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Sample records for power jordan river

  1. Management scenarios for the Jordan River salinity crisis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, A.; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Holtzman, R.; Segal, M.; Shavit, U.

    2005-01-01

    Recent geochemical and hydrological findings show that the water quality of the base flow of the Lower Jordan River, between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is dependent upon the ratio between surface water flow and groundwater discharge. Using water quality data, mass-balance calculations, and actual flow-rate measurements, possible management scenarios for the Lower Jordan River and their potential affects on its salinity are investigated. The predicted scenarios reveal that implementation of some elements of the Israel-Jordan peace treaty will have negative effects on the Jordan River water salinity. It is predicted that removal of sewage effluents dumped into the river (???13 MCM/a) will significantly reduce the river water's flow and increase the relative proportion of the saline groundwater flux into the river. Under this scenario, the Cl content of the river at its southern point (Abdalla Bridge) will rise to almost 7000 mg/L during the summer. In contrast, removal of all the saline water (16.5 MCM/a) that is artificially discharged into the Lower Jordan River will significantly reduce its Cl concentration, to levels of 650-2600 and 3000-3500 mg/L in the northern and southern areas of the Lower Jordan River, respectively. However, because the removal of either the sewage effluents or the saline water will decrease the river's discharge to a level that could potentially cause river desiccation during the summer months, other water sources must be allocated to preserve in-stream flow needs and hence the river's ecosystem. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 1. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 745, Jordan Narrows Folder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 745, Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. JORDAN STATION, JULY 2, 1909. GENERAL VIEW. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

  3. 2. Photocopied July 1971 from photostat Jordan Narrows Folder #1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopied July 1971 from photostat Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. JORDAN NARROWS STATION. PLAN AND SECTION. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

  4. Two-dimensional streamflow simulations of the Jordan River, Midvale and West Jordan, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenney, Terry A.; Freeman, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The Jordan River in Midvale and West Jordan, Utah, flows adjacent to two U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund sites: Midvale Slag and Sharon Steel. At both sites, geotechnical caps extend to the east bank of the river. The final remediation tasks for these sites included the replacement of a historic sheet-pile dam and the stabilization of the river banks adjacent to the Superfund sites. To assist with these tasks, two hydraulic modeling codes contained in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System (MD_SWMS), System for Transport and River Modeling (SToRM) and Flow and Sediment Transport and Morphological Evolution of Channels (FaSTMECH), were used to provide predicted water-surface elevations, velocities, and boundary shear-stress values throughout the study reach of the Jordan River. A SToRM model of a 0.7 mile subreach containing the sheet-pile dam was used to compare water-surface elevations and velocities associated with the sheet-pile dam and a proposed replacement structure. Maps showing water-surface elevation and velocity differences computed from simulations of the historic sheet-pile dam and the proposed replacement structure topographies for streamflows of 500 and 1,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) were created. These difference maps indicated that the velocities associated with the proposed replacement structure topographies were less than or equal to those associated with the historic sheet-pile dam. Similarly, water-surface elevations associated with the proposed replacement structure topographies were all either greater than or equal to water-surface elevations associated with the sheet-pile dam. A FaSTMECH model was developed for the 2.5-mile study reach to aid engineers in bank stabilization designs. Predicted water-surface elevations, velocities and shear-stress values were mapped on an aerial photograph of the study reach to place these parameters in a spatial context. Profile plots of predicted

  5. Jordan.

    PubMed

    1988-06-01

    Jordan is a country of 91,000 sq km, only 11% of which is arable. The 1980 population was 2.8 million, growing at 3.65% per year. Most of the people are of Arab stock, including between 1 and 1 1/4 million Palestinians. 95% of the people are Sunni Muslims. The national language is Arabic, and literacy is 71%. The infant mortality rate in 1984 was 50/1000, and life expectancy is 64 years. Suffrage is universal. The 1986 gross domestic product was $4.3 billion, per capita $1530; the growth rate was 2.6%. 80% of the people are employed in agriculture and 20% in industry. The major resources are phosphate and potash. The dinar is worth $0.35. Jordan's economy grew during the 1960s and 1970s, and it achieved the 10% growth rate called for in its 1st 5-year plan (1976-80). The 2nd 5-year plan saw a slow-down in the economy, and the 3rd 5-year plan aims at a growth rate of only 5.1% and the creation of 97,000 new jobs. A major weakness of the economy is its dependence on money from abroad -- $0.5 billion from other Arab countries, wages of expatriate Jordanians working in the Gulf states, and $1.7 billion in US aid between 1952 and 1987. 1986 exports amounted to $732 million, imports to $2.4 billion. Jordan was settled by Canaanites around 2000 BC and was ruled successively by Egyptians, Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Turks, and from 1919 to 1946 Britain. The independent Hashemite Kingdom, a constitutional monarchy, was founded in 1946. War with Israel ended with the establishment of the present official border in 1949, but Israel has occupied the West Bank of the Jordan since 1967, and the militant pro-Syrian Palestinian fedayeen maintained a guerrilla war within Jordan until 1973. In 1974 King Hussein recognized the Palestine Liberation Organization as the sole representative of the Palestinian people. However, by reconvening Parliament in 1984 with representatives from the West Bank, the King contradicted his recognition of the claims of the Palestine Liberation

  6. Quantifying ground water inputs along the Lower Jordan River.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, Ran; Shavit, Uri; Segal-Rozenhaimer, Michal; Gavrieli, Ittai; Marei, Amer; Farber, Efrat; Vengosh, Avner

    2005-01-01

    The flow rate of the Lower Jordan River has changed dramatically during the second half of the 20th century. The diversion of its major natural sources reduced its flow rate and led to drying events during the drought years of 2000 and 2001. Under these conditions of low flow rates, the potential influence of external sources on the river discharge and chemical composition became significant. Our measurements show that the concentrations of chloride, calcium, and sodium in the river water decrease along the first 20-km section, while sulfate and magnesium concentrations increase. These variations were addressed by a recent geochemical study, suggesting that ground water inflow plays a major role. To further examine the role of ground water, we applied mass-balance calculations, using detailed flow rate measurements, water samplings, and chemical analyses along the northern (upstream) part of the river. Our flow-rate measurements showed that the river base-flow during 2000 and 2001 was 500 to 1100 L s(-1), which is about 40 times lower than the historical flow rates. Our measurements and calculations indicate that ground water input was 20 to 80% of the river water flow, and 20 to 50% of its solute mass flow. This study independently identifies the composition of possible end-members. These end-members contain high sulfate concentration and have similar chemical characteristics as were found in agricultural drains and in the "saline" Yarmouk River. Future regional development plans that include the river flow rate and chemistry should consider the interactions between the river and its shallow ground water system.

  7. 3. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 741, Jordan Narrows Folder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopied July 1971 from Photo 741, Jordan Narrows Folder #1, Engineering Department, Utah Power and Light Co., Salt Lake City, Utah. INTERIOR VIEW, JULY 2, 1909. - Salt Lake City Water & Electrical Power Company, Jordan Narrows Hydroelectric Plant, Jordan River, Riverton, Salt Lake County, UT

  8. Application of Water Quality Model of Jordan River to Evaluate Climate Change Effects on Eutrophication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Grouw, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Jordan River is a 51 mile long freshwater stream in Utah that provides drinking water to more than 50% of Utah's population. The various point and nonpoint sources introduce an excess of nutrients into the river. This excess induces eutrophication that results in an inhabitable environment for aquatic life and is expected to be exacerbated due to climate change. Adaptive measures must be evaluated based on predictions of climate variation impacts on eutrophication and ecosystem processes in the Jordan River. A Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) model was created to analyze the data results acquired from a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) study conducted on the Jordan River. Eutrophication is modeled based on levels of phosphates and nitrates from point and nonpoint sources, temperature, and solar radiation. It will simulate the growth of phytoplankton and periphyton in the river. This model will be applied to assess how water quality in the Jordan River is affected by variations in timing and intensity of spring snowmelt and runoff during drought in the valley and the resulting effects on eutrophication in the river.

  9. Dissolved-oxygen regime of the Jordan River, Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the Jordan River in Salt Lake County decrease considerably as the river flows northward. Mean concentrations of dissolved oxygen decreased from 8.1 milligrams per liter at the Jordan Narrows to 4.7 milligrams per liter at 500 North Street during April 1981 to September 1982. Coincident with the decrease, the biochemical-oxygen demand increased from 5 to 7 milligrams per liter. About 50 percent of the dissolved-oxygen concentrations and 90 percent of the 5-day biochemical-oxygen demand measured downstream from 1700 South Street exceeded the State intended-use standards. An estimated 6. million pounds of oxygen-demanding substances as measured by 5-day biochemical-oxygen demand were discharged to the Jordan River during 1981 from point sources downstream from 9000 South Street. Seven wastewater-treatment plants contributed 77 percent of this load, nonstorm base flows contributed 22 percent, and storm flows less than 1 percent. The Surplus Canal diversion at 2100 South Street removed about 70 percent of this load, and travel time of about 1 day also decreased the actual effects of the load on the river. Reaeration rates during September and October were quite high (average K2 at 20 degrees Celsius was about 12 per day) between the Jordan Narrows and 9000 South Street, but they decreased to 2.4 per day in the reach from 1330 South to 1800 North Streets. (USGS)

  10. The origin and mechanisms of salinization of the Lower Jordan River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, A.; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Holtzman, R.; Segal, M.; Shavit, U.

    2004-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic (87Sr/86Sr, ??11B, ??34Ssulfate, ??18Owater, ??15Nnitrate) compositions of water from the Lower Jordan River and its major tributaries between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea were determined in order to reveal the origin of the salinity of the Jordan River. We identified three separate hydrological zones along the flow of the river: (1) A northern section (20 km downstream of its source) where the base flow composed of diverted saline and wastewaters is modified due to discharge of shallow sulfate-rich groundwater, characterized by low 87Sr/86Sr (0.7072), ??34Ssulfate (-2???), high ??11B (???36???), ??15Nnitrate (???15???) and high ??18Owater (-2 to-3???) values. The shallow groundwater is derived from agricultural drainage water mixed with natural saline groundwater and discharges to both the Jordan and Yarmouk rivers. The contribution of the groundwater component in the Jordan River flow, deduced from mixing relationships of solutes and strontium isotopes, varies from 20 to 50% of the total flow. (2) A central zone (20-50 km downstream from its source) where salt variations are minimal and the rise of 87Sr/86Sr and SO4/Cl ratios reflects predominance of eastern surface water flows. (3) A southern section (50-100 km downstream of its source) where the total dissolved solids of the Jordan River increase, particularly during the spring (70-80 km) and summer (80-100 km) to values as high as 11.1 g/L. Variations in the chemical and isotopic compositions of river water along the southern section suggest that the Zarqa River (87Sr/86Sr???0.70865; ??11B???25???) has a negligible affect on the Jordan River. Instead, the river quality is influenced primarily by groundwater discharge composed of sulfate-rich saline groundwater (Cl-=31-180 mM; SO4/Cl???0.2-0.5; Br/Cl???2-3??10-3; 87Sr/86Sr???0.70805; ??11B???30???; ??15Nnitrate ???17???, ??34Ssulfate=4-10???), and Ca-chloride Rift valley brines (Cl-=846-1500 mM; Br/Cl???6-8??10-3; 87Sr/86Sr???0

  11. Water-quality investigations of the Jordan River, Salt Lake County, Utah, 1980-82

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    Water-quality studies were conducted on the Jordan River, Utah, to investigate specific problems: dissolved oxygen, toxic substances, sanitary quality, and turbidity and suspended sediment. The dissolved oxygen decreased from 8 milligrams per liter at the Jordan Narrows to less than 5 milligrams per liter at 500 North Street. Chemical oxygen demand increased about 23 percent and biochemical oxygen demand increased 90 percent. Nearly 78 percent of the water samples analyzed for total mercury exceeded the State intended-use standard of 0.05 microgram per liter. Concentrations of ammonia, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc exceeded the standards periodically. The pesticides DDD, DDE, DDT, dieldrin, methoxychlor, and 2,4-D were occasionally detected in bottom materials. Most were present in quantities of less than 15 micrograms per kilogram. Concentrations of three indicator bacteria (total coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococcus) increased in a downstream direction. Concentrations of total coliform bacteria often exceeded 5,000 colonies per 100 milliliters and concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria often exceeded 2,000 colonies per 100 milliliters. The primary sources of turbidity in the Jordan River are Utah Lake and discharges from the wastewater-treatment plants. Large values of turbidity were measured at the Jordan Narrows with a summer mean value of 88 nephelometer turbidity units (NTU) and a winter mean value of 43 NTU. (USGS)

  12. Source detection in the Lower Jordan River - How to monitor the impossible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillel, Noa; Siebert, Christian; Licha, Tobias; Laronne, Jonathan B.

    2016-04-01

    The Lower Jordan River (LJR) is a major ecosystem in the semi-arid to arid Jordan-Dead Sea Graben, the backbone of abundant farming activities in the Lower Jordan Valley and the major inflow to the dying Dead Sea. During the 1960's the Sea of Galilee and the Yarmouk River, the main sources of the river, were dammed, decreasing its annual flow from ˜1.2×109 m3 to less than 0.2×109 m3, leaving a mix of point and non-point sources composing its base flow. Beside natural saline springs along its course, current day anthropogenic sources (e.g. sewage, agricultural return flow and fishpond effluents) have a negative impact on the water quality and the ecosystem, contributing high salinity and causing overall pollution. To enable an environmental assessment of the river and to satisfy the regulations of LJR international treaties, the temporal dynamics of water quantity and quality must be observed on a regular basis. As the LJR forms the highly secured border between Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian Authority, nearly the entire river course is physically inaccessible. To overcome that situation, considerable efforts have been made to install a network of 7 sampling stations along the LJR to identify and separate the different contributing sources. Automatic water samplers in three of the stations collect water daily in addition to continuous measurement of stage, EC, pH and temperature. Sensors at all locations transmit online real-time data. During monthly campaigns a total of 14 sites are manually sampled along the river and some tributaries. Water samples are analyzed for major ions, trace elements and stable isotopes. While the sensor network allows separating events occurring in different reaches along the river course and calculating travel time between stations, water sample analyses enable fingerprinting and separating the actual sources. By doing so, an unusual and very local event was recorded by the most southern station (5.5 km north of the Dead Sea

  13. Reconnaissance of toxic substances in the Jordan River, Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Kendall R.

    1984-01-01

    A reconnaissance of toxic substances in the Jordan River, Salt Lake County, Utah, was made during July, 1980 to October, 1982 as part of a larger study of the river that included studies of sanitary quality, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity. Samples for toxic substances were collected at five sites on the Jordan River, at three major tributaries, and at six storm drains. The toxic substance that most frequently exceeded State standards was total mercury. About 78 percent of the 138 samples for total mercury exceeded the State standard of 0.05 microgram per liter. Other toxic substances that exceeded State standards were: Ammonia-18 percent of the samples analyzed, cadmium--9 percent, copper-9 percent, zinc--6 percent, and lead--2 percent. One sample for cyanide and one for iron also exceeded State standards. The diversity of toxic substances with concentrations large enough to cause them to be problems increased from the upstream sampling site at the Jordan Narrows to the next two downstream sites at 9000 South and 5800 South Streets. Concentrations of trace elements in stream-bottom materials also increased in a downstream direction. Substantial increases first were observed at 5800 South Street, and they were sustained throughout the downstream study area. Iron is transported in the greatest quantity of all the trace elements studied, with a mean load of 110 pounds per day. Notable loads of barium, boron, lead , and zinc also are transported by the river. DDD, DDE, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor, methoxychlor, PCB, and 2,4-D were detected in bottom materials; and DDE, Silvex, and 2,4-D were detected in water samples. Of 112 organic compounds in the Environmental Protection Agency 's priority pollutant list, only chloroform was detected in the storm drains that empty into the Joran River. Several metals and phenol also were detected in the samples for priority pollutants. (USGS)

  14. Becoming Jordan's Writers: Developing Powerful Writing Instruction in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Christopher; DeLiddo, Emily

    2010-01-01

    The United States involvement in the Middle East has been prominent in our recent national history, sometimes clouded by myths and misrepresentations of the people of that region of the world. This article details the experiences of teacher-researchers working with teachers and students in Amman, Jordan, to develop powerful English writing…

  15. An assessment of using oil shale for power production in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.; Holcomb, R.S.; Petrich, C.H.; Roop, R.D.

    1990-11-01

    This report addresses the oil shale-for-power-production option in Jordan. Under consideration are 20- and 50-MW demonstration units and a 400-MW, commercial-scale plant with, at the 400-MW scale, a mining operation capable of supplying 7.8 million tonnes per year of shale fuel and also capable of disposal of up to 6.1 million tonnes per year of wetted ash. The plant would be a direct combustion facility, burning crushed oil shale through use of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. The report emphasizes four areas: (1) the need for power in Jordan, (2) environmental aspects of the proposed oil shale-for-power plant(s), (3) the engineering feasibility of using Jordan's oil shale in circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boiler, and (4) the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s). A sensitivity study was conducted to determine the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s) under different cost assumptions and revenue flows over the plant's lifetime. The sensitivity results are extended to include the major extra-firm benefits of the shale-for-power option: (1) foreign exchange savings from using domestic energy resources, (2) aggregate income effects of using Jordan's indigenous labor force, and (3) a higher level of energy security. 14 figs., 47 tabs.

  16. Sanitary quality of the Jordan River in Salt Lake County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    This investigation of the sanitary quality of the Jordan River was conducted from July 1980 to October 1982 using indicator bacteria rather than specific pathogens. A serious sanitary problem was identified. Concentrations of total coliform bacteria often exceeded 5,000 colonies per 100 milliliters and concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria often exceeded 2,000 colonies per 100 milliliters in the lower reaches of the river. At times these levels were greatly exceeded. The most conspicuous aspect of the bacteriological data is its extreme variability. Seven waste-water treatment plants, seven major tributaries, numerous storm conduits, irrigation-return flow, and other sources all contribute to the dynamic system that determines the sanitary quality of the river. Because of this variability the sanitary quality of the river cannot be predicted at any one time. In general, concentrations of all three indicator bacteria increased in a downstream direction. Storm runoff from urban areas contributed large concentrations of indicator bacteria to the river. Regression analysis of 9 years of data collected at 1700 South Street showed a significant positive correlation between both fecal coliform and fecal streptococcal concentrations versus time. Concentrations of fecal coliform and fecal streptococci have both been increasing since 1974 at 1700 South Street. (USGS)

  17. Source detection by chemical and isotopic means - the Lower Jordan River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillel, Noa; Geyer, Stefan; Khayat, Saed; Licha, Tobias; Laronne, Jonathan B.; Siebert, Christian

    2016-04-01

    During the past several decades the volume of freshwater carried by the Lower Jordan River (LJR) has been reduced by 90% due to damming of its main tributaries, leaving a mixed flow of polluted and brackish to saline water from anthropogenic and partly known geogenic sources. Since the river represents the highly secured border between Jordan, Israel and the West Bank, neither systematic nor long-term measurements were conducted in it. Only vague knowledge exists about the amount and composition of natural contributors and no knowledge concerning their temporal dynamics. However, since the river water is intensely used for irrigation along its course and represents the major source of water to the Dead Sea, the spatio-temporal variation of water discharge and chemistry are required for water resource assessment in the Lower Jordan Valley and the Dead Sea. To monitor the temporal variations of water discharge and hydrochemistry, an automatic sampler, including water level and EC sensors with real time transmission were installed at the Baptism site, a few kilometers upstream of the delta. Major ions are analyzed on a daily basis, while stable isotopes of sulfate (δ34S, δ18O), nitrate (δ15N, δ18O) and water (δ2H, δ18O) are analyzed on an event basis. A general inverse correlation between EC and water level was found although extreme high conductivity values relate to flood events during the wet period. Due to the high-resolution monitoring, a series of flood events could be observed, some having unusually high saline water. Results from Cl/Br, Na/Cl, Mg/Ca, δ34S allow separation and identification of sources: (i) the dissolution of evaporite minerals, abundant in the surrounding geological strata, (ii) sewage and (iii) brine springs. The continuous monitoring is an essential tool for understanding long-term processes and changes in such a dynamic system, and is crucial for identifying rarely occurring extreme flow events. However, a single sampling location is

  18. Evaluation of Managed Aquifer Recharge Scenarios using Treated Wastewater: a Case study of the Zarqa River Basin, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Rawy, Mustafa; Zlotnik, Vitaly; Al-Maktoumi, Ali; Al-Raggad, Marwan; Kacimov, Anvar; Abdalla, Osman

    2016-04-01

    Jordan is an arid country, facing great challenges due to limited water resources. The shortage of water resources constrains economy, especially agriculture that consumes the largest amount of available water (about 53 % of the total demand). According to the Jordan Water Strategy 2008 - 2022, groundwater is twice greater than the recharge rate. Therefore, the government charged the planners to consider treated wastewater (TWW) as a choice in the water resources management and development strategies. In Jordan, there are 31 TWW plants. Among them, As Samra plant serving the two major cities, Amman and Zarqa, is the largest, with projected maximum capacity of 135 Million m3/year. This plant is located upstream of the Zarqa River basin that accepts all TWW discharges. The Zarqa River is considered the most important source of surface water in Jordan and more than 78 % of its current is composed of TWW. The main objectives were to develop a conceptual model for a selected part of the Zarqa River basin, including the As Samrapant, and to provide insights to water resources management in the area using TWW. The groundwater flow model was developed using MODFLOW 2005 and used to assess changes in the aquifer and the Zarqa River under a set of different increments in discharge rates from the As Samra plant and different groundwater pumping rates. The results show that the water table in the study area underwent an average water table decline of 29 m prior to the As Samra plant construction, comparing with the current situation (with annual TWW discharge of 110 Million m3). The analysis of the TWW rate increase to 135 million m3/year (maximum capacity of the As Samra plant) shows that the average groundwater level will rise 0.55 m, compared to the current conditions. We found that the best practices require conjunctive use management of surface- and groundwater. The simulated scenarios highlight the significant role of TWW in augmenting the aquifer storage, improving

  19. Quantifying selected morphometric characteristics for Jordanian side of the Jordan river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Rukah, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The Jordanian part of the Jordan river basin is almost 3679.692 km2. The river flows within the Jordan Rift Valley, a structurally complicated region which is cover almost by Upper Cretaceous chalky marls, bituminous limestone and nodular limestone, while the Quaternary sediments are mainly fluvitile deposits and Lisan marls. Other deposits are Tertiary and Jurassic. The present study includes the selected drainage basin characteristics, part of these characteristics refer as primary characteristics measurements and the others are found and concluded from the primary drainage basin characteristics and name as calculated basin characteristics. The drainage pattern is mainly dendritic but in some part is shows parallel pattern but not very mature. To simplify the study more and based on the detailed analysis of the drainage selected characteristics of the study area using various techniques and both topographic and geologic maps, the Jordan river basin is furtherly divided into 10 sub basin. Keywords: Jordan side of Jordan River Basin, Drainage Basin Morphology (Primary Basin Characteristics measurements, Calculated Basin Characteristics), Jordan. Table (1): Combined (Primary + Calculated) Basin Characteristics, Based on Toposheets 1:50,000 and Equations. Code Name of Catchment Area TDA (km2) 1 NCDA (km2) 2 BL (km2) 3 BP (km2) Total 4 BS (m) area 5 BR (m) 6 CDA (km2) 7 BW (km2) 8 SF 9 A Wadi Arab 413.905 302.02 239.3 27.8 34.4 636 ♢111. 0.467 512.42 B Wadi Zeglab 130.039 95.23 95 15.7 25 966 32.81 0.37 256.26 C Wadi Jurum 84.62 50.28 61.6 22.4 36.36 400 34.34 ♢1.7 34.4 D Wadi Yabis 208.02 150.930 122.1 25.2 46.29 400 57.09 0.47 259.78 E Wadi Kufanga 214.564 189.953 120.9 19.3 41.66 123 26.61 0.22 549.55 F Wadi Rajib 405.6 374.23 118.5 29.5 37.33 1285 31.37 0.27 438.88 G Wadi Siel Ezzarqa 476.293 394.83 258.1 29 28.56 1277 81.46 0.32 806.56 H Wadi el Mallaha 554.251 485.1 ♢385 ♢35 ♢48.25 ♢1435 69.25 0.18 ♢2142.7 I Wadi Nimrin ♢601.9 ♢520.3 282.5 30

  20. Absorption and Mobility of Cr and Zn in Soil in the Vicinity of Jordan River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harfouche, M.; Ghrair, A. M.; Jaradat, D. M. M.; Aquilanti, G.; Jaber, R.; Aldrabee, A.; Sawai, N.

    2016-05-01

    Sediments from the basin of Jordan River are to some extent significantly contaminated by heavy metals. The goal of this study was to examine the nature of the heavy metals, their mobility, and their binding in the soil matrix in order to understand the accumulation mechanism. Exhaustive mineralogical and geochemical study on the heavy metals in the vicinity of the river will allow knowing the dominant forms of emitted metals. The structural local order around Cr and Zn in soil samples were investigated by analyzing XAFS data. Our investigations show that the coordination sphere, around both Cr and Zn, is constituted of oxygen atoms at an interatomic distance of ∼2 Å which is close to those in clay minerals. It is also shown that Cr(III) is the most dominating redox state in soil samples. Moreover, the next backscattering neighbors around Zn and Cr are either carbon or sulfur atoms which reveal a multiple and heterogeneous speciation of Cr and Zn with organic matter.

  1. Quantifying selected morphometric characteristics for Jordanian side of the Jordan river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Rukah, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The Jordanian part of the Jordan river basin is almost 3679.692 km2. The river flows within the Jordan Rift Valley, a structurally complicated region which is cover almost by Upper Cretaceous chalky marls, bituminous limestone and nodular limestone, while the Quaternary sediments are mainly fluvitile deposits and Lisan marls. Other deposits are Tertiary and Jurassic. The present study includes the selected drainage basin characteristics, part of these characteristics refer as primary characteristics measurements and the others are found and concluded from the primary drainage basin characteristics and name as calculated basin characteristics. The drainage pattern is mainly dendritic but in some part is shows parallel pattern but not very mature. To simplify the study more and based on the detailed analysis of the drainage selected characteristics of the study area using various techniques and both topographic and geologic maps, the Jordan river basin is furtherly divided into 10 sub basin. Keywords: Jordan side of Jordan River Basin, Drainage Basin Morphology (Primary Basin Characteristics measurements, Calculated Basin Characteristics), Jordan. Table (1): Combined (Primary + Calculated) Basin Characteristics, Based on Toposheets 1:50,000 and Equations. Code Name of Catchment Area TDA (km2) 1 NCDA (km2) 2 BL (km2) 3 BP (km2) Total 4 BS (m) area 5 BR (m) 6 CDA (km2) 7 BW (km2) 8 SF 9 A Wadi Arab 413.905 302.02 239.3 27.8 34.4 636 ♢111. 0.467 512.42 B Wadi Zeglab 130.039 95.23 95 15.7 25 966 32.81 0.37 256.26 C Wadi Jurum 84.62 50.28 61.6 22.4 36.36 400 34.34 ♢1.7 34.4 D Wadi Yabis 208.02 150.930 122.1 25.2 46.29 400 57.09 0.47 259.78 E Wadi Kufanga 214.564 189.953 120.9 19.3 41.66 123 26.61 0.22 549.55 F Wadi Rajib 405.6 374.23 118.5 29.5 37.33 1285 31.37 0.27 438.88 G Wadi Siel Ezzarqa 476.293 394.83 258.1 29 28.56 1277 81.46 0.32 806.56 H Wadi el Mallaha 554.251 485.1 ♢385 ♢35 ♢48.25 ♢1435 69.25 0.18 ♢2142.7 I Wadi Nimrin ♢601.9 ♢520.3 282.5 30

  2. Determination of flow losses in the Cape Fear River between B. Everett Jordan Lake and Lillington, North Carolina, 2008-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J. Curtis; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2013-01-01

    computations of discharge records that would indicate false flow losses. A total of 34 measured discharges at a streamgage on the Haw River below B. Everett Jordan Lake near Moncure were compared with the reported hourly flow releases from Jordan Lake Dam. Because 28 of 34 measurements were within plus or minus 10 percent of the hourly flow releases reported by the U.S Army Corps of Engineers, use of the current discharge computation tables for reporting Jordan Lake Dam flow releases is generally supported. A stage gage was operated on the Cape Fear River at Buckhorn Dam near Corinth to collect continuous stage-only records. Throughout the study period, flow over the dam was observed along its length, and flow loss within the study reach is not attributed to river-level fluctuations at the dam. Water-use information and (or) data were obtained for five industrial facilities, a regional power utility, two municipalities, one small hydropower facility on the Deep River, and one quarry operation also adjacent to the Deep River. The largest water users are the regional power producer, a small hydropower operation, and the two municipalities. The total water-use diversions for these facilities range from almost 25.5 to 38.5 cubic feet per second (39.5 to 59.5 million gallons per day) during the winter and summer periods, respectively. This range is equivalent to 69 to 104 percent of the 37 cubic feet per second median flow loss. The Lockville hydropower station is on the Deep River about 1 mile downstream from the streamgage near Moncure. Run-of-river operations at the facility do not appear to affect flow losses in the study reach. The largest water user in the study area is a regional power producer at a coal-fired power-generation plant located immediately adjacent to the Cape Fear River just downstream from the confluence of the Haw an Deep Rivers. Comparisons of daily water withdrawals, sup-plied by the regional power producer, and discharge records at a streamgage on the

  3. Determination of flow losses in the Cape Fear River between B. Everett Jordan Lake and Lillington, North Carolina, 2008-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J. Curtis; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2013-01-01

    computations of discharge records that would indicate false flow losses. A total of 34 measured discharges at a streamgage on the Haw River below B. Everett Jordan Lake near Moncure were compared with the reported hourly flow releases from Jordan Lake Dam. Because 28 of 34 measurements were within plus or minus 10 percent of the hourly flow releases reported by the U.S Army Corps of Engineers, use of the current discharge computation tables for reporting Jordan Lake Dam flow releases is generally supported. A stage gage was operated on the Cape Fear River at Buckhorn Dam near Corinth to collect continuous stage-only records. Throughout the study period, flow over the dam was observed along its length, and flow loss within the study reach is not attributed to river-level fluctuations at the dam. Water-use information and (or) data were obtained for five industrial facilities, a regional power utility, two municipalities, one small hydropower facility on the Deep River, and one quarry operation also adjacent to the Deep River. The largest water users are the regional power producer, a small hydropower operation, and the two municipalities. The total water-use diversions for these facilities range from almost 25.5 to 38.5 cubic feet per second (39.5 to 59.5 million gallons per day) during the winter and summer periods, respectively. This range is equivalent to 69 to 104 percent of the 37 cubic feet per second median flow loss. The Lockville hydropower station is on the Deep River about 1 mile downstream from the streamgage near Moncure. Run-of-river operations at the facility do not appear to affect flow losses in the study reach. The largest water user in the study area is a regional power producer at a coal-fired power-generation plant located immediately adjacent to the Cape Fear River just downstream from the confluence of the Haw an Deep Rivers. Comparisons of daily water withdrawals, sup-plied by the regional power producer, and discharge records at a streamgage on the

  4. Water demand management in Yemen and Jordan: addressing power and interests.

    PubMed

    Zeitoun, Mark; Allan, Tony; Al Aulaqi, Nasser; Jabarin, Amer; Laamrani, Hammou

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which entrenched interests of stakeholder groups both maintain water use practice, and may be confronted. The focus is on the agricultural sectors of Yemen and Jordan, where water resource policymakers face resistance in their attempts to reduce water use to environmentally sustainable levels through implementation of water demand management (WDM) activities. Some farmers in both countries that have invested in irrigated production of high-value crops (such as qat and bananas) benefit from a political economy that encourages increased rather than reduced water consumption. The resultant over-exploitation of water resources affects groups in unequal measures. Stakeholder analysis demonstrates that the more ‘powerful’ groups (chiefly the large landowners and the political elites, as well as the ministries of irrigation over which they exert influence) are generally opposed to reform in water use, while the proponents of WDM (e.g. water resource managers, environmental ministries and NGOs, and the international donor community) are found to have minimal influence over water use policy and decisionmaking. Efforts and ideas attempted by this latter group to challenge the status quo are classified here as either (a) influencing or (b) challenging the power asymmetry, and the merits and limits of both approaches are discussed. The interpretation of evidence suggests current practice is likely to endure, but may be more effectively challenged if a long-term approach is taken with an awareness of opportunities generated by windows of opportunity and the participation of ‘overlap groups’. PMID:22413173

  5. Water demand management in Yemen and Jordan: addressing power and interests.

    PubMed

    Zeitoun, Mark; Allan, Tony; Al Aulaqi, Nasser; Jabarin, Amer; Laamrani, Hammou

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which entrenched interests of stakeholder groups both maintain water use practice, and may be confronted. The focus is on the agricultural sectors of Yemen and Jordan, where water resource policymakers face resistance in their attempts to reduce water use to environmentally sustainable levels through implementation of water demand management (WDM) activities. Some farmers in both countries that have invested in irrigated production of high-value crops (such as qat and bananas) benefit from a political economy that encourages increased rather than reduced water consumption. The resultant over-exploitation of water resources affects groups in unequal measures. Stakeholder analysis demonstrates that the more ‘powerful’ groups (chiefly the large landowners and the political elites, as well as the ministries of irrigation over which they exert influence) are generally opposed to reform in water use, while the proponents of WDM (e.g. water resource managers, environmental ministries and NGOs, and the international donor community) are found to have minimal influence over water use policy and decisionmaking. Efforts and ideas attempted by this latter group to challenge the status quo are classified here as either (a) influencing or (b) challenging the power asymmetry, and the merits and limits of both approaches are discussed. The interpretation of evidence suggests current practice is likely to endure, but may be more effectively challenged if a long-term approach is taken with an awareness of opportunities generated by windows of opportunity and the participation of ‘overlap groups’.

  6. Structural control on the evolution of groundwater quality for B2A7 aquifer in the area extending from Ajlun to Yarmouk river in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raggad, Marwan; Salameh, Elias; Magri, Fabien; Muller, Peter; Siebert, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater flow in the Northwestern highlands of Jordan is controlled y the Ajlun Heights were groundwater flows towards north and west along the Yarmouk river and the Jordan Valley. Due to water rock interactions, groundwater that discharges in the Jordan Valley and along the Yarmuk River is thermal, radioactive and mineralized. Its total dissolved solids especially in the confined parts of the aquifer. Electrical conductivity of groundwater in the unconfined aquifer of B2A7 ranges between 500 to 700 µs/cm and increases up to 1600 µs/cm towards the confined part of the aquifer with a notable increase in Na and Cl towards the discharge areas. According to the chloride content in the groundwater the evaporation in the recharge areas is considered to be high representing 82% of the total rainfall. Groundwaters are classified as calcium bicarbonate types with Mg/Ca ratios varying from 0.11 to1.21 and Na/Cl ratio in the range of 0.49 to 1.85. The chemical evolution of groundwater from Ajlun Heights toward Jordan Valley and Yarmouk River is marked by a progressive decrease in calcium and bicarbonate with increase of sodium, and chloride due to halite dissolution and upward percolation of deep saline groundwater. The 3D modeling for the aquifer system indicated the rule of geologic structure in the groundwater digenesis through upward and downward leakage enhanced along high permeability lineaments. According to the modeled water budget, the inflow to the upper B2A7 Aquifer 54 *106 m3/yr replenishing the B2A7 system as underground flow in the karstic limestone of the vadose zone. The underground discharge to the Yarmouk River and Jordan valley modeled to be 23.2 *106 m3/yr as underflow to the springs. The leakage from B2A7 aquifer into the lower aquifer is about 9.7 *106 m3/yr. Within the north western lowered elevations the hydraulic different between upper and deep aquifers is at minimum an upward leakage and seems to take place through the main faults trending EW

  7. Effectiveness of an electrical barrier in blocking a sea lamprey spawning migration on the Jordan River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swink, William D.

