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Sample records for power assignment problems

  1. The Random Quadratic Assignment Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Gerald; Shao, Jia; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-11-01

    The quadratic assignment problem, QAP, is one of the most difficult of all combinatorial optimization problems. Here, we use an abbreviated application of the statistical mechanics replica method to study the asymptotic behavior of instances in which the entries of at least one of the two matrices that specify the problem are chosen from a random distribution P. Surprisingly, the QAP has not been studied before using the replica method despite the fact that the QAP was first proposed over 50 years ago and the replica method was developed over 30 years ago. We find simple forms for C min and C max , the costs of the minimal and maximum solutions respectively. Notable features of our results are the symmetry of the results for C min and C max and their dependence on P only through its mean and standard deviation, independent of the details of P.

  2. The Airport Gate Assignment Problem: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ghaleb, Mageed A.; Salem, Ahmed M.

    2014-01-01

    The airport gate assignment problem (AGAP) is one of the most important problems operations managers face daily. Many researches have been done to solve this problem and tackle its complexity. The objective of the task is assigning each flight (aircraft) to an available gate while maximizing both conveniences to passengers and the operational efficiency of airport. This objective requires a solution that provides the ability to change and update the gate assignment data on a real time basis. In this paper, we survey the state of the art of these problems and the various methods to obtain the solution. Our survey covers both theoretical and real AGAP with the description of mathematical formulations and resolution methods such as exact algorithms, heuristic algorithms, and metaheuristic algorithms. We also provide a research trend that can inspire researchers about new problems in this area. PMID:25506074

  3. Unifying Temporal and Structural Credit Assignment Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agogino, Adrian K.; Tumer, Kagan

    2004-01-01

    Single-agent reinforcement learners in time-extended domains and multi-agent systems share a common dilemma known as the credit assignment problem. Multi-agent systems have the structural credit assignment problem of determining the contributions of a particular agent to a common task. Instead, time-extended single-agent systems have the temporal credit assignment problem of determining the contribution of a particular action to the quality of the full sequence of actions. Traditionally these two problems are considered different and are handled in separate ways. In this article we show how these two forms of the credit assignment problem are equivalent. In this unified frame-work, a single-agent Markov decision process can be broken down into a single-time-step multi-agent process. Furthermore we show that Monte-Carlo estimation or Q-learning (depending on whether the values of resulting actions in the episode are known at the time of learning) are equivalent to different agent utility functions in a multi-agent system. This equivalence shows how an often neglected issue in multi-agent systems is equivalent to a well-known deficiency in multi-time-step learning and lays the basis for solving time-extended multi-agent problems, where both credit assignment problems are present.

  4. A multistage linear array assignment problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.; Shier, D. R.; Kincaid, R. K.; Richards, D. S.

    1988-01-01

    The implementation of certain algorithms on parallel processing computing architectures can involve partitioning contiguous elements into a fixed number of groups, each of which is to be handled by a single processor. It is desired to find an assignment of elements to processors that minimizes the sum of the maximum workloads experienced at each stage. This problem can be viewed as a multi-objective network optimization problem. Polynomially-bounded algorithms are developed for the case of two stages, whereas the associated decision problem (for an arbitrary number of stages) is shown to be NP-complete. Heuristic procedures are therefore proposed and analyzed for the general problem. Computational experience with one of the exact problems, incorporating certain pruning rules, is presented with one of the exact problems. Empirical results also demonstrate that one of the heuristic procedures is especially effective in practice.

  5. Constrained neural approaches to quadratic assignment problems.

    PubMed

    Ishii, S; Sato, M

    1998-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss analog neural approaches to the quadratic assignment problem (QAP). These approaches employ a hard constraints scheme to restrict the domain space, and are able to obtain much improved solutions over conventional neural approaches. Since only a few strong heuristics for QAP have been known to date, our approaches are good alternatives, capable of obtaining fairly good solutions in a short period of time. Some of them can also be applied to large-scale problems, say of size N>/=300.

  6. 49 CFR 821.35 - Assignment, duties and powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assignment, duties and powers. 821.35 Section 821... powers. (a) Assignment of law judge and duration of assignment. The chief law judge shall assign a law...) Powers of law judge. Law judges shall have the following powers: (1) To give notice of, and to...

  7. Locomotive assignment problem with train precedence using genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori, Siamak; Ghannadpour, Seyed Farid

    2012-07-01

    This paper aims to study the locomotive assignment problem which is very important for railway companies, in view of high cost of operating locomotives. This problem is to determine the minimum cost assignment of homogeneous locomotives located in some central depots to a set of pre-scheduled trains in order to provide sufficient power to pull the trains from their origins to their destinations. These trains have different degrees of priority for servicing, and the high class of trains should be serviced earlier than others. This problem is modeled using vehicle routing and scheduling problem where trains representing the customers are supposed to be serviced in pre-specified hard/soft fuzzy time windows. A two-phase approach is used which, in the first phase, the multi-depot locomotive assignment is converted to a set of single depot problems, and after that, each single depot problem is solved heuristically by a hybrid genetic algorithm. In the genetic algorithm, various heuristics and efficient operators are used in the evolutionary search. The suggested algorithm is applied to solve the medium sized numerical example to check capabilities of the model and algorithm. Moreover, some of the results are compared with those solutions produced by branch-and-bound technique to determine validity and quality of the model. Results show that suggested approach is rather effective in respect of quality and time.

  8. Restart-Based Genetic Algorithm for the Quadratic Assignment Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misevicius, Alfonsas

    The power of genetic algorithms (GAs) has been demonstrated for various domains of the computer science, including combinatorial optimization. In this paper, we propose a new conceptual modification of the genetic algorithm entitled a "restart-based genetic algorithm" (RGA). An effective implementation of RGA for a well-known combinatorial optimization problem, the quadratic assignment problem (QAP), is discussed. The results obtained from the computational experiments on the QAP instances from the publicly available library QAPLIB show excellent performance of RGA. This is especially true for the real-life like QAPs.

  9. Evaluation of Dynamic Channel and Power Assignment for Cognitive Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Syed A. Ahmad; Umesh Shukla; Ryan E. Irwin; Luiz A. DaSilva; Allen B. MacKenzie

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we develop a unifying optimization formulation to describe the Dynamic Channel and Power Assignment (DCPA) problem and evaluation method for comparing DCPA algorithms. DCPA refers to the allocation of transmit power and frequency channels to links in a cognitive network so as to maximize the total number of feasible links while minimizing the aggregate transmit power. We apply our evaluation method to five algorithms representative of DCPA used in literature. This comparison illustrates the tradeoffs between control modes (centralized versus distributed) and channel/power assignment techniques. We estimate the complexity of each algorithm. Through simulations, we evaluate the effectiveness of the algorithms in achieving feasible link allocations in the network, as well as their power efficiency. Our results indicate that, when few channels are available, the effectiveness of all algorithms is comparable and thus the one with smallest complexity should be selected. The Least Interfering Channel and Iterative Power Assignment (LICIPA) algorithm does not require cross-link gain information, has the overall lowest run time, and highest feasibility ratio of all the distributed algorithms; however, this comes at a cost of higher average power per link.

  10. DNA-based computing of strategic assignment problems.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jian-Jun; Wang, Qi-Wen; Yong, Kian-Yan

    2011-05-06

    DNA-based computing is a novel technique to tackle computationally difficult problems, in which computing time grows exponentially corresponding to problematic size. A strategic assignment problem is a typical nondeterministic polynomial problem, which is often associated with strategy applications. In this Letter, a new approach dealing with strategic assignment problems is proposed based on manipulating DNA strands, which is believed to be better than the conventional silicon-based computing in solving the same problem.

  11. 49 CFR 821.35 - Assignment, duties and powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SAFETY BOARD RULES OF PRACTICE IN AIR SAFETY PROCEEDINGS Law Judges § 821.35 Assignment, duties and powers. (a) Assignment of law judge and duration of assignment. The chief law judge shall assign a law... addressed to the Case Manager for handling by the chief law judge, who may handle these matters...

  12. 49 CFR 821.35 - Assignment, duties and powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY BOARD RULES OF PRACTICE IN AIR SAFETY PROCEEDINGS Law Judges § 821.35 Assignment, duties and powers. (a) Assignment of law judge and duration of assignment. The chief law judge shall assign a law... addressed to the Case Manager for handling by the chief law judge, who may handle these matters...

  13. 77 FR 70484 - Preoperational Testing of Onsite Electric Power Systems To Verify Proper Load Group Assignments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... COMMISSION Preoperational Testing of Onsite Electric Power Systems To Verify Proper Load Group Assignments... Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group Assignments, Electrical Separation, and Redundancy.'' DG-1294... regulations, techniques that the staff uses in evaluating specific problems or postulated accidents, and...

  14. Nonlinear Multidimensional Assignment Problems Efficient Conic Optimization Methods and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-24

    problems. The size 16 three-dimensional quadratic assignment problem Q3AP from wireless communications was solved using a sophisticated approach...combinatorial optimization problem, the Directional Sensor Problem, was solved in two ways. First, heuristically in an engineering fashion and second, exactly...the sensor problem was solved as a nonlinear MINLP problem. Specifically, the information gain obtained was maximized in order to determine the optimal

  15. Clustered Self Organising Migrating Algorithm for the Quadratic Assignment Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davendra, Donald; Zelinka, Ivan; Senkerik, Roman

    2009-08-01

    An approach of population dynamics and clustering for permutative problems is presented in this paper. Diversity indicators are created from solution ordering and its mapping is shown as an advantage for population control in metaheuristics. Self Organising Migrating Algorithm (SOMA) is modified using this approach and vetted with the Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP). Extensive experimentation is conducted on benchmark problems in this area.

  16. The double-assignment method for the exponential chaotic tabu search in quadratic assignment problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Kazuaki; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    The quadratic assignment problem (QAP) is one of the NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems. An exponential chaotic tabu search using a 2-opt algorithm driven by chaotic neuro-dynamics has been proposed as one heuristic method for solving QAPs. In this paper we first propose a new local search, the double-assignment method, suitable for the exponential chaotic tabu search, which adopts features of the Lin-Kernighan algorithm. We then introduce chaotic neuro-dynamics into the double-assignment method to propose a novel exponential chaotic tabu search. We further improve the proposed exponential chaotic tabu search with the double-assignment method by enhancing the effect of chaotic neuro-dynamics.

  17. A Circuit Simulation Technique for Congested Network Traffic Assignment Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hsun-Jung; Huang, Heng

    2007-12-01

    The relation between electrical circuit and traffic network has been proposed by Sasaki and Inouye, but they proposed link cost function is a linear function which cannot present the congestion situation. Cho and Huang extended the link cost function to a nonlinear function which can explain the congested network. In this paper, we proposed a foremost and novel approach to solve the traffic assignment problem (TAP) by simulating the electrical circuit network which consists of nonlinear link cost function models. Comparing with the solutions of Frank-Wolfe algorithm, the simulation results are nearly identical. Thus, the simulation of a network circuit model can be applied to solve network traffic assignment problems. Finally, two examples are proposed, and the results confirmed that electrical circuit simulation is workable in solving congested network traffic assignment problems.

  18. The generalized pole assignment problem. [dynamic output feedback problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djaferis, T. E.; Mitter, S. K.

    1979-01-01

    Two dynamic output feedback problems for a linear, strictly proper system are considered, along with their interrelationships. The problems are formulated in the frequency domain and investigated in terms of linear equations over rings of polynomials. Necessary and sufficient conditions are expressed using genericity.

  19. Binary tree-based low power state assignment algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajstura, Krzysztof; Kania, Dariusz

    2016-12-01

    A new low power state assignment algorithm is proposed in this paper. The essence of new coding is dividing all the states into subsets, which are sequentially assigned to the individual bits of code. This type of decomposition encoding, in which the coding is done bit by bit, retains the flexibility of assigning code words from the beginning to the end of the encoding process. The results of the experiments confirm efficiency of the proposed algorithm in comparison with the state assignment algorithms that have already been developed.

  20. Web-Based Problem-Solving Assignment and Grading System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brereton, Giles; Rosenberg, Ronald

    2014-11-01

    In engineering courses with very specific learning objectives, such as fluid mechanics and thermodynamics, it is conventional to reinforce concepts and principles with problem-solving assignments and to measure success in problem solving as an indicator of student achievement. While the modern-day ease of copying and searching for online solutions can undermine the value of traditional assignments, web-based technologies also provide opportunities to generate individualized well-posed problems with an infinite number of different combinations of initial/final/boundary conditions, so that the probability of any two students being assigned identical problems in a course is vanishingly small. Such problems can be designed and programmed to be: single or multiple-step, self-grading, allow students single or multiple attempts; provide feedback when incorrect; selectable according to difficulty; incorporated within gaming packages; etc. In this talk, we discuss the use of a homework/exam generating program of this kind in a single-semester course, within a web-based client-server system that ensures secure operation.

  1. Space Power Engineering Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkevich, V. P.

    2002-01-01

    Development of space power engineering in the first half of XXI century shall be aimed at preventing the forthcoming energy crisis and ecological catastrophes. The problem can be solved through using solar energy being perpetual, endless, and ecologically safe. As of now, issues on the development and employment of solar power stations and its beaming to the ground stations in the SHF band are put on the agenda. The most pressing problem is to develop orbital solar reflectors to illuminate towns in the polar regions, agricultural regions, and areas of processing sea products. Space-based technologies can be used to deal with typhoons, green house effects, and "ozone holes". Recently, large, frameless film structures formed by centrifugal forces offer the promise of structures for orbital power plants, reflectors, and solar sails. A big success is achieved in the development of power generating solar array elements of amorphous silicon. These innovations would make the development of orbital solar power plants dozens of times cheaper. Such solar arrays shall be used in the nearest future on heavy communication satellites and the Earth remote sensing platforms for generation of 140-160 kW at a specific power beyond 300 W/kg. The cargo traffic needed to develop and maintain the orbital power plants and reflector systems could be equipped with solar sails as the future low thrust propulsion. In 2000, the mankind witnessed an unexpected beginning of energy crisis along with strong hydro- meteorological events (typhoons, floods) that shocked the USA, the Western Europe, England, Japan, and other countries. The total damage is estimated as 90 billions of dollars. The mankind is approaching a boundary beyond which its further existence would depend on how people would learn to control weather and use ecologically safe power sources. Space technology base on the research potential accumulated in the previous century could serve for the solution of this problem.

  2. Solving the quadratic assignment problem with clues from nature.

    PubMed

    Nissen, V

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a new evolutionary approach to solving quadratic assignment problems. The proposed technique is based loosely on a class of search and optimization algorithms known as evolution strategies (ES). These methods are inspired by the mechanics of biological evolution and have been applied successfully to a variety of difficult problems, particularly in continuous optimization. The combinatorial variant of ES presented here performs very well on the given test problems as compared with the standard 2-Opt heuristic and results with simulated annealing and tabu search. Extensions for practical applications in factory layout are described.

  3. Consultant-Guided Search Algorithms for the Quadratic Assignment Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordache, Serban

    Consultant-Guided Search (CGS) is a recent swarm intelligence metaheuristic for combinatorial optimization problems, inspired by the way real people make decisions based on advice received from consultants. Until now, CGS has been successfully applied to the Traveling Salesman Problem. Because a good metaheuristic should be able to tackle efficiently a large variety of problems, it is important to see how CGS behaves when applied to other classes of problems. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for the Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP), which hybridizes CGS with a local search procedure. Our experimental results show that CGS is able to compete in terms of solution quality with one of the best Ant Colony Optimization algorithms, the MAX-MIN Ant System.

  4. A Successive Shortest Path Algorithm for the Assignment Problem.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    a refinement of the Dinic-Kronrod algorithm [ 7 ]. We have used SSP to develop a computer code which is very efficient for solving large, sparse...x .. / - Node,i Predecessor,Pt Distance,D iI I lD, 3 none 0 2 3 6 2 3 1 1 4 3 3 (,2 4 5 1 3 6 2 10 7 1 1 6 Fig. 1. A shortest path tree. 4 In a...denote the number of elements in $I: j = Ail. The modified assignment problem relative to (C,A) is defined as follows: I 7 Minimize cij xij (i,j E

  5. Principles for problem aggregation and assignment in medium scale multiprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.; Saltz, Joel H.

    1987-01-01

    One of the most important issues in parallel processing is the mapping of workload to processors. This paper considers a large class of problems having a high degree of potential fine grained parallelism, and execution requirements that are either not predictable, or are too costly to predict. The main issues in mapping such a problem onto medium scale multiprocessors are those of aggregation and assignment. We study a method of parameterized aggregation that makes few assumptions about the workload. The mapping of aggregate units of work onto processors is uniform, and exploits locality of workload intensity to balance the unknown workload. In general, a finer aggregate granularity leads to a better balance at the price of increased communication/synchronization costs; the aggregation parameters can be adjusted to find a reasonable granularity. The effectiveness of this scheme is demonstrated on three model problems: an adaptive one-dimensional fluid dynamics problem with message passing, a sparse triangular linear system solver on both a shared memory and a message-passing machine, and a two-dimensional time-driven battlefield simulation employing message passing. Using the model problems, the tradeoffs are studied between balanced workload and the communication/synchronization costs. Finally, an analytical model is used to explain why the method balances workload and minimizes the variance in system behavior.

  6. Solution of the determinantal assignment problem using the Grassmann matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karcanias, Nicos; Leventides, John

    2016-02-01

    The paper provides a direct solution to the determinantal assignment problem (DAP) which unifies all frequency assignment problems of the linear control theory. The current approach is based on the solvability of the exterior equation ? where ? is an n -dimensional vector space over ? which is an integral part of the solution of DAP. New criteria for existence of solution and their computation based on the properties of structured matrices are referred to as Grassmann matrices. The solvability of this exterior equation is referred to as decomposability of ?, and it is in turn characterised by the set of quadratic Plücker relations (QPRs) describing the Grassmann variety of the corresponding projective space. Alternative new tests for decomposability of the multi-vector ? are given in terms of the rank properties of the Grassmann matrix, ? of the vector ?, which is constructed by the coordinates of ?. It is shown that the exterior equation is solvable (? is decomposable), if and only if ? where ?; the solution space for a decomposable ?, is the space ?. This provides an alternative linear algebra characterisation of the decomposability problem and of the Grassmann variety to that defined by the QPRs. Further properties of the Grassmann matrices are explored by defining the Hodge-Grassmann matrix as the dual of the Grassmann matrix. The connections of the Hodge-Grassmann matrix to the solution of exterior equations are examined, and an alternative new characterisation of decomposability is given in terms of the dimension of its image space. The framework based on the Grassmann matrices provides the means for the development of a new computational method for the solutions of the exact DAP (when such solutions exist), as well as computing approximate solutions, when exact solutions do not exist.

  7. Planning Nurses in Maternity Care: a Stochastic Assignment Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillipson, Frank

    2015-05-01

    With 23 percent of all births taking place at home, The Netherlands have the highest rate of home births in the world. Also if the birth did not take place at home, it is not unusual for the mother and child to be out of hospital in a few hours after the baby was born. The explanation for both is the very well organised maternity care system. However, getting the right maternity care nurse available on time introduces a complex planning issue that can be recognized as a Stochastic Assignment Problem. In this paper an expert rule based approach is combined with scenario analysis to support the planner of the maternity care agency in his work.

  8. Neural-network dedicated processor for solving competitive assignment problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, Silvio P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A neural-network processor for solving first-order competitive assignment problems consists of a matrix of N x M processing units, each of which corresponds to the pairing of a first number of elements of (R sub i) with a second number of elements (C sub j), wherein limits of the first number are programmed in row control superneurons, and limits of the second number are programmed in column superneurons as MIN and MAX values. The cost (weight) W sub ij of the pairings is programmed separately into each PU. For each row and column of PU's, a dedicated constraint superneuron insures that the number of active neurons within the associated row or column fall within a specified range. Annealing is provided by gradually increasing the PU gain for each row and column or increasing positive feedback to each PU, the latter being effective to increase hysteresis of each PU or by combining both of these techniques.

  9. Cerebellar Synaptic Plasticity and the Credit Assignment Problem.

    PubMed

    Jörntell, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism by which a learnt synaptic weight change can contribute to learning or adaptation of brain function is a type of credit assignment problem, which is a key issue for many parts of the brain. In the cerebellum, detailed knowledge not only of the local circuitry connectivity but also of the topography of different sources of afferent/external information makes this problem particularly tractable. In addition, multiple forms of synaptic plasticity and their general rules of induction have been identified. In this review, we will discuss the possible roles of synaptic and cellular plasticity at specific locations in contributing to behavioral changes. Focus will be on the parts of the cerebellum that are devoted to limb control, which constitute a large proportion of the cortex and where the knowledge of the external connectivity is particularly well known. From this perspective, a number of sites of synaptic plasticity appear to primarily have the function of balancing the overall level of activity in the cerebellar circuitry, whereas the locations at which synaptic plasticity leads to functional changes in terms of limb control are more limited. Specifically, the postsynaptic forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) at the parallel fiber synapses made on interneurons and Purkinje cells, respectively, are the types of plasticity that mediate the widest associative capacity and the tightest link between the synaptic change and the external functions that are to be controlled.

  10. Graph Modeling for Quadratic Assignment Problems Associated with the Hypercube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelmann, Hans; Peng, Jiming; Wu, Xiaolin

    2009-07-01

    In the paper we consider the quadratic assignment problem arising from channel coding in communications where one coefficient matrix is the adjacency matrix of a hypercube in a finite dimensional space. By using the geometric structure of the hypercube, we first show that there exist at least n different optimal solutions to the underlying QAPs. Moreover, the inherent symmetries in the associated hypercube allow us to obtain partial information regarding the optimal solutions and thus shrink the search space and improve all the existing QAP solvers for the underlying QAPs. Secondly, we use graph modeling technique to derive a new integer linear program (ILP) models for the underlying QAPs. The new ILP model has n(n-1) binary variables and O(n3 log(n)) linear constraints. This yields the smallest known number of binary variables for the ILP reformulation of QAPs. Various relaxations of the new ILP model are obtained based on the graphical characterization of the hypercube, and the lower bounds provided by the LP relaxations of the new model are analyzed and compared with what provided by several classical LP relaxations of QAPs in the literature.

  11. A matrix method for finding last common nodes in an origin-based traffic assignment problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang; Si, Bingfeng; Yang, Xiaobao; Sun, Huijun; Gao, Ziyou

    2012-01-01

    Many algorithms have been presented to solve the traffic assignment problem. Recently, Bar-Gera introduced the concept of “last common node” into an origin-based algorithm to solve the traffic assignment problem. However, how to find the last common nodes has not been investigated in detail. In this paper, we present a matrix method for finding the last common nodes in an origin-based traffic assignment problem. In an acyclic network, the power of binary adjacency matrix (A) will record the number of directed simple routes of length k. Taking this feature into consideration, Sp, the total number of the simple routes related to an origin node p in the subnetwork Gp, is counted by Sp=∑kApk=(. Then, every common node for OD pair pq is picked out by comparing (mathvariant="bold">Sp)pr×(mathvariant="bold">Sp)rq and (mathvariant="bold">Sp)pq, and the last common node for OD pair pq is filtered out according to the topological order l(r). Our method is implemented to find out all LCNs for all n∗(n-1) OD pairs, then tested on three kinds of model networks and four urban transportation networks. We find that the overall computing time T and the size of network n, has a relation like T∼O(n3), which is better than the theoretical estimation O(n4).

  12. A United Framework for Solving Multiagent Task Assignment Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    combination function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 S CMTS solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 U ( S ) solution...utility value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 FU assignment utility combination function . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 E[ U ( S )] expected...SR Class (d) MT-MR Class Figure 2.1: MRTA Class Examples. objective is to construct a solution S that optimizes the utility value U , where U ( S ) = ∑ (i

  13. Reducing Perceptions of Time Required to Complete Math Assignments by Adding Problems to Assignments: A Synthesis of the Additive Interspersal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billington, Eric J.; Skinner, Christopher H.

    2006-01-01

    Results from nine experiments were analyzed to evaluate the relationship between relative problem completion rates (RPCR) and judgments of time involving mathematics assignments. For each experiment, control assignments contained only target mathematics computation or word problems. Matched experimental assignments contained similar target…

  14. Simulated annealing algorithm for solving chambering student-case assignment problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Saadiah; Abdul-Rahman, Syariza

    2015-12-01

    The problem related to project assignment problem is one of popular practical problem that appear nowadays. The challenge of solving the problem raise whenever the complexity related to preferences, the existence of real-world constraints and problem size increased. This study focuses on solving a chambering student-case assignment problem by using a simulated annealing algorithm where this problem is classified under project assignment problem. The project assignment problem is considered as hard combinatorial optimization problem and solving it using a metaheuristic approach is an advantage because it could return a good solution in a reasonable time. The problem of assigning chambering students to cases has never been addressed in the literature before. For the proposed problem, it is essential for law graduates to peruse in chambers before they are qualified to become legal counselor. Thus, assigning the chambering students to cases is a critically needed especially when involving many preferences. Hence, this study presents a preliminary study of the proposed project assignment problem. The objective of the study is to minimize the total completion time for all students in solving the given cases. This study employed a minimum cost greedy heuristic in order to construct a feasible initial solution. The search then is preceded with a simulated annealing algorithm for further improvement of solution quality. The analysis of the obtained result has shown that the proposed simulated annealing algorithm has greatly improved the solution constructed by the minimum cost greedy heuristic. Hence, this research has demonstrated the advantages of solving project assignment problem by using metaheuristic techniques.

  15. Achieving spectrum conservation for the minimum-span and minimum-order frequency assignment problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyward, Ann O.

    1992-01-01

    Effective and efficient solutions of frequency assignment problems assumes increasing importance as the radiofrequency spectrum experiences ever increasing utilization by diverse communications services, requiring that the most efficient use of this resource be achieved. The research presented explores a general approach to the frequency assignment problem, in which such problems are categorized by the appropriate spectrum conserving objective function, and are each treated as an N-job, M-machine scheduling problem appropriate for the objective. Results obtained and presented illustrate that such an approach presents an effective means of achieving spectrum conserving frequency assignments for communications systems in a variety of environments.

  16. Heuristic algorithms for a storage location assignment problem in a chaotic warehouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintanilla, Sacramento; Pérez, Ángeles; Ballestín, Francisco; Lino, Pilar

    2015-10-01

    The extensive application of emerging technologies is revolutionizing warehouse management. These technologies facilitate working with complex and powerful warehouse management models in which products do not have assigned fixed locations (random storage). Random storage allows the utilization of the available space to be optimized. In this context, and motivated by a real problem, this article presents a model that looks for the optimal allocation of goods in order to maximize the storage space availability within the restrictions of the warehouse. For the proposed model a construction method, a local search algorithm and different metaheuristics have been developed. The introduced algorithms can also be used for other purposes such as to assess when and how it is convenient to perform relocation of stored items to improve the current level of storage space availability. Computational tests performed on a set of randomly generated and real warehouse instances show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  17. Decision Making In Assignment Problem With Multiple Attributes Under Intuitionistic Fuzzy Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sathi; Basu, Kajla

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we develop a methodology to solve the multiple attribute assignment problems where the attributes are considered to be Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets (IFS). We apply the concept of similarity measures of IFS to solve the Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multi-Attribute Assignment Problem (IFMAAP). The weights of the attributes are determined from expert opinion. An illustrative example is solved to verify the developed approach and to demonstrate its practicality.

  18. On scheduling models for the frequency interval assignment problem with cumulative interferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiatmanaroj, Kata; Artigues, Christian; Houssin, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    In this article, models and methods for solving a real-life frequency assignment problem based on scheduling theory are investigated. A realistic frequency assignment problem involving cumulative interference constraints in which the aim is to maximize the number of assigned users is considered. If interferences are assumed to be binary, a multiple carrier frequency assignment problem can be treated as a disjunctive scheduling problem since a user requesting a number of contiguous frequencies can be considered as a non-preemptive task with a processing time, and two interfering users can be modelled through a disjunctive constraint on the corresponding tasks. A binary interference version of the problem is constructed and a disjunctive scheduling model is derived. Based on the binary representation, two models are proposed. The first one relies on an interference matrix and the second one considers maximal cliques. A third, cumulative, model that yields a new class of scheduling problems is also proposed. Computational experiments show that the case-study frequency assignment problem can be solved efficiently with disjunctive scheduling techniques.

  19. A Parallel Biological Optimization Algorithm to Solve the Unbalanced Assignment Problem Based on DNA Molecular Computing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaocai; Pu, Jun; Cao, Liling; Tan, Jian

    2015-10-23

    The unbalanced assignment problem (UAP) is to optimally resolve the problem of assigning n jobs to m individuals (m < n), such that minimum cost or maximum profit obtained. It is a vitally important Non-deterministic Polynomial (NP) complete problem in operation management and applied mathematics, having numerous real life applications. In this paper, we present a new parallel DNA algorithm for solving the unbalanced assignment problem using DNA molecular operations. We reasonably design flexible-length DNA strands representing different jobs and individuals, take appropriate steps, and get the solutions of the UAP in the proper length range and O(mn) time. We extend the application of DNA molecular operations and simultaneity to simplify the complexity of the computation.

  20. A Parallel Biological Optimization Algorithm to Solve the Unbalanced Assignment Problem Based on DNA Molecular Computing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaocai; Pu, Jun; Cao, Liling; Tan, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The unbalanced assignment problem (UAP) is to optimally resolve the problem of assigning n jobs to m individuals (m < n), such that minimum cost or maximum profit obtained. It is a vitally important Non-deterministic Polynomial (NP) complete problem in operation management and applied mathematics, having numerous real life applications. In this paper, we present a new parallel DNA algorithm for solving the unbalanced assignment problem using DNA molecular operations. We reasonably design flexible-length DNA strands representing different jobs and individuals, take appropriate steps, and get the solutions of the UAP in the proper length range and O(mn) time. We extend the application of DNA molecular operations and simultaneity to simplify the complexity of the computation. PMID:26512650

  1. On the problem of vehicles assignment in the conditions of open-cast mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davkaev, K. S.; Lyakhovets, M. V.

    2016-10-01

    The problem of optimal truck-excavators assignment is considered. A new objective function is offered, which takes into account the performance of a given amount of work and the capacity of each truck and excavator. Different solutions are offered and an example of a problem solution is provided.

  2. Assessment Guidelines for Ant Colony Algorithms when Solving Quadratic Assignment Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, Phen Chiak; Yew Wong, Kuan; Komarudin, Komarudin

    2009-08-01

    To date, no consensus exists on how to evaluate the performance of a new Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm when solving Quadratic Assignment Problems (QAPs). Different performance measures and problems sets are used by researchers to evaluate their algorithms. This paper is aimed to provide a recapitulation of the relevant issues and suggest some guidelines for assessing the performance of new ACO algorithms.

  3. A Branch and Bound Based Heuristic for Solving the Quadratic Assignment Problem,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    the Quadratic Assignment Problem M. S. Bazaraa and 0. Kirca FDRC-81-13 V Contract N~o. N00014-8O-k-0709 A Branch and Bound Based Heuristic for...Solving the Quadratic Assignment Problem M. S. Bazaraa and 0. Kirca Abstract I\\ .... In this paper a branch and bound algorithm is proposed for solving the...concept of branch and bound or im- plicit enumeration, as in the works of Gilmore (1962), Lawler (1963), Craves and Whinston (1970), Bazaraa and Elshafei

  4. Ontological Problem-Solving Framework for Assigning Sensor Systems and Algorithms to High-Level Missions

    PubMed Central

    Qualls, Joseph; Russomanno, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The lack of knowledge models to represent sensor systems, algorithms, and missions makes opportunistically discovering a synthesis of systems and algorithms that can satisfy high-level mission specifications impractical. A novel ontological problem-solving framework has been designed that leverages knowledge models describing sensors, algorithms, and high-level missions to facilitate automated inference of assigning systems to subtasks that may satisfy a given mission specification. To demonstrate the efficacy of the ontological problem-solving architecture, a family of persistence surveillance sensor systems and algorithms has been instantiated in a prototype environment to demonstrate the assignment of systems to subtasks of high-level missions. PMID:22164081

  5. Using the Same Problem with Different Techniques in Programming Assignments: An Empirical Study of Its Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Michael; Nguyen, ThuyUyen H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of a technique that first appeared as a Teaching Tip in the Journal of Information Systems Education. In this approach the same problem is used in every programming assignment within a course, but the students are required to use different programming techniques. This approach was used in an intermediate C++…

  6. Quadratic partial eigenvalue assignment problem with time delay for active vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, J. M.; Singh, K. V.; Datta, B. N.

    2009-08-01

    Partial pole assignment in active vibration control refers to reassigning a small set of unwanted eigenvalues of the quadratic eigenvalue problem (QEP) associated with the second order system of a vibrating structure, by using feedback control force, to suitably chosen location without altering the remaining large number of eigenvalues and eigenvectors. There are several challenges of solving this quadratic partial eigenvalue assignment problem (QPEVAP) in a computational setting which the traditional pole-placement problems for first-order control systems do not have to deal with. In order to these challenges, there has been some work in recent years to solve QPEVAP in a computationally viable way. However, these works do not take into account of the practical phenomenon of the time-delay effect in the system. In this paper, a new "direct and partial modal" approach of the quadratic partial eigenvalue assignment problem with time-delay is proposed. The approach works directly in the quadratic system without requiring transformation to a standard state-space system and requires the knowledge of only a small number of eigenvalues and eigenvectors that can be computed or measured in practice. Two illustrative examples are presented in the context of active vibration control with constant time-delay to illustrate the success of our proposed approach. Future work includes generalization of this approach to a more practical complex time-delay system and extension of this work to the multi-input problem.

  7. A tabu search approach for the NMR protein structure-based assignment problem.

    PubMed

    Cavuşlar, Gizem; Çatay, Bülent; Apaydın, Mehmet Serkan

    2012-01-01

    Spectroscopy is an experimental technique which exploits the magnetic properties of specific nuclei and enables the study of proteins in solution. The key bottleneck of NMR studies is to map the NMR peaks to corresponding nuclei, also known as the assignment problem. Structure-Based Assignment (SBA) is an approach to solve this computationally challenging problem by using prior information about the protein obtained from a homologous structure. NVR-BIP used the Nuclear Vector Replacement (NVR) framework to model SBA as a binary integer programming problem. In this paper, we prove that this problem is NP-hard and propose a tabu search (TS) algorithm (NVR-TS) equipped with a guided perturbation mechanism to efficiently solve it. NVR-TS uses a quadratic penalty relaxation of NVR-BIP where the violations in the Nuclear Overhauser Effect constraints are penalized in the objective function. Experimental results indicate that our algorithm finds the optimal solution on NVRBIP’s data set which consists of seven proteins with 25 templates (31 to 126 residues). Furthermore, it achieves relatively high assignment accuracies on two additional large proteins, MBP and EIN (348 and 243 residues, respectively), which NVR-BIP failed to solve. The executable and the input files are available for download at http://people.sabanciuniv.edu/catay/NVR-TS/NVR-TS.html.

  8. Solving the Quadratic Assignment Problems using Parallel ACO with Symmetric Multi Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, Shigeyoshi

    In this paper, we propose several types of parallel ant colony optimization algorithms with symmetric multi processing for solving the quadratic assignment problem (QAP). These models include the master-slave models and the island models. As a base ant colony optimization algorithm, we used the cunning Ant System (cAS) which showed promising performance our in previous studies. We evaluated each parallel algorithm with a condition that the run time for each parallel algorithm and the base sequential algorithm are the same. The results suggest that using the master-slave model with increased iteration of ant colony optimization algorithms is promising in solving quadratic assignment problems for real or real-like instances.

  9. The Asymmetric Assignment Problem and Some New Facets of the Traveling Salesman Polytope.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    vAD-A±6L2 365 THE ASYMMETRIC ASSIGNMENT PROBLEM AND SOME NEW FACETS 1.11 OF THE TRAVELING SR..(U) CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIV PITTSBURGH PA MANAGEMENT...FACETS OF THE TRAVELING SALESMAN POLYTOPE by Egon Balas Graduate School of Industrial Administration William Larimer Mellon, Founder Pittsburgh, PA...SOME NEW FACETS OF THE TRAVELING SALESMAN POLYTOPE by Eson Balas May 1987 The research underlying this report was supported by Grant ECS 8601660 of the

  10. An analysis of spectral envelope-reduction via quadratic assignment problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Alan; Pothen, Alex

    1994-01-01

    A new spectral algorithm for reordering a sparse symmetric matrix to reduce its envelope size was described. The ordering is computed by associating a Laplacian matrix with the given matrix and then sorting the components of a specified eigenvector of the Laplacian. In this paper, we provide an analysis of the spectral envelope reduction algorithm. We described related 1- and 2-sum problems; the former is related to the envelope size, while the latter is related to an upper bound on the work involved in an envelope Cholesky factorization scheme. We formulate the latter two problems as quadratic assignment problems, and then study the 2-sum problem in more detail. We obtain lower bounds on the 2-sum by considering a projected quadratic assignment problem, and then show that finding a permutation matrix closest to an orthogonal matrix attaining one of the lower bounds justifies the spectral envelope reduction algorithm. The lower bound on the 2-sum is seen to be tight for reasonably 'uniform' finite element meshes. We also obtain asymptotically tight lower bounds for the envelope size for certain classes of meshes.

  11. An up-link power control for demand assignment International Business Satellite Communications Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohara, Mitsuo; Takeuchi, Yoshio; Takahata, Fumio

    Up-link power control (UPC) is one of the essential technologies to provide efficient satellite communication systems operated at frequency bands above 10 GHz. A simple and cost-effective UPC scheme applicable to a demand assignment international business satellite communications system has been developed. This paper presents the UPC scheme, including the hardware implementation and its performance.

