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Sample records for power assisted wheelchair

  1. Design of an immersive simulator for assisted power wheelchair driving.

    PubMed

    Devigne, Louise; Babel, Marie; Nouviale, Florian; Narayanan, Vishnu K; Pasteau, Francois; Gallien, Philippe

    2017-07-01

    Driving a power wheelchair is a difficult and complex visual-cognitive task. As a result, some people with visual and/or cognitive disabilities cannot access the benefits of a power wheelchair because their impairments prevent them from driving safely. In order to improve their access to mobility, we have previously designed a semi-autonomous assistive wheelchair system which progressively corrects the trajectory as the user manually drives the wheelchair and smoothly avoids obstacles. Developing and testing such systems for wheelchair driving assistance requires a significant amount of material resources and clinician time. With Virtual Reality technology, prototypes can be developed and tested in a risk-free and highly flexible Virtual Environment before equipping and testing a physical prototype. Additionally, users can "virtually" test and train more easily during the development process. In this paper, we introduce a power wheelchair driving simulator allowing the user to navigate with a standard wheelchair in an immersive 3D Virtual Environment. The simulation framework is designed to be flexible so that we can use different control inputs. In order to validate the framework, we first performed tests on the simulator with able-bodied participants during which the user's Quality of Experience (QoE) was assessed through a set of questionnaires. Results show that the simulator is a promising tool for future works as it generates a good sense of presence and requires rather low cognitive effort from users.

  2. Wheelchair users' perceptions of and experiences with power assist wheels.

    PubMed

    Giacobbi, Peter R; Levy, Charles E; Dietrich, Frederick D; Winkler, Sandra Hubbard; Tillman, Mark D; Chow, John W

    2010-03-01

    To assess wheelchair users' perceptions of and experiences with power assist wheels using qualitative interview methods. Qualitative evaluations were conducted in a laboratory setting with a focus on users' experiences using power assist wheel in their naturalistic environments. Participants consisted of seven women and 13 men (M(age) = 42.75, SD = 14.68) that included one African American, one Hispanic, 17 whites, and one individual from Zambia. Qualitative interviews were conducted before, during, and after use of a power assist wheel. Main outcome measures included the wheelchair users' evaluations and experiences related to the use of power assist wheels. The primary evaluations included wheeling on challenging terrains, performance of novel activities, social/family aspects, fatigue, and pain. These descriptions indicated that most participants perceived positive experiences with the power assist wheels, including access to new and different activities. Secondary evaluations indicated that the unit was cumbersome and prohibitive for some participants because of difficulties with transport in and out of a vehicle and battery life. Most participants felt that power assist wheels provided more independence and social opportunities. The power assist wheel seems to offer physical and social benefits for most wheelers. Clinicians should consider users' home environment and overall life circumstances before prescribing.

  3. Mechanical efficiency and user power requirement with a pushrim activated power assisted wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Arva, J; Fitzgerald, S G; Cooper, R A; Boninger, M L

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the difference in mechanical efficiency and user power generation between traditional manual wheelchairs and a pushrim activated power assisted wheelchair (PAPAW). Ten manual wheelchair users were evaluated in a repeated measures design trial with and without the PAPAW for propulsion efficiency. Subjects propelled a Quickie GP equipped with the PAPAW and their own chair on a computer controlled wheelchair dynamometer at five different resistance levels. Power output, user power with the PAPAW hubs, subjects' oxygen consumption per minute and mechanical efficiency were analyzed. Metabolic energy and user power were significantly lower (p<0.05), and mechanical efficiency significantly higher with the PAPAW than with subjects' own chairs. Subjects needed to generate on average 3.65 times more power when propelling their own wheelchairs as compared to PAPAW. Mean mechanical efficiency over all trials was 80.33% higher with the power assisted hubs. PAPAW provides on average 73% of the total power when subjects propel with power assistance. Significantly increased efficiency and reduced requirement of user power is achieved using the PAPAW. With use, the PAPAW may contribute to delaying secondary injuries of manual wheelchair users. In addition, it may be suitable for people who have (or at risk for) upper extremity joint degeneration, reduced exercise capacity, low strength or endurance who currently use electric powered wheelchairs.

  4. Drive Control Scheme of Electric Power Assisted Wheelchair Based on Neural Network Learning of Human Wheelchair Operation Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanohata, Naoki; Seki, Hirokazu

    This paper describes a novel drive control scheme of electric power assisted wheelchairs based on neural network learning of human wheelchair operation characteristics. “Electric power assisted wheelchair” which enhances the drive force of the operator by employing electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly and disabled people. However, some handicapped people with paralysis of the muscles of one side of the body cannot maneuver the wheelchair as desired because of the difference in the right and left input force. Therefore, this study proposes a neural network learning system of such human wheelchair operation characteristics and a drive control scheme with variable distribution and assistance ratios. Some driving experiments will be performed to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  5. Power Assist Control of Robotic Wheelchair Based on Visual Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Naoki; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    This paper describes a vision based self-velocity estimation and its feedback system under force/torque sensor-less power assisting control of wheelchair robot. In this method, three dimensional information obtained by stereo images, and the optical flow vectors are also used for self-velocity estimation in real-time. The human force is estimated by sensor-less reaction force observer, and the assisting force is calculated by using its estimated force and virtual impedance model. In the paper, the force based assist function is integrated into visual feedback motion controller. This approach using vision and force based assist control makes it possible to facilitate the direct intelligent interactions between human force and environments such as human following assist, obstacle avoidance one and so on. Such assist functions are changeable by the selection of the weighting matrix in the velocity estimation, which is based on weighted least square solutions from optical flow vectors. The validity of the proposed approach is verified by several experimental results.

  6. Design and development of solar power-assisted manual/electric wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Chien, Chi-Sheng; Huang, Tung-Yung; Liao, Tze-Yuan; Kuo, Tsung-Yuan; Lee, Tzer-Min

    2014-01-01

    Wheelchairs are an essential assistive device for many individuals with injury or disability. Manual wheelchairs provide a relatively low-cost solution to the mobility needs of such individuals. Furthermore, they provide an effective means of improving the user's cardiopulmonary function and upper-limb muscle strength. However, manual wheelchairs have a loss gross mechanical efficiency, and thus the risk of user fatigue and upper-limb injury is increased. Electric-powered wheelchairs reduce the risk of injury and provide a more convenient means of transportation. However, they have a large physical size and are relatively expensive. Accordingly, the present study utilizes a quality function deployment method to develop a wheelchair with a user-selectable manual/electric propulsion mode and an auxiliary solar power supply system. The auxiliary solar power supply increased the travel range of the wheelchair by approximately 26% compared with that of a wheelchair powered by battery alone. Moreover, the wheelchair has a modular design and can be disassembled and folded for ease of transportation or storage. Overall, the present results suggest that the proposed wheelchair provides an effective and convenient means of meeting the mobility needs of individuals with mobility difficulties.

  7. Rolling resistance and propulsion efficiency of manual and power-assisted wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Pavlidou, Efthymia; Kloosterman, Marieke G M; Buurke, Jaap H; Rietman, Johan S; Janssen, Thomas W J

    2015-11-01

    Rolling resistance is one of the main forces resisting wheelchair propulsion and thus affecting stress exerted on the upper limbs. The present study investigates the differences in rolling resistance, propulsion efficiency and energy expenditure required by the user during power-assisted and manual propulsion. Different tire pressures (50%, 75%, 100%) and two different levels of motor assistance were tested. Drag force, energy expenditure and propulsion efficiency were measured in 10 able-bodied individuals under different experimental settings on a treadmill. Results showed that drag force levels were significantly higher in the 50%, compared to the 75% and 100% inflation conditions. In terms of wheelchair type, the manual wheelchair displayed significantly lower drag force values than the power-assisted one. The use of extra-power-assisted wheelchair appeared to be significantly superior to conventional power-assisted and manual wheelchairs concerning both propulsion efficiency and energy expenditure required by the user. Overall, the results of the study suggest that the use of power-assisted wheelchair was more efficient and required less energy input by the user, depending on the motor assistance provided.

  8. Evaluation of 3 pushrim-activated power-assisted wheelchairs in patients with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Guillon, Bruno; Van-Hecke, Gary; Iddir, Jérome; Pellegrini, Nadine; Beghoul, Nabil; Vaugier, Isabelle; Figère, Marjorie; Pradon, Didier; Lofaso, Frédéric

    2015-05-01

    To assess differences between manual wheelchairs and 3 pushrim-activated power-assisted wheelchairs (PAPAWs): Servomatic A and B and E-motion. Repeated measures. Rehabilitation hospital. Volunteers with spinal cord injuries (N=52). Ten subjects propelled the wheelchairs on a dynamometer, 46 evaluated each wheelchair on indoor and outdoor courses, and 10 evaluated their ability to transfer themselves and their wheelchairs into and out of their car. Oxygen consumption per unit time (V˙o2) and heart rate were measured during propulsion on the dynamometer. Wheelchair efficiency on the indoor and outdoor courses was evaluated on the basis of heart rate, completion time, handrim push frequency, and patient satisfaction. On the dynamometer, decreases in V˙o2 and heart rate were similar with the 3 PAPAWs compared with manual wheelchairs. On the outdoor course, heart rate was significantly decreased by PAPAWs compared with manual wheelchairs and patient satisfaction was better with Servomatic devices than with the E-motion device. Indoors, the course completion time was longer with the E-motion wheelchair than with other wheelchairs in the overall population, and handrim push frequency was higher with the E-motion wheelchair than with other wheelchairs in the subgroup with T12 to L1 injuries. Car transfer ability was lower with PAPAWs than with manual wheelchairs. Differences exist across PAPAWs. Compared with E-motion, the 2 Servomatic PAPAWs were easier to use outdoors, and difficulty transferring into/out of the car was similarly increased with all 3 PAPAWs. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of power-assisted hand-rim wheelchair propulsion on shoulder load in experienced wheelchair users: A pilot study with an instrumented wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Marieke G M; Buurke, Jaap H; de Vries, Wiebe; Van der Woude, Lucas H V; Rietman, Johan S

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to compare hand-rim and power-assisted hand-rim propulsion on potential risk factors for shoulder overuse injuries: intensity and repetition of shoulder loading and force generation in the extremes of shoulder motion. Eleven experienced hand-rim wheelchair users propelled an instrumented wheelchair on a treadmill while upper-extremity kinematic, kinetic and surface electromyographical data was collected during propulsion with and without power-assist. As a result during power-assisted propulsion the peak resultant force exerted at the hand-rim decreased and was performed with significantly less abduction and internal rotation at the shoulder. At shoulder level the anterior directed force and internal rotation and flexion moments decreased significantly. In addition, posterior and the minimal inferior directed forces and the external rotation moment significantly increased. The stroke angle decreased significantly, as did maximum shoulder flexion, extension, abduction and internal rotation. Stroke-frequency significantly increased. Muscle activation in the anterior deltoid and pectoralis major also decreased significantly. In conclusion, compared to hand-rim propulsion power-assisted propulsion seems effective in reducing potential risk factors of overuse injuries with the highest gain on decreased range of motion of the shoulder joint, lower peak propulsion force on the rim and reduced muscle activity.

  10. Operationality Improvement Control of Electric Power Assisted Wheelchair by Fuzzy Algorithm Considering Posture Angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Hiroki; Seki, Hirokazu; Minakata, Hideaki; Tadakuma, Susumu

    This paper describes a novel operationality improvement control for electric power assisted wheelchairs. “Electric power assisted wheelchair” which assists the driving force by electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people and disabled people, however, the performance of the straight and circular road driving must be further improved because the two wheels drive independently. This paper proposes a novel operationality improvement control by fuzzy algorithm to realize the stable driving on straight and circular roads. The suitable assisted torque of the right and left wheels is determined by fuzzy algorithm based on the posture angular velocity, the posture angle of the wheelchair, the human input torque proportion and the total human torque of the right and left wheels. Some experiments on the practical roads show the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  11. Disturbance road adaptive driving control of power-assisted wheelchair using fuzzy inference.

    PubMed

    Seki, Hirokazu; Kiso, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a novel driving control scheme of electric power-assisted wheelchairs for assistive driving on various large disturbance roads. The "electric power-assisted wheelchair" which assists the driving force by electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people and disabled people; however, there are lots of large disturbance roads such as uphill roads and rough roads and operators need to row the hand-rims with the larger power load on such roads in order to obtain the enough driving velocity. For example the wheelchair might move backward on uphill roads due to the driving torque shortage. Therefore this study proposes a fuzzy algorithm based adaptive control scheme in order to realize the assistive driving without the operator's power load on large disturbance roads. The proposed fuzzy rules are designed from the driving distance information and the control parameters are inferred by the fuzzy algorithm. The assisted torque can be adjusted so that the enough distance and velocity are kept even on large disturbance roads. Driving experimental results are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  12. Evaluation of semiautonomous navigation assistance system for power wheelchairs with blindfolded nondisabled individuals.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vinod; Simpson, Richard; Lopresti, Edmund; Schmeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Some individuals with disabilities are denied powered mobility because they lack the visual, motor, and/or cognitive skills required to safely operate a power wheelchair. The Drive-Safe System (DSS) is an add-on, distributed, shared-control navigation assistance system for power wheelchairs intended to provide safe and independent mobility to such individuals. The DSS is a human-machine system in which the user is responsible for high-level control of the wheelchair, such as choosing the destination, path planning, and basic navigation actions, while the DSS overrides unsafe maneuvers through autonomous collision avoidance, wall following, and door crossing. In this project, the DSS was clinically evaluated in a controlled laboratory with blindfolded, nondisabled individuals. Further, these individuals' performance with the DSS was compared with standard cane use for navigation assistance by people with visual impairments. Results indicate that compared with a cane, the DSS significantly reduced the number of collisions. Users rated the DSS favorably even though they took longer to navigate the same obstacle course than they would have using a standard long cane. Participants experienced less physical demand, effort, and frustration when using the DSS as compared with a cane. These findings suggest that the DSS can be a viable powered mobility solution for wheelchair users with visual impairments.

  13. Variable-ratio pushrim-activated power-assist wheelchair eases wheeling over a variety of terrains for elders.

    PubMed

    Levy, Charles E; Chow, John W; Tillman, Mark D; Hanson, Carolyn; Donohue, Tara; Mann, William C

    2004-01-01

    To test (1) whether a prototype variable-ratio pushrim-activated power-assist wheelchair would decrease effort and perceived exertion associated with wheeling and (2) whether the prototype would be acceptable to elders. Repeated-measures design. Biomechanics laboratory. Eleven elderly wheelers (mean age +/- standard deviation, 70.7+/-7.8 y). Wheelers propelled their own wheelchairs and the prototype on a level surface, a carpet, and an incline. Surface electromyographic activity from upper limb and torso, heart rate, number of pushes, category-ratio scale of perceived exertion, and Consumer Assessment of Power Assist Wheelchairs. Compared with subjects' own manual wheelchairs, the prototype was associated with lower heart rate elevation (P<.0125), lower perceived exertion (P<.0125), and reduced electromyographic activity in 5 of 8 muscles. Of the 11 participants, 10 found the prototype to be "very easy" or "easy" to push on level and inclined surfaces; 9 gave that assessment on carpeted and inclined surfaces. Seven would "definitely" or "probably" trade their manual chairs for the power-assist chair if given the opportunity. Nine thought they would venture to new and different places in a power-assist wheelchair. Time and number of pushes to complete tasks did not differ significantly between chairs. The prototype reduced the effort associated with wheeling and was an acceptable alternative to manual wheelchairs. Further testing outside the laboratory is warranted.

  14. Exploration of shoulder load during hand-rim wheelchair start-up with and without power-assisted propulsion in experienced wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Marieke G M; Buurke, Jaap H; Schaake, Leendert; Van der Woude, Lucas H V; Rietman, Johan S

    2016-05-01

    Frequent start movements occurred during the day, yielding high upper-extremity stress. The high incidence and impact of shoulder injury on daily life wheelchair use made it clinically relevant to investigate whether power-assisted propulsion is beneficial during the start. Eleven hand-rim wheelchair users performed a start-movement in an instrumented wheelchair on a flat surface. Test order was randomly assigned to propulsion with and without power-assist. For each subject, parameters were averaged over 3 repeated starts. For statistical analysis Wilcoxon Signed Rank test was used. Intensity of mechanical shoulder loading decreased during power-assisted propulsion for anterior (147.0 (44.8) versus 121.9 (27.4) N; effect size (r)=-.75), posterior (4.8 (14.1) versus 2.7 (11.6) N; r=-.64) and inferior directed forces (82.6 (27.9) versus 68.9 (22.6) N; r=-.78) and abduction (20.2 (14.6) versus 12.9 (7.8) Nm; r=-.88) and extension moments (20.3 (10.7) versus 13.7 (9.1 Nm; r=-.88). Peak resultant force at the rim significantly decreased from 133.5 (38.4) N to 112.2 (25.4) N (r=-.64) and was accompanied by significant decreased shoulder abduction (35.3 (6.7) versus 33.3 (6.8); r=-.67) and significant increased shoulder extension (13.6 (16.3) versus 20.3 (19.1); r=-.78) during power-assisted start-up. Power-assist hand-rim wheelchairs are effective in reducing external shoulder load and partly effective in reducing force generation in extremes of shoulder motion during start-up. The use of power-assist wheels might reduce the risk of developing shoulder overuse injuries. NTR2661. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stability analysis of electrical powered wheelchair-mounted robotic-assisted transfer device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongwu; Tsai, Chung-Ying; Jeannis, Hervens; Chung, Cheng-Shiu; Kelleher, Annmarie; Grindle, Garrett G; Cooper, Rory A

    2014-01-01

    The ability of people with disabilities to live in their homes and communities with maximal independence often hinges, at least in part, on their ability to transfer or be transferred by an assistant. Because of limited resources and the expense of personal care, robotic transfer assistance devices will likely be in great demand. An easy-to-use system for assisting with transfers, attachable to electrical powered wheelchairs (EPWs) and readily transportable, could have a significant positive effect on the quality of life of people with disabilities. We investigated the stability of our newly developed Strong Arm, which is attached and integrated with an EPW to assist with transfers. The stability of the system was analyzed and verified by experiments applying different loads and using different system configurations. The model predicted the distributions of the system's center of mass very well compared with the experimental results. When real transfers were conducted with 50 and 75 kg loads and an 83.25 kg dummy, the current Strong Arm could transfer all weights safely without tip-over. Our modeling accurately predicts the stability of the system and is suitable for developing better control algorithms to enhance the safety of the device.

  16. A Study of a Handrim-Activated Power-Assist Wheelchair Based on a Non-Contact Torque Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ki-Tae; Jang, Dae-Jin; Kim, Yong Chol; Heo, Yoon; Hong, Eung-Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Demand for wheelchairs is increasing with growing numbers of aged and disabled persons. Manual wheelchairs are the most commonly used assistive device for mobility because they are convenient to transport. Manual wheelchairs have several advantages but are not easy to use for the elderly or those who lack muscular strength. Therefore, handrim-activated power-assist wheelchairs (HAPAW) that can aid driving power with a motor by detecting user driving intentions through the handrim are being researched. This research will be on HAPAW that judge user driving intentions by using non-contact torque sensors. To deliver the desired motion, which is sensed from handrim rotation relative to a fixed controller, a new driving wheel mechanism is designed by applying a non-contact torque sensor, and corresponding torques are simulated. Torques are measured by a driving wheel prototype and compared with simulation results. The HAPAW prototype was developed using the wheels and a driving control algorithm that uses left and right input torques and time differences are used to check if the non-contact torque sensor can distinguish users’ driving intentions. Through this procedure, it was confirmed that the proposed sensor can be used effectively in HAPAW. PMID:27509508

  17. Semi-autonomous mobility assistance for power wheelchair users navigating crowded environments.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Daniel; Ashley, Kyle; Alqasemi, Redwan; Dubey, Rajiv

    2017-07-01

    Power wheelchair users suffering from cognitive or physical impairment often face difficulties in maneuvering their wheelchairs through crowded environments. Currently, users need to be continuously aware of all traffic around them to actively avoid all collisions. This is an especially difficult task since many wheelchair users are unable to accurately view or perceive their surroundings. Additionally, imprecise joystick control, slowed reaction time, or imperfect interpretation of the environment can lead to unintended collisions with objects in the environment. This work looks to augment user's input with data gathered from an ultrasonic sensor ring to prevent accidental collisions. Using data gathered from the sensors, we detect objects within a certain radius of the chair. This sensor information is combined with the user input from a joystick to generate a potential field description for the intended motion of the wheelchair. An optimal motion vector is calculated which works to avoid collision with obstacles. Ultimately, this control method reduces the cognitive load on the user and enables them to navigate complex environments by providing simple and/or imprecise input to the system.

  18. Power wheelchair driving challenges in the community: a users' perspective.

    PubMed

    Torkia, Caryne; Reid, Denise; Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Kairy, Dahlia; Rushton, Paula W; Demers, Louise; Archambault, Philippe S

    2015-05-01

    There is limited information on the difficulties individuals experience in manoeuvring their power wheelchairs during daily activities. The aim of this study was to describe the nature and context of power wheelchair driving challenges from the perspective of the user. A qualitative design using semi-structured interviews with power wheelchair users. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify themes. Twelve experienced power wheelchair users were interviewed. Findings revealed that power wheelchair driving difficulties were related to the accomplishment of activities of daily living, and the influence of environmental context. Four key themes emerged: (1) difficulties accessing and using public buildings-facilities, (2) outdoor mobility, (3) problems in performing specific wheelchair mobility tasks/manoeuvres and (4) barriers and circumstances that are temporary, unforeseen or specific to a particular context. This qualitative study furthers our understanding of the driving difficulties powered wheelchair (PW) users experience during daily activities. This knowledge will assist clinicians and researchers in two areas: in choosing assessment measures that are ecologically valid for power wheelchair users; and, in identifying and refining the content of training programs specific to the use of power wheelchairs. A better understanding of the everyday challenges individuals experience in driving their power wheelchair will assist clinicians and researchers in: Choosing assessment measures and identifying training programs for this population. Refining the content of power wheelchair training programs.

  19. Engineering manual and electric powered wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R A

    1999-01-01

    The sophistication required to develop and properly configure a wheelchair is illustrated by the amount and complexity of the research being conducted. At this time there appears to be between 1.5 and 2.0 million full-time wheelchair users within the United States. The reliance of the user on the wheelchair and the amount of time in the wheelchair provide significant challenges for the wheelchair design engineer. Currently there are a wide variety of wheelchair designs that are commercially available. These wheelchairs accommodate a variety of people's needs, and represent significant progress. The current trend among manufacturers of manual wheelchairs seems to be cost-reduction engineering. The ergonomics of long-term wheelchair use are critical to the advancement of wheelchair design and to the clinical selection of wheelchairs. Electric powered wheelchairs appear to be progressing faster than nearly all other types of wheelchairs. This is due to the availability of computing power with low cost microcontrollers and associated peripherals. The greater range and availability of sensors are also making changes into the design of electric powered wheelchairs. The interaction between an electric powered wheelchair and the user can be extremely complex. In many cases, individual solutions are necessary. One of the more challenging questions is determining the abilities of the user required to drive an electric powered wheelchair effectively. There have been substantial improvements in the engineering of all wheelchairs. However, there remain significant issues to be addressed.

  20. Exploratory validation of a multidimensional power wheelchair outcomes toolkit

    PubMed Central

    Ben Mortenson, W.; Demers, Louise; Rushton, Paula W.; Auger, Claudine; Routhier, Francois; Miller, William C.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate the relationship among the measures in a power wheelchair outcomes toolkit. DESIGN We performed path analysis of cross-sectional data from self-report questionnaires and one objective measure. SETTING Data were collected in six Canadian sites. PARTICIPANTS A convenience sample of 128 power wheelchair users. The majority, 69 (53.9%), were female. Multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury/disease were the most common diagnoses. INTERVENTIONS Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The power wheelchair version of the Wheelchair Skills Test (4.1) was used to carry out an objective evaluation of capacity to perform 32 wheelchair skills. The Late Life Disability Index measured frequency of participation in 16 life activities. The Life-space Assessment measured independence, extent and frequency of mobility. The Assistive Technology Outcomes Profile for Mobility was used to assess perceived difficulty performing activity and participation using assistive technology. The Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for powered wheelchair users captured users’ self-efficacy with wheelchair use. RESULTS Wheelchair confidence was independently associated with less difficulty with activity (β =0.08, 0.01

    0.05) and participation (β=0.39, p<0.01), increased life space (β=0.09, p<0.03) and greater wheelchair skills (β=0.37, p<0.01) Less perceived difficulty with activity was independently associated with increased frequency of participation (β=0.30, p<0.01). Life space mobility was independently associated with increased frequency of participation ((β=0.31, p<0.01). Less difficulty with participation was independently associated with greater life-space mobility (β=0.32, p<0.01) and greater frequency of participation (β=0.13, p<0.01). CONCLUSION This study provides empirical support for the measures included as part of the power wheelchair outcomes toolkit. They appear to provide complementary information on a variety of constructs related to power wheelchair

  1. Exploratory Validation of a Multidimensional Power Wheelchair Outcomes Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Mortenson, W Ben; Demers, Louise; Rushton, Paula W; Auger, Claudine; Routhier, Francois; Miller, William C

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the relation among the measures in a power wheelchair outcomes toolkit. We performed path analysis of cross-sectional data from self-report questionnaires and 1 objective measure. Six sites. A convenience sample of power wheelchair users (N=128). Most (n=69; 53.9%) participants were women. Multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury/disease were the most common diagnoses. Not applicable. The power wheelchair version of the Wheelchair Skills Test version 4.1 was used to carry out an objective evaluation of capacity to perform 32 wheelchair skills. The Late-Life Disability Index measured frequency of participation in 16 life activities. The Life-Space Assessment measured independence, extent, and frequency of mobility. The Assistive Technology Outcomes Profile for Mobility was used to assess perceived difficulty performing activity and participation using assistive technology. The Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for powered wheelchair users captured users' self-efficacy with wheelchair use. Wheelchair confidence was independently associated with less difficulty with activity (β=.028, P=.002) and participation (β=.225, P<.001), increased life space (β=.095, P<.003), and greater wheelchair skills (β=.30, P<.001). Less perceived difficulty with activity was independently associated with increased frequency of participation (β=.55, P<.001). Life-space mobility was independently associated with increased frequency of participation (β=.167, P<.001). Less difficulty with participation was independently associated with greater life-space mobility (β=.59, P<.001) and greater frequency of participation (β=.13, P<.001). This study provides empirical support for the measures included as part of the power wheelchair outcomes toolkit. They appear to provide complementary information on a variety of constructs related to power wheelchair use. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 49 CFR 39.93 - What wheelchairs and other assistive devices may passengers with a disability bring onto a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What wheelchairs and other assistive devices may... and Services to Passengers With Disabilities § 39.93 What wheelchairs and other assistive devices may... must permit individuals with mobility disabilities to use wheelchairs and manually powered...

  3. 49 CFR 39.93 - What wheelchairs and other assistive devices may passengers with a disability bring onto a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What wheelchairs and other assistive devices may... and Services to Passengers With Disabilities § 39.93 What wheelchairs and other assistive devices may... must permit individuals with mobility disabilities to use wheelchairs and manually powered...

  4. 49 CFR 39.93 - What wheelchairs and other assistive devices may passengers with a disability bring onto a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What wheelchairs and other assistive devices may... and Services to Passengers With Disabilities § 39.93 What wheelchairs and other assistive devices may... must permit individuals with mobility disabilities to use wheelchairs and manually powered...

  5. 21 CFR 890.3860 - Powered wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered wheelchair. 890.3860 Section 890.3860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3860 Powered wheelchair. (a...

  6. 21 CFR 890.3860 - Powered wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered wheelchair. 890.3860 Section 890.3860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3860 Powered wheelchair. (a...

  7. 21 CFR 890.3860 - Powered wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered wheelchair. 890.3860 Section 890.3860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3860 Powered wheelchair. (a...

  8. 21 CFR 890.3860 - Powered wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered wheelchair. 890.3860 Section 890.3860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3860 Powered wheelchair. (a...

  9. 21 CFR 890.3860 - Powered wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powered wheelchair. 890.3860 Section 890.3860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3860 Powered wheelchair. (a...

  10. Perceived exercise benefits and barriers among power wheelchair soccer players.

    PubMed

    Barfield, J P; Malone, Laurie A

    2013-01-01

    Lack of exercise is a major risk factor for secondary conditions among persons dependent upon motorized wheelchairs. Power wheelchair soccer is a unique exercise opportunity for this population, and understanding factors that influence exercise decision-making is necessary for clinicians to help those in motorized chairs reduce their secondary risk. Therefore, this study examined differences in perceived benefits and barriers to exercise among power wheelchair soccer players using a mixed-methods analysis. The most common perceived benefit to exercise was "Exercising lets me have contact with friends and persons I enjoy." Post hoc comparisons of quantitative data indicated that persons with muscular dystrophy perceived exercise to be significantly less important than did other disability groups (p < 0.05). "Exercise is hard work for me," "Exercise tires me," and "There are too few places for me to exercise" were the most common perceived barriers. These findings can assist with development of exercise opportunities for power wheelchair users.

  11. Older people's use of powered wheelchairs for activity and participation.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Ase; Iwarsson, Susanne; Ståhle, Agneta

    2004-03-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate outcomes of older people's use of powered wheelchairs and risk factors for negative outcomes. The study was a cross-sectional interview-study including 111 powered wheelchair users over 65 years of age. All participants used their powered wheelchair in the summer; nearly all users regarded it as important and found that it gave them independence. The wheelchair made activity and participation possible for the users. The most frequent activity in the summer was going for a ride, and in the winter it was shopping. However, some could not use the wheelchair for visits, and supplementary travel modes are called for. Users who could not walk at all or who could not transfer without assistance were more likely not to be able to carry out prioritized activities. Furthermore, other risk factors for negative outcomes and need for further research were identified. The use of powered wheelchairs is a relevant societal intervention in relation to older people with limited walking ability in order to make activity and participation possible. It is likely that a larger proportion of older people could benefit from this intervention, in particular if current practices are improved taking activity and participation outcomes into consideration.

  12. An observational study of powered wheelchair provision in Italy.

    PubMed

    Salatino, Claudia; Andrich, Renzo; Converti, R M; Saruggia, M

    2016-01-01

    Powered wheelchairs are complex and expensive assistive devices that must be selected and configured on the basis of individual user needs, lifestyle, motivation, driving ability, and environment. Providing agencies often require evidence that their financial investment will lead to a successful outcome. The authors surveyed a sample of 79 users who had obtained powered wheelchairs from a Regional Health Service in Italy in the period 2008-2013. Follow-up interviews were conducted at the users' homes in order to collect information about wheelchair use, and its effectiveness, usefulness, and economic impact. The instruments used in the interviews included an introductory questionnaire, QUEST (Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology), PIADS (Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale), FABS/M (Facilitators and Barriers Survey/Mobility), and SCAI (Siva Cost Analysis Instrument). The results indicated positive outcomes, especially in relation to user satisfaction and psychosocial impact. A number of barriers were identified in various settings that sometimes restrict user mobility, and suggest corrective actions. The provision of a powered wheelchair generated considerable savings in social costs for most users: an average of about $38,000 per person over a projected 5-year period was estimated by comparing the cost of the intervention with that of non-intervention.

  13. Performance testing of collision-avoidance system for power wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Lopresti, Edmund F; Sharma, Vinod; Simpson, Richard C; Mostowy, L Casimir

    2011-01-01

    The Drive-Safe System (DSS) is a collision-avoidance system for power wheelchairs designed to support people with mobility impairments who also have visual, upper-limb, or cognitive impairments. The DSS uses a distributed approach to provide an add-on, shared-control, navigation-assistance solution. In this project, the DSS was tested for engineering goals such as sensor coverage, maximum safe speed, maximum detection distance, and power consumption while the wheelchair was stationary or driven by an investigator. Results indicate that the DSS provided uniform, reliable sensor coverage around the wheelchair; detected obstacles as small as 3.2 mm at distances of at least 1.6 m; and attained a maximum safe speed of 4.2 km/h. The DSS can drive reliably as close as 15.2 cm from a wall, traverse doorways as narrow as 81.3 cm without interrupting forward movement, and reduce wheelchair battery life by only 3%. These results have implications for a practical system to support safe, independent mobility for veterans who acquire multiple disabilities during Active Duty or later in life. These tests indicate that a system utilizing relatively low cost ultrasound, infrared, and force sensors can effectively detect obstacles in the vicinity of a wheelchair.

  14. Driving performance in a power wheelchair simulator.

    PubMed

    Archambault, Philippe S; Tremblay, Stéphanie; Cachecho, Sarah; Routhier, François; Boissy, Patrick

    2012-05-01

    A power wheelchair simulator can allow users to safely experience various driving tasks. For such training to be efficient, it is important that driving performance be equivalent to that in a real wheelchair. This study aimed at comparing driving performance in a real and in a simulated environment. Two groups of healthy young adults performed different driving tasks, either in a real power wheelchair or in a simulator. Smoothness of joystick control as well as the time necessary to complete each task were recorded and compared between the two groups. Driving strategies were analysed from video recordings. The sense of presence, of really being in the virtual environment, was assessed through a questionnaire. Smoothness of joystick control was the same in the real and virtual groups. Task completion time was higher in the simulator for the more difficult tasks. Both groups showed similar strategies and difficulties. The simulator generated a good sense of presence, which is important for motivation. Performance was very similar for power wheelchair driving in the simulator or in real life. Thus, the simulator could potentially be used to complement training of individuals who require a power wheelchair and use a regular joystick. [Box: see text].

  15. Power Wheelchair Use in Persons With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Changes Over Time.

    PubMed

    Ward, Amber Lea; Hammond, Sara; Holsten, Scott; Bravver, Elena; Brooks, Benjamin Rix

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to survey persons with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) at 1 and 6 months after receiving power wheelchairs to determine long-term use, comfort, and function as well as the power wheelchair's impact on daily tasks and quality of life. A 33-question survey and Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS) were sent 1 month after getting a new power wheelchair; a follow-up survey was sent at 6 months. Based on satisfaction and feature use survey results, at 1 month, 81% of users found the power wheelchair overall comfort to be high, 88% found their overall mobility to be improved, and 95% found it easy to use. Their quality of life increased and pain decreased at 1 and 6 months. According to the PIADS, the power wheelchair gave users increased ability to participate and sense of competence. This study has important results for the ALS community, as it is the first to assess power wheelchair users at 1 and 6 months after power wheelchair procurement. The results demonstrate the impact the power wheelchair has on mobility, psychosocial issues, functional abilities, and quality of life for a person with ALS.

  16. Effect of visual perception, visual function, cognition, and personality on power wheelchair use in adults.

    PubMed

    Massengale, Samantha; Folden, Donna; McConnell, Pima; Stratton, Laurie; Whitehead, Victoria

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent visual perception, visual function, cognition, and personality traits affect power wheelchair use in adults. It also proposes to establish baseline information to help clinicians determine or predict power wheelchair driving performance and to develop service plans to address those driving skills that need improvement or compensation. Sixty-two adult power wheelchair users were recruited. Standardized instruments were used to evaluate visual perceptual skills, visual function, cognitive skills, and personality traits. The results of these evaluations were then correlated with participants' scores on a power wheelchair performance test. Strong correlations were found between power wheelchair driving performance and visual perception (p = .000), ocular motor function (p = .000 and p < or = .001), stereodepth perception (p < or = .001), and alertness to the environment (p < or = .001). No significant correlations were found between personality traits and power wheelchair driving performance. These results indicate that good visual perceptual skills, visual function, and various aspects of cognition are necessary for proficient power wheelchair use. These data will assist clinicians in identifying significant factors to consider when evaluating and training clients for power wheelchair use.

  17. Use of manual and powered wheelchair in children with cerebral palsy: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Rodby-Bousquet, Elisabet; Hägglund, Gunnar

    2010-08-16

    Mobility is important for the cognitive and psychosocial development of children. Almost one third of children with cerebral palsy (CP) are non-ambulant. Wheelchairs can provide independent mobility, allowing them to explore their environment. Independent mobility is vital for activity and participation and reduces the dependence on caregivers. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of manual and powered wheelchair indoors and outdoors in relation to the degree of independent wheelchair mobility or need for assistance in a total population of children with CP. A cross-sectional study was performed including all children aged 3-18 years with CP living in southern Sweden during 2008. Data was extracted from a register and health care programme for children with CP (CPUP). There were a total of 562 children (326 boys, 236 girls) in the register. Information on the child's use of manual and powered wheelchair indoors and outdoors and the performance in self-propelling or need for assistance were analysed related to age, CP subtype and gross motor function. Wheelchairs for mobility indoors were used by 165 (29%) of the 562 children; 61 used wheelchair for independent mobility (32 using manual only, 12 powered only, 17 both) and 104 were pushed by an adult. For outdoor mobility wheelchairs were used by 228 children (41%); 66 used a wheelchair for independent mobility (18 using manual only, 36 powered only, 12 both) and 162 were pushed. The use of wheelchair increased with age and was most frequent in the spastic bilateral and dyskinetic subtypes. Most powered wheelchairs were operated by children at GMFCS level IV. In this total population of children with CP, aged 3-18 years, 29% used a wheelchair indoors and 41% outdoors. A majority using manual wheelchairs needed adult assistance (86%) while powered wheelchairs provided independent mobility in most cases (86%). To achieve a high level of independent mobility, both manual and powered wheelchairs should be

  18. Use of manual and powered wheelchair in children with cerebral palsy: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mobility is important for the cognitive and psychosocial development of children. Almost one third of children with cerebral palsy (CP) are non-ambulant. Wheelchairs can provide independent mobility, allowing them to explore their environment. Independent mobility is vital for activity and participation and reduces the dependence on caregivers. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of manual and powered wheelchair indoors and outdoors in relation to the degree of independent wheelchair mobility or need for assistance in a total population of children with CP. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed including all children aged 3-18 years with CP living in southern Sweden during 2008. Data was extracted from a register and health care programme for children with CP (CPUP). There were a total of 562 children (326 boys, 236 girls) in the register. Information on the child's use of manual and powered wheelchair indoors and outdoors and the performance in self-propelling or need for assistance were analysed related to age, CP subtype and gross motor function. Results Wheelchairs for mobility indoors were used by 165 (29%) of the 562 children; 61 used wheelchair for independent mobility (32 using manual only, 12 powered only, 17 both) and 104 were pushed by an adult. For outdoor mobility wheelchairs were used by 228 children (41%); 66 used a wheelchair for independent mobility (18 using manual only, 36 powered only, 12 both) and 162 were pushed. The use of wheelchair increased with age and was most frequent in the spastic bilateral and dyskinetic subtypes. Most powered wheelchairs were operated by children at GMFCS level IV. Conclusion In this total population of children with CP, aged 3-18 years, 29% used a wheelchair indoors and 41% outdoors. A majority using manual wheelchairs needed adult assistance (86%) while powered wheelchairs provided independent mobility in most cases (86%). To achieve a high level of independent mobility, both

  19. Exercise Intensity During Power Wheelchair Soccer.

    PubMed

    Barfield, J P; Newsome, Laura; Malone, Laurie A

    2016-11-01

    To determine exercise intensity during power wheelchair soccer among a sample of persons with mobility impairments. Cross-sectional descriptive. On-site training facilities of multiple power wheelchair soccer teams. Participants with severe mobility impairments (N=30) (mean ± SD, age: 29.40±15.51y, body mass index: 24.11±6.47kg/m(2), power soccer experience: 7.91±3.93y, disability sport experience: 12.44±9.73y) were recruited from multiple power wheelchair soccer teams. Portable metabolic carts were used to collect oxygen consumption (V˙o2) data during resting and game play conditions. Average V˙o2 (expressed in metabolic equivalent tasks [METs]) during resting and game play conditions and rating of perceived exertion for game play. V˙o2 increased from 1.35±0.47 METs at rest to 1.81±0.65 METs during game play. This 34% increase in exercise intensity was significant (P<.01) and supported by a mean perceived exertion score of approximately 13 (somewhat hard). Although not able to sustain an intensity associated with reduced secondary disease risk (ie, 3 METs), the documented light-intensity exercise in the current study surpassed an intensity threshold associated with improved functional capacity and performance of daily living activities (ie, 1.5 METs). Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Autonomous assistance navigation for robotic wheelchairs in confined spaces.

    PubMed

    Cheein, Fernando Auat; Carelli, Ricardo; De la Cruz, Celso; Muller, Sandra; Bastos Filho, Teodiano F

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a visual interface for the assistance of a robotic wheelchair's navigation is presented. The visual interface is developed for the navigation in confined spaces such as narrows corridors or corridor-ends. The interface performs two navigation modus: non-autonomous and autonomous. The non-autonomous driving of the robotic wheelchair is made by means of a hand-joystick. The joystick directs the motion of the vehicle within the environment. The autonomous driving is performed when the user of the wheelchair has to turn (90, 90 or 180 degrees) within the environment. The turning strategy is performed by a maneuverability algorithm compatible with the kinematics of the wheelchair and by the SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) algorithm. The SLAM algorithm provides the interface with the information concerning the environment disposition and the pose -position and orientation-of the wheelchair within the environment. Experimental and statistical results of the interface are also shown in this work.

  1. Operation assistance of a voice-controlled electric wheelchair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Takashi; Nishihara, Kazue

    2007-12-01

    We propose a voice-controlled electric wheelchair with a system for detecting its position and direction. Thus far, we have studied systems that incorporated voice instructions with our indoor navigation equipment using RF tags. The operability of a wheelchair was measured in the same environment for different operating methods. We found that one very effective method is to store the possible stopping positions and angles of rotation for the desired directions in RF cards, which could then adequately assist the movement of a wheelchair.

  2. Development of Android Based Powered Intelligent Wheelchair for Quadriplegic Persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Ghosh, Tathagata; Kumar, Pradeep; Bhawna, Shruthi. S.

    2017-08-01

    Several surveys give us the view that both children and adults benefit substantially from access towards independent mobility. With the inventions of technology, no individuals are satisfied with traditional manual operated machines. To accommodate population, researchers are using technology, originally developed for mobile robots to create ‘intelligent wheelchairs’. It’s a major challenge for quadriplegic persons as they really find it difficult to manipulate powered wheelchair during the activities of their daily living. As the Smartphone era has evolved with innovative android based applications, engineers are improving and trying to make such machines simple and cheap to the next level. In this paper, we present a development of android based powered intelligent wheelchair to assist the quadriplegic person by making them self sufficient in controlling the wheelchair. The wheels of the chair can be controlled by the voice or gesture movement or by touching the screen of the android app by the challenged persons. The system uses the Bluetooth communication to interface the microcontroller and the inbuilt sensors in the android Smartphone. According to the commands received from android phone, the kinematics of the wheels are controlled.

  3. Effectiveness of a Wheelchair Skills Training Program for Powered Wheelchair Users: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kirby, R Lee; Miller, William C; Routhier, Francois; Demers, Louise; Mihailidis, Alex; Polgar, Jan Miller; Rushton, Paula W; Titus, Laura; Smith, Cher; McAllister, Mike; Theriault, Chris; Thompson, Kara; Sawatzky, Bonita

    2015-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that powered wheelchair users who receive the Wheelchair Skills Training Program (WSTP) improve their wheelchair skills in comparison with a control group that receives standard care, and secondarily to assess goal achievement, satisfaction with training, retention, injury rate, confidence with wheelchair use, and participation. Randomized controlled trial. Rehabilitation centers and communities. Powered wheelchair users (N=116). Five 30-minute WSTP training sessions. Assessments were done at baseline (t1), posttraining (t2), and 3 months posttraining (t3) using the Wheelchair Skills Test Questionnaire (WST-Q version 4.1), Goal Attainment Score (GAS), Satisfaction Questionnaire, injury rate, Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for Power Wheelchair Users (WheelCon), and Life Space Assessment (LSA). There was no significant t2-t1 difference between the groups for WST-Q capacity scores (P=.600), but the difference for WST-Q performance scores was significant (P=.016) with a relative (t2/t1 × 100%) improvement of the median score for the intervention group of 10.8%. The mean GAS ± SD for the intervention group after training was 92.8%±11.4%, and satisfaction with training was high. The WST-Q gain was not retained at t3. There was no clinically significant difference between the groups in injury rate and no statistically significant differences in WheelCon or LSA scores at t3. Powered wheelchair users who receive formal wheelchair skills training demonstrate modest, transient posttraining improvements in their WST-Q performance scores, have substantial improvements on individualized goals, and are positive about training. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effectiveness of a Wheelchair Skills Training Program for Powered Wheelchair Users: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, R. Lee; Miller, William C.; Routhier, Francois; Demers, Louise; Mihailidis, Alex; Polgar, Jan Miller; Rushton, Paula W.; Titus, Laura; Smith, Cher; McAllister, Mike; Theriault, Chris; Thompson, Kara; Sawatzky, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that powered wheelchair users who receive the Wheelchair Skills Training Program (WSTP) improve their wheelchair skills in comparison with a Control group that receives standard care. Our secondary objectives were to assess goal achievement, satisfaction with training, retention, injury rate, confidence with wheelchair use and participation. Design Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Setting Rehabilitation centers and communities. Participants 116 powered wheelchair users. Intervention Five 30-minute WSTP training sessions. Main Outcome Measures Assessments were done at baseline (T1), post-training (T2) and 3 months post-training (T3) using the Wheelchair Skills Test Questionnaire (WST-Q 4.1), Goal Attainment Score (GAS), Satisfaction Questionnaire, Injury Rate, Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale for Power Wheelchair Users (WheelCon) and Life Space Assessment (LSA). Results There was no significant T2-T1 difference between the groups for WST-Q capacity scores (p = 0.600) but the difference for WST-Q performance scores was significant (p = 0.016) with a relative (T2/T1 x 100%) improvement of the median score for the Intervention group of 10.8%. The mean (SD) GAS for the Intervention group after training was 92.8% (11.4) and satisfaction with training was high. The WST-Q gain was not retained at T3. There was no clinically significant difference between the groups in injury rate and no statistically significant differences in WheelCon or LSA scores at T3. Conclusions Powered wheelchair users who receive formal wheelchair skills training demonstrate modest transient post-training improvements in their WST-Q performance scores, they have substantial improvements on individualized goals and they are positive about training. PMID:26232684

  5. Using machine learning to blend human and robot controls for assisted wheelchair navigation.

    PubMed

    Goil, Aditya; Derry, Matthew; Argall, Brenna D

    2013-06-01

    This work presents an algorithm for collaborative control of an assistive semi-autonomous wheelchair. Our approach is based on a statistical machine learning technique to learn task variability from demonstration examples. The algorithm has been developed in the context of shared-control powered wheelchairs that provide assistance to individuals with impairments that affect their control in challenging driving scenarios, like doorway navigation. We validate our algorithm within a simulation environment, and find that with relatively few demonstrations, our approach allows for safe traversal of the doorway while maintaining a high level of user control.

  6. Design of assistive wheelchair system directly steered by human thoughts.

    PubMed

    Li, Junhua; Liang, Jianyi; Zhao, Qibin; Li, Jie; Hong, Kan; Zhang, Liqing

    2013-06-01

    Integration of brain-computer interface (BCI) technique and assistive device is one of chief and promising applications of BCI system. With BCI technique, people with disabilities do not have to communicate with external environment through traditional and natural pathways like peripheral nerves and muscles, and could achieve it only by their brain activities. In this paper, we designed an electroencephalogram (EEG)-based wheelchair which can be steered by users' own thoughts without any other involvements. We evaluated the feasibility of BCI-based wheelchair in terms of accuracies and real-world testing. The results demonstrate that our BCI wheelchair is of good performance not only in accuracy, but also in practical running testing in a real environment. This fact implies that people can steer wheelchair only by their thoughts, and may have a potential perspective in daily application for disabled people.

  7. Pilot study for quantifying driving characteristics during power wheelchair soccer.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Karmarkar, Amol M; Collins, Diane M; Souza, Ana; Oyster, Michelle L; Cooper, Rosemarie; Cooper, Rory A

    2012-01-01

    This study determined the driving characteristics of wheelchair users during power wheelchair soccer games. Data for this study were collected at the 28th and 29th National Veterans Wheelchair Games. Nineteen veterans who were 18 years or older and power wheelchair soccer players completed a brief demographic survey and provided information about their power wheelchairs. A customized data-logging device was placed on each participant's wheelchair before power soccer game participation. The data logger was removed at the end of the final game for each participant. The average distance traveled during the games was 899.5 +/- 592.5 m, and the average maximum continuous distance traveled was 256.0 +/- 209.4 m. The average wheelchair speed was 0.8 +/- 0.2 m/s, and the average duration of driving time was 17.6 +/- 8.3 min. Average proportion of time spent at a speed >1 m/s was 30.7% +/- 33.8%, between 0.5 and 1 m/s was 16.2% +/- 34.4%, and <0.5 m/s was 21.4% +/- 24.3%. The information from this descriptive study provides insight for future research in the field of adapted sports for people with high levels of impairments who use power wheelchairs for their mobility.

  8. Wheelchair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA-developed aerospace computerized structural-analysis techniques and aerospace composite materials have resulted in an advanced wheelchair that weighs only 25 pounds. With only half the weight of a normal wheelchair, this advanced wheelchair is as strong and durable as a 50-pound stainless steel wheelchair yet can be easily collapsed forauto stowage. Its features include a seat, wheelguards, dynamic brakes, shaped hand rims, and a footrest with smooth contours to aid in opening doors.

  9. Wheelchairs

    MedlinePlus

    ... select and maintain your wheelchair. > Picking the right wheelchair Selecting the right chair can be confusing. You need to consider style, ... many options to consider to find the right chair for you. > Webcast: Wheelchair selection Helpful tips to consider when reviewing your ...

  10. The Hephaestus Smart Wheelchair System.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Richard C; Poirot, Daniel; Baxter, Francie

    2002-06-01

    The Hephaestus Smart Wheelchair System is envisioned as a series of components that clinicians and wheelchair manufacturers will be able to attach to standard power wheelchairs to convert them into "smart wheelchairs." A prototype of the system has been developed and mounted on an Everest and Jennings Lancer2000 wheelchair. The prototype bases its navigation assistance behavior on the behavior developed for the NavChair Assistive Wheelchair Navigation System, but the underlying hardware and software are being designed to facilitate commercialization. This paper describes our design goals for the Hephaestus system and discusses the current status of the system prototype as well as plans for future work.

  11. Adaptive shared control for an intelligent power wheelchair

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, R.C.; Levine, S.P.

    1996-12-31

    The NavChair Assistive Navigation System is being developed to increase the mobility of severely handicapped individuals by providing navigation assistance for a power wheelchair. While designing the NavChair it became clear that obtaining the full range of desired functionality required several different {open_quotes}operating modes,{close_quotes} each of which was appropriate in different contexts. This also necessarily created a need for a method of choosing between these modes. One solution is for the user to manage the task of mode determination, which may place unacceptable performance burdens on NavChair users with severe disabilities. Instead, a means for the NavChair to automatically choose the proper operating mode is being sought.

  12. Measurement properties of the Wheelchair Skills Test-Questionnaire for powered wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Paula W; Kirby, R Lee; Routhier, Francois; Smith, Cher

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the test-retest reliability, concurrent validity and responsiveness of the Wheelchair Skills Test - Questionnaire (WST-Q) Version 4.1 for powered wheelchair users. A volunteer sample of 72 community-dwelling, experienced powered wheelchair users, ranging in age from 50 to 77 years, participated in this study. Participants completed measures at baseline and 1 month later. Mean ± standard deviation total percentage WST-Q scores at baseline and 1 month were 83.7% ± 10.9 and 86.3% ± 10.0 respectively. Cronbach's alpha was 0.90 and the 1 month test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC1,1) was 0.78 (confidence interval: 0.68-0.86). There were no floor or ceiling effects. Percentages of agreement between baseline and 1 month for individual skills ranged from 72.2% to 100%. The correlations between the WST-Q and the objective Wheelchair Skills Test (WST), WheelCon and Life Space Assessment were r = 0.65, r = 0.47 and r = 0.47 respectively. The standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest real difference (SRD) were 5.0 and 6.2 respectively. The WST-Q 4.1 has high internal consistency, strong test-retest reliability and strong support for concurrent validity and responsiveness. There is evidence of reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Wheelchair Skills Test - Questionnaire (WST-Q) among experienced older adult powered wheelchair users. The WST-Q can be used to measure powered wheelchair skills, guide intervention and measure change over time.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of powered wheelchairs: findings of a study.

    PubMed

    Andrich, Renzo; Salatino, Claudia; Converti, Rosa Maria; Saruggia, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    This study surveyed a sample of 79 wheelchair users who had obtained powered wheelchairs from the National Health Service in an Italian Region in the period 2008-2013. The wheelchair prescriptions had been done on the basis of an assessment protocol agreed with the Local Health Authority. Follow-up interviews were carried out at the users' homes, in order to collect information about the wheelchair use and its effectiveness, usefulness and economic impact. The instruments used in the interviews included an introductory questionnaire (describing the wheelchair use), the QUEST (measuring the user's satisfaction), the PIADS (measuring the psychosocial impact, in terms of perceived changes in ability, adaptability and self-esteem), the FABS/M (detecting environmental facilitators and barriers) and the SCAI (estimating the economic impact). Overall, positive outcomes were detected for most users, especially in relation to their satisfaction and the psychosocial impact. A number of barriers were identified in various settings (at home, in public places, in natural spaces, in public transportation) that sometimes restrict the user mobility and thus may claim for corrective actions. Several environmental factors acting as facilitators were also identified. In relation to the economic impact, the provision of a powered wheelchair generated remarkable savings in social costs for most of the users, on average about 36.000 Euros per person on a projected 5-years span. This estimate results from the comparison between the social cost of the intervention (sum of the costs of all material and human resources involved in the provision and usage of the wheelchair) and the cost of non-intervention (the presumed social cost incurred in case no powered wheelchair had been provided and the user had to carry on with just a manual wheelchair). The study was also an opportunity to develop and try out a follow-up method that proved applicable within service delivery practice.

  14. RESNA Position on the Application of Power Wheelchairs for Pediatric Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Lauren; Arva, Julianna; Furumasu, Jan; Harris, Michele; Lange, Michelle L.; McCarthy, Elisabeth; Kermoian, Rosanne; Pinkerton, Heather; Plummer, Teresa; Roos, Jodi; Sabet, Andrina; Vander Schaaf, Paula; Wonsettler, Terri

    2009-01-01

    This document, approved by the Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA) Board of Directors in March 2007, shares typical clinical applications and provides evidence from the literature supporting the use of power wheelchairs for children. It is RESNA's position that age, limited vision or cognition,…

  15. RESNA Position on the Application of Power Wheelchairs for Pediatric Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Lauren; Arva, Julianna; Furumasu, Jan; Harris, Michele; Lange, Michelle L.; McCarthy, Elisabeth; Kermoian, Rosanne; Pinkerton, Heather; Plummer, Teresa; Roos, Jodi; Sabet, Andrina; Vander Schaaf, Paula; Wonsettler, Terri

    2009-01-01

    This document, approved by the Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA) Board of Directors in March 2007, shares typical clinical applications and provides evidence from the literature supporting the use of power wheelchairs for children. It is RESNA's position that age, limited vision or cognition,…

  16. Optimal path-following control of a smart powered wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nghia; Nguyen, Hung T; Su, Steven

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimal path-following control approach for a smart powered wheelchair. Lyapunov's second method is employed to find a stable position tracking control rule. To guarantee robust performance of this wheelchair system even under model uncertainties, an advanced robust tracking is utilised based on the combination of a systematic decoupling technique and a neural network design. A calibration procedure is adopted for the wheelchair system to improve positioning accuracy. After the calibration, the accuracy is improved significantly. Two real-time experimental results obtained from square tracking and door passing tasks confirm the performance of proposed approach.

  17. The potential impact of intelligent power wheelchair use on social participation: perspectives of users, caregivers and clinicians.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Paula W; Kairy, Dahlia; Archambault, Philippe; Pituch, Evelina; Torkia, Caryne; El Fathi, Anas; Stone, Paula; Routhier, François; Forget, Robert; Pineau, Joelle; Gourdeau, Richard; Demers, Louise

    2015-05-01

    To explore power wheelchair users', caregivers' and clinicians' perspectives regarding the potential impact of intelligent power wheelchair use on social participation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with power wheelchair users (n = 12), caregivers (n = 4) and clinicians (n = 12). An illustrative video was used to facilitate discussion. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. Three main themes were identified based on the experiences of the power wheelchair users, caregivers and clinicians: (1) increased social participation opportunities, (2) changing how social participation is experienced and (3) decreased risk of accidents during social participation. Findings from this study suggest that an intelligent power wheelchair would enhance social participation in a variety of important ways, thereby providing support for continued design and development of this assistive technology. An intelligent power wheelchair has the potential to: Increase social participation opportunities by overcoming challenges associated with navigating through crowds and small spaces. Change how social participation is experienced through "normalizing" social interactions and decreasing the effort required to drive a power wheelchair. Decrease the risk of accidents during social participation by reducing the need for dangerous compensatory strategies and minimizing the impact of the physical environment.

  18. Wheelchairs

    MedlinePlus

    ... rolled into his new classroom and met his teacher. She asked if it would be OK to talk to the class about his wheelchair and Daniel agreed. Whew! He felt so relieved when she did. Mrs. Boyle told everyone that wheelchairs are just a good way of getting around if a person has ...

  19. Data Logger Technologies for Powered Wheelchairs: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Routhier, François; Lettre, Josiane; Miller, William C; Borisoff, Jaimie F; Keetch, Kate; Mitchell, Ian M

    2017-06-29

    In recent years, studies increasingly employed data loggers to record the objective behaviors of powered wheelchair users. Of the data logging work reported in the literature, the technologies used offer marked differences in characteristics. In order to identify and describe the extent of published research activity that relies on data logger technologies for powered wheelchairs, we performed a scoping review of the scientific and grey literature. This scoping review, complementary to a previous one related to manual wheelchairs, is part of a process aiming to help further the development and increase the functionality of data loggers with wheelchairs. Five databases were searched: Medline, Compendex, CINAHL, EMBASE, Google Scholar. Sixty papers were retained for analysis. The most frequently used technologies were all installed on the wheelchair: 19.0% were accelerometers, 14.6% were pressure sensors or switches, 13.9% were odometers, 10.9% were global positioning systems, 9.5% were tilt sensors, and 7.3% were force-sensing technologies. The most reported outcomes were pressure-relief activities (17.3%), distance traveled (9.3%), mobility events (8.9%), acceleration (8.5%), and sitting time (6.9%). Future research may be needed to assess the usefulness of different outcomes and to develop methods more appropriate to optimize the practicality of wheelchair data loggers.

  20. Using a smart wheelchair as a gaming device for floor-projected games: a mixed-reality environment for training powered-wheelchair driving skills.

    PubMed

    Secoli, R; Zondervan, D; Reinkensmeyer, D

    2012-01-01

    For children with a severe disability, such as can arise from cerebral palsy, becoming independent in mobility is a critical goal. Currently, however, driver's training for powered wheelchair use is labor intensive, requiring hand-over-hand assistance from a skilled therapist to keep the trainee safe. This paper describes the design of a mixed reality environment for semi-autonomous training of wheelchair driving skills. In this system, the wheelchair is used as the gaming input device, and users train driving skills by maneuvering through floor-projected games created with a multi-projector system and a multi-camera tracking system. A force feedback joystick assists in steering and enhances safety.

  1. Wheelchairs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Others have disabilities due to muscular dystrophy or cerebral palsy . In some cases, kids have wheelchairs but don' ... Therapist In the Band: Jens' Story Spina Bifida Cerebral Palsy Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...