    1999-01-01

    Mark-recapture studies indicated that a pulsed-DC electrical barrier set to a 2-ms pulse width and 10 pulses/s completely blocked the spawning migration of sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus in the Jordan River, Michigan. Capture efficiency of fyke nets averaged 24% for four groups, about 300 tagged sea lampreys each, released upstream of the barrier; no unmarked sea lampreys and none of the 1,194 sea lampreys tagged and released downstream of the barrier were captured in the fyke nets while the barrier was energized. At a lower pulsator setting (1-ms pulse width; 10 pulses/s), 1 of 900 sea lampreys released below the barrier was recaptured in the nets. Sea lampreys from downstream were captured in the fyke nets after the barrier was de-energized, indicating that the barrier should remain in operation later than mid-July. Both sea lampreys and teleosts exposed to the electrical field were stunned but exhibited no apparent damage at either barrier setting. The pulsed-DC electrical barrier should help reduce the use of chemical lampricides for controlling sea lampreys in some Great Lakes streams and would be particularly suited for streams where even the smallest low-head barrier would create an unacceptably large impoundment.

  8. Multi-disciplinary modeling, in stratigraphy and groundwater stratigraphy of the Jordan River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anker, Yaakov; Rosenthal, Eliahu; Shulman, Haim; Flexer, Akiva

    2009-03-01

    , furthermore, two evaporates bodies were encountered (Auja and Zaharat el Qurein), also acting as sources for fresh water salinization. (c) Although the quantity of runoff recharge to the Jordan Valley aquifer complex is negligible, the increase in its salt-content (TDS) turns this negligible freshwater recharge to a significant contributor of salts.

  9. 77 FR 26541 - Alabama Power Company; Notice of Application for Amendment of License Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... Request: Due to drought conditions in the Coosa River basin, Alabama Power proposes to release from Jordan.... d. Applicant: Alabama Power Company. e. Name of Project: Jordan Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On the Coosa River, in Elmore, Chilton and Coosa Counties, Alabama. g. Filed Pursuant to:...

  10. Mapping Ecosystem Services in the Jordan Valley, Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luz, Ana; Marques, Ana; Ribeiro, Inês; Alho, Maria; Catarina Afonso, Ana; Almeida, Erika; Branquinho, Cristina; Talozi, Samer; Pinho, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade researchers started using ecosystem services as a new framework to understand the relationships between environment and society. Habitat quality and water quality are related with ecosystem services regulation and maintenance, or even provision. According to the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) both habitat quality and water quality are associated with lifecycle maintenance, habitat and gene pool protection, and water conditions, among others. As there is increased pressure on habitats and rivers especially for agricultural development, mapping and evaluating habitat and water quality has important implications for resource management and conservation, as well as for rural development. Here, we model and map habitat and water quality in the Jordan Valley, Jordan. In this study, we aim to identify and analyse ecosystem services both through 1) habitat quality and 2) water quality modelling using InVest, an integrated valuation of ecosystem services and tradeoffs. The data used in this study mainly includes the LULC, Jordan River watershed and main threats and pollutants in the study area, such as agriculture, industry, fish farms and urbanization. Results suggest a higher pressure on natural habitats in the Northern region of the Jordan Valley, where industry is dominant. Agriculture is present along the Jordan Valley and limits the few natural forested areas. Further, water pollution is mainly concentrated in disposal sites due to the low flow of the Jordan River. Our results can help to identify areas where natural resources and water resource management is most needed in the Jordan Valley. Acknowledgements: Transbasin FP7 project

  11. 33 CFR 207.310 - Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co. 207.310 Section 207.310 Navigation and Navigable... Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co. (a) All...

  12. 77 FR 2288 - Free Flow Power Corporation and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC... by Free Flow Power Corporation for Project No. 12817-002, and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC.... Davis, Sr., Deputy Secretary. BILLING CODE 6717-01-P...

  13. 76 FR 53437 - Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Competing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation; Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... Intervene, and Competing Applications August 18, 2011. On January 11, 2011, Free Flow Power Corporation (Free Flow) and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC (Northland) filed preliminary permit...

  14. 33 CFR 207.310 - Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co. 207.310 Section 207.310 Navigation and Navigable... Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co. (a) All previous... the dam until further orders: (b) Excepting as specially provided in this section the normal flow...

  15. 33 CFR 207.310 - Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co. 207.310 Section 207.310 Navigation and Navigable... Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co. (a) All previous... the dam until further orders: (b) Excepting as specially provided in this section the normal flow...

  16. New River Geothermal Exploration (Ram Power Inc.)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Miller, Clay

    2013-11-15

    The New River Geothermal Exploration (DOE Award No. EE0002843) is located approximately 25km south of the Salton Sea, near town of Brawley in Imperial County and approximately 150km east of San Diego, California. A total of 182 MT Logger sites were completed covering the two separate Mesquite and New River grids. The data was collected over a frequency range of 320Hz to 0.001Hz with variable site spacing. A number of different inversion algorithms in 1D, 2D and 3D were used to produce resistivity-depth profiles and maps of subsurface resistivity variations over the survey area. For 2D inversions, a total of eighteen lines were constructed in east-west and north-south orientations crossing the entire survey area. For MT 3D inversion, the New River property was divided in two sub-grids, Mesquite and New River areas. The report comprises of two parts. For the first part, inversions and geophysical interpretation results are presented with some recommendations of the potential targets for future follow up on the property. The second part of the report describes logistics of the survey, survey parameters, methodology and the survey results (data) in digital documents. The report reviews a Spartan MT survey carried out by Quantec Geoscience Limited over the New River Project in California, USA on behalf of Ram Power Inc. Data was acquired over a period of 29 days from 2010/06/26 to 2010/07/24.

  17. Hub River: A private power prototype. [Independent Power Production

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, J.L.

    1992-10-01

    This article examines the challenges of financing an independent power project in a developing country. The oil-fired plant is to be located on the Hub River in Baluchistan on the Arabian Sea coast. The topics of the article include a description of the team that put the project together, the financing plans, the risk in the face of political unrest and change of governments, and the beginning of construction of the project.

  18. Special Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief background about special education system in Jordan and particularly describes the present types of programmes and legislation provided within the country to students with special needs, as well as integration movement. Jordan has historically provided a limited number of educational opportunities…

  19. MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MIDDLE GORGE POWER PLANT, OWENS RIVER STREAM FLOWING OVER TAIL RACE OF POWER PLANT AND PENSTOCK HEADGATE TO LOWER GORGE CONTROL PLANT. A MINIMAL FLOW OF RIVER WATER IS REQUIRED TO MAINTAIN FISH LIFE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Middle Gorge Power Plant, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. Cancer care in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Razeq, Hikmat; Attiga, Fadwa; Mansour, Asem

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in Jordan after cardiovascular diseases. Due to increase in life expectancy and prolonged exposure to risk factors, cancer mortality and morbidity are expected to increase as the young population ages. This increase will constitute a challenging burden on healthcare systems in Jordan and many other neighboring countries. Planning is key to managing the expected rise in the demand for cancer care, and this will require public health initiatives to guarantee access to quality cancer care. Over the past decade, cancer care in Jordan has witnessed remarkable improvement through access to advanced diagnostics and therapeutics. In this review, we address the history of cancer care in Jordan, including cancer statistics, infrastructure, workforce as well as cancer care outcomes. We also discuss many of the challenges that we face and offer suggestions for the improvement of cancer management in Jordan and the region.

  1. 33 CFR 207.310 - Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accessories, as follows: Sec. 2. That the withdrawal of water from the Mississippi River and the discharge of water into the said river, for the purpose of operating the said power stations and appurtenant works... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mississippi River at Keokuk,...

  2. 33 CFR 207.310 - Mississippi River at Keokuk, Iowa; operation of power dam by Mississippi River Power Co.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accessories, as follows: Sec. 2. That the withdrawal of water from the Mississippi River and the discharge of water into the said river, for the purpose of operating the said power stations and appurtenant works... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mississippi River at Keokuk,...

  3. 77 FR 3761 - Free Flow Power Corporation, Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Free Flow Power Corporation, Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice..., the order of priority is as follows: 1. Free Flow Power Corporation; Project No. 12817-002. 2..., Sr., Deputy Secretary. BILLING CODE 6717-01-P...

  4. Comment on the Jordan-Brands-Dicke universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz-Petzold, D.

    1987-06-01

    It is shown that the recently obtained Jordan-Brans-Dicke solutions by Chauvet and Guzmán (1986) are either inconsistent, or only special power-law solutions derived previously by Lorenz-Petzold in various papers.

  5. 29. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. PLAN FOR POWER HOUSE, SANTA ANA RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. PLAN FOR POWER HOUSE, SANTA ANA RIVER P. H. NO. 3, JUNE 23, 1943; REVISIONS, MAR. 14, 1945 AND MAY 17, 1954. SCE drawing no. 523219-2. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. 48. MAP OF SANTA ANA RIVER POWER PLANT NO. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. MAP OF SANTA ANA RIVER POWER PLANT NO. 2 OF THE EDISON ELECTRIC CO. THROUGH UNSURVEYED LAND IN THE SAN BERNARDINO FOREST RESERVE, APPROVED MAY 26, 1904, F. C. FINKLE, CHIEF HYDRAULIC ENGINEER. SCE drawing no. 53988. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. Hydro power plants on the Middle Sava River section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryžanowski, A.; Horvat, A.; Brilly, M.

    2008-11-01

    Construction of a chain of hydro power plants is planned on the Sava River from Medvode to the Slovenian-Croatian border which will, apart from the chain of HPPs on the Drava River, represent the linchpin of renewable energy production within the Slovenian power system. The mentioned chain of HPPs will also be one of the country's main renewable energy sources that can still be developed for power generation. Three hydro power plants, Moste, Mavčciče and Medvode, are already operating on the Upper Sava River section. Construction of the chain is underway in the lower part of the stream where Vrhovo and Bošstanj HPPs are already in operation; HPP Blanca is under construction and the site planning procedures are taking place for Krško, Brežice and Mokrice HPPs. The planned HPPs on the Middle Sava River section between Medvode and Zidani most will connect the HPPs on the Upper and Lower Sava River into a closed chain which will operate on the principle of run-of-river type power plants with daily storage. Completion of all stages will enable optimal development of available hydro potential. Apart from the energy effects, also other beneficial effects of hydro power plant construction in the region can be expected: flood protection; better water supply; waste water treatment; development of transport and energy networks as well as positive economic and social effects.

  8. Consanguineous marriage in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Khoury, S A; Massad, D

    1992-07-15

    We conducted a population-based study of consanguineous marriages in Jordan. About two thousand households were interviewed. First cousin marriages were encountered in 32.03%, second cousin in 6.8%, distant relation in 10.5%, and no relation in 50% of all marriages, respectively. Inbreeding coefficients were compared with those of other countries. The most important variables affecting inbreeding were social tradition, religion, education, and place of residence--urban vs. rural. Secular trends appear rather stable since the early decades of the twentieth century, especially for first cousin marriages. Jordan society showed a deeply rooted traditional behavioral pattern when inbreeding is considered.

  9. 77 FR 52709 - Loup River Public Power District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Loup River Public Power District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing..., 2012. d. Applicant: Loup River Public Power District (Loup Power District). e. Name of Project: Loup River Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The existing project is located on the Loup River, Loup...

  10. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

    The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  11. Physiological training in Jordan.

    PubMed

    al-Wedyan, I A; Shahin, B H; Abu Ghosh, H M; al-Aqqad, S S; al-Qura'an, M S

    1996-09-01

    The hypobaric chamber is designed as a teaching aid in providing orientation for some of the physiological stresses in flight. Reactions during chamber training vary from mild ear block to neurocirculatory collapse. This is a retrospective study on reactions from 1986-94 in the hypobaric chamber training unit at King Hussien Medical Centre in Jordan; 39 cases were reported among 705 trainees in a 12-person rectangular hypobaric chamber. We analyzed the various reactions according to type, severity and altitude of occurrence. The most common reactions were found to be ear block (65%) and sinus block (25%). These were treated on the spot and followed for 48 h without sequelae. We did not have any moderate or severe reaction; we found that all reactions were minor, which reflects the efficacy of safety measures taken prior to and during training.

  12. Geophysical investigations in Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovach, R.L.; Andreasen, G.E.; Gettings, M.E.; El-Kaysi, K.

    1990-01-01

    A number of geophysical investigations have been undertaken in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to provide data for understanding the tectonic framework, the pattern of seismicity, earthquake hazards and geothermal resources of the country. Both the historical seismic record and the observed recent seismicity point to the dominance of the Dead Sea Rift as the main locus of seismic activity but significant branching trends and gaps in the seismicity pattern are also seen. A wide variety of focal plane solutions are observed emphasizing the complex pattern of fault activity in the vicinity of the rift zone. Geophysical investigations directed towards the geothermal assessment of the prominent thermal springs of Zerga Ma'in and Zara are not supportive of the presence of a crustal magmatic source. ?? 1990.

  13. 76 FR 5216 - Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background... authorizes operation of the Crystal River ] Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant (Crystal River). The license... under 10 CFR 55.11 from the schedule requirements of 10 CFR 55.59. Specifically for Crystal River,...

  14. 77 FR 58125 - American River Power, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ..., 2012, American River Power, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit under section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act proposing to study the feasibility of the Brookville Hydroelectric Water Power Project... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit...

  15. "Interior Views of the Tule River Power HouseUpper, Main Gate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Interior Views of the Tule River Power House--Upper, Main Gate Valve, Governor, Waterwheel and Generator of No. 1 Set; Lower, View Looking Down upon Generator Set." San Joaquin Light and Power Magazine, Vol. II, No. 3, March 1914, p. 122 - Tule River Hydroelectric Complex, CA Highway 190 at North Fork of Middle Fork of Tule River, Springville, Tulare County, CA

  16. Autonomous solutions for powering wireless sensor nodes in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenar, E.; Maćešić, S.; Gregov, G.; Blažević, D.; Zelenika, S.; Marković, K.; Glažar, V.

    2015-05-01

    There is an evident need for monitoring pollutants and/or other conditions in river flows via wireless sensor networks. In a typical wireless sensor network topography, a series of sensor nodes is to be deployed in the environment, all wirelessly connected to each other and/or their gateways. Each sensor node is composed of active electronic devices that have to be constantly powered. In general, batteries can be used for this purpose, but problems may occur when they have to be replaced. In the case of large networks, when sensor nodes can be placed in hardly accessible locations, energy harvesting can thus be a viable powering solution. The possibility to use three different small-scale river flow energy harvesting principles is hence thoroughly studied in this work: a miniaturized underwater turbine, a so-called `piezoelectric eel' and a hybrid turbine solution coupled with a rigid piezoelectric beam. The first two concepts are then validated experimentally in laboratory as well as in real river conditions. The concept of the miniaturised hydro-generator is finally embedded into the actual wireless sensor node system and its functionality is confirmed.

  17. 77 FR 25997 - Loup River Public Power District; Notice of Application Tendered For Filing With the Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Loup River Public Power District; Notice of Application Tendered For Filing....: 1256-031. c. Date Filed: April 16, 2012. d. Applicant: Loup River Public Power District (Loup Power District). e. Name of Project: Loup River Hydroelectric Project (Loup River Project). f. Location: On...

  18. Circassian Language Maintenance in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rannut, Ulle

    2009-01-01

    The central goal of this research is to explore the language policy aspects in Jordan by focusing on the Circassian language maintenance issues and to provide measures for language revitalisation in the current demographic, linguistic and political situation. Research is based on multiple sources of information, but primarily on the empirical data…

  19. Controls on morphological variability and role of stream power distribution pattern, Yamuna River, western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bawa, Nupur; Jain, Vikrant; Shekhar, Shashank; Kumar, Niraj; Jyani, Vikas

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the controls on the morphological variability of river systems constitutes one of the fundamental questions in geomorphic investigation. Channel morphology is an important indicator of river processes and is of significance for mapping the hydrology-ecologic connectivity in a river system and for predicting the future trajectory of river health in response to external forcings. This paper documents the spatial morphological variability and its natural and anthropogenic controls for the Yamuna River, a major tributary of the Ganga River, India. The Yamuna River runs through a major urban centre i.e. Delhi National Capital Region. The Yamuna River was divided into eight geomorphically distinct reaches on the basis of the assemblages of geomorphic units and the association of landscape, valley and floodplain settings. The morphological variability was analysed through stream power distribution and sediment load data at various stations. Stream power distribution of the Yamuna River basin is characterised by a non-linear pattern that was used to distinguish (a) high energy ‘natural' upstream reaches, (b) ‘anthropogenically altered', low energy middle stream reaches, and (c) ‘rejuvenated' downstream reaches again with higher stream power. The relationship between stream power and channel morphology in these reaches was integrated with sediment load data to define the maximum flow efficiency (MFE) as the threshold for geomorphic transition. This analysis supports the continuity of river processes and the significance of a holistic, basin-scale approach rather than isolated local scale analysis in river studies.

  20. Power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veitzer, S.A.; Troutman, B.M.; Gupta, V.K.

    2003-01-01

    The significance of power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins was discussed. The convergence to a power law was not observed for all underlying distributions, but for a large class of statistical distributions with specific limiting properties. The article also discussed about the scaling properties of topologic and geometric network properties in river basins.

  1. 77 FR 2288 - FFP Project 7, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 7, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... by FFP Project 7, LLC for Project No. 12851-002, and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC...

  2. 77 FR 2289 - FFP Project 33, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 33, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... filed by FFP Project 33, LLC for Project No. 12924- 002, and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC...

  3. 77 FR 2288 - FFP Project 21, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 21, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... Project 21, LLC for Project No. 12863-002, and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC for Project No....

  4. Establishment of environmental management program at Jordan Electricity Authority

    SciTech Connect

    Reuber, B.; Barker, D.; Bourbonniere, M.

    1996-12-31

    Network of Expertise for the Global Environment, a group representing 8 of the world`s leading electric utilities, in partnership with Jordan Electricity Authority (JEA), the national electric utility in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, completed a project to establish an environmental management program at JEA. The project had two objectives: (1) to assist JEA in setting up an environmental management system to deal with environmental issues and to ensure compliance with regulations and standards, and (2) to conduct an environmental effects review at Jordan`s two largest electric generating facilities. The first objective was addressed by linking environmental issues at JEA, as determined by the environmental effects review, interviews and reports, to the draft ISO 14001 environmental management system specification. Use of ISO 14001 provided an internationally accepted standard that will assist JEA in fulfilling requirements of funding agencies. Seminars on environmental awareness and environmental auditing were delivered to support implementation of the environmental management system. The environmental effects review applied environmental auditing techniques to review environmental effects of JEA`s thermal power stations. The review provided a clear assessment of priorities for action as JEA established an environmental management program. A technical report and seminar on management of air emissions-immissions, a priority issue for JEA, were provided to complement the review.

  5. Water-power resources of Crystal River, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Fred Forrest

    1953-01-01

    The Crystal River drains the western slope of the Elk Mountains, a relatively small range in the southern Rocky Mountain province, and flows into the Roaring Fork 13 miles southeast of Glenwood Springs, Colo. The lower 7 miles of the valley is cultivated, but upstream from this stretch the valley is narrow and is used mainly for summer grazing and recreation. Above the mouth of Thompson Creek, numerous dam sites are available, but the narrow valley and steep gradient do not favor storage for regulation of streamflow. The potential power from the natural flow of the stream in an average year is estimated to be 4,750 kilowatts for 95 percent of the time; 5,102 kw for 90 percent of the time; 10,570 kw for 50 percent of the time; and 36,940 kw at mean flow. Using the regulated flow resulting from the utilization of reservoirs at Marble and Redstone, the potential power is estimated to be 26,510 kw for 90 percent of the time and 27,810 kw for 50 percent of the time.

  6. Congenital hemorrhagic disorders in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Awidi, A S

    1984-07-29

    The results of a three year prospective study of inherited bleeding syndromes in Jordan is presented. There were 112 patients from 64 families. Of these there were 42 patients with hemophilia A, 23 with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia, 22 with von Willebrand's disease, 11 with Christmas disease, 6 with hypofibrinogenemia, 3 with afibrinogenemia, 2 with factor XIII deficiency, 2 with storage pool disease and 1 with factor XI deficiency. The pattern of inherited bleeding syndromes in Jordan is different from that seen in Europe and U.S.A. in that Glanzmann's thrombasthenia is very common. High proportion of hemophiliacs were severe. Arthropathy was common. A significant number of bleeders had fatal hemorrhage. In a high proportion of patients, no family history of bleeding was found.

  7. 77 FR 41783 - American River Power VI, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Water Power Project No. 14392, to be located at the existing La Grange Dam on the Illinois River, near... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power VI, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, the American River Power VI, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit under section...

  8. 77 FR 41782 - American River Power VIII, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Hydroelectric Water Power Project No. 14391, to be located at the existing Upper Appleton Dam on the Fox River... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power VIII, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, American River Power VIII, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit under section...

  9. 76 FR 58261 - American River Power I, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... Chute, Ohio--Water Power No. 14258 to be located at the existing Luke Chute Lock and Dam on the... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power I, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, American River Power I, LLC (American River) filed an application for a preliminary...

  10. 77 FR 41783 - American River Power VII, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... Hydroelectric Water Power Project No. 14389, to be located at the existing Lower Appleton Dam on the Fox River... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power VII, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, American River Power VII, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit under section 4(f)...

  11. 76 FR 58262 - American River Power I, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ..., Ohio--Water Power Project No. 14257 to be located at the existing Ellis Ohio Lock Dam No. 11 on the... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power I, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, American River Power I, LLC (American River) filed an application for a preliminary...

  12. 77 FR 34032 - American River Power III, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... Water Power Project No. 14375, to be located at the existing Dillon Lake Dam on the Licking River, near... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power III, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, the American River Power III, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit under section...

  13. Jordan: communities and community genetics.

    PubMed

    Hamamy, Hanan; Al-Hait, Sana; Alwan, Aladin; Ajlouni, Kamel

    2007-01-01

    The population in Jordan mounted from half a million in 1952 to 5.3 millions in 2004 and is composed of a variety of ethnic groups, the majority being Arabs. Couples nowadays tend to have fewer children, with the total fertility rate falling from 7.4 in 1976 to 3.7 in 2004. Consanguineous marriages are traditionally favored, with the preferred marriage partner being the offspring of the father's brother. First-cousin marriages declined from 28.5% for marriages contracted between 1950 and 1979 to 19.5% for marriages contracted after 1980. In the overall population, carrier rates for beta-thalassemia, alpha-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia are in the range of 2-4%, 3.2-12% of males have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and the prevalences for familial Mediterranean fever and cystic fibrosis were estimated at around 0.04% each. A mandatory premarital screening program for beta-thalassemia carriers commenced in June 2004. The high consanguinity rate and the large family size in Jordan have contributed to the description of a number of rare and new autosomal recessive conditions. Genetic services in Jordan are still scarce and do not cover all the country due to the major impediments of a paucity of resources and trained health professionals in the area of medical genetics. The demographic data suggest that the health system in Jordan is capable of introducing some basic community genetic services into the primary health care program through comprehensive and cost-effective programs.

  14. 77 FR 68757 - Clean River Power MR-1, LLC; Clean River Power MR-2, LLC; Clean River Power MR-3, LLC; Clean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... analysis at this time. n. The proposed Beverly Lock and Dam Water Power Project would be located on the... 17,853 megawatt-hours (MWh). The proposed Devola Lock and Dam Water Power Project would be located at... Dam Water Power Project would be located at RM 13.6, and consist of the following new facilities:...

  15. 76 FR 53972 - Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit No. 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit No. 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of..., publicly available documents at the NRC's PDR, O1-F21, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike... Facility Operating License No. DPR-72 for Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear generating Plant (CR-3),...

  16. 76 FR 54765 - Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... generating units installed in a matrix on the bottom of the river; (2) the total capacity of the installation would be up to 100,000 kilowatts; (3) shielded underwater cables would convey each matrix power to...

  17. The geochemistry of groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley: The impact of the Rift Valley brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, A.; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Polak, A.; Shavit, U.

    2007-01-01

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the Jordan Valley, along the section between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is investigated in order to evaluate the origin of the groundwater resources and, in particular, to elucidate the role of deep brines on the chemical composition of the regional groundwater resources in the Jordan Valley. Samples were collected from shallow groundwater in research boreholes on two sites in the northern and southern parts of the Jordan Valley, adjacent to the Jordan River. Data is also compiled from previous published studies. Geochemical data (e.g., Br/Cl, Na/Cl and SO4/Cl ratios) and B, O, Sr and S isotopic compositions are used to define groundwater groups, to map their distribution in the Jordan valley, and to evaluate their origin. The combined geochemical tools enabled the delineation of three major sources of solutes that differentially affect the quality of groundwater in the Jordan Valley: (1) flow and mixing with hypersaline brines with high Br/Cl (>2 ?? 10-3) and low Na/Cl (<0.8) ratios; (2) dissolution of highly soluble salts (e.g., halite, gypsum) in the host sediments resulting in typically lower Br/Cl signal (<2 ?? 10-3); and (3) recharge of anthropogenic effluents, primarily derived from evaporated agricultural return flow that has interacted (e.g., base-exchange reactions) with the overlying soil. It is shown that shallow saline groundwaters influenced by brine mixing exhibit a north-south variation in their Br/Cl and Na/Cl ratios. This chemical trend was observed also in hypersaline brines in the Jordan valley, which suggests a local mixing process between the water bodies. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 77 FR 25158 - Loup River Public Power District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Loup River Public Power District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing....: 1256-031. c. Date Filed: April 16, 2012. d. Applicant: Loup River Public Power District (Loup Power... counties, Nebraska. The project does not occupy federal lands. g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act,...

  19. Assessing power of large river fish monitoring programs to detect population changes: the Missouri River sturgeon example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Holan, S.H.; Bryan, J.L.; Gladish, D.W.; Ellersieck, M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, the US Army Corps of Engineers initiated the Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program (PSPAP) to monitor pallid sturgeon and the fish community of the Missouri River. The power analysis of PSPAP presented here was conducted to guide sampling design and effort decisions. The PSPAP sampling design has a nested structure with multiple gear subsamples within a river bend. Power analyses were based on a normal linear mixed model, using a mixed cell means approach, with variance estimates from the original data. It was found that, at current effort levels, at least 20 years for pallid and 10 years for shovelnose sturgeon is needed to detect a 5% annual decline. Modified bootstrap simulations suggest power estimates from the original data are conservative due to excessive zero fish counts. In general, the approach presented is applicable to a wide array of animal monitoring programs.

  20. 78 FR 3458 - Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3, Draft Environmental Assessment Related to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3, Draft Environmental Assessment Related to the Proposed License Amendment To Increase the Maximum Reactor Power Level AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft environmental assessment...

  1. 75 FR 13320 - Florida Power Corporation, et al., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13967). There will be no change to radioactive effluents that affect radiation... [Part 73, Power Reactor Security Requirements, 74 FR 13926, 13967 (March 27, 2009)]. The licensee... COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, et al., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant;...

  2. 77 FR 2287 - FFP Project 40, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 40, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice... applications were filed by FFP Project 40, LLC for Project No. 12929-002, and Northland Power Mississippi...

  3. Securing the Value of the Federal Columbia River Power System, Keeping Current, June 1998, Issue 98.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-06-01

    This report focuses on issues which will enhance the value of the Columbia River for the future. Many important decisions must be made about the Bonneville Power Administration in the coming months. These issues include the following: cost management; future fish and wildlife funding; power markets, revenues and subscription; transmission issues; and risk management.

  4. 75 FR 70226 - Clean River Power 16, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    .... On October 22, 2010, Clean River Power 16, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act, proposing to study the feasibility of the Kitano Water... Energy Regulatory Commission Clean River Power 16, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...

  5. 77 FR 34033 - American River Power IX, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ...--Hydroelectric Water Power Project (Peoria Dam Project or project) to be located at the U.S. Army Corps of... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power IX, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, American River Power IX, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section...

  6. Power of Streams and Power of Management: How Community and Fluvial Science Work Together for Massachusetts Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, C. E.; Mabee, S. B.; Slovin, N. B.; Vogel, E.; Gartner, J. D.; Gillett, N.; Warner, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    In the Northeastern U.S., the most costly damages from intense storm events were impacts to road-stream crossings. In steep post-glacial terrain, erosion by floodwater and entrained sediment is the largest destructive force during intense storms, and the most likely driver of major morphological changes to riverbanks and channels. Steam power analysis is a tool that can successfully quantify floodwater energy that caused damage afterward, however, prediction of which reaches or watersheds may experience future impacts remains uncertain. We must better determine how states with thousands of river miles may better prioritize flood mitigation studies, crossing replacements, or other infrastructure upgrades for future flood resilience within resource constraints. This challenged us to develop a statewide-scale scientific method for screening waterways and translating the results into effective policies for river corridor management. Here we present a method based on stream power analysis using widely-available 10-m DEMs and stream flow data to identify locations with extreme high or low stream power values (i.e., >300 W⁄m2 or <60 W⁄m2) or abrupt changes in these values. We used this information to identify potential areas of erosion or deposition in the Deerfield River watershed in Massachusetts and Vermont, then compared it to areas where damage occurred during Tropical Storm Irene. We show that areas of increasing (with respect to distance downstream) and high stream power are prone to landslides, bank failures, and other pulse sediment inputs in flood events. These are also the focal points of wood input to rivers, which combined with increased sediment load, makes culverts in these reaches especially prone to failure. Integration of this information into state databases allows communities to prioritize and make land-use decisions that are informed by the fluvial geomorphic workings of the larger watershed, but that have powerful local implications. Outreach and

  7. River resort owners find LPG a power behind their success

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a restaurant and resort which runs entirely on LPG. It has two generators converted to LPG that supply the power for the complex. Energy supplied from the propane is used in the kitchens, to drive the water pump and provide electricity for lighting and other power needs, and to heat the swimming pool. Far more importantly for the owners has been the fuel cost savings of at least 60%.

  8. Calibration of seismic wave propagation in Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Husien, A; Amrat, A; Harris, D; Mayeda, K; Nakanishi, K; Rodgers, A; Ruppert, S; Ryall, F; Skinnell, K; Yazjeen, T

    1999-07-23

    The Natural Resources Authority of Jordan (NRA), the USGS and LLNL have a collaborative project to improve the calibration of seismic propagation in Jordan and surrounding regions. This project serves common goals of CTBT calibration and earthquake hazard assessment in the region. These objectives include accurate location of local and regional earthquakes, calibration of magnitude scales, and the development of local and regional propagation models. In the CTBT context, better propagation models and more accurately located events in the Dead Sea rift region can serve as (potentially GT5) calibration events for generating IMS location corrections. The detection and collection of mining explosions underpins discrimination research. The principal activity of this project is the deployment of two broadband stations at Hittiyah (south Jordan) and Ruweishid (east Jordan). These stations provide additional paths in the region to constrain structure with surface wave and body wave tomography. The Ruweishid station is favorably placed to provide constraints on Arabian platform structure. Waveform modeling with long-period observations of larger earthquakes will provide constraints on 1-D velocity models of the crust and upper mantle. Data from these stations combined with phase observations from the 26 short-period stations of the Jordan National Seismic Network (JNSN) may allow the construction of a more detailed velocity model of Jordan. The Hittiyah station is an excellent source of ground truth information for the six phosphate mines of southern Jordan and Israel. Observations of mining explosions collected by this station have numerous uses: for definition of templates for screening mining explosions, as ground truth events for calibrating travel-time models, and as explosion populations in development and testing discriminants. Following previously established procedures for identifying explosions, we have identified more than 200 explosions from the first 85 days of

  9. Baseline Characteristics of Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Host, Randy H.; Neal, Edward G.

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations historically have found healthy habitat in Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska. Concern regarding potential degradation to the habitat by urban development within the Mendenhall Valley led to a cooperative study among the City and Borough of Juneau, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, and the U.S. Geological Survey, that assessed current hydrologic, water-quality, and physical-habitat conditions of the stream corridor. Periods of no streamflow were not uncommon at the Jordan Creek below Egan Drive near Auke Bay stream gaging station. Additional flow measurements indicate that periods of no flow are more frequent downstream of the gaging station. Although periods of no flow typically were in March and April, streamflow measurements collected prior to 1999 indicate similar periods in January, suggesting that no flow conditions may occur at any time during the winter months. This dewatering in the lower reaches likely limits fish rearing and spawning habitat as well as limiting the migration of juvenile salmon out to the ocean during some years. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations may not be suitable for fish survival during some winter periods in the Jordan Creek watershed. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured as low as 2.8 mg/L at the gaging station and were measured as low as 0.85 mg/L in a tributary to Jordan Creek. Intermittent measurements of pH and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the mid-reaches of Jordan Creek were all within acceptable limits for fish survival, however, few measurements of these parameters were made during winter-low-flow conditions. One set of water quality samples was collected at six different sites in the Jordan Creek watershed and analyzed for major ions and dissolved nutrients. Major-ion chemistry showed Jordan Creek is calcium bicarbonate type water with little variation between sampling sites.

  10. The Thermal Waters of Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sass, I.; Schäffer, R.

    2012-04-01

    In a recent field campaign all known natural hot spring areas of Jordan were investigated. Their hydrochemical properties including some fundamental isotopes were measured. Jordan's thermal springs can be classified into four thermal provinces (Nahr Al-Urdun, Hammamat Ma'in, Zara and Wadi Araba province), with similar hydrochemical and geologicalsettings. Thermal springs of Hammamat Ma'in and Zara province are situated on prominent faults. Reservoir temperature estimation with the Mg-corrected Na-K-Ca geothermometer indicates temperatures between 61 °C and 82 °C. Even taking into account the increased geothermal gradient at Dead Sea's east coast, the water's origin has to be considered mainly in deeper formations. Carbon dioxide, emitted by tertiary basalts situated close to the springs, may be responsible for gas lift. Mineralisation and δ18O-values indicate, that the spring water's origin is mostly fossil, i.e. not part of the global water cycle. It is shown, that ground water mining led to a shift within δ18O-ratio during the last 30 years due to a reduction of shallow water portion in addition to a dislocation of the catchment area. Ground water mining will impact the thermal spring productivity and quality anyway in the future. Present-day precipitation rates and catchment areas in Dead Sea region are by far not sufficient to explain relative high discharge. For the Hammamat Ma'in Province is documented, that discharge and maximal spring water temperatures are constant during the last 50 years, showing marginal seasonal oscillation and negligible influence by short-term climatic changes. The water characteristics of Hammamat Ma'in and Zara province are related. However, Zara waters feature systematically less ion concentration and lower temperatures due to a stronger influence of vadose water. The springs of Nahr Al-Urdun province are recharged mainly by shallow groundwater. Thus temperature and mineralisation is lower than at the springs at the Dead Sea

  11. Proposal to market Provo River Project power, Salt Lake City area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This report is an environmental assessment of the Western Area Power Administrations`s proposal to change the way in which the power produced by the Provo River Project (PRP) is marketed. The topics of the report include the alternatives to the proposed action that have been considered, a description of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and the alternatives that were considered, and other environmental considerations.

  12. 76 FR 22696 - Missouri River Energy Services, Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice of Motion To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ...; Notice of Motion To Withdraw Filing and Request for Expedited Action On March 23, 2011, Missouri River Energy Services and Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency (collectively, MRES/WMMPA) filed a motion to... Markets Tariff. MRES/WMMPA also request that the Commission act on this motion no later than May 1,...

  13. 77 FR 1743 - Facility Operating License Amendment From Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit...\\ Requestors should note that the filing requirements of the NRC's E-Filing Rule (72 FR 49139; August 28, 2007... COMMISSION Facility Operating License Amendment From Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River...

  14. 77 FR 2287 - FFP Project 17, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 17, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice..., near the town of North Vacherie, in St. James Parish, Louisiana. The applications were filed by...

