrospray ionization mass spectrometry or matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), are effective methods to screen for protein modifications derived from the Maillard reaction. The analysis of the intact proteins reveals the major modification, most commonly the Amadori product, whereas partial enzymatic hydrolysis prior to mass spectrometry additionally allows the detection of minor adducts. Therefore, a mass spectrometric method was developed for the analysis of whey protein modifications occurring during heat treatment. The two main whey proteins, alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin, were incubated with lactose in a milk model and modifications were recorded using MALDI-TOF-MS. The analysis of the intact proteins revealed protein species with 0-4 lactulosyl residues. Partial enzymatic hydrolysis with endoproteinase AspN prior to mass spectrometric analysis enabled the detection of further modifications and their localization in the amino acid sequence. Detected modifications were lactulosyllysine, N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine, lysine aldehyde, methionine sulfoxide, cyclization of N-terminal glutamic acid to a pyrrolidone, and oxidation of cysteine or tryptophan. Protein modifications in heated milk and commercially available dairy products can be analyzed after the separation of the milk proteins using one-dimensional SDS-PAGE.

  10. Allergen profiles of natural rubber latex (NRL) proteins on gloves and glove powders.

    PubMed

    Tomazic-Jezic, Vesna J; Sanchez, B A

    2005-01-01

    The contributing role of glove powder in sensitization to natural rubber latex (NRL) proteins has been well documented in laboratory studies and through clinical evaluations. However, the quantitative relationship of the respiratory and topical exposures in the sensitization process remains unknown because the relative levels of protein on the glove powders in relation to the total levels of protein on NRL gloves have not been determined. In NRL allergens--Hev b 1, Hev b 3, Hev b 5, and Hev b 6.02--on randomly selected surgical and examination NRL gloves. We also examined the binding pattern of the four allergens to several glove powders that showed a different affinity to NRL proteins. The level of powder-bound protein was determined by the ELISA Inhibition Assay (ASTM D6499 standard method). Two cross-linked corn starch powders, one sample of cooking corn starch and one oat starch sample, were exposed to ammoniated (AL) or nonammoniated (NAL) raw NRL protein extracts. The levels of individual allergens were determined using the NRL allergen kit. In the NRL glove extracts we observed a wide range in the total allergen levels and a great diversity in the proportion of the four allergens. On the other hand, the evaluated starches had similar ratios of four individual allergens, regardless of the differences in their total allergen levels. The exposure of starches to NRL proteins with different allergen profiles did not affect the allergen ratio. All samples demonstrated a selective affinity for binding Hev b 1 and Hev b 5 allergens and a lesser affinity for the Hev b 6.02 allergen. Allergen Hev b 6.02 made up about 60% of the total allergen in the NAL extract, but only 12-30% of Hev b 6.02 was bound to starches. In contrast, there was only 3-7% of Hev b 1 allergen in the NAL extract, but powders had 35-45% of Hev b 1. These findings indicate that allergenic properties of NRL gloves and respective glove powders may be different.

  11. Severe Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome to Cow's Milk in Infants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Geng, Lanlan; Xu, Zhaohui; Chen, Peiyu; Friesen, Craig A; Gong, Sitang; Li, Ding-You

    2015-12-22

    Cow's milk is the most common cause of food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES). The aim of this study was to examine the clinical features and treatment outcomes of infants with severe FPIES to cow's milk. We reviewed all infants ≤ 12 months of age who were hospitalized and diagnosed with severe FPIES to cow's milk between 1 January 2011 and 31 August 2014 in a tertiary Children's Medical Center in China. Patients' clinical features, feeding patterns, laboratory tests, and treatment outcomes were reviewed. A total of 12 infants met the inclusion criteria. All infants presented with diarrhea, edema, and hypoalbuminemia. Other main clinical manifestations included regurgitation/vomiting, skin rashes, low-grade fever, bloody and/or mucous stools, abdominal distention, and failure to thrive. They had clinical remission with resolution of diarrhea and significant increase of serum albumin after elimination of cow's milk protein (CMP) from the diet. The majority of infants developed tolerance to the CMP challenge test after 12 months of avoidance. In conclusion, we reported the clinical experience of 12 infants with severe FPIES to cow's milk, which resulted in malnutrition, hypoproteinemia, and failure to thrive. Prompt treatment with CMP-free formula is effective and leads to clinical remission of FPIES in infants.

  12. Transfer of protein antigens into milk after intravenous injection into lactating mice

    SciTech Connect

    Harmatz, P.R.; Hanson, D.G.; Walsh, M.K.; Kleinman, R.E.; Bloch, K.J.; Walker, W.A.

    1986-08-01

    We investigated the transfer of bovine serum /sup 125/I-albumin (/sup 125/I-BSA), bovine /sup 125/I-gamma-globulin (/sup 125/I-BGG), /sup 125/I-ovalbumin (/sup 125/I-OVA), and /sup 125/I-beta-lactoglobulin (/sup 125/I-BLG) from the blood into the milk of lactating mice. Equal amounts (by weight) of the radiolabeled proteins were injected intravenously into mice 1 wk postpartum. Total radioactivity, trichloroacetic acid-precipitable radioactivity, and specifically immunoprecipitable radioactivity were measured in serum, mammary gland homogenate, and milk. Clearance of immunoreactive OVA (iOVA) and iBLG from the circulation was more rapid than iBSA and iBGG. The radioactivity in mammary tissue associated with BSA and BGG was greater than 70% immunoprecipitable throughout the 4-h test interval; /sup 125/I-OVA and /sup 125/I-BLG were less than 12% precipitable 1 and 4 h after injection. In milk obtained at 4 h, there was an approximately 10-fold greater accumulation of iBSA or iBGG than of iOVA or iBLG. These experiments demonstrate that protein antigens differ in their ability to transfer from maternal circulation into milk. The transfer into milk appeared to be in proportion to persistence of the antigens in the maternal circulation.

  13. Effect of homogenization and heat treatment on the behavior of protein and fat globules during gastric digestion of milk.

    PubMed

    Ye, Aiqian; Cui, Jian; Dalgleish, Douglas; Singh, Harjinder

    2017-01-01

    The effects of homogenization and heat treatment on the formation and the breakdown of clots during gastric digestion of whole milk were investigated using a human gastric simulator. Homogenization and heat treatment led to formation of coagula with fragmented and crumbled structures compared with the coagulum formed from raw whole milk, but a larger fraction of the protein and more fat globules were incorporated into the coagula induced by action of the milk-clotting enzyme pepsin. The fat globules in the whole milk appeared to be embedded in the clots as they formed. After formation of the clot, the greater numbers of pores in the structures of the clots formed with homogenized milk and heated whole milk led to greater rates of protein hydrolysis by pepsin, which resulted in faster release of fat globules from the clots into the digesta. Coalescence of fat globules occurred both in the digesta and within the protein clots no matter whether they were in homogenized or heated milk samples. The formation of clots with different structures and hence the changes in the rates of protein hydrolysis and the release of milk fat into the digesta in the stomach provide important information for understanding the gastric emptying of milk and the potential to use this knowledge to manipulate the bioavailability of fat and other fat-soluble nutrients in dairy products.

  14. Amaltheys: A fluorescence-based analyzer to assess cheese milk denatured whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Lacotte, Pierre; Gomez, Franck; Bardeau, Floriane; Muller, Sabine; Acharid, Abdelhaq; Quervel, Xavier; Trossat, Philippe; Birlouez-Aragon, Inès

    2015-10-01

    The cheese industry faces many challenges to optimize cheese yield and quality. A very precise standardization of the cheese milk is needed, which is achieved by a fine control of the process and milk composition. Thorough analysis of protein composition is important to determine the amount of protein that will be retained in the curd or lost in the whey. The fluorescence-based Amaltheys analyzer (Spectralys Innovation, Romainville, France) was developed to assess pH 4.6-soluble heat-sensitive whey proteins (sWP*) in 5 min. These proteins are those that can be denatured upon heat-treatment and further retained in the curd after coagulation. Monitoring of sWP* in milk and subsequent adaptation of the process is a reliable solution to achieve stable cheese yield and quality. Performance of the method was evaluated by an accredited laboratory on a 0 to 7 g/L range. Accuracy compared with the reference Kjeldahl method is also provided with a standard error of 0.25 g/L. Finally, a 4-mo industrial trial in a cheese plant is described, where Amaltheys was used as a process analytical technology to monitor sWP* content in ingredients and final cheese milk. Calibration models over quality parameters of final cheese were also built from near-infrared and fluorescence spectroscopic data. The Amaltheys analyzer was found to be a rapid, compact, and accurate device to help implementation of standardization procedures in the dairy industry.

  15. Proteolytic activity of Enterococcus faecalis VB63F for reduction of allergenicity of bovine milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Biscola, V; Tulini, F L; Choiset, Y; Rabesona, H; Ivanova, I; Chobert, J-M; Todorov, S D; Haertlé, T; Franco, B D G M

    2016-07-01

    With the aim of screening proteolytic strains of lactic acid bacteria to evaluate their potential for the reduction of allergenicity of the major bovine milk proteins, we isolated a new proteolytic strain of Enterococcus faecalis (Ent. faecalis VB63F) from raw bovine milk. The proteases produced by this strain had strong activity against caseins (αS1-, αS2-, and β-casein), in both skim milk and sodium caseinate. However, only partial hydrolysis of whey proteins was observed. Proteolysis of Na-caseinate and whey proteins, observed after sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, was confirmed by analysis of peptide profiles by reversed-phase HPLC. Inhibition of proteolysis with EDTA indicated that the proteases produced by Ent. faecalis VB63F belonged to the group of metalloproteases. The optimal conditions for their activity were 42°C and pH 6.5. The majority of assessed virulence genes were absent in Ent. faecalis VB63F. The obtained results suggest that Ent. faecalis VB63F could be efficient in reducing the immunoreactivity of bovine milk proteins.

  16. Immunocytochemical detection of milk proteins in tracheal aspirates of ventilated infants: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jamey; Colasurdo, Giuseppe N; Khan, Amir M; Jajoo, Charu; Patel, Tarak J; Fan, Leland L; Elidemir, Okan

    2002-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated immunocytochemical staining for milk proteins (alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin) in tracheal aspirates of mechanically ventilated infants, and assessed whether this staining technique supported a clinical diagnosis of aspiration in infants receiving orogastric feedings. All newborns requiring mechanical ventilation in the neonatal intensive care unit of a major tertiary care hospital were potential subjects for this study. Tracheal aspirates were obtained prior to the introduction of enteral feeding and at various time points thereafter in newborns requiring mechanical ventilation. Cells were obtained and processed for immunocytochemical staining of alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin. In total, 88 specimens recovered from 34 infants were adequate for staining. Alveolar macrophages recovered from most of the infants who were never fed (true negative controls) did not display immunoreactivity for milk proteins: 4/34 or 12% of infants' aspirates demonstrated presence of milk proteins before enteral feeding was commenced. Tracheal aspirates obtained from 12 infants after introduction of enteral feedings appeared to support clinical and radiological findings suggestive of aspiration events, with positive immunostaining on several occasions. These observations support our work in a murine model and demonstrate that immunocytochemical staining of tracheal aspirates for milk proteins may enhance the ability to diagnose pulmonary aspiration. Further studies are needed to define the clinical significance of our findings and the effects of single and repeated aspiration events on respiratory status.

  17. Low levels of aflatoxin B1, ricin and milk enhance recombinant protein production in mammalian cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changing the optimal tissue culture medium by adding low levels of environmental stress such as 1 µM of the fungal toxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), 1 ng of the castor bean protein toxin ricin in transduced mammalian cells or 1% reconstituted milk enhances transcription and increases production of the foll...

  18. Serum protein and casein concentration: effect on pH and freezing point of milk with added CO2.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y; Barbano, D M

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of protein concentration and protein type [i.e., casein (CN) and serum protein (SP)] on pH (0 degree C) and freezing point (FP) of skim milk upon CO2 injection at 0 degree C. CN-free skim milks with increasing SP content (0, 3, and 6%) and skim milks with the same SP content (0.6%) but increasing CN content (2.4, 4.8, and 7.2%) were prepared using a combination of microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes. CO2 was injected into milks at 0 degree C using a continuous flow carbonation unit (230 ml/min). Increasing SP or CN increased milk buffering capacity and protein-bound mineral content. At the same CO2 concentration at 0 degree C, a milk with a higher SP or a higher CN concentration had more resistance to pH change and a greater extent of FP decrease. The buffering capacity provided by an increase of CN was contributed by both the CN itself and the colloidal salts solublized into the serum phase from CN upon carbonation. Skim milks with the same true protein content (3%), one with 2.4% CN plus 0.6% SP and one with 3% SP, were compared. At the same true protein content (3%), increasing the proportion of CN increased milk buffering capacity and protein-bound mineral content. Milk with a higher proportion of CN had more resistance to pH change and a greater extent of FP decrease at the same carbonation level at 0 degree C. Once CO2 was dissolved in the skim portion of a milk, the extent of pH reduction and FP depression depended on protein concentration and protein type (i.e., CN and SP).

  19. Milk proteins-derived bioactive peptides in dairy products: molecular, biological and methodological aspects.

    PubMed

    Dziuba, Bartłomiej; Dziuba, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Proteins are one of the primary components of the food, both in terms of nutrition and function. They are main source of amino acids, essential for synthesis of proteins, and also source of energy. Additionally, many proteins exhibit specific biological activities, which may have effect on functional or pro-health properties of food products. These proteins and their hydrolysis products, peptides, may influence the properties of food and human organism. The number of commercially available food products containing bioactive peptides is very low, apart from that milk proteins are their rich source. It could be supposed that number of available products with declared activity will rise in near future because of observed strong uptrend on interest in such products. Molecular and biological properties of milk proteins, as precursors of bioactive peptides was characterised in the work. Therefore, the strategy of research and obtaining of such peptides both in laboratory and industrial scale, as well as the range of their commercial application, was presented. Several examples of research efforts presenting high potential to develop new products containing bioactive peptides from milk proteins and predetermined as nutraceuticals was described.

  20. Evaluation of bromine and iodine content of milk whey proteins combining digestion by microwave-induced combustion and ICP-MS determination.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Sabrina Vieira; Picoloto, Rochele Sogari; Flores, Erico Marlon Moraes; Wagner, Roger; dos Santos Richards, Neila Silvia Pereira; Barin, Juliano Smanioto

    2016-01-01

    The bromine and iodine content of whey protein concentrate (WPC), hydrolysate (WPH), and isolate (WPI) was evaluated combining microwave-induced combustion (MIC) digestion with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) determination. MIC digestion allowed the decomposition of up to 500 mg of samples using diluted NH4OH solution (25 mmol L(-1)) for absorption of analytes, assuring the compatibility with ICP-MS determination. Accuracy was evaluated using milk powder certified reference material (NIST 8435) with good agreements for Br and I (102% and 105%, respectively). For Br and I, the limit of quantification obtained by ICP-MS was 7 and 281 times lower in comparison with ion chromatography determination, respectively. Iodine could be enriched in whey protein production and up to 70% of the tolerable upper intake level was found, thus revealing the need to monitor it in whey proteins. On the other hand, the concentration of Br was below its acceptable daily intake.

  1. Microwave-assisted cross-linking of milk proteins induced by microbial transglutaminase

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Hsieh, Jung-Feng

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase, 7.0 units/mL) and microwave irradiation (MI) on the polymerization of milk proteins at 30 °C for 3 h. The addition of MTGase caused the milk proteins to become polymerized, which resulted in the formation of components with a higher molecular-weight (>130 kDa). SDS-PAGE analysis revealed reductions in the protein content of β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), αS-casein (αS-CN), κ-casein (κ-CN) and β-casein (β-CN) to 50.4 ± 2.9, 33.5 ± 3.0, 4.2 ± 0.5 and 1.2 ± 0.1%, respectively. The use of MTGase in conjunction MI with led to a 3-fold increase in the rate of milk protein polymerization, compared to a sample that contained MTGase but did not undergo MI. Results of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) indicated that κ-CN, β-CN, a fraction of serum albumin (SA), β-LG, α-lactalbumin (α-LA), αs1-casein (αs1-CN), and αs2-casein (αs2-CN) were polymerized in the milk, following incubation with MTGase and MI at 30 °C for 1 h. Based on this result, the combined use of MTGase and MI appears to be a better way to polymerize milk proteins. PMID:27966639

  2. Microwave-assisted cross-linking of milk proteins induced by microbial transglutaminase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Hsieh, Jung-Feng

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the combined effects of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase, 7.0 units/mL) and microwave irradiation (MI) on the polymerization of milk proteins at 30 °C for 3 h. The addition of MTGase caused the milk proteins to become polymerized, which resulted in the formation of components with a higher molecular-weight (>130 kDa). SDS-PAGE analysis revealed reductions in the protein content of β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), αS-casein (αS-CN), κ-casein (κ-CN) and β-casein (β-CN) to 50.4 ± 2.9, 33.5 ± 3.0, 4.2 ± 0.5 and 1.2 ± 0.1%, respectively. The use of MTGase in conjunction MI with led to a 3-fold increase in the rate of milk protein polymerization, compared to a sample that contained MTGase but did not undergo MI. Results of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) indicated that κ-CN, β-CN, a fraction of serum albumin (SA), β-LG, α-lactalbumin (α-LA), αs1-casein (αs1-CN), and αs2-casein (αs2-CN) were polymerized in the milk, following incubation with MTGase and MI at 30 °C for 1 h. Based on this result, the combined use of MTGase and MI appears to be a better way to polymerize milk proteins.