  2. Measurement Properties of the Wheelchair Skills Test Questionnaire for Powered Wheelchair Users

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, Paula W.; Kirby, R. Lee; Routhier, Francois; Smith, Cher

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the test-retest reliability, concurrent validity and responsiveness of the Wheelchair Skills Test - Questionnaire (WST-Q) Version 4.1 for powered wheelchair users. Methods A volunteer sample of 72 community-dwelling, experienced powered wheelchair users, ranging in age from 50 to 77 years, participated in this study. Participants completed measures at baseline and 1 month later. Results Mean ± standard deviation total percentage WST-Q scores at baseline and 1 month were 83.7% ±10.9 and 86.3% ±10.0 respectively. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.90 and the 1 month test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC1,1) was 0.78 (confidence interval:0.68–0.86). There were no floor or ceiling effects. Percentages of agreement between baseline and 1 month for individual skills ranged from 72.2–100%. The correlations between the WST-Q and the objective Wheelchair Skills Test (WST), WheelCon and Life Space Assessment were r=0.65, r = 0.47 and r = 0.47 respectively. The standard error of measurement (SEM) and smallest real difference (SRD) were 5.0 and 6.2 respectively. Conclusion The WST-Q 4.1 has high internal consistency, strong test-retest reliability and strong support for concurrent validity and responsiveness. PMID:25411057

  3. A navigation system for increasing the autonomy and the security of powered wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Fioretti, S; Leo, T; Longhi, S

    2000-12-01

    Assistive technology is an emerging area where some robotic devices can be used to strengthen the residual abilities of individuals with motor disabilities or to substitute their missing function thus helping them to gain a level of independence at least in the activities of daily living. This paper presents the design of a navigation system and its integration with a commercial powered wheelchair. The navigation system provides the commercial wheelchair with a set of functions which increase the autonomy of elderly and people with motor disabilities. In general, a robot device must be adapted to assistive applications in such a way as to be easily managed by the user. Users, especially young ones, prefer to directly control the robotic device and this aspect of usability has to be managed without affecting the security and efficiency of the navigation module. These aspects have been considered as specifications for the navigation module of powered wheelchairs. Different autonomy levels of the navigation module and proper user interfaces have been developed. Two autonomy levels have been designed. Simple collision avoidance is also implemented in order to stop the mobile base when an obstacle is detected. The preliminary technical tests performed on the navigation system have shown satisfactory results in terms of security and response time. A modular solution for the navigation module was considered in order to simplify the adaptation of the module to different powered wheelchairs.

  4. Neural network based diagonal decoupling control of powered wheelchair systems.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuan Nghia; Su, Steven; Nguyen, Hung T

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes an advanced diagonal decoupling control method for powered wheelchair systems. This control method is based on a combination of the systematic diagonalization technique and the neural network control design. As such, this control method reduces coupling effects on a multivariable system, leading to independent control design procedures. Using an obtained dynamic model, the problem of the plant's Jacobian calculation is eliminated in a neural network control design. The effectiveness of the proposed control method is verified in a real-time implementation on a powered wheelchair system. The obtained results confirm that robustness and desired performance of the overall system are guaranteed, even under parameter uncertainty effects.

  5. The power of power wheelchairs: Mobility choices of community-dwelling, older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mortenson, WB; Hammell, KW; Luts, A; Soles, C; Miller, WC

    2015-01-01

    Background Power wheelchairs are purported to have a positive effect on health, occupation, and quality of life. However, there is limited knowledge about what factors shape power wheelchair use decisions. Aims/Objectives A study was undertaken to understand the mobility choices of community-dwelling, power wheelchair users. Methods A series of semi-structured qualitative interviews was conducted with 13 older adult power wheelchair users. Participants were interviewed at enrollment and four months later. Data analysis was informed by Bourdieu’s theoretical constructs of habitus, capital, and field. Results Three main styles of power wheelchair use were identified: reluctant use, strategic use and essential use, and each type is illustrated using an aggregate case study. Conclusion/Significance These findings highlight the need to alter the power relationship that exists between prescribers and device users and to effect policy changes that enable people with physical impairments to make as wide a range of mobility choices as possible. PMID:26027749

  6. The power of power wheelchairs: Mobility choices of community-dwelling, older adults.

    PubMed

    Mortenson, William Bennett; Hammell, Karen W; Luts, Anneli; Soles, Chelsea; Miller, William C

    2015-01-01

    Power wheelchairs are purported to have a positive effect on health, occupation, and quality of life. However, there is limited knowledge about what factors shape power wheelchair use decisions. A study was undertaken to understand the mobility choices of community-dwelling, power wheelchair users. A series of semi-structured qualitative interviews was conducted with 13 older adult power wheelchair users. Participants were interviewed at enrollment and four months later. Data analysis was informed by Bourdieu's theoretical constructs of habitus, capital, and field. Three main styles of power wheelchair use were identified: reluctant use, strategic use, and essential use, and each type is illustrated using an aggregate case study. These findings highlight the need to alter the power relationship that exists between prescribers and device users and to effect policy changes that enable people with physical impairments to make as wide a range of mobility choices as possible.

  7. A survey of adult power wheelchair and scooter users.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Kara; McCluskey, Annie

    2010-01-01

    Power wheelchairs and scooters have the potential to increase community participation for people with mobility limitations. However, there are also challenges associated with use. The aims of this study were to investigate the characteristics of adults who use power wheelchairs and scooters, explore the process of power-mobility provision and examine the benefits and challenges of use. A cross-sectional survey design was used to recruit power wheelchair or scooter users, aged over 18 years, or their carer, living in New South Wales, Australia. The survey was distributed by mail and e-mail. Two hundred and two usable surveys were returned, 25% were power wheelchair users (median age: 57 years, IQR: 40-69) and 74% were scooter users (mean age: 81 years, IQR: 72-85). Only one-third of users (33%) consulted a health professional prior to purchasing their device. Benefits included increased independence and quality of life. Challenges included environmental barriers and accidents. A sizeable proportion of respondents (21%) reported accidents in the previous year, often resulting in personal injury and damage to their device. Power-mobility devices have many benefits for users, but can also have negative outcomes, like accidents resulting in injuries. Further high quality studies need to be conducted to determine whether the positive benefits outweigh the negative outcomes such as accidents and injuries.

  8. 14 CFR 382.125 - What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the cargo compartment? 382.125... Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.125 What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the...

  9. 14 CFR 382.125 - What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the cargo compartment? 382.125... Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.125 What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the...

  10. 14 CFR 382.125 - What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the cargo compartment? 382.125... Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.125 What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the...

  11. 14 CFR 382.125 - What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the cargo compartment? 382.125... Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.125 What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the...

  12. 14 CFR 382.125 - What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the cargo compartment? 382.125... Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.125 What procedures do carriers follow when wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be stowed in the...

  13. REAL-TIME MODEL-BASED ELECTRICAL POWERED WHEELCHAIR CONTROL

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongwu; Salatin, Benjamin; Grindle, Garrett G.; Ding, Dan; Cooper, Rory A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different control methods on driving speed variation and wheel-slip of an electric-powered wheelchair (EPW). A kinematic model as well as 3-D dynamic model was developed to control the velocity and traction of the wheelchair. A smart wheelchair platform was designed and built with a computerized controller and encoders to record wheel speeds and to detect the slip. A model based, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and an open-loop controller were applied with the EPW driving on four different surfaces at three specified speeds. The speed errors, variation, rise time, settling time and slip coefficient were calculated and compared for a speed step-response input. Experimental results showed that model based control performed best on all surfaces across the speeds. PMID:19733494

  14. Real-time model based electrical powered wheelchair control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongwu; Salatin, Benjamin; Grindle, Garrett G; Ding, Dan; Cooper, Rory A

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different control methods on driving speed variation and wheel slip of an electric-powered wheelchair (EPW). A kinematic model as well as 3D dynamic model was developed to control the velocity and traction of the wheelchair. A smart wheelchair platform was designed and built with a computerized controller and encoders to record wheel speeds and to detect the slip. A model based, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and an open-loop controller were applied with the EPW driving on four different surfaces at three specified speeds. The speed errors, variation, rise time, settling time and slip coefficient were calculated and compared for a speed step-response input. Experimental results showed that model based control performed best on all surfaces across the speeds.

  15. Evaluation of a stair-climbing power wheelchair in 25 people with tetraplegia.

    PubMed

    Laffont, Isabelle; Guillon, Bruno; Fermanian, Christophe; Pouillot, Sophie; Even-Schneider, Alexia; Boyer, François; Ruquet, Maria; Aegerter, Philippe; Dizien, Olivier; Lofaso, Frédéric

    2008-10-01

    To compare the performance of a power wheelchair with stair-climbing capability (TopChair) and a conventional power wheelchair (Storm3). A single-center, open-label study. A physical medicine and rehabilitation hospital. Patients (N=25) who required power wheelchairs because of severe impairments affecting the upper and lower limbs. Indoor and outdoor driving trials with both devices. Curb-clearing and stair-climbing with TopChair. Trial duration and Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology (QUEST) tool; number of failures during driving trials and ability to climb curbs and stairs. All 25 participants successfully completed the outdoor and indoor trials with both wheelchairs. Although differences in times to trial completion were statistically significant, they were less than 10%. QUEST scores were significantly better with the Storm3 than the TopChair for weight (P=.001), dimension (P=.006), and effectiveness (P=.04). Of the 25 participants, 23 cleared a 20-cm curb without help, and 20 climbed up and down 6 steps. Most participants felt these specific capabilities of the TopChair--for example, curb clearing and stair climbing-were easy to use (22/25 for curb, 21/25 for stairs) and helpful (24/25 and 23/25). A few participants felt insecure (4/25 and 6/25, respectively). The TopChair is a promising mobility device that enables stair and curb climbing and warrants further study.

  16. Epidemiology of Medicare abuse: the example of power wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, James S; Nguyen-Oghalai, Tracy U; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2007-02-01

    To determine the effect of neighborhood ethnic composition on power wheelchair prescriptions. The 5% noncancer sample of Medicare recipients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database, from 1994 to 2001. SEER regions. Individuals covered by Medicare living in SEER regions without a cancer diagnosis. Individual characteristics (age, sex, ethnicity, justifying diagnosis, and comorbidity), primary diagnoses, neighborhood characteristics (percentage black, percentage Hispanic, percentage with <12 years education, and median income), and SEER region. The rate of power wheelchair prescriptions was 33 times greater in 2001 than in 1994, with a shift over time from justifying diagnoses more closely tied to mobility impairment, such as strokes, to less-specific medical diagnoses, such as osteoarthritis. In multilevel, multivariate analyses, individuals living in neighborhoods with higher percentages of blacks or Hispanics were more likely to receive power wheelchairs (odds ratios=1.09 for each 10% increase in black residents and 1.23 for each 10% increase in Hispanic residents) after controlling for ethnicity and other characteristics at the individual level. These results support allegations that marketers promoting power wheelchairs have specifically targeted minority neighborhoods.

  17. A review of manual wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Flemmer, Claire L; Flemmer, Rory C

    2016-01-01

    To review the scientific literature published in the last 14 years on the different types of manual wheelchairs. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to find the recent research on manual wheelchairs. The findings of 77 references on pushrim-propelled wheelchairs, crank-propelled wheelchairs, lever-propelled wheelchairs, geared manual wheelchairs and pushrim-activated power-assist wheelchairs are reported. The pushrim-propelled wheelchair is light, easy to steer and has good indoor manoeuvrability but is very inefficient and causes serious upper body overloading so that long-term use leads to steadily deteriorating capability for the user and ultimately a transition to a powered chair. Whilst the latter is less physically demanding, the sedentary lifestyle and decreasing muscle use lead to several secondary health problems. Crank- and lever-propelled wheelchairs and geared pushrim wheelchairs are more efficient and less demanding and may improve the quality of life of the user by expanding the range of accessible environments, reducing upper body pain, increasing independence and avoiding or delaying the 'debilitating cycle'. However, wheelchairs with these alternative modes of propulsion are often heavier, wider and/or longer and are less easy to steer, brake and fold than the pushrim wheelchair. Implications for rehabilitation Pushrim-propelled wheelchairs are difficult to drive on outdoor paths (grass and gravel/sand surfaces) and ramps so that users are confined to restricted environments and have limited participation in everyday activities. The repetitive strain imposed on the upper body by pushrim propulsion leads to very high prevalence of shoulder and wrist pain in manual wheelchair users. Crank-propelled and lever-propelled wheelchairs are more efficient and less straining than pushrim propelled wheelchairs, allowing users to access more challenging environments, prolong independence and improve the quality of life.

  18. Power wheelchair range testing and energy consumption during fatigue testing.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R A; VanSickle, D P; Albright, S J; Stewart, K J; Flannery, M; Robertson, R N

    1995-10-01

    The range of a power wheelchair depends on many factors including: battery type, battery state, wheelchair/rider weight, terrain, the efficiency of the drive train, and driving behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of three methods of estimating power wheelchair range. Another significant purpose was to compare the current draw on pavement to current draw on an International Standards Organization (ISO) Double Drum tester at one m/sec. Tests were performed on seven different power wheelchairs unloaded, and loaded with an ISO 100 kg test dummy. Each chair was configured according to the manufacturer's specifications, and tires were properly inflated. Experienced test technicians were used for the tennis court tests, and treadmill tests. An ISO 100 kg test dummy was used for the ISO Double Drum test. Energy consumption was measured over a distance of 1500 m for each of the three test conditions. The rolling surface was level in all cases. Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant difference (p = 0.0001) between the predicted range at maximum speed for the three tests. Post hoc analysis demonstrated a significant difference (p < 0.01) in estimated range at maximum speed between the Double Drum test and the treadmill test, as well as between the Double Drum test and the tennis court test. Our results indicate no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the predicted range at maximal speed between the treadmill and tennis court tests. A simple relationship does not exist between the results of range testing with the Double Drum tester and the tennis court. An alternative would be to permit the use of a treadmill for range testing as simple relationships between all pertinent treadmill and tennis court range data were found. For the Double Drum tester used, the current demand is higher than under normal usage. This presents a problem as current is related to load torque in a power wheelchair. Hence, the Double

  19. Power output for wheelchair driving on a treadmill compared with arm crank ergometry.

    PubMed Central

    Tropp, H; Samuelsson, K; Jorfeldt, L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The limiting factors with regard to power output available for wheelchair ambulation have not been identified. The aim of the present study was to correlate power output during wheelchair driving with (i) power output and oxygen uptake during arm crank ergometry and (ii) arm muscle strength. METHODS: Eleven disabled men were examined for maximal power output (POmax) during wheelchair driving on a treadmill and during arm crank ergometry. Oxygen uptake (VO2) was recorded at submaximal and maximal arm crank ergometry in all men and during submaximal wheelchair driving on a treadmill in four men. Power output during wheelchair driving on a treadmill was measured. Static and dynamic elbow muscle strength was measured isokinetically. RESULTS: POmax was significantly lower (P < 0.001) for wheelchair driving (109 (31) W; mean (SD)) than for arm ergometry (163 (49) W). There was a significant correlation between POmax for arm crank ergometry and wheelchair driving (r = 0.73). There was no correlation between POmax and elbow strength. The mechanical efficiency was constant for the different levels on the arm crank ergometry test. The submaximal testing showed a consistently lower mechanical efficiency for wheelchair driving than for arm crank ergometry. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that the lower level of power output for wheelchair driving is fully explained by the lower mechanical efficiency. Any improvement in power output available for ambulation must be based on wheelchair ergonomics. PMID:9132210

  20. A wheelchair operation assistance control for a wearable robot using the user's residual function.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Naoto; Watanabe, Tatsuya; Yano, Ken'ichi; Aoki, Takaaki; Nishimoto, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki

    2013-06-01

    Cervical Cord Injury (CCI) is a dysfunction of the upper limb. In an individual with C5-level CCI, which is the most frequent of all eight levels, force can be applied in the direction of flexion by the biceps brachii, but extension force cannot be applied because of the triceps brachii paralysis. Persons with C5-level CCI therefore cannot operate a wheelchair up an incline and over carpet. In this study, we estimated the wheelchair velocity during elbow flexion depending on the angular velocity of the elbow. A wearable assistive robot can assist with the elbow extension movement using this estimated velocity while the wheelchair is being operated.

  1. Rare diseases: matching wheelchair users with rare metabolic, neuromuscular or neurological disorders to electric powered indoor/outdoor wheelchairs (EPIOCs).

    PubMed

    De Souza, Lorraine H; Frank, Andrew O

    2016-08-01

    To describe the clinical features of electric powered indoor/outdoor wheelchair (EPIOC) users with rare diseases (RD) impacting on EPIOC provision and seating. Retrospective review by a consultant in rehabilitation medicine of electronic and case note records of EPIOC recipients with RDs attending a specialist wheelchair service between June 2007 and September 2008. Data were systematically extracted, entered into a database and analysed under three themes; demographic, diagnostic/clinical (including comorbidity and associated clinical features (ACFs) of the illness/disability) and wheelchair factors. Fifty-four (27 male) EPIOC users, mean age 37.3 (SD 18.6, range 11-70) with RDs were identified and reviewed a mean of 64 (range 0-131) months after receiving their wheelchair. Diagnoses included 27 types of RDs including Friedreich's ataxia, motor neurone disease, osteogenesis imperfecta, arthrogryposis, cerebellar syndromes and others. Nineteen users had between them 36 comorbidities and 30 users had 44 ACFs likely to influence the prescription. Tilt-in-space was provided to 34 (63%) users and specialised seating to 17 (31%). Four users had between them complex control or interfacing issues. The complex and diverse clinical problems of those with RDs present unique challenges to the multiprofessional wheelchair team to maintain successful independent mobility and community living. Implications for Rehabilitation Powered mobility is a major therapeutic tool for those with rare diseases enhancing independence, participation, reducing pain and other clinical features. The challenge for rehabilitation professionals is reconciling the physical disabilities with the individual's need for function and participation whilst allowing for disease progression and/or growth. Powered wheelchair users with rare diseases with a (kypho) scoliosis require a wheelchair system that balances spine stability and movement to maximise residual upper limb and trunk function. The role of

  2. Rare diseases: matching wheelchair users with rare metabolic, neuromuscular or neurological disorders to electric powered indoor/outdoor wheelchairs (EPIOCs)

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Lorraine H.; Frank, Andrew O.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To describe the clinical features of electric powered indoor/outdoor wheelchair (EPIOC) users with rare diseases (RD) impacting on EPIOC provision and seating. Method: Retrospective review by a consultant in rehabilitation medicine of electronic and case note records of EPIOC recipients with RDs attending a specialist wheelchair service between June 2007 and September 2008. Data were systematically extracted, entered into a database and analysed under three themes; demographic, diagnostic/clinical (including comorbidity and associated clinical features (ACFs) of the illness/disability) and wheelchair factors. Results: Fifty-four (27 male) EPIOC users, mean age 37.3 (SD 18.6, range 11–70) with RDs were identified and reviewed a mean of 64 (range 0–131) months after receiving their wheelchair. Diagnoses included 27 types of RDs including Friedreich’s ataxia, motor neurone disease, osteogenesis imperfecta, arthrogryposis, cerebellar syndromes and others. Nineteen users had between them 36 comorbidities and 30 users had 44 ACFs likely to influence the prescription. Tilt-in-space was provided to 34 (63%) users and specialised seating to 17 (31%). Four users had between them complex control or interfacing issues. Conclusions: The complex and diverse clinical problems of those with RDs present unique challenges to the multiprofessional wheelchair team to maintain successful independent mobility and community living.Implications for RehabilitationPowered mobility is a major therapeutic tool for those with rare diseases enhancing independence, participation, reducing pain and other clinical features.The challenge for rehabilitation professionals is reconciling the physical disabilities with the individual’s need for function and participation whilst allowing for disease progression and/or growth.Powered wheelchair users with rare diseases with a (kypho) scoliosis require a wheelchair system that balances spine stability and movement to maximise

  3. Torque and power outputs on different subjects during manual wheelchair propulsion under different conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seonhong; Kim, Seunghyeon; Son, Jongsang; Kim, Youngho

    2012-02-01

    Manual wheelchair users are at a high risk of pain and injuries to the upper extremities due to mechanical inefficiency of wheelchair propulsion motion. The kinetic analysis of the upper extremities during manual wheelchair propulsion in various conditions needed to be investigated. We developed and calibrated a wheelchair dynamometer for measuring kinetic parameters during propulsion. We utilized the dynamometer to investigate and compare the propulsion torque and power values of experienced and novice users under four different conditions. Experienced wheelchair users generated lower torques with more power than novice users and reacted alertly and sensitively to changing conditions. We expect that these basic methods and results may help to quantitatively evaluate the mechanical efficiency of manual wheelchair propulsion.

  4. Innovative Power Wheelchair Control Interface: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Sandra L; Romero, Sergio; Prather, Emily; Ramroop, Marisa; Slaibe, Emmy; Christensen, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Some people without independent mobility are candidates for powered mobility but are unable to use a traditional power wheelchair joystick. This proof-of-concept study tested and further developed an innovative method of driving power wheelchairs for people whose impairments prevent them from operating commercial wheelchair controls. Our concept, Self-referenced Personal Orthotic Omni-purpose Control Interface (SPOOCI), is distinguished by referencing the control sensor not to the wheelchair frame but instead to the adjacent proximal lower-extremity segment via a custom-formed orthosis. Using a descriptive case-series design, we compared the pre-post functional power wheelchair driving skill data of 4 participants, measured by the Power Mobility Program, using descriptive analyses. The intervention consisted of standard-care power wheelchair training during 12 outpatient occupational or physical therapy sessions. All 4 participants who completed the 12-wk intervention improved their functional power wheelchair driving skills using SPOOCI, but only 3 were deemed safe to continue with power wheelchair driving. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  5. Innovative Power Wheelchair Control Interface: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Sergio; Prather, Emily; Ramroop, Marisa; Slaibe, Emmy; Christensen, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Some people without independent mobility are candidates for powered mobility but are unable to use a traditional power wheelchair joystick. This proof-of-concept study tested and further developed an innovative method of driving power wheelchairs for people whose impairments prevent them from operating commercial wheelchair controls. Our concept, Self-referenced Personal Orthotic Omni-purpose Control Interface (SPOOCI), is distinguished by referencing the control sensor not to the wheelchair frame but instead to the adjacent proximal lower-extremity segment via a custom-formed orthosis. Using a descriptive case-series design, we compared the pre–post functional power wheelchair driving skill data of 4 participants, measured by the Power Mobility Program, using descriptive analyses. The intervention consisted of standard-care power wheelchair training during 12 outpatient occupational or physical therapy sessions. All 4 participants who completed the 12-wk intervention improved their functional power wheelchair driving skills using SPOOCI, but only 3 were deemed safe to continue with power wheelchair driving. PMID:26943118

  6. Powered wheelchair skills training for persons with stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mountain, Anita D; Kirby, R Lee; Smith, Cher; Eskes, Gail; Thompson, Kara

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that people with stroke who receive formal powered wheelchair skills training improve their wheelchair skills to a significantly greater extent than participants in a control group who do not and to explore the influence of spatial neglect. Seventeen participants with stroke (including nine with spatial neglect) were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 9) or control (n = 8) groups. Those in the intervention group received up to five 30-min training sessions based on the Wheelchair Skills Training Program 4.1. The powered Wheelchair Skills Test version 4.1 was administered at baseline (T1) and after training (T2). A rank order analysis of covariance on the T2 Wheelchair Skills Test score, having adjusted for the T1 score, showed a significant effect caused by group (P = 0.0001). A secondary analysis showed no significant effect caused by spatial neglect (P = 0.923). People with stroke who receive formal powered wheelchair skills training improve their powered wheelchair skills to a significantly greater extent (30%) than participants who do not (0%). The extent of change was not affected by the presence of spatial neglect. These findings have significance for the wheelchair provision process and the rehabilitation of people with stroke.

  7. 49 CFR 39.95 - May PVOs limit their liability for loss of or damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? 39.95 Section 39.95 Transportation Office of the... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? Consistent with any applicable requirements of..., damaged, or destroyed wheelchair or other assistive device is the original purchase price of the device....

  8. 49 CFR 39.95 - May PVOs limit their liability for loss of or damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? 39.95 Section 39.95 Transportation Office of the... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? Consistent with any applicable requirements of..., damaged, or destroyed wheelchair or other assistive device is the original purchase price of the device....

  9. 49 CFR 39.95 - May PVOs limit their liability for loss of or damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? 39.95 Section 39.95 Transportation Office of the... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? Consistent with any applicable requirements of..., damaged, or destroyed wheelchair or other assistive device is the original purchase price of the device....

  10. 49 CFR 39.95 - May PVOs limit their liability for loss of or damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? 39.95 Section 39.95 Transportation Office of the... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? Consistent with any applicable requirements of..., damaged, or destroyed wheelchair or other assistive device is the original purchase price of the device....

  11. 49 CFR 39.95 - May PVOs limit their liability for loss of or damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? 39.95 Section 39.95 Transportation Office of the... damage to wheelchairs or other assistive devices? Consistent with any applicable requirements of..., damaged, or destroyed wheelchair or other assistive device is the original purchase price of the device....

  12. Exploring Powered Wheelchair Users and Their Caregivers’ Perspectives on Potential Intelligent Power Wheelchair Use: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kairy, Dahlia; Rushton, Paula W.; Archambault, Philippe; Pituch, Evelina; Torkia, Caryne; El Fathi, Anas; Stone, Paula; Routhier, François; Forget, Robert; Demers, Louise; Pineau, Joelle; Gourdeau, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Power wheelchairs (PWCs) can have a positive impact on user well-being, self-esteem, pain, activity and participation. Newly developed intelligent power wheelchairs (IPWs), allowing autonomous or collaboratively-controlled navigation, could enhance mobility of individuals not able to use, or having difficulty using, standard PWCs. The objective of this study was to explore the perspectives of PWC users (PWUs) and their caregivers regarding if and how IPWs could impact on current challenges faced by PWUs, as well as inform current development of IPWs. A qualitative exploratory study using individual interviews was conducted with PWUs (n = 12) and caregivers (n = 4). A semi-structured interview guide and video were used to facilitate informed discussion regarding IPWs. Thematic analysis revealed three main themes: (1) “challenging situations that may be overcome by an IPW” described how the IPW features of obstacle avoidance, path following, and target following could alleviate PWUs’ identified mobility difficulties; (2) “cautious optimism concerning IPW use revealed participants” addresses concerns regarding using an IPW as well as technological suggestions; (3) “defining the potential IPW user” revealed characteristics of PWUs that would benefit from IPW use. Findings indicate how IPW use may help overcome PWC difficulties and confirm the importance of user input in the ongoing development of IPWs. PMID:24566051

  13. Assessment of Joystick control during the performance of powered wheelchair driving tasks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Powered wheelchairs are essential for many individuals who have mobility impairments. Nevertheless, if operated improperly, the powered wheelchair poses dangers to both the user and to those in its vicinity. Thus, operating a powered wheelchair with some degree of proficiency is important for safety, and measuring driving skills becomes an important issue to address. The objective of this study was to explore the discriminate validity of outcome measures of driving skills based on joystick control strategies and performance recorded using a data logging system. Methods We compared joystick control strategies and performance during standardized driving tasks between a group of 10 expert and 13 novice powered wheelchair users. Driving tasks were drawn from the Wheelchair Skills Test (v. 4.1). Data from the joystick controller were collected on a data logging system. Joystick control strategies and performance outcome measures included the mean number of joystick movements, time required to complete tasks, as well as variability of joystick direction. Results In simpler tasks, the expert group's driving skills were comparable to those of the novice group. Yet, in more difficult and spatially confined tasks, the expert group required fewer joystick movements for task completion. In some cases, experts also completed tasks in approximately half the time with respect to the novice group. Conclusions The analysis of joystick control made it possible to discriminate between novice and expert powered wheelchair users in a variety of driving tasks. These results imply that in spatially confined areas, a greater powered wheelchair driving skill level is required to complete tasks efficiently. Based on these findings, it would appear that the use of joystick signal analysis constitutes an objective tool for the measurement of powered wheelchair driving skills. This tool may be useful for the clinical assessment and training of powered wheelchair skills. PMID

  14. Evaluation of the safety and durability of low-cost nonprogrammable electric powered wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Pearlman, Jonathan L; Cooper, Rory A; Karnawat, Jaideep; Cooper, Rosemarie; Boninger, Michael L

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate whether a selection of low-cost, nonprogrammable electric-powered wheelchairs (EPWs) meets the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA) Wheelchair Standards requirements. Objective comparison tests of various aspects of power wheelchair design and performance of 4 EPW types. Three of each of the following EPWs: Pride Mobility Jet 10 (Pride), Invacare Pronto M50 (Invacare), Electric Mobility Rascal 250PC (Electric Mobility), and the Golden Technologies Alanté GP-201-F (Golden). Rehabilitation engineering research center. Not applicable. Static tipping angle; dynamic tipping score; braking distance; energy consumption; climatic conditioning; power and control systems integrity and safety; and static, impact, and fatigue life (equivalent cycles). Static tipping angle and dynamic tipping score were significantly different across manufacturers for each tipping direction (range, 6.6 degrees-35.6 degrees). Braking distances were significantly different across manufacturers (range, 7.4-117.3 cm). Significant differences among groups were found with analysis of variance (ANOVA). Energy consumption results show that all EPWs can travel over 17 km before the battery is expected to be exhausted under idealized conditions (range, 18.2-32.0 km). Significant differences among groups were found with ANOVA. All EPWs passed the climatic conditioning tests. Several adverse responses were found during the power and control systems testing, including motors smoking during the stalling condition (Electric Mobility), charger safety issues (Electric Mobility, Invacare), and controller failures (Golden). All EPWs passed static and impact testing; 9 of 12 failed fatigue testing (3 Invacare, 3 Golden, 1 Electric Mobility, 2 Pride). Equivalent cycles did not differ statistically across manufacturers (range, 9759-824,628 cycles). Large variability in the results, especially with respect to

  15. Design And Structural Analysis Of A Powered Wheelchair Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geonea, Ionut Daniel; Dumitru, Nicolae; Margine, Alexandru

    2015-09-01

    In this paper are presented the author's researches on designing, dynamical and structural evaluation of a transmission for a wheelchair, intended to persons with locomotors disabilities. The kinematics of proposed transmission is analyzed in order to realize a proper synthesis and design of gears. A 3D model of the transmission and wheelchair are designed in Solid Works, and they will be used for the dynamic simulation of the wheelchair robotic system in Adams software. In Adams is analyzed wheelchair trajectory and dynamics for a combined trajectory: linear motion and steering. Dynamic parameters obtained from simulation are used to perform a finite element analysis of bevel and worm gears. Simulation results reveal the transmission dynamics parameters, emphasize the efficiency of the transmission and enable implementation of this design to a wheelchair model.

  16. Evaluation of selected sidewalk pavement surfaces for vibration experienced by users of manual and powered wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Rory A; Wolf, Erik; Fitzgerald, Shirley G; Kellerher, Annmarie; Ammer, William; Boninger, Michael L; Cooper, Rosemarie

    2004-01-01

    Obstacles such as bumps, curb descents, and uneven driving surfaces cause vibrations that affect the wheelchair, and in turn, the wheelchair user. Chronic exposure can cause low-back pain, disk degeneration, and other harmful effects. Little research has been conducted to assess the vibrations experienced by wheelchair users. The purpose of this study was to conduct an evaluation of the vibration exposure during electric-powered wheelchair driving and mechanical energy requirements for manual wheelchair propulsion over selected sidewalk surfaces. The goal was to determine the criteria for a wheelchair-pedestrian access route that does not require excessive propulsive work or expose wheelchair users to potentially harmful vibrations. Ten unimpaired individuals participated in this study. Six sidewalk surfaces were tested. Measured variables included power of the acceleration per octave, mechanical work to propel over surfaces, peak acceleration, and frequency at which peak acceleration occurs. For both the manual and electric-powered wheelchair, at 1 m/s, significant differences were found in peak accelerations between the seat and footrest (P < 0.0001) and between the sidewalk surfaces (P = 0.004). The greatest risk for injury caused by shock and vibration exposure occurs at frequencies near the natural frequency of seated humans (4-15 Hz). The values for work required to propel over the surfaces tested were not statistically significantly different. Besides appearance and construction, the only distinguishing characteristic was surface roughness caused by the joints. When treating the poured concrete sidewalk as the standard, surfaces 2, 3, 5, and 6 compared most favorably in terms of vibration exposure, whereas surface 4 produced mixed results. Surfaces 2, 3, 5, and 6 yielded results that were similar to the poured concrete sidewalk and could be considered acceptable for wheelchair users. In conclusion, surfaces other than the traditional poured concrete can be

  17. A robotic wheelchair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David P.; Grant, Edward

    1994-01-01

    Many people who are mobility impaired are incapable, for a variety of reasons, of using an ordinary wheelchair. These people must rely on either a power wheelchair, which they control, or another person to push and guide them while they are in an ordinary or power wheelchair. Power wheelchairs can be difficult to operate. If a person has additional disabilities, either in perception or fine motor control of their hands, a power chair can be difficult or impossible for them to use safely. Having one person push and guide a person who is mobility impaired is very expensive, and if the disabled person is otherwise independent, very inefficient and frustrating. This paper describes a low-cost robotic addition to a power wheelchair that assists the rider of the chair in avoiding obstacles, going to pre-designated places, and maneuvering through doorways and other narrow or crowded areas. This system can be interfaced to a variety of input devices, and can give the operator as much or as little moment by moment control of the chair as they wish.

  18. Wheelchair propulsion biomechanics and wheelers' quality of life: an exploratory review.

    PubMed

    Chow, John W; Levy, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. To provide an overview of associations between wheelchair propulsion biomechanics for both everyday and racing wheelchairs, wheeling-related upper limb injuries, and quality of life of manual wheelchair users through a synthesis of the available information. METHODS. A search of publications was carried out in PubMed and SportsDiscus databases. Studies on wheelchair propulsion biomechanics, upper limb injuries associated with wheelchair propulsion and quality of life of wheelchair users were identified. Relevant articles cited in identified articles but not cited in PubMed or SportsDiscus were also included. RESULTS. Wheelchair sports participation has positive impact on quality of life and research in racing wheelchair biomechanics can indirectly promote the visibility of wheelchair sports. The impact of pushrim-activated power-assisted wheelchairs (a hybrid between manual and battery-powered wheelchairs) and geared manual wheels on wheelers' everyday life were discussed. CONCLUSIONS. The study of wheelchair propulsion biomechanics focuses on how a wheelchair user imparts power to the wheels to achieve mobility and the accumulated knowledge can help to improve wheelchair users' mobility, reduce physical stress associated with wheelchair propulsion, and as a result, enhance quality of life.

  19. Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology Society (RESNA) position on the application of wheelchair standing devices: 2013 current state of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dicianno, Brad E; Morgan, Amy; Lieberman, Jenny; Rosen, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    This article, approved by the Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology Society of North America Board of Directors on December 23, 2013, shares typical clinical applications and provides evidence from the literature supporting the use of wheelchair standers.

  20. Mobility and mobility-related participation outcomes of powered wheelchair and scooter interventions after 4-months and 1-year use.

    PubMed

    Löfqvist, C; Pettersson, C; Iwarsson, S; Brandt, A

    2012-05-01

    The aim was to investigate outcomes of powered wheelchair and scooter interventions after 4-months and 1-year use regarding need for assistance when moving around, frequency of mobility-related participation, easiness/difficulty in mobility during participation, and number of participation aspects performed in everyday life. The study was a prospective cohort study, using an instrument focusing on mobility-related participation outcomes of mobility device interventions (NOMO 1.0), at baseline, after 4-months and 1-year use. The results show that the outcomes in terms of participation frequency and easiness in mobility occur in a short time perspective, and that the effects remained stable at 1-year follow-up. The frequency of going for a walk increased most prominently (26%). Even though the majority of the participation aspects were not performed, more often they became easier to perform: 56-91% found that shopping, walking and visiting family/friends were easier. Moreover, independence outdoors and indoors increased. This small study provides knowledge about the outcomes of powered wheelchairs and scooters in terms of mobility and mobility-related participation in real-life situations. The study supports results from former studies, but even so, larger studies are required in order to provide evidence for the effectiveness of powered wheelchairs and scooters. [Box: see text].

  1. Performance metrics for power wheelchairs: a pipe dream?

    PubMed

    Iezzoni, Lisa I; Ogg, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Power wheelchair (PWC) users depend on their equipment to reliably transport them throughout daily activities and allow them to participate fully in community life. However, as reported by Worobey and colleagues, PWCs frequently require repairs and cause users a variety of problems, which can range from annoying to catastrophic. These authors suggest that comparing the performance of individual PWC makes and models--a PWC Consumer Reports--might be helpful to inform users and others about the relative quality of different products. Although a comparative report is an appealing idea, we suggest that producing meaningful comparisons of specific PWCs, especially complex rehabilitation PWCs, confronts significant methodologic and practical hurdles. Challenges include dealing with small sample sizes for individual products, risk-adjusting outcomes to account for systematic differences in patterns of use, specifying meaningful outcome metrics, distinguishing the contributions of manufacturers and PWC suppliers to suboptimal performance, and disentangling the myriad components of complex rehabilitation PWCs, which often carry parts from multiple manufacturers. In any case, most users have little control over their PWC selections, with the policies of health insurers and other factors largely dictating equipment choices. Considering these various concerns, we argue that producing a valid and useful Consumer Reports for PWCs will be difficult and, at least for complex rehabilitation chairs, will be of limited value. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Epidemiology of Medicare Abuse: The Example of Power Wheelchairs R2

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, James S.; Nguyen-Oghalai, Tracy U.; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Press reports and government investigations have uncovered widespread abuse in power wheelchair prescriptions reimbursed by Medicare, with specific targeting of minority neighborhoods for aggressive marketing. Objective We sought to determine the impact of neighborhood ethnic composition on power wheelchair prescriptions. Design The 5% non-cancer sample of Medicare recipients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database, from 1994–2001 Setting SEER regions Participants Individuals covered by Medicare living in SEER regions without a cancer diagnosis Measurements Individual characteristics (age, gender, ethnicity, justifying diagnosis, and comorbidity), primary diagnoses, neighborhood characteristics (% black, % Hispanic, % with <12 years education and median income) and SEER region Results The rate of power wheelchair prescriptions increased 33 fold from 1994 to 2001, with a shift over time from justifying diagnoses more closely tied to mobility impairment, such as strokes, to less specific medical diagnoses, such as osteoarthritis. In multilevel, multivariate analyses, individuals living in neighborhoods with higher percentages of blacks or Hispanics were more likely to receive power wheelchairs (OR= 1.09 for each 10% increase in black residents and 1.23 for each 10% increase in Hispanic residents), after controlling for ethnicity and other characteristics at the individual level. Conclusion These results support allegations that minority neighborhoods have been specifically targeted by marketers promoting power wheelchairs. PMID:17302658

  3. Joystick-controlled video console game practice for developing power wheelchairs users' indoor driving skills.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei Pin; Wang, Chia Cheng; Hung, Jo Hua; Chien, Kai Chun; Liu, Wen-Yu; Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Ng, How-Hing; Lin, Yang-Hua

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of joystick-controlled video console games in enhancing subjects' ability to control power wheelchairs. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy young adults without prior experience of driving power wheelchairs were recruited. Four commercially available video games were used as training programs to practice joystick control in catching falling objects, crossing a river, tracing the route while floating on a river, and navigating through a garden maze. An indoor power wheelchair driving test, including straight lines, and right and left turns, was completed before and after the video game practice, during which electromyographic signals of the upper limbs were recorded. The paired t-test was used to compare the differences in driving performance and muscle activities before and after the intervention. [Results] Following the video game intervention, participants took significantly less time to complete the course, with less lateral deviation when turning the indoor power wheelchair. However, muscle activation in the upper limbs was not significantly affected. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates the feasibility of using joystick-controlled commercial video games to train individuals in the control of indoor power wheelchairs.

  4. Upper Body-Based Power Wheelchair Control Interface for Individuals With Tetraplegia.

    PubMed

    Thorp, Elias B; Abdollahi, Farnaz; Chen, David; Farshchiansadegh, Ali; Lee, Mei-Hua; Pedersen, Jessica P; Pierella, Camilla; Roth, Elliot J; Seanez Gonzalez, Ismael; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A

    2016-02-01

    Many power wheelchair control interfaces are not sufficient for individuals with severely limited upper limb mobility. The majority of controllers that do not rely on coordinated arm and hand movements provide users a limited vocabulary of commands and often do not take advantage of the user's residual motion. We developed a body-machine interface (BMI) that leverages the flexibility and customizability of redundant control by using high dimensional changes in shoulder kinematics to generate proportional control commands for a power wheelchair. In this study, three individuals with cervical spinal cord injuries were able to control a power wheelchair safely and accurately using only small shoulder movements. With the BMI, participants were able to achieve their desired trajectories and, after five sessions driving, were able to achieve smoothness that was similar to the smoothness with their current joystick. All participants were twice as slow using the BMI however improved with practice. Importantly, users were able to generalize training controlling a computer to driving a power wheelchair, and employed similar strategies when controlling both devices. Overall, this work suggests that the BMI can be an effective wheelchair control interface for individuals with high-level spinal cord injuries who have limited arm and hand control.

  5. Upper Body-Based Power Wheelchair Control Interface for Individuals with Tetraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Thorp, Elias B.; Abdollahi, Farnaz; Chen, David; Farshchiansadegh, Ali; Lee, Mei-Hua; Pedersen, Jessica; Pierella, Camilla; Roth, Elliot J.; Gonzalez, Ismael Seanez; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A.

    2016-01-01

    Many power wheelchair control interfaces are not sufficient for individuals with severely limited upper limb mobility. The majority of controllers that do not rely on coordinated arm and hand movements provide users a limited vocabulary of commands and often do not take advantage of the user’s residual motion. We developed a body-machine interface (BMI) that leverages the flexibility and customizability of redundant control by using high dimensional changes in shoulder kinematics to generate proportional controls commands for a power wheelchair. In this study, three individuals with cervical spinal cord injuries were able to control the power wheelchair safely and accurately using only small shoulder movements. With the BMI, participants were able to achieve their desired trajectories and, after five sessions driving, were able to achieve smoothness that was similar to the smoothness with their current joystick. All participants were twice as slow using the BMI however improved with practice. Importantly, users were able to generalize training controlling a computer to driving a power wheelchair, and employed similar strategies when controlling both devices. Overall, this work suggests that the BMI can be an effective wheelchair control interface for individuals with high-level spinal cord injuries who have limited arm and hand control. PMID:26054071

  6. Design and User Evaluation of a Wheelchair Mounted Robotic Assisted Transfer Device

    PubMed Central

    Grindle, Garrett G.; Jeannis, Hervens; Teodorski, Emily; Cooper, Rory A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study is to describe the robotic assisted transfer device (RATD) and an initial focus group evaluation by end users. The purpose of the device is to aid in the transfers of people with disabilities to and from their electric powered wheelchair (EPW) onto other surfaces. The device can be used for both stand-pivot transfers and fully dependent transfers, where the person being transferred is in a sling and weight is fully on the robot. The RATD is fixed to an EPW to allow for its use in community settings. Method. A functional prototype of the RATD was designed and fabricated. The prototype was presented to a group of 16 end users and feedback on the device was obtained via a survey and group discussion. Results. Thirteen out of sixteen (83%) participants agreed that it was important to develop this type of technology. They also indicated that user, caregiver, and robotic controls were important features to be included in the device. Conclusions. Participants in this study suggested that they would be accepting the use of robotic technology for transfers and a majority did not feel that they would be embarrassed to use this technology. PMID:25793190

  7. Design and user evaluation of a wheelchair mounted robotic assisted transfer device.

    PubMed

    Grindle, Garrett G; Wang, Hongwu; Jeannis, Hervens; Teodorski, Emily; Cooper, Rory A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the robotic assisted transfer device (RATD) and an initial focus group evaluation by end users. The purpose of the device is to aid in the transfers of people with disabilities to and from their electric powered wheelchair (EPW) onto other surfaces. The device can be used for both stand-pivot transfers and fully dependent transfers, where the person being transferred is in a sling and weight is fully on the robot. The RATD is fixed to an EPW to allow for its use in community settings. A functional prototype of the RATD was designed and fabricated. The prototype was presented to a group of 16 end users and feedback on the device was obtained via a survey and group discussion. Thirteen out of sixteen (83%) participants agreed that it was important to develop this type of technology. They also indicated that user, caregiver, and robotic controls were important features to be included in the device. Participants in this study suggested that they would be accepting the use of robotic technology for transfers and a majority did not feel that they would be embarrassed to use this technology.

  8. Driver Model of a Powered Wheelchair Operation as a Tool of Theoretical Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takuma; Inoue, Takenobu; Shino, Motoki; Kamata, Minoru

    This paper describes the construction of a driver model of a powered wheelchair operation for the understanding of the characteristics of the driver. The main targets of existing researches about driver models are the operation of the automobiles and motorcycles, not a low-speed vehicle such as powered wheelchairs. Therefore, we started by verifying the possibility of modeling the turning operation at a corner of a corridor. At first, we conducted an experiment on a daily powered wheelchair user by using his vehicle. High reproducibility of driving and the driving characteristics for the construction of a driver model were both confirmed from the result of the experiment. Next, experiments with driving simulators were conducted for the collection of quantitative driving data. The parameters of the proposed driver model were identified from experimental results. From the simulations with the proposed driver model and identified parameters, the characteristics of the proposed driver model were analyzed.

  9. Mechanical energy and power flow analysis of wheelchair use with different camber settings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yueh-Chu; Guo, Lan-Yuen; Tsai, Chung-Ying; Su, Fong-Chin

    2013-04-01

    It has been suggested that minimisation of energy cost is one of the primary determinants of wheelchair designs. Wheel camber is one important parameter related to wheelchair design and its angle may affect usability during manual propulsion. However, there is little available literature addressing the effect of wheel camber on the mechanical energy or power flow involved in manual wheelchair propulsion. Twelve normal subjects (mean age, 22.3 years; SD, 1.6 years) participated in this study. A video-tracking system and an instrumented wheel were used to collect 3D kinematic and kinetic data. Wheel camber of 0° and 15° was chosen to examine the difference between mechanical power and power flow of the upper extremity during manual wheelchair propulsion. The work calculated from power flow and the discrepancy between the mechanical work and power flow work of upper extremity had significantly greater values with increased camber. The upper arm had a larger active muscle power compared with that in the forearm and hand segments. While propelling the increased camber, the magnitude of both the proximal and distal joint power and proximal muscle power was increased in all three segments. While the propelling wheel with camber not only needs a greater energy cost but also there is greater energy loss.

  10. Effects of heavy resistance training on strength and power in upper extremities in wheelchair athletes.

    PubMed

    Turbanski, Stephan; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about strength training in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI), especially in athletes performing competitive sports. Sixteen male subjects participated in this study-8 with SCI and 8 healthy physical education students (control subjects). The 8-week program consisted of heavy-resistance exercise performed twice per week with 10 to 12 repetitions in 5 sets. Subjects' performances were tested in static and in dynamic conditions concerning several strength and power parameters. Furthermore, we tested 10-m sprinting performance in wheelchair athletes. Overall, wheelchair athletes and control subjects achieved similar results; in almost all parameters both groups improved considerably in post-testing. Regarding percentages in most strength and power parameters, wheelchair athletes showed a tendency to benefit more from the strength training performed in the present study. Using analyses of group differences, however, only the comparison of effects on rate of force development (p = 0.010) resulted in a significant higher improvement for wheelchair athletes. In contrast to previous assumptions about minor adaptation capacities to training exercises in patients with SCI, our study proved clear effects of strength training. In conclusion, we suggest that heavy resistance training should be of increasing importance in wheelchair sports.

  11. Problematic clinical features of powered wheelchair users with severely disabling multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Lorraine H; Frank, Andrew O

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the clinical features of powered wheelchair users with severely disabling multiple sclerosis (MS) and explore the problematic clinical features influencing prescription. Retrospective review of electronic and case note records of recipients of electric-powered indoor/outdoor powered wheelchairs (EPIOCs) attending a specialist wheelchair service between June 2007 and September 2008. Records were reviewed by a consultant in rehabilitation medicine, data systematically extracted and entered into a computer database. Further data were entered from clinical records. Data were extracted under three themes; demographic, diagnostic, clinical and wheelchair factors. Records of 28 men mean age 57 (range 37-78, SD 12) years and 63 women mean age 57 (range 35-81, SD 11) years with MS were reviewed a mean of 64 (range 0-131) months after receiving their wheelchair. Twenty two comorbidities, 11 features of MS and 8 features of disability were thought to influence wheelchair prescription. Fifteen users were provided with specialised seating and 46 with tilt-in-space seats. Our findings suggest that people with severe MS requiring an EPIOC benefit from a holistic assessment to identify problematic clinical features that influence the prescription of the EPIOC and further medical and therapeutic interventions. People with multiple sclerosis (MS), referred for an EPIOC, require a full clinical assessment to identify problematic clinical features that are potentially treatable and/or can be accommodated through specialised seating and tilt. The beneficial effects of TIS should be considered for all EPIOC users with MS and particularly for those with comorbidity Poorly controlled spasticity, when identified in people with MS, should be managed through positioning in the chair, pressure-relieving cushion and referral for medical management.

  12. Accessibilities of Wheelchair Users to Cross the Gaps and Steps between Platforms and Trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashizume, Tsutomu; Yoneda, Ikuo; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Shoichiro; Sueda, Osamu

    Gaps and steps between platforms and trains reduce the accessibility and mobility of people with wheelchairs in railway transportations. Using an experimental platform, the observations are performed how gaps and steps influence their capabilities for manual wheelchair or electric powered wheelchair users with spinal cord injury. A quantity of Normalized Driving Force (NDF) is introduced to evaluate the manual wheelchair user's abilities in the case of getting on or off the trains. Three types of electric powered wheelchairs are also tested under the same experimental conditions as the manual wheelchair. The dynamic wheelchair driving force is measured by using a torque meter equipped on a wheelchair to analyze the required force when getting on the trains. To improve practical accessibility of such people, an assistive device for boarding the trains is designed and its effect is verified.

  13. Real-time head movement system and embedded Linux implementation for the control of power wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H T; King, L M; Knight, G

    2004-01-01

    Mobility has become very important for our quality of life. A loss of mobility due to an injury is usually accompanied by a loss of self-confidence. For many individuals, independent mobility is an important aspect of self-esteem. Head movement is a natural form of pointing and can be used to directly replace the joystick whilst still allowing for similar control. Through the use of embedded LINUX and artificial intelligence, a hands-free head movement wheelchair controller has been designed and implemented successfully. This system provides for severely disabled users an effective power wheelchair control method with improved posture, ease of use and attractiveness.

  14. Intelligent power wheelchair use in long-term care: potential users' experiences and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Paula W; Mortenson, Ben W; Viswanathan, Pooja; Wang, Rosalie H; Miller, William C; Hurd Clarke, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Long-term care (LTC) residents with cognitive impairments frequently experience limited mobility and participation in preferred activities. Although a power wheelchair could mitigate some of these mobility and participation challenges, this technology is often not prescribed for this population due to safety concerns. An intelligent power wheelchair (IPW) system represents a potential intervention that could help to overcome these concerns. The purpose of this study was to explore a) how residents experienced an IPW that used three different modes of control and b) what perceived effect the IPW would have on their daily lives. We interviewed 10 LTC residents with mild or moderate cognitive impairment twice, once before and once after testing the IPW. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide, audio recorded and transcribed verbatim for thematic analyses. Our analyses identified three overarching themes: (1) the difference an IPW would make, (2) the potential impact of the IPW on others and (3) IPW-related concerns. Findings from this study confirm the need for and potential benefits of IPW use in LTC. Future studies will involve testing IPW improvements based on feedback and insights from this study. Implications for rehabilitation Intelligent power wheelchairs may enhance participation and improve safety and feelings of well-being for long-term care residents with cognitive impairments. Intelligent power wheelchairs could potentially have an equally positive impact on facility staff, other residents, and family and friends by decreasing workload and increasing safety.

  15. Young people's experiences using electric powered indoor - outdoor wheelchairs (EPIOCs): potential for enhancing users' development?

    PubMed

    Evans, Subhadra; Neophytou, Claudius; de Souza, Lorraine; Frank, Andrew O

    2007-08-30

    To examine the experiences of severely physically disabled young people who use electric powered indoor - outdoor chairs (EPIOCs). A priori interview questions examined young people's functioning with EPIOCs, pain and discomfort with EPIOC use and accidents or injuries resulting from EPIOC use. Eighteen young people (13 males and five females) aged 10 - 18 (mean 15) years were interviewed by telephone using a qualitative framework approach. Participants were interviewed 10 - 19 (mean 14.5) months after delivery of the chair. Diagnoses included muscular dystrophy (n = 10), cerebral palsy (n = 5), and 'other' (n = 3). Many children reported positive functioning following EPIOC use, including increased independence and social activities like wheelchair football. However, EPIOC use was also associated with pain and discomfort, as well as perceived lack of safety, and minor accidents. Most young people and their families were fairly satisfied with the service and provision of their wheelchairs. The findings suggest that the development of disabled young people may benefit from the use of electric powered indoor/outdoor wheelchairs, although the advantages may come at certain costs to young people's perceived and real safety. Recommendations to powered wheelchair providers include the demonstrated need for additional driving training as these young people mature.

  16. Evaluating gaze-driven power wheelchair with navigation support for persons with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Wästlund, Erik; Sponseller, Kay; Pettersson, Ola; Bared, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a novel add-on for powered wheelchairs that is composed of a gaze-driven control system and a navigation support system. The add-on was tested by three users. All of the users were individuals with severe disabilities and no possibility of moving independently. The system is an add-on to a standard power wheelchair and can be customized for different levels of support according to the cognitive level, motor control, perceptual skills, and specific needs of the user. The primary aim of this study was to test the functionality and safety of the system in the user's home environment. The secondary aim was to evaluate whether access to a gaze-driven powered wheelchair with navigation support is perceived as meaningful in terms of independence and participation. The results show that the system has the potential to provide safe, independent indoor mobility and that the users perceive doing so as fun, meaningful, and a way to reduce dependency on others. Independent mobility has numerous benefits in addition to psychological and emotional well-being. By observing users' actions, caregivers and healthcare professionals can assess the individual's capabilities, which was not previously possible. Rehabilitation can be better adapted to the individual's specific needs, and driving a wheelchair independently can be a valuable, motivating training tool.

  17. Predicting energy expenditure through hand rim propulsion power output in individuals who use wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Conger, Scott A; Scott, Stacy N; Bassett, David R

    2014-07-01

    To examine the relationship between hand rim propulsion power and energy expenditure (EE) during wheelchair wheeling and to investigate whether adding other variables to the model could improve on the prediction of EE. Individuals who use manual wheelchairs (n=14) performed five different wheeling activities in a wheelchair with a PowerTap power meter hub built into the right rear wheel. Activities included wheeling on a smooth, level surface at three different speeds (4.5, 5.5 and 6.5 km/h), wheeling on a rubberised track at one speed (5.5 km/h) and wheeling on a sidewalk course that included uphill and downhill segments at a self-selected speed. EE was measured using a portable indirect calorimetry system. Stepwise linear regression was performed to predict EE from power output variables. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare the measured EE to the estimates from the power models. Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the agreement between the criterion values and the predicted values. EE and power were significantly correlated (r=0.694, p<0.001). Regression analysis yielded three significant prediction models utilising measured power; measured power and speed; and measured power, speed and heart rate. No significant differences were found between measured EE and any of the prediction models. EE can be accurately and precisely estimated based on hand rim propulsion power. These results indicate that power could be used as a method to assess EE in individuals who use wheelchairs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Patient safety during assistant propelled wheelchair transfers: the effect of the seat cushion on risk of falling.

    PubMed

    Okunribido, Olanrewaju O

    2013-01-01

    This article is a report of a study of the effect of the seat cushion on risk of falling from a wheelchair. Two laboratory studies and simulated assistant propelled wheelchair transfers were conducted with four healthy female participants. For the laboratory studies there were three independent variables: trunk posture (upright/flexed forward), seat cushion (flat polyurethane/propad low profile), and feet condition (dangling/supported), and two dependent variables: occupied wheelchair (wheelchair) center of gravity (CG), and stability. For the simulated transfers there was one independent variable: seat cushion (flat polyurethane/propad low profile), and one dependent variable: perception of safety (risk of falling). Results showed that the wheelchair CG was closer to the front wheels, and stability lower for the propad low profile cushion compared to the polyurethane cushion, when the participants sat with their feet dangling. During the simulated transfers, sitting on the propad low profile cushion caused participants to feel more apprehensive (anxious or uneasy) compared to sitting on the polyurethane cushion. The findings can contribute to the assessment of risk and care planning of non-ambulatory wheelchair users.

  19. Use of power assist wheels results in increased distance traveled compared with conventional manual wheeling.

    PubMed

    Levy, Charles E; Buman, Matthew P; Chow, John W; Tillman, Mark D; Fournier, Kimberly A; Giacobbi, Peter

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of power assist wheels on the distance traveled by manual wheelchair users and analyze potential cofactors in the magnitude of response and to test the hypothesis that wheelers would travel significantly further with power assist wheels. A 16-wk A (Preintervention)-B (Intervention)-A (Postintervention) repeated measures design. Seven women and 13 men (age, 43 +/- 15 yrs) full-time wheelers participated. During the pre- and postintervention phases (4 wks each), participants used their own unaltered manual wheelchairs. During the 8-wk intervention phase, the manual wheels were replaced with power assist wheels. Daily distance was measured with bicycle-style odometers. A composite score of laboratory wheelchair tasks was used to classify wheelchair performance. Mixed model repeated measures analysis of variance analyzed changes across phases of the trial. A post hoc analysis tabulated the amount of days wheelers exceeded their individual daily averages in each phase by two SDs. Wheelers traveled significantly greater distances during the intervention phase compared with pre- or postintervention phases regardless of baseline wheelchair performance. Wheelers who demonstrated higher baseline wheelchair performance traveled lesser average distances in the first 2 wks after receiving power assist wheels than in the subsequent 6 wks. Wheelers exceeded their individual daily averages per phase on a significantly greater number of days during the intervention phase. Power assist wheels enabled wheelers to travel farther and to travel beyond their usual distances on more days. Further studies may be strengthened by taking into account the 2-wk "adjustment phase" for power assist wheels.

  20. Downward Slope Driving Control for Electric Powered Wheelchair Based on Capacitor Regenerative Brake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Yoshiaki

    This paper describes a novel capacitor regenerative braking control scheme of electric powered wheelchairs for efficient driving on downward slopes. An electric powered wheelchair, which generates the driving force by electric motors, is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people and disabled people; however the energy efficiency has to be further improved because it is driven only by battery energy. This study proposes a capacitor regenerative braking circuit and two types of velocity control schemes with variable duty ratio. The proposed regenerative braking circuit is based on the step-up/down circuit with additional resistance and connects right and left motors in series in order to obtain a larger braking power. Some driving experiments on a practical downward slope show the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  1. The embodiment of assistive devices-from wheelchair to exoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazzaglia, Mariella; Molinari, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) place a heavy burden on the healthcare system and have a high personal impact and marked socio-economic consequences. Clinically, no absolute cure for these conditions exists. However, in recent years, there has been an increased focus on new robotic technologies that can change the frame we think about the prognosis for recovery and for treating some functions of the body affected after SCIs. This review has two goals. The first is to assess the possibility of the embodiment of functional assistive tools after traumatic disruption of the neural pathways between the brain and the body. To this end, we will examine how altered sensorimotor information modulates the sense of the body in SCI. The second goal is to map the phenomenological experience of using external tools that typically extend the potential of the body physically impaired by SCI. More specifically, we will focus on the difference between the perception of one's physically augmented and non-augmented affected body based on observable and measurable behaviors. We discuss potential clinical benefits of enhanced embodiment of the external objects by way of multisensory interventions. This review argues that the future evolution of human robotic technologies will require adopting an embodied approach, taking advantage of brain plasticity to allow bionic limbs to be mapped within the neural circuits of physically impaired individuals.

  2. Evaluation of a Smartphone Platform as a Wireless Interface Between Tongue Drive System and Electric-Powered Wheelchairs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeonghee; Huo, Xueliang; Minocha, Julia; Holbrook, Jaimee; Laumann, Anne; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-01-01

    Tongue drive system (TDS) is a new wireless assistive technology (AT) for the mobility impaired population. It provides users with the ability to drive powered wheelchairs (PWC) and access computers using their unconstrained tongue motion. Migration of the TDS processing unit and user interface platform from a bulky personal computer to a smartphone (iPhone) has significantly facilitated its usage by turning it into a true wireless and wearable AT. After implementation of the necessary interfacing hardware and software to allow the smartphone to act as a bridge between the TDS and PWC, the wheelchair navigation performance and associated learning was evaluated in nine able-bodied subjects in five sessions over a 5-week period. Subjects wore magnetic tongue studs over the duration of the study and drove the PWC in an obstacle course with their tongue using three different navigation strategies; namely unlatched, latched, and semiproportional. Qualitative aspects of using the TDS–iPhone–PWC interface were also evaluated via a five-point Likert scale questionnaire. Subjects showed more than 20% improvement in the overall completion time between the first and second sessions, and maintained a modest improvement of ~9% per session over the following three sessions. PMID:22531737

  3. Evaluation of a smartphone platform as a wireless interface between tongue drive system and electric-powered wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonghee; Huo, Xueliang; Minocha, Julia; Holbrook, Jaimee; Laumann, Anne; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2012-06-01

    Tongue drive system (TDS) is a new wireless assistive technology (AT) for the mobility impaired population. It provides users with the ability to drive powered wheelchairs (PWC) and access computers using their unconstrained tongue motion. Migration of the TDS processing unit and user interface platform from a bulky personal computer to a smartphone (iPhone) has significantly facilitated its usage by turning it into a true wireless and wearable AT. After implementation of the necessary interfacing hardware and software to allow the smartphone to act as a bridge between the TDS and PWC, the wheelchair navigation performance and associated learning was evaluated in nine able-bodied subjects in five sessions over a 5-week period. Subjects wore magnetic tongue studs over the duration of the study and drove the PWC in an obstacle course with their tongue using three different navigation strategies; namely unlatched, latched, and semiproportional. Qualitative aspects of using the TDS-iPhone-PWC interface were also evaluated via a five-point Likert scale questionnaire. Subjects showed more than 20% improvement in the overall completion time between the first and second sessions, and maintained a modest improvement of ∼9% per session over the following three sessions.