  15. 77 FR 2287 - FFP Project 32, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 32, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice..., in Tensas Parish, Louisiana, and Jefferson County Mississippi. The applications were filed by...

  16. 77 FR 2288 - FFP Project 10, LLC, Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 10, LLC, Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice..., near the town of Avondale, in Jefferson Parish, Louisiana. The applications were filed by FFP...

  17. 77 FR 2287 - FFP Project 6, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 6, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice..., near the town of New Orleans, in Orleans Parish, Louisiana. The applications were filed by FFP...

  18. 77 FR 2289 - FFP Project 39, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 39, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice..., in Bolivar County, Mississippi, and Desha County, Arkansas. The applications were filed by...

  19. 77 FR 2290 - FFP Project 30, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 30, LLC and Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice..., in West Feliciana and Pointe Coupee Parishes, Louisiana. The applications were filed by FFP...

  20. 77 FR 2289 - FFP Project 41, LLC, Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 41, LLC, Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice..., in Tunica County, Mississippi, and Lee County, Arkansas. The applications were filed by FFP...

  1. 77 FR 2290 - FFP Project 18, LLC, Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 18, LLC, Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice..., in St. James Parish, Louisiana. The applications were filed by FFP Project 18, LLC for Project No... filed at 8:30 a.m. on the next regular business day. 18 CFR 385.2001(a)(2) (2011). On January 17,...

  2. On the control of riverbed incision induced by run-of-river power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzi, Simone; Dinh, Quang; Bernardi, Dario; Denaro, Simona; Schippa, Leonardo; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo

    2015-07-01

    Water resource management (WRM) through dams or reservoirs is worldwide necessary to support key human-related activities, ranging from hydropower production to water allocation and flood risk mitigation. Designing of reservoir operations aims primarily to fulfill the main purpose (or purposes) for which the structure has been built. However, it is well known that reservoirs strongly influence river geomorphic processes, causing sediment deficits downstream, altering water, and sediment fluxes, leading to riverbed incision and causing infrastructure instability and ecological degradation. We propose a framework that, by combining physically based modeling, surrogate modeling techniques, and multiobjective (MO) optimization, allows to include fluvial geomorphology into MO optimization whose main objectives are the maximization of hydropower revenue and the minimization of riverbed degradation. The case study is a run-of-the-river power plant on the River Po (Italy). A 1-D mobile-bed hydro-morphological model simulated the riverbed evolution over a 10 year horizon for alternatives operation rules of the power plant. The knowledge provided by such a physically based model is integrated into a MO optimization routine via surrogate modeling using the response surface methodology. Hence, this framework overcomes the high computational costs that so far hindered the integration of river geomorphology into WRM. We provided numerical proof that river morphologic processes and hydropower production are indeed in conflict but that the conflict may be mitigated with appropriate control strategies.

  3. Global thermal pollution of rivers from thermoelectric power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raptis, C. E.; van Vliet, M. T. H.; Pfister, S.

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide riverine thermal pollution patterns were investigated by combining mean annual heat rejection rates from power plants with once-through cooling systems with the global hydrological-water temperature model variable infiltration capacity (VIC)-RBM. The model simulates both streamflow and water temperature on 0.5° × 0.5° spatial resolution worldwide and by capturing their effect, identifies multiple thermal pollution hotspots. The Mississippi receives the highest total amount of heat emissions (62% and 28% of which come from coal-fuelled and nuclear power plants, respectively) and presents the highest number of instances where the commonly set 3 °C temperature increase limit is equalled or exceeded. The Rhine receives 20% of the thermal emissions compared to the Mississippi (predominantly due to nuclear power plants), but is the thermally most polluted basin in relation to the total flow per watershed, with one third of its total flow experiencing a temperature increase ≥5 °C on average over the year. In other smaller basins in Europe, such as the Weser and the Po, the share of the total streamflow with a temperature increase ≥3 °C goes up to 49% and 81%, respectively, during July–September. As the first global analysis of its kind, this work points towards areas of high riverine thermal pollution, where temporally finer thermal emission data could be coupled with a spatially finer model to better investigate water temperature increase and its effect on aquatic ecosystems.

  4. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), a company of Global Energy Inc., and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over several years, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana.

  5. Database compilation: hydrology of Lake Tiberias (Jordan Valley)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shentsis, Izabela; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Magri, Fabien

    2014-05-01

    A long-term series of water balance data over the last 50 years is compiled to gain insights into the hydrology of the Lake Tiberias (LT) and surrounding aquifers. This database is used within the framework of a German-Israeli-Jordanian project (DFG Ma4450-2) in which numerical modeling is applied to study the mechanisms of deep fluid transport processes affecting the Tiberias basin. The LT is the largest natural freshwater lake in Israel. It is located in the northern part of the Dead Sea Rift. The behavior of the lake level is a result of the regional water balance caused mainly by interaction of two factors: (i) fluctuations of water inflow to the Lake, (ii) water exploitation in the adjacent aquifers and consumptions from the lake (pumping, diversion, etc). The replenishment of the lake occurs through drainage from surrounding mountains (Galilee, Golan Heights), entering the lake through the Jordan River and secondary streams (85%), direct precipitation (11%), fresh-saline springs discharging along the shoreline, divertion from Yarmouk river and internal springs and seeps. The major losses occur through the National Water Carrier (ca. 44%), evaporation (38%), local consumption and compensation to Jordan (in sum 12%). In spite of the increasing role of water exploitation, the natural inflow to the Lake remains the dominant factor of hydrological regime of the Tiberias Lake. Additionally, series of natural yield to the LT are reconstructed with precipitation data measured in the Tiberias basin (1922-2012). The earlier period (1877-1921) is evaluated considering long rainfall records at Beirut and Nazareth stations (Middle East Region). This data enables to use the LT yield as a complex indicator of the regional climate change. Though the data applies to the LT, this example shows the importance of large database. Their compilation defines the correct set-up of joint methodologies such as numerical modeling and hydrochemical analyses aimed to understand large

  6. What explains the increased utilization of Powder River Basin coal in electric power generation?

    SciTech Connect

    Gerking, S.; Hamilton, S.F.

    2008-11-15

    This article examines possible explanations for increased utilization of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in electric power generation that occurred over the last two decades. Did more stringent environmental policy motivate electric power plants to switch to less polluting fuels? Or, did greater use of PRB coal occur because relative price changes altered input markets in favor of this fuel. A key finding is that factors other than environmental policy such as the decline in railroad freight rates together with elastic demand by power plants were major contributors to the increased utilization of this fuel.

  7. Active tectonics along the Wadi Araba-Jordan Valley transform fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Paolo

    1999-02-01

    A geological study has been carried out along the 200 km long Wadi Araba following the transform fault that separates the Arabian and Sinai-African Plates. Recent movements along this structure affect upper Pleistocene-Holocene deposits and archaeological sites. Kinematic indicators show sinistral strike-slip and oblique movements, in agreement with the relative motion between the two plates. Other evidence of recent horizontal displacement exists along the Jordan Valley Fault, both on the Dead Sea-Lake Tiberias segment and on the segment north of Lake Tiberias. A minimum horizontal slip rate of 1 cm yr-1 has been estimated for both the southern segment of the Wadi Araba Fault and for the southern Jordan River Fault. The two faults can be roughly subdivided into at least four segments: two in the Wadi Araba (80 km long each), one from the Dead Sea to Lake Tiberias (130 km), and one from Lake Tiberias to the Hula graben (>30 km). Faulting may also occur along shorter subsegments, as shown by bends in the Wadi Araba-Jordan River Fault and by the growth of local compression and extension features. Instrument-recorded seismicity appears to be mainly concentrated along some of these subsegments. A comparison between the observed seismic and field-determined slip rates across the fault indicates possible strain accumulation during the last 2000 years.

  8. The Effects of Run-of-River Hydroelectric Power Schemes on Fish Community Composition in Temperate Streams and Rivers.

    PubMed

    Bilotta, Gary S; Burnside, Niall G; Gray, Jeremy C; Orr, Harriet G

    2016-01-01

    The potential environmental impacts of large-scale storage hydroelectric power (HEP) schemes have been well-documented in the literature. In Europe, awareness of these potential impacts and limited opportunities for politically-acceptable medium- to large-scale schemes, have caused attention to focus on smaller-scale HEP schemes, particularly run-of-river (ROR) schemes, to contribute to meeting renewable energy targets. Run-of-river HEP schemes are often presumed to be less environmentally damaging than large-scale storage HEP schemes. However, there is currently a lack of peer-reviewed studies on their physical and ecological impact. The aim of this article was to investigate the effects of ROR HEP schemes on communities of fish in temperate streams and rivers, using a Before-After, Control-Impact (BACI) study design. The study makes use of routine environmental surveillance data collected as part of long-term national and international monitoring programmes at 23 systematically-selected ROR HEP schemes and 23 systematically-selected paired control sites. Six area-normalised metrics of fish community composition were analysed using a linear mixed effects model (number of species, number of fish, number of Atlantic salmon-Salmo salar, number of >1 year old Atlantic salmon, number of brown trout-Salmo trutta, and number of >1 year old brown trout). The analyses showed that there was a statistically significant effect (p<0.05) of ROR HEP construction and operation on the number of species. However, no statistically significant effects were detected on the other five metrics of community composition. The implications of these findings are discussed in this article and recommendations are made for best-practice study design for future fish community impact studies. PMID:27191717

  9. The Effects of Run-of-River Hydroelectric Power Schemes on Fish Community Composition in Temperate Streams and Rivers.

    PubMed

    Bilotta, Gary S; Burnside, Niall G; Gray, Jeremy C; Orr, Harriet G

    2016-01-01

    The potential environmental impacts of large-scale storage hydroelectric power (HEP) schemes have been well-documented in the literature. In Europe, awareness of these potential impacts and limited opportunities for politically-acceptable medium- to large-scale schemes, have caused attention to focus on smaller-scale HEP schemes, particularly run-of-river (ROR) schemes, to contribute to meeting renewable energy targets. Run-of-river HEP schemes are often presumed to be less environmentally damaging than large-scale storage HEP schemes. However, there is currently a lack of peer-reviewed studies on their physical and ecological impact. The aim of this article was to investigate the effects of ROR HEP schemes on communities of fish in temperate streams and rivers, using a Before-After, Control-Impact (BACI) study design. The study makes use of routine environmental surveillance data collected as part of long-term national and international monitoring programmes at 23 systematically-selected ROR HEP schemes and 23 systematically-selected paired control sites. Six area-normalised metrics of fish community composition were analysed using a linear mixed effects model (number of species, number of fish, number of Atlantic salmon-Salmo salar, number of >1 year old Atlantic salmon, number of brown trout-Salmo trutta, and number of >1 year old brown trout). The analyses showed that there was a statistically significant effect (p<0.05) of ROR HEP construction and operation on the number of species. However, no statistically significant effects were detected on the other five metrics of community composition. The implications of these findings are discussed in this article and recommendations are made for best-practice study design for future fish community impact studies.

  10. The Effects of Run-of-River Hydroelectric Power Schemes on Fish Community Composition in Temperate Streams and Rivers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The potential environmental impacts of large-scale storage hydroelectric power (HEP) schemes have been well-documented in the literature. In Europe, awareness of these potential impacts and limited opportunities for politically-acceptable medium- to large-scale schemes, have caused attention to focus on smaller-scale HEP schemes, particularly run-of-river (ROR) schemes, to contribute to meeting renewable energy targets. Run-of-river HEP schemes are often presumed to be less environmentally damaging than large-scale storage HEP schemes. However, there is currently a lack of peer-reviewed studies on their physical and ecological impact. The aim of this article was to investigate the effects of ROR HEP schemes on communities of fish in temperate streams and rivers, using a Before-After, Control-Impact (BACI) study design. The study makes use of routine environmental surveillance data collected as part of long-term national and international monitoring programmes at 23 systematically-selected ROR HEP schemes and 23 systematically-selected paired control sites. Six area-normalised metrics of fish community composition were analysed using a linear mixed effects model (number of species, number of fish, number of Atlantic salmon—Salmo salar, number of >1 year old Atlantic salmon, number of brown trout—Salmo trutta, and number of >1 year old brown trout). The analyses showed that there was a statistically significant effect (p<0.05) of ROR HEP construction and operation on the number of species. However, no statistically significant effects were detected on the other five metrics of community composition. The implications of these findings are discussed in this article and recommendations are made for best-practice study design for future fish community impact studies. PMID:27191717

  11. THE RADICAL OF A JORDAN ALGEBRA

    PubMed Central

    McCrimmon, Kevin

    1969-01-01

    In this paper we define a Jacobson radical for Jordan algebras analogous to that for associative algebras and show that it enjoys many of the properties of the associative radical. We then relate the corresponding notion of “semisimplicity” to the previously defined notion of “nondegeneracy” (Jacobson, N., these Proceedings, 55, 243-251 (1966)). PMID:16591736

  12. English in Jordan: Attitudes and Prestige

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saidat, Emad M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to discuss the attitudes of a number of Jordanian university students towards English as a foreign language and the place it occupies in Jordan. Although research of a similar nature has been done, this study complements others by following 420 students in their university studies, and it provides another avenue for examining…

  13. Assessment of Early Childcare Programs in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omari, Aieman A.; Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Dababneh, Khouloud A.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: Forty-five child caregivers and 120 parents participated in this study to examine perceptions of childcare programs in Jordan. The researchers developed a questionnaire that consisted of 6 dimensions: health, education, parent-caregiver relationship, facilities, building/landscape, and playground. Moreover, interviews with 10…

  14. Power to Detect Trends in Missouri River Fish Populations within the Habitat Assessment Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryan, Janice L.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Gladish, Dan W.

    2010-01-01

    As with all large rivers in the United States, the Missouri River has been altered, with approximately one-third of the mainstem length impounded and one-third channelized. These physical alterations to the environment have affected the fish populations, but studies examining the effects of alterations have been localized and for short periods of time, thereby preventing generalization. In response to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Opinion, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) initiated monitoring of habitat improvements of the Missouri River in 2005. The goal of the Habitat Assessment Monitoring Program (HAMP) is to provide information on the response of target fish species to the USACE habitat creation on the Lower Missouri River. To determine the statistical power of the HAMP and in cooperation with USACE, a power analysis was conducted using a normal linear mixed model with variance component estimates based on the first complete year of data. At a level of 20/16 (20 bends with 16 subsamples in each bend), at least one species/month/gear model has the power to determine differences between treated and untreated bends. The trammel net in September had the most species models with adequate power at the 20/16 level and overall, the trammel net had the most species/month models with adequate power at the 20/16 level. However, using only one gear or gear/month combination would eliminate other species of interest, such as three chub species (Macrhybopsis meeki, Macrhybopsis aestivalis, and Macrhybopsis gelida), sand shiners (Notropis stramineus), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and juvenile sauger (Sander canadensis). Since gear types are selective in their species efficiency, the strength of the HAMP approach is using multiple gears that have statistical power to differentiate habitat treatment differences in different fish species within the Missouri River. As is often the case with sampling rare species like the pallid sturgeon, the

  15. 76 FR 77023 - In the Matter of Florida Power Corporation, et al., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Opportunity for Hearing,'' was published in the Federal Register on August 30, 2011 (76 FR 53972). No comments... COMMISSION In the Matter of Florida Power Corporation, et al., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant...) and nine other entities are the owners of Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant (Crystal...

  16. Run-of-river power plants in Alpine regions: whither optimal capacity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzaro, Gianluca; Botter, Gianluca

    2015-04-01

    Hydropower is the major renewable electricity generation technology worldwide. The future expansion of this technology mostly relies on the development of small run-of-river projects, in which a fraction of the running flows is diverted from the river to a turbine for energy production. Even though small hydro inflicts a smaller impact on aquatic ecosystems and local communities compared to large dams, it cannot prevent stresses on plant, animal, and human well-being. This is especially true in mountain regions where the plant outflow is located several kilometers downstream of the intake, thereby inducing the depletion of river reaches of considerable length. Moreover, the negative cumulative effects of run-of-river systems operating along the same river threaten the ability of stream networks to supply ecological corridors for plants, invertebrates or fishes, and support biodiversity. Research in this area is severely lacking. Therefore, the prediction of the long-term impacts associated to the expansion of run-of-river projects induced by global-scale incentive policies remains highly uncertain. This contribution aims at providing objective tools to address the preliminary choice of the capacity of a run-of-river hydropower plant when the economic value of the plant and the alteration of the flow regime are simultaneously accounted for. This is done using the concepts of Pareto-optimality and Pareto-dominance, which are powerful tools suited to face multi-objective optimization in presence of conflicting goals, such as the maximization of the profitability and the minimization of the hydrologic disturbance induced by the plant in the river reach between the intake and the outflow. The application to a set of case studies belonging to the Piave River basin (Italy) suggests that optimal solutions are strongly dependent the natural flow regime at the plant intake. While in some cases (namely, reduced streamflow variability) the optimal trade-off between economic

  17. A model-based assessment of the effects of projected climate change on the water resources of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Wade, A J; Black, E; Brayshaw, D J; El-Bastawesy, M; Holmes, P A C; Butterfield, D; Nuimat, S; Jamjoum, K

    2010-11-28

    This paper is concerned with the quantification of the likely effect of anthropogenic climate change on the water resources of Jordan by the end of the twenty-first century. Specifically, a suite of hydrological models are used in conjunction with modelled outcomes from a regional climate model, HadRM3, and a weather generator to determine how future flows in the upper River Jordan and in the Wadi Faynan may change. The results indicate that groundwater will play an important role in the water security of the country as irrigation demands increase. Given future projections of reduced winter rainfall and increased near-surface air temperatures, the already low groundwater recharge will decrease further. Interestingly, the modelled discharge at the Wadi Faynan indicates that extreme flood flows will increase in magnitude, despite a decrease in the mean annual rainfall. Simulations projected no increase in flood magnitude in the upper River Jordan. Discussion focuses on the utility of the modelling framework, the problems of making quantitative forecasts and the implications of reduced water availability in Jordan.

  18. A model-based assessment of the effects of projected climate change on the water resources of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Wade, A J; Black, E; Brayshaw, D J; El-Bastawesy, M; Holmes, P A C; Butterfield, D; Nuimat, S; Jamjoum, K

    2010-11-28

    This paper is concerned with the quantification of the likely effect of anthropogenic climate change on the water resources of Jordan by the end of the twenty-first century. Specifically, a suite of hydrological models are used in conjunction with modelled outcomes from a regional climate model, HadRM3, and a weather generator to determine how future flows in the upper River Jordan and in the Wadi Faynan may change. The results indicate that groundwater will play an important role in the water security of the country as irrigation demands increase. Given future projections of reduced winter rainfall and increased near-surface air temperatures, the already low groundwater recharge will decrease further. Interestingly, the modelled discharge at the Wadi Faynan indicates that extreme flood flows will increase in magnitude, despite a decrease in the mean annual rainfall. Simulations projected no increase in flood magnitude in the upper River Jordan. Discussion focuses on the utility of the modelling framework, the problems of making quantitative forecasts and the implications of reduced water availability in Jordan. PMID:20956366

  19. Linear maps preserving maximal deviation and the Jordan structure of quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hamhalter, Jan

    2012-12-15

    In the algebraic approach to quantum theory, a quantum observable is given by an element of a Jordan algebra and a state of the system is modelled by a normalized positive functional on the underlying algebra. Maximal deviation of a quantum observable is the largest statistical deviation one can obtain in a particular state of the system. The main result of the paper shows that each linear bijective transformation between JBW algebras preserving maximal deviations is formed by a Jordan isomorphism or a minus Jordan isomorphism perturbed by a linear functional multiple of an identity. It shows that only one numerical statistical characteristic has the power to determine the Jordan algebraic structure completely. As a consequence, we obtain that only very special maps can preserve the diameter of the spectra of elements. Nonlinear maps preserving the pseudometric given by maximal deviation are also described. The results generalize hitherto known theorems on preservers of maximal deviation in the case of self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras proved by Molnar.

  20. The power of the "sanctioned discourse"--a crucial factor in determining water policy.

    PubMed

    Jägerskog, L

    2003-01-01

    The water relations in the Jordan River Basin are an often-analysed case of decision-making under terms of water scarcity. However, most of these studies fail to address the underlying structures, which are the focal point in the formation of each of the basin parties' water policy. This paper argues that it is necessary to analyse the domestic structures of the parties since the policies pursued in the international arena are likely to be a reflection of the domestic discourse. Particular emphasis is put on how domestic structures affect and create sanctioned discourses and how these in turn affect foreign policy decision-making with regards to water. The various dominant discourses in three of the parties in the Jordan River Basin--Jordan, Israel and the Palestine Authority--are analysed. Failing to acknowledge the explanatory power of this line of thinking runs the risk of reaching simplified conclusions, such as--"the policy-makers do not understand water issues"--instead of acknowledging that the power of the discourse perhaps gave them little choice. The paper draws on a variety of disciplines such as international relations theory, sociology and science studies.

  1. Disformal gravity theories: A Jordan frame analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakstein, Jeremy; Verner, Sarunas

    2015-12-01

    The Jordan frame action for general disformal theories is presented and studied for the first time, motivated by several unresolved mysteries that arise when working in the Einstein frame. We present the Friedmann equations and, specializing to exponential functions, study the late-time cosmology using both dynamical systems methods and by finding approximate solutions. Our analysis reveals that either the disformal effects are irrelevant or the Universe evolves towards a phantom phase where the equation of state of dark energy is -3 . There is a marginal case where the asymptotic state of the Universe depends on the model parameters and de Sitter solutions can be obtained. Our findings indicate that the metric singularity found using the Einstein frame construction corresponds to phantom behavior in the Jordan frame and we argue that this is the case for general disformal theories.

  2. Norms of certain Jordan elementary operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Ji, Guoxing

    2008-10-01

    Let be a complex Hilbert space and let denote the algebra of all bounded linear operators on . For , the Jordan elementary operator UA,B is defined by UA,B(X)=AXB+BXA, . In this short note, we discuss the norm of UA,B. We show that if and ||UA,B||=||A||||B||, then either AB* or B*A is 0. We give some examples of Jordan elementary operators UA,B such that ||UA,B||=||A||||B|| but AB*[not equal to]0 and B*A[not equal to]0, which answer negatively a question posed by M. Boumazgour in [M. Boumazgour, Norm inequalities for sums of two basic elementary operators, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 342 (2008) 386-393].

  3. Colorectal cancer in Jordan: prevention and care.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muayyad M; Dardas, Latefa; Dardas, Lubna; Ahmad, Huthaifa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward colorectal cancer prevention and care in Jordan. A survey was designed to produce reliable estimates for the population's knowledge, attitudes, and practices in all 12 governorates of Jordan by using stratified random sampling. A representative sample of the adult population in Jordan completed a comprehensive tool which explored participants' knowledge about the risk factors associated with colorectal cancer, cancer prevention through lifestyle changes, and early cancer diagnosis and screening. According to the participants (n = 3196), colorectal cancer had the second highest percentage of screening recommendation (12.6%) after breast cancer (57.3%). Only 340 individuals (11%) reported ever screening for cancer. About 20% of the participants had heard of one of the screening tests for colorectal cancer. In fact, only 290 (9.1%) participants had performed the colorectal cancer screening tests. This study provides data that will help colorectal cancer prevention and treatment programs and may enhance the efficiency of colorectal cancer-controlling programs. The findings confirm the necessity of starting colorectal screening intervention that targets the most vulnerable individuals.

  4. Modeling power-plant impacts on multipopulation systems: application of loop analysis to the Hudson River white perch population

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1981-12-01

    The white perch population of the Hudson River suffers unusually high mortality due to impingement and entrainment at power plants. The long-term consequences of this mortality for the Hudson River ecosystem depend in part on interactions between the white perch population and its prey, competitors, and predators, many of which are themselves subject to mortality at power plants. Size multipopulation models were analyzed, using a technique known as loop analysis, to determine how patterns of interaction affect population responses to stress and to identify the parameters that have the greatest influence on those responses. These theoretical results, together with information on life history and vulnerability to power plants for Hudson River fish and macroinvertebrate populations, were used to assess the likely effects of power plant mortality on the white perch population and its prey, competitors, and predators. The results suggest that effects of interactions with other populations are insufficient to offset the effects of entrainment and impingement on the Hudson River white perch population. The results also suggest that if mortality imposed by power plants does cause a substantial decline in the white perch population, then piscivore populations in the Hudson River should not be noticeably affected, a complementary increase in the abundance of competitors that are relatively invulnerable to power plants should occur, and a shift in the distribution of biomass within the white perch population toward the older age classes should occur.

  5. 77 FR 3761 - FFP Project 7, LLC, Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 7, LLC, Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing... priority is as follows: 1. FFP Project 7, LLC; Project No. 12851-002. 2. Northland Power Mississippi...

  6. 77 FR 3761 - FFP Project 6, LLC, Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing Filing Priority for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 6, LLC, Northland Power Mississippi River LLC; Notice Announcing... priority is as follows: 1. FFP Project 6, LLC; Project No. 12848-002. 2. Northland Power Mississippi...

  7. Hydrology and Flood Profiles of Duck Creek and Jordan Creek Downstream from Egan Drive, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curran, Janet H.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrologic and hydraulic updates for Duck Creek and the lower part of Jordan Creek in Juneau, Alaska, included computation of new estimates of peak streamflow magnitudes and new water-surface profiles for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods. Computations for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence interval flood magnitudes for both streams used data from U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations weighted with regional regression equations for southeast Alaska. The study area for the hydraulic model consisted of three channels: Duck Creek from Taku Boulevard near the stream's headwaters to Radcliffe Road near the end of the Juneau International Airport runway, an unnamed tributary to Duck Creek from Valley Boulevard to its confluence with Duck Creek, and Jordan Creek from a pedestrian bridge upstream from Egan Drive to Crest Street at Juneau International Airport. Field surveys throughout the study area provided channel geometry for 206 cross sections, and geometric and hydraulic characteristics for 29 culverts and 15 roadway, driveway, or pedestrian bridges. Hydraulic modeling consisted of application of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) for steady-state flow at the selected recurrence intervals using an assumed high tide of 20 feet and roughness coefficients refined by calibration to measured water-surface elevations from a 2- to 5-year flood that occurred on November 21, 2005. Model simulation results identify inter-basin flow from Jordan Creek to the southeast at Egan Drive and from Duck Creek to Jordan Creek downstream from Egan Drive at selected recurrence intervals.

  8. Social Support and Stress among University Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M.; Dawani, Hania A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of social support and perceived stress among university students in Jordan. A sample of 241 university students from private and government universities in Jordan answered self-report questionnaires including the perceived social support scale and perceived stress scale.…

  9. The Prevalence of Speech Disorders among University Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaraifi, Jehad Ahmad; Amayreh, Mousa Mohammad; Saleh, Mohammad Yusef

    2014-01-01

    Problem: There are no available studies on the prevalence, and distribution of speech disorders among Arabic speaking undergraduate students in Jordan. Method: A convenience sample of 400 undergraduate students at the University of Jordan was screened for speech disorders. Two spontaneous speech samples and an oral reading of a passage were…

  10. Jordan Reforms Public Education to Compete in a Global Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    The King of Jordan's vision for education is resulting in innovative projects for the country. King Abdullah II wants Jordan to develop its human resources through public education to equip the workforce with skills for the future. From King Abdullah II's vision, the Education Reform for a Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) project implemented by the…

  11. Education Reform and the Quality of Kindergartens in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Obeidat, Osama M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluates a major education reform in Jordan--the implementation of public kindergartens--and provides an example of how evaluation can be incorporated into education reform. In the context of education reform in Jordan, 532 public kindergartens have been created over the last five years. A stratified random sample of…

  12. Barriers to Utilizing ICT in Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhawaldeh, Nayef Ibrahim; Menchaca, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study explored barriers to utilizing information and communication technologies (ICT) for teaching and learning in the country of Jordan as indicated by participating stakeholders: students, teachers, and administrators. Jordan is a developing country in the heart of the Middle East with both tremendous opportunity as well as significant…

  13. Quality Assurance and Accreditation of Engineering Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aqlan, Faisal; Al-Araidah, Omar; Al-Hawari, Tarek

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a study of the quality assurance and accreditation in the Jordanian higher education sector and focuses mainly on engineering education. It presents engineering education, accreditation and quality assurance in Jordan and considers the Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST) for a case study. The study highlights the…

  14. Language and Cultural Maintenance among the Gypsies of Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khatib, Mahmoud A.; Al-Ali, Mohammed N.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we examine the language situation among the Gypsies of Jordan within the framework of previous theories on language maintenance and shift as proposed by Le Page, Fishman, Dorian and Kelman. The study investigates language and cultural maintenance among the Gypsies of Jordan to permit comparison of the relative influences of various…

  15. Child-Friendly School Initiative in Jordan: A Sharing Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weshah, Hani A.; Al-Faori, Oraib; Sakal, Reham M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to report on a Child-Friendly School (CFS) initiative pilot project in Jordan, which aims at initiating the creation of CFS and to raise stakeholders' awareness of the importance of this project in promoting and implementing Child Rights Conviction (CRC) in Jordan. The study was conducted by a joint team selected…

  16. University Acceptance Features in the Open Arab University (Jordan Branch) Amman Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALmahasneh, Ebtisam Z.; ALhabees, Mahmoud A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the experience of the Open Arab University/Jordan branch, in terms of accepted students as well as the graduates from 2002 to 2005, and to conclude on one hand the relation between the students' genders, the majors and the scientific programs, and to study the differences between the number of graduates…

  17. Power law time dependence of river flood decay and its relationship to long term discharge frequency distribution. [California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Investigations have continued into the possibility that significant information on stream flow rates can be obtained from aerial and satellite imagery of river meander patterns by seeking a correlation between the meander and discharge spectra of rivers. Such a correlation could provide the basis for a simple and inexpensive technique for remote sensing of the water resources of large geographical areas, eliminating the need for much hydrologic recording. The investigation of the nature of the meander and discharge spectra and their interrelationship can also contribute to a more fundamental understanding of the processes of both river meander formation and drainage of large basins. It has been found that floods decay with an inverse power law dependence on time. The exponent of this dependence varies from river to river and even from station to station along the same river. This power law time dependence makes possible the forecasting of river discharge with an uncertainty of about 5% for as long as a month following the flood peak.

  18. Crop water use measurement using a weighing lysimeter at the Dayr Alla Research Station in the Jordan Valley, Jordan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2003, a regional project funded by USDA-ARS-OIRP has focused on improving irrigation scheduling in Jordan, Palestine and Israel. The Middle Eastern Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems (MERMIS) project involves cooperators from Palestine, Jordan, Israel and the United States, all...

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from building and operating electric power plants in the Upper Colorado River Basin.

    PubMed

    Pacca, Sergio; Horvath, Arpad

    2002-07-15

    As demand for electricity increases, investments into new generation capacity from renewable and nonrenewable sources should include assessment of global (climate) change consequences not just of the operational phase of the power plants but construction effects as well. In this paper, the global warming effect (GWE) associated with construction and operation of comparable hydroelectric, wind, solar, coal, and natural gas power plants is estimated for four time periods after construction. The assessment includes greenhouse gas emissions from construction, burning of fuels, flooded biomass decay in the reservoir, loss of net ecosystem production, and land use. The results indicate that a wind farm and a hydroelectric plant in an arid zone (such as the Glen Canyon in the Upper Colorado River Basin) appear to have lower GWE than other power plants. For the Glen Canyon hydroelectric plant, the upgrade 20 yr after the beginning of operation increased power capacity by 39% but resulted in a mere 1% of the CO2 emissions from the initial construction and came with no additional emissions from the reservoir, which accounts for the majority of the GWE.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from building and operating electric power plants in the Upper Colorado River Basin.

    PubMed

    Pacca, Sergio; Horvath, Arpad

    2002-07-15

    As demand for electricity increases, investments into new generation capacity from renewable and nonrenewable sources should include assessment of global (climate) change consequences not just of the operational phase of the power plants but construction effects as well. In this paper, the global warming effect (GWE) associated with construction and operation of comparable hydroelectric, wind, solar, coal, and natural gas power plants is estimated for four time periods after construction. The assessment includes greenhouse gas emissions from construction, burning of fuels, flooded biomass decay in the reservoir, loss of net ecosystem production, and land use. The results indicate that a wind farm and a hydroelectric plant in an arid zone (such as the Glen Canyon in the Upper Colorado River Basin) appear to have lower GWE than other power plants. For the Glen Canyon hydroelectric plant, the upgrade 20 yr after the beginning of operation increased power capacity by 39% but resulted in a mere 1% of the CO2 emissions from the initial construction and came with no additional emissions from the reservoir, which accounts for the majority of the GWE. PMID:12141503

  1. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Jordan Valley Quadrangle, Oregon and Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, M R; Castor, S B; Robins, J W

    1982-04-01

    The Jordan Valley Quadrangle, Oregon and Idaho, was evaluated to identify and delineate areas favorable for uranium deposits in accordance with criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Surface radiometric reconnaissance and geochemical sampling were used for overall evaluation of the quadrangle. Detailed rock sampling, geologic mapping, and examination of uranium deposits and occurrences were performed in areas suspected to be favorable. The northeast part of the McDermitt caldera within the quadrangle is favorable for volcanogenic deposits associated with the ring-fracture zone. The favorable area contains the Aurora uranium deposit, the Bretz mercury mine, and the Cottonwood Creek occurrence. The Triangle Ranch area and the Snake River Plain, both in the northeast part of the quadrangle, have environments that may be favorable for uranium deposits in sandstone but are considered unevaluated due to lack of subsurface data and lack of detailed investigations. Rocks in the remainder of the quadrangle are considered unfavorable for uranium deposits because of low uranium contents, basic to intermediate compositions, or lack of favorable structures.

  2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Reservoirs in the Lower Jordan Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Alshboul, Zeyad; Lorke, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We have analyzed monthly hydrological, meteorological and water quality data from three irrigation and drinking water reservoirs in the lower Jordan River basin and estimated the atmospheric emission rates of CO2. The data were collected between 2006 and 2013 and show that the reservoirs, which differ in size and age, were net sources of CO2. The estimated surface fluxes were comparable in magnitude to those reported for hydroelectric reservoirs in the tropical and sub-tropical zones. Highest emission rates were observed for a newly established reservoir, which was initially filled during the sampling period. In the two older reservoirs, CO2 partial pressures and fluxes were significantly decreasing during the observation period, which could be related to simultaneously occurring temporal trends in water residence time and chemical composition of the water. The results indicate a strong influence of water and reservoir management (e.g. water consumption) on CO2 emission rates, which is affected by the increasing anthropogenic pressure on the limited water resources in the study area. The low wind speed and relatively high pH favored chemical enhancement of the CO2 gas exchange at the reservoir surfaces, which caused on average a four-fold enhancement of the fluxes. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the uncertainty of the estimated fluxes is, besides pH, mainly affected by the poorly resolved wind speed and resulting uncertainty of the chemical enhancement factor. PMID:26588241

  3. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Reservoirs in the Lower Jordan Watershed.