  12. Computer Power. Part 2: Electrical Power Problems and Their Amelioration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Bennett J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes electrical power problems that affect computer users, including spikes, sags, outages, noise, frequency variations, and static electricity. Ways in which these problems may be diagnosed and cured are discussed. Sidebars consider transformers; power distribution units; surge currents/linear and non-linear loads; and sizing the power…

  13. An optimization approach for minimum norm and robust partial quadratic eigenvalue assignment problems for vibrating structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahma, Sanjoy; Datta, Biswa

    2009-07-01

    The partial quadratic eigenvalue assignment problem (PQEVAP) concerns the reassignment of a small number of undesirable eigenvalues of a quadratic matrix pencil, while leaving the remaining large number of eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors unchanged. The problem arises in controlling undesirable resonance in vibrating structures and in stabilizing control systems. The solution of this problem requires computations of a pair of feedback matrices. For practical effectiveness, these feedback matrices must be computed in such a way that their norms and the condition number of the closed-loop eigenvector matrix are as small as possible. These considerations give rise to the minimum norm partial quadratic eigenvalue assignment problem (MNPQEVAP) and the robust partial quadratic eigenvalue assignment problem (RPQEVAP), respectively. In this paper we propose new optimization based algorithms for solving these problems. The problems are solved directly in a second-order setting without resorting to a standard first-order formulation so as to avoid the inversion of a possibly ill-conditioned matrix and the loss of exploitable structures of the original model. The algorithms require the knowledge of only the open-loop eigenvalues to be replaced and their corresponding eigenvectors. The remaining open-loop eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenvectors are kept unchanged. The invariance of the large number of eigenvalues and eigenvectors under feedback is guaranteed by a proven mathematical result. Furthermore, the gradient formulas needed to solve the problems by using the quasi-Newton optimization technique employed are computed in terms of the known quantities only. Above all, the proposed methods do not require the reduction of the model order or the order of the controller, even when the underlying finite element model has a very large degree of freedom. These attractive features, coupled with minimal computational requirements, such as solutions of small

  14. Knowledge-based design of generate-and-patch problem solvers that solve global resource assignment problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, Kerstin

    1992-01-01

    We present MENDER, a knowledge based system that implements software design techniques that are specialized to automatically compile generate-and-patch problem solvers that satisfy global resource assignments problems. We provide empirical evidence of the superior performance of generate-and-patch over generate-and-test: even with constrained generation, for a global constraint in the domain of '2D-floorplanning'. For a second constraint in '2D-floorplanning' we show that even when it is possible to incorporate the constraint into a constrained generator, a generate-and-patch problem solver may satisfy the constraint more rapidly. We also briefly summarize how an extended version of our system applies to a constraint in the domain of 'multiprocessor scheduling'.

  15. Community-powered problem solving.

    PubMed

    Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections.

  16. Probabilistic Cross-identification in Crowded Fields as an Assignment Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budavári, Tamás; Basu, Amitabh

    2016-10-01

    One of the outstanding challenges of cross-identification is multiplicity: detections in crowded regions of the sky are often linked to more than one candidate associations of similar likelihoods. We map the resulting maximum likelihood partitioning to the fundamental assignment problem of discrete mathematics and efficiently solve the two-way catalog-level matching in the realm of combinatorial optimization using the so-called Hungarian algorithm. We introduce the method, demonstrate its performance in a mock universe where the true associations are known, and discuss the applicability of the new procedure to large surveys.

  17. A Genetic Algorithm Approach for the TV Self-Promotion Assignment Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo A.; Fontes, Fernando A. C. C.; Fontes, Dalila B. M. M.

    2009-09-01

    We report on the development of a Genetic Algorithm (GA), which has been integrated into a Decision Support System to plan the best assignment of the weekly self-promotion space for a TV station. The problem addressed consists on deciding which shows to advertise and when such that the number of viewers, of an intended group or target, is maximized. The GA proposed incorporates a greedy heuristic to find good initial solutions. These solutions, as well as the solutions later obtained through the use of the GA, go then through a repair procedure. This is used with two objectives, which are addressed in turn. Firstly, it checks the solution feasibility and if unfeasible it is fixed by removing some shows. Secondly, it tries to improve the solution by adding some extra shows. Since the problem faced by the commercial TV station is too big and has too many features it cannot be solved exactly. Therefore, in order to test the quality of the solutions provided by the proposed GA we have randomly generated some smaller problem instances. For these problems we have obtained solutions on average within 1% of the optimal solution value.

  18. A multi-period capacitated school location problem with modular equipment and closest assignment considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmelle, Eric M.; Thill, Jean-Claude; Peeters, Dominique; Thomas, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    In rapidly growing urban areas, it is deemed vital to expand (or contract) an existing network of public facilities to meet anticipated changes in the level of demand. We present a multi-period capacitated median model for school network facility location planning that minimizes transportation costs, while functional costs are subject to a budget constraint. The proposed Vintage Flexible Capacitated Location Problem (ViFCLP) has the flexibility to account for a minimum school-age closing requirement, while the maximum capacity of each school can be adjusted by the addition of modular units. Non-closest assignments are controlled by the introduction of a parameter penalizing excess travel. The applicability of the ViFCLP is illustrated on a large US school system (Charlotte-Mecklenburg, North Carolina) where high school demand is expected to grow faster with distance to the city center. Higher school capacities and greater penalty on travel impedance parameter reduce the number of non-closest assignments. The proposed model is beneficial to policy makers seeking to improve the provision and efficiency of public services over a multi-period planning horizon.

  19. Study on MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection in Quadratic Assignment Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iimura, Ichiro; Yoshida, Kenji; Ishibashi, Ken; Nakayama, Shigeru

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), which is a type of swarm intelligence inspired by ants' foraging behavior, has been studied extensively and its effectiveness has been shown by many researchers. The previous studies have reported that MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS) is one of effective ACO algorithms. The MMAS maintains the balance of intensification and diversification concerning pheromone by limiting the quantity of pheromone to the range of minimum and maximum values. In this paper, we propose MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection (MMASRS) for improving the search performance even further. The MMASRS is a new ACO algorithm that is MMAS into which random selection was newly introduced. The random selection is one of the edgechoosing methods by agents (ants). In our experimental evaluation using ten quadratic assignment problems, we have proved that the proposed MMASRS with the random selection is superior to the conventional MMAS without the random selection in the viewpoint of the search performance.

  20. A Biogeography-Based Optimization Algorithm Hybridized with Tabu Search for the Quadratic Assignment Problem.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wee Loon; Wibowo, Antoni; Desa, Mohammad Ishak; Haron, Habibollah

    2016-01-01

    The quadratic assignment problem (QAP) is an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem with a wide variety of applications. Biogeography-based optimization (BBO), a relatively new optimization technique based on the biogeography concept, uses the idea of migration strategy of species to derive algorithm for solving optimization problems. It has been shown that BBO provides performance on a par with other optimization methods. A classical BBO algorithm employs the mutation operator as its diversification strategy. However, this process will often ruin the quality of solutions in QAP. In this paper, we propose a hybrid technique to overcome the weakness of classical BBO algorithm to solve QAP, by replacing the mutation operator with a tabu search procedure. Our experiments using the benchmark instances from QAPLIB show that the proposed hybrid method is able to find good solutions for them within reasonable computational times. Out of 61 benchmark instances tested, the proposed method is able to obtain the best known solutions for 57 of them.

  1. A mixed analog/digital chaotic neuro-computer system for quadratic assignment problems.

    PubMed

    Horio, Yoshihiko; Ikeguchi, Tohru; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2005-01-01

    We construct a mixed analog/digital chaotic neuro-computer prototype system for quadratic assignment problems (QAPs). The QAP is one of the difficult NP-hard problems, and includes several real-world applications. Chaotic neural networks have been used to solve combinatorial optimization problems through chaotic search dynamics, which efficiently searches optimal or near optimal solutions. However, preliminary experiments have shown that, although it obtained good feasible solutions, the Hopfield-type chaotic neuro-computer hardware system could not obtain the optimal solution of the QAP. Therefore, in the present study, we improve the system performance by adopting a solution construction method, which constructs a feasible solution using the analog internal state values of the chaotic neurons at each iteration. In order to include the construction method into our hardware, we install a multi-channel analog-to-digital conversion system to observe the internal states of the chaotic neurons. We show experimentally that a great improvement in the system performance over the original Hopfield-type chaotic neuro-computer is obtained. That is, we obtain the optimal solution for the size-10 QAP in less than 1000 iterations. In addition, we propose a guideline for parameter tuning of the chaotic neuro-computer system according to the observation of the internal states of several chaotic neurons in the network.

  2. A Biogeography-Based Optimization Algorithm Hybridized with Tabu Search for the Quadratic Assignment Problem

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Wee Loon; Wibowo, Antoni; Desa, Mohammad Ishak; Haron, Habibollah

    2016-01-01

    The quadratic assignment problem (QAP) is an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem with a wide variety of applications. Biogeography-based optimization (BBO), a relatively new optimization technique based on the biogeography concept, uses the idea of migration strategy of species to derive algorithm for solving optimization problems. It has been shown that BBO provides performance on a par with other optimization methods. A classical BBO algorithm employs the mutation operator as its diversification strategy. However, this process will often ruin the quality of solutions in QAP. In this paper, we propose a hybrid technique to overcome the weakness of classical BBO algorithm to solve QAP, by replacing the mutation operator with a tabu search procedure. Our experiments using the benchmark instances from QAPLIB show that the proposed hybrid method is able to find good solutions for them within reasonable computational times. Out of 61 benchmark instances tested, the proposed method is able to obtain the best known solutions for 57 of them. PMID:26819585

  3. Nuclear Power: Problems in Information Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, William

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the problems encountered at the Duquesne Light Company of Pittsburgh's nuclear power plant as the result of an inability to process information effectively and keep pace with technological change. The creation of a separate division trained and directed to manage the plant's information flows is described and evaluated. (CLB)

  4. Imprint of DESI fiber assignment on anisotropic power spectrum of emission line galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahn, Robert N.; Pinol, Lucas; Hand, Nicholas; McDonald, Patrick; Seljak, Uros

    2017-01-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), a multiplexed fiber-fed spectrograph, is a Stage-IV ground-based dark energy experiment aiming to measure redshifts for 29 million Emission-Line Galaxies (ELG), 4 million Luminous Red Galaxies (LRG), and 2 million Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSO). The survey design includes an observation strategy determined by a fiber assignment algorithm that optimizes the allocation of fibers to targets. We investigate the systematic effects of the fiber assignment coverage on the anisotropic galaxy clustering of ELGs and show that, in the absence of any corrections, it leads to discrepancies of order ten percent on large scales for the power spectrum multipoles. We introduce a method where objects in a random catalog are assigned a coverage, and the mean density is separately computed for each coverage factor, and show that this method reduces, but does not eliminate the effect. The angular dependence of the contaminating signal is mostly in purely transverse modes. We find that the effect can be mitigated by binning in angle and excluding contributions near the transverse direction. This material is based upon work supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics, under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  5. Meta-Heuristic Combining Prior Online and Offline Information for the Quadratic Assignment Problem.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianyong; Zhang, Qingfu; Yao, Xin

    2014-03-01

    The construction of promising solutions for NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems (COPs) in meta-heuristics is usually based on three types of information, namely a priori information, a posteriori information learned from visited solutions during the search procedure, and online information collected in the solution construction process. Prior information reflects our domain knowledge about the COPs. Extensive domain knowledge can surely make the search effective, yet it is not always available. Posterior information could guide the meta-heuristics to globally explore promising search areas, but it lacks local guidance capability. On the contrary, online information can capture local structures, and its application can help exploit the search space. In this paper, we studied the effects of using this information on metaheuristic's algorithmic performances for the COPs. The study was illustrated by a set of heuristic algorithms developed for the quadratic assignment problem. We first proposed an improved scheme to extract online local information, then developed a unified framework under which all types of information can be combined readily. Finally, we studied the benefits of the three types of information to meta-heuristics. Conclusions were drawn from the comprehensive study, which can be used as principles to guide the design of effective meta-heuristic in the future.

  6. A Genetic Algorithm with the Improved 2-opt Method for Quadratic Assignment Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matayoshi, Mitsukuni; Nakamura, Morikazu; Miyagi, Hayao

    We propose a new 2-opt base method as a local search approach used with Genetic Algorithms (GAs) in Memetic Algorithm. We got a hint from the fast 2-opt method and devised the new 2-opt method. The main different point is such that our method exchanges genes by using histories of contributions to fitness value improvement. The contribution level is represented by the value `Priority’. In computer experiment, Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) instances are solved by GA with the 2-opt method(First Admissible Move Strategy, the Best Admissible Move Strategy), the fast 2-opt, and our proposed method for comparative evaluation. The results showed that our improved method obtained better solutions at ealier generation of the GA and our method required less computation time than the others at some upper bound value of appropriate `Priority’ setting values. Specially, at the average elapsed time of the fast 2-opt method’s 1000th generation, the exact solution findings of ours is more than the others. In further experiment, we observe that the searching capability depends on the number of levels of `Priority’. The ratio between two different Priority level sets becomes 1.59 in computation time in solving problem instance “char25a". This characteristic is shown to be statistically significant in ten instances among eleven.

  7. Imprint of DESI fiber assignment on the anisotropic power spectrum of emission line galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinol, Lucas; Cahn, Robert N.; Hand, Nick; Seljak, Uroš; White, Martin

    2017-04-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), a multiplexed fiber-fed spectrograph, is a Stage-IV ground-based dark energy experiment aiming to measure redshifts for 29 million Emission-Line Galaxies (ELG), 4 million Luminous Red Galaxies (LRG), and 2 million Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSO). The survey design includes a pattern of tiling on the sky, the locations of the fiber positioners in the focal plane of the telescope, and an observation strategy determined by a fiber assignment algorithm that optimizes the allocation of fibers to targets. This strategy allows a given region to be covered on average five times for a five-year survey, with a typical variation of about 1.5 about the mean, which imprints a spatially-dependent pattern on the galaxy clustering. We investigate the systematic effects of the fiber assignment coverage on the anisotropic galaxy clustering of ELGs and show that, in the absence of any corrections, it leads to discrepancies of order ten percent on large scales for the power spectrum multipoles. We introduce a method where objects in a random catalog are assigned a coverage, and the mean density is separately computed for each coverage factor. We show that this method reduces, but does not eliminate the effect. We next investigate the angular dependence of the contaminated signal, arguing that it is mostly localized to purely transverse modes. We demonstrate that the cleanest way to remove the contaminating signal is to perform an analysis of the anisotropic power spectrum P(k,μ) and remove the lowest μ bin, leaving μ > 0 modes accurate at the few-percent level. Here, μ is the cosine of the angle between the line-of-sight and the direction of vec k. We also investigate two alternative definitions of the random catalog and show that they are comparable but less effective than the coverage randoms method.

  8. A new approach on auxiliary vehicle assignment in capacitated location routing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashiri, Mahdi; Rasoulinejad, Zeinab; Fallahzade, Ehsan

    2016-03-01

    The location routing problem (LRP) considers locating depots and vehicle routing decisions simultaneously. In classic LRP the number of customers in each route depends on the capacity of the vehicle. In this paper a capacitated LRP model with auxiliary vehicle assignment is presented in which the length of each route is not restricted by main vehicle capacity. Two kinds of vehicles are considered: main vehicles with higher capacity and fixed cost and auxiliary vehicles with lower capacity and fixed cost. The auxiliary vehicles can be added to the transportation system as an alternative strategy to cover the capacity limitations and they are just used to transfer goods from depots to vehicles and cannot serve the customers by themselves. To show the applicability of the proposed model, some numerical examples derived from the well-known instances are used. Moreover the model has been solved by some meta-heuristics for large sized instances. The results show the efficiency of the proposed model and the solution approach, considering the classic model and the exact solution approach, respectively.

  9. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: problems with developmental anomalies of the external genitalia and sex assignment.

    PubMed

    Al-Maghribi, Hussein

    2007-09-01

    A retrospective study was performed on all patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) who were followed up at the King Hussein Medical Center (KHMC), Amman, Jordan, during the period from January 1996 to June 2006. The aim was to evaluate the clinical features, special problems, and corrective interventions for these patients. The records of 73 children (39 were genetic females and 34 were genetic males) with CAH were reviewed in the study. The age of the patients at last follow-up was between five months and 18 years. Diagnostic criteria for CAH were typical clinical features of the illness (salt loss, dehydration, virilization, macrogenitosomia, ambiguous genitalia, and accelerated growth) and typical hormonal abnormalities (decreased serum cortisol and elevated serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone). There were 62 patients with classical presentation; among them, salt-wasting (SW) form was seen in 41 patients (66%). There were 5 patients with the nonclassic form, while 6 others had cryptic presentation. Seven patients (9%) had hypertension, mostly due to salt-retaining CAH. Among the 39 females with CAH, 27 had developed mental anomalies of the external genitalia; 20 of them underwent surgical interventions of their external genitalia. Fourteen genetically female patients were wrongly diagnosed as 'male sex' at birth due to severe virilization. Seven of them were reassigned 'female sex' socially, legally, and surgically; the parents of one of them (a four-year-old girl) wanted the surgical intervention postponed for two to three years. Hysterectomy and gonadectomy were carried out for 6 of the other 7 patients who chose to keep the male gender. Our study indicates that newborns with developmental anomalies of the external genitalia should be diagnosed as early as possible so that medical, psychological, and social complications are minimized. A neonatal screening program for such a disorder can identify infants at risk for the development of life

  10. Assignment Problem for the U.S. Marine Corps: Regional, Culture, and Language Familiarization Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Roth , and Sönmez (2005) in the case of assigning students to schools in the Boston Public Schools system. The top trading cycle allows students to...they would prefer, making the overall regional assignment process Pareto efficient. Roth , Sönmez, and Unver (2004) adapted the top trading cycle from...transplantation. Roth et al. argues that adapting the TTC to the kidney exchange can help alleviate some shortage of organs and improve patient welfare by

  11. Dynamic Cooperative Clustering Based Power Assignment: Network Capacity and Lifetime Efficient Topology Control in Cooperative Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative communication (CC) is used in topology control as it can reduce the transmission power and expand the transmission range. However, all previous research on topology control under the CC model focused on maintaining network connectivity and minimizing the total energy consumption, which would lead to low network capacity, transmission interruption, or even network paralysis. Meanwhile, without considering the balance of energy consumption in the network, it would reduce the network lifetime and greatly affect the network performance. This paper tries to solve the above problems existing in the research on topology control under the CC model by proposing a power assignment (DCCPA) algorithm based on dynamic cooperative clustering in cooperative ad hoc networks. The new algorithm clusters the network to maximize network capacity and makes the clusters communicate with each other by CC. To reduce the number of redundant links between clusters, we design a static clustering method by using Kruskal algorithm. To maximize the network lifetime, we also propose a cluster head rotating method which can reach a good tradeoff between residual energy and distance for the cluster head reselection. Experimental results show that DCCPA can improve 80% network capacity with Cooperative Bridges algorithm; meanwhile, it can improve 20% network lifetime. PMID:24757413

  12. Dynamic cooperative clustering based power assignment: network capacity and lifetime efficient topology control in cooperative ad hoc networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Xiao, Ling; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative communication (CC) is used in topology control as it can reduce the transmission power and expand the transmission range. However, all previous research on topology control under the CC model focused on maintaining network connectivity and minimizing the total energy consumption, which would lead to low network capacity, transmission interruption, or even network paralysis. Meanwhile, without considering the balance of energy consumption in the network, it would reduce the network lifetime and greatly affect the network performance. This paper tries to solve the above problems existing in the research on topology control under the CC model by proposing a power assignment (DCCPA) algorithm based on dynamic cooperative clustering in cooperative ad hoc networks. The new algorithm clusters the network to maximize network capacity and makes the clusters communicate with each other by CC. To reduce the number of redundant links between clusters, we design a static clustering method by using Kruskal algorithm. To maximize the network lifetime, we also propose a cluster head rotating method which can reach a good tradeoff between residual energy and distance for the cluster head reselection. Experimental results show that DCCPA can improve 80% network capacity with Cooperative Bridges algorithm; meanwhile, it can improve 20% network lifetime.

  13. Developing Problem Solving and Communication Skills through Memo Assignments in a Management Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julie Ann Stuart; Reid, Randall C.

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe how to structure a memo format for homework assignments in which a manager requests analysis of a particular issue from the student. The student must respond with a memo stating a recommendation and describing the solution approach. The results from using the memo format include improved student performance and professional…

  14. A two-stage approach for a multi-objective component assignment problem for a stochastic-flow network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Kuei; Yeh, Cheng-Ta

    2013-03-01

    Many real-life systems, such as computer systems, manufacturing systems and logistics systems, are modelled as stochastic-flow networks (SFNs) to evaluate network reliability. Here, network reliability, defined as the probability that the network successfully transmits d units of data/commodity from an origin to a destination, is a performance indicator of the systems. Network reliability maximization is a particular objective, but is costly for many system supervisors. This article solves the multi-objective problem of reliability maximization and cost minimization by finding the optimal component assignment for SFN, in which a set of multi-state components is ready to be assigned to the network. A two-stage approach integrating Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II and simple additive weighting are proposed to solve this problem, where network reliability is evaluated in terms of minimal paths and recursive sum of disjoint products. Several practical examples related to computer networks are utilized to demonstrate the proposed approach.

  15. Power of Peer Review: An Online Collaborative Learning Assignment in Social Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cathey, Christie

    2007-01-01

    In a semester-long, peer review assignment, undergraduates enrolled in a social psychology course wrote essays that applied course concepts to life experiences. Students anonymously posted essays for the entire class to view, and peers posted commentaries on classmates' essays using an online discussion board. Students rated the assignment as…

  16. A Conceptual Framework and a Heuristic Program for the Credit Assignment Problem.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    f-R127 367 R CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND A HEURISTIC PROGRAM FOR THE i/1 CREDIT ASSIGNMENT..(U) ARIZONA STATE UNIV TEMPE GROUP FOR COMPUTER STUDIES OF...ARIZONA 85287 ,.:" luioltt ulnI 1wt ea. s 04 g o71 I - -I * I . . .,° -4 A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND A HEURISTIC PROGRAM POR THE CREDWT A=EGNMENT...Itos ’me 8 -0 8 3 l"’ 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND A HEURISTIC PROGRAM INTERIM*, 1 JUL 30 JUN 83 FOR THE CREDIT

  17. Solving Multiactivity Multifacility Capacity-Constrained 0-1 Assignment Problems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-12

    other factors. -Mra -5- i’le :mil t iactiv ity mulIt if ac it L ty ass ignment problIem seeks mnfimizat oa oi some measure of total system cost such as...areas as public health care systems and private multi-echulon inventory/distribution systems . Such systems involve the assignment of activities or tasks...to groups of facilities in such a way that total system cost is minimized. The total system cost haa components (fixed costs) that depend on the

  18. A decomposition approach for the combined master surgical schedule and surgical case assignment problems.

    PubMed

    Agnetis, Alessandro; Coppi, Alberto; Corsini, Matteo; Dellino, Gabriella; Meloni, Carlo; Pranzo, Marco

    2014-03-01

    This research aims at supporting hospital management in making prompt Operating Room (OR) planning decisions, when either unpredicted events occur or alternative scenarios or configurations need to be rapidly evaluated. We design and test a planning tool enabling managers to efficiently analyse several alternatives to the current OR planning and scheduling. To this aim, we propose a decomposition approach. More specifically, we first focus on determining the Master Surgical Schedule (MSS) on a weekly basis, by assigning the different surgical disciplines to the available sessions. Next, we allocate surgeries to each session, focusing on elective patients only. Patients are selected from the waiting lists according to several parameters, including surgery duration, waiting time and priority class of the operations. We performed computational experiments to compare the performance of our decomposition approach with an (exact) integrated approach. The case study selected for our simulations is based on the characteristics of the operating theatre (OT) of a medium-size public Italian hospital. Scalability of the method is tested for different OT sizes. A pilot example is also proposed to highlight the usefulness of our approach for decision support. The proposed decomposition approach finds satisfactory solutions with significant savings in computation time.

  19. A Simple Assignment that Enhances Students' Ability to Solve Organic Chemistry Synthesis Problems and Understand Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Jennifer; Holman, R. W.

    2008-01-01

    Organic chemistry students typically struggle with the retrosynthetic approach to solving synthesis problems because most textbooks present the chemistry grouped by "reactions of the functional group". In contrast, the retrosynthetic approach requires the student to envision "reactions that yield the functional group". A second challenge is the…

  20. Scalable Effective Approaches for Quadratic Assignment Problems Based on Conic Optimization and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-09

    several optimization models and algorithm design for problems from computer vision and learning , research on sparse solutions in quadratic optimization...following papers: [9] L. Mukherjee, V. Singh, J. Peng and C. Hinrichs. Learning kernels for variants of normalized cuts: Convex relaxations and...are very small gaps compared to state-of-the-art knowledge in comunications . Table 1. Bounds for adjacency matrix

  1. Homework as Serious Family Business: Power and Subjectivity in Negotiations about School Assignments in Swedish Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsberg, Lucas

    2007-01-01

    Most previous research on parental involvement in children's homework has focused on the pedagogical advantages or disadvantages of school assignments while neglecting the practice in its social context, family life. By studying parent-child homework negotiations in Swedish families, this paper examines how family members position themselves and…

  2. Authors are also reviewers: problems in assigning cause for missing negative studies.

    PubMed

    Senn, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    I COMPARE TWO POSSIBLE EXTREME HYPOTHESES REGARDING SUBMISSION OF PAPERS TO JOURNALS: the Q hypothesis, whereby the decision to submit is based on quality of research; and the P hypothesis, whereby it is based on probability of acceptance. I give five reasons as to why the P hypothesis is more plausible and suggest that problems of missing data may previously have caused researchers to misinterpret the evidence on editorial bias.

  3. Optimization of Heterogeneous UAV Communications Using the Multiobjective Quadratic Assignment Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    5-15 5.9.4 main pareto.c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15 5.9.5 MATLAB ...D-2 D.3 Algorithm Domain Pseudo Code to Implementation in chosen Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-5 Appendix E...size k in strings of length l′ is plotted against l′. The problem size is assumed to be l = 20 [48] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3 4.2. Pseudo -code

  4. A Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm to Quadratic Three-Dimensional Assignment Problem with Local Search for Many-Core Graphics Processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipinski, Piotr

    This paper concerns the quadratic three-dimensional assignment problem (Q3AP), an extension of the quadratic assignment problem (QAP), and proposes an efficient hybrid evolutionary algorithm combining stochastic optimization and local search with a number of crossover operators, a number of mutation operators and an auto-adaptation mechanism. Auto-adaptation manages the pool of evolutionary operators applying different operators in different computation phases to better explore the search space and to avoid premature convergence. Local search additionally optimizes populations of candidate solutions and accelerates evolutionary search. It uses a many-core graphics processor to optimize a number of solutions in parallel, which enables its incorporation into the evolutionary algorithm without excessive increases in the computation time. Experiments performed on benchmark Q3AP instances derived from the classic QAP instances proposed by Nugent et al. confirmed that the proposed algorithm is able to find optimal solutions to Q3AP in a reasonable time and outperforms best known results found in the literature.

  5. Binary Bees Algorithm - bioinspiration from the foraging mechanism of honeybees to optimize a multiobjective multidimensional assignment problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shuo; Ji, Ze; Truong Pham, Duc; Yu, Fan

    2011-11-01

    The simultaneous mission assignment and home allocation for hospital service robots studied is a Multidimensional Assignment Problem (MAP) with multiobjectives and multiconstraints. A population-based metaheuristic, the Binary Bees Algorithm (BBA), is proposed to optimize this NP-hard problem. Inspired by the foraging mechanism of honeybees, the BBA's most important feature is an explicit functional partitioning between global search and local search for exploration and exploitation, respectively. Its key parts consist of adaptive global search, three-step elitism selection (constraint handling, non-dominated solutions selection, and diversity preservation), and elites-centred local search within a Hamming neighbourhood. Two comparative experiments were conducted to investigate its single objective optimization, optimization effectiveness (indexed by the S-metric and C-metric) and optimization efficiency (indexed by computational burden and CPU time) in detail. The BBA outperformed its competitors in almost all the quantitative indices. Hence, the above overall scheme, and particularly the searching history-adapted global search strategy was validated.

  6. A Meta-heuristically Approach of the Spatial Assignment Problem of Human Resources in Multi-sites Enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Tkatek; Otman, Abdoun; Jaafar, Abouchabaka; Najat, Rafalia

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this work is to present a meta-heuristically approach of the spatial assignment problem of human resources in multi-sites enterprise. Usually, this problem consists to move employees from one site to another based on one or more criteria. Our goal in this new approach is to improve the quality of service and performance of all sites with maximizing an objective function under some managers imposed constraints. The formulation presented here of this problem coincides perfectly with a Combinatorial Optimization Problem (COP) which is in the most cases NP-hard to solve optimally. To avoid this difficulty, we have opted to use a meta-heuristic popular method, which is the genetic algorithm, to solve this problem in concrete cases. The results obtained have shown the effectiveness of our approach, which remains until now very costly in time. But the reduction of the time can be obtained by different ways that we plan to do in the next work.

  7. Using ant colony optimization on the quadratic assignment problem to achieve low energy cost in geo-distributed data centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osei, Richard

    There are many problems associated with operating a data center. Some of these problems include data security, system performance, increasing infrastructure complexity, increasing storage utilization, keeping up with data growth, and increasing energy costs. Energy cost differs by location, and at most locations fluctuates over time. The rising cost of energy makes it harder for data centers to function properly and provide a good quality of service. With reduced energy cost, data centers will have longer lasting servers/equipment, higher availability of resources, better quality of service, a greener environment, and reduced service and software costs for consumers. Some of the ways that data centers have tried to using to reduce energy costs include dynamically switching on and off servers based on the number of users and some predefined conditions, the use of environmental monitoring sensors, and the use of dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS), which enables processors to run at different combinations of frequencies with voltages to reduce energy cost. This thesis presents another method by which energy cost at data centers could be reduced. This method involves the use of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) on a Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) in assigning user request to servers in geo-distributed data centers. In this paper, an effort to reduce data center energy cost involves the use of front portals, which handle users' requests, were used as ants to find cost effective ways to assign users requests to a server in heterogeneous geo-distributed data centers. The simulation results indicate that the ACO for Optimal Server Activation and Task Placement algorithm reduces energy cost on a small and large number of users' requests in a geo-distributed data center and its performance increases as the input data grows. In a simulation with 3 geo-distributed data centers, and user's resource request ranging from 25,000 to 25,000,000, the ACO algorithm was able

  8. Problem free nuclear power and global change

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.; Wood, L.; Nuckolls, J.; Ishikawa, M.; Hyde, R.

    1997-08-15

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a solution-in-principle to all aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high- grade heat for electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-driving around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates. However, a substantial number of major issues currently stand between nuclear power implemented with light- water reactors and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems, including long-term fuel supply, adverse public perceptions regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps more seriously - cost. We describe a GW-scale, high-temperature nuclear reactor heat source that can operate with no human intervention for a few decades and that may be widely acceptable, since its safety features are simple, inexpensive and easily understood. We provide first-level details of a reactor system designed to satisfy these requirements. Such a back-solving approach to realizing large-scale nuclear fission power systems potentially leads to an energy source capable of meeting all large-scale stationary demands for high- temperature heat. If widely employed to support such demands, it could, for example, directly reduce present-day world-wide CO{sub 2} emissions by two-fold; by using it to produce non-carbonaceous fuels for small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction could be attained. Even the first such reduction would permit continued slow power-demand growth in the First World and rapid development of the Third World, both without any governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage.

  9. Genetic algorithm based hybrid approach to solve fuzzy multi-objective assignment problem using exponential membership function.

    PubMed

    Dhodiya, Jayesh M; Tailor, Anita Ravi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a genetic algorithm based hybrid approach for solving a fuzzy multi-objective assignment problem (FMOAP) by using an exponential membership function in which the coefficient of the objective function is described by a triangular possibility distribution. Moreover, in this study, fuzzy judgment was classified using α-level sets for the decision maker (DM) to simultaneously optimize the optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic scenarios of fuzzy objective functions. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, a numerical example is provided with a data set from a realistic situation. This paper concludes that the developed hybrid approach can manage FMOAP efficiently and effectively with an effective output to enable the DM to take a decision.

  10. Effective heuristics and meta-heuristics for the quadratic assignment problem with tuned parameters and analytical comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashiri, Mahdi; Karimi, Hossein

    2012-07-01

    Quadratic assignment problem (QAP) is a well-known problem in the facility location and layout. It belongs to the NP-complete class. There are many heuristic and meta-heuristic methods, which are presented for QAP in the literature. In this paper, we applied 2-opt, greedy 2-opt, 3-opt, greedy 3-opt, and VNZ as heuristic methods and tabu search (TS), simulated annealing, and particle swarm optimization as meta-heuristic methods for the QAP. This research is dedicated to compare the relative percentage deviation of these solution qualities from the best known solution which is introduced in QAPLIB. Furthermore, a tuning method is applied for meta-heuristic parameters. Results indicate that TS is the best in 31%of QAPs, and the IFLS method, which is in the literature, is the best in 58 % of QAPs; these two methods are the same in 11 % of test problems. Also, TS has a better computational time among heuristic and meta-heuristic methods.

  11. Mutual Information Analyses of Neuron Selection Techniques in Synchronous Exponential Chaotic Tabu Search for Quadratic Assignment Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Tetsuo; Horio, Yoshihiko; Hasegawa, Mikio

    The tabu search was implemented on a neural network with chaotic neuro-dynamics. This chaotic exponential tabu search shows great performance in solving quadratic assignment problems (QAPs). To exploit inherent parallel processing abilities of analog hardware systems, a synchronous updating scheme, where all the neurons in the network are updated at the same time, was proposed. However, several neurons may fire simultaneously with the synchronous updating. As a result, we cannot determine only one candidate for the 2-opt exchange from the many fired neurons. To solve this problem, several neuron selection methods, which select one specific neuron among the fired neurons, were proposed. These neuron selection methods improved the performance of the synchronous updating scheme. In this paper, we analyze the dynamics of the chaotic neural network with the neuron selection methods by means of the spatial and temporal mutual information. Through the analyses, the network solution search dynamics of the exponential chaotic tabu search with different neuron selection methods are evaluated.

  12. Energy Crisis: Environmental Issue Exacerbates Power Supply Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boffey, Philip M.

    1970-01-01

    Analyzes problems of providing sufficient electrical power in terms of inefficiency of industry and of the conflict between need for power and need for environmental quality. Suggests ways of slowing the growth in demand, and indicates needed research into energy production. (EB)

  13. Approximation algorithms for the min-power symmetric connectivity problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikov, Roman; Erzin, Adil; Mladenovic, Nenad

    2016-10-01

    We consider the NP-hard problem of synthesis of optimal spanning communication subgraph in a given arbitrary simple edge-weighted graph. This problem occurs in the wireless networks while minimizing the total transmission power consumptions. We propose several new heuristics based on the variable neighborhood search metaheuristic for the approximation solution of the problem. We have performed a numerical experiment where all proposed algorithms have been executed on the randomly generated test samples. For these instances, on average, our algorithms outperform the previously known heuristics.

  14. Extension of modified power method to two-dimensional problems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Peng; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the generalized modified power method was extended to two-dimensional problems. A direct application of the method to two-dimensional problems was shown to be unstable when the number of requested eigenmodes is larger than a certain problem dependent number. The root cause of this instability has been identified as the degeneracy of the transfer matrix. In order to resolve this instability, the number of sub-regions for the transfer matrix was increased to be larger than the number of requested eigenmodes; and a new transfer matrix was introduced accordingly which can be calculated by the least square method. The stability of the new method has been successfully demonstrated with a neutron diffusion eigenvalue problem and the 2D C5G7 benchmark problem. - Graphical abstract:.

  15. The atom assignment problem in automated de novo drug design. 5. Tests for envelope-directed fragment placement based on molecular similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakat, M. T.; Dean, P. M.

    1995-10-01

    The fragment placement method has been successfully extended to the problem of envelope-directed design. The atom assignment paradigm was based on molecular similarity between two molecular structures. A composite supersurface is defined to form the surface onto which the molecular fields are projected. The assignment process is then determined by using molecular similarity in the objective function to be optimized. In principle, this procedure is closely similar to that outlined in the previous paper for site-directed design. The rationale has been extensively tested on two benzodiazepine antagonists believed to bind to the same site.

  16. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  17. Problems and solutions of the IFSMTF power and switch system

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.J.; Wintenberg, R.E.; Googe, J.M.; Nickels, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    Solutions have been found for the problems encountered with the coil power and switching systems of the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF). The coil power system provides the filtered dc sources (+- 12 V dc; 25,000 A) for charging and discharging the coils of the IFSMTF experiment. The switching system provides the means of transferring the coil current into a dump resistor when a rapid discharge of a coil is required due to a coil failure (quench) or other system abnormalities.

  18. A New Powerful Nonparametric Rank Test for Ordered Alternative Problem

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Guogen; Young, Daniel; Kang, Le

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new nonparametric test for ordered alternative problem based on the rank difference between two observations from different groups. These groups are assumed to be independent from each other. The exact mean and variance of the test statistic under the null distribution are derived, and its asymptotic distribution is proven to be normal. Furthermore, an extensive power comparison between the new test and other commonly used tests shows that the new test is generally more powerful than others under various conditions, including the same type of distribution, and mixed distributions. A real example from an anti-hypertensive drug trial is provided to illustrate the application of the tests. The new test is therefore recommended for use in practice due to easy calculation and substantial power gain. PMID:25405757

  19. Satellite power systems for Western Europe - Problems and solution proposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruth, J.; Westphal, W.

    1980-08-01

    This paper deals with the potential utilization of solar satellite power systems (SPS) as baseload powerplants for Western European countries. There are significant differences compared with the U.S.A. for geographical, political, organizational, orbital, and industrial reasons. These differences have been analyzed and critically examined, but no unsurmountable problems have been found. There exist, however, a lot of challenging problems to be solved prior to a full scale SPS development. In this paper some of the most important problems are presented and some potential solutions are discussed. Finally, a research program is proposed, which could help to answer the following question: Is it possible to develop, construct and operate an SPS system which is (1) economically viable, (2) technically feasible, (3) environmentally compatible, and (4) politically acceptable.

