Science.gov

Sample records for power generating industry

  1. Artificial Intelligence Application in Power Generation Industry: Initial considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Rahmat Izaizi B.; Ismail Alnaimi, Firas B.; AL-Qrimli, Haidar F.

    2016-03-01

    With increased competitiveness in power generation industries, more resources are directed in optimizing plant operation, including fault detection and diagnosis. One of the most powerful tools in faults detection and diagnosis is artificial intelligence (AI). Faults should be detected early so correct mitigation measures can be taken, whilst false alarms should be eschewed to avoid unnecessary interruption and downtime. For the last few decades there has been major interest towards intelligent condition monitoring system (ICMS) application in power plant especially with AI development particularly in artificial neural network (ANN). ANN is based on quite simple principles, but takes advantage of their mathematical nature, non-linear iteration to demonstrate powerful problem solving ability. With massive possibility and room for improvement in AI, the inspiration for researching them are apparent, and literally, hundreds of papers have been published, discussing the findings of hybrid AI for condition monitoring purposes. In this paper, the studies of ANN and genetic algorithm (GA) application will be presented.

  2. Optimization of Industrial Ozone Generation with Pulsed Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Jose; Guerrero, Daniel; Freilich, Alfred; Ramoino, Luca; Seton Hall University Team; Degremont Technologies-Ozonia Team

    2013-09-01

    Ozone (O3) is widely used for applications ranging from various industrial chemical synthesis processes to large-scale water treatment. The consequent surge in world-wide demand has brought about the requirement for ozone generation at the rate of several hundreds grams per kilowatt hour (g/kWh). For many years, ozone has been generated by means of dielectric barrier discharges (DBD), where a high-energy electric field between two electrodes separated by a dielectric and gap containing pure oxygen or air produce various microplasmas. The resultant microplasmas provide sufficient energy to dissociate the oxygen molecules while allowing the proper energetics channels for the formation of ozone. This presentation will review the current power schemes used for large-scale ozone generation and explore the use of high-voltage nanosecond pulses with reduced electric fields. The created microplasmas in a high reduced electric field are expected to be more efficient for ozone generation. This is confirmed with the current results of this work which observed that the efficiency of ozone generation increases by over eight time when the rise time and pulse duration are shortened. Department of Physics, South Orange, NJ, USA.

  3. A Survey of Special Libraries in the Power Generation Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hilary C.; Heymann, Frank J.

    1984-01-01

    Profiles of medium-sized technical libraries serving the power industry highlight user groups and staffing; library size, holdings, and facilities; library services; use of modern and innovative methods, and outside resources; correlation between number of users and selected other characteristics; correlation of library characteristics with…

  4. 2006 AFS. Separations processes for the power generation industry

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    The presentations (viewgraph/overheads) or papers discussed separations processes for the power industry under the following subject headings: nuclear, advanced energy and pollution, control systems, FGD, hot gas filtration, air pollution, electrostatic precipitators for particulate removal, filter media, CO{sub 2} capture, advances in filter design and operation, water utilization and treatment and arsenic, and advances in filtration and separation.

  5. The CAIR vacatur raises uncertainty in the power generation industry

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Weiss; John Kinsman

    2008-12-15

    On 11 July 2008, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia issued a unanimous decision vacating the entire Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the associated federal implementation plan. The upset of this program to reduce power plant sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in the eastern United States was a great surprise, creating operational and planning turmoil in the industry. 4 refs.

  6. Generation expansion planning in a competitive electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Angela Shu-Woan

    This work investigates the application of non-cooperative game theory to generation expansion planning (GEP) in a competitive electricity industry. We identify fundamental ways competition changes the nature of GEP, review different models of oligopoly behavior, and argue that assumptions of the Cournot model are compatible with GEP. Applying Cournot theory of oligopoly behavior, we formulate a GEP model that may characterize expansion in the new competitive regime, particularly in pool-dominated generation supply industries. Our formulation incorporates multiple markets and is patterned after the basic design of the California ISO/PX system. Applying the model, we conduct numerical experiments on a test system, and analyze generation investment and market participation decisions of different candidate expansion units that vary in costs and forced outage rates. Simulations are performed under different scenarios of competition. In particular, we observe higher probabilistic measures of reliability from Cournot expansion compared to the expansion plan of a monopoly with an equivalent minimum reserve margin requirement. We prove several results for a subclass of problems encompassed by our formulation. In particular, we prove that under certain conditions Cournot competition leads to greater total capacity expansion than a situation in which generators collude in a cartel. We also show that industry output after introduction of new technology is no less than monopoly output. So a monopoly may lack sufficient incentive to introduce new technologies. Finally, we discuss the association between capacity payments and the issue of pricing reliability. And we derive a formula for computing ideal capacity payment rates by extending the Value of Service Reliability technique.

  7. The role of advanced technology in the future of the power generation industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, T.F.

    1994-10-01

    This presentation reviews the directions that technology has given the power generation industry in the past and how advanced technology will be the key for the future of the industry. The topics of the presentation include how the industry`s history has defined its culture, how today`s economic and regulatory climate has constrained its strategy, and how certain technology options might give some of the players an unfair advantage.

  8. Evaluation on the efficiency of biomass power generation industry in china.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingqi; Sun, Dong; Guo, Sen

    2014-01-01

    As a developing country with large population, China is facing the problems of energy resource shortage and growing environmental pollution arising from the coal-dominated energy structure. Biomass energy, as a kind of renewable energy with the characteristics of being easy to store and friendly to environment, has become the focus of China's energy development in the future. Affected by the advanced power generation technology and diversified geography environment, the biomass power generation projects show new features in recent years. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the efficiency of biomass power generation industry by employing proper method with the consideration of new features. In this paper, the regional difference as a new feature of biomass power generation industry is taken into consideration, and the AR model is employed to modify the zero-weight issue when using data envelopment analysis (DEA) method to evaluate the efficiency of biomass power generation industry. 30 biomass power generation enterprises in China are selected as the sample, and the efficiency evaluation is performed. The result can provide some insights into the sustainable development of biomass power generation industry in China.

  9. Evaluation on the Efficiency of Biomass Power Generation Industry in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dong; Guo, Sen

    2014-01-01

    As a developing country with large population, China is facing the problems of energy resource shortage and growing environmental pollution arising from the coal-dominated energy structure. Biomass energy, as a kind of renewable energy with the characteristics of being easy to store and friendly to environment, has become the focus of China's energy development in the future. Affected by the advanced power generation technology and diversified geography environment, the biomass power generation projects show new features in recent years. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the efficiency of biomass power generation industry by employing proper method with the consideration of new features. In this paper, the regional difference as a new feature of biomass power generation industry is taken into consideration, and the AR model is employed to modify the zero-weight issue when using data envelopment analysis (DEA) method to evaluate the efficiency of biomass power generation industry. 30 biomass power generation enterprises in China are selected as the sample, and the efficiency evaluation is performed. The result can provide some insights into the sustainable development of biomass power generation industry in China. PMID:25093209

  10. Evaluation of conventional electric power generating industry quality assurance and reliability practices

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.T.; Lauffenburger, H.A.

    1981-03-01

    The techniques and practices utilized in an allied industry (electric power generation) that might serve as a baseline for formulating Quality Assurance and Reliability (QA and R) procedures for photovoltaic solar energy systems were studied. The study results provide direct near-term input for establishing validation methods as part of the SERI performance criteria and test standards development task.

  11. Consideration of Thermoelectric Power Generation by Using Hot Spring Thermal Energy or Industrial Waste Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Keiichi; Horikawa, Daisuke; Goto, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Today, we face some significant environmental and energy problems such as global warming, urban heat island, and the precarious balance of world oil supply and demand. However, we have not yet found a satisfactory solution to these problems. Waste heat recovery is considered to be one of the best solutions because it can improve energy efficiency by converting heat exhausted from plants and machinery to electric power. This technology would also prevent atmospheric temperature increases caused by waste heat, and decrease fossil fuel consumption by recovering heat energy, thus also reducing CO2 emissions. The system proposed in this research generates electric power by providing waste heat or unharnessed thermal energy to built-in thermoelectric modules that can convert heat into electric power. Waste heat can be recovered from many places, including machinery in industrial plants, piping in electric power plants, waste incineration plants, and so on. Some natural heat sources such as hot springs and solar heat can also be used for this thermoelectric generation system. The generated power is expected to be supplied to auxiliary machinery around the heat source, stored as an emergency power supply, and so on. The attributes of this system are (1) direct power generation using hot springs or waste heat; (2) 24-h stable power generation; (3) stand-alone power system with no noise and no vibration; and (4) easy maintenance attributed to its simple structure with no moving parts. In order to maximize energy use efficiency, the temperature difference between both sides of the thermoelectric (TE) modules built into the system need to be kept as large as possible. This means it is important to reduce thermal resistance between TE modules and heat source. Moreover, the system's efficiency greatly depends on the base temperature of the heat sources and the material of the system's TE modules. Therefore, in order to make this system practical and efficient, it is necessary to

  12. Dynamic angle stability of an industrial turbo generator connected in power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grouni, S.; Hallak, M.; Aibeche, A.; Ramdani, A.; Bouallegue, K.

    2014-12-01

    This paper deals with the dynamic problem of oscillation and damping on an industrial turbo generator connected to infinite networks. A set of equations that governs the turbo generator connected to infinite bus are written in characteristic form. The power system stabilizer PSS applied in order to solve the problem of damping internal angle and operating power system synchronization. The PSS model described is inspired from Heffron-Philips model is applied on real parameters simulation under Matlab simulink. The results obtained from practical application are advantageous which variations of amplitude and time mitigation oscillations magnitude of electrical and mechanical output variables. This numerical experiment permits to gain more simplicity compared with several methods applied in a real operating prototyping systems. The PSS that is used will improve the dynamic stability.

  13. Organizational culture and knowledge management in the electric power generation industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayfield, Robert D.

    Scarcity of knowledge and expertise is a challenge in the electric power generation industry. Today's most pervasive knowledge issues result from employee turnover and the constant movement of employees from project to project inside organizations. To address scarcity of knowledge and expertise, organizations must enable employees to capture, transfer, and use mission-critical explicit and tacit knowledge. The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory research was to examine the relationship between and among organizations within the electric power generation industry developing knowledge management processes designed to retain, share, and use the industry, institutional, and technical knowledge upon which the organizations depend. The research findings show that knowledge management is a business problem within the domain of information systems and management. The risks associated with losing mission critical-knowledge can be measured using metrics on employee retention, recruitment, productivity, training and benchmarking. Certain enablers must be in place in order to engage people, encourage cooperation, create a knowledge-sharing culture, and, ultimately change behavior. The research revealed the following change enablers that support knowledge management strategies: (a) training - blended learning, (b) communities of practice, (c) cross-functional teams, (d) rewards and recognition programs, (e) active senior management support, (f) communication and awareness, (g) succession planning, and (h) team organizational culture.

  14. Industry perspectives on increasing the efficiency of coal-fired power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Torrens, I.M.; Stenzel, W.C.

    1997-12-31

    Independent power producers will build a substantial fraction of expected new coal-fired power generation in developing countries over the coming decades. To reduce perceived risk and obtain financing for their projects, they are currently building and plan to continue to build subcritical coal-fired plants with generating efficiency below 40%. Up-to-date engineering assessment leads to the conclusion that supercritical generating technology, capable of efficiencies of up to 45%, can produce electricity at a lower total cost than conventional plants. If such plants were built in Asia over the coming decades, the savings in carbon dioxide emissions over their lifetime would be measured in billions of tons. IPPs perceive supercritical technology as riskier and higher cost than conventional technology. The truth needs to be confirmed by discussions with additional experienced power engineering companies. Better communication among the interested parties could help to overcome the IPP perception issue. Governments working together with industry might be able to identify creative financing arrangements which can encourage the use of more efficient pulverized clean coal technologies, while awaiting the commercialization of advanced clean coal technologies like gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  15. Evolution of Westinghouse heavy-duty power generation and industrial combustion turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Scalzo, A.J.; Bannister, R.L.; DeCorso, M.; Howard, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    This paper reviews the evolution of heavy-duty power generation and industrial combustion turbines in the United States from a Westinghouse Electric Corporation perspective. Westinghouse combustion turbine genealogy began in March of 1943 when the first wholly American designed and manufactured jet engine went on test in Philadelphia, and continues today in Orlando, Florida, with the 230 MW, 501G combustion turbine. In this paper, advances in thermodynamics, materials, cooling, and unit size will be described. Many basic design features such as two-bearing rotor, cold-end drive, can-annular internal combustors, CURVIC{sup 2} clutched turbine disks, and tangential exhaust struts have endured successfully for over 40 years. Progress in turbine technology includes the clean coal technology and advanced turbine systems initiatives of the US Department of Energy.

  16. New generation of high average power industry grade ultrafast ytterbium fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusim, Alex; Samartsev, Igor; Shkurikhin, Oleg; Myasnikov, Daniil; Bordenyuk, Andrey; Platonov, Nikolai; Kancharla, Vijay; Gapontsev, Valentin

    2016-03-01

    We report an industrial grade picosecond and femtosecond pulse Yb fiber lasers with >100 μJ pulse energy and hundreds of Watts of average power for improved laser machining speed of sapphire and glass. This highly efficient laser offers >25% wall plug efficiency within a compact 3U rack-mountable configuration plus a long >2m fiber delivery cable. Reconfigurable features such as controllable repetition rate, fine pulse duration control, burst mode operation and adjustable pulse energy permit the customer to tailor the laser to their application.

  17. SVBR-100 module-type fast reactor of the IV generation for regional power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zrodnikov, A. V.; Toshinsky, G. I.; Komlev, O. G.; Stepanov, V. S.; Klimov, N. N.

    2011-08-01

    In the report the following is presented: basic conceptual provisions of the innovative nuclear power technology (NPT) based on modular fast reactors (FR) SVBR-100, summarized results of calculations of the reactor, analysis of the opportunities of multi-purpose application of such reactor facilities (RF) including export potentials with due account of nonproliferation requirements. The most important features of the proposed NPT analyzed in the report are as follows: (1) integral (monoblock) arrangement of the primary circuit equipment with entire elimination of the primary circuit pipelines and valves that considerably reduces the construction and assembly works period and coupling with high boiling point of lead-bismuth coolant (LBC) deterministically eliminates accidents of the LOCA type, (2) option for 100 MWe power and dimensions of the reactor provide: on the one hand, an opportunity to transport the reactor monoblock in factory-readiness by railway as well as other kinds of transport, on the other hand, core breeding ratio (CBR) exceeds 1 while MOX-fuel is used. The preferable area of application of RF SVBR-100 is regional and small power requiring power-units of electric power in a range of (100-600) MW, which could be used for cogeneration-based district heating while locating them nearby cities as well as for generation of electric power in a mode of load tracking in the regions with low network systems.

  18. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Fe(sub 3)Al-Based Alloy Tubes: Application Specific Development for the Power Generation Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kad, B.K.

    1999-07-01

    A detailed and comprehensive research and development methodology is being prescribed to produce Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS)-Fe3Al thin walled tubes, using powder extrusion methodologies, for eventual use at operating temperatures of up to 1100C in the power generation industry. A particular 'in service application' anomaly of Fe3Al-based alloys is that the environmental resistance is maintained up to 1200C, well beyond where such alloys retain sufficient mechanical strength. Grain boundary creep processes at such high temperatures are anticipated to be the dominant failure mechanism.

  19. Cold-Sprayed Ni-Al2O3 Coatings for Applications in Power Generation Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevillano, F.; Poza, P.; Múnez, C. J.; Vezzù, S.; Rech, S.; Trentin, A.

    2013-06-01

    Cermets coatings are extensively used in energy applications both because of their high wear resistance as required, for example, in components like gas turbine sealants, and because of their specific functionality as required in solar absorbers. So far, high-temperature thermal spraying and physical vapor deposition have traditionally been used to deposit this kind of coatings. In this study, Ni-Al2O3 coatings have been deposited using a Kinetic®3000 cold-spray system starting from Ni and Al2O3 powders blend; five blends have been prepared setting the alumina content in the feedstock to 10, 25, 50, 75, and 90 wt.%. The embedded alumina ranges between a few percent weight up to 16 and 31 wt.%, while the microhardness shows a deep increase from 175 Vickers in the case of pure Ni coatings up to 338 Vickers. The spray and coating growth mechanism have been discussed, with special attention to the fragmentation of the ceramic particles during the impact. Finally, the coating behavior at high temperature was analyzed by oxidation tests performed in air at 520 °C emphasizing a good oxidation resistance that could represent a very promising basis for application in power generation systems.

  20. HTR-100 industrial nuclear power plant for generation of heat and electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.; Kohl, W.

    1987-11-01

    Based on their proven high-temperature reactor (HTR) with pebble-bed core, Brown, Boveri and Cie/Hochtemperatur-Reaktorbau have developed an HTR-100 plant that combines favorable capital costs and high availability. Due to the high HTR-specific standards and passive safety features, this plant is especially well suited for siting near the end user. The safety concept permits further operation of the plant or decay heat removal via the operational heat sinks in the event of maloperation and design basis accidents having a higher probability of occurrence. In the event of hypothetical accidents, the decay heat is removed from the reactor pressure vessel by radiation, conduction, and convection to a concrete cooling system operating in natural convection. As an example of the new HTR-100 plant concept, a twin-block plant design for extraction of industrial steam is presented.

  1. Development of a UBFC biocatalyst fuel cell to generate power and treat industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Sukkasem, Chontisa; Laehlah, Sunee

    2013-10-01

    Agro-industry wastewaters normally contain high levels of organic matter and require suitable treatment before discharge. The use of Microbial fuel cells, a novel wastewater treatment, can provide advantages over existing treatment methods. In this study, an up-flow bio-filter circuit (UBFC) for treating wastewaters without chemical treatment or nutrient supplement, was developed to solve a clogging problem. The optimal conditions included an organic loading rate of 30.0 g COD/L-d, hydraulic retention time of 1.04 day, pH level of 5.6-6.5 and aeration at 2.0 L/min. External resistance of the circuit was tested. COD removal levels of 8.08, 20.1 and 26.67 g COD/L-d were obtained, while fed with sea food, biodiesel and palm oil mill wastewater, respectively. These rates are higher than for conventional technologies. The carbon fiber brush immobilized base increased the performance of the new UBFC by 17.54% over that obtained in a previous study, while the cost was slightly decreased about 4.48%. PMID:23932287

  2. Development of a UBFC biocatalyst fuel cell to generate power and treat industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Sukkasem, Chontisa; Laehlah, Sunee

    2013-10-01

    Agro-industry wastewaters normally contain high levels of organic matter and require suitable treatment before discharge. The use of Microbial fuel cells, a novel wastewater treatment, can provide advantages over existing treatment methods. In this study, an up-flow bio-filter circuit (UBFC) for treating wastewaters without chemical treatment or nutrient supplement, was developed to solve a clogging problem. The optimal conditions included an organic loading rate of 30.0 g COD/L-d, hydraulic retention time of 1.04 day, pH level of 5.6-6.5 and aeration at 2.0 L/min. External resistance of the circuit was tested. COD removal levels of 8.08, 20.1 and 26.67 g COD/L-d were obtained, while fed with sea food, biodiesel and palm oil mill wastewater, respectively. These rates are higher than for conventional technologies. The carbon fiber brush immobilized base increased the performance of the new UBFC by 17.54% over that obtained in a previous study, while the cost was slightly decreased about 4.48%.

  3. MHD Power Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantrowitz, Arthur; Rosa, Richard J.

    1975-01-01

    Explains the operation of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator and advantages of the system over coal, oil or nuclear powered generators. Details the development of MHD generators in the United States and Soviet Union. (CP)

  4. Industrial power distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sorrells, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is a broad overview of industrial power distribution. Primary focus will be on selection of the various low voltage components to achieve the end product. Emphasis will be on the use of national standards to ensure a safe and well designed installation.

  5. Next generation 9xx/10xx nm high power laser diode bars for multi-kilowatt industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commin, Paul; Todt, René; Krejci, Martin; Bättig, Rainer; Brunner, Reinhard; Lichtenstein, Norbert

    2013-02-01

    We report on the development of high power, 9xx-10xx nm laser diode bars for use in direct diode systems and for solidstate and fibre laser pumping with applications in industrial markets. For 1 cm wide bars on micro channel cooler (MCC) we have achieved a reliable output power of 250 W across the 900 nm - 1060 nm range. At this output power level we have achieved power conversion efficiencies of 65-66 % and 90 % power content slow axis beam divergence of ~6.5°. Results of a 6400 h life test show an average power degradation of 0.6 % per 1000 h at this operating power level. We will also show results of high power bars assembled on the new OCLARO conductive cooler, the BLM. This new cooler has a small footprint of 12.6 mm × 24.8 mm and is designed for lateral or vertical stacking of diodes in multi kilowatt systems but with the benefits associated with a conductive cooler. The thermal properties are shown to be the same as for a standard CS mount. 1 cm wide high fill factor bars and 0.5 cm wide low fill factor half bars assembled on the BLM operate at 63-64 % power conversion efficiency (PCE) with output powers of up to 250 W and 150 W, respectively.

  6. Wind power generating system

    SciTech Connect

    Schachle, Ch.; Schachle, E. C.; Schachle, J. R.; Schachle, P. J.

    1985-03-12

    Normally feathered propeller blades of a wind power generating system unfeather in response to the actuation of a power cylinder that responds to actuating signals. Once operational, the propellers generate power over a large range of wind velocities. A maximum power generation design point signals a feather response of the propellers so that once the design point is reached no increase in power results, but the system still generates power. At wind speeds below this maximum point, propeller speed and power output optimize to preset values. The propellers drive a positive displacement pump that in turn drives a positive displacement motor of the swash plate type. The displacement of the motor varies depending on the load on the system, with increasing displacement resulting in increasing propeller speeds, and the converse. In the event of dangerous but not clandestine problems developing in the system, a control circuit dumps hydraulic pressure from the unfeathering cylinder resulting in a predetermined, lower operating pressure produced by the pump. In the event that a problem of potentially cladestine consequence arises, the propeller unfeathering cylinder immediately unloads. Upon startup, a bypass around the motor is blocked, applying a pressure across the motor. The motor drives the generator until the generator reaches a predetermined speed whereupon the generator is placed in circuit with a utility grid and permitted to motor up to synchronous speed.

  7. Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Fe3Al-Based Alloy Tubes: Application-Specific Development for the Power Generation Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kad, BK

    2001-07-20

    A detailed and comprehensive research and development methodology is being prescribed to produce Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS)-Fe{sub 3}Al thin walled tubes, using powder extrusion methodologies, for eventual use at operating temperatures of up to 1100 C in the power generation industry. A particular ''in service application'' anomaly of Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys is that the environmental resistance is maintained up to 1200 C, well beyond where such alloys retain sufficient mechanical strength. Grain boundary creep processes at such high temperatures are anticipated to be the dominant failure mechanism. Thus, the challenges of this program are manifold: (1) to produce thin walled ODS-Fe{sub 3}Al tubes, employing powder extrusion methodologies, with (2) adequate increased strength for service at operating temperatures, and (3) to mitigate creep failures by enhancing the as-processed grain size in ODS-Fe{sub 3}Al tubes. Our research progress till date has resulted in the successful batch production of typically 8 Ft. lengths of 1-3/8 inch diameter, 1/8 inch wall thickness, ODS-Fe{sub 3}Al tubes via a proprietary single step extrusion consolidation process. The process parameters for such consolidation methodologies have been prescribed and evaluated as being routinely reproducible. Such processing parameters (i.e., extrusion ratios, temperature, can design etc.) were particularly guided by the need to effect post-extrusion recrystallization and grain growth at a sufficiently low temperature, while still meeting the creep requirement at service temperatures. Static recrystallization studies show that elongated grains (with their long axis parallel to the extrusion axis), typically 200-2000 {micro}m in diameter, and several millimeters long can be obtained routinely, at 1200 C. The growth kinetics are affected by the interstitial impurity content in the powder batches. For example complete recrystallization, across the tube wall thickness, is observed for clean

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generation is a concise summary of MHD theory, history, and future trends. Results of the major international MHD research projects are discussed. Data from MHD research is included. Economics of initial and operating costs are considered.

  9. Electrical power generating system. [for windpowered generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An alternating current power generation system adopted to inject power in an already powered power line is discussed. The power generating system solves to adjustably coup an induction motor, as a generator, to an ac power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced. The principal application will be for windmill powered generation.

  10. Enhanced power generation in annular single-chamber microbial fuel cell via optimization of electrode spacing using chocolate industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Noori, Parisa; Najafpour Darzi, Ghasem

    2016-05-01

    Development and practical application of microbial fuel cell (MFC) is restricted because of the limitations such as low power output. To overcome low power limitation, the optimization of specific parameters including electrode materials and surface area, electrode spacing, and MFC's cell shape was investigated. To the best of our knowledge, no investigation has been reported in the literature to implement an annular single-chamber microbial fuel cell (ASCMFC) using chocolate industry wastewater. ASCMFC was fabricated via optimization of the stated parameters. The aspects of ASCMFC were comprehensively examined. In this study, the optimization of electrode spacing and its impact on performance of the ASCMFC were conducted. Reduction of electrode spacing by 46.15% (1.3-0.7 cm) resulted in a decrease in internal resistance from 100 to 50 Ω, which enhanced the power density and current output to 22.898 W/m(3) and 6.42 mA, respectively. An optimum electrode spacing of 0.7 cm was determined. Through this paper, the effects of these parameters and the performance of ASCMFC are also evaluated.

  11. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  12. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  13. Oscillating fluid power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, David C

    2014-02-25

    A system and method for harvesting the kinetic energy of a fluid flow for power generation with a vertically oriented, aerodynamic wing structure comprising one or more airfoil elements pivotably attached to a mast. When activated by the moving fluid stream, the wing structure oscillates back and forth, generating lift first in one direction then in the opposite direction. This oscillating movement is converted to unidirectional rotational movement in order to provide motive power to an electricity generator. Unlike other oscillating devices, this device is designed to harvest the maximum aerodynamic lift forces available for a given oscillation cycle. Because the system is not subjected to the same intense forces and stresses as turbine systems, it can be constructed less expensively, reducing the cost of electricity generation. The system can be grouped in more compact clusters, be less evident in the landscape, and present reduced risk to avian species.

  14. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1983-12-29

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  15. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, Carl A.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  16. Wind power. [electricity generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  17. Spectrophotovoltaic orbital power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onffroy, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibilty of a spectrophotovoltaic orbital power generation system that optically concentrates solar energy is demonstrated. A dichroic beam-splitting mirror is used to divide the solar spectrum into two wavebands. Absorption of these wavebands by GaAs and Si solar cell arrays with matched energy bandgaps increases the cell efficiency while decreasing the amount of heat that must be rejected. The projected cost per peak watt if this system is $2.50/W sub p.

  18. Future trends in power generation cost by power resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-08-01

    The Japan Energy Economy Research Institute has been evaluating power generation cost by each power resource every year focusing on nuclear power generation. The Institute is surveying the cost evaluations by power resources in France, Britain and the U.S.A., the nuclear generation advanced nations. The OECD is making power generation cost estimation using a hypothesis which uniforms basically the conditions varying in different member countries. In model power generation cost calculations conducted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan, nuclear power generation is the most economical system in any fiscal year. According to recent calculations performed by the Japan Energy Economy Research Institute, the situation is such that it is difficult to distinguish the economical one from others among the power generation systems in terms of generation costs except for thermal power generation. Economic evaluations are given on estimated power generation costs based on construction costs for nuclear and thermal power plants, nuclear fuel cycling cost, and fuel cost data on petroleum, LNG and coal. With regard to the future trends, scenario analyses are made on generation costs, that assume fluctuations in fuel prices and construction costs, the important factors to give economic influence on power generation.

  19. Industrial Power Factor Analysis Guidebook.

    SciTech Connect

    Electrotek Concepts.

    1995-03-01

    Power factor is a way of measuring the percentage of reactive power in an electrical system. Reactive power represents wasted energy--electricity that does no useful work because the electrical current is out of phase with the voltage. Reactive power is used by inductive loads (such as, motors, transformers, fluorescent lights, arc welders and induction furnaces) to sustain their magnetic fields. Electric systems with many motors exhibit low power factors, increased conductor and transformer losses, and lower voltages. Utilities must supply both active and reactive power and compensate for these losses. Power factor can be improved by the addition of shunt capacitors. Capacitors act in opposition to inductive loads, thereby minimizing the reactive power required to serve them. In raising the power factor, shunt capacitors release energy to the system, reduce system losses, and ultimately decrease power costs. Improving system power factor can reduce reactive and active power losses for both industry and utilities through the addition of shunt capacitors. This Guide Book gives electric utility technical staff, industrial end-users, consultants and BPA employees a step-by-step method for evaluating the cost effectiveness of installing power factor correction capacitors in an industrial plant.

  20. Micro electret power generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boland, Justin

    The taming of electricity and its widespread use allows people to see in the dark, to speak to one another instantaneously across the earth, and it allows retrieval of data from instruments sent out of the solar system. It is right to expect that the uses and demand for electricity will continue to grow, and to extend the ability to generate electricity; here two new micromachined devices for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy are presented. Aided by the wealth of micromachining process technology, generators that use an oscillatory motion to modify the physical structure of a capacitor with a built-in electric field provided by a permanent electret have been designed, built, and tested. The electret creates an electric field inside the capacitor structure, which induces mirror charge at some potential. The modification of the capacitor then generates an alternating displacement current through an external circuit, which provides useful electrical power. The electret microphone is a similar well known device for converting pressure waves into electrical signals by varying the distance between two charged capacitive plates. This work explores and proves feasible the ability to use mechanical forces to change the overlapping area of a charged capacitor structure and using mechanical forces to move a liquid into the gap of a charged capacitor structure, changing its permittivity to produce electricity. This work demonstrates 2.5mW of power from a 2cm diameter rotary generator at 12kRPM and 10[micro]w for a 0.1cm3 linear shaking generator at 60Hz.

  1. Wind Power: Options for Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-03-01

    This six-page brochure outlines ways for industry to integrate wind power, including assessing wind power, building wind farms, using a developer, capitalizing on technology, enhancing the corporate image, and preparing RFPs. Company examples and information resources are also provided.

  2. RESULTS OF THE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR A NOVEL BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED POWER GENERATION SYSTEM FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Sunil Ghose; Jim Patel

    2003-11-01

    In 2001, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41108 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for an Agenda 2020 project to develop an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system for near-term deployment in the Forest Products Industry (FPI). The advanced power system combines three advanced components, including biomass gasification, 3-stage stoker-fired combustion for biomass conversion, and externally recuperated gas turbines (ERGTs) for power generation. The primary performance goals for the advanced power system are to provide increased self-generated power production for the mill and to increase wastewood utilization while decreasing fossil fuel use. Additional goals are to reduce boiler NOx and CO{sub 2} emissions. The current study was conducted to determine the technical and economic feasibility of an Advanced Power Generation System capable of meeting these goals so that a capital investment decision can be made regarding its implementation at a paper mill demonstration site in DeRidder, LA. Preliminary designs and cost estimates were developed for all major equipment, boiler modifications and balance of plant requirements including all utilities required for the project. A three-step implementation plan was developed to reduce technology risk. The plant design was found to meet the primary objectives of the project for increased bark utilization, decreased fossil fuel use, and increased self-generated power in the mill. Bark utilization for the modified plant is significantly higher (90-130%) than current operation compared to the 50% design goal. For equivalent steam production, the total gas usage for the fully implemented plant is 29% lower than current operation. While the current average steam production from No.2 Boiler is about 213,000 lb/h, the total steam production from the modified plant is 379,000 lb/h. This steam production increase will be accomplished at a grate heat release rate

  3. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  4. Generation of electrical power

    DOEpatents

    Hursen, Thomas F.; Kolenik, Steven A.; Purdy, David L.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-to-electricity converter is disclosed which includes a radioactive heat source and a thermoelectric element of relatively short overall length capable of delivering a low voltage of the order of a few tenths of a volt. Such a thermoelectric element operates at a higher efficiency than longer higher-voltage elements; for example, elements producing 6 volts. In the generation of required power, thermoelectric element drives a solid-state converter which is controlled by input current rather than input voltage and operates efficiently for a high signal-plus-noise to signal ratio of current. The solid-state converter has the voltage gain necessary to deliver the required voltage at the low input of the thermoelectric element.

  5. Knowledge industry: a powerful mechanism.

    PubMed

    Miguelote, Vera Regina da Silva; Camargo Jr, Kenneth Rochel de

    2010-02-01

    The paper deals with the pharmaceutical industry's links to the knowledge industry, through powerful marketing strategies. With the aim of scientifically legitimizing its products, the pharmaceutical industry interferes with the production of medical knowledge. In the form of a mechanism for directing economic interests, it funds drug research, biases its results and stimulates the production and publication of scientific papers. This is a mechanism that threatens important ethical issues: it transforms the process of scientific legitimization into a marketing strategy, compromises the credibility of the process of constructing medical knowledge and encourages distortions of the criteria for evaluating the quality of scientific papers. PMID:20140344

  6. Optimization and economic evaluation of industrial gas production and combined heat and power generation from gasification of corn stover and distillers grains.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Demirel, Yasar; Jones, David D; Hanna, Milford A

    2010-05-01

    Thermochemical gasification is one of the most promising technologies for converting biomass into power, fuels and chemicals. The objectives of this study were to maximize the net energy efficiency for biomass gasification, and to estimate the cost of producing industrial gas and combined heat and power (CHP) at a feedrate of 2000kg/h. Aspen Plus-based model for gasification was combined with a CHP generation model, and optimized using corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) as the biomass feedstocks. The cold gas efficiencies for gas production were 57% and 52%, respectively, for corn stover and DDGS. The selling price of gas was estimated to be $11.49 and $13.08/GJ, respectively, for corn stover and DDGS. For CHP generation, the electrical and net efficiencies were as high as 37% and 88%, respectively, for corn stover and 34% and 78%, respectively, for DDGS. The selling price of electricity was estimated to be $0.1351 and $0.1287/kWh for corn stover and DDGS, respectively. Overall, high net energy efficiencies for gas and CHP production from biomass gasification can be achieved with optimized processing conditions. However, the economical feasibility of these conversion processes will depend on the relative local prices of fossil fuels.

  7. Windmill structure and power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Schott, L.A.; Schott, R.A.

    1982-02-23

    A windpower generator includes a cupped blade design to be assembled from flat module sheets together with a resiliently biased mount to provide automatic feathering with a consequent speed control. A generator or alternating generator to feed electric output to an existing power system, as, for example, a residence or small business establishment, is associated with the windmill to serve as a counterbalance in the mounting and to cooperate with the self-governing blade assembly. A switching circuit is connected to feed generator power to the local utility power lines when net power is available at the winddriven alternator and in phase with utility power.

  8. Industrial innovations for tomorrow: Advances in industrial energy-efficiency technologies. Commercial power plant tests blend of refuse-derived fuel and coal to generate electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    MSW can be converted to energy in two ways. One involves the direct burning of MSW to produce steam and electricity. The second converts MSW into refuse-derived fuel (RDF) by reducing the size of the MSW and separating metals, glass, and other inorganic materials. RDF can be densified or mixed with binders to form fuel pellets. As part of a program sponsored by DOE`s Office of Industrial Technologies, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory participated in a cooperative research and development agreement to examine combustion of binder-enhanced, densified refuse-derived fuel (b-d RDF) pellets with coal. Pelletized b-d RDF has been burned in coal combustors, but only in quantities of less than 3% in large utility systems. The DOE project involved the use of b-d RDF in quantities up to 20%. A major goal was to quantify the pollutants released during combustion and measure combustion performance.

  9. Geothermal power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, G.K.

    1981-01-01

    The Southern California Edison Co. geothermal program is described in general. The individual power plant projects are described: Brawley 10 MW, Heber 45 MW and Salton Sea 9 MW. Related geothermal activities are mentioned.

  10. Power generation systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Chao, Yi (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A power generation system includes a plurality of submerged mechanical devices. Each device includes a pump that can be powered, in operation, by mechanical energy to output a pressurized output liquid flow in a conduit. Main output conduits are connected with the device conduits to combine pressurized output flows output from the submerged mechanical devices into a lower number of pressurized flows. These flows are delivered to a location remote of the submerged mechanical devices for power generation.

  11. Levelized Power Generation Cost Codes

    1996-04-30

    LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generationmore » cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor.« less

  12. Electrochemical power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Zaromb, S.

    1983-01-18

    Apparatus and methods for generating heat and electricity from the consumption of a variety of aluminum products comprise: (A) a reaction chamber containing an aqueous electrolyte solution and adapted for introduction therein of aluminum pieces of various shapes and sizes up to a certain maximum predetermined size and for effecting a chemical reaction between said aqueous electrolyte and said aluminum pieces yielding aluminum hydroxide and an intermediate reactant; (B) means for feeding said aluminum pieces into said reaction chamber in small quantities upon demand; (C) means for removing the heat generated in said chamber as a result of said reaction; (D) means for removing said aluminum hydroxide reaction product; and (E) means for oxidizing said intermediate reactant in an electrochemical cell, thereby generating electrical energy. The intermediate reactant is preferably hydrogen or zinc. The latter may be used in a slurry type zinc/air battery, whereas hydrogen is preferably reacted in conjunction with a nongaseous cathode reactant, which may be a liquid solution of an oxidant, such as hydrogen peroxide, or a solid, such as nickel dioxide. The latter may be regenerated either chemically, by immersion in an oxidizing solution, or electrically, by using the gaseous diffusion type of hydrogen electrode to also reduce oxygen from ambient air.

  13. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Minich, Roger W.

    1988-01-01

    A device (10) for producing high-powered and coherent microwaves is described. The device comprises an evacuated, cylindrical, and hollow real cathode (20) that is driven to inwardly field emit relativistic electrons. The electrons pass through an internally disposed cylindrical and substantially electron-transparent cylindrical anode (24), proceed toward a cylindrical electron collector electrode (26), and form a cylindrical virtual cathode (32). Microwaves are produced by spatial and temporal oscillations of the cylindrical virtual cathode (32), and by electrons that reflex back and forth between the cylindrical virtual cathode (32) and the cylindrical real cathode (20).

  14. Spectrophotovoltaic orbital power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, G.; Carroll, J.

    1983-01-01

    A subscale model of a photovoltaic power system employing spectral splitting and 1000:1 concentration was fabricated and tested. The 10-in. aperture model demonstrated 15.5% efficiency with 86% of the energy produced by a GaAs solar cell and 14% of the energy produced by an Si cell. The calculated efficiency of the system using the same solar cells, but having perfect optics, would be approximately 20%. The model design, component measurements, test results, and mathematical model are presented.

  15. Tide operated power generating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kertzman, H. Z.

    1981-02-03

    An improved tide operated power generating apparatus is disclosed in which a hollow float, rising and falling with the ocean tide, transmits energy to a power generator. The improvement comprises means for filling the float with water during the incoming tide to provide a substantial increase in the float dead weight during the outgoing tide. Means are further provided to then empty the float before the outgoing tide whereby the float becomes free to rise again on the next incoming tide.

  16. Electrical power systems for distributed generation

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, T.A.; Huval, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}Distributed Generation{close_quotes} has become the {open_quotes}buzz{close_quotes} word of an electric utility industry facing deregulation. Many industrial facilities utilize equipment in distributed installations to serve the needs of a thermal host through the capture of exhaust energy in a heat recovery steam generator. The electrical power generated is then sold as a {open_quotes}side benefit{close_quotes} to the cost-effective supply of high quality thermal energy. Distributed generation is desirable for many different reasons, each with unique characteristics of the product. Many years of experience in the distributed generation market has helped Stewart & Stevenson to define a range of product features that are crucial to most any application. The following paper will highlight a few of these applications. The paper will also examine the range of products currently available and in development. Finally, we will survey the additional services offered by Stewart & Stevenson to meet the needs of a rapidly changing power generation industry.

  17. Wind driven power generating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Andruszkiw, W.; Andrushkiw, R.

    1986-10-14

    A vertically adjustable wind driven power generating apparatus comprised of, in combination, a well in which is vertically movably mounted a wind driven power generating apparatus comprised of: (i) a wind driven power generating means comprised of a tubular housing having rotatably mounted therein a horizontally extending shaft. The shaft has a centrally disposed bevel gear fixedly attached thereto and helical vanes disposed longitudinally on both sides of the bevel gear; (ii) means for vertical movement of the tubular housing within the well comprised of (a) a hollow vertical support column having a circular cross section and having one end thereof attached to the bottom of the tubular housing and (b) a vertically extending hollow tubular member having a hollow interior fixedly mounted at its bottom end in the floor of the well and being open at its other end, the tubular member adapted to telescopically receive the vertical support column in its open end; (iii) vertical movement control means comprised of (a) downward movement control means comprising an inverted wing system generating inverse-lift mounted on the tubular housing, and (b) upward movement control means comprising a cylinder having an axially movable piston therein; (iv) power transmission means comprising a vertically extending power transmitting shaft that drives a power generator.

  18. Power generation potential of biomass gasification systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Overend, R.P.; Bain, R.L.

    1996-10-01

    Biomass has the potential to contribute a significant portion of the electricity consumed in industrialized nations and a major share of the power mix in developing countries. In addition to providing an alternative to fossil-fuel-based energy and creating new markets for agriculture, a renewable resource like biomass used in a sustainable fashion facilitates closure of the carbon cycle. To realize these benefits, particularly in the shadow of uncertainties cast by deregulation and recent changes in federal energy and agricultural policies, biomass power systems must be competitive with incumbent power-generation technologies in terms of generation efficiency and overall cost. Anticipated performance and cost of biomass-based integrated gasification, combined-cycle power systems are discussed. The electric power that can be generated worldwide using existing biomass resources (primarily crop residues and wastes) and the potential amount that could be generated from crops grown specifically for electricity generation are projected. Technical and economic obstacles which must be overcome before advanced biomass-power systems based on aeroderivative turbines or fuel cells can become fully commercial are identified. Research, development, and demonstration efforts underway or being planned to overcome those obstacles are described; developments in a major biomass gasification demonstration project taking place in Hawaii under the auspices of the US Department of Energy and the State of Hawaii are detailed.

  19. Power generation potential of biomass gasification systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Overend, R.P.; Bain, R.L.

    1997-12-01

    Biomass has the potential to contribute a significant portion of the electricity consumed in industrialized nations and a major share of the power mix in developing countries. In addition to providing an alternative to fossil-fuel-based energy and creating new markets for agriculture, a renewable resource like biomass used in a sustainable fashion facilitates closure of the carbon cycle. To realize these benefits, particularly in the shadow of uncertainties cast by deregulation and recent changes in federal energy and agricultural policies, biomass power systems must be competitive with incumbent power-generation technologies in terms of generation efficiency and overall cost. Anticipated performance and cost of biomass-based integrated gasification, combined-cycle power systems are discussed. The electric power that can be generated worldwide using existing biomass resources (primarily crop residues and wastes) and the potential amount that could be generated from crops grown specifically for electricity generation are projected. Technical and economic obstacles that must be overcome before advanced biomass-power systems based on aeroderivative turbines or fuel cells can become fully commercial are identified. Research, development, and demonstration efforts under way or being planned to overcome those obstacles are described; developments in a major biomass gasification demonstration project taking place in Hawaii under the auspices of the US Department of Energy and the State of Hawaii are detailed.

  20. Electrical power generation systems - Combat aircraft perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, R.

    The electrical power generation system requirements of combat aircraft are briefly examined. In particular, attention is given to customer requirements, development of the installed electrical power in aircraft, electrical load analysis for designing the power generation system, and definition of aircraft electrical power supply characteristics and consumer qualities. The discussion also covers reliability requirements for power generation systems, design of a power generation system, control and protection equipment in power generation systems, and helicopter electrical power systems.

  1. Power Generation and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Eliassen, Rolf

    1971-01-01

    Environmental factors will play an ever-increasing role in planning for the location and design of future power generating plants. This planning must include all phases of furnishing electric power, such as the exploration for and mining of fossil and nuclear fuels; the transportation and storage of these fuels; power plant siting; the disposal of solid wastes from power plants; and the transmission and distribution of electric power. Systems analysis will be of assistance in realistic decision-making and planning. Simulation models can be used to evaluate social, economic, and technological inputs, in order to reach engineering decisions that will assure meeting reasonable environmental standards. Management must look beyond the metropolitan areas presently served by specific electric utilities and must adopt new concepts of both urban and regional planning that will help meet the electric power requirements in the decades ahead and minimize adverse effects on the air, water, and land environment. Images

  2. Taming power: Generative historical consciousness.

    PubMed

    Winter, David G

    2016-04-01

    Power is a necessary dimension of all human enterprises. It can inspire and illuminate, but it can also corrupt, oppress, and destroy. Therefore, taming power has been a central moral and political question for most of human history. Writers, theorists, and researchers have suggested many methods and mechanisms for taming power: through affiliation and love, intellect and reason, responsibility, religion and values, democratic political structures, and separation of powers. Historical examples and social science research suggest that each has some success, but also that each is vulnerable to being hijacked by power itself. I therefore introduce generative historical consciousness (GHC) as a concept and measure that might help to secure the benefits of power while protecting against its outrages and excesses. I conclude by discussing the role that GHC may have played in the peaceful resolution of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. PMID:26011649

  3. Industrial Arts Curriculum Guide for Power Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide provides topic outlines and objectives for units in a three-level/-course Power Technology program. Introductory materials are objectives for industrial education and for power technology and list of general safety rules. Units contained in Level I, Power Technology, are History of Power, Basic Machines, Forms of Power, Power…

  4. Solid state pulsed power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Fengfeng; Saddoughi, Seyed Gholamali; Herbon, John Thomas

    2014-02-11

    A power generator includes one or more full bridge inverter modules coupled to a semiconductor opening switch (SOS) through an inductive resonant branch. Each module includes a plurality of switches that are switched in a fashion causing the one or more full bridge inverter modules to drive the semiconductor opening switch SOS through the resonant circuit to generate pulses to a load connected in parallel with the SOS.