  4. Development of a Powered Wheelchair Driving Simulator for Research and Development Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takuma; Shino, Motoki; Inoue, Takenobu; Kamata, Minoru

    The purpose of a powered wheelchair driving simulator is to decrease the time and effort in the process of clinic, research and development. In this paper, the design concepts of our driving simulator for research and development use are explained. To design the simulator's software and hardware, two following experiments were conducted. 1: The driver's horizontal field of view was measured. While making a right turn at a corner of a corridor, the movement of the driver's gazing point was measured. From this result, the maximum and minimum values of gazing point movement were analyzed to design the simulator's angle of view. 2: Motion cues such as acceleration and vibration were measured. The characteristics of these motion cues were analyzed to design the motion system. From the experiment results, a driving simulator of a powered wheelchair was developed. To evaluate the driving simulator, the experiment for comparing with a real powered wheelchair driving was conducted. Evaluations improved by the components which were specially designed for the driving simulator.

  5. Rates and predictors of manual and powered wheelchair use for persons with stroke: a retrospective study in a Canadian rehabilitation center.

    PubMed

    Mountain, Anita D; Kirby, R Lee; MacLeod, Donald A; Thompson, Kara

    2010-04-01

    To determine the rates of manual and powered wheelchair use at discharge for people with stroke admitted to a rehabilitation center and to determine whether any predictors of wheelchair use at discharge could be identified. Retrospective cohort study. Rehabilitation center. Consecutive former inpatients (N=100) with a primary diagnosis of stroke, a sample of convenience. None. We reviewed the inpatient health records to determine the rates of wheelchair use at discharge and to record some readily available demographic and clinical data that might serve as predictors of wheelchair use. At discharge, 40 people (40%) were using manual wheelchairs, 1 person (1%) was using a powered wheelchair, and 59 (59%) were not using a wheelchair. Of the patients who were walkers on admission (ie, walking FIM scores of 6 or 7), none (0%) used wheelchairs at discharge. Of those with nonwalking FIM scores (1-5) on admission, 56% were using wheelchairs at discharge. Multivariate analyses revealed that the adjusted odds ratios of using a wheelchair (manual or powered) were 3.33 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-8.33) for those with left-hemisphere versus right-hemisphere strokes (P=.010), .94 (CI, .91-.96) for each point rise in the total raw FIM score on admission (P<.0001), and 19.46 (CI, 6.33-59.81) if the total admission FIM score was less than 80 versus greater than or equal to 80 (P<.0001). On discharge from our rehabilitation center, 40% of people with stroke were using manual wheelchairs and 1% powered wheelchairs. People who were not walking on admission, those with left-hemisphere strokes, and those with lower total admission FIM scores were more likely to use a wheelchair. These findings may permit clinicians to predict wheelchair use better early in the rehabilitation process, when it can affect rehabilitation planning. Copyright 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and user validation of driving tasks for a power wheelchair simulator.

    PubMed

    Archambault, Philippe S; Blackburn, Émilie; Reid, Denise; Routhier, François; Miller, William C

    2017-07-01

    Mobility is important for participation in daily activities and a power wheelchair (PW) can improve quality of life of individuals with mobility impairments. A virtual reality simulator may be helpful in complementing PW skills training, which is generally seen as insufficient by both clinicians and PW users. To this end, specific, ecologically valid activities, such as entering an elevator and navigating through a shopping mall crowd, have been added to the McGill wheelchair (miWe) simulator through a user-centred approach. The objective of this study was to validate the choice of simulated activities in a group of newly trained PW users. We recruited 17 new PW users, who practiced with the miWe simulator at home for two weeks. They then related their experience through the Short Feedback Questionnaire, the perceived Ease of Use Questionnaire, and semi-structured interviews. Participants in general greatly appreciated their experience with the simulator. During the interviews, this group made similar comments about the activities as our previous group of expert PW users had done. They also insisted on the importance of realism in the miWe activities, for their use in training. A PW simulator may be helpful if it supports the practice of activities in specific contexts (such as a bathroom or supermarket), to complement the basic skills training received in the clinic (such as driving forward, backward, turning, and avoiding obstacles). Implications for Rehabilitation New power wheelchair users appreciate practicing on a virtual reality simulator and find the experience useful when the simulated diving activities are realistic and ecologically valid. User-centred development can lead to simulated power wheelchair activities that adequately capture everyday driving challenges experienced in various environmental contexts.

  7. A Cost-Effective Virtual Environment for Simulating and Training Powered Wheelchairs Manoeuvres.

    PubMed

    Headleand, Christopher J; Day, Thomas; Pop, Serban R; Ritsos, Panagiotis D; John, Nigel W

    2016-01-01

    Control of a powered wheelchair is often not intuitive, making training of new users a challenging and sometimes hazardous task. Collisions, due to a lack of experience can result in injury for the user and other individuals. By conducting training activities in virtual reality (VR), we can potentially improve driving skills whilst avoiding the risks inherent to the real world. However, until recently VR technology has been expensive and limited the commercial feasibility of a general training solution. We describe Wheelchair-Rift, a cost effective prototype simulator that makes use of the Oculus Rift head mounted display and the Leap Motion hand tracking device. It has been assessed for face validity by a panel of experts from a local Posture and Mobility Service. Initial results augur well for our cost-effective training solution.

  8. Contribution of limb momentum to power transfer in athletic wheelchair pushing.

    PubMed

    Masson, G; Bégin, M-A; Lopez Poncelas, M; Pelletier, S-K; Lessard, J-L; Laroche, J; Berrigan, F; Langelier, E; Smeesters, C; Rancourt, D

    2016-09-06

    Pushing capacity is a key parameter in athletic racing wheelchair performance. This study estimated the potential contribution of upper limb momentum to pushing. The question is relevant since it may affect the training strategy adopted by an athlete. A muscle-free Lagrangian dynamic model of the upper limb segments was developed and theoretical predictions of power transfer to the wheelchair were computed during the push phase. Results show that limb momentum capacity for pushing can be in the order of 40J per push cycle at 10m/s, but it varies with the specific pushing range chosen by the athlete. Although use of momentum could certainly help an athlete improve performance, quantifying the actual contribution of limb momentum to pushing is not trivial. A preliminary experimental investigation on an ergometer, along with a simplified model of the upper limb, suggests that momentum is not the sole contributor to power transfer to a wheelchair. Muscles substantially contribute to pushing, even at high speeds. Moreover, an optimal pushing range is challenging to find since it most likely differs if an athlete chooses a limb momentum pushing strategy versus a muscular exertion pushing strategy, or both at the same time. The study emphasizes the importance of controlling pushing range, although one should optimize it while also taking the dynamics of the recovery period into account.

  9. Navigation-synchronized multimodal control wheelchair from brain to alternative assistive technologies for persons with severe disabilities.

    PubMed

    Puanhvuan, Dilok; Khemmachotikun, Sarawin; Wechakarn, Pongsakorn; Wijarn, Boonyanuch; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

    2017-04-01

    Currently, electric wheelchairs are commonly used to improve mobility in disabled people. In severe cases, the user is unable to control the wheelchair by themselves because his/her motor functions are disabled. To restore mobility function, a brain-controlled wheelchair (BCW) would be a promising system that would allow the patient to control the wheelchair by their thoughts. P300 is a reliable brain electrical signal, a component of visual event-related potentials (ERPs), that could be used for interpreting user commands. This research aimed to propose a prototype BCW to allowed severe motor disabled patients to practically control a wheelchair for use in their home environment. The users were able to select from 9 possible destination commands in the automatic mode and from 4 directional commands (forward, backward, turn left and right) in the shared-control mode. These commands were selected via the designed P300 processing system. The wheelchair was steered to the desired location by the implemented navigation system. Safety of the user was ensured during wheelchair navigation due to the included obstacle detection and avoidance features. A combination of P300 and EOG was used as a hybrid BCW system. The user could fully operate the system such as enabling P300 detection system, mode shifting and stop/cancelation command by performing a different consecutive blinks to generate eye blinking patterns. The results revealed that the prototype BCW could be operated in either of the proposed modes. With the new design of the LED-based P300 stimulator, the average accuracies of the P300 detection algorithm in the shared-control and automatic modes were 95.31 and 83.42% with 3.09 and 3.79 bits/min, respectively. The P300 classification error was acceptable, as the user could cancel an incorrect command by blinking 2 times. Moreover, the proposed navigation system had a flexible design that could be interfaced with other assistive technologies. This research developed

  10. A Driving Behaviour Model of Electrical Wheelchair Users

    PubMed Central

    Hamam, Y.; Djouani, K.; Daachi, B.; Steyn, N.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the presence of powered wheelchairs, some of the users still experience steering challenges and manoeuvring difficulties that limit their capacity of navigating effectively. For such users, steering support and assistive systems may be very necessary. To appreciate the assistance, there is need that the assistive control is adaptable to the user's steering behaviour. This paper contributes to wheelchair steering improvement by modelling the steering behaviour of powered wheelchair users, for integration into the control system. More precisely, the modelling is based on the improved Directed Potential Field (DPF) method for trajectory planning. The method has facilitated the formulation of a simple behaviour model that is also linear in parameters. To obtain the steering data for parameter identification, seven individuals participated in driving the wheelchair in different virtual worlds on the augmented platform. The obtained data facilitated the estimation of user parameters, using the ordinary least square method, with satisfactory regression analysis results. PMID:27148362

  11. A Driving Behaviour Model of Electrical Wheelchair Users.

    PubMed

    Onyango, S O; Hamam, Y; Djouani, K; Daachi, B; Steyn, N

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the presence of powered wheelchairs, some of the users still experience steering challenges and manoeuvring difficulties that limit their capacity of navigating effectively. For such users, steering support and assistive systems may be very necessary. To appreciate the assistance, there is need that the assistive control is adaptable to the user's steering behaviour. This paper contributes to wheelchair steering improvement by modelling the steering behaviour of powered wheelchair users, for integration into the control system. More precisely, the modelling is based on the improved Directed Potential Field (DPF) method for trajectory planning. The method has facilitated the formulation of a simple behaviour model that is also linear in parameters. To obtain the steering data for parameter identification, seven individuals participated in driving the wheelchair in different virtual worlds on the augmented platform. The obtained data facilitated the estimation of user parameters, using the ordinary least square method, with satisfactory regression analysis results.

  12. The influence of wheelchair propulsion hand pattern on upper extremity muscle power and stress.

    PubMed

    Slowik, Jonathan S; Requejo, Philip S; Mulroy, Sara J; Neptune, Richard R

    2016-06-14

    The hand pattern (i.e., full-cycle hand path) used during manual wheelchair propulsion is frequently classified as one of four distinct hand pattern types: arc, single loop, double loop or semicircular. Current clinical guidelines recommend the use of the semicircular pattern, which is based on advantageous levels of broad biomechanical metrics implicitly related to the demand placed on the upper extremity (e.g., lower cadence). However, an understanding of the influence of hand pattern on specific measures of upper extremity muscle demand (e.g., muscle power and stress) is needed to help make such recommendations, but these quantities are difficult and impractical to measure experimentally. The purpose of this study was to use musculoskeletal modeling and forward dynamics simulations to investigate the influence of the hand pattern used on specific measures of upper extremity muscle demand. The simulation results suggest that the double loop and semicircular patterns produce the most favorable levels of overall muscle stress and total muscle power. The double loop pattern had the lowest full-cycle and recovery-phase upper extremity demand but required high levels of muscle power during the relatively short contact phase. The semicircular pattern had the second-lowest full-cycle levels of overall muscle stress and total muscle power, and demand was more evenly distributed between the contact and recovery phases. These results suggest that in order to decrease upper extremity demand, manual wheelchair users should consider using either the double loop or semicircular pattern when propelling their wheelchairs at a self-selected speed on level ground. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Influence of Wheelchair Propulsion Hand Pattern on Upper Extremity Muscle Power and Stress

    PubMed Central

    Slowik, Jonathan S.; Requejo, Philip S.; Mulroy, Sara J.; Neptune, Richard R.

    2016-01-01

    The hand pattern (i.e., full-cycle hand path) used during manual wheelchair propulsion is frequently classified as one of four distinct hand pattern types: arc, single loop, double loop and semicircular. Current clinical guidelines recommend the use of the semicircular pattern, which is based on advantageous levels of broad biomechanical metrics implicitly related to the demand placed on the upper extremity (e.g., lower cadence). However, an understanding of the influence of hand pattern on specific measures of upper extremity muscle demand (e.g., muscle power and stress) is needed to help make such recommendations, but these quantities are difficult and impractical to measure experimentally. The purpose of this study was to use musculoskeletal modeling and forward dynamics simulations to investigate the influence of the hand pattern used on specific measures of upper extremity muscle demand. The simulation results suggest that the double loop and semicircular patterns produce the most favorable levels of overall muscle stress and total muscle power. The double loop pattern had the lowest full-cycle and recovery-phase upper extremity demand but required high levels of muscle power during the relatively short contact phase. The semicircular pattern had the second-lowest full-cycle levels of overall muscle stress and total muscle power, and demand was more evenly distributed between the contact and recovery phases. These results suggest that in order to decrease upper extremity demand, manual wheelchair users should use either the double loop or semicircular pattern when propelling their wheelchairs at a self-selected speed on level ground. PMID:27062591

  14. How many people would benefit from a smart wheelchair?

    PubMed

    Simpson, Richard C; LoPresti, Edmund F; Cooper, Rory A

    2008-01-01

    Independent mobility is important, but some wheelchair users find operating existing manual or powered wheelchairs difficult or impossible. Challenges to safe, independent wheelchair use can result from various overlapping physical, perceptual, or cognitive symptoms of diagnoses such as spinal cord injury, cerebrovascular accident, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and cerebral palsy. Persons with different symptom combinations can benefit from different types of assistance from a smart wheelchair and different wheelchair form factors. The sizes of these user populations have been estimated based on published estimates of the number of individuals with each of several diseases who (1) also need a wheeled mobility device and (2) have specific symptoms that could interfere with mobility device use.

  15. Product development: using a 3D computer model to optimize the stability of the Rocket powered wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Pinkney, S; Fernie, G

    2001-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) lumped-parameter model of a powered wheelchair was created to aid the development of the Rocket prototype wheelchair and to help explore the effect of innovative design features on its stability. The model was developed using simulation software, specifically Working Model 3D. The accuracy of the model was determined by comparing both its static stability angles and dynamic behavior as it passed down a 4.8-cm (1.9") road curb at a heading of 45 degrees with the performance of the actual wheelchair. The model's predictions of the static stability angles in the forward, rearward, and lateral directions were within 9.3, 7.1, and 3.8% of the measured values, respectively. The average absolute error in the predicted position of the wheelchair as it moved down the curb was 2.2 cm/m (0.9" per 3'3") traveled. The accuracy was limited by the inability to model soft bodies, the inherent difficulties in modeling a statically indeterminate system, and the computing time. Nevertheless, it was found to be useful in investigating the effect of eight design alterations on the lateral stability of the wheelchair. Stability was quantified by determining the static lateral stability angles and the maximum height of a road curb over which the wheelchair could successfully drive on a diagonal heading. The model predicted that the stability was more dependent on the configuration of the suspension system than on the dimensions and weight distribution of the wheelchair. Furthermore, for the situations and design alterations studied, predicted improvements in static stability were not correlated with improvements in dynamic stability.

  16. Neuropsychological predictors of powered wheelchair use: a prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Breda; O'Neill, Brian; Evans, Jonathan J

    2008-09-01

    To investigate (1) rates of powered wheelchair use and level of user-rated functional performance at one-month follow-up, and (2) whether psychological variables were prospectively predictive of outcome. Prospective follow-up study. UK hospital-based regional rehabilitation and mobility centre. Volunteer adults with impaired mobility. Of 155 approached, 103 had baseline assessments. Of these, 81 (79%) provided outcome data. Mean age was 65.6 years (SD = 13.5); 55% were male. Rate of day-to-day powerchair use, and users' perceptions of how well the powerchair allowed them to perform functional tasks. Among those with indoor-only chairs, 48% were 'less frequent' users; this rose to 72% among those with indoor/outdoor chairs. Excluding environmental reasons, rate of indoor use was predicted by baseline measures of verbal recall (P<0.001), figure copying (P=0.003) and global cognition (P=0.021). Among those with indoor/outdoor chairs, total rate of use was predicted by verbal recall (P= 0.001). Participants reported that the powerchair was effective in meeting their functional needs. Powered wheelchair use was predicted by cognitive measures. Rates of use were relatively low, despite users' reports that the powerchair facilitated their everyday functioning well.

  17. Age-related changes to wheelchair efficiency and sprint power output in novice able-bodied males.

    PubMed

    Hers, Nathaniel; Sawatzky, Bonita J; Sheel, A William

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age on sub-maximal wheelchair propulsion efficiency and sprint power output (SPO) in inexperienced able-bodied males. Two age groups were used for this study: a younger adult group (N = 10; mean age 24.8 ± 3.0 years) and an older adult group (N = 8; mean age 70.9 ± 5.2 years). No one had prior manual wheelchair experience. The primary outcome measures were gross mechanical efficiency (GME), mechanical effectiveness (ME) during sub-maximal treadmill wheeling and SPO during a max sprint test. There were no significant differences in GME; however, there was a significant difference in ME [0.74 ± 0.12 and 0.62 ± 0.08 (p = 0.007)] and sprint test [SPO = 224.66 ± 79.25 and 125.98 ± 53.02 (W) (p = 0.008)], for younger and older adults, respectively. Healthy, active older individuals can have a physiological capacity similar to younger populations to wheel sub-maximally, but their ME and lower SPO reduce the ability to propel manual wheelchairs during maximal wheeling. Understanding the potential for older adults to propel wheelchairs is important as the population ages with disabilities. This study demonstrated significantly lower ME but not GME in older versus younger adult populations. Strength training may be needed to keep older adults active in manual wheelchairs.

  18. Fuzzy Inference Based Obstacle Avoidance Control of Electric Powered Wheelchair Considering Driving Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiso, Atsushi; Murakami, Hiroki; Seki, Hirokazu

    This paper describes a novel obstacle avoidance control scheme of electric powered wheelchairs for realizing the safe driving in various environments. The “electric powered wheelchair” which generates the driving force by electric motors is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people and disabled people; however, the driving performance must be further improved because the number of driving accidents caused by elderly operator's narrow sight and joystick operation errors is increasing. This paper proposes a novel obstacle avoidance control scheme based on fuzzy algorithm to prevent driving accidents. The proposed control system determines the driving direction by fuzzy algorithm based on the information of the joystick operation and distance to obstacles measured by ultrasonic sensors. Fuzzy rules to determine the driving direction are designed surely to avoid passers-by and walls considering the human's intent and driving environments. Some driving experiments on the practical situations show the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  19. Alternative input medium development for wheelchair user with severe spinal cord injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihsan, Izzat Aqmar; Tomari, Razali; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Othman, Nurmiza

    2017-09-01

    Quadriplegia or tetraplegia patients have restricted four limbs as well as torso movement caused by severe spinal cord injury. Undoubtedly, these patients face difficulties when operating their powered electric wheelchair since they are unable to control the wheelchair by means of a standard joystick. Due to total loss of both sensory and motor function of the four limbs and torso, an alternative input medium for the wheelchair will be developed to assist the user in operating the wheelchair. In this framework, the direction of the wheelchair movement is determined by the user's conscious intent through a brain control interface (BCI) based on Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal. A laser range finder (LFR) is used to perceive environment information for determining a safety distance of the wheelchair's surrounding. Local path planning algorithm will be developed to provide navigation planner along with user's input to prevent collision during control operation.

  20. Teaching Assistants' Perceptions of Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Michelle; Pugh, Jim

    2007-01-01

    During May 2006 a group of teaching assistants were asked a series of questions about their opinions of morality, power and leadership to inform a conference on this topic funded by the three bodies involved in educational leadership (BELMAS, BERA and SCRELM). This article investigates how teaching assistants perceive the location of power within…

  1. Immersion factors affecting perception and behaviour in a virtual reality power wheelchair simulator.

    PubMed

    Alshaer, Abdulaziz; Regenbrecht, Holger; O'Hare, David

    2017-01-01

    Virtual Reality based driving simulators are increasingly used to train and assess users' abilities to operate vehicles in a controlled and safe way. For the development of those simulators it is important to identify and evaluate design factors affecting perception, behaviour, and driving performance. In an exemplary power wheelchair simulator setting we identified the three immersion factors display type (head-mounted display v monitor), ability to freely change the field of view (FOV), and the visualisation of the user's avatar as potentially affecting perception and behaviour. In a study with 72 participants we found all three factors affected the participants' sense of presence in the virtual environment. In particular the display type significantly affected both perceptual and behavioural measures whereas FOV only affected behavioural measures. Our findings could guide future Virtual Reality simulator designers to evoke targeted user behaviours and perceptions.

  2. Capturing and analyzing wheelchair maneuvering patterns with mobile cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jicheng; Hao, Wei; White, Travis; Yan, Yuqing; Jones, Maria; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2013-01-01

    Power wheelchairs have been widely used to provide independent mobility to people with disabilities. Despite great advancements in power wheelchair technology, research shows that wheelchair related accidents occur frequently. To ensure safe maneuverability, capturing wheelchair maneuvering patterns is fundamental to enable other research, such as safe robotic assistance for wheelchair users. In this study, we propose to record, store, and analyze wheelchair maneuvering data by means of mobile cloud computing. Specifically, the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors in smart phones are used to record wheelchair maneuvering data in real-time. Then, the recorded data are periodically transmitted to the cloud for storage and analysis. The analyzed results are then made available to various types of users, such as mobile phone users, traditional desktop users, etc. The combination of mobile computing and cloud computing leverages the advantages of both techniques and extends the smart phone's capabilities of computing and data storage via the Internet. We performed a case study to implement the mobile cloud computing framework using Android smart phones and Google App Engine, a popular cloud computing platform. Experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed mobile cloud computing framework.

  3. Context-Based Filtering for Assisted Brain-Actuated Wheelchair Driving

    PubMed Central

    Vanacker, Gerolf; del R. Millán, José; Lew, Eileen; Ferrez, Pierre W.; Moles, Ferran Galán; Philips, Johan; Van Brussel, Hendrik; Nuttin, Marnix

    2007-01-01

    Controlling a robotic device by using human brain signals is an interesting and challenging task. The device may be complicated to control and the nonstationary nature of the brain signals provides for a rather unstable input. With the use of intelligent processing algorithms adapted to the task at hand, however, the performance can be increased. This paper introduces a shared control system that helps the subject in driving an intelligent wheelchair with a noninvasive brain interface. The subject's steering intentions are estimated from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals and passed through to the shared control system before being sent to the wheelchair motors. Experimental results show a possibility for significant improvement in the overall driving performance when using the shared control system compared to driving without it. These results have been obtained with 2 healthy subjects during their first day of training with the brain-actuated wheelchair. PMID:18354739

  4. A wheelchair with lever propulsion control for climbing up and down stairs.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kai; Eguchi, Yosuke; Suzuki, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    This study proposes a novel stair-climbing wheelchair based on lever propulsion control using the human upper body. Wheelchairs are widely used as supporting locomotion devices for people with acquired lower limb disabilities. However, steps and stairs are critical obstacles to locomotion, which restrict their activities when using wheelchairs. Previous research focused on power-assisted, stair-climbing wheelchairs, which were large and heavy due to its large actuators and mechanisms. In the previous research, we proposed a wheelchair with lever propulsion mechanism and presented its feasibility of climbing up the stairs. The developed stair-climbing wheelchair consists of manual wheels with casters for planar locomotion and a rotary-leg mechanism based on lever propulsion that is capable of climbing up stairs. The wheelchair also has a passive mechanism powered by gas springs for posture transition to shift the user's center of gravity between the desired positions for planar locomotion and stair-climbing. In this paper, we present an advanced study on both climbing up and going down using lever propulsion control by the user's upper body motion. For climbing down the stairs, we reassembled one-way clutches used for the rotary-leg mechanism to help a user climb down the stairs through lever operation. We also equipped the wheelchair with sufficient torque dampers. The frontal wheels were fixed while climbing down the stairs to ensure safety. Relevant experiments were then performed to investigate its performance and verify that the wheelchair users can operate the proposed lever propulsion mechanism.

  5. Survey of the use of transport by recipients of a regional Electric Indoor/Outdoor Powered (EPIOC) wheelchair service.

    PubMed

    Belcher, M J H; Frank, A O

    2004-05-20

    To determine the extent to which Electric Indoor/Outdoor Powered wheelchair (EPIOC) users travel in vehicles, their concerns about safety, any accidents occurring during transportation and difficulties with their equipment. All 268 EPIOC users on the departmental database were sent a purpose-designed postal questionnaire asking whether the respondent:--used the chair during transportation and in what type of vehicle; understood clamping processes; had a 'mishap' or an 'accident'; felt safe during transportation and wished to comment. Replies from two mailings resulted in 203 usable replies (76%). Responses and comments were entered into an Excel database. Thirty-seven (18%) users did not use any transport. Of the 170 (82%) who did: 51% used Dial-a-Ride, 44% taxis, 41% ambulances, 37% local authority transport, 34% cars and others 17%. Twenty-one (12%) experienced 'mishaps'--8 toppled out of their chairs and 6 reported clamping-related accidents. Headrests were only used by 69 (41%). Thirty-four (19%) of 182 expressing a view about 'feeling safe' felt unsafe sometimes. Wheelchair users often feel vulnerable when being transported by public providers. Risks of vehicular travel by wheelchair users could be reduced with appropriate equipment and regular review of NHS prescriptions, education of users, wheelchair services and transport providers.

  6. Automatic Detection and Classification of Unsafe Events During Power Wheelchair Use

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Athena K.; Yuen, Hiu Kim; Archambault, Philippe S.; Routhier, François; Michaud, François; Boissy, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Using a powered wheelchair (PW) is a complex task requiring advanced perceptual and motor control skills. Unfortunately, PW incidents and accidents are not uncommon and their consequences can be serious. The objective of this paper is to develop technological tools that can be used to characterize a wheelchair user’s driving behavior under various settings. In the experiments conducted, PWs are outfitted with a datalogging platform that records, in real-time, the 3-D acceleration of the PW. Data collection was conducted over 35 different activities, designed to capture a spectrum of PW driving events performed at different speeds (collisions with fixed or moving objects, rolling on incline plane, and rolling across multiple types obstacles). The data was processed using time-series analysis and data mining techniques, to automatically detect and identify the different events. We compared the classification accuracy using four different types of time-series features: 1) time-delay embeddings; 2) time-domain characterization; 3) frequency-domain features; and 4) wavelet transforms. In the analysis, we compared the classification accuracy obtained when distinguishing between safe and unsafe events during each of the 35 different activities. For the purposes of this study, unsafe events were defined as activities containing collisions against objects at different speed, and the remainder were defined as safe events. We were able to accurately detect 98% of unsafe events, with a low (12%) false positive rate, using only five examples of each activity. This proof-of-concept study shows that the proposed approach has the potential of capturing, based on limited input from embedded sensors, contextual information on PW use, and of automatically characterizing a user’s PW driving behavior. PMID:27170879

  7. Mobility profile and wheelchair driving skills of powered wheelchair users: sensor-based event recognition using a support vector machine classifier.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Athena K; Pineau, Joelle; Frank, Jordan; Archambault, Philippe; Routhier, François; Audet, Thérèse; Polgar, Jan; Michaud, François; Boissy, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method to automatically recognize events and driving activities during the use of a powered wheelchair (PW). The method uses a support vector machine classifier, trained from sensor-based data from a datalogging platform installed on the PW. Data from a 3D accelerometer positioned on the back of the PW were collected in a laboratory space during PW driving tasks. 16-segmented events and driving activities (i.e. impacts from different side on different objects, rolling down or up on incline surface, going across threshold of different height) were performed repeatedly (n=25 trials) by one operator at three different speeds (slow, normal, high). We present results from an experiment aiming to classify five different events and driving activities from the sensor data acquired using the datalogging platform. Classification results show the ability of the proposed method to reliably segment 100% of events, and to identify the correct event type in 80% of events.

  8. Is any wheelchair better than no wheelchair? A Zimbabwean perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mlambo, Tecla; van der Veen, Judith; Nhunzvi, Clement; Tigere, Deborah; Scheffler, Elsje

    2015-01-01

    Background Within a rights-based paradigm, wheelchairs are essential in the promotion of user autonomy, dignity, freedom, inclusion and participation. Objectives This paper aimed to describe a group of Zimbabwean wheelchair users’ satisfaction with wheelchairs, wheelchair services and wheelchair function. Method A mixed method, descriptive study was done. Quantitative data was collected from 94 consecutively sampled wheelchair users, who accessed wheelchair services at 16 clinics in five Zimbabwean provinces between October 2013 and February 2014, using the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology for adults and children and Functioning Every day with a Wheelchair questionnaire. Qualitative data were collected through two focus group discussions (22 participants) and two case studies with participants purposively sampled from those who participated in the quantitative phase. Results More than 60% of participants were dissatisfied with the following wheelchair features: durability (78.6%), weight (75.6%), ease of adjustment (69.1%), effectiveness (69.0%), safety (66.7%), reliability (66.7%), and meeting user needs (60.6%). Similarly, more than 66% of participants were dissatisfied with various services aspects: professional services (69.0%), follow-up (67.0%), and service delivery (68.3%). Although 60% of participants agreed that the wheelchair contributed to specific functions, more than 50% of participants indicated that the features of the wheelchair did not allow in- (53.2%) and outdoor (52.7%) mobility. Conclusion Findings indicate high levels of dissatisfaction with wheelchair features and services, as well as mobility. It is recommended that policy and minimum service standards which incorporate evidence and good practice guidelines for wheelchair services and management of wheelchair donations are developed for Zimbabwe. PMID:28730038

  9. The dynamics of electric powered wheelchair sideways tips and falls: experimental and computational analysis of impact forces and injury.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Brett; Hosseini, Masih A; Mudhar, Parry Singh; Soleimani, Maryam; Aboonabi, Arina; Arzanpour, Siamak; Sparrey, Carolyn J

    2016-03-02

    To reduce the occurrence of wheelchair falls and to develop effective protection systems, we aimed to quantify sideways tip and fall dynamics of electric power wheelchairs (EPWs). We hypothesized that driving speed, curb height and angle of approach would affect impact forces and head injury risk for wheelchair riders. We further expected that fall dynamics and head injury risk would be greater for unrestrained riders compared to restrained riders. Sideways wheelchair tip and fall dynamics were reconstructed using a remotely operated rear wheel drive EPW and a Hybrid III test dummy driving at different approach angles (5 to 63°) over an adjustable height curb (0.30 to 0.41 m) at speeds of 0.6-1.5 m/s. Rigid body dynamics models (Madymo, TASS International, Livonia, MI) were developed in parallel with the experiments to systematically study and quantify the impact forces and the sideways tip or fall of an EPW user in different driving conditions. Shallower approach angles (25°) (p < 0.05) and higher curbs (0.4 m) (p < 0.05) were the most significant predictors of tipping for restrained passengers. Unrestrained passengers were most affected by higher curbs (0.4 m) (p < 0.005) and fell forward from the upright wheelchair when the approach angle was 60°. Head impact forces were greater in unrestrained users (6181 ± 2372 N) than restrained users (1336 ± 827 N) (p = 0.00053). Unrestrained users had significantly greater head impact severities than restrained users (HIC = 610 ± 634 vs HIC = 29 ± 38, p = 0.00013) and several tip events resulted in HICs > 1000 (severe head injury) in unrestrained users. Sideways tips and forward falls from wheelchairs were most sensitive to curb height and approach angle but were not affected by driving speed. Sideways tips and falls resulted in impact forces that could result in concussions or traumatic brain injury and require injury prevention strategies. Seat belts eliminated

  10. Psychometric properties of a Power Mobility Caregiver Assistive Technology Outcome Measure.

    PubMed

    Mortenson, W Ben; Demers, Louise; Rushton, Paula W; Auger, Claudine; Routhier, François; Miller, William C

    2017-01-01

    Caregiver burnout is a serious concern among informal caregivers, especially for those who provide care to individuals with more severe limitations such as power mobility users. The Power Wheelchair Caregiver Assistive Technology Outcome Measure tool measures device specific and overall burden experienced by informal caregivers of power mobility users. A one-month, test-retest study was conducted to examine the reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity of the Power Wheelchair Caregiver Assistive Technology Outcome Measure. Two construct validity measures were administered: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Late Life Disability Index. The test-retest-reliabilities of part 1 (power wheelchair specific burden) and part 2 (general caregiving burden) were 0.769 and 0.843 respectively. Scores on part 1 were moderately and positively correlated with part 2 and with frequency of participation. Scores on part 2 were moderately and negatively correlated with anxiety, depression, and positively with perceived limitation of participation. The strength and direction of these correlations provide support for the construct validity of the measure and suggest part 1 and part 2 provide complementary information. Further testing is needed to assess the clinical utility and responsiveness of the measure.

  11. Living with a powered wheelchair: exploring children's and young people's experiences.

    PubMed

    Gudgeon, Sue; Kirk, Susan

    2015-03-01

    The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of children and young people who use an Electric Powered Indoor/Outdoor wheelchair (EPIOC). To allow for the individual lived experiences of the children to be explored, an exploratory study was designed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Nine children aged 7-16 years were recruited and their views explored through semi-structured interviews. Children appeared to be working to achieve an adequate fit between self, the EPIOC and the environment. Where an adequate fit was achieved the child experienced positive consequences of using an EPIOC including increased participation and positive feelings. However an inadequate fit led to negative experiences including reduced participation, fear and anxiety. The changing interface between self, EPIOC and environment appeared to be important in shaping these experiences. This study adds to understanding the ambiguous experience of being a child EPIOC user and the need for ongoing support from services especially around stages of transition. It also contributes to the development of the social model of disability from a child's perspective. Implications for Rehabilitation Children who use Electric Powered Indoor/Outdoor Chairs have both positive and negative experiences which are dependent on the fit of the child, chair and the environment. Child EPIOC users are active agents in shaping their experiences. Children who use an EPIOC maybe particularly at risk of reduced participation, especially at times when their environment changes significantly such as when leaving school or college.

  12. Use of Power Assist-Wheels Results in Increased Distance Traveled Compared to Conventional Manual Wheeling

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Charles E.; Buman, Matthew P.; Chow, John W.; Tillman, Mark D.; Fournier, Kimberly A.; Giacobbi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of power assist wheels (PAWs) on the distance traveled by manual wheelchair users and analyze potential cofactors in the magnitude of response: To test the hypothesis that wheelers would travel significantly further with PAWs. Design A 16-week A (Pre-intervention)-B (Intervention)- A (Post-intervention) repeated measures design. Seven women and 13 men (age 43±15 years) full-time wheelers participated. During the pre-intervention and post-intervention phases (4 weeks each), participants used their own unaltered manual wheelchairs. During the 8-week intervention phase, the manual wheels were replaced with PAWs. Daily distance was measured with bicycle-style odometers. A composite score of laboratory wheelchair tasks was used to classify wheelchair performance. Mixed model repeated measures analysis of variance analyzed changes across phases of the trial. A post-hoc analysis tabulated the amount of days wheelers exceeded their individual daily averages in each phase by two standard deviations. Results Wheelers traveled significantly greater distances during the intervention phase compared to pre- or post-intervention phases regardless of baseline wheelchair performance . Wheelers who demonstrated higher baseline wheelchair performance traveled lesser average distances in the first two weeks after receiving PAWs than in the subsequent 6 weeks. Wheelers exceeded their individual daily averages per phase on a significantly greater number of days during the intervention phase. Conclusions PAWs enabled wheelers to travel farther and to travel beyond their usual distances on more days. Future studies may be strengthened by taking into account the two-week “adjustment phase” for PAWs. PMID:20647780

  13. Development of a wheelchair maintenance training programme and questionnaire for clinicians and wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    Toro, Maria Luisa; Bird, Emily; Oyster, Michelle; Worobey, Lynn; Lain, Michael; Bucior, Samuel; Cooper, Rory A; Pearlman, Jonathan

    2017-01-27

    Purpose of state: The aims of this study were to develop a Wheelchair Maintenance Training Programme (WMTP) as a tool for clinicians to teach wheelchair users (and caregivers when applicable) in a group setting to perform basic maintenance at home in the USA and to develop a Wheelchair Maintenance Training Questionnaire (WMT-Q) to evaluate wheelchair maintenance knowledge in clinicians, manual and power wheelchair users.

  14. A force feedback joystick and control algorithm for wheelchair obstacle avoidance.

    PubMed

    Brienza, D M; Angelo, J

    1996-03-01

    Many powered wheelchair users have difficulty manoeuvring in confined spaces. Common tasks such as traversing through doorways, turning around in halls or travelling on a straight path are complicated by an inability to accurately and reliably control the wheelchair with a joystick or other common input device, or by a sensory impairment that prevents the user from receiving feedback from the environment. An active joystick with force feedback to indicate obstacles in the environment has been developed. Two force feedback schemes designed to assist a powered wheelchair user have been developed and implemented using the active joystick. The development of the joystick and associated control algorithms are described.

  15. To move as a human. Comment on "The embodiment of assistive devices-from wheelchair to exoskeleton" by M. Pazzaglia and M. Molinari

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, Christina

    2016-03-01

    I agree with the authors, that ;there have been very few attempts to develop user-centered medical technologies; [1] in the field of rehabilitation for persons with disabilities and wheelchair users in particular. The human-environment context in which humans plan and inhabit their actions as wheelchair users has not been extensively studied. The authors' unique work explores how a person embodies an exoskeleton (robotic legs or a wheelchair) in their everyday life and focuses on proprioception and brain's capacity to enlarge one's body schema in order to understand users' perspectives. Ultimately, Pazzaglia and Molinari wish to support persons who use assistive devices adapt and have successful, meaningful lives. The work is neuro-scientifically grounded, but doesn't forget the emotional or affective aspects of the user.

  16. Current Status of the Utilization of Powered Wheelchair in Preschool Children with Locomotive Disability in Japan

    PubMed Central

    UYAMA, Sachie; HANAKI, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to elucidate the actual state of powered wheelchair (PWC) prescription for preschool children with disabilities in Japan, and also to determine the approximate number of preschool children with disabilities who would potentially benefit from PWC use. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 318 facilities providing rehabilitation for disabled children in Japan were enrolled in the study. A questionnaire about PWC use for preschoolers was mailed to the facilities. Each study items were analyzed employing the Fisher's exact test. [Results] Of the 318 facilities, consent to participate in this study was obtained from 108 (return rate: 34.0%). After PWC provision, many facilities reported improvement in quality of life indices for preschool children with disabilities. It was revealed that there were 6 preschool children from 2 to 6 years of age with disabilities who might acquire a means of independent locomotion through PWC provision and thereby experience improved quality of life. [Conclusion] There was no negative comment from the facilities studied about the prescription and provision of PWC for preschool children with disabilities. PMID:28289577

  17. Differences in participation based on self-esteem in power and manual wheelchair users on a university campus: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rice, Ian M; Wong, Alex W K; Salentine, Benjamin A; Rice, Laura A

    2015-03-01

    To examine the relationship of self-esteem and wheelchair type with participation of young adult manual and power wheelchair users with diverse physical disabilities. Cross-sectional survey study. Large University Campus. A convenience sample of college students (N = 39) with self-reported physical disabilities who are full time wheelchair users (>40 per week) and are two or more years post illness or injury. Not applicable. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to measure self-esteem, and the Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique was used to measure participation. Self-esteem correlated highly with cognitive independence (CI) (r = 0.58), mobility (r = 0.67) and social integration (SI) (r = 0.52). Use of manual wheelchair was significantly related to higher levels of CI and mobility while longer use of any wheelchair (power or manual) was significantly associated with higher levels of mobility and SI. In addition higher self-esteem independently predicted a significant proportion of the variance in CI, mobility and SI, while type of wheelchair predicted a significant proportion of the variance in CI (p < 0.005). High self-esteem was found to be the strongest predictor of participation in a population of young adults with mobility limitations. Better understanding of the factors influencing participation may help to facilitate new interventions to minimize the disparities between persons with disabilities and their able bodied peers. Implication for Rehabilitation A total of 46.8% of wheelchair users report the desire for increased community participant but face significant barriers. The type of wheelchair has been identified as having a large impact on participation. This study found self-esteem to be the strongest predictor of participation, which is notable because self-esteem is a characteristic that is potentially modifiable with treatment.

  18. Wheelchair armrest strength testing.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R A; Rentschler, A J; O'Connor, T J; Ster, J F

    2000-01-01

    There are about 1.4 million manual wheelchair users, 100,000 electric-powered wheelchair users, and 60,000 electric-powered scooter users. The current study was undertaken to determine if the fasteners of a clamp-type armrest receiver were prone to failure. The first test was used to examine the potential misalignment of the armrest receiver components that attach it to the frame. The second test was to evaluate the entire armrest using the American National Standards Institute/Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America armrest static strength standard. Finally, we conducted three fatigue tests. The first fatigue test was performed by repeating the static stability tests multiple times. The last two tests were a modified version of the double-drum wheelchair fatigue test used to apply repeated loading and vibration simultaneously. A paired t-test showed that there is no statistically significant difference (p = 0.08), with a confidence of 95%, between critical alignment measurements. The armrest including the receiver passed the standard requirement of a force of 760 N being applied outward at 15 degrees. During fatigue testing, we found that armrests did not exhibit any visible or functional damage. Upon completion of the tests, the armrests and receivers functioned properly. At about 100,289 cycles on a double-drum test machine, three bolts failed on each armrest receiver when the screws were loosened to have only five threads engaged prior to commencing the test. The design of the armrest tested was in compliance with existing national and international standards. Currently, both International Standards Organization and American National Standards Institute/Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society committees are developing standards for seating systems that will include static, impact, and fatigue strength testing of devices like lateral torso supports, lateral hip support, etc. Methods similar to those

  19. Health, Personal, and Environmental Predictors of Wheelchair-Use Confidence in Adult Wheelchair Users.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Brodie M; Miller, William C; Eng, Janice J; Routhier, François; Backman, Catherine L

    2015-10-01

    There are no predictive models of wheelchair-use confidence. Therefore, clinicians and researchers are limited in their ability to screen for and identify wheelchair users who may be more prone to low wheelchair-use confidence and may benefit from clinical intervention. The purpose of this study was to identify health-related, personal, and environmental factors that predict perceived wheelchair-use confidence in community-dwelling adults who use manual wheelchairs. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Community-dwelling manual wheelchair users (N=124) were included in the study if they were ≥50 years of age, had ≥6 months of wheelchair use experience, and had no cognitive impairment. The Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale was used to assess wheelchair-use confidence. The sociodemographic information form, Functional Comorbidity Index, Seating Identification Tool, Interpersonal Support and Evaluation List, and Home and Community Environment Instrument captured the independent variables. Blocks of health, personal, and environmental variables were sequentially entered into the regression model. Five personal variables (age, standardized beta [β]=-0.18; sex, β=-0.26; daily hours of wheelchair occupancy, β=0.20; wheelchair-use training, β=0.20; and wheelchair-use assistance, β=-0.34) and one environmental variable (need for seating intervention, β=-0.18) were statistically significant predictors, explaining 44% of the confidence variance. The sample comprised volunteers and, therefore, may underrepresent or overrepresent particular groups within the population. The study's cross-sectional research design does not allow for conclusions to be made regarding causality. Older women who use wheelchairs and who require assistance with wheelchair use may have low wheelchair-use confidence. The same is true for individuals who have no formal wheelchair-use training, who are in need of a seating intervention, and who report few hours of daily wheelchair use. These

  20. Development of a Power Assist System of a Walking Chair Based on Human Arm Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yunfeng; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Takeda, Yukio; Higuchi, Masaru; Sugimoto, Koichi

    In this paper, design of control system and power combination mechanism of a power assist system of the walking chair was discussed based on kinetostatic characteristics of human arm. The walking chair is a welfare walking machine which is an alternative vehicle of the wheelchair, and expected to be driven by user's cranking operation with assisting actuator. To efficiently utilize user power as much as possible for long locomotion without giving much fatigue to the user while providing comfortable driving feeling to the user, the human arm characteristics were taken into consideration. Kinetostatic characteristics of the human arm were experimentally investigated for its modeling. This model was applied to the design of mechanism and control system of the power assist system of the walking chair, and design parameters were determined for achieving comfortable driving feeling and efficient utilization of user power.

  1. IntellWheels: modular development platform for intelligent wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Braga, Rodrigo Antonio Marques; Petry, Marcelo; Reis, Luis Paulo; Moreira, António Paulo

    2011-01-01

    Intelligent wheelchairs (IWs) can become an important solution to the challenge of assisting individuals who have disabilities and are thus unable to perform their daily activities using classic powered wheelchairs. This article describes the concept and design of IntellWheels, a modular platform to facilitate the development of IWs through a multiagent system paradigm. In fact, modularity is achieved not only in the software perspective, but also through a generic hardware framework that was designed to fit, in a straightforward manner, almost any commercial powered wheelchair. Experimental results demonstrate the successful integration of all modules in the platform, providing safe motion to the IW. Furthermore, the results achieved with a prototype running in autonomous mode in simulated and mixed-reality environments also demonstrate the potential of our approach. Although some future research is still necessary to fully accomplish our objectives, preliminary tests have shown that IntellWheels will effectively reduce users' limitations, offering them a much more independent life.

  2. Development of Power Assisting Suit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Keijiro; Ishii, Mineo; Hyodo, Kazuhito; Yoshimitsu, Toshihiro; Matsuo, Takashi

    In order to realize a wearable power assisting suit for assisting a nurse to carry a patient in her arms, the power supply and control systems of the suit have to be miniaturized, and it has to be wireless and pipeline-less. The new wearable suit consists of shoulders, arms, back, waist and legs units to be fitted on the nurse's body. The arms, waist and legs have new pneumatic rotary actuators driven directly by micro air pumps supplied by portable Ni-Cd batteries. The muscle forces are sensed by a new muscle hardness sensor utilizing a sensing tip mounted on a force sensing film device. An embedded microcomputer is used for the calculations of control signals. The new wearable suit was applied practically to a human body and a series of movement experiments that weights in the arms were held and taken up and down was performed. Each unit of the suit could transmit assisting torque directly to each joint verifying its practicability.

  3. Electric-powered indoor/outdoor wheelchairs (EPIOCs): users' views of influence on family, friends and carers.

    PubMed

    Frank, Andrew; Neophytou, Claudius; Frank, Julia; de Souza, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the effects of electric-powered indoor/outdoor wheelchair (EPIOC) provision to users on their family and carers. EPIOC users receiving their chairs between February and November 2002 (N = 74) were invited to participate in a telephone questionnaire/interview, and 64 agreed. This study examined the responses to the question 'Has the use of your EPIOC affected your family or friends in any way?' and related comments. Interviews were analysed using a qualitative framework approach to identify emergent themes. In addition, the proportion of individuals raising issues related to each theme was determined. Participants were interviewed 10-19 (mean = 14.3) months after chair delivery. The following themes emerged: reduced physical burden on family/friends and increased independence and freedom. However, an EPIOC does not eliminate other practical problems particularly during transportation and negotiating kerbs and slopes. Users also reported anxiety/worry in relationship to EPIOC use, e.g., weather conditions, personal safety (muggings), use of ramps and kerbs. There are considerable benefits to families and carers associated with powered wheelchair use. A reduction in the physical demand for pushing and increased freedom were identified. These benefits appear to outweigh the residual practical difficulties and worries.

  4. Power Soccer: Experiences of Students Using Power Wheelchairs in a Collegiate Athletic Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessel, Roger D.; Wentz, Joel; Markle, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    Intercollegiate athletics provides an opportunity for improving the societal perceptions and overall quality of life of physically disabled persons. Athletic opportunities in the collegiate atmosphere allow such students to be socially, psychologically, and physically engaged. This study focused on how involvement in a Power Soccer collegiate…

  5. Next generation autonomous wheelchair control.

    PubMed

    Benson, John; Barrett, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Often times the physically challenged, limited to a wheelchair, also have difficulty with vision. In order to help, something must "see" for them. Therefore there must be some way for a wheelchair to know its environment, sense where it is, and where it must go. It also must be able to avoid any obstacles which are not normally part of the environment. An autonomous wheelchair will serve an important role by allowing users more freedom and independence. This design challenge is broken into four major steps: wheelchair control, environment recognition, route planning, and obstacle avoidance. The first step is to reverse engineer a wheelchair and rebuild the controls, which will be the main topic of discussion for this paper. Two big challenges with this step are high power motor control and joystick control. An H-bridge motor interface, controlled by a microprocessor, was designed for the motors. The joystick control is handled with the same microprocessor.

  6. Clinical features of children and adults with a muscular dystrophy using powered indoor/outdoor wheelchairs: disease features, comorbidities and complications of disability().

    PubMed

    Frank, Andrew Oliver; De Souza, Lorraine H

    2017-02-25

    To describe the clinical features of electric powered indoor/outdoor wheelchair users with a muscular dystrophy, likely to influence optimal prescription; reflecting features of muscular dystrophies, conditions secondary to disability, and comorbidities impacting on equipment provision. Cross-sectional retrospective case note review of recipients of electric powered indoor/outdoor wheelchairs provided by a specialist regional wheelchair service. Data on demography, diagnostic/clinical, and wheelchair prescription were systematically extracted. Fifty-one men and 14 women, mean age 23.7 (range 10-67, s.d. 12.95) years, were studied. Forty had Duchenne muscular dystrophy, 22 had other forms of muscular dystrophy, and three were unclassified. Twenty-seven were aged under 19. Notable clinical features included problematic pain (10), cardiomyopathy (5), and ventilatory failure (4). Features related to disability were (kypho)scoliosis (20) and edema/cellulitis (3) whilst comorbidities included back pain (5). Comparison of younger with older users revealed younger users had more features of muscular dystrophy affecting electric powered chair provision (56%) whilst older users had more comorbidity (37%). Tilt-in-space was prescribed for 81% of users, specialized seating for 55% and complex controls for 16%. Muscular dystrophy users were prescribed electric powered indoor/outdoor chairs with many additional features reflecting the consequences of profound muscle weakness. In addition to facilitating independence and participation, electric powered indoor/outdoor chairs have major therapeutic benefits. Implications for rehabilitation Powered wheelchairs have therapeutic benefits in managing muscular dystrophy pain and weakness. The use of specialized seating needs careful consideration in supporting progressive muscle weakness and the management of scoliosis. Pain, discomfort, pressure risk, and muscle fatigue may be reduced by use of tilt-in-space.

  7. Wheelchairs as mobility restraints: predictors of wheelchair activity in nonambulatory nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Simmons, S F; Schnelle, J F; MacRae, P G; Ouslander, J G

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe factors affecting wheelchair mobility in nonambulatory nursing home (NH) residents. Prospective descriptive study of a convenience sample of nonambulatory NH residents. Seven nursing homes. Sixty-five nonambulatory residents. One-minute, time-sampled observations of behavior for each resident were made every 15 minutes for 8 to 11 hours across 2 days, noting wheelchair propulsion activity for the dependent variable; independent variables included measures of wheelchair level of assistance, speed, endurance, handgrip strength, and balance. A stepwise Multiple Regression analysis found wheelchair speed to be the single best predictor of the percentage of time residents were behaviorally observed wheelchair propelling (Multiple r = .45, P < .02). Handgrip strength and wheelchair endurance measures were highly intercorrelated with wheelchair speed. Wheelchairs that were either dysfunctional or inappropriately fitted to the residents' size were a major barrier to wheelchair use, affecting 46% of residents using wheelchairs. Improving wheelchair skills with targeted intervention programs, along with making chairs more "user friendly" (e.g., grip extensions on brakes, foot pedals that one can move without bending over), could result in more wheelchair propulsion with resultant improvements in the NH resident's independence, freedom of movement, and quality of life.

  8. Advanced Wheelchair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A prototype lightweight wheelchair based on aerospace technology resulted from a Langley Research Center/University of VA project. The chair weighs 25 pounds and is collapsable. Commercial applications are under consideration.

  9. Power wheelchair prescription, utilization, satisfaction, and cost for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: preliminary data for evidence-based guidelines.

    PubMed

    Ward, Amber L; Sanjak, Mohammed; Duffy, Kerry; Bravver, Elena; Williams, Nicole; Nichols, Mindy; Brooks, Benjamin Rix

    2010-02-01

    To determine the features most frequently selected in a power wheelchair (PWC), level of satisfaction with the selections, and how often the PWC features are used by patients diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)/motor neuron disease (MND). Internally generated questionnaire. An ALS/Muscular Dystrophy Association center. Convenience sample of current patients (N=45) of our clinic with ALS/MND who are PWC users (men, n=27; women, n=18; age range, 27-85 y). Self-administered survey. Thirty-two patients completed a 31-question survey investigating patients' patterns of selection, satisfaction, and frequency of PWC use; technical and psychometric influences; and other aspects of decision-making processes that patients experience before, during, and after acquiring a PWC. Ninety percent of respondents received their evaluations at a multidisciplinary ALS clinic, 1 via the Department of Veterans Affairs, and 1 was unknown. Sixty-six percent of patients thought the chair evaluation was timed correctly, and 19% wished they had started sooner. Forty-five percent of people were able to walk a few steps, and 55% were able to stand when their chairs arrived. When they first received the chair, 79% were satisfied with the overall comfort of the chair, and 86% were satisfied with the ease of use; currently, 69% are satisfied with the overall comfort, and 72% are satisfied with ease of use. There was a statistically significant difference in how patients used their wheelchair features initially and currently in terms of seat elevate and attendant control, but not tilt, recline, and elevating leg rests. The average cost for the power chairs was $26,404 (range, $19,376-$34,311), and the average cost a month is $917. Overall, 88% of respondents said they would get the same type of chair with the same features again, and 81% felt that the chair was a good value for the cost. We obtained first-hand knowledge from 32 patients with ALS/MND who are current PWC users on their

  10. Driving to learn in a powered wheelchair: the process of learning joystick use in people with profound cognitive disabilities.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Lisbeth; Eklund, Mona; Nyberg, Per; Thulesius, Hans

    2011-01-01

    The Driving to Learn project explored ways to help people with profound cognitive disabilities practice operating a joystick-operated powered wheelchair. The project used a grounded theory approach with constant comparative analysis and was carried out over 12 yr. The participants were 45 children and adults with profound cognitive disabilities. Reference groups included 17 typically developing infants and 64 participants with lesser degrees of cognitive disability. The data sources included video recordings, field notes, open interviews, and a rich mixture of literature. The findings that emerged yielded strategies for facilitating achievements, an 8-phase learning process, an assessment tool, and a grounded theory of deplateauing explaining the properties necessary for participants to exceed expected limitations and plateaus. Eight participants with profound cognitive disabilities reached goal-directed driving or higher. Participants were empowered by attaining increased control over tool use, improving their autonomy and quality of life.

  11. Comparison of virtual and real electric powered wheelchair driving using a position sensing joystick and an isometric joystick.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Rory A; Spaeth, Donald M; Jones, Daniel K; Boninger, Michael L; Fitzgerald, Shirley G; Guo, Songfeng

    2002-12-01

    There are limited interface options for electric powered wheelchairs, which results in the inability of some individuals to drive independently. In addition, the development of new interface technologies will necessitate the development of alternative training methods. This study compares a conventional position sensing joystick to a novel isometric joystick during a driving task in a virtual environment and a real environment. The results revealed that there were few differences in task completion time and root-mean-square error (RMSE) between the two types of joysticks. There were significant correlations between the RMSE in the virtual environment and the real environment for both types of joysticks. The data indicate that performance in the virtual environment was representative of driving ability in the real environment, and the isometric joystick performed comparably to the position sensing joystick.

  12. Powered wheelchair simulator development: implementing combined navigation-reaching tasks with a 3D hand motion controller.

    PubMed

    Tao, Gordon; Archambault, Philippe S

    2016-01-19

    Powered wheelchair (PW) training involving combined navigation and reaching is often limited or unfeasible. Virtual reality (VR) simulators offer a feasible alternative for rehabilitation training either at home or in a clinical setting. This study evaluated a low-cost magnetic-based hand motion controller as an interface for reaching tasks within the McGill Immersive Wheelchair (miWe) simulator. Twelve experienced PW users performed three navigation-reaching tasks in the real world (RW) and in VR: working at a desk, using an elevator, and opening a door. The sense of presence in VR was assessed using the iGroup Presence Questionnaire (IPQ). We determined concordance of task performance in VR with that in the RW. A video task analysis was performed to analyse task behaviours. Compared to previous miWe data, IPQ scores were greater in the involvement domain (p < 0.05). Task analysis showed most of navigation and reaching behaviours as having moderate to excellent (K > 0.4, Cohen's Kappa) agreement between the two environments, but greater (p < 0.05) risk of collisions and reaching errors in VR. VR performance demonstrated longer (p < 0.05) task times and more discreet movements for the elevator and desk tasks but not the door task. Task performance showed poorer kinematic performance in VR than RW but similar strategies. Therefore, the reaching component represents a promising addition to the miWe training simulator, though some limitations must be addressed in future development.

  13. Joystick use for virtual power wheelchair driving in individuals with tremor: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dicianno, Brad E; Sibenaller, Sara; Kimmich, Claire; Cooper, Rory A; Pyo, Jay

    2009-01-01

    People with disabilities such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease have difficulty operating conventional movement-sensing joysticks (MSJs) because of varying levels of tremor. We developed an isometric joystick (IJ) that has performed as well as a conventional MSJ when used by persons with upper-limb impairments in real and virtual wheelchair driving tasks. The Weighted-Frequency Fourier Linear Combiner (WFLC) filter has been used to cancel tremor effectively in microsurgery. In this study, we compared an MSJ, IJ, and IJ with the WFLC filter in individuals performing a virtual driving task. Although the WFLC filter did not improve driving performance in this study, the IJ without a filter yielded better results than the conventional MSJ and thus may be a potential alternative to the MSJ in minimizing the effects of tremor.

  14. Design and validation of an intelligent wheelchair towards a clinically-functional outcome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many people with mobility impairments, who require the use of powered wheelchairs, have difficulty completing basic maneuvering tasks during their activities of daily living (ADL). In order to provide assistance to this population, robotic and intelligent system technologies have been used to design an intelligent powered wheelchair (IPW). This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the design and validation of the IPW. Methods The main contributions of this work are three-fold. First, we present a software architecture for robot navigation and control in constrained spaces. Second, we describe a decision-theoretic approach for achieving robust speech-based control of the intelligent wheelchair. Third, we present an evaluation protocol motivated by a meaningful clinical outcome, in the form of the Robotic Wheelchair Skills Test (RWST). This allows us to perform a thorough characterization of the performance and safety of the system, involving 17 test subjects (8 non-PW users, 9 regular PW users), 32 complete RWST sessions, 25 total hours of testing, and 9 kilometers of total running distance. Results User tests with the RWST show that the navigation architecture reduced collisions by more than 60% compared to other recent intelligent wheelchair platforms. On the tasks of the RWST, we measured an average decrease of 4% in performance score and 3% in safety score (not statistically significant), compared to the scores obtained with conventional driving model. This analysis was performed with regular users that had over 6 years of wheelchair driving experience, compared to approximately one half-hour of training with the autonomous mode. Conclusions The platform tested in these experiments is among the most experimentally validated robotic wheelchairs in realistic contexts. The results establish that proficient powered wheelchair users can achieve the same level of performance with the intelligent command mode, as with the conventional command mode

  15. Design and validation of an intelligent wheelchair towards a clinically-functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Patrice; Atrash, Amin; Kelouwani, Sousso; Honoré, Wormser; Nguyen, Hai; Villemure, Julien; Routhier, François; Cohen, Paul; Demers, Louise; Forget, Robert; Pineau, Joelle

    2013-06-17

    Many people with mobility impairments, who require the use of powered wheelchairs, have difficulty completing basic maneuvering tasks during their activities of daily living (ADL). In order to provide assistance to this population, robotic and intelligent system technologies have been used to design an intelligent powered wheelchair (IPW). This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the design and validation of the IPW. The main contributions of this work are three-fold. First, we present a software architecture for robot navigation and control in constrained spaces. Second, we describe a decision-theoretic approach for achieving robust speech-based control of the intelligent wheelchair. Third, we present an evaluation protocol motivated by a meaningful clinical outcome, in the form of the Robotic Wheelchair Skills Test (RWST). This allows us to perform a thorough characterization of the performance and safety of the system, involving 17 test subjects (8 non-PW users, 9 regular PW users), 32 complete RWST sessions, 25 total hours of testing, and 9 kilometers of total running distance. User tests with the RWST show that the navigation architecture reduced collisions by more than 60% compared to other recent intelligent wheelchair platforms. On the tasks of the RWST, we measured an average decrease of 4% in performance score and 3% in safety score (not statistically significant), compared to the scores obtained with conventional driving model. This analysis was performed with regular users that had over 6 years of wheelchair driving experience, compared to approximately one half-hour of training with the autonomous mode. The platform tested in these experiments is among the most experimentally validated robotic wheelchairs in realistic contexts. The results establish that proficient powered wheelchair users can achieve the same level of performance with the intelligent command mode, as with the conventional command mode.

