Science.gov

Sample records for power generation unit

  1. Backgrounder: Geothermal resource production, steam gathering, and power generation at Salton Sea Unit 3, Calipatria, California

    SciTech Connect

    1989-04-01

    The 10,000-kilowatt Salton Sea Unit 1 power plant was designed to demonstrate that electrical power generation, using the highly saline brines from the Salton Sea geothermal reservoir, was technically and economically feasible. Unit 1, owned by Earth Energy, a Unocal subsidiary, began operating in 1982, initiating an intensive testing program which established the design criteria necessary to construct the larger 47,500-kilowatt Unit 3 power plant, unit 3 contains many of the proprietary or patented technological innovations developed during this program. Design, construction and start-up of the Unit 3 power generating facility began in December, 1986, and was completed in 26 months. By the end of 1988, the brine handling system was in full operation, and the turbine had been tested at design speed. Desert Power Company, a Unocal subsidiary, owns the power generating facility. Unocal owns the brine resource production facility. Power is transmitted by the Imperial Irrigation District to Southern California Edison Company.

  2. 76 FR 5216 - Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background... authorizes operation of the Crystal River ] Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant (Crystal River). The license... under 10 CFR 55.11 from the schedule requirements of 10 CFR 55.59. Specifically for Crystal River,...

  3. 76 FR 53972 - Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit No. 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit No. 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of..., publicly available documents at the NRC's PDR, O1-F21, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike... Facility Operating License No. DPR-72 for Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear generating Plant (CR-3),...

  4. 77 FR 33004 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Clinton Power Station, Unit 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Clinton Power Station, Unit 1 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Manager, Plant Licensing Branch III-2, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor... Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  5. Electrical Power Generation. A Basic Teaching Unit on Energy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Hugh, Ed.; Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Four classroom activities are included in this 8-10 period unit suitable for high school chemistry and physics classes. The first activity is a reading (12th-grade readability level determined by the Fry procedure) which explains electricity conversion, transportation, and efficiency ratings. The second and third activities are electrical energy…

  6. 75 FR 13320 - Florida Power Corporation, et al., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13967). There will be no change to radioactive effluents that affect radiation... [Part 73, Power Reactor Security Requirements, 74 FR 13926, 13967 (March 27, 2009)]. The licensee... COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, et al., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant;...

  7. Developing the concept of maintenance and repairs in projects of power units for new-generation nuclear power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurinovich, V. D.; Yanchenko, Yu. A.

    2012-05-01

    Results from conceptual elaboration of individual requirements for the system of maintenance and repairs that must be implemented in the projects of new-generation nuclear power stations are presented taking as an example the power unit project for a nuclear power station equipped with a standard optimized VVER reactor with enhanced information support (the so-called VVER TOI reactor). Implementation of these concepts will help to achieve competitiveness of such nuclear power stations in the domestic and international markets.

  8. 76 FR 29277 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Environmental... Generation Company, LLC (Exelon, the licensee) for operation of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units...-level radioactive waste (LLRW) from Limerick Generating Station (LGS) in the Peach Bottom Atomic...

  9. Climate change impacts on thermoelectric-power generation in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.

    2015-12-01

    Thermoelectric-power generation accounts for more than 70% of the total electricity generation in the United States, which requires large amounts of water for cooling purposes. Water withdrawals for thermoelectric-power generation accounted for 45% of total water use in the United States in 2010. Across the country, water demand from power plants is increasing due to pressures from growing populations and other needs, and is straining existing water resources. Moreover, temperature exceedance in receiving waters has increasingly caused power plants shut downs across parts of the country. Thermoelectric power is vulnerable to climate change owing to the combined effects of lower summer river flows and higher receiving water temperatures. In addition, the efficiency of production is reduced as air temperature rises, which propagates to more unfulfilled power demand during peak seasons. Therefore, a holistic modeling framework of water-energy-climate for the contiguous U.S. is presented here to quantify thermal output from power plants and estimate water use and energy production fluctuations due to ambient climate as well as environmental regulations. The model is calibrated on a plant-by-plant basis for year 2010 and 2011 using the available power plant inventory from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Simulations were carried out for years 2012 and 2013, and results show moderate improvements in capturing thermal output variabilities after calibration. Future power plant operations under scenarios featuring different climate and regulatory settings were investigated. Results demonstrate the interplay among water, energy and climate, and that future changes in climate and socioeconomics significantly affect power plant operations, which may provide insights to climate change mitigation considerations and energy decisions.

  10. Major design issues of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation unit

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.P.

    1996-04-01

    In addition to the stack, a fuel cell power generation unit requires fuel desulfurization and reforming, fuel and oxidant preheating, process heat removal, waste heat recovery, steam generation, oxidant supply, power conditioning, water supply and treatment, purge gas supply, instrument air supply, and system control. These support facilities add considerable cost and system complexity. Bechtel, as a system integrator of M-C Power`s molten carbonate fuel cell development team, has spent substantial effort to simplify and minimize these supporting facilities to meet cost and reliability goals for commercialization. Similiar to other fuels cells, MCFC faces design challenge of how to comply with codes and standards, achieve high efficiency and part load performance, and meanwhile minimize utility requirements, weight, plot area, and cost. However, MCFC has several unique design issues due to its high operating temperature, use of molten electrolyte, and the requirement of CO2 recycle.

  11. MHD Power Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantrowitz, Arthur; Rosa, Richard J.

    1975-01-01

    Explains the operation of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator and advantages of the system over coal, oil or nuclear powered generators. Details the development of MHD generators in the United States and Soviet Union. (CP)

  12. SOFC-based micro-CHP system as an example of efficient power generation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupecki, Jakub; Badyda, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Microscale combined heat and power (CHP) unit based on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) for distributed generation was analyzed. Operation principle is provided, and the technology development in recent years is briefly discussed. System baseline for numerical analysis under steady-state operation is given. Grid-connected unit, fuelled by biogas corresponds to potential market demand in Europe, therefore has been selected for analysis. Fuel processing method for particular application is described. Results of modeling performed in ASPEN Plus engineering software with certain assumptions are presented and discussed. Due to high system electrical efficiency exceeding 40%, and overall efficiency over 80%, technology is an example of highly competitive and sustainable energy generation unit.

  13. 75 FR 4426 - Florida Power and Light Company; Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Units 3 and 4; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power and Light Company; Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Units 3 and 4; Environmental... to Florida Power and Light Company (the licensee), for operation of the Turkey Point Units 3 and 4... the beltline region of the Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 reactor pressure vessels. Environmental...

  14. 76 FR 25378 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... December 14, 2010 (75 FR 77913). However, by letter dated April 26, 2011, the licensee withdrew the... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and... Nos. DPR-44 and DPR-56 for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Units 2 and 3, located...

  15. 75 FR 58445 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Environmental... operation of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Unit Nos. 2 and 3, located in York and...

  16. 75 FR 6071 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 20744). However, by letter dated January 19, 2010, the licensee withdrew the proposed... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3... Operating License Nos. DPR-44 and DPR-56 for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Units 2 and...

  17. 76 FR 77023 - In the Matter of Florida Power Corporation, et al., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Opportunity for Hearing,'' was published in the Federal Register on August 30, 2011 (76 FR 53972). No comments... COMMISSION In the Matter of Florida Power Corporation, et al., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant...) and nine other entities are the owners of Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant (Crystal...

  18. Development of a twin-flapping-foils unit to generate hydroelectric power from a water current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiru, H.; Yoshitake, A.; Nishi, M.

    2014-03-01

    Most of the conventional hydraulic turbines have been used for those sites having the static head larger than around 1 m. To extensively utilize not only large hydro-power but small one, which is one of renewable energy resources, development of an energy conversion system being operable under an extremely low head stream is crucial. A twin-flapping-foils unit which works based on the lift acting on the flapping foils in a stream is proposed. The foils oscillate in the transverse direction of the flow due to the lift. The pitching motion of the foils is caused by their own transverse movement through the mechanism consisting of crankshafts and con-rods. In the unit, each foil is supported vertically with a shaft in a manner of a cantilever so that no other parts need to be submerged in a water current. An experimental model with symmetric foils of 100 mm chord and 300 mm span was designed to generate average power output of 10 W at a flow velocity of 1 m/s. Through the tests carried out in the circulating water channel, the performance of the unit was verified to satisfy the design specifications. Further, the demonstration tests by using an irrigation stream performed for over a half year clarified the performance equivalent to that in the in-door water channel and the durability to a certain extent, and showed the applicability to the practical use of lighting a LED street lamp during night even at this scale model.

  19. 75 FR 76051 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota, Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... COMMISSION Northern States Power Company--Minnesota, Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Northern States Power Company, a Minnesota corporation (NSPM, the licensee) is the..., ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors,'' and...

  20. A data envelopment analysis approach to evaluation of operational inefficiencies in power generating units: A case study of Indian power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chitkara, P.

    1999-05-01

    A non-parametric approach to frontier analysis, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), is applied in this work to evaluate the operational inefficiencies of generating units. Three parameters viz. generation per unit of coal consumed, generation per unit of oil consumed and generation per unit of auxiliary power consumption have been considered as indicators of performance. The DEA approach provides with a best practice frontier for each of these parameters, which can then serve as a benchmark for efficiency. Also, the slack analysis indicates the causes of inefficiency. A time series study of units` performance, identifies those units that need renovation and repowering and those units where the performance could be improved by extensive training of operating personnel. The analysis in this paper considers operational performance statistics of all coal based generating units belong to National Thermal Power Corporation of India over the period 1991 to 1995.

  1. Unit commitment with wind power generation: integrating wind forecast uncertainty and stochastic programming.

    SciTech Connect

    Constantinescu, E. M.; Zavala, V. M.; Rocklin, M.; Lee, S.; Anitescu, M.

    2009-10-09

    We present a computational framework for integrating the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in stochastic unit commitment/energy dispatch formulations that account for wind power uncertainty. We first enhance the WRF model with adjoint sensitivity analysis capabilities and a sampling technique implemented in a distributed-memory parallel computing architecture. We use these capabilities through an ensemble approach to model the uncertainty of the forecast errors. The wind power realizations are exploited through a closed-loop stochastic unit commitment/energy dispatch formulation. We discuss computational issues arising in the implementation of the framework. In addition, we validate the framework using real wind speed data obtained from a set of meteorological stations. We also build a simulated power system to demonstrate the developments.

  2. 75 FR 44292 - Northern States Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ...-AA90) published in the Federal Register on April 26, 1991 (56 FR 18997); and (C) The Nuclear Energy... contrary to the rationale for rulemaking, as discussed in 56 FR 18997. On October 26 and December 2, 2009... Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of Issuance of...

  3. Quantity, Quality, and Availability of Waste Heat from United States Thermal Power Generation.

    PubMed

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2015-07-21

    Secondary application of unconverted heat produced during electric power generation has the potential to improve the life-cycle fuel efficiency of the electric power industry and the sectors it serves. This work quantifies the residual heat (also known as waste heat) generated by U.S. thermal power plants and assesses the intermittency and transport issues that must be considered when planning to utilize this heat. Combining Energy Information Administration plant-level data with literature-reported process efficiency data, we develop estimates of the unconverted heat flux from individual U.S. thermal power plants in 2012. Together these power plants discharged an estimated 18.9 billion GJ(th) of residual heat in 2012, 4% of which was discharged at temperatures greater than 90 °C. We also characterize the temperature, spatial distribution, and temporal availability of this residual heat at the plant level and model the implications for the technical and economic feasibility of its end use. Increased implementation of flue gas desulfurization technologies at coal-fired facilities and the higher quality heat generated in the exhaust of natural gas fuel cycles are expected to increase the availability of residual heat generated by 10.6% in 2040.

  4. Quantity, Quality, and Availability of Waste Heat from United States Thermal Power Generation.

    PubMed

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2015-07-21

    Secondary application of unconverted heat produced during electric power generation has the potential to improve the life-cycle fuel efficiency of the electric power industry and the sectors it serves. This work quantifies the residual heat (also known as waste heat) generated by U.S. thermal power plants and assesses the intermittency and transport issues that must be considered when planning to utilize this heat. Combining Energy Information Administration plant-level data with literature-reported process efficiency data, we develop estimates of the unconverted heat flux from individual U.S. thermal power plants in 2012. Together these power plants discharged an estimated 18.9 billion GJ(th) of residual heat in 2012, 4% of which was discharged at temperatures greater than 90 °C. We also characterize the temperature, spatial distribution, and temporal availability of this residual heat at the plant level and model the implications for the technical and economic feasibility of its end use. Increased implementation of flue gas desulfurization technologies at coal-fired facilities and the higher quality heat generated in the exhaust of natural gas fuel cycles are expected to increase the availability of residual heat generated by 10.6% in 2040. PMID:26061407

  5. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Generation of Electric Power in the United States 1998

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    The President issued a directive on April 15, 1999, requiring an annual report summarizing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions produced by electricity generation in the United States, including both utilities and nonutilities. In response, this report is jointly submitted by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  6. 78 FR 285 - Supplemental Final Environmental Impact Statement for Healy Power Generation Unit #2, Healy, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Healy Clean Coal Project'' (FEIS), completed in 1993. The FEIS... Rural Utilities Service Supplemental Final Environmental Impact Statement for Healy Power Generation... Supplemental Final Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: The Rural Utilities Service (RUS), an agency...

  7. 75 FR 13801 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Order Extending the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Company, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Order Extending the Effectiveness of the Approval... holder of licenses DPR-39 and DPR-48, for the Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2 (Zion...

  8. Research on a Power Management System for Thermoelectric Generators to Drive Wireless Sensors on a Spindle Unit

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng; Yao, Xinhua; Fu, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Thermoelectric energy harvesting is emerging as a promising alternative energy source to drive wireless sensors in mechanical systems. Typically, the waste heat from spindle units in machine tools creates potential for thermoelectric generation. However, the problem of low and fluctuant ambient temperature differences in spindle units limits the application of thermoelectric generation to drive a wireless sensor. This study is devoted to presenting a transformer-based power management system and its associated control strategy to make the wireless sensor work stably at different speeds of the spindle. The charging/discharging time of capacitors is optimized through this energy-harvesting strategy. A rotating spindle platform is set up to test the performance of the power management system at different speeds. The experimental results show that a longer sampling cycle time will increase the stability of the wireless sensor. The experiments also prove that utilizing the optimal time can make the power management system work more effectively compared with other systems using the same sample cycle. PMID:25033189

  9. Research on a power management system for thermoelectric generators to drive wireless sensors on a spindle unit.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Yao, Xinhua; Fu, Jianzhong

    2014-07-16

    Thermoelectric energy harvesting is emerging as a promising alternative energy source to drive wireless sensors in mechanical systems. Typically, the waste heat from spindle units in machine tools creates potential for thermoelectric generation. However, the problem of low and fluctuant ambient temperature differences in spindle units limits the application of thermoelectric generation to drive a wireless sensor. This study is devoted to presenting a transformer-based power management system and its associated control strategy to make the wireless sensor work stably at different speeds of the spindle. The charging/discharging time of capacitors is optimized through this energy-harvesting strategy. A rotating spindle platform is set up to test the performance of the power management system at different speeds. The experimental results show that a longer sampling cycle time will increase the stability of the wireless sensor. The experiments also prove that utilizing the optimal time can make the power management system work more effectively compared with other systems using the same sample cycle.

  10. Structure formation of aerated concrete containing waste coal combustion products generated in the thermal vortex power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. I.; Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Temlyanstev, M. V.; Syromyasov, V. A.; Fomina, O. A.

    2016-10-01

    The results of fly ash research, generated in the process of waste coal combustion in the thermal vortex power units and used as an aggregate in aerated concrete, are provided. It is established that fly ash can be used in the production of cement or concrete with low loss on ignition (LOI). The permitted value of LOI in fly ash, affecting the structure formation and operational properties of aerated concrete, are defined. During non-autoclaved hardening of aerated concrete with fly ash aggregate and LOI not higher than 2%, the formation of acicular crystals of ettringite, reinforcing interporous partitions, takes place.

  11. Refrigeration generation using expander-generator units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Koryagin, A. V.; Baidakova, Yu. O.

    2016-05-01

    The problems of using the expander-generator unit (EGU) to generate refrigeration, along with electricity were considered. It is shown that, on the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows using the EGU, one can provide the refrigeration supply of the different consumers: ventilation and air conditioning plants and industrial refrigerators and freezers. The analysis of influence of process parameters on the cooling power of the EGU, which depends on the parameters of the gas expansion process in the expander and temperatures of cooled environment, was carried out. The schematic diagram of refrigeration generation plant based on EGU is presented. The features and advantages of EGU to generate refrigeration compared with thermotransformer of steam compressive and absorption types were shown, namely: there is no need to use the energy generated by burning fuel to operate the EGU; beneficial use of the heat delivered to gas from the flow being cooled in equipment operating on gas; energy production along with refrigeration generation, which makes it possible to create, using EGU, the trigeneration plants without using the energy power equipment. It is shown that the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows, which can be obtained by using the EGU on existing technological decompression stations of the transported gas, allows providing the refrigeration supply of various consumers. The information that the refrigeration capacity of an expander-generator unit not only depends on the parameters of the process of expansion of gas flowing in the expander (flow rate, temperatures and pressures at the inlet and outlet) but it is also determined by the temperature needed for a consumer and the initial temperature of the flow of the refrigeration-carrier being cooled. The conclusion was made that the expander-generator units can be used to create trigeneration plants both at major power plants and at small energy.

  12. Steam Generator Component Model in a Combined Cycle of Power Conversion Unit for Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Chang H; Han, James; Barner, Robert; Sherman, Steven R

    2007-06-01

    The Department of Energy and the Idaho National Laboratory are developing a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) to serve as a demonstration of state-of-the-art nuclear technology. The purpose of the demonstration is two fold 1) efficient low cost energy generation and 2) hydrogen production. Although a next generation plant could be developed as a single-purpose facility, early designs are expected to be dual-purpose. While hydrogen production and advanced energy cycles are still in its early stages of development, research towards coupling a high temperature reactor, electrical generation and hydrogen production is under way. A combined cycle is considered as one of the power conversion units to be coupled to the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR). The combined cycle configuration consists of a Brayton top cycle coupled to a Rankine bottoming cycle by means of a steam generator. A detailed sizing and pressure drop model of a steam generator is not available in the HYSYS processes code. Therefore a four region model was developed for implementation into HYSYS. The focus of this study was the validation of a HYSYS steam generator model of two phase flow correlations. The correlations calculated the size and heat exchange of the steam generator. To assess the model, those calculations were input into a RELAP5 model and its results were compared with HYSYS results. The comparison showed many differences in parameters such as the heat transfer coefficients and revealed the different methods used by the codes. Despite differences in approach, the overall results of heat transfer were in good agreement.

  13. Types and analysis of defects in welding junctions of the header to steam generator shells on power-generating units with VVER-1000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozhigov, L. S.; Voevodin, V. N.; Mitrofanov, A. S.; Vasilenko, R. L.

    2016-10-01

    Investigation objects were metal templates, which were cut during the repair of welding junction no. 111 (header to the steam generator shell) on a power-generating unit with VVER-1000 of the South-Ukraine NPP, and substances of mud depositions collected from walls of this junction. Investigations were carried out using metallography, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersion microanalysis by an MMO-1600-AT metallurgical microscope and a JEOL JSM-7001F scanning electron microscope with the Shottky cathode. As a result of investigations in corrosion pits and mud depositions in the area of welding junction no. 111, iron and copper-enriched particles were revealed. It is shown that, when contacting with the steel header surface, these particles can form microgalvanic cells causing reactions of iron dissolution and the pit corrosion of metal. Nearby corrosion pits in metal are microcracks, which can be effect of the stress state of metal under corrosion pits along with revealed effects of twinning. The hypothesis is expressed that pitting corrosion of metal occurred during the first operation period of the power-generating unit in the ammonia water chemistry conditions (WCC). The formation of corrosion pits and nucleating cracks from them was stopped with the further operation under morpholine WCC. The absence of macrocracks in metal of templates verifies that, during operation, welding junction no. 111 operated under load conditions not exceeding the permissible ones by design requirements. The durability of the welding junction of the header to the steam generator shell significantly depends on the technological schedule of chemical cleaning and steam generator shut-down cooling.

  14. Optimal sizing study of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power generation unit

    SciTech Connect

    Belfkira, Rachid; Zhang, Lu; Barakat, Georges

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, a methodology of sizing optimization of a stand-alone hybrid wind/PV/diesel energy system is presented. This approach makes use of a deterministic algorithm to suggest, among a list of commercially available system devices, the optimal number and type of units ensuring that the total cost of the system is minimized while guaranteeing the availability of the energy. The collection of 6 months of data of wind speed, solar radiation and ambient temperature recorded for every hour of the day were used. The mathematical modeling of the main elements of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel system is exposed showing the more relevant sizing variables. A deterministic algorithm is used to minimize the total cost of the system while guaranteeing the satisfaction of the load demand. A comparison between the total cost of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel energy system with batteries and the hybrid wind/PV/diesel energy system without batteries is presented. The reached results demonstrate the practical utility of the used sizing methodology and show the influence of the battery storage on the total cost of the hybrid system. (author)

  15. Analysis of compliance effects on power generation of a nonlinear electromagnetic energy harvesting unit; theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Pollock, Tim E.; Salehian, Armaghan

    2013-09-01

    Vibration energy harvesting devices have shown potential applications to power many devices such as electronic self-sustainable units. Most traditional linear energy harvesters exploit the phenomenon of resonance to produce electric power. Nonlinear energy harvesters, however, present more interesting alternatives and there is potential for them to work well over relatively wider bandwidths due to characteristics such as bifurcation. The aim of this study is to introduce an alternative design to a nonlinear electromagnetic energy harvesting device to improve the power production of the unit. The configuration presented in the following work has demonstrated higher power efficiency over a wider range of frequencies compared to the previous design. The numerical power outputs for both designs are compared and validated against their experimental values. Finally, the validated numerical model is used to find the optimal design to produce the maximum power for the unitA summary of some of the results presented in this paper was submitted to the ASME-SMASIS 2012 conference and was then invited for this SMS special issue submission..

  16. Wind power generating system

    SciTech Connect

    Schachle, Ch.; Schachle, E. C.; Schachle, J. R.; Schachle, P. J.

    1985-03-12

    Normally feathered propeller blades of a wind power generating system unfeather in response to the actuation of a power cylinder that responds to actuating signals. Once operational, the propellers generate power over a large range of wind velocities. A maximum power generation design point signals a feather response of the propellers so that once the design point is reached no increase in power results, but the system still generates power. At wind speeds below this maximum point, propeller speed and power output optimize to preset values. The propellers drive a positive displacement pump that in turn drives a positive displacement motor of the swash plate type. The displacement of the motor varies depending on the load on the system, with increasing displacement resulting in increasing propeller speeds, and the converse. In the event of dangerous but not clandestine problems developing in the system, a control circuit dumps hydraulic pressure from the unfeathering cylinder resulting in a predetermined, lower operating pressure produced by the pump. In the event that a problem of potentially cladestine consequence arises, the propeller unfeathering cylinder immediately unloads. Upon startup, a bypass around the motor is blocked, applying a pressure across the motor. The motor drives the generator until the generator reaches a predetermined speed whereupon the generator is placed in circuit with a utility grid and permitted to motor up to synchronous speed.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generation is a concise summary of MHD theory, history, and future trends. Results of the major international MHD research projects are discussed. Data from MHD research is included. Economics of initial and operating costs are considered.

  18. Design of a Modular 5-kW Power Processing Unit for the Next-Generation 40-cm Ion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Bond, Thomas; Okada, Don; Pyter, Janusz; Wiseman, Steve

    2002-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a 5/10-kW ion engine for a broad range of mission applications. Simultaneously, a 5-kW breadboard poster processing unit is being designed and fabricated. The design includes a beam supply consisting of four 1.1 kW power modules connected in parallel, equally sharing the output current. A novel phase-shifted/pulse-width-modulated dual full-bridge topology was chosen for its soft-switching characteristics. The proposed modular approach allows scalability to higher powers as well as the possibility of implementing an N+1 redundant beam supply. Efficiencies in excess of 96% were measured during testing of a breadboard beam power module. A specific mass of 3.0 kg/kW is expected for a flight PRO. This represents a 50% reduction from the state of the art NSTAR power processor.

  19. Electrical power generating system. [for windpowered generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An alternating current power generation system adopted to inject power in an already powered power line is discussed. The power generating system solves to adjustably coup an induction motor, as a generator, to an ac power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced. The principal application will be for windmill powered generation.

  20. Power-processing unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessel, Frank J. (Inventor); Hancock, Donald J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Power-processing unit uses AC buses (30, 32) to supply all current dependent needs such as connections (54, 56) to an ion thruster through an inductor (88) and the primary of a transformer (90), to assure limited currents to such loads. Where temperature control is also required, such as to the main discharge vaporizer heater connection (36, 38), switches (100, 102) are serially connected with inductor (96) and the primary of transformer (98). Temperature sensor (104) controls the switches (100, 102) for temperature regulation.

  1. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  2. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  3. Methodology and measures for preventing unacceptable flow-accelerated corrosion thinning of pipelines and equipment of NPP power generating units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Lovchev, V. N.; Gutsev, D. F.

    2016-10-01

    Problems of metal flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) in the pipelines and equipment of the condensate- feeding and wet-steam paths of NPP power-generating units (PGU) are examined. Goals, objectives, and main principles of the methodology for the implementation of an integrated program of AO Concern Rosenergoatom for the prevention of unacceptable FAC thinning and for increasing operational flow-accelerated corrosion resistance of NPP EaP are worded (further the Program). A role is determined and potentialities are shown for the use of Russian software packages in the evaluation and prediction of FAC rate upon solving practical problems for the timely detection of unacceptable FAC thinning in the elements of pipelines and equipment (EaP) of the secondary circuit of NPP PGU. Information is given concerning the structure, properties, and functions of the software systems for plant personnel support in the monitoring and planning of the inservice inspection of FAC thinning elements of pipelines and equipment of the secondary circuit of NPP PGUs, which are created and implemented at some Russian NPPs equipped with VVER-1000, VVER-440, and BN-600 reactors. It is noted that one of the most important practical results of software packages for supporting NPP personnel concerning the issue of flow-accelerated corrosion consists in revealing elements under a hazard of intense local FAC thinning. Examples are given for successful practice at some Russian NPP concerning the use of software systems for supporting the personnel in early detection of secondary-circuit pipeline elements with FAC thinning close to an unacceptable level. Intermediate results of working on the Program are presented and new tasks set in 2012 as a part of the updated program are denoted. The prospects of the developed methods and tools in the scope of the Program measures at the stages of design and construction of NPP PGU are discussed. The main directions of the work on solving the problems of flow

  4. Oscillating fluid power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, David C

    2014-02-25

    A system and method for harvesting the kinetic energy of a fluid flow for power generation with a vertically oriented, aerodynamic wing structure comprising one or more airfoil elements pivotably attached to a mast. When activated by the moving fluid stream, the wing structure oscillates back and forth, generating lift first in one direction then in the opposite direction. This oscillating movement is converted to unidirectional rotational movement in order to provide motive power to an electricity generator. Unlike other oscillating devices, this device is designed to harvest the maximum aerodynamic lift forces available for a given oscillation cycle. Because the system is not subjected to the same intense forces and stresses as turbine systems, it can be constructed less expensively, reducing the cost of electricity generation. The system can be grouped in more compact clusters, be less evident in the landscape, and present reduced risk to avian species.

  5. Effect on the condition of the metal in A K-300-3.5 turbine owing to multicycle fatigue from participation of a power generating unit in grid frequency and power regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedeva, A. I.; Zorchenko, N. V.; Prudnikov, A. A.

    2011-09-15

    The effect on the condition of the rotor material owing to multicycle fatigue caused by variable stresses during participation of a power generating unit in grid frequency and power regulation is evaluated using the K-300-23.5 steam turbine as an example. It is shown that during normalized primary frequency regulation the safety factor is at least 50, while during automatic secondary regulation of frequency and power there is essentially no damage to the metal.

  6. Combustion Power Unit--400: CPU-400.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combustion Power Co., Palo Alto, CA.

    Aerospace technology may have led to a unique basic unit for processing solid wastes and controlling pollution. The Combustion Power Unit--400 (CPU-400) is designed as a turboelectric generator plant that will use municipal solid wastes as fuel. The baseline configuration is a modular unit that is designed to utilize 400 tons of refuse per day…

  7. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1983-12-29

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  8. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, Carl A.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  9. Wind power. [electricity generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  10. Spectrophotovoltaic orbital power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onffroy, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibilty of a spectrophotovoltaic orbital power generation system that optically concentrates solar energy is demonstrated. A dichroic beam-splitting mirror is used to divide the solar spectrum into two wavebands. Absorption of these wavebands by GaAs and Si solar cell arrays with matched energy bandgaps increases the cell efficiency while decreasing the amount of heat that must be rejected. The projected cost per peak watt if this system is $2.50/W sub p.

  11. Southeast Regional Assessment Study: an assessment of the opportunities of solar electric power generation in the Southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and assess opportunities for demonstration and large scale deployment of solar electric facilities in the southeast region and to define the technical, economic, and institutional factors that can contribute to an accelerated use of solar energy for electric power generation. Graphs and tables are presented indicating the solar resource potential, siting opportunities, energy generation and use, and socioeconomic factors of the region by state. Solar electric technologies considered include both central station and dispersed solar electric generating facilities. Central stations studied include solar thermal electric, wind, photovoltaic, ocean thermal gradient, and biomass; dispersed facilities include solar thermal total energy systems, wind, and photovoltaic. The value of solar electric facilities is determined in terms of the value of conventional facilities and the use of conventional fuels which the solar facilities can replace. Suitable cost and risk sharing mechanisms to accelerate the commercialization of solar electric technologies in the Southeast are identified. The major regulatory and legal factors which could impact on the commercialization of solar facilities are reviewed. The most important factors which affect market penetration are reviewed, ways to accelerate the implementation of these technologies are identified, and market entry paths are identified. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. (WHK)

  12. Micro electret power generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boland, Justin

    The taming of electricity and its widespread use allows people to see in the dark, to speak to one another instantaneously across the earth, and it allows retrieval of data from instruments sent out of the solar system. It is right to expect that the uses and demand for electricity will continue to grow, and to extend the ability to generate electricity; here two new micromachined devices for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy are presented. Aided by the wealth of micromachining process technology, generators that use an oscillatory motion to modify the physical structure of a capacitor with a built-in electric field provided by a permanent electret have been designed, built, and tested. The electret creates an electric field inside the capacitor structure, which induces mirror charge at some potential. The modification of the capacitor then generates an alternating displacement current through an external circuit, which provides useful electrical power. The electret microphone is a similar well known device for converting pressure waves into electrical signals by varying the distance between two charged capacitive plates. This work explores and proves feasible the ability to use mechanical forces to change the overlapping area of a charged capacitor structure and using mechanical forces to move a liquid into the gap of a charged capacitor structure, changing its permittivity to produce electricity. This work demonstrates 2.5mW of power from a 2cm diameter rotary generator at 12kRPM and 10[micro]w for a 0.1cm3 linear shaking generator at 60Hz.

  13. Results of examination of the TGMP-314 boiler superheaters of the power-generating units at Kashira state district power plant using a magnetic ferrite meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogachev, V. A.; Pshechenkova, T. P.; Shumovskaya, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    The results of investigating the elemental composition of the scale and the metal of a tube circuit from the austenitic steel grade 12Cr18Ni12Ti are presented. The superheater is part of the high-pressure convection steam superheater of a TGMP-314 supercritical-pressure gas-and-oil-fired once-through boiler that had been operated for a long period of time. A structurally transformed layer, poor in iron, manganese, and chromium and rich in nickel was detected on the outer surface. The layer consisted predominantly of the FeNi3 phase with ferromagnetic properties. The heat-resistance test of the steel in contact with ash that simulated the combustion products of fuel oil showed that the higher the temperature and the longer the test time, the higher the content of the ferritic phase in the layer was. The established pattern of the structural transformations underlies a method for nondestructive control of the thermal nonuniformity and detection of "worst" tube circuits of superheaters from austenitic steel. The magnetic ferritometry complements the conventional selective thickness gauging that does not characterize the condition of the heating surfaces of hightemperature steel grades to the full extend. Data on damageability of high-pressure convection superheaters and low-pressure second-stage convection superheaters with rarefied tube banks of TGMP-314 boilers are presented. The damage is caused by overheating resulting from the nonuniform temperature field at the inlet and by the nonuniform flue gas velocity field in rarefied superheater banks. Sections of the tube circuits from the steel grade 12Cr18Ni12Ti, outlet superheater stages of the TGMP-314 boiler of the power-generating units at Kashira SDPP were examined using an MF-51NTs AKASKAN magnetic ferrite meter. Thermal nonuniformity was established and the "worst" superheater tube circuits were detected. It was shown that the zones with the "worst" and damaged tube circuits coincide. The results of examining

  14. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  15. Optimization of gas path aerodynamics for PK-39 boiler of power generating unit No. 4 of Troitskaya SDPP using numerical simulation of gas flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, V. B.; Grigorev, I. V.; Fomenko, M. V.; Kaverin, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Power generating unit no. 4 of Troitskaya State District Power Plant (SDPP) is incapable of operating with a nominal load of 278 MW because of high aerodynamic drag of the gas path. At present, the maximum load of the two-boiler single-turbine unit is 210 MW practically without a possibility of adjustment. The results of numerical simulation of the gas flow for the existing gas path from the electrostatic precipitator (EP) to the smoke exhausts (SEs) and two flue designs proposed for renovation of this section are presented. The results of simulation show that the existing flue section has high aerodynamic drag, which is explained by poor, as regards aerodynamics, design. The local loss coefficient, in terms of the dynamic pressure in the sucker pocket of the smoke exhaust is equal to 4.57. The local aerodynamic loss coefficient after renovation at the considered section according to the first version would make 1.48, and according to the second version 1.325, which would reduce losses at this section by more than a factor of three, and ensure the power unit operation with the rated load.

  16. Generation of electrical power

    DOEpatents

    Hursen, Thomas F.; Kolenik, Steven A.; Purdy, David L.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-to-electricity converter is disclosed which includes a radioactive heat source and a thermoelectric element of relatively short overall length capable of delivering a low voltage of the order of a few tenths of a volt. Such a thermoelectric element operates at a higher efficiency than longer higher-voltage elements; for example, elements producing 6 volts. In the generation of required power, thermoelectric element drives a solid-state converter which is controlled by input current rather than input voltage and operates efficiently for a high signal-plus-noise to signal ratio of current. The solid-state converter has the voltage gain necessary to deliver the required voltage at the low input of the thermoelectric element.

  17. Theme Unit: Veggie Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flagg, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Presents a selection of activities for a cross-curricular unit based on vegetables. Activities address vocabulary, language arts, social studies, and health education. A student reproducible presents a tossed salad game. Game cards can be incorporated into the other activities. A poster describes plant parts that are edible. A sidebar offers…

  18. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine

  19. Power Supply Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Cuk DC to DC Switching Converter was developed by Caltech Professors, Slobodan Cuk and R. D. Middlebrook. The converter changes unsuitable dc voltage into one or more voltages suitable for powering electronic equipment; it can also be used in converting dc current to ac and vice versa. It was named one of the 100 most significant technical advances of 1979. The Cuk converter is more efficient than previous conversion devices, simpler, smaller, lighter, cheaper and highly reliable. The first application of the technology is in the Compucorp 685 word/data processor, manufactured by Compucorp. NASA waived title rights; Caltech granted exclusive license to the inventors, who in turn, transferred their rights to a company they founded called TESLA Company, which sublicenses the converter design and related technology to companies making power supplies for use in their own products.

  20. Windmill structure and power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Schott, L.A.; Schott, R.A.

    1982-02-23

    A windpower generator includes a cupped blade design to be assembled from flat module sheets together with a resiliently biased mount to provide automatic feathering with a consequent speed control. A generator or alternating generator to feed electric output to an existing power system, as, for example, a residence or small business establishment, is associated with the windmill to serve as a counterbalance in the mounting and to cooperate with the self-governing blade assembly. A switching circuit is connected to feed generator power to the local utility power lines when net power is available at the winddriven alternator and in phase with utility power.

  1. 75 FR 63213 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ..., ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors'', and 10 CFR... pressurized-water reactors. The proposed action is in accordance with the licensee's application dated... . Since the chemical composition of the Optimized ZIRLO TM alloy differs from the specifications...

  2. 76 FR 52357 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Branch 1-2, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear... Power Ratio (SLMCPR) values. The SLMCPR is established to assure that at least 99.9% of the fuel rods in... Reactor Fuel,'' Revision 18. The basis of the SLMCPR calculation is to ensure that during normal...

  3. C. A. La Electricidad de Caracas: Feasibility-study definitional report. Arreciffs Units 1 through 5 repowering project, electric power generation expansion Venezuela thermal power plant. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    C.A. La Electricidad de Caracas (E.de C.) is a private company which in 1991 served some 830,000 customers in an area of 4,160 square kilometers surrounding Caracas. A program is underway by E.de C. for upgrading equipment and expanding the capacity of several of its existing generating facilities. The Arrecifes repowering project will involve the addition of about 330 MW of new natural gas fired gas turbine generators and heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) to five existing thermal power units built 30 to 40 years ago which have steam turbine generator sets of 26 to 41 MW each. The existing steam boilers will be removed. The limited but seemingly sufficient space available is to be a primary focus of the feasibility study.

  4. Geothermal power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, G.K.

    1981-01-01

    The Southern California Edison Co. geothermal program is described in general. The individual power plant projects are described: Brawley 10 MW, Heber 45 MW and Salton Sea 9 MW. Related geothermal activities are mentioned.

  5. Design tradeoffs of a reciprocating auxiliary power unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renquist, Jacob Vinod

    This thesis presents a comparison of reciprocating auxiliary power units to conventional, gas turbine auxiliary power units. A metric of interest is created to represent the specific auxiliary power system weight including the prime mover, generator, gearbox, and fuel consumed. The metric of interest is used to compare the different auxiliary power unit technologies by incorporating detailed engine simulations, auxiliary power unit system weight modeling, and flight path-realized fuel consumption modeling. Results show that reciprocating auxiliary power units can be competitive with gas turbines in near-term, more-electric aircraft applications.

  6. Power generation systems and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Chao, Yi (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A power generation system includes a plurality of submerged mechanical devices. Each device includes a pump that can be powered, in operation, by mechanical energy to output a pressurized output liquid flow in a conduit. Main output conduits are connected with the device conduits to combine pressurized output flows output from the submerged mechanical devices into a lower number of pressurized flows. These flows are delivered to a location remote of the submerged mechanical devices for power generation.

  7. Power unit for electric cars

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Masami; Minezawa, Yukihiro.

    1993-07-06

    A power unit for mounting on the body of an electric car is described, comprising: a sensor for detecting a running condition of the car; a first power supply mounted on the electric car body; a second power supply module; means for detachably mounting different, interchangeable types of the second power supply module on the electric car body; a motor control circuit, including a computer, connected to the first power supply and the second power supply module for feeding a current to a motor as commanded by the computer; the computer including control means for determining (1) whether the second power supply module is mounted or not and (2) for determining the type of second power supply module mounted; setting means for connecting the first power supply and the second power supply module with the motor control circuit, in parallel or in series, responsive to the detected running condition; and the computer controlling the motor control circuit according to determinations of the control means.

  8. Levelized Power Generation Cost Codes

    1996-04-30

    LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generationmore » cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor.« less

  9. Electrochemical power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Zaromb, S.

    1983-01-18

    Apparatus and methods for generating heat and electricity from the consumption of a variety of aluminum products comprise: (A) a reaction chamber containing an aqueous electrolyte solution and adapted for introduction therein of aluminum pieces of various shapes and sizes up to a certain maximum predetermined size and for effecting a chemical reaction between said aqueous electrolyte and said aluminum pieces yielding aluminum hydroxide and an intermediate reactant; (B) means for feeding said aluminum pieces into said reaction chamber in small quantities upon demand; (C) means for removing the heat generated in said chamber as a result of said reaction; (D) means for removing said aluminum hydroxide reaction product; and (E) means for oxidizing said intermediate reactant in an electrochemical cell, thereby generating electrical energy. The intermediate reactant is preferably hydrogen or zinc. The latter may be used in a slurry type zinc/air battery, whereas hydrogen is preferably reacted in conjunction with a nongaseous cathode reactant, which may be a liquid solution of an oxidant, such as hydrogen peroxide, or a solid, such as nickel dioxide. The latter may be regenerated either chemically, by immersion in an oxidizing solution, or electrically, by using the gaseous diffusion type of hydrogen electrode to also reduce oxygen from ambient air.