  5. Analysis of electric power industry restructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Agtash, Salem Yahya

    1998-10-01

    This thesis evaluates alternative structures of the electric power industry in a competitive environment. One structure is based on the principle of creating a mandatory power pool to foster competition and manage system economics. The structure is PoolCo (pool coordination). A second structure is based on the principle of allowing independent multilateral trading and decentralized market coordination. The structure is DecCo (decentralized coordination). The criteria I use to evaluate these two structures are: economic efficiency, system reliability and freedom of choice. Economic efficiency evaluation considers strategic behavior of individual generators as well as behavioral variations of different classes of consumers. A supply-function equilibria model is characterized for deriving bidding strategies of competing generators under PoolCo. It is shown that asymmetric equilibria can exist within the capacities of generators. An augmented Lagrangian approach is introduced to solve iteratively for global optimal operations schedules. Under DecCo, the process involves solving iteratively for system operations schedules. The schedules reflect generators strategic behavior and brokers' interactions for arranging profitable trades, allocating losses and managing network congestion. In the determination of PoolCo and DecCo operations schedules, overall costs of power generation (start-up and shut-down costs and availability of hydro electric power) as well as losses and costs of transmission network are considered. For system reliability evaluation, I examine the effect of PoolCo and DecCo operating conditions on the system security. Random component failure perturbations are generated to simulate the actual system behavior. This is done using Monte Carlo simulation. Freedom of choice evaluation accounts for schemes' beneficial opportunities and capabilities to respond to consumers expressed preferences. An IEEE 24-bus test system is used to illustrate the concepts

  6. Evolutionary Industrial Physical Model Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascal, Alberto; Alberdi, Amaia

    Both complexity and lack of knowledge associated to physical processes makes physical models design an arduous task. Frequently, the only available information about the physical processes are the heuristic data obtained from experiments or at best a rough idea on what are the physical principles and laws that underlie considered physical processes. Then the problem is converted to find a mathematical expression which fits data. There exist traditional approaches to tackle the inductive model search process from data, such as regression, interpolation, finite element method, etc. Nevertheless, these methods either are only able to solve a reduced number of simple model typologies, or the given black-box solution does not contribute to clarify the analyzed physical process. In this paper a hybrid evolutionary approach to search complex physical models is proposed. Tests carried out on a real-world industrial physical process (abrasive water jet machining) demonstrate the validity of this approach.

  7. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine

  8. Manpower Requirements in the Nuclear Power Industry, 1982-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ruth C.

    A study projected employment needs created by growth and employee turnover for the nuclear power industry over the next decade. Only employment by electric utilities in the commercial generation of nuclear power was investigated. Employment data for 1981 were collected in a survey of 60 member utilities of the Institute of Nuclear Power…

  9. Opportunities in African power generation: A business briefing for industry and investment executives. Held in Baltimore, Maryland, June 21-22, 1995. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-21

    The report, prepared by the Institute of International Education, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The information contained in the report was compiled in part for a power generation conference held in Baltimore, Maryland. The focus of the report is the market created by electric power projects financed by multilateral development banks. The study contains country information and project profiles related to the energy sector for eleven countries: Benin, Botswana, Cote D`Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Morocoo, Senegal, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The report also outlines the range of service opportunities in the region such as consulting, engineering, construction and project management, and equipment procurement. It is divided into the following sections: (1) Agenda/Program; (2) African Energy Sector Overview; (3) Project Profiles; (4) Country Information; and (5) Attendees.

  10. Power generation controls emerging trends

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, B.J.; Moskal, J.J.; Schuss, J.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Advances in microtechnology and intelligent control systems will continue to impact all phases of power generation controls and provide new options. This paper discusses an automatic sequential control system for automatic start-up and shutdown of the entire power plant. The system accesses the individual steam generator, turbine and BOP systems to enable a little manual intervention. Also covered are diagnostic on-line performance systems and the projected work on expert technology t integrate diagnostics with controls for optimum economics and plant availability. Control features such as increased microprocessor scan rate, storage capability, high data transmission throughput rates, etc. will play a significant role in achieving these objectives. Discussion also covers control integration requirements in the background of the expected impact of emerging data communication standards.

  11. Magma energy for power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal energy contained in crustal magma bodies represents a large potential resource for the US and magma generated power could become a viable alternative in the future. Engineering feasibility of the magma energy concept is being investigated as part of the Department of Energy's Geothermal Program. This current project follows a seven-year Magma Energy Research Project where scientific feasibility of the concept was concluded.

  12. Thermoelectric power generation for hybrid-electric vehicle auxiliary power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headings, Leon M.; Washington, Gregory N.; Midlam-Mohler, Shawn; Heremans, Joseph P.

    2009-03-01

    The plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle (PHEV) concept allows for a moderate driving range in electric mode but uses an onboard range extender to capitalize on the high energy density of fuels using a combustion-based generator, typically using an internal combustion engine. An alternative being developed here is a combustion-based thermoelectric generator in order to develop systems technologies which capitalize on the high power density and inherent benefits of solid-state thermoelectric power generation. This thermoelectric power unit may find application in many military, industrial, and consumer applications including range extension for PHEVs. In this research, a baseline prototype was constructed using a novel multi-fuel atomizer with diesel fuel, a conventional thermoelectric heat exchange configuration, and a commercially available bismuth telluride module (maximum 225°C). This prototype successfully demonstrated the viability of diesel fuel for thermoelectric power generation, provided a baseline performance for evaluating future improvements, provided the mechanism to develop simulation and analysis tools and methods, and highlighted areas requiring development. The improvements in heat transfer efficiency using catalytic combustion were evaluated, the system was redesigned to operate at temperatures around 500 °C, and the performance of advanced high temperature thermoelectric modules was examined.

  13. Thermoelectric power generator for variable thermal power source

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2015-04-14

    Traditional power generation systems using thermoelectric power generators are designed to operate most efficiently for a single operating condition. The present invention provides a power generation system in which the characteristics of the thermoelectrics, the flow of the thermal power, and the operational characteristics of the power generator are monitored and controlled such that higher operation efficiencies and/or higher output powers can be maintained with variably thermal power input. Such a system is particularly beneficial in variable thermal power source systems, such as recovering power from the waste heat generated in the exhaust of combustion engines.

  14. Wind wheel electric power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, J.W.

    1980-03-04

    Wind wheel electric power generator apparatus is disclosed as including a housing rotatably mounted upon a vertically disposed support column. Primary and auxiliary funnel-type, venturi ducts are fixedly mounted upon the housing for capturing wind currents and for conducting the same to a bladed wheel adapted to be operatively connected with generator apparatus. Additional air flows are also conducted onto the bladed wheel, all of the air flows positively effecting rotation of the wheel in a cumulative manner. The auxiliary ducts are disposed at an acute angle with respect to the longitudinal axis of the housing, and this feature , together with the rotatability of the housing and the ducts, permits capture of wind currents within a variable directional range.

  15. Wind wheel electric power generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, J. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Wind wheel electric power generator apparatus includes a housing rotatably mounted upon a vertical support column. Primary and auxiliary funnel-type, venturi ducts are fixed onto the housing for capturing wind currents and conducting to a bladed wheel adapted to be operatively connected with the generator apparatus. Additional air flows are also conducted onto the bladed wheel; all of the air flows positively effecting rotation of the wheel in a cumulative manner. The auxiliary ducts are disposed at an acute angle with respect to the longitudinal axis of the housing, and this feature, together with the rotatability of the housing and the ducts, permits capture of wind currents within a variable directional range.

  16. Industrial cogeneration dealing with power pricing changes

    SciTech Connect

    Tennant, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1978, with the passage of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) and with increasing utility retail rates, cogeneration of electrical power by industry has become possible and economically attractive. The State of Florida undertook the task of implementing the intent of PURPA through a series of workshops, regulatory hearings, and orders starting in 1980 and continuing today. However, current and potential cogenerators face uncertainties about power pricing and backup power rates that make cogeneration, in many cases, too risky for the business climate of the 1980s. The industrial cogenerator must deal with a public utility concerning power pricing without any leverage, except Public Service Commission Rulings. Therefore, the cogenerator must be capable of adapting its operation to the changing pricing situation to optimize the value of the cogeneration. This paper provides insight into how USS Agri-Chemicals, an industrial cogenerator in the State of Florida, has adapted its cogeneration to the changing public utility power pricing.

  17. New power politics will determine generation's path

    SciTech Connect

    Maize, K.; Neville, A.; Peltier, R.

    2009-01-15

    The US power industry's story in 2009 will be all about change, to borrow a now-familiar theme. Though the new administration's policy specifics had not been revealed as this report was prepared, it appears that flat load growth in 2009 will give the new Obama administration a unique opportunity to formulate new energy policy without risking that the lights will go out. New coal projects are now facing increasing difficulties. It looks as though the electricity supply industry will continue to muddle through. It may see an advancement in infrastructure investment, significant new generation or new technology development. It also faces the possibility that policies necessary to achieving those goals will not materialize, for political and economic reasons. 4 figs.

  18. Advanced piggyback water power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggs, B.R.

    1988-02-16

    A power generating system is described including: a central boat containing gearing and electric and/or power generation equipment, with a forward angled-back deflection screen and a rear non-angled deflection screen, with a smaller outrigger pontoon on each respective side of the central boat, with closed cell, waterproof, plastic foam filling in the central boat and pontoons, and with the bow of the respective outrigger pontoons angled so as to completely turn water away from, and to the outside of, the space and/or incoming water area between each such respective pontooon and the central boat. There are legs with cone shaped bottoms and with wheels attached, with the wheels extending slightly below the cone shaped bottoms; paddle wheels on each side of the central boat, between the central boat, and respective outrigger pontoons, with 90 degree spaced, flat, paddle blades, and with a solid, disk division vertically dividing each respective side paddle wheel in half and extending at right angles to, and from, the central axle, to the outside extreme end of the paddle blades, with each such half of the equally divided paddle wheel being constructed so that the 90 degree spaced paddle blades in one half are offset by 45 degrees from the 90 degree space paddle blades in the other half, and with the extreme ends of each such set of divided paddle wheels being enclosed via a similar solid.

  19. Energy Industry Powers CTE Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khokhar, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Michael Fields is a recent graduate of Buckeye Union High School in Buckeye, Arizona. Fields is enrolled in the Estrella Mountain Community College (EMCC) Get Into Energy program, which means he is well on his way to a promising career. Specializing in power plant technology, in two years he will earn a certificate that will all but guarantee a…

  20. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biomass Power Generation at the Former Farmland Industries Site in Lawrence, Kansas. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Tomberlin, G.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support a feasibility study of biomass renewable energy generation at the former Farmland Industries site in Lawrence, Kansas. Feasibility assessment team members conducted a site assessment to gather information integral to this feasibility study. Information such as biomass resources, transmission availability, on-site uses for heat and power, community acceptance, and ground conditions were considered.

  1. Low cost space power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Randall B.

    1991-01-01

    The success of this study has given a method of fabricating durable copolymer films without size limitations. Previously, only compression molded samples were durable enough to generate electrical energy. The strengthened specimens are very long lived materials. The lifetime was enhanced at least a factor of 1,300 in full pyroelectric conversion cycle experiments compared with extruded, non-strengthened film. The new techniques proved so successful that the lifetime of the resultant copolymer samples was not fully characterized. The lifetime of these new materials is so long that accelerated tests were devised to probe their durability. After a total of more than 67 million high voltage electrical cycles at 100 C, the electrical properties of a copolymer sample remained stable. The test was terminated without any detectable degradation to allow for other experiments. One must be cautious in extrapolating to power cycle performance, but 67 million electrical cycles correspond to 2 years of pyroelectric cycling at 1 Hz. In another series of experiments at reduced temperature and electrical stress, a specimen survived over one-third of a billion electrical cycles during nearly three months of continuous testing. The radiation-limited lifetimes of the copolymer were shown to range from several years to millions of years for most earth orbits. Thus, the pyroelectric copolymer has become a strong candidate for serious consideration for future spacecraft power supplies.

  2. The Environmental Impact of Electrical Power Generation: Nuclear and Fossil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    This text was written to accompany a course concerning the need, environmental costs, and benefits of electrical power generation. It was compiled and written by a committee drawn from educators, health physicists, members of industry and conservation groups, and environmental scientists. Topics include: the increasing need for electrical power,…

  3. Manpower requirements in the nuclear power industry, 1982-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.C.

    1982-09-01

    The objective of this study is to project occupational employment needs, created by growth and employee turnover, for the nuclear power industry over the next decade. Employment data for 1981 were collected in a survey conducted by the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations of its 60 member utilities. The data were analyzed statistically to identify factors that account for variations in power plant staffing and the number of off-site nuclear support personnel employed by a utility. Total employment in the nuclear power industry is predicted to increase from 54,400 in 1981 to 73,600 in 1991. Nuclear generating capacity will increase from 58 to 124 gigawatts, based on the midline forecast of the Energy Information Administration. The projections assume that current regulations will remain in effect and no new plans for additional generating facilities will be initiated.

  4. Restructuring the Philippine electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, S.; Ellis, M.

    1995-06-01

    The Philippine electricity industry has shown it can change, and change quickly. In contrast with the crises and changes imposed on it in the past, the industry now has as opportunity to forge a progressive, forward-looking strategy, This opportunity is enhanced by the force of law - the Department of Energy Act of 1992 mandates privatization of the National Power Corporation (NPC) - and by the easing of the power crisis which has significantly diminished political interference. In order to position the industry for growth and rising investment requirements and to support the growing role of the Philippine economy in international markets, that strategy must address the structural deficiencies that continue to plague the industry. By addressing structural changes that need to be made now, it can build on the impetus gained from its privatization mandate to improve accountability, increase efficiency and reduce government risk.

  5. Carbon Constraints and the Electric Power Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report is designed to provide a thorough understanding of the type of carbon constraints that are likely to be imposed, when they are likely to take effect, and how they will impact the electric power industry. The main objective of the report is to provide industry participants with the knowledge they need to plan for and react to a future in which carbon emissions are restricted. The main goal of the report is to ensure an understanding of the likely restrictions that will be placed on carbon emissions, the methods available for reducing their carbon emissions, and the impact that carbon reductions will have on the electric power industry. A secondary goal of the report is to provide information on key carbon programs and market participants to enable companies to begin participating in the international carbon marketplace. Topics covered in the report include: overview of what climate change and the Kyoto Protocol are; analysis of the impacts of climate change on the U.S. and domestic efforts to mandate carbon reductions; description of carbon reduction mechanisms and the types of carbon credits that can be created; evaluation of the benefits of carbon trading and the rules for participation under Kyoto; Description of the methods for reducing carbon emissions available to the U.S. electric power industry; analysis of the impact of carbon restrictions on the U.S. electric power industry in terms of both prices and revenues; evaluation of the impact of carbon restrictions on renewable energy; overview of the current state of the global carbon market including descriptions of the three major marketplaces; descriptions of the industry and government programs already underway to reduce carbon emissions in the U.S. electric power industry; and, profiles of the major international carbon exchanges and brokers.

  6. Industrial Power Distribution System Reliability Assessment utilizing Markov Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman-Rivera, Oscar R.

    A method to perform power system reliability analysis using Markov Approach, Reliability Block Diagrams and Fault Tree analysis has been presented. The Markov method we use is a state space model and is based on state diagrams generated for a one line industrial power distribution system. The Reliability block diagram (RBD) method is a graphical and calculation tool used to model the distribution power system of an industrial facility. Quantitative reliability estimations on this work are based on CARMS and Block Sim simulations as well as state space, RBD's and Failure Mode analyses. The power system reliability was assessed and the main contributors to power system reliability have been identified, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Methods to improve reliability have also been provided including redundancies and protection systems that might be added to the system in order to improve reliability.

  7. Laboratory ultrasonic generator. [characteristics of ultrasonic sound generator for experimental and industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tudose, C.; Dobrescu, F.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of an ultrasonic generator with magnetostrictive amplifiers are described. The generator was designed to supply an output power of about 400 watts at a consumption of about 1 kilowatt. The generator produces sound waves in the frequency range of 18 to 30 KHz. The circuit design is described and examples of the construction are illustrated. The generator is used to study different industrial processes such as the effect of ultrasonic radiation of the emulsification of liquids, the dispersion of solids, and ultrasonic filtration.

  8. Service design in the electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Oren, S.S.; Smith, S.A.; Wilson, R.B. )

    1990-01-01

    This essay reviews the basic concepts of product differentiation as they apply to service design in the electric power industry. Unbundling the quality attributes of service conditions benefits utilities as well as their customers. Each customer gains from new opportunities to match the quality and cost of service conditions to the characteristics of their end uses. A well designed product line of service conditions benefits every customer. The utility benefits from improved operating efficiency and from greater flexibility in meeting service obligations and competitive pressures. In addition, the utility obtains better information for planning investments in generation, transmission, and distribution. Together these features provide a foundation for a utility's business strategy. The basic principles of product design are described and a unified methodology for specifying and pricing service conditions is outlined. We also describe how the pricing of quality attributes enables the utility to price other service options systematically, such as long-term supply contracts, cogeneration, and standby service. 60 refs., 21 figs., 14 tabs.

  9. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Nuclear power is an important source of electric energy and the amount of nuclear-generated electricity continued to grow as the performance of nuclear power plants improved. In 1996, nuclear power plants supplied 23 percent of the electricity production for countries with nuclear units, and 17 percent of the total electricity generated worldwide. However, the likelihood of nuclear power assuming a much larger role or even retaining its current share of electricity generation production is uncertain. The industry faces a complex set of issues including economic competitiveness, social acceptance, and the handling of nuclear waste, all of which contribute to the uncertain future of nuclear power. Nevertheless, for some countries the installed nuclear generating capacity is projected to continue to grow. Insufficient indigenous energy resources and concerns over energy independence make nuclear electric generation a viable option, especially for the countries of the Far East.

  10. MultiUse solar thermal power generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Russell

    2001-02-01

    This paper describes Ontario Engineering International, Inc. (OEI) approach to a solar thermal power generation system using a number of thermal power generation technologies for possible applications to Mars exploration, material processing and for power generation on Earth. The latest power stage and generator design presented here were the culmination of studies covering a wide variety of generator configurations and operating parameters. The many steps and rationale leading to OEI's design evolution and materials selection will not be repeated here except for a description of OEI's latest design, including a heat source support scheme and power stage configuration. OEI's performance predictions were based on its techniques for the thermal analyses of thermal power generators. The analytical results indicate that the OEI power system design, operating within the stipulated solar input and temperature limits and well within its mass goals, can yield power outputs and system efficiencies that substantially exceed existing solar power generation technologies. The calculated efficiency for a cascaded power generation system is estimated to be 42% for a DC output or 37% for an AC power output. With the addition of a thermal storage medium power can be provided on a continuous basis during any shadow period. Recent advances in thermal power generation technologies have now progressed to the point where a solar thermal power generation system can be fabricated. This system can provide terrestrial power generation capacity in remote areas and provide a means for load leveling in the commercial power grid. This system is also adaptable for material processing and/or life-support on Mars. .

  11. Space power plants and power-consuming industrial systems

    SciTech Connect

    Latyshev, L.; Semashko, N.

    1996-12-31

    An opportunity to create the space power production on the basis of solar, nuclear and fusion energies is analyzed. The priority of solar power production as the most accessible and feasible in comparison with others is emphasized. However, later on, it probably will play an auxiliary role. The possibilities of fusion power production, as a basic one in future, are also considered. It is necessary to create reactors using the fueling cycle with helium-3 (instead of tritium and deuterium, later on). The reaction products--charged particles, mainly--allow one to organize the system of direct fusion energy conversion into electricity. The produced energy is expected not to be transmitted to Earth, but an industry in space is expected to be produced on its basis. The industrial (power and science-consuming) objects located on a whole number of space apparatus will form a single complex with its own basic power plant. The power transmission within the complex will be realized with high power density fluxes of microwave radiation to short distances with their receivers at the objects. The necessary correction of the apparatus positions in the complex will be done with ion and plasma thrusters. The materials present on the Moon, asteroids and on other planets can serve as raw materials for industrial objects. Such an approach will help to improve the ecological state on Earth, to eliminate the necessity in the fast energy consumption growth and to reduce the hazard of global thermal crisis.

  12. Industrial application of high power disk lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockmann, Rüdiger; Havrilla, David

    2008-02-01

    Laser welding has become one of the fastest growing areas for industrial laser applications. The increasing cost effectiveness of the laser process is enabled by the development of new highly efficient laser sources, such as the Disk laser, coupled with decreasing cost per Watt. TRUMPF introduced the Disk laser several years ago, and today it has become the most reliable laser tool on the market. The excellent beam quality and output powers of up to 10 kW enable its application in the automotive industry as well as in the range of thick plate welding, such as heavy construction and ship building. This serves as an overview of the most recent developments on the TRUMPF Disk laser and its industrial applications like cutting, welding, remote welding and hybrid welding, too. The future prospects regarding increased power and even further improved productivity and economics are presented.

  13. Fossil energy R and D for a competitive power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bajura, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the vision for Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s (METC`s) advanced power generation program. It covers the following four topics: the status of the electric industry as it deregulates, particularly those aspects of deregulation that impact advanced power generation technologies; a snapshot of the environmental trends that influence the program; how research, and development, and demonstration (RD&D) program is being restructured in response to these trends; and the status of METC`s merger with its sister center, the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center.

  14. Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, T.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation are presented. Topics covered include: prime contract activity; key solar dynamic power module requirements; solar dynamic heat receiver technology; and solar concentrator advanced development.

  15. TPV Tube Generators for Apartment Building and Industrial Furnace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraas, Lewis M.; Avery, James E.; Daniels, Wilbert E.; Huang, Huang X.; Malfa, Enrico; Venturino, Matteo; Testi, Giandomenico; Mascalzi, Gianni; Wuenning, Joachim G.

    2003-01-01

    Major changes in the regulation of electric and natural gas industries during recent years have forced energy companies to explore opportunities in small-size Combined Heat and Power systems. These differ fundamentally from the traditional model of central generation and delivery since small, modular electric generators can be located very close to end-users inside a building or a single house within an industrial area, combined with the production of heat and cold. In particular, interest is growing in the new technologies for sub-100kWe units, including systems based on thermophotovoltaic (TPV) technology. TPV generator tubes can be inserted into hot furnaces to generate electricity and low-grade heat. In this generator tube, a water-cooled GaSb photovoltaic converter array inside the tube faces outward toward an infrared emitter liner mounted on the inside surface of the closed-end tube. Each tube can be sized to generate several kW and a given furnace can heat several tubes. We have conducted pilot experiments on key components in order to develop the concept just described. This includes a pilot scale array tested in an electrical furnace that heat a 3″ diameter alumina tube with an infrared emitting liner. Also, a silicon carbide tube with a water-cooling system was tested in a ceramic fiber lined furnace equipped with a commercial 200 kW flameless regenerative burner, simulating a TPV generator tube in such a system.

  16. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2013-05-21

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  17. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    DOEpatents

    Bel,; Lon E.; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2009-10-27

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  18. Pulse power applications of flux compression generators

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, C.M.; Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Freeman, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristics are presented for two different types of explosive driven flux compression generators and a megavolt pulse transformer. Status reports are given for rail gun and plasma focus programs for which the generators serve as power sources.

  19. Advances in industrial high-power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlueter, Holger

    2005-03-01

    Four major types of laser sources are used for material processing. Excluding Excimer lasers, this paper focuses on advances in High Power CO2 lasers, Solid State Lasers and Diode Lasers. Because of their unrivaled cost to brightness relationship the fast axial flow CO2 laser remains unrivaled for flat-sheet laser cutting. Adding approximately a kW of output power ever four years, this laser type has been propelling the entire sheet metal fabrication industry for the last two decades. Very robust, diffusion cooled annular discharge CO2 lasers with 2kW output power have enabled robot mounted lasers for 3D applications. Solid State Lasers are chosen mainly because of the option of fiber delivery. Industrial applications still rely on lamp-pumped Nd:YAG lasers with guaranteed output powers of 4.5 kW at the workpiece. The introduction of the diode pumped Thin Disc Laser 4.5 kW laser enables new applications such as the Programmable Focus Optics. Pumping the Thin Disc Laser requires highly reliable High Power Diode Lasers. The necessary reliability can only be achieved in a modern, automated semiconductor manufacturing facility. For Diode Lasers, electro-optical efficiencies above 65% are as important as the passivation of the facets to avoid Burn-In power degradation.

  20. Integrated engine generator for aircraft secondary power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    An integrated engine-generator for aircraft secondary power generation is described. The concept consists of an electric generator located inside a turbojet or turbofan engine and both concentric with and driven by one of the main engine shafts. The electric power conversion equipment and generator controls are located in the aircraft. When properly rated, the generator serves as an engine starter as well as a source of electric power. This configuration reduces or eliminates the need for an external gear box on the engine and permits reduction in the nacelle diameter.

  1. Inhomogeneous feed gas processing in industrial ozone generation.

    PubMed

    Krogh, Fabio; Merz, Reto; Gisler, Rudolf; Müller, Marco; Paolini, Bernhard; Lopez, Jose L; Freilich, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of ozone by means of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is extensively used in industry. Ozone generators available on the market differ in ozone production capacities, electrode arrangements and working parameters, but operate with a uniformly distributed filamentary discharge plasma pattern.In the presented work the benefits of inhomogeneous feed gas processing are explored. Causality between power induction, production efficiency and working parameters are investigated. Different electrode arrangements, evenly distributed within a given space parameter, were designed, simulated, manufactured and tested on a representative scale. A finite element model was utilized to simulate an inhomogeneous power induction pattern along the ozone generator tube. The simulation yielded the local power density, the local gas temperature gradient and the relative DBD packing density.Results show that the degree of filamentation turns out to be decisive, indicating a new potential by means of plasma tailoring. An arrangement with a pronounced power induction at the inlet of the ozone generator revealed several advantages over homogeneous plasma processing arrangements, for which an increase in robustness and a reduction in electrical power consumption are achieved. PMID:19092182

  2. Electric power industry in Korea: Past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hoesung

    1994-12-31

    Electrical power is an indispensable tool in the industrialization of a developing country. An efficient, reliable source of electricity is a key factor in the establishment of a wide range of industries, and the supply of energy must keep pace with the increasing demand which economic growth creates in order for that growth to be sustained. As one of the most successful of all developing countries, Korea has registered impressive economic growth over the last decade, and it could be said that the rapid growth of the Korean economy would not have been possible without corresponding growth in the supply of electric power. Power producers in Korea, and elsewhere in Asia, are to be commended for successfully meeting the challenge of providing the necessary power to spur what some call an economic miracle. The future continues to hold great potential for participants in the electrical power industry, but a number of important challenges must be met in order for that potential to be fully realized. Demand for electricity continues to grow at a staggering rate, while concerns over the environmental impact of power generating facilities must not be ignored. As it becomes increasingly difficult to finance the rapid, and increasingly larger-scale expansion of the power industry through internal sources, the government must find resources to meet the growing demand at least cost. This will lead to important opportunities for the private sector. It is important, therefore, for those interested in participating in the power production industry and taking advantage of the newly emerging opportunities that lie in the Korean market, and elsewhere in Asia, to discuss the relevant issues and become informed of the specific conditions of each market.

  3. Photoconductive switching for high power microwave generation

    SciTech Connect

    Pocha, M.D.; Hofer, W.W.

    1990-10-01

    Photoconductive switching is a technology that is being increasingly applied to generation of high power microwaves. Two primary semiconductors used for these devices are silicon and gallium arsenide. Diamond is a promising future candidate material. This paper discusses the important material parameters and switching modes, critical issues for microwave generation, and future directions for this high power, photoconductive switching technology.

  4. Pneumatic tire-based piezoelectric power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makki, Noaman; Pop-Iliev, Remon

    2011-03-01

    Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs) currently mainly rely on Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) utilizing conventional fuels to recharge batteries in order to extend their range. Even though Piezo-based power generation devices have surfaced in recent years harvesting vibration energy, their output has only been sufficient to power up sensors and other such smaller devices. The permanent need for a cleaner power generation technique still remains. This paper investigates the possibility of using piezoceramics for power generation within the vehicle's wheel assembly by exploiting the rotational motion of the wheel and the continuously variable contact point between the pneumatic tire and the road.

  5. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert

    2012-05-14

    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  6. Fuel cells for distributed power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarman, Paul B.

    Deregulation has caused a major change in power distribution in the USA. Large central power stations are being and will continue to be replaced by smaller, distributed power generation sources of less than 20 kW. Fuel cells, specifically molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs), are best suited to serve this need. Small turbines cannot achieve the efficiency or environmental friendliness of MCFCs in this power range. This paper discusses the goals of M-C Power Corporation and the advantages of its IMHEX® MCFC technology. M-C Power's factory, demonstration testing program, and its market-entry power plant are also described, as are its commercialization strategy and schedule.

  7. Probabilistic Evaluation of Wind Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhamad Razali, N. M.; Misbah, Muizzuddin

    2013-06-01

    The power supplied by wind turbine generators (WTG) is widely random following the stochastic nature of weather conditions. For planning and decision making purposes, understanding and evaluation of the behaviour and distribution of WTG's output power are crucial. Monte Carlo simulation enables the realization of artificial futures by generating a huge number of sample paths of outcomes to perform this analysis. The paper presents an algorithm developed for a random wind speed generator governed by the probability density function of Weibull distribution and evaluates the WTG's output by using the power curve of wind turbines. The method may facilitate assessment of suitable turbine site as well as generator selection and sizing.

  8. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  9. Managing Scarce Water Resources in China's Coal Power Industry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Lijin; Fu, Xiaotian; Zhao, Zhongnan

    2016-06-01

    Coal power generation capacity is expanding rapidly in the arid northwest regions in China. Its impact on water resources is attracting growing concerns from policy-makers, researchers, as well as mass media. This paper briefly describes the situation of electricity-water conflict in China and provides a comprehensive review on a variety of water resources management policies in China's coal power industry. These policies range from mandatory regulations to incentive-based instruments, covering water withdrawal standards, technological requirements on water saving, unconventional water resources utilization (such as reclaimed municipal wastewater, seawater, and mine water), water resources fee, and water permit transfer. Implementing these policies jointly is of crucial importance for alleviating the water stress from the expanding coal power industry in China.

  10. Managing Scarce Water Resources in China's Coal Power Industry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Lijin; Fu, Xiaotian; Zhao, Zhongnan

    2016-06-01

    Coal power generation capacity is expanding rapidly in the arid northwest regions in China. Its impact on water resources is attracting growing concerns from policy-makers, researchers, as well as mass media. This paper briefly describes the situation of electricity-water conflict in China and provides a comprehensive review on a variety of water resources management policies in China's coal power industry. These policies range from mandatory regulations to incentive-based instruments, covering water withdrawal standards, technological requirements on water saving, unconventional water resources utilization (such as reclaimed municipal wastewater, seawater, and mine water), water resources fee, and water permit transfer. Implementing these policies jointly is of crucial importance for alleviating the water stress from the expanding coal power industry in China. PMID:26908125

  11. Managing Scarce Water Resources in China's Coal Power Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Lijin; Fu, Xiaotian; Zhao, Zhongnan

    2016-06-01

    Coal power generation capacity is expanding rapidly in the arid northwest regions in China. Its impact on water resources is attracting growing concerns from policy-makers, researchers, as well as mass media. This paper briefly describes the situation of electricity-water conflict in China and provides a comprehensive review on a variety of water resources management policies in China's coal power industry. These policies range from mandatory regulations to incentive-based instruments, covering water withdrawal standards, technological requirements on water saving, unconventional water resources utilization (such as reclaimed municipal wastewater, seawater, and mine water), water resources fee, and water permit transfer. Implementing these policies jointly is of crucial importance for alleviating the water stress from the expanding coal power industry in China.

  12. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  13. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs. Cormos, C. C. Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  14. "A High Speed Laser Profiling Device for Refractory Lininig Thickness Measurements In a Gasifier with Cross-Cut to the Metals, Forest Products, Chemical and Power Generation Industries"

    SciTech Connect

    Michel Bonin; Tom Harvill; Jared Hoog; Don Holve; Alan Alsing; Bob Clark; Steve Hrivnak

    2007-11-01

    Process Metrix began this project with the intent of modifying an existing ranging system and combining the same with a specially designed optical scanner to yield three dimensional range images that could be used to determine the refractory lining thickness in a gasifier. The goal was to make these measurements during short outages while the gasifier was at or near operating temperature. Our initial estimates of the photon counts needed for the modulation-based range finder were optimistic, and we were forced to undertake a redesign of the range finder portion of the project. This ultimately created significant and unanticipated time delays that were exacerbated when Acuity Technologies, the subcontractor responsible for delivering the redesigned range finder, failed to deliver electrical components capable of meeting the specific range error requirements needed for accurate lining thickness measurement. An extensive search for an alternate, off-the-shelf solution was unsuccessful, and Process Metrix was forced to undertake the electronics development internally without project funds. The positive outcome of this effort is a documented set of range finder electronics that have exceptional accuracy, simplicity, temperature stability and detection limit; in sum a package perfectly suited to the measurement requirements and within our control. It is unfortunate yet understandable, given the time delays involved in reaching this milestone, that the Department of Energy decided not to continue the project to completion. The integration of this electronics set into the optomechanical hardware also developed within the scope of the project remains as follow-on project that Process Metrix will finish within the calendar year 2008. Testing in the gasifier is, at this point, not certain pending the award of additional funding needed for field trials. Eastman, our industrial partner in this project, remains interested in evaluating a finished system, and working together we

  15. An Implanted, Stimulated Muscle Powered Piezoelectric Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth; Gustafson, Kenneth; Kilgore, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    A totally implantable piezoelectric generator system able to harness power from electrically activated muscle could be used to augment the power systems of implanted medical devices, such as neural prostheses, by reducing the number of battery replacement surgeries or by allowing periods of untethered functionality. The features of our generator design are no moving parts and the use of a portion of the generated power for system operation and regulation. A software model of the system has been developed and simulations have been performed to predict the output power as the system parameters were varied within their constraints. Mechanical forces that mimic muscle forces have been experimentally applied to a piezoelectric generator to verify the accuracy of the simulations and to explore losses due to mechanical coupling. Depending on the selection of system parameters, software simulations predict that this generator concept can generate up to approximately 700 W of power, which is greater than the power necessary to drive the generator, conservatively estimated to be 50 W. These results suggest that this concept has the potential to be an implantable, self-replenishing power source and further investigation is underway.

  16. Informatics requirements for a restructured competitive electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Pickle, S.; Marnay, C.; Olken, F.

    1996-08-01

    The electric power industry in the United States is undergoing a slow but nonetheless dramatic transformation. It is a transformation driven by technology, economics, and politics; one that will move the industry from its traditional mode of centralized system operations and regulated rates guaranteeing long-run cost recovery, to decentralized investment and operational decisionmaking and to customer access to true spot market prices. This transformation will revolutionize the technical, procedural, and informational requirements of the industry. A major milestone in this process occurred on December 20, 1995, when the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) approved its long-awaited electric utility industry restructuring decision. The decision directed the three major California investor-owned utilities to reorganize themselves by the beginning of 1998 into a supply pool, at the same time selling up to a half of their thermal generating plants. Generation will be bid into this pool and will be dispatched by an independent system operator. The dispatch could potentially involve bidders not only from California but from throughout western North America and include every conceivable generating technology and scale of operation. At the same time, large customers and aggregated customer groups will be able to contract independently for their supply and the utilities will be required to offer a real-time pricing tariff based on the pool price to all their customers, including residential. In related proceedings concerning competitive wholesale power markets, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has recognized that real-time information flows between buyers and sellers are essential to efficient equitable market operation. The purpose of this meeting was to hold discussions on the information technologies that will be needed in the new, deregulated electric power industry.

  17. Retrospective exposure assessment to airborne asbestos among power industry workers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A method of individually assessing former exposure to asbestos fibres is a precondition of risk-differentiated health surveillance. The main aims of our study were to assess former levels of airborne asbestos exposure in the power industry in Germany and to propose a basic strategy for health surveillance and the early detection of asbestos related diseases. Methods Between March 2002 and the end of 2006, we conducted a retrospective questionnaire based survey of occupational tasks and exposures with airborne asbestos fibres in a cohort of 8632 formerly asbestos exposed power industry workers. The data on exposure and occupation were entered into a specially designed computer programme, based on ambient monitoring of airborne asbestos fibre concentrations. The cumulative asbestos exposure was expressed as the product of the eight-hour time weighted average and the total duration of exposure in fibre years (fibres/cubic centimetre-years). Results Data of 7775 (90% of the total) participants working in installations for power generation, power distribution or gas supply could be evaluated. The power generation group (n = 5284) had a mean age of 56 years, were exposed for 20 years and had an average cumulative asbestos exposure of 42 fibre years. The occupational group of "metalworkers" (n = 1600) had the highest mean value of 79 fibre years. The corresponding results for the power distribution group (n = 2491) were a mean age of 45 years, a mean exposure duration of 12 years and an average cumulative asbestos exposure of only 2.5 fibre years. The gas supply workers (n = 512) had a mean age of 54 years and a mean duration of exposure of 15 years. Conclusions While the surveyed cohort as a whole was heavily exposed to asbestos dust, the power distribution group had a mean cumulative exposure of only 6% of that found in the power generation group. Based on the presented data, risk-differentiated disease surveillance focusing on metalworkers and electricians

  18. Dependable Hydrogen and Industrial Heat Generation from the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Charles V. Park; Michael W. Patterson; Vincent C. Maio; Piyush Sabharwall

    2009-03-01

    The Department of Energy is working with industry to develop a next generation, high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR) as a part of the effort to supply the US with abundant, clean and secure energy. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, led by the Idaho National Laboratory, will demonstrate the ability of the HTGR to generate hydrogen, electricity, and high-quality process heat for a wide range of industrial applications. Substituting HTGR power for traditional fossil fuel resources reduces the cost and supply vulnerability of natural gas and oil, and reduces or eliminates greenhouse gas emissions. As authorized by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, industry leaders are developing designs for the construction of a commercial prototype producing up to 600 MWt of power by 2021. This paper describes a variety of critical applications that are appropriate for the HTGR with an emphasis placed on applications requiring a clean and reliable source of hydrogen. An overview of the NGNP project status and its significant technology development efforts are also presented.

  19. 78 FR 32385 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; CER Generation II, LLC; Constellation Mystic Power, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Exelon Generation Company, LLC; CER Generation II, LLC; Constellation Mystic Power, LLC; Constellation NewEnergy, Inc.; Constellation Power Source Generation, Inc.; Criterion Power..., CER Generation II, LLC, Constellation Mystic Power, LLC, Constellation NewEnergy, Inc.,...

  20. Power generation method including membrane separation

    DOEpatents

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

  1. Wind turbine generator for electrical powered vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Boodman, L.; Malone, J.P.

    1982-02-02

    Means to provide additional electrical power in an electrically powered vehicle are disclosed. An air scoop is mounted on the vehicle. The air scoop opens in a generally forward direction. A turbine wheel is mounted in the rear of the air scoop. An electric generator is connected to the turbine wheel, whereby air passing through the air scoop will generate additional electricity for the vehicle batteries. The air scoop is rotatable and means are provided to lock it in position.

  2. Selling green power in California: Product, industry, and market trends

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.

    1998-05-01

    As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California`s residential marketplace.

  3. Generation of sonic power during welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Campbell, W. M.

    1969-01-01

    Generation of intense sonic and ultrasonic power in the weld zone, close to the puddle, reduces the porosity and refinement of the grain. The ac induction brazing power supply is modified with long cables for deliberate addition of resistance to that circuit. The concept is extensible to the molding of metals and plastics.

  4. Apparatus and method for thermal power generation

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Paul; Redding, Arnold H.

    1978-01-01

    An improved thermal power plant and method of power generation which minimizes thermal stress and chemical impurity buildup in the vaporizing component, particularly beneficial under loss of normal feed fluid and startup conditions. The invention is particularly applicable to a liquid metal fast breeder reactor plant.

  5. Optimal generator bidding strategies for power and ancillary services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morinec, Allen G.

    As the electric power industry transitions to a deregulated market, power transactions are made upon price rather than cost. Generator companies are interested in maximizing their profits rather than overall system efficiency. A method to equitably compensate generation providers for real power, and ancillary services such as reactive power and spinning reserve, will ensure a competitive market with an adequate number of suppliers. Optimizing the generation product mix during bidding is necessary to maximize a generator company's profits. The objective of this research work is to determine and formulate appropriate optimal bidding strategies for a generation company in both the energy and ancillary services markets. These strategies should incorporate the capability curves of their generators as constraints to define the optimal product mix and price offered in the day-ahead and real time spot markets. In order to achieve such a goal, a two-player model was composed to simulate market auctions for power generation. A dynamic game methodology was developed to identify Nash Equilibria and Mixed-Strategy Nash Equilibria solutions as optimal generation bidding strategies for two-player non-cooperative variable-sum matrix games with incomplete information. These games integrated the generation product mix of real power, reactive power, and spinning reserve with the generators's capability curves as constraints. The research includes simulations of market auctions, where strategies were tested for generators with different unit constraints, costs, types of competitors, strategies, and demand levels. Studies on the capability of large hydrogen cooled synchronous generators were utilized to derive useful equations that define the exact shape of the capability curve from the intersections of the arcs defined by the centers and radial vectors of the rotor, stator, and steady-state stability limits. The available reactive reserve and spinning reserve were calculated given a

  6. Fiscalini Farms Renewable Energy Power Generation Project

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    Funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Fiscalini Farms L.P., in collaboration with University of the Pacific, Biogas Energy, Inc., and the University of California at Berkeley will measure and analyze the efficiency and regulatory compliance of a renewable energy system for power generation. The system will utilize digester gas from an anaerobic digester located at the Fiscalini Farms dairy for power generation with a reciprocating engine. The project will provide power, efficiency, emissions, and cost/benefit analysis for the system and evaluate its compliance with federal and California emissions standards.

  7. Synchrophasor Applications for Wind Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.; Allen, A.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.; Wan, Y. H.

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. power industry is undertaking several initiatives that will improve the operations of the electric power grid. One of those is the implementation of wide-area measurements using phasor measurement units to dynamically monitor the operations and status of the network and provide advanced situational awareness and stability assessment. The overviews of synchrophasors and stability analyses in this report are intended to present the potential future applications of synchrophasors for power system operations under high penetrations of wind and other renewable energy sources.

  8. Achieving Maximum Power in Thermoelectric Generation with Simple Power Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Nari; Lee, Hohyun; Wee, Daehyun; Gomez, Miguel; Reid, Rachel; Ohara, Brandon

    2014-06-01

    A thermoelectric generator typically delivers a relatively low power output, and hence it is of great practical importance to determine a design and operating condition close to those which can provide the maximum attainable power. To maintain a favorable condition for the maximum power output, power electronics circuits are usually applied. One of the simplest methods is to control the operating voltage at half the open-circuit voltage, assuming that the typical impedance-matching condition, in which the load and internal resistances are matched, yields the maximum power output. However, recent investigations have shown that, when external thermal resistances exist between the thermoelectric modules and thermal reservoirs, the impedance-matching condition is not identical to the condition for the maximum power output. In this article, it is argued that, although the impedance-matching condition is not the condition for maximum power output, the maximum power is still achievable when the operating voltage is kept at half the open-circuit voltage. More precisely, it is shown that the typical V- I curve for thermoelectric generators must show approximately linear behavior, which justifies the use of a simple strategy in thermoelectric power generation applications. The conditions for the validity of the approximation are mathematically discussed, supported by a few examples. Experimental evidence at room temperature is also provided.

  9. Solar driven liquid metal MHD power generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Hohl, F. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A solar energy collector focuses solar energy onto a solar oven which is attached to a mixer which in turn is attached to the channel of a MHD generator. Gas enters the oven and a liquid metal enters the mixer. The gas/liquid metal mixture is heated by the collected solar energy and moves through the MHD generator thereby generating electrical power. The mixture is then separated and recycled.

  10. Solar driven liquid metal MHD power generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Hohl, F.

    1983-06-01

    A solar energy collector focuses solar energy onto a solar oven which is attached to a mixer which in turn is attached to the channel of a MHD generator. Gas enters the oven and a liquid metal enters the mixer. The gas/liquid metal mixture is heated by the collected solar energy and moves through the MHD generator thereby generating electrical power. The mixture is then separated and recycled.

  11. New Generation Power System for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Loren; Carr, Greg; Deligiannis, Frank; Lam, Barbara; Nelson, Ron; Pantaleon, Jose; Ruiz, Ian; Treicler, John; Wester, Gene; Sauers, Jim; Giampoli, Paul; Haskell, Russ; Mulvey, Jim; Repp, John

    2004-01-01

    The Deep Space Avionics (DSA) Project is developing a new generation of power system building blocks. Using application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and power switching modules a scalable power system can be constructed for use on multiple deep space missions including future missions to Mars, comets, Jupiter and its moons. The key developments of the DSA power system effort are five power ASICs and a mod ule for power switching. These components enable a modular and scalab le design approach, which can result in a wide variety of power syste m architectures to meet diverse mission requirements and environments . Each component is radiation hardened to one megarad) total dose. The power switching module can be used for power distribution to regular spacecraft loads, to propulsion valves and actuation of pyrotechnic devices. The number of switching elements per load, pyrotechnic firin gs and valve drivers can be scaled depending on mission needs. Teleme try data is available from the switch module via an I2C data bus. The DSA power system components enable power management and distribution for a variety of power buses and power system architectures employing different types of energy storage and power sources. This paper will describe each power ASIC#s key performance characteristics as well a s recent prototype test results. The power switching module test results will be discussed and will demonstrate its versatility as a multip urpose switch. Finally, the combination of these components will illu strate some of the possible power system architectures achievable fro m small single string systems to large fully redundant systems.