    PubMed

    Alshboul, Zeyad; Lorke, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We have analyzed monthly hydrological, meteorological and water quality data from three irrigation and drinking water reservoirs in the lower Jordan River basin and estimated the atmospheric emission rates of CO2. The data were collected between 2006 and 2013 and show that the reservoirs, which differ in size and age, were net sources of CO2. The estimated surface fluxes were comparable in magnitude to those reported for hydroelectric reservoirs in the tropical and sub-tropical zones. Highest emission rates were observed for a newly established reservoir, which was initially filled during the sampling period. In the two older reservoirs, CO2 partial pressures and fluxes were significantly decreasing during the observation period, which could be related to simultaneously occurring temporal trends in water residence time and chemical composition of the water. The results indicate a strong influence of water and reservoir management (e.g. water consumption) on CO2 emission rates, which is affected by the increasing anthropogenic pressure on the limited water resources in the study area. The low wind speed and relatively high pH favored chemical enhancement of the CO2 gas exchange at the reservoir surfaces, which caused on average a four-fold enhancement of the fluxes. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the uncertainty of the estimated fluxes is, besides pH, mainly affected by the poorly resolved wind speed and resulting uncertainty of the chemical enhancement factor. PMID:26588241

  4. Prediction of Ungauged River Basin for Hydro Power Potential and Flood Risk Mitigation; a Case Study at Gin River, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnayake, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    The most of the primary civilizations of the world emerged in or near river valleys or floodplains. The river channels and floodplains are single hydrologic and geomorphic system. The failure to appreciate the integral connection between floodplains and channel underlies many socioeconomic and environmental problems in river management today. However it is a difficult task of collecting reliable field hydrological data. Under such situations either synthetic or statistically generated data were used for hydraulic engineering designing and flood modeling. The fundamentals of precipitation-runoff relationship through synthetic unit hydrograph for Gin River basin were prepared using the method of the Flood Studies Report of the National Environmental Research Council, United Kingdom (1975). The Triangular Irregular Network model was constructed using Geographic Information System (GIS) to determine hazard prone zones. The 1:10,000 and 1:50,000 topography maps and field excursions were also used for initial site selection of mini-hydro power units and determine flooding area. The turbines output power generations were calculated using the parameters of net head and efficiency of turbine. The peak discharge achieves within 4.74 hours from the onset of the rainstorm and 11.95 hours time takes to reach its normal discharge conditions of Gin River basin. Stream frequency of Gin River is 4.56 (Junctions/ km2) while the channel slope is 7.90 (m/km). The regional coefficient on the catchment is 0.00296. Higher stream frequency and gentle channel slope were recognized as the flood triggering factors of Gin River basin and other parameters such as basins catchment area, main stream length, standard average annual rainfall and soil do not show any significant variations with other catchments of Sri Lanka. The flood management process, including control of flood disaster, prepared for a flood, and minimize it impacts are complicated in human population encroached and modified

  5. The PCDD/PCDF Dioxin releases in the climate of environment of Jordan in the period (2000-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Dabbas, Mohammed Awwad

    2010-04-01

    Many environment problems of the full using of several categories of processing include mining, heat generators, direct combustion of forest fires, cement production, power plant, transport, medical waste. Dioxin/furan releases from these categories are one of these environment problems. Possible lines of reducing the PCDD/PCDF (Polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins/Polychlorinated dibenzofurans) releases from these categories are elucidated. The contribution of this paper is present the identification and estimation of the latest figure of dioxin/furan releases in the climate of environment of Jordan in the period 2000-2008 from the following categories (cement, aluminum, ceramic, medical waste, power plant, land fill, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, uncontrolled combustion process (biomass burning, waste burning, accidental fires in house, transport). These finding shows the sign of growth of estimated PCDD/PCDF releases from categories which did not calculated and followed after 2003. The result shows the highest PCDD/PCDF release from landfill fires (62.75 g TEQ/year), medical waste (8.8264 g TEQ/year), and transport (3.0145 g TEQ/year). Jordan seeks by next years, a reduction in total releases of dioxins and furans from sources resulting from human activity. This challenge will apply to the aggregate of releases to the air nationwide and of releases to the water within the Jordan area. Jordan should conduct air monitoring for dioxin in order to track fluctuations in atmospheric deposition levels.

  6. Glacially conditioned specific stream powers in low-relief river catchments of the southern Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. T. J.; Desloges, J. R.

    2014-02-01

    Fluvial systems of the southern Laurentian Great Lakes region are carved into a complex glacial landscape shaped by continental ice and meltwater of the late Pleistocene. These glacially conditioned river catchments are typically small with drainage areas < 104 km2. A 10-m digital elevation model (DEM) is used to map the spatial distribution of stream gradient for 22 major river catchments of peninsular southern Ontario, which drain to base levels in the lower Great Lakes (Huron, St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario). Raw data from the DEM show stream gradients that exhibit multiscale variance from real and from artifact sources. Based on a vertical slice and multiple-pass moving-window averaging approach, slope data are generalised to the river reach scale (1-2 km) as a representative spatial scale for fluvial processes operating over Holocene timescales. Models of specific stream power are then compared with glacial landform and surface geology mapping. Inherited glacial signatures in river slope appear as deviations in a stream length-gradient index (SL/K index), where river reaches are frequently oversteepened or understeepened. Based on a slope-area analysis, and complementary to theories of channel pattern discrimination, constant stream power curves (with power-law exponent of - 0.4) provide a first-order approach to stratify river reaches in terms of glacial conditioning and expected planform morphologies. However, multiple-channel planform types are rare and localised in southern Ontario, indicating that oversteepened reaches with high stream powers may often be moderated by (1) sediment calibre, with cobble-beds from inherited glacial sediments; and/or (2) relative bank strength, with limited channel widening particularly in gravel and sand-bed channels. Further discrimination of glacially conditioned fluvial process domains will ultimately require consideration of alluvial floodplain characteristics in addition to general observations of river morphology and

  7. Urbanisation of Suweimeh area, Jordan, versus sinkholes and landslides proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closson, Damien; Abou Karaki, Najib

    2013-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a terminal lake whose level lowers each year of about one meter per year since more than one decade. This is caused mainly by the diversion of surface waters from its watershed. Currently, 1/10 of the Jordan River still reaches the salt lake. The rapid lowering of the lake level does not allow all the surrounding groundwater tables to adjust their level to that of the Dead Sea. This imbalance causes an always faster migration of a part of the groundwater causing underground erosion leading to the formation of sinkholes along the coast, especially where discontinuities, such as faults, are present. The first collapses occurred in the years 1980-90. From the 2000s, in Jordan, they have proliferated to the point of causing serious damages to the facilities of the Arab Potash Company, the agricultural area of Ghor Al Haditha, and more recently the touristic region of Suweimeh. Aware of the problem and the need for gradual rising of the lake level, the Jordanian authorities attended from 2009 to 2011 to the feasibility study of the Red Sea - Dead Sea conduit. Currently, on the one hand, the growing environmental imbalance, and, on the other hand, the desires to develop economic activities along the coast, imply that more goods will be exposed to damages. For example, the area of Wadi Mujib Bridge was rebuilt completely in the late 2000s. It is the same for the 12 km of the dam 18 of an evaporation pond Arab Potash Company. The Numeira Salt Factory was completely destroyed in Ghor Al Haditha and was relocated to Safi. In August 2012, during touristic period, a landslide destroyed half of the Holiday Inn front beach, Suweimeh area ... End of December 2012, a team lead by Prof. Najib Abou Karaki warned the Arab Potash Company of the presence of a circular depression 250 m in diameter within the evaporation pond SP-0A. Although the dike of this saltpan is closely monitored, the exact location and shape of this large sinkhole were not known to the security

  8. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Lynch

    2004-01-07

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead previously by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC). The project is now under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP) after it acquired GEC and the E-Gas{trademark} gasification technology from Global Energy in July 2003. The Phase I of this project was supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while the Phase II is supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research, Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The two project phases planned for execution include: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at Global Energy's existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The WREL facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now acquired and

  9. High seroprevalence of Simkania negevensis in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Younes, Hesham M; Paldanius, Mika

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Simkania negevensis is a germ associated with respiratory diseases. This study aims at estimating the prevalence of Simkania in the Jordanian population. Serum samples from 664 Jordanian males and females, aged 2 to 86 years were collected. IgG and IgM Simkania-specific antibodies were detected using an indirect immunofluorescence test. Seropositivity titers for IgG and IgM were defined as 1:8 and 1:10, respectively. The overall prevalence of IgG antibody in all examined Jordanian nationals was 58.4%. IgG seropositivity was low in children under the age of 10 years (34.2%), and increased rapidly with age and ranged between 49.4% and 72%. Simkania-specific IgM was detected in 24.8% of subjects. IgM prevalence in children under 10 years was lowest (10.5%) and increased in older ages and remained above 20%. Overall detection rates of both IgG and IgM were significantly higher in females than males (60.7% vs. 54.5% for IgG and 26.7% vs. 21.7% for IgM). These data indicate that Simkania infection is highly prevalent in Jordan. The high level of seropositivity is most likely maintained by re-infections or chronic infections. Our data may serve as a basis to elucidate the pathogenesis of Simkania in Jordan.

  10. Concept of biosimilar products in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Haddadin, Rania Dakhlallah

    2011-09-01

    After the expiration of patents on originator biological products, Jordanian local manufacturers and the agents of international pharmaceutical companies in Jordan started to submit registration dossiers for biosimilar products. The Jordan Food and Drug Administration (JFDA) is the national regulatory authority responsible for the registration of biosimilar products. Biosimilars are registered under the same regulations used for drugs until specific guidelines for registration of biological and biosimilar products are released. Those regulations are called Criteria of Registration of Drugs, Vaccines, Sera and Biological Products, the Renewal of its Registration and the Cancellation of Any of them which was published in the official gazette in 2004 under the Provisional Law Number 80 of the year 2001, Drug and Pharmacy Law and its amendments of the year 2003. Also, the JFDA follows the EMA guidelines on similar biological medicinal products for specific active biological substances for non-clinical and clinical studies requirements and the EMA guideline on similar biological medicinal products containing biotechnology-derived proteins as active substance: quality issues. A post marketing surveillance study is requested after a biosimilar product is authorized. The JFDA keeps pace with all advances in the regulatory issues related to biosimilars in order to be capable of authorizing biosimilar products with a safe, effective and good quality profile. PMID:21873079

  11. Use Of limestone resources in flue-gas desulfurization power plants in the Ohio River Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foose, M.P.; Barsotti, A.F.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, more than 41 of the approximately 160 coal-fired, electrical- power plants within the six-state Ohio River Valley region used flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) units to desulfurize their emissions, an approximately 100% increase over the number of plants using FGD units in 1989. This increase represents a trend that may continue with greater efforts to meet Federal Clean Air Act standards. Abundant limestone resources exist in the Ohio River Valley and are accessed by approximately 975 quarries. However, only 35 of these are believed to have supplied limestone for FGD electrical generating facilities. The locations of these limestone suppliers do not show a simple spatial correlation with FGD facilities, and the closest quarries are not being used in most cases. Thus, reduction in transportation costs may be possible in some cases. Most waste generated by FGD electrical-generating plants is not recycled. However, many FGD sites are relatively close to gypsum wallboard producers that may be able to process some of their waste.

  12. Science, law, and Hudson River power plants: A case study in environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Klauda, R.J.; Vaughan, D.S.; Kendall, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Between 1963 and 1980, the Hudson River estuary was the focus of one of the most ambitious environmental research and assessment programs ever performed. The studies supported a series of US federal proceedings involving licenses and discharge permits for two controversial electric power generating facilities: the Cornwall pumped storage facility, and units 2 and 3 of the Indian Point nuclear generating station. Both facilities were to draw large volumes of water from a region of the Hudson used as spawning and nursery habitat by several fish species, including the striped bass. Fishermen and conservationists feared that a major fraction of the striped bass eggs and larvae in the Hudson would be entrained with the pumped water and killed. Additional fish would be killed on trash screens at the intakes. Scientists were asked to aid the utility companies and regulatory agencies in determining the biological importance of entrainment and impingement. This monograph contains both technical papers that present research results and synthesis papers that summarize and interpret the results. The intent was to: (1) summarize the scientific issues and approaches; (2) present the significant results of the Hudson River biological studies; (3) describe the role of the studies in the decision-making process; (4) evaluate the successes and failures of the studies; and (5) present recommendations for future estuarine impact assessments. Separate abstracts are processed for 22 papers for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  13. Mapping spatial patterns of stream power and channel change along a gravel-bed river in northern Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, Devin M.; Legleiter, Carl J.

    2016-01-01

    Stream power represents the rate of energy expenditure along a river and can be calculated using topographic data acquired via remote sensing or field surveys. This study sought to quantitatively relate temporal changes in the form of Soda Butte Creek, a gravel-bed river in northeastern Yellowstone National Park, to stream power gradients along an 8-km reach. Aerial photographs from 1994 to 2012 and ground-based surveys were used to develop a locational probability map and morphologic sediment budget to assess lateral channel mobility and changes in net sediment flux. A drainage area-to-discharge relationship and DEM developed from LiDAR data were used to obtain the discharge and slope values needed to calculate stream power. Local and lagged relationships between mean stream power gradient at median peak discharge and volumes of erosion, deposition, and net sediment flux were quantified via spatial cross-correlation analyses. Similarly, autocorrelations of locational probabilities and sediment fluxes were used to examine spatial patterns of sediment sources and sinks. Energy expended above critical stream power was calculated for each time period to relate the magnitude and duration of peak flows to the total volumetric change in each time increment. Collectively, we refer to these methods as the stream power gradient (SPG) framework. The results of this study were compromised by methodological limitations of the SPG framework and revealed some complications likely to arise when applying this framework to small, wandering, gravel-bed rivers. Correlations between stream power gradients and sediment flux were generally weak, highlighting the inability of relatively simple statistical approaches to link sub-budget cell-scale sediment dynamics to larger-scale driving forces such as stream power gradients. Improving the moderate spatial resolution techniques used in this study and acquiring very-high resolution data from recently developed methods in fluvial remote

  14. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Harmond; Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), a company of Global Energy Inc., and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are

  15. False vacuum decay in Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Richard; Kolb, Edward W.; Vadas, Sharon L.; Wang, Yun; Weinberg, Erick J.

    1989-01-01

    The bubble nucleation rate in a first-order phase transition taking place in a background Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmology is examined. The leading order terms in the nucleation rate when the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field is large (i.e., late times) are computed by means of a Weyl rescaling of the fields in the theory. It is found that despite the fact that the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field (hence the effective gravitational constant) has a time dependence in the false vacuum at late times the nucleation rate is time independent.

  16. The Angular Momentum Dilemma and Born-Jordan Quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gosson, Maurice A.

    2016-10-01

    The rigorous equivalence of the Schrödinger and Heisenberg pictures requires that one uses Born-Jordan quantization in place of Weyl quantization. We confirm this by showing that the much discussed " angular momentum dilemma" disappears if one uses Born-Jordan quantization. We argue that the latter is the only physically correct quantization procedure. We also briefly discuss a possible redefinition of phase space quantum mechanics, where the usual Wigner distribution has to be replaced with a new quasi-distribution associated with Born-Jordan quantization, and which has proven to be successful in time-frequency analysis.

  17. WABASH RIVER IMPPCCT, INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Doug Strickland

    2001-09-28

    In a joint effort with the U.S. Department of Energy, working under a Cooperative Agreement Award from the ''Early Entrance Coproduction Plant'' (EECP) initiative, the Gasification Engineering Corporation and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the application of synthesis gas from the E-GAS{trademark} technology to a coproduction environment to enhance the efficiency and productivity of solid fuel gasification combined cycle power plants. The objectives of this effort are to determine the feasibility of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant located at a specific site which produces some combination of electric power (or heat), fuels, and/or chemicals from synthesis gas derived from coal, or, coal in combination with some other carbonaceous feedstock. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, financial, and environmental information that will be needed to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation by industry. The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals Inc., The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility Study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility and for fence-line commercial plants operated at The Dow Chemical Company or Dow Corning Corporation chemical plant locations (i.e. the Commercial Embodiment Plant or CEP) (2) Research, development, and testing to address any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at

  18. [Major Air Pollutant Emissions of Coal-Fired Power Plant in Yangtze River Delta].

    PubMed

    Ding, Qing-qing; Wei, Wei; Shen, Qun; Sun, Yu-han

    2015-07-01

    The emission factor method was used to estimate major air pollutant emissions of coal-fired power plant in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of the year 2012. Results showed that emissions of SO2, NOx, dust, PM10, PM2.5 were respectively 473 238, 1 566 195, 587 713, 348 773 and 179 820 t. For SO2 and NOx, 300 MW and above class units made contributions of 85% and 82% in emission; while in the respect of dust, PM10 and PM2.5 contribution rates of 100 MW and below class units were respectively 81%, 53% and 40%. Considering the regional distribution, Jiangsu discharged the most, followed by Zhejiang, Shanghai. According to discharge data of several local power plants, we also calculated and made a comparative analysis of emission factors in different unit levels in Shanghai, which indicated a lower emission level. Assuming an equal level was reached in whole YRD, SO2 emission would cut down 55. 8% - 65. 3%; for NOx and dust emissions were 50. 5% - 64. 1% and 3. 4% - 11. 3%, respectively. If technologies and pollution control of lower class units were improved, the emission cuts would improve. However, according to the pollution realities of YRD, we suggested to make a multiple-cuts plan, which could effectively improve the reaional atmospheric environment. PMID:26489303

  19. [Major Air Pollutant Emissions of Coal-Fired Power Plant in Yangtze River Delta].

    PubMed

    Ding, Qing-qing; Wei, Wei; Shen, Qun; Sun, Yu-han

    2015-07-01

    The emission factor method was used to estimate major air pollutant emissions of coal-fired power plant in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of the year 2012. Results showed that emissions of SO2, NOx, dust, PM10, PM2.5 were respectively 473 238, 1 566 195, 587 713, 348 773 and 179 820 t. For SO2 and NOx, 300 MW and above class units made contributions of 85% and 82% in emission; while in the respect of dust, PM10 and PM2.5 contribution rates of 100 MW and below class units were respectively 81%, 53% and 40%. Considering the regional distribution, Jiangsu discharged the most, followed by Zhejiang, Shanghai. According to discharge data of several local power plants, we also calculated and made a comparative analysis of emission factors in different unit levels in Shanghai, which indicated a lower emission level. Assuming an equal level was reached in whole YRD, SO2 emission would cut down 55. 8% - 65. 3%; for NOx and dust emissions were 50. 5% - 64. 1% and 3. 4% - 11. 3%, respectively. If technologies and pollution control of lower class units were improved, the emission cuts would improve. However, according to the pollution realities of YRD, we suggested to make a multiple-cuts plan, which could effectively improve the reaional atmospheric environment.

  20. Negotiating river ecosystems: Impact assessment and conflict mediation in the cases of hydro-power construction

    SciTech Connect

    Karjalainen, Timo P.; Jaervikoski, Timo

    2010-09-15

    In this paper we discuss how the legitimacy of the impact assessment process is a key issue in conflict mediation in environmental impact assessment. We contrast two EIA cases in hydro-power generation plans made for the Ii River, Finland in different decades, and evaluate how impact assessment in these cases has contributed to the creation, mediation and resolution of conflicts. We focus on the elements of distributional and procedural justice that made the former EIA process more legitimate and consensual and the latter more conflictual. The results indicate that it is crucial for conflict mediation to include all the values and interests of the parties in the goal-setting process and in the definition and assessment of alternatives. The analysis also indicates that procedural justice is the most important to help the people and groups involved to accept the legitimacy of the impact assessment process: how different parties and their values and interests are recognized, and how participation and distribution of power are organized in an impact assessment process. It is confirmed in this article that SIA may act as a mediator or a forum providing a process through which competing knowledge claims, various values and interests can be discussed and linked to the proposed alternatives and interventions.

  1. Persistent vacuoles in leukocytes: familial Jordans anomaly.

    PubMed

    Ulukutlu, L; Koç, O N; Taşyürekli, M; Cullu, F; Tüzüner, N; Ulutin, O N; Oz, F; Seger, R A; Sağlamer, L

    1995-04-01

    Multiple persistent vacuoles were seen in the neutrophils, monocytes and eosinophils of a 9 year old boy and his 10 year old sister. The siblings were both asymptomatic. In the bone marrow, the cytoplasmic vacuoles were also present in the promyelocytes, myelocytes and metamyelocytes, but not in the myeloblasts and they tended to be single and large in immature cells. The cytoplasmic vacuoles did not stain with PAS, Sudan Black or Oil Red O; Sudan III positivity of the vacuoles was found only in a very small number of granulocytes. The vacuoles appeared as round and bright bodies with phase contrast microscopy. By electron microscopy, the vacuoles contained material of low electron density and had no surrounding membrane. Granulocyte functions were unimpaired. Muscle biopsy showed normal morphology. This anomalous vacuolization of the leukocytes is consistent with familial Jordans anomaly.

  2. Pascual Jordan, Varying Gravity, and the Expanding Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Helge

    2015-06-01

    In the 1950s, surprising links were proposed between cosmological theory and the geological and paleontological sciences. These links were mainly provided by Paul Dirac's hypothesis of 1937 that the gravitational constant G decreases with cosmic time. Pascual Jordan, famous for his pioneering contributions to quantum theory, took up Dirac's hypothesis; after the end of World War II, Jordan developed its geophysical consequences, concluding that the Earth is expanding. Much of Jordan's later scientific work focused on the expanding Earth and other aspects of the earth sciences relating to the varying- G hypothesis. This chapter in the history of science has received almost no attention from either scientists or historians. The article analyzes Jordan's cosmo-geological work in relation to the somewhat similar efforts of other "expansionists" in the period that led to the plate tectonic revolution in the earth sciences.

  3. Fluxes of radiocaesium associated with suspended sediment in rivers impacted by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Hugh; Blake, Will; Onda, Yuichi; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Yamashiki, Yosuke; Matsuura, Yuki; Taylor, Alex

    2014-05-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident which followed the earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of Cs-134 and Cs-137 into the surrounding environment, where highly elevated levels are reported. There is considerable concern about the redistribution of these radioactive contaminants from the atmosphere to vegetation, soil and aquatic systems. Fluvial redistribution of radiocaesium may contaminate downstream areas that were subject to low fallout and deliver significant quantities of highly contaminated fine sediment to the coastal zone. This study reports on the magnitude of fluvial transfer of Cs-134 and Cs-137 through river networks located across the fallout region. Initially six nested river monitoring stations were established within the Abukuma River basin from June 2011. Subsequently, an additional 23 stations were established between October 2012 and January 2013, which included stations within the Abukuma basin as well as smaller coastal catchments north and south of the power plant. Combined, these 29 sites represent a globally-unique river monitoring network designed to quantify sediment-associated transfer of radiocaesium from headwaters to the Pacific Coast of Japan. The catchments range in area from 8 to 5,172 km2 and span a large range in spatially-averaged radiocaesium inventories. Flow and turbidity (converted to suspended sediment concentration) were measured at each station while bulk suspended sediment samples were collected at regular intervals using time-integrated samplers to allow measurement of Cs-134 and Cs-137 activity concentrations by gamma spectrometry. Preliminary monitoring data showed highly elevated but also highly variable fluxes of radiocaesium in rivers across the fallout region. High magnitude flows in response to typhoon events exported large quantities of radiocaesium. Rivers are an important and continuing source of radiocaesium input to the coastal environment and the Pacific Ocean in

  4. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Tsang

    2003-03-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., parent company of GEC and WREL, as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are

  5. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Tsang

    2003-10-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Two project phases are planned for execution, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the Destec Gasification Process), and now offered commercially by Global Energy, Inc., parent company of GEC and WREL, as the E-GAS{trademark} technology. In a joint effort with the DOE, a Cooperative Agreement was awarded under the Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) solicitation. GEC and an Industrial Consortium are investigating the use of synthesis gas produced by the E-GAS{trademark} technology in a coproduction environment

  6. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Doug Strickland; Albert Tsang

    2002-10-14

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is conducted by a multi-industry team lead by Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC), and supported by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. Three project phases are planned for execution over a three year period, including: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility, and for fence-line commercial plants operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations; (2) Research, development, and testing to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues; and (3) Engineering design and financing plan to install an integrated commercial demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. This report describes management planning, work breakdown structure development, and feasibility study activities by the IMPPCCT consortium in support of the first project phase. Project planning activities have been completed, and a project timeline and task list has been generated. Requirements for an economic model to evaluate the West Terre Haute implementation and for other commercial implementations are being defined. Specifications for methanol product and availability of local feedstocks for potential commercial embodiment plant sites have been defined. The WREL facility is a project selected and co-funded under the fifth phase solicitation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas

  7. Mapping spatial patterns of stream power and channel change along a gravel-bed river in northern Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, Devin M.

    Stream power represents the rate of energy expenditure along a river and can be calculated using topographic data acquired via remote sensing or field surveys. This study used remote sensing and GIS tools along with field data to quantitatively relate temporal changes in the form of Soda Butte Creek, a gravel-bed river in northeastern Yellowstone National Park, to stream power gradients along an 8 km reach. Aerial photographs from 1994-2012 and cross-section surveys were used to develop a locational probability map and morphologic sediment budget to assess lateral channel mobility and changes in net sediment flux. A drainage area-to-discharge relationship and digital elevation model (DEM) developed from light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data were used to obtain the discharge and slope values needed to calculate stream power. Local and lagged relationships between mean stream power gradient at median peak discharge and volumes of erosion, deposition, and net sediment flux were quantified via spatial cross-correlation analyses. Similarly, autocorrelations of locational probabilities and sediment fluxes were used to examine spatial patterns of sediment sources and sinks. Energy expended above critical stream power was calculated for each time period to relate the magnitude and duration of peak flows to the total volumetric change in each time increment. Results indicated a lack of strong correlation between stream power gradients and sediment response, highlighting the geomorphic complexity of Soda Butte Creek and the inability of relatively simple statistical approaches to link sub-budget cell-scale sediment dynamics to larger-scale driving forces such as stream power gradients. Improving the moderate spatial resolution techniques used in this study and acquiring very-high resolution data from recently developed methods in fluvial remote sensing could help improve understanding of the spatial organization of stream power, sediment transport, and channel change in

  8. Patronage power: Rural electrification, river development, and Lyndon Johnson (1937--1939)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusek, Paul-Michael Mays

    his own personal ambition. Burning ambition—his own personal sense of political self-preservation—trumped Johnson's early beliefs about civil rights. Therefore because of his personal ambition he kept his opinions about civil rights silent while his operators utilized "out of sight, out of mind" policies towards race relations when necessary. While building this political community Johnson pledged electricity for votes. He had two goals: (1) create a market for LCRA-generated power to prevent private utilities from acquiring the power, and (2) create a political machine. Initially growth occurred slowly but Johnson used modern forms of communications and propaganda to construct a community; including radio, newsprint, theater, and public events and affairs. Johnson also laid the foundations for this community through the creation of shared community space and the promotion of a shared community-mindset. Johnson prioritized the creation of these community spaces over the construction of transmission lines and engaged in deceit when necessary—Arthur Stehling committed forgery—while pursuing Johnson's plans for the formation of this political machine through the conception of a new, common community. Johnson pushed for optimal growth and utilized every opportunity for publicity. These new structures signified the changes occurring across the landscape and for the first time the people of Central Texas began to feel the relief of the New Deal—five years after President Roosevelt initiated relief efforts. Subsequently, the people of Central Texas supported Johnson in his political endeavors. Secondly, this thesis explores the geographical expansion of multipurpose river development and rural electrification operations in Central Texas. Expansion was priority number one because this increased Johnson's political clout in Central Texas. Johnson expanded his control by infiltrating or manipulating newly forming rural electric cooperatives. His operators side

  9. Snow cover, snowmelt timing and stream power in the Wind River Range, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Riggs, George A.

    2012-01-01

    Earlier onset of springtime weather, including earlier snowmelt, has been documented in the western United States over at least the last 50 years. Because the majority (> 70%) of the water supply in the western U.S. comes from snowmelt, analysis of the declining spring snowpack (and shrinking glaciers) has important implications for the management of streamflow. The amount of water in a snowpack influences stream discharge which can also influence erosion and sediment transport by changing stream power, or the rate at which a stream can do work, such as move sediment and erode the stream bed. The focus of this work is the Wind River Range (WRR) in west-central Wyoming. Ten years of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover, cloud-gap-filled (CGF) map products and 30 years of discharge and meteorological station data are studied. Streamflow data from streams in WRR drainage basins show lower annual discharge and earlier snowmelt in the decade of the 2000s than in the previous three decades, though no trend of either lower streamflow or earlier snowmelt was observed within the decade of the 2000s. Results show a statistically-significant trend at the 95% confidence level (or higher) of increasing weekly maximum air temperature (for three out of the five meteorological stations studied) in the decade of the 1970s, and also for the 40-year study period as a whole. The extent of snow-cover (percent of basin covered) derived from the lowest elevation zone (2500-3000 m) of the WRR, using MODIS CGF snow-cover maps, is strongly correlated with maximum monthly discharge on 30 April, where Spearman's Rank correlation, r s, = 0.89 for the decade of the 2000s. We also investigated stream power for Bull Lake Creek above Bull Lake; and found a trend (significant at the 90% confidence level) toward reduced stream power from 1970 to 2009. Observed changes in streamflow and stream power may be related to increasing weekly maximum air temperature measured

  10. Snow Cover, Snowmelt Timing and Stream Power in the Wind River Range, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Riggs, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier onset of springtime weather, including earlier snowmelt, has been documented in the western United States over at least the last 50 years. Because the majority (is greater than 70%) of the water supply in the western U.S. comes from snowmelt, analysis of the declining spring snowpack (and shrinking glaciers) has important implications for the management of streamflow. The amount of water in a snowpack influences stream discharge which can also influence erosion and sediment transport by changing stream power, or the rate at which a stream can do work, such as move sediment and erode the stream bed. The focus of this work is the Wind River Range (WRR) in west-central Wyoming. Ten years of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover, cloud-gap-filled (CGF) map products and 30 years of discharge and meteorological station data are studied. Streamflow data from streams in WRR drainage basins show lower annual discharge and earlier snowmelt in the decade of the 2000s than in the previous three decades, though no trend of either lower streamflow or earlier snowmelt was observed within the decade of the 2000s. Results show a statistically-significant trend at the 95% confidence level (or higher) of increasing weekly maximum air temperature (for three out of the five meteorological stations studied) in the decade of the 1970s, and also for the 40-year study period as a whole. The extent of snow-cover (percent of basin covered) derived from the lowest elevation zone (2500-3000 m) of the WRR, using MODIS CGF snow-cover maps, is strongly correlated with maximum monthly discharge on 30 April, where Spearman's Rank correlation, rs,=0.89 for the decade of the 2000s. We also investigated stream power for Bull Lake Creek above Bull Lake; and found a trend (significant at the 90% confidence level) toward reduced stream power from 1970 to 2009. Observed changes in streamflow and stream power may be related to increasing weekly maximum air temperature

  11. Patronage power: Rural electrification, river development, and Lyndon Johnson (1937--1939)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusek, Paul-Michael Mays

    his own personal ambition. Burning ambition—his own personal sense of political self-preservation—trumped Johnson's early beliefs about civil rights. Therefore because of his personal ambition he kept his opinions about civil rights silent while his operators utilized "out of sight, out of mind" policies towards race relations when necessary. While building this political community Johnson pledged electricity for votes. He had two goals: (1) create a market for LCRA-generated power to prevent private utilities from acquiring the power, and (2) create a political machine. Initially growth occurred slowly but Johnson used modern forms of communications and propaganda to construct a community; including radio, newsprint, theater, and public events and affairs. Johnson also laid the foundations for this community through the creation of shared community space and the promotion of a shared community-mindset. Johnson prioritized the creation of these community spaces over the construction of transmission lines and engaged in deceit when necessary—Arthur Stehling committed forgery—while pursuing Johnson's plans for the formation of this political machine through the conception of a new, common community. Johnson pushed for optimal growth and utilized every opportunity for publicity. These new structures signified the changes occurring across the landscape and for the first time the people of Central Texas began to feel the relief of the New Deal—five years after President Roosevelt initiated relief efforts. Subsequently, the people of Central Texas supported Johnson in his political endeavors. Secondly, this thesis explores the geographical expansion of multipurpose river development and rural electrification operations in Central Texas. Expansion was priority number one because this increased Johnson's political clout in Central Texas. Johnson expanded his control by infiltrating or manipulating newly forming rural electric cooperatives. His operators side

  12. Knowledges and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-20

    The Knowledges and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operations: Savannah River Site (SRS) Production Reactors, provides the basis for the development of content-valid certification examinations for Senior Reactor Operators (SROs) and Central Control Room Supervisors (SUP). The position of Shift Technical Engineer (STE) has been included in the catalog for completeness. This new SRS reactor operating shift crew position is held by an individual holding a CCR Supervisor Certification who has received special engineering and technical training. Also, the STE has a Bachelor of Science degree in engineering or a related technical field. The SRS catalog contains approximately 2500 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for SROs and SUPs at heavy water moderated production reactors. Each K/A statement has been rated for its importance to the safe operation of the plant in a manner ensuring the health and safety of the public. The SRS K/A catalog is presently organized into five major sections: Plant Systems grouped by Safety Function, Plant Wide Generic K/As, Emergency Plant Evolutions, Theory and Components (to be developed).

  13. Analysis on radiocesium concentration in rivers that have catchment areas affected by the fallout from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Onda, Yuichi

    2014-05-01

    Due to Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radioactive materials including Cs-134 and Cs-137 were widely distributed in surrounded area. The radiocesiums have been transported in river networks. This study showed the monitoring results of radiocesium concentration in river waters and suspended sediments in Abukuma river basin and smaller coastal river catchments. The monitoring started at 6 sites from June 2011. Subsequently, additional 24 monitoring sites were installed between October 2012 and January 2013. Flow and turbidity (for calculation of suspended sediment concentration) were measured at each site, while suspended sediments and river water were collected every one or half month to measure Cs-134 and Cs-137 activity concentrations by gamma spectrometry. Activity concentrations of Cs-134 and Cs- 137 on suspended sediments were generally decreasing at all sites. The decreasing rate changed lower at about one year later from the accident. Activity concentration in river waters also showed the same tendency although there are only few data within 1 year from the accident. Activity concentrations measured at the same day are proportional to the mean catchment inventory. Therefore, the activity concentration can be normalized by the mean catchment inventory. The normalized activity can be fitted to following double exponential function: [At] = 1.551 exp (-5.265t) + 0.069 exp (-0.266 t), where t [year] is the time from the accident. There is no time evolution of Kd between suspended sediments and river water. Instead, Kd was varied spatially. Although the reason of the spatial variation is not clear for now, geology of the catchment (i.e. mineral composition of suspended particles) seems to relate to the variation.

  14. Trash Diverter Orientation Angle Optimization at Run-Off River Type Hydro-power Plant using CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munisamy, Kannan M.; Kamal, Ahmad; Shuaib, Norshah Hafeez; Yusoff, Mohd. Zamri; Hasini, Hasril; Rashid, Azri Zainol; Thangaraju, Savithry K.; Hamid, Hazha

    2010-06-01

    Tenom Pangi Hydro Power Station in Tenom, Sabah is suffering from poor river quality with a lot of suspended trashes. This problem necessitates the need for a trash diverter to divert the trash away from the intake region. Previously, a trash diverter (called Trash Diverter I) was installed at the site but managed to survived for a short period of time due to an impact with huge log as a results of a heavy flood. In the current project, a second trash diverter structure is designed (called Trash Diverter II) with improved features compared to Trash Diverter I. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis is done to evaluate the river flow interaction onto the trash diverter from the fluid flow point of view, Computational Fluids Dynamics is a numerical approach to solve fluid flow profile for different inlet conditions. In this work, the river geometry is modeled using commercial CFD code, FLUENT®. The computational model consists of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations coupled with other related models using the properties of the fluids under investigation. The model is validated with site-measurements done at Tenom Pangi Hydro Power Station. Different operating condition of river flow rate and weir opening is also considered. The optimum angle is determined in this simulation to further use the data for 3D simulation and structural analysis.