  10. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Minich, Roger W.

    1988-01-01

    A device (10) for producing high-powered and coherent microwaves is described. The device comprises an evacuated, cylindrical, and hollow real cathode (20) that is driven to inwardly field emit relativistic electrons. The electrons pass through an internally disposed cylindrical and substantially electron-transparent cylindrical anode (24), proceed toward a cylindrical electron collector electrode (26), and form a cylindrical virtual cathode (32). Microwaves are produced by spatial and temporal oscillations of the cylindrical virtual cathode (32), and by electrons that reflex back and forth between the cylindrical virtual cathode (32) and the cylindrical real cathode (20).

  11. Spectrophotovoltaic orbital power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, G.; Carroll, J.

    1983-01-01

    A subscale model of a photovoltaic power system employing spectral splitting and 1000:1 concentration was fabricated and tested. The 10-in. aperture model demonstrated 15.5% efficiency with 86% of the energy produced by a GaAs solar cell and 14% of the energy produced by an Si cell. The calculated efficiency of the system using the same solar cells, but having perfect optics, would be approximately 20%. The model design, component measurements, test results, and mathematical model are presented.

  12. Thermal tests of the SGT5-4000F gas-turbine plant of the PGU-420T power-generating unit at Combined Heat And Power Plant 16 of Mosenergo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teplov, B. D.; Radin, Yu. A.; Filin, A. A.; Rudenko, D. V.

    2016-08-01

    In December 2014, the PGU-420T power-generating unit was put into operation at the Combined Heat and Power Plant 16, an affiliated company of PAO Mosenergo. In 2014-2015, thermal tests of the SGT5- 4000F gas-turbine plant (GTP) integrated into the power-generating unit were carried out. In the article, the test conditions are described and the test results are presented and analyzed. During the tests, 92 operating modes within a wide range of electrical loads and ambient air temperatures and operating conditions of the GTP when fired with fuel oil were investigated. In the tests, an authorized automated measuring system was applied. The experimental data were processed according to ISO 2314:2009 "Gas turbines—Acceptance tests" standard. The available capacity and the GTP efficiency vary from 266 MW and 38.8% to 302 MW and 39.8%, respectively, within the ambient air temperature range from +24 to-12°C, while the turbine inlet temperature decreases from 1200 to 1250°C. The switch to firing fuel oil results in a reduction in the turbine inlet temperature and the capacity of the GTP. With the full load and a reduction in the ambient temperature from +24 to-12°C, the compressor efficiency decreases from 89.6 to 86.4%. The turbine efficiency is approximately 89-91%. Within the investigated range of power output, the emissions of nitrogen oxides do not exceed 35 ppm for the gas-fired plant and 65 ppm for the fuel-oil-fired plant. Within the range of the GTP power output from 50 to 100% of the rated output, the combustion chamber operates without underburning and with hardly any CO being formed. At low loads close to the no-load operation mode, the CO emissions drastically increase.

  13. Thermal tests of the SGT5-4000F gas-turbine plant of the PGU-420T power-generating unit at Combined Heat And Power Plant 16 of Mosenergo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teplov, B. D.; Radin, Yu. A.; Filin, A. A.; Rudenko, D. V.

    2016-08-01

    In December 2014, the PGU-420T power-generating unit was put into operation at the Combined Heat and Power Plant 16, an affiliated company of PAO Mosenergo. In 2014-2015, thermal tests of the SGT5- 4000F gas-turbine plant (GTP) integrated into the power-generating unit were carried out. In the article, the test conditions are described and the test results are presented and analyzed. During the tests, 92 operating modes within a wide range of electrical loads and ambient air temperatures and operating conditions of the GTP when fired with fuel oil were investigated. In the tests, an authorized automated measuring system was applied. The experimental data were processed according to ISO 2314:2009 "Gas turbines—Acceptance tests" standard. The available capacity and the GTP efficiency vary from 266 MW and 38.8% to 302 MW and 39.8%, respectively, within the ambient air temperature range from +24 to-12°С, while the turbine inlet temperature decreases from 1200 to 1250°С. The switch to firing fuel oil results in a reduction in the turbine inlet temperature and the capacity of the GTP. With the full load and a reduction in the ambient temperature from +24 to-12°C, the compressor efficiency decreases from 89.6 to 86.4%. The turbine efficiency is approximately 89-91%. Within the investigated range of power output, the emissions of nitrogen oxides do not exceed 35 ppm for the gas-fired plant and 65 ppm for the fuel-oil-fired plant. Within the range of the GTP power output from 50 to 100% of the rated output, the combustion chamber operates without underburning and with hardly any CO being formed. At low loads close to the no-load operation mode, the CO emissions drastically increase.

  14. Tide operated power generating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kertzman, H. Z.

    1981-02-03

    An improved tide operated power generating apparatus is disclosed in which a hollow float, rising and falling with the ocean tide, transmits energy to a power generator. The improvement comprises means for filling the float with water during the incoming tide to provide a substantial increase in the float dead weight during the outgoing tide. Means are further provided to then empty the float before the outgoing tide whereby the float becomes free to rise again on the next incoming tide.

  15. Power unit for a vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, S.; Ishihara, T.

    1986-06-10

    A power unit for a vehicle is described comprising an engine housing; a crankshaft rotatably mounted in the engine housing an having a coaxial bore in a first end thereof; and a drive shaft, a first end of the drive shaft being rotatably mounted to the engine housing and a second end of the drive shaft being rotatably mounted in the coaxial bore of the crankshaft, the drive shaft having a driven connection with the crankshaft.

  16. 14. Generator Fire Protection for Unit 5 (low pressure), view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Generator Fire Protection for Unit 5 (low pressure), view to the southeast. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  17. 27. Generator Voltage Regulator Cabinet Interior for Unit 1, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Generator Voltage Regulator Cabinet Interior for Unit 1, view to the northwest. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  18. Wind driven power generating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Andruszkiw, W.; Andrushkiw, R.

    1986-10-14

    A vertically adjustable wind driven power generating apparatus comprised of, in combination, a well in which is vertically movably mounted a wind driven power generating apparatus comprised of: (i) a wind driven power generating means comprised of a tubular housing having rotatably mounted therein a horizontally extending shaft. The shaft has a centrally disposed bevel gear fixedly attached thereto and helical vanes disposed longitudinally on both sides of the bevel gear; (ii) means for vertical movement of the tubular housing within the well comprised of (a) a hollow vertical support column having a circular cross section and having one end thereof attached to the bottom of the tubular housing and (b) a vertically extending hollow tubular member having a hollow interior fixedly mounted at its bottom end in the floor of the well and being open at its other end, the tubular member adapted to telescopically receive the vertical support column in its open end; (iii) vertical movement control means comprised of (a) downward movement control means comprising an inverted wing system generating inverse-lift mounted on the tubular housing, and (b) upward movement control means comprising a cylinder having an axially movable piston therein; (iv) power transmission means comprising a vertically extending power transmitting shaft that drives a power generator.

  19. Electrical power generation systems - Combat aircraft perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, R.

    The electrical power generation system requirements of combat aircraft are briefly examined. In particular, attention is given to customer requirements, development of the installed electrical power in aircraft, electrical load analysis for designing the power generation system, and definition of aircraft electrical power supply characteristics and consumer qualities. The discussion also covers reliability requirements for power generation systems, design of a power generation system, control and protection equipment in power generation systems, and helicopter electrical power systems.

  20. Multiobjective process optimization of a power unit

    SciTech Connect

    Garduno-Ramirez, R.; Lee, K.Y.

    1999-11-01

    Recent years have witnessed an increased participation of fossil fuel power units (FFPU) in wide-range load-following duties in order to match current power demand patterns and to deal with uncertain economic contexts. This mode of operation imposes high physical stress on the main components and leads to conflicting operational and control situations, since most power units were designed to operate most efficiently at constant rated conditions. The needs for extended periods without maintenance and replacement, compliance with stringent emission regulations and efficient operation requirements, call for the development of effective plant wide optimization and control methods and systems. Supervisory control, as an interface between the feedback control loops and the economic dispatch and unit commitment systems at upper control layers in power systems, could certainly play a key role in this regard. This paper presents a systematic procedure to generate optimal set-points for the feedback control loops in a FFPU from a given unit load demand profile. The method is flexible enough to accommodate any number of set-points. Also, the optimization procedure is formulated as a multiobjective optimization problem for which the form and number of the objective functions, as well as their preferences, may be modified as required. This approach facilitates adaptation to different operating policies and the realization of performance trade-off analyses.

  1. Power Generation and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Eliassen, Rolf

    1971-01-01

    Environmental factors will play an ever-increasing role in planning for the location and design of future power generating plants. This planning must include all phases of furnishing electric power, such as the exploration for and mining of fossil and nuclear fuels; the transportation and storage of these fuels; power plant siting; the disposal of solid wastes from power plants; and the transmission and distribution of electric power. Systems analysis will be of assistance in realistic decision-making and planning. Simulation models can be used to evaluate social, economic, and technological inputs, in order to reach engineering decisions that will assure meeting reasonable environmental standards. Management must look beyond the metropolitan areas presently served by specific electric utilities and must adopt new concepts of both urban and regional planning that will help meet the electric power requirements in the decades ahead and minimize adverse effects on the air, water, and land environment. Images

  2. Taming power: Generative historical consciousness.

    PubMed

    Winter, David G

    2016-04-01

    Power is a necessary dimension of all human enterprises. It can inspire and illuminate, but it can also corrupt, oppress, and destroy. Therefore, taming power has been a central moral and political question for most of human history. Writers, theorists, and researchers have suggested many methods and mechanisms for taming power: through affiliation and love, intellect and reason, responsibility, religion and values, democratic political structures, and separation of powers. Historical examples and social science research suggest that each has some success, but also that each is vulnerable to being hijacked by power itself. I therefore introduce generative historical consciousness (GHC) as a concept and measure that might help to secure the benefits of power while protecting against its outrages and excesses. I conclude by discussing the role that GHC may have played in the peaceful resolution of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. PMID:26011649

  3. Generating Basic Units with XML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gass, J.; Shaya, E.; Thomas, B.; Blackwell, J.; Cheung, C.

    2000-12-01

    A fundamental characteristic of any scientific data is its physical units. Unit comparisons and conversions are required in order to understand the meaning of the data and whether or not certain operations on the data are meaningful. For example, only data with equivalent units should be merged. Intelligent query of distributed systems, such as is envisioned for the NVO, will need to integrate or merge data with mixed conventions of units. It would be desirable to provide a standard process to enable machine understanding of units. We present a solution to this problem using XML entities. Our solution features a flexibility to encompass current unit systems, ease of human use, and interoperability (XML/MathML based) between heterogeneous operating systems.

  4. Solid state pulsed power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Fengfeng; Saddoughi, Seyed Gholamali; Herbon, John Thomas

    2014-02-11

    A power generator includes one or more full bridge inverter modules coupled to a semiconductor opening switch (SOS) through an inductive resonant branch. Each module includes a plurality of switches that are switched in a fashion causing the one or more full bridge inverter modules to drive the semiconductor opening switch SOS through the resonant circuit to generate pulses to a load connected in parallel with the SOS.

  5. 4. INTERIOR OF POWERHOUSE GENERATOR ROOM SHOWING GENERATOR UNITS AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR OF POWERHOUSE GENERATOR ROOM SHOWING GENERATOR UNITS AT FOREGROUND RIGHT, GOVERNORS AND CONTROL VALVES AT LEFT, AND EXCITERS AT BACK LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse Exciters, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  6. SOLERAS - Solar Cooling Engineering Field Tests Project: United Technologies Research Center. Design guidelines for solar heating/cooling/power generation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This report documents the methodology, design guidelines and analytical tools for the preliminary technical/economic evaluation of solar heating/cooling/power generation systems. In particular, it provides the theoretical framework, data bases and software tools for: determining the preliminary economic feasibility of solar-powered configurations compared with grid-supplied electric power and/or competing fossil fuels; selecting the optimum system configuration with respect to solar collector area and ''solar-side'' thermal storage capacity. Implementation of the methodology described in this report can be facilitated by the use of the accompanying IBM PC-compatible computer program ''SOLERAS''. This report represents the final task of the multi-year SOLERAS Program -- jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology -- which involved the development and field-testing of a solar-powered cooling system in Phoenix, AZ. 11 refs., 37 figs.

  7. Unit Commitment Considering Generation Flexibility and Environmental Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Makarov, Yuri V.; Zhu, Yunhua; Lu, Ning; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-07-31

    This paper proposes a new framework for power system unit commitment process, which incorporates the generation flexibility requirements and environmental constraints into the existing unit commitment algorithm. The generation flexibility requirements are to address the uncertainties with large amount of intermittent resources as well as with load and traditional generators, which causes real-time balancing requirements to be variable and less predictable. The proposed flexibility requirements include capacity, ramp and ramp duration for both upward and downward balancing reserves. The environmental constraints include emission allowance for fossil fuel-based generators and ecological regulations for hydro power plants. Calculation of emission rates is formulated. Unit commitment under this new framework will be critical to the economic and reliable operation of the power grid and the minimization of its negative environmental impacts, especially when high penetration levels of intermittent resources are being approached, as required by the renewable portfolio standards in many states.

  8. 9. Generator Barrel and Rotor of Unit 1, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Generator Barrel and Rotor of Unit 1, view to the southeast, showing part of the rotor and generator coils along top of photograph and southeast entry stairwell and doors in lower center of photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  9. Power generation controls emerging trends

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, B.J.; Moskal, J.J.; Schuss, J.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Advances in microtechnology and intelligent control systems will continue to impact all phases of power generation controls and provide new options. This paper discusses an automatic sequential control system for automatic start-up and shutdown of the entire power plant. The system accesses the individual steam generator, turbine and BOP systems to enable a little manual intervention. Also covered are diagnostic on-line performance systems and the projected work on expert technology t integrate diagnostics with controls for optimum economics and plant availability. Control features such as increased microprocessor scan rate, storage capability, high data transmission throughput rates, etc. will play a significant role in achieving these objectives. Discussion also covers control integration requirements in the background of the expected impact of emerging data communication standards.

  10. Magma energy for power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal energy contained in crustal magma bodies represents a large potential resource for the US and magma generated power could become a viable alternative in the future. Engineering feasibility of the magma energy concept is being investigated as part of the Department of Energy's Geothermal Program. This current project follows a seven-year Magma Energy Research Project where scientific feasibility of the concept was concluded.

  11. 26. Generator Voltage Regulator Cabinet Exterior for Unit 1, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Generator Voltage Regulator Cabinet Exterior for Unit 1, view to the northwest. The exciter supplies the DC current to the generator rotor to create electricity. Each of the four original units has an exciter identical to this one, and all are scheduled for replacement. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  12. Thermal energy storage for power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Drost, M.K.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Brown, D.R.; Sathyanarayana, K.

    1989-10-01

    Studies strongly indicate that the United States will face widespread electrical power constraints in the 1990s, with most regions of the country experiencing capacity shortages by the year 2000. In many cases, the demand for increased power will occur during intermediate and peak demand periods. Much of this demand is expected to be met by oil- and natural gas-fired Brayton cycle turbines and combined-cycle plants. While natural gas is currently plentiful and reasonably priced, the availability of an economical long-term coal-fired option for peak and intermediate load power generation will give electric power utilities an option in case either the availability or cost of natural gas should deteriorate. 54 refs., 5 figs., 17 tabs.

  13. Thermoelectric power generator for variable thermal power source

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2015-04-14

    Traditional power generation systems using thermoelectric power generators are designed to operate most efficiently for a single operating condition. The present invention provides a power generation system in which the characteristics of the thermoelectrics, the flow of the thermal power, and the operational characteristics of the power generator are monitored and controlled such that higher operation efficiencies and/or higher output powers can be maintained with variably thermal power input. Such a system is particularly beneficial in variable thermal power source systems, such as recovering power from the waste heat generated in the exhaust of combustion engines.

  14. Northern States Power Company (NSP) Black Dog generating plant - Unit 2 emission reduction, capacity increase and life extension through atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Jenness, B.L.; Rosendahl, S.M.; Gamble, R.L.

    1985-08-01

    The authors report on progress to date of the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) boiler retrofit at the Black Dog Unit 2 plant of the Northern States Power Company. Construction began in September 1984 after the completion of technical and economic feasibility studies, and initial operation is scheduled for the second quarter of 1986. The project features the largest AFBC boiler to date, a 40 MW capacity regain/upgrade, and 25-year extension of unit life, low leakage regenerative air preheater design, electrostatic precipitator performance improvement, alternate fuel co-firing capacity, and reduced emission on a per MW basis. The authors describe the management and engineering developments associated with the project. 12 figures, 4 tables.

  15. Power, and the next generation. [The next generation of power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Termuehlen, H.

    1994-12-01

    What's on the horizon for electric generation The World Energy Conference predicts an energy demand of roughly 20 billion metric tons coal equivalent in the year 2020. That requires an increase in the worldwide power generation capacity of about 20 [times] 1012 kilowatt-hours per year. Most of the increase will occur in coal-fired facilities, followed by natural gas-fired units, and then by nuclear and hydro plants. Other power generating ideas include a solar/combined cycle power plant, oil production from oil shale, and integrated coal gasification combined cycle plants. These plants will have a minimum of air pollution and solid waste production, producing electric power and byproducts such as methanol and gasoline.

  16. Thermoelectric power generation for hybrid-electric vehicle auxiliary power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headings, Leon M.; Washington, Gregory N.; Midlam-Mohler, Shawn; Heremans, Joseph P.

    2009-03-01

    The plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle (PHEV) concept allows for a moderate driving range in electric mode but uses an onboard range extender to capitalize on the high energy density of fuels using a combustion-based generator, typically using an internal combustion engine. An alternative being developed here is a combustion-based thermoelectric generator in order to develop systems technologies which capitalize on the high power density and inherent benefits of solid-state thermoelectric power generation. This thermoelectric power unit may find application in many military, industrial, and consumer applications including range extension for PHEVs. In this research, a baseline prototype was constructed using a novel multi-fuel atomizer with diesel fuel, a conventional thermoelectric heat exchange configuration, and a commercially available bismuth telluride module (maximum 225°C). This prototype successfully demonstrated the viability of diesel fuel for thermoelectric power generation, provided a baseline performance for evaluating future improvements, provided the mechanism to develop simulation and analysis tools and methods, and highlighted areas requiring development. The improvements in heat transfer efficiency using catalytic combustion were evaluated, the system was redesigned to operate at temperatures around 500 °C, and the performance of advanced high temperature thermoelectric modules was examined.

  17. Wind wheel electric power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, J.W.

    1980-03-04

    Wind wheel electric power generator apparatus is disclosed as including a housing rotatably mounted upon a vertically disposed support column. Primary and auxiliary funnel-type, venturi ducts are fixedly mounted upon the housing for capturing wind currents and for conducting the same to a bladed wheel adapted to be operatively connected with generator apparatus. Additional air flows are also conducted onto the bladed wheel, all of the air flows positively effecting rotation of the wheel in a cumulative manner. The auxiliary ducts are disposed at an acute angle with respect to the longitudinal axis of the housing, and this feature , together with the rotatability of the housing and the ducts, permits capture of wind currents within a variable directional range.

  18. Wind wheel electric power generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, J. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Wind wheel electric power generator apparatus includes a housing rotatably mounted upon a vertical support column. Primary and auxiliary funnel-type, venturi ducts are fixed onto the housing for capturing wind currents and conducting to a bladed wheel adapted to be operatively connected with the generator apparatus. Additional air flows are also conducted onto the bladed wheel; all of the air flows positively effecting rotation of the wheel in a cumulative manner. The auxiliary ducts are disposed at an acute angle with respect to the longitudinal axis of the housing, and this feature, together with the rotatability of the housing and the ducts, permits capture of wind currents within a variable directional range.

  19. 124. View in Generator Room of exciter unit no. 2; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. View in Generator Room of exciter unit no. 2; looking east. This unit includes a Pelton wheel manufactured by Allis Chalmers, no. 262, type C-1, Breaking Horse Power 600, head 370 feet, and 360 rpm; and a General Electric DC generator, no. 1357610, type MPC 8, 340-350 form LD, 1360 amp, 350 rpm, 250 volts (no load), 250 volts (full load). Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  20. Advanced piggyback water power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggs, B.R.

    1988-02-16

    A power generating system is described including: a central boat containing gearing and electric and/or power generation equipment, with a forward angled-back deflection screen and a rear non-angled deflection screen, with a smaller outrigger pontoon on each respective side of the central boat, with closed cell, waterproof, plastic foam filling in the central boat and pontoons, and with the bow of the respective outrigger pontoons angled so as to completely turn water away from, and to the outside of, the space and/or incoming water area between each such respective pontooon and the central boat. There are legs with cone shaped bottoms and with wheels attached, with the wheels extending slightly below the cone shaped bottoms; paddle wheels on each side of the central boat, between the central boat, and respective outrigger pontoons, with 90 degree spaced, flat, paddle blades, and with a solid, disk division vertically dividing each respective side paddle wheel in half and extending at right angles to, and from, the central axle, to the outside extreme end of the paddle blades, with each such half of the equally divided paddle wheel being constructed so that the 90 degree spaced paddle blades in one half are offset by 45 degrees from the 90 degree space paddle blades in the other half, and with the extreme ends of each such set of divided paddle wheels being enclosed via a similar solid.

  1. Power Generator with Thermo-Differential Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saiz, John R.; Nguyen, James

    2010-01-01

    A thermoelectric power generator consists of an oven box and a solar cooker/solar reflector unit. The solar reflector concentrates sunlight into heat and transfers the heat into the oven box via a heat pipe. The oven box unit is surrounded by five thermoelectric modules and is located at the bottom end of the solar reflector. When the heat is pumped into one side of the thermoelectric module and ejected from the opposite side at ambient temperatures, an electrical current is produced. Typical temperature accumulation in the solar reflector is approximately 200 C (392 F). The heat pipe then transfers heat into the oven box with a loss of about 40 percent. At the ambient temperature of about 20 C (68 F), the temperature differential is about 100 C (180 F) apart. Each thermoelectric module, generates about 6 watts of power. One oven box with five thermoelectric modules produces about 30 watts. The system provides power for unattended instruments in remote areas, such as space colonies and space vehicles, and in polar and other remote regions on Earth.

  2. An experimental electrical generating unit using sugarcane bagasse as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Elkoury, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the alternatives that exist within the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority to develop an experimental electrical generating unit which would use sugarcane bagasse as fuel. The study includes a comparison between the sugarcane bagasse and other fuels, the location of an experimental electrical generating unit with respect to the sugarcane fields, the transportation of the bagasse and the generating equipment available for this project in terms of its fisical condition. This latter part would include any modifications in the equipment which we would have to undertake in order to carry out the study.

  3. Portable Power And Digital-Communication Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Richard R.; Henry, Paul K.; Rosenberg, Leigh S.

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual network of electronic-equipment modules provides electrical power and digital radio communications at multiple sites not served by cables. System includes central communication unit and portable units powered by solar photovoltaic arrays. Useful to serve equipment that must be set up quickly at remote sites or buildings that cannot be modified to provide cable connections.

  4. Electric auxiliary power unit for Shuttle evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Doug; Weber, Kent; Scott, Walter

    1989-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter currently uses three hydrazine fueled auxiliary power units (APUs) to provide hydraulic power for the vehicle aerodynamic surface controls, main engine thrust vector control, landing gear, steering, and brakes. Electric auxiliary power units have been proposed as possible replacements to the hydrazine auxiliary power units. Along with the potential advantages, this paper describes an Electric APU configuration and addresses the technical issues and risks associated with the subsystem components. Additionally, characteristics of an Electric APU compared to the existing APU and the direction of future study with respect to the Electric APU is suggested.

  5. Indirect combustion noise of auxiliary power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Xu, Jun; Schuster, Bill

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in noise suppression technology have significantly reduced jet and fan noise from commercial jet engines. This leads many investigators in the aeroacoustics community to suggest that core noise could well be the next aircraft noise barrier. Core noise consists of turbine noise and combustion noise. There is direct combustion noise generated by the combustion processes, and there is indirect combustion noise generated by the passage of combustion hot spots, or entropy waves, through constrictions in an engine. The present work focuses on indirect combustion noise. Indirect combustion noise has now been found in laboratory experiments. The primary objective of this work is to investigate whether indirect combustion noise is also generated in jet and other engines. In a jet engine, there are numerous noise sources. This makes the identification of indirect combustion noise a formidable task. Here, our effort concentrates exclusively on auxiliary power units (APUs). This choice is motivated by the fact that APUs are relatively simple engines with only a few noise sources. It is, therefore, expected that the chance of success is higher. Accordingly, a theoretical model study of the generation of indirect combustion noise in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is carried out. The cross-sectional areas of an APU from the combustor to the turbine exit are scaled off to form an equivalent nozzle. A principal function of a turbine in an APU is to extract mechanical energy from the flow stream through the exertion of a resistive force. Therefore, the turbine is modeled by adding a negative body force to the momentum equation. This model is used to predict the ranges of frequencies over which there is a high probability for indirect combustion noise generation. Experimental spectra of internal pressure fluctuations and far-field noise of an RE220 APU are examined to identify anomalous peaks. These peaks are possible indirection combustion noise. In the case of the

  6. An Isotope-Powered Thermal Storage unit for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisano, Michael E.; Rose, M. F.

    An Isotope-Powered Thermal Storage Unit (ITSU), that would store and utilize heat energy in a 'pulsed' fashion in space operations, is described. Properties of various radioisotopes are considered in conjunction with characteristics of thermal energy storage materials, to evaluate possible implementation of such a device. The utility of the unit is discussed in light of various space applications, including rocket propulsion, power generation, and spacecraft thermal management.

  7. An isotope-powered thermal storage unit for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisano, Michael E.; Rose, M. Frank

    1991-01-01

    An Isotope-Powered Thermal Storage Unite (ITSU), that would store and utilize heat energy in a ``pulsed'' fashion in space operations, is described. Properties of various radioisotopes are considered in conjunction with characteristics of thermal energy storage materials, to evaluate possible implementation of such a device. The utility of the unit is dicussed in light of various space applications, including rocket propulsion, power generation, and spacecraft thermal magnagement.

  8. Low cost space power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Randall B.

    1991-01-01

    The success of this study has given a method of fabricating durable copolymer films without size limitations. Previously, only compression molded samples were durable enough to generate electrical energy. The strengthened specimens are very long lived materials. The lifetime was enhanced at least a factor of 1,300 in full pyroelectric conversion cycle experiments compared with extruded, non-strengthened film. The new techniques proved so successful that the lifetime of the resultant copolymer samples was not fully characterized. The lifetime of these new materials is so long that accelerated tests were devised to probe their durability. After a total of more than 67 million high voltage electrical cycles at 100 C, the electrical properties of a copolymer sample remained stable. The test was terminated without any detectable degradation to allow for other experiments. One must be cautious in extrapolating to power cycle performance, but 67 million electrical cycles correspond to 2 years of pyroelectric cycling at 1 Hz. In another series of experiments at reduced temperature and electrical stress, a specimen survived over one-third of a billion electrical cycles during nearly three months of continuous testing. The radiation-limited lifetimes of the copolymer were shown to range from several years to millions of years for most earth orbits. Thus, the pyroelectric copolymer has become a strong candidate for serious consideration for future spacecraft power supplies.

  9. Future trends in power generation cost by power resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-08-01

    The Japan Energy Economy Research Institute has been evaluating power generation cost by each power resource every year focusing on nuclear power generation. The Institute is surveying the cost evaluations by power resources in France, Britain and the U.S.A., the nuclear generation advanced nations. The OECD is making power generation cost estimation using a hypothesis which uniforms basically the conditions varying in different member countries. In model power generation cost calculations conducted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan, nuclear power generation is the most economical system in any fiscal year. According to recent calculations performed by the Japan Energy Economy Research Institute, the situation is such that it is difficult to distinguish the economical one from others among the power generation systems in terms of generation costs except for thermal power generation. Economic evaluations are given on estimated power generation costs based on construction costs for nuclear and thermal power plants, nuclear fuel cycling cost, and fuel cost data on petroleum, LNG and coal. With regard to the future trends, scenario analyses are made on generation costs, that assume fluctuations in fuel prices and construction costs, the important factors to give economic influence on power generation.

  10. 8. Generator Barrel and Shaft of Unit 1, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Generator Barrel and Shaft of Unit 1, view to the northwest, with turbine shaft and thrust bearing visible in upper center of photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  11. 3. Governance equipment at unit 1 generator (background) showing oilpressure ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Governance equipment at unit 1 generator (background) showing oil-pressure tank (left foreground), governor stand (center), and brake stand (right foreground). View to northwest. - Holter Hydroelectric Facility, Dam & Power House, End of Holter Dam Road, Wolf Creek, Lewis and Clark County, MT

  12. Development of Electric Power Units Driven by Waste Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Takeuchi, Takao; Kaneko, Atsushi; Uchimura, Tomoyuki; Irie, Kiichi; Watanabe, Hiroyoshi

    For the development of a simple and compact power generator driven by waste heat, working fluids and an expander were studied, then a practical electric power unit was put to test. Many working fluids were calculated with the low temperature power cycle (evaporated at 77°C, condensed at 42°C),and TFE,R123,R245fa were selected to be suitable for the cycle. TFE(Trifluoroethanol CF3CH2OH) was adopted to the actual power generator which was tested. A radial turbine was adopted as an expander, and was newly designed and manufactured for working fluid TFE. The equipment was driven by hot water as heat source and cooling water as cooling source, and generated power was connected with electric utility. Characteristics of the power generating cycle and characteristics of the turbine were obtained experimentally.

  13. Oilwell Power Controller (OPC Unit). Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Double M Electric, Inc. in Watford City, ND is finalizing the testing of its Oilwell Power Controller (OPC) Prototype Unit. This device can be used as a rod pump controller and it can also monitor, record and store power usage, temperature and pressure data. The unit also has the capability to measure the rod string weight, therefore it can be used as a dynamometer. A total of 10 OPC Units were assembled and installed on oilwells pumped with rod pumps in the Central and Western United States. Data from these wells was analyzed and forwarded to the participating oil companies.

  14. Investigation of the Potential for Biofuel Blends in Residual Oil-Fired Power Generation Units as an Emissions Reduction Strategy for New York State

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, C.R.; McDonald, R.

    2009-05-01

    There is a significant amount of oil, about 12.6 million barrels per year, used for power generation in New York State. The majority of it is residual oil. The primary reason for using residual oil probably is economic, as these fuels are cheaper than distillates. However, the stack emissions from the use of such fuels, especially in densely populated urban areas, can be a cause for concern. The emissions of concern include sulfur and nitrogen oxides and particulates, particularly PM 2.5. Blending with distillate (ASTM No.2) fuels may not reduce some or all of these emissions. Hence, a case can be made for blending with biofuels, such as biodiesel, as they tend to have very little fuel bound sulfur and nitrogen and have been shown in prior work at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to reduce NOx emissions as well in small boilers. Some of the research carried out at CANMET in Canada has shown potential reductions in PM with blending of biodiesel in distillate oil. There is also the benefit obtaining from the renewable nature of biofuels in reducing the net carbon dioxide emitted thus contributing to the reduction of green house gases that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere. The present project was conceived to examine the potential for such benefits of blending biofuels with residual oil. A collaboration was developed with personnel at the New York City Poletti Power Plant of the New York Power Authority. Their interest arose from an 800 MW power plant that was using residual oil and which was mandated to be shut down in 2010 because of environmental concerns. A blend of 20% biodiesel in residual oil had also been tested for a short period of about two days in that boiler a couple of years back. In this project, emission measurements including particulate measurements of PM2.5 were made in the commercial boiler test facility at BNL described below. Baseline tests were done using biodiesel as the blending biofuel. Biodiesel is currently and probably in

  15. MultiUse solar thermal power generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Russell

    2001-02-01

    This paper describes Ontario Engineering International, Inc. (OEI) approach to a solar thermal power generation system using a number of thermal power generation technologies for possible applications to Mars exploration, material processing and for power generation on Earth. The latest power stage and generator design presented here were the culmination of studies covering a wide variety of generator configurations and operating parameters. The many steps and rationale leading to OEI's design evolution and materials selection will not be repeated here except for a description of OEI's latest design, including a heat source support scheme and power stage configuration. OEI's performance predictions were based on its techniques for the thermal analyses of thermal power generators. The analytical results indicate that the OEI power system design, operating within the stipulated solar input and temperature limits and well within its mass goals, can yield power outputs and system efficiencies that substantially exceed existing solar power generation technologies. The calculated efficiency for a cascaded power generation system is estimated to be 42% for a DC output or 37% for an AC power output. With the addition of a thermal storage medium power can be provided on a continuous basis during any shadow period. Recent advances in thermal power generation technologies have now progressed to the point where a solar thermal power generation system can be fabricated. This system can provide terrestrial power generation capacity in remote areas and provide a means for load leveling in the commercial power grid. This system is also adaptable for material processing and/or life-support on Mars. .

  16. Improving the efficiency of a four-unit generating station

    SciTech Connect

    Kornegay, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Increasing the efficiency of hydro generating stations is gaining importance as more and more power stations become automated. The increase in annual revenues due to efficiency improvements is one factor in evaluating the cost justification of an automation project. Several previous works have stated that the efficiency of a generating can be improved by using certain generation dispatching methods. The purpose of this study is to quantify the gain in annual revenues for a four-unit hydro generating station, using actual data from an existing station. The method used in this study does not require a rigorous analytical study. It should, however, provide a reasonably accurate estimate of the potential revenue gain achievable by using an automated generation dispatching control. This method is adaptable to stations with any number of units.

  17. Uniting Generations through Children's Story Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhary, Usha

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the role of children's story books in uniting generations. Thematic similarities and distinctions depicted in 101 children's story books on intergenerational linkages were examined. They utilized five categories: caring and sharing, fun with grandparents, depiction of multicultural families, relationship with non-relatives, and…

  18. Together: The Generations United Newsletter, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jaia, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document is comprised of the three 2002 issues of the newsletter for Generations United, a national membership organization focused on promoting intergenerational policies, strategies, and programs. The first issue reflects on two events: responses to the September 11th terrorist attacks, and on the organization's international conference…

  19. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Nuclear power is an important source of electric energy and the amount of nuclear-generated electricity continued to grow as the performance of nuclear power plants improved. In 1996, nuclear power plants supplied 23 percent of the electricity production for countries with nuclear units, and 17 percent of the total electricity generated worldwide. However, the likelihood of nuclear power assuming a much larger role or even retaining its current share of electricity generation production is uncertain. The industry faces a complex set of issues including economic competitiveness, social acceptance, and the handling of nuclear waste, all of which contribute to the uncertain future of nuclear power. Nevertheless, for some countries the installed nuclear generating capacity is projected to continue to grow. Insufficient indigenous energy resources and concerns over energy independence make nuclear electric generation a viable option, especially for the countries of the Far East.

  20. Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, T.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power generation are presented. Topics covered include: prime contract activity; key solar dynamic power module requirements; solar dynamic heat receiver technology; and solar concentrator advanced development.

  1. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2013-05-21

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  2. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    DOEpatents

    Bel,; Lon E.; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2009-10-27

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  3. Pulse power applications of flux compression generators

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, C.M.; Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Freeman, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristics are presented for two different types of explosive driven flux compression generators and a megavolt pulse transformer. Status reports are given for rail gun and plasma focus programs for which the generators serve as power sources.

  4. Multiple displacement motor driven power drive unit

    SciTech Connect

    Burandt, W. A.

    1985-12-03

    A multiple displacement motor driven power drive unit having two separate hydraulic systems each with a variable displacement hydraulic motor having its output connected to a torque summing gear train. A control provides for operation of one or the other of the motors at full displacement while the other motor is at zero displacement and free-wheels. There is a manual mechanical control operation with both motors simultaneously set at one-half of full displacement and driving the torque summing gear train. The change in motor displacements to one-half full displacement accomplishes velocity summing within the hydraulics. The multiple displacement motor driven power drive unit accomplishes the power efficiency of a multiple motor driven power drive unit utilizing a speed summing gear train with fixed displacement motors, but without the complexities associated with the use of a speed summing gear train and brakes.

  5. Integrated engine generator for aircraft secondary power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    An integrated engine-generator for aircraft secondary power generation is described. The concept consists of an electric generator located inside a turbojet or turbofan engine and both concentric with and driven by one of the main engine shafts. The electric power conversion equipment and generator controls are located in the aircraft. When properly rated, the generator serves as an engine starter as well as a source of electric power. This configuration reduces or eliminates the need for an external gear box on the engine and permits reduction in the nacelle diameter.

  6. Solar power water distillation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Kamran; Muzammil Khan, Muhammad; Shahrukh Ateeq, Ijlal; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-06-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  7. 126. View in Generator Room of exciter unit no. 1; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. View in Generator Room of exciter unit no. 1; looking northwest. This unit includes a Pelton wheel manufactured by Allis Chalmers, no. 261, type C-1, Breaking Horse Power 600, head 370 feet, and 360 rpm; a General Electric DC generator, no. 1357609, type MPC 8, 340-350 form LD, 1360 amp, 350 rpm, 250 volts (no load), 250 volts (full load); and a General Electric induction motor, no. 4228863, type KT-4424, 20-500-360 form A, 60 cycles, 45 amp, 6,600 volts, 500 horsepower, continuous 50-degree centigrade rise, 350 rpm with full-load. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  8. Space Shuttle Orbiter auxiliary power unit status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, M.; Loken, G.; Horton, J.; Lukens, W.; Scott, W.; Baughman, J.; Bauch, T.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the United States Space Shuttle Orbiter APU, which provides power to the Orbiter vehicle hydraulic system, is presented. Three complete APU systems, each with its own separate fuel system, supply power to three dedicated hydraulic systems. These in turn provide power to all Orbiter vehicle critical flight functions including launch, orbit, reentry, and landing. The basic APU logic diagram is presented. The APU includes a hydrazine-powered turbine that drives a hydraulic pump and various accessories through a high-speed gearbox. The APU also features a sophisticated thermal management system designed to ensure safe and reliable operation in the various launch, orbit, reentry, and landing environments.

  9. Space Shuttle Orbiter auxiliary power unit status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reck, M.; Loken, G.; Horton, J.; Lukens, W.; Scott, W.; Baughman, J.; Bauch, T.

    An overview of the United States Space Shuttle Orbiter APU, which provides power to the Orbiter vehicle hydraulic system, is presented. Three complete APU systems, each with its own separate fuel system, supply power to three dedicated hydraulic systems. These in turn provide power to all Orbiter vehicle critical flight functions including launch, orbit, reentry, and landing. The basic APU logic diagram is presented. The APU includes a hydrazine-powered turbine that drives a hydraulic pump and various accessories through a high-speed gearbox. The APU also features a sophisticated thermal management system designed to ensure safe and reliable operation in the various launch, orbit, reentry, and landing environments.

  10. Photoconductive switching for high power microwave generation

    SciTech Connect

    Pocha, M.D.; Hofer, W.W.

    1990-10-01

    Photoconductive switching is a technology that is being increasingly applied to generation of high power microwaves. Two primary semiconductors used for these devices are silicon and gallium arsenide. Diamond is a promising future candidate material. This paper discusses the important material parameters and switching modes, critical issues for microwave generation, and future directions for this high power, photoconductive switching technology.

  11. 89. Photocopied August 1978. POWER HOUSE, GENERATOR ROOM, VIEW LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. Photocopied August 1978. POWER HOUSE, GENERATOR ROOM, VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM ABOUT THE CENTER, FEBRUARY 26, 1918, AFTER MICHIGAN NORTHERN HAD BROUGHT THE GENERATOR INSTALLATION UP TO FULL CAPACITY. THE NARROW PANEL WESTINGHOUSE SWITCHBOARD INSTALLED IN 1916-17 IS AT THE UPPER RIGHT. THE NEW GENERAL ELECTRIC GENERATORS ARE BELOW THE GALLERY. NOTE THE D.C. EXCITER UNIT ON EXTENDED SHAFT ON THE UNIT IN THE FOREGROUND. A SIMILAR TYPE OF INSTALLATION WAS FOUND AT PENSTOCKS 45 THROUGH 48 AND 62 THROUGH 73. WHAT SEEM TO BE EXTENDED SHAFT UNITS IN THE BACKGROUND ARE MERELY THE OLD STANLEY ALTERNATORS BEFORE THEY HAD BEEN REMOVED FROM THE GENERATOR ROOM. (878) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  12. Pneumatic tire-based piezoelectric power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makki, Noaman; Pop-Iliev, Remon

    2011-03-01

    Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs) currently mainly rely on Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) utilizing conventional fuels to recharge batteries in order to extend their range. Even though Piezo-based power generation devices have surfaced in recent years harvesting vibration energy, their output has only been sufficient to power up sensors and other such smaller devices. The permanent need for a cleaner power generation technique still remains. This paper investigates the possibility of using piezoceramics for power generation within the vehicle's wheel assembly by exploiting the rotational motion of the wheel and the continuously variable contact point between the pneumatic tire and the road.