  12. Industrial CO laser with tens of kilowatt power: technical offer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Igor Y.

    2005-09-01

    The laser with power tens of kilowatt would be essential for dismantlement of obsolete nuclear-power reactors, laser-hardening the surfaces of railway rails and etc. The production of high power, high efficiency, high specific energy and high optical beam quality can be obtained in the experimental systems of a quasi-cw electroionization CO laser with cooling a CO mixture by its expansion in the nozzles. The way of transfer to industrial high-power CO lasers is proposed through the continuous formation of a CO laser mixture during laser operation. CO laser mixture is formed by using air as a buffer gas (about 90%). CO molecules are generated in oxidation reaction of oxygen-containing molecules with carbon. The carbon arises from a decomposition of hydrocarbon fuel on the catalyst surface. CO mixture is excited by radio-frequency (RF) electric discharge in a supersonic gas flow without an electron gun. The given conception was used on a small-scale model system to demonstrate that the laser radiation was possible in a CO mixture with combustion products and air, which are excited by RF discharge in a supersonic flow. The industrial CO laser with tens of kilowatt power is offer with open working cycle without ejecting toxic CO into the atmosphere by converting CO molecules to C02 ones. The estimated cost of a laser is several hundred thousand and the small sizes of laser give possibility to install its on manipulator without fiber-optic delivery.

  13. Performance issues for a changing electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    Extremely cold weather created record demands for electricity in the eastern two-thirds of the United States during the week of January 16, 1994. Fuel-related problems, mostly the result of transportation constraints resulting from ice accumulation on roads and water-ways, and unexpected generating capacity outages at utilities and nonutilities resulted in demand not being met. Some utilities asked nonessential customers along with State governments and a portion of the Federal Government to shut down. Two electric control areas, the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection (PJM) and Virginia Electric & Power Company (VEPCO), instituted rolling blackouts. This disturbance was reported widely in the press and, along with other disturbances, peaked renewed interest in the reliability of the electric power system. The renewed interest in reliability has coincided with substantial changes that are beginning to occur in the structure and competitiveness of the electric power industry. Juxtaposing the question of reliability and the issue of changing industry structure leads to the central concern of this report: What effect, if any, will the changing structure of the industry have on the reliability of the system?

  14. Approach to the Practical Use of Thermoelectric Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajikawa, Takenobu

    2009-07-01

    The results of research and development in the Japanese national project “Development for Advanced Thermoelectric Conversion Systems” are summarized, and the approaches to practical use of advanced thermoelectric modules and power generation systems are presented. The 5-year national project was successfully completed in March 2007. Three kinds of high- efficiency cascaded thermoelectric modules and two kinds of innovative Bi-Te thermoelectric modules were successfully developed. Heat cycle tests for three types of modules were also completed. Moreover, four types of advanced thermoelectric power generation systems were experimentally demonstrated for recovery of waste heat from the industrial and private sectors. In order to proceed further, thermoelectric power generation systems using practical heat sources were followed after installation of the developed modules. In parallel, various approaches for practical use by private companies, as well as plans for the next-phase project by the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) and the Engineering Advancement Association (ENAA), were also followed. The scenarios to proceed to the commercial phase of thermoelectric power generation are discussed on the basis of the results of the national project.

  15. Challenges of electric power industry restructuring for fuel suppliers

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an assessment of the changes in other energy industries that could occur as the result of restructuring in the electric power industry. This report is prepared for a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric power industry, and the general public. 28 figs., 25 tabs.

  16. Thermoelectric Fabrics: Toward Power Generating Clothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yong; Cai, Kefeng; Chen, Song; Wang, Hongxia; Shen, Shirley Z.; Donelson, Richard; Lin, Tong

    2015-03-01

    Herein, we demonstrate that a flexible, air-permeable, thermoelectric (TE) power generator can be prepared by applying a TE polymer (e.g. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate)) coated commercial fabric and subsequently by linking the coated strips with a conductive connection (e.g. using fine metal wires). The poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) coated fabric shows very stable TE properties from 300 K to 390 K. The fabric device can generate a TE voltage output (V) of 4.3 mV at a temperature difference (ΔT) of 75.2 K. The potential for using fabric TE devices to harvest body temperature energy has been discussed. Fabric-based TE devices may be useful for the development of new power generating clothing and self-powered wearable electronics.

  17. Microfabricated thermoelectric power-generation devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret A. (Inventor); Borshchevsky, Alex (Inventor); Phillips, Wayne (Inventor); Kolawa, Elizabeth A. (Inventor); Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor); Caillat, Thierry (Inventor); Kascich, Thorsten (Inventor); Mueller, Peter (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A device for generating power to run an electronic component. The device includes a heat-conducting substrate (composed, e.g., of diamond or another high thermal conductivity material) disposed in thermal contact with a high temperature region. During operation, heat flows from the high temperature region into the heat-conducting substrate, from which the heat flows into the electrical power generator. A thermoelectric material (e.g., a BiTe alloy-based film or other thermoelectric material) is placed in thermal contact with the heat-conducting substrate. A low temperature region is located on the side of the thermoelectric material opposite that of the high temperature region. The thermal gradient generates electrical power and drives an electrical component.

  18. Microfabricated thermoelectric power-generation devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret A. (Inventor); Borshchevsky, Alex (Inventor); Phillips, Wayne (Inventor); Kolawa, Elizabeth A. (Inventor); Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor); Caillat, Thierry (Inventor); Kascich, Thorsten (Inventor); Mueller, Peter (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A device for generating power to run an electronic component. The device includes a heat-conducting substrate (composed, e.g., of diamond or another high thermal conductivity material) disposed in thermal contact with a high temperature region. During operation, heat flows from the high temperature region into the heat-conducting substrate, from which the heat flows into the electrical power generator. A thermoelectric material (e.g., a BiTe alloy-based film or other thermoelectric material) is placed in thermal contact with the heat-conducting substrate. A low temperature region is located on the side of the thermoelectric material opposite that of the high temperature region. The thermal gradient generates electrical power and drives an electrical component.

  19. Thermoelectric fabrics: toward power generating clothing.

    PubMed

    Du, Yong; Cai, Kefeng; Chen, Song; Wang, Hongxia; Shen, Shirley Z; Donelson, Richard; Lin, Tong

    2015-03-23

    Herein, we demonstrate that a flexible, air-permeable, thermoelectric (TE) power generator can be prepared by applying a TE polymer (e.g. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate)) coated commercial fabric and subsequently by linking the coated strips with a conductive connection (e.g. using fine metal wires). The poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) coated fabric shows very stable TE properties from 300 K to 390 K. The fabric device can generate a TE voltage output (V) of 4.3 mV at a temperature difference (ΔT) of 75.2 K. The potential for using fabric TE devices to harvest body temperature energy has been discussed. Fabric-based TE devices may be useful for the development of new power generating clothing and self-powered wearable electronics.

  20. Thermoelectric Fabrics: Toward Power Generating Clothing

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yong; Cai, Kefeng; Chen, Song; Wang, Hongxia; Shen, Shirley Z.; Donelson, Richard; Lin, Tong

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we demonstrate that a flexible, air-permeable, thermoelectric (TE) power generator can be prepared by applying a TE polymer (e.g. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate)) coated commercial fabric and subsequently by linking the coated strips with a conductive connection (e.g. using fine metal wires). The poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) coated fabric shows very stable TE properties from 300 K to 390 K. The fabric device can generate a TE voltage output (V) of 4.3 mV at a temperature difference (ΔT) of 75.2 K. The potential for using fabric TE devices to harvest body temperature energy has been discussed. Fabric-based TE devices may be useful for the development of new power generating clothing and self-powered wearable electronics. PMID:25804132

  1. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Thermoelectric Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckle, J. R.; Knox, A.; Siviter, J.; Montecucco, A.

    2013-07-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are a vital part of the oceanographer's toolbox, allowing long-term measurements across a range of ocean depths of a number of ocean properties such as salinity, fluorescence, and temperature profile. Buoyancy-based gliding, rather than direct propulsion, dramatically reduces AUV power consumption and allows long-duration missions on the order of months rather than hours or days, allowing large distances to be analyzed or many successive analyses of a certain area without the need for retrieval. Recent versions of these gliders have seen the buoyancy variation system change from electrically powered to thermally powered using phase-change materials, however a significant battery pack is still required to power communications and sensors, with power consumption in the region of 250 mW. The authors propose a novel application of a thermoelectric generation system, utilizing the depth-related variation in oceanic temperature. A thermal energy store provides a temperature differential across which a thermoelectric device can generate from repeated dives, with the primary purpose of extending mission range. The system is modeled in Simulink to analyze the effect of variation in design parameters. The system proves capable of generating all required power for a modern AUV.

  2. Advanced Coal-Based Power Generations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    Advanced power-generation systems using coal-derived fuels are evaluated in two-volume report. Report considers fuel cells, combined gas- and steam-turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion. Presents technological status of each type of system and analyzes performance of each operating on medium-Btu fuel gas, either delivered via pipeline to powerplant or generated by coal-gasification process at plantsite.

  3. Industrial Arts 7-9. Power/Energy: Electricity/Electronics, Power Mechanics, Power/Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This guide for industrial arts grades 7-9 provides teachers with a curriculum for the subject cluster of power/energy. An "Overview" section presents the rationale, discusses how the content of the program is related to the developmental stages of the adolescent, describes the structure of the industrial arts program, and lists program goals and…

  4. Applications of aerospace technology in the electric power industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An overview of the electric power industry, selected NASA contributions to progress in the industry, linkages affecting the transfer and diffusion of technology, and, finally, a perspective on technology transfer issues are presented.

  5. Development of a new generation of small scale biomass-fueled electric generating power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, J.D.; Purvis, C.R.

    1995-11-01

    There exists a need by a large worldwide market for greatly improved small scale (1 to 20 MWe per unit) biomass-fueled power plants. These power plants will significantly increase the efficiency of generating electric power from wood and bagasse as well as convert non-traditional fuel sources such as rice hulls, animal manure, cotton gin trash, straws, and grasses to electricity. Advancing the technology of biomass-fueled power plants will greatly expand the use of this environmentally friendly sustainable 24 hr-per-day source of electrical power for industry and communities worldwide. This paper briefly describes the status of a biomass-fueled power plant under development by Cratech, Inc.

  6. Wind power generation and dispatch in competitive power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Lisias

    Wind energy is currently the fastest growing type of renewable energy. The main motivation is led by more strict emission constraints and higher fuel prices. In addition, recent developments in wind turbine technology and financial incentives have made wind energy technically and economically viable almost anywhere. In restructured power systems, reliable and economical operation of power systems are the two main objectives for the ISO. The ability to control the output of wind turbines is limited and the capacity of a wind farm changes according to wind speeds. Since this type of generation has no production costs, all production is taken by the system. Although, insufficient operational planning of power systems considering wind generation could result in higher system operation costs and off-peak transmission congestions. In addition, a GENCO can participate in short-term power markets in restructured power systems. The goal of a GENCO is to sell energy in such a way that would maximize its profitability. However, due to market price fluctuations and wind forecasting errors, it is essential for the wind GENCO to keep its financial risk at an acceptable level when constituting market bidding strategies. This dissertation discusses assumptions, functions, and methodologies that optimize short-term operations of power systems considering wind energy, and that optimize bidding strategies for wind producers in short-term markets. This dissertation also discusses uncertainties associated with electricity market environment and wind power forecasting that can expose market participants to a significant risk level when managing the tradeoff between profitability and risk.

  7. Microelectromechanical power generator and vibration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2006-11-28

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus is disclosed which can be used to generate electrical power in response to an external source of vibrations, or to sense the vibrations and generate an electrical output voltage in response thereto. The MEM apparatus utilizes a meandering electrical pickup located near a shuttle which holds a plurality of permanent magnets. Upon movement of the shuttle in response to vibrations coupled thereto, the permanent magnets move in a direction substantially parallel to the meandering electrical pickup, and this generates a voltage across the meandering electrical pickup. The MEM apparatus can be fabricated by LIGA or micromachining.

  8. Global Climate Change - The Power Generation Challenge

    EPA Science Inventory

    The planet continues to warm; O.5 C from the 1970’s to the 2000’s. Also, worldwide CO2 emissions have increased at a 3% annual growth rate from 2000 to 2010. Such emissions are driven by fossil fuel combustion, especially in the power generation sector, & especial...

  9. Radioisotope thermal generator (RTG) power conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, W. S.

    1974-01-01

    New regulator: (a) permits operation with high-impedance radioisotope thermal generators at conversion efficiencies typically above 90%; (b) does not require input filtering; (c) eliminates current spiking; and (d) is simple, efficient, and reliable. Converter-charger pair could be adapted for other power levels by changing transistor, diode, capacitor bank, and inductor.

  10. Thermoelectric unicouple used for power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, Thierry (Inventor); Zoltan, Andrew (Inventor); Zoltan, Leslie (Inventor); Snyder, Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A high-efficiency thermoelectric unicouple is used for power generation. The unicouple is formed with a plurality of legs, each leg formed of a plurality of segments. The legs are formed in a way that equalizes certain aspects of the different segments. Different materials are also described.

  11. Method and apparatus for thermal power generation

    DOEpatents

    Mangus, James D.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for power generation from a recirculating superheat-reheat circuit with multiple expansion stages which alleviates complex control systems and minimizes thermal cycling of system components, particularly the reheater. The invention includes preheating cold reheat fluid from the first expansion stage prior to its entering the reheater with fluid from the evaporator or drum component.

  12. Optical generation of radio-frequency power

    SciTech Connect

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Meyer, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    An optical technique for high-power radio-frequency (RF) signal generation is described. The technique uses a unique photodetector based on a traveling-wave design driven by an appropriately modulated light source. The traveling-wave photodetector (TWPD) exhibits simultaneously a theoretical quantum efficiency approaching 100 % and a very large electrical bandwidth. Additionally, it is capable of dissipating the high-power levels required for the RF generation technique. The modulated light source is formed by either the beating together of two lasers or by the direct modulation of a light source. A system example is given which predicts RF power levels of 100`s of mW`s at millimeter wave frequencies with a theoretical ``wall-plug`` efficiency approaching 34%.

  13. Investigations for biogas operated MHD power generators

    SciTech Connect

    Dahiya, R.P.; Chand, A.; Sharma, S.C.

    1983-12-01

    Biogas is produced from the anaerobic fermentation of the organic matter containing cellulose, such as agricultural wastes, human wastes, animal wastes, etc. It contains methane (50-70%), carbon dioxide (30-50%), and very small amounts of hydrogen and hydrogen sulphide. Adequate quantities of raw material to generate biogas are normally available in rural areas, and therefore, there is a possibility that almost all the energy requirements of the rural sector may be fulfilled by biogas. Presently in the rural sector, biogas is used mainly to provide thermal energy (for cooking, etc.), and up to a limited extent, to meet the electrical energy requirements by running electrical generators with engines powered by a mixture of oil and biogas. In this paper, the authors propose a scheme in which biogas can be used to generate electricity more efficiently by using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generators. Investigations have been carried out to make feasibility studies for biogas-operated open cycle MHD power generators. Composition, temperature and electrical conductivity of the seeded (with potassium) combustion products of biogas-air/oxygen systems have been analytically investigated for different percentages of CO/sub 2/ in biogas and at various combustor pressures for a seeding ratio of 1 percent by weight. The effect of preheating and enrichment of air on temperature and electrical conductivity of the seeded combustion plasmas has also been studied.

  14. Thermal energy storage for power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Drost, M.K.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Brown, D.R.; Sathyanarayana, K.

    1989-10-01

    Studies strongly indicate that the United States will face widespread electrical power constraints in the 1990s, with most regions of the country experiencing capacity shortages by the year 2000. In many cases, the demand for increased power will occur during intermediate and peak demand periods. Much of this demand is expected to be met by oil- and natural gas-fired Brayton cycle turbines and combined-cycle plants. While natural gas is currently plentiful and reasonably priced, the availability of an economical long-term coal-fired option for peak and intermediate load power generation will give electric power utilities an option in case either the availability or cost of natural gas should deteriorate. 54 refs., 5 figs., 17 tabs.

  15. Environmental performance of power generation system in China based on LCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xing; Zhang, Xu; Yuan, Yuan

    2010-11-01

    In this study, LCA (life cycle assessment) is used as a tool for the assessment of energy consumption and associated impacts generated from utilization of energy in various power generation systems in China. The details follow the methodology outlined in ISO14040. The scope of this research includes energy production, energy transportation, and energy utilization. The function unit of life cycle inventory is 1 kJ electricity power. Most of the inventory data have been collected from Yearbook of China. Compared to fuel-fired power generation system, hydropower and nuclear power are more environment-friendly according to life cycle inventory analysis results, so increasing the proportion of hydropower and nuclear power in the power industry has a significant improvement effect on the development of China's power industry. The life cycle environmental impact of integrated power generation level in 2010 will be 13.8% lower than in 1999 according to National energy policy of China.

  16. Thermophotovoltaic and thermoelectric portable power generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Walker R.; Waits, Christopher M.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Celanovic, Ivan

    2014-06-01

    The quest for developing clean, quiet, and portable high energy density, and ultra-compact power sources continues. Although batteries offer a well known solution, limits on the chemistry developed to date constrain the energy density to 0.2 kWh/kg, whereas many hydrocarbon fuels have energy densities closer to 13 kWh/kg. The fundamental challenge remains: how efficiently and robustly can these widely available chemical fuels be converted into electricity in a millimeter to centimeter scale systems? Here we explore two promising technologies for high energy density power generators: thermophotovoltaics (TPV) and thermoelectrics (TE). These heat to electricity conversion processes are appealing because they are fully static leading to quiet and robust operation, allow for multifuel operation due to the ease of generating heat, and offer high power densities. We will present some previous work done in the TPV and TE fields. In addition we will outline the common technological barriers facing both approaches, as well as outline the main differences. Performance for state of the art research generators will be compared as well as projections for future practically achievable systems. A viable TPV or TE power source for a ten watt for one week mission can be built from a <10% efficient device which is achievable with current state of the art technology such as photonic crystals or advanced TE materials.

  17. Development of Next Generation Segmented Thermoelectric Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleurial, J.; Caillat, T.; Ewell, R. C.

    2005-12-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators have been used for space-based applications since 1961 with a total of 22 space missions that have successfully used RTGs for electrical power production. The key advantages of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are their long life, robustness, compact size, and high reliability. Thermoelectric converters are easily scalable, and possess a linear current-voltage curve, making power generation easy to control via a shunt regulator and shunt radiator. They produce no noise, vibration or torque during operation. These properties have made RTGs ideally suitable for autonomous missions in the extreme environments of outer space and on planetary surfaces. More advanced radioisotope power systems (RPS) with higher specific power (W/kg) and/or power output are desirable for future NASA missions, including the Europa Geophysical Orbiter mission. For the past few years, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been developing more efficient thermoelectric materials and has demonstrated significant increases in the conversion efficiency of high temperature thermocouples, up to 14% when operated across a 975K to 300K temperature differential. In collaboration with NASA Glenn Research Center, universities (USC and UNM), Ceramic and Metal Composites Corporation and industrial partners, JPL is now planning to lead the research and development of advanced thermoelectric technology for integration into the next generations of RPS. Preliminary studies indicate that this technology has the potential for improving the RPS specific power by more than 50% over the current state-of-the-art multi-mission RTG being built for the Mars Science Laboratory mission. A second generation advanced RPS is projected at more than doubling the specific power.

  18. ZERO EMISSION POWER GENERATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Bischoff; Stephen Doyle

    2005-01-20

    Clean Energy Systems (CES) was previously funded by DOE's ''Vision 21'' program. This program provided a proof-of-concept demonstration that CES' novel gas generator (combustor) enabled production of electrical power from fossil fuels without pollution. CES has used current DOE funding for additional design study exercises which established the utility of the CES-cycle for retrofitting existing power plants for zero-emission operations and for incorporation in zero-emission, ''green field'' power plant concepts. DOE funding also helped define the suitability of existing steam turbine designs for use in the CES-cycle and explored the use of aero-derivative turbines for advanced power plant designs. This work is of interest to the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum & Energy. California's air quality districts have significant non-attainment areas in which CES technology can help. CEC is currently funding a CES-cycle technology demonstration near Bakersfield, CA. The Norwegian government is supporting conceptual studies for a proposed 40 MW zero-emission power plant in Stavager, Norway which would use the CES-cycle. The latter project is called Zero-Emission Norwegian Gas (ZENG). In summary, current engineering studies: (1) supported engineering design of plant subsystems applicable for use with CES-cycle zero-emission power plants, and (2) documented the suitability and availability of steam turbines for use in CES-cycle power plants, with particular relevance to the Norwegian ZENG Project.

  19. Solar powered Stirling cycle electrical generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, Richard K.

    1991-01-01

    Under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI), the NASA Lewis Research Center is developing the technology needed for free-piston Stirling engines as a candidate power source for space systems in the late 1990's and into the next century. Space power requirements include high efficiency, very long life, high reliability, and low vibration. Furthermore, system weight and operating temperature are important. The free-piston Stirling engine has the potential for a highly reliable engine with long life because it has only a few moving parts, non-contacting gas bearings, and can be hermetically sealed. These attributes of the free-piston Stirling engine also make it a viable candidate for terrestrial applications. In cooperation with the Department of Energy, system designs are currently being completed that feature the free-piston Stirling engine for terrestrial applications. Industry teams were assembled and are currently completing designs for two Advanced Stirling Conversion Systems utilizing technology being developed under the NASA CSTI Program. These systems, when coupled with a parabolic mirror to collect the solar energy, are capable of producing about 25 kW of electricity to a utility grid. Industry has identified a niche market for dish Stirling systems for worldwide remote power application. They believe that these niche markets may play a major role in the introduction of Stirling products into the commercial market.

  20. Assessment of On-Site Power Opportunities in the Industrial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, T.

    2001-10-08

    The purpose of this report is to identify the potential for on-site power generation in the U.S. industrial sector with emphasis on nine industrial groups called the ''Industries of the Future'' (IOFs) by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Through its Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), the DOE has teamed with the IOFs to develop collaborative strategies for improving productivity, global competitiveness, energy usage and environmental performance. Total purchases for electricity and steam for the IOFs are in excess of $27 billion annually. Energy-related costs are very significant for these industries. The nine industrial groups are (1) Agriculture (SIC 1); (2) Forest products; (3) Lumber and wood products (SIC 24); (4) Paper and allied products (SIC 26); (5) Mining (SIC 11, 12, 14); (6) Glass (SIC 32); (7) Petroleum (SIC 29); (8) Chemicals (SIC 28); and (9) Metals (SIC 33): Steel, Aluminum, and Metal casting. Although not currently part of the IOF program, the food industry is included in this report because of its close relationship to the agricultural industry and its success with on-site power generation. On-site generation provides an alternative means to reduce energy costs, comply with environmental regulations, and ensure a reliable power supply. On-site generation can ease congestion in the local utility's electric grid. Electric market restructuring is exacerbating the price premium for peak electricity use and for reliability, creating considerable market interest in on-site generation.

  1. Complementary power output characteristics of electromagnetic generators and triboelectric generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Feng-Ru; Tang, Wei; Yao, Yan; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-04-01

    Recently, a triboelectric generator (TEG) has been invented to convert mechanical energy into electricity by a conjunction of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic generator (EMG) that produces a high output current but low voltage, the TEG has different output characteristics of low output current but high output voltage. In this paper, we present a comparative study regarding the fundamentals of TEGs and EMGs. The power output performances of the EMG and the TEG have a special complementary relationship, with the EMG being a voltage source and the TEG a current source. Utilizing a power transformed and managed (PTM) system, the current output of a TEG can reach as high as ˜3 mA, which can be coupled with the output signal of an EMG to enhance the output power. We also demonstrate a design to integrate a TEG and an EMG into a single device for simultaneously harvesting mechanical energy. In addition, the integrated NGs can independently output a high voltage and a high current to meet special needs.

  2. Complementary power output characteristics of electromagnetic generators and triboelectric generators.

    PubMed

    Fan, Feng-Ru; Tang, Wei; Yao, Yan; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-04-01

    Recently, a triboelectric generator (TEG) has been invented to convert mechanical energy into electricity by a conjunction of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic generator (EMG) that produces a high output current but low voltage, the TEG has different output characteristics of low output current but high output voltage. In this paper, we present a comparative study regarding the fundamentals of TEGs and EMGs. The power output performances of the EMG and the TEG have a special complementary relationship, with the EMG being a voltage source and the TEG a current source. Utilizing a power transformed and managed (PTM) system, the current output of a TEG can reach as high as ∼3 mA, which can be coupled with the output signal of an EMG to enhance the output power. We also demonstrate a design to integrate a TEG and an EMG into a single device for simultaneously harvesting mechanical energy. In addition, the integrated NGs can independently output a high voltage and a high current to meet special needs.

  3. Heat Management in Thermoelectric Power Generators.

    PubMed

    Zebarjadi, M

    2016-04-01

    Thermoelectric power generators are used to convert heat into electricity. Like any other heat engine, the performance of a thermoelectric generator increases as the temperature difference on the sides increases. It is generally assumed that as more heat is forced through the thermoelectric legs, their performance increases. Therefore, insulations are typically used to minimize the heat losses and to confine the heat transport through the thermoelectric legs. In this paper we show that to some extend it is beneficial to purposely open heat loss channels in order to establish a larger temperature gradient and therefore to increase the overall efficiency and achieve larger electric power output. We define a modified Biot number (Bi) as an indicator of requirements for sidewall insulation. We show cooling from sidewalls increases the efficiency for Bi values less than one, and decreases the efficiency for Bi values larger than one.

  4. Heat Management in Thermoelectric Power Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebarjadi, M.

    2016-04-01

    Thermoelectric power generators are used to convert heat into electricity. Like any other heat engine, the performance of a thermoelectric generator increases as the temperature difference on the sides increases. It is generally assumed that as more heat is forced through the thermoelectric legs, their performance increases. Therefore, insulations are typically used to minimize the heat losses and to confine the heat transport through the thermoelectric legs. In this paper we show that to some extend it is beneficial to purposely open heat loss channels in order to establish a larger temperature gradient and therefore to increase the overall efficiency and achieve larger electric power output. We define a modified Biot number (Bi) as an indicator of requirements for sidewall insulation. We show cooling from sidewalls increases the efficiency for Bi values less than one, and decreases the efficiency for Bi values larger than one.

  5. Heat Management in Thermoelectric Power Generators

    PubMed Central

    Zebarjadi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Thermoelectric power generators are used to convert heat into electricity. Like any other heat engine, the performance of a thermoelectric generator increases as the temperature difference on the sides increases. It is generally assumed that as more heat is forced through the thermoelectric legs, their performance increases. Therefore, insulations are typically used to minimize the heat losses and to confine the heat transport through the thermoelectric legs. In this paper we show that to some extend it is beneficial to purposely open heat loss channels in order to establish a larger temperature gradient and therefore to increase the overall efficiency and achieve larger electric power output. We define a modified Biot number (Bi) as an indicator of requirements for sidewall insulation. We show cooling from sidewalls increases the efficiency for Bi values less than one, and decreases the efficiency for Bi values larger than one. PMID:27033717

  6. Heat Management in Thermoelectric Power Generators.

    PubMed

    Zebarjadi, M

    2016-01-01

    Thermoelectric power generators are used to convert heat into electricity. Like any other heat engine, the performance of a thermoelectric generator increases as the temperature difference on the sides increases. It is generally assumed that as more heat is forced through the thermoelectric legs, their performance increases. Therefore, insulations are typically used to minimize the heat losses and to confine the heat transport through the thermoelectric legs. In this paper we show that to some extend it is beneficial to purposely open heat loss channels in order to establish a larger temperature gradient and therefore to increase the overall efficiency and achieve larger electric power output. We define a modified Biot number (Bi) as an indicator of requirements for sidewall insulation. We show cooling from sidewalls increases the efficiency for Bi values less than one, and decreases the efficiency for Bi values larger than one. PMID:27033717

  7. MHD power generation: not now, but ever

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    The basic concept of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) has been known for over 100 years, but commercial viability is still a decade or more away despite US-Soviet collaborations to solve engineering problems. The simplicity of the concept offers advantages in terms of stress and efficiency, but implementation requires high-conductivity fluids and specially-designed subsystems. Other problems include the Hall field effect, the size and flux density requirements of superconducting magnets, ash, seed recovery, power inversion, and channel design. Researchers are developing both open-cycle and closed-cycle systems as well as technologies based on MHD and steam bottoming and MHD cogeneration. First-generation MHD plants will probably stress reliability above efficiency. Military applications could include space power generation. 4 figures. (DCK)

  8. Assessment of Japan's Optimal Power Generation Mix Considering Massive Deployment of Variable Renewable Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Fujii, Yasumasa

    This paper analyzes Japan's optimal power generation mix considering massive deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) system and wind power generation. The extensive introduction of PV system and wind power system are expected to play an important role in addressing energy security and climate change concern in Japan. Considering this expected large-scale deployment of PV system in electric power system, it is necessary to investigate the optimal power generation mix which is technologically capable of controlling and accommodating the intermittent output-power fluctuation inherently derived from PV and wind energy system. On these backgrounds, we develop optimal power generation mix model, explicitly analyzing the impact of output fluctuation in variable renewable in detailed resolution of time interval like 10 minutes at consecutive 365 days, with the role of stationary battery technology incorporated. Simulation results reveal that considerable deployment of those variable renewables do not necessarily require the scale of battery capacity similar as that of variable renewable capacity, due to quick load following treatment by thermal power plants, pumped-storage hydro power and battery technology over renewable output fluctuation.

  9. 29 CFR 1915.120 - Powered industrial truck operator training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Powered industrial truck operator training. 1915.120... Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.120 Powered industrial truck operator training. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.120 - Powered industrial truck operator training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Powered industrial truck operator training. 1915.120... Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.120 Powered industrial truck operator training. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.120 - Powered industrial truck operator training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Powered industrial truck operator training. 1915.120... Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.120 Powered industrial truck operator training. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.120 - Powered industrial truck operator training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Powered industrial truck operator training. 1915.120... Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.120 Powered industrial truck operator training. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.120 - Powered industrial truck operator training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Powered industrial truck operator training. 1915.120... Gear and Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.120 Powered industrial truck operator training. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical...

  14. The Fourth Generation of Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, James Alan

    2000-11-01

    The outlook for nuclear power in the U.S. is currently very bright. The economics, operations and safety performance of U.S. nuclear power plants is excellent. In addition, both the safety and economic regulation of nuclear power are being changed to produce better economic parameters for future nuclear plant operations and the licenses for plant operations are being extended to 60 years. There is further a growing awareness of the value of clean, emissions-free nuclear power. These parameters combine to form a firm foundation for continued successful U.S. nuclear plant operations, and even the potential In order to realize a bright future for nuclear power, we must respond successfully to five challenges: • Nuclear power must remain economically competitive, • The public must remain confident in the safety of the plants and the fuel cycle. • Nuclear wastes and spent fuel must be managed and the ultimate disposition pathways for nuclear wastes must be politically settled. • The proliferation potential of the commercial nuclear fuel cycle must continue to be minimized, and • We must assure a sustained manpower supply for the future and preserve the critical nuclear technology infrastructure. The Generation IV program is conceived to focus the efforts of the international nuclear community on responding to these challenges.

  15. Utility interconnection issues for wind power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, J. I.; Lawler, J. S.; Reddoch, T. W.; Sullivan, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    This document organizes the total range of utility related issues, reviews wind turbine control and dynamic characteristics, identifies the interaction of wind turbines to electric utility systems, and identifies areas for future research. The material is organized at three levels: the wind turbine, its controls and characteristics; connection strategies as dispersed or WPSs; and the composite issue of planning and operating the electric power system with wind generated electricity.

  16. Cummins Power Generation SECA Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Vesely

    2007-08-17

    The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) SECA Phase 1 SOFC development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) contract DE-FC26-01NT41244. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner research development leading to successful demonstration of the SECA Phase 1 objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant Phase 1 Milestones: (1) Demonstrated: (a) Operation meeting Phase 1 requirements on commercial natural gas. (b) LPG and Natural Gas CPOX fuel reformers. (c) SOFC systems on dry CPOX reformate. (c) Steam reformed Natural Gas operation. (d) Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC system without inert gas purge. (e) Utility of stack simulators as a tool for developing balance of plant systems. (2) Developed: (a) Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. (b) Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. (c) Demonstrated high efficiency SOFC output power conditioning. (d) Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods. The Phase 1 performance test was carried out at the Cummins Power Generation facility in Minneapolis, Minnesota starting on October 2, 2006. Performance testing was successfully completed on January 4, 2007 including the necessary steady-state, transient, efficiency, and peak power operation tests.

  17. The European nuclear power industry: Restructuring for combined strength and worldwide leadership

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Norman, R.E.; Reich, W.J.; Hill, L.J.

    1993-06-18

    The European nuclear power industry is being restructured from an industry drawn along national lines to a European-wide industry. This, in part, reflects growth of the European Economic Community, but it also reflects changes in the international nuclear power industry. The objectives of the participants, beyond better integration of the nuclear industry in Western Europe, are to (1) obtain European leadership of the worldwide commercial nuclear power industry, (2) improve medium- and long-term safety of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (FSU) power reactors, and (3) reduce domestic concerns about nuclear power. The activities to achieve these goals include (1) formation of Nuclear Power International (a joint venture of the German and French nuclear power plant vendors for design and construction of nuclear power plants), (2) formation of a utility group to forge agreement throughout Europe on what the requirements are for the next generation of nuclear power plants, and (3) agreement by regulators in multiple European countries to harmonize regulations. This is to be achieved before the end of the decade. These changes would allow a single design of nuclear power plant to be built anywhere in Europe. The creation of European-wide rules (utility requirements, engineering standards, and national regulations) would create strong economic and political forces for other European countries (Eastern Europe and FSU) to meet these standards.

  18. Biomass power industry: Assessment of key players and approaches for DOE and industry interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    A review team established by the Department of Energy conducted an assessment of the US biomass power industry. The review team visited with more than 50 organizations representing all sectors of the biomass power industry including utilities, independent power producers, component manufacturers, engineering and construction contractors, agricultural organizations, industrial users, and regulatory organizations. DOE solicited industry input for the development of the Biomass Power Division`s Five Year Plan. DOE believed there was a critical need to obtain industry`s insight and working knowledge to develop the near- and long-term plans of the program. At the heart of this objective was the desire to identify near-term initiatives that the program could pursue to help accelerate the further development of biomass power projects.

  19. Phase Change Material Thermal Power Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    An innovative modification has been made to a previously patented design for the Phase Change Material (PCM) Thermal Generator, which works in water where ocean temperature alternatively melts wax in canisters, or allows the wax to re-solidify, causing high-pressure oil to flow through a hydraulic generator, thus creating electricity to charge a battery that powers the vehicle. In this modification, a similar thermal PCM device has been created that is heated and cooled by the air and solar radiation instead of using ocean temperature differences to change the PCM from solid to liquid. This innovation allows the device to use thermal energy to generate electricity on land, instead of just in the ocean.

  20. Future Photovoltaic Power Generation for Space-Based Power Utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, S.; Landis, G.; Raffaelle, R.; Hepp, A.

    2002-01-01

    A recent NASA program, Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT), investigated the technologies needed to provide cost-competitive ground baseload electrical power from space based solar energy conversion. This goal mandated low cost, light weight gigawatt (GW) power generation. Investment in solar power generation technologies would also benefit high power military, commercial and science missions. These missions are generally those involving solar electric propulsion, surface power systems to sustain an outpost or a permanent colony on the surface of the moon or mars, space based lasers or radar, or as large earth orbiting power stations which can serve as central utilities for other orbiting spacecraft, or as in the SERT program, potentially beaming power to the earth itself. This paper will discuss requirements for the two latter options, the current state of the art of space solar cells, and a variety of both evolving thin film cells as well as new technologies which may impact the future choice of space solar cells for a high power mission application. The space world has primarily transitioned to commercially available III-V (GaInP/GaAs/Ge) cells with 24-26% air mass zero (AMO) efficiencies. Research in the III-V multi-junction solar cells has focused on fabricating either lattice-mismatched materials with optimum stacking bandgaps or new lattice matched materials with optimum bandgaps. In the near term this will yield a 30% commercially available space cell and in the far term possibly a 40% cell. Cost reduction would be achieved if these cells could be grown on a silicon rather than a germanium substrate since the substrate is ~65% of the cell cost or, better yet, on a polyimide or possibly a ceramic substrate. An overview of multi-junction cell characteristics will be presented here. Thin film cells require substantially less material and have promised the advantage of large area, low cost manufacturing. However, space cell requirements

  1. Power Technology (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for a power technology course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  2. Leader Developmental Readiness of Generation Y in the Training Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrigue, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Members of Generation Y in the training and development industry will be required to assume leadership roles as Baby Boomers retire, yet little empirical research exists regarding how best to prepare them for leadership. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in leader developmental readiness between generational cohorts in the…

  3. Miniature Gas-Turbine Power Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiberg, Dean; Vargo, Stephen; White, Victor; Shcheglov, Kirill

    2003-01-01

    A proposed microelectromechanical system (MEMS) containing a closed- Brayton-cycle turbine would serve as a prototype of electric-power generators for special applications in which high energy densities are required and in which, heretofore, batteries have been used. The system would have a volume of about 6 cm3 and would operate with a thermal efficiency >30 percent, generating up to 50 W of electrical power. The energy density of the proposed system would be about 10 times that of the best battery-based systems now available, and, as such, would be comparable to that of a fuel cell. The working gas for the turbine would be Xe containing small quantities of CO2, O2, and H2O as gaseous lubricants. The gas would be contained in an enclosed circulation system, within which the pressure would typically range between 5 and 50 atm (between 0.5 and 5 MPa). The heat for the Brayton cycle could be supplied by any of a number of sources, including a solar concentrator or a combustor burning a hydrocarbon or other fuel. The system would include novel heat-transfer and heat-management components. The turbine would be connected to an electric power generator/starter motor. The system would include a main rotor shaft with gas bearings; the bearing surfaces would be made of a ceramic material coated with nanocrystalline diamond. The shaft could withstand speed of 400,000 rpm or perhaps more, with bearing-wear rates less than 10(exp -)4 those of silicon bearings and 0.05 to 0.1 those of SiC bearings, and with a coefficient of friction about 0.1 that of Si or SiC bearings. The components of the system would be fabricated by a combination of (1) three-dimensional xray lithography and (2) highly precise injection molding of diamond-compatible metals and ceramic materials. The materials and fabrication techniques would be suitable for mass production. The disadvantages of the proposed system are that unlike a battery-based system, it could generate a perceptible amount of sound, and

  4. Power Generator with Thermo-Differential Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saiz, John R.; Nguyen, James

    2010-01-01

    A thermoelectric power generator consists of an oven box and a solar cooker/solar reflector unit. The solar reflector concentrates sunlight into heat and transfers the heat into the oven box via a heat pipe. The oven box unit is surrounded by five thermoelectric modules and is located at the bottom end of the solar reflector. When the heat is pumped into one side of the thermoelectric module and ejected from the opposite side at ambient temperatures, an electrical current is produced. Typical temperature accumulation in the solar reflector is approximately 200 C (392 F). The heat pipe then transfers heat into the oven box with a loss of about 40 percent. At the ambient temperature of about 20 C (68 F), the temperature differential is about 100 C (180 F) apart. Each thermoelectric module, generates about 6 watts of power. One oven box with five thermoelectric modules produces about 30 watts. The system provides power for unattended instruments in remote areas, such as space colonies and space vehicles, and in polar and other remote regions on Earth.

  5. Power, and the next generation. [The next generation of power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Termuehlen, H.

    1994-12-01

    What's on the horizon for electric generation The World Energy Conference predicts an energy demand of roughly 20 billion metric tons coal equivalent in the year 2020. That requires an increase in the worldwide power generation capacity of about 20 [times] 1012 kilowatt-hours per year. Most of the increase will occur in coal-fired facilities, followed by natural gas-fired units, and then by nuclear and hydro plants. Other power generating ideas include a solar/combined cycle power plant, oil production from oil shale, and integrated coal gasification combined cycle plants. These plants will have a minimum of air pollution and solid waste production, producing electric power and byproducts such as methanol and gasoline.

  6. Evaluation Of Different Power Conditioning Options For Stirling Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrigos, A.; Blanes, J. M.; Carrasco, J. A.; Maset, E.; Montalban, G.; Ejea, J.; Ferreres, A.; Sanchis, E.

    2011-10-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines are an interesting alternative for electrical power systems, especially in deep space missions where photovoltaic systems are not feasible. This kind of power generators contains two main parts, the Stirling machine and the linear alternator that converts the mechanical energy from the piston movement to electrical energy. Since the generated power is in AC form, several aspects should be assessed to use such kind of generators in a spacecraft power system: AC/DC topologies, power factor correction, power regulation techniques, integration into the power system, etc. This paper details power generator operation and explores different power conversion approaches.

  7. New thermoelectric materials and devices for terrestrial power generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Borshchevsky, Alex; Caillat, Thierry

    1997-01-01

    The development of new, more efficient, materials and devices is the key to expand the range of applications of thermoelectric generators. New potential terrestrial applications have been recently described in the literature. There exists a wide range of heat source temperatures for these applications, from low grade waste heat, at 320-350K, up to 80 to 1100K, such as in the heat recovery from a processing plant of combustible solid waste. The automobile industry has also recently developed a strong interest in a waste exhaust heat recovery power source operating in the 375-775K temperature range to supplement or replace the alternator and thus decrease fuel consumption. Because of the relatively small temperature drop across the generator and of the generator mass requirements, it is estimated that values of 1.5 to 2.0 are needed for the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, in order to develop an economically viable system. Of course, there are other factors besides ZT when considering the potential use of thermoelectrics. For example, most commercial applications also require that the materials have also to be cheap enough, or environmentally friendly to make the thermoelectric power generation a viable option. Due to the need for reductions in the mass, cost and volume of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) used to power spacecrafts for deep space missions, a search for new advanced materials with ZT values substantially higher than state-of-the-art Si0.8Ge0.2 alloys (ZTSiGe Å 0.65 from 575 to 1275K) was initiated a few years ago at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Recent results on novel materials have demonstrated that ZT values significantly larger than 1.0 could be obtained in the 475 to 975K temperature range. These materials are excellent candidates to be used in terrestrial thermoelectric power generators using waste heat or liquid fuels.

  8. Industrial and commercial power systems technical conference (Conference Record)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 18 selections. Some of the titles are: A Relational Database Approach to Design of Power Plant and Large Industrial Electrical Facilities; Power Quality Site Surveys: Facts, Fiction, and Fallacies; An Application Design Guide for the Selection of Low Voltage Protection Equipment Used in Power Systems with High Level Fault Currents; and Saving Electricity in Commercial Buildings with Adjustable Speed Drives.

  9. French wind power generation programme EOLE 2005 - first results

    SciTech Connect

    Laali, A.R.; Benard, M.

    1997-12-31

    EOLE 2005 has been launched in July 1996 by the French Ministry of Industry, Electricite de France and ADEME (Agency for Environment and Energy Management). The Ministries of Research and Environment are participating also in this programme. The purpose is to create an initial market in France for wind power generation in order to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and the competitiveness of the wind energy compared to other energy sources by 2005. The installed capacity will reach at least 250 MW and possibly 500 MW.

  10. Integrated control of next generation power system

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2010-02-28

    The multi-agent system (MAS) approach has been applied with promising results for enhancing an electric power distribution circuit, such as the Circuit of the Future as developed by Southern California Edison. These next generation power system results include better ability to reconfigure the circuit as well as the increased capability to improve the protection and enhance the reliability of the circuit. There were four main tasks in this project. The specific results for each of these four tasks and their related topics are presented in main sections of this report. Also, there were seven deliverables for this project. The main conclusions for these deliverables are summarized in the identified subtask section of this report. The specific details for each of these deliverables are included in the “Project Deliverables” section at the end of this Final Report.

  11. Biomass power industry: Assessment of key players and approaches for DOE and industry interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-01-01

    A review team established by the Department of Energy conducted an assessment of the U.S. biomass power industry. The review team visited with more than 50 organizations representing all sectors of the biomass power industry including utilities, independent power producers, component manufacturers, engineering and construction contractors, agricultural organizations, industrial users, and regulatory organizations. DOE solicited industry input for the development of the Biomass Power Division's Five Year Plan. DOE believed there was a critical need to obtain industry's insight and working knowledge to develop the near- and long-term plans of the program. At the heart of this objective was the desire to identify near-term initiatives that the program could pursue to help accelerate the further development of biomass power projects.

  12. Diagnosis of automotive fuel cell power generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hissel, D.; Péra, M. C.; Kauffmann, J. M.

    Most of car manufacturers around the world have launched important research programs on the integration of fuel cell (FC) power generators into cars. Despite the first achievements, fuel cell systems are still badly known, particularly when talking about fault diagnosis and predictive maintenance. This paper proposes a first step in this way by introducing a simple but also efficient diagnosis-oriented model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The considered diagnosis model is here a fuzzy one and is tuned thanks to genetic algorithms.

  13. Department of Energy power generation programs for natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bajura, R.A.

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring two major programs to develop high efficiency, natural gas fueled power generation technologies. These programs are the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program and the Fuel Cell Program. While natural gas is gaining acceptance in the electric power sector, the improved technology from these programs will make gas an even more attractive fuel, particularly in urban areas where environmental concerns are greatest. Under the auspices of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE/EE), the 8-year ATS Program is developing and will demonstrate advanced gas turbine power systems for both large central power systems and smaller industrial-scale systems. The large-scale systems will have efficiencies significantly greater than 60 percent, while the industrial-scale systems will have efficiencies with at least an equivalent 15 percent increase over the best 1992-vintage technology. The goal is to have the system ready for commercial offering by the year 2000.