  16. Wheelchair caster loading during frontal impact.

    PubMed

    Bertocci, Gina E; van Roosmalen, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Many wheelchair users are required or choose to use their wheelchairs as a motor vehicle seat during transport. It is therefore key that the wheelchair components be designed to tolerate crash-level loading conditions. Casters are particularly prone to failure under crash loading conditions. Our study evaluated wheelchair caster loading during 20g/48 kph frontal sled impact testing using an 85-kg surrogate wheelchair base (SWCB) with casters positioned on a load-measuring platform. A Hybrid III 50th percentile male test dummy was seated in the SWCB, which simulated a power wheelchair and was secured using four-point tiedowns. Various rear securement point heights and wheelchair seating systems were used to study their effect on caster loading. Caster normal loading was found to vary from 769 to 7,209 N depending on rear securement location and integrity of the seating system. Dynamic sled impact test results showed that normal loading of the front wheelchair casters was influenced by wheelchair seating system integrity and rear wheelchair securement height. Shear loading varied from 781 to 1,589 N and did not appear to be dependent on seat integrity or rear securement height. The load/time histories measured during dynamic impact testing can be used to guide the development of transit-safe caster design.

  17. 14 CFR 382.123 - What are the requirements concerning priority cabin stowage for wheelchairs and other assistive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the requirements concerning... Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and...

  18. 14 CFR 382.123 - What are the requirements concerning priority cabin stowage for wheelchairs and other assistive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What are the requirements concerning... Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and...

  19. 14 CFR 382.123 - What are the requirements concerning priority cabin stowage for wheelchairs and other assistive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are the requirements concerning... Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and...

  20. 14 CFR 382.123 - What are the requirements concerning priority cabin stowage for wheelchairs and other assistive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What are the requirements concerning... Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and...

  1. 14 CFR 382.123 - What are the requirements concerning priority cabin stowage for wheelchairs and other assistive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the requirements concerning... Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and...

  2. Evaluation of an intelligent wheelchair system for older adults with cognitive impairments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Older adults are the most prevalent wheelchair users in Canada. Yet, cognitive impairments may prevent an older adult from being allowed to use a powered wheelchair due to safety and usability concerns. To address this issue, an add-on Intelligent Wheelchair System (IWS) was developed to help older adults with cognitive impairments drive a powered wheelchair safely and effectively. When attached to a powered wheelchair, the IWS adds a vision-based anti-collision feature that prevents the wheelchair from hitting obstacles and a navigation assistance feature that plays audio prompts to help users manoeuvre around obstacles. Methods A two stage evaluation was conducted to test the efficacy of the IWS. Stage One: Environment of Use – the IWS’s anti-collision and navigation features were evaluated against objects found in a long-term care facility. Six different collision scenarios (wall, walker, cane, no object, moving and stationary person) and three different navigation scenarios (object on left, object on right, and no object) were performed. Signal detection theory was used to categorize the response of the system in each scenario. Stage Two: User Trials – single-subject research design was used to evaluate the impact of the IWS on older adults with cognitive impairment. Participants were asked to drive a powered wheelchair through a structured obstacle course in two phases: 1) with the IWS and 2) without the IWS. Measurements of safety and usability were taken and compared between the two phases. Visual analysis and phase averages were used to analyze the single-subject data. Results Stage One: The IWS performed correctly for all environmental anti-collision and navigation scenarios. Stage Two: Two participants completed the trials. The IWS was able to limit the number of collisions that occurred with a powered wheelchair and lower the perceived workload for driving a powered wheelchair. However, the objective performance (time to complete course

  3. Health, Personal, and Environmental Predictors of Wheelchair-Use Confidence in Adult Wheelchair Users

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Brodie M.; Eng, Janice J.; Routhier, François; Backman, Catherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Background There are no predictive models of wheelchair-use confidence. Therefore, clinicians and researchers are limited in their ability to screen for and identify wheelchair users who may be more prone to low wheelchair-use confidence and may benefit from clinical intervention. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify health-related, personal, and environmental factors that predict perceived wheelchair-use confidence in community-dwelling adults who use manual wheelchairs. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted. Methods Community-dwelling manual wheelchair users (N=124) were included in the study if they were ≥50 years of age, had ≥6 months of wheelchair use experience, and had no cognitive impairment. The Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale was used to assess wheelchair-use confidence. The sociodemographic information form, Functional Comorbidity Index, Seating Identification Tool, Interpersonal Support and Evaluation List, and Home and Community Environment Instrument captured the independent variables. Blocks of health, personal, and environmental variables were sequentially entered into the regression model. Results Five personal variables (age, standardized beta [β]=−0.18; sex, β=−0.26; daily hours of wheelchair occupancy, β=0.20; wheelchair-use training, β=0.20; and wheelchair-use assistance, β=−0.34) and one environmental variable (need for seating intervention, β=−0.18) were statistically significant predictors, explaining 44% of the confidence variance. Limitations The sample comprised volunteers and, therefore, may underrepresent or overrepresent particular groups within the population. The study's cross-sectional research design does not allow for conclusions to be made regarding causality. Conclusion Older women who use wheelchairs and who require assistance with wheelchair use may have low wheelchair-use confidence. The same is true for individuals who have no formal wheelchair-use training, who are in need of a

  4. Exploring the Psychosocial Impact of Wheelchair and Contextual Factors on Quality of Life of People with Neuromuscular Disorders.

    PubMed

    Pousada García, Thais; Groba González, Betania; Nieto Rivero, Laura; Pereira Loureiro, Javier; Díez Villoria, Emiliano; Pazos Sierra, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) are a group of heterogeneous diseases that show differences in incidence, hereditary, etiology, prognosis, or functional impairments. Wheelchair use (manual or powered) is influenced by several factors, including personal and contextual factors, and comprehensive evaluation of their impact is required in order to optimize prescription and provision of wheelchairs. The authors therefore assessed the influence of wheelchair use on the quality of life (QoL) of 60 participants with NMD using the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS). The Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and a specially developed questionnaire were used to obtain information about contextual factors and participants' activity profile of activities of the participants. The results showed that using a wheelchair has psychosocial benefits, with the main determinants of benefit being type of wheelchair (powered), non-ambulation ability, and independence in mobility. Ensuring a good match between user and assistive technology (AT; e.g., wheelchair), as well as the effectiveness of the particular device, will increase the likelihood that the user will adopt it and use it effectively in daily life. Clinical prescription of AT would be improved by making appropriate use of outcome measures.

  5. Wheelchair users are not necessarily wheelchair bound.

    PubMed

    Hoenig, Helen; Pieper, Carl; Zolkewitz, Mike; Schenkman, Margaret; Branch, Laurence G

    2002-04-01

    To determine the patterns of wheelchair use in terms of locations of use, whether wheelchair use in one location was related to wheelchair use in other locations, and factors associated with wheelchair use in different locations. Longitudinal cohort study. Patients prescribed wheelchairs by clinicians at one of two teaching hospitals (one Veterans Affairs hospital and one private hospital). One hundred fifty-three consecutive persons who were prescribed a new wheelchair, resided in the community, had a Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire score of greater than six out of 10, and who could be interviewed within 7 to 21 days of receiving the wheelchair. Patient, wheelchair, and environmental characteristics and self-reported wheelchair use in life spaces. Wheelchair use in the 24 hours before the interview was inconsistent across life spaces. The correlation between wheelchair use in the bath and in the kitchen was 0.66, between locations near and far from home was -0.08, and between locations in the home and outside the home was 0.08. Predictors of wheelchair use in the home were using help from another person to propel the wheelchair (odds ratio (OR) = 0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.04-0.45), the number of impairments (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.67-0.96), a report that the wheelchair did not meet the subject's needs (OR = 3.71, 95% CI = 1.27-10.81), and having adapted the home to accommodate the wheelchair (OR = 3.75, 95% CI = 1.47-8.18). Having adapted the home was also positively associated with use of the wheelchair in areas near the home (OR = 4.77, 95% CI = 1.94-11.71). The only factor associated with wheelchair use in distant locations was older age (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.46-0.83 per 10-year increment). Personal factors (e.g., using help to propel the wheelchair) and environmental factors (e.g., home adaptations to accommodate the wheelchair) influenced wheelchair use. In addition, wheelchair use, and the factors influencing wheelchair use, differed

  6. Assessment of the Tongue-Drive System Using a Computer, a Smartphone, and a Powered-Wheelchair by People With Tetraplegia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonghee; Park, Hangue; Bruce, Joy; Rowles, Diane; Holbrook, Jaimee; Nardone, Beatrice; West, Dennis P; Laumann, Anne; Roth, Elliot J; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-01-01

    Tongue-Drive System (TDS) is a wireless and wearable assistive technology that enables people with severe disabilities to control their computers, wheelchairs, and smartphones using voluntary tongue motion. To evaluate the efficacy of the TDS, several experiments were conducted, in which the performance of nine able-bodied (AB) participants using a mouse, a keypad, and the TDS, as well as a cohort of 11 participants with tetraplegia (TP) using the TDS, were observed and compared. Experiments included the Fitts' law tapping, wheelchair driving, phone-dialing, and weight-shifting tasks over five to six consecutive sessions. All participants received a tongue piercing, wore a magnetic tongue stud, and completed the trials as evaluable participants. Although AB participants were already familiar with the keypad, throughputs of their tapping tasks using the keypad were only 1.4 times better than those using the TDS. The completion times of wheelchair driving task using the TDS for AB and TP participants were between 157 s and 180 s with three different control strategies. Participants with TP completed phone-dialing and weight-shifting tasks in 81.9 s and 71.5 s, respectively, using tongue motions. Results showed statistically significant improvement or trending to improvement in performance status over the sessions. Most of the learning occurred between the first and second sessions, but trends did suggest that more practice would lead to increased improvement in performance using the TDS.

  7. Flux Coupling for Wheelchair Battery Chargers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Battery-charger concept for wheelchairs includes magnetic-flux coupling instead of electrical connections between power sources and wheelchairs. Concept meant to facilitate operation by patients whose disabilities make it difficult or impossible to maneuver common electrical plugs into or out of ac wall outlets.

  8. Flux Coupling for Wheelchair Battery Chargers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Battery-charger concept for wheelchairs includes magnetic-flux coupling instead of electrical connections between power sources and wheelchairs. Concept meant to facilitate operation by patients whose disabilities make it difficult or impossible to maneuver common electrical plugs into or out of ac wall outlets.

  9. Development of Power Assisting Suit for Assisting Nurse Labor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Keijiro; Hyodo, Kazuhito; Ishii, Mineo; Matsuo, Takashi

    In order to realize a power assisting suit for assisting a nurse caring a patient in her arm, a hardness sensor of muscle using load cell and a pneumatic rotary actuator utilizing pressure cuffs have been developed. The power assisting suit consists of shoulders, arms, waist and legs made of aluminum, and is fitted on the nurse body. The power assisting suit is originated with the concept of a master and slave system in one body. The arms, waist and legs have the pneumatic rotary actuators. The pneumatic rotary actuators are constructed with pressure cuffs sandwiched between thin plates. The action of the arms, waist and legs of the nurse are sensed with the muscle hardness sensor utilizing load cell with diaphragm mounted on a sensing tip. The dent of the sensing tip corresponds to the hardness of the muscle so that exerting muscle force produces electric signal. This paper gives the design and characteristics of the power assisting suit using the cuff type pneumatic rotary actuators and the muscle hardness sensor verifying its practicability.

  10. Impact of structured wheelchair services on satisfaction and function of wheelchair users in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    van der Veen, Judith; Tigere, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Background Providing wheelchairs without comprehensive support services might be detrimental to user satisfaction and function. Objectives This paper compares wheelchair user satisfaction and function before and after implementation of comprehensive wheelchair services, based on the World Health Organization guidelines on wheelchair service provision in less resourced settings, in Zimbabwe. Method A pre- and post-test study with a qualitative component was done. Quantitative data were collected with the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology for adults and children and the ‘Functioning Every day with a Wheelchair Questionnaire’. Data were collected from 55 consecutively sampled wheelchair users, who received a new wheelchair in the study period. Qualitative data were collected through two audio recorded focus groups and two case studies and are presented through narrative examples. Results The proportion of adult users who were satisfied significantly increased for all wheelchair and service delivery aspects (p = 0.001 - 0.008), except follow-up (p = 0.128). The same was true for children’s post-test ratings on all variables assessed (p = 0.001 - 0.04), except training in the use of the device (p = 0.052). The biggest improvement in satisfaction figures were for comfort needs (44.3%), indoor mobility (43.2%), outdoor mobility (37.2%), safe and efficient, independent operation (33.5%) and transport (31.4%). The qualitative data illustrated user satisfaction with wheelchair features and services. Conclusion The wheelchair service programme resulted in significant positive changes in user satisfaction with the wheelchair, wheelchair services and function. It is recommended that the Zimbabwean government and partner organisations continue to support and develop wheelchair services along these guidelines. PMID:28730049

  11. Sports medicine and the wheelchair athlete.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J

    1988-04-01

    International competitions for the wheelchair-confined are now a major feature of the world of sport. They are helpful in improving both mood state and physiological function, while improving long term prognosis. Immediate medical problems are much as in other types of competition, but there are also specific problems (bladder infections, pressure sores, intolerance of environmental extremes, and injuries related to wheelchair use). Disability classification, based on the anatomical or functional level of a lesion, provides a reasonably fair basis for competition. Most of the functional data to date relate to strength (isometric and isokinetic) and aerobic power (measured in a wheelchair or on an arm ergometer). While the inactive patient is often severely limited, wheelchair athletes may have a greater functional capacity than sedentary normals. The principles of training for the wheelchair-confined are much as in the able-bodied, although because the arm muscles are small, much of the training response may be peripheral rather than central. The margin between an effective stimulus and overtraining is also reduced. Involvement in a training programme not only increases physiological function, but also counters depression, increasing the subject's sense of self-efficacy. Biomechanicians are now contributing increasingly to wheelchair sport, improving the design of competitive wheelchairs, improving the mechanical efficiency of participants, and helping to reduce the risks of injury. The benefits of wheelchair sport are now clearly established, and family physicians should do more to encourage the involvement of the wheelchair-confined.

  12. Case-based reasoning emulation of persons for wheelchair navigation.

    PubMed

    Peula, Jose Manuel; Urdiales, Cristina; Herrero, Ignacio; Fernandez-Carmona, Manuel; Sandoval, Francisco

    2012-10-01

    Testing is a key stage in system development, particularly in systems such as a wheelchair, in which the final user is typically a disabled person. These systems have stringent safety requirements, requiring major testing with many different individuals. The best would be to have the wheelchair tested by many different end users, as each disability affects driving skills in a different way. Unfortunately, from a practical point of view it is difficult to engage end users as beta testers. Hence, testing often relies on simulations. Naturally, these simulations need to be as realistic as possible to make the system robust and safe before real tests can be accomplished. This work presents a tool to automatically test wheelchairs through realistic emulation of different wheelchair users. Our approach is based on extracting meaningful data from real users driving a power wheelchair autonomously. This data is then used to train a case-based reasoning (CBR) system that captures the specifics of the driver via learning. The resulting case-base is then used to emulate the driving behavior of that specific person in more complex situations or when a new assistive algorithm needs to be tested. CBR returns user's motion commands appropriate for each specific situation to add the human component to shared control systems. The proposed system has been used to emulate several power wheelchair users presenting different disabilities. Data to create this emulation was obtained from previous wheelchair navigation experiments with 35 volunteer in-patients presenting different degrees of disability. CBR was trained with a limited number of scenarios for each volunteer. Results proved that: (i) emulated and real users returned similar paths in the same scenario (maximum and mean path deviations are equal to 23 and 10cm, respectively) and similar efficiency; (ii) we established the generality of our approach taking a new path not present in the training traces; (iii) the emulated user

  13. Talking Wheelchair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Communication is made possible for disabled individuals by means of an electronic system, developed at Stanford University's School of Medicine, which produces highly intelligible synthesized speech. Familiarly known as the "talking wheelchair" and formally as the Versatile Portable Speech Prosthesis (VPSP). Wheelchair mounted system consists of a word processor, a video screen, a voice synthesizer and a computer program which instructs the synthesizer how to produce intelligible sounds in response to user commands. Computer's memory contains 925 words plus a number of common phrases and questions. Memory can also store several thousand other words of the user's choice. Message units are selected by operating a simple switch, joystick or keyboard. Completed message appears on the video screen, then user activates speech synthesizer, which generates a voice with a somewhat mechanical tone. With the keyboard, an experienced user can construct messages as rapidly as 30 words per minute.

  14. Airline Wheelchair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Accutron Tool & Instrument Co.'s wheelchair was designed to increase mobility within the airplane. Utilizing NASA's structural analysis and materials engineering technologies, it allows passage through narrow airline aisles to move passengers to their seats and give access to lavatories. Stable, durable, comfortable and easy to handle, it's made of composite materials weighing only 17 pounds, yet is able to support a 200 pound person. Folded easily and stored when not in use.

  15. 14 CFR 382.103 - May a carrier leave a passenger unattended in a wheelchair or other device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in a wheelchair or other device? 382.103 Section 382.103 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... leave a passenger unattended in a wheelchair or other device? As a carrier, you must not leave a... enplaning, deplaning, or connecting assistance in a ground wheelchair, boarding wheelchair, or other device...

  16. Toast: The power system operators assistant

    SciTech Connect

    Talukdar, S.N.; Cardozo, E.; Leao, L.

    1986-07-01

    The environments in which power system operators work are becoming more complex. New constraints are appearing, old constraints are tightening, and the number of decision variables is increasing. To cope with these trends, operators need intelligent assistants to help manage information and lighten their decision-making burdens. Such assistants can be divided into two types: Phase-1 assistants for off-line uses and Phase-2 assistants for on-line uses and Phase-2 assistants for on-line, real-time uses. Toast is an evolving Phase-1 assistant. Of the nine possible functions of an assistant, Toast has immediate potential in two-diagnosis and criticism. Its diagnostic knowledge, though hardly complete, is extensive enough to be useful to human operators. In contrast, its abilities to critique proposed courses of action are much less developed and, as yet, consist only of facilities to simulate some of the these courses of action. Toast has been written in Cops, a programming environment that allows for distributed processing and has a readily extensible library of both symbolic and numerical programs. These features should make the task of expanding Toast relatively painless. Of the many directions in which expansions could occur, we plan on adding diagnostic capabilities in the area of power system security. This area was identified in a study as the most worthy of development.

  17. Could changes in the wheelchair delivery system improve safety?

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, R L; Coughlan, S G; Christie, M

    1995-01-01

    Despite emerging evidence about the high incidence and severity of wheelchair-related injuries, regulations governing wheelchair safety are almost nonexistent in Canada. The authors believe that, to improve wheelchair safety, a concerted effort by government, manufacturers, purchasing groups, users and clinicians is needed. Health Canada's Health Protection Branch should treat wheelchairs as medical devices (as defined in the Food and Drugs Act 1985) and improve its injury-reporting network. Manufacturers should give a higher priority to safety in wheelchair design, improve their educational materials and formalize postmarketing surveillance. Purchasing groups should try to ensure that they do not stifle innovation in wheelchair design by setting unrealistic reimbursement ceilings and should use their market power more effectively. Users should obtain their wheelchairs in specialized settings, heed safety warnings and make more effective use of litigation when such action is warranted. Clinicians should ensure that patients are equipped with the most appropriate wheelchair for their needs, that they are given adequate training in safe wheelchair use and that they understand the dangers involved. Rapid changes in wheelchair technology and emerging evidence about the high incidence and severity of injuries related to wheelchair use suggest that such changes are needed in the wheelchair delivery system. PMID:7489551

  18. Independent mobility after early introduction of a power wheelchair in spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Dunaway, Sally; Montes, Jacqueline; O'Hagen, Jessica; Sproule, Douglas M; Vivo, Darryl C De; Kaufmann, Petra

    2013-05-01

    Weakness resulting from spinal muscular atrophy causes severe limitations in functional mobility. The early introduction of power mobility has potential to enhance development and mitigate disability. These outcomes are achieved by simulating normal skill acquisition and by promoting motor learning, visuospatial system development, self-exploration, cognition, and social development. There are few reports on early power mobility in spinal muscular atrophy, and it is typically not prescribed until school age. The authors evaluated 6 children under age 2 years with neuromuscular disease (5 spinal muscular atrophy, 1 congenital muscular dystrophy) for power mobility. Parents recorded the practice hours necessary to achieve independence using the Power Mobility Skills Checklist. Four children achieved independence in all items on the checklist by 7.9 months (range: 73-458 days). Introduction of early power mobility is feasible in spinal muscular atrophy patients under age 2 years and should be introduced in late infancy when children typically acquire locomotor skills.

  19. Effects of user's actions on rolling resistance and wheelchair stability during handrim wheelchair propulsion in the field.

    PubMed

    Sauret, Christophe; Vaslin, Philippe; Lavaste, François; de Saint Remy, Nicolas; Cid, Mariano

    2013-03-01

    Currently, rolling resistance and wheelchair stability during manual wheelchair propulsion can be assessed from the loads applied on the front and rear wheels, which are determined in a static condition. However, a user's actions on the wheelchair would change these loads during locomotion, which should affect both the rolling resistance and wheelchair stability. The goal of this study was to verify these assumptions and assess how much the rolling resistance and wheelchair stability are affected by the user's actions during propulsion. For that purpose, a mechanical model was developed using measurements of an instrumented wheelchair equipped with several six-component dynamometers. Experiments were performed by three subjects propelling the instrumented wheelchair over flat ground. The results showed variations over wide ranges of the fore-aft distribution of the total load, rolling resistance, wheelchair stability, wheelchair velocity and mechanical power dissipated by the rolling resistance during the propulsion cycle. In addition, the time courses of all these variables differed with the subject. Finally, this study demonstrated the possibility of assessing intra-cycle values of both rolling resistance and wheelchair stability during manual wheelchair displacements in the field, which provides a technical step towards evaluating a wheelchair user in his daily environment. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 14 CFR 382.129 - What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be disassembled for stowage... Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.129 What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must...

  1. 14 CFR 382.129 - What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be disassembled for stowage... Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.129 What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must...

  2. 14 CFR 382.129 - What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be disassembled for stowage... Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.129 What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must...

  3. 14 CFR 382.129 - What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be disassembled for stowage... Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.129 What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must...

  4. 14 CFR 382.129 - What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be disassembled for stowage... Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.129 What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must...

  5. A robotic wheelchair trainer: design overview and a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Experiencing independent mobility is important for children with a severe movement disability, but learning to drive a powered wheelchair can be labor intensive, requiring hand-over-hand assistance from a skilled therapist. Methods To improve accessibility to training, we developed a robotic wheelchair trainer that steers itself along a course marked by a line on the floor using computer vision, haptically guiding the driver's hand in appropriate steering motions using a force feedback joystick, as the driver tries to catch a mobile robot in a game of "robot tag". This paper provides a detailed design description of the computer vision and control system. In addition, we present data from a pilot study in which we used the chair to teach children without motor impairment aged 4-9 (n = 22) to drive the wheelchair in a single training session, in order to verify that the wheelchair could enable learning by the non-impaired motor system, and to establish normative values of learning rates. Results and Discussion Training with haptic guidance from the robotic wheelchair trainer improved the steering ability of children without motor impairment significantly more than training without guidance. We also report the results of a case study with one 8-year-old child with a severe motor impairment due to cerebral palsy, who replicated the single-session training protocol that the non-disabled children participated in. This child also improved steering ability after training with guidance from the joystick by an amount even greater than the children without motor impairment. Conclusions The system not only provided a safe, fun context for automating driver's training, but also enhanced motor learning by the non-impaired motor system, presumably by demonstrating through intuitive movement and force of the joystick itself exemplary control to follow the course. The case study indicates that a child with a motor system impaired by CP can also gain a short-term benefit

  6. Automatic transmission for electric wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Reswick, J B

    1985-07-01

    A new infinitely variable automatic transmission called the RESATRAN that automatically changes its speed ratio in response to load torque being transmitted is presented. A prototype has been built and tested on a conventional three-wheeled electric motor propelled wheelchair. It is shown theoretically that more than 50 percent reduction in power during hill climbing may be expected when a transmission-equipped wheelchair is compared to a direct-drive vehicle operating at the same voltage. It is suggested that with such a transmission, wheelchairs can use much smaller motors and associated electronic controls, while at the same time gaining in efficiency that results in longer operating distances for the same battery charge. Design details of the transmission and test results are presented. These results show a substantial reduction in operating current and increased distance of operation over a test course.

  7. Assessment of wheelchair driving performance in a virtual reality-based simulator

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Harshal P.; Dicianno, Brad E.; Cooper, Rory A.; Ding, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a virtual reality (VR)-based simulator that can assist clinicians in performing standardized wheelchair driving assessments. Design A completely within-subjects repeated measures design. Methods Participants drove their wheelchairs along a virtual driving circuit modeled after the Power Mobility Road Test (PMRT) and in a hallway with decreasing width. The virtual simulator was displayed on computer screen and VR screens and participants interacted with it using a set of instrumented rollers and a wheelchair joystick. Driving performances of participants were estimated and compared using quantitative metrics from the simulator. Qualitative ratings from two experienced clinicians were used to estimate intra- and inter-rater reliability. Results Ten regular wheelchair users (seven men, three women; mean age ± SD, 39.5 ± 15.39 years) participated. The virtual PMRT scores from the two clinicians show high inter-rater reliability (78–90%) and high intra-rater reliability (71–90%) for all test conditions. More research is required to explore user preferences and effectiveness of the two control methods (rollers and mathematical model) and the display screens. Conclusions The virtual driving simulator seems to be a promising tool for wheelchair driving assessment that clinicians can use to supplement their real-world evaluations. PMID:23820148

  8. Changing chairs: anticipating problems in prescribing wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Batavia, M; Batavia, A I; Friedman, R

    2001-08-15

    This article presents a framework for prescribing, ordering, and adapting a new wheelchair, focusing on individual, environmental and wheelchair factors that must be taken into consideration to ensure optimal function. A review and analysis was conducted of all factors relevant to the transition to a new wheelchair. Without appropriate planning and implementation, this transition can result in unnecessary expenses, duplication of effort, and possibly even injury to the user and abandonment of the wheelchair. Recommendations are provided to manufacturers, therapists, technicians, users, insurers and physicians, who must work together throughout this process. To the extent feasible, the authors suggest that major changes from the previous wheelchair should be avoided, particularly for people with substantial functional limitations. Therapists and technicians must measure the user accurately, and anticipate those factors that can impede a smooth transition. Insurers and other payors must recognize that changing wheelchairs will often require substantial professional assistance, including several fittings to adjust the new chair to the needs of the user. Additional research and case reporting on outcomes of adjusting to a new wheelchair appear warranted.

  9. WheelchairNet

    MedlinePlus

    ... at Teleton CRIT Mexico City and CRIT La Paz. September 2016. (Photos courtesy of American Wheelchair Mission.) ... at Teleton CRIT Mexico City and CRIT La Paz. September 2016. (Photos courtesy of American Wheelchair Mission.) ...

  10. Evaluation of a collaborative wheelchair system in cerebral palsy and traumatic brain injury users.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiang; Burdet, Etienne; Teo, Chee Leong

    2009-06-01

    This article describes the evaluation of the Collaborative Wheelchair Assistant (CWA), a robotic wheelchair that lets the user control the speed and provides guiding assistance along virtual paths programmed in software. Three people with cerebral palsy and 2 with traumatic brain injury, who had been ruled out as candidates for independent mobility, were recruited. These subjects were first trained to use the CWA with and without path guidance before completing a navigation task. All subjects were able, after a few training sessions, to drive the wheelchair with path guidance safely and efficiently in an environment with obstacles and narrow passageways. The CWA enabled the subjects to drastically reduce their effort and intervention level without compromising performance. The results suggest that the CWA can provide driving assistance adapted to various disabilities. It could be used as a safe mobility device for some subjects who could eventually control a normal powered wheelchair after training and provide a way to increase the mobility of subjects with larger motor control or cognitive deficiencies.

  11. Virtual Electric Power Wheelchair Driving Performance of Individuals with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Dicianno, Brad E.; Mahajan, Harshal; Guirand, Alcinto S.; Cooper, Rory A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Upper limb spasticity may impair the use of control interfaces such as joysticks for many individuals with disabilities such as Cerebral Palsy (CP). The aims of this study were to compare driving performance of those with CP to control participants, to identify the impact of lead time on performance, and to compare the two joystick designs, a standard movement sensing joystick (MSJ) and a novel isometric joystick (IJ). Design This study used a repeated measures design to compare the performance of a group of participants with CP to those without disabilities in a two-dimensional simulated driving task on a computer screen using the two control interfaces. The driving trials utilized varying “lead time,” or the amount of warning time available to make movement decisions and turns. A total of 34 participants with CP and without disability were matched by age and gender into two groups. Results Participants with CP had lower driving performance in most variables of interest compared to controls. However, surprisingly, reducing lead time also reduced some performance errors, possibly due to more deliberate driving. The IJ outperformed the MSJ in terms of performance errors but contributed to a prolonged reaction time. Conclusions The IJ was preferred by participants over the MSJ in this study, and may be a future alternative for individuals with CP for both power mobility and computer access tasks. PMID:22660370

  12. Evaluation of lightweight wheelchairs using ANSI/RESNA testing standards.

    PubMed

    Gebrosky, Benjamin; Pearlman, Jonathan; Cooper, Rory A; Cooper, Rosemarie; Kelleher, Annmarie

    2013-01-01

    Lightweight wheelchairs are characterized by their low cost and limited range of adjustment. Our study evaluated three different folding lightweight wheelchair models using the American National Standards Institute/Rehabilitation Engineering Society of North America (ANSI/RESNA) standards to see whether quality had improved since the previous data were reported. On the basis of reports of increasing breakdown rates in the community, we hypothesized that the quality of these wheelchairs had declined. Seven of the nine wheelchairs tested failed to pass the multidrum test durability requirements. An average of 194,502 +/- 172,668 equivalent cycles was completed, which is similar to the previous test results and far below the 400,000 minimum required to pass the ANSI/RESNA requirements. This was also significantly worse than the test results for aluminum ultralight folding wheelchairs. Overall, our results uncovered some disturbing issues with these wheelchairs and suggest that manufacturers should put more effort into this category to improve quality. To improve the durability of lightweight wheelchairs, we suggested that stronger regulations be developed that require wheelchairs to be tested by independent and certified test laboratories. We also proposed a wheelchair rating system based on the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration vehicle crash ratings to assist clinicians and end users when comparing the durability of different wheelchairs.

  13. Analyzing wheelchair mobility patterns of community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Karmarkar, Amol M; Cooper, Rory A; Wang, Hongwu; Kelleher, Annmarie; Cooper, Rosemarie

    2011-01-01

    This study determined and compared wheelchair mobility patterns for older adults during an organized sporting event and within their community. In July 2008, 39 veterans participating in the 28th National Veterans Wheelchair Games (Omaha, Nebraska) completed the study. Of these, 26 were manual wheelchair and 13 were power wheelchair users. We collected wheelchair-related mobility data using wheelchair data-logging devices. Participants were significantly more active using manual wheelchairs during the games than when using their wheelchairs in their homes in terms of distance traveled (4,466.2 vs 1,367.4 m, p < 0.001) and average speed of propulsion (0.76 vs 0.64 m/s, p < 0.001). The trend was the same for power wheelchair users, with respect to distance (7,306.2 vs 3,450.5 m, p = 0.004) and average speed (0.9 vs 0.7 m/s, p = 0.002). This study demonstrates an objective method of evaluating wheelchair use in community-dwelling older adults.

  14. Sensewheel: an adjunct to wheelchair skills training.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Andrew; Taylor, Stephen J G; Holloway, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this Letter was to investigate the influence of real-time verbal feedback to optimise push arc during over ground manual wheelchair propulsion. Ten healthy non-wheelchair users pushed a manual wheelchair for a distance of 25 m on level paving, initially with no feedback and then with real-time verbal feedback aimed at controlling push arc within a range of 85°-100°. The real-time feedback was provided by a physiotherapist walking behind the wheelchair, viewing real-time data on a tablet personal computer received from the Sensewheel, a lightweight instrumented wheelchair wheel. The real-time verbal feedback enabled the participants to significantly increase their push arc. This increase in push arc resulted in a non-significant reduction in push rate and a significant increase in peak force application. The intervention enabled participants to complete the task at a higher mean velocity using significantly fewer pushes. This was achieved via a significant increase in the power generated during the push phase. This Letter identifies that a lightweight instrumented wheelchair wheel such as the Sensewheel is a useful adjunct to wheelchair skills training. Targeting the optimisation of push arc resulted in beneficial changes in propulsion technique.

  15. Investigation of wheelchair instability during transport in large accessible transit vehicles.

    PubMed

    Salipur, Zdravko; Frost, Karen; Bertocci, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Large accessible transit vehicles (LATVs, fixed-route intracity buses), generally considered safe, may not be as safe for wheelchair-seated passengers. Transit provider practices vary regarding use of wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems (WTORSs), while recent research suggests high levels of WTORS disuse and misuse. We sought to better understand wheelchair and wheelchair passenger instabilities related to WTORS disuse and misuse on LATVs. This article presents a retrospective review of 295 video surveillance records of wheelchair passenger trips on LATVs. Wheelchair trips involving disuse and misuse of WTORS were quantified and categorized based on WTORS configurations. Cases of wheelchair and wheelchair passenger instability were categorized based on severity, type, and direction. Three adverse events involving severe wheelchair and/or passenger instability were examined in greater detail. Results showed 20.3% of records involved wheelchair-related adverse events (95% minor instabilities, 5% severe instabilities). Scooters were most likely to be unstable, followed by manual and power wheelchairs. In most instability cases, no tiedowns were used to secure the wheelchair and no lap belt was used to restrain the wheelchair passenger properly. In many instances, the lap belt was misused in an attempt to secure the wheelchair, whereas the shoulder belt was never used.

  16. Wheelchair propulsion biomechanics: implications for wheelchair sports.

    PubMed

    Vanlandewijck, Y; Theisen, D; Daly, D

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide the reader with a state-of-the-art review on biomechanics in hand rim wheelchair propulsion, with special attention to sport-specific implications. Biomechanical studies in wheelchair sports mainly aim at optimising sport performance or preventing sport injuries. The sports performance optimisation question has been approached from an ergonomic, as well as a skill proficiency perspective. Sports medical issues have been addressed in wheelchair sports mainly because of the extremely high prevalence of repetitive strain injuries such as shoulder impingement and carpal tunnel syndrome. Sports performance as well as sports medical reflections are made throughout the review. Insight in the underlying musculoskeletal mechanisms of hand rim wheelchair propulsion has been achieved through a combination of experimental data collection under realistic conditions, with a more fundamental mathematical modelling approach. Through a synchronised analysis of the movement pattern, force generation pattern and muscular activity pattern, insight has been gained in the hand rim wheelchair propulsion dynamics of people with a disability, varying in level of physical activity and functional potential. The limiting environment of a laboratory, however, has hampered the drawing of sound conclusions. Through mathematical modelling, simulation and optimisation (minimising injury and maximising performance), insight in the underlying musculoskeletal mechanisms during wheelchair propulsion is sought. The surplus value of inverse and forward dynamic simulation of hand rim stroke dynamics is addressed. Implications for hand rim wheelchair sports are discussed. Wheelchair racing, basketball and rugby were chosen because of the significance and differences in sport-specific movement dynamics. Conclusions can easily be transferred to other wheelchair sports where movement dynamics are fundamental.

  17. Evaluation of aluminum ultralight rigid wheelchairs versus other ultralight wheelchairs using ANSI/RESNA standards.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsin-yi; Pearlman, Jonathan; Cooper, Rosemarie; Hong, Eun-kyoung; Wang, Hongwu; Salatin, Benjamin; Cooper, Rory A

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies found that select titanium ultralight rigid wheelchairs (TURWs) had fewer equivalent cycles and less value than select aluminum ultralight folding wheelchairs (AUFWs). The causes of premature failure of TURWs were not clear because the TURWs had different frame material and design than the AUFWs. We tested 12 aluminum ultralight rigid wheelchairs (AURWs) with similar frame designs and dimensions as the TURWs using the American National Standards Institute/Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America and International Organization for Standardization wheelchair standards and hypothesized that the AURWs would be more durable than the TURWs. Across wheelchair models, no significant differences were found in the test results between the AURWs and TURWs, except in their overall length. Tire pressure, tube-wall thickness, and tube manufacturing were proposed to be the factors affecting wheelchair durability through comparison of the failure modes, frames, and components. The frame material did not directly affect the performance of AURWs and TURWs, but proper wheelchair manufacture and design based on mechanical properties are important.

  18. Wearable Power-Assist Locomotor (WPAL) for supporting upright walking in persons with paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shigeo; Hirano, Satoshi; Saitoh, Eiichi

    2013-01-01

    Due to physical and psychosocial issues associated with long-term sitting in a wheelchair, devising new ways to facilitate upright mobility is a key issue in rehabilitation medicine. Wearable Power-Assist Locomotor (WPAL) is a motorized orthosis and is developed for providing independent and comfortable walking for paraplegic patients. The WPAL consists of a wearable robotic orthosis and custom walker. To facilitate alternate usage with a wheelchair, the wearable robotic orthosis is based on a medial system with motors located at the bilateral hip, knee and ankle joints to reduce the increase in heart rate during gait. The gait parameters include stride length, toe clearance height, swing time, double support time, etc. (gait speed: up to 1.3 km/h). Independent gait with the walker can be learned through a five-stage gait exercise sequence. The first two stages are stepping and gait exercises with parallel bars. The third stage is gait exercise on treadmill. The subsequent two stages are gait exercise with walker. Seven motor-complete paraplegic patients (spinal cord functional levels: T6-T12) participated. Through a series of exercises, all users achieved independent gait on a level floor (Functional Ambulation Categories: 4). The mean duration and distance of consecutively walking were 14.1 ± 11.4 minutes and 165.6 ± 202.6 m, respectively. The most competent user was able to walk continuously for as long as 40 minutes and 640 m whereas only for 6 minutes and 107 m with a conventional orthosis. These results suggest that WPAL might be useful device for supporting upright walking in persons with paraplegia.

  19. Mechanics in a wheelchair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, Karin; Bernhard, Jonte

    1999-12-01

    It is not only possible for a student sitting in a wheelchair to participate in many active engagement activities. Using a wheelchair is also of extra value for non-physically disabled students in many experiential mechanics activities since the friction is low and kinesthetic experience involved. A wheelchair can also be used as an engaging "tool" for connecting mechanical concepts and real-world phenomena.

  20. Low cost wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Bosshard, R G; Yeo, J D

    1983-04-01

    This wheelchair is a new concept in wheelchair design, made entirely of readily available plastic materials and rear bicycle wheels. The chair does not require a cushion, weights only 12 kg with 100 mm front castors or 13 kg with 175 mm castors. It is easy to manoeuvre. The design allows this wheelchair to be used as a conventional wheelchair and a shower/commode chair. Side arms and brakes can be attached if required. The necessary materials are relatively inexpensive and generally available in most countries.

  1. WHEELCHAIR PROPULSION DEMANDS DURING OUTDOOR COMMUNITY AMBULATION

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Wendy J.; Morrow, Melissa M. B.; Kaufman, Kenton R.; An, Kai-Nan

    2009-01-01

    Objective Quantify manual wheelchair propulsion effort during outdoor community ambulation. Design Case series Subjects Thirteen individuals (12 with SCI, 1 with spina bifida) who were experienced manual wheelchair users and had no current upper extremity injury or pain complaints. Methods Measurements were obtained from instrumented wheelchair rims during steady-state propulsion as subjects traversed outdoor concrete sidewalk terrain that included smooth level, aggregate level, and a ramp with a smooth surface. Propulsion effort was assessed using the average propulsion moment, average instantaneous power, and work for both upper extremities. Results Propulsion effort, captured by the propulsion moment, work and power, varied across ground conditions (p<0.001). Propulsion effort was greater as the rolling resistance increased (ie., smooth versus aggregate surfaces) and as the inclination angle progressed from level to inclined surfaces. There were no side-to-side differences across ground conditions for the propulsion moment or work. Power generation was significantly greater on the dominant compared to the non-dominant extremity during the more challenging aggregate surface and ramp conditions. Conclusions Propulsion effort varies with demands imposed by different ground conditions. Quantification of wheelchair propulsion demands provides rehabilitations specialists with objective information to guide treatment of patients adapting to manual wheelchair use. PMID:18590967

  2. The Mobility Decision. 1990 Wheelchair Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henke, Cliff

    1990-01-01

    This article presents tips for parents shopping for wheelchairs for children with special mobility needs. Manual versus power chairs, dimensions, maneuverability, weight, transportability, durability, adaptability, maximum/minimum speeds, battery life (for power chairs), climbing angle, and other features are discussed. Factors to consider in…

  3. Children's wheelchair clinic.

    PubMed

    Holt, K S; Darcus, H; Brand, H L

    1972-12-16

    During the first year of a children's monthly wheelchair clinic 29 out of 34 chairs supplied in the past were found to be unsatisfactory. The advantages of a central clinic for a region where clinicians and technical officers can meet are emphasized, as is also the need for wider dispersal of knowledge about wheelchairs for disabled children.

  4. Engineered embodiment: Comment on "The embodiment of assistive devices-from wheelchair to exoskeleton" by M. Pazzaglia and M. Molinari

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannape, Oliver Alan; Lenggenhager, Bigna

    2016-03-01

    From brain-computer interfaces to wearable robotics and bionic prostheses - intelligent assistive devices have already become indispensable in the therapy of people living with reduced sensorimotor functioning of their physical body, be it due to spinal cord injury, amputation or brain lesions [1]. Rapid technological advances will continue to fuel this field for years to come. As Pazzaglia and Molinari [2] rightly point out, progress in this domain should not solely be driven by engineering prowess, but utilize the increasing psychological and neuroscientific understanding of cortical body-representations and their plasticity [3]. We argue that a core concept for such an integrated embodiment framework was introduced with the formalization of the forward model for sensorimotor control [4]. The application of engineering concepts to human movement control paved the way for rigorous computational and neuroscientific analysis. The forward model has successfully been adapted to investigate principles underlying aspects of bodily awareness such as the sense of agency in the comparator framework [5]. At the example of recent advances in lower limb prostheses, we propose a cross-disciplinary, integrated embodiment framework to investigate the sense of agency and the related sense of body ownership for such devices. The main onus now is on the engineers and cognitive scientists to embed such an approach into the design of assistive technology and its evaluation battery.

  5. Children in wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Wisbeach, A; Holt, K S

    1980-07-19

    Three hundred and seventy-five families replied to a questionnaire about the use of their disabled children's wheelchairs. Many problems were found, such as difficulty in folding the chair and placing it in the car boot and difficulty in using pulbic transport. These families need adequate guidance to anticipate and deal with the problems. Provision of a wheelchair does not solve the mobility problems. The parents are faced with the task of transporting both the disabled child and the wheelchair whenever they want to use their own car or public transport. Ease of folding and lightness are important criteria for wheelchairs carried by cars. Parents need careful guidance about selecting suitable cars and also need to be shown how to lift the chairs without endangering their backs. Such advice should be provided by every wheelchair clinic and assessment and rehabilitation certre.

  6. Children in wheelchairs.

    PubMed Central

    Wisbeach, A; Holt, K S

    1980-01-01

    Three hundred and seventy-five families replied to a questionnaire about the use of their disabled children's wheelchairs. Many problems were found, such as difficulty in folding the chair and placing it in the car boot and difficulty in using pulbic transport. These families need adequate guidance to anticipate and deal with the problems. Provision of a wheelchair does not solve the mobility problems. The parents are faced with the task of transporting both the disabled child and the wheelchair whenever they want to use their own car or public transport. Ease of folding and lightness are important criteria for wheelchairs carried by cars. Parents need careful guidance about selecting suitable cars and also need to be shown how to lift the chairs without endangering their backs. Such advice should be provided by every wheelchair clinic and assessment and rehabilitation certre. PMID:6447531

  7. User evaluation of a collaborative wheelchair system.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiang; Burdet, Etienne; Teo, Chee Leong

    2008-01-01

    The collaborative wheelchair assistant (CWA) is a robotic wheelchair which makes full use of human skills, by involving the user into the navigation control. The user gives the high-level commands and directly controls the speed, while the low-level control is taken over by the machine, which constrains the wheelchair to follow a software defined guide path. This paper presents an evaluation of the CWA system, consisting of experiments performed with human subjects including three people with cerebral palsy (CP) and two with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We investigate the performance of the system in terms of its interaction with human subjects and motion efficiency and compare to that of able-bodied subjects, who have previously performed the same evaluation. The results suggest that the CWA brings safe motion and drastically simplifies the control without compromising the navigation performance.

  8. An asynchronous wheelchair control by hybrid EEG-EOG brain-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongtao; Li, Yuanqing; Long, Jinyi; Yu, Tianyou; Gu, Zhenghui

    2014-10-01

    Wheelchair control requires multiple degrees of freedom and fast intention detection, which makes electroencephalography (EEG)-based wheelchair control a big challenge. In our previous study, we have achieved direction (turning left and right) and speed (acceleration and deceleration) control of a wheelchair using a hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) combining motor imagery and P300 potentials. In this paper, we proposed hybrid EEG-EOG BCI, which combines motor imagery, P300 potentials, and eye blinking to implement forward, backward, and stop control of a wheelchair. By performing relevant activities, users (e.g., those with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and locked-in syndrome) can navigate the wheelchair with seven steering behaviors. Experimental results on four healthy subjects not only demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of our brain-controlled wheelchair system but also indicate that all the four subjects could control the wheelchair spontaneously and efficiently without any other assistance (e.g., an automatic navigation system).

  9. Isokinetic shoulder rotator muscles in wheelchair athletes.

    PubMed

    Bernard, P L; Codine, P; Minier, J

    2004-04-01

    To assess the influence of wheelchair propulsion and neurological level on isokinetic shoulder rotational strength. University of Montpellier, France Data were evaluated in three groups of subjects as follows: 12 nonathletes, 15 tennis players and 21 wheelchair athletes. We then compared 12 high paraplegic athletes (HPA) and nine low paraplegic athletes (LPA) within the group of 21 wheelchair athletes: The isokinetic tests were performed in the seated 45 degrees abducted test position in the scapular plane at 60, 180 and 300 degrees s(-1) for both shoulders. Peak torque and mean power values were gathered and, from these values, the internal/external rotation ratios were calculated. Intergroup comparison showed an influence of lesion and sport on peak torque at 180 and 300 degrees s(-1) for the internal rotators and significantly higher values of the internal/external ratios in the wheelchair athlete group. For mean power, we observed significant differences under all test conditions and significant differences for ratio only on the dominant side at 180 degrees s(-1) and on the dominant side at 300 degrees s(-1). Comparison of the two groups of paraplegic athletes showed significantly higher values of peak torque and mean power of the external rotators in the LPA for all test conditions. Neurological level of lesion does not systematically influence the development of internal rotator muscles; in contrast, the participation of the external rotators appears strongly correlated to neurological level. The comparison of the two sides in the two paraplegic groups showed that in two-thirds of the cases the values of the external rotators were significantly higher than those of the internal rotators on the nondominant side for peak torque and mean power. Ratios on the dominant side were systematically higher than on the nondominant side, with significant differences also noted in two-thirds of the cases. These results raise questions about the influence of neurological

  10. Effectiveness and safety of wheelchair skills training program in improving the wheelchair skills capacity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chun-Jing; Liu, Lin; Wang, Wei; Du, He-Ping; Wang, Yu-Ming; Xu, Yan-Bing; Li, Ping

    2017-06-01

    To comprehensively assess the effectiveness and safety of wheelchair skills training program in improving wheelchair skills capacity. PubMed, OVID, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database were searched up to March 2017. Controlled clinical trials that compared a wheelchair skills training program with a control group that received other interventions and used the wheelchair skills test scores to evaluate wheelchair skills capacity were included. Two authors independently screened articles, extracted data, and assessed the methodological quality using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool in randomized controlled trial (RCT) and methodological index for non-randomized studies. The data results of wheelchair skills test scores were extracted. Data from 455 individuals in 10 RCTs and from 140 participants in seven non-randomized studies were included for meta-analysis using Stata version 12.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). In the short term (immediately to one week) post-intervention, relative to a control group, manual wheelchair skills training could increase the total wheelchair skills test scores by 13.26% in RCTs (95% confidence interval (CI), 6.19%-20.34%; P < 0.001) and by 23.44% in non-randomized studies (95% CI, 13.98%-32.90%; P < 0.001). Few adverse events occurred during training; however, compared with a control group, evidence was insufficient to support the effectiveness of powered wheelchair skills training and the long-term (3-12 months) advantage of manual wheelchair skills training ( P = 0.755). The limited evidence suggests that wheelchair skills training program is beneficial in the short term, but its long-term effects remain unclear.

  11. Everyday life for users of electric wheelchairs - a qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Blach Rossen, Camilla; Sørensen, Bodil; Würtz Jochumsen, Bente; Wind, Gitte

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore how users of electric wheelchairs experience their everyday life and how their electric wheelchairs influence their daily occupation. Occupation is defined as a personalized dynamic interaction between person, task and environment, and implies the value and meaning attached. Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with experienced electric wheelchair users. ValMo was used as the theoretical framework for both interviewing and the analysis. The transcribed interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings revealed key elements in electric wheelchair users' experience of how the use of a wheelchair influences everyday life and occupation. Four central themes emerged from the participants' experiences 1) The functionality of the wheelchair, 2) The wheelchair as an extension of the body, 3) The wheelchair and social life, and 4) The wheelchair and identity issues. The themes were interrelated and show how all levels of occupation were influenced both in a positive and negative way, and how it affected identity. It is essential that professionals working with electric wheelchair users are aware of how all levels of occupation and identity are influenced by using a wheelchair. This will assist professionals in supporting the users living an autonomous and meaningful life.

  12. Shoulder joint kinetics of the elite wheelchair tennis serve

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Machar; Elliott, Bruce; Alderson, Jacque

    2007-01-01

    Background The shoulder is a key joint in wheelchair locomotion and commonly implicated in injury among virtually all wheelchair populations. In tennis, quantification of the shoulder joint kinetics that characterise the wheelchair serve could enhance injury prevention and rehabilitation practices as well as assist coaches evaluate the efficacy of their current technical instruction. Methods A 12‐camera, 250 Hz Vicon motion analysis system (Oxford Metrics Inc., UK) recorded the 3D flat (WFS) and kick serve (WKS) motions of two male top 30‐ranked international wheelchair players. Mechanical comparisons between wheelchair players, as well as to the previously captured data of 12 high‐performance able‐bodied players executing the same types of serves, were undertaken. Results Without the benefit of a propulsive leg action, wheelchair players developed lower peak absolute (∼32 m/s) and horizontal (∼28 m/s) pre‐impact racquet velocities than able‐bodied players (∼42 m/s, ∼38 m/s). Wheelchair serve tactics nevertheless necessitated that higher pre‐impact horizontal and right lateral racquet velocities characterised the WFS (∼29 m/s, WKS: ∼26 m/s) and WKS (∼4 m/s, WFS: ∼11 m/s) respectively. The shoulder joint kinetics that contributed to the differential racquet velocity profiles were mostly developed independent of wheelchair serve type, but varied with and were likely related to the level and severity of spinal cord injury of the individual players. Conclusions Compared with able‐bodied players, wheelchair players experienced matching pre‐ and post‐impact shoulder joint loads, such that wheelchair and able‐bodied playing populations appear subject to similar shoulder joint injury risk. PMID:17957009

  13. Preliminary assessment of Tongue Drive System in medium term usage for computer access and wheelchair control.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Behnaz; Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-01-01

    Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless, wearable assistive technology that enables individuals with severe motor impairments access computers, drive wheelchairs, and control their environments using tongue motion. In this paper, we have evaluated the TDS performance as a computer input device using ISO9241-9 standard tasks for pointing and selecting, based on the well known Fitts' Law, and as a powered wheelchair controller through an obstacle course navigation task. Nine able-bodied subjects who already had tongue piercing participated in this trial over 5 sessions during 5 weeks, allowing us to study the TDS learning process and its current limiting factors. Subjects worn tongue rings made of titanium in the form of a barbell with a small rare earth magnetic tracer hermetically sealed inside the upper ball. Comparing the results between 1(st) and 5(th) sessions showed that subjects' performance improved in all the measures through 5 sessions, demonstrating the effects of learning.

  14. Maneuverability and usability analysis of three knee-extension propelled wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Bloswick, D S; Erickson, J; Brown, D R; Howell, G; Mecham, W

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the maneuverability and usability of three knee-extension propelled wheelchairs. The maneuverability of the knee-extension propelled wheelchairs was determined in a controlled test representing five standard wheelchair activities. The usability of the wheelchairs was evaluated in a field test with elderly residents of an extended care facility in Salt Lake City. The results indicate that the wheelchair designs using a swinging (four-bar linkage) or sliding belt mechanism are preferred to a sliding plate design. The use of knee-extension propelled wheelchairs is a feasible alternative to hand propelled wheelchairs. Further development and research is needed to address power requirements, maneuverability, and entrance/egress from the chairs.

  15. Wheelchair basketball quantification.

    PubMed

    Gil-Agudo, Angel; Del Ama-Espinosa, Antonio; Crespo-Ruiz, Beatriz

    2010-02-01

    Classification systems are one of the key elements in sports for people with disability, including wheelchair basketball. Further scientific studies to validate classification systems are needed. This article describes the most relevant research, with emphasis on biomechanics.

  16. Embodying prostheses - how to let the body welcome assistive devices. Comment on "The embodiment of assistive devices-from wheelchair to exoskeleton" by M. Pazzaglia and M. Molinari

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Matthew R.; Sadibolova, Renata; Tamè, Luigi

    2016-03-01

    A growing body of research has focused on the development of assistive devises to improve the recovery and ameliorate the quality of life of people suffering from spinal cord injuries (SCI). In their stimulating and timely paper, Pazzaglia and Molinari [1] review the significant progress made by biotechnology studies in providing increasing sophisticated assistive tools (e.g., prostheses and exoskeletons) that extend the functionality of patients' bodies. However, despite this extraordinary technological effort [2], it remains uncertain how these devices can be appropriately embedded into the mental representation of the body. Here, we wish to amplify the points raised by Pazzaglia and Molinari by discussing three challenges facing work on embodying prostheses raised by experimental research on body representation.

  17. Development of safety concept of electric wheelchair driving support system based on assessment of risk.

    PubMed

    Kurozumi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Toru; Fujisawa, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    In this research, we pay attention to the electric wheelchair driving support. We look at the functional safety of the electric wheelchair. Based on intrinsically-safe electric wheelchair, we add driving support system to increase functional safety. The driving support system processes the environmental information sensor data including the 3D laser Range scanner and biological monitoring sensor data including electrooculogram, and assists avoidance of dangerous objects. We have developed safety concept that based on assessment of risk.

  18. Children's Wheelchair Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Holt, K. S.; Darcus, H.; Brand, H. Lorna

    1972-01-01

    During the first year of a children's monthly wheelchair clinic 29 out of 34 chairs supplied in the past were found to be unsatisfactory. The advantages of a central clinic for a region where clinicians and technical officers can meet are emphasized, as is also the need for wider dispersal of knowledge about wheelchairs for disabled children. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4264882

  19. Quality and Equity in Wheelchairs Used by Veterans.

    PubMed

    Myaskovsky, Larissa; Gao, Shasha; Hausmann, Leslie R M; Bornemann, Kellee R; Burkitt, Kelly H; Switzer, Galen E; Fine, Michael J; Phillips, Samuel L; Gater, David; Spungen, Ann M; Worobey, Lynn; Boninger, Michael L

    2017-03-01

    To assess in Veterans with spinal cord injury (SCI) or amputated limb (AL) the following: (1) patient demographics, medical factors, cultural and psychosocial characteristic by race; (2) wheelchair quality by race; and (3) the independent associations of patient race and the other factors with wheelchair quality. Cross-sectional cohort study. Three Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers affiliated with academic medical centers. Eligible participants were Veterans with SCI or ALs (N=516); 482 of them completed the interview. Analyses were restricted to white and African American participants. Because there was no variation in wheelchair quality among AL patients (n=42), they were excluded from all but descriptive analyses, leading to a final sample size of 421. Not applicable. Wheelchair quality as defined by the Medicare Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System. We found race differences in many of our variables, but not in quality for manual (odds ratio [OR]=.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], .33-1.36) or power (OR=.82; 95% CI, .51-1.34) wheelchairs. Several factors including age (OR=.96; 95% CI, .93-.99) and income (OR=3.78; 95% CI, 1.43-9.97) were associated with wheelchair quality. There were no significant associations of cultural or psychosocial factors with wheelchair quality. Although there were no racial differences in wheelchair quality, we found a significant association of older age and lower income with poorer wheelchair quality among Veterans. Efforts are needed to raise awareness of such disparities among VA wheelchair providers and to take steps to eliminate these disparities in prescription practice across VA sites. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The Wheelchair Procurement Process: Perspectives of Clients and Prescribers

    PubMed Central

    Mortenson, William B; Miller, William C

    2014-01-01

    Back ground Increasing choices in assistive technology has made the process of procuring a wheelchair more complex and challenging. Purpose To explore the intricacies of the procurement process from the perspectives of clients and therapists. Methods Thirty-four participants were interviewed, including 13 wheelchair prescribers, 14 wheelchair users, and 7 wheelchair associates (family members and caregivers). Findings Analysis revealed five main themes. 1) “Who decides?” described varying degrees of client involvement in the procurement process. 2) “Expert knowledge” reflected the expert knowledge that all parties possessed. 3) “Form versus function” captured the primary and, at times, conflicting outcomes that participants wanted to achieve. 4) “Fitting in” depicted the environmental factors that affected wheelchair procurement. 5) “(Re)solutions” illustrated strategies that participants felt improved the process. Implications This study reveals clients’ experiences with wheelchair procurement, identifies potential issues therapists may encounter, and suggests possible remedies they might consider when prescribing wheelchairs within a client-centred framework. PMID:18615928

  1. Mothers' Perceptions of Their Children's Use of Powered Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiart, Lesley; Darrah, Johanna; Hollis, Vivien; Cook, Al; May, Laura

    2004-01-01

    Physical therapists and occupational therapists frequently assist parents with the exploration and use of powered wheelchairs for their children with physical disabilities. The purpose of this study was to explore parents' experiences and perceptions of their children's experiences with the receipt and use of powered mobility. Qualitative methods…

  2. What Do Users Want From “Smart” Wheelchairs?

    PubMed Central

    Madigan, Elizabeth A.; Newman, Wyatt S.

    2012-01-01

    Technological advances have made it possible to integrate a variety of functions into “smart” wheelchairs that include robotics but also sensors that support telehealth and communication applications. The purpose of this study was to identify possible features that current older adult wheelchair users identify as being most helpful and most important and to use scenarios to determine acceptability of potential features. A small pilot study including 5 wheelchair users residing an assisted living facility was conducted that included a questionnaire and a focus group. The participants identified safety-related features as most helpful and important. Within the scenarios presented, the safety-related features were identified as highly acceptable. Features that were available with current technology (e.g. communication with family) were least highly rated. While more research is needed on user preferences, “smart” wheelchair developers will want to include user preferences and focus on safety and telehealth features. PMID:24199099

  3. Spotter strap for the prevention of wheelchair tipping.

    PubMed

    Kirby, R L; Lugar, J A

    1999-10-01

    Injuries caused by wheelchair rear-tipping accidents are common. This article reports on the safety and effectiveness of a spotter strap that attaches to the cross-brace or frame below the center of gravity of an occupied wheelchair. We videotaped five therapists spotting 89 wheelchair users while the users each performed six tasks that were designed to induce rear instability. We induced 16 episodes of complete rear tipping. In all cases, the spotter strap allowed the spotter to stay out of the way during the task, but step in easily when necessary to prevent the wheelchair user from being injured. In one instance, the spotter needed assistance lifting a heavy subject to the upright position after catching the subject with the strap. In summary, the spotter strap is a safe and effective device. We recommend its use when there is a high risk of a rear-tipping accident.