  20. Investigation of valve failure problems in LWR power plants

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    An analysis of component failures from information in the computerized Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) data bank shows that for both PWR and BWR plants the component category most responsible for approximately 19.3% of light water reactor (LWR) power plant shutdowns. This investigation by Burns and Roe, Inc. shows that the greatest cause of shutdowns in LWRs due to valve failures is leakage from valve stem packing. Both BWR plants and PWR plants have stem leakage problems (BWRs, 21% and PWRs, 34%).

  1. The interaction of subsyllabic encoding and stress assignment: A new examination of an old problem in Spanish

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Michael; Gerfen, Chip; Palma, Nicolás Gutiérrez

    2012-01-01

    This study employs a naming task to examine the role of the syllable in speech production, focusing on a lesser-studied aspect of syllabic processing, the interaction of subsyllabic patterns (i.e. syllable phonotactics) and higher-level prosody, in this case, stress assignment in Spanish. Specifically, we examine a controversial debate in Spanish regarding the interaction of syllable weight and stress placement, showing that traditional representations of weight fail to predict the differential modulation of stress placement by rising versus falling diphthongs in Spanish nonce forms. Our results also suggest that the internal structure of the syllable plays a larger role than is assumed in the processing literature in that it modulates higher-level processes such as stress encoding. Our results thus inform the debate regarding syllable weight in Spanish and linguistic theorizing more broadly, as well as expand our understanding of the importance of the syllable, and more specifically its internal structure, in modulating word processing. PMID:23264712

  2. Development of a microbiology course for diverse majors; longitudinal survey of the use of various active, problem-based learning assignments.

    PubMed

    Cundell, Diana R

    2002-05-01

    Educators are increasingly being encouraged to use more active- and problem-based-learning techniques and assignments in the classroom to improve critical and analytical thinking skills. Active learning-based courses have been purported to be more time consuming than traditional lecture methods and for many instructors have therefore proven difficult to include in many one-semester science courses. To address this problem, a series of assignments was developed for use in a basic microbiology course involving sophomore-, junior-, and senior-level students from five different biology majors (environmental science, biology, biochemistry, premedicine, and physician assistant). Writing assignments included global, historical, and social themes for which a standardized grading format was established. Students also participated in a class debate in which the merits of the living microbial kingdoms were discussed, with only one kingdom being saved from an imaginary global catastrophe. Traditional lectures were facilitated by the use of a dedicated note packet developed by the instructor and specific for course content. Laboratories involved group analysis of mini-case history studies involving pathogenic microbes. Students' perceptions of the subject were assessed using an exit questionnaire sent to 100 of the 174 students who had taken the course during the 5-year time period. The majority of the 64 students who responded were sophomores (78%), in keeping with the target audience, and their perception of the course's challenge level was significantly higher (p < 0.03, 8.7) than their junior and senior counterparts (7.9). Students rated the most useful learning tools as case history studies (9.4) and the class debate (9.1), with the introduction of a dedicated microbiology links web page to the University website representing the sole component resulting in a statistically significant increase in students' perceptions of the importance of the course (p < 0.03).

  3. How the credit assignment problems in motor control could be solved after the cerebellum predicts increases in error

    PubMed Central

    Verduzco-Flores, Sergio O.; O'Reilly, Randall C.

    2015-01-01

    We present a cerebellar architecture with two main characteristics. The first one is that complex spikes respond to increases in sensory errors. The second one is that cerebellar modules associate particular contexts where errors have increased in the past with corrective commands that stop the increase in error. We analyze our architecture formally and computationally for the case of reaching in a 3D environment. In the case of motor control, we show that there are synergies of this architecture with the Equilibrium-Point hypothesis, leading to novel ways to solve the motor error and distal learning problems. In particular, the presence of desired equilibrium lengths for muscles provides a way to know when the error is increasing, and which corrections to apply. In the context of Threshold Control Theory and Perceptual Control Theory we show how to extend our model so it implements anticipative corrections in cascade control systems that span from muscle contractions to cognitive operations. PMID:25852535

  4. Local Dynamic Reactive Power for Correction of System Voltage Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, John D; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Fangxing; Xu, Yan; Li, Huijuan; Adhikari, Sarina; Irminger, Philip

    2008-12-01

    Distribution systems are experiencing outages due to a phenomenon known as local voltage collapse. Local voltage collapse is occurring in part because modern air conditioner compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage dip than older motors. These motors can stall in less than 3 cycles (.05s) when a fault, such as on the sub-transmission system, causes voltage to sag to 70 to 60%. The reasons for this susceptibility are discussed in the report. During the local voltage collapse, voltages are depressed for a period of perhaps one or two minutes. There is a concern that these local events are interacting together over larger areas and may present a challenge to system reliability. An effective method of preventing local voltage collapse is the use of voltage regulation from Distributed Energy Resources (DER) that can supply or absorb reactive power. DER, when properly controlled, can provide a rapid correction to voltage dips and prevent motor stall. This report discusses the phenomenon and causes of local voltage collapse as well as the control methodology we have developed to counter voltage sag. The problem is growing because of the use of low inertia, high efficiency air conditioner (A/C) compressor motors and because the use of electric A/C is growing in use and becoming a larger percentage of system load. A method for local dynamic voltage regulation is discussed which uses reactive power injection or absorption from local DER. This method is independent, rapid, and will not interfere with conventional utility system voltage control. The results of simulations of this method are provided. The method has also been tested at the ORNL s Distributed Energy Communications and Control (DECC) Laboratory using our research inverter and synchronous condenser. These systems at the DECC Lab are interconnected to an actual distribution system, the ORNL distribution system, which is fed from TVA s 161kV sub-transmission backbone. The test results

  5. Fair Package Assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahaie, Sébastien; Parkes, David C.

    We consider the problem of fair allocation in the package assignment model, where a set of indivisible items, held by single seller, must be efficiently allocated to agents with quasi-linear utilities. A fair assignment is one that is efficient and envy-free. We consider a model where bidders have superadditive valuations, meaning that items are pure complements. Our central result is that core outcomes are fair and even coalition-fair over this domain, while fair distributions may not even exist for general valuations. Of relevance to auction design, we also establish that the core is equivalent to the set of anonymous-price competitive equilibria, and that superadditive valuations are a maximal domain that guarantees the existence of anonymous-price competitive equilibrium. Our results are analogs of core equivalence results for linear prices in the standard assignment model, and for nonlinear, non-anonymous prices in the package assignment model with general valuations.

  6. Making Effective Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Alan M., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Although the focus of this issue of the "Virginia English Bulletin" is on making effective assignments, most of the articles also emphasize the importance and power of writing. Articles deal with the following topics: (1) the use of I-search (as explained by Kenneth Macrorie in "Searching Writing") as a form of research paper…

  7. 47 CFR 74.702 - Channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Booster Stations § 74.702 Channel assignments. (a) An applicant for a new low power TV or TV translator... standard VHF Channels (2 to 13 inclusive) may be assigned to a VHF low power TV or TV translator station... Channels from 14 to 69, inclusive, may be assigned to a UHF low power TV or TV translator station....

  8. 47 CFR 74.702 - Channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Booster Stations § 74.702 Channel assignments. (a) An applicant for a new low power TV or TV translator... standard VHF Channels (2 to 13 inclusive) may be assigned to a VHF low power TV or TV translator station... Channels from 14 to 69, inclusive, may be assigned to a UHF low power TV or TV translator station....

  9. 47 CFR 74.702 - Channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Booster Stations § 74.702 Channel assignments. (a) An applicant for a new low power TV or TV translator... standard VHF Channels (2 to 13 inclusive) may be assigned to a VHF low power TV or TV translator station... Channels from 14 to 69, inclusive, may be assigned to a UHF low power TV or TV translator station....

  10. 47 CFR 74.702 - Channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Booster Stations § 74.702 Channel assignments. (a) An applicant for a new low power TV or TV translator... standard VHF Channels (2 to 13 inclusive) may be assigned to a VHF low power TV or TV translator station... Channels from 14 to 69, inclusive, may be assigned to a UHF low power TV or TV translator station....

  11. 47 CFR 74.702 - Channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Booster Stations § 74.702 Channel assignments. (a) An applicant for a new low power TV or TV translator... standard VHF Channels (2 to 13 inclusive) may be assigned to a VHF low power TV or TV translator station... Channels from 14 to 69, inclusive, may be assigned to a UHF low power TV or TV translator station....

  12. Power Plays: Problems with Empowerment in a Critical Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Darren E.

    2005-01-01

    In response to a Critical Notice published in these pages by Roberts (Vol. 32/1,2001), this article notes several specific reservations with regard to Shor's model of empowerment as outlined in "When Students Have Power" (1996). The original book documents one critical educator's attempts at negotiating power in a college classroom setting. While…

  13. The Politics of Local Public Education: Some Problems With Power Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, John E.

    Four problems are identified concerning politics and power as they relate to public schooling. The first problem is the definition of basic terms and the development of a vocabulary common to researchers investigating the field. Second is the problem of collecting information on and evidence of the political process. This problem is complicated by…

  14. Assignment Choice, Effort, and Assignment Completion: Does Work Ethic Predict Those Who Choose Higher-Effort Assignments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkhurst, John T.; Fleisher, Matthew S.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Woehr, David J.; Hawthorn-Embree, Meredith L.

    2011-01-01

    After completing the Multidimensional Work-Ethic Profile (MWEP), 98 college students were given a 20-problem math computation assignment and instructed to stop working on the assignment after completing 10 problems. Next, they were allowed to choose to finish either the partially completed assignment that had 10 problems remaining or a new…

  15. Singularity problems of the power law for modeling creep compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillard, D. A.; Hiel, C.

    1985-01-01

    An explanation is offered for the extreme sensitivity that has been observed in the power law parameters of the T300/934 graphite epoxy material systems during experiments to evaluate the system's viscoelastic response. It is shown that the singularity associated with the power law can explain the sensitivity as well as the observed variability in the calculated parameters. Techniques for minimizing errors are suggested.

  16. Problems and outlooks for petrothermal power engineering ( review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, S. V.; Borodulin, V. Yu.; Gnatus, N. A.; Nizovtsev, M. I.; Smirnova, N. N.

    2016-01-01

    A review is given for the state of the art and future development of the geothermal power engineering. Different diagrams of GeoPP are shown for different levels of geofluid temperature. A special focus is made on challenges for petrothermal power production. The huge amount of heat from petrothermal resources can be harnessed through creating geothermal circulation systems within the dry rocks. Estimates for system lifetime and heat production capacity of circulation systems are given for different flow rates of coolant.

  17. High power free-electron laser concepts and problems

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, J.C.

    1995-03-01

    Free-electron lasers (FELs) have long been thought to offer the potential of high average power operation. That potential exists because of several unique properties of FELs, such as the removal of ``waste heat`` at the velocity of light, the ``laser medium`` (the electron beam) is impervious to damage by very high optical intensitites, and the technology of generating very high average power relativistic electron beams. In particular, if one can build a laser with a power extraction efficiency 11 which is driven by an electron beam of average Power P{sub EB}, one expects a laser output power of P{sub L} = {eta} P{sub EB}. One approach to FEL devices with large values of {eta} (in excess of 10 %) is to use a ``tapered`` (or nonuniform) wiggler. This approach was followed at several laboratories during the FEL development Program for the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) project. In this paper, we review some concepts and technical requirements for high-power tapered-wiggler FELs driven by radio-frequency linear accelerators (rf-linacs) which were developed during the SDI project. Contributions from three quite different technologies - rf-accelerators, optics, and magnets - are needed to construct and operate an FEL oscillator. The particular requirements on these technologies for a high-power FEL were far beyond the state of the art in those areas when the SDI project started, so significant advances had to be made before a working device could be constructed. Many of those requirements were not clearly understood when the project started, but were developed during the course of the experimental and theoretical research for the project. This information can be useful in planning future high-power FEL projects.

  18. Problem Manual for Power Processing, Part 1. Electric Machinery Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Howard B.

    This publication was developed as a portion of a two-semester sequence commencing at either the sixth or seventh term of the undergraduate program in electrical engineering at the University of Pittsburgh. The materials of the two courses, produced by a National Science Foundation grant, are concerned with power conversion systems comprising power…

  19. Solving Power Tool Problems in the School Shop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, Daniel W.

    1976-01-01

    The school shop instructor is largely responsible for the preventive maintenance of power tools. These preventive measures primarily involve proper alignment, good lubrication, a reasonable maintenance program, and good operating procedures. Suggestions for maintenance of specific equipment is provided. (Author/BP)

  20. Taming the heat flux problem: Advanced divertors towards fusion power

    SciTech Connect

    Kotschenreuther, M.; Mahajan, S.; Valanju, P. M.; Covele, B.; Waelbroeck, F. L.; Canik, John M.; LaBombard, Brian

    2015-09-11

    The next generation fusion machines are likely to face enormous heat exhaust problems. In addition to summarizing major issues and physical processes connected with these problems, we discuss how advanced divertors, obtained by modifying the local geometry, may yield workable solutions. We also point out that: (1) the initial interpretation of recent experiments show that the advantages, predicted, for instance, for the X-divertor (in particular, being able to run a detached operation at high pedestal pressure) correlate very well with observations, and (2) the X-D geometry could be implemented on ITER (and DEMOS) respecting all the relevant constraints. As a result, a roadmap for future research efforts is proposed.

  1. Development of a Microbiology Course for Diverse Majors: Longitudinal Survey of the Use of Various Active, Problem-Based Learning Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cundell, Diana R.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on the development of a series of assignments for use in a basic microbiology course involving sophomore-, junior-, and senior-level students from five different biology majors. Assignments include writing, a class debate, and case history studies. (Author/MM)

  2. Space power technology applied to the energy problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. L.; Morgan, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    A solution to the energy problem is suggested through the technology of photovoltaic electrolysis of water to generate hydrogen. Efficient solar devices are discussed in relation to available solar energy, and photovoltaic energy cost. It is concluded that photovoltaic electrolytic generation of hydrogen will be economically feasible in 1985.

  3. Electric power scheduling - A distributed problem-solving approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellor, Pamela A.; Dolce, James L.; Krupp, Joseph C.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom's power system, along with the spacecraft's other subsystems, needs to carefully conserve its resources and yet strive to maximize overall Station productivity. Due to Freedom's distributed design, each subsystem must work cooperatively within the Station community. There is a need for a scheduling tool which will preserve this distributed structure, allow each subsystem the latitude to satisfy its own constraints, and preserve individual value systems while maintaining Station-wide integrity.

  4. Electric power scheduling: A distributed problem-solving approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellor, Pamela A.; Dolce, James L.; Krupp, Joseph C.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station Freedom's power system, along with the spacecraft's other subsystems, needs to carefully conserve its resources and yet strive to maximize overall Station productivity. Due to Freedom's distributed design, each subsystem must work cooperatively within the Station community. There is a need for a scheduling tool which will preserve this distributed structure, allow each subsystem the latitude to satisfy its own constraints, and preserve individual value systems while maintaining Station-wide integrity. The value-driven free-market economic model is such a tool.

  5. Data bases for rapid response to power reactor problems

    SciTech Connect

    Maskewitz, B.F.

    1980-01-01

    The urgency of the TMI-2 incident demanded prompt answers to an imperious situation. In responding to these challenging circumstances, both government and industry recognized deficiencies in both availability of essential retrievable data and calculational capabilities designed to respond immediately to actual abnormal events. Each responded by initiating new programs to provide a remedy for the deficiencies and to generally improve all safety measures in the nuclear power industry. Many data bases and information centers offer generic data and other technology resources which are generally useful in support of nuclear safety programs. A few centers can offer rapid access to calculational methods and associated data and more will make an effort to do so. As a beneficial spin-off from the lessons learned from TMI-2, more technical effort and financial resources will be devoted to the prevention of accidents, and to improvement of safety measures in the immediate future and for long term R and D programs by both government and the nuclear power industry.

  6. PowerPlay: Training an Increasingly General Problem Solver by Continually Searching for the Simplest Still Unsolvable Problem

    PubMed Central

    Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Most of computer science focuses on automatically solving given computational problems. I focus on automatically inventing or discovering problems in a way inspired by the playful behavior of animals and humans, to train a more and more general problem solver from scratch in an unsupervised fashion. Consider the infinite set of all computable descriptions of tasks with possibly computable solutions. Given a general problem-solving architecture, at any given time, the novel algorithmic framework PowerPlay (Schmidhuber, 2011) searches the space of possible pairs of new tasks and modifications of the current problem solver, until it finds a more powerful problem solver that provably solves all previously learned tasks plus the new one, while the unmodified predecessor does not. Newly invented tasks may require to achieve a wow-effect by making previously learned skills more efficient such that they require less time and space. New skills may (partially) re-use previously learned skills. The greedy search of typical PowerPlay variants uses time-optimal program search to order candidate pairs of tasks and solver modifications by their conditional computational (time and space) complexity, given the stored experience so far. The new task and its corresponding task-solving skill are those first found and validated. This biases the search toward pairs that can be described compactly and validated quickly. The computational costs of validating new tasks need not grow with task repertoire size. Standard problem solver architectures of personal computers or neural networks tend to generalize by solving numerous tasks outside the self-invented training set; PowerPlay’s ongoing search for novelty keeps breaking the generalization abilities of its present solver. This is related to Gödel’s sequence of increasingly powerful formal theories based on adding formerly unprovable statements to the axioms without affecting previously provable theorems. The continually increasing

  7. An Examination of Problems and Solutions Related to the Chronic "Revolving Door" Alcohol Abuser. DHSS Planning Guideline #1, Task Assignment #1.11. Long-Term Support, Chronic Alcoholism and Other Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, John W.; Houden, Dorothy

    This report contains recommendations of a Wisconsin Task Assignment Steering Committee created to explore solutions to some significant problems facing adult chronic "revolving-detox-door" alcohol abusers (CRA's), persons with repeated admissions for detoxification services; and to examine the system that serves and funds them. This…

  8. Examining the Bernstein global optimization approach to optimal power flow problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Bhagyesh V.; Sampath, L. P. M. I.; Krishnan, Ashok; Ling, K. V.; Gooi, H. B.

    2016-10-01

    This work addresses a nonconvex optimal power flow problem (OPF). We introduce a `new approach' in the context of OPF problem based on the Bernstein polynomials. The applicability of the approach is studied on a real-world 3-bus power system. The numerical results obtained with this new approach for a 3-bus system reveal a satisfactory improvement in terms of optimality. The results are found to be competent with generic global optimization solvers BARON and COUENNE.

  9. Research progress of wireless power transmission technology and the related problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianliang

    2017-03-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) has been widely used in recent years, it has the advantages of high transmission efficiency, long transmission distance, and so on. Firstly, this paper introduces the application progress of transmission technology at home and abroad. Secondly, combined with the development of the current technology, this paper puts forward the basic problems of wireless power transmission technology from four aspects. Lastly, the paper summarizes and puts forward the current hot and difficult problems.

  10. Is EIA part of the wind power planning problem?

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, Duncan Ewan; Stojanovic, Timothy A. Warren, Charles R.

    2014-11-15

    This research evaluates the importance and effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) within wind farm planning debates, drawing on insights from case studies in Scotland. Despite general public support for renewable energy on the grounds that it is needed to tackle climate change and implement sustainable development, many proposed wind farms encounter significant resistance. The importance of planning issues and (EIA) processes has arguably been overlooked within recent wind farm social acceptability discourse. Through semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders and textual analysis of EIA documents, the characteristics of EIA are assessed in terms of its perceived purpose and performance. The data show that whilst respondents perceive EIA to be important, they express concerns about bias and about the inability of EIA to address climate change and wind farm decommissioning issues adequately. Furthermore, the research identifies key issues which impede the effectiveness of EIA, and reveals differences between theoretical and practical framings of EIA. The paper questions the assumption that EIA is a universally applicable tool, and argues that its effectiveness should be analysed in the context of specific development sectors. The article concludes by reviewing whether the recently amended EIA Directive (2014/52/EU) could resolve identified problems within national EIA practice. - Highlights: • Evaluation of EIA for onshore wind farm planning in Scotland. • EIA is important for multiple aspects of onshore wind farm planning. • Multiple substantive deficiencies of relevance to wind farm planning exist in EIA. • Further research into EIA effectiveness for specific development types is required. • Directive 2014/52/EU may improve EIA effectiveness within wind farm planning.

  11. The Imperative Military Need for Portable Power and the Critical Problems With Power Today

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    cadmium by rechargeable lithium ), or (2) it is considered a “use as is” technology (i.e., alkaline or lithium thionyl chloride batteries ). For...of the investment changes. For example, the non-rechargeable lithium air battery is currently “red” meaning that the investment needs to be in...vehicles, communications, sensors, and displays. The price for this technology is power and the requirement for batteries and other sources of power

  12. Mitigation of Power Quality Problems in Grid-Interactive Distributed Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhende, C. N.; Kalam, A.; Malla, S. G.

    2016-04-01

    Having an inter-tie between low/medium voltage grid and distributed generation (DG), both exposes to power quality (PQ) problems created by each other. This paper addresses various PQ problems arise due to integration of DG with grid. The major PQ problems are due to unbalanced and non-linear load connected at DG, unbalanced voltage variations on transmission line and unbalanced grid voltages which severely affect the performance of the system. To mitigate the above mentioned PQ problems, a novel integrated control of distribution static shunt compensator (DSTATCOM) is presented in this paper. DSTATCOM control helps in reducing the unbalance factor of PCC voltage. It also eliminates harmonics from line currents and makes them balanced. Moreover, DSTATCOM supplies the reactive power required by the load locally and hence, grid need not to supply the reactive power. To show the efficacy of the proposed controller, several operating conditions are considered and verified through simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  13. Assignment of job modules onto array processors

    SciTech Connect

    Fukunaga, K.; Yamada, S.; Kasai, T.

    1987-07-01

    This paper deals with the optimum assignment of job modules onto array processors. In array processors it is important to assign job modules onto processors such that the modules that communicate with each other are assigned to adjacent processors, because communication overhead increases as communications occur between processors that are remotely connected. The authors propose an efficient algorithm to solve this assignment problem for a specific array of processors. The algorithm reduces the quadratic problem to a solvable linear problem that produces a good, but not necessarily optimal solution. This is followed by a phase of iterations in which the solution is improved by small perturbation of the assignment.

  14. 47 CFR 74.802 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.802 Section 74.802... Frequency assignment. (a) Frequencies within the following bands may be assigned for use by low power... MHz. All zones 113 km (70 miles) (c) Specific frequency operation is required when operating...

  15. 47 CFR 74.802 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.802 Section 74.802... Frequency assignment. (a) Frequencies within the following bands may be assigned for use by low power... MHz. All zones 113 km (70 miles) (c) Specific frequency operation is required when operating...

  16. 47 CFR 74.802 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.802 Section 74.802... Frequency assignment. (a) Frequencies within the following bands may be assigned for use by low power... MHz. All zones 113 km (70 miles) (c) Specific frequency operation is required when operating...

  17. 47 CFR 74.802 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.802 Section 74.802... Frequency assignment. (a) Frequencies within the following bands may be assigned for use by low power... MHz. All zones 113 km (70 miles) (c) Specific frequency operation is required when operating...

  18. A review of vibration problems in power station boiler feed pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    France, David

    1994-01-01

    Boiler feed pump reliability and availability is recognized as important to the overall efficiency of power generation. Vibration monitoring is often used as a part of planned maintenance. This paper reviews a number of different types of boiler feed pump vibration problems describing some methods of solution in the process. It is hoped that this review may assist both designers and users faced with similar problems.

  19. Mixed-integer programming methods for transportation and power generation problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damci Kurt, Pelin

    This dissertation conducts theoretical and computational research to solve challenging problems in application areas such as supply chain and power systems. The first part of the dissertation studies a transportation problem with market choice (TPMC) which is a variant of the classical transportation problem in which suppliers with limited capacities have a choice of which demands (markets) to satisfy. We show that TPMC is strongly NP-complete. We consider a version of the problem with a service level constraint on the maximum number of markets that can be rejected and show that if the original problem is polynomial, its cardinality-constrained version is also polynomial. We propose valid inequalities for mixed-integer cover and knapsack sets with variable upper bound constraints, which appear as substructures of TPMC and use them in a branch-and-cut algorithm to solve this problem. The second part of this dissertation studies a unit commitment (UC) problem in which the goal is to minimize the operational cost of power generators over a time period subject to physical constraints while satisfying demand. We provide several exponential classes of multi-period ramping and multi-period variable upper bound inequalities. We prove the strength of these inequalities and describe polynomial-time separation algorithms. Computational results show the effectiveness of the proposed inequalities when used as cuts in a branch-and-cut algorithm to solve the UC problem. The last part of this dissertation investigates the effects of uncertain wind power on the UC problem. A two-stage robust model and a three-stage stochastic program are compared.

  20. Solving Bilevel Programming Problems Using a Neural Network Approach and Its Application to Power System Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaakob, Shamshul Bahar; Watada, Junzo

    In this paper, a hybrid neural network approach to solve mixed integer quadratic bilevel programming problems is proposed. Bilevel programming problems arise when one optimization problem, the upper problem, is constrained by another optimization, the lower problem. The mixed integer quadratic bilevel programming problem is transformed into a double-layered neural network. The combination of a genetic algorithm (GA) and a meta-controlled Boltzmann machine (BM) enables us to formulate a hybrid neural network approach to solving bilevel programming problems. The GA is used to generate the feasible partial solutions of the upper level and to provide the parameters for the lower level. The meta-controlled BM is employed to cope with the lower level problem. The lower level solution is transmitted to the upper level. This procedure enables us to obtain the whole upper level solution. The iterative processes can converge on the complete solution of this problem to generate an optimal one. The proposed method leads the mixed integer quadratic bilevel programming problem to a global optimal solution. Finally, a numerical example is used to illustrate the application of the method in a power system environment, which shows that the algorithm is feasible and advantageous.

  1. Nuclear power supplies: their potential and the practical problems to their achievement for space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Colston, B.W.; Brehm, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The anticipated growth of the space station power requirement provides a good example of the problem the space nuclear power supply developers have to contend with: should a reactor power supply be developed that attempts to be all things to all missions, i.e., is highly flexible in its ability to meet a wide variety of missions, or should the development of a reactor system await a specific mission definition and be customized to this mission. This leads, of course, to a chicken-and-egg situation. For power requirements of several hundreds of kilowatts or more, no nuclear power source exists or is even far enough along in the definition stage (much less the development stage) for NASA to reasonably assume probable availability within the next 10 years. The real problem of space nuclear power is this ''chicken-and-egg'' syndrome: DOE will not develop a space reactor system for NASA without a firm mission, and NASA will not specify a firm mission requiring a space reactor because such a system doesn't exist and is perceived not to be developable within the time frame of the mission. The problem is how to break this cycle. The SP-100 program has taken an important first step to breaking this cycle, but this program is much more design-specific than what is required to achieve a broad technology base and latitude in achievable power level. In contrast to the SP-100 approach, a wider perspective is required: the development of the appropriate technologies for power levels can be broken into ranges, say, from 100 kWe to 1000 kWe, and from 1000 kWe to 10,000 kWe.

  2. RAD genotyping reveals fine-scale genetic structuring and provides powerful population assignment in a widely distributed marine species, the American lobster (Homarus americanus).

    PubMed

    Benestan, Laura; Gosselin, Thierry; Perrier, Charles; Sainte-Marie, Bernard; Rochette, Rémy; Bernatchez, Louis

    2015-07-01

    Deciphering genetic structure and inferring connectivity in marine species have been challenging due to weak genetic differentiation and limited resolution offered by traditional genotypic methods. The main goal of this study was to assess how a population genomics framework could help delineate the genetic structure of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) throughout much of the species' range and increase the assignment success of individuals to their location of origin. We genotyped 10 156 filtered SNPs using RAD sequencing to delineate genetic structure and perform population assignment for 586 American lobsters collected in 17 locations distributed across a large portion of the species' natural distribution range. Our results revealed the existence of a hierarchical genetic structure, first separating lobsters from the northern and southern part of the range (FCT  = 0.0011; P-value = 0.0002) and then revealing a total of 11 genetically distinguishable populations (mean FST  = 0.00185; CI: 0.0007-0.0021, P-value < 0.0002), providing strong evidence for weak, albeit fine-scale population structuring within each region. A resampling procedure showed that assignment success was highest with a subset of 3000 SNPs having the highest FST . Applying Anderson's (Molecular Ecology Resources, 2010, 10, 701) method to avoid 'high-grading bias', 94.2% and 80.8% of individuals were correctly assigned to their region and location of origin, respectively. Lastly, we showed that assignment success was positively associated with sample size. These results demonstrate that using a large number of SNPs improves fine-scale population structure delineation and population assignment success in a context of weak genetic structure. We discuss the implications of these findings for the conservation and management of highly connected marine species, particularly regarding the geographic scale of demographic independence.

  3. 47 CFR 90.267 - Assignment and use of frequencies in the 450-470 MHz band for low power use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for low power use. (a) The following frequencies between 450-470 MHz are designated for low-power use... as “low power frequencies.” Pairs are shown but single frequencies are available for simplex... operation on Group A1 frequencies is as follows: Operation Low side of frequency pair (watts) High side...

  4. 47 CFR 90.267 - Assignment and use of frequencies in the 450-470 MHz band for low power use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for low power use. (a) The following frequencies between 450-470 MHz are designated for low-power use... as “low power frequencies.” Pairs are shown but single frequencies are available for simplex... operation on Group A1 frequencies is as follows: Operation Low side of frequency pair (watts) High side...

  5. 47 CFR 90.267 - Assignment and use of frequencies in the 450-470 MHz band for low power use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for low power use. (a) The following frequencies between 450-470 MHz are designated for low-power use... as “low power frequencies.” Pairs are shown but single frequencies are available for simplex... operation on Group A1 frequencies is as follows: Operation Low side of frequency pair (watts) High side...

  6. Problems of standardizing and technical regulation in the electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabchak, E. P.

    2016-12-01

    A mandatory condition to ensure normal operation of a power system and efficiency in the sector is standardization and legal regulation of technological activities of electric power engineering entities and consumers. Compared to the times of USSR, the present-time technical guidance documents are not mandatory to follow in most cases, being of an advisory nature due to the lack of new ones. During the last five years, the industry has been showing a deterioration of the situation in terms of ensuring reliability and engineering controllability as a result of the dominant impact of short-term market stimuli and the differences in basic technological policies. In absence of clear requirements regarding the engineering aspects of such activities, production operation does not contribute to the preserving of technical integrity of the Russian power system, which leads to the loss of performance capability and controllability and causes disturbances in the power supply to consumers. The result of this problem is a high rate of accident incidence. The dynamics of accidents by the type of equipment is given, indicating a persisting trend of growth in the number of accidents, which are of a systematic nature. Several problematic aspects of engineering activities of electric power engineering entities, requiring standardization and legal regulation are pointed out: in the domestic power system, a large number of power electrotechnical and generating equipment operate along with systems of regulation, which do not comply with the principles and technical rules representing a framework where the Energy System of Russia is built and functioning

  7. Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product distribution theory is a new collective intelligence-based framework for analyzing and controlling distributed systems. Its usefulness in distributed stochastic optimization is illustrated here through an airline fleet assignment problem. This problem involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of linear and non-linear constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of this new stochastic optimization algorithm to a non-linear objective cold start fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly-constrained problems (130 variables, 184 constraints).

  8. Comparing Looping Teacher-Assigned and Traditional Teacher-Assigned Student Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Melissa C.

    2014-01-01

    A problem in many elementary schools is determining which teacher assignment strategy best promotes the academic progress of students. To find and implement educational practices that address the academic needs of all learners, schools need research-based data focusing on the 2 teacher assignment strategies: looping assignment (LA) and traditional…

  9. Properties of the FDTD method relevant to the analysis of microwave power problems.

    PubMed

    Celuch, Małgorzata; Gwarek, Wojciech K

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to provide a systematic consideration and generalization of properties and features of the FDTD method in the context of its use in solving microwave power problems. This is aimed at filling the gap between the general theory of the FDTD method and the specific practice of its applications by microwave power engineers. The paper starts with a comparison of FDTD to other methods like FEM, from the perspective of microwave power simulations. It then discusses FDTD-specific models of lossy and dispersive media, conformal boundaries, field singularities, and modal excitation as well as error bounds due to numerical dispersion. Theoretical overview is illustrated with examples. References are provided to the literature where more details and application notes can be found.

  10. Nova-Scotia Power's Point Aconi plant overcomes CFB design problems to become rock of reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2006-09-15

    Point Aconi's circulating fluidized-bed boiler experienced erosion, corrosion, and fouling problems from the day it went on-line in 1993. After several frustrating years of unreliable operation, in late 1999, Nova Scotia Power discovered the right combination of engineering and fuel modifications. Today, after a switch to 80% petroleum coke and major boiler modifications, Point Aconi's output exceeds its original nameplate rating. For having the vision and fortitude to plan and execute a multi year, $20 million project to revitalize North America's first in-service utility CFB boiler, Nova Scotia Power's Point Aconi plant is the well-deserved winner of POWER magazine's 2006 Marmaduke Award for excellence in O & M. The award is named for Marmaduke Surfaceblow, the fictional marine engineer/plant troubleshooter par excellence. 10 figs. 1 tab.

  11. Nuclear power supplies: Their potential and the practical problems to their achievement for space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colston, B. W.

    1986-01-01

    Various issues associated with getting technology development of nuclear power systems moving at a pace which will support the anticipated need for such systems in later years is discussed. The projected power needs of such advanced space elements as growth space stations and lunar and planetary vehicles and bases are addressed briefly, and the relevance of nuclear power systems is discussed. A brief history and status of the U.S. nuclear reactor systems is provided, and some of the problems (real and/or perceived) are dealt with briefly. Key areas on which development attention should be focused in the near future are identified, and a suggested approach is recommended to help accelerate the process.

  12. Using powerful vibrators for calibration of seismic traces in nuclear explosion monitoring problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glinsky, B.; Kovalevsky, V.; Seleznev, V.; Emanov, A.; Soloviev, V.

    2009-04-01

    The efficiency of functioning of the International Seismic Monitoring System (ISMS) is connected with the accuracy of the location and identification of a source of seismic waves which can be nuclear explosion. The errors in the determination of the location are caused by local and regional variations of wave hodographs. Empirical approach to solving these problems is to use events for which the locations and times are known, in order to determine a set of corrections to the regional model of wave propagation. The using of powerful vibrators for calibration of seismic traces is a new way in nuclear explosion monitoring problems. Now the 60-100 tons force vibrator can radiate the signals which can be recorded at the distances up to 500 km and can be used for regional calibration of seismic traces. The comparison of the seismic wave fields of powerful vibrators and 100-ton chemical explosion "Omega-3" at the 630-km profile, quarry explosions of the Kuznetsk basin with power from 50 to 700 tons at the distances up to 355 km showed their equivalence in the main types of waves. The paper presents the results of experiments of long-distance recording of seismic signals of powerful vibrators and detailed investigation of the velocity characteristics of the Earth's crust in West Siberia and Altay-Sayan region.

  13. Using powerful vibrators for calibration of seismic traces in nuclear explosion monitoring problems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glinsky, B.; Kovalevsky, V.; Seleznev, V.; Emanov, A.; Soloviev, V.

    2009-04-01

    The efficiency of functioning of the International Seismic Monitoring System (ISMS) is connected with the accuracy of the location and identification of a source of seismic waves which can be nuclear explosion. The errors in the determination of the location are caused by local and regional variations of wave hodographs. Empirical approach to solving these problems is to use events for which the locations and times are known, in order to determine a set of corrections to the regional model of wave propagation. The using of powerful vibrators for calibration of seismic traces is a new way in nuclear explosion monitoring problems. Now the 60-100 tons force vibrator can radiate the signals which can be recorded at the distances up to 500 km and can be used for regional calibration of seismic traces. The comparison of the seismic wave fields of powerful vibrators and 100-ton chemical explosion "Omega-3" at the 630-km profile, quarry explosions of the Kuznetsk basin with power from 50 to 700 tons at the distances up to 355 km showed their equivalence in the main types of waves. The paper presents the results of experiments of long-distance recording of seismic signals of powerful vibrators and detailed investigation of the velocity characteristics of the Earth's crust in West Siberia and Altay-Sayan region.

  14. Efficiency Improvements in Meta-Heuristic Algorithms to Solve the Optimal Power Flow Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, S. Surender; Bijwe, P. R.

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes the efficient approaches for solving the Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem using the meta-heuristic algorithms. Mathematically, OPF is formulated as non-linear equality and inequality constrained optimization problem. The main drawback of meta-heuristic algorithm based OPF is the excessive execution time required due to the large number of power flows needed in the solution process. The proposed efficient approaches uses the lower and upper bounds of objective function values. By using this approach, the number of power flows to be performed are reduced substantially, resulting in the solution speed up. The efficiently generated objective function bounds can result in the faster solutions of meta-heuristic algorithms. The original advantages of meta-heuristic algorithms, such as ability to handle complex non-linearities, discontinuities in the objective function, discrete variables handling, and multi-objective optimization, etc., are still available in the proposed efficient approaches. The proposed OPF formulation includes the active and reactive power generation limits, Valve Point Loading (VPL) and Prohibited Operating Zones (POZs) effects of generating units. The effectiveness of proposed approach is examined on IEEE 30, 118 and 300 bus test systems, and the simulation results confirm the efficiency and superiority of the proposed approaches over the other meta-heuristic algorithms. The proposed efficient approach is generic enough to use with any type of meta-heuristic algorithm based OPF.

  15. CAPA-An integrated computer-assisted personalized assignment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashy, E.; Sherrill, B. M.; Tsai, Y.; Thaler, D.; Weinshank, D.; Engelmann, M.; Morrissey, D. J.

    1993-12-01

    A new integrated computer-assisted personalized assignment (CAPA) system that creates individual assignments for each student has been developed and found to be a powerful motivator. The CAPA system allows students to enter their answers to personalized assignments directly via networked terminals, gives immediate feedback and hints (allowing challenging questions), while providing the instructor with on-line performance information. The students are encouraged to study together which is known to be an effective learning strategy, but each must still obtain his/her own correct answers. Students are allowed to re-enter solutions to the problems before the due date without penalty, thus providing students with different skills levels the opportunity and incentive to understand the material without being judged during the learning process. The features and operation of the system are described, observations on its use in an introductory general physics class are reported, and some of the highly favorable student reactions are included.