  14. 1995 IEEE power industry computer applications conference: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-12

    This is a collection of papers presented at the Power Industry Computer Applications Conference of 1995 in Salt Lake City, Utah. The topics of the papers include new control center functions in a deregulated environment, maintaining secure voltage profiles in power transmission systems, parallel processing applications, optimal power flow, graphical user interface, hydroelectric power scheduling, control and modeling, power distribution, transmission network security assessment, transmission planning, artificial intelligence applications, energy management systems migration, network analysis, power system protection, energy management systems design, software engineering, and planning of power systems.

  15. Comparison of alternative cogeneration power systems for three industrial sites

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    Three alternative on-site cogeneration power systems were evaluated against technical and economic criteria for three industrial sites. Technical factors included plant sizing to meet process thermal loads, fuel utilization, power output, siting consideration, fuel savings, etc. Economic factors included capital cost, return on equity, and ownership/financing options among others. Each cogeneration plant was evaluated by comparison with the current separate generation scheme. The technologies considered were conventional coal-fired, steam topping cycles; coal-fired, atmospheric fluidized bed/closed-cycle gas turbines; and coal-fired, atmospheric fluidized bed/open cycle gas turbines. These approaches were optimized for three sites: an agricultural chemical plant, a brewery, and a kraft paper mill. The results showed that the closed cycle gas turbines yielded the best economics, primarily due to a lower initial cost. The open cycle gas turbine, when combined with a steam bottoming cycle, resulted in larger power outputs than would be realized in the closed cycle or steam turbine cases. None of the plants studied matched the plant electrical load while following the thermal load.

  16. Hong Kong`s macro economic trends and power industry structure

    SciTech Connect

    Binsheng Li; Johnson, C.J.; Hagen, R.

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes information and numerical data describing the current and projected structure of the power industry in Hong Kong. Major economic trends are briefly analyzed by examining main indicators of the national economy and the current energy consumption and mix. Data and information provided describing the existing power industry structure include a discussion of energy policy, installed capacity, electricity generation and fuel consumption, transmission and distribution system capability, technology, electricity consumption, and electricity tariffs. Projections of Hong Kong`s power industry are made based on data provided, which includes peak load, gross generation, and electricity consumption by sector; installed capacity by fuel, and electricity generation by fuel and fuel consumption. 12 tabs.

  17. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... services include cooking, heating, air conditioning (where installed), domestic refrigeration, mechanical... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources....

  18. Self Excitation and Harmonics in Wind Power Generation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Romanowitz, H.; Yinger, R.

    2004-11-01

    Traditional wind turbines are equipped with induction generators. Induction generators are preferred because they are inexpensive, rugged, and require very little maintenance. Unfortunately, induction generators require reactive power from the grid to operate. Because reactive power varies with the output power, the terminal voltage at the generator may become too low to compensate the induction generator. The interactions among the wind turbine, the power network, and the capacitor compensation, are important aspects of wind generation. In this paper, we will show the interactions among the induction generator, capacitor compensation, power system network, and magnetic saturations and examine the cause of resonance conditions and self-excitation.

  19. Piezoelectric power generation for civil infrastructure systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erturk, A.; Inman, D. J.

    2011-04-01

    Civil infrastructure systems (CIS) employ various small electronic components ranging from temperature and humidity sensors used in buildings to acoustics emission sensors used for damage detection in bridges. Other than solar energy that has already found several applications in CIS; moving loads, surface strain fluctuations, and wind energy available in the vicinity of CIS constitute important sources of energy that can be converted into electricity. This paper focuses on low power generation from these energy sources using piezoelectric transduction. Moving loads caused by travelling vehicles can be used for exciting piezoceramics located on the road. Structural vibrations resulting from various sources such as support motions and interaction of CIS with the surrounding fluid may yield local surface strain fluctuations. Wind energy is available not only due to regular atmospheric flow but also due to the motion of vehicles travelling at relatively high speeds. This paper investigates and formulates (1) the electromechanical moving load problem for slender bridges with a piezoelectric cantilever and with embedded piezoceramics, (2) the problem of piezoelectric power generation from surface strain fluctuations using a piezoceramic patch, and (3) piezoelectric energy harvesting from wind excitation through aeroelastic flutter.

  20. Generation mechanism of power line harmonic radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrov, Alexander; Gushchin, Mikhail; Korobkov, Sergei

    The questions concerning the generation of power line harmonic radiation (PLHR) and magne-tospheric line radiation (MLR) are discussed, including the effective source of high harmonics of 50/60 Hz, and fine dynamic structure of the frequency spectrum of PLHR and MLR. It is shown, that thyristor-based power regulators used by large electrical power consumers produce the periodic sequences of current pulses with duration of about 10 microseconds in a power line. The repetition rate of these pulses is typically 100/120 Hz; the bandwidth is as broad as 100 kHz. For high harmonics of 50/60 Hz, the power line represents an effective traveling-wave (or Beverage) antenna, especially in a frequency range of several kHz corresponding to VLF whistler band in Earth ionosphere and magnetosphere. For the fixed length of the power line, which acts as antenna, radiation directivity diagram in relation to horizon depends of frequency. Hence the spatial separation of whistlers emitted at various frequencies (1-10 kHz in a consid-ered case) is possible, with subsequent propagation of whistlers with different frequencies along different L-shells. Estimations show that the efficiency of power line as travelling-wave antenna can be changed by variations of its load, but not more than twice ("weekend effect"). Since the PLHR can represent the sequence of short electromagnetic bursts, then careful se-lection of frequency-time resolution of the data acquisition equipment is needed. Typically, the time constant of the data recording and processing is too large, and the spectra of PLHR or MLR are characterized by a well-known line structure. At the same time, original bursty structure of PLHR can not be defined. Fine structure of MLR is also discussed. Frequency drift of MLR can be explained by the perturbations of the magnetospheric plasma by intense ULF waves and particle flows affecting the propagation of PLHR. Hence the physical nature of PLHR and MLR is the same, excepting the

  1. Rotary-Atomizer Electric Power Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Trieu; Tran, Tuan; de Boer, Hans; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C. T.

    2015-03-01

    We report experimental and theoretical results on a ballistic energy-conversion method based on a rotary atomizer working with a droplet acceleration-deceleration cycle. In a rotary atomizer, liquid is fed onto the center of a rotating flat surface, where it spreads out under the action of the centrifugal force and creates "atomized" droplets at its edge. The advantage of using a rotary atomizer is that the centrifugal force exerted on the fluid on a smooth, large surface is not only a robust form of acceleration, as it avoids clogging, but also easily allows high throughput, and produces high electrical power. We successfully demonstrate an output power of 4.9 mW and a high voltage up to 3120 V. At present, the efficiency of the system is still low (0.14%). However, the conversion mechanism of the system is fully interpreted in this paper, permitting a conceptual understanding of system operation and providing a roadmap for system optimization. This observation will open up a road for building power-generation systems in the near future.

  2. [Emergy evaluation of power plant eco-industrial park].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingmei; Zhang, Jintun

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, new emergy indices for the material circulation utilization and energy cascade utilization were presented to evaluate the emergy of power plant eco-industrial park. The common contribution of the members in power plant eco-industrial park should be accounted for emergy yield ratio (PEYR) and emergy investment ratio (PEIR), namely, PEYR = sigma(i = 1)6 (Fi + Ri + Ni)/sigma(i = 1)6 Fi and PEIR = sigma(i = 1)6 Fi/sigma(i = 1)6 (Ni + Ri). Saved renewable and nonrenewable resources and purchased resources and decreased environmental load should be accounted for environmental loading ratio (PELR) and index of sustainability (PESI), namely, PELR = sigma(i = 1)6 Fi/F' and PESI = PEYR/PELR. Case analysis on the Shuozhou power plant eco-industrial park showed that new emergy indices were practical in evaluating the power plant eco-industrial park.

  3. Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry: Selected Issues, 1998

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Provides an analytical assessment of the changes taking place in the electric power industry, including market structure, consumer choice, and ratesetting and transition costs. Also presents federal and state initiatives in promoting competition.

  4. [Emergy evaluation of power plant eco-industrial park].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingmei; Zhang, Jintun

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, new emergy indices for the material circulation utilization and energy cascade utilization were presented to evaluate the emergy of power plant eco-industrial park. The common contribution of the members in power plant eco-industrial park should be accounted for emergy yield ratio (PEYR) and emergy investment ratio (PEIR), namely, PEYR = sigma(i = 1)6 (Fi + Ri + Ni)/sigma(i = 1)6 Fi and PEIR = sigma(i = 1)6 Fi/sigma(i = 1)6 (Ni + Ri). Saved renewable and nonrenewable resources and purchased resources and decreased environmental load should be accounted for environmental loading ratio (PELR) and index of sustainability (PESI), namely, PELR = sigma(i = 1)6 Fi/F' and PESI = PEYR/PELR. Case analysis on the Shuozhou power plant eco-industrial park showed that new emergy indices were practical in evaluating the power plant eco-industrial park. PMID:15362633

  5. Feedback-Based Coverage Directed Test Generation: An Industrial Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannides, Charalambos; Barrett, Geoff; Eder, Kerstin

    Although there are quite a few approaches to Coverage Directed test Generation aided by Machine Learning which have been applied successfully to small and medium size digital designs, it is not clear how they would scale on more elaborate industrial-level designs. This paper evaluates one of these techniques, called MicroGP, on a fully fledged industrial design. The results indicate relative success evidenced by a good level of code coverage achieved with reasonably compact tests when compared to traditional test generation approaches. However, there is scope for improvement especially with respect to the diversity of the tests evolved.

  6. The changing structure of the electric power industry: An update

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The U. S. electric power industry today is on the road to restructuring a road heretofore uncharted. While parallels can be drawn from similar journeys taken by the airline industry, the telecommunications industry, and, most recently, the natural gas industry, the electric power industry has its own unique set of critical issues that must be resolved along the way. The transition will be from a structure based on a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to one equipped to function successfully in a competitive market. The long-standing traditional structure of the electric power industry is the result of a complex web of events that have been unfolding for over 100 years. Some of these events had far-reaching and widely publicized effects. Other major events took the form of legislation. Still other events had effects that are less obvious in comparison (e.g., the appearance of technologies such as transformers and steam and gas turbines, the invention of home appliances, the man-made fission of uranium), and it is likely that their significance in the history of the industry has been obscured by the passage of time. Nevertheless, they, too, hold a place in the underpinnings of today`s electric industry structure. The purpose of this report, which is intended for both lay and technical readers, is twofold. First, it is a basic reference document that provides a comprehensive delineation of the electric power industry and its traditional structure, which has been based upon its monopoly status. Second, it describes the industry`s transition to a competitive environment by providing a descriptive analysis of the factors that have contributed to the interest in a competitive market, proposed legislative and regulatory actions, and the steps being taken by the various components of the industry to meet the challenges of adapting to and prevailing in a competitive environment.

  7. The changing structure of the electric power industry: Selected issues, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    More than 3,000 electric utilities in the United States provide electricity to sustain the Nation`s economic growth and promote the well-being of its inhabitants. At the end of 1996, the net generating capability of the electric power industry stood at more than 776,000 megawatts. Sales to ultimate consumers in 1996 exceeded 3.1 trillion kilowatthours at a total cost of more than $210 billion. In addition, the industry added over 9 million new customers during the period from 1990 through 1996. The above statistics provide an indication of the size of the electric power industry. Propelled by events of the recent past, the industry is currently in the midst of changing from a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to a functionally unbundled industry with a competitive market for power generation. Advances in power generation technology, perceived inefficiencies in the industry, large variations in regional electricity prices, and the trend to competitive markets in other regulated industries have all contributed to the transition. Industry changes brought on by this movement are ongoing, and the industry will remain in a transitional state for the next few years or more. During the transition, many issues are being examined, evaluated, and debated. This report focuses on three of them: how wholesale and retail prices have changed since 1990; the power and ability of independent system operators (ISOs) to provide transmission services on a nondiscriminatory basis; and how issues that affect consumer choice, including stranded costs and the determination of retail prices, may be handled either by the US Congress or by State legislatures.

  8. Development of a portable thermophotovoltaic power generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Frederick E.; Doyle, Edward F.; Shukla, Kailash

    1997-03-01

    A 150 Watt thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power generator is being developed. The technical approach taken in the design focused on optimizing the integrated performance of the primary subsystems in order to yield high energy conversion efficiency and cost effectiveness. An important aspect of the approach is the use of a selective emitter radiating to a bandgap matched photovoltaic array to minimize thermal and optical recuperation requirements, as well as the non-recoverable heat losses. For the initial prototype system, fibrous ytterbia emitters radiating in a band centered at 980 nm are matched with high efficiency silicon photoconverters. The integrated system includes a dielectric stack filter for optical energy recovery and a ceramic recuperator for thermal energy recovery. The system has been operated with air preheat temperatures up to 1350K. The design of the system and development status are presented.

  9. 43 CFR 431.4 - Power generation responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Power generation responsibilities. 431.4..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR POWER GENERATION, OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPLACEMENT AT THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT, ARIZONA/NEVADA § 431.4 Power generation responsibilities. (a)...

  10. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electric power... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage,...

  11. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric power... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage,...

  12. AC power generation from microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Fernanda Leite; Wang, Heming; Forrestal, Casey; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-11-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) directly convert biodegradable substrates to electricity and carry good potential for energy-positive wastewater treatment. However, the low and direct current (DC) output from MFC is not usable for general electronics except small sensors, yet commercial DC-AC converters or inverters used in solar systems cannot be directly applied to MFCs. This study presents a new DC-AC converter system for MFCs that can generate alternating voltage in any desired frequency. Results show that AC power can be easily achieved in three different frequencies tested (1, 10, 60 Hz), and no energy storage layer such as capacitors was needed. The DC-AC converter efficiency was higher than 95% when powered by either individual MFCs or simple MFC stacks. Total harmonic distortion (THD) was used to investigate the quality of the energy, and it showed that the energy could be directly usable for linear electronic loads. This study shows that through electrical conversion MFCs can be potentially used in household electronics for decentralized off-grid communities.

  13. Update on use of mine pool water for power generation.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-30

    In 2004, nearly 90 percent of the country's electricity was generated at power plants using steam-based systems (EIA 2005). Electricity generation at steam electric plants requires a cooling system to condense the steam. With the exception of a few plants using air-cooled condensers, most U.S. steam electric power plants use water for cooling. Water usage occurs through once-through cooling or as make-up water in a closed-cycle system (generally involving one or more cooling towers). According to a U.S. Geological Survey report, the steam electric power industry withdrew about 136 billion gallons per day of fresh water in 2000 (USGS 2005). This is almost the identical volume withdrawn for irrigation purposes. In addition to fresh water withdrawals, the steam electric power industry withdrew about 60 billion gallons per day of saline water. Many parts of the United States are facing fresh water shortages. Even areas that traditionally have had adequate water supplies are reaching capacity limits. New or expanded steam electric power plants frequently need to turn to non-traditional alternate sources of water for cooling. This report examines one type of alternate water source-groundwater collected in underground pools associated with coal mines (referred to as mine pool water in this report). In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to evaluate the feasibility of using mine pool water in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. That report (Veil et al. 2003) identified six small power plants in northeastern Pennsylvania (the Anthracite region) that had been using mine pool water for over a decade. It also reported on a pilot study underway at Exelon's Limerick Generating Station in southeastern Pennsylvania that involved release of water from a mine located about 70 miles upstream from the plant. The water flowed down the Schuylkill River and augmented the natural flow so that

  14. Development of an intelligent controller for power generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxted, Clive; Waller, Winston

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a description of the development of an embedded controller for high power industrial diesel generators. The aim of the project was to replace the existing discrete logic design by an intelligent versatile and user configurable control system. A prototype embedded PC controlled system was developed, capable of fully replacing the existing system, with a colour TFT display and keypad. Features include fully automatic generator control as before with status and alarm display and monitoring of engine parameters, along with data logging, remote communications and a means of analysing data. The unit was tested on the bench and on diesel generators for the core controlling functionality to prove compliance with the specifications. The results of the testing proved the unit's suitability as a replacement for the existing system in its intended environment. The significance of this study is that a low cost replacement solution has been found for an industrial application by transferring modern technological knowledge to a small business. The company are now able to build on the design and take it into production, reducing servicing and production costs.

  15. 29 CFR 1910.269 - Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. 1910.269 Section 1910.269 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.269 Electric power...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.269 - Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. 1910.269 Section 1910.269 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.269 Electric power...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.269 - Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. 1910.269 Section 1910.269 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.269 Electric power...

  18. Industrial Applications of High Power Ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patist, Alex; Bates, Darren

    Since the change of the millennium, high-power ultrasound has become an alternative food processing technology applicable to large-scale commercial applications such as emulsification, homogenization, extraction, crystallization, dewatering, low-temperature pasteurization, degassing, defoaming, activation and inactivation of enzymes, particle size reduction, extrusion, and viscosity alteration. This new focus can be attributed to significant improvements in equipment design and efficiency during the late 1990 s. Like most innovative food processing technologies, high-power ultrasonics is not an off-the-shelf technology, and thus requires careful development and scale-up for each and every application. The objective of this chapter is to present examples of ultrasonic applications that have been successful at the commercialization stage, advantages, and limitations, as well as key learnings from scaling up an innovative food technology in general.

  19. 1982 engineering conference on reliability for the electrical power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D.J.; Arendt, J.S.; Battle, R.E.; Baranowsky, P.W.

    1982-01-01

    Emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants are a major concern in plant risk assessments because of the relatively large frequency of loss of offsite power and the dependence of most other safety systems on ac power. Detailed reviews of onsite ac power system designs and reviews of experience with diesel generators at US nuclear power plants form the basis of system reliability analyses that show significant improvements in reliability can be obtained at moderate cost for some plants. Onsite ac power system modifications analyzed include procedural modifications, minor equipment modifications and major equipment additions. Relative costs of various modifications are compared with associated system reliability improvements.

  20. High Efficiency Microwave Power Amplifier: From the Lab to Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, William Herbert, III; Bell, Joseph L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Since the beginnings of space travel, various microwave power amplifier designs have been employed. These included Class-A, -B, and -C bias arrangements. However, shared limitation of these topologies is the inherent high total consumption of input power associated with the generation of radio frequency (RF)/microwave power. The power amplifier has always been the largest drain for the limited available power on the spacecraft. Typically, the conversion efficiency of a microwave power amplifier is 10 to 20%. For a typical microwave power amplifier of 20 watts, input DC power of at least 100 watts is required. Such a large demand for input power suggests that a better method of RF/microwave power generation is required. The price paid for using a linear amplifier where high linearity is unnecessary includes higher initial and operating costs, lower DC-to-RF conversion efficiency, high power consumption, higher power dissipation and the accompanying need for higher capacity heat removal means, and an amplifier that is more prone to parasitic oscillation. The first use of a higher efficiency mode of power generation was described by Baxandall in 1959. This higher efficiency mode, Class-D, is achieved through distinct switching techniques to reduce the power losses associated with switching, conduction, and gate drive losses of a given transistor.

  1. Application of Laser Ablation Processing in Electric Power System Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konagai, Chikara; Sano, Yuji; Nittoh, Koichi; Kuwako, Akira

    The present status of laser ablation processing applied in electric power system industries is reviewed. High average power LD-pumped Nd:YAG lasers with Q-switch have been developed and currently introduced into various applications. Optical fiber based laser beam delivery systems for Q-switched pulse laser are also being developed these years. Based on such laser and beam delivery technology, laser ablation processes are gradually introduced in maintenance of nuclear power plant, thermal power plant and electrical power distribution system. Cost effectiveness, robustness and reliability of the process is highly required for wide utilization in these fields.

  2. Gallium nitride based power switches for next generation of power conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, S

    2015-03-17

    Power conversion impacts all areas of electricity consumption, including motion control, lighting, air conditioning, and information technology. Si, the workhorse of the industry, has served well so far but reached its material limits. To keep up with the advancement of technologies enabling new conveniences, power conversion techniques need to go through significant transformation that calls for the next generation semiconductor for power switching. SiC and GaN, which have the potential to push the envelope beyond Si providing solutions for the entire range of power conversion at higher efficiencies and reduced form factors. GaN HEMTs have an added advantage over SiC MOSFETs owing to the high-mobility electron channel formed at the AlGaN/GaN interface, which has been the basis of radio frequency amplifiers. GaN has enabled systems that can run with lesser cooling at frequencies at least ten times higher than current Si-based systems, significantly reducing the form factor both electrically (passive components) and mechanically (heat sinks). The high current and voltage required for high power conversion application make the chip area in a lateral topology uneconomical and difficult to manufacture. Vertical GaN devices on bulk GaN substrates complete the portfolio of power switches required to address the power conversion market.

  3. Power and control in interactions between journalists and health-related industries: the view from industry.

    PubMed

    Morrell, Bronwen; Lipworth, Wendy L; Forsyth, Rowena; Jordens, Christopher F C; Kerridge, Ian

    2014-06-01

    The mass media is a major source of health information for the public, and as such the quality and independence of health news reporting is an important concern. Concerns have been expressed that journalists reporting on health are increasingly dependent on their sources--including representatives of industries responsible for manufacturing health-related products--for story ideas and content. Many critics perceive an imbalance of power between journalists and industry sources, with industry being in a position of relative power, however the empirical evidence to support this view is limited. The analysis presented here--which is part of a larger study of industry-journalist relationships--draws on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with representatives of health-related industries in Australia to inductively examine their perceptions of power relations between industry and journalists. Participants painted a picture in which journalists, rather than themselves, were in a position to control the nature, extent, and outcome of their interactions with industry sources. Our results resonate with the concept of "mediatisation" as it has been applied in the domain of political reporting. It appears that, from the perspective of industry representatives, the imposition of media logic on health-related industries may inappropriately influence the information that the public receives about health-related products. PMID:24796423

  4. Power and control in interactions between journalists and health-related industries: the view from industry.

    PubMed

    Morrell, Bronwen; Lipworth, Wendy L; Forsyth, Rowena; Jordens, Christopher F C; Kerridge, Ian

    2014-06-01

    The mass media is a major source of health information for the public, and as such the quality and independence of health news reporting is an important concern. Concerns have been expressed that journalists reporting on health are increasingly dependent on their sources--including representatives of industries responsible for manufacturing health-related products--for story ideas and content. Many critics perceive an imbalance of power between journalists and industry sources, with industry being in a position of relative power, however the empirical evidence to support this view is limited. The analysis presented here--which is part of a larger study of industry-journalist relationships--draws on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with representatives of health-related industries in Australia to inductively examine their perceptions of power relations between industry and journalists. Participants painted a picture in which journalists, rather than themselves, were in a position to control the nature, extent, and outcome of their interactions with industry sources. Our results resonate with the concept of "mediatisation" as it has been applied in the domain of political reporting. It appears that, from the perspective of industry representatives, the imposition of media logic on health-related industries may inappropriately influence the information that the public receives about health-related products.

  5. Innovative gasification technology for future power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, K.; Shadle, L.J.; Sadowski, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    Ever tightening environmental regulations have changed the way utility and non-utility electric generation providers currently view their fuels choices. While coal is still, by far, the major fuel utilized in power production, the general trend over the past 20 years has been to switch to low-sulfur coal and/or make costly modifications to existing coal-fired facilities to reach environmental compliance. Unfortunately, this approach has led to fragmented solutions to balance our energy and environmental needs. To date, few integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) suppliers have been able to compete with the cost of other more conventional technologies or fuels. One need only look at the complexity of many IGCC approaches to understand that unless a view toward IEC is adopted, the widespread application of such otherwise potentially attractive technologies will be unlikely in our lifetime. Jacobs-Sirrine Engineers and Riley Stoker Corporation are working in partnership with the Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center to help demonstrate an innovative coal gasification technology called {open_quotes}PyGas{trademark},{close_quotes} for {open_quotes}pyrolysis-gasification{close_quotes}. This hybrid variation of fluidized-bed and fixed-bed gasification technologies is being developed with the goal to efficiently produce clean gas at costs competitive with more conventional systems by incorporating many of the principles of IEC within the confines of a single-gasifier vessel. Our project is currently in the detailed design stage of a 4 ton-per-hour gasification facility to be built at the Fort Martin Station of Allegheny Power Services. By locating the test facility at an existing coal-fired plant, much of the facility infrastructure can be utilized saving significant costs. Successful demonstration of this technology at this new facility is a prerequisite to its commercialization.

  6. Power generation from nuclear reactors in aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    English, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Power generation in nuclear powerplants in space is addressed. In particular, the states of technology of the principal competitive concepts for power generation are assessed. The possible impact of power conditioning on power generation is also discussed. For aircraft nuclear propulsion, the suitability of various technologies is cursorily assessed for flight in the Earth's atmosphere. A program path is suggested to ease the conditions of first use of aircraft nuclear propulsion.

  7. Power Generation from Nuclear Reactors in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, Robert E.

    1982-01-01

    Power generation in nuclear powerplants in space is addressed. In particular, the states of technology of the principal competitive concepts for power generation are assessed. The possible impact of power conditioning on power generation is also discussed. For aircraft nuclear propulsion, the suitability of various technologies is cursorily assessed for flight in the Earth's atmosphere; a program path is suggested to ease the conditions of first use of aircraft nuclear propulsion.

  8. Generator powered electrically heated diesel particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2014-03-18

    A control circuit for a vehicle powertrain includes a switch that selectivity interrupts current flow between a first terminal and a second terminal. A first power source provides power to the first terminal and a second power source provides power to the second terminal and to a heater of a heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The switch is opened during a DPF regeneration cycle to prevent the first power source from being loaded by the heater while the heater is energized.

  9. Clean power generation resulting from orimulsion{reg_sign} utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Quig, R.H.; Woodworth, L.

    1997-07-01

    In addition to the need to resolve and manage electric utility industry deregulation, mergers, hostile takeovers, divesture of generation assets, retail wheeling and accelerating competition, the industry must now prepare to also cope with oncoming proposed regulations by the E.P.A. to again revise standards for power plant emissions. Referred to as CAPI (Clean Air Power Initiative), the E.P.A. is focusing on new regulations to: (1) Further reduce NO{sub x} to emission caps ranging from 0.1 5-0.25 lb. per million BTU by 2005. (2) Reduce the present 1990 Clean Air Act SO{sub 2} emission cap by 50-60% by the year 2010. (3) Further reduce fine particulates and other hazardous pollutants, i.e.; air toxics. A variety of enforcement concepts and related formulas seem to be emerging from the E.P.A. covering multiple pollutants, caps and trades. Final details are not yet available, but it would appear that an integrated approach to organize the trading of multi-pollutant credits could emerge. Given the foregoing CAPI issue combined with constantly changing business and environment control climates, Bitor America Corporation (BAC) who is a subsidiary of Bitomenes Orinoco, S.A. (BITOR), in turn a subsidiary of Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA) and the marketer and supplier of Orimulsion{reg_sign} in North America (known as the {open_quotes}fourth fossil fuel{close_quotes}) has undertaken-a series of major tests and power plant modification design studies. The objective was to determine the cleanliness and competitiveness of various Orimulsion power system applications. Hence the purpose of this paper is to share with the reader, BAC`s work to date.

  10. Calculation of guaranteed mean power from wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    A method for calculating the 'guaranteed mean' power output of a wind turbine generator is proposed. The term 'mean power' refers to the average power generated at specified wind speeds during short-term tests. Correlation of anemometers, the method of bins for analyzing non-steady data, the PROP Code for predicting turbine power, and statistical analysis of deviations in test data from theory are discussed. Guaranteed mean power density for the Clayton Mod-OA system was found to be 8 watts per square meter less than theoretical power density at all power levels, with a confidence level of 0.999. This amounts to 4 percent of rated power.

  11. Advanced liquid fuel production from biomass for power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Grassi, G.; Palmarocchi, M.; Joeler, J.

    1995-11-01

    In the European Union, important political decisions recently adopted and concerning the evolution of the Common Agriculture Policy, the GATT trade liberalisation Agreement and new measures actually under discussion (CARBON TAX, Financial support for rural development...) will have significant impact, in a no distant future, on the bioenergy activity. Also the considerable energy import ({approximately} 55% of the consumption) is of increasing concerns. The biomass potential in the E.U. is large, but the availability of commercial technologies for processing and utilising this renewable energy resource is very modest. Thus, a strong effort for the development of new and efficient technologies (like the one implemented by ENEL/CRT) is essential, as well as the build-up of an efficient industry for the commercialisation of reliable, low-cost biomass conversion/utilisation systems. The recently founded {open_quotes}European Bioenergy Industry Association{close_quotes} will make an effort for the promotion of this specific new industrial sector. In this framework, a new research effort (in Germany/Italy) for up-grading the bio-crude-oil by high energetic electrons. This process, if demonstrated feasible, could be of great interest for the production of new liquid fuels of sufficient quality to be utilised in most types of modern power generator.

  12. Direct charge radioisotope activation and power generation

    DOEpatents

    Lal, Amit; Li, Hui; Blanchard, James P.; Henderson, Douglass L.

    2002-01-01

    An activator has a base on which is mounted an elastically deformable micromechanical element that has a section that is free to be displaced toward the base. An absorber of radioactively emitted particles is formed on the base or the displaceable section of the deformable element and a source is formed on the other of the displaceable section or the base facing the absorber across a small gap. The radioactive source emits charged particles such as electrons, resulting in a buildup of charge on the absorber, drawing the absorber and source together and storing mechanical energy as the deformable element is bent. When the force between the absorber and the source is sufficient to bring the absorber into effective electrical contact with the source, discharge of the charge between the source and absorber allows the deformable element to spring back, releasing the mechanical energy stored in the element. An electrical generator such as a piezoelectric transducer may be secured to the deformable element to convert the released mechanical energy to electrical energy that can be used to provide power to electronic circuits.

  13. Use of a Best Estimate Power Monitoring Tool to Maximize Power Plant Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Dziuba, Lindsey L.

    2006-07-01

    The Best Estimate Power Monitor (BEPM) is a tool that was developed to maximize nuclear power plant generation, while ensuring regulatory compliance in the face of venturi fouling, industry ultra-sonic flowmeter issues and other technical challenges. The BEPM uses ASME approved 'best estimate' methodology described in PTC 19.1-1985, 'Measurement Uncertainty', Section 3.8, 'Weighting Method'. The BEPM method utilizes many different and independent indicators of core thermal power and independently computes the core thermal power (CTP) from each parameter. The uncertainty of each measurement is used to weight the results of the best estimate computation of CTP such that those with lower uncertainties are weighted more heavily in the computed result. The independence of these measurements is used to minimize the uncertainty of the aggregate result, and the overall uncertainty can be much lower than the uncertainties of any of the individual measured parameters. Examples of the Balance of Plant parameters used in the BEPM are turbine first stage pressure, venturi feedwater flow, condensate flow, main steam flow, high pressure turbine exhaust pressure, low pressure turbine inlet pressure, the two highest pressure feedwater heater extraction pressures, and final feedwater temperature. The BEPM typically makes use of installed plant instrumentation that provide data to the plant computer. Therefore, little or no plant modification is required. In order to compute core thermal power from the independent indicators, a set of baseline data is used for comparison. These baseline conditions are taken from a day when confidence in the value of core thermal power is high (i.e., immediately post outage when venturi fouling is not an issue or from a formal tracer test). This provides the reference point on which to base the core thermal power calculations for each of the independent parameters. The BEPM is effective only at the upper end of the power range, where the independent

  14. Marine-current power generation model for smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachogiannis, John G.

    2014-03-01

    This short communication introduces the first marine-current power generation model to be integrated into power flow studies of smart grids. The stochastic aspect of marine-current velocity affecting the real power output of marine-current generators is provided by a closed formula. Also, a new closed formula for power coefficient of marine-current generators versus marine-current velocities is set up. The introduced marine-current power generation model is validated on real measurements obtained in the sub-sea areas of Alderney Race (Channel Islands) in UK and Gun-barrel passage in Fiji.

  15. Industrial Arts Power Mechanics. Applying Scientific Principles to Power, Energy, Force. Instructional Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Robert L.; Myers, Norman L.

    The instructional units and related materials in this guide are designed to assist in the preparation of courses of study/instruction in (1) power mechanics specifically, (2) power mechanics which serve as introductory courses in other areas of industrial arts, and (3) automotive mechanics which also cover the broader aspects of power mechanics.…

  16. The changing face of international power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, I.

    1997-12-31

    The author limits his remarks to a discussion of the international generator`s marketplace, especially aimed at the developing countries. He discusses future global electricity demand, generating capacity build, its financing issues, and to the commercial generating opportunities which now abound outside the US.

  17. 43 CFR 418.16 - Using water for power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Using water for power generation. 418.16... Operations and Management § 418.16 Using water for power generation. All use of Project water for power..., incentive water (§ 418.35 ), or spills....

  18. 43 CFR 418.16 - Using water for power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Using water for power generation. 418.16... Operations and Management § 418.16 Using water for power generation. All use of Project water for power..., incentive water (§ 418.35), or spills....

  19. 43 CFR 418.16 - Using water for power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Using water for power generation. 418.16... Operations and Management § 418.16 Using water for power generation. All use of Project water for power..., incentive water (§ 418.35), or spills....

  20. 43 CFR 418.16 - Using water for power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Using water for power generation. 418.16... Operations and Management § 418.16 Using water for power generation. All use of Project water for power..., incentive water (§ 418.35 ), or spills....

  1. 43 CFR 418.16 - Using water for power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Using water for power generation. 418.16... Operations and Management § 418.16 Using water for power generation. All use of Project water for power..., incentive water (§ 418.35 ), or spills....

  2. Ames Lab 101: Next Generation Power Lines

    ScienceCinema

    Russell, Alan

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory scientist Alan Russell discusses the need to develop new power lines that are stronger and more conductive as a way to address the problem of the nation's aging and inadequate power grid.

  3. Power Generation: The Next 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Robert W.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses pollution problems associated with power production. Estimates power consumption in the 1980's and the availability of fossil and nuclear fuel resources. Emphasizes needed research on air pollution, nuclear pollution, and thermal pollution. (EB)

  4. Coal and Coal/Biomass-Based Power Generation

    EPA Science Inventory

    For Frank Princiotta's book, Global Climate Change--The Technology Challenge Coal is a key, growing component in power generation globally. It generates 50% of U.S. electricity, and criteria emissions from coal-based power generation are being reduced. However, CO2 emissions m...

  5. 13. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST. 1925 GE GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. 1925 GE GENERATOR IN FOREGROUND, WITH C. 1910 GENERATOR COVER IN BACKGROUND. STEEL FRAME SUPPORTS HOISTING MECHANISM USED TO MOVE, REPAIR, OR REPLACE GENERATORS. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  6. Local biofuels power plants with fuel cell generators

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstroem, O.

    1996-12-31

    The fuel cell should be a most important option for Asian countries now building up their electricity networks. The fuel cell is ideal for the schemes for distributed generation which are more reliable and efficient than the centralized schemes so far favoured by the industrialized countries in the West. Not yet developed small combined cycle power plants with advanced radial gas turbines and compact steam turbines will be the competition. Hot combustion is favoured today but cold combustion may win in the long run thanks to its environmental advantages. Emission standards are in general determined by what is feasible with available technology. The simple conclusion is that the fuel cell has to prove that it is competitive to the turbines in cost engineering terms. A second most important requirement is that the fuel cell option has to be superior with respect to electrical efficiency.

  7. Integrated engine-generator concept for aircraft electric secondary power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Macosko, R. P.; Repas, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    The integrated engine-generator concept of locating an electric generator inside an aircraft turbojet or turbofan engine concentric with, and driven by, one of the main engine shafts is discussed. When properly rated, the generator can serve as an engine starter as well as a generator of electric power. The electric power conversion equipment and generator controls are conveniently located in the aircraft. Preliminary layouts of generators in a large engine together with their physical sizes and weights indicate that this concept is a technically feasible approach to aircraft secondary power.

  8. Proposed high-power UV industrial demonstration laser at CEBAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Stephen V.; Bisognano, Joseph J.; Bohn, Courtlandt L.; Cardman, Larry; Colson, William B.; Davidson, Paul C.; Douglas, David; Dylla, H. Frederick; Engwall, David; Fugitt, Jock; Goldstein, John C.; Jordan, Kevin; Kehne, David; Li, Zhenghai; Liu, Hong-Xiu; Merminga, Lia; Neil, George R.; Neuffer, David; Shinn, Michelle D.; Wiseman, Mark; Wong, Robert K.

    1996-04-01

    The Laser Processing Consortium, a collaboration of industries, universities, and the Continuous Electron Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia, has proposed building a demonstration industrial processing laser for surface treatment and micro-machining The laser is a free-electron laser with average power output exceeding 1 kW in the ultraviolet. The design calls for a novel driver accelerator that recovers most of the energy of the exhaust electron beam to produce laser light with good wall-lug efficiency. The laser and accelerator design use technologies that are scalable to much higher power. We will describe the critical design issues in the laser such as the stability, power handling, and losses of the optical resonator, and the quality, power, and reliability of the electron beam. We will also describe the calculated laser performance. Finally progress to date on accelerator development and resonator modeling will be reported.

  9. Alternative power generation concepts for space

    SciTech Connect

    Brandhorst, H.W. Jr.; Juhasz, A.J.; Jones, B.I.

    1994-09-01

    With the advent of the NASA Space Station, there has emerged a general realization that large quantities of power in space are necessary and, in fact, enabling. This realization has led to the examination of alternative options to the ubiquitous solar array/battery power system. Several factors led to the consideration of solar dynamic and nuclear power systems. These include better scaling to high power levels, higher efficiency conversion and storage subsystems, and lower system specific mass. The objective of this paper is to present the results of trade and optimization studies that high-light the potential of solar and nuclear dynamic systems relative to photovoltaic power systems.

  10. Monolithic fuel cell based power source for burst power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Fee, D.C.; Blackburn, P.E.; Busch, D.E.; Dees, D.W.; Dusek, J.; Easler, T.E.; Ellingson, W.A.; Flandermeyer, B.K.; Fousek, R.J.; Heiberger, J.J.; Majumdar, S.; McPheeters, C.C.; Mrazek, F.C.; Picciolo, J.J.; Singh, J.P.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    A unique fuel cell coupled with a low power nuclear reactor presents an attractive approach for SDI burst power requirements. The requisite high power, long-duration bursts appear achievable with appropriate development of the concept. A monolithic fuel cell/nuclear reactor system clearly possesses several advantages. Fabrication methods, performance advantages, and applications are discussed in this report.

  11. Power Generation Capabilities of Tie Tube Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, Stanley V.; Hedstrom, James; Hundal, Rolv

    1994-07-01

    Second generation nuclear thermal rocket engine designs, employing solid core reactors and expander engine cycles, generally rely on some form of nuclear-driven heater to supply the major portion of thermal energy required to preheat the turbine-drive gases. If adequate heat transfer occurs, not only will efficiency-enhancing turbine-inlet temperatures be realized, but sufficient energy will be available to enable engine operation at chamber pressures ranging to at least 2,000 psia. For the case of reactor cores employing prismatic fuel elements, the utilization of tie tube assemblies, as first employed in the core-support subsystem of the Phoebus II reactor, can provide the basis of an array of propellant (hydrogen) preheaters that offer an ample supply of energy and temperature to enable candidate expander engine cycles over a wide range of operating parameters, without reducing the total enthalpy of the core-exit gas and its attendant effect on specific impulse. By modifying the tie tube design concept set forth in LASL's Nuclear Rocket Engine definition study, a powerful, weight and packaging-effective, preheater assembly can be realized. The design features of these tie tube assemblies reflect their functional objectives, core criticality considerations, and space constraints. Since the core pressure and inertial mass loads are carried by these assemblies, the structural tubular element(s) also provide coolant passage(s) for the hydrogen. The transfer of heat to the coolant surfaces is controlled by the effective thermal conductivity of the filler structure and ``insulating sleeves,'' which surround the tubular elements and are in controlled thermal contact with the surrounding core fuel elements. An option exists to further increase the transported heat to the coolant walls by the selective loading of the filler structure, ``insulating sleeves,'' and the moderator annular element with fissionable material.

  12. Results of Laboratory and Industrial Tests of Periodic-Type Gas Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, I. N.; P‧yanykh, K. E.; Antoshchuk, T. A.; Lysenko, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    Results of laboratory and industrial tests of periodic-type gas generators burning various solid biofuels have been presented. The tests were carried out with the aim of obtaining producer gas which could totally or partly replace natural gas in power equipment burning gaseous fuel. The energy and environmental characteristics of a boiler unit burning a mixture of producer gas and natural gas have been assessed.

  13. Power losses and the efficiency of industrially used gearboxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čarnogurská, Mária; Příhoda, Miroslav; Širillová, Ľubomíra

    2014-08-01

    This article gives the methodology for stating power losses and the efficiency of a gearbox working in natural cooling using dimensional analysis. The methodology reflects experimental research which investigated the effect of a change in revolutions and loading the gearbox on power losses. At the same time, it describes the conditions under which the proposed method may be applied for industrial, helical bevel geared motors.

  14. Generating Functions for the Powers of Fibonacci Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrana, D.; Chen, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this note, based on the Binet formulas and the power-reducing techniques, closed forms of generating functions for the powers of Fibonacci sequences are presented. The corresponding results are extended to some other famous sequences as well.

  15. Underwater vehicle propulsion and power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Chao, Yi (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An underwater vehicle includes a shaft with a propeller disposed thereon; a generator/motor having a stator and a rotor, the rotor being operable to rotate with the propeller; at least one energy storage device connected to the generator/motor; and a controller for setting the generator/motor in a charge mode, a propulsion mode and an idle mode.

  16. A Framework for Assessing the Commercialization of Photovoltaic Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaqub, Mahdi

    30-year term instead of the current 15-year average term. Such government-financed PV utilities will sell electricity to the US Government at a lower than retail electricity price as compensation for a favorable interest rate (4% instead of 7%) and a longer PPA term (30 years instead of 15). The life-cycle cash flow simulation of this proposed financial plan ascertains a 20% reduction in PV LCOE. Such cost reduction could be applied as credit to the US government electricity bills with 20% saving. The government could also realize a second compensation from the replaced 30% ITC subsidy because such expenditures would no longer be needed. A comparison between the engineering economy cash flow simulation results of the current utility power PPA practice and the proposed financial plan suggests that the proposed plan would be viable. The simulation results also show that the proposed public debt financial plan does not reach grid parity on its own; rather, it needs to be an integral part of the PV commercialization framework developed in this dissertation. The outcome of this research demonstrates that the effective implementation of the developed framework could facilitate the realization of a commercially successful PV power generation industry.

  17. Preventive Maintenance Prioritization by Fuzzy Logic for Seamless Hydro Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P. K.; Adhikary, P.; Mazumdar, A.

    2014-06-01

    Preventive maintenance prioritization is one of the most important criteria for the electricity generation planners to minimize the down time and production costs. Break down of equipments increases costs and plant down time results in loss of business. This work focuses on prioritizing the preventive maintenance for seamless hydro power generation considering (24 × 7) client's power demand using fuzzy logic. The main task involves prioritizing the maintenance work considering constraints of varied power demand and hydro turbine plant breakdown. Fuzzy logic is used to optimize the preventive maintenance prioritization under the main constraints. Manual fuzzy arithmetic is used to develop the model and MATLAB Fuzzy Inference System editor used to validate the same. This novel fuzzy logic approach of preventive maintenance prioritizing for hydro power generation is absent in renewable power generation and industrial engineering literatures due to its assessment complexity.

  18. 29 CFR 1917.43 - Powered industrial trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... States Coast Guard regulations at 33 CFR 126.15(e) do not apply, only power-operated industrial trucks approved for such locations shall be used. (e) Fork lift trucks—(1) Overhead guards. (i) When operators are exposed to overhead falling hazards, fork lift trucks shall be equipped with securely attached...

  19. 29 CFR 1917.43 - Powered industrial trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... States Coast Guard regulations at 33 CFR 126.15(e) do not apply, only power-operated industrial trucks approved for such locations shall be used. (e) Fork lift trucks—(1) Overhead guards. (i) When operators are exposed to overhead falling hazards, fork lift trucks shall be equipped with securely attached...

  20. 29 CFR 1917.43 - Powered industrial trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... States Coast Guard regulations at 33 CFR 126.15(e) do not apply, only power-operated industrial trucks approved for such locations shall be used. (e) Fork lift trucks—(1) Overhead guards. (i) When operators are exposed to overhead falling hazards, fork lift trucks shall be equipped with securely attached...

  1. 29 CFR 1917.43 - Powered industrial trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... States Coast Guard regulations at 33 CFR 126.15(e) do not apply, only power-operated industrial trucks approved for such locations shall be used. (e) Fork lift trucks—(1) Overhead guards. (i) When operators are exposed to overhead falling hazards, fork lift trucks shall be equipped with securely attached...

  2. 29 CFR 1917.43 - Powered industrial trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... States Coast Guard regulations at 33 CFR 126.15(e) do not apply, only power-operated industrial trucks approved for such locations shall be used. (e) Fork lift trucks—(1) Overhead guards. (i) When operators are exposed to overhead falling hazards, fork lift trucks shall be equipped with securely attached...

  3. Automation Power Energy Management Strategy for Mobile Telecom Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jong-Ching; Chen, Jung-Chin; Pan, Jeng-Shyang; Huang, Yi-Chao

    The aim of this research is to study the power energy cost reduction of the mobile telecom industry through the supervisor control and data acquisition (SCADA) system application during globalization and liberalization competition. Yet this management system can be proposed functions: operating monitors, the analysis on load characteristics and dropping the cost of management.