  3. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  4. ADSA Foundation Scholar Award. Formation and physical properties of milk protein gels.

    PubMed

    Lucey, J A

    2002-02-01

    Gelation of milk proteins is the crucial first step in both cheese and yogurt manufacture. Several types of milk gels are discussed, with an emphasis on recent developments in our understanding of how these gels are formed and some of their key physical properties. Areas discussed include the latest dual-binding model for casein micelles; some recent developments in rennet-induced gelation; review of the methods that have been used to monitor milk coagulation; and a discussion of some of the possible causes for the wheying-off defect in yogurts. Casein micelles are the primary building blocks of casein-based gels; however, controversy about its structure continues. The latest model proposed for the formation of casein micelles is the dual-binding model proposed by Horne, 1998, which suggests that casein micelles are formed as a result of two binding mechanisms, namely hydrophobic attraction and colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) bridging. Most previous models for the casein micelle have treated milk gelation from the viewpoint of simple particle destabilization and aggregation, but they have not been able to explain several unusual rheological properties of milk gels. Although there have been many techniques used to monitor the milk gelation process over the past few decades, only a few appear attractive as possible in-vat coagulation sensors. Another important aspect of milk gels is the defect in yogurts called wheying-off, which is the appearance of whey on the gel surface. The factors responsible for its occurrence are still unclear, but they have been investigated in model acid gel systems.

  5. Properties and storage stability of whey protein edible film with spice powders.

    PubMed

    Ket-On, Apisada; Pongmongkol, Natkritta; Somwangthanaroj, Anongnat; Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Tananuwong, Kanitha

    2016-07-01

    The impact of spice powders on physical, mechanical, thermal and barrier properties, and on storage stability, of whey protein isolate (WPI)-based films was determined. Films with added spices were prepared from casting solution containing 10 % (w/w) heat-denatured WPI, glycerol (WPI:glycerol of 3:2 w/w), sodium chloride (0.4 g/100 g solution), garlic and pepper powders (≤3 g each/100 g solution). Water activity (aw) of all films was 0.53-0.57. Addition of spice powders increased thickness, darkness and yellowness of the WPI films. Films with added spices had lower tensile strength (TS), percent elongation (%E), and melting enthalpy of WPI matrices, but possessed higher water vapor permeability (WVP) than WPI film without sodium chloride and spices. The WPI film containing highest amount of garlic powder and lowest amount of pepper powder was selected for storage tests at 25-45 °C. Storage for up to 49 days resulted in reduced aw and %E, increased TS, and color changes at 35 and 45 °C, with few changes at 25 °C. However, film WVP and OP were not affected by storage conditions after 7 days storage. Active ingredients decreased over time with up to 81 % allicin and 37 % piperine retained in the film matrix after 47 days storage.

  6. Selenium content of milk and milk products of Turkey. II.

    PubMed

    Yanardağ, R; Orak, H

    1999-04-01

    Selenium content of 1028 milk and milk products of Turkey are presented in this study. The selenium content of human milk (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk), various kinds of milk [cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, paper boxes (3%, 1.5%, 0.012% fat), bottled milk, condensed milk (10% fat), mineral added milk (1.6%), and banana, strawberry, and chocolate milk] and milk products (kefir, yogurt, Ayran, various cheese, coffee cream, ice cream, butter, margarine, milk powder, and fruit yogurt) in Turkey were determined by a spectrofluorometric method. The selenium levels of cow milks collected from 57 cities in Turkey were also determined. Selenium levels in cow milk varied with geographical location in Turkey and were found to be lowest for Van and highest for Aksaray. The results [milk (cow, sheep, goat, buffalo and human) and milks products] were compared with literature data from different countries.

  7. Study of the protein-bound fraction of calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc in bovine milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Fernando V.; Lopes, Gisele S.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.; Souza, Gilberto B.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.

    2001-10-01

    Two approaches were used to study the interaction of Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn with bovine milk proteins by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES). Selective separations in bovine milk samples were accomplished employing an acid protein precipitation using 100 g l -1 trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and an enzymatic protein hydrolysis using 50 g l -1 pepsin (PEP) solution, respectively. The results were compared with total mineral contents determined after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The results obtained by enzymatic and acid precipitation evidenced the different interaction forms of Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn in the system formed by milk components. Iron was not solubilized by the TCA treatment, but was recovered completely after the enzymatic treatment. Quantitative recoveries of Ca, Mg and Zn were obtained using both approaches, showing that these analytes were bound to milk compounds affected by either treatment. Calcium, Mg and Zn are mainly associated with colloidal calcium phosphate and Fe is bound to the backbone of the casein polypeptide chain, cleaved by pepsin enzyme. The proposed approaches could be used to assess the complexity of these chemical interactions.

  8. Genetic parameters for milk, fat and protein yields in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis Artiodactyla, Bovidae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for test-day milk, fat and protein yields and 305-day-yields in Murrah buffaloes. 4,757 complete lactations of Murrah buffaloes were analyzed. Co-variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method. The models included additive direct genetic and permanent environmental effects as random effects, and the fixed effects of contemporary group, milking number and age of the cow at calving as linear and quadratic covariables. Contemporary groups were defined by herd-year-month of test for test-day yields and by herd-year-season of calving for 305-day yields. The heritability estimates obtained by two-trait analysis ranged from 0.15 to 0.24 for milk, 0.16 to 0.23 for protein and 0.13 to 0.22 for fat, yields. Genetic and phenotypic correlations were all positive. The observed population additive genetic variation indicated that selection might be an effective tool in changing population means in milk, fat and protein yields. PMID:21637608

  9. Partition of whey milk proteins in aqueous two-phase systems of polyethylene glycol-phosphate as a starting point to isolate proteins expressed in transgenic milk.

    PubMed

    Capezio, Lorena; Romanini, Diana; Picó, Guillermo A; Nerli, Bibiana

    2005-05-05

    Partitioning behaviour of the bovine whey proteins (bovine serum albumin, alpha lactoalbumin and beta lactoglobulin) and alpha-1 antitrypsin in aqueous two-phase systems prepared with polyethyleneglycol (molecular masses: 1000; 1500 and 3350)-potassium phosphate was analysed. Bovine serum albumin and alpha lactoalbumin concentrated in the polyethyleneglycol rich phase with a partition coefficient of 10.0 and 27.0, respectively, while beta lactoglubulin and alpha-1 antitrypsin showed affinity for the phosphate-rich phase with a partition coefficient of 0.07 and 0.01, respectively. An increase of medium pH induced an increase of the partition coefficient of these proteins while the increase in polyethyleneglycol molecular mass induced the opposite behaviour. The system polyethyleneglycol 1500-pH 6.3 showed the best capacity for recovering the alpha-1 antitrypsin with a yield of 80% and a purification factor between 1.5 and 1.8 from an artificial mixture of the milk whey proteins and alpha-1 antitrypsin. The method appears to be suitable as a starting point to isolate proteins expressed in transgenic milk.

  10. Cow's milk protein allergy and other food hypersensitivities in infants.

    PubMed

    Venter, Carina

    2009-01-01

    Food hypersensitivity (FHS) is the umbrella term used to describe both food allergy, which involves the immune system, and food intolerances, which do not. It is therefore important that the diagnosis is made by a specialist health care professional such as a paediatrician or allergist. Some experienced dietitians and health visitors may be able to assist in making a diagnosis. The diagnostic work-up includes a medical history and blood tests/skin tests (where applicable). A food and symptom diary followed by a special test diet to identify the foods causing the infant's symptoms may also be needed. Once a diagnosis is made, dietary advice should be given to eliminate or reduce the intake of the offending foods. For cow's milk hypersensitivity in infants, this will include choosing the most appropriate specialised infant formula.

  11. Effect of Milk Powder Supplementation with Different Calcium Contents on Bone Mineral Density of Postmenopausal Women in Northern China: A Randomized Controlled Double-Blind Trial.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongjie; Xiao, Yaming; Xie, Biao; Zhang, Qiao; Ma, Xianfu; Li, Ning; Liu, Meina; Zhang, Qiuju

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effect of milk powder supplementation with different calcium contents on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Chinese women, and to determine a more appropriate dose of calcium supplementation. A 2-year, randomized controlled double-blind trial. Postmenopausal women (n = 210) aged 50-65 years were recruited and assigned randomly into three calcium supplementation groups. All participants received milk powder supplementation with different calcium contents (300, 600, and 900 mg per day for groups A, B, and C, respectively) and all groups received 800 IU of vitamin D per day. During the follow-up period, BMD of the left hip and lumbar spine (as the main indicator) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the baseline, 1 and 2 years. Both three BMD measures and the changes of BMD over 2 years were used to analyze. Before adjusting for covariates, BMD in group A of the lumbar spine and groups A and B of greater trochanter decreased significantly from the baseline over time but increased significantly in the rest groups of the lumbar spine and greater trochanter and in three groups of Ward's triangle. There were significant differences across the three groups for changes of BMD in the greater trochanter and Ward's triangle. When adjusting for covariates, there were significant decreases with time in group A of the spine (P = 0.001), groups A and B of greater trochanter (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.04, respectively) and increases in groups B and C of Ward's triangle (P = 0.03 and P = 0.004, respectively). BMD change in the greater trochanter was significantly different among three groups. For healthy postmenopausal women, high calcium milk powder supplementation was better in retarding bone loss than medium and low calcium in the greater trochanter. Considering the dietary calcium intake of postmenopausal women in north of China, a dose of 900 mg/day is considered as the most appropriate calcium supplementation

  12. Increased Milk Protein Concentration in a Rehydration Drink Enhances Fluid Retention Caused by Water Reabsorption in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kentaro; Saito, Yuri; Ashida, Kinya; Yamaji, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Oda, Munehiro

    2015-01-01

    A fluid-retention effect is required for beverages that are designed to prevent dehydration. That is, fluid absorbed from the intestines should not be excreted quickly; long-term retention is desirable. Here, we focused on the effect of milk protein on fluid retention, and propose a new effective oral rehydration method that can be used daily for preventing dehydration. We first evaluated the effects of different concentrations of milk protein on fluid retention by measuring the urinary volumes of rats fed fluid containing milk protein at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10%. We next compared the fluid-retention effect of milk protein-enriched drink (MPD) with those of distilled water (DW) and a sports drink (SD) by the same method. Third, to investigate the mechanism of fluid retention, we measured plasma insulin changes in rats after ingesting these three drinks. We found that the addition of milk protein at 5 or 10% reduced urinary volume in a dose-dependent manner. Ingestion of the MPD containing 4.6% milk protein resulted in lower urinary volumes than DW and SD. MPD also showed a higher water reabsorption rate in the kidneys and higher concentrations of plasma insulin than DW and SD. These results suggest that increasing milk protein concentration in a beverage enhances fluid retention, which may allow the possibility to develop rehydration beverages that are more effective than SDs. In addition, insulin-modifying renal water reabsorption may contribute to the fluid-retention effect of MPD.

  13. Cellular prion protein in mammary gland and milk fractions of domestic ruminants.

    PubMed

    Didier, A; Gebert, R; Dietrich, R; Schweiger, M; Gareis, M; Märtlbauer, E; Amselgruber, W M

    2008-05-09

    The present study shows that PrP(c) is expressed in the mammary gland and milk fractions of domestic ruminants in a species-specific manner. By applying immunohistochemistry, Western blot and ELISA, clear expression differences between bovine, ovine and caprine mammary gland, skimmed milk, acid whey and cream could be demonstrated, the highest relative PrP(c) levels being associated with the cream fraction. In the bovine gland PrP(c) was preferentially detectable at the basolateral surface of mammary gland epithelial cells, whereas in ovine and caprine samples the prion protein was more homogeneously distributed. Moreover, in ovine and caprine bovine mammary gland epithelial cells, apocrine secretory vesicles were strongly stained. Ovine and caprine milk proved to contain PrP(c) in all fractions with an additional truncated form at 12kDa in Western blot. This truncated isoform is the predominate one in caprine acid whey. These results support the hypothesis that the apocrine secretion mode of milk fat globules is a major way of PrP(c) transport into the milk.

  14. Use of different dietary protein sources for lactating goats: milk production and composition as functions of protein degradability and amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Sanz Sampelayo, M R; Pérez, M L; Gil Extremera, F; Boza, J J; Boza, J

    1999-03-01

    To establish the effect of the nature of four different protein sources [fababeans, 27.8% crude protein (CP); sunflower meal, 41.7% CP; corn gluten feed, 18.8% CP; and cottonseed, 18.3% CP] on milk protein production by goats, the ruminal degradation of these feeds was studied as was the amino acid (AA) composition of the original material and that of the undegradable fractions of the protein sources. Four diets were designed; 20% of their protein was supplied by each of the different sources. Four groups of 5 Granadina goats were used to study the utilization of these diets for milk production. No significant differences were observed in dry matter intake or milk production. The milk produced by goats fed the diet containing sunflower meal had the lowest protein concentration; the highest milk protein concentration was observed for goats fed the diet containing corn gluten feed. From a multivariate analysis, it was deduced that the quickly degradable protein fraction in the rumen and the ruminally undegradable protein fraction were the components of the protein sources most directly related to the milk protein produced. Given the similar AA profiles of the undegradable fractions of the different protein sources, the possible supplementation achieved from these ruminally undegradable fractions must be established by the amount of protein supplied regardless of AA composition.

  15. Chemical characteristics and enhanced hepatoprotective activities of Maillard reaction products derived from milk protein-sugar system.

    PubMed

    Oh, Nam Su; Young Lee, Ji; Lee, Hyun Ah; Joung, Jae Yeon; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Sae Hun; Kim, Younghoon; Lee, Kwang Won

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics, antioxidative properties, and hepatoprotective effects of Maillard reaction products (MRP) from milk protein reacted with sugars. The MRP were obtained from milk protein, whey protein concentrates and sodium caseinate, using 2 types of sugars, lactose and glucose, by heating the mixture at 55°C for 7d in a sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Changes in the chemical modification of the milk protein were monitored by measuring the protein-bound carbonyls and PAGE protein profiles. The results showed that the amount of protein-bound carbonyls increased after Maillard reaction (MR). In addition, sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE analysis indicated a formation of high-molecular weight complexes through MR. The modification sites induced by MR of milk protein were monitored by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of tryptic-digested gel spots of MRP. As a result, modification and their localization in AA sequence of MRP was identified. Also, the MRP showed higher antioxidant activities than the intact milk protein, and they reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species production and inhibited the depletion of the reduced glutathione concentrations in the HepG2 cells. In particular, glucose-sodium caseinate MRP showed the highest biological activities among all MRP. Therefore, these results suggest that the MRP from milk protein reacting with sugars possess effective antioxidant activity and have a protective ability against oxidative damage.

  16. Effects of postexercise milk consumption on whole body protein balance in youth.

    PubMed

    Volterman, Kimberly A; Obeid, Joyce; Wilk, Boguslaw; Timmons, Brian W

    2014-11-15

    In adults, adding protein to a postexercise beverage increases muscle protein turnover and replenishes amino acid stores. Recent focus has shifted toward the use of bovine-based milk and milk products as potential postexercise beverages; however, little is known about how this research translates to the pediatric population. Twenty-eight (15 girls) pre- to early pubertal (PEP, 7-11 yr) and mid- to late-pubertal (MLP, 14-17 yr) children consumed an oral dose of [(15)N]glycine prior to performing 2 × 20-min cycling bouts at 60% V̇O(2 peak) in a warm environment (34.5°C, 47.3% relative humidity). Following exercise, participants consumed either water (W), a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES), or skim milk (SM) in a randomized, cross-over fashion in a volume equal to 100% of their body mass loss during exercise. Whole body nitrogen turnover (Q), protein synthesis (S), protein breakdown (B), and whole body protein balance (WBPB) were measured over 16 h. Protein intake from SM was 0.40 ± 0.10 g/kg. Over 16 h, Q and S were significantly greater (P < 0.01) with SM than W and CES. B demonstrated a trend for a main effect for beverage (P = 0.063). WBPB was more negative (P < 0.01) with W and CES than with SM. In the SM trial, WBPB was positive in PEP, although it remained negative in MLP. Boys exhibited significantly more negative WBPB than girls (P < 0.05). Postexercise milk consumption enhances WBPB compared with W and CES; however, additional protein intake may be required to sustain a net anabolic environment over 16 h.