  13. Fuel cells for distributed power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarman, Paul B.

    Deregulation has caused a major change in power distribution in the USA. Large central power stations are being and will continue to be replaced by smaller, distributed power generation sources of less than 20 kW. Fuel cells, specifically molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs), are best suited to serve this need. Small turbines cannot achieve the efficiency or environmental friendliness of MCFCs in this power range. This paper discusses the goals of M-C Power Corporation and the advantages of its IMHEX® MCFC technology. M-C Power's factory, demonstration testing program, and its market-entry power plant are also described, as are its commercialization strategy and schedule.

  14. Inventory of Power Plants in the United States, October 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-27

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The report is organized into the following chapters: Year in Review, Operable Electric Generating Units, and Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions. Statistics presented in these chapters reflect the status of electric generating units as of December 31, 1992.

  15. Probabilistic Evaluation of Wind Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhamad Razali, N. M.; Misbah, Muizzuddin

    2013-06-01

    The power supplied by wind turbine generators (WTG) is widely random following the stochastic nature of weather conditions. For planning and decision making purposes, understanding and evaluation of the behaviour and distribution of WTG's output power are crucial. Monte Carlo simulation enables the realization of artificial futures by generating a huge number of sample paths of outcomes to perform this analysis. The paper presents an algorithm developed for a random wind speed generator governed by the probability density function of Weibull distribution and evaluates the WTG's output by using the power curve of wind turbines. The method may facilitate assessment of suitable turbine site as well as generator selection and sizing.

  16. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  17. Space Shuttle Orbiter improved auxiliary power unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagemann, D. W.; Wicklund, L. L.; Loken, G. R.; Baughman, J. R.; Lance, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit subsystem has operated successfully on three vehicles by meeting mission requirements and has proven the design for space operation. The current Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) operational life is limited to 12 missions and the APU turnaround between flights is longer than originally anticipated. The Improved APU objective is to increase life to 50 missions, reduce the three - APU subsystem vehicle weight by 140 lbs., and reduce turnaround time. The design changes incorporated into the Improved APU and the associated development testing are described.

  18. Characterization of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Schifer, Niholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) 140-W radioisotope power system. While the ASRG flight development project has ended, the hardware that was designed and built under the project is continuing to be tested to support future Stirling-based power system development. NASA Glenn Research Center recently completed the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2). The ASRG EU2 consists of the first pair of Sunpower's Advanced Stirling Convertor E3 (ASC-E3) Stirling convertors mounted in an aluminum housing, and Lockheed Martin's Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller (a fourth-generation controller). The ASC-E3 convertors and Generator Housing Assembly (GHA) closely match the intended ASRG Qualification Unit flight design. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the EU2, its controller, and the convertors in the flight-like GHA. The GHA contained an argon cover gas for these tests. The tests included measurement of convertor, controller, and generator performance and efficiency; quantification of control authority of the controller; disturbance force measurement with varying piston phase and piston amplitude; and measurement of the effect of spacecraft direct current (DC) bus voltage on EU2 performance. The results of these tests are discussed and summarized, providing a basic understanding of EU2 characteristics and the performance and capability of the EDU 4 controller.

  19. On the possibility of connecting a non-operating main circulation pump with three pumps in operation without preliminary coast-down of power-generating unit No. 5 in the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitkovskii, I. L.; Nikonov, S. P.; Ryasnyi, S. I.

    2014-02-01

    The subject of this paper is a transient caused by connection of a standby loop to three operating circulation pumps at the initial reactor heat rate equal to 70% of the rated value without preliminarily reducing it to 30% of the rated level as required by the safe operation regulations. Failure of the following normal operation systems is supposed: the first- and the second-type warning protection systems, all quick-acting reducing devices releasing steam into the auxiliary manifold, the electric heaters of the pressurizer, the pressurizer injection system, the primary cooling circuit fluid makeup/blow-through systems, and the blocking systems to shut down the main circulation pump after the level in the steam generator is exceeded. In addition, it is supposed that, under transient conditions, the valves of the turbine regulation system will be in the position in which they were at the moment of the initial event until generation of the signal for positive closing of the turbine stop valves. The first signal to actuate the reactor emergency protection system (EPS) is skipped. The failure of all quick-acting reducing devices releasing steam into the atmosphere is assumed. In addition to equipment failure, at the moment when the main circulation pump is connected, the operator erroneously puts in a new setting to maintain the power allowable for four pumps in operation-in the calculations it was taken equal to 104% of the rated level at most considering the accuracy of evaluating and maintaining the reactor heat rate-and the working group of the reactor protection and control system (P&CS) starts moving upward. On reaching the set power level, the automatic reactor power regulator stops operating and the P&CS elements remain in the position in which they are at the moment. Compliance with the design safety criteria for the adopted scenario of the transient is demonstrated.

  20. An Implanted, Stimulated Muscle Powered Piezoelectric Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth; Gustafson, Kenneth; Kilgore, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    A totally implantable piezoelectric generator system able to harness power from electrically activated muscle could be used to augment the power systems of implanted medical devices, such as neural prostheses, by reducing the number of battery replacement surgeries or by allowing periods of untethered functionality. The features of our generator design are no moving parts and the use of a portion of the generated power for system operation and regulation. A software model of the system has been developed and simulations have been performed to predict the output power as the system parameters were varied within their constraints. Mechanical forces that mimic muscle forces have been experimentally applied to a piezoelectric generator to verify the accuracy of the simulations and to explore losses due to mechanical coupling. Depending on the selection of system parameters, software simulations predict that this generator concept can generate up to approximately 700 W of power, which is greater than the power necessary to drive the generator, conservatively estimated to be 50 W. These results suggest that this concept has the potential to be an implantable, self-replenishing power source and further investigation is underway.

  1. Boxberg III-2 x 500 MW units: Refurbishing and environmental protection measures on the 815 T/H steam generator of works II in Boxberg Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Cossman, R.; Fritz, M.; Bauchmueller, R.

    1995-12-01

    The object of the upgrading measures on the steam generators is: (1) To comply with the requirements of the German antipollution law, which imposes a permissible NO{sub x} content in the flue gas of less than 200 Mg/m{sup 3} STP and a CO content of less than 250 Mg/m{sup 3} STP. (2) To increase the boiler efficiency and availability and the efficiency of the water/steam cycle.

  2. Teachers Environmental Resource Unit: Energy and Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemiss, Clair W.

    Problems associated with energy production and power are studied in this teacher's guide to better understand the impact of man's energy production on the environment, how he consumes energy, and in what quantities. The resource unit is intended to provide the teacher with basic information that will aid classroom review of these problems. Topics…

  3. Storage peak gas-turbine power unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsinkotski, B.

    1980-01-01

    A storage gas-turbine power plant using a two-cylinder compressor with intermediate cooling is studied. On the basis of measured characteristics of a .25 Mw compressor computer calculations of the parameters of the loading process of a constant capacity storage unit (05.3 million cu m) were carried out. The required compressor power as a function of time with and without final cooling was computed. Parameters of maximum loading and discharging of the storage unit were calculated, and it was found that for the complete loading of a fully unloaded storage unit, a capacity of 1 to 1.5 million cubic meters is required, depending on the final cooling.

  4. Holographic window for solar power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasezawa, Toshihiro; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Tabuchi, Hiroshi; Shimura, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    A new photovoltaic generation unit based on the application of holographic technologies called a Holo-Window is proposed in this work. The basic principle and the optical configuration used for the basic experimental unit are described. Suitable fabrication technology for a hologram with the broadband spectrum required to provide the appropriate sunlight capture capability is then discussed. Finally, a laboratory-prototype Holo-Window unit was developed and its performance was evaluated.

  5. Optimal generator bidding strategies for power and ancillary services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morinec, Allen G.

    As the electric power industry transitions to a deregulated market, power transactions are made upon price rather than cost. Generator companies are interested in maximizing their profits rather than overall system efficiency. A method to equitably compensate generation providers for real power, and ancillary services such as reactive power and spinning reserve, will ensure a competitive market with an adequate number of suppliers. Optimizing the generation product mix during bidding is necessary to maximize a generator company's profits. The objective of this research work is to determine and formulate appropriate optimal bidding strategies for a generation company in both the energy and ancillary services markets. These strategies should incorporate the capability curves of their generators as constraints to define the optimal product mix and price offered in the day-ahead and real time spot markets. In order to achieve such a goal, a two-player model was composed to simulate market auctions for power generation. A dynamic game methodology was developed to identify Nash Equilibria and Mixed-Strategy Nash Equilibria solutions as optimal generation bidding strategies for two-player non-cooperative variable-sum matrix games with incomplete information. These games integrated the generation product mix of real power, reactive power, and spinning reserve with the generators's capability curves as constraints. The research includes simulations of market auctions, where strategies were tested for generators with different unit constraints, costs, types of competitors, strategies, and demand levels. Studies on the capability of large hydrogen cooled synchronous generators were utilized to derive useful equations that define the exact shape of the capability curve from the intersections of the arcs defined by the centers and radial vectors of the rotor, stator, and steady-state stability limits. The available reactive reserve and spinning reserve were calculated given a

  6. Inventory of power plants in the United States, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  7. Inventory of power plants in the United States 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-18

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the US provides year-end statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the US (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of December 31, 1994. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal, and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. This is a report of electric utility data; in cases where summary data of nonutility capacity are presented, it is specifically noted as such.

  8. Generation Expansion Planning with High Penetration of Wind Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharan, Ishan; Balasubramanian, R.

    2016-08-01

    Worldwide thrust is being provided in generation of electricity from wind. Planning for the developmental needs of wind based power has to be consistent with the objective and basic framework of overall resource planning. The operational issues associated with the integration of wind power must be addressed at the planning stage. Lack of co-ordinated planning of wind turbine generators, conventional generating units and expansion of the transmission system may lead to curtailment of wind power due to transmission inadequacy or operational constraints. This paper presents a generation expansion planning model taking into account fuel transportation and power transmission constraints, while addressing the operational issues associated with the high penetration of wind power. For analyzing the operational issues, security constrained unit commitment algorithm is embedded in the integrated generation and transmission expansion planning model. The integrated generation and transmission expansion planning problem has been formulated as a mixed integer linear problem involving both binary and continuous variables in GAMS. The model has been applied to the expansion planning of a real system to illustrate the proposed approach.

  9. 78 FR 32385 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; CER Generation II, LLC; Constellation Mystic Power, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Exelon Generation Company, LLC; CER Generation II, LLC; Constellation Mystic Power, LLC; Constellation NewEnergy, Inc.; Constellation Power Source Generation, Inc.; Criterion Power..., CER Generation II, LLC, Constellation Mystic Power, LLC, Constellation NewEnergy, Inc.,...

  10. Power generation method including membrane separation

    DOEpatents

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for generating electric power, such as at, or close to, natural gas fields. The method includes conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas by means of a membrane separation step. This step creates a leaner, sweeter, drier gas, which is then used as combustion fuel to run a turbine, which is in turn used for power generation.

  11. Wind turbine generator for electrical powered vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Boodman, L.; Malone, J.P.

    1982-02-02

    Means to provide additional electrical power in an electrically powered vehicle are disclosed. An air scoop is mounted on the vehicle. The air scoop opens in a generally forward direction. A turbine wheel is mounted in the rear of the air scoop. An electric generator is connected to the turbine wheel, whereby air passing through the air scoop will generate additional electricity for the vehicle batteries. The air scoop is rotatable and means are provided to lock it in position.

  12. Control units for APS power supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Despe, O.D.; Saunders, C.; McGhee, D.G.

    1993-07-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) accelerator facility is made up of five major subsystems in addition to the linac: the positron accumulator ring (PAR), low energy transport (LET), booster synchrotron (SYNCH), high energy transport (HET), the storage ring (SR). Each subsystem has multiple magnet power supply combinations, some requiring multiple of operation. These magnet and power supply combinations computer controlled and monitored. The power supply control unit (PSCU) is the first layer of hardware and software above the power supply itself and is described in this paper. The description includes the basic philosophy for each of operation and how it influences the topology and of implementing control. The design of the analog reference blocks (ARBs) influenced the design of other custom functions well as the feedback controls for vibration and other dynamic corrections. The command set supported by the PSCU is discussed.

  13. Generation of sonic power during welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Campbell, W. M.

    1969-01-01

    Generation of intense sonic and ultrasonic power in the weld zone, close to the puddle, reduces the porosity and refinement of the grain. The ac induction brazing power supply is modified with long cables for deliberate addition of resistance to that circuit. The concept is extensible to the molding of metals and plastics.

  14. Apparatus and method for thermal power generation

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Paul; Redding, Arnold H.

    1978-01-01

    An improved thermal power plant and method of power generation which minimizes thermal stress and chemical impurity buildup in the vaporizing component, particularly beneficial under loss of normal feed fluid and startup conditions. The invention is particularly applicable to a liquid metal fast breeder reactor plant.

  15. 75 FR 75706 - Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Notice of... Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3, respectively, located in Grundy County, Illinois, and to Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-29 and DPR-30 for Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and...

  16. Space Shuttle Orbiter auxiliary power unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenna, R.; Wicklund, L.; Baughman, J.; Weary, D.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter auxiliary power units (APUs) provide hydraulic power for the Orbiter vehicle control surfaces (rudder/speed brake, body flap, and elevon actuation systems), main engine gimbaling during ascent, landing gear deployment and steering and braking during landing. Operation occurs during launch/ascent, in-space exercise, reentry/descent, and landing/rollout. Operational effectiveness of the APU is predicated on reliable, failure-free operation during each flight, mission life (reusability) and serviceability between flights (turnaround). Along with the accumulating flight data base, the status and results of efforts to achieve these long-run objectives is presented.

  17. Development of the NEXT Power Processing Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, Thomas K.; Wiseman, Steve; Komm, David S.; Bond, Thomas; Pinero, Luis R.

    2005-01-01

    Boeing Electron Dynamic Devices, Inc. (EDD) has designed and fabricated a breadboard version of a 6 kW power processing unit (PPU) for gridded ion thrusters. This breadboard PPU will be integrated with an engineering model 40 cm ion engine designed and tested at NASA Glenn. The results of our tests using resistive loads are reported in this paper. The PPU demonstrated efficiencies to date are higher than 95 percent for the beam supply and higher than 92 percent for the discharge supply at full power. Overall PPU efficiency is greater than 94 percent at full throttle settings.

  18. CLOSEUP VIEW OF A GENERATOR UNIT WITH ITS ASSOCIATED INSTRUMENTATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSE-UP VIEW OF A GENERATOR UNIT WITH ITS ASSOCIATED INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL PANEL. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Turbine & Generator Unit, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  19. Analytical predictions of RTG power degradation. [Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noon, E. L.; Raag, V.

    1979-01-01

    The DEGRA computer code that is based on a mathematical model which predicts performance and time-temperature dependent degradation of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator is discussed. The computer code has been used to predict performance and generator degradation for the selenide Ground Demonstration Unit (GDS-1) and the generator used in the Galileo Project. Results of parametric studies of load voltage vs generator output are examined as well as the I-V curve and the resulting predicted power vs voltage. The paper also discusses the increased capability features contained in DEGRA2 and future plans for expanding the computer code performance.

  20. Rankine engine solar power generation. I - Performance and economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gossler, A. A.; Orrock, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a computer simulation of the performance of a solar flat plate collector powered electrical generation system are presented. The simulation was configured to include locations in New Mexico, North Dakota, Tennessee, and Massachusetts, and considered a water-based heat-transfer fluid collector system with storage. The collectors also powered a Rankine-cycle boiler filled with a low temperature working fluid. The generator was considered to be run only when excess solar heat and full storage would otherwise require heat purging through the collectors. All power was directed into the utility grid. The solar powered generator unit addition was found to be dependent on site location and collector area, and reduced the effective solar cost with collector areas greater than 400-670 sq m. The sites were economically ranked, best to worst: New Mexico, North Dakota, Massachusetts, and Tennessee.

  1. Fiscalini Farms Renewable Energy Power Generation Project

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    Funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Fiscalini Farms L.P., in collaboration with University of the Pacific, Biogas Energy, Inc., and the University of California at Berkeley will measure and analyze the efficiency and regulatory compliance of a renewable energy system for power generation. The system will utilize digester gas from an anaerobic digester located at the Fiscalini Farms dairy for power generation with a reciprocating engine. The project will provide power, efficiency, emissions, and cost/benefit analysis for the system and evaluate its compliance with federal and California emissions standards.

  2. Achieving Maximum Power in Thermoelectric Generation with Simple Power Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Nari; Lee, Hohyun; Wee, Daehyun; Gomez, Miguel; Reid, Rachel; Ohara, Brandon

    2014-06-01

    A thermoelectric generator typically delivers a relatively low power output, and hence it is of great practical importance to determine a design and operating condition close to those which can provide the maximum attainable power. To maintain a favorable condition for the maximum power output, power electronics circuits are usually applied. One of the simplest methods is to control the operating voltage at half the open-circuit voltage, assuming that the typical impedance-matching condition, in which the load and internal resistances are matched, yields the maximum power output. However, recent investigations have shown that, when external thermal resistances exist between the thermoelectric modules and thermal reservoirs, the impedance-matching condition is not identical to the condition for the maximum power output. In this article, it is argued that, although the impedance-matching condition is not the condition for maximum power output, the maximum power is still achievable when the operating voltage is kept at half the open-circuit voltage. More precisely, it is shown that the typical V- I curve for thermoelectric generators must show approximately linear behavior, which justifies the use of a simple strategy in thermoelectric power generation applications. The conditions for the validity of the approximation are mathematically discussed, supported by a few examples. Experimental evidence at room temperature is also provided.

  3. Solar driven liquid metal MHD power generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Hohl, F. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A solar energy collector focuses solar energy onto a solar oven which is attached to a mixer which in turn is attached to the channel of a MHD generator. Gas enters the oven and a liquid metal enters the mixer. The gas/liquid metal mixture is heated by the collected solar energy and moves through the MHD generator thereby generating electrical power. The mixture is then separated and recycled.

  4. Solar driven liquid metal MHD power generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Hohl, F.

    1983-06-01

    A solar energy collector focuses solar energy onto a solar oven which is attached to a mixer which in turn is attached to the channel of a MHD generator. Gas enters the oven and a liquid metal enters the mixer. The gas/liquid metal mixture is heated by the collected solar energy and moves through the MHD generator thereby generating electrical power. The mixture is then separated and recycled.

  5. Power generation potential of biomass gasification systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Overend, R.P.; Bain, R.L.

    1996-10-01

    Biomass has the potential to contribute a significant portion of the electricity consumed in industrialized nations and a major share of the power mix in developing countries. In addition to providing an alternative to fossil-fuel-based energy and creating new markets for agriculture, a renewable resource like biomass used in a sustainable fashion facilitates closure of the carbon cycle. To realize these benefits, particularly in the shadow of uncertainties cast by deregulation and recent changes in federal energy and agricultural policies, biomass power systems must be competitive with incumbent power-generation technologies in terms of generation efficiency and overall cost. Anticipated performance and cost of biomass-based integrated gasification, combined-cycle power systems are discussed. The electric power that can be generated worldwide using existing biomass resources (primarily crop residues and wastes) and the potential amount that could be generated from crops grown specifically for electricity generation are projected. Technical and economic obstacles which must be overcome before advanced biomass-power systems based on aeroderivative turbines or fuel cells can become fully commercial are identified. Research, development, and demonstration efforts underway or being planned to overcome those obstacles are described; developments in a major biomass gasification demonstration project taking place in Hawaii under the auspices of the US Department of Energy and the State of Hawaii are detailed.

  6. Power generation potential of biomass gasification systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Turn, S.Q.; Overend, R.P.; Bain, R.L.

    1997-12-01

    Biomass has the potential to contribute a significant portion of the electricity consumed in industrialized nations and a major share of the power mix in developing countries. In addition to providing an alternative to fossil-fuel-based energy and creating new markets for agriculture, a renewable resource like biomass used in a sustainable fashion facilitates closure of the carbon cycle. To realize these benefits, particularly in the shadow of uncertainties cast by deregulation and recent changes in federal energy and agricultural policies, biomass power systems must be competitive with incumbent power-generation technologies in terms of generation efficiency and overall cost. Anticipated performance and cost of biomass-based integrated gasification, combined-cycle power systems are discussed. The electric power that can be generated worldwide using existing biomass resources (primarily crop residues and wastes) and the potential amount that could be generated from crops grown specifically for electricity generation are projected. Technical and economic obstacles that must be overcome before advanced biomass-power systems based on aeroderivative turbines or fuel cells can become fully commercial are identified. Research, development, and demonstration efforts under way or being planned to overcome those obstacles are described; developments in a major biomass gasification demonstration project taking place in Hawaii under the auspices of the US Department of Energy and the State of Hawaii are detailed.

  7. Power processing units for high power solar electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.; Das, Radhe S.; Krauthamer, Stanley

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of high-power processing units (PPUs) for multimegawatt solar electric propulsion (SEP) vehicles using advanced ion thrusters is presented. Significant savings of scale are possible for PPUs used to supply power to ion thrusters operating at 0.1 to 1.5 MWe per thruster. The PPU specific mass is found to be strongly sensitive to variations in the ion thruster's power per thruster and moderately sensitive to variations in the thruster's screen voltage due to varying the I(sp) of the thruster. Each PPU consists of a dc-to-dc converter to increase the voltage from the 500 V dc of the photovoltaic power system to the 5 to 13 kV dc required by the ion thrusters.

  8. 78 FR 36277 - Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... COMMISSION Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION..., and Acceptance Criteria (ITAAC) E.2.5.04.05.05.01, for the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3... Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3 ] (ADAMS Accession No. ML13032A592). This ITAAC was approved...

  9. New Generation Power System for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Loren; Carr, Greg; Deligiannis, Frank; Lam, Barbara; Nelson, Ron; Pantaleon, Jose; Ruiz, Ian; Treicler, John; Wester, Gene; Sauers, Jim; Giampoli, Paul; Haskell, Russ; Mulvey, Jim; Repp, John

    2004-01-01

    The Deep Space Avionics (DSA) Project is developing a new generation of power system building blocks. Using application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and power switching modules a scalable power system can be constructed for use on multiple deep space missions including future missions to Mars, comets, Jupiter and its moons. The key developments of the DSA power system effort are five power ASICs and a mod ule for power switching. These components enable a modular and scalab le design approach, which can result in a wide variety of power syste m architectures to meet diverse mission requirements and environments . Each component is radiation hardened to one megarad) total dose. The power switching module can be used for power distribution to regular spacecraft loads, to propulsion valves and actuation of pyrotechnic devices. The number of switching elements per load, pyrotechnic firin gs and valve drivers can be scaled depending on mission needs. Teleme try data is available from the switch module via an I2C data bus. The DSA power system components enable power management and distribution for a variety of power buses and power system architectures employing different types of energy storage and power sources. This paper will describe each power ASIC#s key performance characteristics as well a s recent prototype test results. The power switching module test results will be discussed and will demonstrate its versatility as a multip urpose switch. Finally, the combination of these components will illu strate some of the possible power system architectures achievable fro m small single string systems to large fully redundant systems.

  10. The Salton Sea 10 MWe power plant, unit 1

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W.E.; Whitescarver, O.D.; Yamasaki, R.N.

    1982-10-01

    The Southern California Edison Company's Salton Sea Geothermal Electric Project is the second of two flashsteam projects located in the Imperial Valley of California to successfully demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing steam from highly saline geothermal fluids for electric power generation. The objective of Edison's Power Plant Unit 1 program at the Salton Sea KGRA is to develop design, operating, and economic criteria for commercial geothermal developments in the Imperial Valley of California. The Edison plant is designed specifically for utilization of geothermal steam and employs principles found in conventional fossil-fueled electric generating plants. This plant serves as a model of a full scale commercial plant, using systems and components which likely will be utilized in large scale follow-on units.

  11. Inventory of Nonutility Electric Power Plants in the United States

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    Final issue of this report. Provides annual aggregate statistics on generating units operated by nonutilities in the United States and the District of Columbia. Provides a 5-year outlook for generating unit additions and changes.

  12. Synchrophasor Applications for Wind Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.; Allen, A.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.; Wan, Y. H.

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. power industry is undertaking several initiatives that will improve the operations of the electric power grid. One of those is the implementation of wide-area measurements using phasor measurement units to dynamically monitor the operations and status of the network and provide advanced situational awareness and stability assessment. The overviews of synchrophasors and stability analyses in this report are intended to present the potential future applications of synchrophasors for power system operations under high penetrations of wind and other renewable energy sources.

  13. Garrett Multipurpose Small Power Unit (MPSPU) - Program status 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, J. R.

    1989-09-01

    The Multipurpose Small Power Unit (MPSPU) Advanced Development Program is structured to provide advanced technology for current and future U.S. Army or other DOD auxiliary power unit/secondary power systems applications. Development has proceeded through initial design, component development and initial power unit development.

  14. 75 FR 69136 - Southern California Edison Company, San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Units 2 and 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... 73, Power Reactor Security Requirements, March 27, 2009; 74 FR 13926). Thus, through the proposed... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Southern California Edison Company, San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Units 2 and...

  15. Securing the United States' power infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Happenny, Sean F.

    2015-08-01

    The United States’ power infrastructure is aging, underfunded, and vulnerable to cyber attack. Emerging smart grid technologies may take some of the burden off of existing systems and make the grid as a whole more efficient, reliable, and secure. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funding research into several aspects of smart grid technology and grid security, creating a software simulation tool that will allow researchers to test power distribution networks utilizing different smart grid technologies to determine how the grid and these technologies react under different circumstances. Demonstrating security in embedded systems is another research area PNNL is tackling. Many of the systems controlling the U.S. critical infrastructure, such as the power grid, lack integrated security and the networks protecting them are becoming easier to breach. Providing a virtual power substation network to each student team at the National Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition, thereby supporting the education of future cyber security professionals, is another way PNNL is helping to strengthen the security of the nation’s power infrastructure.

  16. Thermoelectric Fabrics: Toward Power Generating Clothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yong; Cai, Kefeng; Chen, Song; Wang, Hongxia; Shen, Shirley Z.; Donelson, Richard; Lin, Tong

    2015-03-01

    Herein, we demonstrate that a flexible, air-permeable, thermoelectric (TE) power generator can be prepared by applying a TE polymer (e.g. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate)) coated commercial fabric and subsequently by linking the coated strips with a conductive connection (e.g. using fine metal wires). The poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) coated fabric shows very stable TE properties from 300 K to 390 K. The fabric device can generate a TE voltage output (V) of 4.3 mV at a temperature difference (ΔT) of 75.2 K. The potential for using fabric TE devices to harvest body temperature energy has been discussed. Fabric-based TE devices may be useful for the development of new power generating clothing and self-powered wearable electronics.

  17. Microfabricated thermoelectric power-generation devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret A. (Inventor); Borshchevsky, Alex (Inventor); Phillips, Wayne (Inventor); Kolawa, Elizabeth A. (Inventor); Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor); Caillat, Thierry (Inventor); Kascich, Thorsten (Inventor); Mueller, Peter (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A device for generating power to run an electronic component. The device includes a heat-conducting substrate (composed, e.g., of diamond or another high thermal conductivity material) disposed in thermal contact with a high temperature region. During operation, heat flows from the high temperature region into the heat-conducting substrate, from which the heat flows into the electrical power generator. A thermoelectric material (e.g., a BiTe alloy-based film or other thermoelectric material) is placed in thermal contact with the heat-conducting substrate. A low temperature region is located on the side of the thermoelectric material opposite that of the high temperature region. The thermal gradient generates electrical power and drives an electrical component.

  18. Microfabricated thermoelectric power-generation devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret A. (Inventor); Borshchevsky, Alex (Inventor); Phillips, Wayne (Inventor); Kolawa, Elizabeth A. (Inventor); Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor); Caillat, Thierry (Inventor); Kascich, Thorsten (Inventor); Mueller, Peter (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A device for generating power to run an electronic component. The device includes a heat-conducting substrate (composed, e.g., of diamond or another high thermal conductivity material) disposed in thermal contact with a high temperature region. During operation, heat flows from the high temperature region into the heat-conducting substrate, from which the heat flows into the electrical power generator. A thermoelectric material (e.g., a BiTe alloy-based film or other thermoelectric material) is placed in thermal contact with the heat-conducting substrate. A low temperature region is located on the side of the thermoelectric material opposite that of the high temperature region. The thermal gradient generates electrical power and drives an electrical component.

  19. Thermoelectric fabrics: toward power generating clothing.

    PubMed

    Du, Yong; Cai, Kefeng; Chen, Song; Wang, Hongxia; Shen, Shirley Z; Donelson, Richard; Lin, Tong

    2015-03-23

    Herein, we demonstrate that a flexible, air-permeable, thermoelectric (TE) power generator can be prepared by applying a TE polymer (e.g. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate)) coated commercial fabric and subsequently by linking the coated strips with a conductive connection (e.g. using fine metal wires). The poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) coated fabric shows very stable TE properties from 300 K to 390 K. The fabric device can generate a TE voltage output (V) of 4.3 mV at a temperature difference (ΔT) of 75.2 K. The potential for using fabric TE devices to harvest body temperature energy has been discussed. Fabric-based TE devices may be useful for the development of new power generating clothing and self-powered wearable electronics.

  20. Thermoelectric Fabrics: Toward Power Generating Clothing

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yong; Cai, Kefeng; Chen, Song; Wang, Hongxia; Shen, Shirley Z.; Donelson, Richard; Lin, Tong

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we demonstrate that a flexible, air-permeable, thermoelectric (TE) power generator can be prepared by applying a TE polymer (e.g. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate)) coated commercial fabric and subsequently by linking the coated strips with a conductive connection (e.g. using fine metal wires). The poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) coated fabric shows very stable TE properties from 300 K to 390 K. The fabric device can generate a TE voltage output (V) of 4.3 mV at a temperature difference (ΔT) of 75.2 K. The potential for using fabric TE devices to harvest body temperature energy has been discussed. Fabric-based TE devices may be useful for the development of new power generating clothing and self-powered wearable electronics. PMID:25804132

  1. Polygenetic Aspect of Unit Theory Oil Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galant, Yuri

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of a unified theory Oil Generation one of important moments is the consideration of the distribution of oil in the Earth's Crust. Analysis of the distribution of oil deposits in the Earth's Crust showed that oil distributed throughout the stratigraphic section from ancient to modern sediments and from a depth of 12 kilometers to the Earth's surface. The distribution of oil almost meets all stages of metamorphism of rocks. Correlation of the section of oil distribution to genetic types of ore deposits showed that each genetic type ore deposits has its analogue oil field . So it is possible to classify oil fields on 1) endogenous: the actual magmatic, post-magmatic, contact-metasomatic (skarn), hydrothermal, exhalation, carbonatite, pegmatite, 2) exogenous: weathering, oxidation, sedimentary,3) metamorphogenic: metamorphosed, metamorphic. Model of such distribution of oil deposits can be a process of successive formation of oil deposits of mantle degassing tube. Thus oil is polygenic by way of formation of deposits, but their source is united.

  2. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Thermoelectric Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckle, J. R.; Knox, A.; Siviter, J.; Montecucco, A.

    2013-07-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are a vital part of the oceanographer's toolbox, allowing long-term measurements across a range of ocean depths of a number of ocean properties such as salinity, fluorescence, and temperature profile. Buoyancy-based gliding, rather than direct propulsion, dramatically reduces AUV power consumption and allows long-duration missions on the order of months rather than hours or days, allowing large distances to be analyzed or many successive analyses of a certain area without the need for retrieval. Recent versions of these gliders have seen the buoyancy variation system change from electrically powered to thermally powered using phase-change materials, however a significant battery pack is still required to power communications and sensors, with power consumption in the region of 250 mW. The authors propose a novel application of a thermoelectric generation system, utilizing the depth-related variation in oceanic temperature. A thermal energy store provides a temperature differential across which a thermoelectric device can generate from repeated dives, with the primary purpose of extending mission range. The system is modeled in Simulink to analyze the effect of variation in design parameters. The system proves capable of generating all required power for a modern AUV.

  3. Advanced Coal-Based Power Generations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    Advanced power-generation systems using coal-derived fuels are evaluated in two-volume report. Report considers fuel cells, combined gas- and steam-turbine cycles, and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion. Presents technological status of each type of system and analyzes performance of each operating on medium-Btu fuel gas, either delivered via pipeline to powerplant or generated by coal-gasification process at plantsite.

  4. Research on HOPE actuator power unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itagaki, Haruaki; Iida, Tooru; Ishii, Yasuo

    1992-08-01

    An Overview of the review conducted on Actuator Power Unit (APU) of HOPE (H-2 Orbiting Plane) based on a base line constructed combining conventional technologies are presented. Partial trial production and test on lubrication subsystems to acquire fundamental data on lubricant supply and retrieval system which is not affected by microgravity and gravity directions were conducted. The subject subsystem was constructed to facilitate visual observation from the side of gas and liquid separating conditions. The results of test conducted changing parameters such as void ratio, the ratio of lubricant to residual space (GN2 gas) in the gear box are shown. A lubrication system flow chart is shown.

  5. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XIV, UNDERSTANDING DC GENERATOR PRINCIPLES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE (1) WHAT IS A GENERATOR AND ITS USE, (2) SHUNT GENERATOR PRINCIPLES, (3) POWER AND RATINGS OF A GENERATOR, (4) ARMATURE REACTION, (5) WHAT IS POLARITY, (6) TWO GENERATOR…

  6. Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation

    DOEpatents

    Hart, M.M.

    1995-04-18

    A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communications, powered by a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of materials resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications. 2 figs.

  7. Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation

    DOEpatents

    Hart, Mark M.

    1995-01-01

    A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communications, powered by a Pu.sub.238 or Sr.sub.90 thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu.sub.238 or Sr.sub.90 thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of materials resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications.

  8. Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation

    DOEpatents

    Hart, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communication, powered by a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of material resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications.

  9. Modeling the Ocean Tide for Tidal Power Generation Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, M.; Gedney, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent years have seen renewed interest in the ocean tide as a source of energy for electrical power generation. Unlike in the 1960s, when the tidal barrage was the predominant method of power extraction considered and implemented, the current methodology favors operation of a free-stream turbine or an array of them in strong tidal currents. As tidal power generation moves from pilot-scale projects to actual array implementations, numerical modeling of tidal currents is expected to play an increasing role in site selection, resource assessment, array design, and environmental impact assessment. In this presentation, a simple, coupled ocean/estuary model designed for research into fundamental aspects of tidal power generation is described. The model consists of a Pacific Ocean-size rectangular basin and a connected fjord-like embayment with dimensions similar to that of Puget Sound, Washington, one of the potential power generation sites in the United States. The model is forced by an idealized lunar tide-generating potential. The study focuses on the energetics of a tidal system including tidal power extraction at both global and regional scales. The hyperbolic nature of the governing shallow water equations means consequence of tidal power extraction cannot be limited to the local waters, but is global in extent. Modeling power extraction with a regional model with standard boundary conditions introduces uncertainties of 3 ~ 25% in the power extraction estimate depending on the level of extraction. Power extraction in the model has a well-defined maximum (~800 MW in a standard case) that is in agreement with previous theoretical studies. Natural energy dissipation and tidal power extraction strongly interact; for a turbine array of a given capacity, the higher the level of natural dissipation the lower the power the array can extract. Conversely, power extraction leads to a decrease in the level of natural dissipation (Figure) as well as the tidal range and the

  10. Wind power generation and dispatch in competitive power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Lisias

    Wind energy is currently the fastest growing type of renewable energy. The main motivation is led by more strict emission constraints and higher fuel prices. In addition, recent developments in wind turbine technology and financial incentives have made wind energy technically and economically viable almost anywhere. In restructured power systems, reliable and economical operation of power systems are the two main objectives for the ISO. The ability to control the output of wind turbines is limited and the capacity of a wind farm changes according to wind speeds. Since this type of generation has no production costs, all production is taken by the system. Although, insufficient operational planning of power systems considering wind generation could result in higher system operation costs and off-peak transmission congestions. In addition, a GENCO can participate in short-term power markets in restructured power systems. The goal of a GENCO is to sell energy in such a way that would maximize its profitability. However, due to market price fluctuations and wind forecasting errors, it is essential for the wind GENCO to keep its financial risk at an acceptable level when constituting market bidding strategies. This dissertation discusses assumptions, functions, and methodologies that optimize short-term operations of power systems considering wind energy, and that optimize bidding strategies for wind producers in short-term markets. This dissertation also discusses uncertainties associated with electricity market environment and wind power forecasting that can expose market participants to a significant risk level when managing the tradeoff between profitability and risk.

  11. Microelectromechanical power generator and vibration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2006-11-28

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus is disclosed which can be used to generate electrical power in response to an external source of vibrations, or to sense the vibrations and generate an electrical output voltage in response thereto. The MEM apparatus utilizes a meandering electrical pickup located near a shuttle which holds a plurality of permanent magnets. Upon movement of the shuttle in response to vibrations coupled thereto, the permanent magnets move in a direction substantially parallel to the meandering electrical pickup, and this generates a voltage across the meandering electrical pickup. The MEM apparatus can be fabricated by LIGA or micromachining.

  12. Global Climate Change - The Power Generation Challenge

    EPA Science Inventory

    The planet continues to warm; O.5 C from the 1970’s to the 2000’s. Also, worldwide CO2 emissions have increased at a 3% annual growth rate from 2000 to 2010. Such emissions are driven by fossil fuel combustion, especially in the power generation sector, & especial...

  13. Radioisotope thermal generator (RTG) power conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, W. S.

    1974-01-01

    New regulator: (a) permits operation with high-impedance radioisotope thermal generators at conversion efficiencies typically above 90%; (b) does not require input filtering; (c) eliminates current spiking; and (d) is simple, efficient, and reliable. Converter-charger pair could be adapted for other power levels by changing transistor, diode, capacitor bank, and inductor.

  14. Thermoelectric unicouple used for power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, Thierry (Inventor); Zoltan, Andrew (Inventor); Zoltan, Leslie (Inventor); Snyder, Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A high-efficiency thermoelectric unicouple is used for power generation. The unicouple is formed with a plurality of legs, each leg formed of a plurality of segments. The legs are formed in a way that equalizes certain aspects of the different segments. Different materials are also described.

  15. Method and apparatus for thermal power generation

    DOEpatents

    Mangus, James D.

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for power generation from a recirculating superheat-reheat circuit with multiple expansion stages which alleviates complex control systems and minimizes thermal cycling of system components, particularly the reheater. The invention includes preheating cold reheat fluid from the first expansion stage prior to its entering the reheater with fluid from the evaporator or drum component.

  16. Optical generation of radio-frequency power

    SciTech Connect

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Meyer, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    An optical technique for high-power radio-frequency (RF) signal generation is described. The technique uses a unique photodetector based on a traveling-wave design driven by an appropriately modulated light source. The traveling-wave photodetector (TWPD) exhibits simultaneously a theoretical quantum efficiency approaching 100 % and a very large electrical bandwidth. Additionally, it is capable of dissipating the high-power levels required for the RF generation technique. The modulated light source is formed by either the beating together of two lasers or by the direct modulation of a light source. A system example is given which predicts RF power levels of 100`s of mW`s at millimeter wave frequencies with a theoretical ``wall-plug`` efficiency approaching 34%.

  17. Investigations for biogas operated MHD power generators

    SciTech Connect

    Dahiya, R.P.; Chand, A.; Sharma, S.C.

    1983-12-01

    Biogas is produced from the anaerobic fermentation of the organic matter containing cellulose, such as agricultural wastes, human wastes, animal wastes, etc. It contains methane (50-70%), carbon dioxide (30-50%), and very small amounts of hydrogen and hydrogen sulphide. Adequate quantities of raw material to generate biogas are normally available in rural areas, and therefore, there is a possibility that almost all the energy requirements of the rural sector may be fulfilled by biogas. Presently in the rural sector, biogas is used mainly to provide thermal energy (for cooking, etc.), and up to a limited extent, to meet the electrical energy requirements by running electrical generators with engines powered by a mixture of oil and biogas. In this paper, the authors propose a scheme in which biogas can be used to generate electricity more efficiently by using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generators. Investigations have been carried out to make feasibility studies for biogas-operated open cycle MHD power generators. Composition, temperature and electrical conductivity of the seeded (with potassium) combustion products of biogas-air/oxygen systems have been analytically investigated for different percentages of CO/sub 2/ in biogas and at various combustor pressures for a seeding ratio of 1 percent by weight. The effect of preheating and enrichment of air on temperature and electrical conductivity of the seeded combustion plasmas has also been studied.