  4. 76 FR 48047 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries Powered Sailplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft... directive (AD) for Diamond Aircraft Industries Model H-36 ``DIMONA'' powered sailplanes. This proposed...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.178 - Powered industrial trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... new powered industrial trucks acquired and used by an employer shall meet the design and construction..., design, maintenance, and use of fork trucks, tractors, platform lift trucks, motorized hand trucks, and... that the electrical fittings and equipment are so designed, constructed and assembled that the...

  6. 29 CFR 1910.178 - Powered industrial trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... new powered industrial trucks acquired and used by an employer shall meet the design and construction..., design, maintenance, and use of fork trucks, tractors, platform lift trucks, motorized hand trucks, and... that the electrical fittings and equipment are so designed, constructed and assembled that the...

  7. Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry: 1970-1991

    EIA Publications

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of the ownership of the U.S. electric power industry over the past two decades, with emphasis on the major changes that have occurred, their causes, and their effects.

  8. Risk management in the competitive electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlgren, Robert William

    From 1990 until present day, the electric power industry has experienced dramatic changes worldwide. This recent evolution of the power industry has included creation and multiple iterations of competitive wholesale markets in many different forms. The creation of these competitive markets has resulted in increased short-term volatility of power prices. Vertically integrated utilities emerged from years of regulatory controls to now experience the need to perform risk assessment. The goal of this dissertation is to provide background and details of the evolution of market structures combined with examples of how to apply price risk assessment techniques such as Value-at-Risk (VaR). In Chapter 1, the history and evolution of three selected regional markets, PJM, California, and England and Wales is presented. A summary of the commonalities and differences is presented to provide an overview of the rate of transformation of the industry in recent years. The broad area of risk management in the power industry is also explored through a State-of-the-Art Literature Survey. In Chapter 2, an illustration of risk assessment to power trading is presented. The techniques of Value-at-Risk and Conditional Value-at-Risk are introduced and applied to a common scenario. The advantages and limitations of the techniques are compared through observation of their results against the common example. Volatility in the California Power Markets is presented in Chapter 3. This analysis explores the California markets in the summer of 2000 including the application of VaR analysis to the extreme volatility observed during this period. In Chapter 4, CVaR is applied to the same California historical data used in Chapter 3. In addition, the unique application of minimizing the risk of a power portfolio by minimizing CVaR is presented. The application relies on recent research into CVaR whereby the portfolio optimization problem can be reduced to a Linear Programming problem.

  9. Self-Excitation and Harmonics in Wind Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Romanowitz, H.; Yinger, R.

    2005-11-01

    Traditional wind turbines are commonly equipped with induction generators because they are inexpensive, rugged, and require very little maintenance. Unfortunately, induction generators require reactive power from the grid to operate; capacitor compensation is often used. Because the level of required reactive power varies with the output power, the capacitor compensation must be adjusted as the output power varies. The interactions among the wind turbine, the power network, and the capacitor compensation are important aspects of wind generation that may result in self-excitation and higher harmonic content in the output current. This paper examines the factors that control these phenomena and gives some guidelines on how they can be controlled or eliminated.

  10. Efficient millimeter wave 1140 GHz/ diode for harmonic power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Epitaxial gallium arsenide diode junction formed in a crossed waveguide structure operates as a variable reactance harmonic generator. This varactor diode can generate power efficiently in the low-millimeter wavelength.

  11. Future Photovoltaic Power Generation for Space-Based Power Utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Landis, Geoffrey; Hepp, Aloysius; Raffaelle, Ryne

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses requirements for large earth orbiting power stations that can serve as central utilities for other orbiting spacecraft, or for beaming power to the earth itself. The current state of the art of space solar cells, and a variety of both evolving thin film cells as well as new technologies that may impact the future choice of space solar cells for high power mission applications are addressed.

  12. New generation low power radiation survey instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Waechter, D.A.; Bjarke, G.O.; Trujillo, F.; Umbarger, C.J.; Wolf, M.A.

    1984-02-01

    A number of new, ultra-low-powered radiation instruments have recently been developed at Los Alamos. Among these are two instruments which use a novel power source to eliminate costly batteries. The newly developed gamma detecting radiac, nicknamed the Firefly, and the alpha particle detecting instrument, called the Simple Cordless Alpha Monitor, both use recent advances in miniaturization and powersaving electronics to yield devices which are small, rugged, and very power-frugal. The two instruments consume so little power that the need for batteries to run them is eliminated. They are, instead, powered by a charged capacitor which will operate the instruments for an hour or more. Use of a capacitor as a power source eliminates many problems commonly associated with battery-operated instruments, such as having to open the case to change batteries, battery storage life, availability of batteries in the field, and some savings in weight. Both line power and mechanical sources are used to charge the storage capacitors which power the instruments.

  13. Regulatory risks paralyzing power industry while demand grows

    SciTech Connect

    Maize, K.; Peltier, R.

    2008-01-15

    2008 will be the year the US generation industry grapples with CO{sub 2} emission. Project developers are suddenly coal-shy, mostly flirting with new nuclear plants waiting impatiently in line for equipment manufacturers to catch up with the demand for wind turbines, and finding gas more attractive again. With no proven greenhouse gas sequestration technology on the horizon, utilities will be playing it safe with energy-efficiency ploys rather than rushing to contract for much-needed new generation.

  14. Modular Analysis of Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Power Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y. D.; Zhang, Y.; Su, C. Q.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, an automobile exhaust thermoelectric power generation system is packaged into a model with its own operating principles. The inputs are the engine speed and power, and the output is the power generated by the system. The model is divided into two submodels. One is the inlet temperature submodel, and the other is the power generation submodel. An experimental data modeling method is adopted to construct the inlet temperature submodel, and a theoretical modeling method is adopted to construct the power generation submodel. After modeling, simulation is conducted under various engine operating conditions to determine the variation of the power generated by the system. Finally, the model is embedded into a Honda Insight vehicle model to explore the energy-saving effect of the system on the vehicle under Economic Commission for Europe and cyc-constant_60 driving cycles.

  15. Monolithic fuel cell based power source for burst power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fee, D. C.; Blackburn, P. E.; Busch, D. E.; Dees, D. W.; Dusek, J.; Easler, T. E.; Ellingson, W. A.; Flandermeyer, B. K.; Fousek, R. J.; Heiberger, J. J.

    A unique fuel cell coupled with a low power nuclear reactor presents an attractive approach for SDI burst power requirements. The monolithic fuel cell looks attractive for space applications and represents a quantum jump in fuel cell technology. Such a breakthrough in design is the enabling technology for lightweight, low volume power sources for space based pulse power systems. The monolith is unique among fuel cells in being an all solid state device. The capability for miniaturization, inherent in solid state devices, gives the low volume required for space missions. In addition, the solid oxide fuel cell technology employed in the monolith has high temperature reject heat and can be operated in either closed or open cycles. Both these features are attractive for integration into a burst power system.

  16. Generating expansion model incorporating compact DC power flow equations

    SciTech Connect

    Nderitu, D.G.; Sparrow, F.T.; Yu, Z.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a compact method of incorporating the spatial dimension into the generation expansion problem. Compact DC power flow equations are used to provide real-power flow coordination equations. Using these equations the marginal contribution of a generator to th total system loss is formulated as a function of that generator`s output. Incorporating these flow equations directly into the MIP formulation of the generator expansion problem results in a model that captures a generator`s true net marginal cost, one that includes both the cost of generation and the cost of transport. This method contrasts with other methods that iterate between a generator expansion model and an optimal power flow model. The proposed model is very compact and has very good convergence performance. A case study with data from Kenya is used to provide a practical application to the model.

  17. High power industrial picosecond laser from IR to UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saby, Julien; Sangla, Damien; Pierrot, Simonette; Deslandes, Pierre; Salin, François

    2013-02-01

    Many industrial applications such as glass cutting, ceramic micro-machining or photovoltaic processes require high average and high peak power Picosecond pulses. The main limitation for the expansion of the picosecond market is the cost of high power picosecond laser sources, which is due to the complexity of the architecture used for picosecond pulse amplification, and the difficulty to keep an excellent beam quality at high average power. Amplification with fibers is a good technology to achieve high power in picosecond regime but, because of its tight confinement over long distances, light undergoes dramatic non linearities while propagating in fibers. One way to avoid strong non linearities is to increase fiber's mode area. Nineteen missing holes fibers offering core diameter larger than 80μm have been used over the past few years [1-3] but it has been shown that mode instabilities occur at approximately 100W average output power in these fibers [4]. Recently a new fiber design has been introduced, in which HOMs are delocalized from the core to the clad, preventing from HOMs amplification [5]. In these so-called Large Pitch Fibers, threshold for mode instabilities is increased to 294W offering robust single-mode operation below this power level [6]. We have demonstrated a high power-high efficiency industrial picosecond source using single-mode Large Pitch rod-type fibers doped with Ytterbium. Large Pitch Rod type fibers can offer a unique combination of single-mode output with a very large mode area from 40 μm up to 100μm and very high gain. This enables to directly amplify a low power-low energy Mode Locked Fiber laser with a simple amplification architecture, achieving very high power together with singlemode output independent of power level or repetition rate.

  18. Renewable generation and storage project industry and laboratory recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, N.H.; Butler, P.C.; Cameron, C.P.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Utility Technologies is planning a series of related projects that will seek to improve the integration of renewable energy generation with energy storage in modular systems. The Energy Storage Systems Program and the Photovoltaics Program at Sandia National Laboratories conducted meetings to solicit industry guidance and to create a set of recommendations for the proposed projects. Five possible projects were identified and a three pronged approach was recommended. The recommended approach includes preparing a storage technology handbook, analyzing data from currently fielded systems, and defining future user needs and application requirements.

  19. Monolithic fuel cell based power source for sprint power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fee, D. C.; Busch, D. E.; Dees, D. W.; Dusek, J.; Easler, T. E.; Ellingson, W. A.; Flandermeyer, B. K.; Fousek, R. J.; Heiberger, J. J.; Majumdar, S.

    A unique fuel cell (monolith) coupled with a low power nuclear reactor presents an attractive approach for SDI burst power requirements. The high power, long duration bursts, appear achievable within a single shuttle launch limitation with appropriate development of the concept. The feasibility of the monolithic fuel cell concept has been demonstrated. Small arrays (stacks) of the monolithic design have been operated for hundreds of hours. The challenge is to improve the fabrication technology so that larger array of the monolithic design can be operated.

  20. Power Maximization Control of Variable Speed Wind Generation System Using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Shigeo; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Takeda, Yoji

    This paper proposes the sensorless output power maximization control of the wind generation system. A permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is used as a variable speed generator in the proposed system. The generator torque is suitably controlled according to the generator speed and thus the power from a wind turbine settles down on the maximum power point by the proposed MPPT control method, where the information of wind velocity is not required. Moreover, the maximum available generated power is obtained by the optimum current vector control. The current vector of PMSG is optimally controlled according to the generator speed and the required torque in order to minimize the losses of PMSG considering the voltage and current constraints. The proposed wind power generation system can be achieved without mechanical sensors such as a wind velocity detector and a position sensor. Several experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  1. 43 CFR 431.4 - Power generation responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power generation responsibilities. 431.4 Section 431.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR POWER GENERATION, OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPLACEMENT AT THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT,...

  2. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a) The aggregate capacity of the electric ship's service generating sources required in § 111.10-3...

  3. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a) The aggregate capacity of the electric ship's service generating sources required in § 111.10-3...

  4. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a) The aggregate capacity of the electric ship's service generating sources required in § 111.10-3...

  5. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a) The aggregate capacity of the electric ship's service generating sources required in § 111.10-3...

  6. 43 CFR 431.6 - Power generation estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power generation estimates. 431.6 Section... BOULDER CANYON PROJECT, ARIZONA/NEVADA § 431.6 Power generation estimates. Reclamation shall submit annually on or before April 15 to Western and Contractors, an estimated annual operation schedule for...

  7. Tests of cosmic ray radiography for power industry applications

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, J. M. Guardincerri, E.; Morris, C. L.; Bacon, J.; Fabritius, J.; Fellows, S.; Poulson, D.; Plaud-Ramos, K.; Renshaw, J.

    2015-06-15

    In this report, we assess muon multiple scattering tomography as a non-destructive inspection technique in several typical areas of interest to the nuclear power industry, including monitoring concrete degradation, gate valve conditions, and pipe wall thickness. This work is motivated by the need for imaging methods that do not require the licensing, training, and safety controls of x-rays, and by the need to be able to penetrate considerable overburden to examine internal details of components that are otherwise inaccessible, with minimum impact on industrial operations. In some scenarios, we find that muon tomography may be an attractive alternative to more typical measurements.

  8. Tests of cosmic ray radiography for power industry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, J. M.; Guardincerri, E.; Morris, C. L.; Bacon, J.; Fabritius, J.; Fellows, S.; Poulson, D.; Plaud-Ramos, K.; Renshaw, J.

    2015-06-01

    In this report, we assess muon multiple scattering tomography as a non-destructive inspection technique in several typical areas of interest to the nuclear power industry, including monitoring concrete degradation, gate valve conditions, and pipe wall thickness. This work is motivated by the need for imaging methods that do not require the licensing, training, and safety controls of x-rays, and by the need to be able to penetrate considerable overburden to examine internal details of components that are otherwise inaccessible, with minimum impact on industrial operations. In some scenarios, we find that muon tomography may be an attractive alternative to more typical measurements.

  9. Propellant-powered actuator for gas generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makowski, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    Hydrazine operated monopropellant generators are used for spacecraft rocket engines and propellant pressurization systems. Measured work output of monopropellant actuators compares favorably with output of squib-type actuators.

  10. Estimating the Impact (Energy, Emissions and Economics) of the US Fluid Power Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this report is to estimate the impact (energy, emissions and economics) of United Fluid power (hydraulic and pneumatic actuation) is the generation, control, and application of pumped or compressed fluids when this power is used to provide force and motion to mechanisms. This form of mechanical power is an integral part of United States (U.S.) manufacturing and transportation. In 2008, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, sales of fluid power components exceeded $17.7B, sales of systems using fluid power exceeded $226B. As large as the industry is, it has had little fundamental research that could lead to improved efficiency since the late 1960s (prior to the 1970 energy crisis). While there have been some attempts to replace fluid powered components with electric systems, its performance and rugged operating condition limit the impact of simple part replacement. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Fluid Power Association (NFPA) collaborated with 31 industrial partners to collect and consolidate energy specific measurements (consumption, emissions, efficiency) of deployed fluid power systems. The objective of this study was to establish a rudimentary order of magnitude estimate of the energy consumed by fluid powered systems. The analysis conducted in this study shows that fluid powered systems consumed between 2.0 and 2.9 Quadrillion (1015) Btus (Quads) of energy per year; producing between 310 and 380 million metric tons (MMT) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). In terms of efficiency, the study indicates that, across all industries, fluid power system efficiencies range from less than 9% to as high as 60% (depending upon the application), with an average efficiency of 22%. A review of case studies shows that there are many opportunities to impact energy savings in both the manufacturing and transportation sectors by the development and deployment of energy efficient fluid power components and systems.

  11. Coal's role in electrical power generation: Will it remain competitive?

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, C.

    1999-07-01

    Coal is the most abundant worldwide fossil fuel. In the US, coal represents 95% of fossil energy reserves. The US coal resources represent more energy than either proven oil or natural gas reserves and can be expected to last more than 250 years at current consumption rates. Coal fired power plants currently produce 56% of electrical generation in the US and 36% worldwide, and forecasts show coal use to increase. Impressive statistics such as these, along with the direct correlation between electrical growth and GDP should indicate that coal has a bright future. There are some clouds on the horizon, however, that could dim this seemingly rosy picture. Potentially, the greatest challenge to coal's future is CO2 emission restrictions to address global climate change. Realistically, coal has to be a part of the generation mix of developing nations, particularly those with abundant coal resources such as China and India. If electrification of these countries and corresponding economic growth is to take place, there are not presently a lot of cost effective alternatives. This paper presents a discussion of what the coal industry is doing to remain competitive. It looks at environmental and competitive issues facing coal use.

  12. Biomass power industry: Assessment of key players and approaches for DOE and industry interaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    This report reviews the status of the US biomass power industry. The topics of the report include current fuels and the problems associated with procuring, transporting, preparing and burning them, competition from natural gas projects because of the current depressed natural gas prices, need for incentives for biomass fueled projects, economics, market potential and expansion of US firms overseas.

  13. High voltage solar cell power generating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, E., Jr.; Opjorden, R. W.; Hoffman, A. C.

    1974-01-01

    A laboratory solar power system regulated by on-panel switches has been delivered for operating high power (3 kW), high voltage (15,000 volt) loads (communication tubes, ion thrusters). The modular system consists of 26 solar arrays, each with an integral light source and cooling system. A typical array contains 2,560 series-connected cells. Each light source consists of twenty 500-watt tungsten iodide lamps providing plus or minus 5 percent uniformity at one solar constant. An array temperature of less than 40 C is achieved using an infrared filter, a water-cooled plate, a vacuum hold-down system, and air flushing.

  14. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electric power generation. 801.12 Section 801.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN... located either in the basin or nearby its borders. (b) There appears to be limited site potential in...

  15. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electric power generation. 801.12 Section 801.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN... located either in the basin or nearby its borders. (b) There appears to be limited site potential in...

  16. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Electric power generation. 801.12 Section 801.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN... located either in the basin or nearby its borders. (b) There appears to be limited site potential in...

  17. Primary electric power generation systems for advanced-technology engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of the all electric airplane are discussed. In the all electric airplane the generator is the sole source of electric power; it powers the primary and secondary flight controls, the environmentals, and the landing gear. Five candidates for all electric power systems are discussed and compared. Cost benefits of the all electric airplane are discussed.

  18. Alternative approaches to space-based power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    Satellite Power Stations (SPS) would generate electrical power in space for terrestrial use. Their geosynchronous orbit location permits continuous microwave power transmission to ground receiving antenna farms. Eight approaches to the generation of the electrical power to be transmitted were investigated. Configurations implementing these approaches were developed through an optimization process intended to yield the lowest cost for each. A complete program was baselined for each approach, identifying required production rates, quantities of launches, required facilities, etc. Each program was costed, including the associated launches, orbital assembly, and maintenance operations. The required electric power charges to amortize these costs were calculated. They range from 26 to 82 mills/kWh (ground busbar).

  19. Environmental and industrial applications of pulsed power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Neau, E.L.

    1993-10-01

    The technology base formed by the development of high peak power simulators, laser drivers, free electron lasers (FEL`s), and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) drivers from the early 60`s through the late 80`s is being extended to high average power short-pulse machines with the capabilities of performing new roles in environmental cleanup applications and in supporting new types of industrial manufacturing processes. Some of these processes will require very high average beam power levels of hundreds of kilowatts to perhaps megawatts. In this paper we briefly discuss new technology capabilities and then concentrate on specific application areas that may benefit from the high specific energies and high average powers attainable with short-pulse machines.

  20. Pulsed power systems for environmental and industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neau, E. L.

    1994-10-01

    The development of high peak power simulators, laser drivers, free electron lasers, and Inertial Confinement Fusion drivers is being extended to high average power short-pulse machines with the capabilities of performing new roles in environmental cleanup and industrial manufacturing processes. We discuss a new class of short-pulse, high average power accelerator that achieves megavolt electron and ion beams with 10's of kiloamperes of current and average power levels in excess of 100 kW. Large treatment areas are possible with these systems because kilojoules of energy are available in each output pulse. These systems can use large area x-ray converters for applications requiring grater depth of penetration such as food pasteurization and waste treatment. The combined development of this class of accelerators and applications, and Sandia National Laboratories, is called Quantum Manufacturing.

  1. Pulsed power systems for environmental and industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Neau, E.L.

    1993-12-31

    The development of high peak power simulators, laser drivers, free electron lasers, and Inertial Confinement Fusion drivers is being extended to high average power short-pulse machines with the capabilities of performing new roles in environmental cleanup and industrial manufacturing processes. We discuss a new class of short-pulse, high average power accelerator that achieves megavolt electron and ion beams with 10`s of kiloamperes of current and average power levels in excess of 100 KW. Large treatment areas are possible with these systems because kilojoules of energy are available in each output pulse. These systems can use large area x-ray converters for applications requiring greater depth of penetration such as food pasteurization and waste treatment. The combined development of this class of accelerators and applications, at Sandia National Laboratories, is called Quantum Manufacturing.

  2. Local control of reactive power by distributed photovoltaic generators

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Turitsyn, Konstantin; Sulc, Petr; Backhaus, Scott

    2010-01-01

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the real power generated by the PVs. Using one adjustable parameter per circuit, we balance the requirements on power quality and desire to minimize thermal losses. Numerical analysis of two exemplary systems, with comparable total PV generation albeit a different spatial distribution, show how to adjust the optimization parameter depending on the goal. Overall, this local scheme shows excellent performance; it's capable of guaranteeing acceptable power quality and achieving significant saving in thermal losses in various situations even when the renewable generation in excess of the circuit own load, i.e. feeding power back to the higher-level system.

  3. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included.

  4. Compensation for Harmonic Currents and Reactive Power in Wind Power Generation System using PWM Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Katsuji; Shinhatsubo, Kurato; Iimori, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Kichiro; Saruban, Takamichi; Yamaemori, Takahiro

    In recent year, consciousness of environmental problems is enhancing, and the price of the electric power purchased by an electric power company is established expensive for the power plant utilizing the natural energy. So, the introduction of the wind power generation is promoted in Japan. Generally, squirrel-cage induction machines are widely used as a generator in wind power generation system because of its small size, lightweight and low-cost. However, the induction machines do not have a source of excitation. Thus, it causes the inrush currents and the instantaneous voltage drop when the generator is directly connected to a power grid. To reduce the inrush currents, an AC power regulator is used. Wind power generations are frequently connected to and disconnected from the power grid. However, when the inrush currents are reduced, harmonic currents are caused by phase control of the AC power regulator. And the phase control of AC power regulator cannot control the power factor. Therefore, we propose the use of the AC power regulator to compensate for the harmonic currents and reactive power in the wind power generation system, and demonstrate the validity of its system by simulated and experimental results.

  5. Protective, Modular Wave Power Generation System

    SciTech Connect

    Vvedensky, Jane M.; Park, Robert Y.

    2012-11-27

    The concept of small wave energy conversion modules that can be built into large, scalable arrays, in the same vein as solar panels, has been developed. This innovation lends itself to an organic business and development model, and enables the use of large-run manufacturing technology to reduce system costs. The first prototype module has been built to full-scale, and tested in a laboratory wave channel. The device has been shown to generate electricity and dissipate wave energy. Improvements need to be made to the electrical generator and a demonstration of an array of modules should be made in natural conditions.

  6. A high-average-power FEL for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.; Benson, S.; Bisognano, J.

    1995-12-31

    CEBAF has developed a comprehensive conceptual design of an industrial user facility based on a kilowatt UV (150-1000 nm) and IR (2-25 micron) FEL driven by a recirculating, energy-recovering 200 MeV superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) accelerator. FEL users{endash}CEBAF`s partners in the Laser Processing Consortium, including AT&T, DuPont, IBM, Northrop-Grumman, 3M, and Xerox{endash}plan to develop applications such as polymer surface processing, metals and ceramics micromachining, and metal surface processing, with the overall effort leading to later scale-up to industrial systems at 50-100 kW. Representative applications are described. The proposed high-average-power FEL overcomes limitations of conventional laser sources in available power, cost-effectiveness, tunability and pulse structure. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Quantity and quality in nuclear engineering professional skills needed by the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Slember, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the challenge of work force requirements in the context of the full range of issues facing the nuclear power industry. The supply of skilled managers and workers may be a more serious problem if nuclear power fades away than if it is reborn in a new generation. An even greater concern, however, is the quality of education that the industry needs in all its future professionals. Both government and industry should be helping universities adapt their curricula to the needs of the future. This means building a closer relationship with schools that educate nuclear professionals, that is, providing adequate scholarships and funding for research and development programs, offering in-kind services, and encouraging internships and other opportunities for hands-on experience. The goal should not be just state-of-the-art engineering practices, but the broad range of knowledge, issues, and skills that will be required of the nuclear leadership of the twenty-first century.

  8. Generating power with drained coal mine methane

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-01

    The article describes the three technologies most commonly used for generating electricity from coal mine methane: internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and microturbines. The most critical characteristics and features of these technologies, such as efficiency, output and size are highlighted. 5 refs.

  9. 2. Credit PEM. View of Martinsburg Power Company steam generating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Credit PEM. View of Martinsburg Power Company steam generating plant. From right to left: original 1889 generating building, transformer room, new generating room and, adjacent to draft stack is boiler room addition. Photo c. 1911. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

  10. Alternative power generation concepts for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Juhasz, Albert J.; Jones, Barbara I.

    1986-01-01

    Trade and optimization studies that highlight the potential of solar and nuclear dynamic systems relative to photovoltaic power systems are summarized. The solar dynamic case is the LEO Stirling system, while the nuclear system is the SP-100 system goal. Nuclear systems have the potential for the lightest weight, least area, sunlight independent, radiation-durable system. Solar dynamic systems pose a stiff challenge to photovoltaic systems in the midaltitudes because of their insensitivity to the Van Allen radiation belts. While the initial operational capability space station power system is only slightly superior to the SOA PV system, with development focused on the key technologies, advanced solar dynamic systems are fully competitive in LEO midaltitudes with the advanced photovoltaic systems. Advances in energy storage systems (100 Whrs/kg required) are essential.

  11. Power generating system and method utilizing hydropyrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Tolman, R.

    1986-12-30

    A vapor transmission cycle is described which burns a slurry of coal and water with some of the air from the gas turbine compressor, cools and cleans the resulting low-Btu fuel gas, burns the clean fuel gas with the remaining air from the compressor, and extracts the available energy in the gas turbine. The cycle lends itself to combined-cycle cogeneration for the production of steam, absorption cooling, and electric power.

  12. Coupling an induction motor type generator to ac power lines. [making windmill generators compatible with public power lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A system for coupling an induction motor type generator to an A.C. power line includes an electronic switch means that is controlled by a control system and is regulated to turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation. The energizing power supplied by the line to the induction motor type generator is decreased and the net power delivered to the line is increased.

  13. Combined fuel and air staged power generation system

    DOEpatents

    Rabovitser, Iosif K; Pratapas, John M; Boulanov, Dmitri

    2014-05-27

    A method and apparatus for generation of electric power employing fuel and air staging in which a first stage gas turbine and a second stage partial oxidation gas turbine power operated in parallel. A first portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the first stage gas turbine which generates a first portion of electric power and a hot oxidant. A second portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the second stage partial oxidation gas turbine which generates a second portion of electric power and a hot syngas. The hot oxidant and the hot syngas are provided to a bottoming cycle employing a fuel-fired boiler by which a third portion of electric power is generated.

  14. A mechatronic power boosting design for piezoelectric generators

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Haili; Liang, Junrui Ge, Cong

    2015-10-05

    It was shown that the piezoelectric power generation can be boosted by using the synchronized switch power conditioning circuits. This letter reports a self-powered and self-sensing mechatronic design in substitute of the auxiliary electronics towards a compact and universal synchronized switch solution. The design criteria are derived based on the conceptual waveforms and a two-degree-of-freedom analytical model. Experimental result shows that, compared to the standard bridge rectifier interface, the mechatronic design leads to an extra 111% increase of generated power from the prototyped piezoelectric generator under the same deflection magnitude excitation. The proposed design has introduced a valuable physical insight of electromechanical synergy towards the improvement of piezoelectric power generation.

  15. A mechatronic power boosting design for piezoelectric generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haili; Liang, Junrui; Ge, Cong

    2015-10-01

    It was shown that the piezoelectric power generation can be boosted by using the synchronized switch power conditioning circuits. This letter reports a self-powered and self-sensing mechatronic design in substitute of the auxiliary electronics towards a compact and universal synchronized switch solution. The design criteria are derived based on the conceptual waveforms and a two-degree-of-freedom analytical model. Experimental result shows that, compared to the standard bridge rectifier interface, the mechatronic design leads to an extra 111% increase of generated power from the prototyped piezoelectric generator under the same deflection magnitude excitation. The proposed design has introduced a valuable physical insight of electromechanical synergy towards the improvement of piezoelectric power generation.

  16. Efficiency, equity and the environment: Institutional challenges in the restructuring of the electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Haeri, M.H.

    1998-07-01

    In the electric power industry, fundamental changes are underway in Europe, America, Australia, New Zealand and, more recently, in Asia. Rooted in increased deregulation and competition, these changes are likely to radically alter the structure of the industry. Liberalization of electric power markets in the United Kingdom is, for the most part, complete. The generation market in the United States began opening to competition following the 1987 Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 set the stage for a much more dramatic change in the industry. The most far-reaching provision of the Act was its electricity title, which opened access to the electric transmission grid. With legal barriers now removed, the traditionally sheltered US electric utility market is becoming increasingly open to entry and competition. A number of important legislative, regulatory and governmental policy initiatives are underway in the Philippines that will have a profound effect on the electric power industry. In Thailand, the National Energy Planning Organization (NEPO) has undertaken a thorough investigation of industry restructuring. This paper summarizes recent international developments in the deregulation and liberalization of electricity markets in the U.K., U.S., Australia, and New Zealand. It focuses on the relevance of these experiences to development underway in the Philippines and Thailand, and presents alternative possible structures likely to emerge in these countries, drawing heavily on the authors' recent experiences in Thailand and the Philippines. The impact of these changes on the business environment for power generation and marketing will be discussed in detail, as will the opportunities these changes create for investment among private power producers.

  17. Electrical power generation by mechanically modulating electrical double layers.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jong Kyun; Jeong, Jaeki; Lee, Dongyun; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Since Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry made their great discovery of electromagnetic induction, there have been continuous developments in electrical power generation. Most people today get electricity from thermal, hydroelectric, or nuclear power generation systems, which use this electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Here we propose a new method for electrical power generation, without using electromagnetic induction, by mechanically modulating the electrical double layers at the interfacial areas of a water bridge between two conducting plates. We find that when the height of the water bridge is mechanically modulated, the electrical double layer capacitors formed on the two interfacial areas are continuously charged and discharged at different phases from each other, thus generating an AC electric current across the plates. We use a resistor-capacitor circuit model to explain the results of this experiment. This observation could be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation system in the near future. PMID:23403587

  18. Electrical power generation by mechanically modulating electrical double layers.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jong Kyun; Jeong, Jaeki; Lee, Dongyun; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Since Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry made their great discovery of electromagnetic induction, there have been continuous developments in electrical power generation. Most people today get electricity from thermal, hydroelectric, or nuclear power generation systems, which use this electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Here we propose a new method for electrical power generation, without using electromagnetic induction, by mechanically modulating the electrical double layers at the interfacial areas of a water bridge between two conducting plates. We find that when the height of the water bridge is mechanically modulated, the electrical double layer capacitors formed on the two interfacial areas are continuously charged and discharged at different phases from each other, thus generating an AC electric current across the plates. We use a resistor-capacitor circuit model to explain the results of this experiment. This observation could be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation system in the near future.

  19. Power plant V - Thek generating station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, M.

    The design and operating features of a 10 MWe parabolic dish concentrator steam-cycle generating plant are described. The dishes which have 75 sq m area with a concentration factor of 265, were proved in the Themis project. The total field for the 10 MWe would cover 63,100 sq m and require 842 units. Using a water-steam cycle at 50 bars, temperature would never surpass 264 C, with an after-generator condition of 33 bars at 204 C. Preheating the water is intended with a fused salt reservoir containing 570 tons in 350 cu m container, around which condensed water would flow. Maintaining the primary loop at mildly elevated temperatures would permit uninterrupted operation during cloudy periods. A total shutdown would occur if cloudy conditions last more than one hour, and start-up would involve reheating the primary loop, recharging the storage, and then respinning the turbine.

  20. Plasma plume MHD power generator and method

    DOEpatents

    Hammer, James H.

    1993-01-01

    Highly-conducting plasma plumes are ejected across the interplanetary magnetic field from a situs that is moving relative to the solar wind, such as a spacecraft or an astral body, such as the moon, having no magnetosphere that excludes the solar wind. Discrete plasma plumes are generated by plasma guns at the situs extending in opposite directions to one another and at an angle, preferably orthogonal, to the magnetic field direction of the solar wind plasma. The opposed plumes are separately electrically connected to their source by a low impedance connection. The relative movement between the plasma plumes and the solar wind plasma creates a voltage drop across the plumes which is tapped by placing the desired electrical load between the electrical connections of the plumes to their sources. A portion of the energy produced may be used in generating the plasma plumes for sustained operation.

  1. Coal fly ash: the most powerful tool for sustainability of the concrete industry

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, P.K.

    2008-07-01

    In the last 15 years the global cement industry has almost doubled its annual rate of direct emissions of carbon dioxide. These can be cut back by reducing global concrete consumption, reducing the volume of cement paste in mixtures and reducing the proportion of portland clinker in cement. It has recently been proved that use of high volumes of coal fly ash can produce low cost, durable, sustainable cement and concrete mixtures that would reduce the carbon footprint of both the cement and the power generation industries. 2 photos.

  2. Holographic window for solar power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasezawa, Toshihiro; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Tabuchi, Hiroshi; Shimura, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    A new photovoltaic generation unit based on the application of holographic technologies called a Holo-Window is proposed in this work. The basic principle and the optical configuration used for the basic experimental unit are described. Suitable fabrication technology for a hologram with the broadband spectrum required to provide the appropriate sunlight capture capability is then discussed. Finally, a laboratory-prototype Holo-Window unit was developed and its performance was evaluated.

  3. Electrochemical power generation apparatus and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Zaromb, S.

    1981-03-03

    Apparatus and methods are described for generating heat and electricity from the consumption of a variety of aluminum products. The method consists of (A) a reaction chamber containing an aqueous electrolyte solution and adapted for introduction therein of aluminum pieces of various shapes and sizes up to a certain maximum predetermined size and for effecting a chemical reaction between said aqueous electrolyte and said aluminum pieces yielding aluminum hydroxide and an intermediate reactant; (B) means for feeding said aluminum pieces into said reaction chamber in small quantities upon demand; (C) means for removing the heat generated in said chamber as a result of said reaction; (D) means for removing said aluminum hydroxide reaction product; and (E) means for oxidizing said intermediate reactant in an electrochemical cell, thereby generating electrical energy. The intermediate reactant is preferably hydrogen or zinc. The latter may be used in a slurry type zinc/air battery, whereas hydrogen is preferably reacted in conjunction with a nongaseous cathode reactant, which may be a liquid solution of an oxidant, such as hydrogen peroxide, or a solid, such as nickel dioxide. The latter may be regenerated either chemically, by immersion in an oxidizing solution, or electrically, by using the gaseous diffusion type of hydrogen electrode to also reduce oxygen from ambient air.

  4. Technologies for CO{sub 2}-capture from advanced power-generation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wolsky, A.M.; Daniels, E.J.; Jody, B.J.

    1993-06-01

    The US power-generation industry generated about 1.5 billion metric tons of CO{sub 2} in 1990, with over 95% of that CO{sub 2} being generated by coal-fired utility boilers. Extensive use of coal for power generation is expected to continue for many years to come. Therefore, should capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} be necessary, coal-fired power plants are likely to be primary targets for CO{sub 2} capture. This paper discusses opportunities and techniques for the capture of CO{sub 2} from the advanced power-generation systems that appear to be the leading candidates for widespread commercialization in the next two decades: integrated coal gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) and fuel cells. Retrofitting of conventional power plants for burning coal with O{sub 2} to facilitate CO{sub 2} capture was also investigated. A brief discussion of the impact of the CO{sub 2}-capture technology on the cost of power generation is also presented. Research and development needs of the CO{sub 2}-capture technologies are also identified. The results indicate that CO{sub 2} recovery from IGCC and fuel-cell plants is less complicated, less energy-intensive, and less costly than its recovery from conventional coal-fired power stations.

  5. Variable speed operation of generators with rotor-speed feedback in wind power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P.; Migliore, P.

    1995-11-01

    The use of induction generators in wind power applications has been common since the early development of the wind industry. Most of these generators operate at fixed frequency and are connected directly to the utility grid. Unfortunately, this mode of operation limits the rotor speed to a specific rpm. Variable-speed operation is preferred in order to facilitate maximum energy capture over a wide range of wind speeds. This paper explores variable-speed operating strategies for wind turbine applications. The objectives are to maximize energy production, provide controlled start-up and reduce torque loading. This paper focuses on optimizing the energy captured by operating at maximum aerodynamic efficiency at any wind speed. The control strategy we analyze uses rotor speed and generator power as the feedback signals. In the normal operating region, rotor speed is used to compute a target power that corresponds to optimum operation. With power as the control objective, the power converter and generator are controlled to track the target power at any rpm. Thus, the torque-speed characteristic of the generator is shaped to optimize the energy capture. The target power is continuously updated at any rpm. in extreme areas of the operating envelope, during start-up, shutdown, generator overload, or overspeed, different strategies driven by other system considerations must be used.

  6. Variable speed operation of generators with rotor-speed feedback in wind power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P.; Migliore, P.

    1996-10-01

    The use of induction generators in wind power applications has been common since the early development of the wind industry. Most of these generators operate at fixed frequency and are connected directly to the utility grid. Unfortunately, this mode of operation limits the rotor speed to a specific rpm. Variable-speed operation is preferred in order to facilitate maximum energy capture over a wide range of wind speeds. This paper explores variable-speed operating strategies for wind turbine applications. The objectives are to maximize energy production, provide controlled start-up and reduce torque loading. This paper focuses on optimizing the energy captured by operating at maximum aerodynamic efficiency at any wind speed. The control strategy analyzed uses rotor speed and generator power as the feedback signals. In the normal operating region, rotor speed is used to compute a target power that corresponds to optimum operation. With power as the control objective, the power converter and generator are controlled to track the target power at any rpm. Thus, the torque-speed characteristic of the generator is shaped to optimize the energy capture. The target power is continuously updated at any rpm. In extreme areas of the operating envelope, during start-up, shutdown, generator overload, or overspeed, different strategies driven by other system considerations must be used.

  7. Variable speed operation of generators with rotor-speed feedback in wind power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P.; Migliore, P.

    1996-11-01

    The use of induction generators in wind power applications has been common since the early development of the wind industry. Most of these generators operate at fixed frequency and are connected directly to the utility grid. Unfortunately, this mode of operation limits the rotor speed to a specific rpm. Variable speed operation is preferred in order to facilitate maximum energy capture over a wide range of wind speeds. This paper explores variable speed operating strategies for wind turbine applications. The objectives are to maximize energy production, provide controlled start-up, and reduce torque loading. This paper focuses on optimizing the energy captured by operating at maximum aerodynamic efficiency at any wind speed. The control strategy the authors analyze uses rotor speed and generator power as the feedback signals. In the normal operating region, rotor speed is used to compute a target power that corresponds to optimum operation. With power as the control objective, the power converter and generator are controlled to track the target power at any rpm. Thus, the torque-speed characteristic of the generator is shaped to optimize the energy capture. The target power is continuously updated at any rpm. In extreme areas of the operating envelope, during start-up, shutdown, generator overload, or overspeed, different strategies driven by other system considerations must be used.

  8. Fuel cells provide a revenue-generating solution to power quality problems

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.M. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Electric power quality and reliability are becoming increasingly important as computers and microprocessors assume a larger role in commercial, health care and industrial buildings and processes. At the same time, constraints on transmission and distribution of power from central stations are making local areas vulnerable to low voltage, load addition limitations, power quality and power reliability problems. Many customers currently utilize some form of premium power in the form of standby generators and/or UPS systems. These include customers where continuous power is required because of health and safety or security reasons (hospitals, nursing homes, places of public assembly, air traffic control, military installations, telecommunications, etc.) These also include customers with industrial or commercial processes which can`t tolerance an interruption of power because of product loss or equipment damage. The paper discusses the use of the PC25 fuel cell power plant for backup and parallel power supplies for critical industrial applications. Several PC25 installations are described: the use of propane in a PC25; the use by rural cooperatives; and a demonstration of PC25 technology using landfill gas.

  9. High-power diode lasers and their direct industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loosen, Peter; Treusch, Hans-Georg; Haas, C. R.; Gardenier, U.; Weck, Manfred; Sinnhoff, V.; Kasperowski, S.; vor dem Esche, R.

    1995-04-01

    The paper summarizes activities of the two Fraunhofer-Institutes ILT and IPT concerning the development of high-power laser-diode stacks and their direct industrial applications. With microchannel coolers in copper technology and ultra-precision machined micro-optics a stack of 330 - 400 W total power with a maximum intensity of the focused beam of 2 104 W/cm2 has been built and tested in first applications. By further improvements of the lens-fabrication and -alignment technology as well as increase of the number of stacked diodes an output power in the kW-range and intensities up to about 105 W/cm2 shall be achieved in the near future. Applications of such laser sources in surface technology, in the processing of plastics, in laser-assisted machining and in brazing are discussed.

  10. Molecular farming on rescue of pharma industry for next generations.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled; Makhzoum, Abdullah; Trémouillaux-Guiller, Jocelyne

    2016-10-01

    Recombinant proteins expressed in plants have been emerged as a novel branch of the biopharmaceutical industry, offering practical and safety advantages over traditional approaches. Cultivable in various platforms (i.e. open field, greenhouses or bioreactors), plants hold great potential to produce different types of therapeutic proteins with reduced risks of contamination with human and animal pathogens. To maximize the yield and quality of plant-made pharmaceuticals, crucial factors should be taken into account, including host plants, expression cassettes, subcellular localization, post-translational modifications, and protein extraction and purification methods. DNA technology and genetic transformation methods have also contributed to great parts with substantial improvements. To play their proper function and stability, proteins require multiple post-translational modifications such as glycosylation. Intensive glycoengineering research has been performed to reduce the immunogenicity of recombinant proteins produced in plants. Important strategies have also been developed to minimize the proteolysis effects and enhance protein accumulation. With growing human population and new epidemic threats, the need for new medications will be paramount so that the traditional pharmaceutical industry will not be alone to answer medication demands for upcoming generations. Here, we review several aspects of plant molecular pharming and outline some important challenges that hamper these ambitious biotechnological developments.

  11. Food waste generation and industrial uses: A review.

    PubMed

    Girotto, Francesca; Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2015-11-01

    Food waste is made up of materials intended for human consumption that are subsequently discharged, lost, degraded or contaminated. The problem of food waste is currently on an increase, involving all sectors of waste management from collection to disposal; the identifying of sustainable solutions extends to all contributors to the food supply chains, agricultural and industrial sectors, as well as retailers and final consumers. A series of solutions may be implemented in the appropriate management of food waste, and prioritised in a similar way to waste management hierarchy. The most sought-after solutions are represented by avoidance and donation of edible fractions to social services. Food waste is also employed in industrial processes for the production of biofuels or biopolymers. Further steps foresee the recovery of nutrients and fixation of carbon by composting. Final and less desirable options are incineration and landfilling. A considerable amount of research has been carried out on food waste with a view to the recovery of energy or related products. The present review aims to provide an overview of current debate on food waste definitions, generation and reduction strategies, and conversion technologies emerging from the biorefinery concept.

  12. Molecular farming on rescue of pharma industry for next generations.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled; Makhzoum, Abdullah; Trémouillaux-Guiller, Jocelyne

    2016-10-01

    Recombinant proteins expressed in plants have been emerged as a novel branch of the biopharmaceutical industry, offering practical and safety advantages over traditional approaches. Cultivable in various platforms (i.e. open field, greenhouses or bioreactors), plants hold great potential to produce different types of therapeutic proteins with reduced risks of contamination with human and animal pathogens. To maximize the yield and quality of plant-made pharmaceuticals, crucial factors should be taken into account, including host plants, expression cassettes, subcellular localization, post-translational modifications, and protein extraction and purification methods. DNA technology and genetic transformation methods have also contributed to great parts with substantial improvements. To play their proper function and stability, proteins require multiple post-translational modifications such as glycosylation. Intensive glycoengineering research has been performed to reduce the immunogenicity of recombinant proteins produced in plants. Important strategies have also been developed to minimize the proteolysis effects and enhance protein accumulation. With growing human population and new epidemic threats, the need for new medications will be paramount so that the traditional pharmaceutical industry will not be alone to answer medication demands for upcoming generations. Here, we review several aspects of plant molecular pharming and outline some important challenges that hamper these ambitious biotechnological developments. PMID:26042351

  13. Food waste generation and industrial uses: A review.

    PubMed

    Girotto, Francesca; Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2015-11-01

    Food waste is made up of materials intended for human consumption that are subsequently discharged, lost, degraded or contaminated. The problem of food waste is currently on an increase, involving all sectors of waste management from collection to disposal; the identifying of sustainable solutions extends to all contributors to the food supply chains, agricultural and industrial sectors, as well as retailers and final consumers. A series of solutions may be implemented in the appropriate management of food waste, and prioritised in a similar way to waste management hierarchy. The most sought-after solutions are represented by avoidance and donation of edible fractions to social services. Food waste is also employed in industrial processes for the production of biofuels or biopolymers. Further steps foresee the recovery of nutrients and fixation of carbon by composting. Final and less desirable options are incineration and landfilling. A considerable amount of research has been carried out on food waste with a view to the recovery of energy or related products. The present review aims to provide an overview of current debate on food waste definitions, generation and reduction strategies, and conversion technologies emerging from the biorefinery concept. PMID:26130171

  14. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  15. Environmental and industrial applications of pulsed power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Neau, E.L. )

    1994-02-01

    The technology base formed by the development of high peak power simulators, laser drivers, free electron lasers, and Inertial Confinement Fusion drivers from the early 60's through the late 80's is being extended to high average power short-pulse machines with the capabilities of performing new roles in environmental cleanup applications and in supporting new types of industrial manufacturing processes. Processes requiring high volume throughput and moderate dose levels, such as flue gas cleanup and food pasteurization plants, will require very high average beam power levels of hundreds of kilowatts to perhaps several megawatts. In this paper the authors briefly discuss a new class of short-pulse high average power accelerators, now operating in laboratory environments, using semiconductor and magnetic switches to achieve megavolt electron and ion beams with 10's of kiloamperes of current and average power levels in excess of 100 kW. The technology is modular, robust in concept, and appears to be suitable for extension to the megawatt power level. After a brief introduction to the technology, the paper then concentrates on specific application areas that are being explored.