  16. Trends and problems in development of the power plants electrical part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Yu. P.

    2015-03-01

    The article discusses some problems relating to development of the electrical part of modern nuclear and thermal power plants, which are stemming from the use of new process and electrical equipment, such as gas turbine units, power converters, and intellectual microprocessor devices in relay protection and automated control systems. It is pointed out that the failure rates of electrical equipment at Russian and foreign power plants tend to increase. The ongoing power plant technical refitting and innovative development processes generate the need to significantly widen the scope of research works on the electrical part of power plants and rendering scientific support to works on putting in use innovative equipment. It is indicated that one of main factors causing the growth of electrical equipment failures is that some of components of this equipment have insufficiently compatible dynamic characteristics. This, in turn may be due to lack or obsolescence of regulatory documents specifying the requirements for design solutions and operation of electric power equipment that incorporates electronic and microprocessor control and protection devices. It is proposed to restore the system of developing new and updating existing departmental regulatory technical documents that existed in the 1970s, one of the fundamental principles of which was placing long-term responsibility on higher schools and leading design institutions for rendering scientific-technical support to innovative development of components and systems forming the electrical part of power plants. This will make it possible to achieve lower failure rates of electrical equipment and to steadily improve the competitiveness of the Russian electric power industry and energy efficiency of generating companies.

  17. Environmental Problems Associated With Decommissioning The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E. B.; Jannik, G. T.; Marra, J. C.; Oskolkov, B. Ya.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gaschak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.

    2009-11-09

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH DECOMMISSIONING THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.

    2009-09-30

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities has been an imperative issue lately. There exist significant experience and generally accepted recommendations on remediation of lands with residual radioactive contamination; however, there are hardly any such recommendations on remediation of cooling ponds that, in most cases, are fairly large water reservoirs. The literature only describes remediation of minor reservoirs containing radioactive silt (a complete closure followed by preservation) or small water reservoirs resulting in reestablishing natural water flows. Problems associated with remediation of river reservoirs resulting in flooding of vast agricultural areas also have been described. In addition, the severity of environmental and economic problems related to the remedial activities is shown to exceed any potential benefits of these activities. One of the large, highly contaminated water reservoirs that require either remediation or closure is Karachay Lake near the MAYAK Production Association in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia where liquid radioactive waste had been deep well injected for a long period of time. Backfilling of Karachay Lake is currently in progress. It should be noted that secondary environmental problems associated with its closure are considered to be of less importance since sustaining Karachay Lake would have presented a much higher radiological risk. Another well-known highly contaminated water reservoir is the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond, decommissioning of which is planned for the near future. This study summarizes the environmental problems associated with the ChNPP Cooling Pond decommissioning.

  19. 47 CFR 90.267 - Assignment and use of frequencies in the 450-470 MHz band for low power use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... operation determine whether a station is within an “80 km circle.” (i) The maximum ERP for low power... ERP for low power operation on these frequencies is as follows: Operation Low side of frequency pair.... (2) Operation on these frequencies is limited to 6 watts ERP for base, mobile or operational...

  20. 47 CFR 90.267 - Assignment and use of frequencies in the 450-470 MHz band for low power use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... operation determine whether a station is within an “80 km circle.” (i) The maximum ERP for low power... ERP for low power operation on these frequencies is as follows: Operation Low side of frequency pair.... (2) Operation on these frequencies is limited to 6 watts ERP for base, mobile or operational...

  1. Efficient Credit Assignment through Evaluation Function Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agogino, Adrian; Turner, Kagan; Mikkulainen, Risto

    2005-01-01

    Evolutionary methods are powerful tools in discovering solutions for difficult continuous tasks. When such a solution is encoded over multiple genes, a genetic algorithm faces the difficult credit assignment problem of evaluating how a single gene in a chromosome contributes to the full solution. Typically a single evaluation function is used for the entire chromosome, implicitly giving each gene in the chromosome the same evaluation. This method is inefficient because a gene will get credit for the contribution of all the other genes as well. Accurately measuring the fitness of individual genes in such a large search space requires many trials. This paper instead proposes turning this single complex search problem into a multi-agent search problem, where each agent has the simpler task of discovering a suitable gene. Gene-specific evaluation functions can then be created that have better theoretical properties than a single evaluation function over all genes. This method is tested in the difficult double-pole balancing problem, showing that agents using gene-specific evaluation functions can create a successful control policy in 20 percent fewer trials than the best existing genetic algorithms. The method is extended to more distributed problems, achieving 95 percent performance gains over tradition methods in the multi-rover domain.

  2. Source selection problem of competitive power plants under government intervention: a game theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudi, Reza; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan; Makui, Ahmad

    2014-06-01

    Pollution and environmental protection in the present century are extremely significant global problems. Power plants as the largest pollution emitting industry have been the cause of a great deal of scientific researches. The fuel or source type used to generate electricity by the power plants plays an important role in the amount of pollution produced. Governments should take visible actions to promote green fuel. These actions are often called the governmental financial interventions that include legislations such as green subsidiaries and taxes. In this paper, by considering the government role in the competition of two power plants, we propose a game theoretical model that will help the government to determine the optimal taxes and subsidies. The numerical examples demonstrate how government could intervene in a competitive market of electricity to achieve the environmental objectives and how power plants maximize their utilities in each energy source. The results also reveal that the government's taxes and subsidiaries effectively influence the selected fuel types of power plants in the competitive market.

  3. Limit order placement as an utility maximization problem and the origin of power law distribution of limit order prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo, F.

    2007-02-01

    I consider the problem of the optimal limit order price of a financial asset in the framework of the maximization of the utility function of the investor. The analytical solution of the problem gives insight on the origin of the recently empirically observed power law distribution of limit order prices. In the framework of the model, the most likely proximate cause of this power law is a power law heterogeneity of traders' investment time horizons.

  4. Behavior of 1 Ω resistors at frequencies below 1 Hz and the problem of assigning a dc value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Nick; Götz, Martin; Rolland, Benjamin; Pesel, Eckart

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a systematic study of the effects of reversals of current polarity on 1 Ω standard resistors. A selection of 1 Ω standards were measured on a dc cryogenic current comparator bridge and also on an ac current comparator bridge operating at 1 Hz. We find that the apparent 4 terminal resistance depends strongly on the dc reversal rate, in one case showing a variation of more than 0.1 μΩ/Ω for cycle times between 10 s and 1000 s. Even in the best cases, effects of at least 0.01 μΩ/Ω are present. Furthermore, the assumption that the apparent resistance value converges to a limiting value for long waiting times after reversal is not always upheld, making it difficult to quote a simple dc value. Existing models of Peltier heating at wire junctions do not completely explain our observations. The problems presented have been the limiting factor for 1 Ω measurements as part of a recent on-site comparison of quantum Hall effect resistance standards.

  5. Power sector privatization in developing countries: Will it solve all problems?

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    The wave of economic deregulation and privatization has been sweeping the world for quite some time. The energy sector is also touched by this wave, and there is a sort of competition among developing countries to move fast in order not to miss the train. The power subsector is a major area within the energy sector that is growing fast in the third world and is facing such problems as poor performance and high investment demand for capacity addition that is beyond the capability of the utility. Thus, the power subsector is a target for deregulation and privatization in many countries. However, in many cases the objectives of these programs are too narrow and are designed only to attract private investment. They argue that the problems faced by the power sector are diverse, and privatization and deregulation cannot solve all of them, though the financial burden of the utilities may be eased. At the same time, new institutional and regulatory issues will surface. The authors also argue that the privatization program may lead to neglect of long-term planning of the electricity sector and endanger the energy security of these countries. Finally, they argue for a harmonious cohabitation of private and public utilities in a changed environment where each will play a role.

  6. Replicating and Extending Research on the Partial Assignment Completion Effect: Is Sunk Cost Related to Partial Assignment Completion Strength?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawthorn-Embree, Meredith L.; Taylor, Emily P.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Parkhurst, John; Nalls, Meagan L.

    2014-01-01

    After students acquire a skill, mastery often requires them to choose to engage in assigned academic activities (e.g., independent seatwork, and homework). Although students may be more likely to choose to work on partially completed assignments than on new assignments, the partial assignment completion (PAC) effect may not be very powerful. The…

  7. Optimization of Rated Officer Staff Assignments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    determinant +1, -1 or 0, which holds for the assignment problem ( Bazaraa et al., 1990). The Unimodularity Theorem states for an integer matrix A with...Prentice-Hall, 1993. 2. Air Force Instruction 36-2110, Assignments, 20 April 2005. 3. Bazaraa , Mokhtar S., Jarvis, John J. and Sherali, Hanif D

  8. Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Airline fleet assignment involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of an agent-based integer optimization algorithm to a "cold start" fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly- constrained problems (129 variables, 184 constraints).

  9. Problems in creation of modern air inlet filters of power gas turbine plants in Russia and methods of their solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhaylov, V. E.; Khomenok, L. A.; Sherapov, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    The main problems in creation and operation of modern air inlet paths of gas turbine plants installed as part of combined-cycle plants in Russia are presented. It is noted that design features of air inlet filters shall be formed at the stage of the technical assignment not only considering the requirements of gas turbine plant manufacturer but also climatic conditions, local atmospheric air dustiness, and a number of other factors. The recommendations on completing of filtration system for air inlet filter of power gas turbine plants depending on the facility location are given, specific defects in design and experience in operation of imported air inlet paths are analyzed, and influence of cycle air preparation quality for gas turbine plant on value of operating expenses and cost of repair works is noted. Air treatment equipment of various manufacturers, influence of aerodynamic characteristics on operation of air inlet filters, features of filtration system operation, anti-icing system, weather canopies, and other elements of air inlet paths are considered. It is shown that nonuniformity of air flow velocity fields in clean air chamber has a negative effect on capacity and aerodynamic resistance of air inlet filter. Besides, the necessity in installation of a sufficient number of differential pressure transmitters allowing controlling state of each treatment stage not being limited to one measurement of total differential pressure in the filtration system is noted in the article. According to the results of the analysis trends and methods for modernization of available equipment for air inlet path, the importance of creation and implementation of new technologies for manufacturing of filtering elements on sites of Russia within the limits of import substitution are given, and measures on reliability improvement and energy efficiency for air inlet filter are considered.

  10. The Failed Writing Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swyt, Wendy

    1995-01-01

    Discusses an unsuccessful English 101 writing assignment in which students were asked to analyze a Gary Larson cartoon. Examines critically the type of assignment that seeks to address and incorporate the student writer's "local knowledge" of cultural texts, while at the same time containing what counts as knowledge within limited parameters of…

  11. Peak-to-average power ratio mitigation and adaptive bit assignment in single-carrier frequency division multiplexing access via hierarchical modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lijia; Liu, Bo; Xin, Xiangjun; Wang, Yongjun

    2014-11-01

    A hierarchical modulation with multilevels is proposed for an optical single-carrier frequency division multiplexing access (SC-FDMA) system. It can mitigate the nonlinearity by reducing the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the SC-FDM signal. According to different optical signal-to-noise ratio requirements, the adaptive bit allocation can be implemented on different levels during hierarchical modulation. In the experiment, the PAPR of the hierarchical-modulated SC-FDM signal outperforms the conventional SC-FDM signal by 0.7 dB. Signals with 4- and 6-bit hierarchical modulation are successfully demodulated by the optical network unit with power penalties less than 0.2 and 0.45 dB, respectively.

  12. Solving Man-Induced Large-Scale Conservation Problems: The Spanish Imperial Eagle and Power Lines

    PubMed Central

    López-López, Pascual; Ferrer, Miguel; Madero, Agustín; Casado, Eva; McGrady, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Man-induced mortality of birds caused by electrocution with poorly-designed pylons and power lines has been reported to be an important mortality factor that could become a major cause of population decline of one of the world rarest raptors, the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti). Consequently it has resulted in an increasing awareness of this problem amongst land managers and the public at large, as well as increased research into the distribution of electrocution events and likely mitigation measures. Methodology/Principal Findings We provide information of how mitigation measures implemented on a regional level under the conservation program of the Spanish imperial eagle have resulted in a positive shift of demographic trends in Spain. A 35 years temporal data set (1974–2009) on mortality of Spanish imperial eagle was recorded, including population censuses, and data on electrocution and non-electrocution of birds. Additional information was obtained from 32 radio-tracked young eagles and specific field surveys. Data were divided into two periods, before and after the approval of a regional regulation of power line design in 1990 which established mandatory rules aimed at minimizing or eliminating the negative impacts of power lines facilities on avian populations. Our results show how population size and the average annual percentage of population change have increased between the two periods, whereas the number of electrocuted birds has been reduced in spite of the continuous growing of the wiring network. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that solving bird electrocution is an affordable problem if political interest is shown and financial investment is made. The combination of an adequate spatial planning with a sustainable development of human infrastructures will contribute positively to the conservation of the Spanish imperial eagle and may underpin population growth and range expansion, with positive side effects on other endangered

  13. Cubic Icosahedra? A Problem in Assigning Symmetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, D. R.

    2010-01-01

    There is a standard convention that the icosahedral groups are classified separately from the cubic groups, but these two symmetry types have been conflated as "cubic" in some chemistry textbooks. In this note, the connection between cubic and icosahedral symmetries is examined, using a simple pictorial model. It is shown that octahedral and…

  14. Optimal processor assignment for pipeline computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.; Simha, Rahul; Choudhury, Alok N.; Narahari, Bhagirath

    1991-01-01

    The availability of large scale multitasked parallel architectures introduces the following processor assignment problem for pipelined computations. Given a set of tasks and their precedence constraints, along with their experimentally determined individual responses times for different processor sizes, find an assignment of processor to tasks. Two objectives are of interest: minimal response given a throughput requirement, and maximal throughput given a response time requirement. These assignment problems differ considerably from the classical mapping problem in which several tasks share a processor; instead, it is assumed that a large number of processors are to be assigned to a relatively small number of tasks. Efficient assignment algorithms were developed for different classes of task structures. For a p processor system and a series parallel precedence graph with n constituent tasks, an O(np2) algorithm is provided that finds the optimal assignment for the response time optimization problem; it was found that the assignment optimizing the constrained throughput in O(np2log p) time. Special cases of linear, independent, and tree graphs are also considered.

  15. Using Computer-Assisted Personalized Assignments for Freshman Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, D. J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes the Computer-Assisted Personalized Assignment (CAPA) system which offers a way to apply computers to assist instructors and students in the framework of lectures and assigned problem sets without students being forced to use the computer system. (DDR)

  16. Powered swing-by in the elliptic restricted three-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraz da Silva, Alessandra; Winter, Othon; Prado, Antonio

    When a spacecraft passes close to a celestial body and uses the gravity of this body to change its orbit, we have a phenomenon that is called Swing-by maneuver. When this maneuver is made combined with the activation of a thruster to apply an impulse at the spacecraft, it is called powered Swing-By. This maneuver results in a significant fuel savings in space mission. The objective of the present paper is to study the powered Swing-By in the elliptic restricted three body problem. The system is assumed to be formed by two massive bodies, called primaries, in elliptical orbits around their center of mass and a third body with negligible mass, which makes a Swing-by with M _{2}. At the present work we verify the behavior of the spacecraft (velocity, energy and angular momentum) depending on the parameters related to the Swing-By, the impulse and the fact that the orbit between M _{1} and M _{2} is elliptical. Those parameters are: velocity of approach of the spacecraft to M _{2} (V _{inf}); radius of the periapsis (r _{p}), the shortest distance between M _{2} and M _{3}; the approach angle (psi), the angle that connects the lines of the primaries and the line of the periapsis, alpha; the angle that defines the direction of the impulse; the magnitude of the impulse (deltaV); the eccentricity (e) and the true anomaly (nu) of the orbit of M _{2} relative to M _{1}. The algorithm developed calculates the change in energy for the powered Swing-By that has an impulse applied exactly at the periapsis of the orbit (shortest distance between M _{2} and M _{3}) with the direction of the impulse (alpha) varying. With this study it is possible to see the best geometry to make the powered Swing-By. The results show that the best way to apply the thrust, with the objective of maximizing the energy, is not in the tangential direction of the orbit and that there is a significant influence of the eccentricity and true anomaly of the orbit of the secondary body around the primary

  17. The JKR-type adhesive contact problems for power-law shaped axisymmetric punches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodich, Feodor M.; Galanov, Boris A.; Suarez-Alvarez, Maria M.

    2014-08-01

    The JKR (Johnson, Kendall, and Roberts) and Boussinesq-Kendall models describe adhesive frictionless contact between two isotropic elastic spheres, and between a flat-ended axisymmetric punch and an elastic half-space respectively. However, the shapes of contacting solids may be more general than spherical or flat ones. In addition, the derivation of the main formulae of these models is based on the assumption that the material points within the contact region can move along the punch surface without any friction. However, it is more natural to assume that a material point that came to contact with the punch sticks to its surface, i.e. to assume that the non-slipping boundary conditions are valid. It is shown that the frictionless JKR model may be generalized to arbitrary convex, blunt axisymmetric body, in particular to the case of the punch shape being described by monomial (power-law) punches of an arbitrary degree d≥1. The JKR and Boussinesq-Kendall models are particular cases of the problems for monomial punches, when the degree of the punch d is equal to two or it goes to infinity respectively. The generalized problems for monomial punches are studied under both frictionless and non-slipping (or no-slip) boundary conditions. It is shown that regardless of the boundary conditions, the solution to the problems is reduced to the same dimensionless relations among the actual force, displacements and contact radius. The explicit expressions are derived for the values of the pull-off force and for the corresponding critical contact radius. Connections of the results obtained for problems of nanoindentation in the case of the indenter shape near the tip has some deviation from its nominal shape and the shape function can be approximated by a monomial function of radius, are discussed.

  18. My Favorite Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Robert E.; Johnson, Jack E.

    1982-01-01

    Presents two assignments that show (1) how George Orwell's "Politics and the English Language" can be applied to business writing and (2) how structured student-teacher conferences can generate enthusiasm for oral expression in a business communication course. (AEA)

  19. Worldwide assessment of steam-generator problems in pressurized-water-reactor nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, H.H.; Lu, S.C.

    1981-09-15

    Objective is to assess the reliability of steam generators of pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants in the United States and abroad. The assessment is based on operation experience of both domestic and foreign PWR plants. The approach taken is to collect and review papers and reports available from the literature as well as information obtained by contacting research institutes both here and abroad. This report presents the results of the assessment. It contains a general background of PWR plant operations, plant types, and materials used in PWR plants. A review of the worldwide distribution of PWR plants is also given. The report describes in detail the degradation problems discovered in PWR steam generators: their causes, their impacts on the performance of steam generators, and the actions to mitigate and avoid them. One chapter is devoted to operating experience of PWR steam generators in foreign countries. Another discusses the improvements in future steam generator design.

  20. The medium nuclear powers and nuclear stability: The Nth Country Problem revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, W.

    1992-01-01

    The theme of this thesis is about what is the impact of the three medium nuclear powers (Britain, France, and China) on nuclear stability. The purpose of studying this issue is to go beyond the thinking of the bipolar nuclear deterrence and to gain a better understanding of the meaning of a future multilateral nuclear world. Two different but complementary approaches -- structural realist and liberal institutionalist -- are used to interpret: (a) what are the structural reasons of the MNPs' nuclear behavior in the international system; and (b) what is the learning effect on their nuclear behavior. By examining the three countries' role in three aspects of nuclear stability (crisis stability, arms race stability, and nuclear nonproliferation), this thesis concludes that they are generally stabilizing to the international nuclear system, and rejects the relevance of the destabilizing propositions of the [open quotes]Nth Country Problem[close quotes] to the issue of the MNPs and nuclear stability.

  1. 42 CFR 433.146 - Rights assigned; assignment method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights assigned; assignment method. 433.146 Section 433.146 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Assignment of Rights to Benefits § 433.146 Rights assigned; assignment method. (a) Except as specified...

  2. Generalised Assignment Matrix Methodology in Linear Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerome, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Discrete Mathematics instructors and students have long been struggling with various labelling and scanning algorithms for solving many important problems. This paper shows how to solve a wide variety of Discrete Mathematics and OR problems using assignment matrices and linear programming, specifically using Excel Solvers although the same…

  3. Model Refinement Using Eigensystem Assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.

    2000-01-01

    IA novel approach for the refinement of finite-element-based analytical models of flexible structures is presented. The proposed approach models the possible refinements in the mass, damping, and stiffness matrices of the finite element model in the form of a constant gain feedback with acceleration, velocity, and displacement measurements, respectively. Once the free elements of the structural matrices have been defined, the problem of model refinement reduces to obtaining position, velocity, and acceleration gain matrices with appropriate sparsity that reassign a desired subset of the eigenvalues of the model, along with partial mode shapes, from their baseline values to those obtained from system identification test data. A sequential procedure is used to assign one conjugate pair of eigenvalues at each step using symmetric output feedback gain matrices, and the eigenvectors are partially assigned, while ensuring that the eigenvalues assigned in the previous steps are not disturbed. The procedure can also impose that gain matrices be dissipative to guarantee the stability of the refined model. A numerical example, involving finite element model refinement for a structural testbed at NASA Langley Research Center (Controls-Structures-Interaction Evolutionary model) is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  4. Learning through Writing: Teaching Critical Thinking Skills in Writing Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavdar, Gamze; Doe, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Traditional writing assignments often fall short in addressing problems in college students' writing as too often these assignments fail to help students develop critical thinking skills and comprehension of course content. This article reports the use of a two-part (staged) writing assignment with postscript as a strategy for improving critical…

  5. Taking power, politics, and policy problems seriously: the limits of knowledge translation for urban health research.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kelly; Fafard, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a growing movement in clinical and health services research, aimed to help make research more relevant and to move research into practice and policy. This paper examines the conventional model of policy change presented in KT and assesses its applicability for increasing the impact of urban health research on urban health policy. In general, KT conceptualizes research utilization in terms of the technical implementation of scientific findings, on the part of individual decision-makers who can be "targeted" for a KT intervention, in a context that is absent of political interests. However, complex urban health problems and interventions infrequently resemble this single decision, single decision-maker model posited by KT. In order to clarify the conditions under which urban health research is more likely or not to have an influence on public policy development, we propose to supplement the conventional model with three concepts drawn from the social science: policy stages, policy networks, and a discourse analysis approach for theorizing power in policy-making.

  6. An analysis of problems arising during operation of the perm district power plant 800-MW power unit at sliding pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrutsky, G. D.; Zakharov, A. E.; Sargsyan, V. A.; Frolov, M. S.; Schwartz, A. L.; Adamov, A. S.

    2015-09-01

    The occurrence of cracks at locations in which bottoms are welded to the high-pressure heaters' headers was revealed during planned repairs of the Perm district power plant units. Specialists of the All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute carried out investigations aimed at obtaining more detailed data on the effect the loading cyclicity and sliding-pressure operating modes have on the reliability of power-generating equipment. Another aim of those investigations was to elaborate recommendations for achieving more reliable operation of power-generating equipment under the conditions of cyclic variation of its load. The state of the main and auxiliary equipment of the Perm district power plant units is analyzed for determining the possibility and advisability of their further operation in sliding-pressure modes. The results obtained from calculating the permissible number of load variation cycles for the headers used in the Perm district power plant units operating under the conditions of startup-shutdown modes are analyzed, and the headers' residual cyclic service life is estimated. The results obtained from a metallographic investigation of the high-pressure header's bottom in the welded joint of which a through crack was revealed are presented. Recommendations for examining the header bottoms and for modifying their design in order to improve their operational reliability are given.

  7. 18 CFR 349.7 - Assignment for oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assignment for oral hearing. 349.7 Section 349.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... FINDINGS AND PROPOSED REMEDIES § 349.7 Assignment for oral hearing. Except when there are no material...

  8. 18 CFR 349.7 - Assignment for oral hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment for oral hearing. 349.7 Section 349.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... FINDINGS AND PROPOSED REMEDIES § 349.7 Assignment for oral hearing. Except when there are no material...

  9. Simple wavelength assignment protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryaputra, Stephen; Touch, Joseph D.; Bannister, Joseph A.

    2000-10-01

    IP routers can be coupled with wavelength-selective optical cross- connects to support existing Internet infrastructure in a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical network. Because optical wavelength routing is transparent to IP, packets can bypass traditional forwarding and pass directly through the optical cross-connect, resulting in very high throughput and low delay routing. This approach shares features with label switching, but wavelengths are much more scarce resource than labels. Because optical switches have larger switching times than electronic switches, and wavelength conversions are expensive, wavelength label swapping is not easily done. Wavelength label assignments must consider these limitations to be practical in an optical environment. The performance of an instance of this approach, called Packet over Wavelengths (POW) has been simulated and studied. A new signaling protocol, Simple Wavelength Assignment Protocol (SWAP) is devised to be POW signaling protocol. SWAP takes into account the optical device limitations, and is designed to minimize wavelength conversion, utilize wavelengths with the merging of flows, and reduce the reconfiguration of optical switches. SWAP, to our knowledge, is the first approach to combine signaling and wavelength assignment in an on- line protocol. This paper describes high level SWAP design challenges, decision, and overhead.

  10. Data Movement Dominates: Advanced Memory Technology to Address the Real Exascale Power Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, Keren

    2014-08-28

    Energy is the fundamental barrier to Exascale supercomputing and is dominated by the cost of moving data from one point to another, not computation. Similarly, performance is dominated by data movement, not computation. The solution to this problem requires three critical technologies: 3D integration, optical chip-to-chip communication, and a new communication model. The central goal of the Sandia led "Data Movement Dominates" project aimed to develop memory systems and new architectures based on these technologies that have the potential to lower the cost of local memory accesses by orders of magnitude and provide substantially more bandwidth. Only through these transformational advances can future systems reach the goals of Exascale computing with a manageable power budgets. The Sandia led team included co-PIs from Columbia University, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, and the University of Maryland. The Columbia effort of Data Movement Dominates focused on developing a physically accurate simulation environment and experimental verification for optically-connected memory (OCM) systems that can enable continued performance scaling through high-bandwidth capacity, energy-efficient bit-rate transparency, and time-of-flight latency. With OCM, memory device parallelism and total capacity can scale to match future high-performance computing requirements without sacrificing data-movement efficiency. When we consider systems with integrated photonics, links to memory can be seamlessly integrated with the interconnection network-in a sense, memory becomes a primary aspect of the interconnection network. At the core of the Columbia effort, toward expanding our understanding of OCM enabled computing we have created an integrated modeling and simulation environment that uniquely integrates the physical behavior of the optical layer. The PhoenxSim suite of design and software tools developed under this effort has enabled the co-design of and performance evaluation photonics-enabled OCM

  11. Optimal Assignment Problem Applications of Finite Mathematics to Business and Economics. [and] Difference Equations with Applications. Applications of Difference Equations to Economics and Social Sciences. [and] Selected Applications of Mathematics to Finance and Investment. Applications of Elementary Algebra to Finance. [and] Force of Interest. Applications of Calculus to Finance. UMAP Units 317, 322, 381, 382.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, David; And Others

    Four units make up the contents of this document. The first examines applications of finite mathematics to business and economies. The user is expected to learn the method of optimization in optimal assignment problems. The second module presents applications of difference equations to economics and social sciences, and shows how to: 1) interpret…

  12. 47 CFR 74.802 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... locations removed from existing co-channel TV broadcast stations by not less than the following distances... within the assignable frequencies may be combined to form a channel whose maximum bandwidth shall not... safety wireless licensees in the 700 MHz band. (2) Any low power auxiliary station that operates...

  13. Some problems of burning low-grade fuels at heating and power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dakhov, A.I.; Mikhailovskii, Yu.M.

    1983-03-01

    The combustion of low-grade coal in the heat and power plants in the USSR is discussed. The use of these coals in the power industry has increased while their quality has steadily decreased, especially during the last 2-3 five-year plans. This is especially true for coals produced by open pit mining. Suggestions are given to increase the efficiency of power plant boilers burning low-grade coals.

  14. Military Personnel Assignments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-09

    of Defense, Organization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Defense Agencies," > f , February 4, 1970 (hereby canceled) (d) DoD Directive 1315.14...34DoD Components"). 2. Does not apply to service members in non-DoD activities covered by DoD Directive 1000.17 (reference ( f )). C. DEFINITIONS Terms...possible, shall be allowed to extend any assignment voluntarily beyond the prescribed tour. f . Through the grades of 0-5 for officers and E-8 for enlisted

  15. An enhanced bacterial foraging algorithm approach for optimal power flow problem including FACTS devices considering system loadability.

    PubMed

    Belwin Edward, J; Rajasekar, N; Sathiyasekar, K; Senthilnathan, N; Sarjila, R

    2013-09-01

    Obtaining optimal power flow solution is a strenuous task for any power system engineer. The inclusion of FACTS devices in the power system network adds to its complexity. The dual objective of OPF with fuel cost minimization along with FACTS device location for IEEE 30 bus is considered and solved using proposed Enhanced Bacterial Foraging algorithm (EBFA). The conventional Bacterial Foraging Algorithm (BFA) has the difficulty of optimal parameter selection. Hence, in this paper, BFA is enhanced by including Nelder-Mead (NM) algorithm for better performance. A MATLAB code for EBFA is developed and the problem of optimal power flow with inclusion of FACTS devices is solved. After several run with different initial values, it is found that the inclusion of FACTS devices such as SVC and TCSC in the network reduces the generation cost along with increased voltage stability limits. It is also observed that, the proposed algorithm requires lesser computational time compared to earlier proposed algorithms.

  16. Environmental Problems Associated with Decommissioning of Chernobyl Power Plant Cooling Pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, T. Q.; Oskolkov, B. Y.; Bondarkov, M. D.; Gashchak, S. P.; Maksymenko, A. M.; Maksymenko, V. M.; Martynenko, V. I.; Jannik, G. T.; Farfan, E. B.; Marra, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear power plants and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities associated with residual radioactive contamination is a fairly pressing issue. Significant problems may result from decommissioning of cooling ponds. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Cooling Pond is one of the largest self-contained bodies of water in the Chernobyl Region and Ukrainian Polesye with a water surface area of 22.9 km2. The major hydrological feature of the ChNPP Cooling Pond is that its water level is 6-7 m higher than the water level in the Pripyat River and water losses due to seepage and evaporation are replenished by pumping water from the Pripyat River. In 1986, the accident at the ChNPP #4 Reactor Unit significantly contaminated the ChNPP Cooling Pond. According to the 2001 data, the total radionuclide inventory in the ChNPP Cooling Pond bottom deposits was as follows: 16.28 ± 2.59 TBq for 137Cs; 2.4 ± 0.48 TBq for 90Sr, and 0.00518 ± 0.00148 TBq for 239+240Pu. Since ChNPP is being decommissioned, the ChNPP Cooling Pond of such a large size will no longer be needed and cost effective to maintain. However, shutdown of the water feed to the Pond would expose the contaminated bottom deposits and change the hydrological features of the area, destabilizing the radiological and environmental situation in the entire region in 2007 - 2008, in order to assess potential consequences of draining the ChNPP Cooling Pond, the authors conducted preliminary radio-ecological studies of its shoreline ecosystems. The radioactive contamination of the ChNPP Cooling Pond shoreline is fairly variable and ranges from 75 to 7,500 kBq/m2. Three areas with different contamination levels were selected to sample soils, vegetation, small mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptilians in order to measure their 137Cs and 90Sr content. Using the ERICA software, their dose exposures were estimated. For the 2008 conditions, the estimated dose rates were found to be as follows: amphibians - 11

  17. Pathways to assignment of payees.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Marc I; Ablondi, Karen; Black, Anne C; Serowik, Kristin L; Rowe, Michael

    2014-04-01

    How clients come to be assigned representative payees and/or conservators to manage their funds is not well understood. We compared clients assigned a payee during a clinical trial of a money management-based intervention to those not assigned payees and examined antecedents to payee assignment. One year after randomization, significantly more clients assigned to the advisor teller money manager (ATM) money management intervention were assigned payees than participants in the control condition (10 of 47 vs. 2 of 43; p = .02); those assigned payees had lower baseline GAF scores and participated more in study therapies. Several ATM clients were assigned payees after third parties paid more attention to clients' finances, and others after having negotiated storage of their funds with the ATM money manager during the study. Assignment of payees appears to be influenced by whether third parties critically attend to how clients' manage funds and by clients' receptiveness to having a payee.

  18. A design for an intelligent monitor and controller for space station electrical power using parallel distributed problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    The emphasis is on defining a set of communicating processes for intelligent spacecraft secondary power distribution and control. The computer hardware and software implementation platform for this work is that of the ADEPTS project at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). The electrical power system design which was used as the basis for this research is that of Space Station Freedom, although the functionality of the processes defined here generalize to any permanent manned space power control application. First, the Space Station Electrical Power Subsystem (EPS) hardware to be monitored is described, followed by a set of scenarios describing typical monitor and control activity. Then, the parallel distributed problem solving approach to knowledge engineering is introduced. There follows a two-step presentation of the intelligent software design for secondary power control. The first step decomposes the problem of monitoring and control into three primary functions. Each of the primary functions is described in detail. Suggestions for refinements and embelishments in design specifications are given.

  19. Credit assignment during movement reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Dam, Gregory; Kording, Konrad; Wei, Kunlin

    2013-01-01

    We often need to learn how to move based on a single performance measure that reflects the overall success of our movements. However, movements have many properties, such as their trajectories, speeds and timing of end-points, thus the brain needs to decide which properties of movements should be improved; it needs to solve the credit assignment problem. Currently, little is known about how humans solve credit assignment problems in the context of reinforcement learning. Here we tested how human participants solve such problems during a trajectory-learning task. Without an explicitly-defined target movement, participants made hand reaches and received monetary rewards as feedback on a trial-by-trial basis. The curvature and direction of the attempted reach trajectories determined the monetary rewards received in a manner that can be manipulated experimentally. Based on the history of action-reward pairs, participants quickly solved the credit assignment problem and learned the implicit payoff function. A Bayesian credit-assignment model with built-in forgetting accurately predicts their trial-by-trial learning.

  20. Integrated assignment and path planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphey, Robert A.

    2005-11-01

    A surge of interest in unmanned systems has exposed many new and challenging research problems across many fields of engineering and mathematics. These systems have the potential of transforming our society by replacing dangerous and dirty jobs with networks of moving machines. This vision is fundamentally separate from the modern view of robotics in that sophisticated behavior is realizable not by increasing individual vehicle complexity, but instead through collaborative teaming that relies on collective perception, abstraction, decision making, and manipulation. Obvious examples where collective robotics will make an impact include planetary exploration, space structure assembly, remote and undersea mining, hazardous material handling and clean-up, and search and rescue. Nonetheless, the phenomenon driving this technology trend is the increasing reliance of the US military on unmanned vehicles, specifically, aircraft. Only a few years ago, following years of resistance to the use of unmanned systems, the military and civilian leadership in the United States reversed itself and have recently demonstrated surprisingly broad acceptance of increasingly pervasive use of unmanned platforms in defense surveillance, and even attack. However, as rapidly as unmanned systems have gained acceptance, the defense research community has discovered the technical pitfalls that lie ahead, especially for operating collective groups of unmanned platforms. A great deal of talent and energy has been devoted to solving these technical problems, which tend to fall into two categories: resource allocation of vehicles to objectives, and path planning of vehicle trajectories. An extensive amount of research has been conducted in each direction, yet, surprisingly, very little work has considered the integrated problem of assignment and path planning. This dissertation presents a framework for studying integrated assignment and path planning and then moves on to suggest an exact

  1. The Power of Problem Solving: Practical Ideas and Teaching Strategies for Any K-8 Subject Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Juanita S.; Buckmaster, Lynn R.; Francis, Mary Kay; Knauf, Karen M.

    Based on the belief that giving students opportunities to think and solve problems independently is the best way to help them enjoy learning, this book provides guidelines and learning activities to help students in grades kindergarten through 8 to solve problems in all subject matter areas of the curriculum. Chapter 1 provides a rationale for…

  2. Learning through Real-World Problem Solving: The Power of Integrative Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Nancy G.

    This book is based on the idea that curriculum development projects focused on integrated or interdisciplinary teaching within the context of real-world problem solving creates dynamics and meaningful learning experiences for students. The real-world, problem-solving units presented in this book were created by four intern teachers, their mentor…

  3. The Self-Organization of Insight: Entropy and Power Laws in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephen, Damian G.; Dixon, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Explaining emergent structure remains a challenge for all areas of cognitive science, and problem solving is no exception. The modern study of insight has drawn attention to the issue of emergent cognitive structure in problem solving research. We propose that the explanation of insight is beyond the scope of conventional approaches to cognitive…

  4. Wind power demonstration and siting problems. [for recharging electrically driven automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergey, K. H.

    1973-01-01

    Technical and economic feasibility studies on a small windmill to provide overnight charging for an electrically driven car are reported. The auxiliary generator provides power for heating and cooling the vehicle which runs for 25 miles on battery power alone, and for 50 miles with the onboard charger operating. The blades for this windmill have a diameter of 12 feet and are coupled through to a conventional automobile alternator so that they are able to completely recharge car batteries in 8 hours. Optimization of a windmill/storage system requires detailed wind velocity information which permits rational sitting of wind power system stations.

  5. Structural Case Assignment in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koak, Heeshin

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I aim to provide a theory on the distribution of structural Case in Korean. I propose the following Structural Case Assignment Hypothesis (SCAH) regarding the assignment of structural Case: "Structural Case is assigned by phase heads (C: nominative; v: accusative) to every argument in the c-command domain of the phase…

  6. Who's got the power? Gender differences in partners' perceptions of influence during marital problem-solving discussions.