  4. Re-embodiment: incorporation through embodied learning of wheelchair skills.

    PubMed

    Standal, Øyvind F

    2011-05-01

    In this article, the notion of re-embodiment is developed to include the ways that rearrangement and renewals of body schema take place in rehabilitation. More specifically, the embodied learning process of acquiring wheelchair skills serves as a starting point for fleshing out a phenomenological understanding of incorporation of assistive devices. By drawing on the work of Merleau-Ponty, the reciprocal relation between acquisition habits and incorporation of instruments is explored in relation to the learning of wheelchair skills. On the basis of this, it is argued that through learning to manoeuvre the wheelchair, a reversible relation between is established between the moving body-subject and the wheelchair. In this sense, re-embodiment involves a gestalt switch from body image to body schema.

  5. Assessment of In-Hospital Walking Velocity and Level of Assistance in a Powered Exoskeleton in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ajax; Asselin, Pierre; Knezevic, Steven; Kornfeld, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) often use a wheelchair for mobility due to paralysis. Powered exoskeletal-assisted walking (EAW) provides a modality for walking overground with crutches. Little is known about the EAW velocities and level of assistance (LOA) needed for these devices. Objective: The primary aim was to evaluate EAW velocity, number of sessions, and LOA and the relationships among them. The secondary aims were to report on safety and the qualitative analysis of gait and posture during EAW in a hospital setting. Methods: Twelve individuals with SCI ≥1.5 years who were wheelchair users participated. They wore a powered exoskeleton (ReWalk; ReWalk Robotics, Inc., Marlborough, MA) with Lofstrand crutches to complete 10-meter (10MWT) and 6-minute (6MWT) walk tests. LOA was defined as modified independence (MI), supervision (S), minimal assistance (Min), and moderate assistance (Mod). Best effort EAW velocity, LOA, and observational gait analysis were recorded. Results: Seven of 12 participants ambulated ≥0.40 m/s. Five participants walked with MI, 3 with S, 3 with Min, and 1 with Mod. Significant inverse relationships were noted between LOA and EAW velocity for both 6MWT (Z value = 2.63, Rho = 0.79, P = .0086) and 10MWT (Z value = 2.62, Rho = 0.79, P = .0088). There were 13 episodes of mild skin abrasions. MI and S groups ambulated with 2-point alternating crutch pattern, whereas the Min and Mod groups favored 3-point crutch gait. Conclusion: Seven of 12 individuals studied were able to ambulate at EAW velocities ≥0.40 m/s, which is a velocity that may be conducive to outdoor activity-related community ambulation. The ReWalk is a safe device for in-hospital ambulation. PMID:26364279

  6. Federal financial assistance for hydroelectric power

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The Rural Energy Initiative seeks to maximize the effectiveness of Federal programs in developing certain energy resources, including small-scale hydropower. The REI target is to arrange financing for 100 hydro sites by 1981, with about 300 MWe of additional capacity. The REI financial assistance programs for small hydropower development in the US DOE; Economic Development Administration; REA; HUD; Farmers Home Administration; DOI; DOL's CETA programs; and the Community Services Administration are described. (MCW)

  7. Shared control strategies for obstacle avoidance tasks in an intelligent wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Trieu, Hoang T; Nguyen, Hung T; Willey, Keith

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a method of shared control strategy for an intelligent wheelchair to assist a disable user in performing obstacle avoidance tasks. The system detects obstacles in front of the wheelchair using a laser range finder sensor. As the wheelchair moves the information from the laser range finder is combined with data from the encoders mounted in its driving wheels to build a 360 degrees real-time map. The accuracy of the map is improved by eliminating the systematic error that would result from both the uncertainty of effective wheelbase and unequal driving wheel diameters. The usable wheelchair accessible space is determined by including the actual wheelchair dimensions in producing the real-time map. In making a decision the shared control method considers the user's intentions via the head-movement interface, accessible space of the environment and user safety. The experiments show promising results in the intelligent wheelchair system.

  8. RESNA Position on the Application of Seat-Elevating Devices for Wheelchair Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arva, Julianna; Schmeler, Mark R.; Lange, Michelle L.; Lipka, Daniel D.; Rosen, Lauren E.

    2009-01-01

    This document, approved by the Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA) Board of Directors in September 2005, shares typical clinical applications and provides evidence from the literature supporting the use of seat-elevating devices for wheelchair users. Wheelchair mobility is often only considered from…

  9. RESNA Position on the Application of Seat-Elevating Devices for Wheelchair Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arva, Julianna; Schmeler, Mark R.; Lange, Michelle L.; Lipka, Daniel D.; Rosen, Lauren E.

    2009-01-01

    This document, approved by the Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA) Board of Directors in September 2005, shares typical clinical applications and provides evidence from the literature supporting the use of seat-elevating devices for wheelchair users. Wheelchair mobility is often only considered from…

  10. Voice controlled wheelchairs: fine control by humming.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Nathalia; Nik, Hossein Ghaffari; Charkhkar, Hamid

    2013-10-01

    People without disabilities seamlessly control devices with their hands. Interestingly, their hands can perform coarse and fine control. Implementing smooth control for computerized systems is not straightforward and most of the time it is not intuitive either. Here we offer a solution to that problem: smooth control through humming. Voice commands have become ubiquitous in modern technology. Speech-to-text applications abound. Smooth control, on the other hand, has not been tackled yet. Here we design and implement a humming control technique, and demonstrate a hardware implementation with a powered wheelchair. Once actuated, the speed with which the chair moves will depend on the subtle variation on the fundamental frequency of the user's humming, acquired through an accelerometer measuring vocal cord vibration. We also discuss two signal processing techniques that handle commonly encountered issues when trying to resolve frequencies in real time data. The hardware implementation shows performance of 80% and higher in speech recognition for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) higher than 8dB and 100% in smooth control and frequency detection for all tested SNRs. We also discuss potential applications of smooth humming control to other assistive technology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards evidence-based classification in wheelchair sports: impact of seating position on wheelchair acceleration.

    PubMed

    Vanlandewijck, Yves C; Verellen, Joeri; Tweedy, Sean

    2011-07-01

    In most Paralympic wheelchair sports, active trunk range of movement is assessed by observing shoulder girdle excursion during active trunk movements and is a key determinant of an athlete's class. However, to date research evaluating the impact of reduced trunk range of movement on wheelchair sports performance has not been conducted. In the present study, 15 non-disabled male participants performed two 20-s sprints on a wheelchair ergometer in each of three seating positions. Positions were typical of those used to enhance sitting stability in wheelchair sport and each impacted available trunk range of movement differently: condition-90 (seated with thighs horizontal; unrestricted range of movement) condition-45 (seated with thighs in 45°), and condition-0 (seated with hips maximally flexed; minimum range of movement). In condition-90, the trunk only actively contributed to the first push; for the remainder of the sprint, the trunk was held almost isometrically at 48.2° to the horizontal (range 42.1-56.4°). Similar patterns were observed for both condition-45 and condition-0. Compared with condition-90, participants in condition-0 had reduced capacity to accelerate of statistical (P < 0.05) and practical significance. These findings are an important initial step towards evidence-based decision making in classification. Future research should evaluate the individual and collective impact of other factors that affect the trunk's contribution to wheelchair sports performance, including strapping, seating position, and impairments of trunk muscle power and coordination.

  12. Evaluation of the JACO robotic arm: clinico-economic study for powered wheelchair users with upper-extremity disabilities.

    PubMed

    Maheu, Veronique; Frappier, Julie; Archambault, Philippe S; Routhier, François

    2011-01-01

    Many activities of daily living, such as picking up glasses, holding a fork or opening a door, which most people do without thinking, can become insurmountable for people who have upper extremity disabilities. The alternative to asking for human help is to use some assistive devices to compensate their loss of mobility; however, many of those devices are limited in terms of functionality. Robotics may provide a better approach for the development of assistive devices, by allowing greater functionality. In this paper, we present results of a study (n=31) which objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of a new joystick-controlled seven-degree of freedom robotic manipulator and assess its potential economic benefits. Results show that JACO is easy to use as the majority of the participants were able to accomplish the testing tasks on their first attempt. The economic model results inferred that the use of the JACO arm system could potentially reduce caregiving time by 41%. These study results are expected to provide valuable data for interested parties, such as individuals with disabilities, their family or caregivers.

  13. Security Assistance Dependence - Wielding American Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-09

    INTERNATIONAL. July 24, 2001. Dougherty, James E. and Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr. “From Realist to Neorealist Theory .” In Contending Theories of...International Traffic in Arms Regulation. US Code. Vol. 22 sec 2751. 22 CFR parts 120-130 (1999). Waltz , Kenneth . Theory of International Politics. Reading...respect to a state’s capabilities and its ability and willingness to express its power.25 Kenneth Waltz proposes that it is possible to rank

  14. Low-intensity wheelchair training in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury: A randomized controlled trial on fitness, wheelchair skill performance and physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    van der Scheer, Jan W; de Groot, Sonja; Tepper, Marga; Faber, Willemijn; Veeger, DirkJan H; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of low-intensity wheelchair training on wheelchair-specific fitness, wheelchair skill performance and physical activity levels in inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury. Randomized controlled trial. Inactive manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury for at least 10 years (n = 29), allocated to exercise (n = 14) or no exercise. The 16-week training consisted of wheelchair treadmill-propulsion at 30-40% heart rate reserve or equi-valent in terms of rate of perceived exertion, twice a week, for 30 min per session. Wheelchair-specific fitness was determined as the highest 5-s power output over 15-m overground wheelchair sprinting (P5-15m), isometric push-force, submaximal fitness and peak aerobic work capacity. Skill was determined as performance time, ability and strain scores over a wheelchair circuit. Activity was determined using a questionnaire and an odometer. Significant training effects appeared only in P5-15m (exercise vs control: mean +2.0 W vs -0.7 W, p = 0.017, ru=0.65). The low-intensity wheelchair training appeared insufficient for substantial effects in the sample of inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury, presumably in part owing to a too-low exercise frequency. Effective yet feasible and sustainable training, as well as other physical activity programmes remain to be developed for inactive people with long-term spinal cord injury.

  15. Towards personalized smart wheelchairs: Lessons learned from discovery interviews.

    PubMed

    Padir, Taşkin

    2015-01-01

    We posit that it is necessary to investigate the personalization of smart wheelchairs in three aspects interfaces for interaction, controllers for action (top-level, middle-level, and low-level), and feedback in interaction. Our team has been selected as an Innovation Corps (I-Corps) Team by the National Science Foundation to pursue customer discovery research to explore the commercial viability of smart wheelchairs. Through the process, our team has performed more than 110 interviews with powered wheelchair users, manufacturers, therapists, policy makers, and non-profit organization staff. Our findings revealed that the acceptability of fully autonomous systems by the users is still challenging and highly-dependent on the severity of the disability. Furthermore, the cost, ease-of-use and personalization are the most important factors in commercializing smart wheelchair technologies.

  16. Atmospheric freeze drying assisted by power ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santacatalina, J. V.; Cárcel, J. A.; Simal, S.; Garcia-Perez, J. V.; Mulet, A.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric freeze drying (AFD) is considered an alternative to vacuum freeze drying to keep the quality of fresh product. AFD allows continuous drying reducing fix and operating costs, but presents, as main disadvantage, a long drying time required. The application of power ultrasound (US) can accelerate AFD process. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the application of power ultrasound to improve atmospheric freeze drying of carrot. For that purpose, AFD experiments were carried out with carrot cubes (10 mm side) at constant air velocity (2 ms-1), temperature (-10°C) and relative humidity (10%) with (20.5 kWm-3,USAFD) and without (AFD) ultrasonic application. A diffusion model was used in order to quantify the influence of US in drying kinetics. To evaluate the quality of dry products, rehydration capacity and textural properties were determined. The US application during AFD of carrot involved the increase of drying rate. The effective moisture diffusivity identified in USAFD was 73% higher than in AFD experiments. On the other hand, the rehydration capacity was higher in USAFD than in AFD and the hardness of dried samples did not show significant (p<0.05) differences. Therefore, US application during AFD significantly (p<0.05) sped-up the drying process preserving the quality properties of the dry product.

  17. Powered Exoskeletons for Walking Assistance in Persons with Central Nervous System Injuries: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Esquenazi, Alberto; Talaty, Mukul; Jayaraman, Arun

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with central nervous system injuries are a large and apparently rapidly expanding population-as suggested by 2013 statistics from the American Heart Association. Increasing survival rates and lifespans emphasize the need to improve the quality of life for this population. In persons with central nervous system injuries, mobility limitations are among the most important factors contributing to reduced life satisfaction. Decreased mobility and subsequently reduced overall activity levels also contribute to lower levels of physical health. Braces to assist walking are options for greater-functioning individuals but still limit overall mobility as the result of increased energy expenditure and difficulty of use. For individuals with greater levels of mobility impairment, wheelchairs remain the preferred mobility aid yet still fall considerably short compared with upright bipedal walking. Furthermore, the promise of functional electrical stimulation as a means to achieve walking has yet to materialize. None of these options allow individuals to achieve walking at speeds or levels comparable with those seen in individuals with unimpaired gait. Medical exoskeletons hold much promise to fulfill this unmet need and have advanced as a viable option in both therapeutic and personal mobility state, particularly during the past decade. The present review highlights the major developments in this technology, with a focus on exoskeletons for lower limb that may encompass the spine and that aim to allow independent upright walking for those who otherwise do not have this option. Specifically reviewed are powered exoskeletons that are either commercially available or have the potential to restore upright walking function. This paper includes a basic description of how each exoskeleton device works, a summation of key features, their known limitations, and a discussion of current and future clinical applicability. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine

  18. Towards a new modality-independent interface for a robotic wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Bastos-Filho, Teodiano Freire; Cheein, Fernando Auat; Müller, Sandra Mara Torres; Celeste, Wanderley Cardoso; de la Cruz, Celso; Cavalieri, Daniel Cruz; Sarcinelli-Filho, Mário; Amaral, Paulo Faria Santos; Perez, Elisa; Soria, Carlos Miguel; Carelli, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    This work presents the development of a robotic wheelchair that can be commanded by users in a supervised way or by a fully automatic unsupervised navigation system. It provides flexibility to choose different modalities to command the wheelchair, in addition to be suitable for people with different levels of disabilities. Users can command the wheelchair based on their eye blinks, eye movements, head movements, by sip-and-puff and through brain signals. The wheelchair can also operate like an auto-guided vehicle, following metallic tapes, or in an autonomous way. The system is provided with an easy to use and flexible graphical user interface onboard a personal digital assistant, which is used to allow users to choose commands to be sent to the robotic wheelchair. Several experiments were carried out with people with disabilities, and the results validate the developed system as an assistive tool for people with distinct levels of disability.

  19. Yaw rate and linear velocity stabilized manual wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Sara J; Dahlstrom, Robert J; Condon, John P; Hedin, Daniel S

    2013-01-01

    We present the development of a prototype novel low-power, inexpensive stability control system for manual wheelchairs. Manual wheelchairs, while providing the ability to maneuver in relatively small indoor spaces, have a high center of gravity making them prone to tipping. Additionally, they can easily slide on sloped surfaces and can even spin and tip when attempting to turn or brake too quickly. When used on ramps and in outdoor environments where the surface is rarely perfectly flat (slopes greater than 1∶20 (5%) are common), wheelchair users can easily encounter potentially dangerous situations. The design and evaluation of an accident prevention system for independent manual wheelchair users that increases independence by enabling mobility with greater confidence and safety is described. The system does not limit a wheelchair user's ability to manually brake, rather, if the system detects that the wheelchair is out of control, braking force will be added by the system to either one or both wheels. The prototype utilized inexpensive bicycle technologies for the wheel brake and electrical power generator assemblies. Custom servos were designed along with custom electronics and firmware in the prototype to evaluate performance. The goal of the project was to derive specifications for a control and actuation system that utilizes inexpensive bicycle components in this cost-sensitive application. The design is detailed and the final specifications provided.

  20. Do tilt-in-space wheelchairs increase occupational engagement: a critical literature review.

    PubMed

    Harrand, Jenny; Bannigan, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    A wheelchair can enhance the quality of life of an individual with limited mobility, poor trunk control and stability, by enabling activity and participation and so occupational engagement. High specification wheelchairs which can tilt-in-space enable the position of users to be altered to suit activity and context. Despite tilt-in-space wheelchairs being expensive little is known about their therapeutic value. A critical literature review of the evidence was undertaken to evaluate whether the use of tilt-in-space increases occupational engagement. A wide ranging search strategy identified 170 articles which were screened using inclusion criteria. The eligible literature (n = 6) was analysed thematically using open coding. The majority of the participants used tilt-in-space but the data was too heterogeneous to combine. Measures of occupational engagement were not used so the therapeutic value could not be assessed. There is a lack of high quality evidence about the therapeutic benefits of tilt-in-space wheelchairs. Given the expense associated with providing these wheelchairs, and the increase in their provision, research is needed to justify provision of high specification wheelchairs to meet the occupational needs of users within the limited resources of health and social care. Implications for Rehabilitation Tilt-in-space wheelchairs. Wheelchairs are an important and essential assistive device for promoting independence and function. Suggests there are benefits for tilt-in-space wheelchairs. Identifies the need for additional large scale research.

  1. Biomechanics and Physiology for Propelling Wheelchair Uphill Slope.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Tsutomu; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Lee, Hokyoo; Ueda, Hisatoshi; Yoneda, Ikuo; Booka, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    A vertical slope of sidewalks significantly inhibits to the mobility of manual wheelchair users in their daily life. International guidelines of the vertical slope are specified approximately 4% or 5% (1:20) gradient or less as preferred, and allow 8.3% (1:12) as its maximum when it is impossible. Relevant research of the physical strain for wheelchair users with pushing on slopes, and the validity assessment of slope guidelines have been investigated. However, the analysis for the effect of a slope distance and their transient performance are still remained. The purpose of this study is to clarify the physiological and biomechanical characteristics of manual wheelchair users that propelling a wheelchair on an uphill slope. We measured these data by a metabolic analysis system, a heart rate monitor system and an instrumented wheelchair wheel. Sixteen unimpaired subjects (non-wheelchair users) were examined to investigate the effect of a long slope with 120m distance and 8% gradient. And five wheelchair users with cervical cord injury were examined to evaluate the influence of different gradients (5%, 6.7%, 8.3%, 10% and 12.5%) with 3m length in laboratory. Our experimental results of the long slope showed that wheelchair propulsion velocity and power increased considerably at the beginning of the slope where the peak mean value of them were 0.96 m/s and 70.8W and they decreased linearly to 0.55m/s and 33.6W at final interval. A mean oxygen uptake and heart rate were increased as the distance increased and their results indicated the extremely high exercise intensity at a final interval that were 1.2liter /min and 152bpm. While wheelchair pushing cadence reduced after an initial interval, mean of strokes per10m increased to compensate the decrease of upper limb's power. The results of different gradients indicated that the normalized power of subjects with cervical cord injury was significant difference between each subject in the ability to climb a slope. Mean

  2. Design of a Power-Assisted Spacesuit Glove Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Russell D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the details of the design and implementation of an electromechanical power-assisted spacesuit glove actuator. The project was a joint effort by the University of Maryland's Space Systems Laboratory and ILC Dover, Inc., and involved innovative approaches to power augmentation and compact actuator packaging. The first actuator built validated several basic design concepts, and the second demonstrated improved performance and met many of the goals for flight qualification of the technology.

  3. Design of a Power-Assisted Spacesuit Glove Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Russell D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the details of the design and implementation of an electromechanical power-assisted spacesuit glove actuator. The project was a joint effort by the University of Maryland's Space Systems Laboratory and ILC Dover, Inc., and involved innovative approaches to power augmentation and compact actuator packaging. The first actuator built validated several basic design concepts, and the second demonstrated improved performance and met many of the goals for flight qualification of the technology.

  4. Concussions in wheelchair basketball.

    PubMed

    Wessels, Karla K; Broglio, Steven P; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2012-02-01

    To estimate the incidence rate of concussions in wheelchair basketball. Survey. Wheelchair basketball tournaments during the 2009 to 2010 season. Wheelchair basketball players (N=263) ranging in age from 18 to 60 years. Not applicable. Participants completed a survey on their concussion history including how many concussions they have sustained, how many days they refrained from physical activity because of injury, to whom they reported their injury, and reasons for not reporting an injury if they did not. Participants also provided demographic information about their disability, age, sex, and length of wheelchair use and sports participation. Within the sample of 263 wheelchair basketball players, 6.1% reported experiencing a concussion in the current season. Of those experiencing concussions during the current season, 44% did not report their concussion. Of those not reporting the incident, 67% did not because they did not want to be removed from physical activity. Analysis by sex indicated that 5.82% of the male athletes sustained a concussion during the current season, and 14.36% had sustained an injury during their athletic career. Female athletes, however, sustained concussions at a higher rate, with 6.67% having concussions during the current season and 30.6% during their athletic careers. Women were also 2.5 times more likely to sustain a concussion than men. Athletes were most likely to report their concussion to their coach (60% of concussed athletes). The current investigation was consistent with previous research in that women were more likely to sustain a concussion than men, and injury rates were similar to those in able-bodied basketball. Further work is needed in concussion assessment in persons with disability, as well as greater education concerning concussion in disability sports. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Feedback Control for a Smart Wheelchair Trainer Based on the Kinect Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, Aurelia McLaughlin

    This thesis describes a Microsoft Kinect-based feedback controller for a robot-assisted powered wheelchair trainer for children with a severe motor and/or cognitive disability. In one training mode, "computer gaming" mode, the wheelchair is allowed to rotate left and right while the children use a joystick to play video games shown on a screen in front of them. This enables them to learn the use of the joystick in a motivating environment, while experiencing the sensation and dynamics of turning in a safe setting. During initial pilot testing of the device, it was found that the wheelchair would creep forward while children were playing the games. This thesis presents a mathematical model of the wheelchair dynamics that explains the origin of the creep as a center of gravity offset from the wheel axis or a mismatch of the torques applied to the chair. Given these possible random perturbations, a feedback controller was developed to cancel these effects, correcting the system creep. The controller uses a Microsoft Kinect sensor to detect the distance to the screen displaying the computer game, as well as the left-right position (parallel parking concept) with respect to the screen, and then adjusts the wheel torque commands based on this measurement. We show through experimental testing that this controller effectively stops the creep. An added benefit of the feedback controller is that it approximates a washout filter, such as those used in aircraft simulators, to convey a more realistic sense of forward/backward motion during game play.

  6. 14 CFR 382.127 - What procedures apply to stowage of battery-powered mobility aids?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-powered mobility aids? 382.127 Section 382.127 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.127 What procedures apply to stowage of battery-powered mobility aids? (a) Whenever baggage...

  7. 14 CFR 382.127 - What procedures apply to stowage of battery-powered mobility aids?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-powered mobility aids? 382.127 Section 382.127 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.127 What procedures apply to stowage of battery-powered mobility aids? (a) Whenever baggage...

  8. 14 CFR 382.127 - What procedures apply to stowage of battery-powered mobility aids?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-powered mobility aids? 382.127 Section 382.127 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.127 What procedures apply to stowage of battery-powered mobility aids? (a) Whenever baggage...

  9. 14 CFR 382.127 - What procedures apply to stowage of battery-powered mobility aids?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-powered mobility aids? 382.127 Section 382.127 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.127 What procedures apply to stowage of battery-powered mobility aids? (a) Whenever baggage...

  10. 14 CFR 382.127 - What procedures apply to stowage of battery-powered mobility aids?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-powered mobility aids? 382.127 Section 382.127 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT... DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.127 What procedures apply to stowage of battery-powered mobility aids? (a) Whenever baggage...

  11. Kinematic comparison of Hybrid II test dummy to wheelchair user.

    PubMed

    Dvorznak, M J; Cooper, R A; O'Connor, T J; Boninger, M L; Fitzgerald, S G

    2001-05-01

    Hybrid test dummies provide a safe alternative to human subjects when investigating mechanisms of wheelchair tips and falls. The data that researchers acquire from these test dummies are more useful if the test dummy represents the population being studied. The goal of this study was to measure the validity of a 50th percentile Hybrid II test dummy (HTD) as an accurate representation of a wheelchair user. A test pilot with T8 paraplegia due to traumatic spinal cord injury served as a basis for validation. Simple modifications were made to the HTD to approximate the trunk stability characteristics of a person with a spinal cord injury. An HTD, a modified HTD, and a human test pilot were seated in an electric-powered wheelchair and several braking tests performed. The standard HTD underestimated the kinematics when compared to the test pilot. The modified HTD had less trunk stability than the standard HTD during all braking methods. The modified HTD and wheelchair test pilot had similar trunk stability characteristics during kill switch and joystick full-reverse braking conditions. The modified HTD is a satisfactory representation of a wheelchair user with a spinal cord injury; however, the modified test dummy underestimates the trunk dynamics during the less extreme joystick release braking. Work should continue on the development of a low-speed, low-impact test dummy that emulates the wheelchair user population.

  12. Prevalence of Wheelchair and Scooter Use Among Community-Dwelling Canadians.

    PubMed

    Smith, Emma M; Giesbrecht, Edward M; Mortenson, W Ben; Miller, William C

    2016-08-01

    Mobility impairments are the third leading cause of disability for community-dwelling Canadians. Wheelchairs and scooters help compensate for these challenges. There are limited data within the last decade estimating the prevalence of wheelchair and scooter use in Canada. The aims of this study were: (1) to estimate the prevalence of wheelchair and scooter use in Canada and (2) to explore relevant demographic characteristics of wheelchair and scooter users. This study was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional national survey. The Canadian Survey on Disability (2012) collected data on wheelchair and scooter use from community-dwelling individuals aged 15 years and over with a self-identified activity limitation on the National Household Survey. Prevalence estimates were calculated as weighted frequencies, with cross-tabulations to determine the number of wheelchair and scooter users in Canada, by province, and demographic characteristics (ie, age, sex) and bootstrapping to estimate the variance of all point estimates. There were approximately 288,800 community-dwelling wheelchair and scooter users aged 15 years and over, representing 1.0% of the Canadian population. The sample included 197,560 manual wheelchair users, 42,360 powered wheelchair users, and 108,550 scooter users. Wheelchair and scooter users were predominantly women, with a mean age of 65 years. Approximately 50,620 individuals used a combination of 2 different types of devices. The results are representative of individuals living in the community in Canada and exclude individuals in residential or group-based settings; estimates do not represent the true population prevalence. This analysis is the first in more than 10 years to provide a prevalence estimate and description of wheelchair and scooter users in Canada. Since 2004, there has been an increase in the proportion of the population who use wheelchairs and scooters, likely related to an aging Canadian population. These new prevalence data

  13. Prevalence of Wheelchair and Scooter Use Among Community-Dwelling Canadians

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Emma M.; Giesbrecht, Edward M.; Mortenson, W. Ben

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobility impairments are the third leading cause of disability for community-dwelling Canadians. Wheelchairs and scooters help compensate for these challenges. There are limited data within the last decade estimating the prevalence of wheelchair and scooter use in Canada. Objective The aims of this study were: (1) to estimate the prevalence of wheelchair and scooter use in Canada and (2) to explore relevant demographic characteristics of wheelchair and scooter users. Design This study was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional national survey. Methods The Canadian Survey on Disability (2012) collected data on wheelchair and scooter use from community-dwelling individuals aged 15 years and over with a self-identified activity limitation on the National Household Survey. Prevalence estimates were calculated as weighted frequencies, with cross-tabulations to determine the number of wheelchair and scooter users in Canada, by province, and demographic characteristics (ie, age, sex) and bootstrapping to estimate the variance of all point estimates. Results There were approximately 288,800 community-dwelling wheelchair and scooter users aged 15 years and over, representing 1.0% of the Canadian population. The sample included 197,560 manual wheelchair users, 42,360 powered wheelchair users, and 108,550 scooter users. Wheelchair and scooter users were predominantly women, with a mean age of 65 years. Approximately 50,620 individuals used a combination of 2 different types of devices. Limitations The results are representative of individuals living in the community in Canada and exclude individuals in residential or group-based settings; estimates do not represent the true population prevalence. Conclusion This analysis is the first in more than 10 years to provide a prevalence estimate and description of wheelchair and scooter users in Canada. Since 2004, there has been an increase in the proportion of the population who use wheelchairs and scooters, likely

  14. Development and validation of a physical activity monitor for use on a wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Coulter, E H; Dall, P M; Rochester, L; Hasler, J P; Granat, M H

    2011-03-01

    Keeping physically active is important for people who mobilize using a wheelchair. However, current tools to measure physical activity in the wheelchair are either not validated or limited in their application. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a monitoring system to measure wheelchair movement. The system developed consisted of a tri-axial accelerometer placed on the wheel of a wheelchair and an analysis algorithm to interpret the acceleration signals. The two accelerometer outputs in the plane of the wheel were used to calculate the angle of the wheel. From this, outcome measures of wheel revolutions, absolute angle and duration of movement were derived and the direction of movement (forwards or backwards) could be distinguished. Concurrent validity was assessed in comparison with video analysis in 14 people with spinal cord injury using their wheelchair on an indoor track and outdoor wheelchair skills course. Validity was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC(2,1)) and Bland-Altman plots. The monitoring system demonstrated excellent validity for wheel revolutions, absolute angle and duration of movement (ICC(2,1)>0.999, 0.999, 0.981, respectively) in both manual and powered wheelchairs, when the wheelchair was propelled forwards and backwards, and for movements of various durations. This study has found this monitoring system to be an accurate and objective tool for measuring detailed information on wheelchair movement and maneuvering regardless of the propulsion technique, direction and speed.

  15. How Technology Assists My Daughter to Compete in the Mainstream of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lode, Carol

    1992-01-01

    A mother recounts how her kindergarten-aged daughter (who has severe cerebral palsy and is quadriplegic and nonverbal) is able to participate in mainstream school life with the assistance of an electrically powered wheelchair, an electronic speech output device, and a computer. (DB)

  16. Not your parent's wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Cox, Deborah I

    2004-01-01

    A pediatric wheelchair is indeed a smaller seating system mounted over a mobility base that helps a child get from point A to point B. The important thing to recognize is that the child is every day learning new things about how he or she fits in with the world. That child is making friends and exploring the playground and going to music or art class. He or she may be starting and ending the day with a parent, but midday is spent interacting with the school's bus driver, teachers, counselor, and therapists. It is the responsibility of the rehab specialist to make sure that, while using a wheelchair to get from point A to point B in all of these different settings and with all of these different people, that disability does not slow the child down.

  17. Restaurant wheelchair accessibility.

    PubMed

    McClain, L; Beringer, D; Kuhnert, H; Priest, J; Wilkes, E; Wilkinson, S; Wyrick, L

    1993-07-01

    This study was designed to determine the compliance of restaurants to the wheelchair accessibility standards set forth in the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards. The standards that were operationalized in this study are also found in Title III of the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990. The data were collected at 120 sites in three midwestern states. For one who uses a wheelchair, parking the car is often an obstacle to eating out. Only 53% of the restaurants surveyed provide handicapped parking. Entering the building may also be a problem. Of the restaurants that required a ramp, only 66% provided them. Inside the restaurant, the key problems were accessible rest-rooms and the height of tables. The study provided comparisons between restaurants in rural and urban settings, as well as comparisons between conventional restaurants and fast food restaurants. No notable differences emerged for these comparisons.

  18. Measuring Wheelchair Intervention Outcomes: Development of the Wheelchair Outcome Measure

    PubMed Central

    Mortenson, William B; Miller, William C; Miller-Pogar, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Provision of a wheelchair has immediate intuitive benefits; however, it can be difficult to evaluate which wheelchair and seating components best meet an individual’s needs. As well, funding agencies now prefer evidence of outcomes; and therefore measurement upon prescription of a wheelchair or its components is essential to demonstrate the efficacy of intervention. As no existing tool can provide individualized goal-oriented measure of outcome after wheelchair prescription, a research project was undertaken to create the Wheelchair Outcome Measure (WhOM). Method A mixed method research design was employed to develop the instrument, which used in-depth interviews of prescribers, individuals who use wheelchairs and their associates, supplemented by additional questions in which participant preferences in key areas of the measure were quantified. Results The WhOM is a client-specific wheelchair intervention measurement tool that is based on the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Function, Disability, and Health. It identifies desired outcomes at a participation level and also acknowledges concerns about body structure and function. Conclusion The new outcome instrument will allow clients to identify and evaluate the outcomes they wish to achieve with their wheelchairs and seating and provide clinicians a way to quantify outcomes of their interventions in a way that is meaningful to the client and potential funding sources. PMID:19263533

  19. Association Between Mobility, Participation and Wheelchair-Related Factors in Long-term Care Residents Who Use Wheelchairs as their Primary Means of Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Ben Mortenson, W.; Miller, William C.; Backman, Catherine L.; Oliffe, John L.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To explore how wheelchair-related factors, mobility, and participation are associated in a sample of long-term care residents who use wheelchairs as their primary means of mobility. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey SETTINGS Eleven residential care facilities in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia Canada PARTICIPANTS 146 self-responding residents and 118 proxy respondents: mean age 84 years (range 60–103). Most were women (69%), and a small proportion (9%) drove a power wheelchair. MEASUREMENTS The Nursing Home Life Space Diameter Assessment was used to measure resident mobility and the Late Life Function and Disability Instrument: Disability Component was used to measure participation frequency in daily activities. RESULTS Path analysis indicated that wheelchair-related factors were associated with participation frequency directly and indirectly through their relationship with mobility. The final model explained 46% of the variance in resident’s mobility and 53% of the variance in resident’s participation frequency. Wheelchair skills, which include the ability to transfer in and out of and propel a wheelchair, were important predictors of life-space mobility and frequency of participation, and life space mobility was a significant predictor of frequency of participation. Depression was associated with decreased wheelchair skills, mobility and participation frequency. Counter intuitively, perceived environmental barriers were positively associated with frequency of participation. CONCLUSION The findings suggest that by addressing wheelchair-related factors resident’s mobility and participation may be improved, but the efficacy of this approach needs to be confirmed experimentally. PMID:22702515

  20. Vision based interface system for hands free control of an intelligent wheelchair

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Jin Sun; Shin, Yunhee; Kim, Eun Yi

    2009-01-01

    Background Due to the shift of the age structure in today's populations, the necessities for developing the devices or technologies to support them have been increasing. Traditionally, the wheelchair, including powered and manual ones, is the most popular and important rehabilitation/assistive device for the disabled and the elderly. However, it is still highly restricted especially for severely disabled. As a solution to this, the Intelligent Wheelchairs (IWs) have received considerable attention as mobility aids. The purpose of this work is to develop the IW interface for providing more convenient and efficient interface to the people the disability in their limbs. Methods This paper proposes an intelligent wheelchair (IW) control system for the people with various disabilities. To facilitate a wide variety of user abilities, the proposed system involves the use of face-inclination and mouth-shape information, where the direction of an IW is determined by the inclination of the user's face, while proceeding and stopping are determined by the shapes of the user's mouth. Our system is composed of electric powered wheelchair, data acquisition board, ultrasonic/infra-red sensors, a PC camera, and vision system. Then the vision system to analyze user's gestures is performed by three stages: detector, recognizer, and converter. In the detector, the facial region of the intended user is first obtained using Adaboost, thereafter the mouth region is detected based on edge information. The extracted features are sent to the recognizer, which recognizes the face inclination and mouth shape using statistical analysis and K-means clustering, respectively. These recognition results are then delivered to the converter to control the wheelchair. Result & conclusion The advantages of the proposed system include 1) accurate recognition of user's intention with minimal user motion and 2) robustness to a cluttered background and the time-varying illumination. To prove these

  1. Vision based interface system for hands free control of an Intelligent Wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jin Sun; Shin, Yunhee; Kim, Eun Yi

    2009-08-06

    Due to the shift of the age structure in today's populations, the necessities for developing the devices or technologies to support them have been increasing. Traditionally, the wheelchair, including powered and manual ones, is the most popular and important rehabilitation/assistive device for the disabled and the elderly. However, it is still highly restricted especially for severely disabled. As a solution to this, the Intelligent Wheelchairs (IWs) have received considerable attention as mobility aids. The purpose of this work is to develop the IW interface for providing more convenient and efficient interface to the people the disability in their limbs. This paper proposes an intelligent wheelchair (IW) control system for the people with various disabilities. To facilitate a wide variety of user abilities, the proposed system involves the use of face-inclination and mouth-shape information, where the direction of an IW is determined by the inclination of the user's face, while proceeding and stopping are determined by the shapes of the user's mouth. Our system is composed of electric powered wheelchair, data acquisition board, ultrasonic/infra-red sensors, a PC camera, and vision system. Then the vision system to analyze user's gestures is performed by three stages: detector, recognizer, and converter. In the detector, the facial region of the intended user is first obtained using Adaboost, thereafter the mouth region is detected based on edge information. The extracted features are sent to the recognizer, which recognizes the face inclination and mouth shape using statistical analysis and K-means clustering, respectively. These recognition results are then delivered to the converter to control the wheelchair. The advantages of the proposed system include 1) accurate recognition of user's intention with minimal user motion and 2) robustness to a cluttered background and the time-varying illumination. To prove these advantages, the proposed system was tested with

  2. Effect of wheelchair mass, tire type and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J K; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheelchair mass, solid vs. pneumatic tires and tire pressure on physical strain and wheelchair propulsion technique. 11 Able-bodied participants performed 14 submaximal exercise blocks on a treadmill with a fixed speed (1.11 m/s) within 3 weeks to determine the effect of tire pressure (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% of the recommended value), wheelchair mass (0 kg, 5 kg, or 10 kg extra) and tire type (pneumatic vs. solid). All test conditions (except pneumatic vs. solid) were performed with and without instrumented measurement wheels. Outcome measures were power output (PO), physical strain (heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), gross mechanical efficiency (ME)) and propulsion technique (timing, force application). At 25% tire pressure PO and subsequently VO2 were higher compared to 100% tire pressure. Furthermore, a higher tire pressure led to a longer cycle time and contact angle and subsequently lower push frequency. Extra mass did not lead to an increase in PO, physical strain or propulsion technique. Solid tires led to a higher PO and physical strain. The solid tire effect was amplified by increased mass (tire × mass interaction). In contrast to extra mass, tire pressure and tire type have an effect on PO, physical strain or propulsion technique of steady-state wheelchair propulsion. As expected, it is important to optimize tire pressure and tire type.

  3. Neuromechanical adaptations during a robotic powered exoskeleton assisted walking session.

    PubMed

    Ramanujam, Arvind; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M; Garbarini, Erica; Asselin, Pierre; Pilkar, Rakesh; Forrest, Gail F

    2017-04-20

    To evaluate gait parameters and neuromuscular profiles of exoskeleton-assisted walking under Max Assist condition during a single-session for; (i) able bodied (AB) individuals walking assisted with (EXO) and without (non-EXO) a powered exoskeleton, (ii) non-ambulatory SCI individuals walking assisted with a powered exoskeleton. Single-session. Motion analysis laboratory. Four AB individuals and four individuals with SCI. Powered lower extremity exoskeleton. Temporal-spatial parameters, kinematics, walking velocity and electromyography data. AB individuals in exoskeleton showed greater stance time and a significant reduction in walking velocity (P < 0.05) compared to non-EXO walking. Interestingly, when the AB individuals voluntarily assisted the exoskeleton movements, they walked with an increased velocity and lowered stance time to resemble that of slow walking. For SCI individuals, mean percent stance time was higher and walking velocity was lower compared to all AB walking conditions (P < 0.05). There was muscle activation in several lower limb muscles for SCI group. For AB individuals, there were similarities among EXO and non-EXO walking conditions however there were differences in several lower limb EMGs for phasing of muscle activation. The data suggests that our AB individuals experienced reduction in walking velocity and muscle activation amplitudes while walking in the exoskeleton and moreover with voluntary control there is a greater temporal-spatial response of the lower limbs. Also, there are neuromuscular phasic adaptions for both AB and SCI groups while walking in the exoskeleton that are inconsistent to non-EXO gait muscle activation.

  4. Wheelchair ramp navigation in snow and ice-grit conditions.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Edward D; O'Neill, Patricia A; Desrosiers, Marcel M; Robertson, D Gordon

    2010-10-01

    To explore manual wheelchair propulsion strategies for ramp ascent and descent in snow and snow-ice-grit conditions. Cross-sectional study. Climatic Engineering and Testing Chamber (Ottawa, Canada). Manual wheelchair users (N=11) who typically self-propel their wheelchair in winter. Ramp ascent and descent at 3 grades (1:10, 1:12, 1:16) and 2 winter conditions (packed snow, packed snow with a freezing rain cover, and traction grit). Type of ascent and descent strategy, success rate, number and severity of obstructions, average speed, and perceived ramp navigation rating. A questionnaire regarding the subject's past experiences with wheelchair propulsion in winter. Snow accumulation on ramps at 1:10 grade will render the ramp inaccessible for many wheelchair users who do not have external assistance. For snow conditions, the transition area from the level group to the first 2m of ramp incline were the most difficult to traverse for both ascent and descent. All subjects were able to ascend and descend the ramp for the ice-grit condition. Two-railing propulsion is a preferred strategy for ice-grit ramp navigation because of enhanced trajectory control and reducing the potential for wheel-slip problems. Backwards ramp ascent was a successful strategy for ascent in soft-snow conditions. The 1:16 grade is preferred for winter ramp navigation. Backwards ramp ascent for snow conditions should be considered for people with sufficient shoulder and trunk range of motion. Two handrails are recommended for exterior ramps for both propulsion and wheelchair extraction from ruts and other snow-related obstacles. For ice ramp navigation, the amount of grit required and the effective time (ie, time to when grit becomes embedded in snow-ice, becoming much less effective) should be addressed in further research. Front wheels typically available with manual wheelchairs are not appropriate for soft-snow conditions. Copyright © 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine

  5. A conceptual framework to assess effectiveness in wheelchair provision

    PubMed Central

    Kankipati, Padmaja

    2017-01-01

    Background Currently, inadequate wheelchair provision has forced many people with disabilities to be trapped in a cycle of poverty and deprivation, limiting their ability to access education, work and social facilities. This issue is in part because of the lack of collaboration among various stakeholders who need to work together to design, manufacture and deliver such assistive mobility devices. This in turn has led to inadequate evidence about intervention effectiveness, disability prevalence and subsequent costeffectiveness that would help facilitate appropriate provision and support for people with disabilities. Objectives In this paper, we describe a novel conceptual framework that can be tested across the globe to study and evaluate the effectiveness of wheelchair provision. Method The Comparative Effectiveness Research Subcommittee (CER-SC), consisting of the authors of this article, housed within the Evidence-Based Practice Working Group (EBP-WG) of the International Society of Wheelchair Professionals (ISWP), conducted a scoping review of scientific literature and standard practices used during wheelchair service provision. The literature review was followed by a series of discussion groups. Results The three iterations of the conceptual framework are described in this manuscript. Conclusion We believe that adoption of this conceptual framework could have broad applications in wheelchair provision globally to develop evidence-based practices. Such a perspective will help in the comparison of different strategies employed in wheelchair provision and further improve clinical guidelines. Further work is being conducted to test the efficacy of this conceptual framework to evaluate effectiveness of wheelchair service provision in various settings across the globe. PMID:28936421

  6. RESNA Wheelchair Service Provision Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arledge, Stan; Armstrong, William; Babinec, Mike; Dicianno, Brad E.; Digiovine, Carmen; Dyson-Hudson, Trevor; Pederson, Jessica; Piriano, Julie; Plummer, Teresa; Rosen, Lauren; Schmeler, Mark; Shea, Mary; Stogner, Jody

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the Wheelchair Service Provision Guide is to provide an appropriate framework for identifying the essential steps in the provision of a wheelchair. It is designed for use by all participants in the provision process including consumers, family members, caregivers, social service and health care professionals, suppliers,…

  7. Evaluation of Dynamics of Pushing a Wheelchair Up or Down a Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyawaki, Kazuto; Sasaki, Makoto; Iwami, Takehiro; Obinata, Goro; Shimada, Yoichi

    Japan's progressing aging society increasingly needs evaluation of equipment used for human assistance. Earlier studies have evaluated the use of wheelchairs. However, the manner in which the equipment moderates the generated consumption energy of helpers has not been described sufficiently. This study performs mechanical evaluation of a helper's walking using a wheelchair on a slope. We use the Musculoskeletal Model to estimate the joint moment and energy consumption. Results obtained with 14 volunteers who assisted these wheelchair experiments were considered for cases in which the energy consumption of the wheelchair increased by 13% from that of a normal gait when moving up an incline. This evaluation method is useful for developing practical assistance equipment.

  8. Wheelchair interventions, services and provision for disabled children: a mixed-method systematic review and conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wheelchairs for disabled children (≤18 years) can provide health, developmental and social benefits. World Health Organisation and United Kingdom Government reports demonstrate the need for improved access to wheelchairs both locally and internationally. The use of health economics within this field is lacking. Provision of wheelchairs based on cost-effectiveness evidence is not currently possible. We conducted the first systematic review in this field to incorporate evidence of effectiveness, service user perspectives, policy intentions and cost-effectiveness in order to develop a conceptual framework to inform future research and service development. Methods We used an adapted EPPI-Centre mixed-method systematic review design with narrative summary, thematic and narrative synthesis. 11 databases were searched. Studies were appraised for quality using one of seven appropriate tools. A conceptual framework was developed from synthesised evidence. Results 22 studies and 14 policies/guidelines were included. Powered wheelchairs appear to offer benefits in reduced need for caregiver assistance; improved communicative, personal-social and cognitive development; and improved mobility function and independent movement. From 14 months of age children can learn some degree of powered wheelchair driving competence. However, effectiveness evidence was limited and low quality. Children and parents placed emphasis on improving social skill and independence. Participation in wider society and development of meaningful relationships were key desired outcomes. Policy intentions and aspirations are in line with the perspectives of children and parents, although translation of policy recommendations into practice is lacking. Conclusions There is a distinct lack of high quality effectiveness and economic evidence in this field. Social and health needs should be seen as equally important when assessing the mobility needs of disabled children. Disabled children and

  9. A sports wheelchair for low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Authier, Erica L; Pearlman, Jon; Allegretti, Ana L; Rice, Ian; Cooper, Rory A

    Appropriate wheelchairs for basic mobility needs are still not commonly available in low-income countries, although several organizations are working toward this goal. After basic mobility is secured it is important to provide more diverse assistive technology to allow people with disabilities to more completely participate in society and live healthy lives. Our goal was to design an affordable sports wheelchair that would allow individuals in low-income countries to participate in basketball. Design requirements established for the sports wheelchair included: removable anti-tippers, adjustable tension backrest, 24'' wheels, adjustable seat dump, variable camber, 4'' casters, fore-aft axle position, removable bumpers, height adjustable footrest, four wheels, single anti-tipper (pivot), cost less than $125 without wheels, 16'' seat width and backrest height, and nylon upholstery. The wheelchair was designed using 3D modeling, standard materials, and standard tools. An affordable wheelchair, versatile enough to be used for a variety of sports and even everyday use, was designed and prototyped successfully. Documentation for the design including step-by-step directions, engineering drawings, and photographs are available at the Human Engineering Research Laboratories website (http://www.herlpitt.org/intw.htm). Future work on the prototype should include design refinement including adaptations for other sports, and standards testing.

  10. Towards an intelligent wheelchair system for users with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Montesano, Luis; Díaz, Marta; Bhaskar, Sonu; Minguez, Javier

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes and evaluates an intelligent wheelchair, adapted for users with cognitive disabilities and mobility impairment. The study focuses on patients with cerebral palsy, one of the most common disorders affecting muscle control and coordination, thereby impairing movement. The wheelchair concept is an assistive device that allows the user to select arbitrary local destinations through a tactile screen interface. The device incorporates an automatic navigation system that drives the vehicle, avoiding obstacles even in unknown and dynamic scenarios. It provides the user with a high degree of autonomy, independent from a particular environment, i.e., not restricted to predefined conditions. To evaluate the rehabilitation device, a study was carried out with four subjects with cognitive impairments, between 11 and 16 years of age. They were first trained so as to get acquainted with the tactile interface and then were recruited to drive the wheelchair. Based on the experience with the subjects, an extensive evaluation of the intelligent wheelchair was provided from two perspectives: 1) based on the technical performance of the entire system and its components and 2) based on the behavior of the user (execution analysis, activity analysis, and competence analysis). The results indicated that the intelligent wheelchair effectively provided mobility and autonomy to the target population.

  11. Infrastructure development assistance modeling for nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J. H.; Hwang, K.; Park, K. M.; Kim, S. W.; Lee, S. M.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a model, a general frame to be utilized in assisting newcomer countries to start a nuclear power program. A nuclear power plant project involves technical complexity and high level of investment with long duration. Considering newcomers are mostly developing countries that lack the national infrastructure, key infrastructure issues may constitute the principal constraints to the development of a nuclear power program. In this regard, it is important to provide guidance and support to set up an appropriate infrastructure when we help them with the first launch of nuclear power plant project. To date, as a sole nuclear power generation company, KHNP has been invited many times to mentor or assist newcomer countries for their successful start of a nuclear power program since Republic of Korea is an exemplary case of a developing country which began nuclear power program from scratch and became a major world nuclear energy country in a short period of time. Through hosting events organized to aid newcomer countries' initiation of nuclear power projects, difficulties have been recognized. Each event had different contents according to circumstances because they were held as an unstructured and one-off thing. By developing a general model, we can give more adequate and effective aid in an efficient way. In this paper, we created a model to identify necessary infrastructures at the right stage, which was mainly based on a case of Korea. Taking into account the assistance we received from foreign companies and our own efforts for technological self-reliance, we have developed a general time table and specified activities required to do at each stage. From a donor's perspective, we explored various ways to help nuclear infrastructure development including technical support programs, training courses, and participating in IAEA technical cooperation programs on a regular basis. If we further develop the model, the next task would be to

  12. Physiology of wheelchair racing in athletes with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Bhambhani, Yagesh

    2002-01-01

    Wheelchair racing is one of the most popular sporting activities of individuals with spinal cord injury. Athletes with this impairment have unique changes in metabolic, cardiorespiratory, neuromuscular and thermoregulatory systems, which reduce their overall physiological capacity compared with able-bodied individuals or individuals with other types of impairments. This review on spinal cord injury: presents the International Stoke Mandeville Games Federation classification of wheelchair athletes; describes methods commonly used to characterise anaerobic and aerobic fitness; presents the findings of physiological studies that have evaluated wheelchair racing performance; identifies the risks associated with temperature regulation when competing in wheelchair races; and discusses special conditions that can influence wheelchair racing performance. Currently there is limited research that has examined the relationship between sprint or distance wheelchair racing performance and the anaerobic and aerobic components of physical fitness. Although the descriptive evidence indicates that the profiles of these athletes reflect their training and participation in these specific events, the association between their physiological profiles and real or simulated racing performance is unclear. The generally accepted concept that high values of aerobic and anaerobic power are strongly correlated with endurance and sprint racing performance, respectively, are not necessarily true in this population. Athletes with spinal cord injury have an impaired thermoregulatory capacity, because the compromised autonomic and somatic nervous system functions disrupt control of skin blood flow and sweating below the level of the lesion. As a result, they may be more susceptible to hyperthermia during distance wheelchair racing performance. Wheelchair athletes should follow recommendations advocated for able-bodied individuals to minimise their risks of heat stress during competition. Many

  13. Anthropometry and Performance in Wheelchair Basketball.

    PubMed

    Granados, Cristina; Yanci, Javier; Badiola, Aduna; Iturricastillo, Aitor; Otero, Montse; Olasagasti, Jurgi; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Gil, Susana M

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated whether anthropometric characteristics, generic and specific sprinting, agility, strength, and endurance capacity could differentiate between First-Division and Third-Division wheelchair basketball (WB) players. A First-Division WB team (n = 8; age = 36.05 ± 8.25 years, sitting body height = 91.38 ± 4.24 cm, body mass = 79.80 ± 12.63 kg) and a Third-Division WB team (n = 11; age = 31.10 ± 6.37 years, sitting body height = 85.56 ± 6.48 cm, body mass = 71.18 ± 17.63 kg) participated in the study. Wheelchair sprint, agility, strength, and endurance tests were performed. The First-Division team was faster (8.7%) in 20 m without the ball, more agile (13-22%), stronger (18-33%), covered more distance (20%) in the endurance test, and presented higher values of rate of perceived exertion for the exercise load (48%) than the Third-Division team. Moreover, the individual 20-m sprint time values correlated inversely with the individual strength/power values (from r = -0.54 to -0.77, p ≤ 0.05, n = 19). Wheelchair basketball coaches should structure strength and conditioning training to improve sprint and agility and evaluate players accordingly, so that they can receive appropriate training stimuli to match the physiological demands of their competitive level.

  14. Strength training for wheelchair users.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, G M; Shephard, R J

    1990-01-01

    Sedentary adult males with spinal lesions, all habitual wheelchair users, were allocated to exercise (n = 11) and control (n = 4) groups. A Cybex II dynamometer was used to assess peak power, average power, total work and muscular endurance for elbow flexion/extension, shoulder flexion/extension and shoulder abduction/adduction at five angular velocities, on recruitment and after eight and 16 weeks of forearm ergometer training (three days/week). Small sub-groups of the exercised subjects were assigned to high or low intensity endurance effort (70 or 40 per cent of maximal oxygen intake) and long or short training sessions (40 or 20 minutes per session). Despite the aerobic nature of the activity, gains of average power were registered by the two muscle groups most involved in the ergometer task (shoulder extension and elbow flexion). In keeping with current theories of training, gains were largest with prolonged, high intensity activity at angular velocities approximating those adopted during training. PMID:2350664

  15. Optimal Time Allocation in Backscatter Assisted Wireless Powered Communication Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Bin; Yang, Zhen; Gui, Guan; Sari, Hikmet

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a wireless powered communication network (WPCN) assisted by backscatter communication (BackCom). This model consists of a power station, an information receiver and multiple users that can work in either BackCom mode or harvest-then-transmit (HTT) mode. The time block is mainly divided into two parts corresponding to the data backscattering and transmission periods, respectively. The users first backscatter data to the information receiver in time division multiple access (TDMA) during the data backscattering period. When one user works in the BackCom mode, the other users harvest energy from the power station. During the data transmission period, two schemes, i.e., non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and TDMA, are considered. To maximize the system throughput, the optimal time allocation policies are obtained. Simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed model. PMID:28587171

  16. Disparities in wheelchair procurement by payer among people with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Groah, Suzanne L; Ljungberg, Inger; Lichy, Alison; Oyster, Michelle; Boninger, Michael L

    2014-05-01

    To identify insurance provider-related disparities in the receipt of lightweight, customizable manual wheelchairs or power wheelchairs with programmable controls among community-dwelling people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Six Spinal Cord Injury Model System centers. A multicenter cross-sectional study. A total of 359 individuals at least 16 years of age or older and 1 year after SCI who use a manual or power wheelchair as their primary means of mobility. The subjects were stratified by payer, and payers were grouped according to reimbursement characteristics as follows: Medicaid/Department of Vocational Rehabilitation (DVR), private/prepaid, Medicare, Worker's Compensation (WC)/Veterans Affairs (VA), and self pay. Demographic, wheelchair, and payer data were collected by medical record review and face-to-face interview. There were 125 participants in the Medicaid/DVR group, 120 in the private/prepaid group, 55 in the Medicare group, 30 in the WC/VA group, and 29 in the self-pay group. For manual wheelchair users, the likelihood of having a lightweight, customizable wheelchair was 97.5% for private/prepaid, 96.3% for Medicaid/DVR, 94.1% for WC/VA, 87.5% for Medicare, and 82.6% for self pay. For power wheelchair users, those with WC/VA (100%) were most likely to receive a customizable power wheelchair with programmable controls, followed by private/prepaid (95.1%), Medicaid/DVR (86.0 %), Medicare (83.9%), and self pay (50.0%). The only payer group for which all beneficiaries received wheelchairs that met standard of care were power wheelchairs provided by WC/VA. Fewer than 90% of people whose manual wheelchair was paid for by Medicare and self pay, and whose power wheelchair was paid for by Medicaid/DVR, Medicare, and self pay did not meet standard of care. Although these findings need to be correlated with long-term risks, such as overuse injuries, breakdowns, and participation, this study demonstrates that disparities in wheelchair procurement by insurance

  17. The Tongue Enables Computer and Wheelchair Control for People with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeonghee; Park, Hangue; Bruce, Joy; Sutton, Erica; Rowles, Diane; Pucci, Deborah; Holbrook, Jaimee; Minocha, Julia; Nardone, Beatrice; West, Dennis; Laumann, Anne; Roth, Eliot; Jones, Mike; Veledar, Emir; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-01-01

    The Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless and wearable assistive technology, designed to allow individuals with severe motor impairments such as tetraplegia to access their environment using voluntary tongue motion. Previous TDS trials used a magnetic tracer temporarily attached to the top surface of the tongue with tissue adhesive. We investigated TDS efficacy for controlling a computer and driving a powered wheelchair in two groups of able-bodied subjects and a group of volunteers with spinal cord injury (SCI) at C6 or above. All participants received a magnetic tongue barbell and used the TDS for five to six consecutive sessions. The performance of the group was compared for TDS versus keypad and TDS versus a sip-and-puff device (SnP) using accepted measures of speed and accuracy. All performance measures improved over the course of the trial. The gap between keypad and TDS performance narrowed for able-bodied subjects. Despite participants with SCI already having familiarity with the SnP, their performance measures were up to three times better with the TDS than with the SnP and continued to improve. TDS flexibility and the inherent characteristics of the human tongue enabled individuals with high-level motor impairments to access computers and drive wheelchairs at speeds that were faster than traditional assistive technologies but with comparable accuracy. PMID:24285485

  18. The tongue enables computer and wheelchair control for people with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonghee; Park, Hangue; Bruce, Joy; Sutton, Erica; Rowles, Diane; Pucci, Deborah; Holbrook, Jaimee; Minocha, Julia; Nardone, Beatrice; West, Dennis; Laumann, Anne; Roth, Eliot; Jones, Mike; Veledar, Emir; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-11-27

    The Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless and wearable assistive technology, designed to allow individuals with severe motor impairments such as tetraplegia to access their environment using voluntary tongue motion. Previous TDS trials used a magnetic tracer temporarily attached to the top surface of the tongue with tissue adhesive. We investigated TDS efficacy for controlling a computer and driving a powered wheelchair in two groups of able-bodied subjects and a group of volunteers with spinal cord injury (SCI) at C6 or above. All participants received a magnetic tongue barbell and used the TDS for five to six consecutive sessions. The performance of the group was compared for TDS versus keypad and TDS versus a sip-and-puff device (SnP) using accepted measures of speed and accuracy. All performance measures improved over the course of the trial. The gap between keypad and TDS performance narrowed for able-bodied subjects. Despite participants with SCI already having familiarity with the SnP, their performance measures were up to three times better with the TDS than with the SnP and continued to improve. TDS flexibility and the inherent characteristics of the human tongue enabled individuals with high-level motor impairments to access computers and drive wheelchairs at speeds that were faster than traditional assistive technologies but with comparable accuracy.

  19. Economic viability of photovoltaic power for development assistance applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bifano, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the development assistance market and examines a number of specific photovoltaic (PV) development assistance field tests, including water pumping/grain grinding (Tangaye, Upper Volta), vaccine refrigerators slated for deployment in 24 countries, rural medical centers to be installed in Ecuador, Guyana, Kenya and Zimbabwe, and remote earth stations to be deployed in the near future. A comparison of levelized energy cost for diesel generators and PV systems covering a range of annual energy consumptions is also included. The analysis does not consider potential societal, environmental or political benefits associated with PV power. PV systems are shown to be competitive with diesel generators, based on life cycle cost considerations, assuming a system price of $20/W(peak), for applications having an annual energy demand of up to 6000 kilowatt-hours per year.

  20. Economic viability of photovoltaic power for development assistance applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bifano, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses the development assistance market and examines a number of specific photovoltaic (PV) development assistance field tests, including water pumping/grain grinding (Tangaye, Upper Volta), vaccine refrigerators slated for deployment in 24 countries, rural medical centers to be installed in Ecuador, Guyana, Kenya and Zimbabwe, and remote earth stations to be deployed in the near future. A comparison of levelized energy cost for diesel generators and PV systems covering a range of annual energy consumptions is also included. The analysis does not consider potential societal, environmental or political benefits associated with PV power. PV systems are shown to be competitive with diesel generators, based on life cycle cost considerations, assuming a system price of $20/W(peak), for applications having an annual energy demand of up to 6000 kilowatt-hours per year.