  16. Multi-Megawatt Organic Rankine Engine power plant (MORE). Phase IA final report: system design of MORE power plant for industrial energy conservation emphasizing the cement industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, E.K.; Breindel, B.; Collamore, F.N.; Hodgson, J.N.; Olson, G.K.

    1980-01-31

    The Multi-Megawatt Organic Rankine Engine (MORE) program is directed towards the development of a large, organic Rankine power plant for energy conservation from moderate temperature industrial heat streams. Organic Rankine power plants are ideally suited for use with heat sources in the temperature range below 1100/sup 0/F. Cement manufacture was selected as the prototype industry for the MORE system because of the range of parameters which can be tested in a cement application. This includes process exit temperatures of 650/sup 0/F to 1110/sup 0/F for suspension preheater and long dry kilns, severe dust loading, multi-megawatt power generation potential, and boiler exhaust gas acid dew point variations. The work performed during the Phase IA System Design contract period is described. The System Design task defines the complete MORE system and its installation to the level necessary to obtain detailed performance maps, equipment specifications, planning of supporting experiments, and credible construction and hardware cost estimates. The MORE power plant design is based upon installation in the Black Mountain Quarry Cement Plant near Victorville, California.

  17. Pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustion for power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Weimer, R.F.

    1995-08-01

    Second-generation Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (PCFBC) is the culmination of years of effort in the development of a new generation of power plants which can operate on lower-quality fuels with substantially improved efficiencies, meet environmental requirements, and provide a lower cost of electricity. Air Products was selected in the DOE Clean Coal Technology Round V program to build, own, and operate the first commercial power plant using second-generation PCFBC technology, to be located at an Air Products chemicals manufacturing facility in Calvert City, Kentucky. This paper describes the second-generation PCFBC concept and its critical technology components.

  18. Multirail electromagnetic launcher powered from a pulsed magnetohydrodynamic generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonin, A. G.; Butov, V. G.; Panchenko, V. P.; Sinyaev, S. V.; Solonenko, V. A.; Shvetsov, G. A.; Yakushev, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    The operation of an electromagnetic multirail launcher of solids powered from a pulsed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator is studied. The plasma flow in the channel of the pulsed MHD generator and the possibility of launching solids in a rapid-fire mode of launcher operation are considered. It is shown that this mode of launcher operation can be implemented by matching the plasma flow dynamics in the channel of the pulsed MHD generator and the launching conditions. It is also shown that powerful pulsed MHD generators can be used as a source of electrical energy for rapid-fire electromagnetic rail launchers operating in a burst mode.

  19. 76 FR 36914 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC, Oswego Harbor Power LLC, TC..., 2011, Astoria Generating Company, NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...

  20. Reactive power generation in high speed induction machines by continuously occurring space-transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laithwaite, E. R.; Kuznetsov, S. B.

    1980-09-01

    A new technique of continuously generating reactive power from the stator of a brushless induction machine is conceived and tested on a 10-kw linear machine and on 35 and 150 rotary cage motors. An auxiliary magnetic wave traveling at rotor speed is artificially created by the space-transient attributable to the asymmetrical stator winding. At least two distinct windings of different pole-pitch must be incorporated. This rotor wave drifts in and out of phase repeatedly with the stator MMF wave proper and the resulting modulation of the airgap flux is used to generate reactive VA apart from that required for magnetization or leakage flux. The VAR generation effect increases with machine size, and leading power factor operation of the entire machine is viable for large industrial motors and power system induction generators.

  1. UF6 breeder reactor power plants for electric power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, J. H.; Clement, J. D.; Hohl, F.

    1976-01-01

    The reactor concept analyzed is a U-233F6 core surrounded by a molten salt (Li(7)F, BeF2, ThF4) blanket. Nuclear survey calculations were carried out for both spherical and cylindrical geometries. Thermodynamic cycle calculations were performed for a variety of Rankine cycles. A conceptual design is presented along with a system layout for a 1000 MW stationary power plant. Advantages of the gas core breeder reactor (GCBR) are as follows: (1) high efficiency; (2) simplified on-line reprocessing; (3) inherent safety considerations; (4) high breeding ratio; (5) possibility of burning all or most of the long-lived nuclear waste actinides; and (6) possibility of extrapolating the technology to higher temperatures and MHD direct conversion.

  2. Generation, capture, and utilization of industrial carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Andrew J; Sin, Emily H K; Marriott, Ray; Clark, James H

    2010-03-22

    efficiency and lower per capita consumption, and replacing fossil energy sources with sources such as wind, wave, and solar, respectively). "Low carbon" is of inherently less value to the chemical and plastics industries at least in terms of raw materials although a version of (2), the use of biomass, does apply, especially if we use carbon sources that are renewable on a human timescale. There is however, another renewable, natural source of carbon that is widely available and for which greater utilization would help restore material balance and the natural cycle for carbon in terms of resource and waste. CO(2), perhaps the most widely discussed and feared chemical in modern society, is as fundamental to our survival as water, and like water we need to better understand the human as well as natural production and consumption of CO(2) so that we can attempt to get these into a sustainable balance. Current utilization of this valuable resource by the chemical industry is only 90 megatonne per year, compared to the 26.3 gigatonne CO(2) generated annually by combustion of fossil fuels for energy generation, as such significant opportunities exist for increased utilization of CO(2) generated from industrial processes. It is also essential that renewable energy is used if CO(2) is to be utilized as a C1 building block. PMID:20049768

  3. Generation, capture, and utilization of industrial carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Andrew J; Sin, Emily H K; Marriott, Ray; Clark, James H

    2010-03-22

    efficiency and lower per capita consumption, and replacing fossil energy sources with sources such as wind, wave, and solar, respectively). "Low carbon" is of inherently less value to the chemical and plastics industries at least in terms of raw materials although a version of (2), the use of biomass, does apply, especially if we use carbon sources that are renewable on a human timescale. There is however, another renewable, natural source of carbon that is widely available and for which greater utilization would help restore material balance and the natural cycle for carbon in terms of resource and waste. CO(2), perhaps the most widely discussed and feared chemical in modern society, is as fundamental to our survival as water, and like water we need to better understand the human as well as natural production and consumption of CO(2) so that we can attempt to get these into a sustainable balance. Current utilization of this valuable resource by the chemical industry is only 90 megatonne per year, compared to the 26.3 gigatonne CO(2) generated annually by combustion of fossil fuels for energy generation, as such significant opportunities exist for increased utilization of CO(2) generated from industrial processes. It is also essential that renewable energy is used if CO(2) is to be utilized as a C1 building block.

  4. A methodology to identify stranded generation facilities and estimate stranded costs for Louisiana's electric utility industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cope, Robert Frank, III

    1998-12-01

    The electric utility industry in the United States is currently experiencing a new and different type of growing pain. It is the pain of having to restructure itself into a competitive business. Many industry experts are trying to explain how the nation as a whole, as well as individual states, will implement restructuring and handle its numerous "transition problems." One significant transition problem for federal and state regulators rests with determining a utility's stranded costs. Stranded generation facilities are assets which would be uneconomic in a competitive environment or costs for assets whose regulated book value is greater than market value. At issue is the methodology which will be used to estimate stranded costs. The two primary methods are known as "Top-Down" and "Bottom-Up." The "Top-Down" approach simply determines the present value of the losses in revenue as the market price for electricity changes over a period of time into the future. The problem with this approach is that it does not take into account technical issues associated with the generation and wheeling of electricity. The "Bottom-Up" approach computes the present value of specific strandable generation facilities and compares the resulting valuations with their historical costs. It is regarded as a detailed and difficult, but more precise, approach to identifying stranded assets and their associated costs. This dissertation develops a "Bottom-Up" quantitative, optimization-based approach to electric power wheeling within the state of Louisiana. It optimally evaluates all production capabilities and coordinates the movement of bulk power through transmission interconnections of competing companies in and around the state. Sensitivity analysis to this approach is performed by varying seasonal consumer demand, electric power imports, and transmission inter-connection cost parameters. Generation facility economic dispatch and transmission interconnection bulk power transfers, specific

  5. A power conditioning system for radioisotope thermoelectric generator energy sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The use of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) as the primary source of energy in unmanned spacecraft is discussed. RTG output control, power conditioning system requirements, the electrical design, and circuit performance are also discussed.

  6. Coal-fueled diesels for modular power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Rao, A.K.; Smith, W.C.

    1993-11-01

    Interest in coal-fueled heat engines revived after the sharp increase in the prices of natural gas and petroleum in the 1970`s. Based on the success of micronized coal water slurry combustion tests in an engine in the 1980`s, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy. initiated several programs for the development of advanced coal-fueled diesel and gas turbine engines for use in cogeneration, small utilities, industrial applications and transportation. Cooper-Bessemer and Arthur D. Little have been developing technology since 1985, under the sponsor of METC, to enable coal water slurry (CWS) to be utilized in large bore, medium-speed diesel engines. Modular power generation applications in the 10--100 MW size (each plant typically using from two to eight engines) are the target applications for the late 1990`s and beyond when, according to the US DOE and other projections, oil and natural gas prices are expected to escalate much more rapidly compared to the price of coal. As part of this program over 7.50 hours of prototype engine operation has been achieved on coal water slurry (CWS), including over 100 hours operation of a six-cylinder full scale engine with Integrated Emissions Control System in 1993. In this paper, the authors described the project cost of the CWS fuel used, the heat rate of the engine operating on CWS, the projected maintenance cost for various engine components, and the demonstrated low emissions characteristics of the coal diesel system.

  7. Coal-gasification combined-cycle power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.A.

    1984-06-01

    Rolls-Royce has joined forces with Foster Wheeler to offer a modern power plant that integrates the benefits of coal gasification with the efficiency advantages of combined-cycle power generation. Powered by fuel gas from two parallel Lurgi slagging gasifiers, the 150-MW power station employs two Rolls-Royce SK60 gas-turbine generating sets. The proposed plant is designed for continuous power generation and should operate efficiently down to one-third of its rated capacity. Rolls estimates that the installed cost for this station would be lower than that for a conventional coal-fired station of the same output with comparable operating costs. Cooling water requirements would be less than half those of a coal-fired station.

  8. A Scenario Generation Method for Wind Power Ramp Events Forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Ming-Jian; Ke, De-Ping; Sun, Yuan-Zhang; Gan, Di; Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2015-07-03

    Wind power ramp events (WPREs) have received increasing attention in recent years due to their significant impact on the reliability of power grid operations. In this paper, a novel WPRE forecasting method is proposed which is able to estimate the probability distributions of three important properties of the WPREs. To do so, a neural network (NN) is first proposed to model the wind power generation (WPG) as a stochastic process so that a number of scenarios of the future WPG can be generated (or predicted). Each possible scenario of the future WPG generated in this manner contains the ramping information, and the distributions of the designated WPRE properties can be stochastically derived based on the possible scenarios. Actual data from a wind power plant in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) was selected for testing the proposed ramp forecasting method. Results showed that the proposed method effectively forecasted the probability of ramp events.

  9. FEM Simulation of Small Wind Power Generating System Using PMSG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesamaru, Katsumi; Ohno, Yoshihiro; Sonoda, Daisuke

    The paper describes a new approach to simulate the small wind power generating systems using PMSG, in which the output is connected to constant resistive load, such as heaters, through the rectifier and the dc chopper. The dynamics of the wind power generating system is presented, and it is shown by simulation results that this approach is useful for system dynamics, such as starting phenomena.

  10. Thermionic-tunneling multilayer nanostructures for power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Taofang

    2006-04-01

    A method for power generation based on nanoengineered interface design with partially filled gap is presented. The proposed device allows a substantial temperature difference to exist between heat source and heat sink or two electrodes, thereby maximizing heat source utilization. A unified model and detailed analyses are provided for the solid device operating either as a power generator or as a cooler. Our analyses show that efficiency of about 50% of the corresponding Carnot efficiency can be achieved.

  11. Tying the knot with next-generation reactors: Can the industry afford a second marriage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This article examines the future of nuclear power beyond the year 2000. The nuclear industry just celebrated 50 years of nuclear technology, but no new plants have been ordered in the US since 1978 and some European countries are giving up on the nuclear option. This article discusses the four US advanced light-water reactor design and safety features, specific design features and parameters for the advanced designs, advanced designs from Europe, features utilities look for in a reactor, evolutionary versus passive designs, gaining public acceptance for new designs, and what alternatives are there to installing next-generation nuclear systems

  12. Computational Research Challenges and Opportunities for the Optimization of Fossil Energy Power Generation System

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.E.

    2007-06-01

    Emerging fossil energy power generation systems must operate with unprecedented efficiency and near-zero emissions, while optimizing profitably amid cost fluctuations for raw materials, finished products, and energy. To help address these challenges, the fossil energy industry will have to rely increasingly on the use advanced computational tools for modeling and simulating complex process systems. In this paper, we present the computational research challenges and opportunities for the optimization of fossil energy power generation systems across the plant lifecycle from process synthesis and design to plant operations. We also look beyond the plant gates to discuss research challenges and opportunities for enterprise-wide optimization, including planning, scheduling, and supply chain technologies.

  13. Electrical power systems (Dominican Republic). Generator sets, February 1991. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    The market for U.S. generators in the Dominican Republic from depressed 1991 levels and grow at a rate of 10% for the next three years. While the national power corporation has improved both supply and distribution of electricity, growth in manufacturing and tourism is expected to create more demand. Also, the dramatically reduced delivery of electricity by the power company in 1990-1991 caused such a strain on generators in place that much of the existing stock will need to be replaced. The U.S. with 54% of the total market dominates the large industrial market while Japan is most competitive with the small domestic use market.

  14. Thermoelectric Analysis for Helical Power Generation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiangning; Fujisaka, Takeyuki; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-06-01

    The performance of a three-dimensional helical thermoelectric generation (TEG) system is examined by exposing it to a temperature difference with hot and cold sources. The helical paths for the two thermal fluids give the TEG device the potential to efficiently convert thermal energy. The characteristic performance of the helical system is numerically analyzed by using the finite-volume method in a compact system. The helical system is compared with a straight system in which all the thermoelectric (TE) elements present equivalent geometry. The difference in the TE performance between the two systems is not significant when the TE surfaces are maintained at constant temperatures. Both the electromotive force and the current in the TEG system increase linearly with the temperature difference Δ T applied at the two module surfaces. The current preferentially flows through a main path determined by the geometry of the TE element. The merits of the helical design are its compactness, space saving, and smooth fluid flow due to gravity, compared with the straight system.

  15. Lamp for generating high power ultraviolet radiation

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Gary L.; Potter, James M.

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus is a gas filled ultraviolet generating lamp for use as a liquid purifier. The lamp is powred by high voltage AC, but has no metallic electrodes within or in contact with the gas enclosure which is constructed as two concentric quartz cylinders sealed together at their ends with the gas fill between the cylinders. Cooling liquid is pumped through the volume inside the inner quartz cylinder where an electrically conductive pipe spaced from the inner cylinder is used to supply the cooling liquid and act as the high voltage electrode. The gas enclosure is enclosed within but spaced from a metal housing which is connected to operate as the ground electrode of the circuit and through which the treated fluid flows. Thus, the electrical circuit is from the central pipe, and through the cooling liquid, the gas enclosure, the treated liquid on the outside of the outer quartz cylinder, and to the housing. The high voltage electrode is electrically isolated from the source of cooling liquid by a length of insulated hose which also supplies the cooling liquid.

  16. Application of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) to decentralized power generation, preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huovilainen, Reino; Alamaeki, Jarmo; Tarjanne, Risto

    The study concentrates on MW-class ORC processes that could be utilized in connection with different kind of power plants. The use of an ORC-process may offer potential for improvements in two ways; first, an ORC-process can be suitable with low-grade thermal sources where water based power generation is not feasible. Second, an increase in power generation efficiency is achieved. The connection of an ORC-process to following plants were investigated; a gas burning heat-only boiler, a solid fuel boiler, a steam and gas turbine (co-generation) unit, a steam turbine and a heating reactor. In each case the following economical factors for adding an ORC-process were calculated; the cost for electricity, the return of investment (ROI) and the pay-back period. The most favorable cases to utilize an ORC-process are a heating reactor, a steam turbine and a gas turbine based co-generation plant. In connection with heat-only plants a better economy were achieved than with co-generation plants. The results indicate that there can be found economically promising applications for ORC-processes in industry and power plants. It is evident that those cases should be investigated more in detail. ORC-processes allow power generation in new circumstances and can increase the efficiency of power plants. More emphasis should be paid for the R and D of this relatively new technology.

  17. Enron Corporation bets $150 million on solar-powered generation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This nation`s largest natural gas company is betting $150 million that it can produce solar power at rates competitive with those of energy generated from oil, gas and coal. The Enron Corporation plans to build a photovoltaic power plant in the southern Nevada desert that would be the largest operation in the country making electricity directly from sunlight, producing enough to power a city of 100,000 people. It is expected to begin operating in two to three years. Some of the nation`s leading solar power experts say Enron`s optimistic goal probably is reachable. The cost of solar power generation has quietly declined by two-thirds. Far from depending on some wondrous breakthrough, the experts say, Enron can offer commercially competitive solar power by inexpensively mass-producing solar panels and then employing thousands of them in the Nevada desert.

  18. 10. Interior view, east side of power plant, generator bases ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view, east side of power plant, generator bases in foreground, electrical panels and fuel tanks in background looking northeast - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  19. Modeling the Ocean Tide for Tidal Power Generation Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, M.; Gedney, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent years have seen renewed interest in the ocean tide as a source of energy for electrical power generation. Unlike in the 1960s, when the tidal barrage was the predominant method of power extraction considered and implemented, the current methodology favors operation of a free-stream turbine or an array of them in strong tidal currents. As tidal power generation moves from pilot-scale projects to actual array implementations, numerical modeling of tidal currents is expected to play an increasing role in site selection, resource assessment, array design, and environmental impact assessment. In this presentation, a simple, coupled ocean/estuary model designed for research into fundamental aspects of tidal power generation is described. The model consists of a Pacific Ocean-size rectangular basin and a connected fjord-like embayment with dimensions similar to that of Puget Sound, Washington, one of the potential power generation sites in the United States. The model is forced by an idealized lunar tide-generating potential. The study focuses on the energetics of a tidal system including tidal power extraction at both global and regional scales. The hyperbolic nature of the governing shallow water equations means consequence of tidal power extraction cannot be limited to the local waters, but is global in extent. Modeling power extraction with a regional model with standard boundary conditions introduces uncertainties of 3 ~ 25% in the power extraction estimate depending on the level of extraction. Power extraction in the model has a well-defined maximum (~800 MW in a standard case) that is in agreement with previous theoretical studies. Natural energy dissipation and tidal power extraction strongly interact; for a turbine array of a given capacity, the higher the level of natural dissipation the lower the power the array can extract. Conversely, power extraction leads to a decrease in the level of natural dissipation (Figure) as well as the tidal range and the

  20. 43 CFR 431.4 - Power generation responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... allow for changing reservoir and river conditions, or for changes in kilowatthours generation per acre... notice in advance of any change in delivery of water, and that Reclamation shall make such inspections... power generation and related matters and request a meeting in writing, including a description of...

  1. User's manual for levelized power generation cost using a microcomputer

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, L.C.

    1984-08-01

    Microcomputer programs for the estimation of levelized electrical power generation costs are described. Procedures for light-water reactor plants and coal-fired plants include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, nuclear decommissioning cost, and levelized total generation cost. Programs are written in Pascal and are run on an Apple II Plus microcomputer.

  2. Medium-size power generation market now focus of Rolls-Royce

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, P.

    1996-12-01

    John Rose, Rolls-Royce chief executive, explained that the focus in power generation would now be upon small- and medium-sized power applications up to 150MW using its ranges of aeroderivative gas turbines, small steam turbines and diesel engines. The company already has an established position in this area and expects to become more competitive as aeroderivative gas turbines like the marine WR21 and industrial Trent reach the market. A measure of Rolls-Royce`s broad capability in medium power generation can be seen in the company`s decision to build its own cogen power station to provide heat and power to its major aerospace manufacturing facilities at Derby in the U.K. Work has already started on preparing land adjoining the site and the 60 MW power station is scheduled to go on line in January 1998. The US$60 million project is being carried out by Derby Cogeneration, a joint venture between Rolls-Royce Power Ventures and National Power Cogen, a subsidiary of the U.K.`s largest electrical power generator. 5 figs.

  3. Next generation geothermal power plants. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brugman, John; Hattar, John; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1994-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop concepts for the next generation geothermal power plant(s) (NGGPP). This plant, compared to existing plants, will generate power for a lower levelized cost and will be more competitive with fossil fuel fired power plants. The NGGPP will utilize geothermal resources efficiently and will be equipped with contingencies to mitigate the risk of reservoir performance. The NGGPP design will attempt to minimize emission of pollutants and consumption of surface water and/or geothermal fluids for cooling service.

  4. A numerical investigation of a thermodielectric power generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklar, Akiva A.

    The performance of a novel micro-thermodielectric power generation system was investigated in order to determine if thermodielectric power generation can be practically employed and if its performance can compete with current portable power generation technologies. Thermodielectric power generation is a direct energy conversion technology that converts heat directly into high voltage direct current. It requires dielectric (i.e., capacitive) materials whose charge storing capabilities are a function of temperature. This property can be exploited by heating these materials after they are charged; as their temperature increases, their charge storage capability decreases, forcing them to eject a portion of their surface charge. This ejected charge can then be supplied to an appropriate electronic storage device. There are several advantages associated with thermodielectric energy conversion; first, it requires heat addition at relatively low conventional power generation temperatures, i.e., less than 600 °K, and second, devices that utilize it have the potential for excellent power density and device reliability. The predominant disadvantage of using this power generation technique is that the device must operate in an unsteady manner; this can lead to substantial heat transfer losses that limit the device's thermal efficiency. The studied power generation system was designed so that the power generating components of the system (i.e., the thermodielectric materials) are integrated within a micro-scale heat exchange apparatus designed specifically to provide the thermodielectric materials with the unsteady heating and cooling necessary for efficient power generation. This apparatus is designed to utilize a liquid as a working fluid in order to maximize its heat transfer capabilities, minimize the size of the heat exchanger, and maximize the power density of the power generation system. The thermodielectric materials are operated through a power generation cycle that

  5. Rankine engine solar power generation. I - Performance and economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gossler, A. A.; Orrock, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a computer simulation of the performance of a solar flat plate collector powered electrical generation system are presented. The simulation was configured to include locations in New Mexico, North Dakota, Tennessee, and Massachusetts, and considered a water-based heat-transfer fluid collector system with storage. The collectors also powered a Rankine-cycle boiler filled with a low temperature working fluid. The generator was considered to be run only when excess solar heat and full storage would otherwise require heat purging through the collectors. All power was directed into the utility grid. The solar powered generator unit addition was found to be dependent on site location and collector area, and reduced the effective solar cost with collector areas greater than 400-670 sq m. The sites were economically ranked, best to worst: New Mexico, North Dakota, Massachusetts, and Tennessee.

  6. MEMS-based power generation techniques for implantable biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Lueke, Jonathan; Moussa, Walied A

    2011-01-01

    Implantable biosensing is attractive for both medical monitoring and diagnostic applications. It is possible to monitor phenomena such as physical loads on joints or implants, vital signs, or osseointegration in vivo and in real time. Microelectromechanical (MEMS)-based generation techniques can allow for the autonomous operation of implantable biosensors by generating electrical power to replace or supplement existing battery-based power systems. By supplementing existing battery-based power systems for implantable biosensors, the operational lifetime of the sensor is increased. In addition, the potential for a greater amount of available power allows additional components to be added to the biosensing module, such as computational and wireless and components, improving functionality and performance of the biosensor. Photovoltaic, thermovoltaic, micro fuel cell, electrostatic, electromagnetic, and piezoelectric based generation schemes are evaluated in this paper for applicability for implantable biosensing. MEMS-based generation techniques that harvest ambient energy, such as vibration, are much better suited for implantable biosensing applications than fuel-based approaches, producing up to milliwatts of electrical power. High power density MEMS-based approaches, such as piezoelectric and electromagnetic schemes, allow for supplemental and replacement power schemes for biosensing applications to improve device capabilities and performance. In addition, this may allow for the biosensor to be further miniaturized, reducing the need for relatively large batteries with respect to device size. This would cause the implanted biosensor to be less invasive, increasing the quality of care received by the patient.

  7. MEMS-Based Power Generation Techniques for Implantable Biosensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lueke, Jonathan; Moussa, Walied A.

    2011-01-01

    Implantable biosensing is attractive for both medical monitoring and diagnostic applications. It is possible to monitor phenomena such as physical loads on joints or implants, vital signs, or osseointegration in vivo and in real time. Microelectromechanical (MEMS)-based generation techniques can allow for the autonomous operation of implantable biosensors by generating electrical power to replace or supplement existing battery-based power systems. By supplementing existing battery-based power systems for implantable biosensors, the operational lifetime of the sensor is increased. In addition, the potential for a greater amount of available power allows additional components to be added to the biosensing module, such as computational and wireless and components, improving functionality and performance of the biosensor. Photovoltaic, thermovoltaic, micro fuel cell, electrostatic, electromagnetic, and piezoelectric based generation schemes are evaluated in this paper for applicability for implantable biosensing. MEMS-based generation techniques that harvest ambient energy, such as vibration, are much better suited for implantable biosensing applications than fuel-based approaches, producing up to milliwatts of electrical power. High power density MEMS-based approaches, such as piezoelectric and electromagnetic schemes, allow for supplemental and replacement power schemes for biosensing applications to improve device capabilities and performance. In addition, this may allow for the biosensor to be further miniaturized, reducing the need for relatively large batteries with respect to device size. This would cause the implanted biosensor to be less invasive, increasing the quality of care received by the patient. PMID:22319362

  8. Generation Expansion Planning with High Penetration of Wind Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharan, Ishan; Balasubramanian, R.

    2016-08-01

    Worldwide thrust is being provided in generation of electricity from wind. Planning for the developmental needs of wind based power has to be consistent with the objective and basic framework of overall resource planning. The operational issues associated with the integration of wind power must be addressed at the planning stage. Lack of co-ordinated planning of wind turbine generators, conventional generating units and expansion of the transmission system may lead to curtailment of wind power due to transmission inadequacy or operational constraints. This paper presents a generation expansion planning model taking into account fuel transportation and power transmission constraints, while addressing the operational issues associated with the high penetration of wind power. For analyzing the operational issues, security constrained unit commitment algorithm is embedded in the integrated generation and transmission expansion planning model. The integrated generation and transmission expansion planning problem has been formulated as a mixed integer linear problem involving both binary and continuous variables in GAMS. The model has been applied to the expansion planning of a real system to illustrate the proposed approach.

  9. International market assessment of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems for cottage industry applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philippi, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    The final result of an international assessment of the market for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in cottage industry applications is reported. Nonindustrialized countries without centrally planned economies were considered. Cottage industries were defined as small rural manufacturers, employing less than 50 people, producing consumer and simple products. The data to support this analysis were obtained from secondary and expert sources in the U.S. and in-country field investigations of the Philippines and Mexico. The near-term market for photovoltaics for rural cottage industry applications appears to be limited to demonstration projects and pilot programs, based on an in-depth study of the nature of cottage industry, its role in the rural economy, the electric energy requirements of cottage industry, and a financial analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic systems as compared to their most viable competitor, diesel driven generators. Photovoltaics are shown to be a better long-term option only for very low power requirements. Some of these uses would include clay mixers, grinders, centrifuges, lathes, power saws and lighting of a workshop.

  10. International market assessment of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems for cottage industry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippi, T. M.

    1981-11-01

    The final result of an international assessment of the market for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in cottage industry applications is reported. Nonindustrialized countries without centrally planned economies were considered. Cottage industries were defined as small rural manufacturers, employing less than 50 people, producing consumer and simple products. The data to support this analysis were obtained from secondary and expert sources in the U.S. and in-country field investigations of the Philippines and Mexico. The near-term market for photovoltaics for rural cottage industry applications appears to be limited to demonstration projects and pilot programs, based on an in-depth study of the nature of cottage industry, its role in the rural economy, the electric energy requirements of cottage industry, and a financial analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic systems as compared to their most viable competitor, diesel driven generators. Photovoltaics are shown to be a better long-term option only for very low power requirements. Some of these uses would include clay mixers, grinders, centrifuges, lathes, power saws and lighting of a workshop.

  11. A Study on Optimal Operation of Power Generation by Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugahara, Hideo; Aoyagi, Yoshihiro; Kato, Masakazu

    This paper proposes the optimal operation of power generation by waste. Refuse is taken as a new energy resource of biomass. Although some fossil fuel origin refuse like plastic may be mixed in, CO2 emission is not counted up except for above fossil fuel origin refuse for the Kyoto Protocol. Incineration is indispensable for refuse disposal and power generation by waste is environment-friendly and power system-friendly using synchronous generators. Optimal planning is a key point to make much of this merit. The optimal plan includes refuse incinerator operation plan with refuse collection and maintenance scheduling of refuse incinerator plant. In this paper, it has been made clear that the former plan increases generation energy through numerical simulations. Concerning the latter plan, a method to determine the maintenance schedule using genetic algorithm has been established. In addition, taking environmental load of CO2 emission into account, this is expected larger merits from environment and energy resource points of view.

  12. Computer simulation of industrial power systems for improving plant design and energy management

    SciTech Connect

    Delfino, B.; Denegri, G.B.; Pinceti, P.

    1987-01-01

    The growing size and complexity of industrial power systems, plus the requirements of more and more reliable operation, particularly in continuous process plants, call for the utilization of structured approaches which make use of off-line computer programs both at design and control stages. As a general rule, the use of such computer programs has been restricted to the analysis of the load-flow and fault conditions without taking into account the dynamic behavior of the system. The aim of the paper is to introduce the dynamic simulation in industrial power system analysis and to point out the fall- out on the design and management of such plants. In particular, reference is made to a large steel plant, supplied from the electrical utility in connection with in-site generation; knowledge of dynamic performance of the system is shown to provide the engineer the essential information to optimize system protection and operating reliability.

  13. Present and future nuclear power generation as a reflection of individual countries' resources and objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I.Y.

    1987-06-26

    The nuclear reactor industry has been in a state of decline for more than a decade in most of the world. The reasons are numerous and often unique to the energy situation of individual countries. Two commonly cited issues influence decisions relating to construction of reactors: costs and the need, or lack thereof, for additional generating capacity. Public concern has ''politicized'' the nuclear industry in many non-communist countries, causing a profound effect on the economics of the option. The nuclear installations and future plans are reviewed on a country-by-country basis for 36 countries in the light of the resources and objectives of each. Because oil and gas for power production throughout the world are being phased out as much as possible, coal-fired generation currently tends to be the chosen alternative to nuclear power production. Exceptions occur in many of the less developed countries that collectively have a very limited operating experience with nuclear reactors. The Chernobyl accident in the USSR alarmed the public; however, national strategies and plans to build reactors have not changed markedly in the interim. Assuming that the next decade of nuclear power generation is uneventful, additional electrical demand would cause the nuclear power industry to experience a rejuvenation in Europe as well as in the US. 80 refs., 3 figs., 22 tabs.

  14. Stability analysis of free piston Stirling engine power generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Z. X.; Nasar, S. A.; Rosswurm, Mark

    This paper presents a stability analysis of the free-piston Stirling engine and linear alternator power generation system. Such a system operates under sustained mechanical oscillators, stability of the system is important for proper operation, and as a criterion in selecting the tuning capacitor. The stability criterion of the system is that the rate of change in power dissipation and electric power output is always faster than the rate of the power generated by the engine. The dynamic equations and model of the system are developed in this paper. Frequency domain analysis and Bode plot techniques are utilized in the study. The stable operating frequency region corresponding to different levels of power output are then determined.

  15. A Thermoelectric Generation System and Its Power Electronics Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Junling; Sun, Kai; Ni, Longxian; Chen, Min; Kang, Zhengdong; Zhang, Li; Xing, Yan; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2012-06-01

    The electricity produced by a thermoelectric generator (TEG) must satisfy the requirements of specific loads given the signal level, stability, and power performance. In the design of such systems, one major challenge involves the interactions between the thermoelectric power source and the power stage and signal-conditioning circuits of the load, including DC-DC conversion, the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller, and other power management controllers. In this paper, a survey of existing power electronics designs for TEG systems is presented first. Second, a flat, wall-like TEG system consisting of 32 modules is experimentally optimized, and the improved power parameters are tested. Power-conditioning circuitry based on an interleaved boost DC-DC converter is then developed for the TEG system in terms of the tested power specification. The power electronics design features a combined control scheme with an MPPT and a constant output voltage as well as the low-voltage and high-current output characteristics of the TEG system. The experimental results of the TEG system with the power electronics stage and with purely resistive loads are compared. The comparisons verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed design. Finally, the thermal-electric coupling effects caused by current-related heat source terms, such as the Peltier effect etc., are reported and discussed, and the potential influence on the power electronics design due to such coupling is analyzed.

  16. Renewable generation technology choice and policies in a competitive electricity supply industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Ashok

    Renewable energy generation technologies have lower externality costs but higher private costs than fossil fuel-based generation. As a result, the choice of renewables in the future generation mix could be affected by the industry's future market-oriented structure because market objectives based on private value judgments may conflict with social policy objectives toward better environmental quality. This research assesses how renewable energy generation choices would be affected in a restructured electricity generation market. A multi-period linear programming-based model (Resource Planning Model) is used to characterize today's electricity supply market in the United States. The model simulates long-range (2000-2020) generation capacity planning and operation decisions under alternative market paradigms. Price-sensitive demand is used to simulate customer preferences in the market. Dynamically changing costs for renewables and a two-step load duration curve are used. A Reference Case represents the benchmark for a socially-optimal diffusion of renewables and a basis for comparing outcomes under alternative market structures. It internalizes externality costs associated with emissions of sulfur dioxide (SOsb2), nitrous oxides (NOsbx), and carbon dioxide (COsb2). A Competitive Case represents a market with many generation suppliers and decision-making based on private costs. Finally, a Market Power Case models the extreme case of market power: monopoly. The results suggest that the share of renewables would decrease (and emissions would increase) considerably in both the Competitive and the Market Power Cases with respect to the Reference Case. The reduction is greater in the Market Power Case due to pricing decisions under existing supply capability. The research evaluates the following environmental policy options that could overcome market failures in achieving an appropriate level of renewable generation: COsb2 emissions tax, SOsb2 emissions cap, renewable

  17. Recent Trends in Variable Generation Forecasting and Its Value to the Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Orwig, Kirsten D.; Ahlstrom, Mark L.; Banunarayanan, Venkat; Sharp, Justin; Wilczak, James M.; Freedman, Jeffrey; Haupt, Sue Ellen; Cline, Joel; Bartholomy, Obadiah; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Finley, Catherine; Nakafuji, Dora; Peterson, Jack L.; Maggio, David; Marquis, Melinda

    2014-12-23

    We report that the rapid deployment of wind and solar energy generation systems has resulted in a need to better understand, predict, and manage variable generation. The uncertainty around wind and solar power forecasts is still viewed by the power industry as being quite high, and many barriers to forecast adoption by power system operators still remain. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored, in partnership with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, public, private, and academic organizations, two projects to advance wind and solar power forecasts. Additionally, several utilities and grid operators have recognized the value of adopting variable generation forecasting and have taken great strides to enhance their usage of forecasting. In parallel, power system markets and operations are evolving to integrate greater amounts of variable generation. This paper will discuss the recent trends in wind and solar power forecasting technologies in the U.S., the role of forecasting in an evolving power system framework, and the benefits to intended forecast users.

  18. Recent Trends in Variable Generation Forecasting and Its Value to the Power System

    DOE PAGES

    Orwig, Kirsten D.; Ahlstrom, Mark L.; Banunarayanan, Venkat; Sharp, Justin; Wilczak, James M.; Freedman, Jeffrey; Haupt, Sue Ellen; Cline, Joel; Bartholomy, Obadiah; Hamann, Hendrik F.; et al

    2014-12-23

    We report that the rapid deployment of wind and solar energy generation systems has resulted in a need to better understand, predict, and manage variable generation. The uncertainty around wind and solar power forecasts is still viewed by the power industry as being quite high, and many barriers to forecast adoption by power system operators still remain. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored, in partnership with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, public, private, and academic organizations, two projects to advance wind and solar power forecasts. Additionally, several utilities and grid operators have recognized the value ofmore » adopting variable generation forecasting and have taken great strides to enhance their usage of forecasting. In parallel, power system markets and operations are evolving to integrate greater amounts of variable generation. This paper will discuss the recent trends in wind and solar power forecasting technologies in the U.S., the role of forecasting in an evolving power system framework, and the benefits to intended forecast users.« less

  19. Market power in the United States red meatpacking industry.

    PubMed

    Koontz, Stephen R

    2003-07-01

    The basic question asked in the beginning of this article was whether the evidence from research is persuasive enough to conclude that competition in the meatpacking industry is deficient. The literature review led to the conclusion that the answer is no. Research varies widely in terms of data and methodologic approaches. The research, however, clearly finds evidence of market power. Many SCP studies indicated the existence and exercise of market power, but the failure of the paradigm makes definitive conclusions dangerous. The NEIO studies showed a persistent gap between the price of livestock and marginal costs but the studies did not incorporate sufficient detail to prove specific behavior. Azzam and Anderson [4] conducted an extensive review of competition in meatpacking. In their summary, they offered criticisms of the SCP approach and the conduct parameter approach. These investigators concluded that the body of empiric evidence was insufficient to persuasively argue that the meatpacking industry was not competitive. Sexton [69] discussed more recent critiques of the conduct parameter appraoch. Despite its weaknesses, he concluded that market power estimates in meatpacking are modest but that structural changes on balance are beneficial, from an efficiency viewpoint. Examining the evidence either by data aggregation, methodology, or time period results in little difference in the qualitative interpretation. The research community has done what Nicholls [2] said was needed. The need remains relevant. The research leaves us with a clear picture and nagging questions. Azzam and Anderson [4] recommended that further research focus on the process of competition or the rivalrous interaction between competitors, and on competitors' strategies for responding to technologic and market forces, as the business history of the industry suggests. Specifically, they recommended two approaches. First, to develop empiric pricing models for short-term monitoring. Such models

  20. U.S. and Chinese experts perspectives on IGCC technology for Chinese electric power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, B.C.B.; Wang Yingshi

    1997-11-01

    Although China is a very large and populous nation, and has one of the longest known histories in the world, it has only lately begun to seek its place among modern industrial nations. This move, precipitated by the government`s relatively recently adopted strategic goals of economic development, societal reform and promotion of engagement with other industrial nations, has brought to the fore the serious situation in which the Chinese electric power industry finds itself. Owing to the advanced average age of generation facilities and the technology used in them, serious expansion and modernization of this industry needs to take place, and soon, if it is to support the rapid industrial development already taking place in China. While China does have some oil and gas, coal constitutes its largest indigenous energy supply, by far. Coal has been mined and utilized for years in China. It is used directly to provide heat for homes, businesses and in industrial applications, and used to raise steam for the generation of electricity. The presently dominant coal utilization methods are characterized by low or marginal efficiencies and an almost universal lack of pollution control equipment. Because there is so much of it, coal is destined to be China`s predominant source of thermal energy for decades to come. Realizing these things--the rapidly increasing demand for more electric power than China presently can produce, the need to raise coal utilization efficiencies, and the corresponding need to preserve the environment--the Chinese government moved to commission several official working organizations to tackle these problems.

  1. Integrated engine-generator for aircraft secondary power.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    The integrated engine-generator concept consists of an electric generator located inside a turbojet or turbofan engine and both concentric with and driven by one of the main engine shafts. The electric power-conversion equipment and generator controls are conveniently located in the aircraft. When properly rated, the generator serves as an engine starter as well as a source of electric power. The available generating capacity permits use of electrically driven engine accessories. This reduces or eliminates the need for an external gearbox on the engine, thereby simplifying the engine and nacelle assembly and increasing aircraft design flexibility. The nacelle diameter can then be decreased, resulting in less aerodynamic drag and reduced takeoff gross weight.

  2. Probing Rubber Cross-Linking Generation of Industrial Polymer Networks at Nanometer Scale.

    PubMed

    Gabrielle, Brice; Gomez, Emmanuel; Korb, Jean-Pierre

    2016-06-23

    We present improved analyses of rheometric torque measurements as well as (1)H double-quantum (DQ) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) buildup data on polymer networks of industrial compounds. This latter DQ NMR analysis allows finding the distribution of an orientation order parameter (Dres) resulting from the noncomplete averaging of proton dipole-dipole couplings within the cross-linked polymer chains. We investigate the influence of the formulation (filler and vulcanization systems) as well as the process (curing temperature) ending to the final polymer network. We show that DQ NMR follows the generation of the polymer network during the vulcanization process from a heterogeneous network to a very homogeneous one. The time variations of microscopic Dres and macroscopic rheometric torques present power-law behaviors above a threshold time scale with characteristic exponents of the percolation theory. We observe also a very good linear correlation between the kinetics of Dres and rheometric data routinely performed in industry. All these observations confirm the description of the polymer network generation as a critical phenomenon. On the basis of all these results, we believe that DQ NMR could become a valuable tool for investigating in situ the cross-linking of industrial polymer networks at the nanometer scale. PMID:27254797

  3. The utility industry response to Title IV: generation mix, fuel choice, emissions and costs.

    PubMed

    Molburg, J C

    1993-02-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on sulfur dioxide take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry's response to those restrictions. This report describes one response scenario through the year 2030, which was examined by simulation of the utility industry under assumptions consistent with a reference case that was used for analysis of the National Energy Strategy. Emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act are projected. Fuel use effects, including coal market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV.

  4. Probing Rubber Cross-Linking Generation of Industrial Polymer Networks at Nanometer Scale.

    PubMed

    Gabrielle, Brice; Gomez, Emmanuel; Korb, Jean-Pierre

    2016-06-23

    We present improved analyses of rheometric torque measurements as well as (1)H double-quantum (DQ) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) buildup data on polymer networks of industrial compounds. This latter DQ NMR analysis allows finding the distribution of an orientation order parameter (Dres) resulting from the noncomplete averaging of proton dipole-dipole couplings within the cross-linked polymer chains. We investigate the influence of the formulation (filler and vulcanization systems) as well as the process (curing temperature) ending to the final polymer network. We show that DQ NMR follows the generation of the polymer network during the vulcanization process from a heterogeneous network to a very homogeneous one. The time variations of microscopic Dres and macroscopic rheometric torques present power-law behaviors above a threshold time scale with characteristic exponents of the percolation theory. We observe also a very good linear correlation between the kinetics of Dres and rheometric data routinely performed in industry. All these observations confirm the description of the polymer network generation as a critical phenomenon. On the basis of all these results, we believe that DQ NMR could become a valuable tool for investigating in situ the cross-linking of industrial polymer networks at the nanometer scale.

  5. A self-sensing magnetorheological damper with power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2012-02-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) dampers are promising for semi-active vibration control of various dynamic systems. In the current MR damper systems, a separate power supply and dynamic sensor are required. To enable the MR damper to be self-powered and self-sensing in the future, in this paper we propose and investigate a self-sensing MR damper with power generation, which integrates energy harvesting, dynamic sensing and MR damping technologies into one device. This MR damper has self-contained power generation and velocity sensing capabilities, and is applicable to various dynamic systems. It combines the advantages of energy harvesting—reusing wasted energy, MR damping—controllable damping force, and sensing—providing dynamic information for controlling system dynamics. This multifunctional integration would bring great benefits such as energy saving, size and weight reduction, lower cost, high reliability, and less maintenance for the MR damper systems. In this paper, a prototype of the self-sensing MR damper with power generation was designed, fabricated, and tested. Theoretical analyses and experimental studies on power generation were performed. A velocity-sensing method was proposed and experimentally validated. The magnetic-field interference among three functions was prevented by a combined magnetic-field isolation method. Modeling, analysis, and experimental results on damping forces are also presented.

  6. Method and apparatus for automobile actuated power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblum, J.

    1984-03-13

    A plurality of cylindrical rollers are embedded in a roadway over which wheeled vehicles move such that the vehicle wheels rotate the contacted rollers. A shaft transverse to the roadway supports the rollers and turns with them to transfer power from vehicle contact to an electrical generating apparatus. Power accumulating apparatus, such as a water or hydraulic fluid reservoir, may intervene between the shaft and the generator to smooth the power flow when vehicle travel is intermittent. Alternate apparatus may directly link the shaft to an electrical generator which may, in turn, charge batteries or pump water upwardly to accumulate power for response to later demand. The rollers may be housed in a metal or concrete trough and cross one or more lanes of traffic to a median power collector such as a spider and bevel gear arrangement that is capable of receiving rotating motion from four right angle directions at once. In its simplest form, power is taken from auto wheels to turn the rollers and their shaft or shafts, and shaft rotation is communicated directly to an electrical generator to supply demand.

  7. On-line diagnostic system for power generators

    SciTech Connect

    Skormin, V.A.; Goodenough, G.S.; Huber, R.K.

    1996-12-31

    A novel approach to diagnostics of a power generator is developed. It utilizes readily available data acquired by the existing computer-based monitoring/control system. Diagnostic procedures detect various trends in the generator data and interpret these trends in the generator data and interpret these trends as changes in the generator performance caused by incipient failures. Results of trend analyses, subjected to statistical validation, facilitate failure prediction and identification thus providing the justification for service when needed. The procedures are incorporated in a diagnostic system implemented in a PC interfaced with the existing VAX-based process monitoring and control system. The diagnostic system provides graphical display of the diagnostic messages.