  18. Electrical power systems for distributed generation

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, T.A.; Huval, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}Distributed Generation{close_quotes} has become the {open_quotes}buzz{close_quotes} word of an electric utility industry facing deregulation. Many industrial facilities utilize equipment in distributed installations to serve the needs of a thermal host through the capture of exhaust energy in a heat recovery steam generator. The electrical power generated is then sold as a {open_quotes}side benefit{close_quotes} to the cost-effective supply of high quality thermal energy. Distributed generation is desirable for many different reasons, each with unique characteristics of the product. Many years of experience in the distributed generation market has helped Stewart & Stevenson to define a range of product features that are crucial to most any application. The following paper will highlight a few of these applications. The paper will also examine the range of products currently available and in development. Finally, we will survey the additional services offered by Stewart & Stevenson to meet the needs of a rapidly changing power generation industry.

  19. Development of a new generation of small scale biomass-fueled electric generating power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, J.D.; Purvis, C.R.

    1995-11-01

    There exists a need by a large worldwide market for greatly improved small scale (1 to 20 MWe per unit) biomass-fueled power plants. These power plants will significantly increase the efficiency of generating electric power from wood and bagasse as well as convert non-traditional fuel sources such as rice hulls, animal manure, cotton gin trash, straws, and grasses to electricity. Advancing the technology of biomass-fueled power plants will greatly expand the use of this environmentally friendly sustainable 24 hr-per-day source of electrical power for industry and communities worldwide. This paper briefly describes the status of a biomass-fueled power plant under development by Cratech, Inc.

  20. Thermophotovoltaic and thermoelectric portable power generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Walker R.; Waits, Christopher M.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Celanovic, Ivan

    2014-06-01

    The quest for developing clean, quiet, and portable high energy density, and ultra-compact power sources continues. Although batteries offer a well known solution, limits on the chemistry developed to date constrain the energy density to 0.2 kWh/kg, whereas many hydrocarbon fuels have energy densities closer to 13 kWh/kg. The fundamental challenge remains: how efficiently and robustly can these widely available chemical fuels be converted into electricity in a millimeter to centimeter scale systems? Here we explore two promising technologies for high energy density power generators: thermophotovoltaics (TPV) and thermoelectrics (TE). These heat to electricity conversion processes are appealing because they are fully static leading to quiet and robust operation, allow for multifuel operation due to the ease of generating heat, and offer high power densities. We will present some previous work done in the TPV and TE fields. In addition we will outline the common technological barriers facing both approaches, as well as outline the main differences. Performance for state of the art research generators will be compared as well as projections for future practically achievable systems. A viable TPV or TE power source for a ten watt for one week mission can be built from a <10% efficient device which is achievable with current state of the art technology such as photonic crystals or advanced TE materials.

  1. ZERO EMISSION POWER GENERATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Bischoff; Stephen Doyle

    2005-01-20

    Clean Energy Systems (CES) was previously funded by DOE's ''Vision 21'' program. This program provided a proof-of-concept demonstration that CES' novel gas generator (combustor) enabled production of electrical power from fossil fuels without pollution. CES has used current DOE funding for additional design study exercises which established the utility of the CES-cycle for retrofitting existing power plants for zero-emission operations and for incorporation in zero-emission, ''green field'' power plant concepts. DOE funding also helped define the suitability of existing steam turbine designs for use in the CES-cycle and explored the use of aero-derivative turbines for advanced power plant designs. This work is of interest to the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum & Energy. California's air quality districts have significant non-attainment areas in which CES technology can help. CEC is currently funding a CES-cycle technology demonstration near Bakersfield, CA. The Norwegian government is supporting conceptual studies for a proposed 40 MW zero-emission power plant in Stavager, Norway which would use the CES-cycle. The latter project is called Zero-Emission Norwegian Gas (ZENG). In summary, current engineering studies: (1) supported engineering design of plant subsystems applicable for use with CES-cycle zero-emission power plants, and (2) documented the suitability and availability of steam turbines for use in CES-cycle power plants, with particular relevance to the Norwegian ZENG Project.

  2. 12. GENERATING UNIT NO. 2, WITH (LR) CONTINUOUS CURRENT EXCITER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. GENERATING UNIT NO. 2, WITH (L-R) CONTINUOUS CURRENT EXCITER, ALTERNATING CURRENT GENERATOR, AND TURBINE GOVERNOR. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Cooke Hydroelectric Plant, Powerhouse, Cook Dam Road at Au Sable River, Oscoda, Iosco County, MI

  3. Interior of Right Powerhouse, generator room, looking east. The unit ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of Right Powerhouse, generator room, looking east. The unit in the foreground is turbine-generator No. 11. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam Powerplant Complex, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  4. Complementary power output characteristics of electromagnetic generators and triboelectric generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Feng-Ru; Tang, Wei; Yao, Yan; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-04-01

    Recently, a triboelectric generator (TEG) has been invented to convert mechanical energy into electricity by a conjunction of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic generator (EMG) that produces a high output current but low voltage, the TEG has different output characteristics of low output current but high output voltage. In this paper, we present a comparative study regarding the fundamentals of TEGs and EMGs. The power output performances of the EMG and the TEG have a special complementary relationship, with the EMG being a voltage source and the TEG a current source. Utilizing a power transformed and managed (PTM) system, the current output of a TEG can reach as high as ˜3 mA, which can be coupled with the output signal of an EMG to enhance the output power. We also demonstrate a design to integrate a TEG and an EMG into a single device for simultaneously harvesting mechanical energy. In addition, the integrated NGs can independently output a high voltage and a high current to meet special needs.

  5. Complementary power output characteristics of electromagnetic generators and triboelectric generators.

    PubMed

    Fan, Feng-Ru; Tang, Wei; Yao, Yan; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-04-01

    Recently, a triboelectric generator (TEG) has been invented to convert mechanical energy into electricity by a conjunction of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic generator (EMG) that produces a high output current but low voltage, the TEG has different output characteristics of low output current but high output voltage. In this paper, we present a comparative study regarding the fundamentals of TEGs and EMGs. The power output performances of the EMG and the TEG have a special complementary relationship, with the EMG being a voltage source and the TEG a current source. Utilizing a power transformed and managed (PTM) system, the current output of a TEG can reach as high as ∼3 mA, which can be coupled with the output signal of an EMG to enhance the output power. We also demonstrate a design to integrate a TEG and an EMG into a single device for simultaneously harvesting mechanical energy. In addition, the integrated NGs can independently output a high voltage and a high current to meet special needs.

  6. Heat Management in Thermoelectric Power Generators.

    PubMed

    Zebarjadi, M

    2016-04-01

    Thermoelectric power generators are used to convert heat into electricity. Like any other heat engine, the performance of a thermoelectric generator increases as the temperature difference on the sides increases. It is generally assumed that as more heat is forced through the thermoelectric legs, their performance increases. Therefore, insulations are typically used to minimize the heat losses and to confine the heat transport through the thermoelectric legs. In this paper we show that to some extend it is beneficial to purposely open heat loss channels in order to establish a larger temperature gradient and therefore to increase the overall efficiency and achieve larger electric power output. We define a modified Biot number (Bi) as an indicator of requirements for sidewall insulation. We show cooling from sidewalls increases the efficiency for Bi values less than one, and decreases the efficiency for Bi values larger than one.

  7. Heat Management in Thermoelectric Power Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebarjadi, M.

    2016-04-01

    Thermoelectric power generators are used to convert heat into electricity. Like any other heat engine, the performance of a thermoelectric generator increases as the temperature difference on the sides increases. It is generally assumed that as more heat is forced through the thermoelectric legs, their performance increases. Therefore, insulations are typically used to minimize the heat losses and to confine the heat transport through the thermoelectric legs. In this paper we show that to some extend it is beneficial to purposely open heat loss channels in order to establish a larger temperature gradient and therefore to increase the overall efficiency and achieve larger electric power output. We define a modified Biot number (Bi) as an indicator of requirements for sidewall insulation. We show cooling from sidewalls increases the efficiency for Bi values less than one, and decreases the efficiency for Bi values larger than one.

  8. Heat Management in Thermoelectric Power Generators

    PubMed Central

    Zebarjadi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Thermoelectric power generators are used to convert heat into electricity. Like any other heat engine, the performance of a thermoelectric generator increases as the temperature difference on the sides increases. It is generally assumed that as more heat is forced through the thermoelectric legs, their performance increases. Therefore, insulations are typically used to minimize the heat losses and to confine the heat transport through the thermoelectric legs. In this paper we show that to some extend it is beneficial to purposely open heat loss channels in order to establish a larger temperature gradient and therefore to increase the overall efficiency and achieve larger electric power output. We define a modified Biot number (Bi) as an indicator of requirements for sidewall insulation. We show cooling from sidewalls increases the efficiency for Bi values less than one, and decreases the efficiency for Bi values larger than one. PMID:27033717

  9. Heat Management in Thermoelectric Power Generators.

    PubMed

    Zebarjadi, M

    2016-01-01

    Thermoelectric power generators are used to convert heat into electricity. Like any other heat engine, the performance of a thermoelectric generator increases as the temperature difference on the sides increases. It is generally assumed that as more heat is forced through the thermoelectric legs, their performance increases. Therefore, insulations are typically used to minimize the heat losses and to confine the heat transport through the thermoelectric legs. In this paper we show that to some extend it is beneficial to purposely open heat loss channels in order to establish a larger temperature gradient and therefore to increase the overall efficiency and achieve larger electric power output. We define a modified Biot number (Bi) as an indicator of requirements for sidewall insulation. We show cooling from sidewalls increases the efficiency for Bi values less than one, and decreases the efficiency for Bi values larger than one. PMID:27033717

  10. MHD power generation: not now, but ever

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    The basic concept of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) has been known for over 100 years, but commercial viability is still a decade or more away despite US-Soviet collaborations to solve engineering problems. The simplicity of the concept offers advantages in terms of stress and efficiency, but implementation requires high-conductivity fluids and specially-designed subsystems. Other problems include the Hall field effect, the size and flux density requirements of superconducting magnets, ash, seed recovery, power inversion, and channel design. Researchers are developing both open-cycle and closed-cycle systems as well as technologies based on MHD and steam bottoming and MHD cogeneration. First-generation MHD plants will probably stress reliability above efficiency. Military applications could include space power generation. 4 figures. (DCK)

  11. Assessment of Japan's Optimal Power Generation Mix Considering Massive Deployment of Variable Renewable Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Fujii, Yasumasa

    This paper analyzes Japan's optimal power generation mix considering massive deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) system and wind power generation. The extensive introduction of PV system and wind power system are expected to play an important role in addressing energy security and climate change concern in Japan. Considering this expected large-scale deployment of PV system in electric power system, it is necessary to investigate the optimal power generation mix which is technologically capable of controlling and accommodating the intermittent output-power fluctuation inherently derived from PV and wind energy system. On these backgrounds, we develop optimal power generation mix model, explicitly analyzing the impact of output fluctuation in variable renewable in detailed resolution of time interval like 10 minutes at consecutive 365 days, with the role of stationary battery technology incorporated. Simulation results reveal that considerable deployment of those variable renewables do not necessarily require the scale of battery capacity similar as that of variable renewable capacity, due to quick load following treatment by thermal power plants, pumped-storage hydro power and battery technology over renewable output fluctuation.

  12. The Fourth Generation of Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, James Alan

    2000-11-01

    The outlook for nuclear power in the U.S. is currently very bright. The economics, operations and safety performance of U.S. nuclear power plants is excellent. In addition, both the safety and economic regulation of nuclear power are being changed to produce better economic parameters for future nuclear plant operations and the licenses for plant operations are being extended to 60 years. There is further a growing awareness of the value of clean, emissions-free nuclear power. These parameters combine to form a firm foundation for continued successful U.S. nuclear plant operations, and even the potential In order to realize a bright future for nuclear power, we must respond successfully to five challenges: • Nuclear power must remain economically competitive, • The public must remain confident in the safety of the plants and the fuel cycle. • Nuclear wastes and spent fuel must be managed and the ultimate disposition pathways for nuclear wastes must be politically settled. • The proliferation potential of the commercial nuclear fuel cycle must continue to be minimized, and • We must assure a sustained manpower supply for the future and preserve the critical nuclear technology infrastructure. The Generation IV program is conceived to focus the efforts of the international nuclear community on responding to these challenges.

  13. Silicon-Carbide Power MOSFET Performance in High Efficiency Boost Power Processing Unit for Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikpe, Stanley A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Carr, Gregory A.; Hunter, Don; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wood, William; Del Castillo, Linda Y.; Fitzpatrick, Fred; Chen, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-Carbide device technology has generated much interest in recent years. With superior thermal performance, power ratings and potential switching frequencies over its Silicon counterpart, Silicon-Carbide offers a greater possibility for high powered switching applications in extreme environment. In particular, Silicon-Carbide Metal-Oxide- Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors' (MOSFETs) maturing process technology has produced a plethora of commercially available power dense, low on-state resistance devices capable of switching at high frequencies. A novel hard-switched power processing unit (PPU) is implemented utilizing Silicon-Carbide power devices. Accelerated life data is captured and assessed in conjunction with a damage accumulation model of gate oxide and drain-source junction lifetime to evaluate potential system performance at high temperature environments.

  14. Fuel cycle comparison of distributed power generation technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

    2008-12-08

    The fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the application of fuel cells to distributed power generation were evaluated and compared with the combustion technologies of microturbines and internal combustion engines, as well as the various technologies associated with grid-electricity generation in the United States and California. The results were primarily impacted by the net electrical efficiency of the power generation technologies and the type of employed fuels. The energy use and GHG emissions associated with the electric power generation represented the majority of the total energy use of the fuel cycle and emissions for all generation pathways. Fuel cell technologies exhibited lower GHG emissions than those associated with the U.S. grid electricity and other combustion technologies. The higher-efficiency fuel cells, such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), exhibited lower energy requirements than those for combustion generators. The dependence of all natural-gas-based technologies on petroleum oil was lower than that of internal combustion engines using petroleum fuels. Most fuel cell technologies approaching or exceeding the DOE target efficiency of 40% offered significant reduction in energy use and GHG emissions.

  15. Utility interconnection issues for wind power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, J. I.; Lawler, J. S.; Reddoch, T. W.; Sullivan, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    This document organizes the total range of utility related issues, reviews wind turbine control and dynamic characteristics, identifies the interaction of wind turbines to electric utility systems, and identifies areas for future research. The material is organized at three levels: the wind turbine, its controls and characteristics; connection strategies as dispersed or WPSs; and the composite issue of planning and operating the electric power system with wind generated electricity.

  16. 77 FR 63342 - Virginia Electric and Power Company, Surry Power Station Units 1 and 2 and North Anna Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company, Surry Power Station Units 1 and 2 and North Anna Power... amendment to Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-32 and DPR-37, NPF-4 and NPF-7 for Surry Power Station, Units 1 and 2, Surry County, ] Virginia and North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2, Mineral,...

  17. 78 FR 46616 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Surry Power Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Surry Power Station... the Emergency Plan, ``Conditions of licenses,'' for North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2 (NAPS), for Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. NPF-4 and NPF-7, and Surry Power Station, Units 1 and...

  18. Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit Flight Support Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guirl, Robert; Munroe, James; Scott, Walter

    1990-01-01

    This paper discussed the development of an integrated Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) and Improved APU (IAPU) Flight Suuport Plan. The plan identifies hardware requirements for continued support of flight activities for the Space Shuttle Orbiter fleet. Each Orbiter vehicle has three APUs that provide power to the hydraulic system for flight control surface actuation, engine gimbaling, landing gear deployment, braking, and steering. The APUs contain hardware that has been found over the course of development and flight history to have operating time and on-vehicle exposure time limits. These APUs will be replaced by IAPUs with enhanced operating lives on a vehicle-by-vehicle basis during scheduled Orbiter modification periods. This Flight Support Plan is used by program management, engineering, logistics, contracts, and procurement groups to establish optimum use of available hardware and replacement quantities and delivery requirements for APUs until vehicle modifications and incorporation of IAPUs. Changes to the flight manifest and program delays are evaluated relative to their impact on hardware availability.

  19. Cummins Power Generation SECA Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Vesely

    2007-08-17

    The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) SECA Phase 1 SOFC development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) contract DE-FC26-01NT41244. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner research development leading to successful demonstration of the SECA Phase 1 objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant Phase 1 Milestones: (1) Demonstrated: (a) Operation meeting Phase 1 requirements on commercial natural gas. (b) LPG and Natural Gas CPOX fuel reformers. (c) SOFC systems on dry CPOX reformate. (c) Steam reformed Natural Gas operation. (d) Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC system without inert gas purge. (e) Utility of stack simulators as a tool for developing balance of plant systems. (2) Developed: (a) Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. (b) Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. (c) Demonstrated high efficiency SOFC output power conditioning. (d) Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods. The Phase 1 performance test was carried out at the Cummins Power Generation facility in Minneapolis, Minnesota starting on October 2, 2006. Performance testing was successfully completed on January 4, 2007 including the necessary steady-state, transient, efficiency, and peak power operation tests.

  20. Combined cycle power unit with a binary system based on waste geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Nikol'skii, A. I.; Semenov, V. N.

    2016-06-01

    The Russian geothermal power systems developed in the last few decades outperform their counterparts around the world in many respects. However, all Russian geothermal power stations employ steam as the geothermal fluid and discard the accompanying geothermal brine. In reality, the power of the existing Russian geothermal power stations may be increased without drilling more wells, if the waste brine is employed in combined cycle systems with steam and binary turbine units. For the example of the 50 MW Mutnovsk geothermal power plant, the optimal combined cycle power unit based on the waste geothermal brine is considered. It is of great interest to determine how the thermodynamic parameters of the secondary steam in the expansion unit and the pressure in the condenser affect the performance of the equipment in the combined cycle power unit at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant. For the utilization of the waste geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant, the optimal air temperature in the condensers of the combined cycle power unit is +5°C. The use of secondary steam obtained by flashing of the geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant 1 at a pressure of 0.2 MPa permits the generation of up to 8 MW of electric power in steam turbines and additional power of 5 MW in the turbines of the binary cycle.

  1. Auxiliary power unit for moving a vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Akasam, Sivaprasad; Johnson, Kris W.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Slone, Larry M.; Welter, James Milton

    2009-02-03

    A power system is provided having at least one traction device and a primary power source configured to power the at least one traction device. In addition, the power system includes an auxiliary power source also configured to power the at least one traction device.

  2. ONU power saving modes in next generation optical access networks: progress, efficiency and challenges.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Abhishek; Lannoo, Bart; Colle, Didier; Pickavet, Mario; Demeester, Piet

    2012-12-10

    The optical network unit (ONU), installed at a customer's premises, accounts for about 60% of power in current fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) networks. We propose a power consumption model for the ONU and evaluate the ONU power consumption in various next generation optical access (NGOA) architectures. Further, we study the impact of the power savings of the ONU in various low power modes such as power shedding, doze and sleep.

  3. 75 FR 77919 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental... Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc., for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1...: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1--Final Report (NUREG-1437, Supplement 33).''...

  4. Phase Change Material Thermal Power Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    An innovative modification has been made to a previously patented design for the Phase Change Material (PCM) Thermal Generator, which works in water where ocean temperature alternatively melts wax in canisters, or allows the wax to re-solidify, causing high-pressure oil to flow through a hydraulic generator, thus creating electricity to charge a battery that powers the vehicle. In this modification, a similar thermal PCM device has been created that is heated and cooled by the air and solar radiation instead of using ocean temperature differences to change the PCM from solid to liquid. This innovation allows the device to use thermal energy to generate electricity on land, instead of just in the ocean.

  5. 76 FR 9379 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Lasalle County Station, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... radioactive waste (LLRW), from the following Exelon owned nuclear power stations: Braidwood Station, Units 1... radioactive waste generators located in states that are not part of the Atlantic Low-Level Waste Compact...-38, ``Storage of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes at Power Reactor Sites'' and to meet the...

  6. 78 FR 25486 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC., Combined License Application for Comanche Peak Nuclear Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR), for the Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant (CPNPP), Units... Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4,'' dated May 13, 2011. Agencies and Persons Consulted On March... COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company, LLC., Combined License Application for Comanche Peak Nuclear...

  7. 76 FR 11436 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Ontario Power Generation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Ontario Power Generation AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... applied to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to... authorized OPG to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer for a...

  8. Closed Brayton Cycle Power Conversion Unit for Fission Surface Power Phase I Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    A Closed Brayton cycle power conversion system has been developed to support the NASA fission surface power program. The goal is to provide electricity from a small nuclear reactor heat source for surface power production for lunar and Mars environments. The selected media for a heat source is NaK 78 with water as a cooling source. The closed Brayton cycle power was selected to be 12 kWe output from the generator terminals. A heat source NaK temperature of 850 K plus or minus 25 K was selected. The cold source water was selected at 375 K plus or minus 25 K. A vacuum radiation environment of 200 K is specified for environmental operation. The major components of the system are the power converter, the power controller, and the top level data acquisition and control unit. The power converter with associated sensors resides in the vacuum radiation environment. The power controller and data acquisition system reside in an ambient laboratory environment. Signals and power are supplied across the pressure boundary electrically with hermetic connectors installed on the vacuum vessel. System level analyses were performed on working fluids, cycle design parameters, heater and cooling temperatures, and heat exchanger options that best meet the needs of the power converter specification. The goal is to provide a cost effective system that has high thermal-to-electric efficiency in a compact, lightweight package.

  9. Future Photovoltaic Power Generation for Space-Based Power Utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, S.; Landis, G.; Raffaelle, R.; Hepp, A.

    2002-01-01

    A recent NASA program, Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT), investigated the technologies needed to provide cost-competitive ground baseload electrical power from space based solar energy conversion. This goal mandated low cost, light weight gigawatt (GW) power generation. Investment in solar power generation technologies would also benefit high power military, commercial and science missions. These missions are generally those involving solar electric propulsion, surface power systems to sustain an outpost or a permanent colony on the surface of the moon or mars, space based lasers or radar, or as large earth orbiting power stations which can serve as central utilities for other orbiting spacecraft, or as in the SERT program, potentially beaming power to the earth itself. This paper will discuss requirements for the two latter options, the current state of the art of space solar cells, and a variety of both evolving thin film cells as well as new technologies which may impact the future choice of space solar cells for a high power mission application. The space world has primarily transitioned to commercially available III-V (GaInP/GaAs/Ge) cells with 24-26% air mass zero (AMO) efficiencies. Research in the III-V multi-junction solar cells has focused on fabricating either lattice-mismatched materials with optimum stacking bandgaps or new lattice matched materials with optimum bandgaps. In the near term this will yield a 30% commercially available space cell and in the far term possibly a 40% cell. Cost reduction would be achieved if these cells could be grown on a silicon rather than a germanium substrate since the substrate is ~65% of the cell cost or, better yet, on a polyimide or possibly a ceramic substrate. An overview of multi-junction cell characteristics will be presented here. Thin film cells require substantially less material and have promised the advantage of large area, low cost manufacturing. However, space cell requirements

  10. A high power, Coated Particle Fuel Compact Radioisotope Heat Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jeffrey C.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2001-02-01

    A Coated Particle Fuel Compact, Radioisotope Heater Unit (CPFC-RHU) is proposed, which is capable of generating thermal power in excess of 27 W. This power output is more than four times that of a Hexa-RHU, which generates only six watts of thermal power. The design of the CPFC-RHU is identical to that of the Hexa-RHU, except that the six Pt-30Rh clad fuel pellets and the POCO graphite support in the latter are replaced with single-sized, ZrC coated, 238PuO2 fuel particles ~500 μm in diameter. In addition to fully retaining the helium gas generated by the radioactive decay of the fuel, the CPFC offers promise for enhanced safety. Thermal analyses of the CPFC-RHU show that while the Hexa-RHU is suitable for use in a radioisotope power system (RPS) operating at a converter hot-side temperature of 473 K, the CPFC-RHU could also be used at higher temperatures of 773 K and 973 K with a thermal efficiency >60%. Even at a 473 K converter hot-side temperature, the CPFC-RHU offers higher thermal efficiency (>90%) than the Hexa-RHU (~75%). The CPFC-RHU final design provides constant temperature, with almost uniform radial heat flux to the converter, for enhanced performance, better integration, and higher overall efficiency of the RPS. The present CPFC-RHU fills a gap in the power needs for future space missions requiring electric power of 1-15 W, from a single RPS. .

  11. Floating type ocean wave power station equipped with hydroelectric unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Shun; Kanemoto, Toshiaki; Umekage, Toshihiko

    2013-10-01

    The authors have invented the unique ocean wave power station, which is composed of the floating type platform with a pair of the floats lining up at the interval of one wave pitch and the counter-rotating type wave power unit, its runners are submerged in the seawater at the middle position of the platform. Such profiles make the flow velocity at the runner is twice faster than that of the traditional fixed/caisson type OWC, on the ideal flow conditions. Besides, the runners counter-rotate the inner and the outer armatures of the peculiar generator, respectively, and the relative rotational speed is also twice faster than the speed of the single runner/armature. Such characteristics make the runner diameter large, namely the output higher, as requested, because the torque of the power unit never act on the floating type platform. At the preliminary reseach, this paper verifies to get the power using a Wells type single runner installed in the model station. The runner takes the output which is affected by the oscillating amplitude of the platform, the rotational speed and the inertia force of the runner, etc.

  12. Estimation of lifespan and economy parameters of steam-turbine power units in thermal power plants using varying regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Shkret, A. F.; Garievskii, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The use of potent power units in thermal and nuclear power plants in order to regulate the loads results in intense wear of power generating equipment and reduction in cost efficiency of their operation. We review the methodology of a quantitative assessment of the lifespan and wear of steam-turbine power units and estimate the effect of various operation regimes upon their efficiency. To assess the power units' equipment wear, we suggest using the concept of a turbine's equivalent lifespan. We give calculation formulae and an example of calculation of the lifespan of a steam-turbine power unit for supercritical parameters of steam for different options of its loading. The equivalent lifespan exceeds the turbine's assigned lifespan only provided daily shutdown of the power unit during the night off-peak time. We obtained the engineering and economical indices of the power unit operation for different loading regulation options in daily and weekly diagrams. We proved the change in the prime cost of electric power depending on the operation regimes and annual daily number of unloading (non-use) of the power unit's installed capacity. According to the calculation results, the prime cost of electric power for the assumed initial data varies from 11.3 cents/(kW h) in the basic regime of power unit operation (with an equivalent operation time of 166700 hours) to 15.5 cents/(kW h) in the regime with night and holiday shutdowns. The reduction of using the installed capacity of power unit at varying regimes from 3.5 to 11.9 hours per day can increase the prime cost of energy from 4.2 to 37.4%. Furthermore, repair and maintenance costs grow by 4.5% and by 3 times, respectively, in comparison with the basic regime. These results indicate the need to create special maneuverable equipment for working in the varying section of the electric load diagram.

  13. New Generation General Purpose Computer (GPC) compact IBM unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    New Generation General Purpose Computer (GPC) compact IBM unit replaces a two-unit earlier generation computer. The new IBM unit is documented in table top views alone (S91-26867, S91-26868), with the onboard equipment it supports including the flight deck CRT screen and keypad (S91-26866), and next to the two earlier versions it replaces (S91-26869).

  14. Regional projections of nuclear and fossil electric power generation costs

    SciTech Connect

    Smolen, G.R.; Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Bowers, H.I.

    1983-12-01

    The total busbar electric generating costs were estimated for locations in ten regions of the United States for base load nuclear and coal-fired power plants with a startup date of January 1995. A complete data set is supplied which specifies each parameter used to obtain the comparative results. When the comparison is based on reference cost parameters, nuclear- and coal-fired generation costs are found to be very close in most regions of the country. Nuclear power is favored in the South Atlantic region where coal must be transported over long distances, while coal-fired generation is favored in the Central and North Central regions where large reserves of cheaply mineable coal exist. The reference data set reflects recent electric utility construction experience. Significantly lower nuclear capital investment costs would result if regulatory reform and improved construction practices were instituted. The electric power generation costs for base load oil- and natural gas-fired plants were also estimated. These plants were found to be noncompetitive in all regions for those scenarios most likely to develop. Generation cost sensitivity to changes in various parameters was examined at a reference location. The sensitivity parameters included capital investment costs, lead times, capacity factors, costs of money, and coal and uranium prices. In addition to the levelized lifetime costs, year-by-year cash flows and revenue requirements are presented. The report concludes with an analysis of the economic merits of recycling spent fuel in light-water reactors.

  15. Miniature Gas-Turbine Power Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiberg, Dean; Vargo, Stephen; White, Victor; Shcheglov, Kirill

    2003-01-01

    A proposed microelectromechanical system (MEMS) containing a closed- Brayton-cycle turbine would serve as a prototype of electric-power generators for special applications in which high energy densities are required and in which, heretofore, batteries have been used. The system would have a volume of about 6 cm3 and would operate with a thermal efficiency >30 percent, generating up to 50 W of electrical power. The energy density of the proposed system would be about 10 times that of the best battery-based systems now available, and, as such, would be comparable to that of a fuel cell. The working gas for the turbine would be Xe containing small quantities of CO2, O2, and H2O as gaseous lubricants. The gas would be contained in an enclosed circulation system, within which the pressure would typically range between 5 and 50 atm (between 0.5 and 5 MPa). The heat for the Brayton cycle could be supplied by any of a number of sources, including a solar concentrator or a combustor burning a hydrocarbon or other fuel. The system would include novel heat-transfer and heat-management components. The turbine would be connected to an electric power generator/starter motor. The system would include a main rotor shaft with gas bearings; the bearing surfaces would be made of a ceramic material coated with nanocrystalline diamond. The shaft could withstand speed of 400,000 rpm or perhaps more, with bearing-wear rates less than 10(exp -)4 those of silicon bearings and 0.05 to 0.1 those of SiC bearings, and with a coefficient of friction about 0.1 that of Si or SiC bearings. The components of the system would be fabricated by a combination of (1) three-dimensional xray lithography and (2) highly precise injection molding of diamond-compatible metals and ceramic materials. The materials and fabrication techniques would be suitable for mass production. The disadvantages of the proposed system are that unlike a battery-based system, it could generate a perceptible amount of sound, and

  16. Evaluation Of Different Power Conditioning Options For Stirling Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrigos, A.; Blanes, J. M.; Carrasco, J. A.; Maset, E.; Montalban, G.; Ejea, J.; Ferreres, A.; Sanchis, E.

    2011-10-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines are an interesting alternative for electrical power systems, especially in deep space missions where photovoltaic systems are not feasible. This kind of power generators contains two main parts, the Stirling machine and the linear alternator that converts the mechanical energy from the piston movement to electrical energy. Since the generated power is in AC form, several aspects should be assessed to use such kind of generators in a spacecraft power system: AC/DC topologies, power factor correction, power regulation techniques, integration into the power system, etc. This paper details power generator operation and explores different power conversion approaches.

  17. A preliminary design and BOP cost analysis of M-C Power`s MCFC commerical unit

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.P.

    1996-12-31

    M-C Power Corporation plans to introduce its molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) market entry unit in the year 2000 for distributed and on-site power generation. Extensive efforts have been made to analyze the cell stack manufacturing costs. The major objective of this study is to conduct a detailed analysis of BOP costs based on an initial design of the market entry unit.

  18. Power plant V - Thek generating station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, M.

    The design and operating features of a 10 MWe parabolic dish concentrator steam-cycle generating plant are described. The dishes which have 75 sq m area with a concentration factor of 265, were proved in the Themis project. The total field for the 10 MWe would cover 63,100 sq m and require 842 units. Using a water-steam cycle at 50 bars, temperature would never surpass 264 C, with an after-generator condition of 33 bars at 204 C. Preheating the water is intended with a fused salt reservoir containing 570 tons in 350 cu m container, around which condensed water would flow. Maintaining the primary loop at mildly elevated temperatures would permit uninterrupted operation during cloudy periods. A total shutdown would occur if cloudy conditions last more than one hour, and start-up would involve reheating the primary loop, recharging the storage, and then respinning the turbine.

  19. Integrated control of next generation power system

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2010-02-28

    The multi-agent system (MAS) approach has been applied with promising results for enhancing an electric power distribution circuit, such as the Circuit of the Future as developed by Southern California Edison. These next generation power system results include better ability to reconfigure the circuit as well as the increased capability to improve the protection and enhance the reliability of the circuit. There were four main tasks in this project. The specific results for each of these four tasks and their related topics are presented in main sections of this report. Also, there were seven deliverables for this project. The main conclusions for these deliverables are summarized in the identified subtask section of this report. The specific details for each of these deliverables are included in the “Project Deliverables” section at the end of this Final Report.

  20. Diagnosis of automotive fuel cell power generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hissel, D.; Péra, M. C.; Kauffmann, J. M.

    Most of car manufacturers around the world have launched important research programs on the integration of fuel cell (FC) power generators into cars. Despite the first achievements, fuel cell systems are still badly known, particularly when talking about fault diagnosis and predictive maintenance. This paper proposes a first step in this way by introducing a simple but also efficient diagnosis-oriented model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The considered diagnosis model is here a fuzzy one and is tuned thanks to genetic algorithms.

  1. Overland Tidal Power Generation Using Modular Tidal Prism

    SciTech Connect

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Yang, Zhaoqing; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Copping, Andrea

    2010-03-01

    Naturally occurring sites with sufficient kinetic energy suitable for tidal power generation with sustained currents > 1 to 2 m/s are relatively rare. Yet sites with greater than 3 to 4 m of tidal range are relatively common around the U.S. coastline. Tidal potential does exist along the shoreline but is mostly distributed, and requires an approach which allows trapping and collection to also be conducted in a distributed manner. In this paper we examine the feasibility of generating sustainable tidal power using multiple nearshore tidal energy collection units and present the Modular Tidal Prism (MTP) basin concept. The proposed approach utilizes available tidal potential by conversion into tidal kinetic energy through cyclic expansion and drainage from shallow modular manufactured overland tidal prisms. A preliminary design and configuration of the modular tidal prism basin including inlet channel configuration and basin dimensions was developed. The unique design was shown to sustain momentum in the penstocks during flooding as well as ebbing tidal cycles. The unstructured-grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) was used to subject the proposed design to a number of sensitivity tests and to optimize the size, shape and configuration of MTP basin for peak power generation capacity. The results show that an artificial modular basin with a reasonable footprint (≈ 300 acres) has the potential to generate 10 to 20 kw average energy through the operation of a small turbine located near the basin outlet. The potential of generating a total of 500 kw to 1 MW of power through a 20 to 40 MTP basin tidal power farms distributed along the coastline of Puget Sound, Washington, is explored.

  2. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... services include cooking, heating, air conditioning (where installed), domestic refrigeration, mechanical... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources....

  3. Power systems simulations of the western United States region.

    SciTech Connect

    Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Poch, L.; Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2010-03-15

    This report documents a part of a broad assessment of energy-water-related issues in the western United States. The full analysis involved three Department of Energy national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. Argonne's objective in the overall project was to develop a regional power sector expansion forecast and a detailed unit-level operational (dispatch) analysis. With these two major analysis components, Argonne estimated current and future freshwater withdrawals and consumption related to the operation of U.S. thermal-electric power plants in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) region for the period 2005-2025. Water is withdrawn and used primarily for cooling but also for environmental control, such as sulfur scrubbers. The current scope of the analysis included three scenarios: (1) Baseline scenario as a benchmark for assessing the adequacy and cost-effectiveness of water conservation options and strategies, (2) High nuclear scenario, and (3) High renewables scenario. Baseline projections are consistent with forecasts made by the WECC and the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in its Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) (EIA 2006a). Water conservation scenarios are currently limited to two development alternatives that focus heavily on constructing new generating facilities with zero water consumption. These technologies include wind farms and nuclear power plants with dry cooling. Additional water conservation scenarios and estimates of water use associated with fuel or resource extraction and processing will be developed in follow-on analyses.

  4. Self Excitation and Harmonics in Wind Power Generation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Romanowitz, H.; Yinger, R.

    2004-11-01

    Traditional wind turbines are equipped with induction generators. Induction generators are preferred because they are inexpensive, rugged, and require very little maintenance. Unfortunately, induction generators require reactive power from the grid to operate. Because reactive power varies with the output power, the terminal voltage at the generator may become too low to compensate the induction generator. The interactions among the wind turbine, the power network, and the capacitor compensation, are important aspects of wind generation. In this paper, we will show the interactions among the induction generator, capacitor compensation, power system network, and magnetic saturations and examine the cause of resonance conditions and self-excitation.

  5. Piezoelectric power generation for civil infrastructure systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erturk, A.; Inman, D. J.

    2011-04-01

    Civil infrastructure systems (CIS) employ various small electronic components ranging from temperature and humidity sensors used in buildings to acoustics emission sensors used for damage detection in bridges. Other than solar energy that has already found several applications in CIS; moving loads, surface strain fluctuations, and wind energy available in the vicinity of CIS constitute important sources of energy that can be converted into electricity. This paper focuses on low power generation from these energy sources using piezoelectric transduction. Moving loads caused by travelling vehicles can be used for exciting piezoceramics located on the road. Structural vibrations resulting from various sources such as support motions and interaction of CIS with the surrounding fluid may yield local surface strain fluctuations. Wind energy is available not only due to regular atmospheric flow but also due to the motion of vehicles travelling at relatively high speeds. This paper investigates and formulates (1) the electromechanical moving load problem for slender bridges with a piezoelectric cantilever and with embedded piezoceramics, (2) the problem of piezoelectric power generation from surface strain fluctuations using a piezoceramic patch, and (3) piezoelectric energy harvesting from wind excitation through aeroelastic flutter.

  6. Generation mechanism of power line harmonic radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrov, Alexander; Gushchin, Mikhail; Korobkov, Sergei

    The questions concerning the generation of power line harmonic radiation (PLHR) and magne-tospheric line radiation (MLR) are discussed, including the effective source of high harmonics of 50/60 Hz, and fine dynamic structure of the frequency spectrum of PLHR and MLR. It is shown, that thyristor-based power regulators used by large electrical power consumers produce the periodic sequences of current pulses with duration of about 10 microseconds in a power line. The repetition rate of these pulses is typically 100/120 Hz; the bandwidth is as broad as 100 kHz. For high harmonics of 50/60 Hz, the power line represents an effective traveling-wave (or Beverage) antenna, especially in a frequency range of several kHz corresponding to VLF whistler band in Earth ionosphere and magnetosphere. For the fixed length of the power line, which acts as antenna, radiation directivity diagram in relation to horizon depends of frequency. Hence the spatial separation of whistlers emitted at various frequencies (1-10 kHz in a consid-ered case) is possible, with subsequent propagation of whistlers with different frequencies along different L-shells. Estimations show that the efficiency of power line as travelling-wave antenna can be changed by variations of its load, but not more than twice ("weekend effect"). Since the PLHR can represent the sequence of short electromagnetic bursts, then careful se-lection of frequency-time resolution of the data acquisition equipment is needed. Typically, the time constant of the data recording and processing is too large, and the spectra of PLHR or MLR are characterized by a well-known line structure. At the same time, original bursty structure of PLHR can not be defined. Fine structure of MLR is also discussed. Frequency drift of MLR can be explained by the perturbations of the magnetospheric plasma by intense ULF waves and particle flows affecting the propagation of PLHR. Hence the physical nature of PLHR and MLR is the same, excepting the

  7. Rotary-Atomizer Electric Power Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Trieu; Tran, Tuan; de Boer, Hans; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C. T.

    2015-03-01

    We report experimental and theoretical results on a ballistic energy-conversion method based on a rotary atomizer working with a droplet acceleration-deceleration cycle. In a rotary atomizer, liquid is fed onto the center of a rotating flat surface, where it spreads out under the action of the centrifugal force and creates "atomized" droplets at its edge. The advantage of using a rotary atomizer is that the centrifugal force exerted on the fluid on a smooth, large surface is not only a robust form of acceleration, as it avoids clogging, but also easily allows high throughput, and produces high electrical power. We successfully demonstrate an output power of 4.9 mW and a high voltage up to 3120 V. At present, the efficiency of the system is still low (0.14%). However, the conversion mechanism of the system is fully interpreted in this paper, permitting a conceptual understanding of system operation and providing a roadmap for system optimization. This observation will open up a road for building power-generation systems in the near future.