    PubMed

    Ball, F L; Cowan, P; Cowan, C P

    1995-09-01

    Previous research on marital communication indicates that women have more influence in marital problem solving because they raise the issues and shape the discussion. Other studies suggest that men have the power in marital problem solving. This study re-examines power and influence from the partners' point of view. Twenty-seven couples-18 with a first child under 2, and 9 undecided about having children-were videotaped while working on a self-selected problem concerning their division of family labor. Data sources included: (a) transcribed audiotaped accounts given by each partner while viewing a videotape of their problem-solving discussion; (b) self-report questionnaires; and (c) ratings by a research team of the concordance between spouses' accounts. Husbands and wives were perceived as having a primary influence on different aspects of the discussion. Women tended to raise the issues and draw men out in the early phase of the discussion, while men controlled the content and emotional depth of the later discussion phases, and largely determined the outcome. The women's accounts emphasized that their influence in the early phase was often illusory: their behavior was shaped primarily by the effort to choose strategies that would avoid upsetting their husbands. In terms of overall satisfaction with marriage, wives had greater tolerance than their husbands for conflict in the area of division of domestic labor, but less tolerance for their husbands' domination of the discussion process. Women's marital satisfaction was higher when there was concordance between spouses in their accounts of their problem-solving discussion. This research highlights the importance of eliciting spouses' own perceptions and definitions in understanding the impact of gender-linked power differences in martial communication.

  7. Some problems of the theory of quantum statistical systems with an energy spectrum of the fractional-power type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alisultanov, Z. Z.; Meilanov, R. P.

    2012-10-01

    We consider the problem of the effective interaction potential in a quantum many-particle system leading to the fractional-power dispersion law. We show that passing to fractional-order derivatives is equivalent to introducing a pair interparticle potential. We consider the case of a degenerate electron gas. Using the van der Waals equation, we study the equation of state for systems with a fractional-power spectrum. We obtain a relation between the van der Waals constant and the phenomenological parameter α, the fractional-derivative order. We obtain a relation between energy, pressure, and volume for such systems: the coefficient of the thermal energy is a simple function of α. We consider Bose—Einstein condensation in a system with a fractional-power spectrum. The critical condensation temperature for 1 < α < 2 is greater in the case under consideration than in the case of an ideal system, where α = 2.

  8. The Power of Problem-Based Learning in Developing Critical Thinking Skills: Preparing Students for Tomorrow's Digital Futures in Today's Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kek, Megan Yih Chyn A.; Huijser, Henk

    2011-01-01

    This article describes problem-based learning as a powerful pedagogical approach and an aligned teaching and learning system to explicitly and directly teach critical thinking skills in a broad range of disciplines. Problem-based learning is argued to be a powerful pedagogical approach as it explicitly and actively engages students in a learning…

  9. Problems in developing bimodal space power and propulsion system fuel element

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, Yu. V.; Gontar, A. S.; Zaznoba, V. A.; Parshin, N. Ya.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Usov, V. A.

    1997-01-10

    The paper discusses design of a space nuclear power and propulsion system fuel element (PPFE) developed on the basis of an enhanced single-cell thermionic fuel element (TFE) of the 'TOPAZ-2' thermionic converter-reactor (TCR), and presents the PPFE performance for propulsion and power modes of operation. The choice of UC-TaC fuel composition is substantiated. Data on hydrogen effect on the PPFE output voltage are presented, design solutions are considered that allow to restrict hydrogen supply to an interelectrode gap (IEG). Long-term geometric stability of an emitter assembly is supported by calculated data.

  10. Pole Assignment for Second-Order Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHU, E. K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper contains some results for pole assignment problems for the second-order system M ẍ(t)+D ẋ(t)+K x (t)=B u (t) . Specifically, Algorithm 0 constructs feedback matrices F1 and F2 such that the closed-loop quadratic pencil Pc( λ)= λ2M+ λ ( D+ BF2)+( K+ BF1) has a desired set of eigenvalues and the associated eigenvectors are well-conditioned. The method is a modification of the SVD-based method proposed by Juang and Maghami [1, 2] which is a second-order adaptation of the well-known robust eigenvalue assignment method by Kautsky et al. [3] for first-order systems. Robustness is achieved by minimising some not-so-well-known condition numbers of the eigenvalues of the closed-loop second-order pencil. We next consider the partial pole assignment problem. In 1997, Datta, Elhay and Ram proposed three biorthogonality relations for eigenvectors of symmetric definite quadratic pencils [4]. One of these relations was used to derive an explicit solution to the partial pole assignment problem by state feedback for the related single-input symmetric definite second-order control system. The solution shed new light on the stabilisation and control of large flexible space structures, for which only one small subset of the spectrum needs to be reassigned while retaining the complementary part of the spectrum. In this paper, the method has been generalised for multi-input and non-symmetric quadratic pencils. Finally, we discuss briefly the output feedback pole assignment problem.

  11. The Problem of PowerPoint: Visual Aid or Visual Rhetoric?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyphert, Dale

    2004-01-01

    PowerPoint is an inevitable technology of contemporary business presentations, a tool that is now available to virtually every office worker in the United States, but denounced by academics and by CEOs as intellectual reductionism. Requiring students to create and use electronically generated "visual aids" seems to result in a…

  12. New Electric Power Technologies: Problems and Prospects for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report responds to a request from the House Committee on Science and Technology and its Subcommittee on Energy Development and Applications to analyze a range of new electric power generating, storage, and load management technologies. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) examined these technologies in terms of their current and expected…

  13. The "Culture Problem" in Intercultural Communication: Toward a Critical Proficiency of Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Eunju Chung

    2013-01-01

    Intercultural Communication (INCC) is dominated by a simple conception of culture that has, in essence, led its research and literature away from attending to relations of power in intercultural relationships. INCC's traditional approach based on positivistic and static notions of culture are rather anemic in their own right but also too brittle…

  14. The Problem of "Power": Metacritical Implications of Aetonormativity for Children's Literature Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauvais, Clementine

    2013-01-01

    This article takes as its starting point the concept of aetonormativity (the adult normativity germane to the discourse of children's literature), coined by Maria Nikolajeva (2010) in an attempt to unify the increasingly power-oriented theories of children's literature criticism within the past few decades. Acknowledging the usefulness of this…

  15. Solution to Electric Power Dispatch Problem Using Fuzzy Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, D. K.; Kumar, S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents the application of fuzzy particle swarm optimization to constrained economic load dispatch (ELD) problem of thermal units. Several factors such as quadratic cost functions with valve point loading, ramp rate limits and prohibited operating zone are considered in the computation models. The Fuzzy particle swarm optimization (FPSO) provides a new mechanism to avoid premature convergence problem. The performance of proposed algorithm is evaluated on four test systems. Results obtained by proposed method have been compared with those obtained by PSO method and literature results. The experimental results show that proposed FPSO method is capable of obtaining minimum fuel costs in fewer numbers of iterations.

  16. 47 CFR 74.786 - Digital channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Digital channel assignments. 74.786 Section 74... Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.786 Digital channel assignments. (a) An applicant for a new low power television or television translator digital station or for changes in the facilities of...

  17. 47 CFR 74.786 - Digital channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Digital channel assignments. 74.786 Section 74... Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.786 Digital channel assignments. (a) An applicant for a new low power television or television translator digital station or for changes in the facilities of...

  18. 47 CFR 74.786 - Digital channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Digital channel assignments. 74.786 Section 74... Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.786 Digital channel assignments. (a) An applicant for a new low power television or television translator digital station or for changes in the facilities of...

  19. 47 CFR 74.786 - Digital channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Digital channel assignments. 74.786 Section 74... Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.786 Digital channel assignments. (a) An applicant for a new low power television or television translator digital station or for changes in the facilities of...

  20. [Some problems in measuring the frequency-resolving power of hearing].

    PubMed

    Supin, A Ia

    2004-08-01

    In spite of detailed elaboration of masking methods of measuring the frequency selectivity of hearing, such measurements actually are not in use for diagnostics purpose because of their time-consumption and ambiguity of extrapolation of the results to perception of complex sound spectrum patterns. A method of direct measuring of spectrum resolving power using rippled-noise test, is suggested. Results of measurements have shown that the actual ability of hearing to discriminate complex sound spectra is higher than that predicted by acuteness of auditory frequency filters: dependence of acuteness of auditory frequency filters on sound level does not influence the ability to discriminate complex spectra; and the influence on interfering noise on the frequency resolving power can not be explained by a decrease of the spectral contrast by the spread of excitation.

  1. Systems approach to walk-off problems for dish-type solar thermal power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Levin, R. R.; Moynihan, P. I.; Nesmith, B. J.; Owen, W. A.; Roschke, E. J.; Starkey, D. J.; Thostesen, T. O.

    1983-01-01

    'Walk-off' in a dish-type solar thermal power system is a failure situation in which the concentrator remains fixed while the spot of concentrated sunlight slowly moves across the face of the receiver. The intense local heating may damage the receiver and nearby equipment. Passive protection has advantages in minimizing damage, but in a fully passive design the receiver must be able to withstand full solar input with no forced fluid circulation during the walk-off. An active walk-off emergency subsystem may include an emergency detrack or defocus mechanism or sun-blocking device, emergency power, sensors and logic to detect the emergency and initiate protective action, and cooling or passive protection of emergency and non-emergency components. Each of these elements is discussed and evaluated in the paper.

  2. [Hygienic problems in the location of modern wind electric power stations in their design].

    PubMed

    Kireeva, I S; Makhniuk, V M; Akimenko, V Ia; Dumanskiĭ, Iu D; Semashko, P V

    2013-01-01

    Hygienic aspects of the placement of wind power plants (WPP) in connection with the intensive development of wind power and the lack of systematic information on their effects of the environment and living conditions of the population are becoming more actual. In the article there are considered results of the sanitary-epidemiological expertise of the construction project of three modern large wind farm (the South - Ukrainian, Tiligulskaya and Pokrovskaya) with a total capacity offrom 180 to 500 MW of wind farms with 2.3 MW power generators of wind turbines. It is shown that in the process of wind farm construction a contamination of the environment (air soil, ground water) may take place due to the working of construction equipment and vehicle, excavation, welding and other operations, in the exploitation of wind farm there can be created elevated levels of acoustic and electromagnetic pollution in the neighborhood and emergencies with the destruction of WPP in adverse weather conditions. Based on the calculations presented in the projects, and the analysis of data on the impact offoreign windfarm on the environment it was found that the limiting factor of the influence is the wind farm noise pollution in the audio frequency range that extends beyond the territory of wind fields, electromagnetic radiation is recorded within the hygienic standards and below only in the immediate vicinity of its sources (electrical equipment and power lines). For considered modern wind farms there was grounded sanitary protective zone with dimensions of 700 mfrom the outermost wind turbines by the noise and it was recommended compliance distance of200 mfrom the wind turbine to limit any activity and people staying in times of possible emergency situations in adverse weather conditions.

  3. Optimizing Marine Security Guard Assignments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Bangkok , Thailand East Asia and Pacific 18 4 Fort Lauderdale, Florida Western Hemisphere - South 13 5 Frankfurt, Germany Western Europe and Scandinavia 15...2008). Each 7 stationing plan satisfies a myriad of unit requirements, such as building and land availability. Similarly, each assignment solution...optimize the assignment of enlisted Marines to billets. EAM-GLOBAL seeks to assign the best Marine-billet fit while balancing staffing shortages

  4. Constrained Task Assignment and Scheduling On Networks of Arbitrary Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Justin Patrick

    This dissertation develops a framework to address centralized and distributed constrained task assignment and task scheduling problems. This framework is used to prove properties of these problems that can be exploited, develop effective solution algorithms, and to prove important properties such as correctness, completeness and optimality. The centralized task assignment and task scheduling problem treated here is expressed as a vehicle routing problem with the goal of optimizing mission time subject to mission constraints on task precedence and agent capability. The algorithm developed to solve this problem is able to coordinate vehicle (agent) timing for task completion. This class of problems is NP-hard and analytical guarantees on solution quality are often unavailable. This dissertation develops a technique for determining solution quality that can be used on a large class of problems and does not rely on traditional analytical guarantees. For distributed problems several agents must communicate to collectively solve a distributed task assignment and task scheduling problem. The distributed task assignment and task scheduling algorithms developed here allow for the optimization of constrained military missions in situations where the communication network may be incomplete and only locally known. Two problems are developed. The distributed task assignment problem incorporates communication constraints that must be satisfied; this is the Communication-Constrained Distributed Assignment Problem. A novel distributed assignment algorithm, the Stochastic Bidding Algorithm, solves this problem. The algorithm is correct, probabilistically complete, and has linear average-case time complexity. The distributed task scheduling problem addressed here is to minimize mission time subject to arbitrary predicate mission constraints; this is the Minimum-time Arbitrarily-constrained Distributed Scheduling Problem. The Optimal Distributed Non-sequential Backtracking Algorithm

  5. Improving load balance with flexibly assignable tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar, Ali; Hendrickson, Bruce

    2003-09-09

    In many applications of parallel computing, distribution ofthe data unambiguously implies distribution of work among processors. Butthere are exceptions where some tasks can be assigned to one of severalprocessors without altering the total volume of communication. In thispaper, we study the problem of exploiting this flexibility in assignmentof tasks to improve load balance. We first model the problem in terms ofnetwork flow and use combinatorial techniques for its solution. Ourparametric search algorithms use maximum flow algorithms for probing on acandidate optimal solution value. We describe two algorithms to solve theassignment problem with \\logW_T and vbar P vbar probe calls, w here W_Tand vbar P vbar, respectively, denote the total workload and number ofproce ssors. We also define augmenting paths and cuts for this problem,and show that anyalgorithm based on augmenting paths can be used to findan optimal solution for the task assignment problem. We then consideracontinuous version of the problem, and formulate it as a linearlyconstrained optimization problem, i.e., \\min\\|Ax\\|_\\infty,\\; {\\rms.t.}\\;Bx=d. To avoid solving an intractable \\infty-norm optimization problem,we show that in this case minimizing the 2-norm is sufficient to minimizethe \\infty-norm, which reduces the problem to the well-studiedlinearly-constrained least squares problem. The continuous version of theproblem has the advantage of being easily amenable to parallelization.Our experiments with molecular dynamics and overlapped domaindecomposition applications proved the effectiveness of our methods withsignificant improvements in load balance. We also discuss how ourtechniques can be enhanced for heterogeneous systems.

  6. Mercury emissions and coal-fired power plants: Understanding the problems and identifying solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.E.

    1997-12-31

    Electric utility emissions contribute to an array of air quality concerns, most notably ground-level ozone, acid deposition, global warming, and fine particulate pollution. More recently, electric utility emissions of air toxics such as mercury have been linked to serious ecological health effects, especially in fish-eating birds. Another issue that is gaining attention is that of eutrophication in marine waters from nitrogen oxide emissions. Coal-fired power plants warrant special consideration, particularly in regards to mercury. Coal-fired power plants currently represent over 30% of controllable anthropogenic emissions in the US and are expected to emit nearly half of all anthropogenic emissions in the US by 2010. However, because the human health threshold for mercury is not known with certainty and mercury control technologies such as activated carbon injection are extremely expensive, mercury emissions from electric utilities have not been addressed in the US through either regulation or voluntary initiatives. The Center is beginning to evaluate the viability of no- or low-regrets measures that may be more consistent with the current state of the science on human and ecological health effects. The Center is also looking at options to reduce eutophication. Specifically, the Center has: hosted a workshop to assess the viability of low-cost mercury control options for electric utilities, developed a proposal to undertake a mercury banking initiative, worked to reduce compliance costs associated with multiple and conflicting regulations, and investigated the potential benefits and workability of NOx trading between air and water sources These activities are described in greater detail in the Center`s paper.

  7. 47 CFR 73.865 - Assignment and transfer of LPFM licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.865 Assignment and transfer... the licensee must operate the station during the three-year holding period. (d) No party may assign...

  8. 47 CFR 73.865 - Assignment and transfer of LPFM licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.865 Assignment and transfer... the licensee must operate the station during the three-year holding period. (d) No party may assign...

  9. 47 CFR 73.865 - Assignment and transfer of LPFM licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.865 Assignment and transfer... the licensee must operate the station during the three-year holding period. (d) No party may assign...

  10. 47 CFR 73.865 - Assignment and transfer of LPFM licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.865 Assignment and transfer... the licensee must operate the station during the three-year holding period. (d) No party may assign...

  11. 47 CFR 73.865 - Assignment and transfer of LPFM licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.865 Assignment and transfer... the licensee must operate the station during the three-year holding period. (d) No party may assign...

  12. Triboelectric nanogenerators as new energy technology and self-powered sensors - principles, problems and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-01-01

    Triboelectrification is one of the most common effects in our daily life, but it is usually taken as a negative effect with very limited positive applications. Here, we invented a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) based on organic materials that is used to convert mechanical energy into electricity. The TENG is based on the conjunction of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction, and it utilizes the most common materials available in our daily life, such as papers, fabrics, PTFE, PDMS, Al, PVC etc. In this short review, we first introduce the four most fundamental modes of TENG, based on which a range of applications have been demonstrated. The area power density reaches 1200 W m(-2), volume density reaches 490 kW m(-3), and an energy conversion efficiency of ∼50-85% has been demonstrated. The TENG can be applied to harvest all kinds of mechanical energy that is available in our daily life, such as human motion, walking, vibration, mechanical triggering, rotation energy, wind, a moving automobile, flowing water, rain drops, tide and ocean waves. Therefore, it is a new paradigm for energy harvesting. Furthermore, TENG can be a sensor that directly converts a mechanical triggering into a self-generated electric signal for detection of motion, vibration, mechanical stimuli, physical touching, and biological movement. After a summary of TENG for micro-scale energy harvesting, mega-scale energy harvesting, and self-powered systems, we will present a set of questions that need to be discussed and explored for applications of the TENG. Lastly, since the energy conversion efficiencies for each mode can be different although the materials are the same, depending on the triggering conditions and design geometry. But one common factor that determines the performance of all the TENGs is the charge density on the two surfaces, the saturation value of which may independent of the triggering configurations of the TENG. Therefore, the triboelectric charge density or the

  13. The inhibiting bisection problem.

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar, Ali

    2010-11-01

    Given a graph where each vertex is assigned a generation or consumption volume, we try to bisect the graph so that each part has a significant generation/consumption mismatch, and the cutsize of the bisection is small. Our motivation comes from the vulnerability analysis of distribution systems such as the electric power system. We show that the constrained version of the problem, where we place either the cutsize or the mismatch significance as a constraint and optimize the other, is NP-complete, and provide an integer programming formulation. We also propose an alternative relaxed formulation, which can trade-off between the two objectives and show that the alternative formulation of the problem can be solved in polynomial time by a maximum flow solver. Our experiments with benchmark electric power systems validate the effectiveness of our methods.

  14. Multiobjective controller synthesis via eigenstructure assignment with state feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhao; Lam, James

    2016-10-01

    A general parameter scheme for multiobjective controller synthesis via eigenstructure assignment with state feedback is proposed. The scheme provides total pole configurability, that is, pole assignment constraints, partial pole assignment constraints, generalised regional pole assignment constraints can be dealt with simultaneously without introducing essential conservatism. The scheme is derived from the pole assignment approach using Sylvester equations, and the parameter space is the Cartesian product of some subspaces characterising the free parameters. Under the scheme, the controller design problems are formulated as nonlinear optimisation problems with both objectives and constraints being differentiable and can be solved by derivative-based nonlinear programming technique. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  15. An Assignment Sequence for Underprepared Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmo, Kristi

    2000-01-01

    Presents a sequenced writing assignment on shopping to aid basic writers. Describes a writing assignment focused around online and mail-order shopping. Notes steps in preparing for the assignment, the sequence, and discusses responses to the assignments. (SC)

  16. Target-based fiber assignment for large survey spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Christoph E. R.; Makarem, Laleh; Kneib, Jean-Paul

    2016-07-01

    Next generation massive spectroscopic survey projects have to process a massive amount of targets. The preparation of subsequent observations should be feasible in a reasonable amount of time. We present a fast algorithm for target assignment that scales as O(log(n)). Our proposed algorithm follow a target based approach, which enables to assign large number of targets to their positioners quickly and with a very high assignment efficiency. We also discuss additional optimization of the fiber positioning problem to take into account the positioner collision problems and how to use the algorithm for an optimal survey strategy. We apply our target-based algorithm in the context of the MOONS project.

  17. Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Asset Assignment for Optimal Mission Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    problem, including fuzzy op- timization [9], [18], goal programming [17], [18], surrogate constraints [21], dynamic programming [31], and the ε-constraint...complete. Given an instance of SRA (Decision Problem) with b, G, and a set of concave, increasing, non-linear functions, fp (where there are a total of γ...functions), does there exist an integer assignment to y ∈ Zγ such that γ∑ p=1 fp (yp) ≥ G (3.9) γ∑ p=1 yp ≤ b First, assign F = G and α = b. Assign χ = 1

  18. DOPGA: a new fitness assignment scheme for multi-objective evolutionary algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ufuk Ergul, Engin; Eminoglu, Ilyas

    2014-03-01

    In this article, a new fitness assignment scheme to evaluate the Pareto-optimal solutions for multi-objective evolutionary algorithms is proposed. The proposed DOmination Power of an individual Genetic Algorithm (DOPGA) method can order the individuals in a form in which each individual (the so-called solution) could have a unique rank. With this new method, a multi-objective problem can be treated as if it were a single-objective problem without drastically deviating from the Pareto definition. In DOPGA, relative position of a solution is embedded into the fitness assignment procedures. We compare the performance of the algorithm with two benchmark evolutionary algorithms (Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA) and Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 (SPEA2)) on 12 unconstrained bi-objective and one tri-objective test problems. DOPGA significantly outperforms SPEA on all test problems. DOPGA performs better than SPEA2 in terms of convergence metric on all test problems. Also, Pareto-optimal solutions found by DOPGA spread better than SPEA2 on eight of 13 test problems.

  19. A k-space Green's function solution for acoustic initial value problems in homogeneous media with power law absorption.

    PubMed

    Treeby, Bradley E; Cox, B T

    2011-06-01

    An efficient Green's function solution for acoustic initial value problems in homogeneous media with power law absorption is derived. The solution is based on the homogeneous wave equation for lossless media with two additional terms. These terms are dependent on the fractional Laplacian and separately account for power law absorption and dispersion. Given initial conditions for the pressure and its temporal derivative, the solution allows the pressure field for any time t>0 to be calculated in a single step using the Fourier transform and an exact k-space time propagator. For regularly spaced Cartesian grids, the former can be computed efficiently using the fast Fourier transform. Because no time stepping is required, the solution facilitates the efficient computation of the pressure field in one, two, or three dimensions without stability constraints. Several computational aspects of the solution are discussed, including the effect of using a truncated Fourier series to represent discrete initial conditions, the use of smoothing, and the properties of the encapsulated absorption and dispersion.

  20. Integration of the Two-Dimensional Power Spectral Density into Specifications for the X-ray Domain -- Problems and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, Wayne R.; Howells, M. R.; Yashchuk, V. V.

    2008-09-30

    An implementation of the two-dimensional statistical scattering theory of Church and Takacs for the prediction of scattering from x-ray mirrors is presented with a graphical user interface. The process of this development has clarified several problems which are of significant interest to the synchrotron community. These problems have been addressed to some extent, for example, for large astronomical telescopes, and at the National Ignition Facility for normal incidence optics, but not in the synchrotron community for grazing incidence optics. Since it is based on the Power Spectral Density (PSD) to provide a description of the deviations from ideal shape of the surface, accurate prediction of the scattering requires an accurate estimation of the PSD. Specifically, the spatial frequency range of measurement must be the correct one for the geometry of use of the optic--including grazing incidence and coherence effects, and the modifications to the PSD of the Optical Transfer Functions (OTF) of the measuring instruments must be removed. A solution for removal of OTF effects has been presented previously, the Binary Pseudo-Random Grating. Typically, the frequency range of a single instrument does not cover the range of interest, requiring the stitching together of PSD estimations. This combination generates its own set of difficulties in two dimensions. Fitting smooth functions to two dimensional PSDs, particularly in the case of spatial non-isotropy of the surface, which is often the case for optics in synchrotron beam lines, can be difficult. The convenient, and physically accurate fractal for one dimension does not readily transfer to two dimensions. Finally, a completely statistical description of scattering must be integrated with a deterministic low spatial frequency component in order to completely model the intensity near the image. An outline for approaching these problems, and our proposed experimental program is given.

  1. Throughput Improvement with Discrete Pilot Signal Assignment and Iterative Channel Identification for MQRD-PCM/OFDM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Chang-Jun

    In MIMO systems, the channel identification is important to distinguish transmitted signals from multiple transmit antennas. One of the most typical channel identification schemes is to employ a code division multiplexing (CDM) based scheme in which a unique spreading code is assigned to distinguish both BS and MS antenna elements. However, by increasing the number of base stations and transmit antenna elements, large spreading codes and pilot symbols are required to distinguish the received power from all the connectable BS, as well as to identify all the CSI for the combination of transmitter and receiver antenna elements. Furthermore, the complexity of maximum likelihood detection (MLD) for implementation of MIMO is a considerable work. To reduce these problems, in this paper, we propose the parallel detection algorithm using multiple QR decompositions with permuted channel matrix (MQRD-PCM) with discrete pilot signal assignment and iterative channel identification for MIMO/OFDM.

  2. A demand assignment control in international business satellite communications network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohara, Mitsuo; Takeuchi, Yoshio; Takahata, Fumio; Hirata, Yasuo

    An experimental system is being developed for use in an international business satellite (IBS) communications network based on demand-assignment (DA) and TDMA techniques. This paper discusses its system design, in particular from the viewpoints of a network configuration, a DA control, and a satellite channel-assignment algorithm. A satellite channel configuration is also presented along with a tradeoff study on transmission rate, HPA output power, satellite resource efficiency, service quality, and so on.

  3. Expert systems for personnel assignment

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, J.L.; Liepins, G.

    1986-01-01

    In order to reduce stress on assignment personnel (detailers) and ensure maximum fairness and consistency in the Navy's personnel assignment process, The Navy Military Personnel Command (NMPC) has begun to explore the potential use of expert systems to supplement current manual and computerized distribution methods. The Detailer's Assistant expert system is being developed to improve the detailers' ability to satisfy the needs of their constituents and Navy management. An initial prototype of the Detailer's Assistant is now being evaluated. Numerous upgrades and extensions should lead to an operational system in the near future. Further development to a production system will involve additional research in machine learning, intelligent database methods, and cooperating expert systems.

  4. Assignments of autoionization states of O2-asterisk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. Y. Robert

    1987-01-01

    Attention is given to the uncertainties that remain concerning the autoionization states of O2 leading to the a 4Pi(u) and A 2Pi(u) states of O2(+), as well as some of the assignments of the autoionization states and the determinations of effective quantum numbers and quantum defects. The former problems of vibrational assignments are unambiguously established in view of a study of isotopic oxygen molecules. A systematic examination of the known Rydberg series is conducted, and new assignments and interpretations for several autoionization states leading to the various states of O2(+) are suggested.

  5. Contact replacement for NMR resonance assignment

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Fei; Pandurangan, Gopal; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Complementing its traditional role in structural studies of proteins, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is playing an increasingly important role in functional studies. NMR dynamics experiments characterize motions involved in target recognition, ligand binding, etc., while NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments identify and localize protein–protein and protein–ligand interactions. The key bottleneck in these studies is to determine the backbone resonance assignment, which allows spectral peaks to be mapped to specific atoms. This article develops a novel approach to address that bottleneck, exploiting an available X-ray structure or homology model to assign the entire backbone from a set of relatively fast and cheap NMR experiments. Results: We formulate contact replacement for resonance assignment as the problem of computing correspondences between a contact graph representing the structure and an NMR graph representing the data; the NMR graph is a significantly corrupted, ambiguous version of the contact graph. We first show that by combining connectivity and amino acid type information, and exploiting the random structure of the noise, one can provably determine unique correspondences in polynomial time with high probability, even in the presence of significant noise (a constant number of noisy edges per vertex). We then detail an efficient randomized algorithm and show that, over a variety of experimental and synthetic datasets, it is robust to typical levels of structural variation (1–2 AA), noise (250–600%) and missings (10–40%). Our algorithm achieves very good overall assignment accuracy, above 80% in α-helices, 70% in β-sheets and 60% in loop regions. Availability: Our contact replacement algorithm is implemented in platform-independent Python code. The software can be freely obtained for academic use by request from the authors. Contact: gopal@cs.purdue.edu; cbk@cs.dartmouth.edu PMID:18586716

  6. Subchannel Access and Rate Assignment for Multicarrier Multi-Cell Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jui Teng

    We study in this paper the subchannel access and the rate assignment for the multicarrier multi-cell networks. For subchannel access, we show from theoretic results and simulation results that the scheme with only one user per cell in each subchannel outperforms the scheme with multiple users per cell in each subchannel. For rate assignment, a distributed rate assignment is proposed to assign the rate for all subchannels. The proposed rate assignment need not measure the channel gains and uses only local information to iteratively adjust the transmitting power and data rate. We prove that the aggregate rate can be increased by increasing the number of iterations in the proposed rate assignment.

  7. A Stochastic Employment Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Teng

    2013-01-01

    The Stochastic Employment Problem(SEP) is a variation of the Stochastic Assignment Problem which analyzes the scenario that one assigns balls into boxes. Balls arrive sequentially with each one having a binary vector X = (X[subscript 1], X[subscript 2],...,X[subscript n]) attached, with the interpretation being that if X[subscript i] = 1 the ball…

  8. Assessing Contributions to Group Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lucy; Miles, Lynden

    2004-01-01

    We report the use of a combination of self- and peer-assessment in an undergraduate social psychology laboratory course. Students worked in small groups on a self-directed empirical project that they each wrote up independently as a laboratory report. Marks for the written assignment were moderated by a contribution index measure based on the…

  9. The Year of Secret Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Jaclyn

    2004-01-01

    The path to "novelist" was a convoluted one for Moriarty, who began writing fiction as doctoral student at Cambridge University. Her interest in young adults stems from an appreciation for the "troubles, strengths, and surprises of that age group." Now, in a uniquely formatted book titled "The Year of Secret Assignments," we peek inside the mind…

  10. The Inhibiting Bisection Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar, Ali; Fogel, Yonatan; Lesieutre, Bernard

    2006-12-18

    Given a graph where each vertex is assigned a generation orconsumption volume, we try to bisect the graph so that each part has asignificant generation/consumption mismatch, and the cutsize of thebisection is small. Our motivation comes from the vulnerability analysisof distribution systems such as the electric power system. We show thatthe constrained version of the problem, where we place either the cutsizeor the mismatch significance as a constraint and optimize the other, isNP-complete, and provide an integer programming formulation. We alsopropose an alternative relaxed formulation, which can trade-off betweenthe two objectives and show that the alternative formulation of theproblem can be solved in polynomial time by a maximum flow solver. Ourexperiments with benchmark electric power systems validate theeffectiveness of our methods.

  11. Puzzles & Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Pat, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    "Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception, produced by Exploratorium in collaboration with other participating museums. This issue focuses on puzzles and problem solving. Brain teasers, puzzles, and the strategies for solving them are included. Features include: (1) "Homework Assignment #3" (Paul Doherty);…

  12. Assertiveness for Librarians Harried by Inappropriate Lecture Hall and Classroom Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, J. Carlyle

    1990-01-01

    Describes problems encountered by public librarians when assisting students with assignments that are difficult or impossible to complete. Examples of librarians' successes in assertive, tactful communication with instructors and a list of solutions to inappropriate assignments are provided. Special emphasis is given to assignments dealing with…

  13. Mothers' power assertion; children's negative, adversarial orientation; and future behavior problems in low-income families: early maternal responsiveness as a moderator of the developmental cascade.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-02-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers' responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children's behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children's negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers' responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts.

  14. Mothers’ Power Assertion, Children’s Negative, Adversarial Orientation, and Future Behavior Problems in Low-Income Families: Early Maternal Responsiveness as a Moderator of the Developmental Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children’s negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers’ responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children’s negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children’s behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children’s negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers’ responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:25401483

  15. Integrated Project Scheduling and Staff Assignment with Controllable Processing Times

    PubMed Central

    Framinan, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses a decision problem related to simultaneously scheduling the tasks in a project and assigning the staff to these tasks, taking into account that a task can be performed only by employees with certain skills, and that the length of each task depends on the number of employees assigned. This type of problems usually appears in service companies, where both tasks scheduling and staff assignment are closely related. An integer programming model for the problem is proposed, together with some extensions to cope with different situations. Additionally, the advantages of the controllable processing times approach are compared with the fixed processing times. Due to the complexity of the integrated model, a simple GRASP algorithm is implemented in order to obtain good, approximate solutions in short computation times. PMID:24895672

  16. Computing Role Assignments of Proper Interval Graphs in Polynomial Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heggernes, Pinar; van't Hof, Pim; Paulusma, Daniël

    A homomorphism from a graph G to a graph R is locally surjective if its restriction to the neighborhood of each vertex of G is surjective. Such a homomorphism is also called an R-role assignment of G. Role assignments have applications in distributed computing, social network theory, and topological graph theory. The Role Assignment problem has as input a pair of graphs (G,R) and asks whether G has an R-role assignment. This problem is NP-complete already on input pairs (G,R) where R is a path on three vertices. So far, the only known non-trivial tractable case consists of input pairs (G,R) where G is a tree. We present a polynomial time algorithm that solves Role Assignment on all input pairs (G,R) where G is a proper interval graph. Thus we identify the first graph class other than trees on which the problem is tractable. As a complementary result, we show that the problem is Graph Isomorphism-hard on chordal graphs, a superclass of proper interval graphs and trees.

  17. A model for routing problem in quay management problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirour, Mourad; Oughalime, Ahmed; Liong, Choong-Yeun; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Omar, Khairuddin

    2014-06-01

    Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP), like Vehicle Routing Problem, is one of those optimization problems that interests many researchers in the last decades. The Quay Management Problem is a specific problem which could be presented as a QAP which involves a double assignment of customers and products toward loading positions using lifting trucks. This study focuses on the routing problem while delivering the customers' demands. In this problem, lifting trucks will route around the storage sections to collect the products then deliver to the customers who are assigned to specific loading positions. The objective of minimizing the residence time for each customer is sought. This paper presents the problem and the proposed model.

  18. Solving the problems concerned with modernization of power unit monitoring and control systems using the distributed facilities and technologies available in the SARGON computerized automation system. Part 2: Standard solutions for problems relating to modernization of power unit monitoring and control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendelevich, V. A.

    2013-04-01

    Typical problems encountered in modernizing control and monitoring systems of the main thermal power equipment used at power stations are considered, and ways of solving them through the use of distributed tools available in the SARGON computerized automation system for control of essential equipment are discussed.

  19. Semantic Gender Assignment Regularities in German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwichtenberg, Beate; Schiller, Niels O.

    2004-01-01

    Gender assignment relates to a native speaker's knowledge of the structure of the gender system of his/her language, allowing the speaker to select the appropriate gender for each noun. Whereas categorical assignment rules and exceptional gender assignment are well investigated, assignment regularities, i.e., tendencies in the gender distribution…

  20. Dynamic Logic Assigned to Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chajda, Ivan; Paseka, Jan

    2017-02-01

    A dynamic logic B can be assigned to every automaton [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] without regard if [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] is deterministic or nondeterministic. This logic enables us to formulate observations on [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] in the form of composed propositions and, due to a transition functor T, it captures the dynamic behaviour of [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.]. There are formulated conditions under which the automaton [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.] can be recovered by means of B and T.

  1. A Multimodal Assignment that Enriches Literacy Learning: The Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldakowski, Tim

    2014-01-01

    In education the linguistic is the mode most commonly assessed because it is important for students to write clear, complex pieces to show their understanding of content. However, in worlds outside of classrooms additional modes, such as visual, aural, and digital are often used to convey messages. This article demonstrates the value of multimodal…

  2. Task Assignment Heuristics for Parallel and Distributed CFD Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez-Benitez, Noe; Djomehri, M. Jahed; Biswas, Rupak

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a task graph (TG) model to represent a single discrete step of multi-block overset grid computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications. The TG model is then used to not only balance the computational workload across the overset grids but also to reduce inter-grid communication costs. We have developed a set of task assignment heuristics based on the constraints inherent in this class of CFD problems. Two basic assignments, the smallest task first (STF) and the largest task first (LTF), are first presented. They are then systematically costs. To predict the performance of the proposed task assignment heuristics, extensive performance evaluations are conducted on a synthetic TG with tasks defined in terms of the number of grid points in predetermined overlapping grids. A TG derived from a realistic problem with eight million grid points is also used as a test case.

  3. Static assignment of complex stochastic tasks using stochastic majorization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David; Simha, Rahul; Towsley, Don

    1992-01-01

    We consider the problem of statically assigning many tasks to a (smaller) system of homogeneous processors, where a task's structure is modeled as a branching process, and all tasks are assumed to have identical behavior. We show how the theory of majorization can be used to obtain a partial order among possible task assignments. Our results show that if the vector of numbers of tasks assigned to each processor under one mapping is majorized by that of another mapping, then the former mapping is better than the latter with respect to a large number of objective functions. In particular, we show how measurements of finishing time, resource utilization, and reliability are all captured by the theory. We also show how the theory may be applied to the problem of partitioning a pool of processors for distribution among parallelizable tasks.

  4. Wildlife forensic science: A review of genetic geographic origin assignment.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Rob; Linacre, Adrian

    2015-09-01

    Wildlife forensic science has become a key means of enforcing legislation surrounding the illegal trade in protected and endangered species. A relatively new dimension to this area of forensic science is to determine the geographic origin of a seized sample. This review focuses on DNA testing, which relies on assignment of an unknown sample to its genetic population of origin. Key examples of this are the trade in timber, fish and ivory and these are used only to illustrate the large number of species for which this type of testing is potentially available. The role of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers is discussed, alongside a comparison of neutral markers with those exhibiting signatures of selection, which potentially offer much higher levels of assignment power to address specific questions. A review of assignment tests is presented along with detailed methods for evaluating error rates and considerations for marker selection. The availability and quality of reference data are of paramount importance to support assignment applications and ensure reliability of any conclusions drawn. The genetic methods discussed have been developed initially as investigative tools but comment is made regarding their use in courts. The potential to compliment DNA markers with elemental assays for greater assignment power is considered and finally recommendations are made for the future of this type of testing.