  15. Integration of small run-of-river and solar power: The hydrological regime prediction/assessment accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francois, Baptiste; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Hingray, Benoit; Zoccatelli, Davide

    2014-05-01

    The possibility to achieved a high integration of climate related energies (i.e. run-of-river-, wind- and solar- energies) depends on the possibility to balance the potentially large deviations between the related intermittent productions and the variable demand using storage facilities such as water storage in accumulation dams. These deviations depend obviously on how energy sources co-fluctuate in time among themselves and with the demand as well. Balancing hydropower system design as well as their operational planning requires the estimation of these co-fluctuations, resulting from both, space and time weather structures/patterns and watershed features (e.g. area, altitude range, geological basement …). The co-fluctuations between intermittent energy sources can be estimated from observed time series when available or from time series obtained from simulation models when not or when different contexts have to be considered (e.g. climate change and/or intermittent energy development). The simulation models were classically developed and evaluated for the prediction of each energy source individually. The ability of the models to simulate relevant levels of co-fluctuations is however to our knowledge not really considered. This issue is however critical and should also require thorough attention. This work focuses on run-of-river and solar- power interaction assessment. The study area is located in Italy where run-of-river power plants, mainly located on small river tributaries, represent almost 43 % of the hydropower production with only 27 % of the installed hydro-capacity (in 2011). Solar power generation is available from observed time series at different locations over the region but there is no systematic measurement of water discharges over the considered river tributaries and discharges have to be reconstituted from simulations. The absence of discharge measures makes also impossible to calibrate hydrological model at each power plant location. We thus

  16. Integration of ENSO Signal Power Through Hydrological Processes in the Little River Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keener, V. W.; Jones, J. W.; Bosch, D. D.; Cho, J.

    2011-12-01

    The relationship of the El-Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) to hydrology is typically discussed in terms of the ability to separate significantly different hydrologic variable responses versus the anomaly that has taken place. Most of the work relating ENSO trends to proxy variables had been done on precipitation records until the mid 1990s, at which point increasing numbers of studies started to focus on ENSO relationships with streamflow as well as other environmental variables. The signals in streamflow are typically complex, representing the integration of both climatic, landscape, and anthropological responses that are able to strengthen the inherent ENSO signal in chaotic regional precipitation data. There is a need to identify climate non-stationarities related to ENSO and their links to watershed-scale outcomes. For risk-management in particular, inter-annual modes of climate variability and their seasonal expression are of interest. In this study, we analyze 36 years of historical monthly streamflow data from the Little River Watershed (LWR), a coastal plain ecosystem in Georgia, in conjunction with wavelet spectral analysis and modeling via the Soil & Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Using both spectral and physical models allows us to identify the mechanism by which the ENSO signal power in surface and simulated groundwater flow is strengthened as compared to precipitation. The clear increase in the power of the inter-annual climate signal is demonstrated by shared patterns in water budget and exceedance curves, as well as in high ENSO related energy in the 95% significant wavelet spectra for each variable and the NINO 3.4 index. In the LRW, the power of the ENSO teleconnection is increased in both the observed and simulated stream flow through the mechanisms of groundwater flow and interflow, through confinement by a geological layer, the Hawthorn Formation. This non-intuitive relationship between ENSO signal strength and streamflow could prove to be

  17. 75 FR 6371 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Accepted for...: Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership e. Name of Project: Flannagan Hydroelectric Project f....

  18. 75 FR 16448 - Jordan Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental.... Date Filed: April 16, 2009. d. Applicant: Jordan Limited Partnership. e. Name of Project:...

  19. Hydro-economic performances of streamflow withdrawal strategies: the case of small run-of-river power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Stefano; Lazzaro, Gianluca; Schirmer, Mario; Botter, Gianluca

    2014-05-01

    River flows withdrawals to supply small run-of-river hydropower plants have been increasing significantly in recent years - particularly in the Alpine area - as a consequence of public incentives aimed at enhancing energy production from renewable sources. This growth further raised the anthropic pressure in areas traditionally characterized by an intense exploitation of water resources, thereby triggering social conflicts among local communities, hydropower investors and public authorities. This brought to the attention of scientists and population the urgency for novel and quantitative tools for assessing the hydrologic impact of these type of plants, and trading between economic interests and ecologic concerns. In this contribution we propose an analytical framework that allows for the estimate of the streamflow availability for hydropower production and the selection of the run-of-river plant capacity, as well as the assessment of the related profitability and environmental impacts. The method highlights the key role of the streamflow variability in the design process, by showing the significance control of the coefficient of variation of daily flows on the duration of the optimal capacity of small run-of-river plants. Moreover, the analysis evidences a gap between energy and economic optimizations, which may result in the under-exploitation of the available hydropower potential at large scales. The disturbances to the natural flow regime produced between the intake and the outflow of run-of-river power plants are also estimated within the proposed framework. The altered hydrologic regime, described through the probability distribution and the correlation function of streamflows, is analytically expressed as a function of the natural regime for different management strategies. The deviations from pristine conditions of a set of hydrologic statistics are used, jointly with an economic index, to compare environmental and economic outcomes of alternative plant

  20. Water-power resources in upper Carson River basin, California-Nevada, A discussion of potential development of power and reservoir sites on east and west forks, Carson River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pumphrey, Harold L.

    1955-01-01

    West Fork Carson River offers the best opportunity for power development in the Carson River basin. The Hope Valley reservoir site could be developed to provide adequate storage regulation and concentration of fall would permit utilization of 1,400 feet of head in 51h miles below the clam site, or 1,900 feet of head in about 972 miles below the dam site; however, the average annual runoff susceptible of development is only about 70,000 acre-feet which limits the power that could be developed continuously in an average year with regulation to about 8,700 kilowatts utilizing 1,400 feet of head, or 12,000 kilowatts utilizing 1,900 feet of head. The method and degree of development will be determined to large extent by the method devised to supplement regulated flows from the Hope Valley reservoir to supply the water already appropriated for irrigation. If the Hope Valley site and the Watasheamu site on East Fork Carson River were developed coordinately water could be transferred to the West Fork for distribution through canals leading from that stream thus satisfying the deficiency due to regulation at Hope Valley and release of stored water on a power schedule. This would permit utilization of the entire 1,900 feet of fall. Independent development of the West Fork for optimum power production would require re-regulation of releases from Hope Valley reservoir and storage of a considerable part of the fall and winter flow for use during the irrigation season. Adequate storage capacity is apparently not available on the West Fork below Hope Valley; but offstream storage may be available in Diamond Valley which could be utilized by diversion from the West Fork near Woodfords. This would limit the utilization of the stream for power purposes to the development of the 1,400 feet of head between the Hope Valley dam site and Wood fords. In a year of average discharge East Fork Carson River and three of its principal tributaries could be developed to produce about 13

  1. WABASH RIVER INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLGIES (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Albert C. Tsang

    2004-03-26

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is evaluating integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project is under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy in July 2003. The project has completed Phase I, and is currently in Phase II of development. The two project phases include: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at Global Energy's existing Wabash River Energy Limited (WREL) plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plants (CEP) operated at Dow Chemical or Dow Corning chemical plant locations; and (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. The Phase I of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase II is supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The WREL integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other solid fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator. The gasifier uses technology initially developed by The Dow Chemical Company (the

  2. Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT)

    SciTech Connect

    Conocophillips

    2007-09-30

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project was established to evaluate integrated electrical power generation and methanol production through clean coal technologies. The project was under the leadership of ConocoPhillips Company (COP), after it acquired Gasification Engineering Corporation (GEC) and the E-Gas gasification technology from Global Energy Inc. in July 2003. The project has completed both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of development. The two project phases include the following: (1) Feasibility study and conceptual design for an integrated demonstration facility at SG Solutions LLC (SGS), previously the Wabash River Energy Limited, Gasification Facility located in West Terre Haute, Indiana, and for a fence-line commercial embodiment plant (CEP) operated at the Dow Chemical Company or Dow Corning Corporation chemical plant locations. (2) Research, development, and testing (RD&T) to define any technology gaps or critical design and integration issues. Phase 1 of this project was supported by a multi-industry team consisting of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., The Dow Chemical Company, Dow Corning Corporation, Methanex Corporation, and Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, while Phase 2 was supported by Gas Technology Institute, TDA Research Inc., and Nucon International, Inc. The SGS integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) facility was designed, constructed, and operated under a project selected and co-funded under the Round IV of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Clean Coal Technology Program. In this project, coal and/or other carbonaceous fuel feedstocks are gasified in an oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with continuous slag removal and a dry particulate removal system. The resulting product synthesis gas (syngas) is used to fuel a combustion turbine generator whose exhaust is integrated with a heat recovery steam generator to drive a refurbished steam turbine generator

  3. Technical analysis of a river basin-based model of advanced power plant cooling technologies for mitigating water management challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S.; Clayton, Mary E.; Webber, Michael E.

    2011-07-01

    Thermoelectric power plants require large volumes of water for cooling, which can introduce drought vulnerability and compete with other water needs. Alternative cooling technologies, such as cooling towers and hybrid wet-dry or dry cooling, present opportunities to reduce water diversions. This case study uses a custom, geographically resolved river basin-based model for eleven river basins in the state of Texas (the Brazos and San Jacinto-Brazos, Colorado and Colorado-Brazos, Cypress, Neches, Nueces, Red, Sabine, San Jacinto, and Trinity River basins), focusing on the Brazos River basin, to analyze water availability during drought. We utilized two existing water availability models for our analysis: (1) the full execution of water rights—a scenario where each water rights holder diverts the full permitted volume with zero return flow, and (2) current conditions—a scenario reflecting actual diversions with associated return flows. Our model results show that switching the cooling technologies at power plants in the eleven analyzed river basins to less water-intensive alternative designs can potentially reduce annual water diversions by 247-703 million m3—enough water for 1.3-3.6 million people annually. We consider these results in a geographic context using geographic information system tools and then analyze volume reliability, which is a policymaker's metric that indicates the percentage of total demand actually supplied over a given period. This geographic and volume reliability analysis serves as a measure of drought susceptibility in response to changes in thermoelectric cooling technologies. While these water diversion savings do not alleviate all reliability concerns, the additional streamflow from the use of dry cooling alleviates drought concerns for some municipal water rights holders and might also be sufficient to uphold instream flow requirements for important bays and estuaries on the Texas Gulf coast.

  4. Emigration for Higher Education: The Case of Palestinians Living in Israel Studying in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arar, Khalid; Haj-Yehia, Kussai

    2010-01-01

    This study explored reasons for the rapid increase in the number of Palestinian Arabs from Israel (PAI) studying higher education (HE) in Jordan. Four hundred and sixty PAI studying in Jordan answered a questionnaire assessing factors related to HE in both countries. Lenient admission requirements and cultural-language similarity explain Jordan's…

  5. 78 FR 64175 - Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Loan Guarantees Issued Under the Further Continuing Appropriations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... DEVELOPMENT 22 CFR Part 233 Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Loan Guarantees Issued Under the Further Continuing... applicable to loan guarantees to be issued for the benefit of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan pursuant to the..., may issue certain loan guarantees applicable to sums borrowed by the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan...

  6. General and Special Education Systems in Jordan: Present and Future Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Jabery, Mohammad; Zumberg, Marshall

    2008-01-01

    Educating a student with special needs became an interest in Jordan at the end of the 1960s. This article provides an overview of the general and special education systems in Jordan. Historical and demographical information is included for the purpose of placing the education of children in Jordan within the context of its land and the population…

  7. Mapping Spatial Distributions of Stream Power and Channel Change along a Gravel-Bed River in Northern Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, D. M.; Legleiter, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Stream power represents the rate of energy expenditure along a river and can be calculated using topographic data acquired via remote sensing. This study used remotely sensed data and field measurements to quantitatively relate temporal changes in the form of Soda Butte Creek, a gravel-bed river in northeastern Yellowstone National Park, to stream power gradients along an 8 km reach. Aerial photographs from 1994-2012 and cross-section surveys were used to assess lateral channel mobility and develop a morphologic sediment budget for quantifying net sediment flux for a series of budget cells. A drainage area-to-discharge relationship and digital elevation model (DEM) developed from LiDAR data were used to obtain the discharge and slope values, respectively, needed to calculate stream power. Local and lagged relationships between mean stream power gradient at median peak discharge and volumes of erosion, deposition, and net sediment flux were quantified via spatial cross-correlation analyses. Similarly, autocorrelations of locational probabilities and sediment fluxes were used to examine spatial patterns of channel mobility and sediment transfer. Energy expended above critical stream power was calculated for each time period to relate the magnitude and duration of peak flows to the total volume of sediment eroded or deposited during each time increment. Our results indicated a lack of strong correlation between stream power gradients and sediment flux, which we attributed to the geomorphic complexity of the Soda Butte Creek watershed and the inability of our relatively simple statistical approach to link sediment dynamics expressed at a sub-budget cell scale to larger-scale driving forces such as stream power gradients. Future studies should compare the moderate spatial resolution techniques used in this study to very-high resolution data acquired from new fluvial remote sensing technologies to better understand the amount of error associated with stream power

  8. The Power to Detect Trends in Missouri River Fish Populations within the Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryan, Janice L.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Gladish, Dan; Holan, Scott; Ellerseick, Mark

    2010-01-01

    As with all large rivers in the United States, the Missouri River has been altered, with approximately 32.5 percent of the main stem length impounded and 32.5 percent channelized. These physical alterations to the environment have had effects on the fisheries, but studies examining the effects of alterations have been localized and for short periods of time. In response to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service biological opinion, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers initiated monitoring of the fish community of the Missouri River in 2003. The goal of the Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program is to provide information to detect changes in populations and habitat preferences with time for pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and native target species in the Missouri River Basin. To determine statistical power of the Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program, a power analysis was conducted using a normal linear mixed model with variance component estimates based on the first 3 years of data (2003 to 2005). In cases where 3 years of data were unavailable, estimates were obtained using those data. It was determined that at least 20 years of data, sampling 12 bends with 8 subsamples per bend, would be required to detect a 5 percent annual decline in most of the target fish populations. Power varied between Zones. Zone 1 (upstream from Lake Sakakawea) did not have any species/gear type combinations with adequate power, whereas Zone 3 (downstream from Gavins Point Dam) had 19 species/gear type combinations with adequate power. With a slight increase in the sampling effort to 12 subsamples per bend, the Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program has adequate power to detect declines in shovelnose sturgeon (S. platorynchus) throughout the entire Missouri River because of large catch rates. The lowest level of non-occurrence (in other words, zero catches) at the bend level for pallid sturgeon was 0.58 using otter trawls in Zone 1. Consequently, the power of the

  9. Activity, discoveries in Syria and Jordan are encouraging

    SciTech Connect

    Vielvoye, R.

    1987-08-24

    This article reports that Syria and Jordan, two of the smaller producers in the Middle East, are starting to expand exploration and production activity. Syria, traditionally a producer of small volumes of heavy crude, is further developing its first light crude reservoir. The new Tayyim field is producing around 60,000 b/d and an expansion program should increase output to 100,000 b/d early next year. Heavy crude production will average about 180,000 b/d this year. Jordan, which previously relied on imports to meet all local demand, has its first discovery. The Hamzah field is now making a modest contribution to local refinery requirements. Gas has also been found in the northeast of Jordan, close to the border with Iraq. This article provides details of these projects.

  10. Geomorphic data collected within and adjacent to Nebraska Public Power District's Cottonwood Ranch Property, Platte River, Nebraska, Water Year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinzel, Paul; Parker, Randolph; Nelson, Johnathan; Burman, R.; Heckman, Aashley

    2003-01-01

    River-channel topographic surveys were conducted and bed-material samples were collected along transects across the Platte River during water year 2001 (October 1, 2000 to September 30, 2001). A total of 57 transect lines or cross sections were established within three study reaches located along the middle channel of the Platte River in a 2,650-acre parcel of land owned by the Nebraska Public Power District (NPPD), hereinafter referred to as the Cottonwood Ranch Property. Five additional cross sections were established downstream of the Cottonwood Ranch Property across the entire width of the Platte River as a component of a proposed future general monitoring program. A development and enhancement plan is proposed by NPPD on the Cottonwood Ranch Property to satisfy their Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing guidelines. The goal of the plan is to improve habitat along this reach for endangered species. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) designed a monitoring and research program to study and detect what effects, if any, these channel management actions have on channel morphology and sediment transport within and adjacent to the Cottonwood Ranch Property. This report presents the data-collection methods and summarizes the geomorphic data collected in support of the monitoring program for water year 2001.

  11. Limnological and ecological methods: approaches, and sampling strategies for middle Xingu River in the area of influence of future Belo Monte Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Tundisi, J G; Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Tundisi, J E M; Faria, C R L; Abe, D S; Blanco, F; Rodrigues Filho, J; Campanelli, L; Sidagis Galli, C; Teixeira-Silva, V; Degani, R; Soares, F S; Gatti Junior, P

    2015-08-01

    In this paper the authors describe the limnological approaches, the sampling methodology, and strategy adopted in the study of the Xingu River in the area of influence of future Belo Monte Power Plant. The river ecosystems are characterized by unidirectional current, highly variable in time depending on the climatic situation the drainage pattern an hydrological cycle. Continuous vertical mixing with currents and turbulence, are characteristic of these ecosystems. All these basic mechanisms were taken into consideration in the sampling strategy and field work carried out in the Xingu River Basin, upstream and downstream the future Belo Monte Power Plant Units.

  12. Limnological and ecological methods: approaches, and sampling strategies for middle Xingu River in the area of influence of future Belo Monte Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Tundisi, J G; Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Tundisi, J E M; Faria, C R L; Abe, D S; Blanco, F; Rodrigues Filho, J; Campanelli, L; Sidagis Galli, C; Teixeira-Silva, V; Degani, R; Soares, F S; Gatti Junior, P

    2015-08-01

    In this paper the authors describe the limnological approaches, the sampling methodology, and strategy adopted in the study of the Xingu River in the area of influence of future Belo Monte Power Plant. The river ecosystems are characterized by unidirectional current, highly variable in time depending on the climatic situation the drainage pattern an hydrological cycle. Continuous vertical mixing with currents and turbulence, are characteristic of these ecosystems. All these basic mechanisms were taken into consideration in the sampling strategy and field work carried out in the Xingu River Basin, upstream and downstream the future Belo Monte Power Plant Units. PMID:26691072

  13. Preliminary estimate of possible flood elevations in the Columbia River at Trojan Nuclear Power Plant due to failure of debris dam blocking Spirit Lake, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, D.L.; Laenen, Antonius

    1984-01-01

    Failure of the debris dam, blocking the outflow of Spirit Lake near Mount St. Helens, could result in a mudflow down the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers into the Columbia River. Flood elevations at the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant on the Columbia River, 5 mi upstream from the Cowlitz River, were simulated with a hydraulic routing model. The simulations are made for four Columbia River discharges in each of two scenarios, one in which Columbia River floods coincide with a mudflow and the other in which Columbia River floods follow a mudflow sediment deposit upstream from the Cowlitz River. In the first scenario, Manning 's roughness coefficients for clear water and for mudflow in the Columbia River are used; in the second scenario only clear water coefficients are used. The grade elevation at the power plant is 45 ft above sea level. The simulated elevations exceed 44 ft if the mudflow coincides with a Columbia River discharge that has a recurrence interval greater than 10 years (610,000 cu ft/sec); the mudflow is assumed to extend downstream from the Cowlitz River to the mouth of the Columbia River, and Manning 's roughness coefficients for a mudflow are used. The simulated elevation is 32 ft if the mudflow coincides with a 100-yr flood (820,000 cu ft/sec) and clear-water Manning 's coefficients are used throughout the entire reach of the Columbia River. The elevations exceed 45 ft if a flow exceeding the 2-yr peak discharge in the Columbia River (410,000 cu ft/sec) follows the deposit of 0.5 billion cu yd of mudflow sediment upstream of the Cowlitz River before there has been any appreciable scour or dredging of the deposit. In this simulation it is assumed that: (1) the top of the sediment deposited in the Columbia River is at an elevation of 30 ft at the mouth of the Cowlitz River, (2) the surface elevation of the sediment deposit decreases in an upstream direction at a rate of 2.5 ft/mi, and (3) clear water Manning 's coefficients apply to the entire modeled reach of

  14. Characterization of historical mortars in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Heras, M.; Arce, I.; Lopez-Arce, P.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the petrographic and mineralogical characterization of mortars from different archaeological sites in Jordan which encompass Nabatean, Late-Antique and Early Islamic (Umayyad) sites, in some cases offering a sequence of different period mortars from the same building. These sites include the Nabataean city of Petra, the Late Antique town of Umm al Jimal and the castle of Qasr Al Hallabat. These mortars were produced with different raw materials and manufacturing technologies, which are reflected on distinctive variations of mineralogy, texture and crystal size and aggregates composition (including volcanic ashes, ceramic fragments, burnt organic material) size and their puzzolanic properties. As a consequence these mortars present different physical properties and reveal nowadays very different states of conservation. There is a dramatic change in mortar properties between those manufactured in pre-Islamic period and those from early Islamic - Ummayad times with a general trend in which these last ones present coarser crystal and aggregate sizes with less puzzolanic aggregates that result in less durable mortars. All of this reflects changes in the different stages of production of the mortar, from the use of either hydraulic, lime putty or slaked lime and the selection of aggregates to the application techniques (polishing). This reflects the evolution of building technology that took place in this area during early Islamic period and how petrological information can shed light on historical interpretation of building technologies. Research funded by AECID (PCI A/032184/10), GEOMATERIALES (S2009/MAT-16) and MCU (Analisis y Documentación de tipología arquitectónica y técnicas constructivas en el periodo de transición Bizantino-Omeya en Jordania)

  15. Public awareness regarding children vaccination in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Al-Agedi, Hassan S; Abu Rashid, Baraa E; Mukattash, Tariq L

    2014-01-01

    Immunization can contribute to a dramatic reduction in number of vaccine-preventable diseases among children. The aim of this study is to investigate mothers' awareness about child vaccines and vaccination in Jordan. This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study that was performed at public places in Irbid City. Data was collected from 506 mothers. After verbal approval, mothers were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward vaccination. Results show that majority of mothers had acceptable knowledge and positive attitude toward vaccination. Most of mothers (94.7-86.8%) were able to identify vaccines that are mandatory as per the national vaccination program. Lower knowledge was observed among mothers (71.6%) for HIB vaccination being mandatory. Most mothers (97.2%) had vaccination card for their baby form the national vaccination programs. Vaccination delay was reported by about 36.6% of mothers and was shown to be associated with significantly (P = 0.001) lower vaccination knowledge/attitude score. Additionally, mothers who reported to be regularly offered information about vaccination during visits and those who identified medical staff members as their major information source had significantly higher vaccination knowledge/attitude score (P = 0.002). In conclusion, vaccination coverage rate is high; however, some aspects of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of vaccination need to be improved. Knowledge and attitudes of mothers were directly associated with their practice of vaccination. Medical staff education about vaccination during each visit seems to be the most effective tool that directly reflects on better practice of vaccination such as reducing the possibility for vaccination delay. PMID:24732060

  16. Noise Pollution in Irbid City — Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odat, Sana'A.

    2015-09-01

    Noise defined as any sound that annoys or disturbs humans or that causes or tends to cause an adverse psychological and physiological effect on humans. Irbid is one of the most populated cities in Jordan. It is environmentally noise polluted due to the rapid and widespread introduction of mechanical methods for production and for their transportation. L10, L50, L90 and LAeq noise levels were measured during the day time and night time to assess and evaluate the noise levels from mosques, schools, celebration halls, streets, building works, industrial areas and commercial areas. The results of the investigation showed that the measured noise levels from all the selected sources were high during the day time and the noise problem is not only limited to day time, but continues in night time in this city. These noise levels were higher than those set by Jordanian limits during day time and night time. A significant correlation between the measured statistical noise levels L10, L50 and L90 and equivalent continuous noise level LAeq were also detected. The mean value of industrial noise source was motors of large vehicles and engines. Whereas the presence of slow moving vehicles, low speed and honking of horns during traffic ingestion periods lead to an increase in noise levels in commercial areas. The noise from building machines and equipment (dredges, concrete mixers, concrete pumps and jackhammers) is quite different from that of traditional equipment. The construction machines have engines that produce a loud, fluctuating noise with varying frequencies that can propagate the sound for a long distance. The noise produced by these engines is particularly disturbing due to the wide variations in frequency and volume.

  17. 75 FR 28595 - Wisconsin Power River Company; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... River Company, P.O. Box 19001, Green Bay, Wisconsin 54307, (920) 433-1094. i. FERC Contact: Jade Alvey at (202) 502-6864 or Jade.Alvey@ferc.gov . j. Deadline for filing comments: June 14, 2010....

  18. Renormalizations and Wandering Jordan Curves of Rational Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Guizhen; Peng, Wenjuan; Tan, Lei

    2016-05-01

    We realize a dynamical decomposition for a post-critically finite rational map which admits a combinatorial decomposition. We split the Riemann sphere into two completely invariant subsets. One is a subset of the Julia set consisting of uncountably many Jordan curve components. Most of them are wandering. The other consists of components that are pullbacks of finitely many renormalizations, together with possibly uncountably many points. The quotient action on the decomposed pieces is encoded by a dendrite dynamical system. We also introduce a surgery procedure to produce post-critically finite rational maps with wandering Jordan curves and prescribed renormalizations.

  19. Evaluation of the Better Parenting Programme in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the Better Parenting Programme (BPP) which has been implemented nationally in Jordan to enhance parents' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours related to caring for young children. The participants (N = 337, 94% female) were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group participated in…

  20. Jordan's Jubilee School: Educating the Arab World's Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evered, Lisa J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes the philosophy and curriculum of a coeducational high school in Jordan dedicated to fulfilling the needs of gifted and talented students. The school encourages individual initiative and democratic participation and selects students based on school achievement, behavioral characteristics, mental ability, specific mathematical ability, and…

  1. Educational Demands to Reduce Avoidance of Vocational Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsa'aideh, Monim

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify the educational demands to reduce students' avoidance of vocational education in Jordan. Results of a previous study addressing reasons for avoidance of vocational education, distributed these reasons into personal, social, economic, educational and vocational domains. Focus-groups method was used to identify the…

  2. International Education: A Case Study from the University of Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabbar, Sinaria Kamil Abdel

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes international education at the University of Jordan (UJ). Specifically it investigates a random sample of international students comprising Americans, Europeans and Asians. A field survey approach with qualitative and quantitative dimensions was used. Questionnaires were used to solicit information from the students. In…

  3. Academic Library Consortium in Jordan: An Evaluation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Mustafa H.; Suleiman, Raid Jameel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Due to the current financial and managerial difficulties that are encountered by libraries in public universities in Jordan and the geographical diffusion of these academic institutions, the idea of establishing a consortium was proposed by the Council of Higher Education to combine these libraries. This article reviews the reality of…

  4. Is There a Silent Hearing Loss among Children in Jordan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaqrabawi, Wala' S.; Alshawabka, Amneh Z.; Al-Addasi, Zainab M.

    2016-01-01

    This study measured the prevalence of hearing loss among school children in Jordan. A random sample of 1649 children (990 males and 659 females) was collected from randomly chosen 40 schools in Amman. Screening was conducted between November 2010 and October 2014. Otoscopic examination, tympanometry, and audiometry were used for screening. Based…

  5. What Is the Reality of Preschool in Jordan?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALdarab'h, Intisar; Alrub, Mohammad Abo; Al-Mohtadi, Reham Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the reality of the preschools in Jordan. A random sample of 500 preschool teachers participated in this study. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Preschools' learning environment quality was assessed using the revised version of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (Harms, Clifford, & Cryer,…

  6. Students with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study which aimed to explore the learning and behavioral characteristics of students with Learning Disabilities (LDs) in Jordan. Specifically, variables that related to challenging behaviors, school's type, and gender differences were investigated. Four resource room teachers in public and private schools were…

  7. Reasons for Avoidance of Vocational Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saaideh, Mon'im A.

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the factors that lead students to avoid joining Vocational Education (VE) in Jordan. A pilot study was conducted, then a 39-item questionnaire was developed, and its validity and reliability were ensured. The reasons included were divided into personal, social, economic, educational and vocational domains. The…

  8. The Impacts of Heritage Tourism on Gadara, Northern Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alobiedat, Ammar Abdelkarim

    2014-01-01

    As the tourism industry continues to grow and the desire to visit heritage sites becomes a popular pursuit, heritage has turn into a commodity in the marketplace. This dissertation analyzes the economic, sociocultural and environmental implications of tourism in Gadara, northwest Jordan. It also elaborates on the changing force of tourism and its…

  9. Youth in Jordan: Transitions from Education to Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ryan Andrew; Constant, Louay; Glick, Peter; Grant, Audra K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite strong economic growth during the last decade, youth unemployment in Jordan remains stubbornly high, and labor-force participation markedly low. Young women in particular face labor??market barriers in access to many career paths, and their job aspirations are often discouraged by their parents. Graduates of secondary and postsecondary…

  10. Writing Instruction in Jordan: Past, Present, and Future Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jarrah, Rasheed S.; Al-Ahmad, Sayyah

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated English-language writing instruction in Jordan at three levels, namely primary and secondary state schools, a private school, and a state university. To address this issue, the researchers used tape-recorded interviews and class observations as primary tools of collecting data for the study. It turned out that a host of…

  11. Another elementary proof of the Jordan form of a matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budhi, Wono Setya

    2012-05-01

    In this paper we establish the Jordan Form for a matrix using the elementary concepts of vector differentiation and partial fractions. The idea comes from the resolvent of the operator. For the matrix, the Laurent series is finite and easy to compute through rational representation. We also give a proof of some famous theorems in matrix analysis as consequences from the result.

  12. Zeta functional equation on Jordan algebras of type II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayoya, J. B.

    2005-02-01

    Using the Jordan algebras methods, specially the properties of Peirce decomposition and the Frobenius transformation, we compute the coefficients of the zeta functional equation, in the case of Jordan algebras of type II. As particular cases of our result, we can cite the case of studied by Gelbart [Mem. Amer. Math. Soc. 108 (1971)] and Godement and Jacquet [Zeta functions of simple algebras, Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 260, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1972], and the case of studied by Muro [Adv. Stud. Pure Math. 15 (1989) 429]. Let us also mention, that recently, Bopp and Rubenthaler have obtained a more general result on the zeta functional equation by using methods based on the algebraic properties of regular graded algebras which are in one-to-one correspondence with simple Jordan algebras [Local Zeta Functions Attached to the Minimal Spherical Series for a Class of Symmetric Spaces, IRMA, Strasbourg, 2003]. The method used in this paper is a direct application of specific properties of Jordan algebras of type II.

  13. Prevalence of Speech Disorders in Elementary School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jazi, Aya Bassam; Al-Khamra, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Goal: The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of speech (articulation, voice, and fluency) disorders among elementary school students from first grade to fourth grade. This research was based on the screening implemented as part of the Madrasati Project, which is designed to serve the school system in Jordan. Method: A sample of 1,231…

  14. Library Education in Tunisia and Jordan: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouazza, A.; Nimer, R.

    1986-01-01

    This article examines the state of development of library education in Jordan and Tunisia and pinpoints problems affecting this development in order to verify if library education in countries with similar cultures and type of economy evolves similarly and faces same problems. A brief introduction to the countries is provided. (EJS)

  15. Oral Health Patterns among Schoolchildren in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALBashtawy, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the oral hygiene patterns among schoolchildren in Jordan. A school-based cross-sectional study was performed from January to March 2010. A simple random sampling method was used. Each student participant completed a detailed questionnaire regarding oral hygiene habits. Data were coded and analyzed using SPSS software version…

  16. Negotiating Cultural Identities through Language: Academic English in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how a group of multilingual scholars in Jordan negotiate multiple linguistic and cultural affiliations. These writers' experiences demonstrate the varied ways English's global dominance affects individuals' lives. The scholars find both empowerment and disempowerment in English, viewing English as linked to Western hegemony…

  17. Run-of-river power plants in Alpine regions: Whither optimal capacity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzaro, G.; Botter, G.

    2015-07-01

    Although run-of-river hydropower represents a key source of renewable energy, it cannot prevent stresses on river ecosystems and human well-being. This is especially true in Alpine regions, where the outflow of a plant is placed several kilometers downstream of the intake, inducing the depletion of river reaches of considerable length. Here multiobjective optimization is used in the design of the capacity of run-of-river plants to identify optimal trade-offs between two contrasting objectives: the maximization of the profitability and the minimization of the hydrologic disturbance between the intake and the outflow. The latter is evaluated considering different flow metrics: mean discharge, temporal autocorrelation, and streamflow variability. Efficient and Pareto-optimal plant sizes are devised for two representative case studies belonging to the Piave river (Italy). Our results show that the optimal design capacity is strongly affected by the flow regime at the plant intake. In persistent regimes with a reduced flow variability, the optimal trade-off between economic exploitation and hydrologic disturbance is obtained for a narrow range of capacities sensibly smaller than the economic optimum. In erratic regimes featured by an enhanced flow variability, instead, the Pareto front is discontinuous and multiple trade-offs can be identified, which imply either smaller or larger plants compared to the economic optimum. In particular, large capacities reduce the impact of the plant on the streamflow variability at seasonal and interannual time scale. Multiobjective analysis could provide a clue for the development of policy actions based on the evaluation of the environmental footprint of run-of-river plants.

  18. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-09-01

    The Jordan Schnitzer Museum of Art in Eugene, Oregon, houses a remarkable permanent collection of Asian art and antiquities, modern art, and sculpture, and also hosts traveling exhibitions. In the winter and spring of 2011, a series of digital photographs by artist Chris Jordan, titled "Running the Numbers," was exhibited in the Coeta and Donald Barker Special Exhibitions Gallery. These works graphically illustrate waste (energy, money, health, consumer objects, etc.) in contemporary culture. The Bonneville Power Administration and the Eugene Water and Electricity Board provided a set of Cree 12W light-emitting diode (LED) PAR38 replacement lamps (Cree LRP38) for the museum to test for accent lighting in lieu of their standard Sylvania 90W PAR38 130V Narrow Flood lamps (which draw 78.9W at 120V). At the same time, the museum tested LED replacement lamps from three other manufacturers, and chose the Cree lamp as the most versatile and most appropriate color product for this exhibit. The lamps were installed for the opening of the show in January 2011. This report describes the process for the demonstration, the energy and economic results, and results of a survey of the museum staff and gallery visitors on four similar clusters of art lighted separately by four PAR38 lamps.

  19. Future projection of radiocesium flux to the ocean from the largest river impacted by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhiraga Pratama, Mochamad; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Matsui, Yasuto; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2015-02-01

    Following the initial fall out from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a significant amount of radiocesium has been discharged from Abukuma River into the Pacific Ocean. This study attempted to numerically simulate the flux of radiocesium into Abukuma River by developing the multiple compartment model which incorporate the transport process of the radionuclide from the ground surface of the catchment area into the river, a process called wash off. The results from the model show that the sub-basins with a high percentage of forest area release the radionuclides at lower rate compared to the other sub-basins. In addition the results show that the model could predict the seasonal pattern of the observed data. Despite the overestimation observed between the modeled data and the observed data, the values of R2 obtained from 137Cs and 134Cs of 0.98 and 0.97 respectively demonstrate the accuracy of the model. Prediction of the discharge from the basin area for 100 years after the accident shows that, the flux of radiocesium into the Pacific Ocean is still relatively high with an order of magnitude of 109 bq.month-1 while the total accumulation of the discharge is 111 TBq for 137Cs and 44 TBq for 134Cs.