  8. Steam generator issues in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Strosnider, J.R.

    1997-02-01

    Alloy 600 steam generator tubes in the US have exhibited degradation mechanisms similar to those observed in other countries. Effective programs have been implemented to address several degradation mechanisms including: wastage; mechanical wear; pitting; and fatigue. These degradation mechanisms are fairly well understood as indicated by the ability to effectively mitigate/manage them. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is the dominant degradation mechanism in the US. SCC poses significant inspection and management challenges to the industry and the regulators. The paper also addresses issues of research into SCC, inspection programs, plugging, repair strategies, water chemistry, and regulatory control. Emerging issues in the US include: parent tube cracking at sleeve joints; detection and repair of circumferential cracks; free span cracking; inspection and cracking of dented regions; and severe accident analysis.

  9. The Control of the PBMR Nuclear Power Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Olis; Venter, Miek; Jordaan, Johannes

    2006-07-01

    PBMR is an advanced, helium-cooled, graphite-moderated High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). Heat is converted to electric energy by means of a direct recuperative Brayton cycle. This paper considers various design aspects associated with the control of the unit and examples are given of generator load control. Physical material restrictions and process dynamics have a major effect on control, necessitating detail thermo-hydraulic simulation of the plant operation. The Flownex dynamic thermo-hydraulic simulation code was developed to model the plant, which is linked to the control software for co-simulation. Matlab and Simulink are used for controller development while care was taken to ensure compatibility with the operational control code based on IEC standards. Generator load is controlled by regulating the helium inventory in the pressurized system. Helium is injected in order to increase the generator load, and extracted for load reduction. While this method of actuation produces the required steady state response, the plant dynamic response is non minimum phase, i.e. the load initially reduces on a load ramp-up. In base load operation, the extent of the power dip is contained by limiting the rate at which the helium injection can be increased. Feasibility studies show that it is possible to achieve faster load ramp rates by combining helium injection with quick response cycle gas bypass control. Lead compensation on the input load reference signal further enhances the load following capabilities of the unit. (authors)

  10. 2. VIEW OF GOVERNANCE EQUIPMENT AT UNIT 3 GENERATOR (RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF GOVERNANCE EQUIPMENT AT UNIT 3 GENERATOR (RIGHT BACKGROUND) SHOWING PRESSURE TANK (LEFT BACKGROUND), GOVERNOR STAND (CENTER), AND SUMP PUMP (RIGHT FOREGROUND). VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Black Eagle Hydroelectric Facility, Powerhouse, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  11. Testing to Characterize the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward; Schreiber, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), a high efficiency generator, is being considered for space missions. Lockheed Martin designed and fabricated an engineering unit (EU), the ASRG EU, under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit is currently undergoing extended operation testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center to generate performance data and validate life and reliability predictions for the generator and the Stirling convertors. It has also undergone performance tests to characterize generator operation while varying control parameters and system inputs. This paper summarizes and explains test results in the context of designing operating strategies for the generator during a space mission and notes expected differences between the EU performance and future generators.

  12. 23. VIEW TO NORTH OF UNITS 57, NEW POWERHOUSE GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW TO NORTH OF UNITS 5-7, NEW POWERHOUSE GENERATOR FLOOR; HYBRID LOMBARD-WOODWARD GOVERNOR FOR UNIT 5 AT LOWER LEFT; GOVERNOR OIL PUMP AT LEFT CENTER - Trenton Falls Hydroelectric Station, Powerhouse & Substation, On west bank of West Canada Creek, along Trenton Falls Road, 1.25 miles north of New York Route 28, Trenton Falls, Oneida County, NY

  13. Development of a portable thermophotovoltaic power generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Frederick E.; Doyle, Edward F.; Shukla, Kailash

    1997-03-01

    A 150 Watt thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power generator is being developed. The technical approach taken in the design focused on optimizing the integrated performance of the primary subsystems in order to yield high energy conversion efficiency and cost effectiveness. An important aspect of the approach is the use of a selective emitter radiating to a bandgap matched photovoltaic array to minimize thermal and optical recuperation requirements, as well as the non-recoverable heat losses. For the initial prototype system, fibrous ytterbia emitters radiating in a band centered at 980 nm are matched with high efficiency silicon photoconverters. The integrated system includes a dielectric stack filter for optical energy recovery and a ceramic recuperator for thermal energy recovery. The system has been operated with air preheat temperatures up to 1350K. The design of the system and development status are presented.

  14. New power politics will determine generation's path

    SciTech Connect

    Maize, K.; Neville, A.; Peltier, R.

    2009-01-15

    The US power industry's story in 2009 will be all about change, to borrow a now-familiar theme. Though the new administration's policy specifics had not been revealed as this report was prepared, it appears that flat load growth in 2009 will give the new Obama administration a unique opportunity to formulate new energy policy without risking that the lights will go out. New coal projects are now facing increasing difficulties. It looks as though the electricity supply industry will continue to muddle through. It may see an advancement in infrastructure investment, significant new generation or new technology development. It also faces the possibility that policies necessary to achieving those goals will not materialize, for political and economic reasons. 4 figs.

  15. 40 CFR 1033.510 - Auxiliary power units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auxiliary power units. 1033.510 Section 1033.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.510 Auxiliary power units. If...

  16. 40 CFR 1033.510 - Auxiliary power units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Auxiliary power units. 1033.510 Section 1033.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.510 Auxiliary power units. If...

  17. 40 CFR 1033.510 - Auxiliary power units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auxiliary power units. 1033.510 Section 1033.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.510 Auxiliary power units. If...

  18. 40 CFR 1033.510 - Auxiliary power units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary power units. 1033.510 Section 1033.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.510 Auxiliary power units. If...

  19. 40 CFR 1033.510 - Auxiliary power units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Auxiliary power units. 1033.510 Section 1033.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.510 Auxiliary power units. If...

  20. Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project--Power Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skjervold, Christian K.; And Others

    The student booklet presents short chapters illustrating the power unit of the Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project for secondary schools. Nine brief chapters describe individuals, organizations, and labor unions and their relationship to power in the United States. Chapter I describes the early history of the International Ladies Garment…

  1. Inventory of Electric Utility Power Plants in the United States

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    Final issue of this report. Provides detailed statistics on existing generating units operated by electric utilities as of December 31, 2000, and certain summary statistics about new generators planned for operation by electric utilities during the next 5 years.

  2. 43 CFR 431.4 - Power generation responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Power generation responsibilities. 431.4..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR POWER GENERATION, OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPLACEMENT AT THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT, ARIZONA/NEVADA § 431.4 Power generation responsibilities. (a)...

  3. High Input Voltage, Silicon Carbide Power Processing Unit Performance Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Aulisio, Michael V.; Gonzalez, Marcelo C.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    A silicon carbide brassboard power processing unit has been developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The power processing unit operates from two sources: a nominal 300 Volt high voltage input bus and a nominal 28 Volt low voltage input bus. The design of the power processing unit includes four low voltage, low power auxiliary supplies, and two parallel 7.5 kilowatt (kW) discharge power supplies that are capable of providing up to 15 kilowatts of total power at 300 to 500 Volts (V) to the thruster. Additionally, the unit contains a housekeeping supply, high voltage input filter, low voltage input filter, and master control board, such that the complete brassboard unit is capable of operating a 12.5 kilowatt Hall effect thruster. The performance of the unit was characterized under both ambient and thermal vacuum test conditions, and the results demonstrate exceptional performance with full power efficiencies exceeding 97%. The unit was also tested with a 12.5kW Hall effect thruster to verify compatibility and output filter specifications. With space-qualified silicon carbide or similar high voltage, high efficiency power devices, this would provide a design solution to address the need for high power electric propulsion systems.

  4. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electric power... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage,...

  5. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric power... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage,...

  6. Recovery Act. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Diesel Auxilliary Power Unit Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, Gail E.

    2013-09-30

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Diesel Auxilliary Power Unit Demonstration Project. Summarizing development of Delphi’s next generation SOFC system as the core power plant to prove the viability of the market opportunity for a 3-5 kW diesel SOFC system. Report includes test and demonstration results from testing the diesel APU in a high visibility fleet customer vehicle application.

  7. AC power generation from microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Fernanda Leite; Wang, Heming; Forrestal, Casey; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-11-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) directly convert biodegradable substrates to electricity and carry good potential for energy-positive wastewater treatment. However, the low and direct current (DC) output from MFC is not usable for general electronics except small sensors, yet commercial DC-AC converters or inverters used in solar systems cannot be directly applied to MFCs. This study presents a new DC-AC converter system for MFCs that can generate alternating voltage in any desired frequency. Results show that AC power can be easily achieved in three different frequencies tested (1, 10, 60 Hz), and no energy storage layer such as capacitors was needed. The DC-AC converter efficiency was higher than 95% when powered by either individual MFCs or simple MFC stacks. Total harmonic distortion (THD) was used to investigate the quality of the energy, and it showed that the energy could be directly usable for linear electronic loads. This study shows that through electrical conversion MFCs can be potentially used in household electronics for decentralized off-grid communities.

  8. Foundations for the Fourth Generation of Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, James Alan

    2000-11-01

    Plentiful, affordable electrical energy is a critically important commodity to nations wishing to grow their economy. Energy, and more specifically electricity, is the fuel of economic growth. More than one-third of the world’s population (more than 2 billion people), however, live today without access to any electricity. Further, another 2 billion people in the world exist on less than 100 watts of electricity per capita. By comparison, the large economies of Japan and France use more than 800 watts of electricity per capita, and the United States uses nearly 1500 watts of electricity per capita. As the governments of developing nations strive to improve their economies, and hence the standard of living of their people, electricity use is increasing. Several forecasts of electrical generation growth have concluded that world electricity demand will roughly double in the next 20–25 years, and possibly triple by 2050. This electrical generation growth will occur primarily in the rapidly developing and growing economies in Asia and Latin America. This net growth is in addition to the need for replacement generating capacity in the United States and Europe as aging power plants (primarily fossil-fueled) are replaced. This very substantial worldwide electricity demand growth places the issue of where this new electricity generation capacity is to come from squarely in front of the developed countries. They have a fundamental desire (if not a moral obligation) to help these developing countries sustain their economic growth and improve their standard of living, while at the same time protecting the energy (and economic) security of their own countries. There are currently 435 power reactors generating about 16 percent of the world’s electricity. We know full well that nuclear power shows great promise as an economical, safe, and emissions-free source of electrical energy, but it also carries at least the perception of great problems, from public safety to dealing

  9. Environmental performance of power generation system in China based on LCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xing; Zhang, Xu; Yuan, Yuan

    2010-11-01

    In this study, LCA (life cycle assessment) is used as a tool for the assessment of energy consumption and associated impacts generated from utilization of energy in various power generation systems in China. The details follow the methodology outlined in ISO14040. The scope of this research includes energy production, energy transportation, and energy utilization. The function unit of life cycle inventory is 1 kJ electricity power. Most of the inventory data have been collected from Yearbook of China. Compared to fuel-fired power generation system, hydropower and nuclear power are more environment-friendly according to life cycle inventory analysis results, so increasing the proportion of hydropower and nuclear power in the power industry has a significant improvement effect on the development of China's power industry. The life cycle environmental impact of integrated power generation level in 2010 will be 13.8% lower than in 1999 according to National energy policy of China.

  10. High Input Voltage, Silicon Carbide Power Processing Unit Performance Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Aulisio, Michael V.; Gonzalez, Marcelo C.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    A silicon carbide brassboard power processing unit has been developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The power processing unit operates from two sources - a nominal 300-Volt high voltage input bus and a nominal 28-Volt low voltage input bus. The design of the power processing unit includes four low voltage, low power supplies that provide power to the thruster auxiliary supplies, and two parallel 7.5 kilowatt power supplies that are capable of providing up to 15 kilowatts of total power at 300-Volts to 500-Volts to the thruster discharge supply. Additionally, the unit contains a housekeeping supply, high voltage input filter, low voltage input filter, and master control board, such that the complete brassboard unit is capable of operating a 12.5 kilowatt Hall Effect Thruster. The performance of unit was characterized under both ambient and thermal vacuum test conditions, and the results demonstrate the exceptional performance with full power efficiencies exceeding 97. With a space-qualified silicon carbide or similar high voltage, high efficiency power device, this design could evolve into a flight design for future missions that require high power electric propulsion systems.

  11. Installation of new Generation General Purpose Computer (GPC) compact unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC's) Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) high bay 2, Spacecraft Electronics technician Ed Carter (right), wearing clean suit, prepares for (26864) and installs (26865) the new Generation General Purpose Computer (GPC) compact IBM unit in Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, middeck avionics bay as Orbiter Systems Quality Control technician Doug Snider looks on. Both men work for NASA contractor Lockheed Space Operations Company. All three orbiters are being outfitted with the compact IBM unit, which replaces a two-unit earlier generation computer.

  12. The Solid Rocket Booster Auxiliary Power Unit: Meeting the Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    The thrust vector control systems of the solid rocket boosters are turbine-powered, electrically controlled hydraulic systems which function through hydraulic actuators to gimbal the nozzles of the solid rocket boosters and provide vehicle steering for the Space Shuttle. Turbine power for the thrust vector control systems is provided through hydrazine fueled auxiliary power units which drive the hydraulic pumps. The solid rocket booster auxiliary power unit resulted from trade studies which indicated significant advantages would result if an existing engine could be found to meet the program goal of 20 missions reusability and adapted to meet the seawater environments associated with ocean landings. During its maturation, the auxiliary power unit underwent many design iterations and provided its flight worthiness through full qualification programs both as a component and as part of the thrust vector control system. More significant, the auxiliary power unit has successfully completed six Shuttle missions.

  13. A high power ZnO thin film piezoelectric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Weiwei; Li, Tao; Li, Yutong; Qiu, Junwen; Ma, Xianjun; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Hu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-02-01

    A highly efficient and large area piezoelectric ZnO thin film nanogenerator (NG) was fabricated. The ZnO thin film was deposited onto a Si substrate by pulsed laser ablation at a substrate temperature of 500 °C. The deposited ZnO film exhibited a preferred c-axis orientation and a high piezoelectric value of 49.7 pm/V characterized using Piezoelectric Force Microscopy (PFM). Thin films of ZnO were patterned into rectangular power sources with dimensions of 0.5 × 0.5 cm2 with metallic top and bottom electrodes constructed via conventional semiconductor lithographic patterning processes. The NG units were subjected to periodic bending/unbending motions produced by mechanical impingement at a fixed frequency of 100 Hz at a pressure of 0.4 kg/cm2. The output electrical voltage, current density, and power density generated by one ZnO NG were recorded. Values of ∼95 mV, 35 μA cm-2 and 5.1 mW cm-2 were recorded. The level of power density is typical to that produced by a PZT NG on a flexible substrate. Higher energy NG sources can be easily created by adding more power units either in parallel or in series. The thin film ZnO NG technique is highly adaptable with current semiconductor processes, and as such, is easily integrated with signal collecting circuits that are compatible with mass production. A typical application would be using the power harvested from irregular human foot motions to either to operate blue LEDs directly or to drive a sensor network node in mille-power level without any external electric source and circuits.

  14. Factors driving wind power development in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori A.; Parsons, Brian; Gagliano, Troy; Brown, Matthew H.; Wiser, Ryan H.; Bolinger, Mark

    2003-05-15

    In the United States, there has been substantial recent growth in wind energy generating capacity, with growth averaging 24 percent annually during the past five years. About 1,700 MW of wind energy capacity was installed in 2001, while another 410 MW became operational in 2002. This year (2003) shows promise of significant growth with more than 1,500 MW planned. With this growth, an increasing number of states are experiencing investment in wind energy projects. Wind installations currently exist in about half of all U.S. states. This paper explores the key factors at play in the states that have achieved a substantial amount of wind energy investment. Some of the factors that are examined include policy drivers, such as renewable portfolio standards (RPS), federal and state financial incentives, and integrated resource planning; as well as market drivers, such as consumer demand for green power, natural gas price volatility, and wholesale market rules.

  15. Motion charged battery as sustainable flexible-power-unit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sihong; Lin, Zong-Hong; Niu, Simiao; Lin, Long; Xie, Yannan; Pradel, Ken C; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-12-23

    Energy harvesting and storage are the two most important energy technologies developed for portable, sustainable, and self-sufficient power sources for mobile electronic systems. However, both have limitations for providing stable direct-current (DC) with an infinite lifetime. Herein, we integrated a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG)-based mechanical energy harvester with Li-ion-battery (LIB)-based energy storage as a single device for demonstrating a flexible self-charging power unit (SCPU), which allows a battery to be charged directly by ambient mechanical motion. This physical integration enables a new operation mode of the SCPU: the "sustainable mode", in which the LIB stores the TENG-generated electricity while it is driving an external load. With the LIB being replenished by the ambient mechanical energy, the SCPU can keep providing a constant voltage to the load by utilizing the stable difference between the battery's intrinsic electrode potentials. This study will impact the traditional trends of battery research and advance the development of the self-powered systems.

  16. Impact of High Wind Power Penetration on Hydroelectric Unit Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) investigated the operational impacts of very high levels of variable generation penetration rates (up to 35% by energy) in the western United States. This work examines the impact of this large amount of wind penetration on hydroelectric unit operations. Changes in hydroelectric unit operating unit patterns are examined for an aggregation of all hydro generators. The cost impacts of maintaining hydro unit flexibility are assessed and compared for a number of different modes of system operation.

  17. Innovative gasification technology for future power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, K.; Shadle, L.J.; Sadowski, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    Ever tightening environmental regulations have changed the way utility and non-utility electric generation providers currently view their fuels choices. While coal is still, by far, the major fuel utilized in power production, the general trend over the past 20 years has been to switch to low-sulfur coal and/or make costly modifications to existing coal-fired facilities to reach environmental compliance. Unfortunately, this approach has led to fragmented solutions to balance our energy and environmental needs. To date, few integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) suppliers have been able to compete with the cost of other more conventional technologies or fuels. One need only look at the complexity of many IGCC approaches to understand that unless a view toward IEC is adopted, the widespread application of such otherwise potentially attractive technologies will be unlikely in our lifetime. Jacobs-Sirrine Engineers and Riley Stoker Corporation are working in partnership with the Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center to help demonstrate an innovative coal gasification technology called {open_quotes}PyGas{trademark},{close_quotes} for {open_quotes}pyrolysis-gasification{close_quotes}. This hybrid variation of fluidized-bed and fixed-bed gasification technologies is being developed with the goal to efficiently produce clean gas at costs competitive with more conventional systems by incorporating many of the principles of IEC within the confines of a single-gasifier vessel. Our project is currently in the detailed design stage of a 4 ton-per-hour gasification facility to be built at the Fort Martin Station of Allegheny Power Services. By locating the test facility at an existing coal-fired plant, much of the facility infrastructure can be utilized saving significant costs. Successful demonstration of this technology at this new facility is a prerequisite to its commercialization.

  18. Design of a Facility to Test the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Meer, David W.; Brace, Michael H.; Dugala, Gina

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) is being considered to power deep space missions. An engineering unit, the ASRG-EU, was designed and fabricated by Lockheed Martin under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit is currently on an extended operation test at NASA Glenn Research Center to generate performance data and validate the life and reliability predictions for the generator and the Stirling convertors. A special test facility was designed and built for testing the ASRG-EU. Details of the test facility design are discussed. The facility can operate the convertors under AC bus control or with the ASRG-EU controller. It can regulate input thermal power in either a fixed temperature or fixed power mode. An enclosure circulates cooled air around the ASRG-EU to remove heat rejected from the ASRG-EU by convection. A custom monitoring and data acquisition system supports the test. Various safety features, which allow 2417 unattended operation, are discussed.

  19. Power generation from nuclear reactors in aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    English, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Power generation in nuclear powerplants in space is addressed. In particular, the states of technology of the principal competitive concepts for power generation are assessed. The possible impact of power conditioning on power generation is also discussed. For aircraft nuclear propulsion, the suitability of various technologies is cursorily assessed for flight in the Earth's atmosphere. A program path is suggested to ease the conditions of first use of aircraft nuclear propulsion.

  20. Power Generation from Nuclear Reactors in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, Robert E.

    1982-01-01

    Power generation in nuclear powerplants in space is addressed. In particular, the states of technology of the principal competitive concepts for power generation are assessed. The possible impact of power conditioning on power generation is also discussed. For aircraft nuclear propulsion, the suitability of various technologies is cursorily assessed for flight in the Earth's atmosphere; a program path is suggested to ease the conditions of first use of aircraft nuclear propulsion.

  1. Investigation of rocket-powered, open-cycle, magnetohydrodynamic generators for high, pulsed power needs in space. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Power, J.W.

    1986-11-01

    This investigation examined the possibility of using a rocket-powered magnetohydrodynamic generator for pulse power in space of 300 megawatts (MW). The result is a preliminary design of an MHD generator using an open cycle disk channel and a single superconducting solenoid coil. The disk channel acts as a thrust deflector, and internal vanes counteract induced vorticity. The use of a solid-fuel-wafer grain design rocket motor is proposed for increased electrical conductivity and pulse operation of the generator. Using conservative parameters, a generator design capable of being carried on one or two space-shuttle launches is developed with estimated mass of 24,450 kg and estimated power output of 1346 MW. The nominal operation time before refurbishment is 115 seconds; the restriction operation time is deterioration of the channel throat. This design exceeds present nuclear and solar-cell power systems in power output per unit mass.

  2. Life cycle assessment analysis of supercritical coal power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Hoinka, Krzysztof; Liszka, Marcin

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) analysis concerning the selected options of supercritical coal power units. The investigation covers a pulverized power unit without a CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) installation, a pulverized unit with a "post-combustion" installation (MEA type) and a pulverized power unit working in the "oxy-combustion" mode. For each variant the net electric power amounts to 600 MW. The energy component of the LCA analysis has been determined. It describes the depletion of non-renewable natural resources. The energy component is determined by the coefficient of cumulative energy consumption in the life cycle. For the calculation of the ecological component of the LCA analysis the cumulative CO2 emission has been applied. At present it is the basic emission factor for the LCA analysis of power plants. The work also presents the sensitivity analysis of calculated energy and ecological factors.

  3. 75 FR 3942 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment...), for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP), located in New Hill, North... Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear......

  4. Generator powered electrically heated diesel particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2014-03-18

    A control circuit for a vehicle powertrain includes a switch that selectivity interrupts current flow between a first terminal and a second terminal. A first power source provides power to the first terminal and a second power source provides power to the second terminal and to a heater of a heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The switch is opened during a DPF regeneration cycle to prevent the first power source from being loaded by the heater while the heater is energized.

  5. Development of an intelligent controller for power generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxted, Clive; Waller, Winston

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a description of the development of an embedded controller for high power industrial diesel generators. The aim of the project was to replace the existing discrete logic design by an intelligent versatile and user configurable control system. A prototype embedded PC controlled system was developed, capable of fully replacing the existing system, with a colour TFT display and keypad. Features include fully automatic generator control as before with status and alarm display and monitoring of engine parameters, along with data logging, remote communications and a means of analysing data. The unit was tested on the bench and on diesel generators for the core controlling functionality to prove compliance with the specifications. The results of the testing proved the unit's suitability as a replacement for the existing system in its intended environment. The significance of this study is that a low cost replacement solution has been found for an industrial application by transferring modern technological knowledge to a small business. The company are now able to build on the design and take it into production, reducing servicing and production costs.

  6. New Marsulex technology significantly cuts power generation costs

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, M.A.

    1999-07-01

    As utility deregulation becomes reality, successful generators of electricity will significantly lower bus bar cost of power by a creative combination of low cost fuel and the application of Marsulex Environmental Technologies' (MET) patented Ammonia Scrubbing Technology. Because fuel constitutes the largest component of generation cost, substantial reductions can be achieved by firing low cost fuels such as petroleum coke. Tis option has been historically handicapped by sulfur dioxide emission limitations and related economics. MET's proprietary ammonium sulfate technology now enables the use of low cost, 5-7-% sulfur fuels without the associated sulfur penalty. The MET technology can reduce generation costs by 25% or more on a typical coal fired unit and does not require any capital outlay by the generator. In addition, this concept can also serve as the cornerstone of a Phase 2 SO{sub 2} compliance strategy, or provide the winning edge in a bid for generation assets. This paper will outline this unique commercial and technical solution and provide economic examples of this cost-cutting strategy.

  7. Inventory of power plants in the United States 1989. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-21

    This document is prepared annually by the Electric Power Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units in operation and to provide a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 states and the District of Columbia). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA, to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The report is organized into the following chapters: Summary Statistics; Operable Electric Generating Units; and Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions.

  8. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the US (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1998. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions and generating unit changes. This report is prepared annually by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience. This is a report of electric utility data; in cases where summary data or nonconfidential data of nonutilities are presented, it is specifically noted as nonutility data. 19 figs., 36 tabs.

  9. Investigation of Maximum Power Point Tracking for Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillip, Navneesh; Maganga, Othman; Burnham, Keith J.; Ellis, Mark A.; Robinson, Simon; Dunn, Julian; Rouaud, Cedric

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, a thermoelectric generator (TEG) model is developed as a tool for investigating optimized maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms for TEG systems within automotive exhaust heat energy recovery applications. The model comprises three main subsystems that make up the TEG system: the heat exchanger, thermoelectric material, and power conditioning unit (PCU). In this study, two MPPT algorithms known as the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm and extremum seeking control (ESC) are investigated. A synchronous buck-boost converter is implemented as the preferred DC-DC converter topology, and together with the MPPT algorithm completes the PCU architecture. The process of developing the subsystems is discussed, and the advantage of using the MPPT controller is demonstrated. The simulation results demonstrate that the ESC algorithm implemented in combination with a synchronous buck-boost converter achieves favorable power outputs for TEG systems. The appropriateness is by virtue of greater responsiveness to changes in the system's thermal conditions and hence the electrical potential difference generated in comparison with the P&O algorithm. The MATLAB/Simulink environment is used for simulation of the TEG system and comparison of the investigated control strategies.

  10. Calculation of guaranteed mean power from wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    A method for calculating the 'guaranteed mean' power output of a wind turbine generator is proposed. The term 'mean power' refers to the average power generated at specified wind speeds during short-term tests. Correlation of anemometers, the method of bins for analyzing non-steady data, the PROP Code for predicting turbine power, and statistical analysis of deviations in test data from theory are discussed. Guaranteed mean power density for the Clayton Mod-OA system was found to be 8 watts per square meter less than theoretical power density at all power levels, with a confidence level of 0.999. This amounts to 4 percent of rated power.

  11. Reactivity effects in VVER-1000 of the third unit of the kalinin nuclear power plant at physical start-up. Computations in ShIPR intellectual code system with library of two-group cross sections generated by UNK code

    SciTech Connect

    Zizin, M. N.; Zimin, V. G.; Zizina, S. N. Kryakvin, L. V.; Pitilimov, V. A.; Tereshonok, V. A.

    2010-12-15

    The ShIPR intellectual code system for mathematical simulation of nuclear reactors includes a set of computing modules implementing the preparation of macro cross sections on the basis of the two-group library of neutron-physics cross sections obtained for the SKETCH-N nodal code. This library is created by using the UNK code for 3D diffusion computation of first VVER-1000 fuel loadings. Computation of neutron fields in the ShIPR system is performed using the DP3 code in the two-group diffusion approximation in 3D triangular geometry. The efficiency of all groups of control rods for the first fuel loading of the third unit of the Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant is computed. The temperature, barometric, and density effects of reactivity as well as the reactivity coefficient due to the concentration of boric acid in the reactor were computed additionally. Results of computations are compared with the experiment.

  12. Reactivity effects in VVER-1000 of the third unit of the kalinin nuclear power plant at physical start-up. Computations in ShIPR intellectual code system with library of two-group cross sections generated by UNK code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zizin, M. N.; Zimin, V. G.; Zizina, S. N.; Kryakvin, L. V.; Pitilimov, V. A.; Tereshonok, V. A.

    2010-12-01

    The ShIPR intellectual code system for mathematical simulation of nuclear reactors includes a set of computing modules implementing the preparation of macro cross sections on the basis of the two-group library of neutron-physics cross sections obtained for the SKETCH-N nodal code. This library is created by using the UNK code for 3D diffusion computation of first VVER-1000 fuel loadings. Computation of neutron fields in the ShIPR system is performed using the DP3 code in the two-group diffusion approximation in 3D triangular geometry. The efficiency of all groups of control rods for the first fuel loading of the third unit of the Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant is computed. The temperature, barometric, and density effects of reactivity as well as the reactivity coefficient due to the concentration of boric acid in the reactor were computed additionally. Results of computations are compared with the experiment.

  13. Direct charge radioisotope activation and power generation

    DOEpatents

    Lal, Amit; Li, Hui; Blanchard, James P.; Henderson, Douglass L.

    2002-01-01

    An activator has a base on which is mounted an elastically deformable micromechanical element that has a section that is free to be displaced toward the base. An absorber of radioactively emitted particles is formed on the base or the displaceable section of the deformable element and a source is formed on the other of the displaceable section or the base facing the absorber across a small gap. The radioactive source emits charged particles such as electrons, resulting in a buildup of charge on the absorber, drawing the absorber and source together and storing mechanical energy as the deformable element is bent. When the force between the absorber and the source is sufficient to bring the absorber into effective electrical contact with the source, discharge of the charge between the source and absorber allows the deformable element to spring back, releasing the mechanical energy stored in the element. An electrical generator such as a piezoelectric transducer may be secured to the deformable element to convert the released mechanical energy to electrical energy that can be used to provide power to electronic circuits.

  14. AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER'S CONESVILLE POWER PLANT UNIT NO.5 CO2 CAPTURE RETROFIT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Carl R. Bozzuto; Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; Mark Palkes; John L. Marion

    2001-06-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with American Electric Power (AEP), ABB Lummus Global Inc. (ABB), the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies applied to an existing US coal-fired electric generation power plant. The motivation for this study was to provide input to potential US electric utility actions concerning GHG emissions reduction. If the US decides to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, action would need to be taken to address existing power plants. Although fuel switching from coal to natural gas may be one scenario, it will not necessarily be a sufficient measure and some form of CO{sub 2} capture for use or disposal may also be required. The output of this CO{sub 2} capture study will enhance the public's understanding of control options and influence decisions and actions by government, regulators, and power plant owners in considering the costs of reducing greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} emissions. The total work breakdown structure is encompassed within three major reports, namely: (1) Literature Survey, (2) AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study, and (3) Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation. The report on the literature survey results was issued earlier by Bozzuto, et al. (2000). Reports entitled ''AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study'' and ''Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation'' are provided as companion volumes, denoted Volumes I and II, respectively, of the final report. The work performed, results obtained, and conclusions and recommendations derived therefrom are summarized.

  15. Marine-current power generation model for smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachogiannis, John G.

    2014-03-01

    This short communication introduces the first marine-current power generation model to be integrated into power flow studies of smart grids. The stochastic aspect of marine-current velocity affecting the real power output of marine-current generators is provided by a closed formula. Also, a new closed formula for power coefficient of marine-current generators versus marine-current velocities is set up. The introduced marine-current power generation model is validated on real measurements obtained in the sub-sea areas of Alderney Race (Channel Islands) in UK and Gun-barrel passage in Fiji.

  16. A Digital Coreless Maximum Power Point Tracking Circuit for Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Shiho; Cho, Sungkyu; Kim, Namjae; Baatar, Nyambayar; Kwon, Jangwoo

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) circuit for thermoelectric generators (TEG) without a digital controller unit. The proposed method uses an analog tracking circuit that samples the half point of the open-circuit voltage without a digital signal processor (DSP) or microcontroller unit for calculating the peak power point using iterative methods. The simulation results revealed that the MPPT circuit, which employs a boost-cascaded-with-buck converter, handled rapid variation of temperature and abrupt changes of load current; this method enables stable operation with high power transfer efficiency. The proposed MPPT technique is a useful analog MPPT solution for thermoelectric generators.

  17. The changing face of international power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, I.

    1997-12-31

    The author limits his remarks to a discussion of the international generator`s marketplace, especially aimed at the developing countries. He discusses future global electricity demand, generating capacity build, its financing issues, and to the commercial generating opportunities which now abound outside the US.

  18. 43 CFR 418.16 - Using water for power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Using water for power generation. 418.16... Operations and Management § 418.16 Using water for power generation. All use of Project water for power..., incentive water (§ 418.35 ), or spills....

  19. 43 CFR 418.16 - Using water for power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Using water for power generation. 418.16... Operations and Management § 418.16 Using water for power generation. All use of Project water for power..., incentive water (§ 418.35), or spills....

  20. 43 CFR 418.16 - Using water for power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Using water for power generation. 418.16... Operations and Management § 418.16 Using water for power generation. All use of Project water for power..., incentive water (§ 418.35), or spills....

  1. 43 CFR 418.16 - Using water for power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Using water for power generation. 418.16... Operations and Management § 418.16 Using water for power generation. All use of Project water for power..., incentive water (§ 418.35 ), or spills....

  2. 43 CFR 418.16 - Using water for power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Using water for power generation. 418.16... Operations and Management § 418.16 Using water for power generation. All use of Project water for power..., incentive water (§ 418.35 ), or spills....

  3. Space shuttle orbiter auxiliary power unit development challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, R.; Weary, D.

    1985-01-01

    When the flying spacecraft was approved for development, a power unit for the hydraulic system had to be developed. Unlike other systems on the orbiter, there was no precedent in earlier spacecraft for a hydraulic system nor for the power unit to drive the hydraulic pumps. The only prototypes available were airplane auxiliary power units (APU), which were not required to operate in the severe environments of a spacecraft nor to have the longevity of an orbiter hydraulic power unit. The challenge was to build a hydraulic power unit which could operate in 0g or 3g, in a vacuum or at sea level pressure, and at -65 F or 225 F, which would be capable of restarting while hot, and which would be capable of sustaining the hydraulic loads for the life of the orbiter. The basic approach to providing hydraulic power for the orbiter was to use a small, high speed, monopropellant fueled turbine power unit to drive a conventional aircraft type hydraulic pump. The stringent requirements imposed on the orbiter APU quickly made this machine different from existing aircraft APUs.

  4. Ames Lab 101: Next Generation Power Lines

    ScienceCinema

    Russell, Alan

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory scientist Alan Russell discusses the need to develop new power lines that are stronger and more conductive as a way to address the problem of the nation's aging and inadequate power grid.

  5. Power Generation: The Next 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Robert W.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses pollution problems associated with power production. Estimates power consumption in the 1980's and the availability of fossil and nuclear fuel resources. Emphasizes needed research on air pollution, nuclear pollution, and thermal pollution. (EB)

  6. Energy Storage Applications in Power Systems with Renewable Energy Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghofrani, Mahmoud

    In this dissertation, we propose new operational and planning methodologies for power systems with renewable energy sources. A probabilistic optimal power flow (POPF) is developed to model wind power variations and evaluate the power system operation with intermittent renewable energy generation. The methodology is used to calculate the operating and ramping reserves that are required to compensate for power system uncertainties. Distributed wind generation is introduced as an operational scheme to take advantage of the spatial diversity of renewable energy resources and reduce wind power fluctuations using low or uncorrelated wind farms. The POPF is demonstrated using the IEEE 24-bus system where the proposed operational scheme reduces the operating and ramping reserve requirements and operation and congestion cost of the system as compared to operational practices available in the literature. A stochastic operational-planning framework is also proposed to adequately size, optimally place and schedule storage units within power systems with high wind penetrations. The method is used for different applications of energy storage systems for renewable energy integration. These applications include market-based opportunities such as renewable energy time-shift, renewable capacity firming, and transmission and distribution upgrade deferral in the form of revenue or reduced cost and storage-related societal benefits such as integration of more renewables, reduced emissions and improved utilization of grid assets. A power-pool model which incorporates the one-sided auction market into POPF is developed. The model considers storage units as market participants submitting hourly price bids in the form of marginal costs. This provides an accurate market-clearing process as compared to the 'price-taker' analysis available in the literature where the effects of large-scale storage units on the market-clearing prices are neglected. Different case studies are provided to

  7. Coal and Coal/Biomass-Based Power Generation

    EPA Science Inventory

    For Frank Princiotta's book, Global Climate Change--The Technology Challenge Coal is a key, growing component in power generation globally. It generates 50% of U.S. electricity, and criteria emissions from coal-based power generation are being reduced. However, CO2 emissions m...

  8. 13. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST. 1925 GE GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR OF POWER PLANT LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. 1925 GE GENERATOR IN FOREGROUND, WITH C. 1910 GENERATOR COVER IN BACKGROUND. STEEL FRAME SUPPORTS HOISTING MECHANISM USED TO MOVE, REPAIR, OR REPLACE GENERATORS. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  9. Integrated engine-generator concept for aircraft electric secondary power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Macosko, R. P.; Repas, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    The integrated engine-generator concept of locating an electric generator inside an aircraft turbojet or turbofan engine concentric with, and driven by, one of the main engine shafts is discussed. When properly rated, the generator can serve as an engine starter as well as a generator of electric power. The electric power conversion equipment and generator controls are conveniently located in the aircraft. Preliminary layouts of generators in a large engine together with their physical sizes and weights indicate that this concept is a technically feasible approach to aircraft secondary power.

  10. Improved control system power unit for large parachutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, J. A.; Grubbs, T. M.

    1968-01-01

    Improved control system power unit drives the control surfaces of very large controllable parachutes. The design features subassemblies for determining control surface position and cable loading, and protection of the load sensor against the possibility of damage during manipulation.

  11. Space shuttle auxiliary power unit study, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binsley, R. L.; Krause, A. A.; Maddox, R. D.; Marcy, R. D.; Siegler, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    A study was performed to establish the preliminary design of the space shuttle auxiliary power unit. Details of the analysis, optimizations, and design of the components, subsystems and systems are presented.

  12. Alternative power generation concepts for space

    SciTech Connect

    Brandhorst, H.W. Jr.; Juhasz, A.J.; Jones, B.I.

    1994-09-01

    With the advent of the NASA Space Station, there has emerged a general realization that large quantities of power in space are necessary and, in fact, enabling. This realization has led to the examination of alternative options to the ubiquitous solar array/battery power system. Several factors led to the consideration of solar dynamic and nuclear power systems. These include better scaling to high power levels, higher efficiency conversion and storage subsystems, and lower system specific mass. The objective of this paper is to present the results of trade and optimization studies that high-light the potential of solar and nuclear dynamic systems relative to photovoltaic power systems.

  13. Universal power transistor base drive control unit

    DOEpatents

    Gale, Allan R.; Gritter, David J.

    1988-01-01

    A saturation condition regulator system for a power transistor which achieves the regulation objectives of a Baker clamp but without dumping excess base drive current into the transistor output circuit. The base drive current of the transistor is sensed and used through an active feedback circuit to produce an error signal which modulates the base drive current through a linearly operating FET. The collector base voltage of the power transistor is independently monitored to develop a second error signal which is also used to regulate base drive current. The current-sensitive circuit operates as a limiter. In addition, a fail-safe timing circuit is disclosed which automatically resets to a turn OFF condition in the event the transistor does not turn ON within a predetermined time after the input signal transition.

  14. Universal power transistor base drive control unit

    DOEpatents

    Gale, A.R.; Gritter, D.J.

    1988-06-07

    A saturation condition regulator system for a power transistor is disclosed which achieves the regulation objectives of a Baker clamp but without dumping excess base drive current into the transistor output circuit. The base drive current of the transistor is sensed and used through an active feedback circuit to produce an error signal which modulates the base drive current through a linearly operating FET. The collector base voltage of the power transistor is independently monitored to develop a second error signal which is also used to regulate base drive current. The current-sensitive circuit operates as a limiter. In addition, a fail-safe timing circuit is disclosed which automatically resets to a turn OFF condition in the event the transistor does not turn ON within a predetermined time after the input signal transition. 2 figs.

  15. Monolithic fuel cell based power source for burst power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Fee, D.C.; Blackburn, P.E.; Busch, D.E.; Dees, D.W.; Dusek, J.; Easler, T.E.; Ellingson, W.A.; Flandermeyer, B.K.; Fousek, R.J.; Heiberger, J.J.; Majumdar, S.; McPheeters, C.C.; Mrazek, F.C.; Picciolo, J.J.; Singh, J.P.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    A unique fuel cell coupled with a low power nuclear reactor presents an attractive approach for SDI burst power requirements. The requisite high power, long-duration bursts appear achievable with appropriate development of the concept. A monolithic fuel cell/nuclear reactor system clearly possesses several advantages. Fabrication methods, performance advantages, and applications are discussed in this report.