  5. Increasing Math Assignment Completion Using Solution-Focused Brief Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearrington, Jamie Y.; McCallum, R. Steve; Skinner, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Solution-focused brief counseling (SFBC) is an efficient and direct approach to therapy that emphasizes problem identification and solutions. A multiple-baseline-across-participants design was used to evaluate the effects of a SFBC intervention on mathematics assignment completion and accuracy across six fifth-grade students who were failing math.…

  6. Student's Lab Assignments in PDE Course with MAPLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponidi, B. Alhadi

    Computer-aided software has been used intensively in many mathematics courses, especially in computational subjects, to solve initial value and boundary value problems in Partial Differential Equations (PDE). Many software packages were used in student lab assignments such as FORTRAN, PASCAL, MATLAB, MATHEMATICA, and MAPLE in order to accelerate…

  7. On the problem of designing small spacecraft with electric propulsion power plants for studying minor bodies of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkov, V. M.; Egorov, Yu. G.; Krainov, A. M.; Shakhanov, A. E.; Elnikov, R. V.

    2016-12-01

    Aspects of the design of small spacecraft with electric propulsion power plants for investigating minor bodies in the Solar System are examined. The results of design and ballistic analysis of transfer into an orbit of terrestrial asteroids using electric propulsion thrusters are given. The possible concept design of the spacecraft is determined and the structure of a small spacecraft with an electric propulsion power plant is presented. Parameters of the electric propulsion power plant of a small spacecraft for a flight to the minor bodies of the Solar System are estimated.

  8. 47 CFR 80.509 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.509 Frequency assignment. Frequencies assignable to private coast stations and marine utility stations are listed in subpart H....

  9. Context-Aware Reviewer Assignment for Trust Enhanced Peer Review.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Yan; Liu, Guanfeng; Wang, Meng; Wu, Xindong

    2015-01-01

    Reviewer assignment is critical to peer review systems, such as peer-reviewed research conferences or peer-reviewed funding applications, and its effectiveness is a deep concern of all academics. However, there are some problems in existing peer review systems during reviewer assignment. For example, some of the reviewers are much more stringent than others, leading to an unfair final decision, i.e., some submissions (i.e., papers or applications) with better quality are rejected. In this paper, we propose a context-aware reviewer assignment for trust enhanced peer review. More specifically, in our approach, we first consider the research area specific expertise of reviewers, and the institution relevance and co-authorship between reviewers and authors, so that reviewers with the right expertise are assigned to the corresponding submissions without potential conflict of interest. In addition, we propose a novel cross-assignment paradigm, and reviewers are cross-assigned in order to avoid assigning a group of stringent reviewers or a group of lenient reviewers to the same submission. More importantly, on top of them, we propose an academic CONtext-aware expertise relevanCe oriEnted Reviewer cross-assignmenT approach (CONCERT), which aims to effectively estimate the "true" ratings of submissions based on the ratings from all reviewers, even though no prior knowledge exists about the distribution of stringent reviewers and lenient reviewers. The experiments illustrate that compared with existing approaches, our proposed CONCERT approach can less likely assign more than one stringent reviewers or lenient reviewers to a submission simultaneously and significantly reduce the influence of ratings from stringent reviewers and lenient reviewers, leading to trust enhanced peer review and selection, no matter what kind of distributions of stringent reviewers and lenient reviewers are.

  10. Assigning Homework to Couples and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dattilio, Frank M.; Dickson, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Homework assignments, or "out-of-session assignments," have gained popularity among couple and family therapists due to their potential to solidify the work achieved during the course of therapy and to help clients take responsibility for their own change. Homework assignments also serve as a testing ground in therapy to determine what works and…

  11. 7 CFR 1437.104 - Assigned production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assigned production. 1437.104 Section 1437.104... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.104 Assigned production. (a) When determining losses under this section, assigned production will be used to offset the loss of production...

  12. 7 CFR 1437.104 - Assigned production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assigned production. 1437.104 Section 1437.104... Determining Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.104 Assigned production. (a) When determining losses under this section, assigned production will be used to offset the loss of production...

  13. 43 CFR 2521.3 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Procedures § 2521.3 Assignment...), assignments of desert-land entries were recognized, the Department of the Interior, largely for administrative reasons, held that a desert-land entry might be assigned as a whole or in its entirety, but refused...

  14. 43 CFR 2521.3 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Procedures § 2521.3 Assignment...), assignments of desert-land entries were recognized, the Department of the Interior, largely for administrative reasons, held that a desert-land entry might be assigned as a whole or in its entirety, but refused...

  15. 43 CFR 2521.3 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Procedures § 2521.3 Assignment...), assignments of desert-land entries were recognized, the Department of the Interior, largely for administrative reasons, held that a desert-land entry might be assigned as a whole or in its entirety, but refused...

  16. 43 CFR 2521.3 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Procedures § 2521.3 Assignment...), assignments of desert-land entries were recognized, the Department of the Interior, largely for administrative reasons, held that a desert-land entry might be assigned as a whole or in its entirety, but refused...

  17. Lexical Stress Assignment in Italian Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paizi, Despina; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Burani, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Stress assignment to Italian polysyllabic words is unpredictable, because stress is neither marked nor predicted by rule. Stress assignment, especially to low frequency words, has been reported to be a function of stress dominance and stress neighbourhood. Two experiments investigate stress assignment in sixth-grade, skilled and dyslexic, readers.…

  18. 47 CFR 80.509 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 80.509 Section 80.509... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.509 Frequency assignment. Frequencies assignable to private coast stations and marine utility stations are listed in subpart H....

  19. 47 CFR 80.509 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 80.509 Section 80.509... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.509 Frequency assignment. Frequencies assignable to private coast stations and marine utility stations are listed in subpart H....

  20. 47 CFR 74.602 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.602 Section 74.602... Stations § 74.602 Frequency assignment. (a) The following frequencies are available for assignment to... to GSO FSS operations in the 12.75-13.25 GHz band. (1) Frequencies shown above between 2450 and...

  1. 47 CFR 74.602 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.602 Section 74.602... Stations § 74.602 Frequency assignment. (a) The following frequencies are available for assignment to... to GSO FSS operations in the 12.75-13.25 GHz band. (1) Frequencies shown above between 2450 and...

  2. 47 CFR 80.509 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 80.509 Section 80.509... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.509 Frequency assignment. Frequencies assignable to private coast stations and marine utility stations are listed in subpart H....

  3. 47 CFR 80.509 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 80.509 Section 80.509... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.509 Frequency assignment. Frequencies assignable to private coast stations and marine utility stations are listed in subpart H....

  4. 47 CFR 74.602 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.602 Section 74.602... Stations § 74.602 Frequency assignment. (a) The following frequencies are available for assignment to... to GSO FSS operations in the 12.75-13.25 GHz band. (1) Frequencies shown above between 2450 and...

  5. The Mechanism Design Approach to Student Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathak, Parag A.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism design approach to student assignment involves the theoretical, empirical, and experimental study of systems used to allocate students into schools around the world. Recent practical experience designing systems for student assignment has raised new theoretical questions for the theory of matching and assignment. This article reviews…

  6. 5 CFR 351.705 - Administrative assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative assignment. 351.705 Section 351.705 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Assignment Rights (Bump and Retreat) § 351.705 Administrative assignment. (a) An...

  7. Convergence properties of the softassign quadratic assignment algorithm.

    PubMed

    Rangarajan, A; Vuille, A; Mjolsness, E

    1999-08-15

    The softassign quadratic assignment algorithm is a discrete-time, continuous-state, synchronous updating optimizing neural network. While its effectiveness has been shown in the traveling salesman problem, graph matching, and graph partitioning in thousands of simulations, its convergence properties have not been studied. Here, we construct discrete-time Lyapunov functions for the cases of exact and approximate doubly stochastic constraint satisfaction, which show convergence to a fixed point. The combination of good convergence properties and experimental success makes the softassign algorithm an excellent choice for neural quadratic assignment optimization.

  8. Automated Negotiation for Resource Assignment in Wireless Surveillance Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    de la Hoz, Enrique; Gimenez-Guzman, Jose Manuel; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; Orden, David

    2015-11-24

    Due to the low cost of CMOS IP-based cameras, wireless surveillance sensor networks have emerged as a new application of sensor networks able to monitor public or private areas or even country borders. Since these networks are bandwidth intensive and the radioelectric spectrum is limited, especially in unlicensed bands, it is mandatory to assign frequency channels in a smart manner. In this work, we propose the application of automated negotiation techniques for frequency assignment. Results show that these techniques are very suitable for the problem, being able to obtain the best solutions among the techniques with which we have compared them.

  9. Automated Negotiation for Resource Assignment in Wireless Surveillance Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    de la Hoz, Enrique; Gimenez-Guzman, Jose Manuel; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; Orden, David

    2015-01-01

    Due to the low cost of CMOS IP-based cameras, wireless surveillance sensor networks have emerged as a new application of sensor networks able to monitor public or private areas or even country borders. Since these networks are bandwidth intensive and the radioelectric spectrum is limited, especially in unlicensed bands, it is mandatory to assign frequency channels in a smart manner. In this work, we propose the application of automated negotiation techniques for frequency assignment. Results show that these techniques are very suitable for the problem, being able to obtain the best solutions among the techniques with which we have compared them. PMID:26610512

  10. Comparing Examples: WebAssign versus Textbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Evan; Polak, Jeff; Hardin, Ashley; Risley, John, , Dr.

    2005-11-01

    Research shows students can learn from worked examples.^1 This pilot study compared two groups of students' performance (10 each) in solving physics problems. One group had access to interactive examples^2 released in WebAssign^3, while the other group had access to the counterpart textbook examples. Verbal data from students in problem solving sessions was collected using a think aloud protocol^4 and the data was analyzed using Chi's procedures.^5 An explanation of the methodology and results will be presented. Future phases of this pilot study based upon these results will also be discussed. ^1Atkinson, R.K., Derry, S.J., Renkl A., Wortham, D. (2000). ``Learning from Examples: Instructional Principles from the Worked Examples Research'', Review of Educational Research, vol. 70, n. 2, pp. 181-214. ^2Serway, R.A. & Faughn, J.S. (2006). College Physics (7^th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole. ^3 see www.webassign.net ^4 Ericsson, K.A. & Simon, H.A. (1984). Protocol Analysis: Verbal Reports as Data. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. ^5 Chi, Michelene T.H. (1997). ``Quantifying Qualitative Analyses of Verbal Data: A Practical Guide,'' The Journal of the Learning Sciences, vol. 6, n. 3, pp. 271-315.

  11. Development and application of an information-analytic system on the problem of flow accelerated corrosion of pipeline elements in the secondary coolant circuit of VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Povarov, V. P.; Shipkov, A. A.; Gromov, A. F.; Kiselev, A. N.; Shepelev, S. V.; Galanin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    Specific features relating to development of the information-analytical system on the problem of flow-accelerated corrosion of pipeline elements in the secondary coolant circuit of the VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant are considered. The results from a statistical analysis of data on the quantity, location, and operating conditions of the elements and preinserted segments of pipelines used in the condensate-feedwater and wet steam paths are presented. The principles of preparing and using the information-analytical system for determining the lifetime to reaching inadmissible wall thinning in elements of pipelines used in the secondary coolant circuit of the VVER-440-based power units at the Novovoronezh NPP are considered.

  12. On variant strategies to solve the magnitude least squares optimization problem in parallel transmission pulse design and under strict SAR and power constraints.

    PubMed

    Hoyos-Idrobo, A; Weiss, P; Massire, A; Amadon, A; Boulant, N

    2014-03-01

    Parallel transmission is a very promising candidate technology to mitigate the inevitable radio-frequency (RF) field inhomogeneity in magnetic resonance imaging at ultra-high field. For the first few years, pulse design utilizing this technique was expressed as a least squares problem with crude power regularizations aimed at controlling the specific absorption rate (SAR), hence the patient safety. This approach being suboptimal for many applications sensitive mostly to the magnitude of the spin excitation, and not its phase, the magnitude least squares (MLS) problem then was first formulated in 2007. Despite its importance and the availability of other powerful numerical optimization methods, the MLS problem yet has been faced almost exclusively by the pulse designer with the so-called variable exchange method. In this paper, we investigate various two-stage strategies consisting of different initializations and nonlinear programming approaches, and incorporate directly the strict SAR and hardware constraints. Several schemes such as sequential quadratic programming, interior point methods, semidefinite programming and magnitude squared least squares relaxations are studied both in the small and large tip angle regimes with RF and static field maps obtained in vivo on a human brain at 7T. Convergence and robustness of the different approaches are analyzed, and recommendations to tackle this specific problem are finally given. Small tip angle and inversion pulses are returned in a few seconds and in under a minute respectively while respecting the constraints, allowing the use of the proposed approach in routine.

  13. Dominant pole and eigenstructure assignment for positive systems with state feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhao; Lam, James

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the dominant pole assignment problem, the dominant eigenstructure assignment problem and the robust dominant pole assignment problem for linear time-invariant positive systems with state feedback are considered. The dominant pole assignment problem is formulated as a linear programming problem, and the dominant eigenstructure problem is formulated as a quasiconvex optimisation problem with linear constraints. The robust dominant pole assignment problem is formulated as a non-convex optimisation problem with non-linear constraints which is solved using particle swarm optimisation (PSO) with an efficient scheme which employs the dominant eigenstructure assignment technique to accelerate the convergence of the PSO procedure. Each of the three problems can be further constrained by requiring that the controller has a pre-specified structure, or the gain matrix have both elementwise upper and lower bounds. These constraints can be incorporated into the proposed scheme without increasing the complexity of the algorithms. Both the continuous-time case and the discrete-time case are treated in the paper.

  14. Value-of-information aware active task assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Beipeng; Chowdhary, Girish; How, Jonathan P.

    2013-05-01

    This paper discusses the problem of robust allocation of unmanned vehicles (T.N) to targets with uncertainties. In particular, the team consists of heterogeneous vehicles with different exploration and exploitation abilities. A general framework is presented to model uncertainties in the planning problems, which goes beyond traditional Gaussian noise. Traditionally, exploration and exploitation are decoupled into two assignment problems are planned with un-correlated goals. The coupled planning method considered here assign exploration vehicles based on its potential influence of the exploitation. Furthermore, a fully decentralized algorithm, Consensus-Based Bundle Algorithm (CBBA), is used to implement the decoupled and coupled methods. CBBA can handle system dynamic constraints such as target distance, vehicle velocities, and has computation complexity polynomial to the number of vehicles and targets. The coupled method is shown to have improved planning performance in a simulated scenario with uncertainties about target classification.

  15. The Problems of WARC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Ithiel de Sola

    1979-01-01

    Presents several anticipated problems to be handled at the 1979 World Administrative Conference including an orbital allocation plan, political and ideological issues concerning sovereignty and prior consent, spectrum assignments, and sharing of TV frequencies with land mobile radio. (JMF)

  16. Defining, assigning and designing sex.

    PubMed

    Chau, P-L; Herring, Jonathan

    2002-12-01

    This article challenges the distinction the law draws between male and female. It focuses on the legal and medical treatment of intersexual people. Analysing the nature and rate of intersexuality it argues that there is a significant number of people who cannot be described as either male or female and instead exhibit a range of sexual characteristics. Until recently the law and medicine have insisted that intersexual people should be categorized as either male or female. Surgery was performed to ensure that they had the appearance assumed to be the 'norm' for a man or woman and the law followed this medical assignment of sex. Over the last couple of years the established medical practice and the legal treatment have been challenged. This article discusses the nature of these challenges and argues that there is a strong case for rejecting the traditional legal and medical approach to intersexual people. Cosmetic surgery on intersexual babies should be delayed until the individual is old enough to be able to choose their own sexual identity, which may be neither male nor female. The insistence that every person must either be male or female is no longer supportable in medical or social terms and a much wider range of sexual identities must be recognized by the law.

  17. Caseload Assignments. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuRant, Bonnie V.; Gibbons, Linda J.; Poole, Cynthia; Suessmann, Mary; Wyckoff, Leah

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that schools should employ professionally prepared Registered Nurses, to conduct and supervise school health programs which address the variety of health problems experienced by school children. NASN recommends a formula-based approach with minimum ratios of nurses-to-students…

  18. Many small consumers, one growing problem: Achieving energy savings for electronic equipment operating in low power modes

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Christopher T.; Meier, Alan K.

    2004-08-24

    An increasing amount of electricity is used by equipment that is neither fully ''on'' nor fully ''off.'' We call these equipment states low power modes, or ''lopomos.'' ''Standby'' and ''sleep'' are the most familiar lopomos, but some new products already have many modes. Lopomos are becoming common in household appliances, safety equipment, and miscellaneous products. Ross and Meier (2000) reports that several international studies have found standby power to be as much as 10 percent of residential energy consumption. Lopomo energy consumption is likely to continue growing rapidly as products with lopomos that use significant amounts of energy penetrate the market. Other sectors such as commercial buildings and industry also have lopomo energy use, perhaps totaling more in aggregate than that of households, but no comprehensive measurements have been made. In this paper, we propose a research agenda for study of lopomo energy consumption. This agenda has been developed with input from over 200 interested parties. Overall, there is consensus that lopomo energy consumption is an important area for research. Many see this as a critical time for addressing lopomo issues. As equipment designs move from the binary ''on/off'' paradigm to one that encompasses multiple power modes, there is a unique opportunity to address the issue of low power mode energy consumption while technology development paths are still flexible.

  19. What's Missing When Empowerment Is a Purpose for Adult Literacies Education? Bourdieu, Gee and the Problem of Accounting for Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This writing critiques the idea that literacies education can and should empower adult learners. The ideas of Pierre Bourdieu and James Paul Gee are analysed with reference to how power and empowerment are understood and what this means for the concrete practice of adult literacies education by educators and students. My concern is that their…

  20. Preliminary analysis of problem of determining experimental performance of air-cooled turbine III : methods for determining power and efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr; Ziemer, Robert R

    1950-01-01

    Suggested formula are given for determining air-cooled turbine-performance characteristics, such as power and efficiency, as functions of certain parameters. These functions, generally being unknown, are determined from experimental data obtained from specific investigations. Special plotting methods for isolating the effect of each parameter are outlined.

  1. 48 CFR 211.274-5 - Policy for assignment of Government-assigned serial numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy for assignment of... Using and Maintaining Requirements Documents 211.274-5 Policy for assignment of Government-assigned serial numbers. It is DoD policy that contractors apply Government-assigned serial numbers, such as...

  2. 48 CFR 211.274-5 - Policy for assignment of Government-assigned serial numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy for assignment of... Using and Maintaining Requirements Documents 211.274-5 Policy for assignment of Government-assigned serial numbers. It is DoD policy that contractors apply Government-assigned serial numbers, such as...

  3. An Investigation of the Partial-Assignment Completion Effect on Students' Assignment Choice Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawthorn-Embree, Meredith L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Parkhurst, John; Conley, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the partial assignment completion effect. Seventh-grade students were given a math assignment. After working for 5 min, they were interrupted and their partially completed assignments were collected. About 20 min later, students were given their partially completed assignment and a new, control assignment…

  4. Assignments, Details, and Transfers: Enlisted Assignments and Utilization Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Pregnancies involving threatened miscarriage, breech birth, cesarean section , or RH incompatibility of spouse. (7) The problem expected to be resolved by...Department of Defense Directive (DODD) 1315.7. Special duty a s s i g n m e n t p a y ( S D A P ) i s a u t h o r i z e d under section 307, title 37...Contents (Listed by paragraph and page number) Chapter 1 Introduction, page 1 Section I General, page 1 Purpose • 1–1, page 1 References • 1–2, page 1

  5. The Predictive Power of Family History Measures of Alcohol and Drug Problems and Internalizing Disorders In A College Population

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Edwards, Alexis; Myers, John; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Dick, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    A family history (FH) of psychiatric and substance use problems is a potent risk factor for common internalizing and externalizing disorders. In a large web-based assessment of mental health in college students, we developed a brief set of screening questions for a FH of alcohol problems (AP), drug problems (DP) and depression-anxiety in four classes of relatives (father, mother, aunts/uncles/grandparents, and siblings) as reported by the student. Positive reports of a history of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety were substantially correlated within relatives. These FH measures predicted in the student, in an expected pattern, dimensions of personality and impulsivity, alcohol consumption and problems, smoking and nicotine dependence, use of illicit drugs, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using the mean score from the four classes of relatives was more predictive than using a familial/sporadic dichotomy. Interactions were seen between the FH of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety and peer deviance in predicting symptoms of alcohol and tobacco dependence. As the students aged, the FH of AP became a stronger predictor of alcohol problems. While we cannot directly assess the validity of these FH reports, the pattern of findings suggest that our brief screening items were able to assess, with some accuracy, the FH of substance misuse and internalizing psychiatric disorders in relatives. If correct, these measures can play an important role in the creation of developmental etiologic models for substance and internalizing psychiatric disorders which constitute one of the central goals of the overall project. PMID:25946510

  6. Reaction Based Grasp Force Assignment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-01

    position and internal force trajectory [32]. Yoshikawa et al. have proposed using forms of the so called hybrid position/force control; this method...object. Yoshikawa et al. have defined grasping and manipulative forces similar to the internal and external forces described above [63]. Some authors...methods to solve the problem [42]. Nakamura, Yoshikawa , and other authors have defined optimal contact forces as those which seek to minimize the

  7. Intermediate downshifted maximum of stimulated electromagnetic emission at high-power HF heating: A new twist on an old problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grach, S. M.; Sergeev, E. N.; Mishin, E. V.; Shindin, A. V.; McCarrick, M.

    2015-01-01

    We report a new spectral feature of Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) from the F region ionosphere observed during high-power HF heating experiments at the SURA and High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program heating facilities. It is located in the SEE spectrum between the pump wave frequency f0 and the well-known Downshifted Maximum and thus named the Intermediate Downshifted Maximum (IDM). IDM appears at effective radiated powers (ERP) P0≳30 MW and the pump frequencies above electron gyroharmonics, f0-sfce≳ 50 (up to 250) kHz (s = 2, 3, 4). It mirrors the well-known Upshifted Maximum (UM) relative to f0. The salient stationary and dynamic properties of IDM are described and discussed.

  8. Integer Linear Programming for Constrained Multi-Aspect Committee Review Assignment.

    PubMed

    Karimzadehgan, Maryam; Zhai, Chengxiang

    2012-07-01

    Automatic review assignment can significantly improve the productivity of many people such as conference organizers, journal editors and grant administrators. A general setup of the review assignment problem involves assigning a set of reviewers on a committee to a set of documents to be reviewed under the constraint of review quota so that the reviewers assigned to a document can collectively cover multiple topic aspects of the document. No previous work has addressed such a setup of committee review assignments while also considering matching multiple aspects of topics and expertise. In this paper, we tackle the problem of committee review assignment with multi-aspect expertise matching by casting it as an integer linear programming problem. The proposed algorithm can naturally accommodate any probabilistic or deterministic method for modeling multiple aspects to automate committee review assignments. Evaluation using a multi-aspect review assignment test set constructed using ACM SIGIR publications shows that the proposed algorithm is effective and efficient for committee review assignments based on multi-aspect expertise matching.

  9. Integer Linear Programming for Constrained Multi-Aspect Committee Review Assignment

    PubMed Central

    Karimzadehgan, Maryam; Zhai, ChengXiang

    2011-01-01

    Automatic review assignment can significantly improve the productivity of many people such as conference organizers, journal editors and grant administrators. A general setup of the review assignment problem involves assigning a set of reviewers on a committee to a set of documents to be reviewed under the constraint of review quota so that the reviewers assigned to a document can collectively cover multiple topic aspects of the document. No previous work has addressed such a setup of committee review assignments while also considering matching multiple aspects of topics and expertise. In this paper, we tackle the problem of committee review assignment with multi-aspect expertise matching by casting it as an integer linear programming problem. The proposed algorithm can naturally accommodate any probabilistic or deterministic method for modeling multiple aspects to automate committee review assignments. Evaluation using a multi-aspect review assignment test set constructed using ACM SIGIR publications shows that the proposed algorithm is effective and efficient for committee review assignments based on multi-aspect expertise matching. PMID:22711970

  10. 49 CFR 821.35 - Assignment, duties and powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... addressed to the Case Manager for handling by the chief law judge, who may handle these matters personally... of procedural requests or similar matters; (5) To rule on motions; (6) To regulate the conduct of... law judge shall withdraw from a proceeding if, at any time, he or she deems himself or...

  11. Power Play? Teacher Characteristics and Class Assignments. Working Paper 59

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalogrides, Demetra; Loeb, Susanna; Beteille, Tara

    2011-01-01

    While prior research has documented differences in the distribution of teacher characteristics across schools serving different student populations, few studies have examined how teacher sorting occurs within schools. Comparing teachers who teach in the same grade and school in a given year, the authors find less experienced, minority, and female…

  12. Spatio-temporal credit assignment in neuronal population learning.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Johannes; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

    2011-06-01

    In learning from trial and error, animals need to relate behavioral decisions to environmental reinforcement even though it may be difficult to assign credit to a particular decision when outcomes are uncertain or subject to delays. When considering the biophysical basis of learning, the credit-assignment problem is compounded because the behavioral decisions themselves result from the spatio-temporal aggregation of many synaptic releases. We present a model of plasticity induction for reinforcement learning in a population of leaky integrate and fire neurons which is based on a cascade of synaptic memory traces. Each synaptic cascade correlates presynaptic input first with postsynaptic events, next with the behavioral decisions and finally with external reinforcement. For operant conditioning, learning succeeds even when reinforcement is delivered with a delay so large that temporal contiguity between decision and pertinent reward is lost due to intervening decisions which are themselves subject to delayed reinforcement. This shows that the model provides a viable mechanism for temporal credit assignment. Further, learning speeds up with increasing population size, so the plasticity cascade simultaneously addresses the spatial problem of assigning credit to synapses in different population neurons. Simulations on other tasks, such as sequential decision making, serve to contrast the performance of the proposed scheme to that of temporal difference-based learning. We argue that, due to their comparative robustness, synaptic plasticity cascades are attractive basic models of reinforcement learning in the brain.

  13. 'The one with the purse makes policy': Power, problem definition, framing and maternal health policies and programmes evolution in national level institutionalised policy making processes in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Koduah, Augustina; Agyepong, Irene Akua; van Dijk, Han

    2016-10-01

    This paper seeks to advance our understanding of health policy agenda setting and formulation processes in a lower middle income country, Ghana, by exploring how and why maternal health policies and programmes appeared and evolved on the health sector programme of work agenda between 2002 and 2012. We theorized that the appearance of a policy or programme on the agenda and its fate within the programme of work is predominately influenced by how national level decision makers use their sources of power to define maternal health problems and frame their policy narratives. National level decision makers used their power sources as negotiation tools to frame maternal health issues and design maternal health policies and programmes within the framework of the national health sector programme of work. The power sources identified included legal and structural authority; access to authority by way of political influence; control over and access to resources (mainly financial); access to evidence in the form of health sector performance reviews and demographic health surveys; and knowledge of national plans such as Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy. Understanding of power sources and their use as negotiation tools in policy development should not be ignored in the pursuit of transformative change and sustained improvement in health systems in low- and middle income countries (LMIC).

  14. Problems and prospects connected with development of high-temperature filtration technology at nuclear power plants equipped with VVER-1000 reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchelik, S. V.; Pavlov, A. S.

    2013-07-01

    Results of work on restoring the service properties of filtering material used in the high-temperature reactor coolant purification system of a VVER-1000 reactor are presented. A quantitative assessment is given to the effect from subjecting a high-temperature sorbent to backwashing operations carried out with the use of regular capacities available in the design process circuit in the first years of operation of Unit 3 at the Kalinin nuclear power plant. Approaches to optimizing this process are suggested. A conceptual idea about comprehensively solving the problem of achieving more efficient and safe operation of the high-temperature active water treatment system (AWT-1) on a nuclear power industry-wide scale is outlined.

  15. Implementing Random Assignment: A Computer-Based Approach in a Field Experimental Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Douglas; Cook, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    A major problem in social science research is that of successfully carrying out the random assignment of persons to experimental and control groups. In this study a computer-based random assignment procedure operated successfully on a weekly basis for 17 consecutive weeks in a program serving over 360 ex-offenders. (CTM)

  16. Lotteries in Student Assignment: An Equivalence Result. NBER Working Paper No. 16140

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathak, Parag A.; Sethuraman, Jay

    2010-01-01

    This paper formally examines two competing methods of conducting a lottery in assigning students to schools, motivated by the design of the centralized high school student assignment system in New York City. The main result of the paper is that a single and multiple lottery mechanism are equivalent for the problem of allocating students to schools…

  17. Zero assignment and loop transfer recovery in LQG design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafai, B.; Beale, S.; Keel, L. H.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of loop transfer recovery (LTR) in linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) design via observers is discussed. The LTR for both minimum and nonminimum phase systems is considered. For minimum phase systems, perfect recovery approaches are provided based on Luenberger proportional observer and proportional integral observer. For nonminimum phase systems, recent LTR approaches are summarized and the possibility of a new technique based on zero assignment is examined.

  18. 32 CFR 1656.6 - Overseas assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.6 Overseas assignments. Alternative Service job assignments outside the United States, its... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico; (b) The job meets the criteria listed in § 1656.5(a); (c) The ASW and the...

  19. 32 CFR 1656.6 - Overseas assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.6 Overseas assignments. Alternative Service job assignments outside the United States, its... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico; (b) The job meets the criteria listed in § 1656.5(a); (c) The ASW and the...

  20. 7 CFR 247.21 - Caseload assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Caseload assignment. 247.21 Section 247.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.21 Caseload assignment. (a) How...

  1. 7 CFR 247.21 - Caseload assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Caseload assignment. 247.21 Section 247.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.21 Caseload assignment. (a) How...

  2. 7 CFR 247.21 - Caseload assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Caseload assignment. 247.21 Section 247.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.21 Caseload assignment. (a) How...

  3. 7 CFR 247.21 - Caseload assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Caseload assignment. 247.21 Section 247.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.21 Caseload assignment. (a) How...

  4. 7 CFR 247.21 - Caseload assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Caseload assignment. 247.21 Section 247.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.21 Caseload assignment. (a) How...

  5. 28 CFR 548.17 - Work assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT RELIGIOUS PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.17 Work assignments. When the religious tenets of an inmate's faith are violated or jeopardized by a particular work assignment,...

  6. 28 CFR 548.17 - Work assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT RELIGIOUS PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.17 Work assignments. When the religious tenets of an inmate's faith are violated or jeopardized by a particular work assignment,...

  7. 7 CFR 1467.17 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assignments. 1467.17 Section 1467.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.17 Assignments. Any...

  8. 7 CFR 623.19 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assignments. 623.19 Section 623.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.19 Assignments. Any participant...

  9. 36 CFR 228.52 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assignments. 228.52 Section 228.52 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.52 Assignments. (a) Limitations. A purchaser...

  10. Stress Assignment in Reading Italian Polysyllabic Pseudowords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulpizio, Simone; Arduino, Lisa S.; Paizi, Despina; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In 4 naming experiments we investigated how Italian readers assign stress to pseudowords. We assessed whether participants assign stress following distributional information such as stress neighborhood (the proportion and number of existent words sharing orthographic ending and stress pattern) and whether such distributional information affects…

  11. Gapminder: An AP Human Geography Lab Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    This lesson is designed as a lab assignment for Advanced Placement (AP) Human Geography students wherein they use the popular Gapminder web site to compare levels of development in countries from different world regions. For this lesson, it is important for the teacher to practice with Gapminder before giving the assignment to students. (Contains…

  12. 47 CFR 73.6006 - Channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel assignments. 73.6006 Section 73.6006... Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6006 Channel assignments. Class A TV stations will not be authorized on UHF TV channels 52 through 69, or on channels unavailable for TV broadcast station use...

  13. 47 CFR 73.6006 - Channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channel assignments. 73.6006 Section 73.6006... Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6006 Channel assignments. Class A TV stations will not be authorized on UHF TV channels 52 through 69, or on channels unavailable for TV broadcast station use...

  14. 7 CFR 1415.16 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assignments. 1415.16 Section 1415.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.16 Assignments. (a)...

  15. 7 CFR 1415.16 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assignments. 1415.16 Section 1415.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.16 Assignments. (a)...

  16. 7 CFR 1415.16 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignments. 1415.16 Section 1415.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.16 Assignments. (a)...

  17. 7 CFR 1415.16 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assignments. 1415.16 Section 1415.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.16 Assignments. (a)...

  18. 7 CFR 1415.16 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assignments. 1415.16 Section 1415.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRASSLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1415.16 Assignments. (a)...

  19. 7 CFR 784.15 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignments. 784.15 Section 784.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS 2004 EWE LAMB REPLACEMENT AND RETENTION PAYMENT PROGRAM § 784.15 Assignments. Any...

  20. 47 CFR 74.502 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.502 Section 74.502... § 74.502 Frequency assignment. (a) Except as provided in NG30, broadcast auxiliary stations licensed as... Frequency Allocations. These stations will be protected from possible interference caused by new users...

  1. 47 CFR 74.1202 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.1202 Section 74.1202... FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1202 Frequency assignment. (a) An applicant for a new FM broadcast... stations. The application must be specific with regard to the frequency requested. Only one output...

  2. 47 CFR 74.402 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.402 Section 74.402....402 Frequency assignment. Operation on all channels listed in this section (except: frequencies 26.07 MHz, 26.11 MHz, and 26.45 MHz, and frequencies listed in paragraphs (a)(4) and (c)(1) of this...

  3. 47 CFR 74.1202 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.1202 Section 74.1202... FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1202 Frequency assignment. (a) An applicant for a new FM broadcast... stations. The application must be specific with regard to the frequency requested. Only one output...

  4. 47 CFR 74.402 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.402 Section 74.402....402 Frequency assignment. Operation on all channels listed in this section (except: frequencies 26.07 MHz, 26.11 MHz, and 26.45 MHz, and frequencies listed in paragraphs (a)(4) and (c)(1) of this...

  5. 47 CFR 74.402 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.402 Section 74.402....402 Frequency assignment. Operation on all channels listed in this section (except: frequencies 26.07 MHz, 26.11 MHz, and 26.45 MHz, and frequencies listed in paragraphs (a)(4) and (c)(1) of this...

  6. 47 CFR 74.502 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.502 Section 74.502... § 74.502 Frequency assignment. (a) Except as provided in NG30, broadcast auxiliary stations licensed as... Frequency Allocations. These stations will be protected from possible interference caused by new users...

  7. 33 CFR 401.61 - Assigned frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assigned frequencies. 401.61 Section 401.61 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... frequencies. The Seaway stations operate on the following assigned VHF frequencies: 156.8 MHz—(channel...

  8. 47 CFR 74.103 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.103 Section 74.103....103 Frequency assignment. (a) Frequencies allocated to broadcasting and the various categories of auxiliary stations, in the FCC's Table of Frequency Allocations (Part 2 of this chapter), may be...

  9. 33 CFR 401.61 - Assigned frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assigned frequencies. 401.61 Section 401.61 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... frequencies. The Seaway stations operate on the following assigned VHF frequencies: 156.8 MHz—(channel...

  10. 47 CFR 74.103 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.103 Section 74.103....103 Frequency assignment. (a) Frequencies allocated to broadcasting and the various categories of auxiliary stations, in the FCC's Table of Frequency Allocations (Part 2 of this chapter), may be...

  11. 47 CFR 74.1202 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.1202 Section 74.1202... FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1202 Frequency assignment. (a) An applicant for a new FM broadcast... stations. The application must be specific with regard to the frequency requested. Only one output...

  12. 47 CFR 74.402 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.402 Section 74.402....402 Frequency assignment. Operation on all channels listed in this section (except: frequencies 26.07 MHz, 26.11 MHz, and 26.45 MHz, and frequencies listed in paragraphs (a)(4) and (c)(1) of this...

  13. 47 CFR 74.103 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.103 Section 74.103....103 Frequency assignment. (a) Frequencies allocated to broadcasting and the various categories of auxiliary stations, in the FCC's Table of Frequency Allocations (Part 2 of this chapter), may be...

  14. 47 CFR 74.402 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.402 Section 74.402....402 Frequency assignment. Operation on all channels listed in this section (except: frequencies 26.07 MHz, 26.11 MHz, and 26.45 MHz, and frequencies listed in paragraphs (a)(4) and (c)(1) of this...

  15. 47 CFR 74.502 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.502 Section 74.502... § 74.502 Frequency assignment. (a) Except as provided in NG30, broadcast auxiliary stations licensed as... Frequency Allocations. These stations will be protected from possible interference caused by new users...

  16. 33 CFR 401.61 - Assigned frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assigned frequencies. 401.61 Section 401.61 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... frequencies. The Seaway stations operate on the following assigned VHF frequencies: 156.8 MHz—(channel...

  17. 47 CFR 74.502 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.502 Section 74.502... § 74.502 Frequency assignment. (a) Except as provided in NG30, broadcast auxiliary stations licensed as... Frequency Allocations. These stations will be protected from possible interference caused by new users...

  18. 47 CFR 74.502 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency assignment. 74.502 Section 74.502... § 74.502 Frequency assignment. (a) Except as provided in NG30, broadcast auxiliary stations licensed as... Frequency Allocations. These stations will be protected from possible interference caused by new users...

  19. Detecting Plagiarism in MS Access Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Assurance of individual effort from students in computer-based assignments is a challenge. Due to digitization, students can easily use a copy of their friend's work and submit it as their own. Plagiarism in assignments puts students who cheat at par with those who work honestly and this compromises the learning evaluation process. Using a…

  20. An explicit solution to the exoatmospheric powered flight guidance and trajectory optimization problem for rocket propelled vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggers, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    A derivation of an explicit solution to the two point boundary-value problem of exoatmospheric guidance and trajectory optimization is presented. Fixed initial conditions and continuous burn, multistage thrusting are assumed. Any number of end conditions from one to six (throttling is required in the case of six) can be satisfied in an explicit and practically optimal manner. The explicit equations converge for off nominal conditions such as engine failure, abort, target switch, etc. The self starting, predictor/corrector solution involves no Newton-Rhapson iterations, numerical integration, or first guess values, and converges rapidly if physically possible. A form of this algorithm has been chosen for onboard guidance, as well as real time and preflight ground targeting and trajectory shaping for the NASA Space Shuttle Program.