  8. Analytical predictions of RTG power degradation. [Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noon, E. L.; Raag, V.

    1979-01-01

    The DEGRA computer code that is based on a mathematical model which predicts performance and time-temperature dependent degradation of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator is discussed. The computer code has been used to predict performance and generator degradation for the selenide Ground Demonstration Unit (GDS-1) and the generator used in the Galileo Project. Results of parametric studies of load voltage vs generator output are examined as well as the I-V curve and the resulting predicted power vs voltage. The paper also discusses the increased capability features contained in DEGRA2 and future plans for expanding the computer code performance.

  9. Electrostatic Power Generation from Negatively Charged, Simulated Lunar Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H.; King, Glen C.; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Yeonjoon

    2010-01-01

    Research was conducted to develop an electrostatic power generator for future lunar missions that facilitate the utilization of lunar resources. The lunar surface is known to be negatively charged from the constant bombardment of electrons and protons from the solar wind. The resulting negative electrostatic charge on the dust particles, in the lunar vacuum, causes them to repel each other minimizing the potential. The result is a layer of suspended dust about one meter above the lunar surface. This phenomenon was observed by both Clementine and Surveyor spacecrafts. During the Apollo 17 lunar landing, the charged dust was a major hindrance, as it was attracted to the astronauts' spacesuits, equipment, and the lunar buggies. The dust accumulated on the spacesuits caused reduced visibility for the astronauts, and was unavoidably transported inside the spacecraft where it caused breathing irritation [1]. In the lunar vacuum, the maximum charge on the particles can be extremely high. An article in the journal "Nature", titled "Moon too static for astronauts?" (Feb 2, 2007) estimates that the lunar surface is charged with up to several thousand volts [2]. The electrostatic power generator was devised to alleviate the hazardous effects of negatively charged lunar soil by neutralizing the charged particles through capacitive coupling and thereby simultaneously harnessing power through electric charging [3]. The amount of power generated or collected is dependent on the areal coverage of the device and hovering speed over the lunar soil surface. A thin-film array of capacitors can be continuously charged and sequentially discharged using a time-differentiated trigger discharge process to produce a pulse train of discharge for DC mode output. By controlling the pulse interval, the DC mode power can be modulated for powering devices and equipment. In conjunction with a power storage system, the electrostatic power generator can be a power source for a lunar rover or other

  10. DOWNHOLE POWER GENERATION AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS FOR INTELLIGENT COMPLETIONS APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Tubel

    2003-10-14

    The fourth quarter of the project was dedicated to the manufacturing of the mechanical system for wireless communications and the power generation module and inspection pre assembly of the mechanical components. Another emphasis for the quarter was the development of filter control and signal detection software. The tasks accomplished during this report period were: (1) Dimensional issues were resolved and revised drawings for manufacturing of the wireless communications gauge and power generator were completed and sent to a machine shop for manufacturing. (2) Finalized the requirements and fittings and connections for testing the tool in the Halliburton flow loop. (3) The new acoustic generator was manufactured successfully and it was delivered during this quarter. The assembly will be outsourced for plastic coating in preparation for hostile environment use. (4) The acoustic two-way communications development continued to progress. The real time firmware for the surface system was developed and the processor was able to detect and process the data frame transmitted from downhole. The analog section of the tool was also developed and it is being tested for filtering capabilities and signal detection and amplification. (5) The new transformer to drive the acoustic generator assembly was manufactured and was successfully tested. Spring mandrel design showed increased acoustic output on the pipe and was implemented. (6) PCBA board carrier with board set was tested for function and fit and is 100% complete. (7) Filter control software is complete and software to allow modification of communication parameters dynamically is 50% complete. (8) All mechanical parts to assemble the wireless gauge and power generator have been received and verified to be within specification. (9) Acoustic generator has been assembled in the tool mandrel and tested successfully. (10) The circuit required to harvest the power generated downhole has been designed and the power generator

  11. Electric energy production by particle thermionic-thermoelectric power generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oettinger, P. E.

    1980-01-01

    Thermionic-thermoelectric power generators, composed of a thin layer of porous, low work function material separating a heated emitter electrode and a cooler collector electrode, have extremely large Seebeck coefficients of over 2 mV/K and can provide significant output power. Preliminary experiments with 20-micron thick (Ba Sr Ca)O coatings, limited by evaporative loss to temperatures below 1400 K, have yielded short circuit current densities of 500 mA/sq cm and power densities of 60 mW/ sq cm. Substantially more output is expected with cesium-coated refractory oxide particle coatings operating at higher temperatures. Practical generators will have thermal-to-electrical efficiencies of 10 to 20%. Further increases can be gained by cascading these high-temperature devices with lower temperature conventional thermoelectric generators.

  12. Residential Solar Combined Heat and Power Generation using Solar Thermoelectric Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, B.; Wagner, M.; Kunkle, C.; Watson, P.; Williams, R.; Donohoe, R.; Ugarte, K.; Wilmoth, R.; Chong, M. Zachary; Lee, H.

    2015-06-01

    Recent reports on improved efficiencies of solar thermoelectric generation (STEG) systems have generated interest in STEGs as a competitive power generation system. In this paper, the design of a combined cooling and power utilizing concentrated solar power is discussed. Solar radiation is concentrated into a receiver connected to thermoelectric modules, which are used as a topping cycle to generate power and high grade heat necessary to run an absorption chiller. Modeling of the overall system is discussed with experimental data to validate modeling results. A numerical modeling approach is presented which considers temperature variation of the source and sink temperatures and is used to maximize combined efficiency. A system is built with a demonstrated combined efficiency of 32% in actual working conditions with power generation of 3.1 W. Modeling results fell within 3% of the experimental results verifying the approach. An optimization study is performed on the mirror concentration ration and number of modules for thermal load matching and is shown to improve power generation to 26.8 W.

  13. Experiments on H2-O2MHD power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic power generation experiments utilizing a cesium-seeded H2-O2 working fluid were carried out using a diverging area Hall duct having an entrance Mach number of 2. The experiments were conducted in a high-field strength cryomagnet facility at field strengths up to 5 tesla. The effects of power takeoff location, axial duct location within the magnetic field, generator loading, B-field strength, and electrode breakdown voltage were investigated. For the operating conditions of these experiments, it is found that the power output increases with the square of the B-field and can be limited by choking of the channel or interelectrode voltage breakdown which occurs at Hall fields greater than 50 volts/insulator. Peak power densities of greater than 100 MW/cu M were achieved.

  14. Central station applications planning activities and supporting studies. [application of photovoltaic technology to power generation plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, S. L.; Siegel, B.

    1980-01-01

    The application of photovoltaic technology in central station (utility) power generation plants is considered. A program of data collection and analysis designed to provide additional information about the subset of the utility market that was identified as the initial target for photovoltaic penetration, the oil-dependent utilities (especially muncipals) of the U.S. Sunbelt, is described along with a series of interviews designed to ascertain utility industry opinions about the National Photovoltaic Program as it relates to central station applications.

  15. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  16. New geothermal heat extraction process to deliver clean power generation

    ScienceCinema

    Pete McGrail

    2016-07-12

    A new method for capturing significantly more heat from low-temperature geothermal resources holds promise for generating virtually pollution-free electrical energy. Scientists at the Department of Energys Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will determine if their innovative approach can safely and economically extract and convert heat from vast untapped geothermal resources. The goal is to enable power generation from low-temperature geothermal resources at an economical cost. In addition to being a clean energy source without any greenhouse gas emissions, geothermal is also a steady and dependable source of power.

  17. An introduction to the Amonix 8700 Solar Power Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesniak, A.; Garboushian, V.; Liu, M.; Gordon, R.; Bagienski, W.

    2013-09-01

    From 2009 through early 2012, Amonix installed nearly 40 MW AC of its flagship 7700 Solar Power Generator product in locations all across the southwestern USA. Since completion of these projects, Amonix has been adapting lessons learned from the 7700 build-out and new CPV technologies into the company's 8700 Solar Power Generator, to be released in late 2014. The paper will focus on the features of the 8700 product, including higher performance and lower cost, and how the 8700 plans to keep CPV competitive in the global solar marketplace.

  18. Design of High Power Electrostatic Motor and Generator Using Electrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genda, Takashi; Tanaka, Shuji; Esashi, Masayoshi

    This paper describes the design of an electrostatic motor/generator using electrets and its circuit. By using electrets which generate permanent electric field on a rotor, higher power than that of conventional types is expected. We revealed that the maximum power is obtained from the motor/generator when the ratio of the gap to the width of electrodes is optimized at 0.6. And we estimated that 30.4 W output is obtained from the motor/generator with a 6mm diameter rotor at a rotational speed of 1 Mrpm by applying 200 V to 3 µm electrode gap. To use this output, however, a circuit which escapes loss due to charging/discharging cycle of a parasitic capacitance at the stator electrode is essential. We designed a novel circuit using inductor-capacitor (LC) resonance, and confirmed that over 80% of theoretically-ideal output is available using this circuit.

  19. Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation

    DOEpatents

    Hart, M.M.

    1995-04-18

    A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communications, powered by a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of materials resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications. 2 figs.

  20. Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation

    DOEpatents

    Hart, Mark M.

    1995-01-01

    A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communications, powered by a Pu.sub.238 or Sr.sub.90 thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu.sub.238 or Sr.sub.90 thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of materials resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications.

  1. Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation

    DOEpatents

    Hart, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communication, powered by a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of material resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications.

  2. 89. Photocopied August 1978. POWER HOUSE, GENERATOR ROOM, VIEW LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. Photocopied August 1978. POWER HOUSE, GENERATOR ROOM, VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM ABOUT THE CENTER, FEBRUARY 26, 1918, AFTER MICHIGAN NORTHERN HAD BROUGHT THE GENERATOR INSTALLATION UP TO FULL CAPACITY. THE NARROW PANEL WESTINGHOUSE SWITCHBOARD INSTALLED IN 1916-17 IS AT THE UPPER RIGHT. THE NEW GENERAL ELECTRIC GENERATORS ARE BELOW THE GALLERY. NOTE THE D.C. EXCITER UNIT ON EXTENDED SHAFT ON THE UNIT IN THE FOREGROUND. A SIMILAR TYPE OF INSTALLATION WAS FOUND AT PENSTOCKS 45 THROUGH 48 AND 62 THROUGH 73. WHAT SEEM TO BE EXTENDED SHAFT UNITS IN THE BACKGROUND ARE MERELY THE OLD STANLEY ALTERNATORS BEFORE THEY HAD BEEN REMOVED FROM THE GENERATOR ROOM. (878) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  3. Electrical Power Generation by Mechanically Modulating Electrical Double Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Hyuk Kyu; Moon, Jong Kyun

    2014-11-01

    Since Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry made their great discovery of electromagnetic induction, there have been continuous developments in electrical power generation. Most people today get electricity from thermal, hydroelectric, or nuclear power generation systems, which use this electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Here we propose a new method for electrical power generation, without using electromagnetic induction, by mechanically modulating the electrical double layers at the interfacial areas of a water bridge between two conducting plates. We find that when the height of the water bridge is mechanically modulated, the electrical double layer capacitors formed on the two interfacial areas are continuously charged and discharged at different phases from each other, thus generating an AC electric current across the plates. We use a resistor-capacitor circuit model to explain the results of this experiment. This observation could be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation system and for understanding the interfacial charge distribution in solid-liquid interfaces in the near future. This work was supported by Center for Soft and Living Matter through IBS prgram in Korea.

  4. Technical Manual for the SAM Biomass Power Generation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson, J.; Gilman, P.; Dobos, A.

    2011-09-01

    This technical manual provides context for the implementation of the biomass electric power generation performance model in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) System Advisor Model (SAM). Additionally, the report details the engineering and scientific principles behind the underlying calculations in the model. The framework established in this manual is designed to give users a complete understanding of behind-the-scenes calculations and the results generated.

  5. Effect of nonlinear electromechanical interaction upon wind power generator behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selyutskiy, Yury D.; Klimina, Liubov A.

    2014-12-01

    A mathematical model is developed for describing a small horizontal axis wind turbine with electric generator, such that the electromechanical interaction is non-linear in current. Dependence of steady regimes of the system upon parameters of the model is studied. In particular, it is shown that increase of wind speed causes qualitative restructuring of the set of steady regimes, which leads to considerable change in behavior of the wind power generator. The proposed model is verified against data obtained in experiments.

  6. The Use of Biomass for Power Generation in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-15

    Historically, biomass has been man's principal source of energy, mainly used in the form of wood for cooking and heating. With the industrial revolution and the introduction of motorized transportation and electricity, fossil fuels became the dominant source of energy. Today, biomass is the largest domestic source of renewable energy providing over 3% of total U.S. energy consumption, and surpassing hydropower. Yet, recent increases in the price and volatility of fossil fuel supplies and the financial impacts from a number of financially distressed investments in natural gas combined cycle power plants have led to a renewed interest in electricity generation from biomass. The biomass-fueled generation market is a dynamic one that is forecast to show significant growth over the next two decades as environmental drivers are increasingly supported by commercial ones. The most significant change is likely to come from increases in energy prices, as decreasing supply and growing demand increase the costs of fossil fuel-generated electricity and improve the competitive position of biomass as a power source. The report provides an overview of the renewed U.S. market interest in biomass-fueled power generation and gives a concise look at what's driving interest in biomass-fueled generation, the challenges faced in implementing biomass-fueled generation projects, and the current and future state of biomass-fueled generation. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of biomass-fueled generation including its history, the current market environment, and its future prospects; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in biomass-fueled generation; an analysis of the challenges that are hindering the implementation of biomass-fueled generation projects; a description of the various feedstocks that can be used for biomass-fueled generation; an evaluation of the biomass supply chain; a description of biomass-fueled generation technologies

  7. Power Delivery from an Actual Thermoelectric Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaibe, Hiromasa; Kajihara, Takeshi; Nagano, Kouji; Makino, Kazuya; Hachiuma, Hirokuni; Natsuume, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    Similar to photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cells, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) supply direct-current (DC) power, essentially requiring DC/alternating current (AC) conversion for delivery as electricity into the grid network. Use of PVs is already well established through power conditioning systems (PCSs) that enable DC/AC conversion with maximum-power-point tracking, which enables commercial use by customers. From the economic, legal, and regulatory perspectives, a commercial PCS for PVs should also be available for TEGs, preferably as is or with just simple adjustment. Herein, we report use of a PV PCS with an actual TEG. The results are analyzed, and proper application for TEGs is proposed.

  8. Test facility of thermal storage equipment for space power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, T.; Nakagawa, M.; Mochida, Y.; Ohtomo, F.; Shimizu, K.; Tanaka, K.; Abe, Y.; Nomura, O.; Kamimoto, M.

    A thermal storage equipment test facility has been built in connection with developing solar dynamic power systems (SDPSs). The test facility consists of a recuperative closed Brayton cycle system (CBC), with a mixture of helium and xenon with a molecular weight of 39.9 serving as the working fluid. CBC has been shown to be the most attractive power generation system among several types of SDPSs because of its ability to meet the required high power demand and its thermal efficiency, about 30 percent. The authors present a description of this test facility and give results of the preliminary test and the first-stage test with heat storage equipment.

  9. Fuel cycle comparison of distributed power generation technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

    2008-12-08

    The fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the application of fuel cells to distributed power generation were evaluated and compared with the combustion technologies of microturbines and internal combustion engines, as well as the various technologies associated with grid-electricity generation in the United States and California. The results were primarily impacted by the net electrical efficiency of the power generation technologies and the type of employed fuels. The energy use and GHG emissions associated with the electric power generation represented the majority of the total energy use of the fuel cycle and emissions for all generation pathways. Fuel cell technologies exhibited lower GHG emissions than those associated with the U.S. grid electricity and other combustion technologies. The higher-efficiency fuel cells, such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), exhibited lower energy requirements than those for combustion generators. The dependence of all natural-gas-based technologies on petroleum oil was lower than that of internal combustion engines using petroleum fuels. Most fuel cell technologies approaching or exceeding the DOE target efficiency of 40% offered significant reduction in energy use and GHG emissions.

  10. A numerical investigation of a thermodielectric power generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklar, Akiva A.

    The performance of a novel micro-thermodielectric power generation system was investigated in order to determine if thermodielectric power generation can be practically employed and if its performance can compete with current portable power generation technologies. Thermodielectric power generation is a direct energy conversion technology that converts heat directly into high voltage direct current. It requires dielectric (i.e., capacitive) materials whose charge storing capabilities are a function of temperature. This property can be exploited by heating these materials after they are charged; as their temperature increases, their charge storage capability decreases, forcing them to eject a portion of their surface charge. This ejected charge can then be supplied to an appropriate electronic storage device. There are several advantages associated with thermodielectric energy conversion; first, it requires heat addition at relatively low conventional power generation temperatures, i.e., less than 600 °K, and second, devices that utilize it have the potential for excellent power density and device reliability. The predominant disadvantage of using this power generation technique is that the device must operate in an unsteady manner; this can lead to substantial heat transfer losses that limit the device's thermal efficiency. The studied power generation system was designed so that the power generating components of the system (i.e., the thermodielectric materials) are integrated within a micro-scale heat exchange apparatus designed specifically to provide the thermodielectric materials with the unsteady heating and cooling necessary for efficient power generation. This apparatus is designed to utilize a liquid as a working fluid in order to maximize its heat transfer capabilities, minimize the size of the heat exchanger, and maximize the power density of the power generation system. The thermodielectric materials are operated through a power generation cycle that

  11. Photovoltaic power conditioners: Development, evolution, and the next generation

    SciTech Connect

    Bulawka, A.; Krauthamer, S.; Das, R.; Bower, W.

    1994-07-01

    Market-place acceptance of utility-connected photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems and their accelerated installation into residential and commercial applications are heavily dependent upon the ability of their power conditioning subsystems (PCS) to meet high reliability, low cost, and high performance goals. Many PCS development efforts have taken place over the last 15 years, and those efforts have resulted in substantial PCS hardware improvements. These improvements, however, have generally fallen short of meeting many reliability, cost and performance goals. Continuously evolving semiconductor technology developments, coupled with expanded market opportunities for power processing, offer a significant promise of improving PCS reliability, cost and performance, as they are integrated into future PCS designs. This paper revisits past and present development efforts in PCS design, identifies the evolutionary improvements and describes the new opportunities for PCS designs. The new opportunities are arising from the increased availability and capability of semiconductor switching components, smart power devices, and power integrated circuits (PICS).

  12. NFPA, 1996 revisions to National Electrical Code, NFPA 110, and NFPA 99 that affect on-site power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.S.; Bell, J.; Whittall, H.

    1995-12-31

    The three most important NFPA standards for the on-site power industry are: NFPA 70-The National Electrical Code, NFPA 110 Emergency and Standby Power Systems and NFPA 99-Health Care Facilities. This paper will cover the important revisions affecting on-site power generation systems for the 1996 editions. Each of the three authors is a member of one or more of the technical committees that have responsibility for writing these standards.

  13. High-power industrial pulsed CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, G. I.

    1983-12-01

    The use of a pulsed TEA CO2 laser (with maximum average power 1.0 kW; maximum pulse energy 3.5 J; repetition frequency 400-600 Hz; half-width pulse duration 15 microsec; circular-coupling-aperture beam diameter 6, 8, or 12 mm; and beam divergence 10 mrad) in industrial welding applications is investigated experimentally in carbon and stainless steels, Zr, Ti, and Ni of various thicknesses. The power required to melt the metals is found to be about 120-200 W/sq cm, or 5-6 times less than that for CW lasers. It is shown that deep narrow-seam welds with mechanical properties identical to those of the bulk metal can be obtained with little or no intercrystalline corrosion or thermal distortion of the surrounding area. Disadvantages such as the 65-dB noise level, low welding speed, formation of an overlap at the top and a crater at the bottom of the weld, and root porosity are considered the primary limitations on the applicability of the device tested.

  14. Industrial Applications of High Power CO2 Lasers - System Descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gukelberger, Armin

    1986-10-01

    The laser as a cutting tool for sheet metal cutting has beenl well accepted in industry for many years. Several hundreds of units are used for contour cutting of small and medium-sized series on plane metal sheets up to 6 mm thick. Within the last three years, cutting systems have been expanded in three ways: thicker material up to 12 mm can now be cut by using higher powered lasers (1500 W); with the introduction of flying optic systems which cover sheet dimensions up to 4 m x 3 m, the cutting of larger sized metal sheets is possible. In addition, the use of five or six axis systems allows cutting of three-dimensional plastic and metal material. Besides laser cutting, the acceptance of systems for laser welding applications is increa sing. Several systems have been running in production for a couple of years and laser wel ding will probably become the fastest growing market in laser material processing within the next five years. The laser technology is regarded as a beneficial tool for welding, whenever low heat input and, consequently, low heat distortion is requested. To day's main welding application areas are: components of car engines and transmissions, window spacer and stainless steel tube welding, and also car body welding with laser robots or five axis gantry type systems. The output power of CO2-lasers for welding applications is between 1 and 5 kw in most cases.

  15. Opportunities for the power industry in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, R.W.; Pinkney, C.; Feld, L.; Kreil, E.; Lockwood, A.W.

    1996-11-01

    South Africa is a country in the midst of transformation. Political changes within the country, and the ensuing empowerment of the black majority, have created a situation where dramatic improvements are needed in the country`s infrastructure in order to enable it to meet the needs of all its people over the coming decades. Largely as a result of the international embargo placed on South Africa during the apartheid era, the South African government became heavily involved in the country`s energy sector. This involvement included development of a synfuels program, price controls in the oil sector, monopolies in both upstream and downstream oil sectors, and a strong centralized electric power company. In 1994, South Africa became the eleventh member of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), an organization which was established in 1980 to synchronize development plans for its member countries. SADC is presently working to formulate a regional energy development plan, and coordinate technical information exchanges and joint research needs. Each of the SADC nations have also begun to develop their regional electricity grids and other parts of their energy infrastructure to plan for the growing needs of the 500 million people who live in sub-Saharan Africa. South Africa, in particular, must make significant changes in each of its energy sectors in the near future, to keep up with its growing energy requirements. These changes translate to opportunity for the US Power Industry.

  16. Wearable Triboelectric Generator for Powering the Portable Electronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Cui, Nuanyang; Liu, Jinmei; Gu, Long; Bai, Suo; Chen, Xiaobo; Qin, Yong

    2015-08-26

    A cloth-base wearable triboelectric nanogenerator made of nylon and Dacron fabric was fabricated for harvesting body motion energy. Through the friction between forearm and human body, the generator can turn the mechanical energy of an arm swing into electric energy and power an electroluminescent tubelike lamp easily. The maximum output current and voltage of the generator reach up to 0.2 mA and 2 kV. Furthermore, this generator can be easily folded, kneaded, and cleaned like a common garment.

  17. DOWNHOLE POWER GENERATION AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS FOR INTELLIGENT COMPLETIONS APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Tubel

    2003-03-24

    The first quarter of the Downhole Power Generation and Wireless Communications for Intelligent Completions Applications was characterized by the evaluation and determination of the specifications required for the development of the system for permanent applications in wellbores to the optimization of hydrocarbon production. The system will monitor and transmit in real time pressure and temperature information from downhole using the production tubing as the medium for the transmission of the acoustic waves carrying digital information. The most common casing and tubing sizes were determined by interfacing with the major oil companies to obtain information related to their wells. The conceptual design was created for both the wireless gauge section of the tool as well as the power generation module. All hardware for the wireless gauge will be placed in an atmospheric pressure chamber located on the outside of a production tubing with 11.4 centimeter (4-1/2 inch) diameter. This mounting technique will reduce cost as well as the diameter and length of the tool and increase the reliability of the system. The power generator will use piezoelectric wafers to generate electricity based on the flow of hydrocarbons through an area in the wellbore where the tool will be deployed. The goal of the project is to create 1 Watt of power continuously.

  18. Clean coal technologies in electric power generation: a brief overview

    SciTech Connect

    Janos Beer; Karen Obenshain

    2006-07-15

    The paper talks about the future clean coal technologies in electric power generation, including pulverized coal (e.g., advanced supercritical and ultra-supercritical cycles and fluidized-bed combustion), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), and CO{sub 2} capture technologies. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Thermoelectric Materials Development for Low Temperature Geothermal Power Generation

    DOE Data Explorer

    Tim Hansen

    2016-01-29

    Data includes characterization results for novel thermoelectric materials developed specifically for power generation from low temperature geothermal brines. Materials characterization data includes material density, thickness, resistance, Seebeck coefficient. This research was carried out by Novus Energy Partners in Cooperation with Southern Research Institute for a Department of Energy Sponsored Project.

  20. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-06-01

    OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from fossil

  1. Vibration power generator for a linear MR damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapiński, Bogdan

    2010-10-01

    The paper describes the structure and the results of numerical calculations and experimental tests of a newly developed vibration power generator for a linear magnetorheological (MR) damper. The generator consists of permanent magnets and coil with foil winding. The device produces electrical energy according to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. This energy is applied to vary the damping characteristics of the MR damper attached to the generator by the input current produced by the device. The objective of the numerical calculations was to determine the magnetic field distribution in the generator as well as the electric potential and current density in the generator's coil during the idle run and under the load applied to the MR damper control coil. The results of the calculations were used during the design and manufacturing stages of the device. The objective of the experimental tests carried out on a dynamic testing machine was to evaluate the generator's efficiency and to compare the experimental and predicted data. The experimental results demonstrate that the engineered device enables a change in the kinetic energy of the reciprocal motion of the MR damper which leads to variations in the damping characteristics. That is why the generator may be used to build up MR damper based vibration control systems which require no external power.

  2. Villacidro solar demo plant: Integration of small-scale CSP and biogas power plants in an industrial microgrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerada, M.; Cau, G.; Cocco, D.; Damiano, A.; Demontis, V.; Melis, T.; Musio, M.

    2016-05-01

    The integration of small scale concentrating solar power (CSP) in an industrial district, in order to develop a microgrid fully supplied by renewable energy sources, is presented in this paper. The plant aims to assess in real operating conditions, the performance, the effectiveness and the reliability of small-scale concentrating solar power technologies in the field of distributed generation. In particular, the potentiality of small scale CSP with thermal storage to supply dispatchable electricity to an industrial microgrid will be investigated. The microgrid will be realized in the municipal waste treatment plant of the Industrial Consortium of Villacidro, in southern Sardinia (Italy), which already includes a biogas power plant. In order to achieve the microgrid instantaneous energy balance, the analysis of the time evolution of the waste treatment plant demand and of the generation in the existing power systems has been carried out. This has allowed the design of a suitable CSP plant with thermal storage and an electrochemical storage system for supporting the proposed microgrid. At the aim of obtaining the expected energy autonomy, a specific Energy Management Strategy, which takes into account the different dynamic performances and characteristics of the demand and the generation, has been designed. In this paper, the configuration of the proposed small scale concentrating solar power (CSP) and of its thermal energy storage, based on thermocline principle, is initially described. Finally, a simulation study of the entire power system, imposing scheduled profiles based on weather forecasts, is presented.

  3. IBEX - a pulsed power accelerator that generates no prepulse

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, J.J.; Corley, J.P.; Mazarakis, M.G.

    1983-01-01

    Intense relativistic electron beams are produced in vacuum diodes driven by pulsed power accelerators. For pulse widths approx. 100 nsec, pulse forming lines (PPL) are used to generate the accelerating voltage pulse. This pulse is produced by sequential switching of stored energy through two or more stages. Capacitance and/or inductive coupling usually results in the generation of a low level prepulse voltage some time during the switching sequence. This prepulse is known to have a substantial effect on the performance of the vacuum diode during the main accelerating pulse. Most accelerators use various schemes for reducing this prepulse to acceptable levels. The Isolated Blumlein PPL concept was developed at Sandia to allow for the generation of the main accelerating pulse without generating a prepulse voltage. This concept was implemented into the IBEX accelerator that generates a 4 MV, 100 kA, 20 nsec output pulse. Design and performance data are presented.

  4. Explosive flux compression generators for rail gun power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, C.M.; Peterson, D.R.; Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Freeman, B.L.; King, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    A class of explosive magnetic flux compression generators is described that has been used successfully to power rail guns. A program to increase current magnitudes and pulse lengths is outlined. Various generator loss terms are defined and plans to overcome some of them are discussed. Included are various modifications of the conventional strip generators that are more resistant to undesirable expansion of generator components from magnetic forces. Finally, an integral rail gun is discussed that has coaxial geometry. Integral rail guns utilize the rails themselves as flux compression generator elements and, under ideal conditions, are theoretically capable of driving projectiles to arbitrarily high velocities. Integral coaxial rail guns should be superior in some regards to their square bore counterparts.

  5. Triboelectric generators and sensors for self-powered wearable electronics.

    PubMed

    Ha, Minjeong; Park, Jonghwa; Lee, Youngoh; Ko, Hyunhyub

    2015-04-28

    In recent years, the field of wearable electronics has evolved at a rapid pace, requiring continued innovation in technologies in the fields of electronics, energy devices, and sensors. In particular, wearable devices have multiple applications in healthcare monitoring, identification, and wireless communications, and they are required to perform well while being lightweight and having small size, flexibility, low power consumption, and reliable sensing performances. In this Perspective, we introduce two recent reports on the triboelectric generators with high-power generation achieved using flexible and lightweight textiles or miniaturized and hybridized device configurations. In addition, we present a brief overview of recent developments and future prospects of triboelectric energy harvesters and sensors, which may enable fully self-powered wearable devices with significantly improved sensing capabilities.

  6. High average power supercontinuum generation in a fluoroindate fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swiderski, J.; Théberge, F.; Michalska, M.; Mathieu, P.; Vincent, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report the first demonstration of Watt-level supercontinuum (SC) generation in a step-index fluoroindate (InF3) fiber pumped by a 1.55 μm fiber master-oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system. The SC is generated in two steps: first ˜1 ns amplified laser diode pulses are broken up into soliton-like sub-pulses leading to initial spectrum extension and then launched into a fluoride fiber to obtain further spectral broadening. The pump MOPA system can operate at a changeable repetition frequency delivering up to 19.2 W of average power at 2 MHz. When the 8-m long InF3 fiber was pumped with 7.54 W at 420 kHz, output average SC power as high as 2.09 W with 27.8% of slope efficiency was recorded. The achieved SC spectrum spread from 1 to 3.05 μm.

  7. DOWNHOLE POWER GENERATION AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS FOR INTELLIGENT COMPLETIONS APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Tubel

    2003-07-05

    The third quarter of the project was dedicated to creating the detailed design for the manufacturing of the mechanical system for wireless communications and the power generation module. Another emphasis for the quarter was the development of the surface system and acoustic detector for the downhole tool for 2 way communications. The tasks accomplished during this report period were: (1) All detailed drawings for manufacturing of the wireless communications gauge and power generator were completed and the drawings were forward to a machine shop for manufacturing. (2) The power generator was incorporated to the mandrel of the wireless gauge reducing the length of the tool by 25% and manufacturing cost by about 35%. (3) The new piezoelectric acoustic generator was manufactured successfully and it was delivered during this quarter. The assembly provides a new technique to manufacture large diameter piezoelectric based acoustic generators. (4) The acoustic two-way communications development progressed significantly. The real time firmware for the surface system was developed and the processor was able to detect and process the data frame transmitted from downhole. The analog section of the tool was also developed and it is being tested for filtering capabilities and signal detection and amplification. (5) The new transformer to drive the piezoelectric wafer assembly was designed and manufactured. The transformer has been received and it will go through testing and evaluation during the next quarter.

  8. Regional projections of nuclear and fossil electric power generation costs

    SciTech Connect

    Smolen, G.R.; Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Bowers, H.I.

    1983-12-01

    The total busbar electric generating costs were estimated for locations in ten regions of the United States for base load nuclear and coal-fired power plants with a startup date of January 1995. A complete data set is supplied which specifies each parameter used to obtain the comparative results. When the comparison is based on reference cost parameters, nuclear- and coal-fired generation costs are found to be very close in most regions of the country. Nuclear power is favored in the South Atlantic region where coal must be transported over long distances, while coal-fired generation is favored in the Central and North Central regions where large reserves of cheaply mineable coal exist. The reference data set reflects recent electric utility construction experience. Significantly lower nuclear capital investment costs would result if regulatory reform and improved construction practices were instituted. The electric power generation costs for base load oil- and natural gas-fired plants were also estimated. These plants were found to be noncompetitive in all regions for those scenarios most likely to develop. Generation cost sensitivity to changes in various parameters was examined at a reference location. The sensitivity parameters included capital investment costs, lead times, capacity factors, costs of money, and coal and uranium prices. In addition to the levelized lifetime costs, year-by-year cash flows and revenue requirements are presented. The report concludes with an analysis of the economic merits of recycling spent fuel in light-water reactors.

  9. Quantity, Quality, and Availability of Waste Heat from United States Thermal Power Generation.

    PubMed

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2015-07-21

    Secondary application of unconverted heat produced during electric power generation has the potential to improve the life-cycle fuel efficiency of the electric power industry and the sectors it serves. This work quantifies the residual heat (also known as waste heat) generated by U.S. thermal power plants and assesses the intermittency and transport issues that must be considered when planning to utilize this heat. Combining Energy Information Administration plant-level data with literature-reported process efficiency data, we develop estimates of the unconverted heat flux from individual U.S. thermal power plants in 2012. Together these power plants discharged an estimated 18.9 billion GJ(th) of residual heat in 2012, 4% of which was discharged at temperatures greater than 90 °C. We also characterize the temperature, spatial distribution, and temporal availability of this residual heat at the plant level and model the implications for the technical and economic feasibility of its end use. Increased implementation of flue gas desulfurization technologies at coal-fired facilities and the higher quality heat generated in the exhaust of natural gas fuel cycles are expected to increase the availability of residual heat generated by 10.6% in 2040.

  10. Quantity, Quality, and Availability of Waste Heat from United States Thermal Power Generation.

    PubMed

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2015-07-21

    Secondary application of unconverted heat produced during electric power generation has the potential to improve the life-cycle fuel efficiency of the electric power industry and the sectors it serves. This work quantifies the residual heat (also known as waste heat) generated by U.S. thermal power plants and assesses the intermittency and transport issues that must be considered when planning to utilize this heat. Combining Energy Information Administration plant-level data with literature-reported process efficiency data, we develop estimates of the unconverted heat flux from individual U.S. thermal power plants in 2012. Together these power plants discharged an estimated 18.9 billion GJ(th) of residual heat in 2012, 4% of which was discharged at temperatures greater than 90 °C. We also characterize the temperature, spatial distribution, and temporal availability of this residual heat at the plant level and model the implications for the technical and economic feasibility of its end use. Increased implementation of flue gas desulfurization technologies at coal-fired facilities and the higher quality heat generated in the exhaust of natural gas fuel cycles are expected to increase the availability of residual heat generated by 10.6% in 2040. PMID:26061407

  11. Individual Module Maximum Power Point Tracking for Thermoelectric Generator Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadstrup, Casper; Schaltz, Erik; Chen, Min

    2013-07-01

    In a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system the DC/DC converter is under the control of a maximum power point tracker which ensures that the TEG system outputs the maximum possible power to the load. However, if the conditions, e.g., temperature, health, etc., of the TEG modules are different, each TEG module will not produce its maximum power. If each TEG module is controlled individually, each TEG module can be operated at its maximum power point and the TEG system output power will therefore be higher. In this work a power converter based on noninverting buck-boost converters capable of handling four TEG modules is presented. It is shown that, when each module in the TEG system is operated under individual maximum power point tracking, the system output power for this specific application can be increased by up to 8.4% relative to the situation when the modules are connected in series and 16.7% relative to the situation when the modules are connected in parallel.

  12. Overland Tidal Power Generation Using Modular Tidal Prism

    SciTech Connect

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Yang, Zhaoqing; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Copping, Andrea

    2010-03-01

    Naturally occurring sites with sufficient kinetic energy suitable for tidal power generation with sustained currents > 1 to 2 m/s are relatively rare. Yet sites with greater than 3 to 4 m of tidal range are relatively common around the U.S. coastline. Tidal potential does exist along the shoreline but is mostly distributed, and requires an approach which allows trapping and collection to also be conducted in a distributed manner. In this paper we examine the feasibility of generating sustainable tidal power using multiple nearshore tidal energy collection units and present the Modular Tidal Prism (MTP) basin concept. The proposed approach utilizes available tidal potential by conversion into tidal kinetic energy through cyclic expansion and drainage from shallow modular manufactured overland tidal prisms. A preliminary design and configuration of the modular tidal prism basin including inlet channel configuration and basin dimensions was developed. The unique design was shown to sustain momentum in the penstocks during flooding as well as ebbing tidal cycles. The unstructured-grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) was used to subject the proposed design to a number of sensitivity tests and to optimize the size, shape and configuration of MTP basin for peak power generation capacity. The results show that an artificial modular basin with a reasonable footprint (≈ 300 acres) has the potential to generate 10 to 20 kw average energy through the operation of a small turbine located near the basin outlet. The potential of generating a total of 500 kw to 1 MW of power through a 20 to 40 MTP basin tidal power farms distributed along the coastline of Puget Sound, Washington, is explored.

  13. Photoconductive switching for HPM (high power microwave) generation

    SciTech Connect

    Pocha, M.D.; Hofer, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    Photoconductive switching has been explored at LLNL and demonstrated to be a viable technology for high power microwave (HPM) generation. This technology enables the development of compact, portable, and efficient HPM sources. At LLNL we have successfully switched 35 KV in <200 ps using laser triggered, 1 {times} 5 {times} 20 mm GaAs switches. Based on these results we are developing an HPM generator with applications for HPM weapons and high power, wideband radar. The paper will discuss the physics limits and tradeoffs in the application of this technology. Among the topics discussed will be switching efficiency, candidate switch materials, laser requirements, applicable laser technologies, generator configurations, and cooling requirements and techniques. In addition to presenting theoretical and practical considerations, the paper will discuss on-going work at LLNL and elsewhere. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Development of large wind energy power generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-11-01

    The background and development of an experimental 100 kW wind-energy generation system are described, and the results of current field tests are presented. The experimental wind turbine is a two-bladed down-wind horizontal axis propeller type with a 29.4 m diameter rotor and a tower 28 m in height. The plant was completed in March 1983 and has been undergoing trouble-free tests since then. The present program calls for field tests during two years from fiscal 1983 to 1984. The development of technologies relating to the linkage and operation of wind-energy power generation system networks is planned along with the acquisition of basic data for the development of a large-scale wind energy power generation system.

  15. Investigation of Miniaturized Radioisotope Thermionic Power Generation for General Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duzik, Adam J.; Choi, Sang H.

    2016-01-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) running off the radioisotope Pu238 are the current standard in deep space probe power supplies. While reliable, these generators are very inefficient, operating at only approx.7% efficiency. As an alternative, more efficient radioisotope thermionic emission generators (RTIGs) are being explored. Like RTGs, current RTIGs concepts use exotic materials for the emitter, limiting applicability to space and other niche applications. The high demand for long-lasting mobile power sources would be satisfied if RTIGs could be produced inexpensively. This work focuses on exposing several common materials, such as Al, stainless steel, W, Si, and Cu, to elevated temperatures under vacuum to determine the efficiency of each material as inexpensive replacements for thermoelectric materials.

  16. Investigation of miniaturized radioisotope thermionic power generation for general use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duzik, Adam J.; Choi, Sang H.

    2016-04-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) running off the radioisotope Pu238 are the current standard in deep space probe power supplies. While reliable, these generators are very inefficient, operating at only ~7% efficiency. As an alternative, more efficient radioisotope thermionic emission generators (RTIGs) are being explored. Like RTGs, current RTIGs concepts use exotic materials for the emitter, limiting applicability to space and other niche applications. The high demand for long-lasting mobile power sources would be satisfied if RTIGs could be produced inexpensively. This work focuses on exposing several common materials, such as Al, stainless steel, W, Si, and Cu, to elevated temperatures under vacuum to determine the efficiency of each material as inexpensive replacements for thermoelectric materials.

  17. Development of large wind energy power generation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The background and development of an experimental 100 kW wind-energy generation system are described, and the results of current field tests are presented. The experimental wind turbine is a two-bladed down-wind horizontal axis propeller type with a 29.4 m diameter rotor and a tower 28 m in height. The plant was completed in March, 1983, and has been undergoing trouble-free tests since then. The present program calls for field tests during two years from fiscal 1983 to 1984. The development of technologies relating to the linkage and operation of wind-energy power generation system networks is planned along with the acquisition of basic data for the development of a large-scale wind energy power generation system.

  18. Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator for Electrical Power Generation from Automotive Waste Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, Gregory

    2012-02-01

    Filled skutterudites are state-of-the- art thermoelectric (TE) materials for electrical power generation from waste heat. They have suitable intrinsic transport properties as measured by the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT = S^2σT/κ (S = Seebeck coefficient, σ = electrical conductivity, T = temperature, and κ = thermal conductivity) and good mechanical strength for operation at vehicle exhaust gas temperatures of >550 C. We have demonstrated TE electrical power generation on a production test vehicle equipped with a fully functional prototype TE generator (TEG). It was assembled with TE modules fabricated from filled skutterudites synthesized at GM. Our results and analysis show that improvement in total power generated can be achieved by enhanced thermal and electrical interfaces and contacts. A substantial T decrease along the exhaust gas flow results in a large variation of voltage, current, and power output for each TE module depending on its position in the module array. Total TEG output power depends directly on the position-dependent T profile via the temperature dependence of both ZT and Carnot efficiency. Total TEG power output also depends on how the modules are connected in parallel or series combinations because mismatch in output voltage and/or internal resistance among the modules degrades the performance of the entire array. Uniform T profiles and consistent TE module internal resistances improve overall TEG performance.

  19. Remote-site power generation opportunities for Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.L.

    1997-03-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been working with the Federal Energy Technology Center in Morgantown, West Virginia, to assess options for small, low-cost, environmental acceptable power generation for application in remote areas of Alaska. The goal of this activity was to reduce the use of fuel in Alaskan villages by developing small, low-cost power generation applications. Because of the abundance of high-quality coal throughout Alaska, emphasis was placed on clean coal applications, but other energy sources, including geothermal, wind, hydro, and coalbed methane, were also considered. The use of indigenous energy sources would provide cheaper cleaner power, reduce the need for PCE (Power Cost Equalization program) subsidies, increase self-sufficiency, and retain hard currency in the state while at the same time creating jobs in the region. The introduction of economical, small power generation systems into Alaska by US equipment suppliers and technology developers aided by the EERC would create the opportunities for these companies to learn how to engineer, package, transport, finance, and operate small systems in remote locations. All of this experience would put the US developers and equipment supply companies in an excellent position to export similar types of small power systems to rural areas or developing countries. Thus activities in this task that relate to determining the generic suitability of these technologies for other countries can increase US competitiveness and help US companies sell these technologies in foreign countries, increasing the number of US jobs. The bulk of this report is contained in the two appendices: Small alternative power workshop, topical report and Global market assessment of coalbed methane, fluidized-bed combustion, and coal-fired diesel technologies in remote applications.

  20. Proceedings of the 1999 international joint power generation conference (PWR-Vol. 34). Volume 2: Power

    SciTech Connect

    Penfield, S.R. Jr.; Hayes, R.H.; McMullen, R.

    1999-07-01

    Papers are arranged under the following topical sections: Benefits of software application in plant optimization; Combined cycle power plants; Recent improvements in power generation operations; Efficiency and capacity improvements for steam turbines; Condenser and heat exchange performance and fouling; Performance testing, monitoring and evaluation; Steam turbine/generator system--maintance, life assesments and upgrades; System design evaluations; Steam generators; Turbines for combined cycle and cogeneration; Case studies on steam turbine/generator problems and solutions; Condenser and feedwater heater operation and maintenance; Risked based and reliability programs for plant applications; Improving operating flexibility of steam turbine/generators (minimizing startup time, load changing, etc.); New techniques and innovations in heat transfer systems; Case studies in reliability based maintenance; and Risk analysis applied to steam turbine/generator systems. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  1. Power Generation Evaluated on a Bismuth Telluride Unicouple Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaokai; Nagase, Kazuo; Jood, Priyanka; Ohta, Michihiro; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2015-06-01

    The power generated by a thermoelectric unicouple module made of Bi2Te3 alloy was evaluated by use of a newly developed instrument. An electrical load was connected to the module, and the terminal voltage and output power of the module were obtained by altering electric current. Water flow was used to cool the cold side of the module and for heat flow measurement, by monitoring inlet and outlet temperatures. When the electric current was increased, heat flow was enhanced as a result of the Peltier effect and Joule heating. Voltage, power, heat flow, and efficiency as functions of current were determined for hot-side temperatures from 50 to 220°C. Maximum power output and peak conversion efficiency could thus be easily derived for each temperature.

  2. Transportation (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for a transportation course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  3. Energy Sources (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for an energy sources course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  4. Development of a linear piston-type pulse power electric generator for powering electric guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerfield, Martin

    1993-01-01

    The development of a linear piston-type electric pulse-power generator capable of powering electric guns and EM (rail and coil) guns and ET guns, presently under development, is discussed. The pulse-power generator consists of a cylindrical armature pushed by gases from the combustion of fuel or propellant through an externally produced magnetic field. An arrangement of electrodes and connecting straps serves to extract current from the moving armature and to send it to an external load (the electric gun).