  17. Influences of different thermal processings in milk, bovine meat and frog protein structure.

    PubMed

    Coura Oliveira, Tatiana; Lopes Lima, Samuel; Bressan, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have associated the digestibility of proteins to its imunogenic potential. Though, it was objectified to evaluate the impact of the thermal processing with high and low temperatures on the proteins structure of three types of foods, by means of the digestibility in vitro and electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida. The pasteurize was observed in such a way, firing 95 ºC during 15 minutes, how much freeze dried causes qualitative and quantitative modifications of constituent proteins of the food. The most sensible proteins to the increasing thermal processing order were beef, frog meat, and the last, cow milk.

  18. The effect of high and low levels of supplementation on milk production, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and milk protein fractions in late-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Reid, M; O'Donovan, M; Murphy, J P; Fleming, C; Kennedy, E; Lewis, E

    2015-08-01

    To fill the feed deficit in the autumn/late lactation period in a seasonal grazing system, supplementation is required. This study aimed to investigate the use of baled grass silage or concentrate as supplementation to grazing dairy cows in late lactation. Eighty-four grass-based spring-calving dairy cows, averaging 212d in milk, were allocated to 1 of 6 treatments [high grass allowance (HG), low grass allowance (LG), grass with a low concentrate allocation (GCL), grass with a low grass silage allocation (GSL), grass with a high concentrate allocation (GCH), and grass with a high grass silage allocation (GSH)] to measure the effects of using baled grass silage or concentrate as supplements to grazed grass. Effects on intake, milk yield, milk composition and N fractions, and N utilization efficiency were measured. Treatments HG and LG received 17 and 14kg of dry matter (DM) grass/cow per d, respectively. Treatments GCL and GSL were offered 14kg of DM grass/cow per d and 3kg of DM of supplementation/cow per d. Treatments GCH and GSH were offered 11kg of DM grass/cow per d and 6kg of DM of supplementation/cow per d. Milk yield was greatest in the GCH treatment and milk solids yield was greatest in both concentrate-supplemented treatments. The HG and LG treatments excreted a greater quantity of N as a proportion of N intake than the supplemented treatments. The HG treatment also excreted the greatest total quantity of N. This indicates an improvement in N utilization efficiency when supplementation is offered compared with grazing only. Offering 6kg of DM of either grass silage or concentrate as supplementation decreased milk true protein concentration compared with offering a grass-only diet. This suggests that increasing the proportion of supplementation relative to grass may negatively affect milk processability, which is associated with milk true protein concentration.

  19. Evaluation of microchip material and surface treatment options for IEF of allergenic milk proteins on microchips.

    PubMed

    Poitevin, Martine; Shakalisava, Yuliya; Miserere, Sandrine; Peltre, Gabriel; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Descroix, Stephanie

    2009-12-01

    The use of glass and PDMS microchips has been investigated to perform rapid and efficient separation of allergenic whey proteins by IEF. To decrease EOF and to limit protein adsorption, two coating procedures have been compared. The first one consists in immobilizing hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and the second one poly(dimethylacrylamide-co-allyl glycidyl ether) (PDMA-AGE). EOF limitation has been evaluated using frontal electrophoresis of a fluorescent marker of known effective mobility. EOF velocity was decreased by a factor about 100 and 30, respectively. pH gradient formation has been evaluated for each microchip using fluorescent pI markers. It was demonstrated that as expected a coating was essential to avoid pH gradient drift. Both coatings were efficient on glass microchips, but only PDMA-AGE allowed satisfying focusing of pI markers on PDMS microchips. Fluorescent covalent and noncovalent labelings of milk proteins have been compared by IEF on slab-gels. IEF separation of three major allergenic whey proteins [beta-lactoglobulin A (pI 5.25) and B (pI 5.35) and alpha-lactalbumin (pI 4.2-4.5)] was performed in both microchips. Milk proteins were separated with better resolution and shorter analysis time than by classical CIEF. Finally, better resolutions for milk allergens separation were obtained on glass microchips.

  20. Functional properties and applications of edible films made of milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, H

    1995-11-01

    Edible films and coatings based on milk proteins have been developed to be used as a protective layer on foods or between food components. The most important functionalities of an edible film or coating include control of mass transfers, mechanical protection, and sensory appeal. Control of mass transfers involves preventing foods from desiccation, regulating microenvironments of gases around foods, and controlling migration of ingredients and additives in the food systems. Adequate mechanical strength of an edible film is necessary to protect the integrity of packaging throughout distribution. The sensory properties of an edible coating or film are a key factor for acceptance of final products. Simple milk protein films are good barriers to gas transfers because of their complex intermolecular bindings. Lipid is frequently incorporated into protein films to improve their properties as barriers to moisture vapor. Protein films are distinctly different in mechanical profiles from those films made of other materials. Approaches traditionally used in material sciences have been adapted and modified for studying the functionality of edible films. Potential uses of innovative processing technologies in film making to alter the film functionality are briefly discussed. A survey of potential applications of edible film based on milk protein is presented.

  1. [Disc electrophoretic characteristics of the serum proteins of "Vitalact"-type "humanized" milk].

    PubMed

    Kalashnikova, L P

    1977-01-01

    Disc-electrophoreograms in the polyacrylamide gel of the cow milk serumal proteins show 11 peaks belonging to immune globulins, the poteose-peptone fraction, the serum-globulin, alpha-lactoalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin and to glucoproteids. Under a high-temperature treatment of humanized milk (105 degrees----10 minutes) a significant denaturation of the serumal proteins, re-distribution and a fall in the amount of proteinic fractions were noted. Beta-lactoglobulins and immune globulins are most sensitive. With disc-eletrophoresis in the polyacrylamide gel of the human milk serumal proteins the densitograms distinctly demonstrate the presence of peaks that correspond to immunoglobulins, proteose-peptones, serum-albumins, alpha-lacto-albumins in the absence of the beta-lactoglobulins fraction. The cited data allow the method of disc-electrophoresis in the polyacrylamide gel to be employed for improving the fractional composition of the serumal proteins in the nutrients intended for nurslings and infants of the first year of life.

  2. [Determination of total protein content in soya-bean milk via visual moving reaction boundary titration].

    PubMed

    Guo, Chengye; Wang, Houyu; Zhang, Lei; Fan, Liuyin; Cao, Chengxi

    2013-11-01

    A visual, rapid and accurate moving reaction boundary titration (MRBT) method was used for the determination of the total protein in soya-bean milk. During the process, moving reaction boundary (MRB) was formed by hydroxyl ions in the catholyte and soya-bean milk proteins immobilized in polyacrylamide gel (PAG), and an acid-base indicator was used to denote the boundary motion. The velocity of MRB has a relationship with protein concentration, which was used to obtain a standard curve. By paired t-test, there was no significant difference of the protein content between MRBT and Kjeldahl method at 95% confidence interval. The procedure of MRBT method required about 10 min, and it had linearity in the range of 2.0-14.0 g/L, low limit of detection (0.05 g/L), good precision (RSD of intra-day < 1.90% and inter-day < 4.39%), and high recoveries (97.41%-99.91%). In addition, non-protein nitrogen (NPN) such as melamine added into the soya-bean milk had weak influence on MRBT results.

  3. Milk Allergy in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... though, they can have symptoms if mom has dairy products in her diet . A milk allergy is not ... milk allergy, it's important for you to avoid dairy products because the milk protein that causes allergic reactions ...

  4. Relationships between dairy powder surface composition and wetting properties during storage: importance of residual lipids.

    PubMed

    Gaiani, Claire; Scher, Joel; Ehrhardt, Jean Jacques; Linder, Michel; Schuck, Pierre; Desobry, Stephane; Banon, Sylvie

    2007-08-08

    The relationships between powder surface composition and powder rehydration properties under variable conditions of storage are investigated in this paper. A rheological approach was used to evaluate the modifications induced by storage on the rehydration properties of native phosphocaseinate powder. Concurrently, the powder surface composition (i.e., lactose, proteins, and lipids) was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A strong correlation was found between the powder wetting time lengthening and the migration of lipids on the powder surface during storage. XPS studies indicated also an over-representation of lipids on the powder surface (6%) in comparison with total lipids (0.4%) even on fresh powder before storage. Detailed investigation of powder lipids revealed the presence of high levels of polar lipids (66% compared with <1% in milk lipids). Their amphiphilic nature and their melting points could explain the extensive enrichment of lipids observed at the powder surface during processing and storage.

  5. Supporting Production of Milk and Milk Components on Low Protein Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is increasing interest in minimizing crude protein (CP) content of diets fed to dairy cows to reduce production costs and to improve environmental sustainability. Dietary CP not utilized for production is lost largely in the urine, the most polluting form of excretory nitrogen (N). Because mic...

  6. Influence of storage and heating on protein glycation levels of processed lactose-free and regular bovine milk products.

    PubMed

    Milkovska-Stamenova, Sanja; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2017-04-15

    Thermal treatment preserves the microbiological safety of milk, but also induces Maillard reactions modifying for example proteins. The purpose of this study was evaluating the influence of consumer behaviors (storage and heating) on protein glycation degrees in bovine milk products. Lactosylation and hexosylation sites were identified in ultra-high temperature (UHT), lactose-free pasteurized, and lactose-free UHT milk (ULF) and infant formula (IF) using tandem mass spectrometry (electron transfer dissociation). Overall, 303 lactosylated and 199 hexosylated peptides were identified corresponding to 170 lactosylation (31 proteins) and 117 hexosylation sites (25 proteins). In quantitative terms, storage increased lactosylation up to fourfold in UHT and IF and hexosylation up to elevenfold in ULF and threefold in IF. These levels increased additionally twofold when the stored samples were heated (40°C). In conclusion, storage and heating appear to influence protein glycation levels in milk at similar or even higher degrees than industrial processing.

  7. Comparative study of protein dynamics in hydrated powders and in solutions: A neutron scattering investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, M.; Cornicchi, E.; Onori, G.; Paciaroni, A.

    2008-04-01

    Neutron scattering spectroscopy on a time-of-flight spectrometer has been exploited to reveal the vibrational and relaxational spectral contributions of lysozyme in hydrated powder and solution states. The inelastic component of the dynamical structure factor seems to be quite similar for lysozyme in both the solid- and the liquid-state samples, particularly for energies higher than ˜4 meV. After the subtraction of this component, the quasielastic contribution is evaluated. In the case of hydrated lysozyme powder the quasielastic scattering follows a two-power law with a ballistic Gaussian decrease above ˜2 meV. The quasielastic scattering of lysozyme in solution exhibits a rather similar trend but a much larger intensity. This may be related to the increase of both the number and the amplitudes of the confined diffusive processes related to protein side-chains motions at the protein surface.

  8. Utilization of supercritical carbon dioxide to produce milk protein fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutritional, functional and bioactive properties of the individual whey proteins are appreciated by health-conscious consumers, yet few methods have been developed to produce these proteins to satisfy demand. The methods that are available are relatively new technologies that have not been prove...

  9. Detection of viable enterotoxin-producing Bacillus cereus and analysis of toxigenicity from ready-to-eat foods and infant formula milk powder by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihong; Feng, Lixia; Xu, Hengyi; Liu, Chengwei; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Bacillus cereus is responsible for several outbreaks of foodborne diseases due to its emetic toxin and enterotoxin. Enterotoxins, cytotoxin K (CytK), nonhemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe), and hemolysin BL (Hbl), have been recorded in several diarrheal cases due to food poisoning from B. cereus. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and accurate method that combines multiplex PCR with propidium monoazide to selectively detect viable cells of enterotoxin-producing B. cereus in milk powder, noodles, and rice, and investigate the distribution of enterotoxins in 62 strains of B. cereus in Jiangxi province, China. The specificity of primers of 3 enterotoxins (i.e., cytK, nheA, and hblD) of B. cereus was verified by inclusivity and exclusivity tests using single PCR. Upon optimization of multiplex PCR conditions, it was found that the detection limit of viable cells was 10(2) cfu/mL of B. cereus in pure culture. By enrichment for 3 or 4 h and propidium monoazide pretreatment, a protocol for detection of viable cells as low as 2.2×10(1) cfu/g in spiked food (e.g., milk powder, noodles, and rice) was established and proved valid even under the interference of non-Bacillus cereus at as high as 10(5) cfu/g. Moreover, the protocol based on multiplex PCR for detection was applied for the analysis of distribution of toxin gene of B. cereus, and the results showed a regional feature for toxin gene distribution, indicating that potential toxigenicity of B. cereus should be evaluated further.

  10. An automated solid-phase microextraction method based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer as fiber coating for detection of trace estrogens in milk powder.

    PubMed

    Lan, Hangzhen; Gan, Ning; Pan, Daodong; Hu, Futao; Li, Tianhua; Long, Nengbing; Qiao, Li

    2014-02-28

    A new automated solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) sampling method was developed for quantitative enrichment of estrogens (ES) from milk powder, using magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MMIP) as fiber coating. The method (MMIP-SPME) was built with several electromagnetic stainless steel fibers, placed in parallel for simultaneously extraction. The MMIP was synthesized using core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) as magnetic support. Estradiol (E2) was employed as the template molecule, acrylamide (AA) as functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker. MMIP can be easily absorbed or desorbed from fibers when the current is turned on or off, creating magnetism. Compared to traditional MIP-SPME, the prepared procedure of MMIP-SPME is time-saving and organic solvent-free. The proposed device significantly improved the efficiency of separation and enrichment of estrogens from complex matrices thereby and facilitating the pretreatment steps by electromagnetically controlled extraction fibers to achieve full automation. Several experimental parameters were studied, including extraction and desorption kinetics, solution pH, desorption solution, ratio, and shuttle rate. The newly developed MMIP-SPME showed good sensitivity and high binding capacity, fast adsorption kinetics and desorption kinetics for estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) under optimized conditions. The detection limits for the four estrogens were 1.5-5.5ngg(-1) with excellent reproducibility (RSD values less than 7.1%) when milk powder samples spiked with analytes at 20, 100 and 250ngg(-1) were studied.

  11. Associations between milk-protein production and reproduction, health, and culling.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, J M; Martin, S W; Lissemore, K D; Leslie, K E; Gibson, J P; Scott, H M; Kelton, D F

    1998-04-16

    Associations between protein production and individual-cow reproductive performance, health, and culling were investigated in a 2-year observational study involving a convenience sample of 75 Ontario, 5 Alberta, and 3 Nova Scotia dairy farms. Protein production was defined by 305-day lactation protein yields and by estimated breeding values for protein yield. After controlling for the level of milk production, herd, parity, breed, and season of calving, there were no significant associations between either measure of protein production and days open or days to first breeding. The only associations between protein production and disease were small positive associations between the estimated breeding value for protein yield and cystic ovaries and mean lactation somatic cell count. The risk of culling, after controlling for the level of milk production, was negatively associated with previous-lactation 305-day protein yield for parity three animals only. The estimated breeding value for protein yield had a small negative association with the overall risk of culling, although the associations were not significant for individual lactations.

  12. Effects of intravenous infusion of amino acids and glucose on the yield and concentration of milk protein in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kim, C H; Kim, T G; Choung, J J; Chamberlain, D G

    2001-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that the availability of glucose or its precursors can influence the response of milk protein concentration to the intravenous infusion of amino acids, five cows were used in a 5 x 5 Latin square design with period lengths of 7 d. The five treatments were the basal diet of grass silage ad lib. plus 5 kg/d of a cereal-based supplement containing feather meal (Basal); Basal plus 4 g/d histidine, 8 g/d methionine and 26 g/d lysine (4H); Basal plus 8 g/d histidine, 8 g/d methionine and 26 g/d lysine (SH); and these two amino acid mixtures together with 600 g/d of gluctose (4HG and 8HG respectively). Earlier experiments with this basal diet had shown that histidine was first-limiting for secretion of milk protein, followed by methionine and lysine. The yield of milk protein was increased progressively with the amount of histidine infused. The efficiency of transfer of histidine into milk protein was 0.42 for the 4H and 4HG and 0.35 for the 8H and 8HG treatments, and the concentration of milk protein was increased over Basal by all infusion treatments. However, milk protein concentrations were higher, and lactose concentrations in the milk were lower, in the absence of added glucose. Concentrations of insulin in blood plasma were not affected by treatment. It is concluded that, with the treatments without added glucose, a shortage of glucose prevented an increase in lactose secretion, and hence limited the increase in milk yield, leading to an increased concentration of protein in the milk.

  13. Improving clarity and stability of skim milk powder dispersions by dissociation of casein micelles at pH 11.0 and acidification with citric acid.