  1. The effectiveness of expatriate coping strategies: the moderating role of cultural distance, position level, and time on the international assignment.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Günter K; Caligiuri, Paula

    2005-07-01

    On the basis of the stress and coping literature, the authors examined the diverse coping strategies used by expatriate managers in response to the problems encountered while on international assignments. It was hypothesized that although problem-focused coping strategies may be more effective than are emotion-focused coping strategies in affecting cross-cultural adjustment and intention to remain on the international assignment, the relationship is moderated by contextual factors such as hierarchical level in the organization, time on the assignment, and cultural distance. Coded semistructured interview responses from 116 German expatriates on assignment in either Japan or the United States were analyzed with moderated regression analyses. The results suggest that the effectiveness of problem-focused coping strategies in predicting cross-cultural adjustment is moderated by cultural distance and position level but not by time on the assignment. The use of problem-focused coping strategies was not related to expatriates' intention to remain on the assignment.

  2. A constraint-based assignment system for automating long side chain assignments in protein 2D NMR spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Leishman, S.; Gray, P.; Fothergill, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The sequential assignment of protein 2D NMR data has been tackled by many automated and semi-automated systems. One area that these systems have not tackled is the searching of the TOCSY spectrum looking for cross peaks and chemical shift values for hydrogen nuclei that are at the end of long side chains. This paper describes our system for solving this problem using constraint logic programming and compares our constraint satisfaction algorithm to a standard backtracking version.

  3. A General Chemistry Assignment Analyzing Environmental Contamination for the Depue, IL, National Superfund Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saslow Gomez, Sarah A.; Faurie-Wisniewski, Danielle; Parsa, Arlen; Spitz, Jeff; Spitz, Jennifer Amdur; Loeb, Nancy C.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-01-01

    The classroom exercise outlined here is a self-directed assignment that connects students to the environmental contamination problem surrounding the DePue Superfund site. By connecting chemistry knowledge gained in the classroom with a real-world problem, students are encouraged to personally connect with the problem while simultaneously…

  4. Demonstration of a Novel Synchrophasor-based Situational Awareness System: Wide Area Power System Visualization, On-line Event Replay and Early Warning of Grid Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Rosso, A.

    2012-12-31

    Since the large North Eastern power system blackout on August 14, 2003, U.S. electric utilities have spent lot of effort on preventing power system cascading outages. Two of the main causes of the August 14, 2003 blackout were inadequate situational awareness and inadequate operator training In addition to the enhancements of the infrastructure of the interconnected power systems, more research and development of advanced power system applications are required for improving the wide-area security monitoring, operation and planning in order to prevent large- scale cascading outages of interconnected power systems. It is critically important for improving the wide-area situation awareness of the operators or operational engineers and regional reliability coordinators of large interconnected systems. With the installation of large number of phasor measurement units (PMU) and the related communication infrastructure, it will be possible to improve the operators’ situation awareness and to quickly identify the sequence of events during a large system disturbance for the post-event analysis using the real-time or historical synchrophasor data. The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a novel synchrophasor-based comprehensive situational awareness system for control centers of power transmission systems. The developed system named WASA (Wide Area Situation Awareness) is intended to improve situational awareness at control centers of the power system operators and regional reliability coordinators. It consists of following main software modules: • Wide-area visualizations of real-time frequency, voltage, and phase angle measurements and their contour displays for security monitoring. • Online detection and location of a major event (location, time, size, and type, such as generator or line outage). • Near-real-time event replay (in seconds) after a major event occurs. • Early warning of potential wide-area stability problems. The system has been

  5. Simultaneous active and passive control for eigenstructure assignment in lightly damped systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richiedei, Dario; Trevisani, Alberto

    2017-02-01

    The assignment of the eigenstructure (i.e. eigenvalues and eigenvectors) in vibrating systems is an effective way to improve their dynamic performances. System controllability ensures that the poles of the controlled system are exactly assigned but it does not allow to assign arbitrary desired eigenvectors. To this purpose, this paper proposes a novel method for vibration control in lightly damped systems through the concurrent synthesis of passive structural modifications and active state (or state derivative) feedback control gains. Indeed, the suitable modification of the inertial and elastic parameters allows to enlarge the range of assignable eigenvectors. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem, where constraints are introduced to assure the feasibility of the physical system modifications while avoiding spillover phenomena. The experimental application to the eigenstructure assignment on a manipulator proves the method effectiveness.

  6. On job assignment for a parallel system of processor sharing queues

    SciTech Connect

    Bonomi, F. )

    1990-07-01

    Interest in the job assignment problem for parallel queues has been recently stimulated by research in the area of load balancing in distributed systems, where one is concerned with assigning tasks or processes to processors in order to achieve optimal system performance. However, most of the studies found in the literature refer to a system of parallel queues with FCFS service discipline, while it is well known that the processors sharing (PS) service discipline is often a better model for CPU scheduling in time-shared computer systems. In this paper, the authors underline some interesting peculiarities of the assignment problem with PS queues as compared to the usual case of the FCFS systems. Also, they propose an approach to the design of assignment algorithms which, in this case, produces solutions performing better than the well-known join-the-shortest-queue (JSQ) assignment rule.

  7. Neurodynamics-Based Robust Pole Assignment for High-Order Descriptor Systems.

    PubMed

    Le, Xinyi; Wang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a neurodynamic optimization approach is proposed for synthesizing high-order descriptor linear systems with state feedback control via robust pole assignment. With a new robustness measure serving as the objective function, the robust eigenstructure assignment problem is formulated as a pseudoconvex optimization problem. A neurodynamic optimization approach is applied and shown to be capable of maximizing the robust stability margin for high-order singular systems with guaranteed optimality and exact pole assignment. Two numerical examples and vehicle vibration control application are discussed to substantiate the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  8. Automated Assignment of Proposals to Reviewers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, Anil; Kantak, Anil

    2006-01-01

    A computer program automates the process of selecting unbiased peer reviewers of research proposals submitted to NASA. Heretofore, such selection has been performed by manual searching of two large databases subject to a set of assignment rules. One database lists proposals and proposers; the other database lists potential reviewers. The manual search takes an average of several weeks per proposal. In contrast, the present software can perform the selection in seconds. The program begins by selecting one entry from each database, then applying the assignment rules to this pair of entries. If and only if all the assignment rules are satisfied, the chosen reviewer is assigned to the chosen proposal. The assignment rules enforced by the program are (1) a maximum allowable number of proposals assigned to a single reviewer; (2) a maximum allowable number of reviewers assigned to a single proposal; (3) if the proposing team includes a member affiliated with an industry, then the reviewer must not be affiliated with any industry; and (4) the reviewer must not be a member of the proposing team or affiliated with the same institution as that of a member of the proposing team.

  9. Statistical mechanics of structural and temporal credit assignment effects on learning in neural networks.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiroshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okada, Masato

    2011-05-01

    Neural networks can learn flexible input-output associations by changing their synaptic weights. The representational performance and learning dynamics of neural networks are intensively studied in several fields. Neural networks face the "credit assignment problem" in situations in which only incomplete performance evaluations are available. The credit assignment problem is that a network should assign credit or blame for its behaviors according to the contribution to the network performance. In reinforcement learning, a scalar evaluation signal is delivered to a network. The two main types of credit assignment problems in reinforcement learning are structural and temporal, that is, which parameters of the network (structural) and which past network activities (temporal) are related to an evaluation signal given from an environment. In this study, we apply statistical mechanical analysis to the learning processes in a simple neural network model to clarify the effects of two kinds of credit assignments and their interactions. Our model is based on node perturbation learning with eligibility trace. Node perturbation is a stochastic gradient learning method that can solve structural credit assignment problems by introducing a perturbation into the system output. The eligibility trace preserves the past network activities with a temporal credit to deal with the delay of an instruction signal. We show that both credit assignment effects mutually interact and the optimal time constant of the eligibility trace varies not only for the evaluation delay but also the network size.

  10. Giving Power Its Due: The Powerful Possibilities and the Problems of Power with Deliberative Democracy and English Language Learners. A Response to "Deliberative Democracy in English-Language Education: Cultural and Linguistic Inclusion in the School Community"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Jarrod S.

    2015-01-01

    The use of deliberation with English Language Learners presents possibilities to both improve language learning, but also expand the potential for civics education for all students. In particular, this response examines the issue of power to extend Liggett's (2014) arguments for using deliberative democracy with English Language Learners and…

  11. Variable Temperature, Intensity Calibrated, Complete Submillimeter Spectra and Analysis for Astrophysical Assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortman, Sarah M.

    Traditional spectroscopic approaches which relied on quantum mechanical assignment have left astrophysical catalogs incomplete with regards to the perturbed excited vibrational/torsional states of several astrophysically common molecular species. The result is that many of the unidentified features in astrophysical spectra are due to already identified species in an excited state. The confusion of lines due to target species and lines due to molecular 'weeds', hinders the astronomers' ability to identify new molecules in astrophysical spectra. With the advent of powerful new telescopes this problem has been further exacerbated. This thesis describes a new approach for analyzing intensity calibrated laboratory spectra taken at many different temperatures. By analyzing these spectra together, it is possible to derive the lower state energy and transition strength for every spectral line without quantum mechanical assignment. These derived parameters can then be used to predict a complete spectrum, including the difficult to assign excited states, at astrophysically relevant temperatures. Unlike the astrophysical catalogs this approach is not limited to spectral lines. By using fitting parameters, every frequency point of laboratory data can be modeled and the entire spectral range can be predicted at an arbitrary temperature. This approach was developed, tested and refined while studying eight astrophysical 'weeds' in two frequency regions. In ethyl cyanide, vinyl cyanide and methanol, the three molecules for which rigorous analysis was completed, the lower state energies and transition strengths were determined for over 8200 currently uncataloged lines. An additional five molecules in the 210-270 GHz region have had preliminary analyses completed. Astrophysical data was obtained and compared to the complete spectra predicted from this analysis. The results yielded excellent matches for methyl cyanide, ethyl cyanide and vinyl cyanide including isotopologues and

  12. Electric power

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, M.

    1988-01-01

    This text examines the critical problems faced by the electric power industry, shown in the context of a detailed description of the history and development of the industry. A new industry initiative is proposed that will allow for a more effective response to industry fluctuations. Topics covered include developments in power technology federal nuclear power regulation and legislation, environmentalism and conservationism, industry financial problems, capital minimization, and responses to utility responsibility.

  13. Homework assignments in couple and family therapy.

    PubMed

    Dattilio, Frank M

    2002-05-01

    Homework has been cited as an integral part of a number of theoretical orientations and therapy formats; unfortunately, very little has been written about its use with couples and families. This is despite the fact that many couple and family therapists espouse the use of homework or out-of-session assignments in order to help the effects of therapy jell. This article reviews some of the empirical literature on homework assignments and their effectiveness in the domain of therapy for families and couples. It also highlights the effectiveness of and the need for out-of-session assignments in treatment. A case illustration is used to demonstrate how homework assignments may be used as a significant change agent in couple and family treatment.

  14. 12 CFR 25.28 - Assigned ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Discrimination against applicants on a prohibited basis in violation, for example, of the Equal Credit...) of this section on the bank's assigned rating, the OCC considers the nature, extent, and strength...

  15. 12 CFR 345.28 - Assigned ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable law, rule, or regulation includes, but is not limited to: (i) Discrimination against applicants on... section on the bank's assigned rating, the FDIC considers the nature, extent, and strength of the...

  16. A New Gimmick for Assigning Absolute Configuration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayorinde, F. O.

    1983-01-01

    A five-step procedure is provided to help students in making the assignment absolute configuration less bothersome. Examples for both single (2-butanol) and multi-chiral carbon (3-chloro-2-butanol) molecules are included. (JN)

  17. 47 CFR 74.1202 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1202 Frequency assignment. (a) An applicant for a new FM...

  18. 47 CFR 74.1202 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1202 Frequency assignment. (a) An applicant for a new FM...

  19. Directed self-assembly cut mask assignment for unidirectional design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Jiaojiao; Yu, Bei; Gao, Jhih-Rong; Pan, David Z.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, directed self-assembly (DSA) has emerged as a promising lithography solution for cut manufacturing. We perform a comprehensive study on the DSA aware mask optimization problem to provide a DSA friendly design on cut layers. We first formulate the problem as an integer linear programming (ILP) to assign cuts to different guiding templates, targeting both conflict minimization and line-end extension minimization. As ILP may not be scalable for very large size problems, we then propose two speed-up strategies. The first one is to decompose the initial problem into smaller ones and solve them separately, followed by solution merging without much loss of quality. The second one is using the set cover algorithm to decide the DSA guiding pattern assignment, and then legalize the template placement. Our approaches can be naturally extended to handle arbitrary DSA guiding template patterns with complicated shapes. Experimental results show that our methodologies can significantly improve the DSA friendly, i.e., both the unresolved pattern number and the line-end extensions can be reduced.

  20. Hermaphroditism: cytogenetics, gonadal pathology and gender assignment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Duncan, N D; Gabay, L; Williams, E; Dundas, S E; Plummer, N; Leake, P A

    2006-12-01

    True hermaphroditism is a rare intersex disorder in which individuals possess both testicular and ovarian gonadal tissue. A case of true unilateral hermaphroditism presenting with ambiguous external genitalia, right scrotal testis and left pelvic ovotestis is herein outlined Phallic, gonadal and genetic factors were considered before male gender was assigned. Gender assignment procedures have been questioned by intersex activists opposed to early genital surgery. Western societies have a binary perspective on gender and this leads to a stigma being placed on intersex cases. A multidisciplinary approach to this problem involving paediatric specialists in the field, of endocrinology, surgery and psychiatry is necessary, along with educational programmes that promote tolerance in society to variations in gender.

  1. Recent Power Quality Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Mutsumu; Kobayashi, Naoki

    With prevalence of high-specified equipment such as power electronics applied device, power quality problems are becoming concerned for both electric utilities and customers. This paper firstly describes what power quality problem is, and then, it outlines recent power quality technologies classified into those of immunity or emission side from the viewpoint of EMC concept, which is practical approach to consider these problems.

  2. Geomagnetic storm of 29-31 October 2003: Geomagnetically induced currents and their relation to problems in the Swedish high-voltage power transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkinen, Antti; Lindahl, Sture; Viljanen, Ari; Pirjola, Risto

    2005-08-01

    On 30 October 2003, an ongoing geomagnetic superstorm knocked down a part of the high-voltage power transmission system in southern Sweden. The blackout lasted for an hour and left about 50,000 customers without electricity. The incident was probably the most severe geomagnetically induced current (GIC) failure observed since the well-known March 1989 Québec blackout. The "three-phase" storm produced exceptionally large geomagnetic activity at the Fennoscandian auroral region. Although the diversity of the GIC drivers is addressed in the study, the problems in operating the Swedish system during the storm are attributed geophysically to substorms, storm sudden commencement, and enhanced ionospheric convection, all of which created large and complex geoelectric fields capable of driving large GIC. On the basis of the basic twofold nature of the failure-related geoelectric field characteristics, a semideterministic approach for forecasting GIC-related geomagnetic activity in which average overall activity is supplemented with statistical estimations of the amplitudes of GIC fluctuations is suggested. The study revealed that the primary mode of GIC-related failures in the Swedish high-voltage power transmission system were via harmonic distortions produced by GIC combined with too sensitive operation of the protective relays. The outage in Malmö on 30 October 2003 was caused by a combination of an abnormal switching state of the system and tripping of a low-set residual overcurrent relay that had a high sensitivity for the third harmonic of the fundamental frequency.

  3. 18 CFR 389.101 - OMB control numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OMB control numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act. 389.101 Section 389.101 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES OMB CONTROL...

  4. Reactive power optimization using fuzzy load representation

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul-Rahman, K.H.; Shahidehpour, S.M. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents a mathematical formulation for the optimal voltage/reactive power control problem taking into account linguistic declaration of system load values. The fuzzy set theory which is based on the feasibility rather than the frequency of occurrence of an outcome is considered, and possibility distributions are assigned to load values and bus voltages. The objective is to minimize power losses considering various load conditions. The problem is decomposed into four subproblems via the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition for reducing the dimensions of the problem. A second Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition divides each subproblem into several areas leading to a considerable reduction in the dimensions of subproblems. An illustrative example demonstrates the applicability of the approach. The fuzzy approach provides a global solution for the system behavior under various load conditions.

  5. Voltage scheduling for low power/energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzak, Ali

    2001-07-01

    Power considerations have become an increasingly dominant factor in the design of both portable and desk-top systems. An effective way to reduce power consumption is to lower the supply voltage since voltage is quadratically related to power. This dissertation considers the problem of lowering the supply voltage at (i) the system level and at (ii) the behavioral level. At the system level, the voltage of the variable voltage processor is dynamically changed with the work load. Processors with limited sized buffers as well as those with very large buffers are considered. Given the task arrival times, deadline times, execution times, periods and switching activities, task scheduling algorithms that minimize energy or peak power are developed for the processors equipped with very large buffers. A relation between the operating voltages of the tasks for minimum energy/power is determined using the Lagrange multiplier method, and an iterative algorithm that utilizes this relation is developed. Experimental results show that the voltage assignment obtained by the proposed algorithm is very close (0.1% error) to that of the optimal energy assignment and the optimal peak power (1% error) assignment. Next, on-line and off-fine minimum energy task scheduling algorithms are developed for processors with limited sized buffers. These algorithms have polynomial time complexity and present optimal (off-line) and close-to-optimal (on-line) solutions. A procedure to calculate the minimum buffer size given information about the size of the task (maximum, minimum), execution time (best case, worst case) and deadlines is also presented. At the behavioral level, resources operating at multiple voltages are used to minimize power while maintaining the throughput. Such a scheme has the advantage of allowing modules on the critical paths to be assigned to the highest voltage levels (thus meeting the required timing constraints) while allowing modules on non-critical paths to be assigned

  6. BDDCS Predictions, Self-Correcting Aspects of BDDCS Assignments, BDDCS Assignment Corrections, and Classification for more than 175 Additional Drugs.

    PubMed

    Hosey, Chelsea M; Chan, Rosa; Benet, Leslie Z

    2016-01-01

    The biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system was developed in 2005 by Wu and Benet as a tool to predict metabolizing enzyme and drug transporter effects on drug disposition. The system was modified from the biopharmaceutics classification system and classifies drugs according to their extent of metabolism and their water solubility. By 2010, Benet et al. had classified over 900 drugs. In this paper, we incorporate more than 175 drugs into the system and amend the classification of 13 drugs. We discuss current and additional applications of BDDCS, which include predicting drug-drug and endogenous substrate interactions, pharmacogenomic effects, food effects, elimination routes, central nervous system exposure, toxicity, and environmental impacts of drugs. When predictions and classes are not aligned, the system detects an error and is able to self-correct, generally indicating a problem with initial class assignment and/or measurements determining such assignments.

  7. Band head spin assignment of superdeformed bands in 86Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadwal, Anshul; Mittal, H. M.

    2016-11-01

    Two parameter expressions for rotational spectra viz. variable moment of inertia (VMI), ab formula and three parameter Harris ω 2 expansion are used to assign the band head spins (I 0) of four rotational superdeformed bands in 86Zr. The least-squares fitting method is employed to obtain the band head spins of these four bands in the A ∼ 80 mass region. Model parameters are extracted by fitting of intraband γ-ray energies, so as to obtain a minimum root-mean-square (rms) deviation between the calculated and the observed transition energies. The calculated transition energies are found to depend sensitively on the assigned spins. Whenever an accurate band head spin is assigned, the calculated transition energies are in agreement with the experimental transition energies. The dynamic moment of inertia is also extracted and its variation with rotational frequency is investigated. Since a better agreement of band head spin with experimental results is found using the VMI model, it is a more powerful tool than the ab formula and Harris ω 2 expansion.

  8. The Power of Problem Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Katherine A. G.

    2012-01-01

    During the winter of 2011, the author faced an instructional dilemma: Should she teach the concept of adding and subtracting fractions with unlike denominators using a "quick trick" for the sake of staying on schedule, or should she try something different in hopes that her students would gain understanding through their own methods? The latter…

  9. Credit assignment in movement-dependent reinforcement learning

    PubMed Central

    Boggess, Matthew J.; Crossley, Matthew J.; Parvin, Darius; Ivry, Richard B.; Taylor, Jordan A.

    2016-01-01

    When a person fails to obtain an expected reward from an object in the environment, they face a credit assignment problem: Did the absence of reward reflect an extrinsic property of the environment or an intrinsic error in motor execution? To explore this problem, we modified a popular decision-making task used in studies of reinforcement learning, the two-armed bandit task. We compared a version in which choices were indicated by key presses, the standard response in such tasks, to a version in which the choices were indicated by reaching movements, which affords execution failures. In the key press condition, participants exhibited a strong risk aversion bias; strikingly, this bias reversed in the reaching condition. This result can be explained by a reinforcement model wherein movement errors influence decision-making, either by gating reward prediction errors or by modifying an implicit representation of motor competence. Two further experiments support the gating hypothesis. First, we used a condition in which we provided visual cues indicative of movement errors but informed the participants that trial outcomes were independent of their actual movements. The main result was replicated, indicating that the gating process is independent of participants’ explicit sense of control. Second, individuals with cerebellar degeneration failed to modulate their behavior between the key press and reach conditions, providing converging evidence of an implicit influence of movement error signals on reinforcement learning. These results provide a mechanistically tractable solution to the credit assignment problem. PMID:27247404

  10. Credit assignment in movement-dependent reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    McDougle, Samuel D; Boggess, Matthew J; Crossley, Matthew J; Parvin, Darius; Ivry, Richard B; Taylor, Jordan A

    2016-06-14

    When a person fails to obtain an expected reward from an object in the environment, they face a credit assignment problem: Did the absence of reward reflect an extrinsic property of the environment or an intrinsic error in motor execution? To explore this problem, we modified a popular decision-making task used in studies of reinforcement learning, the two-armed bandit task. We compared a version in which choices were indicated by key presses, the standard response in such tasks, to a version in which the choices were indicated by reaching movements, which affords execution failures. In the key press condition, participants exhibited a strong risk aversion bias; strikingly, this bias reversed in the reaching condition. This result can be explained by a reinforcement model wherein movement errors influence decision-making, either by gating reward prediction errors or by modifying an implicit representation of motor competence. Two further experiments support the gating hypothesis. First, we used a condition in which we provided visual cues indicative of movement errors but informed the participants that trial outcomes were independent of their actual movements. The main result was replicated, indicating that the gating process is independent of participants' explicit sense of control. Second, individuals with cerebellar degeneration failed to modulate their behavior between the key press and reach conditions, providing converging evidence of an implicit influence of movement error signals on reinforcement learning. These results provide a mechanistically tractable solution to the credit assignment problem.

  11. Writing Assignments that Promote Active Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Encourage students to write a detailed, analytical report correlating classroom discussions to an important historical event or a current event. Motivate students interview an expert from industry on a topic that was discussed in class. Ask the students to submit a report with supporting sketches, drawings, circuit diagrams and graphs. Propose that the students generate a complete a set of reading responses pertaining to an assigned topic. Require each student to bring in one comment or one question about an assigned reading. The assignment should be a recent publication in an appropriate journal. Have the students conduct a web search on an assigned topic. Ask them to generate a set of ideas that can relate to classroom discussions. Provide the students with a study guide. The study guide should provide about 10 or 15 short topics. Quiz the students on one or two of the topics. Encourage the students to design or develop some creative real-world examples based on a chapter discussed or a topic of interest. Require that students originate, develop, support and defend a viewpoint using a specifically assigned material. Make the students practice using or utilizing a set of new technical terms they have encountered in an assigned chapter. Have students develop original examples explaining the different terms. Ask the students to select one important terminology from the previous classroom discussions. Encourage the students to explain why they selected that particular word. Ask them to talk about the importance of the terminology from the point of view of their educational objectives and future career. Angelo, T. A. (1991). Ten easy pieces: Assessing higher learning in four dimensions. In T. A. Angelo (Ed.), Classroom research: Early lessons from success (pp. 17-31). New Directions for Teaching and Learning, No. 46. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  12. Performance evaluation of distributed wavelength assignment in WDM optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashiguchi, Tomohiro; Wang, Xi; Morikawa, Hiroyuki; Aoyama, Tomonori

    2004-04-01

    In WDM wavelength routed networks, prior to a data transfer, a call setup procedure is required to reserve a wavelength path between the source-destination node pairs. A distributed approach to a connection setup can achieve a very high speed, while improving the reliability and reducing the implementation cost of the networks. However, along with many advantages, several major challenges have been posed by the distributed scheme in how the management and allocation of wavelength could be efficiently carried out. In this thesis, we apply a distributed wavelength assignment algorithm named priority based wavelength assignment (PWA) that was originally proposed for the use in burst switched optical networks to the problem of reserving wavelengths of path reservation protocols in the distributed control optical networks. Instead of assigning wavelengths randomly, this approach lets each node select the "safest" wavelengths based on the information of wavelength utilization history, thus unnecessary future contention is prevented. The simulation results presented in this paper show that the proposed protocol can enhance the performance of the system without introducing any apparent drawbacks.

  13. Multi-input partial eigenvalue assignment for high order control systems with time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we consider the partial eigenvalue assignment problem for high order control systems with time delay. Ram et al. (2011) [1] have shown that a hybrid method can be used to solve partial quadratic eigenvalue assignment problem of single-input vibratory system. Based on this theory, a rather simple algorithm for solving multi-input partial eigenvalue assignment for high order control systems with time delay is proposed. Our method can assign the expected eigenvalues and keep the no spillover property. The solution can be implemented with only partial information of the eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors of the matrix polynomial. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the efficiency of our approach.

  14. Smart Power Supply for Battery-Powered Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael J.; Greer, Lawrence; Prokop, Norman F.; Flatico, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    A power supply for battery-powered systems has been designed with an embedded controller that is capable of monitoring and maintaining batteries, charging hardware, while maintaining output power. The power supply is primarily designed for rovers and other remote science and engineering vehicles, but it can be used in any battery alone, or battery and charging source applications. The supply can function autonomously, or can be connected to a host processor through a serial communications link. It can be programmed a priori or on the fly to return current and voltage readings to a host. It has two output power busses: a constant 24-V direct current nominal bus, and a programmable bus for output from approximately 24 up to approximately 50 V. The programmable bus voltage level, and its output power limit, can be changed on the fly as well. The power supply also offers options to reduce the programmable bus to 24 V when the set power limit is reached, limiting output power in the case of a system fault detected in the system. The smart power supply is based on an embedded 8051-type single-chip microcontroller. This choice was made in that a credible progression to flight (radiation hard, high reliability) can be assumed as many 8051 processors or gate arrays capable of accepting 8051-type core presently exist and will continue to do so for some time. To solve the problem of centralized control, this innovation moves an embedded microcontroller to the power supply and assigns it the task of overseeing the operation and charging of the power supply assets. This embedded processor is connected to the application central processor via a serial data link such that the central processor can request updates of various parameters within the supply, such as battery current, bus voltage, remaining power in battery estimations, etc. This supply has a direct connection to the battery bus for common (quiescent) power application. Because components from multiple vendors may have

  15. What's What: The (Nearly) Definitive Guide to Reaction Role Assignment.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Nadine; Stiefl, Nikolaus; Landrum, Gregory A

    2016-12-27

    When analyzing chemical reactions it is essential to know which molecules are actively involved in the reaction and which educts will form the product molecules. Assigning reaction roles, like reactant, reagent, or product, to the molecules of a chemical reaction might be a trivial problem for hand-curated reaction schemes but it is more difficult to automate, an essential step when handling large amounts of reaction data. Here, we describe a new fingerprint-based and data-driven approach to assign reaction roles which is also applicable to rather unbalanced and noisy reaction schemes. Given a set of molecules involved and knowing the product(s) of a reaction we assign the most probable reactants and sort out the remaining reagents. Our approach was validated using two different data sets: one hand-curated data set comprising about 680 diverse reactions extracted from patents which span more than 200 different reaction types and include up to 18 different reactants. A second set consists of 50 000 randomly picked reactions from US patents. The results of the second data set were compared to results obtained using two different atom-to-atom mapping algorithms. For both data sets our method assigns the reaction roles correctly for the vast majority of the reactions, achieving an accuracy of 88% and 97% respectively. The median time needed, about 8 ms, indicates that the algorithm is fast enough to be applied to large collections. The new method is available as part of the RDKit toolkit and the data sets and Jupyter notebooks used for evaluation of the new method are available in the Supporting Information of this publication.

  16. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  17. A Photographic Assignment for Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrington, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a simple photographic assignment appropriate for an abstract algebra (or other) course. Students take digital pictures around campus of various examples of symmetry. They then classify these pictures according to which of the 17 plane symmetry groups they belong. (Contains 2 figures.)

  18. On Online Assignments in a Calculus Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungic, Veselin; Kent, Deborah; Menz, Petra

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our experience with the creation and utilization of online assignments for several calculus classes at Simon Fraser University (SFU). We present our findings regarding available software by considering the needs and perspectives of the instructors, students, and administrators. We provide a list of questions that guide…

  19. Designing and Grading Oral Communication Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Brooke L.

    1998-01-01

    To address concerns that college students do not develop adequate oral communication skills, guidelines are offered to faculty for designing oral presentation assignments within their courses, developing grading criteria, guiding students in their preparation for speaking, and addressing some of the unique challenges of this process, which include…

  20. 33 CFR 401.61 - Assigned frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assigned frequencies. 401.61 Section 401.61 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Radio Communications § 401.61...

  1. Accounting for Sustainability: An Active Learning Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gusc, Joanna; van Veen-Dirks, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Sustainability is one of the newer topics in the accounting courses taught in university teaching programs. The active learning assignment as described in this paper was developed for use in an accounting course in an undergraduate program. The aim was to enhance teaching about sustainability within such a course. The purpose of this…

  2. Assigning Grammatical Gender during Word Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Virginia M.; Segui, Juan

    2006-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the processes by which grammatical gender is assigned during word production. French words varied in strength of sublexical cues, based on whether the word ending was typical for one gender rather than neutral about gender, and lexical cues, derived from the associated definite article being uninformative…

  3. Feedback for Web-based Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Betty; De Boer, W.; Slotman, K.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a concept used at the University of Twente based on increased flexibility in learning options and the active student in which there are assignments submitted and monitored via a Web-based course management system. Outlines conceptual aspects of feedback as part of the assessment process, particularly feedback supported by a Web-based…

  4. Teaching Historical Analysis through Creative Writing Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Janine Larmon; Graham, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating creative writing exercises in history courses can heighten students' critical reading and analytical skills in an active learning model. We identify and define two types of possible assignments that use model texts as their locus: centripetal, which focuses on specific context and disciplinary terms, and centrifugal, which address…

  5. Effects of Assigning Raters to Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Robert C.; Ito, Kyoko; Wang, Zhen

    2008-01-01

    Student responses to a large number of constructed response items in three Math and three Reading tests were scored on two occasions using three ways of assigning raters: single reader scoring, a different reader for each response (item-specific), and three readers each scoring a rater item block (RIB) containing approximately one-third of a…

  6. 7 CFR 1450.9 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assignments. 1450.9 Section 1450.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP) Common...

  7. 7 CFR 1450.9 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assignments. 1450.9 Section 1450.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP) Common...

  8. 7 CFR 1450.9 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assignments. 1450.9 Section 1450.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP) Common...

  9. 7 CFR 1450.9 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assignments. 1450.9 Section 1450.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP) Common...

  10. 7 CFR 601.1 - Functions assigned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... National Weather Service, the data is assembled and analyzed. Then, NRCS staff develop seasonal water... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.1 Functions assigned. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)...

  11. 7 CFR 601.1 - Functions assigned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... National Weather Service, the data is assembled and analyzed. Then, NRCS staff develop seasonal water... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.1 Functions assigned. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)...

  12. 7 CFR 601.1 - Functions assigned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... National Weather Service, the data is assembled and analyzed. Then, NRCS staff develop seasonal water... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.1 Functions assigned. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)...

  13. 7 CFR 601.1 - Functions assigned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... National Weather Service, the data is assembled and analyzed. Then, NRCS staff develop seasonal water... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.1 Functions assigned. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)...

  14. 7 CFR 601.1 - Functions assigned.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... National Weather Service, the data is assembled and analyzed. Then, NRCS staff develop seasonal water... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL FUNCTIONS § 601.1 Functions assigned. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)...

  15. 47 CFR 74.602 - Frequency assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... as described in paragraph (i) of this section. Broadcast network-entities may also use the 1990-2110... Remote Pickup Service, and Local Television Transmission Service licensees will be required to use the... existing users in the area. The Commission reserves the right to assign frequencies other than...

  16. Teachers' Grading Practices: Meaning and Values Assigned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Youyi; Cheng, Liying

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the meaning Chinese secondary school English language teachers associate with the grades they assign to their students, and the value judgements they make in grading. A questionnaire was issued to 350 junior and senior school English language teachers in China. The questionnaire data were analysed both quantitatively and…

  17. The Civic Awareness and Imagination Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engen, David E.

    2005-01-01

    There exists a natural connection between civic engagement and the public speaking class. Too often, however, this connection remains indirect at best and lost in a sea of uninspired topic selections and convenient source cites at worst. This assignment offers one way to help public speaking students increase their civic awareness and imagination…

  18. 33 CFR 401.61 - Assigned frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assigned frequencies. 401.61 Section 401.61 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Radio Communications § 401.61...

  19. Systematic Sorting: Teacher Characteristics and Class Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalogrides, Demetra; Loeb, Susanna; Beteille, Tara

    2013-01-01

    Although prior research has documented differences in the distribution of teacher characteristics across schools serving different student populations, few studies have examined the extent to which teacher sorting occurs within schools. This study uses data from one large urban school district and compares the class assignments of teachers who…

  20. 7 CFR 1430.218 - Assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignments. 1430.218 Section 1430.218 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program §...

  1. Assignment Of Finite Elements To Parallel Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Moktar A.; Flower, Jon W.; Otto, Steve W.

    1990-01-01

    Elements assigned approximately optimally to subdomains. Mapping algorithm based on simulated-annealing concept used to minimize approximate time required to perform finite-element computation on hypercube computer or other network of parallel data processors. Mapping algorithm needed when shape of domain complicated or otherwise not obvious what allocation of elements to subdomains minimizes cost of computation.

  2. 24 CFR 221.255 - Assignment option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations-Low Cost Homes § 221.255.... (b) The mortgagee may exercise its assignment option within 1 year following the...

  3. 24 CFR 221.255 - Assignment option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations-Low Cost Homes § 221.255.... (b) The mortgagee may exercise its assignment option within 1 year following the...

  4. 24 CFR 221.255 - Assignment option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations-Low Cost Homes § 221.255.... (b) The mortgagee may exercise its assignment option within 1 year following the...

  5. 24 CFR 221.255 - Assignment option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations-Low Cost Homes § 221.255.... (b) The mortgagee may exercise its assignment option within 1 year following the...

  6. Perceiving and Using Slanting Devices: Two Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Charles B.

    1989-01-01

    Outlines two assignments: (1) analyzing an article from the popular press for its use of slanting and propaganda devices; and (2) writing an article that incorporates various techniques of slanting and propagandizing. Includes two "slanted" articles about Walter Mondale's presidential campaign to use in this exercise. (MM)

  7. Dynamic traffic assignment on parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, K.; Frye, R.; Jakob, R.; Rickert, M.; Stretz, P.

    1998-12-01

    The authors describe part of the current framework of the TRANSIMS traffic research project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It includes parallel implementations of a route planner and a microscopic traffic simulation model. They present performance figures and results of an offline load-balancing scheme used in one of the iterative re-planning runs required for dynamic route assignment.

  8. 7 CFR 760.31 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assignment. 760.31 Section 760.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Indemnity Payment Program General Provisions §...

  9. 7 CFR 760.31 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assignment. 760.31 Section 760.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Indemnity Payment Program General Provisions §...

  10. 7 CFR 760.31 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignment. 760.31 Section 760.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Indemnity Payment Program General Provisions §...

  11. 7 CFR 760.31 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assignment. 760.31 Section 760.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Indemnity Payment Program General Provisions §...

  12. 7 CFR 760.31 - Assignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assignment. 760.31 Section 760.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Indemnity Payment Program General Provisions §...

  13. 47 CFR 78.18 - Frequency assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 78.18 Frequency assignments. (a) The Cable Television Relay Service is... following GROUP A CHANNELS. 2 See paragraph (l) of this section. (4) The Cable Television Relay Service...

  14. 47 CFR 78.18 - Frequency assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 78.18 Frequency assignments. (a) The Cable Television Relay Service is... following GROUP A CHANNELS. 2 See paragraph (l) of this section. (4) The Cable Television Relay Service...

  15. 47 CFR 78.18 - Frequency assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 78.18 Frequency assignments. (a) The Cable Television Relay Service is... following GROUP A CHANNELS. 2 See paragraph (l) of this section. (4) The Cable Television Relay Service...

  16. 47 CFR 78.18 - Frequency assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 78.18 Frequency assignments. (a) The Cable Television Relay Service is... following GROUP A CHANNELS. 2 See paragraph (l) of this section. (4) The Cable Television Relay Service...

  17. The Well-Tempered Mathematics Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rishel, Thomas W.

    Mathematics faculty around the United States are using writing assignments in a variety of ways. A mathematics teacher at Alma College, Michigan, has students write mathematical autobiographies, keep a reading logbook, and write letters to other students about the course, letters to instructors about the topics, or about what they do not…

  18. 32 CFR 241.3 - Assignment authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assignment authority. 241.3 Section 241.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PILOT PROGRAM FOR TEMPORARY EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PERSONNEL § 241.3...