  1. Economic viability of photovoltaic power for development assistance applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bifano, W.J.

    1982-09-01

    This paper briefly discusses the development assistance market and examines a number of specific PV development assistance field tests including water pumping/grain grinding (Tangaye, Upper Volta), vaccine refrigerators slated for deployment in 24 countries, rural medical centers to be installed in Ecuador, Guyana, Kenya and Zimbabwe, and remote earth stations to be deployed in the near future. A comparison of levelized energy cost for diesel generators and PV systems covering a range of annual energy consumptions is also included. The analysis does not consider potential societal, environmental or political benefits associated with PV power. PV systems are shown to be competitive with diesel generators based on life cycle cost considerations, assuming a system price of $20/W(peak), for applications having an annual energy demand of up to 6000 kilowatt-hours per year.

  2. Wheelchairs, walkers, and canes: what does Medicare pay for, and who benefits?

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jennifer L; Agree, Emily M; Kasper, Judith D

    2005-01-01

    Medicare's role in the distribution of mobility-related assistive technology has not been well documented, yet rapid growth and regional variation in spending, and concerns over "in-the-home" coverage criteria, highlight the need for facts. Using the 2001 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, we find that 6.2 percent percent of beneficiaries obtained mobility assistive technology under the Medicare durable medical equipment (DME) benefit. These beneficiaries were disproportionately poor, disabled, and users of both acute and postacute services. Average per item spending ranged from $52 for canes to $6,208 for power wheelchairs. Among beneficiaries who acquired such technology through the DME benefit, these devices comprised just 2 percent of overall Medicare spending.

  3. An independent shopping experience for wheelchair users through augmented reality and RFID.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Zulqarnain; Pous, Rafael; Norrie, Christopher S

    2017-06-23

    People with physical and mobility impairments continue to struggle to attain independence in the performance of routine activities and tasks. For example, browsing in a store and interacting with products located beyond an arm's length may be impossible without the enabling intervention of a human assistant. This research article describes a study undertaken to design, develop, and evaluate potential interaction methods for motor-impaired individuals, specifically those who use wheelchairs. Our study includes a user-centered approach, and a categorization of wheelchair users based upon the severity of their disability and their individual needs. We designed and developed access solutions that utilize radio frequency identification (RFID), augmented reality (AR), and touchscreen technologies in order to help people who use wheelchairs to carry out certain tasks autonomously. In this way, they have been empowered to go shopping independently, free from reliance upon the assistance of others. A total of 18 wheelchair users participated in the completed study.

  4. Hybrid power supplies: A capacitor-assisted battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catherino, Henry A.; Burgel, Joseph F.; Shi, Peter L.; Rusek, Andrew; Zou, Xiulin

    A hybrid electrochemical power supply is a concept that circumvents the need for designing any single power source to meet some extraordinary application requirement. A hybrid allows using components designed for near optimal operation without having to make unnecessary performance sacrifices. In many cases some additional synergistic effects appear. In this study, an electrochemical capacitor was employed as a power assist for a battery. An engine starting load was numerically modeled in the time domain and simulations were carried out. Actual measurements were then taken on the cranking of a diesel engine removed from a 5.0-tonne military truck and cranked in an environmental chamber. The cranking currents delivered by each power source were measured in the accessible current loops. This permitted the model parameters to be identified and, by doing that, studies using the analytical model demonstrated the merit of this hybrid application. The general system response of the battery/capacitor configuration was then modeled as a function of temperature. Doing this revealed electrical the interaction between the hybrid components. This study illustrates another case for advocating hybridized power systems.

  5. Wind-assist irrigation and electrical-power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, V.; Starcher, K.

    1982-07-01

    A wind turbine is mechanically connected to an existing irrigation well. The system can be operated in three modes: electric motor driving the water turbine pump. Wind assist mode where wind turbine supplements power from the utility line to drive the water turbine pump. At wind speeds of 12 m/s and greater, the wind turbine can pump water (15 kW) and feed power (10 kW) back into the utility grid at the same time. Electrical generation mode where the water pump is disconnected and all power is fed back to the utility grid. The concept is technically viable as the mechanical connection allows for a smooth transfer of power in parallel with an existing power source. Minor problems caused delays and major problems of two rotor failures precluded enough operation time to obtain a good estimation of the economics. Because reliability and maintenance are difficult problems with prototype or limited production wind energy conversion systems, the expense of the demonstration project has exceeded the estimated cost by a large amount.

  6. Comparing handrim biomechanics for treadmill and overground wheelchair propulsion

    PubMed Central

    Kwarciak, Andrew M.; Turner, Jeffrey T.; Guo, Liyun; Richter, W. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Study design Cross-sectional study. Objectives To compare handrim biomechanics recorded during overground propulsion to those recorded during propulsion on a motor-driven treadmill. Setting Biomechanics laboratory. Methods Twenty-eight manual wheelchair users propelled their own wheelchairs, at a self-selected speed, on a low-pile carpet and on a wheelchair accessible treadmill. Handrim biomechanics were recorded with an OptiPush instrumented wheelchair wheel. Results Across the two conditions, all handrim biomechanics were found to be similar and highly correlated (r > 0.85). Contact angle, peak force, average force, and peak axle moment differed by 1.6% or less across the two conditions. While not significant, power output and cadence tended to be slightly higher for the treadmill condition (3.5% and 3.6%, respectively), due to limitations in adjusting the treadmill grade. Conclusion Based on the results of this study, a motor-driven treadmill can serve as a valid surrogate for overground studies of wheelchair propulsion. PMID:21042332

  7. Voice Controlled Wheelchair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Michael Condon, a quadraplegic from Pasadena, California, demonstrates the NASA-developed voice-controlled wheelchair and its manipulator, which can pick up packages, open doors, turn a TV knob, and perform a variety of other functions. A possible boon to paralyzed and other severely handicapped persons, the chair-manipulator system responds to 35 one-word voice commands, such as "go," "stop," "up," "down," "right," "left," "forward," "backward." The heart of the system is a voice-command analyzer which utilizes a minicomputer. Commands are taught I to the computer by the patient's repeating them a number of times; thereafter the analyzer recognizes commands only in the patient's particular speech pattern. The computer translates commands into electrical signals which activate appropriate motors and cause the desired motion of chair or manipulator. Based on teleoperator and robot technology for space-related programs, the voice-controlled system was developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory under the joint sponsorship of NASA and the Veterans Administration. The wheelchair-manipulator has been tested at Rancho Los Amigos Hospital, Downey, California, and is being evaluated at the VA Prosthetics Center in New York City.

  8. Improvement of the classification system for wheelchair rugby: athlete priorities.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Viola C; Hart, Anne L; van Limbeek, Jacques; Vanlandewijck, Yves C

    2014-10-01

    A representative sample (N=302) of the wheelchair rugby population responded to a survey about the classification system based on prioritized items by International Wheelchair Rugby Federation members. Respondents stated, "The classification system is accurate but needs adjustments" (56%), "Any athlete with tetraequivalent impairment should be allowed to compete" (72%), "Athletes with cerebral palsy and other coordination impairments should be classified with a system different than the current one" (75%), and "The maximal value for trunk should be increased from 1.0 to 1.5" (67%). A minority stated, "Wheelchair rugby should only be open to spinal cord injury and other neurological conditions" (36%) and "There should be a 4.0 class" (33%). Results strongly indicated that athletes and stakeholders want adjustments to the classification system in two areas: a focus on evaluation of athletes with impairments other than loss of muscle power caused by spinal cord injury and changes in classification of trunk impairment.

  9. A hydraulic seat-rise wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Purves, W K

    1983-01-01

    A hydraulic seat-rise wheelchair constructed for a patient experiencing severe difficulty getting into and out of a wheelchair is described. The seat-rise mechanism, activated by a hydraulic cylinder, is constructed to locate within a wheelchair frame replacing the seat and back of a normal manual wheelchair. Patient control of the lifting and lowering feature is maintained by controls fitted to the arm of the wheelchair. A wheelchair of this design is most suitable for use by patients who, by virtue of their disability, require it to achieve greater independence.

  10. Variability in bimanual wheelchair propulsion: consistency of two instrumented wheels during handrim wheelchair propulsion on a motor driven treadmill

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Handrim wheelchair propulsion is a complex bimanual motor task. The bimanually applied forces on the rims determine the speed and direction of locomotion. Measurements of forces and torques on the handrim are important to study status and change of propulsion technique (and consequently mechanical strain) due to processes of learning, training or the wheelchair configuration. The purpose of this study was to compare the simultaneous outcomes of two different measurement-wheels attached to the different sides of the wheelchair, to determine measurement consistency within and between these wheels given the expected inter- and intra-limb variability as a consequence of motor control. Methods Nine able-bodied subjects received a three-week low-intensity handrim wheelchair practice intervention. They then performed three four-minute trials of wheelchair propulsion in an instrumented hand rim wheelchair on a motor-driven treadmill at a fixed belt speed. The two measurement-wheels on each side of the wheelchair measured forces and torques of one of the two upper limbs, which simultaneously perform the push action over time. The resulting data were compared as direct output using cross-correlation on the torque around the wheel-axle. Calculated push characteristics such as power production and speed were compared using an intra-class correlation. Results Measured torque around the wheel axle of the two measurement-wheels had a high average cross-correlation of 0.98 (std=0.01). Unilateral mean power output over a minute was found to have an intra-class correlation of 0.89 between the wheels. Although the difference over the pushes between left and right power output had a high variability, the mean difference between the measurement-wheels was low at 0.03 W (std=1.60). Other push characteristics showed even higher ICC’s (>0.9). Conclusions A good agreement between both measurement-wheels was found at the level of the power output. This indicates a high

  11. Variability in bimanual wheelchair propulsion: consistency of two instrumented wheels during handrim wheelchair propulsion on a motor driven treadmill.

    PubMed

    Vegter, Riemer J K; Lamoth, Claudine J; de Groot, Sonja; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2013-01-29

    Handrim wheelchair propulsion is a complex bimanual motor task. The bimanually applied forces on the rims determine the speed and direction of locomotion. Measurements of forces and torques on the handrim are important to study status and change of propulsion technique (and consequently mechanical strain) due to processes of learning, training or the wheelchair configuration. The purpose of this study was to compare the simultaneous outcomes of two different measurement-wheels attached to the different sides of the wheelchair, to determine measurement consistency within and between these wheels given the expected inter- and intra-limb variability as a consequence of motor control. Nine able-bodied subjects received a three-week low-intensity handrim wheelchair practice intervention. They then performed three four-minute trials of wheelchair propulsion in an instrumented hand rim wheelchair on a motor-driven treadmill at a fixed belt speed. The two measurement-wheels on each side of the wheelchair measured forces and torques of one of the two upper limbs, which simultaneously perform the push action over time. The resulting data were compared as direct output using cross-correlation on the torque around the wheel-axle. Calculated push characteristics such as power production and speed were compared using an intra-class correlation. Measured torque around the wheel axle of the two measurement-wheels had a high average cross-correlation of 0.98 (std=0.01). Unilateral mean power output over a minute was found to have an intra-class correlation of 0.89 between the wheels. Although the difference over the pushes between left and right power output had a high variability, the mean difference between the measurement-wheels was low at 0.03 W (std=1.60). Other push characteristics showed even higher ICC's (>0.9). A good agreement between both measurement-wheels was found at the level of the power output. This indicates a high comparability of the measurement-wheels for the

  12. From big data to rich data: The key features of athlete wheelchair mobility performance.

    PubMed

    van der Slikke, R M A; Berger, M A M; Bregman, D J J; Veeger, H E J

    2016-10-03

    Quantitative assessment of an athlete׳s individual wheelchair mobility performance is one prerequisite needed to evaluate game performance, improve wheelchair settings and optimize training routines. Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) based methods can be used to perform such quantitative assessment, providing a large number of kinematic data. The goal of this research was to reduce that large amount of data to a set of key features best describing wheelchair mobility performance in match play and present them in meaningful way for both scientists and athletes. To test the discriminative power, wheelchair mobility characteristics of athletes with different performance levels were compared. The wheelchair kinematics of 29 (inter-)national level athletes were measured during a match using three inertial sensors mounted on the wheelchair. Principal component analysis was used to reduce 22 kinematic outcomes to a set of six outcomes regarding linear and rotational movement; speed and acceleration; average and best performance. In addition, it was explored whether groups of athletes with known performance differences based on their impairment classification also differed with respect to these key outcomes using univariate general linear models. For all six key outcomes classification showed to be a significant factor (p<0.05). We composed a set of six key kinematic outcomes that accurately describe wheelchair mobility performance in match play. The key kinematic outcomes were displayed in an easy to interpret way, usable for athletes, coaches and scientists. This standardized representation enables comparison of different wheelchair sports regarding wheelchair mobility, but also evaluation at the level of an individual athlete. By this means, the tool could enhance further development of wheelchair sports in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. From Wheelchair to Cane

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Amanda; Berbrayer, David

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spina bifida is associated with foot deformities, which may lead to foot ulcers, osteomyelitis, and limb amputation. Calcanectomy and Symes amputations have been reported successful in spina bifida. There is lack of evidence for transtibial amputations. This case describes a 27-yr-old woman with L4 level spina bifida who underwent bilateral transtibial amputations. She ambulated with bilateral ankle foot orthoses and canes until age 22. At age 22, she had bilateral foot reconstructive surgeries complicated by nonunion, ulcerations, and osteomyelitis. She was using a wheelchair by age 25. She had elective bilateral transtibial amputations at age 27 for progressive osteomyelitis. Four weeks after amputations, she was fit with bilateral prostheses. On completion of 2 mos of rehabilitation, she ambulated with a cane. This case demonstrates good functional outcomes after transtibial amputations in a young spina bifida patient. Prosthetic fitting should be considered for similar, previously high functioning spina bifida patients with transtibial amputation(s). PMID:26259056

  14. Type and Frequency of Reported Wheelchair Repairs and Related Adverse Consequences Among People With Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Toro, Maria Luisa; Worobey, Lynn; Boninger, Michael L; Cooper, Rory A; Pearlman, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the frequency and types of wheelchair repairs and associated adverse consequences. Convenience cross-sectional sample survey. Nine Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems Centers. People with spinal cord injury who use a wheelchair >40h/wk (N=591). Not applicable. Number of repairs needed and resulting adverse consequences, number and types of repairs completed, and location where main repair was completed in the previous 6 months. There were 591 participants responded to the survey, 63.8% (377/591) of them needed ≥1 repair; of these, 27.6% (104/377) experienced ≥1 adverse consequence, including 18.2% (69/377) individuals who were stranded. Of those who needed repairs, 6.9% did not have them completed (26/377). Repairs completed on the wheels and casters were the most frequent repair to manual wheelchairs, whereas repairs to the electrical and power and control systems were the most frequent type of repair on power wheelchairs. Forty percent (79/201) of manual wheelchair users reported completing repairs at home themselves compared with 14% (21/150) of power wheelchair users. Twelve percent of the variance in the odds of facing an adverse consequence because of a wheelchair breakdown can be described as a function of occupation, funding source, and type of wheelchair. Wheelchair repairs are highly prevalent. There are differences in types of repairs and who completes the repairs based on the type of wheelchair. Wheelchair breakdowns result in adverse consequences for users, and there is a deficit between repairs needed and those completed, highlighting the need for interventions that address these problems. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Powered orthosis and attachable power-assist device with Hydraulic Bilateral Servo System.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Kengo; Saito, Yukio; Oshima, Toru; Higashihara, Takanori

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the developments and control strategies of exoskeleton-type robot systems for the application of an upper limb powered orthosis and an attachable power-assist device for care-givers. Hydraulic Bilateral Servo System, which consist of a computer controlled motor, parallel connected hydraulic actuators, position sensors, and pressure sensors, are installed in the system to derive the joint motion of the exoskeleton arm. The types of hydraulic component structure and the control strategy are discussed in relation to the design philosophy and target joints motions.

  16. Plasma"anti-assistance" and"self-assistance" to high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.

    2009-01-30

    A plasma assistance system was investigated with the goal to operate high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) at lower pressure than usual, thereby to enhance the utilization of the ballistic atoms and ions with high kinetic energy in the film growth process. Gas plasma flow from a constricted plasma source was aimed at the magnetron target. Contrary to initial expectations, such plasma assistance turned out to be contra-productive because it led to the extinction of the magnetron discharge. The effect can be explained by gas rarefaction. A better method of reducing the necessary gas pressure is operation at relatively high pulse repetition rates where the afterglow plasma of one pulse assists in the development of the next pulse. Here we show that this method, known from medium-frequency (MF) pulsed sputtering, is also very important at the much lower pulse repetition rates of HiPIMS. A minimum in the possible operational pressure is found in the frequency region between HiPIMS and MF pulsed sputtering.

  17. Psychosocial impact of wheelchair usage on individuals with mobility disability in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Hamzat, T K; Olaleye, O A; Agbomeji, O T

    2015-03-01

    Wheelchairs provide individuals with mobility impairments opportunity for independent living within their environment. However, using this device may have psychosocial impacts with consequent influence on the quality of life of the users. The psychosocial impact of wheelchair usage among individuals with mobility disability in a Nigerian community was investigated. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional survey. People who have been independent users of wheelchair for a minimum of six months prior to the study were recruited from centres for people with disabilities in Ibadan, Nigeria into the study. A profile of their use of the device was documented and the psychosocial impact of wheelchair was assessed using the Psychosocial Impact ofAssistive Devices Scale. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics at p = 0.05. Sixty consenting individuals with mobility disability participated in this study. Their mean age was 38.7 +/- 14.1 years. Majority (90%) were manual wheelchair users and two-thirds (63.3%) had been using the wheelchair for < or = five years. Approximately a third of the participants use their wheelchairs occasionally. There was no significant difference (p=0.26) in the psychosocial impact of wheelchair usage between male and female users. The psychosocial impact of wheelchair was similar between male and female users. However, the impact was higher on the self-esteem of male than female users and lower on their competence than that of their female counterparts. This may be due to stigmatization or a culturally-related unwillingness of men in our environment to be dependent on others.

  18. The Natural-Fit Handrim: Factors Related to Improvement in Symptoms and Function in Wheelchair Users

    PubMed Central

    Dieruf, Kathy; Ewer, Lynette; Boninger, David

    2008-01-01

    Background/Objective: People with spinal cord injury (SCI) may spend several decades using a wheelchair as their primary means of mobility. Secondary injury and a decline in independence over time are common with manual wheelchair users who, in turn, may require increased assistance as time passes. The Natural-Fit contoured handrim has been shown to improve symptoms and function in people with SCI who use manual wheelchairs and who have experienced upper extremity pain. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with improved symptoms and functions. Participants: 87 people who purchased the ergonomic wheelchair handrims. Participants were predominately men, with a median age of 51 to 55 years, median level of injury T10 to T12, median time in a wheelchair of 15 years, and they had used the contoured rims for 1 to 2 years. Methods: This was a mail survey of 217 people who purchased the rims. The survey was mailed out from the manufacturer and was anonymously returned to the physical therapy department of a university. A $10 incentive was offered for returning the survey. Results: The majority of participants reported improvements in upper extremity symptoms, ease of wheelchair propulsion, and functional status. Longer use of the rims was associated with reported improvement in ease of wheelchair propulsion and reduction in pain in hands and wrists. Conclusion: If a simple modification of the wheelchair can help bring about significant changes in the users' symptoms and function, this modification should be incorporated by people who use manual wheelchairs before decline in function begins. Proactive intervention may alleviate symptoms, help the person maintain maximal independence, and prolong the length of time the individual remains independent. PMID:19086716

  19. HMM based automated wheelchair navigation using EOG traces in EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Fayeem; Arof, Hamzah; Mokhtar, Norrima; Mubin, Marizan

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a wheelchair navigation system based on a hidden Markov model (HMM), which we developed to assist those with restricted mobility. The semi-autonomous system is equipped with obstacle/collision avoidance sensors and it takes the electrooculography (EOG) signal traces from the user as commands to maneuver the wheelchair. The EOG traces originate from eyeball and eyelid movements and they are embedded in EEG signals collected from the scalp of the user at three different locations. Features extracted from the EOG traces are used to determine whether the eyes are open or closed, and whether the eyes are gazing to the right, center, or left. These features are utilized as inputs to a few support vector machine (SVM) classifiers, whose outputs are regarded as observations to an HMM. The HMM determines the state of the system and generates commands for navigating the wheelchair accordingly. The use of simple features and the implementation of a sliding window that captures important signatures in the EOG traces result in a fast execution time and high classification rates. The wheelchair is equipped with a proximity sensor and it can move forward and backward in three directions. The asynchronous system achieved an average classification rate of 98% when tested with online data while its average execution time was less than 1 s. It was also tested in a navigation experiment where all of the participants managed to complete the tasks successfully without collisions.

  20. HMM based automated wheelchair navigation using EOG traces in EEG.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Fayeem; Arof, Hamzah; Mokhtar, Norrima; Mubin, Marizan

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a wheelchair navigation system based on a hidden Markov model (HMM), which we developed to assist those with restricted mobility. The semi-autonomous system is equipped with obstacle/collision avoidance sensors and it takes the electrooculography (EOG) signal traces from the user as commands to maneuver the wheelchair. The EOG traces originate from eyeball and eyelid movements and they are embedded in EEG signals collected from the scalp of the user at three different locations. Features extracted from the EOG traces are used to determine whether the eyes are open or closed, and whether the eyes are gazing to the right, center, or left. These features are utilized as inputs to a few support vector machine (SVM) classifiers, whose outputs are regarded as observations to an HMM. The HMM determines the state of the system and generates commands for navigating the wheelchair accordingly. The use of simple features and the implementation of a sliding window that captures important signatures in the EOG traces result in a fast execution time and high classification rates. The wheelchair is equipped with a proximity sensor and it can move forward and backward in three directions. The asynchronous system achieved an average classification rate of 98% when tested with online data while its average execution time was less than 1 s. It was also tested in a navigation experiment where all of the participants managed to complete the tasks successfully without collisions.

  1. Manual wheelchairs: Research and innovation in rehabilitation, sports, daily life and health.

    PubMed

    van der Woude, Lucas H V; de Groot, Sonja; Janssen, Thomas W J

    2006-11-01

    Those with lower limb disabilities are often dependent on manually propelled wheelchairs for their mobility, in Europe today some 3.3 million people. This implies a transfer from leg to arm work for ambulation and all other activities of daily living (ADL). Compared to the legs, arm work is less efficient and more straining, and leads to a lower physical capacity. Also, there is a major risk of mechanical overuse. Problems of long-term wheelchair use are not only pain or discomfort, but also a risk of a physically inactive lifestyle. Subsequently, serious secondary impairments (obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular problems) may eventually emerge. Wheelchair quality, including the ergonomic fitting to the individual may play a preventive role here, but also other modes of physical activity, and the understanding of training, rehabilitation, active lifestyle and sports on health and wellbeing. The 'International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability' (ICF) model, a stress-strain-work capacity model, as well as the ergonomics model that relates human-activity-assistive technology are instrumental to the concepts, structure and aims of research in assistive technology for mobility. Apart from empirical developments and innovations from within wheelchair sports, systematic research has played a role in wheelchair development and design in three important areas: (1) the vehicle mechanics, (2) the human movement system and (3) the wheelchair-user interface. Current practical developments in design and technology are discussed. A position stand on the key-issues of a current and future research agenda in this area is presented.

  2. Equipping an automated wheelchair with an infrared encoder wheel odometer - biomed 2011.

    PubMed

    Schultz, D; Allen, M; Barrett, S F

    2011-01-01

    Assistive technology is a rapidly growing field that provides a degree of freedom and self-sufficiency to people of limited mobility. Smart wheelchairs are a subset of assistive technology, and are designed to be operated by people who are unable to use a traditional control system. Instead, smart wheelchairs are equipped with a combination of automated functionality and steering mechanisms specialized to meet a person’s individual needs. One feature common to the automated capabilities of smart wheelchairs is the tracking system. The wheelchair’s microcontroller needs to know how far the chair has travelled, its speed, and the rotational direction of its wheels in order to successfully navigate through an environment. The purpose of this research was to develop an odometer to track the motion of a motorized wheelchair. Due to federal regulations that prohibit changing the structure or internal mechanics of a medical device, the odometer had to be designed as a separate, removable part. The final design for the odometer consisted of two infrared sensors that measure edge transitions of a segmented black and white encoder wheel. The sensor output was then run through two comparator op amps and a high pass filter to produce a clean, crisp square wave signal output. The signal was then fed to an Atmel ATmega164P microcontroller. The microcontroller was programmed to compare the sensor signal with its internal clock, sense edge transitions, and thereby extrapolate the speed, travelled distance, and rotational direction of the wheelchair.

  3. Telehealth monitor to measure physical activity and pressure relief maneuver performance in wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Ariel V; Eberly, Valerie; Maneekobkunwong, Somboon; Mulroy, Sara J; Requejo, Philip S; Gwin, Joseph T

    2016-09-29

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of a device for monitoring pressure relief maneuvers and physical activity for wheelchair users. The device counts the number of wheel pushes based on wheelchair acceleration and measures pressure relief maneuvers using a seat sensor consisting of three force sensing resistors (FSRs). To establish the feasibility of the seat sensor for the detection of pressure relief maneuvers, 10 wheelchair users and 10 non-disabled controls completed a series of wheelchair depression raises, forward trunk leans, and lateral trunk leans. The seat sensor was placed underneath the user's seat cushion. To establish the feasibility of wheel push counting, 10 full-time wheelchair users navigated a flat 50-m outdoor track and a 100-m outdoor obstacle course during self-propulsion (e.g., wheel pushes) and during assisted-propulsion (e.g., no wheel pushes). Of the 240 performed pressure relief, 225 were properly classified by the seat sensor (accuracy: 94%, sensitivity: 96%, specificity: 80%). Sensitivity was highest for depression raises (98%) and lowest for front lean maneuvers (80%). The wheelchair activity monitor measured 2,112 pushes during the self-propulsion trials compared to 2,162 pushes measured with the instrumented push-rim (97.7%). During assisted-propulsion trials, there were 477 incorrectly identified pushes (8.0 per trial).

  4. Initial Skill Acquisition of Handrim Wheelchair Propulsion: A New Perspective.

    PubMed

    Vegter, Riemer J K; de Groot, Sonja; Lamoth, Claudine J; Veeger, Dirkjan Hej; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into cyclic motor learning processes, hand rim wheelchair propulsion is a suitable cyclic task, to be learned during early rehabilitation and novel to almost every individual. To propel in an energy efficient manner, wheelchair users must learn to control bimanually applied forces onto the rims, preserving both speed and direction of locomotion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mechanical efficiency and propulsion technique during the initial stage of motor learning. Therefore, 70 naive able-bodied men received 12-min uninstructed wheelchair practice, consisting of three 4-min blocks separated by 2 min rest. Practice was performed on a motor-driven treadmill at a fixed belt speed and constant power output relative to body mass. Energy consumption and the kinetics of propulsion technique were continuously measured. Participants significantly increased their mechanical efficiency and changed their propulsion technique from a high frequency mode with a lot of negative work to a longer-slower movement pattern with less power losses. Furthermore a multi-level model showed propulsion technique to relate to mechanical efficiency. Finally improvers and non-improvers were identified. The non-improving group was already more efficient and had a better propulsion technique in the first block of practice (i.e., the fourth minute). These findings link propulsion technique to mechanical efficiency, support the importance of a correct propulsion technique for wheelchair users and show motor learning differences.

  5. Influences of wheelchair-related efficacy on life-space mobility in adults who use a wheelchair and live in the community.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Brodie M; Miller, William C; Eng, Janice J; Backman, Catherine L; Routhier, François

    2014-11-01

    Self-efficacy has important implications for health and functioning in people with limited mobility. However, the influence of self-efficacy on mobility in adults who use wheelchairs has yet to be investigated. The study objective was to: (1) estimate the direct association between wheelchair use self-efficacy and life-space mobility and (2) investigate an indirect effect through wheelchair skills. This was a cross-sectional study. Participants (N=124) were adults who use a wheelchair, live in the community, and were 50 years of age and older (X̅=59.67, range=50-84), with at least 6 months of experience with manual wheelchair use; 60% were men. The 20-item Life-Space Assessment, the 65-item Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale, and the 32-item Wheelchair Skills Test-Questionnaire were used to measure life-space mobility, self-efficacy, and wheelchair skills, respectively. Self-efficacy had a statistically significant association with life-space mobility (nonstandardized regression coefficient=0.23, 95% confidence interval=0.07, 0.39) after controlling for sex, number of comorbidities, geographic location, and assistance with using a wheelchair. This model accounted for 37.1% of the life-space mobility variance, and the unique contribution of self-efficacy was 3.5%. The indirect effect through wheelchair skills was also statistically significant (point estimate=0.21, 95% bootstrapped confidence interval=0.05, 0.43) and accounted for 91.3% of the direct effect of self-efficacy on life-space mobility. This model accounted for 39.2% of the life-space mobility variance. Causality could not be established because of the study design. The self-report nature of data from volunteers may be influenced by recall bias, social desirability, or both. Wheelchair use self-efficacy had both direct and indirect associations with life-space mobility after controlling for confounding variables. Interventions targeted toward improving self-efficacy may lead to improvements in life

  6. Influences of Wheelchair-Related Efficacy on Life-Space Mobility in Adults Who Use a Wheelchair and Live in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Brodie M.; Eng, Janice J.; Backman, Catherine L.; Routhier, François

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-efficacy has important implications for health and functioning in people with limited mobility. However, the influence of self-efficacy on mobility in adults who use wheelchairs has yet to be investigated. Objective The study objective was to: (1) estimate the direct association between wheelchair use self-efficacy and life-space mobility and (2) investigate an indirect effect through wheelchair skills. Design This was a cross-sectional study. Methods Participants (N=124) were adults who use a wheelchair, live in the community, and were 50 years of age and older (X̅=59.67, range=50–84), with at least 6 months of experience with manual wheelchair use; 60% were men. The 20-item Life-Space Assessment, the 65-item Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale, and the 32-item Wheelchair Skills Test-Questionnaire were used to measure life-space mobility, self-efficacy, and wheelchair skills, respectively. Results Self-efficacy had a statistically significant association with life-space mobility (nonstandardized regression coefficient=0.23, 95% confidence interval=0.07, 0.39) after controlling for sex, number of comorbidities, geographic location, and assistance with using a wheelchair. This model accounted for 37.1% of the life-space mobility variance, and the unique contribution of self-efficacy was 3.5%. The indirect effect through wheelchair skills was also statistically significant (point estimate=0.21, 95% bootstrapped confidence interval=0.05, 0.43) and accounted for 91.3% of the direct effect of self-efficacy on life-space mobility. This model accounted for 39.2% of the life-space mobility variance. Limitations Causality could not be established because of the study design. The self-report nature of data from volunteers may be influenced by recall bias, social desirability, or both. Conclusions Wheelchair use self-efficacy had both direct and indirect associations with life-space mobility after controlling for confounding variables. Interventions targeted

  7. Mapping and navigational control for a “smart” wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Dana L; Shea, Kathleen M; Barrett, Steven F

    2012-01-01

    A “smart” wheelchair is in development to provide mobility to those unable to control a traditional wheelchair. A “smart” wheelchair is an autonomous machine with the ability to navigate a mapped environment while avoiding obstacles. The flexibility and complex design of “smart” wheelchairs have made those currently available expensive. Ongoing research at the University of Wyoming has been aimed at designing a cheaper, alternative control system that could be interfaced with a typical powered wheelchair. The goal of this project is to determine methods for mapping and navigational control for the wheelchair. The control system acquires data from eighteen sensors and uses the data to navigate around a pre-programmed map which is stored on a micro SD card. The control system also provides a user interface in the form of a touchscreen LCD. The designed system will be an easy-to-use and cost effective alternative to current “smart” wheelchair technology.

  8. Impact of Physical Activity on Participation and Quality of Life in Individuals who use Prostheses and other Assistive Technology/Lower Extremity Prostheses versus Wheelchair for Functional Performance and Participation of Military and Veteran Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    reintegration, health promotion, self-esteem, and functional independence. Additional findings yielded that the level of lower limb amputations determined...life of those with lower limb amputation. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Sports, prostheses, wheelchairs, community participation, well being 16. SECURITY...Mobility component: - Forty-six veterans (N=46) with lower limb amputation, participated in this portion of the study. This sample was further

  9. Employees Who Use Wheelchairs

    MedlinePlus

    ... situations in more detail. For information on assistive technology and other accommodation ideas, visit JAN's Searchable Online ... to the location and set-up of assistive technology to ensure good ergonomics. Worker: What psychosocial factors ( ...

  10. Adaptive sports technology and biomechanics: wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Rory A; De Luigi, Arthur Jason

    2014-08-01

    Wheelchair sports are an important tool in the rehabilitation of people with severe chronic disabilities and have been a driving force for innovation in technology and practice. In this paper, we will present an overview of the adaptive technology used in Paralympic sports with a special focus on wheeled technology and the impact of design on performance (defined as achieving the greatest level of athletic ability and minimizing the risk of injury). Many advances in manual wheelchairs trace their origins to wheelchair sports. Features of wheelchairs that were used for racing and basketball 25 or more years ago have become integral to the manual wheelchairs that people now use every day; moreover, the current components used on ultralight wheelchairs also have benefitted from technological advances developed for sports wheelchairs. For example, the wheels now used on chairs for daily mobility incorporate many of the components first developed for sports chairs. Also, advances in manufacturing and the availability of aerospace materials have driven current wheelchair design and manufacture. Basic principles of sports wheelchair design are universal across sports and include fit; minimizing weight while maintaining high stiffness; minimizing rolling resistance; and optimizing the sports-specific design of the chair. However, a well-designed and fitted wheelchair is not sufficient for optimal sports performance: the athlete must be well trained, skilled, and use effective biomechanics because wheelchair athletes face some unique biomechanical challenges. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Design features of portable wheelchair ramps and their implications for curb and vehicle access.

    PubMed

    Storr, Tim; Spicer, Julie; Frost, Peggy; Attfield, Steve; Ward, Christopher D; Pinnington, Lorraine L

    2004-05-01

    This study evaluated a range of portable wheelchair ramps to highlight the effect of different product features on ease of use when wheelchair users climb curbs or access vehicles. Twelve portable ramps were evaluated. Although all the ramps were designed to load powered wheelchairs into motor vehicles, they were manufactured in different designs. The ramps were based on a "singlewide" platform or "channel" design. Some ramps had fixed dimensions, whereas others could be reduced in size because they were telescopic or designed to allow folding. Overall, the ramps could be divided into four subgroups on the basis of their key features. These were horizontally and longitudinally folding ramps, telescopic ramps, and ramps with fixed dimensions. The telescopic ramps could be subdivided into "U"-shaped gutter ramps and reverse profile ramps. Product appraisals and trials involving wheelchair users and caregivers of wheelchair users were done to evaluate each of these ramp designs. Although wheelchair ramps are available in a wide range of designs and configurations, we found that no single ramp design successfully met the needs of all wheelchair users or their caregivers. The evaluation highlighted a number of specific problems and potential hazards. Some ramps were found to move during a maneuver, showed poor stability when used with some vehicles, or were too narrow to allow wheelchair castors to pass through the channel without jamming. Some features, such as handles and locking mechanisms, influenced the ease with which the caregivers could use the ramps. Wheelchair users preferred the wide platform ramps because they were able to drive up these with ease and little preparation. The caregivers preferred folding or telescopic channel ramps because these were easier to handle and store.

  12. Association between mobility, participation, and wheelchair-related factors in long-term care residents who use wheelchairs as their primary means of mobility.

    PubMed

    Mortenson, W Ben; Miller, William C; Backman, Catherine L; Oliffe, John L

    2012-07-01

    To explore how wheelchair-related factors, mobility, and participation are associated in a sample of long-term care residents who use wheelchairs as their primary means of mobility. Cross-sectional survey. Eleven residential care facilities in the lower mainland of British Columbia, Canada. One hundred forty-six self-responding residents and 118 proxy respondents: mean age 84 (range 60-103). Most were female (69%), and a small proportion (9%) drove a power wheelchair. The Nursing Home Life Space Diameter Assessment was used to measure resident mobility, and the Late Life Function and Disability Instrument: Disability Component was used to measure participation frequency in daily activities. Path analysis indicated that wheelchair-related factors were associated with participation frequency directly and indirectly through their relationship with mobility. The final model explained 46% of the variance in resident mobility and 53% of the variance in resident participation frequency. Wheelchair skills, which include the ability to transfer in and out of and propel a wheelchair, were important predictors of life-space mobility and frequency of participation, and life space mobility was a significant predictor of frequency of participation. Depression was associated with poorer wheelchair skills and mobility and less-frequent participation. Counterintuitively, perceived environmental barriers were positively associated with frequency of participation. The findings suggest that, by addressing wheelchair-related factors, resident's mobility and participation may be improved, but the efficacy of this approach needs to be confirmed experimentally. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. 76 FR 15221 - Organization and Delegation of Powers and Duties; Assistant Secretary for Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... 49 CFR Part 1 RIN 9991-AA56 Organization and Delegation of Powers and Duties; Assistant Secretary for... Security Act of 2007 (Act) (Pub. L. 110-140; December 19, 2007) to the Assistant Secretary for... was signed into law. Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1.59 delegates to the Assistant...

  14. Prevalence of Sensor Saturation in Wheelchair Seat Interface Pressure Mapping.

    PubMed

    Wininger, Michael; Crane, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    Pressure mapping is a frequently used tool with great power to provide information about the forces between a patient and a wheelchair seat. One widely recognized limitation to this paradigm is the possibility of data loss due to sensor saturation. In this study, we seek to quantify and describe the saturation observed in the measurement of interface pressures of wheelchair users. We recorded approximately two minutes of interface pressure data from 22 elderly wheelchair users (11M/11F, 80 ± 10 years) and found that 4.7% of data frames had 1 saturated sensor, and 9.0% had more than one saturated sensor, for a total of 13.7% of all frames of data. Data from three of the 22 subjects (13.6%) were substantially affected by the persistent presence of saturated sensors. We conclude that for this population of elderly wheelchair users, sensor saturation may be a concern and should be factored properly into study design a priori.

  15. Control of an Omni-directional Power-assisted Cart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Shigeki; Kitano, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Hideki; Fukunaga, Hideo

    This paper describes an easy-to-operate, omni-directional cart. This cart includes power assist technology that acts for both the longitudinal and rotational motions of the cart. Two objectives are set for this development. The first objective is to overcome the difficulty of shifting the cart laterally. Therefore, the equation for calculating the cart turning speed is modified so that the moment, which is driven by the operating force in the right/left direction, is offset. As a result, it becomes possible to stabilize the balance between the operating force in the right/left direction and the operating moment, and improve the operating performance. The second objective is to overcome the other difficulty whereby, during the one-hand pull-operation, the cart tended to run off course to the right/left. To solve this problem, we add a positional control in the right/left direction. As a result, we reduce the lateral deviation of the cart, and improve the operating performance.

  16. A fundamental model of quasi-static wheelchair biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Leary, M; Gruijters, J; Mazur, M; Subic, A; Burton, M; Fuss, F K

    2012-11-01

    The performance of a wheelchair system is a function of user anatomy, including arm segment lengths and muscle parameters, and wheelchair geometry, in particular, seat position relative to the wheel hub. To quantify performance, researchers have proposed a number of predictive models. In particular, the model proposed by Richter is extremely useful for providing initial analysis as it is simple to apply and provides insight into the peak and transient joint torques required to achieve a given angular velocity. The work presented in this paper identifies and corrects a critical error; specifically that the Richter model incorrectly predicts that shoulder torque is due to an anteflexing muscle moment. This identified error was confirmed analytically, graphically and numerically. The authors have developed a corrected, fundamental model which identifies that the shoulder anteflexes only in the first half of the push phase and retroflexes in the second half. The fundamental model has been extended by the authors to obtain novel data on joint and net power as a function of push progress. These outcomes indicate that shoulder power is positive in the first half of the push phase (concentrically contracting anteflexors) and negative in the second half (eccentrically contracting retroflexors). As the eccentric contraction introduces adverse negative power, these considerations are essential when optimising wheelchair design in terms of the user's musculoskeletal system. The proposed fundamental model was applied to assess the effect of vertical seat position on joint torques and power. Increasing the seat height increases the peak positive (concentric) shoulder and elbow torques while reducing the associated (eccentric) peak negative torque. Furthermore, the transition from positive to negative shoulder torque (as well as from positive to negative power) occurs later in the push phase with increasing seat height. These outcomes will aid in the optimisation of manual

  17. Experimental study on a smart wheelchair system using a combination of stereoscopic and spherical vision.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jordan S; Su, Steven W; Nguyen, Hung T

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the experimental study performance of a smart wheelchair system named TIM (Thought-controlled Intelligent Machine), which uses a unique camera configuration for vision. Included in this configuration are stereoscopic cameras for 3-Dimensional (3D) depth perception and mapping ahead of the wheelchair, and a spherical camera system for 360-degrees of monocular vision. The camera combination provides obstacle detection and mapping in unknown environments during real-time autonomous navigation of the wheelchair. With the integration of hands-free wheelchair control technology, designed as control methods for people with severe physical disability, the smart wheelchair system can assist the user with automated guidance during navigation. An experimental study on this system was conducted with a total of 10 participants, consisting of 8 able-bodied subjects and 2 tetraplegic (C-6 to C-7) subjects. The hands-free control technologies utilized for this testing were a head-movement controller (HMC) and a brain-computer interface (BCI). The results showed the assistance of TIM's automated guidance system had a statistically significant reduction effect (p-value = 0.000533) on the completion times of the obstacle course presented in the experimental study, as compared to the test runs conducted without the assistance of TIM.

  18. Shoulder load during synchronous handcycling and handrim wheelchair propulsion in persons with paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Arnet, Ursina; van Drongelen, Stefan; Scheel-Sailer, Anke; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Veeger, DirkJan H E J

    2012-03-01

    To compare the shoulder load during handcycling and wheelchair propulsion under similar conditions of external power in persons with spinal cord injury. Cross-sectional. Eight men with spinal cord injury. Kinetics and kinematics were measured during handbike and wheelchair propulsion at 25, 35, 45 and 55 W on a treadmill. Shoulder load (glenohumeral contact forces, relative muscle forces) was calculated with the Delft Shoulder and Elbow Model. At all power output levels, glenohumeral contact forces were significantly lower during handcycling compared with wheelchair propulsion (p < 0.001). At 55 W, the mean glenohumeral contact force was 345 N for hand-cycling, whereas it was 585 N for wheelchair propulsion. Also, relative muscle forces were lower during handcycling. The largest differences between handbike and wheelchair propulsion were found in the supraspinatus (4.5% vs. 20.7%), infraspinatus (3.7% vs. 16.5%) and biceps (5.0% vs. 17.7%). Due to continuous force application in hand-cycling, shoulder load was lower compared with wheelchair propulsion. Furthermore, muscles that are prone to overuse injuries were less stressed during handcycling. Therefore, handcycling may be a good alternative for outdoor mobility and may help prevent overuse injuries of the shoulder complex.

  19. Weight Training for Wheelchair Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practical Pointers, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The article examines weight lifting training procedures for persons involved in wheelchair sports. Popular myths about weight training are countered, and guidelines for a safe and sound weight or resistance training program are given. Diagrams and descriptions follow for specific weightlifting activities: regular or standing press, military press,…

  20. A Variable-Height Wheelchair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jack M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes a variable-height wheelchair which can be raised 18 inches above normal chair height by means of an electrically operated screw jack. Photoqraphs illustrate the chair to be convenient and helpful for a handicapped chemistry student. (Author/SK)

  1. Moment generation in wheelchair propulsion.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan-Yuen; Zhao, K D; Su, Fong-Chin; An, Kai-Nan

    2003-01-01

    Wheelchair propulsion is a man machine interaction in which chair design and fit affect the relative positions and orientations of the upper extremity relative to the handrim and wheel axle. To understand these relationships better, experimental data were collected in five hand positions from five subjects exerting maximal effort to propel an instrumented wheelchair with its wheel in a locked position. The results of experiments revealed that the progression moment was greater at both initial and terminal propulsion positions and smaller in the mid-propulsion position. The vertical and horizontal force components were directed radially away from the wheel axle posterior to the dead centre position and radially towards the wheel axle anterior to top dead centre. Subsequently, a subject-specific quasi-static model of the upper extremity which maximized wheel progression moment was developed to augment our understanding of experimental measures. Model-predicted trends in progression moments and hand force direction were similar to experiment. Model predictions revealed that the optimal progression moment generation could potentially be affected by an individual's anthropometric parameters, joint strengths and also the direction of force applied by the hand on the handrim. Through wheelchair fitting and training of wheelchair users, it may be possible to improve propulsion technique.

  2. A Variable-Height Wheelchair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jack M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes a variable-height wheelchair which can be raised 18 inches above normal chair height by means of an electrically operated screw jack. Photoqraphs illustrate the chair to be convenient and helpful for a handicapped chemistry student. (Author/SK)

  3. Getting the Right Wheelchair for Travel: A WC19-Compliant Wheelchair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manary, Miriam A.; Hobson, Douglas A.; Schneider, Lawrence W.

    2007-01-01

    Children and adults who must remain seated in their wheelchairs while traveling are often at a disadvantage in terms of crash safety. The new voluntary wheelchair industry standard WC19 (short for Section 19 of the ANSI/RESNA wheelchair standards) works to close the safety gap by providing design and performance criteria and test methods to assess…

  4. Training a Parent in Wheelchair Skills to Improve Her Child's Wheelchair Skills: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, R. Lee; Smith, Cher; Billard, Jessica L.; Irving, Jenny D. H.; Pitts, Janice E.; White, Rebecca S.

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that training a parent in wheelchair-user and caregiver wheelchair skills would improve the child's wheelchair skills. We studied an 11-year-old girl with spina bifida and her mother. The mother received 4 training sessions averaging 42.5 minutes per session, over a period of 3 weeks. The total pre-training and, 4 weeks…

  5. Characterization of pediatric wheelchair kinematics and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system loading during rear impact.

    PubMed

    Fuhrman, Susan I; Karg, Patricia; Bertocci, Gina

    2010-04-01

    This study characterizes pediatric wheelchair kinematic responses and wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS) loading during rear impact. It also examines the kinematic and loading effects of wheelchair headrest inclusion in rear impact. In two separate rear-impact test scenarios, identical WC19-compliant manual pediatric wheelchairs were tested using a seated Hybrid III 6-year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) to evaluate wheelchair kinematics and WTORS loading. Three wheelchairs included no headrests, and three were equipped with slightly modified wheelchair-mounted headrests. Surrogate WTORS properly secured the wheelchairs; three-point occupant restraints properly restrained the ATD. All tests used a 26km/h, 11g rear-impact test pulse. Headrest presence affected wheelchair kinematics and WTORS loading; headrest-equipped wheelchairs had greater mean seatback deflections, mean peak front and rear tiedown loads and decreased mean lap belt loads. Rear-impact tiedown loads differed from previously measured loads in frontal impact, with comparable tiedown load levels reversed in frontal and rear impacts. The front tiedowns in rear impact had the highest mean peak loads despite lower rear-impact severity. These outcomes have implications for wheelchair and tiedown design, highlighting the need for all four tiedowns to have an equally robust design, and have implications in the development of rear-impact wheelchair transportation safety standards.

  6. Getting the Right Wheelchair for Travel: A WC19-Compliant Wheelchair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manary, Miriam A.; Hobson, Douglas A.; Schneider, Lawrence W.

    2007-01-01

    Children and adults who must remain seated in their wheelchairs while traveling are often at a disadvantage in terms of crash safety. The new voluntary wheelchair industry standard WC19 (short for Section 19 of the ANSI/RESNA wheelchair standards) works to close the safety gap by providing design and performance criteria and test methods to assess…

  7. Wheelchair service provision education in academia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background An estimated 70 million people with disabilities need wheelchairs. To address this global crisis, the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed an eight-step wheelchair service provision model to ensure service quality regardless of resource setting. The International Society of Wheelchair Professionals (ISWP) aims to facilitate the integration of the WHO eight-step model into professional rehabilitation programmes. Objective To develop an enhanced understanding of the current wheelchair service provision education provided in professional rehabilitation programmes worldwide. Methods In a cross-sectional design, an online survey was distributed to ISWP contacts of educational institutions. Quantitative responses were analysed through summary statistics and qualitative answers were analysed by content analyses. When relevant, educational institutions were stratified into resource settings. Results Seventy-two representatives of educational institutions in 21 countries completed the survey. Wheelchair content was taught in 79% of represented institutions, of which 75% of respondents reported using original course material, 10% of respondents used WHO Wheelchair Service Training Packages and 15% of respondents used other available resources. The majority of educational institutions teaching with their own wheelchair-related course material taught ≤ 20 hours. Fourteen of the 15 respondents without wheelchair education, expressed an interest in integrating wheelchair education into their academic curricula. Conclusion The majority of the educational institutions teach wheelchair education; however, there is great variability in what and how it is taught and evaluated. The results demonstrate the need for more in-depth investigation regarding the integration process of wheelchair education in educational institutions, with the ultimate goal of improving wheelchair service provision worldwide. PMID:28936415

  8. Descriptive study about congruence in wheelchair prescription.

    PubMed

    Cherubini, M; Melchiorri, G

    2012-06-01

    Wheelchair prescription is relevant in the prevention of muscular joint pathology, and to facilitate autonomy and the patient's social life. However, in order to reach this goal, respecting the standards with a client-centred approach is essential. Congruence between user ability and wheelchair characteristics by making wheelchairs more "user friendly" can improve patient independence, facilitate integration into society and improve the patient's quality of life. The purpose of this study was to analyse congruence of wheelchair use by our patients, through the consideration of specific recommendations related to each subject's individual clinical situation. The second aim of the paper was to improve wheelchair prescriptions, by identifying the most frequent mistakes in the prescription and construction of wheelchairs. Observational study, outpatient. One hundred-fifty wheelchair users (average age 46.7±17.3) were analysed and described at 16.2±8.5 years from the onset of their disability. The subjects were 80 males and 70 females. Sixty-eight percent of the wheelchairs were not suitable for the patients, while 32% were suitable. We reported the incidence of non-congruence with respect to each wheelchair part. After finding a correlation between the prescription sources and suitability, the authors suggested that wheelchair prescriptions should be carried out in specialized departments, or that physician competences, and collaboration between physicians and technicians must be improved. Our data indicates the necessity to pay more attention to wheelchair prescription while considering ergonomic fitting to the individual. Identifying the most frequent mistakes in the prescription and construction of wheelchairs in this paper could help to make more appropriate prescriptions.

  9. Wheelchair assisted with laser range finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Cheol U.; Wang, Hongbo; Ishimatsu, Takakazu; Ochiai, Tsumoru

    1995-12-01

    The paper presents a wheel chair system with the capability of self-localization and obstacle avoidance. Firstly, the approaches of landmark recognition and the self-localization of the wheel chair are described. Then, the principal of the obstacle avoidance using a laser range finder is described. Subsequently, the total system of the wheel chair is introduced. Finally, a navigation experiment is given. Experimental results indicate the effectiveness of our system.

  10. Event-based and Multi Agent Control of an Innovative Wheelchair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diomin, U.; Witczak, P.; Stetter, R.

    2015-11-01

    Due to the aging population more and more people require mobility assistance in form of a wheelchair. Generally it would be desirable that such wheelchairs would be easy to use and would allow their users the possibility to move in any direction at any time. Concepts which allow such movements are existing since many years but have for several reasons not found their way to the market. Additionally for semi-autonomous (assisted) operation and fully autonomous operation (e. g. an empty wheelchair driving to its charging station) the control task is much less challenging for such drive system, because no complex manoeuvres needs to be considered and planned. In an ongoing research a drive system for a wheelchair was developed which offers such possibilities employing a relatively simple mechanical design. This drive system is based on a certain steering principle which is based on torque differences between different wheels. This allows a relatively simple mechanical design but poses challenges on the control of the vehicle. This paper describes two possible approaches to address this challenge - the use of an event based control and the application of multiple software agents. Both approaches can solve the control problem individually but can also complement each other for better system performance. The paper stars with a description of the wheelchair drive system. Then the asynchronous event based control software is described as well the multi agent based approach. The next sections report the results of the experiments and discuss the further improvements.

  11. Muscle damage occurring in wheelchair sports people.

    PubMed

    Ide, M; Ogata, H; Kobayashi, M; Wada, F

    1997-04-01

    Seven college-age healthy men exercised on a wheelchair treadmill to evaluate muscle damage that may occur from wheelchair propulsion. An experimental model in which a participant performs up-hill running in a wheelchair was prepared. Plasma creatinekinase (CK), myoglobin (Mb) and lactatedehydrogenase (LDH) were measured as parameters. Blood samples were taken pre-, immediately after-, 24 h after- and 72 h after the exercise. All of these parameters significantly increased after the exercise, but their time-courses were apparently varied. It is concluded that wheelchair propulsion causes muscle damage in certain situations such as up-hill running.

  12. Partitioning kinetic energy during freewheeling wheelchair maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Medola, Fausto O; Dao, Phuc V; Caspall, Jayme J; Sprigle, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes a systematic method to partition the kinetic energy (KE) of a free-wheeling wheelchair. An ultralightweight rigid frame wheelchair was instrumented with two axle-mounted encoders and data acquisition equipment to accurately measure the velocity of the drive wheels. A mathematical model was created combining physical specifications and geometry of the wheelchair and its components. Two able-bodied subjects propelled the wheelchair over four courses that involved straight and turning maneuvers at differing speeds. The KE of the wheelchair was divided into three components: translational, rotational, and turning energy. This technique was sensitive to the changing contributions of the three energy components across maneuvers. Translational energy represented the major component of total KE in all maneuvers except a zero radius turn in which turning energy was dominant. Both translational and rotational energies are directly related to wheelchair speed. Partitioning KE offers a useful means of investigating the dynamics of a moving wheelchair. The described technique permits analysis of KE imparted to the wheelchair during maneuvers involving changes in speed and direction, which are most representative of mobility in everyday life. This technique can be used to study the effort required to maneuver different types and configurations of wheelchairs.

  13. [Standard requirements for electric wheelchairs (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fritsch, M

    1979-02-01

    Electric Wheelchairs are driven on public roads. Neither an operating license, liability insurance nor special driving license is necessary according to Road Traffic and Road Licensing Regulations. Statutory regulations prescribe that these wheelchairs must be fitted with two independent brakes and adequate lighting equipment. Safety can be increased by: Totmann brake system - battery servicing - improved battery chargers and technical safety tests. Maintenance of the wheelchair prolongs its life. Social security agencies should allow a large number of the most severely handicapped people to benefit from medically prescribed wheelchairs.

  14. A preliminary model of wheelchair service delivery.

    PubMed

    Eggers, Sara L; Myaskovsky, Larissa; Burkitt, Kelly H; Tolerico, Michelle; Switzer, Galen E; Fine, Michael J; Boninger, Michael L

    2009-06-01

    To integrate and expand on previously published models of wheelchair service delivery, and provide a preliminary framework for developing more comprehensive, descriptive models of wheelchair service delivery for adults with spinal cord injury within the U.S. health care system. Literature review and a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews. Not applicable. Ten academic, clinical, regulatory, and industry experts (Department of Veterans Affairs [VA] and non-VA) in wheelchair service delivery. Not applicable. Interviewees were asked to discuss the full range of variables and stakeholders involved in wheelchair service delivery, and to limit their scope to the provision of primary subsequent or replacement chairs (not backup chairs) to adults within the United States. Most experts we interviewed stressed that clients who require a wheelchair play a central role in the wheelchair service delivery process. Providers (including clinicians, rehabilitation engineers, and rehabilitation counselors) are also critical stakeholders. More so than in other health care settings, suppliers play an integral role in the provision of wheelchairs to clients and may significantly influence the appropriateness of the wheelchair provided. Suppliers often have a direct role in wheelchair service delivery through their interactions with the clinician and/or client. This model also identified a number of system-level factors (including facility administration and standards, policies, and regulations) that influence wheelchair service delivery and ultimately the appropriateness of the wheelchair provided. We developed a detailed, descriptive model of wheelchair service delivery that integrates the delivery process and device outcomes, and includes the patient-level, provider-level, and system-level factors that may directly influence those processes and outcomes. We believe that this detailed model can help clinicians and researchers describe and consider the complexities of wheelchair

  15. Increases in Wheelchair Breakdowns, Repairs, and Adverse Consequences for People with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Worobey, Lynn; Oyster, Michelle; Nemunaitis, Gregory; Cooper, Rory; Boninger, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to report the current incidence of wheelchair breakdowns, repairs, and consequences and to compare current data with historical data. Design A convenience sample survey of 723 participants with spinal cord injury who use a wheelchair for more than 40 hrs/wk treated at a Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems center was conducted. Results Significant increases were found in the number of participants reporting repairs (7.8%) and adverse consequences (23.5%) in a 6-mo period (2006Y2011) compared with historical data (2004Y2006) (P G 0.001). When examining current data, minorities experienced a greater frequency and higher number of reported consequences (P = 0.03). Power wheelchair users reported a higher number of repairs and consequences than did manual wheelchair users (P G 0.001). Wheelchairs equipped with seat functions were associated with a greater frequency of adverse consequences (P = 0.01). Repairs did not vary across funding source, but individuals with wheelchairs provided by Medicare and Medicaid reported a higher frequency of consequences than did the combined group of the Department of Vocational Rehabilitation, Worker’s Compensation, and the Veterans Administration (P = 0.034 and P = 0.013, respectively). Conclusions The incidence and consequences of repairs are increasing from what was already a very high statistic in this United States population. Further investigation into causality is required, and intervention is needed to reverse this potential trend. PMID:22549473

  16. Geospatial Analysis and Technical Assistance for Power Plant Siting Interagency

    SciTech Connect

    Neher, L A

    2002-03-07

    The focus of this contract (in the summer and fall of 2001) was originally to help the California Energy Commission (CEC) locate and evaluate potential sites for electric power generation facilities and to assist the CEC in addressing areas of congestion on transmission lines and natural gas supply line corridors. Subsequent events have reduced the immediate urgency, although not the ultimate need for such analyses. Software technology for deploying interactive geographic information systems (GIS) accessible over the Internet have developed to the point that it is now practical to develop and publish GIS web sites that have substantial viewing, movement, query, and even map-making capabilities. As part of a separate project not funded by the CEC, the GIS Center at LLNL, on an experimental basis, has developed a web site to explore the technical difficulties as well as the interest in such a web site by agencies and others concerned with energy research. This exploratory effort offers the potential or developing an interactive GIS web site for use by the CEC for energy research, policy analysis, site evaluation, and permit and regulatory matters. To help ground the geospatial capabilities in the realistic requirements and needs of the CEC staff, the CEC requested that the GIS Center conduct interviews of several CEC staff persons to establish their current and envisioned use of spatial data and requirements for geospatial analyses. This survey will help define a web-accessible central GIS database for the CEC, which will augment the well-received work of the CEC Cartography Unit. Individuals within each siting discipline have been contacted and their responses to three question areas have been summarized. The web-based geospatial data and analytical tools developed within this project will be available to CEC staff for initial area studies, queries, and informal, small-format maps. It is not designed for fine cartography or for large-format posters such as the

  17. A qualitative examination of wheelchair configuration for optimal mobility performance in wheelchair sports: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mason, Barry S; Porcellato, Lorna; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2010-02-01

    To examine wheelchair athletes' perceptions of wheelchair configuration in relation to aspects of mobility performance. Nine elite wheelchair athletes from wheelchair basketball, wheelchair rugby and wheelchair tennis were interviewed using a semi-structured format. Interview transcripts were analysed using an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, whereby emergent themes with common connections were identified and clustered into 3 superordinate themes: (i) performance indicators; (ii) principal areas of wheelchair configuration; and (iii) supplementary areas of wheelchair configuration. Participants revealed that stability was the most important contributor towards successful performance. Whilst there was some agreement amongst participants on how manipulating most areas of wheelchair configuration influenced performance, opinions were divided as to whether camber had a positive or negative effect on straight line performance. Experienced athletes seemed to display a good understanding of how modifying wheelchair configurations can affect sports performance, yet the methods offered for identifying optimal settings were extremely subjective. Therefore, future quantitative research into specific areas of configuration is imperative to identify these optimums and to inform athletes about the decisions they make when configuring a new sports wheelchair.