    PubMed

    Pan, Kang; Zhong, Qixin

    2013-09-25

    Casein micelles in milk cause turbidity and have poor stability at acidic conditions. In this study, skim milk powder dispersions were alkalized to pH 10.0 or 11.0, corresponding to reduced particle mass. In the following acidification with hydrochloric or citric acid, the re-formation of casein particles was observed. The combination of treatment at pH 11.0 and acidification with citric acid resulted in dispersions with the lowest turbidity and smallest particles, which enabled translucent dispersions at pH 5.5-7.0, corresponding to discrete nanoparticles. The concentration of ionic calcium was lower when acidified with citric acid than hydrochloric acid, corresponding to smaller particles with less negative zeta potential. The pH 11.0 treatment followed by acidification with citric acid also resulted in smaller particles than the simple chelating effects (directly implementing sodium citrate). The produced casein nanoparticles with reduced dimensions can be used for beverage and other novel applications.

  14. TLR2-targeted secreted proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis are protective as powdered pulmonary vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tyne, Anneliese S; Chan, John Gar Yan; Shanahan, Erin R; Atmosukarto, Ines; Chan, Hak-Kim; Britton, Warwick J; West, Nicholas P

    2013-09-13

    Despite considerable research efforts towards effective treatments, tuberculosis (TB) remains a staggering burden on global health. Suitably formulated sub-unit vaccines offer potential as safe and effective generators of protective immunity. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens, cutinase-like proteins (Culp) 1 and 6 and MPT83, were conjugated directly to the novel adjuvant Lipokel (Lipotek Pty Ltd), a TLR2 ligand that delivers antigen to immune cells in a self-adjuvanting context. Protein-Lipokel complexes were formulated as dry powders for pulmonary delivery directly to the lungs of mice by intra-tracheal insufflation, leading to recruitment of neutrophils and antigen presenting cell populations to the lungs at 72 h, that persisted at 7 days post immunisation. Significant increases in the frequency of activated dendritic cells were observed in the mediastinal lymph node (MLN) at 1 and 4 weeks after homologous boosting with protein-Lipokel vaccine. This was associated with the increased recruitment of effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes to the MLN and systemic antigen-specific, IFN-γ producing T-lymphocyte and IgG responses. Notably, pulmonary immunisation with either Culp1-6-Lipokel or MPT83-Lipokel powder vaccines generated protective responses in the lungs against aerosol M. tuberculosis challenge. The successful combination of TLR2-targeting and dry powder vaccine formulation, together with important practical benefits, offers potential for pulmonary vaccination against M. tuberculosis.

  15. Calling Biomarkers in Milk Using a Protein Microarray on Your Smartphone.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Susann K J; Tokarski, Christian; Lang, Stefan N; van Ginkel, Leendert A; Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan; Nielen, Michel W F

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the concept of a protein microarray-based fluorescence immunoassay for multiple biomarker detection in milk extracts by an ordinary smartphone. A multiplex immunoassay was designed on a microarray chip, having built-in positive and negative quality controls. After the immunoassay procedure, the 48 microspots were labelled with Quantum Dots (QD) depending on the protein biomarker levels in the sample. QD-fluorescence was subsequently detected by the smartphone camera under UV light excitation from LEDs embedded in a simple 3D-printed opto-mechanical smartphone attachment. The somewhat aberrant images obtained under such conditions, were corrected by newly developed Android-based software on the same smartphone, and protein biomarker profiles were calculated. The indirect detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in milk extracts based on altered biomarker profile of anti-rbST antibodies was selected as a real-life challenge. RbST-treated and untreated cows clearly showed reproducible treatment-dependent biomarker profiles in milk, in excellent agreement with results from a flow cytometer reference method. In a pilot experiment, anti-rbST antibody detection was multiplexed with the detection of another rbST-dependent biomarker, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Milk extract IGF-1 levels were found to be increased after rbST treatment and correlated with the results obtained from the reference method. These data clearly demonstrate the potential of the portable protein microarray concept towards simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers. We envisage broad application of this 'protein microarray on a smartphone'-concept for on-site testing, e.g., in food safety, environment and health monitoring.

  16. Calling Biomarkers in Milk Using a Protein Microarray on Your Smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Susann K. J.; Tokarski, Christian; Lang, Stefan N.; van Ginkel, Leendert A.; Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan; Nielen, Michel W. F.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the concept of a protein microarray-based fluorescence immunoassay for multiple biomarker detection in milk extracts by an ordinary smartphone. A multiplex immunoassay was designed on a microarray chip, having built-in positive and negative quality controls. After the immunoassay procedure, the 48 microspots were labelled with Quantum Dots (QD) depending on the protein biomarker levels in the sample. QD-fluorescence was subsequently detected by the smartphone camera under UV light excitation from LEDs embedded in a simple 3D-printed opto-mechanical smartphone attachment. The somewhat aberrant images obtained under such conditions, were corrected by newly developed Android-based software on the same smartphone, and protein biomarker profiles were calculated. The indirect detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in milk extracts based on altered biomarker profile of anti-rbST antibodies was selected as a real-life challenge. RbST-treated and untreated cows clearly showed reproducible treatment-dependent biomarker profiles in milk, in excellent agreement with results from a flow cytometer reference method. In a pilot experiment, anti-rbST antibody detection was multiplexed with the detection of another rbST-dependent biomarker, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Milk extract IGF-1 levels were found to be increased after rbST treatment and correlated with the results obtained from the reference method. These data clearly demonstrate the potential of the portable protein microarray concept towards simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers. We envisage broad application of this ‘protein microarray on a smartphone’-concept for on-site testing, e.g., in food safety, environment and health monitoring. PMID:26308444

  17. Immunochromatography detection of human lactoferrin protein in milk from transgenic cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuxin; Zhai, Shanli; Zhang, Qingde; Liu, Bang

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic technologies have opened a new era of transgenesis, characterized by manipulating intraspecies or interspecies genes in microorganisms, plants, or animals to change them in desired directions. The advent of genetically modified animals and related products has raised the need for analytical methods, nucleotide- or protein-based, to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the biotechnology ingredients. In this study, we collected milk samples containing human lactoferrin (hLF) protein, to exploit appropriate detection means for exogenous hLF protein. We preliminarily developed two types of competitive immunochromatography strips for quick detection, based on gold-conjugated hLF protein or gold-conjugated polyclonal antibody. As control methods, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, dot blot, and Western blot methods were used to check the accuracy of strips, and highly sensitive ELISA with chemiluminescent substrates was developed to determine the concentration of hLF in milk. Comparing the test results of lateral flow strips with qualitative assays, we found our strips gave the same results in a few minutes, showing great advantages with no need of professional technicians or any equipment. Our results demonstrated that all the applied methods were effective to detect hLF, suggesting that they could be used to monitor the production of transgenic milk.

  18. Transgenic rabbits for the production of biologically-active recombinant proteins in the milk.

    PubMed

    Castro, F O; Limonta, J; Rodriguez, A; Aguirre, A; de la Fuente, J; Aguilar, A; Ramos, B; Hayes, O

    1999-11-01

    The use of live bioreactors for the expression of human genes in the mammary gland of transgenic animals is one of the most cost-effective ways for the production of valuable recombinant therapeutic proteins. Among the transgenic species used so far, rabbits are good candidates for the expression of tens to hundreds of grams of complex proteins in the milk during lactation. The lactating mammary gland of rabbits has proven to be effective in the processing of complex proteins. In this work. the potential use of rabbits as bioreactors is discussed based on our results and the published data.

  19. Quantification of milk fat globule membrane proteins using selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fong, Bertram Y; Norris, Carmen S

    2009-07-22

    Although some of the physiological roles of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins are still unclear, there is increasing evidence that the consumption of bovine MFGM proteins has significant nutritional health benefits for humans; therefore, it may be important to be able to estimate the MFGM proteins in complex ingredients. In this study, the absolute quantification (AQUA) technique, which is typically used for the quantification of proteins in proteomic studies, was applied for the quantification of bovine MFGM proteins in butter milk protein concentrate. Six MFGM proteins (fatty acid binding protein, butyrophilin, PAS 6/7, adipophilin, xanthine oxidase, and mucin 1) were simultaneously quantified using high-resolution selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Samples were rehydrated in 6.7 M urea buffer prior to dilution to 2.2 M before tryspin digestion. Direct rehydration in 2.2 M urea buffer or 2.2 M urea/20% acetonitilrile buffer reduced peptide yield digestion. Isotopically labeled peptides were used as internal standards. The coefficient of variation ranged from 5 to 15%, with a recovery of 84-105%. The limit of detection was in the range of 20-40 pg.

  20. Effects of different industrial heating processes of milk on site-specific protein modifications and their relationship to in vitro and in vivo digestibility.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yasuaki; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2014-05-07

    Heating processes are applied to milk and dairy products to ensure their microbiological safety and shelf lives. However, how differences in "industrial" thermal treatments affect protein digestibility is still equivocal. In this study, raw milk was subjected to pasteurization, three kinds of ultra-high-temperature (UHT) treatment, and in-can sterilization and was investigated by in vitro and in vivo digestion and proteomic methods. In-can sterilized milk, followed by UHT milk samples, showed a rapid decrease in protein bands during the course of digestion. However, protein digestibility determined by a Kjeldahl procedure showed insignificant differences. Proteomic analysis revealed that lactulosyllysine, which reflects a decrease in protein digestibility, in α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and caseins was higher in in-can sterilized milk, followed by UHT milk samples. Thus, industrial heating may improve the digestibility of milk proteins by denaturation, but the improvement is likely to be offset by heat-derived modifications involved in decreased protein digestibility.

  1. Influence of casein as a percentage of true protein and protein level on color and texture of milks containing 1 and 2% fat.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Noriko; Barbano, David M; Drake, MaryAnne

    2016-07-01

    Combinations of fresh liquid microfiltration retentate of skim milk, ultrafiltered retentate and permeate produced from microfiltration permeate, cream, and dried lactose monohydrate were used to produce a matrix of 20 milks. The milks contained 5 levels of casein as a percentage of true protein of about 5, 25, 50, 75, and 80% and 4 levels of true protein of 3.0, 3.76, 4.34, and 5.0% with constant lactose percentage of 5%. The experiment was replicated twice and repeated for both 1 and 2% fat content. Hunter color measurements, relative viscosity, and fat globule size distribution were measured, and a trained panel documented appearance and texture attributes on all milks. Overall, casein as a percentage of true protein had stronger effects than level of true protein on Hunter L, a, b values, relative viscosity, and fat globule size when using fresh liquid micellar casein concentrates and milk serum protein concentrates produced by a combination of microfiltration and ultrafiltration. As casein as a percentage of true protein increased, the milks became more white (higher L value), less green (lower negative a value), and less yellow (lower b value). Relative viscosity increased and d(0.9) generally decreased with increasing casein as a percentage of true protein. Panelists perceived milks with increasing casein as a percentage of true protein as more white, more opaque, and less yellow. Panelists were able to detect increased throat cling and mouthcoating with increased casein as a percentage of true protein in 2% milks, even when differences in appearance among milks were masked.

  2. Use of test day milk fat and milk protein to detect subclinical ketosis in dairy cattle in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Duffield, T F; Kelton, D F; Leslie, K E; Lissemore, K D; Lumsden, J H

    1997-01-01

    Serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) levels were determined for 1333 dairy cows in various stages of lactation and parity on 93 dairy farms in Ontario. The data were collected in a cross-sectional manner, as part of the 1992 Ontario Dairy Monitoring and Analysis Program. The median serum BHB was 536 mumol/L for all cows, with a range of 0 to 5801 mumol/L. When subclinical ketosis was defined as a serum BHB level of 1200 mumol/L or higher, the prevalence of ketosis for cows in early lactation (< 65 days in milk (DIM)) was 14.1%. Prevalences for mid lactation (65-149 DIM), late lactation (> 149 DIM), and dry cows were 5.3%, 3.2%, and 1.6%, respectively. The mean serum BHB was significantly higher in the early group compared with each of the other 3 groups (P < 0.05). There was a trend of increasing prevalence with increasing parity across all stages of lactation. Only the difference between the parity-1 group and the parity-4 and greater group was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Both test-day fat percent and test-day protein percent were significantly associated with subclinical ketosis. However, test-day fat percent and test-day protein percent, used alone or in combination, were not useful screening tests for identifying cows with subclinical ketosis. PMID:9360791

  3. The diagnosis and management of cow milk protein intolerance in the primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Whitney Merrill; Allen, Patricia Jackson

    2005-01-01

    Cow milk protein intolerance (CMPI) affects 3% of infants under the age of 12 months and is often misdiagnosed as GERD or colic, risking dangerous exposure to antigens. Most infants out grow CMPI by 12 months; however, those with IgE-mediated reactions usually continue to be intolerant to cow's milk proteins and also develop other allergens including environmental allergens that cause asthmatic symptoms. Clinical manifestations of CMPI include diarrhea, bloody stools, vomiting, feeding refusal, eczema, atopic dermatitis, urticaria, angioedema, allergic rhinitis, coughing, wheezing, failure to thrive, and anaphylaxis. The research and literature showed that CMPI is easily missed in the primary care setting and needs to be considered as a cause of infant distress and clinical symptoms. This article focuses on correctly diagnosing CMPI and managing it in the primary care setting.

  4. Impact of anisotropic atomic motions in proteins on powder-averaged incoherent neutron scattering intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Kneller, Gerald R.; Chevrot, Guillaume

    2012-12-14

    This paper addresses the question to which extent anisotropic atomic motions in proteins impact angular-averaged incoherent neutron scattering intensities, which are typically recorded for powder samples. For this purpose, the relevant correlation functions are represented as multipole series in which each term corresponds to a different degree of intrinsic motional anisotropy. The approach is illustrated by a simple analytical model and by a simulation-based example for lysozyme, considering in both cases the elastic incoherent structure factor. The second example shows that the motional anisotropy of the protein atoms is considerable and contributes significantly to the scattering intensity.

  5. Tenascin-C is an innate broad-spectrum, HIV-1-neutralizing protein in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Fouda, Genevieve G; Jaeger, Frederick H; Amos, Joshua D; Ho, Carrie; Kunz, Erika L; Anasti, Kara; Stamper, Lisa W; Liebl, Brooke E; Barbas, Kimberly H; Ohashi, Tomoo; Moseley, Martin Arthur; Liao, Hua-Xin; Erickson, Harold P; Alam, S Munir; Permar, Sallie R

    2013-11-05

    Achieving an AIDS-free generation will require elimination of postnatal transmission of HIV-1 while maintaining the nutritional and immunologic benefits of breastfeeding for infants in developing regions. Maternal/infant antiretroviral prophylaxis can reduce postnatal HIV-1 transmission, yet toxicities and the development of drug-resistant viral strains may limit the effectiveness of this strategy. Interestingly, in the absence of antiretroviral prophylaxis, greater than 90% of infants exposed to HIV-1 via breastfeeding remain uninfected, despite daily mucosal exposure to the virus for up to 2 y. Moreover, milk of uninfected women inherently neutralizes HIV-1 and prevents virus transmission in animal models, yet the factor(s) responsible for this anti-HIV activity is not well-defined. In this report, we identify a primary HIV-1-neutralizing protein in breast milk, Tenascin-C (TNC). TNC is an extracellular matrix protein important in fetal development and wound healing, yet its antimicrobial properties have not previously been established. Purified TNC captured and neutralized multiclade chronic and transmitted/founder HIV-1 variants, and depletion of TNC abolished the HIV-1-neutralizing activity of milk. TNC bound the HIV-1 Envelope protein at a site that is induced upon engagement of its primary receptor, CD4, and is blocked by V3 loop- (19B and F39F) and chemokine coreceptor binding site-directed (17B) monoclonal antibodies. Our results demonstrate the ability of an innate mucosal host protein found in milk to neutralize HIV-1 via binding to the chemokine coreceptor site, potentially explaining why the majority of HIV-1-exposed breastfed infants are protected against mucosal HIV-1 transmission.

  6. Molecular and biotechnological advances in milk proteins in relation to human health.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, Jagat R; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Sun, Xueying; Punj, Vasu; Matta, H; Morley, Somasundaram M; Parratt, Andrew; Puri, Munish; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2009-08-01

    Milk and colostrum is a rich source of proteins/peptides which have crucial roles in both neonates and adults. Milk bioactive proteins and peptides are potential health-enhancing nutraceuticals for food. Many bioactive peptides/proteins may be used as nutraceuticals, for example, in the treatment of cancer, asthma, diarrhea, hypertension, thrombosis, dental diseases, as well as mineral malabsorption, and immunodeficiency. The following components of milk are of particular interest in the recent years: 1) Lactoferrin [Lf] has antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasite and antitumor activities and accelerates immunomodulatory properties. Lf is a potent inhibitor for several enveloped and naked viruses, such as rotavirus, enterovirus and adenovirus. Lf is resistant to tryptic digestion and breast-fed infants excrete high levels of faecal Lf, so that its effect on viruses replicating in the gastrointestinal tract is of great interest. 2) Casein has been protective in experimental bacteremia by eliciting myelopoiesis. Casein hydrolyzates were also protective in diabetic animals, reduced the tumor growth and diminished colicky symptoms in infants. 3) A Proline rich polypeptide [PRP] revealed variety of immunotropic functions, including promotion of T-cell activation and inhibition of autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis. 4) alpha-Lactalbumin [LA] demonstrates antiviral, antitumor and anti-stress properties. 5) Lactoperoxidase shows antibacterial properties. 6) Lysozyme is effective in treatment of periodentitis and prevention of tooth decay. Taken together, milk-derived proteins and peptides are bio-available and safe for the prevention and treatment of various disorders in humans and may play a complementary [natural agents] rather than a substitutional role to the toxic synthetic pharmacological drugs.