  16. Power Generation Capabilities of Tie Tube Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, Stanley V.; Hedstrom, James; Hundal, Rolv

    1994-07-01

    Second generation nuclear thermal rocket engine designs, employing solid core reactors and expander engine cycles, generally rely on some form of nuclear-driven heater to supply the major portion of thermal energy required to preheat the turbine-drive gases. If adequate heat transfer occurs, not only will efficiency-enhancing turbine-inlet temperatures be realized, but sufficient energy will be available to enable engine operation at chamber pressures ranging to at least 2,000 psia. For the case of reactor cores employing prismatic fuel elements, the utilization of tie tube assemblies, as first employed in the core-support subsystem of the Phoebus II reactor, can provide the basis of an array of propellant (hydrogen) preheaters that offer an ample supply of energy and temperature to enable candidate expander engine cycles over a wide range of operating parameters, without reducing the total enthalpy of the core-exit gas and its attendant effect on specific impulse. By modifying the tie tube design concept set forth in LASL's Nuclear Rocket Engine definition study, a powerful, weight and packaging-effective, preheater assembly can be realized. The design features of these tie tube assemblies reflect their functional objectives, core criticality considerations, and space constraints. Since the core pressure and inertial mass loads are carried by these assemblies, the structural tubular element(s) also provide coolant passage(s) for the hydrogen. The transfer of heat to the coolant surfaces is controlled by the effective thermal conductivity of the filler structure and ``insulating sleeves,'' which surround the tubular elements and are in controlled thermal contact with the surrounding core fuel elements. An option exists to further increase the transported heat to the coolant walls by the selective loading of the filler structure, ``insulating sleeves,'' and the moderator annular element with fissionable material.

  17. BIOMASS GASIFICATION AND POWER GENERATION USING ADVANCED GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    David Liscinsky

    2002-10-20

    A multidisciplined team led by the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) and consisting of Pratt & Whitney Power Systems (PWPS), the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), KraftWork Systems, Inc. (kWS), and the Connecticut Resource Recovery Authority (CRRA) has evaluated a variety of gasified biomass fuels, integrated into advanced gas turbine-based power systems. The team has concluded that a biomass integrated gasification combined-cycle (BIGCC) plant with an overall integrated system efficiency of 45% (HHV) at emission levels of less than half of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) is technically and economically feasible. The higher process efficiency in itself reduces consumption of premium fuels currently used for power generation including those from foreign sources. In addition, the advanced gasification process can be used to generate fuels and chemicals, such as low-cost hydrogen and syngas for chemical synthesis, as well as baseload power. The conceptual design of the plant consists of an air-blown circulating fluidized-bed Advanced Transport Gasifier and a PWPS FT8 TwinPac{trademark} aeroderivative gas turbine operated in combined cycle to produce {approx}80 MWe. This system uses advanced technology commercial products in combination with components in advanced development or demonstration stages, thereby maximizing the opportunity for early implementation. The biofueled power system was found to have a levelized cost of electricity competitive with other new power system alternatives including larger scale natural gas combined cycles. The key elements are: (1) An Advanced Transport Gasifier (ATG) circulating fluid-bed gasifier having wide fuel flexibility and high gasification efficiency; (2) An FT8 TwinPac{trademark}-based combined cycle of approximately 80 MWe; (3) Sustainable biomass primary fuel source at low cost and potentially widespread availability-refuse-derived fuel (RDF); (4) An overall integrated

  18. Generating Functions for the Powers of Fibonacci Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrana, D.; Chen, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this note, based on the Binet formulas and the power-reducing techniques, closed forms of generating functions for the powers of Fibonacci sequences are presented. The corresponding results are extended to some other famous sequences as well.

  19. Underwater vehicle propulsion and power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Chao, Yi (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An underwater vehicle includes a shaft with a propeller disposed thereon; a generator/motor having a stator and a rotor, the rotor being operable to rotate with the propeller; at least one energy storage device connected to the generator/motor; and a controller for setting the generator/motor in a charge mode, a propulsion mode and an idle mode.

  20. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the auxiliary power unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). The APUs are required to provide power to the Orbiter hydraulics systems during ascent and entry flight phases for aerosurface actuation, main engine gimballing, landing gear extension, and other vital functions. For analysis purposes, the APU system was broken down into ten functional subsystems. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. A preponderance of 1/1 criticality items were related to failures that allowed the hydrazine fuel to escape into the Orbiter aft compartment, creating a severe fire hazard, and failures that caused loss of the gas generator injector cooling system.

  1. 77 FR 43382 - Millstone Power Station, Unit 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... this plant design. Single train systems at MPS2 include Instrument Air (IA), ``A'' and ``B'' Boric Acid..., a permanently defueled boiling water reactor nuclear unit, and Millstone Power Station Unit 3, a pressurized water reactor. The facility is located in Waterford, Connecticut, approximately 3.2 miles...

  2. Update on use of mine pool water for power generation.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-30

    In 2004, nearly 90 percent of the country's electricity was generated at power plants using steam-based systems (EIA 2005). Electricity generation at steam electric plants requires a cooling system to condense the steam. With the exception of a few plants using air-cooled condensers, most U.S. steam electric power plants use water for cooling. Water usage occurs through once-through cooling or as make-up water in a closed-cycle system (generally involving one or more cooling towers). According to a U.S. Geological Survey report, the steam electric power industry withdrew about 136 billion gallons per day of fresh water in 2000 (USGS 2005). This is almost the identical volume withdrawn for irrigation purposes. In addition to fresh water withdrawals, the steam electric power industry withdrew about 60 billion gallons per day of saline water. Many parts of the United States are facing fresh water shortages. Even areas that traditionally have had adequate water supplies are reaching capacity limits. New or expanded steam electric power plants frequently need to turn to non-traditional alternate sources of water for cooling. This report examines one type of alternate water source-groundwater collected in underground pools associated with coal mines (referred to as mine pool water in this report). In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to evaluate the feasibility of using mine pool water in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. That report (Veil et al. 2003) identified six small power plants in northeastern Pennsylvania (the Anthracite region) that had been using mine pool water for over a decade. It also reported on a pilot study underway at Exelon's Limerick Generating Station in southeastern Pennsylvania that involved release of water from a mine located about 70 miles upstream from the plant. The water flowed down the Schuylkill River and augmented the natural flow so that

  3. The thermal circuit of a nuclear power station's unit built around a supercritical-pressure water-cooled reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silin, V. A.; Zorin, V. M.; Tagirov, A. M.; Tregubova, O. I.; Belov, I. V.; Povarov, P. V.

    2010-12-01

    Main results obtained from calculations of the steam generator and thermal circuit of the steam turbine unit for a nuclear power unit with supercritical-pressure water coolant and integral layout are presented. The obtained characteristics point to the advisability of carrying out further developments of this promising nuclear power technology.

  4. Small Scale Electrical Power Generation from Heat Co-Produced in Geothermal Fluids: Mining Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Thomas M.; Erlach, Celeste

    2014-12-30

    Demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small scale power generation from low temperature co-produced fluids. Phase I is to Develop, Design and Test an economically feasible low temperature ORC solution to generate power from lower temperature co-produced geothermal fluids. Phase II &III are to fabricate, test and site a fully operational demonstrator unit on a gold mine working site and operate, remotely monitor and collect data per the DOE recommended data package for one year.

  5. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1996. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress; Federal and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 as amended.

  6. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1997. The publication also provides a 10-yr outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress; Federal and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  7. 26. Credit JTL. Overview of unit 4 showing exciter, generator, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Credit JTL. Overview of unit 4 showing exciter, generator, air duct, water wheel housing, gate valve control and bypass, needle valve control, deflector motor, and bearing in background. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  8. 58. Photocopy of photograph, no date. VIEW OF GENERATOR UNIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. Photocopy of photograph, no date. VIEW OF GENERATOR UNIT 2. (Courtesy of the Potomac Edison Company Library (Hagerstown, MD), Historical Data Files, Properties-Buildings and Equipment listing) - Dam No. 5 Hydroelectric Plant, On Potomac River, Hedgesville, Berkeley County, WV

  9. 57. Photocopy of photograph, c. 1946. DETAIL OF GENERATOR UNIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Photocopy of photograph, c. 1946. DETAIL OF GENERATOR UNIT 2, GOVERNOR, AND SWITCHBOARD. (Courtesy of the Potomac Edison Company Library (Hagerstown, MD), Historical Data Files, Dam No. 5 listing) - Dam No. 5 Hydroelectric Plant, On Potomac River, Hedgesville, Berkeley County, WV

  10. 2. VIEW OF GOVERNANCE EQUIPMENT AT UNIT 4 GENERATOR (BACKGROUND) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF GOVERNANCE EQUIPMENT AT UNIT 4 GENERATOR (BACKGROUND) SHOWING GOVERNOR STAND (RIGHT FOREGROUND) AND PRESSURE TANK (LEFT FOREGROUND). VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHWEST. - Ryan Hydroelectric Facility, Powerhouse, On Missouri River, northeast of Great Falls, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  11. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) Thermal Power Model in MATLAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a one-dimensional steady-state mathematical thermal power model of the ASRG. It aims to provide a guideline of understanding how the ASRG works and what can change its performance. The thermal dynamics and energy balance of the generator is explained using the thermal circuit of the ASRG. The Stirling convertor performance map is used to represent the convertor. How the convertor performance map is coupled in the thermal circuit is explained. The ASRG performance characteristics under i) different sink temperatures and ii) over the years of mission (YOM) are predicted using the one-dimensional model. Two Stirling converter control strategies, i) fixing the hot-end of temperature of the convertor by adjusting piston amplitude and ii) fixing the piston amplitude, were tested in the model. Numerical results show that the first control strategy can result in a higher system efficiency than the second control strategy when the ambient gets warmer or the general-purpose heat source (GPHS) fuel load decays over the YOM. The ASRG performance data presented in this paper doesn't pertain to the ASRG flight unit. Some data of the ASRG engineering unit (EU) and flight unit that are available in public domain are used in this paper for the purpose of numerical studies.

  12. Self-Excitation and Harmonics in Wind Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Romanowitz, H.; Yinger, R.

    2005-11-01

    Traditional wind turbines are commonly equipped with induction generators because they are inexpensive, rugged, and require very little maintenance. Unfortunately, induction generators require reactive power from the grid to operate; capacitor compensation is often used. Because the level of required reactive power varies with the output power, the capacitor compensation must be adjusted as the output power varies. The interactions among the wind turbine, the power network, and the capacitor compensation are important aspects of wind generation that may result in self-excitation and higher harmonic content in the output current. This paper examines the factors that control these phenomena and gives some guidelines on how they can be controlled or eliminated.

  13. Efficient millimeter wave 1140 GHz/ diode for harmonic power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Epitaxial gallium arsenide diode junction formed in a crossed waveguide structure operates as a variable reactance harmonic generator. This varactor diode can generate power efficiently in the low-millimeter wavelength.

  14. 21 CFR 890.5950 - Powered heating unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered heating unit. 890.5950 Section 890.5950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5950 Powered...

  15. 21 CFR 890.5950 - Powered heating unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powered heating unit. 890.5950 Section 890.5950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5950 Powered...

  16. 21 CFR 890.5950 - Powered heating unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered heating unit. 890.5950 Section 890.5950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5950 Powered...

  17. 21 CFR 890.5950 - Powered heating unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered heating unit. 890.5950 Section 890.5950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5950 Powered...

  18. 21 CFR 890.5950 - Powered heating unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered heating unit. 890.5950 Section 890.5950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5950 Powered...

  19. Future Photovoltaic Power Generation for Space-Based Power Utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Landis, Geoffrey; Hepp, Aloysius; Raffaelle, Ryne

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses requirements for large earth orbiting power stations that can serve as central utilities for other orbiting spacecraft, or for beaming power to the earth itself. The current state of the art of space solar cells, and a variety of both evolving thin film cells as well as new technologies that may impact the future choice of space solar cells for high power mission applications are addressed.

  20. New generation low power radiation survey instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Waechter, D.A.; Bjarke, G.O.; Trujillo, F.; Umbarger, C.J.; Wolf, M.A.

    1984-02-01

    A number of new, ultra-low-powered radiation instruments have recently been developed at Los Alamos. Among these are two instruments which use a novel power source to eliminate costly batteries. The newly developed gamma detecting radiac, nicknamed the Firefly, and the alpha particle detecting instrument, called the Simple Cordless Alpha Monitor, both use recent advances in miniaturization and powersaving electronics to yield devices which are small, rugged, and very power-frugal. The two instruments consume so little power that the need for batteries to run them is eliminated. They are, instead, powered by a charged capacitor which will operate the instruments for an hour or more. Use of a capacitor as a power source eliminates many problems commonly associated with battery-operated instruments, such as having to open the case to change batteries, battery storage life, availability of batteries in the field, and some savings in weight. Both line power and mechanical sources are used to charge the storage capacitors which power the instruments.

  1. On monitoring nuclear power plant emergency diesel generator reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H.F.; Tietjen, G.L.; Kvam, P.H.; Abramson, L.R.

    1993-08-11

    If offsite power is interrupted, the availability of onsite alternating current power supplies is a major factor in assuring acceptable safety at commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. To control the risk of severe care damage during station blackout accidents at a given plant, the reliability of the emergency diesel generators (EDGS) to start and load-run upon demand must be maintained at a sufficiently high level. The minimum EDG reliability, which we denote by RT, is targeted at either 0.95 or 0.975 per nuclear unit consistent with the reliability level that the plant operator assumed in the coping analysis for station blackout. In 1992 the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) considered an amendment that would require licensees to test and monitor EDG reliability against performance-based criteria that indicate possible degradation from the EDG target reliability levels. They originally proposed the following set of fixed sample-size triggers for use in monitoring EDG reliability. The purpose of this report is to compare the performance of the proposed triggers with corresponding alternative sequential variable sample-size triggers which potentially permit earlier detection of EDG reliability degradation without significantly increasing the false alarm rate. The comparison is to be done in a simulated use environment by means of Monte Carlo simulation. We are also interested in the inverse conditional probabilities of reliability degradation given that a trigger has occurred.

  2. Power supply control units for APS ring magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Despe, O.D.

    1990-04-15

    The APS storage ring (1104 meters) is divided into 40 sectors. Each sector has 38 magnet coils in five magnet bases. Every alternate sector has an additional quadrupole magnet for skew correction. AR the main dipole magnets, two in each sector are connected in series and fed from one power supply unit. A base is controlled by one power supply control unit (PSCU). Each PSCU is connected to the host computer via a local area network (LAN). This note discusses the hardware configuration of the typical power supply control system used by the APS magnets and the software commands supported by the PSCU.

  3. Measurements of the reactor neutron power in absolute units

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, G. V.

    2015-12-15

    The neutron power of the reactor of the Yenisei space nuclear power plant is measured in absolute units using the modernized method of correlation analysis during the ground-based tests of the Yenisei prototypes. Results of the experiments are given. The desired result is obtained in a series of experiments carried out at the stage of the plant preparation for tests. The acceptability of experimental data is confirmed by the results of measuring the reactor neutron power in absolute units at the nominal level by the thermal balance during the life cycle tests of the ground prototypes.

  4. X-15 auxiliary power units and reaction controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Bruce O

    1958-01-01

    Electrical and hydraulic power within the X-15 airplane is developed by a monopropellant auxiliary power unit. In addition, airplane altitude control at extreme altitude is by monopropellant rockets. Two duplicate installations are used to provide reliability beyond single-system capabilities to assure continuous availability of aerodynamic flight controls and space-altitude controls. All components have been developed and evaluation tested by the individual suppliers. The principal item, the auxiliary power unit, has completed a 150 hour endurance test comprising 300 typical mission duty cycles. (author)

  5. Modular Analysis of Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Power Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y. D.; Zhang, Y.; Su, C. Q.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, an automobile exhaust thermoelectric power generation system is packaged into a model with its own operating principles. The inputs are the engine speed and power, and the output is the power generated by the system. The model is divided into two submodels. One is the inlet temperature submodel, and the other is the power generation submodel. An experimental data modeling method is adopted to construct the inlet temperature submodel, and a theoretical modeling method is adopted to construct the power generation submodel. After modeling, simulation is conducted under various engine operating conditions to determine the variation of the power generated by the system. Finally, the model is embedded into a Honda Insight vehicle model to explore the energy-saving effect of the system on the vehicle under Economic Commission for Europe and cyc-constant_60 driving cycles.

  6. Monolithic fuel cell based power source for burst power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fee, D. C.; Blackburn, P. E.; Busch, D. E.; Dees, D. W.; Dusek, J.; Easler, T. E.; Ellingson, W. A.; Flandermeyer, B. K.; Fousek, R. J.; Heiberger, J. J.

    A unique fuel cell coupled with a low power nuclear reactor presents an attractive approach for SDI burst power requirements. The monolithic fuel cell looks attractive for space applications and represents a quantum jump in fuel cell technology. Such a breakthrough in design is the enabling technology for lightweight, low volume power sources for space based pulse power systems. The monolith is unique among fuel cells in being an all solid state device. The capability for miniaturization, inherent in solid state devices, gives the low volume required for space missions. In addition, the solid oxide fuel cell technology employed in the monolith has high temperature reject heat and can be operated in either closed or open cycles. Both these features are attractive for integration into a burst power system.

  7. Generating expansion model incorporating compact DC power flow equations

    SciTech Connect

    Nderitu, D.G.; Sparrow, F.T.; Yu, Z.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a compact method of incorporating the spatial dimension into the generation expansion problem. Compact DC power flow equations are used to provide real-power flow coordination equations. Using these equations the marginal contribution of a generator to th total system loss is formulated as a function of that generator`s output. Incorporating these flow equations directly into the MIP formulation of the generator expansion problem results in a model that captures a generator`s true net marginal cost, one that includes both the cost of generation and the cost of transport. This method contrasts with other methods that iterate between a generator expansion model and an optimal power flow model. The proposed model is very compact and has very good convergence performance. A case study with data from Kenya is used to provide a practical application to the model.

  8. Study on safety operation for large hydroelectric generator unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Z. G.; Cui, T.; Zhou, L. J.; Zhi, F. L.; Wang, Z. W.

    2012-11-01

    Hydroelectric generator unit is a complex mechanical system which is composed of hydraulic turbine and electric generator. Rotary system is supported by the bearing bracket and the reinforced concrete structures, and vibration problem can't be avoided in the process of operating. Many large-scale hydroelectric units have been damaged because of the vibration problem in recent years. As the increase of the hydraulic turbine unit capacity and water head, the safe operation of hydraulic turbine has become a focus research in many countries. The operating characteristics of the hydraulic turbine have obvious differences at different working conditions. Based on the combination of field measurement and theoretical calculation, this paper shows a deep research on the safe operation of a large-scale Francis turbine unit. Firstly, the measurements of vibration, swing, pressure fluctuation and noise were carried out at 4 different heads. And also the relationships between vibrations and pressure fluctuations at different heads and working conditions were analysed deeply. Then the scientific prediction of safe operation for the unit at high head were done based on the CFD numerical calculation. Finally, this paper shows the division of the operating zone for the hydroelectric unit. According to the experimental results (vibrations, swings, pressure fluctuations and noise) as well as the theoretical results, the operating zone of the unit has been divided into three sections: prohibited operating zone, transition operating zone and safe operating zone. After this research was applied in the hydropower station, the security and economic efficiency of unit increased greatly, and enormous economic benefits and social benefits have been obtained.

  9. The analysis of parameters of the cryogenic oxygen unit cooperating with power plant to realize oxy-fuel combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnydiuk-Stefan, Anna; Składzień, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The paper examines from the thermodynamic point of view operation of coal fired power unit cooperating with the cryogenic oxygen unit, with a particular emphasis on the characteristic performance parameters of the oxygen unit. The relatively high purity technical oxygen produced in the oxygen unit is then used as the oxidant in the fluidized bed boiler of the modern coal fired power unit with electric power output of approximately 460 MW. The analyzed oxygen unit has a classical two-column structure with an expansion turbine (turboexpander), which allows the use of relatively low pressure initially compressed air. Multivariant calculations were performed, the main result being the loss of power and efficiency of the unit due to the need to ensure adequate driving power to the compressor system of the oxygen generating plant.

  10. Monolithic fuel cell based power source for sprint power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fee, D. C.; Busch, D. E.; Dees, D. W.; Dusek, J.; Easler, T. E.; Ellingson, W. A.; Flandermeyer, B. K.; Fousek, R. J.; Heiberger, J. J.; Majumdar, S.

    A unique fuel cell (monolith) coupled with a low power nuclear reactor presents an attractive approach for SDI burst power requirements. The high power, long duration bursts, appear achievable within a single shuttle launch limitation with appropriate development of the concept. The feasibility of the monolithic fuel cell concept has been demonstrated. Small arrays (stacks) of the monolithic design have been operated for hundreds of hours. The challenge is to improve the fabrication technology so that larger array of the monolithic design can be operated.

  11. Power Maximization Control of Variable Speed Wind Generation System Using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Shigeo; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Takeda, Yoji

    This paper proposes the sensorless output power maximization control of the wind generation system. A permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is used as a variable speed generator in the proposed system. The generator torque is suitably controlled according to the generator speed and thus the power from a wind turbine settles down on the maximum power point by the proposed MPPT control method, where the information of wind velocity is not required. Moreover, the maximum available generated power is obtained by the optimum current vector control. The current vector of PMSG is optimally controlled according to the generator speed and the required torque in order to minimize the losses of PMSG considering the voltage and current constraints. The proposed wind power generation system can be achieved without mechanical sensors such as a wind velocity detector and a position sensor. Several experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  12. 43 CFR 431.4 - Power generation responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power generation responsibilities. 431.4 Section 431.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR POWER GENERATION, OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPLACEMENT AT THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT,...

  13. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a) The aggregate capacity of the electric ship's service generating sources required in § 111.10-3...

  14. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a) The aggregate capacity of the electric ship's service generating sources required in § 111.10-3...

  15. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a) The aggregate capacity of the electric ship's service generating sources required in § 111.10-3...

  16. 46 CFR 111.10-4 - Power requirements, generating sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 111.10-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Supply § 111.10-4 Power requirements, generating sources. (a) The aggregate capacity of the electric ship's service generating sources required in § 111.10-3...

  17. 43 CFR 431.6 - Power generation estimates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power generation estimates. 431.6 Section... BOULDER CANYON PROJECT, ARIZONA/NEVADA § 431.6 Power generation estimates. Reclamation shall submit annually on or before April 15 to Western and Contractors, an estimated annual operation schedule for...

  18. Propellant-powered actuator for gas generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makowski, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    Hydrazine operated monopropellant generators are used for spacecraft rocket engines and propellant pressurization systems. Measured work output of monopropellant actuators compares favorably with output of squib-type actuators.

  19. Phasor Measurement Unit and Its Application in Modern Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Jian; Makarov, Yuri V.; Dong, Zhao Yang

    2010-06-01

    The introduction of phasor measuring units (PMUs) in power systems significantly improves the possibilities for monitoring and analyzing power system dynamics. Synchronized measurements make it possible to directly measure phase angles between corresponding phasors in different locations within the power system. Improved monitoring and remedial action capabilities allow network operators to utilize the existing power system in a more efficient way. Improved information allows fast and reliable emergency actions, which reduces the need for relatively high transmission margins required by potential power system disturbances. In this chapter, the applications of PMU in modern power systems are presented. Specifically, the topics touched in this chapter include state estimation, voltage and transient stability, oscillation monitoring, event and fault detection, situation awareness, and model validation. A case study using Characteristic Ellipsoid method based on PMU to monitor power system dynamic is presented.

  20. Dominant flood generating mechanisms across the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berghuijs, Wouter R.; Woods, Ross A.; Hutton, Christopher J.; Sivapalan, M.

    2016-05-01

    River flooding can have severe societal, economic, and environmental consequences. However, limited understanding of the regional differences in flood-generating mechanisms results in poorly understood historical flood trends and uncertain predictions of future flood conditions. Through systematic data analyses of 420 catchments we expose the primary drivers of flooding across the contiguous United States. This is achieved by exploring which flood-generating processes control the seasonality and magnitude of maximum annual flows. The regional patterns of seasonality and interannual variabilities of maximum annual flows are, in general, poorly explained by rainfall characteristics alone. For most catchments soil moisture dependent precipitation excess, snowmelt, and rain-on-snow events are found to be much better predictors of the flooding responses. The continental-scale classification of dominant flood-generating processes we generate here emphasizes the disparity in timing and variability between extreme rainfall and flooding and can assist predictions of flooding and flood risk within the continental U.S.

  1. 14 CFR 33.96 - Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode. If the engine is designed with a propeller brake which will allow the propeller to be brought to a stop while the gas generator portion of the engine remains...) Ground locking: A total of 45 hours with the propeller brake engaged in a manner which...

  2. 14 CFR 33.96 - Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode. If the engine is designed with a propeller brake which will allow the propeller to be brought to a stop while the gas generator portion of the engine remains...) Ground locking: A total of 45 hours with the propeller brake engaged in a manner which...

  3. 14 CFR 33.96 - Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode. If the engine is designed with a propeller brake which will allow the propeller to be brought to a stop while the gas generator portion of the engine remains...) Ground locking: A total of 45 hours with the propeller brake engaged in a manner which...

  4. 14 CFR 33.96 - Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode. If the engine is designed with a propeller brake which will allow the propeller to be brought to a stop while the gas generator portion of the engine remains...) Ground locking: A total of 45 hours with the propeller brake engaged in a manner which...

  5. 14 CFR 33.96 - Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode. If the engine is designed with a propeller brake which will allow the propeller to be brought to a stop while the gas generator portion of the engine remains...) Ground locking: A total of 45 hours with the propeller brake engaged in a manner which...

  6. 76 FR 23846 - Virginia Electric Power Company, LLC, North Anna Power Station, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... FR 39285). This exemption is effective upon issuance. Dated at Rockville, Maryland this 21st day of... COMMISSION Virginia Electric Power Company, LLC, North Anna Power Station, Unit No. 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Virginia Electric Power Company (VEPCO, the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating...

  7. 75 FR 9958 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... significant effect on the quality of the human environment (75 FR 3942, dated January 25, 2010). This... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company (the licensee), now doing business as Progress Energy...

  8. Industrial Arts Power Mechanics. Applying Scientific Principles to Power, Energy, Force. Instructional Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Robert L.; Myers, Norman L.

    The instructional units and related materials in this guide are designed to assist in the preparation of courses of study/instruction in (1) power mechanics specifically, (2) power mechanics which serve as introductory courses in other areas of industrial arts, and (3) automotive mechanics which also cover the broader aspects of power mechanics.…

  9. High voltage solar cell power generating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, E., Jr.; Opjorden, R. W.; Hoffman, A. C.

    1974-01-01

    A laboratory solar power system regulated by on-panel switches has been delivered for operating high power (3 kW), high voltage (15,000 volt) loads (communication tubes, ion thrusters). The modular system consists of 26 solar arrays, each with an integral light source and cooling system. A typical array contains 2,560 series-connected cells. Each light source consists of twenty 500-watt tungsten iodide lamps providing plus or minus 5 percent uniformity at one solar constant. An array temperature of less than 40 C is achieved using an infrared filter, a water-cooled plate, a vacuum hold-down system, and air flushing.

  10. Fluorescent lamp unit with magnetic field generating means

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1989-01-01

    A fluorescent lamp unit having a magnetic field generating means for improving the performance of the fluorescent lamp is disclosed. In a preferred embodiment the fluorescent lamp comprises four longitudinally extending leg portions disposed in substantially quadrangular columnar array and joined by three generally U-shaped portions disposed in different planes. In another embodiment of the invention the magnetic field generating means comprises a plurality of permanent magnets secured together to form a single columnar structure disposed within a centrally located region defined by the shape of lamp envelope.

  11. Fluorescent lamp unit with magnetic field generating means

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1989-08-08

    A fluorescent lamp unit having a magnetic field generating means for improving the performance of the fluorescent lamp is disclosed. In a preferred embodiment the fluorescent lamp comprises four longitudinally extending leg portions disposed in substantially quadrangular columnar array and joined by three generally U-shaped portions disposed in different planes. In another embodiment of the invention the magnetic field generating means comprises a plurality of permanent magnets secured together to form a single columnar structure disposed within a centrally located region defined by the shape of lamp envelope. 4 figs.

  12. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electric power generation. 801.12 Section 801.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN... located either in the basin or nearby its borders. (b) There appears to be limited site potential in...

  13. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electric power generation. 801.12 Section 801.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN... located either in the basin or nearby its borders. (b) There appears to be limited site potential in...

  14. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Electric power generation. 801.12 Section 801.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN... located either in the basin or nearby its borders. (b) There appears to be limited site potential in...

  15. Primary electric power generation systems for advanced-technology engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of the all electric airplane are discussed. In the all electric airplane the generator is the sole source of electric power; it powers the primary and secondary flight controls, the environmentals, and the landing gear. Five candidates for all electric power systems are discussed and compared. Cost benefits of the all electric airplane are discussed.

  16. Alternative approaches to space-based power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    Satellite Power Stations (SPS) would generate electrical power in space for terrestrial use. Their geosynchronous orbit location permits continuous microwave power transmission to ground receiving antenna farms. Eight approaches to the generation of the electrical power to be transmitted were investigated. Configurations implementing these approaches were developed through an optimization process intended to yield the lowest cost for each. A complete program was baselined for each approach, identifying required production rates, quantities of launches, required facilities, etc. Each program was costed, including the associated launches, orbital assembly, and maintenance operations. The required electric power charges to amortize these costs were calculated. They range from 26 to 82 mills/kWh (ground busbar).

  17. Evaluation of Hybrid Power Plants using Biomass, Photovoltaics and Steam Electrolysis for Hydrogen and Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Sanz, J.

    2014-12-01

    Steam electrolysis is a promising process of large-scale centralized hydrogen production, while it is also considered an excellent option for the efficient use of renewable solar and geothermal energy resources. This work studies the operation of an intermediate temperature steam electrolyzer (ITSE) and its incorporation into hybrid power plants that include biomass combustion and photovoltaic panels (PV). The plants generate both electricity and hydrogen. The reference -biomass- power plant and four variations of a hybrid biomass-PV incorporating the reference biomass plant and the ITSE are simulated and evaluated using exergetic analysis. The variations of the hybrid power plants are associated with (1) the air recirculation from the electrolyzer to the biomass power plant, (2) the elimination of the sweep gas of the electrolyzer, (3) the replacement of two electric heaters with gas/gas heat exchangers, and (4) the replacement two heat exchangers of the reference electrolyzer unit with one heat exchanger that uses steam from the biomass power plant. In all cases, 60% of the electricity required in the electrolyzer is covered by the biomass plant and 40% by the photovoltaic panels. When comparing the hybrid plants with the reference biomass power plant that has identical operation and structure as that incorporated in the hybrid plants, we observe an efficiency decrease that varies depending on the scenario. The efficiency decrease stems mainly from the low effectiveness of the photovoltaic panels (14.4%). When comparing the hybrid scenarios, we see that the elimination of the sweep gas decreases the power consumption due to the elimination of the compressor used to cover the pressure losses of the filter, the heat exchangers and the electrolyzer. Nevertheless, if the sweep gas is used to preheat the air entering the boiler of the biomass power plant, the efficiency of the plant increases. When replacing the electric heaters with gas-gas heat exchangers, the

  18. Local control of reactive power by distributed photovoltaic generators

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Turitsyn, Konstantin; Sulc, Petr; Backhaus, Scott

    2010-01-01

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the real power generated by the PVs. Using one adjustable parameter per circuit, we balance the requirements on power quality and desire to minimize thermal losses. Numerical analysis of two exemplary systems, with comparable total PV generation albeit a different spatial distribution, show how to adjust the optimization parameter depending on the goal. Overall, this local scheme shows excellent performance; it's capable of guaranteeing acceptable power quality and achieving significant saving in thermal losses in various situations even when the renewable generation in excess of the circuit own load, i.e. feeding power back to the higher-level system.

  19. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included.

  20. Compensation for Harmonic Currents and Reactive Power in Wind Power Generation System using PWM Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Katsuji; Shinhatsubo, Kurato; Iimori, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Kichiro; Saruban, Takamichi; Yamaemori, Takahiro

    In recent year, consciousness of environmental problems is enhancing, and the price of the electric power purchased by an electric power company is established expensive for the power plant utilizing the natural energy. So, the introduction of the wind power generation is promoted in Japan. Generally, squirrel-cage induction machines are widely used as a generator in wind power generation system because of its small size, lightweight and low-cost. However, the induction machines do not have a source of excitation. Thus, it causes the inrush currents and the instantaneous voltage drop when the generator is directly connected to a power grid. To reduce the inrush currents, an AC power regulator is used. Wind power generations are frequently connected to and disconnected from the power grid. However, when the inrush currents are reduced, harmonic currents are caused by phase control of the AC power regulator. And the phase control of AC power regulator cannot control the power factor. Therefore, we propose the use of the AC power regulator to compensate for the harmonic currents and reactive power in the wind power generation system, and demonstrate the validity of its system by simulated and experimental results.

  1. Protective, Modular Wave Power Generation System

    SciTech Connect

    Vvedensky, Jane M.; Park, Robert Y.

    2012-11-27

    The concept of small wave energy conversion modules that can be built into large, scalable arrays, in the same vein as solar panels, has been developed. This innovation lends itself to an organic business and development model, and enables the use of large-run manufacturing technology to reduce system costs. The first prototype module has been built to full-scale, and tested in a laboratory wave channel. The device has been shown to generate electricity and dissipate wave energy. Improvements need to be made to the electrical generator and a demonstration of an array of modules should be made in natural conditions.

  2. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the auxiliary power unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort first completed an analysis of the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) hardware, generating draft failure modes and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were then compared to the NASA FMEA/CIL baseline with proposed Post 51-L updates included. A resolution of each discrepancy from the comparison is provided through additional analysis as required. This report documents the results of that comparison for the Orbiter APU hardware. The IOA product for the APU analysis, covering both APU hardware and APU electrical components, consisted of 344 failure mode worksheets that resulted in 178 potential critical items being identified. A comparison was made of the IOA product to the NASA APU hardware FMEA/CIL baseline which consisted of 184 FMEAs and 57 CIL items. The comparison identified 72 discrepancies.

  3. An analysis of problems arising during operation of the perm district power plant 800-MW power unit at sliding pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrutsky, G. D.; Zakharov, A. E.; Sargsyan, V. A.; Frolov, M. S.; Schwartz, A. L.; Adamov, A. S.

    2015-09-01

    The occurrence of cracks at locations in which bottoms are welded to the high-pressure heaters' headers was revealed during planned repairs of the Perm district power plant units. Specialists of the All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute carried out investigations aimed at obtaining more detailed data on the effect the loading cyclicity and sliding-pressure operating modes have on the reliability of power-generating equipment. Another aim of those investigations was to elaborate recommendations for achieving more reliable operation of power-generating equipment under the conditions of cyclic variation of its load. The state of the main and auxiliary equipment of the Perm district power plant units is analyzed for determining the possibility and advisability of their further operation in sliding-pressure modes. The results obtained from calculating the permissible number of load variation cycles for the headers used in the Perm district power plant units operating under the conditions of startup-shutdown modes are analyzed, and the headers' residual cyclic service life is estimated. The results obtained from a metallographic investigation of the high-pressure header's bottom in the welded joint of which a through crack was revealed are presented. Recommendations for examining the header bottoms and for modifying their design in order to improve their operational reliability are given.

  4. Electrical Auxiliary Power Unit (EAPU) Corona Design Guideline. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David K.; Kirkici, Hulya; Schweickart, Dan L.; Dunbar, William; Hillard, Barry

    2000-01-01

    This document is the result of a collaborative effort between NASA's Johnson Space Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, Glenn Research Center, and the United States Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright Patterson AFB in support of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Upgrades Program, specifically the Electric Auxiliary Power Unit Program. This document is intended as a guideline for design applications for corona and partial discharge avoidance and is not a requirements specification instrument.

  5. 4. FLOOR PLAN AND SECTIONS, ADDITION TO POWER HOUSE. United ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. FLOOR PLAN AND SECTIONS, ADDITION TO POWER HOUSE. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Also includes plot plan at 1 inch to 100 feet. John Hudspeth, architect, foot of Main Street, Alameda, California. Sheet 3. Plan no. 10,548. Scale 1/4 inch and h inch to the foot. April 30, 1945, last revised 6/22/45. pencil on vellum - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Boiler House, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  6. 3. ELEVATIONS, ADDITION TO POWER HOUSE. United Engineering Company Ltd., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ELEVATIONS, ADDITION TO POWER HOUSE. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. John Hudspeth, architect, foot of Main Street, Alameda, California. Sheet 4. Plan no. 10,548. Scale 1/4 inch to the foot, elevations, and one inch to the foot, sections and details. April 30, 1945, last revised 6/19/45. pencil on vellum - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Boiler House, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  7. Generating power with drained coal mine methane

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-01

    The article describes the three technologies most commonly used for generating electricity from coal mine methane: internal combustion engines, gas turbines, and microturbines. The most critical characteristics and features of these technologies, such as efficiency, output and size are highlighted. 5 refs.

  8. 2. Credit PEM. View of Martinsburg Power Company steam generating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Credit PEM. View of Martinsburg Power Company steam generating plant. From right to left: original 1889 generating building, transformer room, new generating room and, adjacent to draft stack is boiler room addition. Photo c. 1911. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

  9. Fuel cell power plants in a distributed generator application

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    ONSI`s (a subsidiary of International Fuel Cells Corporation) world wide fleet of 200-kW PC25{trademark} phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants which began operation early in 1992 has shown excellent performance and reliability in over 1 million hours of operation. This experience has verified the clean, quiet, reliable operation of the PC25 and confirmed its application as a distributed generator. Continuing product development efforts have resulted in a one third reduction of weight and volume as well as improved installation and operating characteristics for the PC25 C model. Delivery of this unit began in 1995. International Fuel Cells (IFC) continues its efforts to improve product design and manufacturing processes. This progress has been sustained at a compounded rate of 10 percent per year since the late 1980`s. These improvements will permit further reductions in the initial cost of the power plant and place increased emphasis on market development as the pacing item in achieving business benefits from the PC25 fuel cell. Derivative product opportunities are evolving with maturation of the technologies in a commercial environment. The recent announcement of Praxair, Inc., and IFC introducing a non-cryogenic hydrogen supply system utilizing IFC`s steam reformer is an example. 11 figs.

  10. Alternative power generation concepts for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Juhasz, Albert J.; Jones, Barbara I.

    1986-01-01

    Trade and optimization studies that highlight the potential of solar and nuclear dynamic systems relative to photovoltaic power systems are summarized. The solar dynamic case is the LEO Stirling system, while the nuclear system is the SP-100 system goal. Nuclear systems have the potential for the lightest weight, least area, sunlight independent, radiation-durable system. Solar dynamic systems pose a stiff challenge to photovoltaic systems in the midaltitudes because of their insensitivity to the Van Allen radiation belts. While the initial operational capability space station power system is only slightly superior to the SOA PV system, with development focused on the key technologies, advanced solar dynamic systems are fully competitive in LEO midaltitudes with the advanced photovoltaic systems. Advances in energy storage systems (100 Whrs/kg required) are essential.

  11. High Temperature Boost (HTB) Power Processing Unit (PPU) Formulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yuan; Bradley, Arthur T.; Iannello, Christopher J.; Carr, Gregory A.; Mohammad, Mojarradi M.; Hunter, Don J.; DelCastillo, Linda; Stell, Christopher B.

    2013-01-01

    This technical memorandum is to summarize the Formulation Study conducted during fiscal year 2012 on the High Temperature Boost (HTB) Power Processing Unit (PPU). The effort is authorized and supported by the Game Changing Technology Division, NASA Office of the Chief Technologist. NASA center participation during the formulation includes LaRC, KSC and JPL. The Formulation Study continues into fiscal year 2013. The formulation study has focused on the power processing unit. The team has proposed a modular, power scalable, and new technology enabled High Temperature Boost (HTB) PPU, which has 5-10X improvement in PPU specific power/mass and over 30% in-space solar electric system mass saving.

  12. Power generating system and method utilizing hydropyrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Tolman, R.

    1986-12-30

    A vapor transmission cycle is described which burns a slurry of coal and water with some of the air from the gas turbine compressor, cools and cleans the resulting low-Btu fuel gas, burns the clean fuel gas with the remaining air from the compressor, and extracts the available energy in the gas turbine. The cycle lends itself to combined-cycle cogeneration for the production of steam, absorption cooling, and electric power.