  19. Writing Assignments Based on Literary Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The literature selections serving as the basis for writing assignments in the articles in this journal issue range from time-honored English classics ("Beowulf,""Sir Gawain and the Green Knight") and American standards ("A Farewell to Arms,""The Scarlet Letter") to contemporary fiction. The articles deal with works by women writers (Shirley…

  20. A Literature Assignment with a Civic Emphasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brough, Barbara L.

    1989-01-01

    Describes how students wrestled with an assignment that asked them to name their heroes or heroines, compare them to "Beowulf," and defend their choices in writing and class discussion. Tells how students gained insight into their community and the ways in which people make it better. (MG)

  1. An automated framework for NMR resonance assignment through simultaneous slice picking and spin system forming.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ahmed; Guo, Xianrong; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin

    2014-06-01

    Despite significant advances in automated nuclear magnetic resonance-based protein structure determination, the high numbers of false positives and false negatives among the peaks selected by fully automated methods remain a problem. These false positives and negatives impair the performance of resonance assignment methods. One of the main reasons for this problem is that the computational research community often considers peak picking and resonance assignment to be two separate problems, whereas spectroscopists use expert knowledge to pick peaks and assign their resonances at the same time. We propose a novel framework that simultaneously conducts slice picking and spin system forming, an essential step in resonance assignment. Our framework then employs a genetic algorithm, directed by both connectivity information and amino acid typing information from the spin systems, to assign the spin systems to residues. The inputs to our framework can be as few as two commonly used spectra, i.e., CBCA(CO)NH and HNCACB. Different from the existing peak picking and resonance assignment methods that treat peaks as the units, our method is based on 'slices', which are one-dimensional vectors in three-dimensional spectra that correspond to certain ([Formula: see text]) values. Experimental results on both benchmark simulated data sets and four real protein data sets demonstrate that our method significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods while using a less number of spectra than those methods. Our method is freely available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/Pages/Software.aspx.

  2. Single machine scheduling and due date assignment with past-sequence-dependent setup time and position-dependent processing time.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chuan-Li; Hsu, Chou-Jung; Hsu, Hua-Feng

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers single machine scheduling and due date assignment with setup time. The setup time is proportional to the length of the already processed jobs; that is, the setup time is past-sequence-dependent (p-s-d). It is assumed that a job's processing time depends on its position in a sequence. The objective functions include total earliness, the weighted number of tardy jobs, and the cost of due date assignment. We analyze these problems with two different due date assignment methods. We first consider the model with job-dependent position effects. For each case, by converting the problem to a series of assignment problems, we proved that the problems can be solved in O(n(4)) time. For the model with job-independent position effects, we proved that the problems can be solved in O(n(3)) time by providing a dynamic programming algorithm.

  3. P-LOCI: a computer program for choosing the most efficient set of loci for parentage assignment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determining which and how many codominant marker loci are required for accurate parentage assignment is not straightforward because levels of marker polymorphism and linkage, allelic distributions among potential parents and other factors produce differences in the discriminatory power of individual...

  4. Implementation and Performance Analysis of Parallel Assignment Algorithms on a Hypercube Computer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    I 1.1 SDI And Parallel Computing .. .. ... .... ... ..... 1.2 The Assignment Problem . .. .. .... ... .... ..... 4 1.3...Overhead ................. 17 2.3.3 Problem Partitioning ..... ................ 18 2.3.4 Load Balancing ...... ................... 19 2.3.5 Use of...21 2.4.2 Parallel Branch and Bound ................. 21 2.4.3 The Traveling Salesman Problem .... ......... 21 2.4.4 Gaussian Elimination

  5. 29 CFR 785.37 - Home to work on special one-day assignment in another city.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Home to work on special one-day assignment in another city... another city. A problem arises when an employee who regularly works at a fixed location in one city is given a special 1-day work assignment in another city. For example, an employee who works in...

  6. Problems on Divisibility of Binomial Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Thomas J.; Smoak, James

    2004-01-01

    Twelve unusual problems involving divisibility of the binomial coefficients are represented in this article. The problems are listed in "The Problems" section. All twelve problems have short solutions which are listed in "The Solutions" section. These problems could be assigned to students in any course in which the binomial theorem and Pascal's…

  7. Failure at the top: How power undermines collaborative performance.

    PubMed

    Hildreth, John Angus D; Anderson, Cameron

    2016-02-01

    All too commonly, we see groups of leaders fail to accomplish their stated goals when working together--legislators who cannot agree on a bill, heads of state who cannot draft meaningful environmental policy, or boards of trustees who make disastrous decisions for their school. The current research examines whether groups of leaders fail as often as they do in part because of the power each leader is accustomed to possessing among his or her constituents. In multiple studies we found that high power individuals, when working together in groups, performed worse than did other groups: individuals randomly assigned power in an initial task were less creative when they then worked together in groups on a subsequent task (Studies 1A and 4). Individuals with higher power who worked together in groups were also less likely to reach agreement on a difficult negotiation task, whether these groups comprised actual executives from an extant organization (Study 2) or participants randomly assigned power in the laboratory (Study 3). Mediation analyses suggest that groups of high power individuals performed worse because they fought over their relative status in the group, were less focused on the task, and shared information with each other less effectively. However, high power individuals were more effective when working on tasks that required less coordination: they were more creative (Studies 1B and 4) and persisted longer on a difficult task than other groups. Therefore, group processes are the key problem for groups of high power individuals when they work together.

  8. Accurate taxonomic assignment of short pyrosequencing reads.

    PubMed

    Clemente, José C; Jansson, Jesper; Valiente, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Ambiguities in the taxonomy dependent assignment of pyrosequencing reads are usually resolved by mapping each read to the lowest common ancestor in a reference taxonomy of all those sequences that match the read. This conservative approach has the drawback of mapping a read to a possibly large clade that may also contain many sequences not matching the read. A more accurate taxonomic assignment of short reads can be made by mapping each read to the node in the reference taxonomy that provides the best precision and recall. We show that given a suffix array for the sequences in the reference taxonomy, a short read can be mapped to the node of the reference taxonomy with the best combined value of precision and recall in time linear in the size of the taxonomy subtree rooted at the lowest common ancestor of the matching sequences. An accurate taxonomic assignment of short reads can thus be made with about the same efficiency as when mapping each read to the lowest common ancestor of all matching sequences in a reference taxonomy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on several metagenomic datasets of marine and gut microbiota.

  9. Students' Achievement and Homework Assignment Strategies.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alonso, Rubén; Álvarez-Díaz, Marcos; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Muñiz, José

    2017-01-01

    The optimum time students should spend on homework has been widely researched although the results are far from unanimous. The main objective of this research is to analyze how homework assignment strategies in schools affect students' academic performance and the differences in students' time spent on homework. Participants were a representative sample of Spanish adolescents (N = 26,543) with a mean age of 14.4 (±0.75), 49.7% girls. A test battery was used to measure academic performance in four subjects: Spanish, Mathematics, Science, and Citizenship. A questionnaire allowed the measurement of the indicators used for the description of homework and control variables. Two three-level hierarchical-linear models (student, school, autonomous community) were produced for each subject being evaluated. The relationship between academic results and homework time is negative at the individual level but positive at school level. An increase in the amount of homework a school assigns is associated with an increase in the differences in student time spent on homework. An optimum amount of homework is proposed which schools should assign to maximize gains in achievement for students overall.

  10. Students' Achievement and Homework Assignment Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Alonso, Rubén; Álvarez-Díaz, Marcos; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Muñiz, José

    2017-01-01

    The optimum time students should spend on homework has been widely researched although the results are far from unanimous. The main objective of this research is to analyze how homework assignment strategies in schools affect students' academic performance and the differences in students' time spent on homework. Participants were a representative sample of Spanish adolescents (N = 26,543) with a mean age of 14.4 (±0.75), 49.7% girls. A test battery was used to measure academic performance in four subjects: Spanish, Mathematics, Science, and Citizenship. A questionnaire allowed the measurement of the indicators used for the description of homework and control variables. Two three-level hierarchical-linear models (student, school, autonomous community) were produced for each subject being evaluated. The relationship between academic results and homework time is negative at the individual level but positive at school level. An increase in the amount of homework a school assigns is associated with an increase in the differences in student time spent on homework. An optimum amount of homework is proposed which schools should assign to maximize gains in achievement for students overall. PMID:28326046

  11. Routing Autonomous Vehicles in the Improving Initial Task Assignment and Avoiding Deadlock Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morihiro, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Toshiyuki; Kumagai, Sadatoshi

    This paper discusses an on-line Tasks Assignment and Routing Problem (TARP) for Autonomous Transportation Systems (ATSs) in manufacturing systems. The TARP is a constrained version of the Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Windows (PDPTW). In our former study, a cooperative algorithm, called the triple loop method, with autonomous distributed agents has been proposed. The Improving initial Task Assignment and Avoiding Deadlock method (ITAAD) is a faster algorithm than the triple loop method. In this paper, we propose a new vehicle routing method for the ITAAD. Results of computational experiments show effectiveness of the proposed routing method.

  12. Robust partial quadratic eigenvalue assignment with time delay using the receptance and the system matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zheng-Jian; Yang, Jin-Ku; Datta, Biswa Nath

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we consider the robust partial quadratic eigenvalue assignment problem in vibration by active feedback control. Based on the receptance measurements and the system matrices, we propose an optimization method for the robust and minimum norm partial quadratic eigenvalue assignment problem. We provide a new cost function and the closed-loop eigenvalue sensitivity and the feedback norms can be minimized simultaneously. Our method is also extended to the case of time delay between measurements of state and actuation of control. Numerical tests demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  13. State assignment for asynchronous FSMs with the use of the incompatibility and complement graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulisz, Józef

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents an application of a novel concept of graph - the Incompatibility and Complement Graph - to state assignment for asynchronous FSMs. A specific feature of the graph is that it contains two kinds of edges: connecting mutually incompatible nodes, and connecting mutually complementing nodes. The graph can be useful in certain class of optimization problems, in which compatibility of bit patterns both in the true, and in the complemented form has to be analyzed. An example of such a problem is covering analysis in state assignment for asynchronous FSMs. The paper presents a simple example explaining the method. Appropriate algorithms for the graph building and coloring are also presented.

  14. 28 CFR 301.103 - Inmate work assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPENSATION General § 301.103 Inmate work assignments. The unit team of each inmate, which ordinarily designates work assignments, or whoever makes work assignments, shall review appropriate medical records... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate work assignments. 301.103...

  15. A hybrid hopfield network-simulated annealing approach for frequency assignment in satellite communications systems.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Sanz, Sancho; Santiago-Mozos, Ricardo; Bousoño-Calzón, Carlos

    2004-04-01

    A hybrid Hopfield network-simulated annealing algorithm (HopSA) is presented for the frequency assignment problem (FAP) in satellite communications. The goal of this NP-complete problem is minimizing the cochannel interference between satellite communication systems by rearranging the frequency assignment, for the systems can accommodate the increasing demands. The HopSA algorithm consists of a fast digital Hopfield neural network which manages the problem constraints hybridized with a simulated annealing which improves the quality of the solutions obtained. We analyze the problem and its formulation, describing and discussing the HopSA algorithm and solving a set of benchmark problems. The results obtained are compared with other existing approaches in order to show the performance of the HopSA approach.

  16. NVR-BIP: Nuclear Vector Replacement using Binary Integer Programming for NMR Structure-Based Assignments.

    PubMed

    Apaydin, Mehmet Serkan; Çatay, Bülent; Patrick, Nicholas; Donald, Bruce R

    2011-05-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is an important experimental technique that allows one to study protein structure and dynamics in solution. An important bottleneck in NMR protein structure determination is the assignment of NMR peaks to the corresponding nuclei. Structure-based assignment (SBA) aims to solve this problem with the help of a template protein which is homologous to the target and has applications in the study of structure-activity relationship, protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. We formulate SBA as a linear assignment problem with additional nuclear overhauser effect constraints, which can be solved within nuclear vector replacement's (NVR) framework (Langmead, C., Yan, A., Lilien, R., Wang, L. and Donald, B. (2003) A Polynomial-Time Nuclear Vector Replacement Algorithm for Automated NMR Resonance Assignments. Proc. the 7th Annual Int. Conf. Research in Computational Molecular Biology (RECOMB), Berlin, Germany, April 10-13, pp. 176-187. ACM Press, New York, NY. J. Comp. Bio., (2004), 11, pp. 277-298; Langmead, C. and Donald, B. (2004) An expectation/maximization nuclear vector replacement algorithm for automated NMR resonance assignments. J. Biomol. NMR, 29, 111-138). Our approach uses NVR's scoring function and data types and also gives the option of using CH and NH residual dipolar coupling (RDCs), instead of NH RDCs which NVR requires. We test our technique on NVR's data set as well as on four new proteins. Our results are comparable to NVR's assignment accuracy on NVR's test set, but higher on novel proteins. Our approach allows partial assignments. It is also complete and can return the optimum as well as near-optimum assignments. Furthermore, it allows us to analyze the information content of each data type and is easily extendable to accept new forms of input data, such as additional RDCs.

  17. Longitudinal evaluation of the importance of homework assignment completion for the academic performance of middle school students with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Langberg, Joshua M; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Molitor, Stephen J; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D; Smith, Zoe; Schultz, Brandon K; Evans, Steven W

    2016-04-01

    The primary goal of this study was to longitudinally evaluate the homework assignment completion patterns of middle school age adolescents with ADHD, their associations with academic performance, and malleable predictors of homework assignment completion. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 104 middle school students comprehensively diagnosed with ADHD and followed for 18 months. Multiple teachers for each student provided information about the percentage of homework assignments turned in at five separate time points and school grades were collected quarterly. Results showed that agreement between teachers with respect to students assignment completion was high, with an intraclass correlation of .879 at baseline. Students with ADHD were turning in an average of 12% fewer assignments each academic quarter in comparison to teacher-reported classroom averages. Regression analyses revealed a robust association between the percentage of assignments turned in at baseline and school grades 18 months later, even after controlling for baseline grades, achievement (reading and math), intelligence, family income, and race. Cross-lag analyses demonstrated that the association between assignment completion and grades was reciprocal, with assignment completion negatively impacting grades and low grades in turn being associated with decreased future homework completion. Parent ratings of homework materials management abilities at baseline significantly predicted the percentage of assignments turned in as reported by teachers 18 months later. These findings demonstrate that homework assignment completion problems are persistent across time and an important intervention target for adolescents with ADHD.

  18. Longitudinal Evaluation of the Importance of Homework Assignment Completion for the Academic Performance of Middle School Students with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Dvorsky, Melissa R.; Molitor, Stephen J.; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D.; Smith, Zoe; Schultz, Brandon K.; Evans, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to longitudinally evaluate the homework assignment completion patterns of middle school age adolescents with ADHD, their associations with academic performance, and malleable predictors of homework assignment completion. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 104 middle school students comprehensively diagnosed with ADHD and followed for 18 months. Multiple teachers for each student provided information about the percentage of homework assignments turned in at five separate timepoints and school grades were collected quarterly. Results showed that agreement between teachers with respect to students’ assignment completion was high, with an intraclass correlation of .879 at baseline. Students with ADHD were turning in an average of 12% fewer assignments each academic quarter in comparison to teacher-reported classroom averages. Regression analyses revealed a robust association between the percentage of assignments turned in at baseline and school grades 18 months later, even after controlling for baseline grades, achievement (reading and math), intelligence, family income, and race. Cross-lag analyses demonstrated that the association between assignment completion and grades was reciprocal, with assignment completion negatively impacting grades and low grades in turn being associated with decreased future homework completion. Parent ratings of homework materials management abilities at baseline significantly predicted the percentage of assignments turned in as reported by teachers 18 months later. These findings demonstrate that homework assignment completion problems are persistent across time and an important intervention target for adolescents with ADHD. PMID:26931065

  19. Learning to assign binary weights to binary descriptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhoudi; Wei, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-10-01

    Constructing robust binary local feature descriptors are receiving increasing interest due to their binary nature, which can enable fast processing while requiring significantly less memory than their floating-point competitors. To bridge the performance gap between the binary and floating-point descriptors without increasing the computational cost of computing and matching, optimal binary weights are learning to assign to binary descriptor for considering each bit might contribute differently to the distinctiveness and robustness. Technically, a large-scale regularized optimization method is applied to learn float weights for each bit of the binary descriptor. Furthermore, binary approximation for the float weights is performed by utilizing an efficient alternatively greedy strategy, which can significantly improve the discriminative power while preserve fast matching advantage. Extensive experimental results on two challenging datasets (Brown dataset and Oxford dataset) demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  20. Quantum dots targeted to the assigned organelle in living cells.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Fujioka, Kouki; Oku, Taisuke; Nakamura, Shun; Suga, Masakazu; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yasuhara, Masato; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2004-01-01

    Fluorescent nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) have the potential to be applied to bioimaging since QDs emit higher and far longer fluorescence than conventional organic probes. Here we show that QDs conjugated with signal peptide obey the order to transport the assigned organelle in living cells. We designed the supermolecule of luminescent QDs conjugated with nuclear- and mitochondria-targeting ligands. When QDs with nuclear-localizing signal peptides were added to the culture media, we can visualize the movements of the QDs being delivered into the nuclear compartment of the cells with 15 min incubation. In addition, mitochondrial signal peptide can also transport QDs to the mitochondria in living cells. In conclusion, these techniques have the possibility that QDs can reveal the transduction of proteins and peptides into specific subcellular compartments as a powerful tool for studying intracellular analysis in vitro and even in vivo.

  1. Transition Operators Assigned to Physical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chajda, Ivan; Paseka, Jan

    2016-12-01

    By a physical system we recognize a set of propositions about a given system with their truth values depending on the states of the system. Since every physical system can go from one state to another one, there exists a binary relation on the set of states describing this transition. Our aim is to assign to every such system an operator on the set of propositions which is fully determined by the mentioned relation. We establish conditions under which the given relation can be recovered by means of this transition operator.

  2. Complete (1) H NMR assignment of cedranolides.

    PubMed

    Perez-Hernandez, Nury; Gordillo-Roman, Barbara; Arrieta-Baez, Daniel; Cerda-Garcia-Rojas, Carlos M; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

    2017-03-01

    Complete and unambiguous (1) H NMR chemical shift assignment of α-cedrene (2) and cedrol (9), as well as for α-pipitzol (1), isocedrol (10), and the six related compounds 3-8 has been established by iterative full spin analysis using the PERCH NMR software (PERCH Solutions Ltd., Kuopio, Finland). The total sets of coupling constants are described and correlated with the conformational equilibria of the five-membered ring of 1-10, which were calculated using the complete basis set method. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Social class assignment and mortality in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Erikson, Robert

    2006-05-01

    The earlier practice of assigning all members of a family to the same social class as that of the household head, typically the father, has in recent years been replaced by either basing individual class position on one's own occupation or of one of the family members, not necessarily the father. These various practices have been extensively scrutinised for more than 20 years. The validity of the approaches has chiefly been tested by checking how well they account for the variation in some criteria, mostly class identification, political attitudes and voting behaviour. Here it is shown, using census data from Sweden, that mortality-rate differences between social classes covering the period 1991-1997 are greater for both men and women when both spouses are assigned to the same social class on the basis of the dominance approach, where the labour market position of either spouse may determine the social class of the family. It is suggested that the common observation that class differences are smaller among women than among men may, at least to some extent, be the result of establishing a woman's class position on the basis of her own occupation rather than the labour market position of her spouse.

  4. Integrated consensus-based frameworks for unmanned vehicle routing and targeting assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnawi, Waleed T.

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are increasingly deployed in complex and dynamic environments to perform multiple tasks cooperatively with other UAVs that contribute to overarching mission effectiveness. Studies by the Department of Defense (DoD) indicate future operations may include anti-access/area-denial (A2AD) environments which limit human teleoperator decision-making and control. This research addresses the problem of decentralized vehicle re-routing and task reassignments through consensus-based UAV decision-making. An Integrated Consensus-Based Framework (ICF) is formulated as a solution to the combined single task assignment problem and vehicle routing problem. The multiple assignment and vehicle routing problem is solved with the Integrated Consensus-Based Bundle Framework (ICBF). The frameworks are hierarchically decomposed into two levels. The bottom layer utilizes the renowned Dijkstra's Algorithm. The top layer addresses task assignment with two methods. The single assignment approach is called the Caravan Auction Algorithm (CarA) Algorithm. This technique extends the Consensus-Based Auction Algorithm (CBAA) to provide awareness for task completion by agents and adopt abandoned tasks. The multiple assignment approach called the Caravan Auction Bundle Algorithm (CarAB) extends the Consensus-Based Bundle Algorithm (CBBA) by providing awareness for lost resources, prioritizing remaining tasks, and adopting abandoned tasks. Research questions are investigated regarding the novelty and performance of the proposed frameworks. Conclusions regarding the research questions will be provided through hypothesis testing. Monte Carlo simulations will provide evidence to support conclusions regarding the research hypotheses for the proposed frameworks. The approach provided in this research addresses current and future military operations for unmanned aerial vehicles. However, the general framework implied by the proposed research is adaptable to any unmanned

  5. Flight control synthesis for flexible aircraft using Eigenspace assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, J. B.; Schmidt, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    The use of eigenspace assignment techniques to synthesize flight control systems for flexible aircraft is explored. Eigenspace assignment techniques are used to achieve a specified desired eigenspace, chosen to yield desirable system impulse residue magnitudes for selected system responses. Two of these are investigated. The first directly determines constant measurement feedback gains that will yield a close-loop system eigenspace close to a desired eigenspace. The second technique selects quadratic weighting matrices in a linear quadratic control synthesis that will asymptotically yield the close-loop achievable eigenspace. Finally, the possibility of using either of these techniques with state estimation is explored. Application of the methods to synthesize integrated flight-control and structural-mode-control laws for a large flexible aircraft is demonstrated and results discussed. Eigenspace selection criteria based on design goals are discussed, and for the study case it would appear that a desirable eigenspace can be obtained. In addition, the importance of state-space selection is noted along with problems with reduced-order measurement feedback. Since the full-state control laws may be implemented with dynamic compensation (state estimation), the use of reduced-order measurement feedback is less desirable. This is especially true since no change in the transient response from the pilot's input results if state estimation is used appropriately. The potential is also noted for high actuator bandwidth requirements if the linear quadratic synthesis approach is utilized. Even with the actuator pole location selected, a problem with unmodeled modes is noted due to high bandwidth. Some suggestions for future research include investigating how to choose an eigenspace that will achieve certain desired dynamics and stability robustness, determining how the choice of measurements effects synthesis results, and exploring how the phase relationships between desired

  6. Robust pole assignment for synthesizing feedback control systems using recurrent neural networks.

    PubMed

    Le, Xinyi; Wang, Jun

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a neurodynamic optimization approach to robust pole assignment for synthesizing linear control systems via state and output feedback. The problem is formulated as a pseudoconvex optimization problem with robustness measure: i.e., the spectral condition number as the objective function and linear matrix equality constraints for exact pole assignment. Two coupled recurrent neural networks are applied for solving the formulated problem in real time. In contrast to existing approaches, the exponential convergence of the proposed neurodynamics to global optimal solutions can be guaranteed even with lower model complexity in terms of the number of variables. Simulation results of the proposed neurodynamic approach for 11 benchmark problems are reported to demonstrate its superiority.

  7. Lights, Camera, Action! Learning about Management with Student-Produced Video Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Patrick L.; Quinn, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present a proposal for fostering learning in the management classroom through the use of student-produced video assignments. We describe the potential for video technology to create active learning environments focused on problem solving, authentic and direct experiences, and interaction and collaboration to promote student…

  8. Assigning Oxidation States to Some Metal Dioxygen Complexes of Biological Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerville, David A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The bonding of dioxygen in metal-dioxygen complexes is discussed, paying particular attention to the problems encountered in assigning conventional oxidation numbers to both the metal center and coordinated dioxygen. Complexes of iron, cobalt, chromium, and manganese are considered. (BB)

  9. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. D-C MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, UNIT 7, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING DIRECT CURRENT MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 15 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES, AND PROBLEMS. SOME OF THE LESSONS…

  10. Developing Higher-Order Thinking through an Intercultural Assignment: A Scholarship of Teaching Inquiry Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrigan, Anne; Vincenti, Virginia

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this scholarship of teaching research is to assess the effectiveness of a cross-cultural problem-solving assignment in two senior-level family and consumer sciences courses at the University of Wyoming. We focus on the development of selected cognitive and affective critical-thinking skills in undergraduates and their international…

  11. An Investigation into Electronic-Source Plagiarism in a First-Year Essay Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellery, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since the emergence of the electronic era, plagiarism has become an increasingly prevalent problem at tertiary institutions. This study investigated the role electronic sources of information played in influencing plagiarism in an essay assignment in a first-year geography module at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Despite explicit…

  12. Principals' Approaches to Cultivating Teacher Effectiveness: Constraints and Opportunities in Hiring, Assigning, Evaluating, and Developing Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: How principals hire, assign, evaluate, and provide growth opportunities to teachers likely have major ramifications for teacher effectiveness and student learning. This article reports on the barriers principals encountered when carrying out these functions and variations in the degree to which they identified obstacles and problem-solved…

  13. New optimization model for routing and spectrum assignment with nodes insecurity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Hejun; Wang, Yuping; Xu, Zhanqi; Hao, Shanshan; Wang, Xiaoli

    2017-04-01

    By adopting the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing technology, elastic optical networks can provide the flexible and variable bandwidth allocation to each connection request and get higher spectrum utilization. The routing and spectrum assignment problem in elastic optical network is a well-known NP-hard problem. In addition, information security has received worldwide attention. We combine these two problems to investigate the routing and spectrum assignment problem with the guaranteed security in elastic optical network, and establish a new optimization model to minimize the maximum index of the used frequency slots, which is used to determine an optimal routing and spectrum assignment schemes. To solve the model effectively, a hybrid genetic algorithm framework integrating a heuristic algorithm into a genetic algorithm is proposed. The heuristic algorithm is first used to sort the connection requests and then the genetic algorithm is designed to look for an optimal routing and spectrum assignment scheme. In the genetic algorithm, tailor-made crossover, mutation and local search operators are designed. Moreover, simulation experiments are conducted with three heuristic strategies, and the experimental results indicate that the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm framework.

  14. Persistence in Expatriate Academic Assignments in the United Arab Emirates: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Gerard D.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored factors that influenced persistence in expatriate academic assignments in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Specifically, the problem that was addressed was an investigation of the reasons why some expatriate academics declared their intent to leave an academic position within one year of arrival while others choose to extend…

  15. BASIC MATHEMATICS FOR ELECTRICITY, ELECTRICAL, AND ELECTRONIC CONTROL. UNIT 1, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.; WYKES, MURRAY L.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING BASIC MATHEMATICS IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 19 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES, DIRECTIONS, AND PROBLEMS. THE LESSONS, KEYED TO THREE…

  16. Rate and power efficient image compressed sensing and transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olanigan, Saheed; Cao, Lei; Viswanathan, Ramanarayanan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a suboptimal quantization and transmission scheme for multiscale block-based compressed sensing images over wireless channels. The proposed method includes two stages: dealing with quantization distortion and transmission errors. First, given the total transmission bit rate, the optimal number of quantization bits is assigned to the sensed measurements in different wavelet sub-bands so that the total quantization distortion is minimized. Second, given the total transmission power, the energy is allocated to different quantization bit layers based on their different error sensitivities. The method of Lagrange multipliers with Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions is used to solve both optimization problems, for which the first problem can be solved with relaxation and the second problem can be solved completely. The effectiveness of the scheme is illustrated through simulation results, which have shown up to 10 dB improvement over the method without the rate and power optimization in medium and low signal-to-noise ratio cases.

  17. Development and Application of ANN Model for Worker Assignment into Virtual Cells of Large Sized Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, R. V.; Puri, A. B.; Fathi, Khalid

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents an extended version of study already undertaken on development of an artificial neural networks (ANNs) model for assigning workforce into virtual cells under virtual cellular manufacturing systems (VCMS) environments. Previously, the same authors have introduced this concept and applied it to virtual cells of two-cell configuration and the results demonstrated that ANNs could be a worth applying tool for carrying out workforce assignments. In this attempt, three-cell configurations problems are considered for worker assignment task. Virtual cells are formed under dual resource constraint (DRC) context in which the number of available workers is less than the total number of machines available. Since worker assignment tasks are quite non-linear and highly dynamic in nature under varying inputs & conditions and, in parallel, ANNs have the ability to model complex relationships between inputs and outputs and find similar patterns effectively, an attempt was earlier made to employ ANNs into the above task. In this paper, the multilayered perceptron with feed forward (MLP-FF) neural network model has been reused for worker assignment tasks of three-cell configurations under DRC context and its performance at different time periods has been analyzed. The previously proposed worker assignment model has been reconfigured and cell formation solutions available for three-cell configuration in the literature are used in combination to generate datasets for training ANNs framework. Finally, results of the study have been presented and discussed.

  18. The adaptive approach for storage assignment by mining data of warehouse management system for distribution centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming-Huang Chiang, David; Lin, Chia-Ping; Chen, Mu-Chen

    2011-05-01

    Among distribution centre operations, order picking has been reported to be the most labour-intensive activity. Sophisticated storage assignment policies adopted to reduce the travel distance of order picking have been explored in the literature. Unfortunately, previous research has been devoted to locating entire products from scratch. Instead, this study intends to propose an adaptive approach, a Data Mining-based Storage Assignment approach (DMSA), to find the optimal storage assignment for newly delivered products that need to be put away when there is vacant shelf space in a distribution centre. In the DMSA, a new association index (AIX) is developed to evaluate the fitness between the put away products and the unassigned storage locations by applying association rule mining. With AIX, the storage location assignment problem (SLAP) can be formulated and solved as a binary integer programming. To evaluate the performance of DMSA, a real-world order database of a distribution centre is obtained and used to compare the results from DMSA with a random assignment approach. It turns out that DMSA outperforms random assignment as the number of put away products and the proportion of put away products with high turnover rates increase.

  19. Development and Application of ANN Model for Worker Assignment into Virtual Cells of Large Sized Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Murali, R. V.; Fathi, Khalid; Puri, A. B.

    2010-10-26

    This paper presents an extended version of study already undertaken on development of an artificial neural networks (ANNs) model for assigning workforce into virtual cells under virtual cellular manufacturing systems (VCMS) environments. Previously, the same authors have introduced this concept and applied it to virtual cells of two-cell configuration and the results demonstrated that ANNs could be a worth applying tool for carrying out workforce assignments. In this attempt, three-cell configurations problems are considered for worker assignment task. Virtual cells are formed under dual resource constraint (DRC) context in which the number of available workers is less than the total number of machines available. Since worker assignment tasks are quite non-linear and highly dynamic in nature under varying inputs and conditions and, in parallel, ANNs have the ability to model complex relationships between inputs and outputs and find similar patterns effectively, an attempt was earlier made to employ ANNs into the above task. In this paper, the multilayered perceptron with feed forward (MLP-FF) neural network model has been reused for worker assignment tasks of three-cell configurations under DRC context and its performance at different time periods has been analyzed. The previously proposed worker assignment model has been reconfigured and cell formation solutions available for three-cell configuration in the literature are used in combination to generate datasets for training ANNs framework. Finally, results of the study have been presented and discussed.

  20. Design of Constant Gain Dissipative Controllers for Eigensystem Assignment in Passive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Gupta, Sandeep

    1998-01-01

    Partial eigensystem assignment with output feedback can lead to an unstable closed-loop system. However, output feedback with passive linear time-invariant systems, such as flexible space structures, is guaranteed to be stable if the controller is dissipative. This paper presents a novel approach for synthesis of dissipative output feedback gain matrices for assigning a selected number of closed-loop poles. Dissipativity of a gain matrix is known to be equivalent to positive semidefiniteness of the symmetric part of the matrix. A sequential procedure is presented to assign one self-conjugate pair of closed-loop eigenvalues at each step using dissipative output feedback gain matrices, while ensuring that the eigenvalues assigned in the previous steps are not disturbed. The problem of assigning one closed-loop pair is reduced to a constrained solution of a system of quadratic equations, and necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a solution are presented. A minimax approach is presented for determining parameters which satisfy these conditions. This method can assign as many closed-loop system poles as the number of control inputs. A numerical example of damping enhancement for a flexible structure is presented to demonstrate the approach.

  1. Development, social norms, and assignment to task

    PubMed Central

    Fafchamps, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Economic development involves a structural transformation in the way people are allocated to tasks. There is a shift from self-provision to market exchange, facilitating specialization. There is also a shift from self-employment to wage employment in large firms and organizations, driven by innovation and increasing returns to scale. Changes in allocation mechanisms require changes in norms and attitudes. Because different labor assignment domains coexist, conflicts arise among norms that apply to different domains, possibly resulting in dysfunctional outcomes. I argue that religion, humanism, and schools have all played an important historical role in fostering the changes in social norms and attitudes that are needed to accompany structural changes in the way economies allocate workers to tasks. PMID:22198757

  2. Rationalization of some genetic anticodonic assignments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacey, J. C., Jr.; Hall, L. M.; Mullins, D. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The hydrophobicity of most amino acids correlates well with that of their anticodon nucleotides, with Trp, Tyr, Ile, and Ser being the exceptions to this rule. Using previous data on hydrophobicity and binding constants, and new data on rates of esterification of polyadenylic acid with several N-acetylaminoacyl imidazolides, several of the anticodon assignments are rationalized. Chemical reasons are shown supporting the idea of the inclusion of the Ile in the catalog of biological amino acids late in the evolution, through a mutation of the existing tRNA and its aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase. It was found that an addition of hexane increases the incorporation of hydrophobic Ac-Phe into poly-A, in support of the Fox (1965) and Oparin (1965) emphasis on the biogenetic importance of phase-separated systems.

  3. 7 CFR 1.77 - Assignment of priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Television Films § 1.77 Assignment of priorities. (a) Authority. (1) The Director of Information or his designee will make assignment of priorities for the U.S. Department of Agriculture for a television...

  4. 7 CFR 1.77 - Assignment of priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Television Films § 1.77 Assignment of priorities. (a) Authority. (1) The Director of Information or his designee will make assignment of priorities for the U.S. Department of Agriculture for a television...

  5. 7 CFR 1.77 - Assignment of priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Television Films § 1.77 Assignment of priorities. (a) Authority. (1) The Director of Information or his designee will make assignment of priorities for the U.S. Department of Agriculture for a television...

  6. 7 CFR 1.77 - Assignment of priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Television Films § 1.77 Assignment of priorities. (a) Authority. (1) The Director of Information or his designee will make assignment of priorities for the U.S. Department of Agriculture for a television...

  7. 7 CFR 1.77 - Assignment of priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Television Films § 1.77 Assignment of priorities. (a) Authority. (1) The Director of Information or his designee will make assignment of priorities for the U.S. Department of Agriculture for a television...

  8. 47 CFR 78.35 - Assignment or transfer of control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 78.35 Assignment or transfer of control. (a) No assignment of the license of a cable television relay station or transfer of control of a...

  9. 47 CFR 78.35 - Assignment or transfer of control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 78.35 Assignment or transfer of control. (a) No assignment of the license of a cable television relay station or transfer of control of a...

  10. 47 CFR 78.35 - Assignment or transfer of control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 78.35 Assignment or transfer of control. (a) No assignment of the license of a cable television relay station or transfer of control of a...

  11. 47 CFR 78.35 - Assignment or transfer of control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 78.35 Assignment or transfer of control. (a) No assignment of the license of a cable television relay station or transfer of control of a...

  12. 47 CFR 78.35 - Assignment or transfer of control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Applications and Licenses § 78.35 Assignment or transfer of control. (a) No assignment of the license of a cable television relay station or transfer of control of a...

  13. Assigning Inquiry: How Handouts for Research Assignments Guide Today's College Students. Project Information Literacy Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, Alison J.; Eisenberg, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    A report of findings from a content analysis of 191 course-related research assignment handouts distributed to undergraduates on 28 college campuses across the U.S., as part of Project Information Literacy. A majority of handouts in the sample emphasized standards about the mechanics of compiling college research papers, more so than guiding…

  14. Assignment Choice: Do Students Choose Briefer Assignments or Finishing What They Started?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawthorn-Embree, Meredith L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Parkhurst, John; O'Neil, Michael; Conley, Elisha

    2010-01-01

    Academic skill development requires engagement in effortful academic behaviors. Although students may be more likely to choose to engage in behaviors that require less effort, they also may be motivated to complete assignments that they have already begun. Seventh-grade students (N = 88) began a mathematics computation worksheet, but were stopped…

  15. Understanding Test-Type Assignment: Why Do Special Educators Make Unexpected Test-Type Assignments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Kingston, Neal

    2014-01-01

    We interviewed special educators (a) whose students with disabilities (SWDs) were proficient on the 2008 general education assessment but were assigned to the 2009 alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS), and (b) whose students with mild disabilities took the 2008 alternate assessment based on alternate achievement…

  16. The Effects of Assigned Role Versus Non-Assigned Role on Group Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Philip A.

    1972-01-01

    Students in speech classes at Northern Illinois University participated in tests to determine what assumption of roles in discussion groups impairs participation and prohibits consensus. Students were randomly assigned to one of twelve discussion groups of five members each. The topic and materials for discussion were excerpted from the local…

  17. Determining the relationship between students' scores using traditional homework assignments to those who used assignments on a non-traditional interactive CD with tutor helps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinney, Charles Evan

    2007-12-01

    By using the book "Physics for Scientists and Engineers" by Raymond A. Serway as a guide, CD problem sets for teaching a calculus-based physics course were developed, programmed, and evaluated for homework assignments during the 2003-2004 academic year at Utah State University. These CD sets were used to replace the traditionally handwritten and submitted homework sets. They included a research-based format that guided the students through problem-solving techniques using responseactivated helps and suggestions. The CD contents were designed to help the student improve his/her physics problem-solving skills. The analyzed score results showed a direct correlation between the scores obtained on the homework and the students' time spent per problem, as well as the number of helps used per problem.

  18. 47 CFR 63.24 - Assignments and transfers of control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assignments and transfers of control. 63.24....24 Assignments and transfers of control. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in this section, an international section 214 authorization may be assigned, or control of such authorization may...

  19. 47 CFR 73.5009 - Assignment or transfer of control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assignment or transfer of control. 73.5009... Educational Broadcast Stations on Non-Reserved Channels § 73.5009 Assignment or transfer of control. (a) The... applicants seeking approval of a transfer of control or assignment of a broadcast construction permit...

  20. Assessment of a Diversity Assignment in a PR Principles Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallicano, Tiffany Derville; Stansberry, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses an assignment for incorporating diversity into the principles of public relations course. The assignment is tailored to the challenges of using an active learning approach in a large lecture class. For the assignment, students write a goal, objectives, strategies, an identification of tactics, and evaluation plans for either…