  18. Design and development of automatic sharia compliant wheelchair wheels cleaner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaari, Muhammad Farid; Rasli, Ibrahim Ismail Mohammad; Jamaludin, M. Z. Z. Wan; Isa, W. A. Mohamad; M., H.; Rashid, A. H. Abdul

    2017-04-01

    Sharia compliant wheelchair wheel cleaner was developed in order to assist the muslim Person with Disabilities (PWD) to pray in the mosque without leaving their wheelchair because of the filthy wheels. Though there are many wheelchair wheel cleaning system in the market, it is very rare to find sharia compliant cleaning system that applies sertu concept which is one of the cleaning and purification technique in Islamic practice. The sertu concept is based on 6:1 ratio that refers to the six times pipe water cleaning and one time soiled water cleaning. The development process consists of design stage, fabrication and system installation stage and followed by testing stage. During the design stage, the proposed prototype underwent design brainstorming, operation programming and structural simulation analysis. Once fabricated, the cleaner prototype underwent was tested. The results showed that the prototype can cater load up to 100kg with 1.31×10-6 mm shaft bending displacement. The water ejection timing varied approximately 3% compared to the program.

  19. Performance analysis of elite men's and women's wheelchair basketball teams.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Miguel Ángel; Pérez, Javier; Molik, Bartosz; Szyman, Robert J; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify which game-related statistics discriminate winning and losing teams in men's and women's elite wheelchair basketball. The sample comprised all the games played during the Beijing Paralympics 2008 and the World Wheelchair Basketball Championship 2010. The game-related statistics from the official box scores were gathered and data were analysed in 2 groups: balanced games (final score differences ≤ 12 points) and unbalanced games (final score differences >13 points). Discriminant analysis allowed identifying the successful 2-point field-goals and free-throws, the unsuccessful 3-point field-goals and free-throws, the assists and fouls received as discriminant statistics between winning and losing teams in men's balanced games. In women's games, the teams were discriminated only by the successful 2-point field-goals. Linear regression analysis showed that the quality of opposition had great effects in final point differential. The field-goals percentage and free-throws rate were the most important factors in men's games, and field-goals percentage and offensive rebounding percentage in women's games. The identified trends allow improving game understanding and helping wheelchair basketball coaches to plan accurate practice sessions and, ultimately, deciding better in competition.

  20. Attendant Care for College Students with Physical Disabilities Using Wheelchairs: Transition Issues and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burwell, Nequel R.; Wessel, Roger D.; Mulvihill, Thalia

    2015-01-01

    From preschool through high school, accommodation and success, rather than self-advocacy and student development, are the predominant frameworks for students with physical disabilities. Many students with physical disabilities who use wheelchairs are assisted by their family members with daily life activities such as getting out of bed, showering,…

  1. The ergonomics of wheelchair configuration for optimal performance in the wheelchair court sports.

    PubMed

    Mason, Barry S; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing mobility performance in wheelchair court sports (basketball, rugby and tennis) is dependent on a combination of factors associated with the user, the wheelchair and the interfacing between the two. Substantial research has been attributed to the wheelchair athlete yet very little has focused on the role of the wheelchair and the wheelchair-user combination. This article aims to review relevant scientific literature that has investigated the effects of wheelchair configuration on aspects of mobility performance from an ergonomics perspective. Optimizing performance from an ergonomics perspective requires a multidisciplinary approach. This has resulted in laboratory-based investigations incorporating a combination of physiological and biomechanical analyses to assess the efficiency, health/safety and comfort of various wheelchair configurations. To a lesser extent, field-based testing has also been incorporated to determine the effects of wheelchair configuration on aspects of mobility performance specific to the wheelchair court sports. The available literature has demonstrated that areas of seat positioning, rear wheel camber, wheel size and hand-rim configurations can all influence the ergonomics of wheelchair performance. Certain configurations have been found to elevate the physiological demand of wheelchair propulsion, others have been associated with an increased risk of injury and some have demonstrated favourable performance on court. A consideration of all these factors is required to identify optimal wheelchair configurations. Unfortunately, a wide variety of different methodologies have immerged between studies, many of which are accompanied by limitations, thus making the identification of optimal configurations problematic. When investigating an area of wheelchair configuration, many studies have failed to adequately standardize other areas, which has prevented reliable cause and effect relationships being established. In addition, a large

  2. Differentiated perceived exertion and self-regulated wheelchair exercise.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Thomas A; Bishop, Nicolette C; Eston, Roger G; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the utility of the differentiated rating of perceived exertion (RPE) for the self-regulation of submaximal wheelchair propulsion in novice users. Each participant completed a submaximal incremental test and a graded test to exhaustion to determine peak oxygen consumption (Vo(2)peak) on a wheelchair ergometer. On a separate day, two 12-minute intermittent bouts consisting of three 4-minute stages were completed at individualized imposed power outputs equating to light (40% Vo(2)peak) and moderate (60% Vo(2)peak) intensity exercise. On a third occasion, participants were assigned to either the overall group or the peripheral group and were required to self-regulate 12-minute intermittent exercise according to either overall RPE or peripheral RPE reported during the corresponding imposed intensity trial. Laboratory facilities at a university. Preliminary population of able-bodied participants with no prior experience of wheelchair propulsion (N=18). Not applicable. Differences in oxygen consumption (Vo(2)), heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and power output between the imposed and self-regulated exercise trials. No difference was found in physiological responses between the moderate-intensity imposed and RPE-regulated trials in the peripheral group, whereas a significant (P<.05) underproduction in Vo(2) (1.76±.31 vs 1.59±.25L/min) and blood lactate concentration (2.8±0.90 vs 2.21±.83mmol/L) was seen in the overall group. In contrast, a significant (P<.05) overproduction was seen in the peripheral group at a light exercise intensity, whereas no difference was found between all variables during the light-intensity imposed and RPE-regulated trials in the overall group. Peripheral RPE enabled a more precise self-regulation during moderate-intensity wheelchair exercise in novice users. In contrast, overall RPE provided a more accurate stimulus when performing light-intensity propulsion. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation

  3. Biomechanical Evaluation of an Electric Power-Assisted Bicycle by a Musculoskeletal Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takehara, Shoichiro; Murakami, Musashi; Hase, Kazunori

    In this study, we construct an evaluation system for the muscular activity of the lower limbs when a human pedals an electric power-assisted bicycle. The evaluation system is composed of an electric power-assisted bicycle, a numerical simulator and a motion capture system. The electric power-assisted bicycle in this study has a pedal with an attached force sensor. The numerical simulator for pedaling motion is a musculoskeletal model of a human. The motion capture system measures the joint angles of the lower limb. We examine the influence of the electric power-assisted force on each muscle of the human trunk and legs. First, an experiment of pedaling motion is performed. Then, the musculoskeletal model is calculated by using the experimental data. We discuss the influence on each muscle by electric power-assist. It is found that the muscular activity is decreased by the electric power-assist bicycle, and the reduction of the muscular force required for pedaling motion was quantitatively shown for every muscle.

  4. 21 CFR 890.3900 - Standup wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standup wheelchair. 890.3900 Section 890.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3900 Standup wheelchair....

  5. 21 CFR 890.3900 - Standup wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Standup wheelchair. 890.3900 Section 890.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3900 Standup wheelchair....

  6. 21 CFR 890.3900 - Standup wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Standup wheelchair. 890.3900 Section 890.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3900 Standup wheelchair....

  7. 21 CFR 890.3900 - Standup wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Standup wheelchair. 890.3900 Section 890.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3900 Standup wheelchair....

  8. 21 CFR 890.3900 - Standup wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Standup wheelchair. 890.3900 Section 890.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3900 Standup wheelchair....

  9. All-terrain self-leveling wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Andrew; Barrett, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Limited mobility is something that affects approximately 6.8 million Americans. Approximately 1.7 million are using wheelchairs or scooters of some kind to enhance mobility. Everyday obstacles present a challenge to those in a wheelchair. Also, outdoor environments such as campsites, lakes, or even grass fields provide additional challenges for those with limited mobility. This project provides a solution to some of the limitations faced by those in wheelchairs. The wheels and tires of the wheelchair allow navigation through most terrains such as grass, gravel, and sand. Furthermore, as a wheelchair climbs or descends a hill it becomes unstable and the user risks tipping the wheelchair causing injury or even death. The self-leveling wheelchair uses an accelerometer to determine its angle of inclination and depending on user interface choices will display the angle or raise the seat with linear actuators to keep the seat level. This will keep the center of gravity towards the front of the chair when going up a hill and towards the back of the chair when going down a hill. This enhanced stability will give the user the confidence and ability to go places where most traditional wheelchairs can not. The chair has the ability to self-level at up to 45 degree and can provide a manual lift of 6 inches. The design presented in this report is patent pending.

  10. Wheelchair transfer techniques for the dental office.

    PubMed

    Felder, R S; Gillette, V M; Leseberg, K

    1988-01-01

    Dental offices must be made more accessible to individuals who are physically challenged. Transfer techniques for safely moving patients between wheelchairs and dental chairs, sliding transfers, one- and two-person transfers, and methods of accommodating patients in a dental operatory who cannot be transferred from wheelchairs are presented.

  11. Development and preliminary testing of a novel wheelchair integrated exercise/ rehabilitation system.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Beomsoo; Jeon, Doyoung

    2013-06-01

    The people with spinal cord injuries (SCI) or post stroke hemiplegia are easily exposed to secondary problems due to limited mobility. A new wheelchair integrated lower limb exercise/rehabilitation system is proposed to help their daily living and rehabilitation. The system consists of three main modules: 1) an electric wheelchair, 2) a lifter which raises and supports the subject's body weight, and 3) a lower limb exoskeleton. This paper describes the concept of the entire system and configurations of the prototype. In the design of the lower limb exoskeleton, the ergonomic joint mechanisms are introduced to assist the natural daily motions based on the biomechanics of each hip, knee and ankle joint.

  12. Development of a Bayesian recursive algorithm to find free-spaces for an intelligent wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh V; Su, Steven; Nguyen, Hung T

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a new shared control strategy for an intelligent wheelchair using a Bayesian recursive algorithm. Using the local environment information gathered by a laser range finder sensor and commands acquired through a user interface, a Bayesian recursive algorithm has been developed to find the most appropriate free-space, which corresponds to the highest posterior probability value. Then, an autonomous navigation algorithm will assist to manoeuvre the wheelchair in the chosen free-space. Experiment results demonstrate that the new method provides excellent performance with great flexibility and fast response.

  13. Effects of synchronous versus asynchronous mode of propulsion on wheelchair basketball sprinting.

    PubMed

    Faupin, Arnaud; Borel, Benoit; Meyer, Christophe; Gorce, Philippe; Watelain, Eric

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to first investigate synchronous (SYN) versus asynchronous (ASY) mode of propulsion and, second, investigate the wheel camber effects on sprinting performance as well as temporal parameters. Seven wheelchair basketball players performed four maximal eight-second sprints on a wheelchair ergometer. They repeated the test according to two modes of propulsion (SYN and ASY) and two wheel cambers (9° and 15°). The mean maximal velocity and push power output was greater in the synchronous mode compared to the asynchronous mode for both camber angles. However, the fluctuation in the velocity profile is inferior for ASY versus SYN mode for both camber angles. Greater push time/cycle time (Pt/Ct) and arm frequency (AF) for synchronous mode versus asynchronous mode and inversely, lesser Ct and rest time (Rt) values for the synchronous mode, for which greater velocity were observed. SYN mode leads to better performance than ASY mode in terms of maximal propulsion velocity. However, ASY propulsion allows greater continuity of the hand-rim force application, reducing fluctuations in the velocity profile. The camber angle had no effect on ASY and SYN mean maximal velocity and push power output. The study of wheelchair propulsion strategies is important for better understanding physiological and biomechanical impacts of wheelchair propulsion for individuals with disabilities. From a kinematical point of view, this study highlights synchronous mode of propulsion to be more efficient, with regards to mean maximal velocity reaching during maximal sprinting exercises. Even if this study focuses on well-trained wheelchair athletes, results from this study could complement the knowledge on the physiological and biomechanical adaptations to wheelchair propulsion and therefore, might be interesting for wheelchair modifications for purposes of rehabilitation.

  14. Need and use of assistive devices for personal mobility by individuals with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Florio, Jordanne; Arnet, Ursina; Gemperli, Armin; Hinrichs, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the provision, use, and unmet need of assistive devices for personal mobility in the Swiss population with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Community survey 2012 of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study. Participants Individuals aged 16 or older with traumatic or non-traumatic SCI residing in Switzerland. Interventions Not applicable. Outcome Measures Provision, frequency of use, and unmet need (i.e. perceiving the need of a device but it not being provided) of 11 mobility devices were assessed by self-report and analyzed descriptively. Provision of devices was further analyzed by sex, age, SCI etiology, SCI severity, and time since SCI. Results Devices reported highest for provision (N = 492; mean age 55.3 ± 15.1 years; 28.9% female) were adapted cars (78.2%) and manual wheelchairs (69.9%). Provision of various devices markedly varied with age and SCI severity (e.g. 34.6% of those aged 76+ had a walking frame compared to 3.1% of those aged 31–45; 50.0% of participants with complete tetraplegia had a power wheelchair compared to 7.6% of those with complete paraplegia). Many devices were mostly used daily (e.g. manual wheelchair) while others were mostly used less frequently (e.g. handbikes). Unmet need was highest for arm braces (53.2% of those in need) and power assisted wheelchairs (47.3%), and lowest for crutches (11.4%) and manual wheelchairs (4.8%). Conclusion The devices individuals have or use is largely dependent on their age and SCI severity. While most participants have access to basic mobility devices, there is still a considerable degree of unmet need for certain devices. PMID:26666510

  15. Humanitarian Assistance and ’Soft’ Power Projection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-04

    challenge the current dogma that U.S. military humanitarian support must maintain the ‘status quo’ and remain reactionary. The decoupling will occur in...future challenges that go beyond humanitarian assistance. These were not an all inclusive list of similarities between Peace Operations and...Civil Authorities  Intergovernmental organizations (United Nations)  Local population This is not an all inclusive list, but it helps set the

  16. Influence of wheel configuration on wheelchair basketball performance: wheel stiffness, tyre type and tyre orientation.

    PubMed

    Mason, B S; Lemstra, M; van der Woude, L H V; Vegter, R; Goosey-Tolfrey, V L

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to explore the lateral stiffness of different sports wheelchair wheels available to athletes in 'new' and 'used' conditions and to determine the effect of (a) stiffness, (b) tyre type (clincher vs. tubular) and (c) tyre orientation on the physiological and biomechanical responses to submaximal and maximal effort propulsion specific to wheelchair basketball. Eight able-bodied individuals participated in the laboratory-based testing, which took place on a wheelchair ergometer at two fixed speeds (1.1 and 2.2 m s(-1)). Outcome measures were power output and physiological demand (oxygen uptake and heart rate). Three participants with experience of over-ground sports wheelchair propulsion also performed 2 × 20 m sprints in each wheel configuration. Results revealed that wheels differed significantly in lateral stiffness with the 'new' Spinergy wheel shown to be the stiffest (678.2 ± 102.1 N mm(-1)). However the effects of stiffness on physiological demand were minimal compared to tyre type whereby tubular tyres significantly reduced the rolling resistance and power output in relation to clincher tyres. Therefore tyre type (and subsequently inflation pressure) remains the most important aspect of wheel specification for athletes to consider and monitor when configuring a sports wheelchair.

  17. Individual Muscle Contributions to Push and Recovery Subtasks during Wheelchair Propulsion

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Jeffery W.; Richter, W. Mark; Neptune, Richard R.

    2011-01-01

    Manual wheelchair propulsion places considerable physical demand on the upper extremity and is one of the primary activities associated with the high prevalence of upper extremity overuse injuries and pain among wheelchair users. As a result, recent effort has focused on determining how various propulsion techniques influence upper extremity demand during wheelchair propulsion. However, an important prerequisite for identifying the relationships between propulsion techniques and upper extremity demand is to understand how individual muscles contribute to the mechanical energetics of wheelchair propulsion. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use a forward dynamics simulation of wheelchair propulsion to quantify how individual muscles deliver, absorb and/or transfer mechanical power during propulsion. The analysis showed that muscles contribute to either push (i.e. deliver mechanical power to the handrim) or recovery (i.e. reposition the arm) subtasks, with the shoulder flexors being the primary contributors to the push and the shoulder extensors being the primary contributors to the recovery. In addition, significant activity from the shoulder muscles was required during the transition between push and recovery, which resulted in increased co-contraction and upper extremity demand. Thus, strengthening the shoulder flexors and promoting propulsion techniques that improve transition mechanics have much potential to reduce upper extremity demand and improve rehabilitation outcomes. PMID:21397232

  18. Individual muscle contributions to push and recovery subtasks during wheelchair propulsion.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Jeffery W; Richter, W Mark; Neptune, Richard R

    2011-04-29

    Manual wheelchair propulsion places considerable physical demand on the upper extremity and is one of the primary activities associated with the high prevalence of upper extremity overuse injuries and pain among wheelchair users. As a result, recent effort has focused on determining how various propulsion techniques influence upper extremity demand during wheelchair propulsion. However, an important prerequisite for identifying the relationships between propulsion techniques and upper extremity demand is to understand how individual muscles contribute to the mechanical energetics of wheelchair propulsion. The purpose of this study was to use a forward dynamics simulation of wheelchair propulsion to quantify how individual muscles deliver, absorb and/or transfer mechanical power during propulsion. The analysis showed that muscles contribute to either push (i.e., deliver mechanical power to the handrim) or recovery (i.e., reposition the arm) subtasks, with the shoulder flexors being the primary contributors to the push and the shoulder extensors being the primary contributors to the recovery. In addition, significant activity from the shoulder muscles was required during the transition between push and recovery, which resulted in increased co-contraction and upper extremity demand. Thus, strengthening the shoulder flexors and promoting propulsion techniques that improve transition mechanics have much potential to reduce upper extremity demand and improve rehabilitation outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ergonomic evaluation of a wheelchair transportation securement system.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Madiha; Campbell-Kyureghyan, Naira; Frost, Karen; Bertocci, Gina

    2012-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) specifies guidelines covering the securement system and environment for wheeled mobility device (WhMD) passengers on the public bus system in the United States, referred to as the wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS). The misuse or disuse of the WTORS system can be a source of injury for WhMD passengers riding the buses. The purpose of this study was to quantify the risks posed to the bus driver while performing the WTORS procedure using traditional ergonomic analysis methods. Four bus drivers completed the WTORS procedure for a representative passenger seated in three different WhMDs: manual wheelchair (MWC), scooter (SCTR), and power wheelchair (PWC). Potential work-related risks were identified using the four most applicable ergonomic assessment tools: PLIBEL, RULA, REBA, and iLMM. Task evaluation results revealed high levels of risk to be present to drivers during the WTORS procedure. The securement station space design and equipment layout were identified as contributing factors forcing drivers to adopt awkward postures while performing the WTORS task. These risk factors are known contributors to injury and the drivers could opt to improperly secure the passengers to avoid that risk.

  20. Participatory design and validation of mobility enhancement robotic wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Daveler, Brandon; Salatin, Benjamin; Grindle, Garrett G; Candiotti, Jorge; Wang, Hongwu; Cooper, Rory A

    2015-01-01

    The design of the mobility enhancement robotic wheelchair (MEBot) was based on input from electric powered wheelchair (EPW) users regarding the conditions they encounter when driving in both indoor and outdoor environments that may affect their safety and result in them becoming immobilized, tipping over, or falling out of their wheelchair. Phase I involved conducting a participatory design study to understand the conditions and barriers EPW users found to be difficult to drive in/over. Phase II consisted of creating a computer-aided design (CAD) prototype EPW to provide indoor and outdoor mobility that addressed these conditions with advanced applications. Phase III involved demonstrating the advanced applications and gathering feedback from end users about the likelihood they would use the advanced applications. The CAD prototype incorporated advanced applications, including self-leveling, curb climbing, and traction control, that addressed the challenging conditions and barriers discussed with EPW users (n = 31) during the participatory design study. Feedback of the CAD design and applications in phase III from end users (n = 12) showed a majority would use self-leveling (83%), traction control (83%), and curb climbing (75%). The overall design of MEBot received positive feedback from EPW users. However, these opinions will need to be reevaluated through user trials as the design advances.

  1. Wheeled mobility (wheelchair) service delivery: scope of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Greer, Nancy; Brasure, Michelle; Wilt, Timothy J

    2012-01-17

    Identifying the appropriate wheelchair for a person who needs one has implications for both disabled persons and society. For someone with severe locomotive problems, the right wheelchair can affect mobility and quality of life. However, policymakers are concerned about the increasing demand for unnecessarily elaborate chairs. The Office of Inspector General, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, issued 4 reports between 2009 and 2011 detailing fraud and misapplication of Medicare funds for powered wheelchairs, more than a decade after similar concerns were first raised by 4 contractors who process claims for durable medical equipment. Subsequent concerns have arisen about whether some impaired persons who need wheeled mobility devices may now be inappropriately denied coverage. A transparent, evidence-based approach to wheeled mobility service delivery (the matching of mobility-impaired persons to appropriate devices and supporting services) might lessen these concerns. This review describes the process of wheeled mobility service delivery for long-term wheelchair users with complex rehabilitation needs and presents findings from a survey of the literature (published and gray) and interviews with key informants. Recommended steps in the delivery process were identified in textbooks, guidelines, and published literature. Delivery processes shared many commonalities; however, no research supports the recommended approaches. A search of bibliographic databases through March 2011 identified 24 studies that evaluated aspects of wheeled mobility service delivery. Most were observational, exploratory studies designed to determine consumer use of and satisfaction with the process. The evidence base for the effectiveness of approaches to wheeled mobility service delivery is insufficient, and additional research is needed to develop standards and guidelines.

  2. The effects of experience on the energy cost of wheelchair propulsion.

    PubMed

    Croft, L; Lenton, J; Tolfrey, K; Goosey-Tolfrey, V

    2013-12-01

    Gross mechanical efficiency (GE) of experienced wheelchair users is significantly higher than novice able-bodied individuals suggesting energy expenditure (EE) may be reduced in experienced individuals. With knowledge of the energy expended during wheelchair propulsion, nutritional recommendations can be provided for individuals in their early stages of rehabilitation and for habituated wheelchair users. To investigate the effects of experience on EE during wheelchair propulsion at fixed power outputs (PO's). This was an experimental study. The experiment was conducted in a controlled University laboratory. Thirty-one individuals took part in this study. Participants were assigned to a group in accordance to their wheelchair propulsion experience: 1) novice able-bodied individuals (NOV; N.=11), 2) able-bodied individuals habituated to three weeks practice (PRAC; N.=11) and 3) experienced paraplegic daily-wheelchair users (EXP; N.=9). Oxygen uptake, EE, GE% and HR were measured during wheelchair propulsion on a motorised treadmill at 10, 18 and 26 W. Energy expenditure analysis revealed a significant main effect of PO and group (P<0.01) and a significant group by PO interaction (P<0.01). Follow-up pair-wise comparisons revealed significantly lower EE in EXP compared to both other groups (P<0.01), but no difference was shown between NOV and PRAC (P=0.15). A lower relative EE of 20, 22 and 32% was reported in the EXP group compared to the NOV group at 10, 18 and 26 W respectively. In comparison to the PRAC group, the EE of the EXP group was 10, 16 and 26% lower in relative terms at the same PO's respectively. The EXP expended less EE compared to both NOV and PRAC. This finding has great implications for nutritionists and health care professionals working in the field of physical activity and weight management since the EE is influenced by experience.

  3. Autonomous caregiver following robotic wheelchair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnam, E. Venkata; Sivaramalingam, Sethurajan; Vignesh, A. Sri; Vasanth, Elanthendral; Joans, S. Mary

    2011-12-01

    In the last decade, a variety of robotic/intelligent wheelchairs have been proposed to meet the need in aging society. Their main research topics are autonomous functions such as moving toward some goals while avoiding obstacles, or user-friendly interfaces. Although it is desirable for wheelchair users to go out alone, caregivers often accompany them. Therefore we have to consider not only autonomous functions and user interfaces but also how to reduce caregivers' load and support their activities in a communication aspect. From this point of view, we have proposed a robotic wheelchair moving with a caregiver side by side based on the MATLAB process. In this project we discussing about robotic wheel chair to follow a caregiver by using a microcontroller, Ultrasonic sensor, keypad, Motor drivers to operate robot. Using camera interfaced with the DM6437 (Davinci Code Processor) image is captured. The captured image are then processed by using image processing technique, the processed image are then converted into voltage levels through MAX 232 level converter and given it to the microcontroller unit serially and ultrasonic sensor to detect the obstacle in front of robot. In this robot we have mode selection switch Automatic and Manual control of robot, we use ultrasonic sensor in automatic mode to find obstacle, in Manual mode to use the keypad to operate wheel chair. In the microcontroller unit, c language coding is predefined, according to this coding the robot which connected to it was controlled. Robot which has several motors is activated by using the motor drivers. Motor drivers are nothing but a switch which ON/OFF the motor according to the control given by the microcontroller unit.

  4. Shoulder pain: a comparison of wheelchair athletes and nonathletic wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Heather D; Borckardt, Jeffrey J; Alfano, Alan P

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to directly compare the onset and prevalence of shoulder pain in athletic and nonathletic wheelchair users. A questionnaire was distributed to athletic and nonathletic wheelchair-dependent populations. This inquired about presence and duration of shoulder pain, age of subject, level of injury, duration of time since injury, wheelchair use, involvement in sports, and training habits. A total of 257 subjects were involved in the study. The odds of having shoulder pain were twice as high among nonathletes as they were among athletes. This finding represents a significant difference over and above age differences, differences in years spent in a wheelchair, and differences in level of spinal cord injury. Athletes also have an average of 12 yr free of shoulder pain after becoming wheelchair bound, whereas nonathletes have only 8 yr. Promotion of active exercise for wheelchair users is encouraged to decrease shoulder pain, resulting in more functional, pain-free years.

  5. Life-cycle analysis of depot versus rehabilitation manual wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R A; Robertson, R N; Lawrence, B; Heil, T; Albright, S J; VanSickle, D P; Gonzalez, J

    1996-02-01

    The proper selection of a wheelchair requires making several critical decisions, not the least of which is what type of wheelchair is appropriate. The International Organization for Standards (ISO) continues to develop and refine wheelchair standards. Standards allow the objective comparison of products from various sources, permitting consumers or clinicians to assess wheelchairs with which they are not familiar by comparing test results. This study consisted of three components: 1) the comparison of fatigue test results with a planar ANSI/RESNA test dummy to a HERL contoured test dummy; 2) the comparison of fatigue test results for common depot versus common rehabilitation manual wheelchairs; and 3) the comparison of fatigue test results for manual rehabilitation wheelchairs with solid 8-inch casters versus those with pneumatic 8-inch casters. Rehabilitation wheelchairs lasted on average 13.2 times longer than the depot wheelchairs. Both types, tested with the standard ISO-ANSI/RESNA dummy, lasted on average 2.1 times longer than those wheelchairs tested using the contoured dummy. The three rehabilitation wheelchairs equipped with 8-inch pneumatic casters lasted on average 3.2 times longer than the 6 rehabilitation wheelchairs equipped with solid 8-inch casters. The depot wheelchairs cost about 3.4 times as much to operate per cycle or per meter than the rehabilitation wheelchairs. The rehabilitation wheelchairs tended to experience component failures, while the depot wheelchairs tended to experience frame failures. Our testing indicates that the tests in the ISO-ANSI/RESNA standards can relate design features to fatigue test results and durability. Rehabilitation wheelchairs tend to use higher quality materials and better manufacturing practices, and they provide greater mobility for wheelchair users. Purchasers and prescribers of wheelchairs should consider the life-cycle cost and not just the purchase price for wheelchairs.

  6. Road loads acting on manual wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    VanSickle, D P; Cooper, R A; Boninger, M L

    2000-09-01

    A barrier to performing more in-depth analyzes during the wheelchair design process is a lack of dynamic reaction force and moment data, and the instrumentation to collect this data. Instrumentation was developed to collect the dynamic force and moment data. New data collections methodologies and analysis techniques were implemented to facilitate computer-aided-engineering for wheelchair designs. Data were collected during standardized wheelchair fatigue tests, while driving over a simulated road course within a laboratory, and while driving in the community. Seventeen subjects participated in this study. Based upon the three test conditions, a pseudo-statistical distribution of the force and moment data at both a caster and rear wheel was developed. The key parameters describing the distribution and the extremums of the data (minima and maxima) were compared using analysis of variance. The results showed that the force and moment distributions and extreme values were similar for the both sets of human trials (i.e., simulated road course and field trials). However, the standardized testing (i.e., wheelchair fatigue testing) differed from both human trials. The force/moment data gathered during this study are suitable for inputs in finite element analysis and dynamic modeling. Our results suggest that the fatigue tests should be modified to change the magnitude and increase the frequency of the forces and moments imparted on the wheelchair. The data reported from this study can be used to improve wheelchair standards and to facilitate computer-aided-engineer in wheelchair design.

  7. Shoulder pain in female wheelchair basketball players.

    PubMed

    Curtis, K A; Black, K

    1999-04-01

    Descriptive self-report survey. To assess activity level, medical history, and the prevalence and intensity of shoulder and upper extremity pain experienced during functional activities in female athletes who compete in wheelchairs. Previous studies have documented a high incidence of upper extremity soft tissue disorders in athletes who compete in wheelchairs. None of these studies have specifically focused on female athletes who use wheelchairs. Forty-six female wheelchair basketball players completed an anonymous survey that included demographic data, medical history data, and the Wheelchair User's Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI). The WUSPI is a valid and reliable self-report measure scored from 0 to 150, with higher scores indicating a greater intensity of shoulder pain during functional activities. The average age of the respondents was 33.2 (+/- 9.1) years, with an average of 12.5 (+/- 10.2) years of wheelchair use. Their disabilities included 39% spinal cord injury, 28% various lower extremity musculoskeletal and neuromuscular disabilities, 13% postpolio paralysis, 11% spina bifida, and 9% amputations. Only 14% of the subjects reported shoulder pain prior to wheelchair use. In contrast, 72% of the subjects reported shoulder pain since wheelchair use, with 52% reporting current shoulder pain. Overall, the subjects scored an average +/- SD performance-corrected total WUSPI score of 15.6 +/- 20.5 on a scale of 0 to 150 points, with 0 representing no pain. The highest intensity of shoulder pain was reported during household chores, propulsion on ramps or inclines, lifting overhead, and while sleeping. Shoulder and upper extremity pain was a very common problem reported by over 90% of the subjects in this study. Prevention of pain and chronic disability in athletes who use wheelchairs should be addressed by coaches, players, and health care professionals.

  8. An experience on wheelchair bank management.

    PubMed

    Lau, Hongyin; Tam, Eric W C; Cheng, Jack C Y

    2008-11-01

    In this article, we described the wheelchair bank program at a local hospital and our experiences in managing the service over the past 10 years from 1996 to 2005. This article also reported statistical information related to the acquisitions of wheelchairs and adaptive components, including body support and pressure relief systems. The cost benefit of recycling seating and mobility equipments for use by children with neuromuscular diseases was revealed. With the reference of the reported data, the demands on specific types of wheelchairs and adaptive parts were disclosed to facilitate budget planning of similar services.

  9. Wheelchair wheels for use on sand.

    PubMed

    Hillman, M

    1994-05-01

    Mobility over sand and other rough surfaces can be a major problem for people in wheelchairs. From tests with a simple prototype, model tests and theoretical calculations the following observations were made for an attendant propelled chair. The rolling resistance of a wheelchair on sand may be improved by pulling, rather than pushing the chair. The use of a ball wheel at the front improves the rolling resistance, though standard large diameter rear wheels give acceptable performance. From these observations a prototype device for fitment to a standard wheelchair has been designed.

  10. Effect of holding a racket on propulsion technique of wheelchair tennis players.

    PubMed

    de Groot, S; Bos, F; Koopman, J; Hoekstra, A E; Vegter, R J K

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine possible differences in propulsion technique between propelling the wheelchair with and without a racket in the hand. Eight experienced wheelchair tennis players performed three submaximal exercise tests and six sprint tests on a wheelchair ergometer. Torque and velocity were measured during the tests and power output and timing variables were calculated. Differences between the conditions with and without racket were analyzed. When propelling with the racket, the racket side showed a significantly lower push time (P = 0.03), lower percentage push time (P = 0.001), shorter contact angle (P < 0.001), more power loss before (P = 0.006) and after (P = 0.001) the push, a higher peak (P = 0.009) and mean (P = 0.005) power output during the push, and a lower mean overall velocity (P = 0.03). When the same hand is compared when propelling with and without racket or when the sprint data were analyzed, similar significant differences were found. Propelling the wheelchair while holding a racket has negative effects on the propulsion technique and may lead to injuries of the upper extremity. The longer time needed to couple the hand with the racket to the rim leads to higher power losses and subsequently higher power output generation during the shorter push phase. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Force application during handcycling and handrim wheelchair propulsion: an initial comparison.

    PubMed

    Arnet, Ursina; van Drongelen, Stefan; Veeger, D H; van der Woude L, H V

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the external applied forces, the effectiveness of force application and the net shoulder moments of handcycling in comparison with handrim wheelchair propulsion at different inclines. Ten able-bodied men performed standardized exercises on a treadmill at inclines of 1%, 2.5% and 4% with an instrumented handbike and wheelchair that measured three-dimensional propulsion forces. The results showed that during handcycling significantly lower mean forces were applied at inclines of 2.5% (P < .001) and 4% (P < .001) and significantly lower peak forces were applied at all inclines (1%: P = .014, 2.5% and 4%: P < .001). At the 2.5% incline, where power output was the same for both devices, total forces (mean over trial) of 22.8 N and 27.5 N and peak forces of 40.1 N and 106.9 N were measured for handbike and wheelchair propulsion. The force effectiveness did not differ between the devices (P = .757); however, the effectiveness did increase with higher inclines during handcycling whereas it stayed constant over all inclines for wheelchair propulsion. The resulting peak net shoulder moments were lower for handcycling compared with wheelchair propulsion at all inclines (P < .001). These results confirm the assumption that handcycling is physically less straining.

  12. A review of factors influencing participation in social and community activities for wheelchair users

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Emma M.; Sakakibara, Brodie M.; Miller, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To systematically identify factors associated with participation in social and community activities for adult wheelchair users (WCUs). Data Sources Pubmed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EMBASE. Study Selection Quantitative and qualitative peer-reviewed publications were included which were written in English, reported original research, and investigated factors associated with social and community participation in adult WCUs. Data Extraction The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were used; factors were organized using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Data Synthesis Thirty-five studies were selected: two of power WCUs, 10 of manual WCUs, and 23 of both. Six qualitative studies, ranging in quality from 8/10 to 9/10, and 29 quantitative studies were included, ranging in quality from 4/15 to 11/15. Fifteen Body Function, four Activity, five Participation, 15 Environmental, and 14 Personal Factors were found to be associated with social and community participation. Conclusions Social and community participation of wheelchair users is associated with factors from all ICF domains. Wheelchair factors, accessibility, skills with wheelchair use, pain, finances, and education are modifiable factors frequently reported to be associated with participation. Experimental research focusing on modifiable factors is needed to further our understanding of factors influencing participation among wheelchair users. PMID:25472004

  13. A neuromechanics-based powered ankle exoskeleton to assist walking post-stroke: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kota Z; Lewek, Michael D; Sawicki, Gregory S

    2015-02-25

    In persons post-stroke, diminished ankle joint function can contribute to inadequate gait propulsion. To target paretic ankle impairments, we developed a neuromechanics-based powered ankle exoskeleton. Specifically, this exoskeleton supplies plantarflexion assistance that is proportional to the user's paretic soleus electromyography (EMG) amplitude only during a phase of gait when the stance limb is subjected to an anteriorly directed ground reaction force (GRF). The purpose of this feasibility study was to examine the short-term effects of the powered ankle exoskeleton on the mechanics and energetics of gait. Five subjects with stroke walked with a powered ankle exoskeleton on the paretic limb for three 5 minute sessions. We analyzed the peak paretic ankle plantarflexion moment, paretic ankle positive work, symmetry of GRF propulsion impulse, and net metabolic power. The exoskeleton increased the paretic plantarflexion moment by 16% during the powered walking trials relative to unassisted walking condition (p < .05). Despite this enhanced paretic ankle moment, there was no significant increase in paretic ankle positive work, or changes in any other mechanical variables with the powered assistance. The exoskeleton assistance appeared to reduce the net metabolic power gradually with each 5 minute repetition, though no statistical significance was found. In three of the subjects, the paretic soleus activation during the propulsion phase of stance was reduced during the powered assistance compared to unassisted walking (35% reduction in the integrated EMG amplitude during the third powered session). This feasibility study demonstrated that the exoskeleton can enhance paretic ankle moment. Future studies with greater sample size and prolonged sessions are warranted to evaluate the effects of the powered ankle exoskeleton on overall gait outcomes in persons post-stroke.

  14. Feasibility of a Hydraulic Power Assist System for Use in Hybrid Neuroprostheses

    PubMed Central

    Foglyano, Kevin M.; Kobetic, Rudi; To, Curtis S.; Bulea, Thomas C.; Schnellenberger, John R.; Audu, Musa L.; Nandor, Mark J.; Quinn, Roger D.; Triolo, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Feasibility of using pressurized hydraulic fluid as a source of on-demand assistive power for hybrid neuroprosthesis combining exoskeleton with functional neuromuscular stimulation was explored. Hydraulic systems were selected as an alternative to electric motors for their high torque/mass ratio and ability to be located proximally on the exoskeleton and distribute power distally to assist in moving the joints. The power assist system (PAS) was designed and constructed using off-the-shelf components to test the feasibility of using high pressure fluid from an accumulator to provide assistive torque to an exoskeletal hip joint. The PAS was able to provide 21 Nm of assistive torque at an input pressure of 3171 kPa with a response time of 93 ms resulting in 32° of hip flexion in an able-bodied test. The torque output was independent of initial position of the joint and was linearly related to pressure. Thus, accumulator pressure can be specified to provide assistive torque as needed in exoskeletal devices for walking or stair climbing beyond those possible either volitionally or with electrical stimulation alone. PMID:27017963

  15. Feasibility of a Hydraulic Power Assist System for Use in Hybrid Neuroprostheses.

    PubMed

    Foglyano, Kevin M; Kobetic, Rudi; To, Curtis S; Bulea, Thomas C; Schnellenberger, John R; Audu, Musa L; Nandor, Mark J; Quinn, Roger D; Triolo, Ronald J

    2015-01-01

    Feasibility of using pressurized hydraulic fluid as a source of on-demand assistive power for hybrid neuroprosthesis combining exoskeleton with functional neuromuscular stimulation was explored. Hydraulic systems were selected as an alternative to electric motors for their high torque/mass ratio and ability to be located proximally on the exoskeleton and distribute power distally to assist in moving the joints. The power assist system (PAS) was designed and constructed using off-the-shelf components to test the feasibility of using high pressure fluid from an accumulator to provide assistive torque to an exoskeletal hip joint. The PAS was able to provide 21 Nm of assistive torque at an input pressure of 3171 kPa with a response time of 93 ms resulting in 32° of hip flexion in an able-bodied test. The torque output was independent of initial position of the joint and was linearly related to pressure. Thus, accumulator pressure can be specified to provide assistive torque as needed in exoskeletal devices for walking or stair climbing beyond those possible either volitionally or with electrical stimulation alone.

  16. Recent trends in assistive technology for mobility.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Rachel E; Fregly, Benjamin J; Boninger, Michael L; Chan, Leighton; Rodgers, Mary M; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2012-04-20

    Loss of physical mobility makes maximal participation in desired activities more difficult and in the worst case fully prevents participation. This paper surveys recent work in assistive technology to improve mobility for persons with a disability, drawing on examples observed during a tour of academic and industrial research sites in Europe. The underlying theme of this recent work is a more seamless integration of the capabilities of the user and the assistive technology. This improved integration spans diverse technologies, including powered wheelchairs, prosthetic limbs, functional electrical stimulation, and wearable exoskeletons. Improved integration is being accomplished in three ways: 1) improving the assistive technology mechanics; 2) improving the user-technology physical interface; and 3) sharing of control between the user and the technology. We provide an overview of these improvements in user-technology integration and discuss whether such improvements have the potential to be transformative for people with mobility impairments.

  17. Recent trends in assistive technology for mobility

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Loss of physical mobility makes maximal participation in desired activities more difficult and in the worst case fully prevents participation. This paper surveys recent work in assistive technology to improve mobility for persons with a disability, drawing on examples observed during a tour of academic and industrial research sites in Europe. The underlying theme of this recent work is a more seamless integration of the capabilities of the user and the assistive technology. This improved integration spans diverse technologies, including powered wheelchairs, prosthetic limbs, functional electrical stimulation, and wearable exoskeletons. Improved integration is being accomplished in three ways: 1) improving the assistive technology mechanics; 2) improving the user-technology physical interface; and 3) sharing of control between the user and the technology. We provide an overview of these improvements in user-technology integration and discuss whether such improvements have the potential to be transformative for people with mobility impairments. PMID:22520500

  18. Mechanical design and simulation of two-wheeled wheelchair using solidworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altalmas, T. M.; Ahmad, S.; Aula, A.; Akmeliawati, R.; Sidek, S. N.

    2013-12-01

    This article is presented a new design of two-wheeled wheelchair that can balance on two wheels to make it suitable in the narrow areas, especially in the domestic environments; it has the ability to extend the height of the chair to help the user to act independently in the life for example, in the library to pick and put books on the shelves. The 3D model has been built up using SolidWorks Software. Nowadays, SolidWorks environment is considered as a powerful tool that is helping designer to design products and attain its performance before physical prototype stage. SolidWorks simulation model has been employed to test the frame of the wheelchair under the weight of the human body and the upper part of the wheelchair. The static analysis has been done on the frame using steel and aluminium; however the aluminium material has been selected due to its light weight

  19. Displacement-load force-perceived weight relationships in lifting objects with power-assist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, S. M. Mizanoor; Ikeura, Ryojun; Nobe, Masaya; Sawai, Hideki

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of a 1-DOF power assist system (PAS) for lifting objects in vertical direction based on a hypothesis that pertains to operator's weight perception. We particularly studied the relationships among object's displacement, load force (vertical lifting force) and perceived weight for the objects lifted with the PAS. We also compared the load force features for power-assist-lifted objects to that for manually lifted objects for equal heaviness. Finally, we proposed using the findings to develop human-friendly PASs for lifting heavy objects in industries such as construction, military operations, manufacturing and assembly, logistics and transport, mining etc.

  20. Displacement-load force-perceived weight relationships in lifting objects with power-assist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, S. M. Mizanoor; Ikeura, Ryojun; Nobe, Masaya; Sawai, Hideki

    2009-12-01

    This paper deals with the design of a 1-DOF power assist system (PAS) for lifting objects in vertical direction based on a hypothesis that pertains to operator's weight perception. We particularly studied the relationships among object's displacement, load force (vertical lifting force) and perceived weight for the objects lifted with the PAS. We also compared the load force features for power-assist-lifted objects to that for manually lifted objects for equal heaviness. Finally, we proposed using the findings to develop human-friendly PASs for lifting heavy objects in industries such as construction, military operations, manufacturing and assembly, logistics and transport, mining etc.

  1. Review of real brain-controlled wheelchairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Á.; Velasco-Álvarez, F.; Ron-Angevin, R.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a review of the state of the art regarding wheelchairs driven by a brain-computer interface. Using a brain-controlled wheelchair (BCW), disabled users could handle a wheelchair through their brain activity, granting autonomy to move through an experimental environment. A classification is established, based on the characteristics of the BCW, such as the type of electroencephalographic signal used, the navigation system employed by the wheelchair, the task for the participants, or the metrics used to evaluate the performance. Furthermore, these factors are compared according to the type of signal used, in order to clarify the differences among them. Finally, the trend of current research in this field is discussed, as well as the challenges that should be solved in the future.

  2. Wheelchair Design Changes: New Opportunities for Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Changes in wheelchair design (such as larger tires and lighter overall weight) make it possible for disabled persons to exercise more mobility and control and participate in a greater variety of recreational activities. (CL)

  3. The wheelchair as a full-body tool extending the peripersonal space.

    PubMed

    Galli, Giulia; Noel, Jean Paul; Canzoneri, Elisa; Blanke, Olaf; Serino, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Dedicated multisensory mechanisms in the brain represent peripersonal space (PPS), a limited portion of space immediately surrounding the body. Previous studies have illustrated the malleability of PPS representation through hand-object interaction, showing that tool use extends the limits of the hand-centered PPS. In the present study we investigated the effects of a special tool, the wheelchair, in extending the action possibilities of the whole body. We used a behavioral measure to quantify the extension of the PPS around the body before and after Active (Experiment 1) and Passive (Experiment 2) training with a wheelchair and when participants were blindfolded (Experiment 3). Results suggest that a wheelchair-mediated passive exploration of far space extended PPS representation. This effect was specifically related to the possibility of receiving information from the environment through vision, since no extension effect was found when participants were blindfolded. Surprisingly, the active motor training did not induce any modification in PPS representation, probably because the wheelchair maneuver was demanding for non-expert users and thus they may have prioritized processing of information from close to the wheelchair rather than at far spatial locations. Our results suggest that plasticity in PPS representation after tool use seems not to strictly depend on active use of the tool itself, but is triggered by simultaneous processing of information from the body and the space where the body acts in the environment, which is more extended in the case of wheelchair use. These results contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying body-environment interaction for developing and improving applications of assistive technological devices in different clinical populations.

  4. Estimation of Energy Expenditure for Wheelchair Users Using a Physical Activity Monitoring System.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Shivayogi V; Intille, Stephen S; Kelleher, Annmarie; Cooper, Rory A; Ding, Dan

    2016-07-01

    To develop and evaluate energy expenditure (EE) estimation models for a physical activity monitoring system (PAMS) in manual wheelchair users with spinal cord injury (SCI). Cross-sectional study. University-based laboratory environment, a semistructured environment at the National Veterans Wheelchair Games, and the participants' home environments. Volunteer sample of manual wheelchair users with SCI (N=45). Participants were asked to perform 10 physical activities (PAs) of various intensities from a list. The PAMS consists of a gyroscope-based wheel rotation monitor (G-WRM) and an accelerometer device worn on the upper arm or on the wrist. Criterion EE using a portable metabolic cart and raw sensor data from PAMS were collected during each of these activities. Estimated EE using custom models for manual wheelchair users based on either the G-WRM and arm accelerometer (PAMS-Arm) or the G-WRM and wrist accelerometer (PAMS-Wrist). EE estimation performance for the PAMS-Arm (average error ± SD: -9.82%±37.03%) and PAMS-Wrist (-5.65%±32.61%) on the validation dataset indicated that both PAMS-Arm and PAMS-Wrist were able to estimate EE for a range of PAs with <10% error. Moderate to high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) indicated that the EE estimated by PAMS-Arm (ICC3,1=.82, P<.05) and PAMS-Wrist (ICC3,1=.89, P<.05) are consistent with the criterion EE. Availability of PA monitors can assist wheelchair users to track PA levels, leading toward a healthier lifestyle. The new models we developed can estimate PA levels in manual wheelchair users with SCI in laboratory and community settings. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Muscle powered circulatory assist device for diastolic counterpulsator.

    PubMed

    Novoa, R; Jacobs, G; Sakakibara, N; Chen, J F; Davies, C; Cosgrove, D M; Golding, L R; Nosé, Y; Loop, F D

    1989-01-01

    A diastolic counterpulsator that uses either skeletal muscle or pneumatic actuation was developed. The unit is positioned between the latissimus dorsi and the chest wall, without interference with collateral blood supply, and is connected in series with the descending aorta. The system was able to generate stroke volumes between 52 and 16 ccs against pressures of 60 and 140 mmHg, respectively. Stroke work at 200 msec stimulation averaged 2.8 X 10(6) ergs. Power output at an afterload of 100 mmHg, and at a rate of 60 bpm, was 0.51 W. Back-up pneumatic actuation provided by an intraaortic balloon pump resulted in a 46% increase in the endocardial viability ratio (EVR).

  6. Predictors of Mobility among Wheelchair Using Residents in Long Term Care

    PubMed Central

    Mortenson, W. Ben; Miller, William C.; Backman, Catherine L.; Oliffe, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of mobility among long term care residents who use wheelchairs as their main means of mobility. Based on the Matching Person to Technology Model, we hypothesized that wheelchair-related, personal and environmental factors would be independent predictors of mobility. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Eleven long term residential care facilities in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, Canada Participants The study included 268 residents: 149 self-responding residents and 119 residents who required proxy respondents. Interventions Not applicable. Main outcome measures Mobility was measured using the Nursing Home Life Space Diameter. Standardized measures of personal, wheelchair-related and environmental factors were administered and socio-demographic data were collected as independent variables. Results Independent mobility decreased as the distance from the resident’s room increased: 63% of participants were independently mobile on their units, 40% were independently mobile off their units within the facilities and 20% were independently mobile outdoors. For the total sample, the significant predictors of mobility, in descending order of importance, were wheelchair skills (including the capacity to engage brakes and manoeuvre), functional independence in activities of daily living, having four or more visits per week from friends or family and use of a power wheelchair. This regression model accounted for 48% of variance in mobility scores. Conclusions Limited independent mobility is a common problem among facility residents. Residents may benefit from interventions such as wheelchair skills training or provision of powered mobility but the effectiveness of these interventions needs to be evaluated. PMID:21840499

  7. Delivery of wheelchairs to disabled children.

    PubMed

    Dorsett, P; Holt, K S; Wisbeach, A

    1978-09-02

    In a follow-up study from a children's wheelchair clinic the delivery times for 120 wheelchairs ordered during 1973--7 were analysed. Delivery delays were considerable: only 22 of the 120 chairs were delivered within one month and 69 within three months, while 21 took over six months to arrive. Factors such as the type of chair ordered, the need for modifications, and the centre handling the transaction did not influence delivery time. Administrative delays may be an important contributory factor.

  8. Motor adaptation during dorsiflexion-assisted walking with a powered orthosis

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Pei-Chun; Ferris, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    A robotic ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) that provides powered assistance could adjust to varying gait dynamics much better than a rigid AFO. To provide insight into how humans would adapt to a powered AFO, we studied the response of neurologically intact subjects walking with an active dorsiflexion assist orthosis proportionally controlled by tibialis anterior electromyography (EMG). We examined the two mechanical functions of ankle dorsiflexors in gait (power absorption at heel strike and power generation at toe-off) by recruiting two groups of healthy subjects: Group One, called Continuous Control, (n=5) had dorsiflexion assistance both at the initial heel contact and during swing; Group Two, called Swing Control, (n=5) had the assistance only during swing. We hypothesized both groups of subjects would reduce tibialis anterior EMG amplitude with practice walking with the powered dorsiflexion assist. Ten healthy subjects were fitted with custom-made orthoses that included an artificial pneumatic muscle providing dorsiflexor torque. We collected lower body kinematics, EMG, and artificial muscle force while subjects walked on a treadmill for two 30-minute training sessions. We found that subjects walked with increased ankle dorsiflexion by 9 degrees but showed different adaptation responses of the two tibialis anterior EMG bursts. The first EMG burst around heel strike had ~28% lower amplitudes (p<0.05) but the second EMG burst during swing had similar amplitudes. These results provide baseline data of EMG controlled dorsiflexion assist in neurologically intact humans that can be used to guide future studies on neurologically impaired individuals. PMID:18838269

  9. Biomechanics and Strength of Manual Wheelchair Users

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosio, Fabrisia; Boninger, Michael L; Souza, Aaron L; Fitzgerald, Shirley G; Koontz, Alicia M; Cooper, Rory A

    2005-01-01

    Background/Objective: Previous investigations have identified muscular imbalance in the shoulder as a source of pain and injury in manual wheelchair users. Our aim was to determine whether a correlation exists between strength and pushrim biomechanical variables including: tangential (motive) force (Ft), radial force (Fr), axial force (Fz), total (resultant) force (FR), fraction of effective force (FEF), and cadence. Methods: Peak isokinetic shoulder strength (flexion [FLX], extension [EXT], abduction [ABD], adduction [ADD], internal rotation [IR], and external rotation [ER]) was tested in 22 manual wheelchair users with a BioDex system for 5 repetitions at 60°/s. Subjects then propelled their own manual wheelchair at 2 speeds, 0.9 m/s (2 mph) and 1.8 m/s (4 mph), for 20 seconds, during which kinematic (OPTOTRAK) and kinetic (SMARTWHEEL) data were collected. Peak isokinetic forces in the cardinal planes were correlated with pushrim biomechanical variables. Results: All peak torque strength variables correlated significantly (P ≤ 0.05) with Ft, Fr, and FR, but were not significantly correlated with Fz, FEF, or cadence. Finally, there were no relationships found between muscle strength ratios (for example, FLX/EXT) and Ft, Fr, FR, Fz, or FEF. Conclusion: There was a correlation between strength and force imparted to the pushrim among wheelchair users; however, there was no correlation found in wheelchair propulsion or muscle imbalance. Clinicians should be aware of this, and approach strength training and training in wheelchair propulsion techniques separately. PMID:16869087

  10. A Case of Apparent Upper-Body Freezing in Parkinsonism while Using a Wheelchair

    PubMed Central

    Nemanich, Samuel T.; McNeely, Marie E.; Earhart, Gammon M.; Norris, Scott A.; Black, Kevin J.

    2017-01-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common, disabling gait disturbance in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other Parkinsonian syndromes. Freezing also occurs during non-gait movements involving the upper limbs. The mechanisms underlying freezing are complex, likely involving motor, cognitive, and sensory systems that contribute to the episodes. Here, we reported a 60-year-old female with a 24-year history of parkinsonism who experienced significant FOG when ambulatory. Disease progression resulted in her permanent use of a powered wheelchair. While using the power chair, the patient experiences apparent paroxysmal freezing in the hand and arm used to steer and propel the chair. These episodes, some lasting up to several minutes, occur only in circumstances (e.g., entering and leaving an elevator) that are similar to environments known to elicit and exacerbate FOG. Episodes are transient and can be volitionally interrupted by the patient but sometimes require external assistance. Therapeutic intervention for this type of potential freezing has yet to be determined. This case may provide insight into the complex nature of freezing behavior and suggests a need for new approaches to treating non-traditional freezing behavior. PMID:28555128

  11. The Accuracy of New Wheelchair Users’ Predictions about their Future Wheelchair Use

    PubMed Central

    Hoenig, Helen; Griffiths, Patricia; Ganesh, Shanti; Caves, Kevin; Harris, Frances

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the accuracy of new wheelchair user predictions about their future wheelchair use. Design Prospective cohort study of 84 community dwelling veterans provided a new manual wheelchair. Results The association between predicted and actual wheelchair use was strong at 3-months (phi coefficient = .56), with 90% of those who anticipated using the wheelchair at 3-months still using it (i.e., positive predictive value 0.96) and 60% of those who anticipated not using it indeed no longer using the wheelchair (i.e., negative predictive value 0.60, overall accuracy 0.92). Predictive Accuracy diminished over time, with overall accuracy declining from 0.92 at 3-months to 0.66 at 6-months. At all time points, and for all types of use, patients better predicted use as opposed to disuse, with correspondingly higher positive than negative predictive values. Accuracy of prediction of usage in specific indoor and outdoor locations varied according to location. Conclusions This study demonstrates the importance of better understanding the potential mismatch between the anticipated and actual patterns of wheelchair use. The findings suggest that users can be relied upon to accurately predict their basic wheelchair-related needs in the short term. Further exploration is needed to identify characteristics that will aid users and their providers in more accurately predicting mobility needs for the long-term. PMID:22596074

  12. Comfort and stability of wheelchair backrests according to the TAWC (tool for assessing wheelchair discomfort).

    PubMed

    Hong, Eun-Kyoung; Dicianno, Brad E; Pearlman, Jon; Cooper, Rosemarie; Cooper, Rory A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was thus to determine if people with different types of wheelchair backrests on their personal wheelchairs reported different levels of comfort as measured by the Tool for Assessing Wheelchair disComfort (TAWC). Participants were between 18 and 80 years of age and were manual wheelchair users. The TAWC was used to assess the participants' wheelchair seating discomfort levels with the wheelchair and seating systems. We surveyed 131 wheelchair users to assess the comfort of their backrests on their personal wheelchairs and found a trend suggesting that rigid backrests are were less comfortable as compared with sling backrests. This finding was statistically significant in a subgroup of participants with tetraplegia. Although many clinicians expect rigid backrests to be more comfortable because they may provide more support, the higher discomfort ratings among rigid backrest users with tetraplegia may be due to sub-optimal shape, fit, adjustment or user preferences. Implications for Rehabilitation Development of a measure for long-term seating discomfort is needed. Design and development of better rigid backrests that are functional but provide adequate comfort are in need.

  13. Plutonium-238: an ideal power source for intracorporeal ventricular assist devices?

    PubMed

    Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; Bush, Bryan S; Swartz, Michael F; Day, Steven W; Massey, H Todd

    2012-01-01

    Ventricular assist devices emerged as a widely used modality for treatment of end-stage heart failure; however, despite significant advances, external energy supply remains a problem contributing to significant patient morbidity and potential mortality. One potential solution is using the nuclear radioisotope Plutonium-238 as a power source. Given its very high energy density and long half-life, Plutonium-238 could eventually allow a totally intracorporeal ventricular assist system that lasts for the patient's lifetime. Risks, such as leakage and theft identified decades ago, still remain. However, it is possible that newer technologies could be used to overcome the system complexity and unreliability of the previous generations of nuclear-powered mechanical assist systems. Were it not for the remaining safety risks, Plutonium-238 would be an ideal energy source for this purpose.

  14. Field-assisted sintering of effective materials for alternative power engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulat, L. P.; Novotel'nova, A. V.; Osvenskii, V. B.; Sorokin, A. I.; Pshenai-Severin, D. A.; Tukmakova, A. S.; Yerezhep, D.

    2017-07-01

    The process of field-assisted sintering of nanostructured thermoelectrics for the formation of effective materials for alternative power engineering has been numerically simulated. Functionally graded thermoelectrics and segmented thermoelement branches have been sintered in a temperature-gradient field. Modified die tooling elements are proposed that allow the desired thermal conditions to be created for the sintering of inhomogeneous effective materials.

  15. Safety assurance of assistive devices based on a two-level checking scheme.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hua-Sheng; Chang, Yi-Chu; Chen, Chiun-Fan; Luh, Jer-Junn; Chiou, Ying-Han; Lai, Jin-Shin; Kuog, T-S

    2005-01-01

    The increasing number of physically challenged individuals has boosted the demand of powered wheelchairs. This paper is on the subject of a DSP (Digital Signal Processors) based assistive system, which is associated with a two-level checking scheme. The assistive system takes on the M3S (Multiple Master Multiple Slave) regulation for the assurance of safety. The CAN (Control Area Networks) embedded module in the DSP provides robust transmission of information within the system. The hardware interfaces based on the two-level checking scheme is implemented in input devices (e.g. joystick, head control apparatus) and in output devices (e.g. manipulator, prime mover motors).

  16. Motion Evaluation Of A Wheelchair Prototype For Disabled People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geonea, Ionut Daniel; Dumitru, Nicolae; Margine, Alexandru

    2015-09-01

    In this paper is presented the design solution and experimental prototype of a wheelchair for disabled people. Design solution proposed to be implemented uses two reduction gears motors and a mechanical transmission with chains. It's developed a motion controller based on a PWM technology, which allows the user to control the wheelchair motion. The wheelchair has the ability of forward - backward motion and steering. The design solution is developed in Solid Works, and it's implemented to a wheelchair prototype model. Wheelchair design and motion makes him suitable especially for indoor use. It is made a study of the wheelchair kinematics, first using a kinematic simulation in Adams. Are presented the wheelchair motion trajectory and kinematics parameters. The experimental prototype is tested with a motion analysis system based on ultra high speed video cameras recording. The obtained results from simulation and experimentally tests, demonstrate the efficiency of wheelchair proposed solution.

  17. Elimination of Power Overshoot at Bioanode through Assistance Current in Microbial Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bongkyu; An, Junyeong; Chang, In Seop

    2017-02-08

    The power overshoot generated by electron depletion in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was characterized in this study. Various causes of power overshoot, identified in previous studies, are discussed in terms of their plausible contributions to electron depletion. We found that power overshoot occurred if the anodic overpotential generated by electron depletion exceeded the cathodic overpotential. The introduction of assistance current from anode connections, which ameliorated the electron depletion in the MFCs, immediately eliminated the power overshoot. As a result, if the electron production at the anode exceeded electron reduction at the cathode, a power overshoot was not generated. The results revealed that introducing assistance current supplied from an additional anode to the limited anode eliminated power overshoot. The power overshoot is not generated by kinetic limitation at the cathode; it is only generated by the kinetic limitation at the anode. The mechanism underlying power overshoot should be considered in the design of MFCs to improve reliability, particularly in scaled-up plant applications. The proposed technique is more practical than previously proposed methods. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A theory of wheelchair wheelie performance.