  13. Solar powered Stirling cycle electrical generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, Richard K.

    1991-01-01

    Under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI), the NASA Lewis Research Center is developing the technology needed for free-piston Stirling engines as a candidate power source for space systems in the late 1990's and into the next century. Space power requirements include high efficiency, very long life, high reliability, and low vibration. Furthermore, system weight and operating temperature are important. The free-piston Stirling engine has the potential for a highly reliable engine with long life because it has only a few moving parts, non-contacting gas bearings, and can be hermetically sealed. These attributes of the free-piston Stirling engine also make it a viable candidate for terrestrial applications. In cooperation with the Department of Energy, system designs are currently being completed that feature the free-piston Stirling engine for terrestrial applications. Industry teams were assembled and are currently completing designs for two Advanced Stirling Conversion Systems utilizing technology being developed under the NASA CSTI Program. These systems, when coupled with a parabolic mirror to collect the solar energy, are capable of producing about 25 kW of electricity to a utility grid. Industry has identified a niche market for dish Stirling systems for worldwide remote power application. They believe that these niche markets may play a major role in the introduction of Stirling products into the commercial market.

  14. Fuel Cell Based Auxiliary Power Unit for Refrigerated Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.

    2014-09-02

    This is the annual report for the Market Transformation project as required by DOE EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office. We have been provided with a specific format. It describes the work that was done in developing fuel-cell powered Transport Refrigeration Units for Reefer Trucks. It describes the progress that has been made by Nuvera and Plug Power as they develop and ultimately demonstrate this technology in real world application.

  15. Coupling an induction motor type generator to ac power lines. [making windmill generators compatible with public power lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A system for coupling an induction motor type generator to an A.C. power line includes an electronic switch means that is controlled by a control system and is regulated to turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation. The energizing power supplied by the line to the induction motor type generator is decreased and the net power delivered to the line is increased.

  16. Combined fuel and air staged power generation system

    DOEpatents

    Rabovitser, Iosif K; Pratapas, John M; Boulanov, Dmitri

    2014-05-27

    A method and apparatus for generation of electric power employing fuel and air staging in which a first stage gas turbine and a second stage partial oxidation gas turbine power operated in parallel. A first portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the first stage gas turbine which generates a first portion of electric power and a hot oxidant. A second portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the second stage partial oxidation gas turbine which generates a second portion of electric power and a hot syngas. The hot oxidant and the hot syngas are provided to a bottoming cycle employing a fuel-fired boiler by which a third portion of electric power is generated.

  17. A mechatronic power boosting design for piezoelectric generators

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Haili; Liang, Junrui Ge, Cong

    2015-10-05

    It was shown that the piezoelectric power generation can be boosted by using the synchronized switch power conditioning circuits. This letter reports a self-powered and self-sensing mechatronic design in substitute of the auxiliary electronics towards a compact and universal synchronized switch solution. The design criteria are derived based on the conceptual waveforms and a two-degree-of-freedom analytical model. Experimental result shows that, compared to the standard bridge rectifier interface, the mechatronic design leads to an extra 111% increase of generated power from the prototyped piezoelectric generator under the same deflection magnitude excitation. The proposed design has introduced a valuable physical insight of electromechanical synergy towards the improvement of piezoelectric power generation.

  18. A mechatronic power boosting design for piezoelectric generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haili; Liang, Junrui; Ge, Cong

    2015-10-01

    It was shown that the piezoelectric power generation can be boosted by using the synchronized switch power conditioning circuits. This letter reports a self-powered and self-sensing mechatronic design in substitute of the auxiliary electronics towards a compact and universal synchronized switch solution. The design criteria are derived based on the conceptual waveforms and a two-degree-of-freedom analytical model. Experimental result shows that, compared to the standard bridge rectifier interface, the mechatronic design leads to an extra 111% increase of generated power from the prototyped piezoelectric generator under the same deflection magnitude excitation. The proposed design has introduced a valuable physical insight of electromechanical synergy towards the improvement of piezoelectric power generation.

  19. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  20. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs. Cormos, C. C. Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  1. Electrical power generation by mechanically modulating electrical double layers.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jong Kyun; Jeong, Jaeki; Lee, Dongyun; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Since Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry made their great discovery of electromagnetic induction, there have been continuous developments in electrical power generation. Most people today get electricity from thermal, hydroelectric, or nuclear power generation systems, which use this electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Here we propose a new method for electrical power generation, without using electromagnetic induction, by mechanically modulating the electrical double layers at the interfacial areas of a water bridge between two conducting plates. We find that when the height of the water bridge is mechanically modulated, the electrical double layer capacitors formed on the two interfacial areas are continuously charged and discharged at different phases from each other, thus generating an AC electric current across the plates. We use a resistor-capacitor circuit model to explain the results of this experiment. This observation could be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation system in the near future. PMID:23403587

  2. Electrical power generation by mechanically modulating electrical double layers.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jong Kyun; Jeong, Jaeki; Lee, Dongyun; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Since Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry made their great discovery of electromagnetic induction, there have been continuous developments in electrical power generation. Most people today get electricity from thermal, hydroelectric, or nuclear power generation systems, which use this electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Here we propose a new method for electrical power generation, without using electromagnetic induction, by mechanically modulating the electrical double layers at the interfacial areas of a water bridge between two conducting plates. We find that when the height of the water bridge is mechanically modulated, the electrical double layer capacitors formed on the two interfacial areas are continuously charged and discharged at different phases from each other, thus generating an AC electric current across the plates. We use a resistor-capacitor circuit model to explain the results of this experiment. This observation could be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation system in the near future.

  3. Plasma plume MHD power generator and method

    DOEpatents

    Hammer, James H.

    1993-01-01

    Highly-conducting plasma plumes are ejected across the interplanetary magnetic field from a situs that is moving relative to the solar wind, such as a spacecraft or an astral body, such as the moon, having no magnetosphere that excludes the solar wind. Discrete plasma plumes are generated by plasma guns at the situs extending in opposite directions to one another and at an angle, preferably orthogonal, to the magnetic field direction of the solar wind plasma. The opposed plumes are separately electrically connected to their source by a low impedance connection. The relative movement between the plasma plumes and the solar wind plasma creates a voltage drop across the plumes which is tapped by placing the desired electrical load between the electrical connections of the plumes to their sources. A portion of the energy produced may be used in generating the plasma plumes for sustained operation.

  4. INTEGRATED POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS FOR COAL MINE WASTE METHANE UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Peet M. Soot; Dale R. Jesse; Michael E. Smith

    2005-08-01

    An integrated system to utilize the waste coal mine methane (CMM) at the Federal No. 2 Coal Mine in West Virginia was designed and built. The system includes power generation, using internal combustion engines, along with gas processing equipment to upgrade sub-quality waste methane to pipeline quality standards. The power generation has a nominal capacity of 1,200 kw and the gas processing system can treat about 1 million cubic feet per day (1 MMCFD) of gas. The gas processing is based on the Northwest Fuel Development, Inc. (NW Fuel) proprietary continuous pressure swing adsorption (CPSA) process that can remove nitrogen from CMM streams. The two major components of the integrated system are synergistic. The byproduct gas stream from the gas processing equipment can be used as fuel for the power generating equipment. In return, the power generating equipment provides the nominal power requirements of the gas processing equipment. This Phase III effort followed Phase I, which was comprised of a feasibility study for the project, and Phase II, where the final design for the commercial-scale demonstration was completed. The fact that NW Fuel is desirous of continuing to operate the equipment on a commercial basis provides the validation for having advanced the project through all of these phases. The limitation experienced by the project during Phase III was that the CMM available to operate the CPSA system on a commercial basis was not of sufficiently high quality. NW Fuel's CPSA process is limited in its applicability, requiring a relatively high quality of gas as the feed to the process. The CPSA process was demonstrated during Phase III for a limited time, during which the processing capabilities met the expected results, but the process was never capable of providing pipeline quality gas from the available low quality CMM. The NW Fuel CPSA process is a low-cost ''polishing unit'' capable of removing a few percent nitrogen. It was never intended to process CMM

  5. Electrochemical power generation apparatus and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Zaromb, S.

    1981-03-03

    Apparatus and methods are described for generating heat and electricity from the consumption of a variety of aluminum products. The method consists of (A) a reaction chamber containing an aqueous electrolyte solution and adapted for introduction therein of aluminum pieces of various shapes and sizes up to a certain maximum predetermined size and for effecting a chemical reaction between said aqueous electrolyte and said aluminum pieces yielding aluminum hydroxide and an intermediate reactant; (B) means for feeding said aluminum pieces into said reaction chamber in small quantities upon demand; (C) means for removing the heat generated in said chamber as a result of said reaction; (D) means for removing said aluminum hydroxide reaction product; and (E) means for oxidizing said intermediate reactant in an electrochemical cell, thereby generating electrical energy. The intermediate reactant is preferably hydrogen or zinc. The latter may be used in a slurry type zinc/air battery, whereas hydrogen is preferably reacted in conjunction with a nongaseous cathode reactant, which may be a liquid solution of an oxidant, such as hydrogen peroxide, or a solid, such as nickel dioxide. The latter may be regenerated either chemically, by immersion in an oxidizing solution, or electrically, by using the gaseous diffusion type of hydrogen electrode to also reduce oxygen from ambient air.

  6. Optical power supply unit utilizing high power laser diode module developed for fiber laser pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Akira; Kiyoyama, Wataru; Yamauchi, Ryozo

    2014-05-01

    High power laser diode developed for fiber laser pumping is evaluated as a light source for an optical power supply unit. The output power of the newly developed laser diode module exceeds 15 W with 105 μm core fiber. It is estimated that more than 1600 mW power supply can be achieved with the single emitter laser diode module and a polycrystalline silicon cell over 1 km away from the light source. This unit can be used for sensor nodes in the fiber sensor network.

  7. Incorporating Wind Power Forecast Uncertainties Into Stochastic Unit Commitment Using Neural Network-Based Prediction Intervals.

    PubMed

    Quan, Hao; Srinivasan, Dipti; Khosravi, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    Penetration of renewable energy resources, such as wind and solar power, into power systems significantly increases the uncertainties on system operation, stability, and reliability in smart grids. In this paper, the nonparametric neural network-based prediction intervals (PIs) are implemented for forecast uncertainty quantification. Instead of a single level PI, wind power forecast uncertainties are represented in a list of PIs. These PIs are then decomposed into quantiles of wind power. A new scenario generation method is proposed to handle wind power forecast uncertainties. For each hour, an empirical cumulative distribution function (ECDF) is fitted to these quantile points. The Monte Carlo simulation method is used to generate scenarios from the ECDF. Then the wind power scenarios are incorporated into a stochastic security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) model. The heuristic genetic algorithm is utilized to solve the stochastic SCUC problem. Five deterministic and four stochastic case studies incorporated with interval forecasts of wind power are implemented. The results of these cases are presented and discussed together. Generation costs, and the scheduled and real-time economic dispatch reserves of different unit commitment strategies are compared. The experimental results show that the stochastic model is more robust than deterministic ones and, thus, decreases the risk in system operations of smart grids. PMID:25532191

  8. Incorporating Wind Power Forecast Uncertainties Into Stochastic Unit Commitment Using Neural Network-Based Prediction Intervals.

    PubMed

    Quan, Hao; Srinivasan, Dipti; Khosravi, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    Penetration of renewable energy resources, such as wind and solar power, into power systems significantly increases the uncertainties on system operation, stability, and reliability in smart grids. In this paper, the nonparametric neural network-based prediction intervals (PIs) are implemented for forecast uncertainty quantification. Instead of a single level PI, wind power forecast uncertainties are represented in a list of PIs. These PIs are then decomposed into quantiles of wind power. A new scenario generation method is proposed to handle wind power forecast uncertainties. For each hour, an empirical cumulative distribution function (ECDF) is fitted to these quantile points. The Monte Carlo simulation method is used to generate scenarios from the ECDF. Then the wind power scenarios are incorporated into a stochastic security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) model. The heuristic genetic algorithm is utilized to solve the stochastic SCUC problem. Five deterministic and four stochastic case studies incorporated with interval forecasts of wind power are implemented. The results of these cases are presented and discussed together. Generation costs, and the scheduled and real-time economic dispatch reserves of different unit commitment strategies are compared. The experimental results show that the stochastic model is more robust than deterministic ones and, thus, decreases the risk in system operations of smart grids.

  9. Improving Safety and Reliability of Space Auxiliary Power Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1998-01-01

    Auxiliary Power Units (APU's) play a critical role in space vehicles. On the space shuttle, APU's provide the hydraulic power for the aerodynamic control surfaces, rocket engine gimballing, landing gear, and brakes. Future space vehicles, such as the Reusable Launch Vehicle, will also need APU's to provide electrical power for flight control actuators and other vehicle subsystems. Vehicle designers and mission managers have identified safety, reliability, and maintenance as the primary concerns for space APU's. In 1997, the NASA Lewis Research Center initiated an advanced technology development program to address these concerns.

  10. New-generation amber united-atom force field.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lijiang; Tan, Chun-Hu; Hsieh, Meng-Juei; Wang, Junmei; Duan, Yong; Cieplak, Piotr; Caldwell, James; Kollman, Peter A; Luo, Ray

    2006-07-01

    We have developed a new-generation Amber united-atom force field for simulations involving highly demanding conformational sampling such as protein folding and protein-protein binding. In the new united-atom force field, all hydrogens on aliphatic carbons in all amino acids are united with carbons except those on Calpha. Our choice of explicit representation of all protein backbone atoms aims at minimizing perturbation to protein backbone conformational distributions and to simplify development of backbone torsion terms. Tests with dipeptides and solvated proteins show that our goal is achieved quite successfully. The new united-atom force field uses the same new RESP charging scheme based on B3LYP/cc-pVTZ//HF/6-31g** quantum mechanical calculations in the PCM continuum solvent as that in the Duan et al. force field. van der Waals parameters are empirically refitted starting from published values with respect to experimental solvation free energies of amino acid side-chain analogues. The suitability of mixing new point charges and van der Waals parameters with existing Amber covalent terms is tested on alanine dipeptide and is found to be reasonable. Parameters for all new torsion terms are refitted based on the new point charges and the van der Waals parameters. Molecular dynamics simulations of three small globular proteins in the explicit TIP3P solvent are performed to test the overall stability and accuracy of the new united-atom force field. Good agreements between the united-atom force field and the Duan et al. all-atom force field for both backbone and side-chain conformations are observed. In addition, the per-step efficiency of the new united-atom force field is demonstrated for simulations in the implicit generalized Born solvent. A speedup around two is observed over the Duan et al. all-atom force field for the three tested small proteins. Finally, the efficiency gain of the new united-atom force field in conformational sampling is further demonstrated

  11. 49 CFR 570.6 - Brake power unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Pounds or Less § 570.6 Brake power unit. (a) Vacuum hoses shall not be collapsed, abraded, broken, improperly mounted, or audibly leaking. With residual vacuum exhausted and a constant 25 pound force on the... engine and apply service brakes several times to destroy vacuum in system. Depress brake pedal with...

  12. 49 CFR 570.6 - Brake power unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Pounds or Less § 570.6 Brake power unit. (a) Vacuum hoses shall not be collapsed, abraded, broken, improperly mounted, or audibly leaking. With residual vacuum exhausted and a constant 25 pound force on the... engine and apply service brakes several times to destroy vacuum in system. Depress brake pedal with...

  13. 49 CFR 570.6 - Brake power unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Pounds or Less § 570.6 Brake power unit. (a) Vacuum hoses shall not be collapsed, abraded, broken, improperly mounted, or audibly leaking. With residual vacuum exhausted and a constant 25 pound force on the... engine and apply service brakes several times to destroy vacuum in system. Depress brake pedal with...

  14. 49 CFR 570.6 - Brake power unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Pounds or Less § 570.6 Brake power unit. (a) Vacuum hoses shall not be collapsed, abraded, broken, improperly mounted, or audibly leaking. With residual vacuum exhausted and a constant 25 pound force on the... engine and apply service brakes several times to destroy vacuum in system. Depress brake pedal with...

  15. 49 CFR 570.6 - Brake power unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Pounds or Less § 570.6 Brake power unit. (a) Vacuum hoses shall not be collapsed, abraded, broken, improperly mounted, or audibly leaking. With residual vacuum exhausted and a constant 25 pound force on the... engine and apply service brakes several times to destroy vacuum in system. Depress brake pedal with...

  16. Green Propulsion Auxiliary Power Unit Demonstration at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Joel W.

    2014-01-01

    MSFC has embarked on use of green propellant replacement of hydrazine for a variety of applications. This paper focused on activities for auxiliary power unit but MSFC is actively investigating use of green propellants for thruster applications. MSFC is interested in partnership with the international community to address the infusion of green propellant into greater use.

  17. The United States as a Power in the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, David C.

    1976-01-01

    Designed to correspond with the similar topic of the American Issues Forum, this article provides readings and discussion questions on the role of American economic power in the world. The readings focus on the impact of United States multinational corporations on the economy and culture of Mexico. (DE)

  18. Advanced techniques for noise source identification on a large generator unit

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.G.D. ); Yang, S.J. )

    1993-03-01

    Power station acoustic noise assessment, which has experienced increased environmental awareness and subsequently more stringent legislation for a number of years, has received and added stimulus due to the recent advent of powerful measurement and analysis techniques including sound intensity and coherence. These experimental techniques are explained and results, for a generator unit, illustrate their value in providing a unique, correlated insight into noise problems. This includes noise quantification, full explanation of site sound pressure level in terms of the various influences and major noise source identification. These techniques are widely applicable and an invaluable aid to any industrial noise problem.

  19. Pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustion for power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Weimer, R.F.

    1995-08-01

    Second-generation Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (PCFBC) is the culmination of years of effort in the development of a new generation of power plants which can operate on lower-quality fuels with substantially improved efficiencies, meet environmental requirements, and provide a lower cost of electricity. Air Products was selected in the DOE Clean Coal Technology Round V program to build, own, and operate the first commercial power plant using second-generation PCFBC technology, to be located at an Air Products chemicals manufacturing facility in Calvert City, Kentucky. This paper describes the second-generation PCFBC concept and its critical technology components.

  20. Multirail electromagnetic launcher powered from a pulsed magnetohydrodynamic generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonin, A. G.; Butov, V. G.; Panchenko, V. P.; Sinyaev, S. V.; Solonenko, V. A.; Shvetsov, G. A.; Yakushev, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    The operation of an electromagnetic multirail launcher of solids powered from a pulsed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator is studied. The plasma flow in the channel of the pulsed MHD generator and the possibility of launching solids in a rapid-fire mode of launcher operation are considered. It is shown that this mode of launcher operation can be implemented by matching the plasma flow dynamics in the channel of the pulsed MHD generator and the launching conditions. It is also shown that powerful pulsed MHD generators can be used as a source of electrical energy for rapid-fire electromagnetic rail launchers operating in a burst mode.

  1. Distributed clock gating for power reduction of a programmable waveform generator for neural stimulation.

    PubMed

    Noorsal, Emilia; Sooksood, Kriangkrai; Bihr, Ulrich; Becker, Joachim; Ortmanns, Maurits

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how to employ distributed clock gating to achieve an overall low power design of a programmable waveform generator intended for a neural stimulator. The power efficiency is enabled using global timing control combined with local amplitude distribution over a bus to the local stimulator frontends. This allows the combination of local and global clock gating for complete sub-blocks of the design. A counter and a shifter employed at the local digital stimulator reduce the design complexity for the waveform generation and thus the overall power consumptions. The average power results indicate that 63% power can be saved for the global stimulator control unit and 89-96% power can be saved for the local digital stimulator by using the proposed approach. The circuit has been implemented and successfully tested in a 0.35 µm AMS HVCMOS technology.

  2. High Power Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheidegger, Robert J.; Santiago, Walter; Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    NASA GRC successfully designed, built and tested a technology-push power processing unit for electric propulsion applications that utilizes high voltage silicon carbide (SiC) technology. The development specifically addresses the need for high power electronics to enable electric propulsion systems in the 100s of kilowatts. This unit demonstrated how high voltage combined with superior semiconductor components resulted in exceptional converter performance.

  3. Grid impacts of wind power: a summary of recent studies in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Brian; Milligan, Michael; Zavadil, Bob; Brooks, Daniel; Kirby, Brendan; Dragoon, Ken; Caldwell, Jim

    2004-04-01

    Several detailed technical investigations of grid ancillary service impacts of wind power plants in the United States have recently been performed. These studies were applied to Xcel Energy (in Minnesota) and PacifiCorp and the Bonneville Power Administration (both in the northwestern United States). Although the approaches vary, three utility time frames appear to be most at issue: regulation, load following and unit commitment. This article describes and compares the analytic frameworks from recent analysis and discusses the implications and cost estimates of wind integration. The findings of these studies indicate that relatively large-scale wind generation will have an impact on power system operation and costs, but these impacts and costs are relatively low at penetration rates that are expected over the next several years. Published in 2004 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. 76 FR 36914 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley Power LLC, Oswego Harbor Power LLC, TC..., 2011, Astoria Generating Company, NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...

  5. UF6 breeder reactor power plants for electric power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, J. H.; Clement, J. D.; Hohl, F.

    1976-01-01

    The reactor concept analyzed is a U-233F6 core surrounded by a molten salt (Li(7)F, BeF2, ThF4) blanket. Nuclear survey calculations were carried out for both spherical and cylindrical geometries. Thermodynamic cycle calculations were performed for a variety of Rankine cycles. A conceptual design is presented along with a system layout for a 1000 MW stationary power plant. Advantages of the gas core breeder reactor (GCBR) are as follows: (1) high efficiency; (2) simplified on-line reprocessing; (3) inherent safety considerations; (4) high breeding ratio; (5) possibility of burning all or most of the long-lived nuclear waste actinides; and (6) possibility of extrapolating the technology to higher temperatures and MHD direct conversion.

  6. A power conditioning system for radioisotope thermoelectric generator energy sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The use of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) as the primary source of energy in unmanned spacecraft is discussed. RTG output control, power conditioning system requirements, the electrical design, and circuit performance are also discussed.

  7. Coal-gasification combined-cycle power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.A.

    1984-06-01

    Rolls-Royce has joined forces with Foster Wheeler to offer a modern power plant that integrates the benefits of coal gasification with the efficiency advantages of combined-cycle power generation. Powered by fuel gas from two parallel Lurgi slagging gasifiers, the 150-MW power station employs two Rolls-Royce SK60 gas-turbine generating sets. The proposed plant is designed for continuous power generation and should operate efficiently down to one-third of its rated capacity. Rolls estimates that the installed cost for this station would be lower than that for a conventional coal-fired station of the same output with comparable operating costs. Cooling water requirements would be less than half those of a coal-fired station.

  8. A Scenario Generation Method for Wind Power Ramp Events Forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Ming-Jian; Ke, De-Ping; Sun, Yuan-Zhang; Gan, Di; Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2015-07-03

    Wind power ramp events (WPREs) have received increasing attention in recent years due to their significant impact on the reliability of power grid operations. In this paper, a novel WPRE forecasting method is proposed which is able to estimate the probability distributions of three important properties of the WPREs. To do so, a neural network (NN) is first proposed to model the wind power generation (WPG) as a stochastic process so that a number of scenarios of the future WPG can be generated (or predicted). Each possible scenario of the future WPG generated in this manner contains the ramping information, and the distributions of the designated WPRE properties can be stochastically derived based on the possible scenarios. Actual data from a wind power plant in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) was selected for testing the proposed ramp forecasting method. Results showed that the proposed method effectively forecasted the probability of ramp events.

  9. Recent progress in zirconia-based fuel cells for power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    High temperature solid oxide fuel cells based upon yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte offer a clean, pollution-free technology to electrochemically generate electricity at high efficiencies. This paper reviews the designs, materials and fabrication processes used for such fuel cells. Most progress to date has been achieved with tubular geometry cells. A large number of tubular cells have been electrically tested, some to times up to 30,000 hours; these cells have shown excellent performance and performance stability. In addition, successively larger size electric generators utilizing these cells have been designed, built and operated since 1984. Two 25 kW power generation field test units have recently been fabricated; these units represent a major milestone in the commercialization of zirconia-based fuel cells for power generation.

  10. Recent progress in zirconia-based fuel cells for power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, S.C.

    1992-12-01

    High temperature solid oxide fuel cells based upon yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte offer a clean, pollution-free technology to electrochemically generate electricity at high efficiencies. This paper reviews the designs, materials and fabrication processes used for such fuel cells. Most progress to date has been achieved with tubular geometry cells. A large number of tubular cells have been electrically tested, some to times up to 30,000 hours; these cells have shown excellent performance and performance stability. In addition, successively larger size electric generators utilizing these cells have been designed, built and operated since 1984. Two 25 kW power generation field test units have recently been fabricated; these units represent a major milestone in the commercialization of zirconia-based fuel cells for power generation.

  11. FEM Simulation of Small Wind Power Generating System Using PMSG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesamaru, Katsumi; Ohno, Yoshihiro; Sonoda, Daisuke

    The paper describes a new approach to simulate the small wind power generating systems using PMSG, in which the output is connected to constant resistive load, such as heaters, through the rectifier and the dc chopper. The dynamics of the wind power generating system is presented, and it is shown by simulation results that this approach is useful for system dynamics, such as starting phenomena.

  12. Thermionic-tunneling multilayer nanostructures for power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Taofang

    2006-04-01

    A method for power generation based on nanoengineered interface design with partially filled gap is presented. The proposed device allows a substantial temperature difference to exist between heat source and heat sink or two electrodes, thereby maximizing heat source utilization. A unified model and detailed analyses are provided for the solid device operating either as a power generator or as a cooler. Our analyses show that efficiency of about 50% of the corresponding Carnot efficiency can be achieved.

  13. Integrated air separation plant-integrated gasification combined cycle power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Allam, R.J.; Topham, A.

    1992-01-21

    This patent describes an integrated gasification combined cycle power generation system, comprising an air separation unit wherein air is compressed, cooled, and separated into an oxygen and nitrogen enriched fractions, a gasification system for generating a fuel gas, an air compressor system for supplying compressed air for use in combusting the fuel gas, a combustion zone for effecting combustion of the compressed air and the fuel gas, and a gas turbine for effecting the generation of power from the resulting combusted gases from the combustion zone in the combined cycle power generation system. It comprises independently compressing feed air to the air separation unit to pressures of from 8 to 20 bar from the compressor system used to compress air for the combustion zone; cryogenically separating the air in the air separation unit having at least one distillation column operating at pressures of between 8 and 20 bar and producing an oxygen enriched fraction consisting of low purity oxygen, and; utilizing at least a portion of the low purity oxygen for effecting gasification of a carbon containing fuel source by partial oxidation in the gasification system and thereby generating a fuel gas stream; removing at least a portion of a nitrogen enriched fraction from the air separation unit and boosting its pressures to a pressure substantially equal to that of the fuel gas stream; and expanding at least another portion of the nitrogen enriched fraction in an expansion engine.

  14. The MHD disk generator as a multimegawatt power supply operating with chemical and nuclear sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, J. F.

    The characteristics, performance and status of the MHD disk generator are reviewed as a potential multimegawatt power supply working with both chemical and nuclear sources. The disk generator is found to be a compact high interaction power unit with simple construction simple power conditioning and using a circular superconducting coil. The radial flow of the disk assures zero thrust in open loop operation and its construction simplicity may provide significant reliability and weight advantages. The disk generator can be operated as a high voltage, low current power supply. Experiments have shown the disk generator as high power (900 kW), high power density (500 MW/cu cm), high enthalpy extraction (15%) device which has been operated with electrical fields up to 37 kV/m. The disk generator can be operated in an open loop with either chemical or nuclear heat sources. In a closed cycle system, the disk generator can be used in a Braylon cycle using He working fluid and in a Rankin cycle using either potassium or lithium vapors as working fluid. In both cases, the generator operates in the non-equilibrium mode.

  15. Short-term Operating Strategy with Consideration of Load Forecast and Generating Unit Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarjiya; Eua-Arporn, Bundhit; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    One of the common problems faced by many electric utilities concernes with the uncertainty from both load forecast error and generating unit unavailability. This uncertainty might lead to uneconomic operation if it is not managed properly in the planning stage. Utilities may have many operational tools, e.g. unit commitment, economic dispatch. However, they require a proper operating strategy, taking into account uncertainties. This paper explicitly demonstrates how to include the uncertainties to obtain the best operating strategy for any power systems. The uncertainty of the load forecast is handled using decision analysis method, meanwhile the uncertainty of the generating unit is approached by inclusion of risk cost to the total cost. In addition, three spinning reserve strategies based on deterministic criteria are incorporated in the development of scenario. Meanwhile, Mixed Integer Linear Programming method is utilized to generate unit commitment decision in each created scenario. The best strategy which gives the minimum total cost is selected among the developed scenarios. The proposed method has been tested using a modified of IEEE 24-bus system. Sensitivity analysis with respect to the number of unit, expected unserved energy price, standard deviation of load forecast, and probability of load level is reported.

  16. Thermoelectric Analysis for Helical Power Generation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiangning; Fujisaka, Takeyuki; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-06-01

    The performance of a three-dimensional helical thermoelectric generation (TEG) system is examined by exposing it to a temperature difference with hot and cold sources. The helical paths for the two thermal fluids give the TEG device the potential to efficiently convert thermal energy. The characteristic performance of the helical system is numerically analyzed by using the finite-volume method in a compact system. The helical system is compared with a straight system in which all the thermoelectric (TE) elements present equivalent geometry. The difference in the TE performance between the two systems is not significant when the TE surfaces are maintained at constant temperatures. Both the electromotive force and the current in the TEG system increase linearly with the temperature difference Δ T applied at the two module surfaces. The current preferentially flows through a main path determined by the geometry of the TE element. The merits of the helical design are its compactness, space saving, and smooth fluid flow due to gravity, compared with the straight system.

  17. Lamp for generating high power ultraviolet radiation

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Gary L.; Potter, James M.

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus is a gas filled ultraviolet generating lamp for use as a liquid purifier. The lamp is powred by high voltage AC, but has no metallic electrodes within or in contact with the gas enclosure which is constructed as two concentric quartz cylinders sealed together at their ends with the gas fill between the cylinders. Cooling liquid is pumped through the volume inside the inner quartz cylinder where an electrically conductive pipe spaced from the inner cylinder is used to supply the cooling liquid and act as the high voltage electrode. The gas enclosure is enclosed within but spaced from a metal housing which is connected to operate as the ground electrode of the circuit and through which the treated fluid flows. Thus, the electrical circuit is from the central pipe, and through the cooling liquid, the gas enclosure, the treated liquid on the outside of the outer quartz cylinder, and to the housing. The high voltage electrode is electrically isolated from the source of cooling liquid by a length of insulated hose which also supplies the cooling liquid.

  18. Enron Corporation bets $150 million on solar-powered generation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This nation`s largest natural gas company is betting $150 million that it can produce solar power at rates competitive with those of energy generated from oil, gas and coal. The Enron Corporation plans to build a photovoltaic power plant in the southern Nevada desert that would be the largest operation in the country making electricity directly from sunlight, producing enough to power a city of 100,000 people. It is expected to begin operating in two to three years. Some of the nation`s leading solar power experts say Enron`s optimistic goal probably is reachable. The cost of solar power generation has quietly declined by two-thirds. Far from depending on some wondrous breakthrough, the experts say, Enron can offer commercially competitive solar power by inexpensively mass-producing solar panels and then employing thousands of them in the Nevada desert.

  19. 75 FR 80547 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... FR 13926), establish and update generically applicable security requirements similar to those... FR 77919 dated December 14, 2010). This exemption is effective upon issuance. Dated at Rockville... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption...

  20. 75 FR 39285 - Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna Power Station, Unit No. 1 Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna Power Station, Unit No. 1 Environmental Assessment... CFR 51.21, the NRC prepared an environmental assessment. Based on the results of the environmental assessment, the NRC is issuing a finding of no significant impact. Environmental Assessment Identification...

  1. Generation of sub-50 fs pulses from a high-power Yb-doped fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yujun; Chien, Ching-Yuan; Fidric, Bernard G; Kafka, James D

    2009-11-15

    We demonstrate the generation of 48 fs pulses with 18 W average power and 226 nJ of pulse energy from a Yb-doped fiber amplifier. The system uses a simple stretcher-free single-stage amplifier configuration operating in the parabolic pulse regime. The gain fiber length and pump wavelength are chosen in order to reduce the gain per unit length and generate both shorter pulses and higher pulse energy.

  2. 10. Interior view, east side of power plant, generator bases ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view, east side of power plant, generator bases in foreground, electrical panels and fuel tanks in background looking northeast - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  3. The Environmental Impact of Electrical Power Generation: Nuclear and Fossil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    This text was written to accompany a course concerning the need, environmental costs, and benefits of electrical power generation. It was compiled and written by a committee drawn from educators, health physicists, members of industry and conservation groups, and environmental scientists. Topics include: the increasing need for electrical power,…

  4. Influence of nuclear power unit on decreasing emissions of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanek, Wojciech; Szargut, Jan; Kolenda, Zygmunt; Czarnowska, Lucyna

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents a comparison of selected power technologies from the point of view of emissions of greenhouse gases. Such evaluation is most often based only on analysis of direct emissions from combustion. However, the direct analysis does not show full picture of the problem as significant emissions of GHG appear also in the process of mining and transportation of fuel. It is demonstrated in the paper that comparison of power technologies from the GHG point of view has to be done using the cumulative calculus covering the whole cycle of fuel mining, processing, transportation and end-use. From this point of view coal technologies are in comparable level as gas technologies while nuclear power units are characterised with lowest GHG emissions. Mentioned technologies are compared from the point of view of GHG emissions in full cycle. Specific GHG cumulative emission factors per unit of generated electricity are determined. These factors have been applied to simulation of the influence of introduction of nuclear power units on decrease of GHG emissions in domestic scale. Within the presented simulations the prognosis of domestic power sector development according to the Polish energy policy till 2030 has been taken into account. The profitability of introduction of nuclear power units from the point of view of decreasing GHG emissions has been proved.

  5. 78 FR 1252 - Schneider Electric, U.S.A., Subsidiary of Schneider Electric, Power Business Unit, Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Schneider Electric, U.S.A., Subsidiary of Schneider Electric, Power... Electric, Power Business Unit, Power Solutions Division, including on-site leased workers from Volt... location of Schneider Electric, U.S.A., Power Business Unit, Power Solutions Division. The Department...

  6. 43 CFR 431.4 - Power generation responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... allow for changing reservoir and river conditions, or for changes in kilowatthours generation per acre... notice in advance of any change in delivery of water, and that Reclamation shall make such inspections... power generation and related matters and request a meeting in writing, including a description of...

  7. User's manual for levelized power generation cost using a microcomputer

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, L.C.

    1984-08-01

    Microcomputer programs for the estimation of levelized electrical power generation costs are described. Procedures for light-water reactor plants and coal-fired plants include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, nuclear decommissioning cost, and levelized total generation cost. Programs are written in Pascal and are run on an Apple II Plus microcomputer.

  8. Counter-rotating type pump-turbine unit cooperating with wind power unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Tengen; Kanemoto, Toshiaki

    2013-02-01

    This serial research proposes the hybrid power system combined the wind power unit with the counter-rotating type pump-turbine unit, to provide the constant output for the grid system, even at the suddenly fluctuating/turbulent wind. In this paper, the tandem impellers of the counter-rotating type pumping unit was operated at the turbine mode, and the performances and the flow conditions were investigated numerically and experimentally. The 3-D turbulent flows in the runners were simulated at the steady state condition by using the commercial CFD code of ANSYS-CFX ver.12 with the SST turbulence model. While providing the pump unit for the turbine mode, the maximum hydraulic efficiency is close to one of the counter-rotating type hydroelectric unit designed exclusively for the turbine mode. Besides, the runner/impeller of the unit works evidently so as to coincide the angular momentum change through the front runners/impellers with that through the rear runners/impellers, namely to take the axial flow at not only the inlet but also the outlet without the guide vanes. These results show that this type of unit is effective to work at not only the pumping but also the turbine modes.

  9. Next generation geothermal power plants. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brugman, John; Hattar, John; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1994-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop concepts for the next generation geothermal power plant(s) (NGGPP). This plant, compared to existing plants, will generate power for a lower levelized cost and will be more competitive with fossil fuel fired power plants. The NGGPP will utilize geothermal resources efficiently and will be equipped with contingencies to mitigate the risk of reservoir performance. The NGGPP design will attempt to minimize emission of pollutants and consumption of surface water and/or geothermal fluids for cooling service.

  10. A numerical investigation of a thermodielectric power generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklar, Akiva A.

    The performance of a novel micro-thermodielectric power generation system was investigated in order to determine if thermodielectric power generation can be practically employed and if its performance can compete with current portable power generation technologies. Thermodielectric power generation is a direct energy conversion technology that converts heat directly into high voltage direct current. It requires dielectric (i.e., capacitive) materials whose charge storing capabilities are a function of temperature. This property can be exploited by heating these materials after they are charged; as their temperature increases, their charge storage capability decreases, forcing them to eject a portion of their surface charge. This ejected charge can then be supplied to an appropriate electronic storage device. There are several advantages associated with thermodielectric energy conversion; first, it requires heat addition at relatively low conventional power generation temperatures, i.e., less than 600 °K, and second, devices that utilize it have the potential for excellent power density and device reliability. The predominant disadvantage of using this power generation technique is that the device must operate in an unsteady manner; this can lead to substantial heat transfer losses that limit the device's thermal efficiency. The studied power generation system was designed so that the power generating components of the system (i.e., the thermodielectric materials) are integrated within a micro-scale heat exchange apparatus designed specifically to provide the thermodielectric materials with the unsteady heating and cooling necessary for efficient power generation. This apparatus is designed to utilize a liquid as a working fluid in order to maximize its heat transfer capabilities, minimize the size of the heat exchanger, and maximize the power density of the power generation system. The thermodielectric materials are operated through a power generation cycle that

  11. MEMS-based power generation techniques for implantable biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Lueke, Jonathan; Moussa, Walied A

    2011-01-01

    Implantable biosensing is attractive for both medical monitoring and diagnostic applications. It is possible to monitor phenomena such as physical loads on joints or implants, vital signs, or osseointegration in vivo and in real time. Microelectromechanical (MEMS)-based generation techniques can allow for the autonomous operation of implantable biosensors by generating electrical power to replace or supplement existing battery-based power systems. By supplementing existing battery-based power systems for implantable biosensors, the operational lifetime of the sensor is increased. In addition, the potential for a greater amount of available power allows additional components to be added to the biosensing module, such as computational and wireless and components, improving functionality and performance of the biosensor. Photovoltaic, thermovoltaic, micro fuel cell, electrostatic, electromagnetic, and piezoelectric based generation schemes are evaluated in this paper for applicability for implantable biosensing. MEMS-based generation techniques that harvest ambient energy, such as vibration, are much better suited for implantable biosensing applications than fuel-based approaches, producing up to milliwatts of electrical power. High power density MEMS-based approaches, such as piezoelectric and electromagnetic schemes, allow for supplemental and replacement power schemes for biosensing applications to improve device capabilities and performance. In addition, this may allow for the biosensor to be further miniaturized, reducing the need for relatively large batteries with respect to device size. This would cause the implanted biosensor to be less invasive, increasing the quality of care received by the patient.

  12. MEMS-Based Power Generation Techniques for Implantable Biosensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lueke, Jonathan; Moussa, Walied A.

    2011-01-01

    Implantable biosensing is attractive for both medical monitoring and diagnostic applications. It is possible to monitor phenomena such as physical loads on joints or implants, vital signs, or osseointegration in vivo and in real time. Microelectromechanical (MEMS)-based generation techniques can allow for the autonomous operation of implantable biosensors by generating electrical power to replace or supplement existing battery-based power systems. By supplementing existing battery-based power systems for implantable biosensors, the operational lifetime of the sensor is increased. In addition, the potential for a greater amount of available power allows additional components to be added to the biosensing module, such as computational and wireless and components, improving functionality and performance of the biosensor. Photovoltaic, thermovoltaic, micro fuel cell, electrostatic, electromagnetic, and piezoelectric based generation schemes are evaluated in this paper for applicability for implantable biosensing. MEMS-based generation techniques that harvest ambient energy, such as vibration, are much better suited for implantable biosensing applications than fuel-based approaches, producing up to milliwatts of electrical power. High power density MEMS-based approaches, such as piezoelectric and electromagnetic schemes, allow for supplemental and replacement power schemes for biosensing applications to improve device capabilities and performance. In addition, this may allow for the biosensor to be further miniaturized, reducing the need for relatively large batteries with respect to device size. This would cause the implanted biosensor to be less invasive, increasing the quality of care received by the patient. PMID:22319362

  13. Oil market power and United States national security

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Roger

    2006-01-01

    It is widely believed that an oil weapon could impose scarcity upon the United States. Impending resource exhaustion is thought to exacerbate this threat. However, threat seems implausible when we consider strategic deficits of prospective weapon users and the improbability of impending resource exhaustion. Here, we explore a hypothesis relating oil to national security under a different assumption, abundance. We suggest that an oil cartel exerts market power to keep abundance at bay, commanding monopoly rents [or wealth transfers (wt)] that underwrite security threats. We then compare security threats attributed to the oil weapon to those that may arise from market power. We first reexamine whether oil is abundant or scarce by reviewing current development data, then we estimate a competitive price for oil. From this, we derive wt2004 collections by Persian Gulf states ≈ $132-178 × 109. We find that wt and the behavior of states collecting it interact to actuate security threats. Threats underwritten by wt are (i) the potential for emergence of a Persian Gulf superpower and (ii) terrorism. It is therefore oil market power, not oil per se, that actuates threats. We also describe a paradox in the relation of market power to the United States' defense doctrine of force projection to preempt a Gulf superpower. Because the superpower threat derives from wt, force alone cannot preempt it. A further paradox is that because foreign policy is premised on oil weapon fear, market power is appeased. Threats thereby grow unimpeded. PMID:16428291

  14. High Power Alternator Test Unit (ATU) Electrical System Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

    2007-01-01

    The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH was used to simulate the operating conditions and evaluate the performance of the ATU and it s interaction with various LPSF components in accordance with the JIMO AC Power System Requirements. The testing was carried out at the breadboard development level. Results of these tests will be used for the development and validation of analytical models for performance and lifetime prediction.