  7. Detection and identification of a soy protein component that cross-reacts with caseins from cow's milk

    PubMed Central

    ROZENFELD, P; DOCENA, G H; AÑÓN, M C; FOSSATI, C A

    2002-01-01

    Soy-based formulas are the most employed cow's milk substitutes in the treatment of cow's milk allergy in our country. Since adverse reactions have been reported in allergic patients as a consequence of exposure to soy proteins, we have investigated the possible cross-reactivity between components from soybean and cow's milk. A cow's milk specific polyclonal antiserum and casein specific monoclonal antibodies were used in immunoblotting and competitive ELISA studies to identify a 30-kD component from soybean that cross-reacts with cow's milk caseins. Its IgE binding capacity was tested by EAST, employing sera from cow's milk allergic patients, not previously exposed to soy proteins. The 30 kD protein was isolated and partially sequenced. It is constituted by two polypeptides (A5 and B3) linked by a disulphide bond. The protein's capacity to bind to the different antibodies relies on the B3 poly-peptide. These results indicate that soy-based formula, which contains the A5-B3 glycinin molecule, could be involved in allergic reactions observed in cow's milk allergic patients exposed to soy-containing foods. PMID:12296853

  8. Preparation of monoclonal antibodies to xanthine oxidase and other proteins of bovine milk-fat-globule membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Mather, I H; Nace, C S; Johnson, V G; Goldsby, R A

    1980-01-01

    Nine hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibody to proteins of bovine milk-fat-globule membrane were isolated. All nine cell lines continued to secrete monoclonal antibody after serial transfer in culture and after passage as solid tumours in Balb/cJ mice. Four of the cell lines secreted monoclonal antibody specific for xanthine oxidase, one of the major proteins of milk-fat-globule membrane. PMID:6894088

  9. Colostrum and milk protein rankings and ratios of importance to neonatal calf health using a proteomics approach.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Asger; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Bendixen, Emøke; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Røntved, Christine Maria

    2017-04-01

    Administration of colostrum to the newborn calf before gut closure is pivotal to its health, because of the transfer of passive immunity. Traditionally, passive immunity has been attributed to the transfer of immunoglobulins although it is increasingly clear that multiple other factors contribute, including innate immune proteins, developmental factors, immunomodulatory factors, and the presence of cellular immunity. The objective of this study was to produce a comprehensive comparison of the bovine colostrum proteome and the milk proteome by applying 2-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Further, the objectives were to rank proteins mutually and generate protein ratios from the spectral counts of the 2 proteomes and ELISA to gain insight into which proteins could be of most relevance to neonatal calf health. To obtain an in-depth picture of the bovine colostrum and milk proteome, we compared the contents of different fractions from bovine colostrum and milk from our 2 previous studies. A total of 140 colostrum fluid-phase proteins and 103 milk fluid-phase proteins were detected. In the cellular fraction, 324 and 310 proteins were detected in colostrum and milk, respectively. In total, 514 proteins were detected, of which 162 were in the fluid phase. Of these, 50 proteins were exclusively seen in colostrum, 13 were exclusively seen in milk, and 99 were common to colostrum and milk. Ranking of proteins mutually and calculating protein ratios based on spectral counts and ELISA resulted in new information on how proteins were associated with the fluid or cellular fraction of the samples. Interestingly, despite lower counts/concentrations than the classical proteins such as immunoglobulins, β-lactoglobulin, and lactotransferrin, several proteins appeared in higher or similar colostrum:milk spectral count ratios as these. Using this approach indicated, for example, that osteopontin, haptoglobin, milk amyloid A, and gelsolin may be interesting

  10. Permeability of milk protein antigens across the intestinal epithelium in vitro.

    PubMed

    Marcon-Genty, D; Tomé, D; Dumontier, A M; Kheroua, O; Desjeux, J F

    1989-01-01

    Degradations by proteolytic enzymes and intestinal epithelial permeability represent two major drawbacks to the transfer of food protein antigens to blood. These steps were studied in vitro for the milk protein antigens beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg), alpha-Lactalbumin (alpha-La) and beta-casein (beta-cas). Pepsin-trypsin hydrolysis and permeability in isolated rabbit ileum in Ussing chamber were suited by ELISA and radiolabelled-protein measurement. Pepsin-trypsin hydrolysis showed an increasing resistance in the order beta-cas less than alpha-La less than beta-Lg. The rate of absorption of the antigenic proteins by isolated rabbit ileum was in the same order, and the rate of absorption of the whole proteins (degraded and antigenic forms) was significantly higher for beta-Lg than for alpha-La and beta-cas. These results suggest a selective intestinal permeability for milk protein antigens. This selectivity is probably important in the mechanism of food protein sensitization via the oral route.

  11. Combined effects of soy isoflavones and milk basic protein on bone mineral density in hind-limb unloaded mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yu; Tousen, Yuko; Nishide, Yoriko; Tadaishi, Miki; Kato, Ken; Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether the combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein both are reported to be effective for bone metabolism, prevents bone loss induced by skeletal hind-limb unloading in mice. Female ddY strain mice, aged 8 weeks, were divided into six groups (n = 6–8 each): (1) normally housed group, (2) loading group, (3) hind-limb unloading group fed a control diet, (4) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates diet, (5) hind-limb unloading group fed a 1.0% milk basic protein diet, and (6) hind-limb unloading group fed a 0.2% isoflavone conjugates and 1.0% milk basic protein diet. After 3 weeks, femoral bone mineral density was markedly reduced in unloading mice. The combination of isoflavone and milk basic protein showed cooperative effects in preventing bone loss and milk basic protein inhibited the increased expression of osteogenic genes in bone marrow cells in unloading mice. These results suggest that the combination of soy isoflavone and milk basic protein may be useful for bone health in subjects with disabling conditions as well as astronauts. PMID:27013781

  12. Milk yield and composition of lactating cows fed steam-flaked sorghum and graded concentrations of ruminally degradable protein.

    PubMed

    Santos, F A; Huber, J T; Theurer, C B; Swingle, R S; Simas, J M; Chen, K H; Yu, P

    1998-01-01

    To determine the effect of various amounts of ruminally undegradable protein in the diets of lactating cows fed steam-flaked sorghum, 24 Holstein cows (90 +/- 50 d in milk) were assigned to three treatments: 0.8% urea, 6% soybean meal, or 5% fish meal. Respective percentages of ruminally undegradable protein in the diets (as a percentage of crude protein) were 30, 35, and 39%. All diets contained 37% alfalfa hay; 3 to 5% cottonseed hulls; 10 to 13% whole cottonseed; 39% steam-flaked sorghum (360 g/L); 5% of a molasses, mineral, and vitamin supplement; and the different protein supplements. Intake of dry matter was higher for cows fed urea than for cows fed soybean meal or fish meal diets. In cows that yielded more than 40 kg/d of milk (4 cows per treatment), the soybean meal and fish meal diets resulted in higher yields of milk and 3.5% fat-corrected milk and a greater efficiency of conversion of feed to milk than did the urea diet. Cows that yielded less than 40 kg/d of milk (4 cows per treatment) at the beginning of treatment tended to yield more milk when fed urea than when fed the protein supplements. Nutrient digestibilities were not greatly affected by source of N, suggesting a beneficial effect of urea supplementation on nutrient digestibilities because replacement of protein supplements with cottonseed products caused the neutral detergent fiber content of the urea diet to be about 7% higher than that of the other diets. These data show that response to ruminally undegradable protein in diets of lactating cows fed steam-flaked sorghum was related to milk yield.

  13. Effect of ultrasound on the physical and functional properties of reconstituted whey protein powders.

    PubMed

    Zisu, Bogdan; Lee, Judy; Chandrapala, Jayani; Bhaskaracharya, Raman; Palmer, Martin; Kentish, Sandra; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2011-05-01

    Aqueous solutions of reconstituted whey protein- concentrate (WPC) & isolate (WPI) powders were sonicated at 20 kHz in a batch process for 1-60 min. Sonication at 20 kHz increased the clarity of WPC solutions largely due to the reduction in the size of the suspended insoluble aggregates. The gel strength of these solutions when heated at 80°C for 20 min also increased with sonication, while gelation time and gel syneresis were reduced. These improvements in gel strength were observed across a range of initial pH values, suggesting that the mechanism for gel promotion is different from the well known effects of pH. Examining the microstructure of the whey protein gels indicated a compact network of densely packed whey protein aggregates arising from ultrasound treatment. Comparable changes were not observed with whey protein isolate solutions, which may reflect the absence of larger aggregates in the initial solution or differences in composition.

  14. Effect of bleaching permeate from microfiltered skim milk on 80% serum protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rachel E; Adams, Michael C; Drake, Maryanne; Barbano, David M

    2013-03-01

    Whey proteins that have been removed before the cheese-making process are referred to as "native" whey proteins or milk serum proteins. Because serum proteins isolated directly from milk are not exposed to the cheese-making process, they are free from functional or sensory effects arising from this process. Whey proteins used in food and beverage applications are largely derived from annatto-colored Cheddar cheese. Some of the annatto is left in the whey and this color is converted to a colorless compound by bleaching. The effect of bleaching serum proteins on flavor and functionality of spray-dried protein provides a platform to investigate the effect of bleaching free from the confounding effects of cheese manufacture. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the sensory and functional properties of 80% milk serum protein concentrate (SPC80) produced from bleached and unbleached microfiltration (MF) permeate made from skim milk with and without added annatto color. Colored and uncolored MF permeates were bleached with benzoyl peroxide (BP) or hydrogen peroxide (HP), ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried. The SPC80 from unbleached colored and uncolored MF permeates were manufactured as controls. All treatments were manufactured in triplicate. All SPC80 were evaluated by sensory testing, instrumental analyses, functionality, color, and proximate analysis. The HP-bleached SPC80 was higher in lipid oxidation compounds than BP-bleached or unbleached SPC80, specifically hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, decanal, and 2,3-octadienone. The HP treatments were higher in aroma intensity and cardboard and fatty flavors compared with the unbleached and BP-bleached SPC80. The SPC80 bleached with BP had lower concentrations of norbixin compared with SPC80 bleached with HP. Functionality testing demonstrated that HP treatments had more soluble protein after 10min of heating at 90°C and pH 4.6 and pH 7 compared with the no bleach and BP treatments, regardless

  15. A 12-month feeding study of reproduction/development in rats fed meat/milk powder supplemented diets derived from the progeny of cloned cattle produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Makiko; Itoh, Masaya; Ito, Yoshihiko; Watanabe, Shinya

    2008-10-01

    The present 12-month feeding study was carried out with rat groups fed a diet supplemented with meat or milk (meat/milk) derived from the progeny of clones produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. It was conducted to obtain data concerning the chronic toxicities of these edible products during the process of development and reproduction in rats fed such products. The rats were subjected to clinical observations for general health condition and examinations such as sensory/reflex function, grip strength, motor activity, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology and urinalysis. Moreover, sexually matured rats fed the test diets were mated and examined for items such as the reproductive performances of the dams and health of their pups. After the feeding period, factors related to rat health status, based on the findings for hematology, blood biochemistry, necropsy, organ weight and histology, were examined. There were no biologically significant differences in these factors between the rat groups fed meat/milk powder supplemented diets derived from the progeny and those fed meat/milk powder supplemented diets derived from conventionally bred cattle. Therefore, the present chronic toxicity study suggests that meat and milk derived from the progeny of SCNT cattle might be equivalent to those derived from conventionally bred cattle in use as dietary supplements for rats.

  16. A nine-country study of the protein content and amino acid composition of mature human milk

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ping; Gao, Ming; Burgher, Anita; Zhou, Tian Hui; Pramuk, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have evaluated protein and amino acid levels in human milk. However, research in this area has been limited by small sample sizes and study populations with little ethnic or racial diversity. Objective Evaluate the protein and amino acid composition of mature (≥30 days) human milk samples collected from a large, multinational study using highly standardized methods for sample collection, storage, and analysis. Design Using a single, centralized laboratory, human milk samples from 220 women (30–188 days postpartum) from nine countries were analyzed for amino acid composition using Waters AccQ-Tag high-performance liquid chromatography and total nitrogen content using the LECO FP-528 nitrogen analyzer. Total protein was calculated as total nitrogen×6.25. True protein, which includes protein, free amino acids, and peptides, was calculated from the total amino acids. Results Mean total protein from individual countries (standard deviation [SD]) ranged from 1,133 (125.5) to 1,366 (341.4) mg/dL; the mean across all countries (SD) was 1,192 (200.9) mg/dL. Total protein, true protein, and amino acid composition were not significantly different across countries except Chile, which had higher total and true protein. Amino acid profiles (percent of total amino acids) did not differ across countries. Total and true protein concentrations and 16 of 18 amino acid concentrations declined with the stage of lactation. Conclusions Total protein, true protein, and individual amino acid concentrations in human milk steadily decline from 30 to 151 days of lactation, and are significantly higher in the second month of lactation compared with the following 4 months. There is a high level of consistency in the protein content and amino acid composition of human milk across geographic locations. The size and diversity of the study population and highly standardized procedures for the collection, storage, and analysis of human milk support the validity and

  17. Milk from different species: Relationship between protein fractions and inflammatory response in infants affected by generalized epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Ciliberti, M G; Figliola, L; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Polito, A N

    2016-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of protein fractions from bovine, caprine, and ovine milk on production of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBC) from infants with generalized epilepsy. Bovine, caprine, and ovine bulk milks were pasteurized and analyzed for chemical composition. Then, PBMC were isolated from 10 patients with generalized epilepsy (5 males; mean age 33.6±5.4mo). Production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-10, IL-6, and IL-1β was studied in cultured PBMC (from infants with epilepsy and controls) stimulated by bovine, caprine, and ovine milk and casein and whey protein fractions, and levels of ROS and RNS were measured in the culture supernatant. The ability of PBMC to secrete cytokines in response to milk and protein fraction stimulation may predict the secretion of soluble factor TNF-α in the bloodstream of challenged patients. Bovine, caprine, and ovine bulk milks induced low-level production of IL-10 by cultured PBMC in at least 50% of cases; the same behavior was observed in both casein and whey protein fractions for all species studied. Bovine and ovine milk and their casein fractions induced production of lower levels of IL-1β in 80% of patients, whereas caprine milk and its casein fraction induced the highest levels in 80% of patients. The amount of IL-6 detected after stimulation of PBMC by milk and its fractions for all species was lower than that of other proinflammatory cytokines. In the bovine, total free radicals were higher in bulk milk and lower in the casein fraction, whereas the whey protein fraction showed an intermediate level; in caprine, ROS/RNS levels were not different among milk fractions, whereas ovine had higher levels for bulk milk and casein than the whey protein fraction. Lower levels of ROS/RNS detected in PBMC cultured with caprine milk fraction could be responsible for the lower levels of

  18. Novel determination of protein, fat, and lactose of milk by liquid scintillation counter

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, R.C.; Shand, J.H.; West, I.G.

    1981-01-01

    A method for routine determination of protein, fat, and lactose contents of milk is based on the ability of a scintillation counter to measure coloration or opalescence through attenuation of photons emitted from sealed miniature carbon-14 and hydrogen-3 radioactive standards. A series of simplified and accurate analytical procedures enable full advantage to be taken of the automatic facilities on the modern liquid scintillation counter. The methods provide several advantages over existing procedures. Accuracy of quantification was high as assessed by comparing the results with those derived by recommended Kjeldahl, Gerber, and colorimetric procedures for protein, fat, and lactose determinations, respectively.

  19. Effects of dietary protein on milk, rumen, and blood parameters in dairy cattle fed low fiber diets.

    PubMed

    Jaquette, R D; Rakes, A H; Croom, W J

    1986-04-01

    Eighteen multiparous and 9 primiparous Holstein cows were used to determine the effects of a 13 and 23% crude protein concentrate on milk fat depression during early lactation. Beginning on d 22 postpartum, cows were fed a high fiber diet (27% acid detergent fiber) for 3 wk and then switched to a low fiber diet (9 to 10% acid detergent fiber) for 6 wk. Crude protein percentages calculated from dry matter consumption were 13.5 and 17.9% during the high fiber period and 12.7 and 22.3% during the low fiber period. Daily milk and fat yields for both primiparous and multiparous cows were greater for the high protein treatment. The magnitude of decline in milk fat percentage (from high to low fiber) was greater for the low protein treatment, as determined by nonlinear regression. The high protein treatment was more effective in reducing the severity of milk fat depression in primiparous cows than in multiparous cows. Dietary crude protein had no effect on milk protein or solids-not-fat percentages, rumen volatile fatty acid molar proportions, or serum acetate concentration. The mechanism by which the high protein ration minimized the fat depression response to low fiber rations by primiparous cows is unknown.