  5. Wavelength-Selective Photovoltaics for Power-generating Greenhouses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Sue; Loik, Michael; Shugar, David; Corrado, Carley; Wade, Catherine; Alers, Glenn

    2014-03-01

    While photovoltaic (PV) technologies are being developed that have the potential for meeting the cost target of 0.50/W per module, the cost of installation combined with the competition over land resources could curtail the wide scale deployment needed to generate the Terrawatts per year required to meet the world's electricity demands. To be cost effective, such large scale power generation will almost certainly require PV solar farms to be installed in agricultural and desert areas, thereby competing with food production, crops for biofuels, or the biodiversity of desert ecosystems. This requirement has put the PV community at odds with both the environmental and agricultural groups they would hope to support through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. A possible solution to this challenge is the use of wavelength-selective solar collectors, based on luminescent solar concentrators, that transmit wavelengths needed for plant growth while absorbing the remaining portions of the solar spectrum and converting it to power. Costs are reduced through simultaneous use of land for both food and power production, by replacing the PV cells by inexpensive long-lived luminescent materials as the solar absorber, and by integrating the panels directly into existing greenhouse or cold frames. Results on power generation and crop yields for year-long trials done at academic and commercial greenhouse growers in California will be presented.

  6. Experimental investigation on thermoelectric generator of micro hybrid power source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Yonghong; Li, Yanqiu; Yu, Hongyun; Sun, Hongguang; Su, Bo

    2007-12-01

    The micro power system, which is composed of photovoltaic solar cell, heat conductor, thermoelectric generator (TEG) module and fin heat sink has been developed in our laboratory. A photovoltaic silicon solar cell of the P-N junction type is sensitive to radiant energy of wavelength from 5,000 Å to 12,000 Å. Radiation under and within this range is converted not only into electric energy but also into heat energy. The wavelength longer than this range is also converted into heat energy, which degrades the conversion efficiency of the solar cell. TEG produces electrical power from temperature difference via Seebeck effect that can be put under the solar cell to absorb the heat. The heat energy can be converted into electrical power. It was found that when TEG surface area was 150mm×60mm, it could generate 0.24V output voltage and 4.18mA short circuit at ambient temperature varying between 5-10°C at winter. It also could generate 1.3V output voltage and 16mA short circuit at ambient temperature varying between 30-36°C at summer. In fact we can use a dc-dc boost up converter to enlarge the output voltage to meet the requirements of wireless sensor network nodes or its recharging battery. It will be an alternative power source for many portable electronic types of equipment.

  7. Induction generator-induction motor wind-powered pumping system

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, M.S.; Lyra, R.O.C.; Silva, S.R.

    1997-12-31

    The energy storage matter plays an important role in wind-electric conversion systems for isolated applications. Having that in mind, two different approaches can be basically considered: either the immediate conversion of the generated electric energy, as in a water pumping system or electric energy storage for later use, as in a battery charging system. Due to some features such as no need of an external reactive power source and, sometimes, a gearbox, permanent-magnet synchronous generators have been broadly used in low rated power isolated systems. Despite that, system performance can be affected when the generator is feeding an inductive load (e.g., an induction motor) under variable-speed-variable-frequency operational conditions. Since there is no effective flux control, motor overload may occur at high wind speeds. Thus, good system performance can be obtained through additional control devices which may increase system cost. Although being rugged and cheap, induction machines always work as a reactive power drain; therefore, they demand an external reactive power source. Considering that, reactive static compensators appear as an attractive alternative to the cost x performance problem. In addition to that, different control strategies can be used so that system performance can be improved.

  8. Transportable high-energy high-power generator.

    PubMed

    Novac, B M; Smith, I R; Senior, P; Parker, M; Louverdis, G

    2010-05-01

    High-power applications sometimes require a transportable, simple, and robust gigawatt pulsed power generator, and an analysis of various possible approaches shows that one based on a twin exploding wire array is extremely advantageous. A generator based on this technology and used with a high-energy capacitor bank has recently been developed at Loughborough University. An H-configuration circuit is used, with one pair of diagonally opposite arms each comprising a high-voltage ballast inductor and the other pair exploding wire arrays capable of generating voltages up to 300 kV. The two center points of the H configuration provide the output to the load, which is coupled through a high-voltage self-breakdown spark gap, with the entire autonomous source being housed in a metallic container. Experimentally, a load resistance of a few tens of Ohms is provided with an impulse of more than 300 kV, having a rise time of about 140 ns and a peak power of over 1.7 GW. Details of the experimental arrangement and typical results are presented and diagnostic measurements of the current and voltage output are shown to compare well with theoretical predictions based on detailed numerical modeling. Finally, the next stage toward developing a more powerful and energetic transportable source is outlined. PMID:20515165

  9. A polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack for stationary power generation from hydrogen fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Zawodzinski, C.; Wilson, M.; Gottesfeld, S.

    1996-10-01

    The fuel cell is the most efficient device for the conversion of hydrogen fuel to electric power. As such, the fuel cell represents a key element in efforts to demonstrate and implement hydrogen fuel utilization for electric power generation. A central objective of a LANL/Industry collaborative effort supported by the Hydrogen Program is to integrate PEM fuel cell and novel stack designs at LANL with stack technology of H-Power Corporation (H-Power) in order to develop a manufacturable, low-cost/high-performance hydrogen/air fuel cell stack for stationary generation of electric power. A LANL/H-Power CRADA includes Tasks ranging from exchange, testing and optimization of membrane-electrode assemblies of large areas, development and demonstration of manufacturable flow field, backing and bipolar plate components, and testing of stacks at the 3-5 cell level and, finally, at the 4-5 kW level. The stack should demonstrate the basic features of manufacturability, overall low cost and high energy conversion efficiency. Plans for future work are to continue the CRADA work along the time line defined in a two-year program, to continue the LANL activities of developing and testing stainless steel hardware for longer term stability including testing in a stack, and to further enhance air cathode performance to achieve higher energy conversion efficiencies as required for stationary power application.

  10. A polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack for stationary power generation from hydrogen fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gottesfeld, S.

    1995-09-01

    The fuel cell is the most efficient device for the conversion of hydrogen fuel to electric power. As such, the fuel cell represents a key element in efforts to demonstrate and implement hydrogen fuel utilization for electric power generation. The low temperature, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has recently been identified as an attractive option for stationary power generation, based on the relatively simple and benign materials employed, the zero-emission character of the device, and the expected high power density, high reliability and low cost. However, a PEMFC stack fueled by hydrogen with the combined properties of low cost, high performance and high reliability has not yet been demonstrated. Demonstration of such a stack will remove a significant barrier to implementation of this advanced technology for electric power generation from hydrogen. Work done in the past at LANL on the development of components and materials, particularly on advanced membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs), has contributed significantly to the capability to demonstrate in the foreseeable future a PEMFC stack with the combined characteristics described above. A joint effort between LANL and an industrial stack manufacturer will result in the demonstration of such a fuel cell stack for stationary power generation. The stack could operate on hydrogen fuel derived from either natural gas or from renewable sources. The technical plan includes collaboration with a stack manufacturer (CRADA). It stresses the special requirements from a PEMFC in stationary power generation, particularly maximization of the energy conversion efficiency, extension of useful life to the 10 hours time scale and tolerance to impurities from the reforming of natural gas.

  11. Prototype Combined Heater/Thermoelectric Power Generator for Remote Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champier, D.; Favarel, C.; Bédécarrats, J. P.; Kousksou, T.; Rozis, J. F.

    2013-07-01

    This study presents a prototype thermoelectric generator (TEG) developed for remote applications in villages that are not connected to the electrical power grid. For ecological and economic reasons, there is growing interest in harvesting waste heat from biomass stoves to produce some electricity. Because regular maintenance is not required, TEGs are an attractive choice for small-scale power generation in inaccessible areas. The prototype developed in our laboratory is especially designed to be implemented in stoves that are also used for domestic hot water heating. The aim of this system is to provide a few watts to householders, so they have the ability to charge cellular phones and radios, and to get some light at night. A complete prototype TEG using commercial (bismuth telluride) thermoelectric modules has been built, including system integration with an electric DC/DC converter. The DC/DC converter has a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) driven by an MC9SO8 microcontroller, which optimizes the electrical energy stored in a valve-regulated lead-acid battery. Physical models were used to study the behavior of the thermoelectric system and to optimize the performance of the MPPT. Experiments using a hot gas generator to simulate the exhaust of the combustion chamber of a stove are used to evaluate the system. Additionally, potential uses of such generators are presented.

  12. Road electric generation system with use of solar power

    SciTech Connect

    Meiarashi, S.; Ohara, Toshimasa

    1997-09-01

    The temperature of road pavement surface becomes more than 70 C because of the solar power in summer. The characteristics of asphalt pavement on heat transfer and the relatively huge occupation with urban area have caused the heat-island phenomena. The phenomena increase the temperature and the energy consumption for conditioners. Road administrators have to keep the road pavement surface out of freezing in winter. For the purpose, the use of dusting powder becomes popular in recent days. However, the negative influence of the huge amount of the powder could not be ignored, for instance, corrosion of steel bridge and cars, water pollution, and soil pollution. Another way is a road heating system. The enormous electric energy consumption prevents the system from becoming popular. The authors have devised the new system that generates electric power and works as a road heating system. The authors call the system as ``Road Electric Generation System (REGS).`` The basic principal of the electric generation and road heating is Seebeck and Pertier effect, respectively. In this paper, the authors have calculated the electric power generated by the system, road surface temperature after introducing the system, and the heat radiation from the road surface.

  13. High power laser diodes at 14xx nm wavelength range for industrial and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telkkälä, Jarkko; Boucart, Julien; Krejci, Martin; Crum, Trevor; Lichtenstein, Norbert

    2014-03-01

    We report on the development of the latest generation of high power laser diodes at 14xx nm wavelength range suitable for industrial applications such as plastics welding and medical applications including acne treatment, skin rejuvenation and surgery. The paper presents the newest chip generation developed at II-VI Laser Enterprise, increasing the output power and the power conversion efficiency while retaining the reliability of the initial design. At an emission wavelength around 1440 nm we applied the improved design to a variety of assemblies exhibiting maximum power values as high as 7 W for broad-area single emitters. For 1 cm wide bars on conductive coolers and for bars on active micro channel coolers we have obtained 50 W and 72 W in continuous wave (cw) operation respectively. The maximum power measured for a 1 cm bar operated with 50 μs pulse width and 0.01% duty cycle was 184 W, demonstrating the potential of the chip design for optimized cooling. Power conversion efficiency values as high as 50% for a single emitter device and over 40% for mounted bars have been demonstrated, reducing the required power budget to operate the devices. Both active and conductive bar assembly configurations show polarization purity greater than 98%. Life testing has been conducted at 95 A, 50% duty cycle and 0.5 Hz hard pulsed operation for bars which were soldered to conductive copper CS mounts using our hard solder technology. The results after 5500 h, or 10 million "on-off" cycles show stable operation.

  14. Design and analysis of solar thermoelectric power generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatcharasathien, Narong; Hirunlabh, Jongjit; Khedari, Joseph; Daguenet, Michel

    2005-09-01

    This article reports on the design and performance analysis of a solar thermoelectric power generation plant (STEPG). The system considers both truncated compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) with a flat receiver and conventional flat-plate collectors, thermoelectric (TE) cooling and power generator modules and appropriate connecting pipes and control devices. The design tool uses TRNSYS IIsibat-15 program with a new component we developed for the TE modules. The main input data of the system are the specifications of TE module, the maximum hot side temperature of TE modules, and the desired power output. Examples of the design using truncated CPC and flat-plate collectors are reported and discussed for various slope angle and half-acceptance angle of CPC. To minimize system cost, seasonal adjustment of the slope angle between 0° and 30° was considered, which could give relatively high power output under Bangkok ambient condition. Two small-scale STEPGs were built. One of them uses electrical heater, whereas the other used a CPC with locally made aluminum foil reflector. Measured data showed reasonable agreement with the model outputs. TE cooling modules were found to be more appropriate. Therefore, the TRNSYS software and the developed TE component offer an extremely powerful tool for the design and performance analysis of STEPG plant.

  15. Nuclear power industry: Tendencies in the world and Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babenko, V. A.; Jenkovszky, L. L.; Pavlovych, V. N.

    2007-11-01

    This review deals with new trends in nuclear reactors physics. It opens by an easily understood introduction to nuclear fission energy physics, starting with some history, including the achievements of the Kharkov nuclear physics school. Attention has been given to the development of fission theory, the Strutinsky theory, and the possible use of “nonstandard” fissile elements. The evolution of the design of nuclear reactors, including the merits and demerits of various structures used worldwide, is given in detail. A detailed description of nuclear power plants operating in Ukraine and their (large!) contribution to Ukraine’s total electricity production as compared with other countries is presented. A comparative evaluation of different energy sources influencing environment contamination and the pollution caused by the Chernobyl accident are presented. The lessons of the Chernobyl accident are summarized, including the features of the shelter (“Sarkofag”) covering the remaining of the power plant fourth block and some examples of calculations of the radioactive evolution of the station’s fuel-containing mass (by authors of the present review). The evolution of traditional nuclear reactors designs set forth under the separate heading of next-generation reactors including new projects such as subcritical assemblies controlled by an external beam of particles (neutrons and protons). The Feoktistov reactor operation and the possibility of its realization are discussed among the new ideas.

  16. Membrane-based processes for sustainable power generation using water.

    PubMed

    Logan, Bruce E; Elimelech, Menachem

    2012-08-16

    Water has always been crucial to combustion and hydroelectric processes, but it could become the source of power in membrane-based systems that capture energy from natural and waste waters. Two processes are emerging as sustainable methods for capturing energy from sea water: pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis. These processes can also capture energy from waste heat by generating artificial salinity gradients using synthetic solutions, such as thermolytic salts. A further source of energy comes from organic matter in waste waters, which can be harnessed using microbial fuel-cell technology, allowing both wastewater treatment and power production.

  17. A Renewably Powered Hydrogen Generation and Fueling Station Community Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Sekura, Linda S.; Prokopius, Paul; Theirl, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The proposed project goal is to encourage the use of renewable energy and clean fuel technologies for transportation and other applications while generating economic development. This can be done by creating an incubator for collaborators, and creating a manufacturing hub for the energy economy of the future by training both white- and blue-collar workers for the new energy economy. Hydrogen electrolyzer fueling stations could be mass-produced, shipped and installed in collaboration with renewable energy power stations, or installed connected to the grid with renewable power added later.

  18. Stabilization of a Power System including Inverter Type Distributed Generators by the Virtual Synchronous Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakimoto, Kenichi; Miura, Yushi; Ise, Toshifumi

    The capacity of Distributed Generators (DGs) connected to grid by inverters are growing year and year. The inverters are generally controlled by PLL (Phase Locked Loop) in order to synchronize with power system frequency. Power systems will become unstable, if the capacity of inverter type DGs become larger and larger, because inverter frequency is controlled just to follow the frequency decided by other synchronous generators. There is the idea that inverters are controlled to behave like a synchronous generator. This concept is called Virtual Synchronous Generator (VSG). In this paper, a control scheme of VSG is presented, and the design method of required energy storage and the ability of grid stabilizing control by VSG is investigated by computer simulations.

  19. Electric Power Generation from Low to Intermediate Temperature Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Gosnold, William D.

    2015-06-18

    with ORC technology. Average co-produced water for 10,480 wells is 3.2 gallons per minute (gpm). Even excluding the tight formations, Bakken and Three Forks, average co-produced water for the remaining 3,337 is only 5 gpm. The output of the highest producing well is 184 gpm and the average of the top 100 wells is 52 gpm. Due to the depth of the oil producing formations in the Williston Basin, typically 3 km or greater, pumps are operated slowly to prevent watering out thus total fluid production is purposefully maintained at low volumes. There remain potential possibilities for development of geothermal fluids in the Williston Basin. Unitized fields in which water production from several tens of wells is collected at a single site are good possibilities for development. Water production in the unitized fields is greater than 1000 gpm is several areas. A similar possibility occurs where infill-drilling between Bakken and Three Forks horizontal wells has created areas where large volumes of geothermal fluids are available on multi-well pads and in unitized fields. Although the Bakken produces small amounts of water, the water/oil ration is typically less than 1, the oil and water mix produced at the well head can be sent through the heat exchanger on an ORC. It is estimated that several tens of MWh of power could be generated by a distributed system of ORC engines in the areas of high-density drilling in the Bakken Formation. Finally, horizontal drilling in water bearing formations is the other possibility. Several secondary recovery water-flood projects in the basin are producing water above 100 ⁰C at rates of 300 gpm to 850 gpm. Those systems also could produce several tens of MWh of power with ORC technology. Objective 3 of the project was highly successful. The program has produced 5 PhDs, 7 MS, and 3 BS students with theses in geothermal energy. The team has involved 7 faculty in 4 different engineering and science disciplines, ChE, EE, GE, and Geol. The team has

  20. Diversity of fuel sources for electricity generation in an evolving U.S. power sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiLuccia, Janelle G.

    Policymakers increasingly have shown interest in options to boost the relative share of renewable or clean electricity generating sources in order to reduce negative environmental externalities from fossil fuels, guard against possible resource constraints, and capture economic advantages from developing new technologies and industries. Electric utilities and non-utility generators make decisions regarding their generation mix based on a number of different factors that may or may not align with societal goals. This paper examines the makeup of the electric power sector to determine how the type of generator and the presence (or lack) of competition in electricity markets at the state level may relate to the types of fuel sources used for generation. Using state-level electricity generation data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration from 1990 through 2010, this paper employs state and time fixed-effects regression modeling to attempt to isolate the impacts of state-level restructuring policies and the emergence of non-utility generators on states' generation from coal, from fossil fuel and from renewable sources. While the analysis has significant limitations, I do find that state-level electricity restructuring has a small but significant association with lowering electricity generation from coal specifically and fossil fuels more generally. Further research into the relationship between competition and fuel sources would aid policymakers considering legislative options to influence the generation mix.

  1. Experimental and analytical investigation of a fluidic power generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarohia, V.; Bernal, L.; Beauchamp, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical investigation was performed to understand the various fluid processes associated with the conversion of flow energy into electric power in a fluidic generator. Experiments were performed under flight-simulated laboratory conditions and results were compared with those obtained in the free-flight conditions. It is concluded that the mean mass flow critically controlled the output of the fluidic generator. Cross-correlation of the outputs of transducer data indicate the presence of a standing wave in the tube; the mechanism of oscillation is an acoustic resonance tube phenomenon. A linearized model was constructed coupling the flow behavior of the jet, the jet-layer, the tube, the cavity, and the holes of the fluidic generator. The analytical results also show that the mode of the fluidic power generator is an acoustical resonance phenomenon with the frequency of operation given by f approx = a/4L, where f is the frequency of jet swallowing, a is the average speed of sound in the tube, and L is the length of the tube. Analytical results further indicated that oscillations in the fluidic generator are always damped and consequently there is a forcing of the system in operation.

  2. Advanced feedwater control for next generation nuclear power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hengliang

    In current generation Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), the control of Steam Generator level experiences challenges over the full range of plant operating conditions. These challenges can be particularly troublesome in the low power range where the feedwater is highly subcooled and minor changes in the feed flow may cause oscillations in the SG level, potentially leading to reactor trip. Substantial attention has been given to feedwater control systems with recognition of the difficulty of the full range feedwater control problem due to steam generator level shrink-swell phenomena, changes in valve and flow path characteristics, and other nonlinear phenomena over the full range of operating conditions. The IRIS reactor concept adds additional challenges to the feedwater control problem as a result of a steam generator design where neither level or steam generator mass inventory can be measured directly. Neural networks have demonstrated capabilities to capture a wide range of dynamic signal transformation and non-linear problems. In this project a detailed engineering simulation of plant response is used to develop and test neural control methods for the IRIS full range feedwater control problem. The established neural feed controller has demonstrated the capability to improve the performance of SG level or mass control under transient conditions and over a wide range of reactor power including abnormal conditions.

  3. Nebraska Power Review Board: regulating a publicly-owned electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    A limited regulatory scheme evolved in response to the unique public power status during the 1933 to 1983 time-frame, emphasis is on the regulated era of the last twenty years. Economic and legal frames of reference assist in comparing the influences of each, as their symbiotic relationship helped structure the markets and regulatory techniques. The Nebraska Power Review Board (PRB) was fashioned to allow the requisite state intervention, yet maintain the maximum local control. The PRB would approve allocation of retail markets and pass upon the construction of generation and transmission facilities; but, not review rates. Municipal growth, and the end of electrical isolation via the establishment of a transmission grid were the dominant forces intensifying intra-industry interactions. Reactive legislative proposals ranged from regulation repeal to imposition of traditional regulation. Consistently, the selected alternatives involves the least restrictions and expanded the PRB role the least. The PRB was authorized to approve voluntary, non-binding all

  4. CODING METHODS FOR USE WITH LOW POWER LASER GENERATED ULTRASOUND

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, A.; Veres, I.; Thursby, G.; McKee, C.; Pierce, S. G.; Culshaw, B.

    2010-02-22

    We describe how the application of maximum-length sequence (m-sequence) coding can be used to improve the measured signal-to-noise ratio of ultrasonic waves generated by a low power laser diode. Lamb waves were generated in thin metallic plates using a pulsed excitation. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the detected signal, various signal processing methods have been evaluated, with m-sequences described here. We also show how the spectral content of the ultrasonic wave can be controlled by using a modified m-sequence approach.

  5. Transportable electrical power generating system fueled by organic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.F.; Bell, A.W.; Bray, A.P.

    1992-06-16

    This patent describes a transportable electrical power generating system which is fueled by agricultural waste. It comprises: a turbine, a compressor driven by the turbine, a generator, a recuperator, a first convective heat exchanger, a furnace, a furnace chamber, a second radiant heat exchanger within the chamber, first means for providing a first air flow into the base of the furnace chamber; and second means positioned between the base and the top, a cyclone separator, an air preheater, exhaust means for exhausting the system of fumes; and a pallet to which components of the system as affixed.

  6. A market survey of geothermal wellhead power generation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leeds, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    The market potential for a portable geothermal wellhead power conversion device is assessed. Major study objectives included identifying the most promising applications for such a system, the potential impediments confronting their industrialization, and the various government actions needed to overcome these impediments. The heart of the study was a series of structured interviews with key decision-making individual in the various disciplines of the geothermal community. In addition, some technical and economic analyses of a candidate system were performed to support the feasibility of the basic concept.

  7. Direct and indirect generation of waste in the Spanish paper industry.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Peñalver, Soraya María; Rodríguez Molina, Mercedes; Camacho Ballesta, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The paper industry has a relatively high degree of reliance on suppliers when compared to other industries. Exploring the role of the paper industry in terms of consumption of intermediate inputs from other industries may help to understand how the production of paper does not only generate waste by itself but also affects the amount of waste generated by other industries. The product Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a useful analytical tool to examine and assess environmental impacts over the entire life cycle of a product "from cradle to grave" but it is costly and time intensive. In contrast, Economic Input Output Life Cycle Assessment Models (IO-LCA) that combine LCA with Input-Output analysis (IO) are more accurate and less expensive, as they employ publicly available data. This paper represents one of the first Spanish studies aimed at estimating the waste generated in the production of paper by applying IO-LCA. One of the major benefits is the derivation of the contribution of direct and indirect suppliers to the paper industry. The results obtained show that there was no direct relationship between the impact on output and the impact on waste generation exerted by the paper industry. The major contributors to waste generation were the mining industry and the forestry industry.

  8. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2004-01-04

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the July 2003 to December 2003 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

  9. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Minh

    2004-07-04

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the January to June 2004 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a micro-turbine. In addition, an activity included in this program focuses on the development of an integrated coal gasification fuel cell system concept based on planar SOFC technology. Also, another activity included in this program focuses on the development of SOFC scale up strategies.

  10. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Minh; Faress Rahman

    2002-12-31

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC during the October 2002 to December 2002 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. The following activities have been carried out during this reporting period: {lg_bullet} Conceptual system design trade studies were performed {lg_bullet} Part-load performance analysis was conducted {lg_bullet} Primary system concept was down-selected {lg_bullet} Dynamic control model has been developed {lg_bullet} Preliminary heat exchanger designs were prepared {lg_bullet} Pressurized SOFC endurance testing was performed

  11. Nanodevices for generating power from molecules and batteryless sensing

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Yinmin; Wang, Xianying; Hamza, Alex V.

    2014-07-15

    A nanoconverter or nanosensor is disclosed capable of directly generating electricity through physisorption interactions with molecules that are dipole containing organic species in a molecule interaction zone. High surface-to-volume ratio semiconductor nanowires or nanotubes (such as ZnO, silicon, carbon, etc.) are grown either aligned or randomly-aligned on a substrate. Epoxy or other nonconductive polymers are used to seal portions of the nanowires or nanotubes to create molecule noninteraction zones. By correlating certain molecule species to voltages generated, a nanosensor may quickly identify which species is detected. Nanoconverters in a series parallel arrangement may be constructed in planar, stacked, or rolled arrays to supply power to nano- and micro-devices without use of external batteries. In some cases breath, from human or other life forms, contain sufficient molecules to power a nanoconverter. A membrane permeable to certain molecules around the molecule interaction zone increases specific molecule nanosensor selectivity response.

  12. Nanodevices for generating power from molecules and batteryless sensing

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Yinmin; Wang, Xianying; Hamza, Alex V.

    2015-06-09

    A nanoconverter or nanosensor is disclosed capable of directly generating electricity through physisorption interactions with molecules that are dipole containing organic species in a molecule interaction zone. High surface-to-volume ratio semiconductor nanowires or nanotubes (such as ZnO, silicon, carbon, etc.) are grown either aligned or randomly-aligned on a substrate. Epoxy or other nonconductive polymers are used to seal portions of the nanowires or nanotubes to create molecule noninteraction zones. By correlating certain molecule species to voltages generated, a nanosensor may quickly identify which species is detected. Nanoconverters in a series parallel arrangement may be constructed in planar, stacked, or rolled arrays to supply power to nano- and micro-devices without use of external batteries. In some cases breath, from human or other life forms, contain sufficient molecules to power a nanoconverter. A membrane permeable to certain molecules around the molecule interaction zone increases specific molecule nanosensor selectivity response.

  13. The October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta Earthquake: Effects on selected power and industrial facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, S.W.; Roche, T.R. ); Schiff, A.J. )

    1991-09-01

    The Loma Prieta Earthquake of Tuesday, October 17, 1989, was the most damaging seismic event in California since the great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906. The earthquake created Modified Mercalli Intensities (MMI) of 7 or 8 throughout the northern Monterey and southern San Francisco Bay areas. This heavily shaken region included over 5000 square kilometers, and an urban population of over 3 million. This region includes a wide variety of modern industry, ranging from conventional smokestack'' operations to electronics and information processing facilities. The area nearest the fault rupture contains some of the largest power generation and transmission stations operated by the regional utility -- Pacific Gas Electric (PG E). This report summarizes the latest study in a program of post-earthquake investigations sponsored by The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The Loma Prieta Earthquake created the largest amount of potentially useful data of any EPRI study to date. Over two dozen electric power and industrial facilities were reviewed following the earthquake. The following sections provide an overview of some of the primary observations. 16 figs.

  14. Car companies look to generate power from waste heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirber, Michael

    2008-04-01

    You might think that the steam engine is an outdated technology that had its heyday centuries ago, but in fact steam is once again a hot topic with vehicle manufacturers. Indeed, the next generation of hybrid cars and trucks may incorporate some form of steam power. Honda, for example, has just released details of a new prototype hybrid car that recharges its battery using a steam engine that exploits waste heat from the exhaust pipe.

  15. National-Scale Wind Resource Assessment for Power Generation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2013-08-01

    This presentation describes the current standards for conducting a national-scale wind resource assessment for power generation, along with the risk/benefit considerations to be considered when beginning a wind resource assessment. The presentation describes changes in turbine technology and viable wind deployment due to more modern turbine technology and taller towers and shows how the Philippines national wind resource assessment evolved over time to reflect changes that arise from updated technologies and taller towers.

  16. High gain amplifiers: Power oscillations and harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Dattoli, G.; Ottaviani, P. L.; Pagnutti, S.

    2007-08-01

    We discuss the power oscillations in saturated high gain free electron laser amplifiers and show that the relevant period can be written in terms of the gain length. We use simple arguments following from the solution of the pendulum equation in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. Nontrivial effects due to nonlinear harmonic generation and inhomogeneous broadening are discussed too, as well as the saturated dynamics of short pulses.

  17. Heat-Pipe-Associated Localized Thermoelectric Power Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Pan-Jo; Rhi, Seok-Ho; Lee, Kye-Bock; Hwang, Hyun-Chang; Lee, Ji-Su; Jang, Ju-Chan; Lee, Wook-Hyun; Lee, Ki-Woo

    2014-06-01

    The present study focused on how to improve the maximum power output of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system and move heat to any suitable space using a TEG associated with a loop thermosyphon (loop-type heat pipe). An experimental study was carried out to investigate the power output, the temperature difference of the thermoelectric module (TEM), and the heat transfer performance associated with the characteristic of the researched heat pipe. Currently, internal combustion engines lose more than 35% of their fuel energy as recyclable heat in the exhaust gas, but it is not easy to recycle waste heat using TEGs because of the limited space in vehicles. There are various advantages to use of TEGs over other power sources, such as the absence of moving parts, a long lifetime, and a compact system configuration. The present study presents a novel TEG concept to transfer heat from the heat source to the sink. This technology can transfer waste heat to any location. This simple and novel design for a TEG can be applied to future hybrid cars. The present TEG system with a heat pipe can transfer heat and generate power of around 1.8 V with T TEM = 58°C. The heat transfer performance of a loop-type heat pipe with various working fluids was investigated, with water at high heat flux (90 W) and 0.05% TiO2 nanofluid at low heat flux (30 W to 70 W) showing the best performance in terms of power generation. The heat pipe can transfer the heat to any location where the TEM is installed.

  18. Recent advances in the development of high average power induction accelerators for industrial and environmental applications

    SciTech Connect

    Neau, E.L.

    1994-09-01

    Short-pulse accelerator technology developed during the early 1960`s through the late 1980`s is being extended to high average power systems capable of use in industrial and environmental applications. Processes requiring high dose levels and/or high volume throughput will require systems with beam power levels from several hundreds of kilowatts to megawatts. Beam accelerating potentials can range from less than 1 MeV to as much as 10 MeV depending on the type of beam, depth of penetration required, and the density of the product being treated. This paper addresses the present status of a family of high average power systems, with output beam power levels up to 200 kW, now in operation that use saturable core switches to achieve output pulse widths of 50 to 80 nanoseconds. Inductive adders and field emission cathodes are used to generate beams of electrons or x-rays at up to 2.5 MeV over areas of 1000 cm{sup 2}. Similar high average power technology is being used at {le} 1 MeV to drive repetitive ion beam sources for treatment of material surfaces over 100`s of cm{sup 2}.

  19. The VELOCE pulsed power generator for isentropic compression experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ao, Tommy; Asay, James Russell; Chantrenne, Sophie J.; Hickman, Randall John; Willis, Michael David; Shay, Andrew W.; Grine-Jones, Suzi A.; Hall, Clint Allen; Baer, Melvin R.

    2007-12-01

    Veloce is a medium-voltage, high-current, compact pulsed power generator developed for isentropic and shock compression experiments. Because of its increased availability and ease of operation, Veloce is well suited for studying isentropic compression experiments (ICE) in much greater detail than previously allowed with larger pulsed power machines such as the Z accelerator. Since the compact pulsed power technology used for dynamic material experiments has not been previously used, it is necessary to examine several key issues to ensure that accurate results are obtained. In the present experiments, issues such as panel and sample preparation, uniformity of loading, and edge effects were extensively examined. In addition, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the ALEGRA code were performed to interpret the experimental results and to design improved sample/panel configurations. Examples of recent ICE studies on aluminum are presented.

  20. SLAC Next-Generation High Availability Power Supply

    SciTech Connect

    Bellomo, P.; MacNair, D.; /SLAC

    2010-06-11

    SLAC recently commissioned forty high availability (HA) magnet power supplies for Japan's ATF2 project. SLAC is now developing a next-generation N+1 modular power supply with even better availability and versatility. The goal is to have unipolar and bipolar output capability. It has novel topology and components to achieve very low output voltage to drive superconducting magnets. A redundant, embedded, digital controller in each module provides increased bandwidth for use in beam-based alignment, and orbit correction systems. The controllers have independent inputs for connection to two external control nodes. Under fault conditions, they sense failures and isolate the modules. Power supply speed mitigates the effects of fault transients and obviates subsequent magnet standardization. Hot swap capability promises higher availability and other exciting benefits for future, more complex, accelerators, and eventually the International Linear Collider project.

  1. Spin-on-doping for output power improvement of silicon nanowire array based thermoelectric power generators

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, B. Fobelets, K.

    2014-06-07

    The output power of a silicon nanowire array (NWA)-bulk thermoelectric power generator (TEG) with Cu contacts is improved by spin-on-doping (SOD). The Si NWAs used in this work are fabricated via metal assisted chemical etching (MACE) of 0.01–0.02 Ω cm resistivity n- and p-type bulk, converting ~4% of the bulk thickness into NWs. The MACE process is adapted to ensure crystalline NWs. Current-voltage and Seebeck voltage-temperature measurements show that while SOD mainly influences the contact resistance in bulk, it influences both contact resistance and power factor in NWA-bulk based TEGs. According to our experiments, using Si NWAs in combination with SOD increases the output power by an order of 3 under the same heating power due to an increased power factor, decreased thermal conductivity of the NWA and reduced Si-Cu contact resistance.

  2. 76 FR 36910 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC, Oswego Harbor Power LLC, TC Ravenswood, LLC. v. New York...

  3. 76 FR 34692 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC, Oswego Harbor Power LLC, TC Ravenswood, LLC; v. New York...

  4. Transient Current Analysis of Induction Generators for Wind Power Generating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senjyu, Tomonobu; Sueyoshi, Norihide; Uezato, Katsumi; Fujita, Hideki

    In recent year, non-conventional energy generation is coming up for effective use of natural energy, such as wind energy. Induction generators consisting squirrel-cage rotors are widly used as wind generators because of their salient features like robust rotor design, simple in the construction, maintenance free operation, etc. However these induction generators will draw large transient inrush current, several times as large as the machine rated current, the instant when they are connected to utility grid or restored after the fault clearance. Under such situations, there will be a severe voltage fluctuations in the power system. In this paper, we present transient analysis of induction generators before and after a three-phase fault conditions. Theoretical discission is developed to determine the initial phase angle and the time at which maximum transient currents flow in the system.

  5. Synchronous Generator with HTS-2G field coils for Windmills with output power 1 MW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, K.; Kovalev, L.; Poltavets, V.; Samsonovich, S.; Ilyasov, R.; Levin, A.; Surin, M.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays synchronous generators for wind-mills are developed worldwide. The cost of the generator is determined by its size and weight. In this deal the implementation of HTS-2G generators is very perspective. The application of HTS 2G field coils in the rotor allows to reduce the size of the generator is 1.75 times. In this work the design 1 MW HTS-2G generator is considered. The designed 1 MW HTS-2G generator has the following parameters: rotor diameter 800 mm, active length 400 mm, phase voltage 690V, rotor speed 600 min-1 rotor field coils with HTS-2G tapes. HTS-2G field coils located in the rotating cryostat and cooled by liquid nitrogen. The simulation and optimization of HTS-2G field coils geometry allowed to increase feed DC current up to 50A. Copper stator windings are water cooled. Magnetic and electrical losses in 1 MW HTS-2G generator do not exceed 1.6% of the nominal output power. In the construction of HTS-2G generator the wave multiplier with ratio 1:40 is used. The latter allows to reduce the total mass of HTS-2G generator down to 1.5 tons. The small-scale model of HTS-2G generator with output power 50 kW was designed, manufactured and tested. The test results showed good agreement with calculation results. The manufacturing of 1 MW HTS-2G generator is planned in 2014. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry".

  6. Power generation by flagella-propelled Serratia Marcescens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Trung-Hieu; Kim, Min Jun; Byun, Doyoung

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we present electrical power generation by using swimming Serratia marcescens which is a rod shaped bacterium species and has about 10 um long and about 20 nm thin helical filaments. Flow in micro channel is driven by bacteria attached on the wall, which is around 25 to 50 μm/sec. The driven electrolyte solution flow (buffer solution containing high concentration of S. marcescens) may be considered as movement of conductor. If we place permanent magnets on the top and bottom of the micro channel and electrodes on side walls in the micro channel, electrical current could be generated by the principle of Lorentz force acting on the moving charges. The potential between the two electrodes was measured to be up to 10mV and the electrical current was about 10pA with external load 50 Ohm. Even if the energy generated by bacteria swimming is small, it demonstrated the possible generation of power, which requires in-depth further research.

  7. RTGs - The powering of Ulysses. [Radio-isotope Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastal, E. F.; Campbell, R. W.

    1990-01-01

    The radio-isotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) for Ulysses' electronic supply is described noting that lack of sufficient sunlight renders usual solar cell power generation ineffective due to increased distance from sun. The history of the RTG in the U.S.A. is reviewed citing the first RTG launch in 1961 with an electrical output of 2.7 W and the improved Ulysses RTG, which provides 285 W at mission beginning and 250 W at mission end. The RTG concept is discussed including the most recent RTG technology developed by the DOE, the General Purpose Heat Source RTG (GPHS-RTG). The system relies upon heat generated by radioactive decay using radioactive plutonium-238, which is converted directly to energy using the Seebeck method.

  8. Supplementary steam - A viable hydrogen power generation concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, D. E.; Lee, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Technical and economic aspects of a supplementary steam generation for peaking power applications are discussed. Preliminary designs of the hydrogen/oxygen combustors to be used for such applications are described. The integration of the hydrogen/oxygen steam-generating equipment into a typical coal-fired steam station is studied. The basic steam generation system was designed as a 20 MW supplementary system to be added to the existing 160 MW system. An analysis of the operating and design requirements of the supplementary system is conducted. Estimates were made for additional steam and fuel supply lines and for additional control required to operate the combustors and to integrate the combustor system into the facility.

  9. Wind turbine generator interaction with diesel generators on an isolated power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, G. W.; Wilreker, V. F.; Shaltens, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a dynamic interaction investigation to characterize any disturbances caused by interfacing the Mod 0A wind turbine (150 kW configuration) with the Block Island utility diesel generator grid are reported. The tests were run when only two diesel generators were on line, and attention was given to power, frequency, and voltage time profiles. The interconnected system was examined in the start-up and synchronization phase, normal shutdown and cut-out of the wind turbine, during fixed pitch generation, and during variable pitch operation. Governors were installed on the diesel generators to accommodate the presence of wind-derived electricity. The blade pitch control was set to maintain power at 150 kW or below. Power and voltage transients were insignificant during start-up and shutdown, and frequency aberrations were within the range caused by load fluctuations. It is concluded that wind turbine generation can be successfully implemented by an isolated utility, even with a significant penetration to the total grid output.

  10. Foundations for the Fourth Generation of Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, James Alan

    2000-11-01

    Plentiful, affordable electrical energy is a critically important commodity to nations wishing to grow their economy. Energy, and more specifically electricity, is the fuel of economic growth. More than one-third of the world’s population (more than 2 billion people), however, live today without access to any electricity. Further, another 2 billion people in the world exist on less than 100 watts of electricity per capita. By comparison, the large economies of Japan and France use more than 800 watts of electricity per capita, and the United States uses nearly 1500 watts of electricity per capita. As the governments of developing nations strive to improve their economies, and hence the standard of living of their people, electricity use is increasing. Several forecasts of electrical generation growth have concluded that world electricity demand will roughly double in the next 20–25 years, and possibly triple by 2050. This electrical generation growth will occur primarily in the rapidly developing and growing economies in Asia and Latin America. This net growth is in addition to the need for replacement generating capacity in the United States and Europe as aging power plants (primarily fossil-fueled) are replaced. This very substantial worldwide electricity demand growth places the issue of where this new electricity generation capacity is to come from squarely in front of the developed countries. They have a fundamental desire (if not a moral obligation) to help these developing countries sustain their economic growth and improve their standard of living, while at the same time protecting the energy (and economic) security of their own countries. There are currently 435 power reactors generating about 16 percent of the world’s electricity. We know full well that nuclear power shows great promise as an economical, safe, and emissions-free source of electrical energy, but it also carries at least the perception of great problems, from public safety to dealing

  11. Pulsed nuclear power stations as the basis of the global power industry: Resource and ecological considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, G.A.; Shibarshov, L.I.; Voloshin, N.P.

    1995-12-01

    The energy and environmental crisis may be one of the most fundamental problems facing humanity in the coming decades. {open_quotes}Optimization{close_quotes} of the global population at up to two billion people or {open_quotes}impoverishment, suffering, famine, and an accompanying increase in violence{close_quotes}: this is the choice predicted by US ecologists; most likely, this prediction will prove correct unless humanity can provide each individual on the planet with at least the daily energy consumed by US citizens. For the current world population, that would require {approximately}10{sup 14} W. Most predictions of nuclear-power development assume the satisfaction of {approximately}2 % of this need up to 2030 by the fission of {sup 235}U; the energy content of {sup 235}U ores is ten times less than that of oil and gas. The introduction of nuclear power from breeder reactors is not planned for the near future, on account of the fears produced by the Chernobyl accident and the underestimation of the resource and economic constraints preventing adequate power generation in the 21st century. We attempt to illustrate the origins of these constraints here in the simplest possible way. Table 1 compares the characteristics of various nuclear-power fuel cycles with different rates of power development.

  12. Engineering Scoping Study of Thermoelectric Generator Systems for Industrial Waste Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, Terry; Choate, William T.

    2006-11-01

    This report evaluates thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems with the intent to: 1) examine industrial processes in order to identify and quantify industrial waste heat sources that could potentially use TEGs; 2) describe the operating environment that a TEG would encounter in selected industrial processes and quantify the anticipated TEG system performance; 3) identify cost, design and/or engineering performance requirements that will be needed for TEGs to operate in the selected industrial processes; and 4) identify the research, development and deployment needed to overcome the limitations that discourage the development and use of TEGs for recovery of industrial waste heat.

  13. Direct fuel cell - A high proficiency power generator for biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, P.S.; Steinfeld, G.; Baker, B.S.

    1994-12-31

    Conversion of renewable bio-based resources into energy offers significant benefits for our environment and domestic economic activity. It also improves national security by displacing fossil fuels. However, in the current economic environment, it is difficult for biofuel systems to compete with other fossil fuels. The biomass-fired power plants are typically smaller than 50 MW, lower in electrical efficiencies (<25%) and experience greater costs for handling and transporting the biomass. When combined with fuel cells such as the Direct Fuel Cell (DFC), biofuels can produce power more efficiently with negligible environmental impact. Agricultural and other waste biomass can be converted to ethanol or methane-rich biofuels for power generation use in the DFC. These DFC power plants are modular and factory assembled. Due to their electrochemical (non-combustion) conversion process, these plants are environmentally friendly, highly efficient and potentially cost effective, even in sizes as small as a few meagawatts. They can be sited closer to the source of the biomass to minimize handling and transportation costs. The high-grade waste heat available from DFC power plants makes them attractive in cogeneration applications for farming and rural communities. The DFC potentially opens up new markets for biofuels derived from wood, grains and other biomass waste products.

  14. Enhanced power quality based single phase photovoltaic distributed generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Aurobinda; Pathak, M. K.; Srivastava, S. P.

    2016-08-01

    This article presents a novel control strategy for a 1-ϕ 2-level grid-tie photovoltaic (PV) inverter to enhance the power quality (PQ) of a PV distributed generation (PVDG) system. The objective is to obtain the maximum benefits from the grid-tie PV inverter by introducing current harmonics as well as reactive power compensation schemes in its control strategy, thereby controlling the PV inverter to achieve multiple functions in the PVDG system such as: (1) active power flow control between the PV inverter and the grid, (2) reactive power compensation, and (3) grid current harmonics compensation. A PQ enhancement controller (PQEC) has been designed to achieve the aforementioned objectives. The issue of underutilisation of the PV inverter in nighttime has also been addressed in this article and for the optimal use of the system; the PV inverter is used as a shunt active power filter in nighttime. A prototype model of the proposed system is developed in the laboratory, to validate the effectiveness of the control scheme, and is tested with the help of the dSPACE DS1104 platform.

  15. Power and Energy: Industrial Arts Curriculum Guide. Grades 9-12. Curriculum Guide 1335 (Tentative).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    The tentative guide in power and energy for senior high school use is part of a series of industrial arts curriculum materials developed by the State of Louisiana. The course is designed to provide "hands-on" experience with tools and materials along with a study of the industrial processes in power and energy. In addition, the student is also…

  16. 49 CFR 176.78 - Use of power-operated industrial trucks on board vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... containers must be removed from a hold before any truck motor is started and the trucks are placed in... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of power-operated industrial trucks on board... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.78 Use of power-operated industrial trucks on...

  17. A Study of Distance Education for the Needs of the Nuclear Power Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reckline, Sigmund Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This research presents an examination of student satisfaction related to online training for adult learners in the nuclear power industry. Both groups, the nuclear industry and its associated workforce, have demonstrable needs which might be met by such programs. The nuclear industry itself faces an expansion of facilities and services combined…

  18. Manufacture and properties of continuous grain flow crankshafts for locomotive and power generation diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Antos, D.J.; Nisbett, E.G.

    1997-12-31

    The bulk of the large crankshaft production volume is associated with the medium speed diesel engine market. These engines have seen intense development to obtain higher power outputs without change in the physical size of the crankshaft and at the same time there has been continuing pressure to reduce costs. Fatigue and bearing normal wear are the major technical hurdles that threaten the crankshaft life, and measures for dealing with these issues are described. Continuous grain flow (CGF) crankshafts are responsible for the continued integrity of these enhanced power output engines and the production of these crankshafts is described. Comparisons are made with the older slab forging crankshaft production method. The demand for the medium speed diesel engine and its natural gas derivative is strong and supports an aggressive engine building industry serving locomotive, marine and power generation markets. This demand in turn relies on practical national standards that serve the needs of the engine builder, material supplier and the end user.

  19. BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    David Liscinsky

    2002-10-20

    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated

  20. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.