    PubMed

    Kauzlarich, J J; Thacker, J G

    1987-01-01

    The results of this analytical study of wheelchair wheelie performance can be summarized into two wheelchair design equations, or rules of thumb, as developed in the paper. The equation containing the significant parameters involved in popping a wheelie for curb climbing is: fh = 0.8 mg theta c.g. [A] where fh is handrim force, m is the mass of the wheelchair + user less rear wheels, g is acceleration of gravity (9.807 m/s2), and theta c.g. is "c.g. angle," i.e., the angle between the vertical through the rear axle and a line connecting the rear axle and the system center-of-gravity. Equation [A] shows that reducing the mass and/or the c.g. angle will make it easier to pop a wheelie. The c.g. angle is reduced by moving the rear axle position forward on the wheelchair. Wheelie balance is the other aspect of performance considered; where the user balances the wheelchair on the rear wheels for going down curbs or just for fun. The ease with which a system can be controlled (balanced) is related to the static stability of the system. The static stability is defined as: omega 2 = mgl/J [B] where J is the mass moment of inertia at the center of gravity of the system about the direction perpendicular to the sideframe. For better wheelchair control during wheelchair balance the static stability should be reduced. Measurements of the value for the polar mass moment of inertia for a typical wheelchair + user of m = 90 kg was found to be J = 8.7 kg-m2. In order to decrease the value of the static stability, Equation [B], one can increase J or decrease m and/or l, where l is the distance from the rear axle to the c.g. of the system. It is also shown that balancing a rod in the palm of the hand (inverted pendulum) is a mathematical problem similar to the wheelie balance problem, and a rod of length 1.56 meters is similar to a wheelchair + user system mass of 90 kg. However, balancing a rod is done primarily by using visual perception, whereas wheelie balance involves human

  19. High-Powered, Ultrasonically Assisted Thermal Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Robert

    2013-01-01

    distance equal to the thickness of the material being welded. The TSW process can be significantly improved by reducing the draw forces. This can be achieved by reducing the friction forces between the weld workpieces and the containment plates. High-power ultrasonic (HPU) vibrations of the containment plates achieve friction reduction in the TSW process. Furthermore, integration of the HPU energy into the TSW stir rod can increase tool life of the stir rod, and can reduce shear forces to which the stir rod is subjected during the welding process. TSW has been used to successfully join 0.500-in (˜13-mm) thick commercially pure (CP) titanium, titanium 6AL- 4V, and titanium 6AL-4V ELI in weld joint lengths up to 9 ft (˜2.75-m) long. In addition, the TSW process was used to fabricate a sub-scale hexagonally shaped gun turret component for the U.S. Navy. The turret is comprised of six 0.5000-in (˜13-mm) thick angled welds. Each angled weld joint was prepared by machining the mating surfaces to 120deg. The angled weld joint was then fixtured using an upper and lower containment plate of the same geometry of the angled weld joint. The weld joint was then stirred by the stir rod as it and the upper and lower containment plates traverse through the angled joint prep.

  20. Short-term moderate intensive high volume training program provides aerobic endurance benefit in wheelchair basketball players.

    PubMed

    Skucas, Kestutis; Pokvytyte, Vaida

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effect of short-term period, moderate intensity and high volume endurance training on physiological variables in elite wheelchair basketball players. Eight wheelchair basketball players were examined. The subjects participated in a two-week intervention program of mainly two training types: wheelchair basketball and wheelchair driving endurance training. The subjects performed the continuously increasing cycling exercise (CCE) at the constant 60 rpm arm cranking speed at the beginning of the program and after two weeks of the program. The initial workload was 20 W, then the workload was increased by 2 W every 5 seconds until fatigue. The post training of the wheelchair basketball group in the study showed a significant improvement in the peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and the peak power output (POpeak). VO2peak increased by 9% from 2.32±0.16 L/min to 2.53±0.2 L/min (P<0.05). POpeak increased by 28% from 141.75±14.23 W, to 181.63±26.3 W (P<0.05). The pre-training and post training test power output (PO [w]), relative power output (PO [w/kg]) increased significantly in all zones of energy production. In conclusion, this study indicated that the wheelchair basketball squad had relatively high levels of aerobic fitness prior to participating in the endurance training program. Nevertheless, the high-volume, moderate-intensity, short-term training program, which evolved over the two-weeks period, resulted in the improvement of the athlete's aerobic endurance. The ventilatory threshold (VT) and the second ventilatory threshold (VT2) are good markers for aerobic capacity of wheelchair athletes.

  1. A review of factors influencing participation in social and community activities for wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    Smith, Emma M; Sakakibara, Brodie M; Miller, William C

    2016-01-01

    To systematically identify factors associated with participation in social and community activities for adult wheelchair users (WCUs). PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and EMBASE. Quantitative and qualitative peer-reviewed publications were included, which were written in English, reported original research and investigated factors associated with social and community participation in adult WCUs. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were used. Factors were organized using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Thirty-five studies were selected: two of power WCUs, 10 of manual WCUs and 23 of both. Six qualitative studies, ranging in quality from 8/10 to 9/10 and 29 quantitative studies were included, ranging in quality from 4/15 to 11/15. Fifteen body function, 4 activity, 5 participation, 15 environmental and 14 personal factors were found to be associated with social and community participation. Social and community participation of WCUs is associated with factors from all ICF domains. Wheelchair factors, accessibility, skills with wheelchair use, pain, finances and education are modifiable factors frequently reported to be associated with participation. Experimental research focusing on modifiable factors is needed to further our understanding of factors influencing participation among WCUs. Implications for Rehabilitation Wheelchair factors, including comfort and durability, are associated with participation and may be targeted in clinical intervention. Wheelchair skills are clinically modifiable and have been shown to improve participation in manual wheelchair users. Body functions (e.g. confidence, depression and fatigue) and personal factors (e.g. finances and level of education) may be considered for clinical intervention.

  2. Upper limb joint motion of two different user groups during manual wheelchair propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seonhong; Kim, Seunghyeon; Son, Jongsang; Lee, Jinbok; Kim, Youngho

    2013-02-01

    Manual wheelchair users have a high risk of injury to the upper extremities. Recent studies have focused on kinematic and kinetic analyses of manual wheelchair propulsion in order to understand the physical demands on wheelchair users. The purpose of this study was to investigate upper limb joint motion by using a motion capture system and a dynamometer with two different groups of wheelchair users propelling their wheelchairs at different speeds under different load conditions. The variations in the contact time, release time, and linear velocity of the experienced group were all larger than they were in the novice group. The propulsion angles of the experienced users were larger than those of the novices under all conditions. The variances in the propulsion force (both radial and tangential) of the experienced users were larger than those of the novices. The shoulder joint moment had the largest variance with the conditions, followed by the wrist joint moment and the elbow joint moment. The variance of the maximum shoulder joint moment was over four times the variance of the maximum wrist joint moment and eight times the maximum elbow joint moment. The maximum joint moments increased significantly as the speed and load increased in both groups. Quick and significant manipulation ability based on environmental changes is considered an important factor in efficient propulsion. This efficiency was confirmed from the propulsion power results. Sophisticated strategies for efficient manual wheelchair propulsion could be understood by observation of the physical responses of each upper limb joint to changes in load and speed. We expect that the findings of this study will be utilized for designing a rehabilitation program to reduce injuries.

  3. Micro-tubular flame-assisted fuel cells for micro-combined heat and power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milcarek, Ryan J.; Wang, Kang; Falkenstein-Smith, Ryan L.; Ahn, Jeongmin

    2016-02-01

    Currently the role of fuel cells in future power generation is being examined, tested and discussed. However, implementing systems is more difficult because of sealing challenges, slow start-up and complex thermal management and fuel processing. A novel furnace system with a flame-assisted fuel cell is proposed that combines the thermal management and fuel processing systems by utilizing fuel-rich combustion. In addition, the flame-assisted fuel cell furnace is a micro-combined heat and power system, which can produce electricity for homes or businesses, providing resilience during power disruption while still providing heat. A micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell achieves a significant performance of 430 mW cm-2 operating in a model fuel-rich exhaust stream.

  4. Principles and Practices for Championship Performances in Wheelchair Field Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practical Pointers, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The article discusses training and competing in wheelchair sports. General principles of training, including scheduling and content considerations, are listed. Principles for specific wheelchair events (shotput, discus, and javelin) are detailed. A final part addresses training for the wheelchair pentathlon, which includes archery, swimming,…

  5. 14 CFR 382.103 - May a carrier leave a passenger unattended in a wheelchair or other device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May a carrier leave a passenger unattended in a wheelchair or other device? 382.103 Section 382.103 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Boarding, Deplaning, and Connecting Assistance § 382.103 May a...

  6. 14 CFR 382.103 - May a carrier leave a passenger unattended in a wheelchair or other device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false May a carrier leave a passenger unattended in a wheelchair or other device? 382.103 Section 382.103 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Boarding, Deplaning, and Connecting Assistance § 382.103 May a...

  7. 14 CFR 382.103 - May a carrier leave a passenger unattended in a wheelchair or other device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May a carrier leave a passenger unattended in a wheelchair or other device? 382.103 Section 382.103 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Boarding, Deplaning, and Connecting Assistance § 382.103 May a...

  8. 14 CFR 382.103 - May a carrier leave a passenger unattended in a wheelchair or other device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false May a carrier leave a passenger unattended in a wheelchair or other device? 382.103 Section 382.103 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Boarding, Deplaning, and Connecting Assistance § 382.103 May a...

  9. A motor learning approach to training wheelchair propulsion biomechanics for new manual wheelchair users: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kerri A; Tucker, Susan M; Klaesner, Joseph W; Engsberg, Jack R

    2017-05-01

    Developing an evidence-based approach to teaching wheelchair skills and proper propulsion for everyday wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury (SCI) is important to their rehabilitation. The purpose of this project was to pilot test manual wheelchair training based on motor learning and repetition-based approaches for new manual wheelchair users with an SCI. A repeated measures within-subject design was used with participants acting as their own controls. Six persons with an SCI requiring the use of a manual wheelchair participated in wheelchair training. The training included nine 90-minute sessions. The primary focus was on wheelchair propulsion biomechanics with a secondary focus on wheelchair skills. During Pretest 1, Pretest 2, and Posttest, wheelchair propulsion biomechanics were measured using the Wheelchair Propulsion Test and a Video Motion Capture system. During Pretest 2 and Posttest, propulsion forces using the WheelMill System and wheelchair skills using the Wheelchair Skills Test were measured. Significant changes in area of the push loop, hand-to-axle relationship, and slope of push forces were found. Changes in propulsion patterns were identified post-training. No significant differences were found in peak and average push forces and wheelchair skills pre- and post-training. This project identified trends in change related to a repetition-based motor learning approach for propelling a manual wheelchair. The changes found were related to the propulsion patterns used by participants. Despite some challenges associated with implementing interventions for new manual wheelchair users, such as recruitment, the results of this study show that repetition-based training can improve biomechanics and propulsion patterns for new manual wheelchair users.

  10. Perspectives of basic wheelchair users on improving their access to wheelchair services in Kenya and Philippines: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Emma; Hurwitz, Elizabeth; Obaga, Immaculate; Onguti, Brenda; Rivera, Adovich; Sy, Tyrone Reden L; Kirby, R Lee; Noon, Jamie; Tanuku, Deepti; Gichangi, Anthony; Bazant, Eva

    2017-08-17

    The United Nations has called for countries to improve access to mobility devices when needed. The World Health Organization has published guidelines on the provision of manual wheelchairs in less-resourced settings. Yet little is known about the extent to which appropriate wheelchairs are available and provided according to international guidelines. This study's purpose was to describe wheelchair users' experiences receiving services and acquiring wheelchair skills in urban and peri-urban areas of Kenya and the Philippines. Local researchers in Nairobi and Manila interviewed 48 adult basic wheelchair users, with even distribution of those who had and had not received wheelchair services along with their wheelchair. Recordings were transcribed in the local language and translated into English. The study team coded transcripts for predetermined and emergent themes, using Atlas-ti software. A qualitative content analysis approach was taken with the WHO service delivery process as an organizing framework. Wheelchair users frequently described past experiences with ill-fitting wheelchairs and little formal training to use wheelchairs effectively. Through exposure to multiple wheelchairs and self-advocacy, they learned to select wheelchairs suitable for their needs. Maintenance and repair services were often in short supply. Participants attributed shorter duration of wheelchair use to lack of repair. Peer support networks emerged as an important source of knowledge, resources and emotional support. Most participants acknowledged that they received wheelchairs that would have been difficult or impossible for them to pay for, and despite challenges, they were grateful to have some means of mobility. Four themes emerged as critical for understanding the implementation of wheelchair services: barriers in the physical environment, the need for having multiple chairs to improve access, perceived social stigma, and the importance of peer support. Interventions are needed to

  11. Detection of physical activities using a physical activity monitor system for wheelchair users.

    PubMed

    Hiremath, Shivayogi V; Intille, Stephen S; Kelleher, Annmarie; Cooper, Rory A; Ding, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Availability of physical activity monitors for wheelchair users can potentially assist these individuals to track regular physical activity (PA), which in turn could lead to a healthier and more active lifestyle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate algorithms for a physical activity monitoring system (PAMS) to detect wheelchair based activities. The PAMS consists of a gyroscope based wheel rotation monitor (G-WRM) and an accelerometer device (wocket) worn on the upper arm or on the wrist. A total of 45 persons with spinal cord injury took part in the study, which was performed in a structured university-based laboratory environment, a semi-structured environment at the National Veterans Wheelchair Games, and in the participants' home environments. Participants performed at least ten PAs, other than resting, taken from a list of PAs. The classification performance for the best classifiers on the testing dataset for PAMS-Arm (G-WRM and wocket on upper arm) and PAMS-Wrist (G-WRM and wocket on wrist) was 89.26% and 88.47%, respectively. The outcomes of this study indicate that multi-modal information from the PAMS can help detect various types of wheelchair-based activities in structured laboratory, semi-structured organizational, and unstructured home environments.

  12. Relationship between aerobic and anaerobic parameters and functional classification in wheelchair basketball players.

    PubMed

    de Lira, C A B; Vancini, R L; Minozzo, F C; Sousa, B S; Dubas, J P; Andrade, M S; Steinberg, L L; da Silva, A C

    2010-08-01

    Participation in sports for individuals with disabilities continues to gain popularity. In order to provide fair and equitable competition among persons with different disabilities and functional capacity, a separate functional classification system has been devised for each sport. The aims of the present study were to evaluate aerobic and anaerobic performance of wheelchair basketball athletes and verify a correlation with the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation functional classification system. For this, 17 highly trained male Brazilian basketball wheelchair athletes (25.4+/-4.4 years) from the national team who had taken part in the Athens 2004 Paralympic Games were assessed. These athletes were submitted to cardiopulmonary exercise testing and Wingate-like 30-s sprint test using upper limbs. The present study demonstrated that the functional classification score correlated with relative (r=0.90; P<0.0001) and absolute peak power (r=0.50; P=0.0353) and absolute mean power (r=0.93; P<0.0001) obtained from the Wingate-like 30-s sprint test and also correlated with absolute O(2) peak (r=0.68; P=0.0026) and O(2) at ventilatory threshold (r=0.71; P=0.0014), measured on cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Therefore, our findings support the functional classification created to classify athletes' functional capability on the court, which also correlated with aerobic and anaerobic performance parameters of the elite wheelchair basketball players.

  13. Aerobic work capacity in elite wheelchair athletes: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    van der Woude, L H V; Bouten, C; Veeger, H E J; Gwinn, T

    2002-04-01

    To give a descriptive analysis of aerobic capacity among elite wheelchair athletes in association with various personal characteristics and sprint or anaerobic capacity. Sixty-eight wheelchair athletes who participated in the World Games and Championships for the Disabled were included. Parameters for aerobic capacity were evaluated in a standardized wheelchair exercise test on a computer-controlled wheelchair ergometer at the games. The ergometer setting was individually tuned according to standardized procedures. Mean maximum power output was 72.2 +/- 36.7 W. Peak oxygen uptake showed similar strong variations among different subject groups. High values were seen in a group of six subjects with amputations. Results stressed that, apart from sex, functionality and training status had a strong influence on aerobic capacity. Anaerobic and aerobic capacity were strongly associated. Functionality, training status, and sex are important determinants of aerobic capacity. The functional classification used at international sports events is represented in the data, and further study into the possible contribution of standardized exercise tests within the issue of classification must be considered. The use of standardized exercise tests for the evaluation of training and for rehabilitation progress must be advocated, with power output being an important outcome measure at the level of ability, whereas oxygen uptake represents outcome at the level of organ systems.

  14. Using a Wheelchair as a Seat in a Motor Vehicle: An Overview of Wheelchair Transportation Safety and Related Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Larry

    2007-01-01

    This is the first of a series of six articles on the topic of transportation safety for wheelchair-seated travelers and will highlight some of the basic issues and principles that have been considered in the development of voluntary standards for wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraints systems (WTORS) as well as for wheelchairs that are used as…

  15. Using a Wheelchair as a Seat in a Motor Vehicle: An Overview of Wheelchair Transportation Safety and Related Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Larry

    2007-01-01

    This is the first of a series of six articles on the topic of transportation safety for wheelchair-seated travelers and will highlight some of the basic issues and principles that have been considered in the development of voluntary standards for wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraints systems (WTORS) as well as for wheelchairs that are used as…

  16. Kinematics of the elbow during wheelchair propulsion: a comparison of two wheelchairs and two stroking techniques.

    PubMed

    Rudins, A; Laskowski, E R; Growney, E S; Cahalan, T D; An, K N

    1997-11-01

    The kinematics of the elbow joint were studied for two types of wheelchairs and during two types of propulsive strokes. Ten serially selected healthy volunteers propelled a standard and a lightweight wheelchair on a roller system with both circular and pumping strokes. Kinematic data for the wheelchair and the upper extremity were collected by an optical tracking system. These kinematic descriptors were subsequently time-normalized with a spline algorithm to provide a graphic description of the wheelchair strokes. Thirteen discrete variables were compared for the two chairs and the two propulsive strokes. Total elbow motion ranged from 60.9 degrees of flexion to 5.2 degrees of extension. Maximal elbow flexion velocity ranged from 515.4 degrees to 572.8 degrees per second. Kinematic differences between the two wheelchairs were minimal, with a trend for 8.3 degrees to 5.2 degrees more elbow flexion in the lightweight wheelchair (p < .05), depending on the stroke used. With the use of any one chair, the style of the stroke had no significant effect on elbow kinematics, but the use of a pumping stroke did decrease propulsion arc by 12 degrees to 14 degrees (p < .05). No major differences regarding elbow kinematics were seen between the two types of wheelchairs. The pumping-stroke technique resulted in a shortened handrim contact arc.

  17. Effects of variable practice on the motor learning outcomes in manual wheelchair propulsion.

    PubMed

    Leving, Marika T; Vegter, Riemer J K; de Groot, Sonja; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2016-11-23

    Handrim wheelchair propulsion is a cyclic skill that needs to be learned during rehabilitation. It has been suggested that more variability in propulsion technique benefits the motor learning process of wheelchair propulsion. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of variable practice on the motor learning outcomes of wheelchair propulsion in able-bodied participants. Variable practice was introduced in the form of wheelchair basketball practice and wheelchair-skill practice. Motor learning was operationalized as improvements in mechanical efficiency and propulsion technique. Eleven Participants in the variable practice group and 12 participants in the control group performed an identical pre-test and a post-test. Pre- and post-test were performed in a wheelchair on a motor-driven treadmill (1.11 m/s) at a relative power output of 0.23 W/kg. Energy consumption and the propulsion technique variables with their respective coefficient of variation were calculated. Between the pre- and the post-test the variable practice group received 7 practice sessions. During the practice sessions participants performed one-hour of variable practice, consisting of five wheelchair-skill tasks and a 30 min wheelchair basketball game. The control group did not receive any practice between the pre- and the post-test. Comparison of the pre- and the post-test showed that the variable practice group significantly improved the mechanical efficiency (4.5 ± 0.6% → 5.7 ± 0.7%) in contrast to the control group (4.5 ± 0.6% → 4.4 ± 0.5%) (group x time interaction effect p < 0.001).With regard to propulsion technique, both groups significantly reduced the push frequency and increased the contact angle of the hand with the handrim (within group, time effect). No significant group × time interaction effects were found for propulsion technique. With regard to propulsion variability, the variable practice group increased variability when

  18. Body composition of female wheelchair athletes.

    PubMed

    Sutton, L; Wallace, J; Goosey-Tolfrey, V; Scott, M; Reilly, T

    2009-04-01

    Wheelchair users undergo changes in body composition as a result of disability. In this study the distribution of bone mineral, lean and fat mass was assessed in highly-trained female wheelchair athletes and a reference group by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The transferability of anthropometric equations commonly used in female groups was examined in order to establish a suitable field method of body composition assessment. The DXA total-body results indicated no difference between groups, but segmental analyses uncovered regional differences. The wheelchair athletes had greater BMD (p=0.088), more lean mass (p<0.001) and a lower percent fat (p=0.050) in their arms. The reverse was true of the legs (p< or =0.001). The trunk as a whole did not differ between groups. In general, the anthropometric equations showed a lack of transferability to the wheelchair group and tended to underestimate total percent body fat. Anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist girth showed strong correlations with body fat in the wheelchair group (BMI: r=0.90, p=0.001; waist: r=0.83, p=0.001), but weaker results in the reference group. It is recommended that specific anthropometric equations be developed for use in the absence of a 'gold standard' measure of body composition such as DXA.

  19. Magnetic-assisted triboelectric nanogenerators as self-powered visualized omnidirectional tilt sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Mengdi; Zhang, Xiao-Sheng; Sun, Xuming; Meng, Bo; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Haixia

    2014-04-01

    The triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is a promising device in energy harvesting and self-powered sensing. In this work, we demonstrate a magnetic-assisted TENG, utilizing the magnetic force for electric generation. Maximum power density of 541.1 mW/m2 is obtained at 16.67 MΩ for the triboelectric part, while the electromagnetic part can provide power density of 649.4 mW/m2 at 16 Ω. Through theoretical calculation and experimental measurement, linear relationship between the tilt angle and output voltage at large angles is observed. On this basis, a self-powered omnidirectional tilt sensor is realized by two magnetic-assisted TENGs, which can measure the magnitude and direction of the tilt angle at the same time. For visualized sensing of the tilt angle, a sensing system is established, which is portable, intuitive, and self-powered. This visualized system greatly simplifies the measure process, and promotes the development of self-powered systems.

  20. Magnetic-assisted triboelectric nanogenerators as self-powered visualized omnidirectional tilt sensing system

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mengdi; Zhang, Xiao-Sheng; Sun, Xuming; Meng, Bo; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Haixia

    2014-01-01

    The triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is a promising device in energy harvesting and self-powered sensing. In this work, we demonstrate a magnetic-assisted TENG, utilizing the magnetic force for electric generation. Maximum power density of 541.1 mW/m2 is obtained at 16.67 MΩ for the triboelectric part, while the electromagnetic part can provide power density of 649.4 mW/m2 at 16 Ω. Through theoretical calculation and experimental measurement, linear relationship between the tilt angle and output voltage at large angles is observed. On this basis, a self-powered omnidirectional tilt sensor is realized by two magnetic-assisted TENGs, which can measure the magnitude and direction of the tilt angle at the same time. For visualized sensing of the tilt angle, a sensing system is established, which is portable, intuitive, and self-powered. This visualized system greatly simplifies the measure process, and promotes the development of self-powered systems. PMID:24770490

  1. Magnetic-assisted triboelectric nanogenerators as self-powered visualized omnidirectional tilt sensing system.

    PubMed

    Han, Mengdi; Zhang, Xiao-Sheng; Sun, Xuming; Meng, Bo; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Haixia

    2014-04-28

    The triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is a promising device in energy harvesting and self-powered sensing. In this work, we demonstrate a magnetic-assisted TENG, utilizing the magnetic force for electric generation. Maximum power density of 541.1 mW/m(2) is obtained at 16.67 MΩ for the triboelectric part, while the electromagnetic part can provide power density of 649.4 mW/m(2) at 16 Ω. Through theoretical calculation and experimental measurement, linear relationship between the tilt angle and output voltage at large angles is observed. On this basis, a self-powered omnidirectional tilt sensor is realized by two magnetic-assisted TENGs, which can measure the magnitude and direction of the tilt angle at the same time. For visualized sensing of the tilt angle, a sensing system is established, which is portable, intuitive, and self-powered. This visualized system greatly simplifies the measure process, and promotes the development of self-powered systems.

  2. Towards an intelligent system for clinical guidance on wheelchair tilt and recline usage.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jicheng; Wiechmann, Paul; Jan, Yih-Kuen; Jones, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We propose to construct an intelligent system for clinical guidance on how to effectively use power wheelchair tilt and recline functions. The motivations fall into the following two aspects. (1) People with spinal cord injury (SCI) are vulnerable to pressure ulcers. SCI can lead to structural and functional changes below the injury level that may predispose individuals to tissue breakdown. As a result, pressure ulcers can significantly affect the quality of life, including pain, infection, altered body image, and even mortality. (2) Clinically, wheelchair power seat function, i.e., tilt and recline, is recommended for relieving sitting-induced pressures. The goal is to increase skin blood flow for the ischemic soft tissues to avoid irreversible damage. Due to variations in the level and completeness of SCI, the effectiveness of using wheelchair tilt and recline to reduce pressure ulcer risks has considerable room for improvement. Our previous study indicated that the blood flow of people with SCI may respond very differently to wheelchair tilt and recline settings. In this study, we propose to use the artificial neural network (ANN) to predict how wheelchair power seat functions affect blood flow response to seating pressure. This is regression learning because the predicted outputs are numerical values. Besides the challenging nature of regression learning, ANN may suffer from the overfitting problem which, when occurring, leads to poor predictive quality (i.e., cannot generalize). We propose using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to train ANN to mitigate the impact of overfitting so that ANN can make correct predictions on both existing and new data. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is promising to improve ANN's predictive quality for new data.

  3. H∞-control of a rack-assisted electric power steering system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannöhl, C.; Müller, S.; Ulbrich, H.

    2012-04-01

    Electric power steering (EPS) is more and more in use for passenger cars. Compared with hydraulic steering systems there are many advantages, such as reduced CO2 emissions and the possibility to use the EPS motor torque for advanced driver assistance systems. One task of the steering system is to give the driver an adequate steering feel. This includes providing road feedback and the right level of assistance torque. This article describes the steering torque control of a rack-assisted EPS. The controller's task is to follow a reference steering torque quickly and accurately. First, a mechanical model of the EPS is shown. Then, an H∞-controller is designed, implemented and compared with other steering torque controllers. As steering torque discontinuities are a topic when looking at new control algorithms, the phenomenon and its cause are analysed using a detailed mechanical model. The results of this analysis are considered in the controller design.

  4. On the construction of a skill-based wheelchair navigation profile.

    PubMed

    Urdiales, Cristina; Pérez, Eduardo Javier; Peinado, Gloria; Fdez-Carmona, Manuel; Peula, Jose M; Annicchiarico, Roberta; Sandoval, Francisco; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2013-11-01

    Assisted wheelchair navigation is of key importance for persons with severe disabilities. The problem has been solved in different ways, usually based on the shared control paradigm. This paradigm consists of giving the user more or less control on a need basis. Naturally, these approaches require personalization: each wheelchair user has different skills and needs and it is hard to know a priori from diagnosis how much assistance must be provided. Furthermore, since there is no such thing as an average user, sometimes it is difficult to quantify the benefits of these systems. This paper proposes a new method to extract a prototype user profile using real traces based on more than 70 volunteers presenting different physical and cognitive skills. These traces are clustered to determine the average behavior that can be expected from a wheelchair user in order to cope with significant situations. Processed traces provide a prototype user model for comparison purposes, plus a simple method to obtain without supervision a skill-based navigation profile for any user while he/she is driving. This profile is useful for benchmarking but also to determine the situations in which a given user might require more assistance after evaluating how well he/she compares to the benchmark. Profile-based shared control has been successfully tested by 18 volunteers affected by left or right brain stroke at Fondazione Santa Lucia, in Rome, Italy.

  5. Wheelchair stability and maneuverability: effect of varying the horizontal and vertical position of a rear-antitip device.

    PubMed

    Kirby, R L; Thoren, F A; Ashton, B D; Ackroyd-Stolarz, S A

    1994-05-01

    Although properly adjusted rear-antitip devices on wheelchairs prevent rear-tipping accidents, many wheelchair users do not use them because they limit manueverability. This study evaluated the use and effectiveness of antitip devices, particularly the effect of the devices' position on rear stability and maneuverability. In an epidemiologic study of the use of antitip devices, using a database of noninstitutionalized users of manually propelled chairs, we found no significant difference in the incidence or nature of rear-tipping accidents between the 167 who used antitip devices and the 399 who did not. We also evaluated seven common manually propelled wheelchairs, occupied by an anthropomorphic test dummy, with and without antitip devices. The added stability provided by the antitip devices varied considerably (from -1.0 to 27.1 degrees) depending on the type of chair, the configuration of the chair and the position of the antitip device. A representative wheelchair was then equipped with an adjustable antitip device that allowed us to test 68 combinations of vertical and horizontal positions. The relationships between the position of the antitip device and both the measured rear-stability and maneuverability values could be expressed by significant regression equations, and correlated highly with the values predicted by a theoretical model that we developed. These relationships should assist clinicians, users and wheelchair designers in finding appropriate compromises between safety and maneuverability.

  6. Efforts toward an autonomous wheelchair - biomed 2011.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Steven; Streeter, Robert

    2011-01-01

    An autonomous wheelchair is in development to provide mobility to those with significant physical challenges. The overall goal of the project is to develop a wheelchair that is fully autonomous with the ability to navigate about an environment and negotiate obstacles. As a starting point for the project, we have reversed engineered the joystick control system of an off-the-shelf commercially available wheelchair. The joystick control has been replaced with a microcontroller based system. The microcontroller has the capability to interface with a number of subsystems currently under development including wheel odometers, obstacle avoidance sensors, and ultrasonic-based wall sensors. This paper will discuss the microcontroller based system and provide a detailed system description. Results of this study may be adapted to commercial or military robot control.

  7. Assessment of wheelchair drag resistance using a coasting deceleration technique.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Martin D; Millet, Guillaume Y; Hoch, Anne Z; Candau, Robin B

    2003-11-01

    To apply a recently developed coasting deceleration method to measure rolling and aerodynamic resistances opposing wheelchair propulsion on a variety of different wheelchairs and wheel combinations and on two different ground surfaces. For each condition, 20-25 trials were performed across a speed range of approximately 70-300 m/min. The least-squares method was then used to arrive at values for the coefficient of rolling resistance (CR) and effective frontal area of the wheelchair and occupant. Wheelchair rolling resistance was found to be velocity dependent under some circumstances. CR values on linoleum differed among folding lightweight wheelchairs and when compared with a rigid ultralight and racing wheelchair. Changing rear wheels and tires on one wheelchair resulted in a 14% difference in CR. Carpet increased CR values by an average of 0.0118 over the values determined on linoleum. As expected, effective frontal area of the wheelchair and occupant values were lower for the racer than for the folding lightweight wheelchair. Wheelchair rolling resistance is not always independent of velocity, and CR on linoleum can vary among wheelchairs by as much as seven-fold, and carpet can more than double CR.

  8. Appropriate protection for wheelchair riders on public transit buses.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Greg; Gillispie, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    Securement of wheelchairs and occupant restraint for wheelchair riders on buses is one of the most difficult problems facing transit providers. The primary findings of this literature review show that (1) very little information has been published regarding transit bus safety and crash environment; (2) the focus of most reported wheelchair incidents involved noncollision events, in which inappropriate wheelchair securement or rider restraint resulted in minor injuries; and (3) studies spanning 30 years indicate that the large transit bus is an exceedingly safe form of transportation, so that wheelchair riders do not face undo risk of injury in this transportation environment. Further study is required to characterize the rare-occurring severe transit bus crashes. The resulting information is needed to establish an appropriate level of crash protection so that the next generation of U.S. wheelchair securement and occupant restraint systems not only are reasonably safe but also are easy to use and acceptable to wheelchair riders and transit bus operators.

  9. An approach to the design of wheelchairs for young users.

    PubMed

    Kenward, M G

    1971-12-01

    Sixty six physically handicapped children between the ages of 5 and 16 took part in an anthropometric study of young wheelchair users. All those involved had at one time used a wheelchair regularly, and only 9 in the study habitually walked. Using a standard body measuring instrument, 13 measurements of bodily dimensions were taken with the children sitting in their usual chairs. An assessment was also made of the degree of support afforded by the backrest. Five dimensions normally used in prescribing wheelchairs to patients were used as a basis for working out the sizes of the various sections of a wheelchair, such as seat, backrest, armrest and frame size. The raw data indicated that appreciable inconsistencies in body shape existed which were not allowed for in present wheelchair design. A new approach is proposed in which wheelchairs would be assembled from interlocking sections of variable size . This arrangement would allow wheelchairs to be fitted more completely to the individual.

  10. Toward gesture controlled wheelchair: a proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Kawarazaki, Noriyuki; Stefanov, Dimitar; Diaz, Alejandro Israel Barragan

    2013-06-01

    This study focuses on the early stages of developing and testing an interactive approach for gesture-based wheelchair control that could facilitate the user in various tasks such as cooking and food serving. The proposed method allows a user to hold an object (tray, saucepan, etc) with both hands and to control at the same time the wheelchair direction via changing the position of his/her arms. The wheelchair control system contains an image sensor directed to the user's arms. Sensor signals are processed via an image-recognition algorithm and the calculations for the arm positions are used for the computation of the wheelchair steering signals. Thus, the wheelchair direction depends on the arm positions and the user can control the wheelchair by moving his/her arms. An initial wheelchair prototype, operated by the intentional motions of one hand, was built and was tested by several initial experiments.

  11. Development of high speed power thyristor: The gate assisted turn-off thyristor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D. R.; Brewster, J.; Frobenius, D.; Desmond, T.

    1972-01-01

    A high speed power switch with unique turn-off capability was developed. This gate-assisted turn-off thyristor was rated at 609 V and 50 A with turn-off times of 2 microsec. Twenty-two units were delivered for evaluation in a series inverter circuit. In addition, test circuits designed to relate to the series inverter application were built and demonstrated.

  12. A paired outcomes study comparing two pediatric wheelchairs for low-resource settings: the regency pediatric wheelchair and a similarly sized wheelchair made in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Rispin, Karen; Wee, Joy

    2014-01-01

    This comparative study of two similar wheelchairs designed for less-resourced settings provides feedback to manufacturers, informing ongoing improvement in wheelchair design. It also provides practical familiarity to clinicians in countries where these chairs are available, in their selection of prescribed wheelchairs. In Kenya, 24 subjects completed 3 timed skills and assessments of energy cost on 2 surfaces in each of 2 wheelchairs: the Regency pediatric chair and a pediatric wheelchair manufactured by the Association of the Physically Disabled of Kenya (APDK). Both wheelchairs are designed for and distributed in less-resourced settings. The Regency chair significantly outperformed the APDK chair in one of the energy cost assessments on both surfaces and in one of three timed skills tests.

  13. Efficacy of a skeletal muscle-powered dynamic patch: Part 1. Left ventricular assistance.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M; Misaki, T; Watanabe, G; Ohtake, H; Tsunezuka, Y; Wada, M; Sakakibara, N; Matsunaga, Y; Kawasuji, M; Watanabe, Y

    1995-02-01

    In this study, we examined the capability of a skeletal muscle-powered, dynamic patch to provide left ventricular assistance. An actuator was developed that used linear traction power furnished by the latissimus dorsi muscle and liquid as the medium for power transfer. The proximal portion of the muscle was dissected and was reattached to the actuator. The left ventricular apex was excised, and the dynamic patch lined with autologous pericardium was implanted during cardiopulmonary bypass. Hemodynamic studies were performed in 8 dogs after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. Muscle stimulation was found to significantly increase the systolic aortic pressure (91.6 versus 112.1 mm Hg; p < 0.01), the mean aortic pressure (65.2 versus 73.0 mm Hg; p < 0.01), and aortic blood flow (0.77 versus 0.92 L/min; p < 0.01). The left atrial pressure decreased from 17.9 to 16.6 mm Hg (p < 0.01). This "hybrid" left ventricular assist device possesses notable clinical advantages because of its remarkable efficacy in assisting circulation. Further experimental studies using preconditioned skeletal muscle are necessary to assess the long-term effects of this technique.

  14. Delivery of wheelchairs to disabled children.

    PubMed Central

    Dorsett, P; Holt, K S; Wisbeach, A

    1978-01-01

    In a follow-up study from a children's wheelchair clinic the delivery times for 120 wheelchairs ordered during 1973--7 were analysed. Delivery delays were considerable: only 22 of the 120 chairs were delivered within one month and 69 within three months, while 21 took over six months to arrive. Factors such as the type of chair ordered, the need for modifications, and the centre handling the transaction did not influence delivery time. Administrative delays may be an important contributory factor. PMID:151577

  15. A survey of stakeholder perspectives on a proposed combined exoskeleton-wheelchair technology.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Tim; Ben Mortensen, W; Mattie, Johanne; Wolff, Jamie; Parker, Claire; Borisoff, Jaimie

    2017-07-01

    Exoskeleton technology has potential benefits for wheelchair users' health and mobility. However, there are practical barriers to their everyday use as a mobility device. In particular, challenges related to travelling longer distances and transitioning between using a wheelchair and exoskeleton walking may present significant deterrents to regular exoskeleton use. In an effort to remove these barriers, a combined exoskeleton-wheelchair concept ('COMBO') has been proposed, which aims to achieve the benefits of both these mobility technologies. Given the inherent importance of including user-stakeholder opinions when designing an assistive technology solution, a study was undertaken to explore the perspectives of wheelchair users and healthcare professionals on the proposed conceptual design of the COMBO. An online survey with quantitative and qualitative components was conducted with wheelchair users and healthcare professionals working directly with individuals with mobility impairments. Respondents rated whether they would use or recommend a COMBO for four potential reasons. Nine design features were rated and compared in terms of their importance. Content analysis was used to analyze data from an open-ended question regarding additional perceptions about using or recommending a COMBO. A total of 481 survey responses were analyzed, 354 from wheelchair users and 127 from healthcare professionals. Potential health benefits was the most highly rated reason for potential use or recommendation of a COMBO. Of the 9 design features, 2 had a median rating of very important: inclusion of a fall-protection mechanism, and the ability for the operator to use their hands while standing. Qualitative findings indicated that health and physical benefits, use for daily life activities, and psychosocial benefits were important considerations in whether to use or recommend the COMBO. This study captures the opinions and perspectives of two stakeholder groups for an exoskeleton-wheelchair

  16. Wheelchair securement and occupant restraint system (WTORS) practices in public transit buses.

    PubMed

    Frost, Karen L; Bertocci, Gina; Salipur, Zdravko

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint system (WTORS) usage in public transit buses based on observations of wheelchair and scooter (wheeled mobility device: WhMD) passenger trips. A retrospective review of on-board video surveillance recordings of WhMD trips on fixed-route, large accessible transit vehicles (LATVs) was performed. Two hundred ninety-five video recordings were collected for review and analysis during the period June 2007-February 2009. Results showed that 73.6% of WhMDs were unsecured during transit. Complete use of all four tiedowns was observed more frequently for manual wheelchairs (14.9%) and power wheelchairs (5.5%), compared to scooters (0.0%), and this difference was significant (p=0.013). Nonuse or misuse (lap belt use only) of the occupant restraint system occurred during 47.5% of WhMD trips. The most frequently observed (52.5%) use of the lap belt consisted of bus operators routing the lap belt around the WhMD seatback in an attempt to secure the WhMD. These findings support the need for development and implementation of WTORS with improved usability and/or WTORS that can be operated independently by WhMD passengers and improved WTORS training for bus operators.

  17. The role of assistive robotics in the lives of persons with disability.

    PubMed

    Brose, Steven W; Weber, Douglas J; Salatin, Ben A; Grindle, Garret G; Wang, Hongwu; Vazquez, Juan J; Cooper, Rory A

    2010-06-01

    Robotic assistive devices are used increasingly to improve the independence and quality of life of persons with disabilities. Devices as varied as robotic feeders, smart-powered wheelchairs, independent mobile robots, and socially assistive robots are becoming more clinically relevant. There is a growing importance for the rehabilitation professional to be aware of available systems and ongoing research efforts. The aim of this article is to describe the advances in assistive robotics that are relevant to professionals serving persons with disabilities. This review breaks down relevant advances into categories of Assistive Robotic Systems, User Interfaces and Control Systems, Sensory and Feedback Systems, and User Perspectives. An understanding of the direction that assistive robotics is taking is important for the clinician and researcher alike; this review is intended to address this need.

  18. Wheelchair seating: A study on the healthy elderly.

    PubMed

    Timm, Marina; Samuelsson, Kersti

    2016-11-01

    Many frail elderly and disabled persons have to use a manual wheelchair to remain mobile and active. Apart from a well-fitted wheelchair, an appropriate wheelchair cushion is considered crucial for postural support and to prevent complications. To examined the effect of two types of seat cushions in two types of wheelchairs with regard to pelvic rotation, respiratory function, and interface pressure. Forty healthy elderly between 67 and 85 years of age participated. Two types of commonly used manual wheelchairs and two types of seat cushions were tested. Interface pressure, pelvic position, and respiratory function were measured using a sensor array mat, a study-specific inclinometer, and a spirometer. Differences in interface pressure and pelvic rotation between cushions were found in both wheelchairs. Compared with sitting on a standard cushion, sitting on the positioning cushion increased peak pressure. The posterior pelvic tilt increased with the positioning cushion in the Etac Cross wheelchair and for both cushions in the Etac Cross wheelchair compared with the HD Balance wheelchair. No difference was observed in respiratory function. This study highlights the importance of a thorough evaluation of the effects of wheelchair interventions, especially for the elderly and disabled.

  19. Training Visual Control in Wheelchair Basketball Shooting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…

  20. Biomechanics of Pediatric Manual Wheelchair Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Slavens, Brooke A.; Schnorenberg, Alyssa J.; Aurit, Christine M.; Tarima, Sergey; Vogel, Lawrence C.; Harris, Gerald F.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is limited research of the biomechanics of pediatric manual wheelchair mobility. Specifically, the biomechanics of functional tasks and their relationship to joint pain and health is not well understood. To contribute to this knowledge gap, a quantitative rehabilitation approach was applied for characterizing upper extremity biomechanics of manual wheelchair mobility in children and adolescents during propulsion, starting, and stopping tasks. A Vicon motion analysis system captured movement, while a SmartWheel simultaneously collected three-dimensional forces and moments occurring at the handrim. A custom pediatric inverse dynamics model was used to evaluate three-dimensional upper extremity joint motions, forces, and moments of 14 children with spinal cord injury (SCI) during the functional tasks. Additionally, pain and health-related quality of life outcomes were assessed. This research found that joint demands are significantly different amongst functional tasks, with greatest demands placed on the shoulder during the starting task. Propulsion was significantly different from starting and stopping at all joints. We identified multiple stroke patterns used by the children, some of which are not standard in adults. One subject reported average daily pain, which was minimal. Lower than normal physical health and higher than normal mental health was found in this population. It can be concluded that functional tasks should be considered in addition to propulsion for rehabilitation and SCI treatment planning. This research provides wheelchair users and clinicians with a comprehensive, biomechanical, mobility assessment approach for wheelchair prescription, training, and long-term care of children with SCI. PMID:26442251

  1. Reaching High Bookshelves From a Wheelchair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    "Book retriever" allows people confined to wheelchairs to remove or replace books from upper shelves of library stacks. Retriever is mechanical device composed of aluminum tube approximately 5 feet long with two jaws at upper end. Jaws securely clamp selected book; they are thin enough to be inserted between adjacent books.

  2. 21 CFR 890.3850 - Mechanical wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mechanical wheelchair. 890.3850 Section 890.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3850...

  3. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  4. 21 CFR 890.3850 - Mechanical wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mechanical wheelchair. 890.3850 Section 890.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3850...

  5. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  6. 21 CFR 890.3920 - Wheelchair component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheelchair component. 890.3920 Section 890.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3920...

  7. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  8. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  9. 21 CFR 890.3920 - Wheelchair component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair component. 890.3920 Section 890.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3920...

  10. Training Visual Control in Wheelchair Basketball Shooting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…

  11. Just a Body in a Wheelchair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Betty

    2014-01-01

    This article has no direct link with academics, children, students or those who teach: I severed almost all such connections several years ago. It describes the rewards and challenges of leading a reminiscence group of elderly people, all of whom suffer some level of memory loss and/or severe physical disability; most are wheelchair-bound. It…

  12. Reaching High Bookshelves From a Wheelchair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    "Book retriever" allows people confined to wheelchairs to remove or replace books from upper shelves of library stacks. Retriever is mechanical device composed of aluminum tube approximately 5 feet long with two jaws at upper end. Jaws securely clamp selected book; they are thin enough to be inserted between adjacent books.

  13. Just a Body in a Wheelchair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Betty

    2014-01-01

    This article has no direct link with academics, children, students or those who teach: I severed almost all such connections several years ago. It describes the rewards and challenges of leading a reminiscence group of elderly people, all of whom suffer some level of memory loss and/or severe physical disability; most are wheelchair-bound. It…

  14. Biomechanics of Pediatric Manual Wheelchair Mobility.

    PubMed

    Slavens, Brooke A; Schnorenberg, Alyssa J; Aurit, Christine M; Tarima, Sergey; Vogel, Lawrence C; Harris, Gerald F

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is limited research of the biomechanics of pediatric manual wheelchair mobility. Specifically, the biomechanics of functional tasks and their relationship to joint pain and health is not well understood. To contribute to this knowledge gap, a quantitative rehabilitation approach was applied for characterizing upper extremity biomechanics of manual wheelchair mobility in children and adolescents during propulsion, starting, and stopping tasks. A Vicon motion analysis system captured movement, while a SmartWheel simultaneously collected three-dimensional forces and moments occurring at the handrim. A custom pediatric inverse dynamics model was used to evaluate three-dimensional upper extremity joint motions, forces, and moments of 14 children with spinal cord injury (SCI) during the functional tasks. Additionally, pain and health-related quality of life outcomes were assessed. This research found that joint demands are significantly different amongst functional tasks, with greatest demands placed on the shoulder during the starting task. Propulsion was significantly different from starting and stopping at all joints. We identified multiple stroke patterns used by the children, some of which are not standard in adults. One subject reported average daily pain, which was minimal. Lower than normal physical health and higher than normal mental health was found in this population. It can be concluded that functional tasks should be considered in addition to propulsion for rehabilitation and SCI treatment planning. This research provides wheelchair users and clinicians with a comprehensive, biomechanical, mobility assessment approach for wheelchair prescription, training, and long-term care of children with SCI.

  15. Medical Concerns among Wheelchair Road Racers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Santos F.

    1989-01-01

    Results of a questionnaire administered to 43 wheelchair road racers suggest that their medical problems may lead to complications while training or racing. The study looked at the effects of training, injuries, bladder management, medications, and spasms. Sports medicine professionals are provided with information on handling disabled athletes.…

  16. Medical Concerns among Wheelchair Road Racers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Santos F.

    1989-01-01

    Results of a questionnaire administered to 43 wheelchair road racers suggest that their medical problems may lead to complications while training or racing. The study looked at the effects of training, injuries, bladder management, medications, and spasms. Sports medicine professionals are provided with information on handling disabled athletes.…

  17. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  18. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  19. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  20. 21 CFR 890.3920 - Wheelchair component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheelchair component. 890.3920 Section 890.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3920...

  1. 21 CFR 890.3920 - Wheelchair component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheelchair component. 890.3920 Section 890.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3920...

  2. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  3. 21 CFR 890.3850 - Mechanical wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mechanical wheelchair. 890.3850 Section 890.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3850...

  4. 21 CFR 890.3850 - Mechanical wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mechanical wheelchair. 890.3850 Section 890.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3850...

  5. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3930...

  6. 21 CFR 890.3920 - Wheelchair component.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheelchair component. 890.3920 Section 890.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3920...

  7. 21 CFR 890.3850 - Mechanical wheelchair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mechanical wheelchair. 890.3850 Section 890.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3850...

  8. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  9. An Upper-Limb Power-Assist Exoskeleton Using Proportional Myoelectric Control

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhichuan; Zhang, Kejun; Sun, Shouqian; Gao, Zenggui; Zhang, Lekai; Yang, Zhongliang

    2014-01-01

    We developed an upper-limb power-assist exoskeleton actuated by pneumatic muscles. The exoskeleton included two metal links: a nylon joint, four size-adjustable carbon fiber bracers, a potentiometer and two pneumatic muscles. The proportional myoelectric control method was proposed to control the exoskeleton according to the user's motion intention in real time. With the feature extraction procedure and the classification (back-propagation neural network), an electromyogram (EMG)-angle model was constructed to be used for pattern recognition. Six healthy subjects performed elbow flexion-extension movements under four experimental conditions: (1) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation and for different periods (2-s, 4-s and 8-s periods); (2) holding a 1-kg load, without wearing the exoskeleton, for a fixed period; (3) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation, for a fixed period; (4) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton under proportional myoelectric control, for a fixed period. The EMG signals of the biceps brachii, the brachioradialis, the triceps brachii and the anconeus and the angle of the elbow were collected. The control scheme's reliability and power-assist effectiveness were evaluated in the experiments. The results indicated that the exoskeleton could be controlled by the user's motion intention in real time and that it was useful for augmenting arm performance with neurological signal control, which could be applied to assist in elbow rehabilitation after neurological injury. PMID:24727501

  10. An upper-limb power-assist exoskeleton using proportional myoelectric control.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhichuan; Zhang, Kejun; Sun, Shouqian; Gao, Zenggui; Zhang, Lekai; Yang, Zhongliang

    2014-04-10

    We developed an upper-limb power-assist exoskeleton actuated by pneumatic muscles. The exoskeleton included two metal links: a nylon joint, four size-adjustable carbon fiber bracers, a potentiometer and two pneumatic muscles. The proportional myoelectric control method was proposed to control the exoskeleton according to the user's motion intention in real time. With the feature extraction procedure and the classification (back-propagation neural network), an electromyogram (EMG)-angle model was constructed to be used for pattern recognition. Six healthy subjects performed elbow flexion-extension movements under four experimental conditions: (1) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation and for different periods (2-s, 4-s and 8-s periods); (2) holding a 1-kg load, without wearing the exoskeleton, for a fixed period; (3) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton, but with no actuation, for a fixed period; (4) holding a 1-kg load, wearing the exoskeleton under proportional myoelectric control, for a fixed period. The EMG signals of the biceps brachii, the brachioradialis, the triceps brachii and the anconeus and the angle of the elbow were collected. The control scheme's reliability and power-assist effectiveness were evaluated in the experiments. The results indicated that the exoskeleton could be controlled by the user's motion intention in real time and that it was useful for augmenting arm performance with neurological signal control, which could be applied to assist in elbow rehabilitation after neurological injury.

  11. Heat Pipe-Assisted Thermoelectric Power Generation Technology for Waste Heat Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Ju-Chan; Chi, Ri-Guang; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kye-Bock; Hwang, Hyun-Chang; Lee, Ji-Su; Lee, Wook-Hyun

    2015-06-01

    Currently, large amounts of thermal energy dissipated from automobiles are emitted through hot exhaust pipes. This has resulted in the need for a new efficient recycling method to recover energy from waste hot exhaust gas. The present experimental study investigated how to improve the power output of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system assisted by a wickless loop heat pipe (loop thermosyphon) under the limited space of the exhaust gas pipeline. The present study shows a novel loop-type heat pipe-assisted TEG concept to be applied to hybrid vehicles. The operating temperature of a TEG's hot side surface should be as high as possible to maximize the Seebeck effect. The present study shows a novel TEG concept of transferring heat from the source to the sink. This technology can transfer waste heat to any local place with a loop-type heat pipe. The present TEG system with a heat pipe can transfer heat and generate an electromotive force power of around 1.3 V in the case of 170°C hot exhaust gas. Two thermoelectric modules (TEMs) for a conductive block model and four Bi2Te3 TEMs with a heat pipe-assisted model were installed in the condenser section. Heat flows to the condenser section from the evaporator section connected to the exhaust pipe. This novel TEG system with a heat pipe can be placed in any location on an automobile.

  12. Skills based evaluation of alternative input methods to command a semi-autonomous electric wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Mario; Ponce, Pedro; Molina, Arturo

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the evaluation, under standardized metrics, of alternative input methods to steer and maneuver a semi-autonomous electric wheelchair. The Human-Machine Interface (HMI), which includes a virtual joystick, head movements and speech recognition controls, was designed to facilitate mobility skills for severely disabled people. Thirteen tasks, which are common to all the wheelchair users, were attempted five times by controlling it with the virtual joystick and the hands-free interfaces in different areas for disabled and non-disabled people. Even though the prototype has an intelligent navigation control, based on fuzzy logic and ultrasonic sensors, the evaluation was done without assistance. The scored values showed that both controls, the head movements and the virtual joystick have similar capabilities, 92.3% and 100%, respectively. However, the 54.6% capacity score obtained for the speech control interface indicates the needs of the navigation assistance to accomplish some of the goals. Furthermore, the evaluation time indicates those skills which require more user's training with the interface and specifications to improve the total performance of the wheelchair.

  13. Compensatory Strategies during Manual Wheelchair Propulsion in Response to Weakness in Individual Muscle Groups: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Slowik, Jonathan S.; McNitt-Gray, Jill L.; Requejo, Philip S.; Mulroy, Sara J.; Neptune, Richard R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The considerable physical demand placed on the upper extremity during manual wheelchair propulsion is distributed among the individual muscles. The strategy used to distribute the workload is likely influenced by the relative force-generating capacities of individual muscles, and some strategies may be associated with a higher injury risk than others. The objective of this study was to use forward dynamics simulations of manual wheelchair propulsion to identify compensatory strategies that can be used to overcome weakness in individual muscle groups and identify specific strategies that may increase injury risk. Identifying these strategies can provide rationale for the design of targeted rehabilitation programs aimed at preventing the development of pain and injury in manual wheelchair users. Methods Muscle-actuated forward dynamics simulations of manual wheelchair propulsion were analyzed to identify compensatory strategies in response to individual muscle group weakness, using individual muscle mechanical power and stress as measures of upper extremity demand. Findings The simulation analyses found the upper extremity to be robust to weakness in any single muscle group as the remaining groups were able to compensate and restore normal propulsion mechanics. The rotator cuff muscles experienced relatively high muscle stress levels and exhibited compensatory relationships with the deltoid muscles. Interpretation These results underline the importance of strengthening the rotator cuff muscles and supporting muscles whose contributions do not increase the potential for impingement (i.e., the thoracohumeral depressors) and minimize the risk of upper extremity injury in manual wheelchair users. PMID:26945719

  14. Compensatory strategies during manual wheelchair propulsion in response to weakness in individual muscle groups: A simulation study.

    PubMed

    Slowik, Jonathan S; McNitt-Gray, Jill L; Requejo, Philip S; Mulroy, Sara J; Neptune, Richard R

    2016-03-01

    The considerable physical demand placed on the upper extremity during manual wheelchair propulsion is distributed among individual muscles. The strategy used to distribute the workload is likely influenced by the relative force-generating capacities of individual muscles, and some strategies may be associated with a higher injury risk than others. The objective of this study was to use forward dynamics simulations of manual wheelchair propulsion to identify compensatory strategies that can be used to overcome weakness in individual muscle groups and identify specific strategies that may increase injury risk. Identifying these strategies can provide rationale for the design of targeted rehabilitation programs aimed at preventing the development of pain and injury in manual wheelchair users. Muscle-actuated forward dynamics simulations of manual wheelchair propulsion were analyzed to identify compensatory strategies in response to individual muscle group weakness using individual muscle mechanical power and stress as measures of upper extremity demand. The simulation analyses found the upper extremity to be robust to weakness in any single muscle group as the remaining groups were able to compensate and restore normal propulsion mechanics. The rotator cuff muscles experienced relatively high muscle stress levels and exhibited compensatory relationships with the deltoid muscles. These results underline the importance of strengthening the rotator cuff muscles and supporting muscles whose contributions do not increase the potential for impingement (i.e., the thoracohumeral depressors) and minimize the risk of upper extremity injury in manual wheelchair users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of caster types on global rolling resistance in manual wheelchairs on indoor and outdoor surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chan, Franco H N; Eshraghi, Mehdi; Alhazmi, Mohammad A; Sawatzky, Bonita J

    2017-06-07

    An important aspect of reducing the strain of wheeling is to decrease rolling resistance. Previous laboratory research, using a treadmill, determined that smaller casters significantly increased rolling resistance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of caster size on various indoor and outdoor surfaces on global wheelchair rolling resistance. Three caster types with sizes 4 in, 5 in, and 6 in, three indoor surfaces, and three outdoor surfaces were studied. A manual wheelchair was passively pulled along each surface at 1.11 m/s (3.64 ft/s) by a power wheelchair, and the global rolling resistance of the manual wheelchair was measured using a calibrated force transducer. A 3×3 repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted for both indoor and outdoor environments. The 4-in casters resulted in the highest global rolling resistance on most surfaces. The 5-in casters had the least rolling resistance on most indoor surfaces, and the 6-in casters had the least rolling resistance on most outdoor surfaces. Although 4-in casters are more popular among active wheelchair users, larger casters were shown to have lower rolling resistance on most surfaces. This study may help users select the best caster size depending upon their daily activities and lifestyle.

  16. Power-assistive finger exoskeleton with a palmar opening at the fingerpad.

    PubMed

    Heo, Pilwon; Kim, Jung

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a powered finger exoskeleton with an open fingerpad, named the Open Fingerpad eXoskeleton (OFX). The palmar opening at the fingerpad allows for direct contact between the user's fingerpad and objects in order to make use of the wearer's own tactile sensation for dexterous manipulation. Lateral side walls at the end of the OFX's index finger module are equipped with custom load cells for estimating the wearer's pinch grip force. A pneumatic cylinder generates assistance force, which is determined according to the estimated pinch grip force. The OFX transmits the assistance force directly to the objects without exerting pressure on the wearer's finger. The advantage of the OFX over an exoskeleton with a closed fingerpad was validated experimentally. During static and dynamic manipulation of a test object, the OFX exhibited a lower safety margin than the closed exoskeleton, indicating a higher ability to adjust the grip force within an appropriate range. Furthermore, the benefit of force assistance in reducing the muscular burden was observed in terms of muscle fatigue during a static pinch grip. The median frequency (MDF) of the surface electromyography (sEMG) signal from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle displayed a lower reduction rate for the assisted condition, indicating a lower accumulation rate of muscle fatigue.

  17. A Procedure Manual for the Health Assistant Curriculum: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park.

    A secondary education health assistant curriculum procedure manual for six occupational areas is presented. The six areas, the number of procedures described for each area, and an example procedure follow: nursing assistant, forty-six (assist patient to and from a wheelchair); home health assistant, six (baby holds); medical/dental offices…

  18. Transportation Safety Standards for Wheelchair Users: A Review of Voluntary Standards for Improved Safety, Usability, and Independence of Wheelchair-Seated Travelers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Lawrence W.; Manary, Miriam A.; Hobson, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    Safe transportation for wheelchair users who do not transfer to the vehicle seat when traveling in motor vehicles requires after-market wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems (WTORS) to secure the wheelchair and provide crashworthy restraint for the wheelchair-seated occupant. In the absence of adequate government safety standards,…

  19. Transportation Safety Standards for Wheelchair Users: A Review of Voluntary Standards for Improved Safety, Usability, and Independence of Wheelchair-Seated Travelers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Lawrence W.; Manary, Miriam A.; Hobson, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    Safe transportation for wheelchair users who do not transfer to the vehicle seat when traveling in motor vehicles requires after-market wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems (WTORS) to secure the wheelchair and provide crashworthy restraint for the wheelchair-seated occupant. In the absence of adequate government safety standards,…

  20. Development of an Upper Limb Power Assist System Using Pneumatic Actuators for Farming Lift-up Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Eiichi; Harada, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Masaaki

    A power assist system has lately attracted considerable attention to lifting-up an object without low back pain. We have been developing power assist systems with pneumatic actuators for the elbow and shoulder to farming support of lifting-up a bag of rice weighing 30kg. This paper describes the mechanism and control method of this power assist system. The pneumatic rotary actuator supports shoulder motion, and the air cylinder supports elbow motion. In this control method, the surface electromyogram(EMG) signals are used as input information of the controller. The joint support torques of human are calculated based on the antigravity term of necessary joint torques, which are estimated on the dynamics of a human approximated link model. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism and control method of the power assist system.