  20. Future projection of radiocesium flux to the ocean from the largest river impacted by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Adhiraga Pratama, Mochamad; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Matsui, Yasuto; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2015-01-01

    Following the initial fall out from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a significant amount of radiocesium has been discharged from Abukuma River into the Pacific Ocean. This study attempted to numerically simulate the flux of radiocesium into Abukuma River by developing the multiple compartment model which incorporate the transport process of the radionuclide from the ground surface of the catchment area into the river, a process called wash off. The results from the model show that the sub-basins with a high percentage of forest area release the radionuclides at lower rate compared to the other sub-basins. In addition the results show that the model could predict the seasonal pattern of the observed data. Despite the overestimation observed between the modeled data and the observed data, the values of R2 obtained from 137Cs and 134Cs of 0.98 and 0.97 respectively demonstrate the accuracy of the model. Prediction of the discharge from the basin area for 100 years after the accident shows that, the flux of radiocesium into the Pacific Ocean is still relatively high with an order of magnitude of 109 bq.month−1 while the total accumulation of the discharge is 111 TBq for 137Cs and 44 TBq for 134Cs. PMID:25673214

  1. Future projection of radiocesium flux to the ocean from the largest river impacted by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Adhiraga Pratama, Mochamad; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Matsui, Yasuto; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2015-02-12

    Following the initial fall out from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a significant amount of radiocesium has been discharged from Abukuma River into the Pacific Ocean. This study attempted to numerically simulate the flux of radiocesium into Abukuma River by developing the multiple compartment model which incorporate the transport process of the radionuclide from the ground surface of the catchment area into the river, a process called wash off. The results from the model show that the sub-basins with a high percentage of forest area release the radionuclides at lower rate compared to the other sub-basins. In addition the results show that the model could predict the seasonal pattern of the observed data. Despite the overestimation observed between the modeled data and the observed data, the values of R(2) obtained from (137)Cs and (134)Cs of 0.98 and 0.97 respectively demonstrate the accuracy of the model. Prediction of the discharge from the basin area for 100 years after the accident shows that, the flux of radiocesium into the Pacific Ocean is still relatively high with an order of magnitude of 10(9) bq.month(-1) while the total accumulation of the discharge is 111 TBq for (137)Cs and 44 TBq for (134)Cs.

  2. Future projection of radiocesium flux to the ocean from the largest river impacted by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Adhiraga Pratama, Mochamad; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Matsui, Yasuto; Yamashiki, Yosuke

    2015-01-01

    Following the initial fall out from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a significant amount of radiocesium has been discharged from Abukuma River into the Pacific Ocean. This study attempted to numerically simulate the flux of radiocesium into Abukuma River by developing the multiple compartment model which incorporate the transport process of the radionuclide from the ground surface of the catchment area into the river, a process called wash off. The results from the model show that the sub-basins with a high percentage of forest area release the radionuclides at lower rate compared to the other sub-basins. In addition the results show that the model could predict the seasonal pattern of the observed data. Despite the overestimation observed between the modeled data and the observed data, the values of R(2) obtained from (137)Cs and (134)Cs of 0.98 and 0.97 respectively demonstrate the accuracy of the model. Prediction of the discharge from the basin area for 100 years after the accident shows that, the flux of radiocesium into the Pacific Ocean is still relatively high with an order of magnitude of 10(9) bq.month(-1) while the total accumulation of the discharge is 111 TBq for (137)Cs and 44 TBq for (134)Cs. PMID:25673214

  3. U.S. Department of Energy electric and hybrid vehicle Site Operator Program at Platte River Power Authority. Final report, July 3, 1991--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Emmert, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) is a political subdivision of the state of Colorado, owned by the four municipalities of Fort Collins, Loveland, Longmont and Estes Park, Colorado. Platte River is a non-profit, publicly owned, joint-action agency formed to construct, operate and maintain generating plants, transmission systems and related facilities for the purpose of delivering to the four municipalities electric energy for distribution and resale. Platte River, as a participant in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Site Operator Program, worked to accomplish the Site Operator Program goals and objectives to field test and evaluate electric and electric-hybrid vehicles and electric vehicle systems in a real world application/environment. This report presents results of Platte River`s program (Program) during the five-years Platte River participated in the DOE Site Operator Program. Platte River participated in DOE Site Operator Program from July 3, 1991 through August 31, 1996. During its Program, Platte River conducted vehicle tests and evaluations, and electric vehicle demonstrations in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado. Platte River also investigated electric vehicle infrastructure issues and tested infrastructure components. Platte River`s Program objectives were as follows: evaluate the year round performance, operational costs, reliability, and life cycle costs of electric vehicles in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado; evaluate an electric vehicle`s usability and acceptability as a pool vehicle; test any design improvements or technological improvements on a component level that may be made available to PRPA and which can be retrofit into vehicles; and develop, test and evaluate, and demonstrate components to be used in charging electric vehicles.

  4. Journey to Planet Earth: Rivers of Destiny. The Public Television Series. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This video program focuses on four rivers: the Mississippi, the Amazon, the Jordan, and the Mekong. Each locale serves as an example of what can happen when human beings tamper with the natural system of a river. Without thoughtful planning, the consequences can be disastrous,, but when communities work together, a balance can be achieved between…

  5. Hydroelectric power generation in an Alpine basin: future water-energy scenarios in a run-of-the-river plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongio, Marco; Avanzi, Francesco; De Michele, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    We investigate scenarios of hydroelectric power generation for an Alpine run-of-the-river plant in 2050. To this end, we include a conversion from streamflow to energy in a hydrological model of the basin, and we introduce a set of benchmark climate scenarios to evaluate expected future production. These are a "future-like-present" scenario assuming future precipitation and temperature inputs to be statistically equivalent to those observed during the recent past at the same location, a "warmer-future" scenario, which considers an additional increase in temperature, and a "liquid-only" scenario where only liquid precipitation is admitted. In addition, two IPCC-like climatic scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) are considered. Uncertainty in glaciers' volume is accounted by initializing the hydrological model with two different inventories of glaciers. Ensemble results reveal that 1) an average decrease between -40% and -19% of hydroelectric power generation in 2050 is predicted at the plant considered (with respect to present condition); 2) an average decrease between -20% and -38% of cumulative incoming streamflow volume at the plant is also predicted, again with respect to present condition; 3) these effects are associated with a strong average decrease of the volume of glaciers (between -76% and -96%, depending on the initial value considered). However, Monte Carlo simulations show that results are also prone to high uncertainties. Implications of these results for run-of-the-river plants are discussed.

  6. Distribution of dissolved and particulate radiocesium concentrations along rivers and the relations between radiocesium concentration and deposition after the nuclear power plant accident in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Hideki; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Kawabe, Yoshishige; Onishi, Takeo; Komai, Takeshi

    2014-09-01

    This study involved measurement of concentrations of dissolved and particulate radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in river water, and determination of the quantitative relations between the amount of deposited (137)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations in river waters after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. First, the current concentrations of dissolved and particulate (134)Cs·(137)Cs were determined in a river watershed from 20 sampling locations in four contaminated rivers (Abukuma, Kuchibuto, Shakado, and Ota). Distribution characteristics of different (137)Cs forms varied with rivers. Moreover, a higher dissolved (137)Cs concentration was observed at the sampling location where the (137)Cs deposition occurred much more heavily. In contrast, particulate (137)Cs concentration along the river was quite irregular, because fluctuations in suspended solids concentrations occur easily from disturbance and heavy precipitation. A similar tendency with dissolved (137)Cs distribution was observed for the (137)Cs concentration per unit weight of suspended solids. Regression analysis between deposited (137)Cs and dissolved/particulate (137)Cs concentrations was performed for the four rivers. The results showed a strong correlation between deposited (137)Cs and dissolved (137)Cs, and a relatively weak correlation between deposited (137)Cs and particulate (137)Cs concentration for each river. However, if the particulate (137)Cs concentration was converted to (137)Cs concentration per unit weight of suspended solid, the values showed a strong correlation with deposited (137)Cs.

  7. Landscape development in the context of soil distribution in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucke, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Processes of landscape change can be assessed by studying the distribution of soil types and their connection to climate, the geology, and land use. In this context, even in areas where no virgin soils are available, paleosols pre-dating the introduction of agriculture can be utilized for estimating potential soil development without human impact. Soil distribution in Jordan follows closely the climate and topography: specific soil orders can be found within the dry and hot subtropical, subhumid-semiarid, semiarid-arid, and arid regions. The pattern of soil and paleosol distribution in Jordan points to an important role of the geology (bedrock and relief), and of climate in their formation, both locally such as in the vicinity of the ancient site of Abila, and regionally in the whole country. In contrast, the impact of land use appears relatively limited: overall erosion has been estimated not to exceed the expected geological rate, and Jordan is considered to be in the stable state of completed geologic erosion. This is further supported by strongly varying soil properties and archaeological material on agricultural fields, which suggests that overall erosion processes during historical periods were limited. The presence of a quite uniform 4 m thick loess cover around the site of Umm el-Jimal in north-east Jordan suggests that aeolian deposits are probably the by far dominating parent material of current soils in northern Jordan. In this context, an apparent division of some soil profiles into subsoil and topsoil could correspond to dominant in-situ soil formation out of bedrock weathering at the bottom, while the upper part of the profiles could correspond to aeolian dust as main parent material. A stone line or lithological discontinuity separating these two parts of the profile might refer to a major erosion event. If true, this could indicate that current soils in Jordan might represent a mixture of at least two phases of soil development with probably

  8. Body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Tamara Y; Mashal, Rima H; Al-Domi, Hayder A; Jibril, Musa A

    2010-01-01

    The present study has investigated the occurrence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Amman, Jordan, and the risk factors that are known to predispose it including individual, familial and social variables. A sample of 326 adolescent girls aged 10-16 years was recruited from public and private schools in Amman. Participants completed a socio-demographic data sheet, eating attitude test, and body shape questionnaire. Approximately, 21.2% of participants displayed body image dissatisfaction in which physical changes associated with puberty and exhibiting negative eating attitudes were associated with this dissatisfaction. Additionally, mass media messages, as well as peers and family pressures towards thinness were associated with participants' preoccupation with their body image. In conclusion, negative body image perception was observed in the present sample. Therefore, well-controlled prospective studies and development of intervention programs on body image among adolescent girls in Jordan are needed. PMID:19910269

  9. Business continuity management in emerging markets: the case of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Sawalha, Ihab H; Anchor, John R

    2012-01-01

    Despite their considerable growth in last few decades, emerging markets (EM) face numerous risks that have the potential to slow down or obstruct their development. Three main issues are discussed in this paper: first, the risks facing organisations operating in emerging markets and Jordan in particular; secondly, the role of business continuity management (BCM) in emerging markets; and thirdly, potential factors that underpin the role of BCM in emerging markets. These issues are significant, as they represent the role of BCM in highly dynamic and fast changing business environments. The paper provides a discussion of the significance of BCM in reducing or preventing risks facing organisations operating in emerging markets, especially those in Jordan. PMID:22576137

  10. Business continuity management in emerging markets: the case of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Sawalha, Ihab H; Anchor, John R

    2012-01-01

    Despite their considerable growth in last few decades, emerging markets (EM) face numerous risks that have the potential to slow down or obstruct their development. Three main issues are discussed in this paper: first, the risks facing organisations operating in emerging markets and Jordan in particular; secondly, the role of business continuity management (BCM) in emerging markets; and thirdly, potential factors that underpin the role of BCM in emerging markets. These issues are significant, as they represent the role of BCM in highly dynamic and fast changing business environments. The paper provides a discussion of the significance of BCM in reducing or preventing risks facing organisations operating in emerging markets, especially those in Jordan.

  11. Worker programs and resource use: Evidence from better work jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, Nathan

    This paper examines data collected for the Better Work program in Jordan which aims to protect laborers in the garment industry from poor working conditions. Data are examined to look for benefits to the factories participating in the program beyond improved compliance with labor law. In particular, potential impacts to firm energy use are examined and correlations are tested between electricity use rates and measures of worker outcomes and a number of factory traits such as size and production input costs. Evidence was found to back up work done in Vietnam with regard to resource use and distribution of electricity expenses. It was also found that the type of data being collected is not ideal for examinations of energy, and more direct methods are desirable, and that considerable production obstacles are worker skill level, electricity prices, and to a greater degree in Jordan than in previously examined countries, water prices.

  12. Soil erosion and land degradation in the Highlands of Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khresat, Saeb

    2013-04-01

    The Highlands of Jordan has a Mediterranean type of climate characterized by hot dry summers and cold wet winters. Unsustainable land use practices, recurrent droughts and climate change are the main causes of land degradation in the Highlands area of Jordan. Unsustainable land use practices include improper plowing, inappropriate rotations, inadequate or inexistent management of plant residues, overgrazing of natural vegetation, forest cutting, land fragmentation and over-pumping of groundwater. In addition, Jordan's rapid population growth (2.8% per year) is exerting considerable pressure upon its limited arable land through uncontrolled and random urbanization activities. Water erosion is the most widespread Land degradation type in the country. It greatly increases on slopes where the vegetation cover is (seasonally) reduced. It is further aggravated by a loss of soil structure and reduced infiltration rates. Wind erosion occurs most frequently in the arid and semi-arid portions of the southern Highlands, especially in areas with sandy or loamy soils. Rangeland degradation is the second most widespread land degradation type that is driven by overgrazing. The impact of overgrazing on the vegetation is evident from the excessive uprooting of the green matter (grass and bushes), leading to reduced seeding, reduced regeneration, and the consequent loss of plant cover which make the soil more susceptible to water and wind erosion. It is estimated that about 41 percent of Jordan's total land area is characterized as degraded of which 22 percent of the total land mass is classified as moderately degraded and agricultural productivity is greatly reduced. Observed aspects of land degradation include the recession of forest areas, high rate of erosion by water (formation of rills and gullies), expansion of urbanized area, reduction in soil organic matter and soil structure deterioration. Implementation of soil erosion control measures such as contour cultivation

  13. Depositional environments of the early cretaceous Kurnub (Hathira) sandstones, North Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abed, Abdulkader M.

    1982-04-01

    The Kurnub (Hathira) sandstones in north Jordan, which are most probably of Early Cretaceous age, are about 300 m thick varicoloured, friable quartz-arenitic sandstones. Based on grain-size analysis, sedimentary structures, palaeocurrent, fossil content and petrography, these sandstones are postulated to be dominantly of fluvial origin with a few interfingering shallow marine horizons. A southward displacement of Jordan by at least 100 km would bring these sandstones opposite to similar rocks west of the Jordan-Araba rift, with Jordan being higher during the EArly Cretaceous.

  14. Mixing models and ionic geothermometers applied to warm (up to 60°C) springs: Jordan Rift Valley, Israel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazor, E.; Levitte, D.; Truesdell, A.H.; Healy, J.; Nissenbaum, A.

    1980-01-01

    No indications are available for the existence of above-boiling geothermal systems in the Jordan Rift Valley. Slightly higher than observed temperatures are concluded for a deep component at the springs of Hammat Gader (67°C), Gofra (68°C), the Russian Garden (40°C), and the Yesha well (53–65°C). These temperatures may encourage further developments for spas and bathing installations and, to a limited extent, for space heating, but are not favorable for geothermal power generation.

  15. Towards establishing a multiple sclerosis biobank in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ahram, Mamoun; Zaza, Rand; Ibayyan, Leena; Dahbour, Said; Bahou, Yacoub; El-Omar, Ammar; Samhouri, Bilal; El-Khateeb, Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been a promising approach in unraveling genetic associations to multiple sclerosis (MS), a complex, multifactorial disease. Biobanks are repositories of patient biospecimens and information that can promote GWAS research. However, the success of GWAS and biobanking is dependent on the level of participation of MS patients in genetic research. In order to initiate MS-based biobanking and GWAS research in Jordan, the willingness of MS patients to participate in long-term, genetic research in Jordan and their preferred type of a consent form were investigated. MS patients (289) were recruited for genetic studies. Personal and clinical information were collected from those who enrolled in the study. Approximately 96% of MS patients agreed to participate in genetic studies. The female:male ratio among patients was 2:1 with most patients being diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS (88%). The mean age of onset was 28.3 years, the mean duration of illness was 6 years, and the mean Expanded Disability Status Scale was 2.8. Relatedness of parents was significantly associated with having secondary-progressive MS. Approximately 85% of the patients preferred open consent with 37% of them preferring to renew their consent. All the patients approved to be recontacted and update their information via accessing their medical files or physicians. These observations support the establishment of a specialized MS biobank in Jordan and pave the way to participate in international large-scale genetic initiatives. PMID:24456262

  16. Molecular characterization of the circulating Bacillus anthracis in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Aqel, Amin Abdelfattah; Hailat, Ekhlas; Serrecchia, Luigina; Aqel, Suad; Campese, Emanuele; Vicari, Nadia; Fasanella, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    To understand the biomolecular charcteristics of Bacillus anthracis in Jordan, 20 blood smear slides from dead animals with suspected anthrax were analyzed using conventional and molecular approaches. All slides were positive for B. anthracis by conventional staining but no growth of the organism on selective media was detected. However, of the 20 samples, 16 were B. anthracis DNA-positive using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Seven samples provided enough quantity and quality of DNA, and their multilocus variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA)-15 loci analysis revealed two different genotypes. All genotypes were belonging to A.B..r. 008/009 which is very common in Asia and Europe. Single nucleotide repeat (SNR) analysis revealed that there were no sub genotypes. Molecular diagnosis of animal anthrax in Jordan is not used routinely; henceforth, official diagnosis of anthrax is based on the observation of the slides by optical microscope and this can often cause reading errors. Therefore, the prevalence of the disease in Jordan might be slightly lower than that reported by the official bodies.

  17. Cancer prevention and care: a national sample from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muayyad M; Dardas, Latefa Ali; Ahmad, Huthaifa

    2015-06-01

    This survey was designed to enhance cancer prevention and care in a sample from the Arab world. A descriptive survey research design was adopted. A representative sample of 3,196 individuals from the three main regions of Jordan (north, middle, and south) was used. Data were collected through interviews. The tool for the study included the following aspects: identification and background information; health status; participant's lifestyle; general beliefs about cancer prevention; screening and early detection; and communication channels and seeking information about cancer. The participants believed that the three greatest factors related to cancer specifically in Jordan were active cigarette smoking, exposure to radiation, and exposure to chemicals. The majority of the participants agreed that getting regular cancer checkup helps diagnose the disease early with a good prognosis. Interestingly, cancer checkup was about seven times greater among females than males. Married individuals performed checkup four times more than singles. The findings indicate that knowledge gaps and improper practices toward cancer existed among the participants and, if corrected, could facilitate the care, prevention, and early detection of cancer. The findings help in defining key areas that should be addressed in national cancer policies in Jordan.

  18. Towards establishing a multiple sclerosis biobank in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ahram, Mamoun; Zaza, Rand; Ibayyan, Leena; Dahbour, Said; Bahou, Yacoub; El-Omar, Ammar; Samhouri, Bilal; El-Khateeb, Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been a promising approach in unraveling genetic associations to multiple sclerosis (MS), a complex, multifactorial disease. Biobanks are repositories of patient biospecimens and information that can promote GWAS research. However, the success of GWAS and biobanking is dependent on the level of participation of MS patients in genetic research. In order to initiate MS-based biobanking and GWAS research in Jordan, the willingness of MS patients to participate in long-term, genetic research in Jordan and their preferred type of a consent form were investigated. MS patients (289) were recruited for genetic studies. Personal and clinical information were collected from those who enrolled in the study. Approximately 96% of MS patients agreed to participate in genetic studies. The female:male ratio among patients was 2:1 with most patients being diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS (88%). The mean age of onset was 28.3 years, the mean duration of illness was 6 years, and the mean Expanded Disability Status Scale was 2.8. Relatedness of parents was significantly associated with having secondary-progressive MS. Approximately 85% of the patients preferred open consent with 37% of them preferring to renew their consent. All the patients approved to be recontacted and update their information via accessing their medical files or physicians. These observations support the establishment of a specialized MS biobank in Jordan and pave the way to participate in international large-scale genetic initiatives.

  19. Jordan frame supergravity and inflation in the NMSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrara, Sergio; Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Marrani, Alessio; Van Proeyen, Antoine

    2010-08-15

    We present a complete explicit N=1, d=4 supergravity action in an arbitrary Jordan frame with nonminimal scalar-curvature coupling of the form {Phi}(z,z)R. The action is derived by suitably gauge fixing the superconformal action. The theory has a modified Kaehler geometry, and it exhibits a significant dependence on the frame function {Phi}(z,z) and its derivatives over scalars, in the bosonic as well as in the fermionic part of the action. Under certain simple conditions, the scalar kinetic terms in the Jordan frame have a canonical form. We consider an embedding of the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) gauge theory into supergravity, clarifying the Higgs inflation model recently proposed by Einhorn and Jones. We find that the conditions for canonical kinetic terms are satisfied for the NMSSM scalars in the Jordan frame, which leads to a simple action. However, we find that the gauge singlet field experiences a strong tachyonic instability during inflation in this model. Thus, a modification of the model is required to support the Higgs-type inflation.

  20. Jordan frame supergravity and inflation in the NMSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrara, Sergio; Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Marrani, Alessio; van Proeyen, Antoine

    2010-08-01

    We present a complete explicit N=1, d=4 supergravity action in an arbitrary Jordan frame with nonminimal scalar-curvature coupling of the form Φ(z,z¯)R. The action is derived by suitably gauge fixing the superconformal action. The theory has a modified Kähler geometry, and it exhibits a significant dependence on the frame function Φ(z,z¯) and its derivatives over scalars, in the bosonic as well as in the fermionic part of the action. Under certain simple conditions, the scalar kinetic terms in the Jordan frame have a canonical form. We consider an embedding of the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) gauge theory into supergravity, clarifying the Higgs inflation model recently proposed by Einhorn and Jones. We find that the conditions for canonical kinetic terms are satisfied for the NMSSM scalars in the Jordan frame, which leads to a simple action. However, we find that the gauge singlet field experiences a strong tachyonic instability during inflation in this model. Thus, a modification of the model is required to support the Higgs-type inflation.

  1. The surface heat flow of the Arabian Shield in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, A.; Förster, H.-J.; Masarweh, R.; Masri, A.; Tarawneh, K.; Desert Group

    2007-04-01

    Surface heat flow in southern Jordan (western part of the Arabian Plate) was determined in a dense cluster of five, up to 900-m-deep boreholes that have encountered sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic (Ordovician and Silurian) age. These rocks are underlain by an igneous and metamorphic basement, which has been studied for its radiogenic heat production, along the eastern margin of the Dead Sea Transform (DST) fault system. The heat flow, calculated from continuous temperature logs and laboratory-measured thermal conductivity of drillcores and surface samples, averages to 60.3 ± 3.4 mW m -2 and contrasts the common view of the late Proterozoic-consolidated Arabian Shield constituting a low heat-flow province of ⩽45 mW m -2. Although only characterizing an area of about 300 km 2, this average is unlikely representing a positive local anomaly caused by voluminous HHP granites/rhyolites at shallow depths. Instead, a heat flow of 60 mW m -2 is considered a robust estimate of the Phanerozoic conductive surface heat flow not only for Jordan, but for the Arabian Shield in areas unaffected by younger reactivation. The large variation in conductive heat flow (36-88 mW m -2) previously observed in Jordan, southern Syria, and Saudi Arabia is irreconcilable with their broad similarity in lithosphere structure and composition and rather reflects a combination of factors including low-quality temperature data and insufficient knowledge on thermal rock properties.

  2. Raft River binary-cycle geothermal pilot power plant final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bliem, C.J.; Walrath, L.F.

    1983-04-01

    The design and performance of a 5-MW(e) binary-cycle pilot power plant that used a moderate-temperature hydrothermal resource, with isobutane as a working fluid, are examined. Operating problems experienced and solutions found are discussed and recommendations are made for improvements to future power plant designs. The plant and individual systems are analyzed for design specification versus actual performance figures.

  3. Fuzzy decision analysis for power, recreation, and environmental objectives on the Green River, CO and UT

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, W.J.; Gates, T.K.; Flug, M.

    1995-12-31

    A major challenge facing hydropower operators in today`s complex environment is making management decisions among conflicting objectives. To complicate the problem, many of these objectives are subjective by nature and, thus, are difficult to quantify. Fuzzy set theory creates a quantitative medium in which imprecise or ambiguous objectives can be characterized. Fuzzy membership functions for each objective or constraint can be combined to suggest the best solution. This methodology is applied to the dilemma which currently confronts reservoir operators at Flaming Gorge Dam, located on the Green River in northeastern Utah. The problem is how to balance hydropower objectives with needs of downstream recreationists, endangered fish, riparian vegetation and others. Construction of the membership functions from surveys of experts and estimation of the degree of variation within the functions are discussed. Preliminary results are also presented.

  4. Towards Sustainable Water Management in a Country that Faces Extreme Water Scarcity and Dependency: Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schyns, J.; Hamaideh, A.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Schyns, M.

    2015-12-01

    Jordan faces a great variety of water-related challenges: domestic water resources are scarce and polluted; the sharing of transboundary waters has led to tensions and conflicts; and Jordan is extremely dependent of foreign water resources through trade. Therefore, sustainable water management in Jordan is a challenging task, which has not yet been accomplished. The objective of this study was to analyse Jordan's domestic water scarcity and pollution and the country's external water dependency, and subsequently review sustainable solutions that reduce the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency. We have estimated the green, blue and grey water footprint of five different sectors in Jordan: crop production, grazing, animal water supply, industrial production and domestic water supply. Next, we assessed the blue water scarcity ratio for the sum of surface- and groundwater and for groundwater separately, and calculated the water pollution level. Finally, we reviewed the sustainability of proposed solutions to Jordan's domestic water problems and external water dependency in literature, while involving the results and conclusions from our analysis. We have quantified that: even while taking into account the return flows, blue water scarcity in Jordan is severe; groundwater consumption is nearly double the sustainable yield; water pollution aggravates blue water scarcity; and Jordan's external virtual water dependency is 86%. Our review yields ten essential ingredients that a sustainable water management strategy for Jordan, that reduces the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency, should involve. With respect to these, Jordan's current water policy requires a strong redirection towards water demand management. Especially, more attention should be paid to reducing water demand by changing the consumption patterns of Jordan consumers. Moreover, exploitation of fossil groundwater should soon be halted and planned desalination projects require careful

  5. 75 FR 62500 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... Jordan. Based on this analysis, we believe that the application of one or more designated phytosanitary... weeds via the importation of fresh strawberries from Jordan. We are making the pest risk...

  6. 77 FR 53885 - Jordan Cove Energy Project LP, Pacific Connector Gas Pipeline LP; Notice of Extension of Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Extension of Comment Period and Additional Public Scoping Meetings for the Jordan Cove Liquefaction and... comment period for Jordan Cove Energy Project LP's (Jordan Cove) proposed liquefaction project in Coos... Liquefaction and Pacific Connector Pipeline Projects, Requests for Comments on Environmental Issues, and...

  7. 77 FR 59393 - Jordan Cove Energy Project LP; Pacific Connector Gas Pipeline LP; Notice of Additional Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... Additional Public Scoping Meetings for the Jordan Cove Liquefaction and Pacific Connector Pipeline Projects... (Jordan Cove) proposed liquefaction project in Coos County, Oregon, in Docket No. PF12-7-000, and Pacific... Environmental Impact Statement for the Planned Jordan Cove Liquefaction and Pacific Connector Pipeline...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-62 - Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan. 319.56... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-62 Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan. Fresh beans (Phaseolus vulgaris...

  9. Experiences of Students with Disabilities in a Public University in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The study examined students with disabilities perspectives toward their experiences in a public University in Jordan using a survey approach. The aim of this study was to take a closer look at the experiences of students with disabilities in Jordan and, in light of new legislation, to identify obstacles in the higher education system. It found…

  10. 76 FR 76703 - Jordan Whittaker; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Whittaker; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting..., 2011, and supplemented November 17 and 21, 2011. d. Applicant: Jordan Whittaker. e. Name of...

  11. The Effect of an Education Program for Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khalaf, Amany; Dempsey, Ian; Dally, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    There are few support services for parents of children with a disability in Jordan. The present exploratory study investigated whether the provision of an education program in Jordan for mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder increased mothers' understanding of their child's behaviour, improved the mothers' coping skills,…

  12. Social Growth Problems Experienced by First-Grade Students at Bseera District, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrfooh, Atif Eid

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at exploring the problems of social growth experienced by students, and as recognized by teachers at "Bseera", Jordan. The study sample consisted of (88) male and female students from first-grade in the public schools in Bseera/governorate of Tafila/Jordan 2009/2010. The researcher has developed a questionnaire which…

  13. 75 FR 38800 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Ready for...-12740-003. c. Date filed: July 13, 2009. d. Applicant: Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership. e....

  14. Diagonalization and Jordan Normal Form--Motivation through "Maple"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaister, P.

    2009-01-01

    Following an introduction to the diagonalization of matrices, one of the more difficult topics for students to grasp in linear algebra is the concept of Jordan normal form. In this note, we show how the important notions of diagonalization and Jordan normal form can be introduced and developed through the use of the computer algebra package…

  15. 75 FR 41898 - Slash Support, Inc. Gamehouse Products Support Workers South Jordan, UT; Notice of Revised...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21362). The subject workers provide technical support services for the... Employment and Training Administration Slash Support, Inc. Gamehouse Products Support Workers South Jordan... Slash Support, Inc., Gamehouse Products Support Workers, South Jordan, Utah. The negative...

  16. Women's Perspectives on Retention in Higher Education in Jordan: Commute and Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaf, Carine

    2013-01-01

    Jordan is viewed as a country of social, political, and economic and advancement. It currently leads the region in literacy rates and is well on its way to achieving gender equity. However, some reports claim that Jordan maintains the widest gender gap in higher education completion in the region while others report that the percentage of females…

  17. Curriculum Orientations of Pre-Service Teachers in Jordan: A Required Reform Initiative for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashour, Rateb; Khasawneh, Samer; Abu-Alruz, Jamal; Alsharqawi, Subhi

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the curriculum orientations of pre-service teachers at a university in Jordan. Rigorous translation procedures were utilized to validate an Arabic version of the Curriculum Orientation Inventory (COI) for use in Jordan. The validated COI was administered to a sample of 259 pre-service teachers who…

  18. Child, Family and Community Characteristics Associated with School Readiness in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated demographic differences in school readiness within Jordan, a particularly interesting context because of widespread national reform currently sweeping the education system in Jordan. Teacher reports and researcher direct assessments of the school readiness of a national sample of 4681 Jordanian first grade children…

  19. Particle size and X-ray analysis of Feldspar, Calvert, Ball, and Jordan soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    Pipette analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques were employed to characterize the particle size distribution and clay mineral content of the feldspar, calvert, ball, and jordan soils. In general, the ball, calvert, and jordan soils were primarily clay size particles composed of kaolinite and illite whereas the feldspar soil was primarily silt-size particles composed of quartz and feldspar minerals.

  20. Teaching for Sustainable Development in Higher Education Institutions: University of Jordan as a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hola, Imfadi R. M.; Tareef, Atif Bin

    2009-01-01

    In Jordan, a rapid movement of educational reform is taking place nowadays. Curricula development, teacher education, using information and communication technology (ICT), improving teaching and learning strategies and integrating different subjects are among the main objectives of this reform. One of the main challenges in Jordan in order to cope…

  1. You Cannot Step Into the Same River Twice: When Power Analyses Are Optimistic.

    PubMed

    McShane, Blakeley B; Böckenholt, Ulf

    2014-11-01

    Statistical power depends on the size of the effect of interest. However, effect sizes are rarely fixed in psychological research: Study design choices, such as the operationalization of the dependent variable or the treatment manipulation, the social context, the subject pool, or the time of day, typically cause systematic variation in the effect size. Ignoring this between-study variation, as standard power formulae do, results in assessments of power that are too optimistic. Consequently, when researchers attempting replication set sample sizes using these formulae, their studies will be underpowered and will thus fail at a greater than expected rate. We illustrate this with both hypothetical examples and data on several well-studied phenomena in psychology. We provide formulae that account for between-study variation and suggest that researchers set sample sizes with respect to our generally more conservative formulae. Our formulae generalize to settings in which there are multiple effects of interest. We also introduce an easy-to-use website that implements our approach to setting sample sizes. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for quantifying between-study variation. PMID:26186112

  2. Assessing the Vulnerability of Agriculture to Climate Change in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khresat, Sa'eb; Shraidaeh, Fadi; Maddat, Amer

    2015-04-01

    Climate change represents one of the greatest environmental, social and economic threats facing Jordan. In particular, the combined effects of climate change and water scarcity threaten to affect food and water resources that are critical for livelihoods in Jordan. This is especially true for those communities who live in the dryland area in the country and who rely wholly on rain-fed agriculture. The exact nature and extent of the impact of climate change on temperature and precipitation distribution pattern remain uncertain and it is the poor and vulnerable who will be the most susceptible to climate change adverse effects. A vulnerability assessment of rain fed agriculture to climate change and variability in semi-arid parts of Jordan was conducted in 2014. The purpose of this study is to assess the vulnerability and resilience of the most vulnerable groups where rainfed and irrigated agriculture is practiced. Also, the study focused on quantifying the impacts on agricultural productivity in response to climate change. This will help policymakers and researchers better understand and anticipate the likely impacts of climate change on agriculture and on vulnerable communities in Jordan. Also, it will provide them with tools to identify and implement appropriate adaptation strategies. The data used includes; Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 adopted by the IPCC for its fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Those pathways were used for climate modeling. A decision support system (DSSAT) for agricultural production was used to assess the impact of climate changes on agricultural production. This approach was used for the Identification of climate change risk and their impacts on Agriculture. Outputs from models are used to assess the vulnerability of farmers and crops to climate and socio-economic change by estimating their sensitivity and capacity to adapt to external factors as a means of identifying what causes the differences in their

  3. Current and Potential Future Bromide Loads from Coal-Fired Power Plants in the Allegheny River Basin and Their Effects on Downstream Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Good, Kelly D; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2016-09-01

    The presence of bromide in rivers does not affect ecosystems or present a human health risk; however, elevated concentrations of bromide in drinking water sources can lead to difficulty meeting drinking water disinfection byproduct (DBP) regulations. Recent attention has focused on oil and gas wastewater and coal-fired power plant wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater bromide discharges. Bromide can be added to coal to enhance mercury removal, and increased use of bromide at some power plants is expected. Evaluation of potential increases in bromide concentrations from bromide addition for mercury control is lacking. The present work utilizes bromide monitoring data in the Allegheny River and a mass-balance approach to elucidate bromide contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources under current and future scenarios. For the Allegheny River, the current bromide is associated approximately 49% with oil- and gas-produced water discharges and 33% with coal-fired power plants operating wet FGD, with 18% derived from natural sources during mean flow conditions in August. Median wet FGD bromide loads could increase 3-fold from 610 to 1900 kg/day if all plants implement bromide addition for mercury control. Median bromide concentrations in the lower Allegheny River in August would rise to 410, 200, and 180 μg/L under low-, mean-, and high-flow conditions, respectively, for the bromide-addition scenario. PMID:27538590

  4. Current and Potential Future Bromide Loads from Coal-Fired Power Plants in the Allegheny River Basin and Their Effects on Downstream Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Good, Kelly D; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2016-09-01

    The presence of bromide in rivers does not affect ecosystems or present a human health risk; however, elevated concentrations of bromide in drinking water sources can lead to difficulty meeting drinking water disinfection byproduct (DBP) regulations. Recent attention has focused on oil and gas wastewater and coal-fired power plant wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater bromide discharges. Bromide can be added to coal to enhance mercury removal, and increased use of bromide at some power plants is expected. Evaluation of potential increases in bromide concentrations from bromide addition for mercury control is lacking. The present work utilizes bromide monitoring data in the Allegheny River and a mass-balance approach to elucidate bromide contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources under current and future scenarios. For the Allegheny River, the current bromide is associated approximately 49% with oil- and gas-produced water discharges and 33% with coal-fired power plants operating wet FGD, with 18% derived from natural sources during mean flow conditions in August. Median wet FGD bromide loads could increase 3-fold from 610 to 1900 kg/day if all plants implement bromide addition for mercury control. Median bromide concentrations in the lower Allegheny River in August would rise to 410, 200, and 180 μg/L under low-, mean-, and high-flow conditions, respectively, for the bromide-addition scenario.

  5. Application of techniques to identify coal-mine and power-generation effects on surface-water quality, San Juan River basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goetz, C.L.; Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Thomas, E.V.