  20. Relationship between content of crude protein in rations for dairy cows and milk yield, concentration of urea in milk and ammonia emissions.

    PubMed

    Frank, B; Swensson, C

    2002-07-01

    During recent decades, efforts have been made in several countries to diminish the negative environmental influence of dairy production. The main focus has been on nitrogen and phosphorus. Modern dairy production in Western Europe is often based on imported feed-stuffs, mostly protein-rich feeds. In Sweden at least, it is wished that the use of imported feedstuffs in animal production will decrease due to the risk of contamination with Salmonella and the ban of using GMO crops in Swedish dairy production. An experiment was carried out to investigate whether a lower content of crude protein in the diet would decrease the ammonia release from cow manure and whether a well-balanced diet using only feedstuffs of Swedish origin would maintain milk production. Five treatments were arranged in a Latin square design. Two different protein supplements made of ingredients of Swedish origin were each fed at two protein levels, and a fifth imported commercial protein mix was fed at the higher level. The treatments with low protein levels (13.1 to 13.5%) had a significantly lower milk yield, kilograms of ECM, but, on the other hand the net profit, milk income minus feed cost was nearly the same in all treatments except diet C, which had lower feed cost but also lower net profit due to lower milk yield. The content of urea in milk was higher with diets high in crude protein (17%) content. A decreased protein level in the diets did not influence the content of casein or whey protein, but the commercial concentrate showed a tendency to give lower values than the Swedish mixtures. The low protein diets gave significantly lower ammonia release from manure compared with the high protein diets. There were no production differences between the diets of Swedish feeds compared with the imported control. The readily fermentable beet pulp should have helped cows use the higher N diet more efficiently and increased the response. This gives the rumen microbes a possibility to match the

  1. Effects of dietary forage sources on rumen microbial protein synthesis and milk performance in early lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W; Fu, Y; Wang, B; Wang, C; Ye, J A; Wu, Y M; Liu, J-X

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary forage sources on milk performance, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and N utilization in early lactation dairy cows. Twelve primiparous Chinese Holstein dairy cows (45 ± 6.0 DIM) were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric, with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 45:55 [dry matter (DM) basis] and contained similar concentrate mixtures. Different forage sources were then added (on a DM basis): 21% corn silage, 19% corn stover, and 5% alfalfa hay (CS); 19% corn silage, 21% Chinese wild rye hay and 5% alfalfa hay (CWR); or 19% corn silage, 9% Chinese wild rye hay, and 17% alfalfa hay (AH). Each period lasted for 21 d, with the first 14 d for an adaptation period. Dry matter intake was not affected by the source of dietary forage. Milk yield was higher for cows fed AH than those fed CS, with an intermediate value for CWR. Milk protein content was higher in the cows fed AH compared with CWR (3.02 vs. 2.92%), with CS (2.95%) at an intermediate position. The contents of milk fat and lactose were not different among the treatments. However, milk efficiency (milk yield/DM intake) was higher for cows fed AH than those fed CS, with those fed CWR intermediate. Cows fed AH had higher microbial protein yield and metabolizable protein than those fed CS or CWR. The concentrations of urea N in the urine, blood, and milk were decreased for cows fed AH, indicating an increased N conversion. The results indicated that corn stover could replace Chinese wild rye grass in the diets for lactating cows and that a high proportion of alfalfa hay in the diet is beneficial for milk protein production by increasing microbial protein yield. This can be attributed to the improving the supply of rumen-available energy.

  2. Preparation of iron bound succinylated milk protein concentrate and evaluation of its stability.

    PubMed

    Shilpashree, B G; Arora, Sumit; Sharma, Vivek; Bajaj, Rajesh Kumar; Tomar, S K

    2016-04-01

    Major problems associated with the fortification of soluble iron salts include chemical reactivity and incompatibility with other components. Milk protein concentrate (MPC) are able to bind significant amount of iron due to the presence of both casein and whey protein. MPC in its native state possess very poor solubility, therefore, succinylated derivatives of MPC (succ. MPC) were also used for the preparation of protein-iron complex. Preparation of the complex involved centrifugation (to remove insoluble iron), ultrafiltration (to remove unbound iron) and lyophilisation (to attain in dry form). Iron binding ability of MPC enhanced significantly (P<0.05) upon succinylation. Stability of bound iron from both varieties of complexes was monitored under different conditions encountered during processing. Higher stability (P<0.05) of bound iron was observed in succ. MPC-iron complex than native protein complex. This method could be adopted for the production of stable iron enriched protein, an organic iron source.

  3. Gamma irradiation influence on physical properties of milk proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieśla, K.; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.; Tien, C. Le

    2004-09-01

    Gamma irradiation was found to be an effective method for the improvement of both barrier and mechanical properties of the edible films and coatings based on calcium and sodium caseinates alone or combined with some globular proteins. Our current studies concern gamma irradiation influence on the physical properties of calcium caseinate-whey protein isolate-glycerol (1:1:1) solutions and gels, used for films preparation. Irradiation of solutions was carried out with Co-60 gamma rays applying 0 and 32 kGy dose. The increase in viscosity of solutions was found after irradiation connected to induced crosslinking. Lower viscosity values were detected, however, after heating of the solutions irradiated with a 32 kGy dose than after heating of the non-irradiated ones regarding differences in the structure of gels and resulting in different temperature-viscosity curves that were recorded for the irradiated and the non-irradiated samples during heating and cooling. Creation of less stiff but better ordered gels after irradiation arises probably from reorganisation of aperiodic helical phase and β-sheets, in particular from increase of β-strands, detected by FTIR. Films obtained from these gels are characterised by improved barrier properties and mechanical resistance and are more rigid than those prepared from the non-irradiated gels. The route of gel creation was investigated for the control and the irradiated samples during heating and the subsequent cooling.

  4. Proteomics method to quantify the percentage of cow, goat, and sheep milks in raw materials for dairy products.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q; Ke, X; Zhang, J S; Lai, S Y; Fang, F; Mo, W M; Ren, Y P

    2016-12-01

    Fraud in milk and dairy products occurs when cow milk is added to sheep and goat milk for economic reasons. No reliable, selective, and sensitive method exists for quantifying the milk percentage of different species. This work reports the development and validation of a proteomics-based method for the qualitative detection and quantitative determination of cow, sheep, and goat milks in the raw materials used for dairy products. β-Lactoglobulin was selected as the protein marker because it is a major protein in milk and whey powder. The tryptic peptides LSFNPTQLEEQCHI and LAFNPTQLEGQCHV were used as signature peptides for cow milk and for sheep and goat milks, respectively. The winged peptides LKALPMHIRLSFNPTQL*EEQCHI* and LKALPMHIRLAFNPTQL*EGQCHV* were designed and synthesized as internal standards. Validation of the method showed that it has good sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, precision, and accuracy. This method is easily applicable in routine laboratory analysis without intensive proteomics background.

  5. Preventive effect of fermented Maillard reaction products from milk proteins in cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Oh, N S; Kwon, H S; Lee, H A; Joung, J Y; Lee, J Y; Lee, K B; Shin, Y K; Baick, S C; Park, M R; Kim, Y; Lee, K W; Kim, S H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the dual effect of Maillard reaction and fermentation on the preventive cardiovascular effects of milk proteins. Maillard reaction products (MRP) were prepared from the reaction between milk proteins, such as whey protein concentrates (WPC) and sodium caseinate (SC), and lactose. The hydrolysates of MRP were obtained from fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB; i.e., Lactobacillus gasseri H10, L. gasseri H11, Lactobacillus fermentum H4, and L. fermentum H9, where human-isolated strains were designated H1 to H15), which had excellent proteolytic and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities (>20%). The antioxidant activity of MRP was greater than that of intact proteins in assays of the reaction with 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and trivalent ferric ions; moreover, the effect of MRP was synergistically improved by fermentation. The Maillard reaction dramatically increased the level of antithrombotic activity and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) inhibitory effect of milk proteins, but did not change the level of activity for micellar cholesterol solubility. Furthermore, specific biological properties were enhanced by fermentation. Lactobacillus gasseri H11 demonstrated the greatest activity for thrombin and HMGR inhibition in Maillard-reacted WPC, by 42 and 33%, respectively, whereas hydrolysates of Maillard-reacted SC fermented by L. fermentum H9 demonstrated the highest reduction rate for micellar cholesterol solubility, at 52%. In addition, the small compounds that were likely released by fermentation of MRP were identified by size-exclusion chromatography. Therefore, MRP and hydrolysates of fermented MRP could be used to reduce cardiovascular risks.

  6. The dual effects of Maillard reaction and enzymatic hydrolysis on the antioxidant activity of milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Oh, N S; Lee, H A; Lee, J Y; Joung, J Y; Lee, K B; Kim, Y; Lee, K W; Kim, S H

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the enhanced effects on the biological characteristics and antioxidant activity of milk proteins by the combination of the Maillard reaction and enzymatic hydrolysis. Maillard reaction products were obtained from milk protein preparations, such as whey protein concentrates and sodium caseinate with lactose, by heating at 55°C for 7 d in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). The Maillard reaction products, along with untreated milk proteins as controls, were hydrolyzed for 0 to 3h with commercial proteases Alcalase, Neutrase, Protamex, and Flavorzyme (Novozymes, Bagsværd, Denmark). The antioxidant activity of hydrolyzed Maillard reaction products was determined by reaction with 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, and the ability to reduce ferric ions. Further characteristics were evaluated by the o-phthaldialdehyde method and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. The degree of hydrolysis gradually increased in a time-dependent manner, with the Alcalase-treated Maillard reaction products being the most highly hydrolyzed. Radical scavenging activities and reducing ability of hydrolyzed Maillard reaction products increased with increasing hydrolysis time. The combined products of enzymatic hydrolysis and Maillard reaction showed significantly greater antioxidant activity than did hydrolysates or Maillard reaction products alone. The hydrolyzed Maillard reaction products generated by Alcalase showed significantly higher antioxidant activity when compared with the other protease products and the antioxidant activity was higher for the whey protein concentrate groups than for the sodium caseinate groups. These findings indicate that Maillard reaction products, coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis, could act as potential antioxidants in the pharmaceutical, food, and dairy industries.

  7. Dynamic high pressure-induced gelation in milk protein model systems.

    PubMed

    Venir, E; Marchesini, G; Biasutti, M; Innocente, N

    2010-02-01

    The structure-functional properties of milk proteins are relevant in food formulation. Recently, there has been growing interest in dynamic high-pressure homogenization effects on the rheological-structural properties of food macromolecules and proteins. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of different homogenization pressures on rheological properties of milk protein model systems. For this purpose, sodium caseinate (SC) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) were dispersed at different concentrations (1, 2, and 4%), pasteurized, and then homogenized at 0, 18MPa (conventional pressure, CP), 100MPa (high pressure, HP), and 150MPa (HP+). Differences in viscosity were observed between WPC and casein dispersions according to concentration, heat treatment, and homogenization pressure. Mechanical spectra described the characteristic behavior of solutions except for the WPC 4% pasteurized sample, in which a network formed but was broken after homogenization. Dispersions with different ratios of WPC and SC were also made. In these systems, pasteurization alone did not determine network formation, whereas homogenization alone promoted cold gelation. A total concentration of at least 4% was required for homogenization-induced gelation in pasteurized and unpasteurized samples. Gels with higher elastic modulus (G') were obtained in more concentrated samples, and a bell-shaped behavior with the maximum value at HP was observed. The HP treatment produced stronger gels than the CP treatment. Similar G' values were obtained when different concentrations, pasteurization conditions, and homogenization pressures were combined. Therefore, by setting appropriate process conditions, systems or gels with tailored characteristics may be obtained from dispersions of milk proteins.

  8. [Nitrogen and protein content analysis of human milk, diurnality vs nocturnality].

    PubMed

    Sánchez López, C L; Hernández, A; Rodríguez, A B; Rivero, M; Barriga, C; Cubero, J

    2011-01-01

    Breast milk is changing with the progression of lactation and during a 24-h period. To determine the effect of diurnality or nocturnality on total nitrogen and protein content of the breast milk. We collected human milk samples from health mothers living throughout Community of Extremadura (Spain) from January 2008 to December 2008 with less than two months of lactation. We divided the samples in three groups: calostral group (1-5 days postpartum), transitional group (6-15 days postpartum) and mature group (> 15 days postpartum). All samples were stored in a freezer at -80 ºC. We considered as day period between 08:00-20:00 h and night period 20:00-08:00 h. Analysis of the human milk samples was based on the Kjeldahl method. Protein contents were calculated from total nitrogen x 6,25. The statistical analysis of the data was descriptive (mean ± standard deviation) and inferential (T-Student test). No differences (P > 0,05) were found to exist among the contents of individual human milk samples. The mean contents of each component were as follows: Total nitrogen of calostral, transitional and mature group was 0,30 ± 0,06 g/dL (night period), 0,29 ± 0,05 g/dL (day period); 0,26 ± 0,04 g/dL (night period), 0,25 ± 0,04 g/dL (day period); 0,22 ± 0,05 g/dL (night period), 0,20 ± 0,04 g/dL (day period) respectively, in this mature group with a statistical variation (P < 0,05). Protein content of calostral, transitional and mature group was 1,88 ± 0,4 g/dL (night period), 1,81 ± 0,3 g/dL (day period); 1,62 ± 0,3 g/dL (night period), 1,59 ± 0,3 g/dL (day period); 1,35 ± 0,3 g/dL (night period), 1,26 ± 0,3 g/dL (day period) respectively, in this mature group with a statistical variation (P < 0,05). Although we observed differences in the nitrogen and protein content during the individual stages of lactation, it is just in the population of mature lactating women, where the components analyzed varied significantly between day and night.

  9. Binding of aflatoxin M1 to different protein fractions in ovine and caprine milk.

    PubMed

    Barbiroli, A; Bonomi, F; Benedetti, S; Mannino, S; Monti, L; Cattaneo, T; Iametti, S

    2007-02-01

    The affinity of aflatoxin M1 toward the main milk protein fractions in ewe and goat milk was investigated by using an ELISA. This study took into account the possible effects of common dairy processes such as ultrafiltration, acidic or rennet curding, and production of ricotta from acidic or rennet whey. Treatments that allowed the separation of casein from whey proteins under conditions that do not alter the physical or chemical status of the proteins (such as ultracentrifugation) were used as a reference. None of the treatments used in typical dairy processes caused significant release of the toxin, in spite of the relevant changes they induced in the interactions among proteins. Only the combined heat and acidic treatment used for production of ricotta cheese altered the structure of whey proteins to the point where they lost their ability to bind the toxin. This study also showed that, regardless of the physical state of the sample, a commercial electronic nose device, in combination with appropriate statistical tools, was able to discriminate among different levels of sample contamination.

  10. Human milk beyond one year post-partum: lower content of protein, calcium, and saturated very long-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Shehadeh, Naim; Aslih, Nardin; Shihab, Shihab; Werman, Moshe J; Sheinman, Rivkah; Shamir, Raanan

    2006-01-01

    Maternal milk feeding for more than 1 year is encouraged by many health care authorities. We demonstrate that human milk beyond 1 year of lactation had a small but significantly lower concentration of protein, calcium, and long-chain saturated fatty acids compared with human milk at 3 months after delivery.

  11. Short-term administration of rhGH increases markers of cellular proliferation, but not milk protein gene expression in normal lactating women.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth hormone is one of few pharmacologic agents known to augment milk production in humans. We hypothesized that recombinant human GH (rhGH) increases the expression of cell proliferation and milk protein synthesis genes. Sequential milk and blood samples collected over four days were obtained fro...