  15. A Study on Optimal Operation of Power Generation by Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugahara, Hideo; Aoyagi, Yoshihiro; Kato, Masakazu

    This paper proposes the optimal operation of power generation by waste. Refuse is taken as a new energy resource of biomass. Although some fossil fuel origin refuse like plastic may be mixed in, CO2 emission is not counted up except for above fossil fuel origin refuse for the Kyoto Protocol. Incineration is indispensable for refuse disposal and power generation by waste is environment-friendly and power system-friendly using synchronous generators. Optimal planning is a key point to make much of this merit. The optimal plan includes refuse incinerator operation plan with refuse collection and maintenance scheduling of refuse incinerator plant. In this paper, it has been made clear that the former plan increases generation energy through numerical simulations. Concerning the latter plan, a method to determine the maintenance schedule using genetic algorithm has been established. In addition, taking environmental load of CO2 emission into account, this is expected larger merits from environment and energy resource points of view.

  16. Application of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) to decentralized power generation, preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huovilainen, Reino; Alamaeki, Jarmo; Tarjanne, Risto

    The study concentrates on MW-class ORC processes that could be utilized in connection with different kind of power plants. The use of an ORC-process may offer potential for improvements in two ways; first, an ORC-process can be suitable with low-grade thermal sources where water based power generation is not feasible. Second, an increase in power generation efficiency is achieved. The connection of an ORC-process to following plants were investigated; a gas burning heat-only boiler, a solid fuel boiler, a steam and gas turbine (co-generation) unit, a steam turbine and a heating reactor. In each case the following economical factors for adding an ORC-process were calculated; the cost for electricity, the return of investment (ROI) and the pay-back period. The most favorable cases to utilize an ORC-process are a heating reactor, a steam turbine and a gas turbine based co-generation plant. In connection with heat-only plants a better economy were achieved than with co-generation plants. The results indicate that there can be found economically promising applications for ORC-processes in industry and power plants. It is evident that those cases should be investigated more in detail. ORC-processes allow power generation in new circumstances and can increase the efficiency of power plants. More emphasis should be paid for the R and D of this relatively new technology.

  17. Stability analysis of free piston Stirling engine power generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Z. X.; Nasar, S. A.; Rosswurm, Mark

    This paper presents a stability analysis of the free-piston Stirling engine and linear alternator power generation system. Such a system operates under sustained mechanical oscillators, stability of the system is important for proper operation, and as a criterion in selecting the tuning capacitor. The stability criterion of the system is that the rate of change in power dissipation and electric power output is always faster than the rate of the power generated by the engine. The dynamic equations and model of the system are developed in this paper. Frequency domain analysis and Bode plot techniques are utilized in the study. The stable operating frequency region corresponding to different levels of power output are then determined.

  18. A Thermoelectric Generation System and Its Power Electronics Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Junling; Sun, Kai; Ni, Longxian; Chen, Min; Kang, Zhengdong; Zhang, Li; Xing, Yan; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2012-06-01

    The electricity produced by a thermoelectric generator (TEG) must satisfy the requirements of specific loads given the signal level, stability, and power performance. In the design of such systems, one major challenge involves the interactions between the thermoelectric power source and the power stage and signal-conditioning circuits of the load, including DC-DC conversion, the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller, and other power management controllers. In this paper, a survey of existing power electronics designs for TEG systems is presented first. Second, a flat, wall-like TEG system consisting of 32 modules is experimentally optimized, and the improved power parameters are tested. Power-conditioning circuitry based on an interleaved boost DC-DC converter is then developed for the TEG system in terms of the tested power specification. The power electronics design features a combined control scheme with an MPPT and a constant output voltage as well as the low-voltage and high-current output characteristics of the TEG system. The experimental results of the TEG system with the power electronics stage and with purely resistive loads are compared. The comparisons verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed design. Finally, the thermal-electric coupling effects caused by current-related heat source terms, such as the Peltier effect etc., are reported and discussed, and the potential influence on the power electronics design due to such coupling is analyzed.

  19. Electric Power Generation from Low to Intermediate Temperature Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Gosnold, William D.

    2015-06-18

    with ORC technology. Average co-produced water for 10,480 wells is 3.2 gallons per minute (gpm). Even excluding the tight formations, Bakken and Three Forks, average co-produced water for the remaining 3,337 is only 5 gpm. The output of the highest producing well is 184 gpm and the average of the top 100 wells is 52 gpm. Due to the depth of the oil producing formations in the Williston Basin, typically 3 km or greater, pumps are operated slowly to prevent watering out thus total fluid production is purposefully maintained at low volumes. There remain potential possibilities for development of geothermal fluids in the Williston Basin. Unitized fields in which water production from several tens of wells is collected at a single site are good possibilities for development. Water production in the unitized fields is greater than 1000 gpm is several areas. A similar possibility occurs where infill-drilling between Bakken and Three Forks horizontal wells has created areas where large volumes of geothermal fluids are available on multi-well pads and in unitized fields. Although the Bakken produces small amounts of water, the water/oil ration is typically less than 1, the oil and water mix produced at the well head can be sent through the heat exchanger on an ORC. It is estimated that several tens of MWh of power could be generated by a distributed system of ORC engines in the areas of high-density drilling in the Bakken Formation. Finally, horizontal drilling in water bearing formations is the other possibility. Several secondary recovery water-flood projects in the basin are producing water above 100 ⁰C at rates of 300 gpm to 850 gpm. Those systems also could produce several tens of MWh of power with ORC technology. Objective 3 of the project was highly successful. The program has produced 5 PhDs, 7 MS, and 3 BS students with theses in geothermal energy. The team has involved 7 faculty in 4 different engineering and science disciplines, ChE, EE, GE, and Geol. The team has

  20. Combustion systems and power plants incorporating parallel carbon dioxide capture and sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases

    DOEpatents

    Wijmans, Johannes G.; Merkel, Timothy C; Baker, Richard W.

    2011-10-11

    Disclosed herein are combustion systems and power plants that incorporate sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases. In its most basic embodiment, the invention is a combustion system that includes three discrete units: a combustion unit, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is a power plant including a combustion unit, a power generation system, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In both of these embodiments, the carbon dioxide capture unit and the sweep-based membrane separation unit are configured to be operated in parallel, by which we mean that each unit is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the combustion unit without such gases first passing through the other unit.

  1. Thermal and environmental characteristics of the primary equipment of the 480-MW Razdan-5 power-generating plant operating as a combined-cycle plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, K. B.; Eritsyan, S. Kh.; Petrosyan, G. S.; Avtandilyan, A. V.; Gevorkyan, A. R.; Klub, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    Results of thermal tests of 480-MW power-generating Unit 5 of Razdan Thermal Power Plant (hereinafter, Razdan-5 power unit) are presented. The tests were carried out by LvivORGRES after an integration trial of the power unit. The aim of the tests was thermal characterization of the steam boiler and the steam turbine when the power unit operates as a combined-cycle plant. The economic efficiency of the boiler and the turbine and the environmental characteristics of the power unit are determined and the calculated and the actual values are compared. The specific heat gross and net rates required for the power unit to generate the electric power are established.

  2. Integrated engine-generator for aircraft secondary power.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    The integrated engine-generator concept consists of an electric generator located inside a turbojet or turbofan engine and both concentric with and driven by one of the main engine shafts. The electric power-conversion equipment and generator controls are conveniently located in the aircraft. When properly rated, the generator serves as an engine starter as well as a source of electric power. The available generating capacity permits use of electrically driven engine accessories. This reduces or eliminates the need for an external gearbox on the engine, thereby simplifying the engine and nacelle assembly and increasing aircraft design flexibility. The nacelle diameter can then be decreased, resulting in less aerodynamic drag and reduced takeoff gross weight.

  3. A self-sensing magnetorheological damper with power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2012-02-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) dampers are promising for semi-active vibration control of various dynamic systems. In the current MR damper systems, a separate power supply and dynamic sensor are required. To enable the MR damper to be self-powered and self-sensing in the future, in this paper we propose and investigate a self-sensing MR damper with power generation, which integrates energy harvesting, dynamic sensing and MR damping technologies into one device. This MR damper has self-contained power generation and velocity sensing capabilities, and is applicable to various dynamic systems. It combines the advantages of energy harvesting—reusing wasted energy, MR damping—controllable damping force, and sensing—providing dynamic information for controlling system dynamics. This multifunctional integration would bring great benefits such as energy saving, size and weight reduction, lower cost, high reliability, and less maintenance for the MR damper systems. In this paper, a prototype of the self-sensing MR damper with power generation was designed, fabricated, and tested. Theoretical analyses and experimental studies on power generation were performed. A velocity-sensing method was proposed and experimentally validated. The magnetic-field interference among three functions was prevented by a combined magnetic-field isolation method. Modeling, analysis, and experimental results on damping forces are also presented.

  4. Method and apparatus for automobile actuated power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblum, J.

    1984-03-13

    A plurality of cylindrical rollers are embedded in a roadway over which wheeled vehicles move such that the vehicle wheels rotate the contacted rollers. A shaft transverse to the roadway supports the rollers and turns with them to transfer power from vehicle contact to an electrical generating apparatus. Power accumulating apparatus, such as a water or hydraulic fluid reservoir, may intervene between the shaft and the generator to smooth the power flow when vehicle travel is intermittent. Alternate apparatus may directly link the shaft to an electrical generator which may, in turn, charge batteries or pump water upwardly to accumulate power for response to later demand. The rollers may be housed in a metal or concrete trough and cross one or more lanes of traffic to a median power collector such as a spider and bevel gear arrangement that is capable of receiving rotating motion from four right angle directions at once. In its simplest form, power is taken from auto wheels to turn the rollers and their shaft or shafts, and shaft rotation is communicated directly to an electrical generator to supply demand.

  5. H2-O2 auxiliary power unit for Space Shuttle vehicles - A progress report.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, J. P.; Beremand, D. G.; Cameron, H. M.; Jefferies, K. S.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a program to establish technology readiness of hydrogen-oxygen (H2-O2) auxiliary power units for use on board the Space Shuttle orbiter vehicle. Fundamental objectives include experimentally establishing an acceptable propellant flow control method, verification of combustor stability, and adequate thermal management. An initial auxiliary power unit (APU) configuration with recycled hydrogen flow has been studied and revised toward greater simplicity and scaling ease. The selected APU is a recuperated open-cycle, turbine-driven unit. Series flow of cryogenic hydrogen removes internally-generated heat and heat from the hydraulic system. The revised configuration schematic and its calculated performance are reviewed. A weight comparison is made between the shuttle baseline hydrazine and H2-O2 APU systems, showing that hydrogen-oxygen APUs have the potential of increasing the payload of the Space Shuttle.

  6. On-line diagnostic system for power generators

    SciTech Connect

    Skormin, V.A.; Goodenough, G.S.; Huber, R.K.

    1996-12-31

    A novel approach to diagnostics of a power generator is developed. It utilizes readily available data acquired by the existing computer-based monitoring/control system. Diagnostic procedures detect various trends in the generator data and interpret these trends in the generator data and interpret these trends as changes in the generator performance caused by incipient failures. Results of trend analyses, subjected to statistical validation, facilitate failure prediction and identification thus providing the justification for service when needed. The procedures are incorporated in a diagnostic system implemented in a PC interfaced with the existing VAX-based process monitoring and control system. The diagnostic system provides graphical display of the diagnostic messages.

  7. Electrostatic Power Generation from Negatively Charged, Simulated Lunar Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H.; King, Glen C.; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Yeonjoon

    2010-01-01

    Research was conducted to develop an electrostatic power generator for future lunar missions that facilitate the utilization of lunar resources. The lunar surface is known to be negatively charged from the constant bombardment of electrons and protons from the solar wind. The resulting negative electrostatic charge on the dust particles, in the lunar vacuum, causes them to repel each other minimizing the potential. The result is a layer of suspended dust about one meter above the lunar surface. This phenomenon was observed by both Clementine and Surveyor spacecrafts. During the Apollo 17 lunar landing, the charged dust was a major hindrance, as it was attracted to the astronauts' spacesuits, equipment, and the lunar buggies. The dust accumulated on the spacesuits caused reduced visibility for the astronauts, and was unavoidably transported inside the spacecraft where it caused breathing irritation [1]. In the lunar vacuum, the maximum charge on the particles can be extremely high. An article in the journal "Nature", titled "Moon too static for astronauts?" (Feb 2, 2007) estimates that the lunar surface is charged with up to several thousand volts [2]. The electrostatic power generator was devised to alleviate the hazardous effects of negatively charged lunar soil by neutralizing the charged particles through capacitive coupling and thereby simultaneously harnessing power through electric charging [3]. The amount of power generated or collected is dependent on the areal coverage of the device and hovering speed over the lunar soil surface. A thin-film array of capacitors can be continuously charged and sequentially discharged using a time-differentiated trigger discharge process to produce a pulse train of discharge for DC mode output. By controlling the pulse interval, the DC mode power can be modulated for powering devices and equipment. In conjunction with a power storage system, the electrostatic power generator can be a power source for a lunar rover or other

  8. DOWNHOLE POWER GENERATION AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS FOR INTELLIGENT COMPLETIONS APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Tubel

    2003-10-14

    The fourth quarter of the project was dedicated to the manufacturing of the mechanical system for wireless communications and the power generation module and inspection pre assembly of the mechanical components. Another emphasis for the quarter was the development of filter control and signal detection software. The tasks accomplished during this report period were: (1) Dimensional issues were resolved and revised drawings for manufacturing of the wireless communications gauge and power generator were completed and sent to a machine shop for manufacturing. (2) Finalized the requirements and fittings and connections for testing the tool in the Halliburton flow loop. (3) The new acoustic generator was manufactured successfully and it was delivered during this quarter. The assembly will be outsourced for plastic coating in preparation for hostile environment use. (4) The acoustic two-way communications development continued to progress. The real time firmware for the surface system was developed and the processor was able to detect and process the data frame transmitted from downhole. The analog section of the tool was also developed and it is being tested for filtering capabilities and signal detection and amplification. (5) The new transformer to drive the acoustic generator assembly was manufactured and was successfully tested. Spring mandrel design showed increased acoustic output on the pipe and was implemented. (6) PCBA board carrier with board set was tested for function and fit and is 100% complete. (7) Filter control software is complete and software to allow modification of communication parameters dynamically is 50% complete. (8) All mechanical parts to assemble the wireless gauge and power generator have been received and verified to be within specification. (9) Acoustic generator has been assembled in the tool mandrel and tested successfully. (10) The circuit required to harvest the power generated downhole has been designed and the power generator

  9. 49 CFR 173.172 - Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. 173.172... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.172 Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. Aircraft hydraulic power unit... for installation as complete units in aircraft are excepted from the specification...

  10. 75 FR 80546 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; Surry Power Station Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company; Surry Power Station Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Virginia Electric and Power Company (the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-32 and DPR-37 which authorizes operation of the Surry Power Station (SURRY) Unit Nos. 1 and 2....

  11. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2.... DPR-53 and DPR-69, for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (CCNPP), respectively... (ISFSI), currently held by Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC as owner and licensed...

  12. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Regulatory Commission (the Commission) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC... Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and...

  13. Electric energy production by particle thermionic-thermoelectric power generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oettinger, P. E.

    1980-01-01

    Thermionic-thermoelectric power generators, composed of a thin layer of porous, low work function material separating a heated emitter electrode and a cooler collector electrode, have extremely large Seebeck coefficients of over 2 mV/K and can provide significant output power. Preliminary experiments with 20-micron thick (Ba Sr Ca)O coatings, limited by evaporative loss to temperatures below 1400 K, have yielded short circuit current densities of 500 mA/sq cm and power densities of 60 mW/ sq cm. Substantially more output is expected with cesium-coated refractory oxide particle coatings operating at higher temperatures. Practical generators will have thermal-to-electrical efficiencies of 10 to 20%. Further increases can be gained by cascading these high-temperature devices with lower temperature conventional thermoelectric generators.

  14. Climate Change Impacts on Rivers and Implications for Electricity Generation in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miara, A.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Macknick, J.; Corsi, F.; Cohen, S. M.; Tidwell, V. C.; Newmark, R. L.; Prousevitch, A.

    2015-12-01

    The contemporary power sector in the United States is heavily reliant on water resources to provide cooling water for thermoelectric generation. Efficient thermoelectric plant operations require large volumes of water at sufficiently cool temperatures for their cooling process. The total amount of water that is withdrawn or consumed for cooling and any potential declines in efficiencies are determined by the sector's fuel mix and cooling technologies. As such, the impact of climate change, and the extent of impact, on the power sector is shaped by the choice of electricity generation technologies that will be built over the coming decades. In this study, we model potential changes in river discharge and temperature in the contiguous US under a set of climate scenarios to year 2050 using the Water Balance Model-Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution Model (WBM-TP2M). Together, these models quantify, in high-resolution (3-min), river temperatures, discharge and power plant efficiency losses associated with changes in available cooling water that incorporates climate, hydrology, river network dynamics and multi-plant impacts, on both single power plant and regional scales. Results are used to assess the aptness and vulnerability of contemporary and alternative electricity generation pathways to changes in climate and water availability for cooling purposes, and the concomitant impacts on power plant operating efficiencies. We assess the potential impacts by comparing six regions (Northeast, Southeast, Midwest, Great Plains, Southwest, Northwest as in the National Climate Assessment (2014)) across the US. These experiments allow us to assess tradeoffs among electricity-water-climate to provide useful insight for decision-makers managing regional power production and aquatic environments.

  15. Residential Solar Combined Heat and Power Generation using Solar Thermoelectric Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, B.; Wagner, M.; Kunkle, C.; Watson, P.; Williams, R.; Donohoe, R.; Ugarte, K.; Wilmoth, R.; Chong, M. Zachary; Lee, H.

    2015-06-01

    Recent reports on improved efficiencies of solar thermoelectric generation (STEG) systems have generated interest in STEGs as a competitive power generation system. In this paper, the design of a combined cooling and power utilizing concentrated solar power is discussed. Solar radiation is concentrated into a receiver connected to thermoelectric modules, which are used as a topping cycle to generate power and high grade heat necessary to run an absorption chiller. Modeling of the overall system is discussed with experimental data to validate modeling results. A numerical modeling approach is presented which considers temperature variation of the source and sink temperatures and is used to maximize combined efficiency. A system is built with a demonstrated combined efficiency of 32% in actual working conditions with power generation of 3.1 W. Modeling results fell within 3% of the experimental results verifying the approach. An optimization study is performed on the mirror concentration ration and number of modules for thermal load matching and is shown to improve power generation to 26.8 W.

  16. Experiments on H2-O2MHD power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic power generation experiments utilizing a cesium-seeded H2-O2 working fluid were carried out using a diverging area Hall duct having an entrance Mach number of 2. The experiments were conducted in a high-field strength cryomagnet facility at field strengths up to 5 tesla. The effects of power takeoff location, axial duct location within the magnetic field, generator loading, B-field strength, and electrode breakdown voltage were investigated. For the operating conditions of these experiments, it is found that the power output increases with the square of the B-field and can be limited by choking of the channel or interelectrode voltage breakdown which occurs at Hall fields greater than 50 volts/insulator. Peak power densities of greater than 100 MW/cu M were achieved.

  17. Next-Generation Photovoltaic Technologies in the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.; Matson, R.

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes highlights of exploratory research into next-generation photovoltaic (PV) technologies funded by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) through its National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the purpose of finding disruptive or ''leap frog'' technologies that may leap ahead of conventional PV in energy markets. The most recent set of 14 next-generation PV projects, termed Beyond the Horizon PV, will complete their third year of research this year. The projects tend to take two notably different approaches: high-efficiency solar cells that are presently too expensive, or organic solar cells having potential for low cost although efficiencies are currently too low. We will describe accomplishments for several of these projects. As prime examples of what these last projects have accomplished, researchers at Princeton University recently reported an organic solar cell with 5% efficiency (not yet NREL-verified). And Ohio State University scientists recently demonstrated an 18% (NREL-verified) single-junction GaAs solar cell grown on a low-cost silicon substrate. We also completed an evaluation of proposals for the newest set of exploratory research projects, but we are unable to describe them in detail until funding becomes available to complete the award process.

  18. Development of Next Generation Segmented Thermoelectric Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleurial, J.; Caillat, T.; Ewell, R. C.

    2005-12-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators have been used for space-based applications since 1961 with a total of 22 space missions that have successfully used RTGs for electrical power production. The key advantages of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are their long life, robustness, compact size, and high reliability. Thermoelectric converters are easily scalable, and possess a linear current-voltage curve, making power generation easy to control via a shunt regulator and shunt radiator. They produce no noise, vibration or torque during operation. These properties have made RTGs ideally suitable for autonomous missions in the extreme environments of outer space and on planetary surfaces. More advanced radioisotope power systems (RPS) with higher specific power (W/kg) and/or power output are desirable for future NASA missions, including the Europa Geophysical Orbiter mission. For the past few years, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been developing more efficient thermoelectric materials and has demonstrated significant increases in the conversion efficiency of high temperature thermocouples, up to 14% when operated across a 975K to 300K temperature differential. In collaboration with NASA Glenn Research Center, universities (USC and UNM), Ceramic and Metal Composites Corporation and industrial partners, JPL is now planning to lead the research and development of advanced thermoelectric technology for integration into the next generations of RPS. Preliminary studies indicate that this technology has the potential for improving the RPS specific power by more than 50% over the current state-of-the-art multi-mission RTG being built for the Mars Science Laboratory mission. A second generation advanced RPS is projected at more than doubling the specific power.

  19. H2-O2 auxiliary power unit for space shuttle vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, J. P.; Beremand, D. G.; Cameron, H. M.; Jefferies, K. S.

    1973-01-01

    A program to establish technology readiness of hydrogen-oxygen (H2-O2) auxiliary power units for use on board the space shuttle orbiter vehicle is discussed. Fundamental objectives include experimentally establishing an acceptable propellant flow control method, verification of combustor stability, and adequate thermal management. An initial APU configuration with recycled hydrogen flow has been studied and revised towards greater simplicity and scaling ease. The selected APU is a recuperated open-cycle, turbine-driven unit. Series flow of cryogenic hydrogen removes internally-generated heat and from the hydraulic system. Steady-state test of the combustor has been successful.

  20. Brayton Power Conversion Unit Tested: Provides a Path to Future High-Power Electric Propulsion Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2003-01-01

    Closed-Brayton-cycle conversion technology has been identified as an excellent candidate for nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) power conversion systems. Advantages include high efficiency, long life, and high power density for power levels from about 10 kWe to 1 MWe, and beyond. An additional benefit for Brayton is the potential for the alternator to deliver very high voltage as required by the electric thrusters, minimizing the mass and power losses associated with the power management and distribution (PMAD). To accelerate Brayton technology development for NEP, the NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a low-power NEP power systems testbed that utilizes an existing 2- kWe Brayton power conversion unit (PCU) from previous solar dynamic technology efforts. The PCU includes a turboalternator, a recuperator, and a gas cooler connected by gas ducts. The rotating assembly is supported by gas foil bearings and consists of a turbine, a compressor, a thrust rotor, and an alternator on a single shaft. The alternator produces alternating-current power that is rectified to 120-V direct-current power by the PMAD unit. The NEP power systems testbed will be utilized to conduct future investigations of operational control methods, high-voltage PMAD, electric thruster interactions, and advanced heat rejection techniques. The PCU was tested in Glenn s Vacuum Facility 6. The Brayton PCU was modified from its original solar dynamic configuration by the removal of the heat receiver and retrofitting of the electrical resistance gas heater to simulate the thermal input of a steady-state nuclear source. Then, the Brayton PCU was installed in the 3-m test port of Vacuum Facility 6, as shown. A series of tests were performed between June and August of 2002 that resulted in a total PCU operational time of about 24 hr. An initial test sequence on June 17 determined that the reconfigured unit was fully operational. Ensuing tests provided the operational data needed to characterize PCU

  1. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  2. New geothermal heat extraction process to deliver clean power generation

    ScienceCinema

    Pete McGrail

    2016-07-12

    A new method for capturing significantly more heat from low-temperature geothermal resources holds promise for generating virtually pollution-free electrical energy. Scientists at the Department of Energys Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will determine if their innovative approach can safely and economically extract and convert heat from vast untapped geothermal resources. The goal is to enable power generation from low-temperature geothermal resources at an economical cost. In addition to being a clean energy source without any greenhouse gas emissions, geothermal is also a steady and dependable source of power.

  3. An introduction to the Amonix 8700 Solar Power Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesniak, A.; Garboushian, V.; Liu, M.; Gordon, R.; Bagienski, W.

    2013-09-01

    From 2009 through early 2012, Amonix installed nearly 40 MW AC of its flagship 7700 Solar Power Generator product in locations all across the southwestern USA. Since completion of these projects, Amonix has been adapting lessons learned from the 7700 build-out and new CPV technologies into the company's 8700 Solar Power Generator, to be released in late 2014. The paper will focus on the features of the 8700 product, including higher performance and lower cost, and how the 8700 plans to keep CPV competitive in the global solar marketplace.

  4. Design of High Power Electrostatic Motor and Generator Using Electrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genda, Takashi; Tanaka, Shuji; Esashi, Masayoshi

    This paper describes the design of an electrostatic motor/generator using electrets and its circuit. By using electrets which generate permanent electric field on a rotor, higher power than that of conventional types is expected. We revealed that the maximum power is obtained from the motor/generator when the ratio of the gap to the width of electrodes is optimized at 0.6. And we estimated that 30.4 W output is obtained from the motor/generator with a 6mm diameter rotor at a rotational speed of 1 Mrpm by applying 200 V to 3 µm electrode gap. To use this output, however, a circuit which escapes loss due to charging/discharging cycle of a parasitic capacitance at the stator electrode is essential. We designed a novel circuit using inductor-capacitor (LC) resonance, and confirmed that over 80% of theoretically-ideal output is available using this circuit.

  5. Electrical Power Generation by Mechanically Modulating Electrical Double Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Hyuk Kyu; Moon, Jong Kyun

    2014-11-01

    Since Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry made their great discovery of electromagnetic induction, there have been continuous developments in electrical power generation. Most people today get electricity from thermal, hydroelectric, or nuclear power generation systems, which use this electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Here we propose a new method for electrical power generation, without using electromagnetic induction, by mechanically modulating the electrical double layers at the interfacial areas of a water bridge between two conducting plates. We find that when the height of the water bridge is mechanically modulated, the electrical double layer capacitors formed on the two interfacial areas are continuously charged and discharged at different phases from each other, thus generating an AC electric current across the plates. We use a resistor-capacitor circuit model to explain the results of this experiment. This observation could be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation system and for understanding the interfacial charge distribution in solid-liquid interfaces in the near future. This work was supported by Center for Soft and Living Matter through IBS prgram in Korea.

  6. Cost-efficiency trade-off and the design of thermoelectric power generators.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, Kazuaki; Shakouri, Ali

    2011-09-01

    The energy conversion efficiency of today's thermoelectric generators is significantly lower than that of conventional mechanical engines. Almost all of the existing research is focused on materials to improve the conversion efficiency. Here we propose a general framework to study the cost-efficiency trade-off for thermoelectric power generation. A key factor is the optimization of thermoelectric modules together with their heat source and heat sinks. Full electrical and thermal co-optimization yield a simple analytical expression for optimum design. Based on this model, power output per unit mass can be maximized. We show that the fractional area coverage of thermoelectric elements in a module could play a significant role in reducing the cost of power generation systems.

  7. Cost-Efficiency Trade-off and the Design of Thermoelectric Power Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Yazawa, Kazuaki; Shakouri, Ali

    2011-07-27

    The energy conversion efficiency of today’s thermoelectric generators is significantly lower than that of conventional mechanical engines. Almost all of the existing research is focused on materials to improve the conversion efficiency. Here we propose a general framework to study the cost-efficiency trade-off for thermoelectric power generation. A key factor is the optimization of thermoelectric modules together with their heat source and heat sinks. Full electrical and thermal co-optimization yield a simple analytical expression for optimum design. Based on this model, power output per unit mass can be maximized. We show that the fractional area coverage of thermoelectric elements in a module could play a significant role in reducing the cost of power generation systems.

  8. Cost-efficiency trade-off and the design of thermoelectric power generators.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, Kazuaki; Shakouri, Ali

    2011-09-01

    The energy conversion efficiency of today's thermoelectric generators is significantly lower than that of conventional mechanical engines. Almost all of the existing research is focused on materials to improve the conversion efficiency. Here we propose a general framework to study the cost-efficiency trade-off for thermoelectric power generation. A key factor is the optimization of thermoelectric modules together with their heat source and heat sinks. Full electrical and thermal co-optimization yield a simple analytical expression for optimum design. Based on this model, power output per unit mass can be maximized. We show that the fractional area coverage of thermoelectric elements in a module could play a significant role in reducing the cost of power generation systems. PMID:21793542

  9. Technical Manual for the SAM Biomass Power Generation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson, J.; Gilman, P.; Dobos, A.

    2011-09-01

    This technical manual provides context for the implementation of the biomass electric power generation performance model in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) System Advisor Model (SAM). Additionally, the report details the engineering and scientific principles behind the underlying calculations in the model. The framework established in this manual is designed to give users a complete understanding of behind-the-scenes calculations and the results generated.

  10. Effect of nonlinear electromechanical interaction upon wind power generator behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selyutskiy, Yury D.; Klimina, Liubov A.

    2014-12-01

    A mathematical model is developed for describing a small horizontal axis wind turbine with electric generator, such that the electromechanical interaction is non-linear in current. Dependence of steady regimes of the system upon parameters of the model is studied. In particular, it is shown that increase of wind speed causes qualitative restructuring of the set of steady regimes, which leads to considerable change in behavior of the wind power generator. The proposed model is verified against data obtained in experiments.

  11. Power Delivery from an Actual Thermoelectric Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaibe, Hiromasa; Kajihara, Takeshi; Nagano, Kouji; Makino, Kazuya; Hachiuma, Hirokuni; Natsuume, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    Similar to photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cells, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) supply direct-current (DC) power, essentially requiring DC/alternating current (AC) conversion for delivery as electricity into the grid network. Use of PVs is already well established through power conditioning systems (PCSs) that enable DC/AC conversion with maximum-power-point tracking, which enables commercial use by customers. From the economic, legal, and regulatory perspectives, a commercial PCS for PVs should also be available for TEGs, preferably as is or with just simple adjustment. Herein, we report use of a PV PCS with an actual TEG. The results are analyzed, and proper application for TEGs is proposed.

  12. Test facility of thermal storage equipment for space power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, T.; Nakagawa, M.; Mochida, Y.; Ohtomo, F.; Shimizu, K.; Tanaka, K.; Abe, Y.; Nomura, O.; Kamimoto, M.

    A thermal storage equipment test facility has been built in connection with developing solar dynamic power systems (SDPSs). The test facility consists of a recuperative closed Brayton cycle system (CBC), with a mixture of helium and xenon with a molecular weight of 39.9 serving as the working fluid. CBC has been shown to be the most attractive power generation system among several types of SDPSs because of its ability to meet the required high power demand and its thermal efficiency, about 30 percent. The authors present a description of this test facility and give results of the preliminary test and the first-stage test with heat storage equipment.

  13. Green Propulsion Auxiliary Power Unit Demonstration at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Joel W.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) began the process of building an integrated technology roadmap, including both technology pull and technology push strategies. Technology Area 1 (TA-01)1 for Launch Propulsion Systems is one of fourteen TAs that provide recommendations for the overall technology investment strategy and prioritization of NASA's space technology activities. Identified within TA-01 was the need for a green propulsion auxiliary power unit (APU) for hydraulic power by 2015. Engineers led by the author at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been evaluating green propellant alternatives and have begun the development of an APU test bed to demonstrate the feasibility of use. NASA has residual APU assets remaining from the retired Space Shuttle Program. Likewise, the F-16 Falcon fighter jet also uses an Emergency Power Unit (EPU) that has similar characteristics to the NASA hardware. Both EPU and APU components have been acquired for testing at MSFC. This paper will summarize the status of the testing efforts of green propellant from the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) propellant AFM315E based on hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN) with these test assets.

  14. Performance Analyses of 38 kWe Turbo-Machine Unit for Space Reactor Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Bruno M.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper developed a design and investigated the performance of 38 kWe turbo-machine unit for space nuclear reactor power systems with Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) energy conversion. The compressor and turbine of this unit are scaled versions of the NASA's BRU developed in the sixties and seventies. The performance results of turbo-machine unit are calculated for rotational speed up to 45 krpm, variable reactor thermal power and system pressure, and fixed turbine and compressor inlet temperatures of 1144 K and 400 K. The analyses used a detailed turbo-machine model developed at the University of New Mexico that accounts for the various energy losses in the compressor and turbine and the effect of compressibility of the He-Xe (40 mole/g) working fluid with increased flow rate. The model also accounts for the changes in the physical and transport properties of the working fluid with temperature and pressure. Results show that a unit efficiency of 24.5% is achievable at rotation speed of 45 krpm and system pressure of 0.75 MPa, assuming shaft and electrical generator efficiencies of 86.7% and 90%. The corresponding net electric power output of the unit is 38.5 kWe, the flow rate of the working fluid is 1.667 kg/s, the pressure ratio and polytropic efficiency for the compressor are 1.60 and 83.1%, and 1.51 and 88.3% for the turbine.

  15. Performance Analyses of 38 kWe Turbo-Machine Unit for Space Reactor Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, Bruno M.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2008-01-21

    This paper developed a design and investigated the performance of 38 kWe turbo-machine unit for space nuclear reactor power systems with Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) energy conversion. The compressor and turbine of this unit are scaled versions of the NASA's BRU developed in the sixties and seventies. The performance results of turbo-machine unit are calculated for rotational speed up to 45 krpm, variable reactor thermal power and system pressure, and fixed turbine and compressor inlet temperatures of 1144 K and 400 K. The analyses used a detailed turbo-machine model developed at University of New Mexico that accounts for the various energy losses in the compressor and turbine and the effect of compressibility of the He-Xe (40 mole/g) working fluid with increased flow rate. The model also accounts for the changes in the physical and transport properties of the working fluid with temperature and pressure. Results show that a unit efficiency of 24.5% is achievable at rotation speed of 45 krpm and system pressure of 0.75 MPa, assuming shaft and electrical generator efficiencies of 86.7% and 90%. The corresponding net electric power output of the unit is 38.5 kWe, the flow rate of the working fluid is 1.667 kg/s, the pressure ratio and polytropic efficiency for the compressor are 1.60 and 83.1%, and 1.51 and 88.3% for the turbine.

  16. A numerical investigation of a thermodielectric power generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklar, Akiva A.

    The performance of a novel micro-thermodielectric power generation system was investigated in order to determine if thermodielectric power generation can be practically employed and if its performance can compete with current portable power generation technologies. Thermodielectric power generation is a direct energy conversion technology that converts heat directly into high voltage direct current. It requires dielectric (i.e., capacitive) materials whose charge storing capabilities are a function of temperature. This property can be exploited by heating these materials after they are charged; as their temperature increases, their charge storage capability decreases, forcing them to eject a portion of their surface charge. This ejected charge can then be supplied to an appropriate electronic storage device. There are several advantages associated with thermodielectric energy conversion; first, it requires heat addition at relatively low conventional power generation temperatures, i.e., less than 600 °K, and second, devices that utilize it have the potential for excellent power density and device reliability. The predominant disadvantage of using this power generation technique is that the device must operate in an unsteady manner; this can lead to substantial heat transfer losses that limit the device's thermal efficiency. The studied power generation system was designed so that the power generating components of the system (i.e., the thermodielectric materials) are integrated within a micro-scale heat exchange apparatus designed specifically to provide the thermodielectric materials with the unsteady heating and cooling necessary for efficient power generation. This apparatus is designed to utilize a liquid as a working fluid in order to maximize its heat transfer capabilities, minimize the size of the heat exchanger, and maximize the power density of the power generation system. The thermodielectric materials are operated through a power generation cycle that

  17. Photovoltaic power conditioners: Development, evolution, and the next generation

    SciTech Connect

    Bulawka, A.; Krauthamer, S.; Das, R.; Bower, W.

    1994-07-01

    Market-place acceptance of utility-connected photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems and their accelerated installation into residential and commercial applications are heavily dependent upon the ability of their power conditioning subsystems (PCS) to meet high reliability, low cost, and high performance goals. Many PCS development efforts have taken place over the last 15 years, and those efforts have resulted in substantial PCS hardware improvements. These improvements, however, have generally fallen short of meeting many reliability, cost and performance goals. Continuously evolving semiconductor technology developments, coupled with expanded market opportunities for power processing, offer a significant promise of improving PCS reliability, cost and performance, as they are integrated into future PCS designs. This paper revisits past and present development efforts in PCS design, identifies the evolutionary improvements and describes the new opportunities for PCS designs. The new opportunities are arising from the increased availability and capability of semiconductor switching components, smart power devices, and power integrated circuits (PICS).

  18. Development of High-Power Hall Thruster Power Processing Units at NASA GRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Bozak, Karin E.; Santiago, Walter; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    NASA GRC successfully designed, built and tested four different power processor concepts for high power Hall thrusters. Each design satisfies unique goals including the evaluation of a novel silicon carbide semiconductor technology, validation of innovative circuits to overcome the problems with high input voltage converter design, development of a direct-drive unit to demonstrate potential benefits, or simply identification of lessonslearned from the development of a PPU using a conventional design approach. Any of these designs could be developed further to satisfy NASA's needs for high power electric propulsion in the near future.

  19. Wearable Triboelectric Generator for Powering the Portable Electronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Cui, Nuanyang; Liu, Jinmei; Gu, Long; Bai, Suo; Chen, Xiaobo; Qin, Yong

    2015-08-26

    A cloth-base wearable triboelectric nanogenerator made of nylon and Dacron fabric was fabricated for harvesting body motion energy. Through the friction between forearm and human body, the generator can turn the mechanical energy of an arm swing into electric energy and power an electroluminescent tubelike lamp easily. The maximum output current and voltage of the generator reach up to 0.2 mA and 2 kV. Furthermore, this generator can be easily folded, kneaded, and cleaned like a common garment.

  20. Climate Change Impacts on the Electric Power System in the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselka, T. D.; Botterud, A.; Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Poch, L. A.; Wang, J.

    2007-12-01

    Future climate change is projected to vary substantially across regions. Changes in regional temperature and precipitation patterns may have significant implications on our existing and future power system infrastructure. In this paper, we use results from regional climate models to examine the impacts of projected changes in temperature and precipitation on the development and operations of the power system in the Western United States. We study three scenarios to evaluate potential effects of climate change on the electricity demand as well as on the power supply side. Impacts are measured in terms of changes in investment requirements, fuel and generation mix, emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants, and thermal power water withdrawals and consumption. We also identify potential issues regarding the western transmission grid. Our methodology includes a long-term investment algorithm that takes into account interdependencies between hydroelectric, thermal power, and non-dispatchable resources, such as wind turbines. We also include temporal aspects associated with hydropower energy constraints, wind variability, thermal power plant availability, and hourly load profiles. Thermal power plant availability and resulting generation and fuel consumption are based on maintenance outage schedules and a probabilistic dispatch algorithm that accounts for random forced outages. We conclude with some observations regarding the vulnerability of our electricity infrastructure to projected regional climate changes.