    1987-01-01

    Numerous analytical techniques were applied to determine water quality changes in the San Juan River basin upstream of Shiprock , New Mexico. Eight techniques were used to analyze hydrologic data such as: precipitation, water quality, and streamflow. The eight methods used are: (1) Piper diagram, (2) time-series plot, (3) frequency distribution, (4) box-and-whisker plot, (5) seasonal Kendall test, (6) Wilcoxon rank-sum test, (7) SEASRS procedure, and (8) analysis of flow adjusted, specific conductance data and smoothing. Post-1963 changes in dissolved solids concentration, dissolved potassium concentration, specific conductance, suspended sediment concentration, or suspended sediment load in the San Juan River downstream from the surface coal mines were examined to determine if coal mining was having an effect on the quality of surface water. None of the analytical methods used to analyzed the data showed any increase in dissolved solids concentration, dissolved potassium concentration, or specific conductance in the river downstream from the mines; some of the analytical methods used showed a decrease in dissolved solids concentration and specific conductance. Chaco River, an ephemeral stream tributary to the San Juan River, undergoes changes in water quality due to effluent from a power generation facility. The discharge in the Chaco River contributes about 1.9% of the average annual discharge at the downstream station, San Juan River at Shiprock, NM. The changes in water quality detected at the Chaco River station were not detected at the downstream Shiprock station. It was not possible, with the available data, to identify any effects of the surface coal mines on water quality that were separable from those of urbanization, agriculture, and other cultural and natural changes. In order to determine the specific causes of changes in water quality, it would be necessary to collect additional data at strategically located stations. (Author 's abstract)

  6. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Robert A; Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad S; Budahn, James R; Ranville, James F

    2011-04-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived (226)Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (±SD) of (226)Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ± 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (<10%) of (226)Ra in the finer (<53 μm) grain size fraction. Phosphogypsum samples collected from two industrial sites with different sources of phosphate rock feedstock show consistent differences in concentration of (226)Ra and rare earth elements, and also consistent trends of enrichment in these elements with increasing age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the (226)Ra. (226)Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (<10 μm) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles.

  7. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Al-Hwaiti, M. S.; Budahn, J.R.; Ranville, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived 226Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (??SD) of 226Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ?? 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (< 10%) of 226Ra in the finer (< 53 ??m) grain size fraction. Phosphogypsum samples collected from two industrial sites with different sources of phosphate rock feedstock show consistent differences in concentration of 226Ra and rare earth elements, and also consistent trends of enrichment in these elements with increasing age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the 226Ra. 226Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (< 10 ??m) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles. ?? 2010 US Government.

  8. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Robert A; Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad S; Budahn, James R; Ranville, James F

    2011-04-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived (226)Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (±SD) of (226)Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ± 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (<10%) of (226)Ra in the finer (<53 μm) grain size fraction. Phosphogypsum samples collected from two industrial sites with different sources of phosphate rock feedstock show consistent differences in concentration of (226)Ra and rare earth elements, and also consistent trends of enrichment in these elements with increasing age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the (226)Ra. (226)Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (<10 μm) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles. PMID:20623320

  9. Late Ordovician (Ashgillian) glacial deposits in southern Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Brian R.; Makhlouf, Issa M.; Armstrong, Howard A.

    2005-11-01

    The Late Ordovician (Ashgillian) glacial deposits in southern Jordan, comprise a lower and upper glacially incised palaeovalley system, occupying reactivated basement and Pan-African fault-controlled depressions. The lower palaeovalley, incised into shoreface sandstones of the pre-glacial Tubeiliyat Formation, is filled with thin glaciofluvial sandstones at the base, overlain by up to 50 m of shoreface sandstone. A prominent glaciated surface near the top of this palaeovalley-fill contains intersecting glacial striations aligned E-W and NW-SE. The upper palaeovalley-fill comprises glaciofluvial and marine sandstones, incised into the lower palaeovalley or, where this is absent, into the Tubeiliyat Formation. Southern Jordan lay close to the margin of a Late Ordovician terrestrial ice sheet in Northwest Saudi Arabia, characterised by two major ice advances. These are correlated with the lower and upper palaeovalleys in southern Jordan, interrupted by two subsidiary glacial advances during late stage filling of the lower palaeovalley when ice advanced from the west and northwest. Thus, four ice advances are now recorded from the Late Ordovician glacial record of southern Jordan. Disturbed and deformed green sandstones beneath the upper palaeovalley-fill in the Jebel Ammar area, are confined to the margins of the Hutayya graben, and have been interpreted as structureless glacial loessite or glacial rock flour. Petrographic and textural analyses of the deformed sandstones, their mapped lateral transition into undeformed Tubeiliyat marine sandstones away from the fault zone, and the presence of similar sedimentary structures to those in the pre-glacial marine Tubeiliyat Formation suggest that they are a locally deformed facies equivalent of the Tubeiliyat, not part of the younger glacial deposits. Deformation is attributed to glacially induced crustal stresses and seismic reactivation of pre-existing faults, previously weakened by epeirogenesis, triggering sediment

  10. Dispensing of non-prescribed antibiotics in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Almaaytah, Ammar; Mukattash, Tareq L; Hajaj, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Current regulations in Jordan state that antibiotics cannot be sold without a medical prescription. This study aimed to assess the percentage of pharmacies that dispense antibiotics without a medical prescription in the Kingdom of Jordan and identify and highlight the extent and seriousness of such practices among Jordanian pharmacies. Methods A prospective study was performed, and five different clinical scenarios were simulated at pharmacies investigated including sore throat, otitis media, acute sinusitis, diarrhea, and urinary tract infection in childbearing-aged women. Three levels of demand were used to convince the pharmacists to sell an antibiotic. Results A total of 202 total pharmacies in Jordan were visited in the present study. The majority of pharmacies (74.3%) dispensed antibiotics without prescription with three different levels of demand. The percentage of pharmacies dispensing antibiotics without a prescription for the sore throat scenario was 97.6%, followed by urinary tract infection (83.3%), diarrhea (83%), and otitis media (68.4%). The lowest percentage of antibiotic dispensing was for the acute sinusitis simulation at 48.5%. Among the pharmacies that dispensed antibiotics, the pharmacists provided an explanation as the number of times per day the drug should be taken in 95.3% of the cases, explained the duration of treatment in 25.7%, and inquired about allergies prior to the sale of the antibiotic in only 17.3%. Only 52 pharmacies (25.7%) refused to dispense any kind of antibiotics, the majority (61.5%) of this refusal response came from acute sinusitis cases, while the minority (2.4%) came from the sore throat cases. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that antibiotics continue to be dispensed without prescription in Jordan in violation with national regulations regarding this practice. The findings of this study could provide a layout for governmental health authorities to implement strict enfrorcment of national

  11. Early Bronze Age Dolmens in Jordan and their orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polcaro, A.; Polcaro, F.

    This work presents the results of a survey of dolmen fields of the Early Bronze I in Jordan, in the Wadi Zarqa Valley, started in October 2004 and still in progress. Our data show, with a very high statistical significance, that in many sites of the Early Bronze IA a large majority of dolmens were built oriented along the N-S direction. A first interpretative hypothesis of these results, based on the astronomical contents of the mythology of the nearby civilizations culturally connected to the Palestinian area, is suggested.

  12. River Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auldridge, Teresa; And Others

    The James River is one of the most precious resources of Virginia. It was the site of the first permanent English settlement in the New World; the power of the water at the Fall Zone was a major factor in the development of Richmond; and the river served as a primary transportation route to the West via the Kanawha Canal. Both the water itself and…

  13. Tectono sedimentary evolution of the Umm Ghaddah Formation (late Ediacaran-early Cambrian) in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amireh, Belal S.; Amaireh, Mazen N.; Abed, Abdulkader M.

    2008-07-01

    The terrestrial Umm Ghaddah Formation of late Ediacaran-early Cambrian age was deposited in NE-SW elongated intracontinental rift system basins and sub-basins bounded by active listric half-graben faults. Basin fill consists of conglomerate facies association A, deposited in a fault-controlled transverse alluvial fan system that drained northwestward and graded laterally into sandstone facies association B, deposited by a braided river system flowing northeastward axial to the rift basin. The alluvial fan facies association was deposited by rock falls and non-cohesive debris flows of sediment gravity flow origin, and by sheetflood processes. The Umm Ghaddah Formation is dominated by a large-scale fining upward succession interpreted to reflect a gradual cessation of the Pan African Orogeny. Within this large-scale trend there are also minor fining and coarsening upward cycles that are attributed to repeated minor tectonic pulses and autocyclic shifting of the system. The distribution pattern of the Umm Ghaddah Formation and the underlying Ediacaran Sarmuj Conglomerates, Hiyala Volcaniclastics and Aheimir Volcanics in Jordan and adjacent countries in isolated extensional half-grabens and grabens formed during the extensional collapse phase of Arabia associated with the Najd Fault System seems to be unrelated to the present day Wadi Araba-Dead Sea transform fault system.

  14. The Prevalence of Aflatoxinogenic Aspergillus parasiticus in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hmoud, Nisreen; Ibrahim, Mohammed A.; Al-Rousan, Hiyam; Alseyah, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxins are potent carcinogens and produced by almost all Aspergillus parasiticus isolates and about 35% of Aspergillus flavus isolates. Chemical methods are used for detection of aflatoxins in food and feed. These methods cannot detect aflatoxinogenic fungi in samples, which contain undetectable amounts of aflatoxins. The objective of this research work was to ascertain the importance of molecular and microbiological methods in detection of aflatoxinogenic fungus A. parasiticus in food and feed samples in Jordan. Specific media for the detection of aflatoxins showed the prevalence of A. parasiticus (6–22%) in contaminated food and feed samples. HPLC method confirmed the presence of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in food sample contaminated with A. parasiticus. Primer set OmtBII-F and OmtBII-R amplified DNA fragment of 611 base pairs from genomic DNA of aflatoxinogenic A. parasiticus isolated from food and feed samples but could not amplify DNA fragment of nonaflatoxinogenic A. flavus. The results of this study showed the prevalence of aflatoxinogenic A. parasiticus in food and feed samples in Jordan and give further evidence of suitability of microbiological and molecular methods in detection of aflatoxins, which are reliable low-cost approach to determine food and feed biosafety. PMID:22606204

  15. Attributions and Attitudes of Mothers and Fathers in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Hassan, Suha; Takash, Hanan

    2011-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study examined mean level similarities and differences as well as correlations between mothers' and fathers' attributions regarding successes and failures in caregiving situations and progressive versus authoritarian attitudes in Jordan. DESIGN: Interviews were conducted with both mothers and fathers in 112 families. RESULTS: There were no significant main effects of gender on any of the constructs of interest. Mothers and fathers reported similar levels of attributions regarding uncontrollable success, adult-controlled failure, and child-controlled failure in the same family. Regarding attitudes, mothers and fathers reported greater progressive attitudes than authoritarian attitudes. Large, significant correlations were found for concordance between parents in the same family on all seven attributions and attitudes examined; all remained significant after controlling for parents' age, education, and possible social desirability bias. Significant positive correlations were found for mothers' and fathers' attributions regarding uncontrollable success, adult-controlled failure, child-controlled failure, perceived control over failure, progressive attitudes, authoritarian attitudes, and modernity of attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: This study concluded that in Jordan mothers and fathers hold similar levels of attributions and attitudes.

  16. First Aid Knowledge Among University Students in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Khatatbeh, Moawiah

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study has aimed to evaluate the level of knowledge about the first aid process among the university students in Jordan. Methods: The study population consisted of students of the 14 scientific and unscientific faculties at Yarmouk University, Jordan. Data were obtained via questionnaires from 883 students. Results: The majority of participants were females (65.9%) with mean age (standard deviation) of 19.9 (2.6) years. Only 29.2% of students had previous first aid experience. When asked, only 11% of students knew the normal respiration rate of an adult in 1 min. Results revealed that female students, having previous first aid experience, and being a student of the health sciences and scientific colleges were the only factors had significant statistical associations with better level of first aid knowledge. Conclusions: The students’ knowledge about first aid is not at an adequate level. It would be advisable that first aid course be handled as a separate and practical course at secondary school level. PMID:26941925

  17. Status of Neonatal Pain Assessment and Management in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abdel Razeq, Nadin M; Akuma, Akuma O; Jordan, Sue

    2016-08-01

    Current pain assessment and management in neonates need to be fully described before neonatal pain care can be optimized. This study's purpose was to report neonatal nurses' knowledge, existing pain assessment practice, and pharmacological pain management of neonates in Jordan. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. Eighteen neonatal intensive care units in Jordan were included in the study. One hundred eighty-four neonatal nurses participated. Questionnaires were distributed by and returned to the neonatal intensive care units' managers between June and August 2014. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to present study results. Of 240 questionnaires distributed, 184 useable responses were returned. Nurses' knowledge regarding neonates' neurological development, nociception, and need for neonatal pain management was suboptimal. The analgesics most commonly used to treat neonatal pain were acetaminophen (52%) and lidocaine (45%). Benzodiazepines, phenobarbitone, and muscles relaxants were also used. Most nurses (54%-97%) reported that pain emanating from most painful procedures was never or rarely treated. Circumcision, lumbar punctures, and chest tube insertion were assigned the highest pain scores (≥9), but were rarely accompanied by analgesia. Pain assessment scales were more likely to be used, and procedural pain was more likely to be treated, in private hospitals than public hospitals. Neonates who require special care still suffer unnecessary pain that could be avoided and managed by following best practice recommendations. Disparities between developed and developing countries in quality of neonatal pain care appear to exist. Resources for education and routine care are needed to address these discrepancies.

  18. Status of Neonatal Pain Assessment and Management in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abdel Razeq, Nadin M; Akuma, Akuma O; Jordan, Sue

    2016-08-01

    Current pain assessment and management in neonates need to be fully described before neonatal pain care can be optimized. This study's purpose was to report neonatal nurses' knowledge, existing pain assessment practice, and pharmacological pain management of neonates in Jordan. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. Eighteen neonatal intensive care units in Jordan were included in the study. One hundred eighty-four neonatal nurses participated. Questionnaires were distributed by and returned to the neonatal intensive care units' managers between June and August 2014. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to present study results. Of 240 questionnaires distributed, 184 useable responses were returned. Nurses' knowledge regarding neonates' neurological development, nociception, and need for neonatal pain management was suboptimal. The analgesics most commonly used to treat neonatal pain were acetaminophen (52%) and lidocaine (45%). Benzodiazepines, phenobarbitone, and muscles relaxants were also used. Most nurses (54%-97%) reported that pain emanating from most painful procedures was never or rarely treated. Circumcision, lumbar punctures, and chest tube insertion were assigned the highest pain scores (≥9), but were rarely accompanied by analgesia. Pain assessment scales were more likely to be used, and procedural pain was more likely to be treated, in private hospitals than public hospitals. Neonates who require special care still suffer unnecessary pain that could be avoided and managed by following best practice recommendations. Disparities between developed and developing countries in quality of neonatal pain care appear to exist. Resources for education and routine care are needed to address these discrepancies. PMID:27108085

  19. Comparisons of Four Methods for Evapotranspiration Estimates in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Gorelick, S.; Yoon, J.

    2014-12-01

    We compared evapotranspiration (ET) estimates in Jordan calculated by four theoretically-different methods. The first method was the FAO Single Crop Coefficient method. Our calculation took into account 20 dominant crop species in Jordan, utilized the global Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data set, and generated spatially heterogeneous crop coefficients. The second approach was the Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land (SEBAL) method. It was used with Landsat TM/ETM+ images to calculate instantaneous ET at the moment of satellite overpass, and the results of multiple images were combined to derive seasonal and annual ET estimates. The third method was based on the 1-km land surface ET product from MODIS, which was calculated using MODIS-observed land cover and photosynthetically active radiation. The fourth method was based on the SWAT model, which combines the Penman-Monteith equation and vegetation growth to estimate daily ET rates at the watershed scale. The results show substantial differences in both magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of ET estimates across different regions from the four methods. Such differences were particularly evident in the Highlands region, where irrigation plays a critical role in local water balance. Results also suggest that land cover data is a major source of uncertainty in estimating regional ET rates. Although it is difficult to conclude which method was more reliable due to the limited availability of validation data, the results suggest caution in developing and interpreting ET estimates in this arid environment.

  20. First results from the Jordan COLTRIMS imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afaneh, Feras; Ali, Rami; Qasem, Rajaie; Balasmeh, Naeem; Hamasha, Safeia; Dörner, Reinhard; Schmidt-Böcking, Horst

    2016-08-01

    A Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy (COLTRIMS) apparatus has been constructed and operated cooperatively by the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory in the Physics Department at the Hashemite University, Jordan, and the Atomic and Molecular Physics Group at the 4.75 MeV Van de Graaff Accelerator Facility at the University of Jordan. This COLTRIMS imaging system allows the investigation of the dynamics of various ion impact induced atomic and molecular interactions and fragmentations. The performance of the COLTRIMS system was tested by carrying out preliminary studies of two collision systems. In the first study, electron capture processes in the He2+-Ne collision system at 0.25 and 1.0 MeV impact energies were investigated. Significant simultaneous electron capture and target excitation has been observed for the 0.25 MeV as opposed to the 1.0 MeV impact energy. In the other study, projectile single electron loss and simultaneous single target ionization in the O+-He collision system was studied at three different projectile impact energies: 0.6, 1.45 and 2 MeV. Enhancement of the electron-electron contribution to projectile electron loss with increasing collision energy has been observed.

  1. Declining rainfall and regional variability changes in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Kazi; Gorelick, Steven M.; Dennedy-Frank, P. James; Yoon, Jim; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2015-05-01

    Jordan, with limited rainfall, has per capita water availability of 135 m3/yr making it one of the water-poorest countries in the world. We analyzed the most comprehensive modern rainfall data set to date, consisting of 44 years of daily measurements from 58 stations primarily in the western, populated and agricultural portion of Jordan over the period 1970-2013 to assess temporal trends, variability, and spatial patterns. From 1995 to 2013, 13 of 19 years showed rainfall less than the mean, which has a probability <8.35% of chance occurrence. We used nonparametric statistical analysis and found 38 of 58 stations experienced an annual rainfall decrease at an average rate of 1.2 mm/yr. Over all 58 stations, the average decrease was 0.41 mm/yr. The annual coefficient of variation of daily rainfall showed a long-term increase of ˜2-3% at 90% of stations. Analysis of annual variance of daily rainfall suggests decreasing variance in the low rainfall areas to the southwest and east and increasing variance in the high rainfall areas to the northwest, a pattern consistent with principal component analysis. Strict multiple hypothesis testing procedures using the k-familywise error rate approach reinforced and confirmed the statistically significant regional rainfall decline as well as the spatial patterns of increasing and decreasing rainfall variability.

  2. Investigations needed to stimulate the development of Jordan's mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKelvey, V.E.

    1979-01-01

    The level of living that any society can attain is a direct function of the use it makes of all kinds of raw materials (soil, water, metals, nonmetals, etc.), all kinds of energy (both animate and inanimate), and all kinds of human ingenuity; and is an inverse function of the size of the population that must share the collective product. The relation between raw materials, energy and ingenuity is such that use of a large amount of one may offset the need for large amounts of others. The most vital raw materials are water, soil, and construction materials, for these are needed in large quantities and are hard to import. Metals, chemicals, and inanimate energy are necessary for industrialization. The more of these minerals a nation possess, the better, but not nation can hope to be self-sufficient in all of the m and therefore must trade for some essential materials. Jordan’s natural resources have been little explored. The grantitc-metamorphic terrane in the southeastern part of the Kingdom could contain deposits of tungsten, rare earths, feldspar, mica, fluorite etc. and the sedimentary terrane over much of the rest of the county is favorable for the occurrence of oil. Even if none of these minerals is found, however, Jordan’s other mineral resource, if fully explored and developed in the light of modern technology, will support a far higher level of living than her people now enjoy. Very likely she can increase her rainfall by about 10 percent by cloud seeding, and she undeveloped supplies in both surface and ground water that are sufficient to nearly double her usable water supply. Even if she does not have oil or have it in large quantities, she can buy it cheaply from neighboring counties, and in addition has undeveloped sources of hydroelectric power, large reserves of bituminous limestone, large reserves of nuclear power as uranium in phosphate rock, and can use solar and wind power for special purposes. Her large supplies of construction, fertilizer, and

  3. 25. LOOKING UP THE SALT RIVER FROM THE INTAKE GATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. LOOKING UP THE SALT RIVER FROM THE INTAKE GATES OF THE SALT RIVER POWER CANAL, SHOWING HEADWORKS OF POWER CANAL Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, October 17, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  4. HABITAT ASSESSMENT USING A RANDOM PROBABILITY BASED SAMPLING DESIGN: ESCAMBIA RIVER DELTA, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Smith, Lisa M., Darrin D. Dantin and Steve Jordan. In press. Habitat Assessment Using a Random Probability Based Sampling Design: Escambia River Delta, Florida (Abstract). To be presented at the SWS/GERS Fall Joint Society Meeting: Communication and Collaboration: Coastal Systems...

  5. Risk factors for human brucellosis in northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abo-Shehada, M N; Abu-Halaweh, M

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the risk factors of human brucellosis in Jordan. A case-control study was conducted involving 56 Jordanians who had been treated for brucellosis and at least 3 matched controls for each case (n = 247). Matching was for sex, age, locality (the same village) and socioeconomic standard. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. In all, 17 risk factors were examined related to: contact with various livestock, milk and milk product consumption, drinking-water treatment and disease awareness. Most variables were associated with brucellosis in the univariate analysis but the final logistic model included only 4: milking sheep and goats (OR 3.5), consumption of raw feta cheese made from sheep and goat milk (OR 2.8) and consumption of cows' milk (OR 0.4) and boiled feta cheese (OR 0.4). Small ruminant farmers need to be trained in safer milking practices and feta cheese making procedures. PMID:23516823

  6. 76 FR 71967 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's regulations, 18 CFR Part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability...

  7. The gravity field and crustal structure of the northwestern Arabian Platform in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batayneh, A. T.; Al-Zoubi, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    The Bouguer gravity field over the northwestern Arabian Platform in Jordan is dominated by large variations, ranging from -132 to +4 mGal. A study of the Bouguer anomaly map shows that the gravity field maintains a general north-northeasterly trend in the Wadi Araba-Dead Sea-Jordan Riff, Northern Highlands and Northeast Jordanian Limestone Area, while the remainder of the area shows north-northwesterly-trending gravity anomalies. Results of 2-D gravity modeling of the Bouguer gravity field indicate that the crustal thickness in Jordan is ˜ 38 km, which is similar to crustal thicknesses obtained from refraction data in northern Jordan and Saudi Arabia, and from gravity data in Syria.

  8. 78 FR 34089 - Jordan Cove Energy Project, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... operate a natural gas liquefaction and liquefied natural gas (LNG) export facility (Liquefaction Project... activities involved with Jordan Cove's Liquefaction Project. Now, as of the filing of the application on...

  9. (Never) Mind your p's and q's: Von Neumann versus Jordan on the foundations of quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, A.; Janssen, M.

    2013-03-01

    In 1927, in two papers entitled "On a new foundation [Neue Begründung] of quantum mechanics," Pascual Jordan presented his version of what came to be known as the Dirac-Jordan statistical transformation theory. Jordan and Paul Dirac arrived at essentially the same theory independently of one another at around the same time. Later in 1927, partly in response to Jordan and Dirac and avoiding the mathematical difficulties facing their approach, John von Neumann developed the modern Hilbert space formalism of quantum mechanics. We focus on Jordan and von Neumann. Central to the formalisms of both are expressions for conditional probabilities of finding some value for one quantity given the value of another. Beyond that Jordan and von Neumann had very different views about the appropriate formulation of problems in quantum mechanics. For Jordan, unable to let go of the analogy to classical mechanics, the solution of such problems required the identification of sets of canonically conjugate variables, i.e., p's and q's. For von Neumann, not constrained by the analogy to classical mechanics, it required only the identification of a maximal set of commuting operators with simultaneous eigenstates. He had no need for p's and q's. Jordan and von Neumann also stated the characteristic new rules for probabilities in quantum mechanics somewhat differently. Jordan and Dirac were the first to state those rules in full generality. Von Neumann rephrased them and, in a paper published a few months later, sought to derive them from more basic considerations. In this paper we reconstruct the central arguments of these 1927 papers by Jordan and von Neumann and of a paper on Jordan's approach by Hilbert, von Neumann, and Nordheim. We highlight those elements in these papers that bring out the gradual loosening of the ties between the new quantum formalism and classical mechanics. This paper was written as part of a joint project in the history of quantum physics of the Max Planck

  10. Food security and humanitarian assistance among displaced Iraqi populations in Jordan and Syria.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability.

  11. Passage Distribution and Federal Columbia River Power System Survival for Steelhead Kelts Tagged Above and at Lower Granite Dam, Year 2

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Harnish, Ryan A.; Jones, Bryan W.; Hanson, Amanda C.; Trott, Donna M.; Greiner, Michael J.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Deng, Zhiqun; Brown, Richard S.; Weiland, Mark A.; Li, X.; Fu, Tao

    2014-03-28

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations have declined throughout their range in the last century and many populations, including those of the Snake River Basin are listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. The reasons for their decline are many and complex, but include habitat loss and degradation, overharvesting, and dam construction. The 2008 Biological Opinion calls for an increase in the abundance of female steelhead through an increase in iteroparity (i.e., repeat spawning) and this can be realized through a combination of reconditioning and in-river survival of migrating kelts. The goal of this study is to provide the data necessary to inform fisheries managers and dam operators of Snake River kelt migration patterns, survival, and routes of dam passage. Steelhead kelts (n = 487) were captured and implanted with acoustic transmitters and passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tags at the Lower Granite Dam (LGR) Juvenile Fish Facility and at weirs located in tributaries of the Snake and Clearwater rivers upstream of LGR. Kelts were monitored as they moved downstream through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) by 15 autonomous and 3 cabled acoustic receiver arrays. Cabled receiver arrays deployed on the dam faces allowed for three-dimensional tracking of fish as they approached the dam face and were used to determine the route of dam passage. Overall, 27.3% of the kelts tagged in this study successfully migrated to Martin Bluff (rkm 126, as measured from the mouth of the Columbia River), which is located downstream of all FCRPS dams. Within individual river reaches, survival per kilometer estimates ranged from 0.958 to 0.999; the lowest estimates were observed in the immediate forebay of FCRPS dams. Steelhead kelts tagged in this study passed over the spillway routes (spillway weirs, traditional spill bays) in greater proportions and survived at higher rates compared to the few fish passed through powerhouse routes (turbines and juvenile

  12. Passage Distribution and Federal Columbia River Power System Survival for Steelhead Kelts Tagged Above and at Lower Granite Dam, Year 2

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison H.A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Jones, Bryan W.; Hanson, Amanda C.; Trott, Donna M.; Greiner, Michael J.; Mcmichael, Geoffrey A.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Deng, Zhiqun; Brown, Richard S.; Weiland, Mark A.; Li, Xinya; Fu, Tao

    2014-12-15

    Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations have declined throughout their range in the last century and many populations, including those of the Snake River Basin are listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. The reasons for their decline are many and complex, but include habitat loss and degradation, overharvesting, and dam construction. The 2008 Biological Opinion calls for an increase in the abundance of female steelhead through an increase in iteroparity (i.e., repeat spawning) and this can be realized through a combination of reconditioning and in-river survival of migrating kelts. The goal of this study is to provide the data necessary to inform fisheries managers and dam operators of Snake River kelt migration patterns, survival, and routes of dam passage. Steelhead kelts (n = 487) were captured and implanted with acoustic transmitters and passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tags at the Lower Granite Dam (LGR) Juvenile Fish Facility and at weirs located in tributaries of the Snake and Clearwater rivers upstream of LGR. Kelts were monitored as they moved downstream through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) by 15 autonomous and 3 cabled acoustic receiver arrays. Cabled receiver arrays deployed on the dam faces allowed for three-dimensional tracking of fish as they approached the dam face and were used to determine the route of dam passage. Overall, 27.3% of the kelts tagged in this study successfully migrated to Martin Bluff (rkm 126, as measured from the mouth of the Columbia River), which is located downstream of all FCRPS dams. Within individual river reaches, survival per kilometer estimates ranged from 0.958 to 0.999; the lowest estimates were observed in the immediate forebay of FCRPS dams. Steelhead kelts tagged in this study passed over the spillway routes (spillway weirs, traditional spill bays) in greater proportions and survived at higher rates compared to the few fish passed through powerhouse routes (turbines and juvenile

  13. [Accumulation of radionuclides in food chains of the Yenisei River after the nuclear power plant shutdown at the mining-and-chemical enterprise].

    PubMed

    Zotina, T A; Trofimova, E A; Karpov, A D; Bolsunovskiĭ, A Ia

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of artificial and natural radionuclides in the chains of food webs leading to non-predatory and piscivorous fish of the Yenisei River was investigated during one year before and three years after the shutdown of a nuclear power plant at the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (2009-2012). The activity of artificial radionuclides in the samples of biota ofthe Yenisei River (aquatic moss, gammarids, dace, grayling, pike) was estimated. The concentration of radionuclides with induced activity (51Cr, 54Mn, 58Co, 60Co, 65Zn, 141, 144Ce, 152, 154Eu, 239Np) decreased in the biomass of biota after the shutdown of the nuclear power plant; the concentration of 137Cs did not. Analysis of the accumulation factors (C(F)) allows us to expect the effective accumulation of 137Cs in the terminal level of the food web of the Yenisei River--pike (C(F) = 2.0-9.4), i.e. biomagnifications of radiocesium. Accumulation of artificial, radionuclides in non-predatory fish from gammarids was not effective (C(F) < 1). An effective accumulation of 40K is possible in muscles of non-predatory and piscivorous fish species from food (C(F) = 2:6-3.1 and 1.3-1.4, respectively). C(Fs) of K and 40K were equal in all trophic pairs, but C(Fs) of 40K and 137Cs differed considerably. PMID:25775829

  14. Water-quality along selected flowpaths in the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer, southeastern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.E. )

    1994-04-01

    The Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer in southeastern Minnesota is comprised of the dolomitic Prairie du Chien Group and the underlying Jordan Sandstone. Differences in water quality between the Prairie du Chien and the Jordan parts of the aquifer were investigated by sampling 139 wells in six study areas within Hennepin, Dakota, and Olmsted Counties. The study areas, which represent paths of groundwater flow through the aquifer, averaged 13 miles long and 3 miles wide. The wells were screened in the Jordan, Prairie du Chien, and overlying aquifers. Concentrations of tritium, nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, and chloride were useful indicators of the actual and potential extent of human-related contamination of the aquifer. Differences in water quality were related to land use, aquifer permeability, thickness and lithology of overlying units, presence of confining units, flow path length, and well construction. Water samples from wells completed in the Jordan aquifer have lower tritium, nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, and chloride concentrations than samples from wells completed in the overlying Prairie du Chien, St. Peter, and glacial drift aquifers. The distribution of these indicators on vertical sections of the aquifer, geochemical analysis of saturation indices (WATEQF), piper diagrams, and statistical analyses were used to analyze the hydrogeology and sensitivity to contamination of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer.

  15. 76 FR 74783 - American River Power II, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... operate run-of-river utilizing surplus water from the Olmsted Lock & Dam, as directed by the Corps... consist of the following: (1) A intake channel; (2) a powerhouse containing three generating unit with...

  16. Subtask 7.4 - Power River Basin Subbituminous Coal-Biomass Cogasification Testing in a Transport Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Swanson; Daniel Laudal

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Coal and Environmental Systems has as its mission to develop advanced gasification-based technologies for affordable, efficient, zero-emission power generation. These advanced power systems, which are expected to produce near-zero pollutants, are an integral part of DOE's Vision 21 Program. DOE has also been developing advanced gasification systems that lower the capital and operating costs of producing syngas for chemical production. A transport reactor has shown potential to be a low-cost syngas producer compared to other gasification systems since its high-throughput-per-unit cross-sectional area reduces capital costs. This work directly supports the Power Systems Development Facility utilizing the Kellogg Brown and Root transport reactor located at the Southern Company Services Wilsonville, Alabama, site. Over 3600 hours of operation on 17 different coals ranging from bituminous to lignite along with a petroleum coke has been completed to date in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The EERC has established an extensive database on the operation of these various fuels in both air- and oxygen-blown modes utilizing a pilot-scale transport reactor gasifier. This database has been useful in determining the effectiveness of design changes on an advanced transport reactor gasifier and for determining the performance of various feedstocks in a transport reactor. The effects of different fuel types on both gasifier performance and the operation of the hot-gas filter system have been determined. It has been demonstrated that corrected fuel gas heating values ranging from 90 to 130 Btu/scf have been achieved in air-blown mode, while heating values up to 230 Btu/scf on a dry basis have been achieved in oxygen-blown mode. Carbon conversions up to 90% have also been obtained and are highly dependent on the oxygen

  17. High-precision radiocarbon dating and historical biblical archaeology in southern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Levy, Thomas E; Higham, Thomas; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Smith, Neil G; Ben-Yosef, Erez; Robinson, Mark; Münger, Stefan; Knabb, Kyle; Schulze, Jürgen P; Najjar, Mohammad; Tauxe, Lisa

    2008-10-28

    Recent excavations and high-precision radiocarbon dating from the largest Iron Age (IA, ca. 1200-500 BCE) copper production center in the southern Levant demonstrate major smelting activities in the region of biblical Edom (southern Jordan) during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE. Stratified radiocarbon samples and artifacts were recorded with precise digital surveying tools linked to a geographic information system developed to control on-site spatial analyses of archaeological finds and model data with innovative visualization tools. The new radiocarbon dates push back by 2 centuries the accepted IA chronology of Edom. Data from Khirbat en-Nahas, and the nearby site of Rujm Hamra Ifdan, demonstrate the centrality of industrial-scale metal production during those centuries traditionally linked closely to political events in Edom's 10th century BCE neighbor ancient Israel. Consequently, the rise of IA Edom is linked to the power vacuum created by the collapse of Late Bronze Age (LB, ca. 1300 BCE) civilizations and the disintegration of the LB Cypriot copper monopoly that dominated the eastern Mediterranean. The methodologies applied to the historical IA archaeology of the Levant have implications for other parts of the world where sacred and historical texts interface with the material record.

  18. High-precision radiocarbon dating and historical biblical archaeology in southern Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Thomas E.; Higham, Thomas; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Smith, Neil G.; Ben-Yosef, Erez; Robinson, Mark; Münger, Stefan; Knabb, Kyle; Schulze, Jürgen P.; Najjar, Mohammad; Tauxe, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Recent excavations and high-precision radiocarbon dating from the largest Iron Age (IA, ca. 1200–500 BCE) copper production center in the southern Levant demonstrate major smelting activities in the region of biblical Edom (southern Jordan) during the 10th and 9th centuries BCE. Stratified radiocarbon samples and artifacts were recorded with precise digital surveying tools linked to a geographic information system developed to control on-site spatial analyses of archaeological finds and model data with innovative visualization tools. The new radiocarbon dates push back by 2 centuries the accepted IA chronology of Edom. Data from Khirbat en-Nahas, and the nearby site of Rujm Hamra Ifdan, demonstrate the centrality of industrial-scale metal production during those centuries traditionally linked closely to political events in Edom's 10th century BCE neighbor ancient Israel. Consequently, the rise of IA Edom is linked to the power vacuum created by the collapse of Late Bronze Age (LB, ca. 1300 BCE) civilizations and the disintegration of the LB Cypriot copper monopoly that dominated the eastern Mediterranean. The methodologies applied to the historical IA archaeology of the Levant have implications for other parts of the world where sacred and historical texts interface with the material record. PMID:18955702

  19. Design of stand-alone brackish water desalination wind energy system for Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Habali, S.M.; Saleh, I.A.