  12. Milk-derived proteins and peptides of potential therapeutic and nutritive value.

    PubMed

    Zimecki, Michal; Kruzel, Marian L

    2007-01-01

    Milk and colostrum are rich in proteins and peptides which play a crucial role in development of the immune system in mammalian offspring. Immunotropic properties of these compounds prompted investigators to search for their utility in prevention and therapy of various disorders in humans. The following constituents of milk are of particular interest: 1) Lactoferrin (LF)--exhibits antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasite and antitumor activities. It is protective with regard to intestinal epithelium, promotes bone growth and accelerates recovery of the immune system function in immunocompromised animal; 2) A Proline-Rich Polypeptide (PRP) shows a variety of immunotropic functions, including promotion of T-cell maturation and inhibition'of autoimmune disorders. PRP was recently found to improve or stabilize the Instrumental Activity of Daily Living status in Alzheimer's disease patients. 3) Casein--has been protective in experimental bacteremia by eliciting myelopoiesis. Casein hydrolyzates were also protective in diabetic animals, reduced the tumor growth and diminished colicky symptoms in infants. Casein-derived peptides have been found to have antihypertensive effects. Glycomacropeptide (GMP)--a peptide derived from kappa casein, exhibits antibacterial and antithrombotic activities. 4) Alpha lactalbumin (LA)--demonstrates antiviral, antitumor and anti-stress properties. LA-enriched diets were anxiolytic, lowered blood pressure in rats, prevented diarrhea and led to a better weight gain in malnourished children. 5) Lysozyme--is effective in treatment of periodentitis and prevention of tooth decay. Milk enriched in lysozyme was used in feeding premature infants suffering from concomitant diseases. 6) Lactoperoxidase--shows antibacterial properties. In conclusion, milk-derived proteins and peptides are bio-accessible and safe for the prevention and treatment of numerous disorders in humans.

  13. Quantitation and Identification of Intact Major Milk Proteins for High-Throughput LC-ESI-Q-TOF MS Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Delphine; Elkins, Aaron; Condina, Mark R.; Ezernieks, Vilnis; Rochfort, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Cow’s milk is an important source of proteins in human nutrition. On average, cow’s milk contains 3.5% protein. The most abundant proteins in bovine milk are caseins and some of the whey proteins, namely beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, and serum albumin. A number of allelic variants and post-translationally modified forms of these proteins have been identified. Their occurrence varies with breed, individuality, stage of lactation, and health and nutritional status of the animal. It is therefore essential to have reliable methods of detection and quantitation of these proteins. Traditionally, major milk proteins are quantified using liquid chromatography (LC) and ultra violet detection method. However, as these protein variants co-elute to some degree, another dimension of separation is beneficial to accurately measure their amounts. Mass spectrometry (MS) offers such a tool. In this study, we tested several RP-HPLC and MS parameters to optimise the analysis of intact bovine proteins from milk. From our tests, we developed an optimum method that includes a 20-28-40% phase B gradient with 0.02% TFA in both mobile phases, at 0.2 mL/min flow rate, using 75°C for the C8 column temperature, scanning every 3 sec over a 600–3000 m/z window. The optimisations were performed using external standards commercially purchased for which ionisation efficiency, linearity of calibration, LOD, LOQ, sensitivity, selectivity, precision, reproducibility, and mass accuracy were demonstrated. From the MS analysis, we can use extracted ion chromatograms (EICs) of specific ion series of known proteins and integrate peaks at defined retention time (RT) window for quantitation purposes. This optimum quantitative method was successfully applied to two bulk milk samples from different breeds, Holstein-Friesian and Jersey, to assess differences in protein variant levels. PMID:27749892

  14. Composition of proteins in okara as a byproduct in hydrothermal processing of soy milk.

    PubMed

    Stanojevic, Sladjana P; Barac, Miroljub B; Pesic, Mirjana B; Vucelic-Radovic, Biljana V

    2012-09-12

    Protein quality, based on its subunit composition, in okara obtained as a byproduct during hydrothermal cooking of soy milk was assessed. The composition of 7S and 11S protein fractions was correlated with the physicochemical properties of protein in okara produced from six soybean varieties. The basic 7S globulin (Bg7S) and 11S protein were two main proteins in okara. Investigated soybean genotypes produced okara with mainly acidic A(5) and basic B(1,2,4) polypeptides of 11S proteins. Soybean 11S content was not an indicator of okara protein recovery or extractability. Of all tested relationships, extractable soluble protein content of okara was influenced only by soybean Bg7S (r = 0.86; p < 0.05) and its light subunit contents (r = 0.93; p < 0.05). Okara protein recovery depended on Bg7S heavy subunit content in soybeans (r = 0.81; p < 0.05). The high quantity of vegetable protein in okara (around 35%) and very high protein extractability (around 85%) qualify this byproduct for potential application in food preparation as a functional ingredient.

  15. Effect of soluble calcium and lactose on limiting flux and serum protein removal during skim milk microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael C; Hurt, Emily E; Barbano, David M

    2015-11-01

    The tendency of calcium to promote microfiltration (MF) membrane fouling is well documented, but the role of lactose has not been studied. Milk protein concentrate that is 85% protein on a dry basis (MPC85) contains less calcium and lactose than skim milk. Our objectives were to determine the effects of skim milk soluble calcium and lactose concentrations on the limiting fluxes (LF) and serum protein (SP) removal factors of 0.1-µm ceramic graded permeability membranes. The MF was fed with 3 different milks: skim milk, liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein content of skim milk with reverse osmosis water (MPC), and liquid MPC85 that had been standardized to the protein and lactose contents of skim milk with reverse osmosis water and lactose monohydrate (MPC+L). Retentate and permeate were continuously recycled to the feed tank. The LF for each feed was determined by increasing flux once per hour from 55 kg·m(-2)·h(-1) until flux did not increase with increasing transmembrane pressure. Temperature, pressure drop across the membrane length, and protein concentration in the retentate recirculation loop were maintained at 50°C, 220 kPa, and 8.77 ± 0.2%, respectively. Experiments were replicated 3 times and the Proc GLM procedure of SAS was used for statistical analysis. An increase in LF between skim milk (91 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) and MPC+L (124 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) was associated with a reduction in soluble calcium. The LF of MPC+L was lower than the LF of MPC (137 kg·m(-2)·h(-1)) due to the higher viscosity contributed by lactose. Permeates produced from the MPC and MPC+L contained more protein than the skim milk permeate due to the transfer of caseins from the micelles into the reduced-calcium sera of the MPC and MPC+L. A SP removal factor was calculated by dividing true protein in the permeate by SP in the permeate portion of the feed to describe the ease of SP passage through the membrane. No differences in SP removal factors were detected among the

  16. Evaluation of the synergistic effects of milk proteins in a rapid viscosity analyzer.

    PubMed

    Stephani, Rodrigo; Borges de Souza, Alisson; Leal de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto; Perrone, Ítalo Tuler; Fernandes de Carvalho, Antônio; Cappa de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando

    2015-12-01

    Protein systems (PS) are routinely used by companies from Brazil and around the globe to improve the texture, yield, and palatability of processed foods. Understanding the synergistic behavior among the different protein structures of these systems during thermal treatment under the influence of pH can help to better define optimum conditions for products and processes. The interpretation of the reactions and interactions that occur simultaneously among the protein constituents of these systems as dispersions during thermal processing is still a major challenge. Here, using a rapid viscosity analyzer, we observed the rheological changes in the startup viscosities of 5 PS obtained by combining varying proportions of milk protein concentrate and whey protein concentrate under different conditions of pH (5.0, 6.5, and 7.0) and heat processing (85°C/15min and 95°C/5min). The solutions were standardized to 25% of total solids and 17% of protein. Ten analytical parameters were used to characterize each of the startup-viscosity ramps for 35 experiments conducted in a 2×3 × 5 mixed planning matrix, using principal component analysis to interpret behavioral similarities. The study showed the clear influence of pH 5.5 in the elevation of the initial temperature of the PS startup viscosity by at least 5°C, as well as the effect of different milk protein concentrate:whey protein concentrate ratios above 15:85 at pH 7.0 on the viscographic profile curves. These results suggested that the primary agent driving the changes was the synergism among the reactions and interactions of casein with whey proteins during processing. This study reinforces the importance of the rapid viscosity analyzer as an analytical tool for the simulation of industrial processes involving PS, and the use of the startup viscosity ramp as a means of interpreting the interactions of system components with respect to changes related to the treatment temperature.

  17. Variations at regulatory regions of the milk protein genes are associated with milk traits and coagulation properties in the Sarda sheep.

    PubMed

    Noce, A; Pazzola, M; Dettori, M L; Amills, M; Castelló, A; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G; Vacca, G M

    2016-12-01

    Regulatory variation at the ovine casein genes could have important effects on the composition and coagulation properties of milk. Herewith, we have partially resequenced the promoters and the 3'-UTR of the four casein genes in 25 Sarda sheep. Alignment of these sequences allowed us to identify a total of 29 SNPs. This level of polymorphism (one SNP every 250 bp) is remarkably high if compared with SNP densities estimated in human genic regions (approximately one SNP per bp). The 29 SNPs identified in our resequencing experiment, plus three previously reported SNPs mapping to the lactalbumin, alpha (LALBA) and β-lactoglobulin (BLG, also known as progestagen-associated endometrial protein, PAEP) genes, were genotyped with a multiplex TaqMan Open Array Real-Time PCR assay in 760 Sarda sheep with records for milk composition and coagulation properties. Association analysis revealed the existence of significant associations of CSN1S2 and CSN3 genotypes with milk protein and casein contents. Moreover, genotypes at CSN1S1 were significantly associated with rennet coagulation time, curd firming time and curd firmness, whereas CSN2 was associated with curd firming time. These results suggest that SNPs mapping to the promoters and 3'-UTRs of ovine casein genes may exert regulatory effects on gene expression and that they could be used for improving sheep milk quality and technological traits at the population level through marker assisted selection.

  18. Associations of high and low milk protein concentrations with energy allocation, milk production, and concentrations of blood plasma metabolites and hormones in Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Douglas, M L; Marett, L C; Macmillan, K L; Morton, J M; Hannah, M C; Fisher, A D; Auldist, M J

    2016-12-01

    A positive association between milk protein concentration (MPC) and reproductive performance in dairy cows has been shown in several studies globally. This association may positively influence farm productivity and profitability, particularly in seasonally calving, pasture-based herds. However, the differences in milk production and energy allocation, physical characteristics, and blood plasma nutrient status between cows with differing MPC have not been examined, and the underlying mechanisms responsible for the association remain undefined. The objective of this study was to examine associations between MPC and nutrient partitioning in primiparous Holstein-Friesian cows managed under pasture-based dairying conditions, and to identify differences that may indicate the underlying mechanisms. Data were collected from 85 cows at regular intervals during the early part of the 2013 to 2014 seasonal lactation, including daily milk yield, weekly milk composition, weekly body condition score measurements, as well as weekly blood plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations. Cows were retrospectively separated into quartiles based on their average MPC during the first 120d of lactation, and comparisons were made between cows within the highest (high; 3.22 to 3.40%) and the lowest (low; 2.87 to 3.00%) MPC quartiles. The high-MPC cows had lower daily milk yields, yet did not differ in the daily yields of milk solids (protein + fat) compared with the low-MPC cows. After parturition, the high-MPC cows had greater blood plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 and leptin compared with the low-MPC cows and maintained their body condition score, despite no differences in these variables prepartum. These results indicate an increased partitioning of nutrients toward milk synthesis at the expense of body condition for cows in the low MPC quartile. However, average daily energy outputs in milk were similar in the high- and low-MPC cows. The high

  19. Use of dry milk protein concentrate in pizza cheese manufactured by culture or direct acidification.

    PubMed

    Shakeel-Ur-Rehman; Farkye, N Y; Yim, B

    2003-12-01

    Milk protein concentrate (MPC) contains high concentrations of casein and calcium and low concentrations of lactose. Enrichment of cheese milk with MPC should, therefore, enhance yields and improve quality. The objectives of this study were: 1) to compare pizza cheese made by culture acidification using standardized whole milk (WM) plus skim milk (SM) versus WM plus MPC; and 2) compare cheese made using WM + MPC by culture acidification to that made by direct acidification. The experimental design is as follows: vat 1 = WM + SM + culture (commercial thermophilic lactic acid bacteria), vat 2 = WM + MPC + culture, and vat 3 = WM + MPC + direct acid (2% citric acid). Each cheese milk was standardized to a protein-to-fat ratio of approximately 1.4. The experiment was repeated three times. Yield and composition of cheeses were determined by standard methods, whereas the proteolysis was assessed by urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and water-soluble N contents. Meltability of the cheeses was determined during 1 mo of storage, in addition to pizza making. The addition of MPC improved the yields from 10.34 +/- 0.57% in vat 1 cheese to 14.50 +/- 0.84% and 16.65 +/- 2.23%, respectively, in vats 2 and 3 and cheeses. The percentage of fat and protein recoveries showed insignificant differences between the treatments, but TS recoveries were in the order, vat 2 > vat 3 > vat 1. Most of the compositional parameters were significantly affected by the different treatments. Vat 2 cheese had the highest calcium and lowest lactose contencentrations. Vat 3 cheese had the best meltability. Vat 1 cheese initially had better meltability than vat 2 cheese; however, the difference became insignificant after 28 d of storage at 4 degrees C. Vat 3 cheese had the softest texture and produced large-sized blisters when baked on pizza. The lowest and highest levels of proteolysis were found in vats 2 and 3 cheeses, respectively. The study demonstrates the use of MPC in pizza cheese

  20. A process efficiency assessment of serum protein removal from milk using ceramic graded permeability microfiltration membrane.

    PubMed

    Tremblay-Marchand, D; Doyen, A; Britten, M; Pouliot, Y

    2016-07-01

    Microfiltration (MF) is a well-known process that can be used in the dairy industry to separate caseins from serum proteins (SP) in skim milk using membranes with a pore diameter of 0.1μm. Graded permeability ceramic membranes have been studied widely as means of improving milk fractionation by overcoming problems encountered with other MF membranes. The ideal operating parameters for process efficiency in terms of membrane selectivity, permeate flux, casein loss, SP transmission, energy consumption, and dilution with water remain to be determined for this membrane. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of transmembrane pressure (TMP), volumetric concentration factor (VCF), and diafiltration on overall process efficiency. Skim milk was processed using a pilot-scale MF system equipped with 0.72-m(2) graded permeability membranes with a pore size of 0.1μm. In the first experiment, in full recycle mode, TMP was set at 124, 152, 179, or 207 kPa by adjusting the permeate pressure at the outlet. Whereas TMP had no significant effect on permeate and retentate composition, 152 kPa was found to be optimal for SP removal during concentration and concentration or diafiltration experiments. When VCF was increased to 3×, SP rejection coefficient increased along with energy consumption and total casein loss, whereas SP removal rate decreased. Diafiltering twice allowed an increase in total SP removal but resulted in a substantial increase in energy consumption and casein loss. It also reduced the SP removal rate by diluting permeate. The membrane surface area required for producing cheese milk by blending whole milk, cream, and MF retentate (at different VCF) was estimated for different cheese milk casein concentrations. For a given casein concentration, the same quantity of permeate and SP would be produced, but less membrane surface area would be needed at a lower retentate VCF. Microfiltration has great potential as a process of adding value to conventional

  1. Comparative study on heat stability and functionality of camel and bovine milk whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Laleye, L C; Jobe, B; Wasesa, A A H

    2008-12-01

    Heat stability, emulsifying, and foaming properties of camel whey have been investigated and compared with that of bovine whey. Camel whey is similar to bovine whey in composition, but is deficient in beta-lactoglubulin (beta-LG), a major component of bovine whey. Whether the deficiency in beta-LG will affect stability and functional properties is not yet known. Substantial information on the functional properties of bovine milk whey proteins is available; however, there is little research done on functional properties of camel whey proteins. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the heat stability, emulsifying, and foaming characteristics of camel whey proteins. Calorimetric studies showed no significant difference in heat stability between bovine and camel whey proteins in liquid form. Upon drying, thermograms indicated that the 2 proteins are different in composition and thermal stability. The difference is represented in the absence of beta-LG and the occurrence of protein denaturation peak at a lesser temperature in camel whey. The first marginal thermal transition in bovine whey appeared at 81 degrees C, followed by 2 other transitions at 146 and 198 degrees C. For camel whey, the transitions appeared at 139, 180, and 207 degrees C respectively. The first marginal denaturation peak in bovine whey is due to beta-LG, which is essentially absent in camel whey, while the second peak is due to the mixture of alpha-lactalbumin, serum albumin, and possibly part of the partially stabilized beta-LG structure during the denaturation process. Because camel whey is deficient in beta-LG, the denaturation peak at 139 must be due to the mixture of alpha-lactalbumin and camel serum albumin. In both proteins, the highest thermal transition is due to sugars such as lactose. The solubility study has shown that camel whey is more sensitive to pH than bovine milk whey and that heat stability is lowest near the isoelectric point of the proteins at pH 4.5. The

  2. Microwave-assisted wet digestion with H2O2 at high temperature and pressure using single reaction chamber for elemental determination in milk powder by ICP-OES and ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Muller, Edson I; Souza, Juliana P; Muller, Cristiano C; Muller, Aline L H; Mello, Paola A; Bizzi, Cezar A

    2016-08-15

    In this work a green digestion method which only used H2O2 as an oxidant and high temperature and pressure in the single reaction chamber system (SRC-UltraWave™) was applied for subsequent elemental determination by inductively coupled plasma-based techniques. Milk powder was chosen to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of the proposed method. Samples masses up to 500mg were efficiently digested, and the determination of Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), while trace elements (B, Ba, Cd, Cu, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sr and Zn) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Residual carbon (RC) lower than 918mgL(-1) of C was obtained for digests which contributed to minimizing interferences in determination by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Accuracy was evaluated using certified reference materials NIST 1549 (non-fat milk powder certified reference material) and NIST 8435 (whole milk powder reference material). The results obtained by the proposed method were in agreement with the certified reference values (t-test, 95% confidence level). In addition, no significant difference was observed between results obtained by the proposed method and conventional wet digestion using concentrated HNO3. As digestion was performed without using any kind of acid, the characteristics of final digests were in agreement with green chemistry principles when compared to digests obtained using conventional wet digestion method with concentrated HNO3. Additionally, H2O2 digests were more suitable for subsequent analysis by ICP-based techniques due to of water being the main product of organic matrix oxidation. The proposed method was suitable for quality control of major components and trace elements present in milk powder in consonance with green sample preparation.

  3. Characterization of chocolate milk spoilage patterns.

    PubMed

    Douglas, S A; Gray, M J; Crandall, A D; Boor, K J

    2000-04-01

    Standard plate counts (SPC) and psychrotrophic plate counts (PPC) from chocolate milk samples were compared with those of unflavored milk samples plated within 24 h of processing and at 7, 10, and 14 days of storage at 6 degrees C using matched samples collected over four time periods from four milk-processing plants. Bacterial numbers within 24 h of processing were not significantly different in unflavored and in chocolate milk samples (P > 0.001), with SPC less than 1,000 CFU/ml and PPC below 10 CFU/ml for both types of products. SPC and PPC were higher in chocolate milk samples than in unflavored milk samples collected from all four plants after 14 days of storage (P < 0.001). To examine the effects of chocolate milk components on bacterial numbers, SPC for days 0, 7, 14, and 21 were monitored in samples of experimentally prepared unflavored milk, milk with chocolate powder and sucrose (chocolate milk), milk with sucrose only, and milk containing chocolate powder only. At days 14 and 21, SPC were higher in both chocolate milk and in milk with chocolate powder only, than in either the unflavored milk or milk with sucrose only (P < 0.001). These findings suggest that the addition of chocolate powder to milk can contribute to a greater relative increase in bacterial numbers in pasteurized chocolate milk than in identically processed unflavored milk at 14 days postprocessing.

  4. Penicillin-binding protein 3 of Streptococcus pneumoniae and its application in screening of β-lactams in milk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Zhanhui; Wen, Kai; Liang, Xiao; Shen, Jianzhong

    2013-11-15

    The soluble form of penicillin-binding protein 3 (sPBP3(∗)) from Streptococcus pneumoniae was expressed in Escherichia coli as a six-histidine fusion protein. The protein was purified and used to develop a microplate assay in direct competitive format for the detection of penicillins and cephalosporins in milk. The assay was based on competitive inhibition of the binding of horseradish peroxidase-labeled ampicillin (HRP-Amp) to the sPBP3(∗) by free β-lactam antibiotics in milk. Under optimized conditions, most of the β-lactam antibiotics (11 penicillins and 16 cephalosporins) could be detected at concentrations corresponding to the maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by the European Union. Analysis of spiked milk samples showed that acceptable recoveries ranged from 74.06 to 106.31% in skimmed milk and from 63.97 to 107.26% in whole milk, with coefficients of variation (CVs) less than 16%. With the high sensitivity and wide-range affinities to penicillins and cephalosporins, the developed assay based on sPBP3(∗) exhibited the potential to be a screening assay for fast detection of β-lactam antibiotics in milk.

  5. Effect of dairy powders fortification on yogurt textural and sensorial properties: a review.

    PubMed

    Karam, Marie Celeste; Gaiani, Claire; Hosri, Chadi; Burgain, Jennifer; Scher, Joël

    2013-11-01

    Yogurts are important dairy products that have known a rapid market growth over the past few decades. Industrial yogurt manufacture involves different processing steps. Among them, protein fortification of the milk base is elemental. It greatly enhances yogurt nutritional and functional properties and prevents syneresis, an undesirable yogurt textural defect. Protein enrichment can be achieved by either concentration process (evaporation under vacuum and membrane processing: reverse osmosis and/or ultrafiltration) or by addition of dairy ingredients. Traditionally, skim milk powder (SMP) is used to enrich the milk base before fermentation. However, increased quality and availability of other dairy ingredients such as milk protein isolates (MPI), milk protein concentrates (MPC) whey protein isolates (WPI) and concentrates (WPC), micellar casein (MC) and caseinates have promoted their use as alternatives to SMP. Substituting different dry ingredients for skim milk powder in yogurt making affects the yogurt mix protein composition and subsequent textural and sensorial properties. This review focuses on various type of milk protein used for fortification purposes and their influence on these properties.

  6. Designer milk.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha

    2007-01-01

    Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques.

  7. Effects of dietary protein supply on caseins, whey proteins, proteolysis and renneting properties in milk from cows grazing clover or N fertilized grass.

    PubMed

    Hermansen, J E; Ostersen, S; Justesen, N C; Aaes, O

    1999-05-01

    The objective of this work was to examine whether variation in the amino acid supply to cows could be a reason for the reduced casein content and poorer renneting properties of milk that often occur in late summer, or whether these effects are related to proteolysis in the raw milk. In a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design, we investigated the effects of sward (clover v. rye-grass) and supplementary feed with a high or low level of rumen-soluble N or of rumen undegradable protein on milk protein composition during the grazing season. A total of 32 Danish Holstein cows were included in the experiment. Milk protein and casein contents and the ratios casein N:total N and casein:true protein were at a minimum in late summer, whereas the contents of urea, non-protein N and whey protein were higher during this period. These seasonal effects were unrelated to either the type of supplementary feed or the type of sward; neither were they clearly related to proteolysis, although casein: true protein was related to the proteose peptone content. The results indicated that whey proteins other than alpha-lactalbumin or beta-lactoglobulin accounted for the higher proportion or concentration of whey protein in late summer. Based on a principal component analysis including variables such as citric acid, lactose and non-protein N, we suggest that the cows' energy supply during this period may be a critical factor in determining the milk protein composition, although our results were not conclusive. There was an interaction between the supplement of rumen undegradable protein and type of sward. When clover was grazed, a high supplement increased the concentrations of protein and casein in milk and the kappa-casein: total casein ratio. When rye-grass was grazed, the opposite response was found, and overall milk protein yield was not affected. The very low N content of clover in early summer reduced milk protein and casein protein during this period.

  8. RNA-Seq reveals 10 novel promising candidate genes affecting milk protein concentration in the Chinese Holstein population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cong; Cai, Wentao; Zhou, Chenghao; Yin, Hongwei; Zhang, Ziqi; Loor, Juan J.; Sun, Dongxiao; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Shengli

    2016-01-01

    Paired-end RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was used to explore the bovine transcriptome from the mammary tissue of 12 Chinese Holstein cows with 6 extremely high and 6 low phenotypic values for milk protein percentage. We defined the differentially expressed transcripts between the two comparison groups, extremely high and low milk protein percentage during the peak lactation (HP vs LP) and during the non-lactating period (HD vs LD), respectively. Within the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), we detected 157 at peak lactation and 497 in the non-lactating period with a highly significant correlation with milk protein concentration. Integrated interpretation of differential gene expression indicated that SERPINA1, CLU, CNTFR, ERBB2, NEDD4L, ANG, GALE, HSPA8, LPAR6 and CD14 are the most promising candidate genes affecting milk protein concentration. Similarly, LTF, FCGR3A, MEGF10, RRM2 and UBE2C are the most promising candidates that in the non-lactating period could help the mammary tissue prevent issues with inflammation and udder disorders. Putative genes will be valuable resources for designing better breeding strategies to optimize the content of milk protein and also to provide new insights into regulation of lactogenesis. PMID:27254118

  9. Milk protein suspensions enriched with three essential minerals: Physicochemical characterization and aggregation induced by a novel enzymatic pool.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Julia; Spelzini, Darío; Corrêa, Ana Paula Folmer; Brandelli, Adriano; Risso, Patricia; Boeris, Valeria

    2016-04-01

    Structural changes of casein micelles and their aggregation induced by a novel enzymatic pool isolated from Bacillus spp. in the presence of calcium, magnesium or zinc were investigated. The effect of cations on milk protein structure was studied using fluorescence and dynamic light scattering. In the presence of cations, milk protein structure rearrangements and larger casein micelle size were observed. The interaction of milk proteins with zinc appears to be of a different nature than that with calcium or magnesium. Under the experimental conditions assayed, the affinity of each cation for some groups present in milk proteins seems to play an important role, besides electrostatic interaction. On the other hand, the lowest aggregation times were achieved at the highest calcium and zinc concentrations (15 mM and 0.25 mM, respectively). The study found that the faster the aggregation of casein micelles, the less compact the gel matrix obtained. Cation concentrations affected milk protein aggregation kinetics and the structure of the aggregates formed.

  10. Time-Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (TD-NMR) and Chemometrics for Determination of Fat Content in Commercial Products of Milk Powder.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Paloma Andrade Martins; Barsanelli, Paulo Lopes; Rebellato, Ana Paula; Pallone, Juliana Azevedo Lima; Colnago, Luiz Alberto; Pereira, Fabíola Manhas Verbi

    2017-03-01

    This study shows the use of time-domain (TD)-NMR transverse relaxation (T2) data and chemometrics in the nondestructive determination of fat content for powdered food samples such as commercial dried milk products. Most proposed NMR spectroscopy methods for measuring fat content correlate free induction decay or echo intensities with the sample's mass. The need for the sample's mass limits the analytical frequency of NMR determination, because weighing the samples is an additional step in this procedure. Therefore, the method proposed here is based on a multivariate model of T2 decay, measured with Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill pulse sequence and reference values of fat content. The TD-NMR spectroscopy method shows high correlation (r = 0.95) with the lipid content, determined by the standard extraction method of Bligh and Dyer. For comparison, fat content determination was also performed using a multivariate model with near-IR (NIR) spectroscopy, which is also a nondestructive method. The advantages of the proposed TD-NMR method are that it (1) minimizes toxic residue generation, (2) performs measurements with high analytical frequency (a few seconds per analysis), and (3) does not require sample preparation (such as pelleting, needed for NIR spectroscopy analyses) or weighing the samples.

  11. A simple automated method for the determination of nitrate and nitrite in infant formula and milk powder using sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Pistón, Mariela; Mollo, Alicia; Knochen, Moisés

    2011-01-01

    A fast and efficient automated method using a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system, based on the Griess, reaction was developed for the determination of nitrate and nitrite in infant formulas and milk powder. The system enables to mix a measured amount of sample (previously constituted in the liquid form and deproteinized) with the chromogenic reagent to produce a colored substance whose absorbance was recorded. For nitrate determination, an on-line prereduction step was added by passing the sample through a Cd minicolumn. The system was controlled from a PC by means of a user-friendly program. Figures of merit include linearity (r(2) > 0.999 for both analytes), limits of detection (0.32 mg kg(-1) NO(3)-N, and 0.05 mg kg(-1) NO(2)-N), and precision (s(r)%) 0.8-3.0. Results were statistically in good agreement with those obtained with the reference ISO-IDF method. The sampling frequency was 30 hour(-1) (nitrate) and 80 hour(-1) (nitrite) when performed separately.

  12. Perception and understanding of health claims on milk powder for children: A focus group study among mothers in Indonesia, Singapore and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tan, Karin Y M; van der Beek, Eline M; Kuznesof, Sharron A; Seal, Chris J

    2016-10-01

    Health claim regulations and guidelines on food products have been established in some Southeast Asia (SEA) countries. Health claims on food products aim to help consumers make informed food choices to achieve a healthy diet. This study aimed to investigate the perception and understanding of health claims and the associated regulatory frameworks of SEA mothers using semi-structured focus groups conducted in Indonesia, Singapore and Thailand. Milk powder for children for three years and above was used as product focus. The mothers recognised and recalled some specific nutrients and food constituents by name but lacked full understanding of their function. The findings indicated that the mothers in all three countries trusted health claims made on the products which was, in part, explained by their trust in their governments and the international brand manufacturers. Their understanding of health claims was influenced by several factors such as their familiarity of the nutrient, previous knowledge of the nutrients, the perceived relevance of the nutrient, the use of scientific terms, the choice of words, and also the phrasing and length of the claims. Consumer education efforts via Public, Private Partnerships could be an approach to educate SEA consumers and help them to better understand health claims. The findings of this study may be relevant to different stakeholders such as local regulatory bodies, policy makers, food industry, academia and non-profit organisations that aim to effectively communicate health claims.

  13. Determination of vitamin A and vitamin E esters in infant formulae and fortified milk powders by HPLC: Use of internal standardisation.

    PubMed

    Woollard, David C; Bensch, Anja; Indyk, Harvey; McMahon, Adrienne

    2016-04-15

    An HPLC method is described using normal phase conditions with an unbonded silica column to determine concentrations of supplementary vitamin A and vitamin E esters and β-carotene in infant formulae. The method utilises selective dual-channel fluoresence for vitamins A and E and visible absorbance for β-carotene. An attribute of the method is the use of retinol propionate, α-tocopheryl propionate and all-E-β-apo-8'-carotenoic acid ethyl ester internal standards to compensate for analytical variations associated with these labile vitamins. Extraction is performed without saponification, with the aid of protease to remove vitamin encaspsulation and facilitate vitamin partition into hydrocarbon solvent. Figures of merit indicate the method is suitable for its intended purpose in the highly regulated infant formula environment, including liquid formulations. The method is extendable to whole milk powders where total vitamin A content data can be calculated by summing the innate long-chain vitamin A esters with the added esters.

  14. The safety of whey protein concentrate derived from the milk of cows immunized against Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Young, Karen W H; Munro, Ian C; Taylor, Steve L; Veldkamp, Peter; van Dissel, Jaap T

    2007-04-01

    A whey protein concentrate prepared from the milk of cows that have been immunized against Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) and its toxins, toxin A and toxin B, is produced for use as a medical food for the dietary management of patients with C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) to prevent a relapse of the infection. The safety of anti-C. difficile whey protein concentrate (anti-CD WPC) is supported by analytical data comparing the composition of raw milk from immunized cows versus that from non-immunized cows, and the composition of anti-CD WPC versus that of regular whey protein concentrate. Additionally, a prospective clinical study was conducted in 77 patients with CDAD to demonstrate the safety of consuming anti-CD WPC to prevent relapse of the infection. This study, which included adverse event monitoring, physical examinations, and extensive hematological and biochemical assessments, showed that anti-CD WPC is safe to consume by patients with CDAD. The available analytical and clinical evidence demonstrate that anti-CD WPC is safe for use by individuals with CDAD, under the described conditions of use.

  15. Effect of season of birth on milk, fat, and protein production of Israeli Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Barash, H; Silanikove, N; Weller, J I

    1996-06-01

    The effects of birth month on production of milk, fat, and protein and percentages of fat and protein were analyzed based on production records of 101,653 first parity, 77,541 second parity, and 51,856 third parity Israeli Holstein cows. Each parity was analyzed separately. The analysis model also included the effects of herd-year, DIM, calving age, and calving month. First parity Type III sums of squares for birth month were nearly as large as those for calving month but decreased for later parities. Similar results were obtained using multiplicative models in which the dependent variables were the logarithms of the production traits. The effects of calving month and birth month were not similar, but birth month had similar effects for milk, fat, and protein production. Production was lowest by cows born in the early spring and highest by cows born in the fall. Analyses of the log-transformed traits showed that the F values for calving month were greater than, and the F values for birth month were nearly identical to, the F values for the untransformed trait analyses. The physiological basis for these trends was not clear.

  16. Preparation of dietary fiber powder from tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) milk ("Horchata") byproducts and its physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Zapata, Elena; Fuentes-Zaragoza, Evangélica; Fernández-López, Juana; Sendra, Esther; Sayas, Estrella; Navarro, Casilda; Pérez-Alvarez, Jose Angel

    2009-09-09

    "Horchata" is a vegetable milk obtained from tiger nuts. The solid waste from horchata production was analyzed for physicochemical and microbial properties, aiming to determine its potential use as a fiber source for the food industry. The solid waste contains a high proportion of total dietary fiber (59.71 g/100 g), composed mainly of insoluble dietary fiber (99.8%). It has a high water-holding capacity (8.01 g/g) and oil-holding capacity (6.92 g/g) and a low water absorption (1.79 g/g) and water adsorption (0.23 g/g) capacities, in comparison with other dietary fiber sources. The emulsifying ability was 70.33 mL/100 mL, and the wastes showed high emulsion stability (100 mL/100 mL). The physicochemical properties indicate that tiger nut byproducts are rich in fiber and may be considered a potential ingredient in a healthy diet. However, the microbial quality was poor, meaning that it must be pasteurized prior to its addition to any food product.

  17. Effects of Heat Shock Protein-70 Gene and Forage System on Milk Yield and Composition of Beef Cattle