    1994-06-01

    More than 100 underground water wells drilled in Jordan are known to have brackish water with total desolved solids (TDS) over 1500 ppm but not greater than 4000 ppm. The world standard for potable water limits the TDS count to 500 ppm in addition to being free from live microorganisms or dangerous mineral and organic substances. A reverse osmosis desalination scheme powered by a stand-alone wind energy converter (WEC) is proposed to produce fresh water water from wells located in potentially high-wind sites. The purpose of this study if to present the main design parameters and economic estimates of a wind-assisted RO system using a diesel engine as the baseline energy source and an electric wind turbine for the wind energy source. It is found that brackish water pumping and desalinating using WECs costs 0.67 to 1.16 JD/m[sup 3] (JD = Jordanian Dinar, 1US$ = 0.68 JD), which is less than using conventional diesel engines especially in remote areas. In addition, the wind-reverse osmosis system becomes more economically feasible for higher annual production rates or in good wind regimes.

  20. Characterization of ground-water discharge from bedrock aquifers to the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers at three areas, Minneapolis-St. Paul area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoenberg, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrogeology at three areas along the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area were studied to characterize ground-water discharge from bedrock aquifers to the two rivers. Along the Mississippi River between Fridley and Brooklyn Center, a buried valley underlying the Mississippi River cuts through the overlying terrace deposits and glacial-drift deposits into two underlying bedrock hydro- geologic units: the St Peter aquifer, and a rubble zone between the St. Peter and Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifers. Shallow ground-water flow in the near-surface gray and upper red tills and sand and gravel outwash aquifer discharges to springs along the edge of the river. Ground water flowing through the rubble zone and upper part of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer probably discharges through alluvial deposits to the river. In study area 2, along the Minnesota River between Eagan and Bloomington, almost 200 feet of post-glacial alluvium, glaciofluvial sand and gravel, Pleistocene lake deposits, and peat fill a bedrock valley under the present-day Minnesota River. As much as 40 feet of post-glacial peat, silty clay, clay, and muck lie near the river-valley walls. Confining units beneath the river channel impede the discharge of ground water from the underlying Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer to the river. Ground water discharges to wetlands, lakes, and springs along both the north and south side of the river. Along the Mississippi River at Minneapolis about 5 miles upstream of the confluence of the Minnesota and Mississippi Rivers, the Mississippi River lies in a post-glacial valley cut through thin glacial drift into the St. Peter aquifer. Beneath the river, ground water flows from the St. Peter aquifer through the overlying post-glacial ailuvium to the Mississippi River. No confining unit separates the St. Peter aquifer and the river.

  1. A crustal structure study of Jordan derived from seismic refraction data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Isa, Z.; Mechie, J.; Prodehl, C.; Makris, J.; Rihm, R.

    1987-07-01

    The interpretation of a deep seismic refraction study in Jordan, performed in May 1984, shows that much of the country is underlain by continental crust, 32-35 km thick, and normal mantle with a velocity of 8.0-8.2 km/s. In the Aqaba region, southwest and central Jordan, east of Wadi Araba, the crustal thickness is of the order of 32-35 km, while in the Amman region it is not less than 35 km. In southeast Jordan the crust thickens to at least 37 km in what is probably the transition to the Arabian Shield type of crust. The boundaries between the upper and lower crust at about 20 km depth and the lower crust and uppermost mantle are probably transition zones. The upper crystalline crust has velocities of 5.8-6.5 km/s while the lower crust has velocities greater than or around 6.65 km/s. While the crystalline basement is exposed in southwest Jordan and is at a depth of 2-2.5 km north of Amman, it is at a depth of not less than 5 km in central Jordan. A comparison of the crustal type and structure of Jordan and the adjacent Dead Sea rift with that of the Black Forest and the Rhine valley yields a striking resemblance. The situation of the Jordan-Dead Sea rift is explained in terms of the continental crust of Arabia rifting in preference to the thin (?oceanic) crust of the Mediterranean Sea.

  2. Hydrotechnical facilities within the Chernobyl nuclear power plant exclusion zone: impacts on hydrologic regime and plant growth patterns of floodplain water bodies of the Pripyat River.

    PubMed

    Gudkov, D I; Zub, L N; Savitsky, A L

    2003-01-01

    As result of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident the territory of the left-bank flood-lands of the Pripyat River have undergone intensive radionuclide contamination. With the purpose of preventing the washing away of radioactive substances, a complex of flood protection dams was constructed. This construction changed the hydrological regime of these territories and caused overgrowth by higher aquatic plants. Absence of a flowing mode of reservoirs, the stagnant phenomena during spring and seasonal high waters on the embank site have caused amplification of eutrophication processes, swamping and, connected with it, increase of water-marsh floristic complex in the structure of the vegetative cover.

  3. Remote monitoring of the Gravelly Run thermal plume at Hopewell and the thermal plume at the Surry Nuclear Power Plant on the James River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talay, T. A.; Sykes, K. W.; Kuo, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    On May 17, 1977, a remote sensing experiment was conducted on the James River, Virginia, whereby thermal spectrometer and near-infrared photography data of thermal discharges at Hopewell and the Surry nuclear power plant were obtained by an aircraft for one tidal cycle. These data were used in subsequent investigations into the near field discharge trajectories. For the Gravelly Run thermal plume at Hopewell, several empirical expressions for the plume centerline were evaluated by comparisons of the computed trajectories and those observed in the remote sensing images.

  4. Strontium isotopes in Melanopsis sp. as indicators of variation in hydrology and climate in the Upper Jordan Valley during the Early-Middle Pleistocene, and wider implications.

    PubMed

    Spiro, Baruch; Ashkenazi, Shoshana; Starinsky, Abraham; Katz, Amitai

    2011-04-01

    Aquifers dominated by Pleistocene basalts and Jurassic to Cretaceous calcareous rocks feed the Hula basin which is drained by the Jordan River into Lake Kinneret. The sedimentary sequence of Lower-Middle Pleistocene Benot Ya'akov Formation (BYF) exposed by excavations of the 0.78 Ma lake-side site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (GBY) consists of six cycles representing ca. 100 ka history of the Hula basin. This study characterizes the types of water sources in the catchment, tests the use of the Strontium (Sr) isotopes in the common extant snail Melanopsis sp. as a tracer for water in its habitat, and uses this tracer in the fossil specimens from GBY to investigate the palaeohydrology of the Hula paleolake during the corresponding period. The Sr isotope composition ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) of extant Melanopsis shells in the Hula catchment range widely (0.7046-0.7079). These analyses define distinct groups of water sources and aquifers, while the Jordan River at the GBY site has values around 0.70685. The values for fossil Melanopsis from GBY vary along stratigraphy; they are highest around 0.70710 in Cycles 1 and 2, decrease to around 0.70685 in Cycle 3, and exhibit upward trending fluctuations in the subsequent cycles to 0.70703 in Cycle 6. This trend reveals the dominance of the Hermon Jurassic aquifer during the earlier, colder periods before the Matuyama-Brunhes Boundary (MBB) and enhanced influence of the Golan basaltic aquifers, in subsequent warmer periods, indicating that the MBB coincides with climate warming as supported by other indicators. Hence, this global geochronological indicator of 0.78 Ma is also potentially a global palaeoclimatic marker. The similarity between the Sr isotope composition of the Jordan River waters and Melanopsis and those from Cycle 3 suggests that the current climate corresponds to that of the warmest period within the record of GBY, clarifying the comparative interpretation of this 100 k.yr. climate record.

  5. Strontium isotopes in Melanopsis sp. as indicators of variation in hydrology and climate in the Upper Jordan Valley during the Early-Middle Pleistocene, and wider implications.

    PubMed

    Spiro, Baruch; Ashkenazi, Shoshana; Starinsky, Abraham; Katz, Amitai

    2011-04-01

    Aquifers dominated by Pleistocene basalts and Jurassic to Cretaceous calcareous rocks feed the Hula basin which is drained by the Jordan River into Lake Kinneret. The sedimentary sequence of Lower-Middle Pleistocene Benot Ya'akov Formation (BYF) exposed by excavations of the 0.78 Ma lake-side site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov (GBY) consists of six cycles representing ca. 100 ka history of the Hula basin. This study characterizes the types of water sources in the catchment, tests the use of the Strontium (Sr) isotopes in the common extant snail Melanopsis sp. as a tracer for water in its habitat, and uses this tracer in the fossil specimens from GBY to investigate the palaeohydrology of the Hula paleolake during the corresponding period. The Sr isotope composition ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) of extant Melanopsis shells in the Hula catchment range widely (0.7046-0.7079). These analyses define distinct groups of water sources and aquifers, while the Jordan River at the GBY site has values around 0.70685. The values for fossil Melanopsis from GBY vary along stratigraphy; they are highest around 0.70710 in Cycles 1 and 2, decrease to around 0.70685 in Cycle 3, and exhibit upward trending fluctuations in the subsequent cycles to 0.70703 in Cycle 6. This trend reveals the dominance of the Hermon Jurassic aquifer during the earlier, colder periods before the Matuyama-Brunhes Boundary (MBB) and enhanced influence of the Golan basaltic aquifers, in subsequent warmer periods, indicating that the MBB coincides with climate warming as supported by other indicators. Hence, this global geochronological indicator of 0.78 Ma is also potentially a global palaeoclimatic marker. The similarity between the Sr isotope composition of the Jordan River waters and Melanopsis and those from Cycle 3 suggests that the current climate corresponds to that of the warmest period within the record of GBY, clarifying the comparative interpretation of this 100 k.yr. climate record. PMID:21036385

  6. One Region: Two Cultures. Comparing Israel and Jordan: A Unit for Elementary Students. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad 1998 (Israel and Jordan).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This social studies unit for elementary school students concentrates on comparing the different cultures of the neighboring countries of Israel and Jordan. The unit describes the educational objectives and explains that a variety of strategies are used to reach those objectives. It lists materials needed and procedures for evaluation, provides…

  7. Case study analysis of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of the hydroelectric power of the Boardman River at Traverse City, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    An analytic description of one decision-making process concerning whether or not to develop the hydroelectric potential of the Boardman River is presented. The focus of the analysis is on the factor that the developers considered, or should consider in making a responsible commitment to small-scale hydroelectric development. Development of the Boardman River would occur at the five dam sites. Two existing dams, owned by the county, previously generated hydroelectricity, as did a third before being washed out. One dam has never been utilized. It is owned by the city which also owns the washed-out area. The study concludes that hydroelectric power is feasible at each. Grand Traverse County and Traverse City would engage in a joint venture in developing the resource. Chapter I presents a detailed description of the developers, the river resource, and the contemplated development. Chapter II is an analysis of the factors affecting the decision making process. Chapter III summarizes the impact of the more significant barriers and incentives and presents recommendations that, if implemented, will favorably affect decisions to develop small-scale hydroelectric generation capability.

  8. Hood River Production Master Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Toole, Patty

    1991-07-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Columbia River Fish and Wildlife Program authorizes the development of artificial production facilities to raise chinook salmon and steelhead for enhancement in the Hood, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Grande Ronde and Imnaha rivers and elsewhere. On February 26, 1991 the Council agreed to disaggregate Hood River from the Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, and instead, link the Hood River Master Plan (now the Hood River Production Plan) to the Pelton Ladder Project (Pelton Ladder Master Plan 1991).

  9. Mineral chemistry in dioritic hornblendites from Wadi Araba, southwest Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrar, Ghaleb

    1998-02-01

    The mineral chemistry of dioritic rocks from Wadi Araba, southwest Jordan, has been determined by electron microprobe, with special emphasis on the amphiboles. These are calcic amphiboles, according to Leake (1978), since all analyses have (Ca + Na)>1.34 and Na B<0.67. The observed chemical variations in the amphiboles are attributed to a combination of edenite, pargasite, hornblende and hastingsite end-member substitutions. Calculated average pressures of emplacement using four Al-in-hornblende barometers are 2.41 ± 1.33, 3.47 ± 1.60 and 4.52 ± 1.42 kbar for the pegmatitic diorite (PD), biotite-hornblende diorite (BHD) and diopside-hornblende diorite (DHD), respectively. The corresponding temperatures of crystallisation according to the Holland and Blundy (1994) thermometer are 730 ±40, 763 ± 37 and 783 ± 103°C. The variation of temperature of equilibration is almost within the uncertainty range of the applied thermometer. However, if this variation is real, the studied hornblende shows both temperature and pressure dependent substitutions. The calculated pressures fall within the estimated range (2.4 to 5.5 kbar), as deduced from the metamorphic grade of the metasedimentary rocks exposed at the same crustal level.

  10. Sanitary Conditions of Public Swimming Pools in Amman, Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Rabi, Atallah; Khade, Yousef; Alkafajei, Ahmed; Aqoulah, Ashraf Abu

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out in the summer of 2005 and investigated all of active public swimming pools (85 out of 93) in Amman, the capital of Jordan. The aim of this study was to find out if these swimming pools are in compliance with Jordanian Standards for Swimming Pools Water (JS 1562/2004). The pools were surveyed against the water microbial quality and other physicochemical parameters indicated in the standards. Two samples from each pool were collected for microbial analysis and pools monitoring were carried out during the afternoon of the weekends when the pools are most heavily used. The results indicated overall poor compliance with the standards. Compliance of the pools water to the microbial parameters was 56.5%, for residual chlorine 49.4%, for pH 87.7%, water temperature 48.8%, and bathing load 70.6%. The results also indicated that water microbial quality deteriorated with time. Multivariate analysis showed significant association of water contamination with time of sample collection, residual chlorine, water temperature and load of swimmers. The poor compliance was attributed to lack of proper disinfection, staff training, proper maintenance, and timely inspection. PMID:19139533

  11. Sanitary Conditions of Public Swimming Pools in Amman, Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Rabi, Atallah; Khader, Yousef; Alkafajei, Ahmed; Aqoulah, Ashraf Abu

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out in the summer of 2005 and investigated all of active public swimming pools (85 out of 93) in Amman, the capital of Jordan. The aim of this study was to find out if these swimming pools are in compliance with Jordanian Standards for Swimming Pools Water (JS 1562/2004). The pools were surveyed against the water microbial quality and other physicochemical parameters indicated in the standards. Two samples from each pool were collected for microbial analysis and pools monitoring were carried out during the afternoon of the weekends when the pools are most heavily used. The results indicated overall poor compliance with the standards. Compliance of the pools water to the microbial parameters was 56.5%, for residual chlorine 49.4%, for pH 87.7%, water temperature 48.8%, and bathing load 70.6%. The results also indicated that water microbial quality deteriorated with time. Multivariate analysis showed significant association of water contamination with time of sample collection, residual chlorine, water temperature and load of swimmers. The poor compliance was attributed to lack of proper disinfection, staff training, proper maintenance, and timely inspection. PMID:18180541

  12. Cystic fibrosis in Arabs: a prototype from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Rawashdeh, M; Manal, H

    2000-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis is believed to be rare in Arabs. We report 202 cases (114 boys and 88 girls) diagnosed in Jordan over a period of 9 years. The mean age at diagnosis was 2.9 years. Classical presentation with growth failure, malabsorption and respiratory symptoms occurred in 75.4% of cases. Eighteen (10.8%) presented with hepatomegaly, 12 (7.2%) with meconium ileus and 11 (6.6%) had Pseudo-Bartter syndrome. Thirty-eight (23%) children died, most below the age of 1 year which may reflect a more severe disease in our population. Consanguineous marriage was present in 69% of cases. Genetic screening of 84 children and 66 parents revealed 24 different CFTR mutations with a DF508 mutation accounting for only 7.4%. Among the mutations detected, six were alleles identified for the first time. The fact that boys outnumber girls might reflect more deaths in girls due to the observed gender gap in CF mortality. It is possible that the low incidence of the DF508 mutation is due to a confounding effect and the high mortality in those carrying this mutation. The large number of different mutations reflects the ethnic diversity of the Jordanian population and the complex history of the country.

  13. Geotechnical and mineralogical characteristics of marl deposits in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaqour, Fathi M.; Jarrar, Ghaleb; Hencher, Steve; Kuisi, Mostafa

    2008-10-01

    Marls and marly limestone deposits cover most of Northern Jordan, where Amman City and its suburbs are located. These deposits serve as foundations for most buildings and roads as well as fill material for structural back filling, especially road bases and sub-bases. The present study aims at investigating the geotechnical characteristics and mineral composition of the marl units of these deposits through field investigations and laboratory testing. Using X-ray diffraction technique along with chemical analysis, representative samples of marl horizons were tested for mineral composition, and for a set of index and geotechnical properties including: specific gravity, grain size, Atterberg limits, Proctor compaction and shear strength properties. The test results show a positive linear relationship as expected between the clay content and both liquid and plastic limits. The tests results also show an inverse linear relationship between the clay content and the maximum dry density in both standard and modified compaction. This is attributed to the adsorption of water by the clay minerals. The relationship is more prominent in the case of modified compaction test. The results also indicate a similar relationship for the angle of internal friction. No clear correlation between cohesion and clay content was apparent.

  14. Honor killing attitudes amongst adolescents in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Manuel; Ghuneim, Lana

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines attitudes towards honor crimes amongst a sample of 856 ninth grade students (mean age = 14.6, SD = 0.56) from 14 schools in Amman, Jordan. Descriptive findings suggest that about 40% of boys and 20% of girls believe that killing a daughter, sister, or wife who has dishonored the family can be justified. A number of theoretically meaningful predictors were examined: Findings suggest that attitudes in support of honor killings are more likely amongst adolescents who have collectivist and patriarchal world views, believe in the importance of female chastity amongst adolescents, and morally neutralize aggressive behavior in general. Findings for parental harsh discipline are mixed: While the father's harsh discipline is predictive of honor killing attitudes, the mother's behavior is not. Furthermore, support for honor killing is stronger amongst male adolescents and adolescents for low education backgrounds. After controlling for other factors religion and the intensity of religious beliefs are not associated with support for honor killings. Models were tested separately for male and female respondents and suggested no systematic differences in predictors. Limitations and implications are discussed.

  15. Size distribution studies of 137Cs in river water in the Abukuma Riverine system following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Aya; Tanaka, Kazuya; Iwatani, Hokuto; Chiga, Haruka; Fan, Qiaohui; Onda, Yuichi; Takahashi, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of (137)Cs in size fractionated samples in river water from the Abukuma River system, (the Kuchibuto and Abukuma Rivers, five sampling events for three sites) was studied from June 2011--approximately some three months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident until December 2012. The total concentration of (137)Cs (mBq/L) in river water was generally high at the upper stream site in the Yamakiya District within the evacuation/off-limits zone. The (137)Cs concentration was about 1Bq/L for the first sampling campaign (June 2011) at all sites, but then decreased substantially to about one-tenth of that by the time of a second sampling campaign (November or December 2011). The (137)Cs in the <0.45 μm fraction was present exclusively as a dissolved species rather than as a species adsorbed on suspended solids or complexed with organic materials. The contribution of the dissolved fraction ranged from 1.2 to 48.9% (averaged 20%) of the total concentration of (137)Cs throughout the observation period. The maximum contribution of (137)Cs was found in the silt size fraction (3-63 μm), which can be explained by the relatively large Kd values and the suspended solids (SS) concentration of this size fraction. Although the concentration (Bq/g) of (137)Cs in each size fraction did not show any significant trends and/or variations for any of the sampling campaign, Kd values for each site increased with time. Furthermore, it was found that the Kd values decreased with distance from the headstream in the off-limits zone. Thus, the data acquired in this study give an overview of the radiological situation for Fukushima including temporal and spatial variation of radiocaesium in a natural riverine system, within a few years after the accident. PMID:24929977

  16. Molecular identification of chlamydial cause of abortion in small ruminants in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ababneh, Huthaifa Salah; Ababneh, Mustafa Mohammed Kheir; Hananeh, Wael Mahmoud; Alsheyab, Fawzi Mohammad; Jawasreh, Khaleel Ibraheem; Al-Gharaibeh, Moath Ahmad; Ababneh, Mohammed Mahmoud

    2014-12-01

    Chlamydophila abortus (Ch. abortus) is the etiological agent of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) and one of the most common infectious agents of abortion in small ruminants worldwide. RFLP-PCR analysis of the outer membrane protein gene (OMP2 gene) was used for diagnosis and characterization of chlamydial causes of abortion in small ruminants in Jordan. Sixty-six placental tissues and 15 vaginal swabs were collected from aborted ewes and does to identify cause of abortion in Jordan. Thirty-eight placental samples (58 %) and 13 vaginal swabs (87 %) were positive for chlamydial DNA. Shedding of bacteria in vaginal swabs was detected within 7 days after abortion. The results of this study showed that chlamydiosis is one of the important causes of abortion in small ruminants in Jordan. In addition, vaginal swab is an excellent sample for molecular diagnosis of chlamydiosis. DNA sequencing and RFLP analysis of the OMP2 reveal that all chlamydial cause of abortion in small ruminants in Jordan are due to Ch. abortus. While, Ch. pecorum was not detected in any sample. OMP2 gene of the isolated Jordanian strain was identical (100 %) to Ch. abortus FAS strain. In conclusion, Ch. abortus is an important cause of abortion in Jordan; vaginal swab within 7 days of abortion can be used for molecular diagnosis of chlamydiosis in small ruminants.

  17. Identification of forty cases with alkaptonuria in one village in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Sbou, Mohammed; Mwafi, Nesrin; Lubad, Mohammad Abu

    2012-12-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is one of the four initially identified inborn errors of metabolism. The prevalence of AKU is unknown in Jordan. Therefore, a research project was started in April 2009 at the Faculty of Medicine/Mutah University in southern Jordan. The aims of the project were to identify people with AKU, to screen all family members with history of AKU, and to increase the awareness about the disease among health care professionals and the community in southern Jordan. Targeted family screening method was used to identify patients with AKU. In this paper, we present preliminary results of screening 17 families with history of AKU in a single village in southern region of Jordan. Forty cases with AKU were identified in this village (age range, 1-60 years). Early cases with AKU were diagnosed through out this study, two-third of patients (n = 28) were under the age of thirty. Interestingly, nine cases with AKU were identified in one family. Our experience suggests that for the identification of cases with AKU where consanguinity is common, the focus for screening should be extended to all family members. The prevalence of AKU among Jordanian is likely to be greater than the prevalence rates worldwide due to high rates of consanguineous marriages. Further studies and effective screening programs are needed to detect undiagnosed cases of AKU, to provide genetic counseling, and ultimately to prevent the occurrence of new cases of AKU in Jordan.

  18. Jordan, an active Volvox transposable element similar to higher plant transposons.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, S M; Schmitt, R; Kirk, D L

    1993-01-01

    We have isolated a 1595-bp transposable element from the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri following its insertion into the nitrate reductase (nitA) locus. This element, which we have named Jordan, has short (12-bp) terminal inverted repeats and creates a 3-bp target site duplication, like some higher plant transposons of the classic type. Contained within the first 200 bp of one end of the element are 55-bp inverted repeats, one of which begins with the terminal inverted repeat. Revertants of the transposon insertion into the nitA locus were obtained at a rate of approximately 10(-4) per Volvox embryo per generation. In each revertant examined, all transposon sequences were completely excised, but footprints containing both sets of duplicated bases, in addition to three to nine extra bases, were left behind. Jordan contains no significant open reading frames and so appears to be nonautonomous. DNA gel blot analysis indicates that Jordan is a member of a large family of homologous elements in the Volvox genome. We have isolated and characterized several of these homologs and found that they contain terminal very similar to those of Jordan. Efforts to utilize Jordan and its homologs as tools to tag and clone developmentally interesting genes of Volvox are discussed. PMID:8400878

  19. Gender Equality in Secondary Education: A Study of Girls' Educational Access and Participation in Jordan between 2000 and 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belal, Fatima Omar

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the changes of male and female enrollment in urban and rural areas in Jordan and the school-related factors, as well as government policies that contributed to its change. Both qualitative methods and archival research were utilized to collect data in urban and rural areas in Jordan. A selective sample of twelve people…

  20. Genome Sequence of Geobacillus sp. Strain ZGt-1, an Antibacterial Peptide-Producing Bacterium from Hot Springs in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alkhalili, Rawana N; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Canbäck, Björn

    2015-07-23

    This paper reports the draft genome sequence of the firmicute Geobacillus sp. strain ZGt-1, an antibacterial peptide producer isolated from the Zara hot spring in Jordan. This study is the first report on genomic data from a thermophilic bacterial strain isolated in Jordan.

  1. 77 FR 48138 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Planned Jordan Cove...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Planned Jordan Cove Liquefaction and Pacific Connector Pipeline Projects, Request for Comments on... (Jordan Cove) proposed liquefaction project in Coos County, Oregon, and Pacific Connector Gas Pipeline LP...; Four liquefaction trains (each with a capacity of 1.5 MMTPA); two feed gas and dehydration trains...

  2. An aerial radiological survey of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Forked River, New Jersey. Date of survey: September 18--25, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, H.A.; McCall, K.A.

    1994-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant in Forked River, New Jersey, during the period September 18 through September 24, 1992. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 26-square-mile (67-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 4 and 10 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey of the power plant was conducted in August 1969 during its initial startup phase. Exposure rates and radioactive isotopes revealed in both surveys were consistent and within normal terrestrial background levels.

  3. Chronic disease and disability among Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Tileva, Margarita; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East since the Palestinian crisis, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. The study aimed to provide information on chronic medical conditions and disability to inform humanitarian assistance planning. Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria were conducted in late 2008 and early 2009. Clusters of 10 household were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed. The majority of respondents in both countries perceived healthcare as unaffordable but accessible; cost was an important barrier to care. In Jordan, most routine health expenditures were for medications where in Syria, expenses were divided between medical consultations and medication. Chronic disease prevalence among adults was 51.5% (confidence interval (CI): 49.4-53.5) in Syria and 41.0% (CI: 39.4-42.7) in Jordan, most common were hypertension and musculoskeletal problems. Overall disability rates were 7.1% (CI: 6.3-8.0) in Syria and 3.4% (CI: 3.0-3.9) in Jordan. In both countries, the majority of disability was attributed to conflict, prevalence was higher in men than women, and depression was the leading cause of mental health disability. Chronic illnesses, disabilities and psychological health are key challenges for the Iraqi population and the health systems in Jordan and Syria. Continued attention to the development of systems to manage conditions that require secondary and tertiary care is essential, particularly given reported difficulties in accessing care and the anticipated prolonged displacement.

  4. Chronic disease and disability among Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Tileva, Margarita; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East since the Palestinian crisis, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. The study aimed to provide information on chronic medical conditions and disability to inform humanitarian assistance planning. Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria were conducted in late 2008 and early 2009. Clusters of 10 household were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed. The majority of respondents in both countries perceived healthcare as unaffordable but accessible; cost was an important barrier to care. In Jordan, most routine health expenditures were for medications where in Syria, expenses were divided between medical consultations and medication. Chronic disease prevalence among adults was 51.5% (confidence interval (CI): 49.4-53.5) in Syria and 41.0% (CI: 39.4-42.7) in Jordan, most common were hypertension and musculoskeletal problems. Overall disability rates were 7.1% (CI: 6.3-8.0) in Syria and 3.4% (CI: 3.0-3.9) in Jordan. In both countries, the majority of disability was attributed to conflict, prevalence was higher in men than women, and depression was the leading cause of mental health disability. Chronic illnesses, disabilities and psychological health are key challenges for the Iraqi population and the health systems in Jordan and Syria. Continued attention to the development of systems to manage conditions that require secondary and tertiary care is essential, particularly given reported difficulties in accessing care and the anticipated prolonged displacement. PMID:22685057

  5. From Weyl to Born-Jordan quantization: The Schrödinger representation revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gosson, Maurice A.

    2016-03-01

    The ordering problem has been one of the long standing and much discussed questions in quantum mechanics from its very beginning. Nowadays, there is more or less a consensus among physicists that the right prescription is Weyl's rule, which is closely related to the Moyal-Wigner phase space formalism. We propose in this report an alternative approach by replacing Weyl quantization with the less well-known Born-Jordan quantization. This choice is actually natural if we want the Heisenberg and Schrödinger pictures of quantum mechanics to be mathematically equivalent. It turns out that, in addition, Born-Jordan quantization can be recovered from Feynman's path integral approach provided that one used short-time propagators arising from correct formulas for the short-time action, as observed by Makri and Miller. These observations lead to a slightly different quantum mechanics, exhibiting some unexpected features, and this without affecting the main existing theory; for instance quantizations of physical Hamiltonian functions are the same as in the Weyl correspondence. The differences are in fact of a more subtle nature; for instance, the quantum observables will not correspond in a one-to-one fashion to classical ones, and the dequantization of a Born-Jordan quantum operator is less straightforward than that of the corresponding Weyl operator. The use of Born-Jordan quantization moreover solves the "angular momentum dilemma", which already puzzled L. Pauling. Born-Jordan quantization has been known for some time (but not fully exploited) by mathematicians working in time-frequency analysis and signal analysis, but ignored by physicists. One of the aims of this report is to collect and synthesize these sporadic discussions, while analyzing the conceptual differences with Weyl quantization, which is also reviewed in detail. Another striking feature is that the Born-Jordan formalism leads to a redefinition of phase space quantum mechanics, where the usual Wigner

  6. Mapping of Networks to Detect Priority Zoonoses in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Erin M; El Azhari, Mohammad; Maswdeh, Nezar; Kornblet, Sarah; Standley, Claire J; Katz, Rebecca L; Ablan, Ibrahim; Fischer, Julie E

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of emerging disease events is a priority focus area for cooperative bioengagement programs. Communication and coordination among national disease surveillance and response networks are essential for timely detection and control of a public health event. Although systematic information sharing between the human and animal health sectors can help stakeholders detect and respond to zoonotic diseases rapidly, resource constraints, and other barriers often prevent efficient cross-sector reporting. The purpose of this research project was to map the laboratory and surveillance networks currently in place for detecting and reporting priority zoonotic diseases in Jordan in order to identify the nodes of communication, coordination, and decision-making where health and veterinary sectors intersect, and to identify priorities and gaps that limit information sharing for action. We selected three zoonotic diseases as case studies: highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, rabies, and brucellosis. Through meetings with government agencies and health officials, and desk research, we mapped each system from the index case through response - including both surveillance and laboratory networks, highlighting both areas of strength and those that would benefit from capacity-building resources. Our major findings indicate informal communication exists across sectors; in the event of emergence of one of the priority zoonoses studied, there is effective coordination across the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Agriculture. However, routine formal coordination is lacking. Overall, there is a strong desire and commitment for multi-sectoral coordination in detection and response to zoonoses across public health and veterinary sectors. Our analysis indicates that the networks developed in response to HPAI can and should be leveraged to develop a comprehensive laboratory and surveillance One Health network. PMID:26528460

  7. Radioactivity and elemental analysis in the Ruseifa municipal landfill, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Jundi, J; Al-Tarazi, E

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a low background gamma-ray spectrometer based on a Hyper Pure Germanium detector was used to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in soil samples from various locations within the Ruseifa municipal landfill in Jordan. The chemical composition of the samples was also determined using a Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer. The maximum and minimum annual outdoor effective doses were found to be 103 and 36microSva(-1) in the old landfill and Abu-Sayaah village, respectively. The annual outdoor effective dose at the recent landfill site was found to be 91microSva(-1). The annual effective dose equivalents from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation at the old landfill and the recent landfill were higher than the typical worldwide value of 70microSva(-1). Thus, some remediation of the soils on both old and recent landfills should be considered before any development for public activities. This could be achieved by mixing with clean soil from areas which are known to have lower radiation background. The concentration of heavy metals Zn, Cr, and Ba in the three sites included in this study were found to be higher than the background levels in the soil samples of the control area (Abu-Sayaah village). The enrichment factors for the above three elements were calculated and found to be: complex building site: Zn=2.52 and Ba=1.33; old landfill site: Cr=1.88, Zn=3.64, and Ba=1.26; and recent landfill site: Cr=1.57, Zn=2.19, and Ba=1.28. There was a strong negative correlation between the concentrations of the metallic elements (Mg, Al, Mn, Fe and Rb) and the concentrations of Zn, Ba, and Cr. Moreover, a strong positive correlation was found between Zn, Ba, and Cr. Thus these elements were enriched in the solid waste.

  8. Clinical Characteristics of Pediatric Constipation in South Jordan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Constipation is a common pediatric problem worldwide. This study aims to describe the clinical characteristics of pediatric constipation in south Jordan according to gender and age group. Methods All patients with constipation managed at our pediatric gastroenterology service between September 2009 and December 2012 were included. Hospital charts were reviewed. Demographic data, clinical characteristics, and final diagnosis were recorded. Data were analyzed according to gender and the following age groups: infants, pre-school, school age, and adolescents. Results During the study period, 126 patients were enrolled. The number (percentage) of patients according to age were the following infants: 43 (34.1%), pre-school: 55 (43.7%), school age: 25 (19.8%), and adolescents: 3 (2.4%). Males made up 54.8% of the study population. There were no statistical gender differences in any age group. The most common symptom in all age groups was dry, hard stool. Infrequent defecation was found in almost one-half of the patients. Fecal incontinence was more common in school-aged children compared to pre-school-aged children and adolescents. Abdominal pain was seen in almost 40% of the constipated children. Abdominal pain was more prevalent in girls and older children. Fecal mass in the rectum was the most common physical finding, with constipated boys exhibiting higher rates. Functional constipation was the most common etiology. Conclusion Clinical characteristics of constipation in children vary according to age group and gender. Older children had less frequent bowel motions, a longer duration of symptoms, and a higher prevalence of long-standing constipation compilations (fecal incontinence and abdominal pain). PMID:25349831

  9. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Qura'n, S

    2009-05-01

    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use

  10. Mapping of Networks to Detect Priority Zoonoses in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Sorrell, Erin M.; El Azhari, Mohammad; Maswdeh, Nezar; Kornblet, Sarah; Standley, Claire J.; Katz, Rebecca L.; Ablan, Ibrahim; Fischer, Julie E.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of emerging disease events is a priority focus area for cooperative bioengagement programs. Communication and coordination among national disease surveillance and response networks are essential for timely detection and control of a public health event. Although systematic information sharing between the human and animal health sectors can help stakeholders detect and respond to zoonotic diseases rapidly, resource constraints, and other barriers often prevent efficient cross-sector reporting. The purpose of this research project was to map the laboratory and surveillance networks currently in place for detecting and reporting priority zoonotic diseases in Jordan in order to identify the nodes of communication, coordination, and decision-making where health and veterinary sectors intersect, and to identify priorities and gaps that limit information sharing for action. We selected three zoonotic diseases as case studies: highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, rabies, and brucellosis. Through meetings with government agencies and health officials, and desk research, we mapped each system from the index case through response – including both surveillance and laboratory networks, highlighting both areas of strength and those that would benefit from capacity-building resources. Our major findings indicate informal communication exists across sectors; in the event of emergence of one of the priority zoonoses studied, there is effective coordination across the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Agriculture. However, routine formal coordination is lacking. Overall, there is a strong desire and commitment for multi-sectoral coordination in detection and response to zoonoses across public health and veterinary sectors. Our analysis indicates that the networks developed in response to HPAI can and should be leveraged to develop a comprehensive laboratory and surveillance One Health network. PMID:26528460

  11. Participatory groundwater management in Jordan: Development and analysis of options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaane, Mohamed; El-Naser, Hazim; Fitch, Jim; Hijazi, Amal; Jabbarin, Amer

    Groundwater over-exploitation has been on the rise in Jordan. Competing demands have grown in the face of perennial water shortages, a situation which has been exacerbated by drought conditions in the past decade. This paper reports findings of a project in which management options to address over-exploitation were developed for one of Jordan's principal aquifer systems, the Amman-Zarqa Basin. Options for addressing the situation were developed through a participatory approach that involved government officials and various public and private sector interest groups. Particular efforts were made to involve well irrigators, who are likely to be heavily impacted by the changes required to reduce groundwater pumping to a sustainable level. With information obtained from a rapid appraisal survey as well as from interviews with farmers, community groups, government officials, and technical experts, an extensive set of options was identified for evaluation. Based on integrated hydrogeologic, social, and economic analysis, five complementary management options were recommended for implementation. These included the establishment of an Irrigation Advisory Service, buying out farm wells, placing firm limits on well ion and irrigated crop areas, exchanging treated wastewater for groundwater, and measures to increase the efficiency of municipal and industrial water use. Various combinations and levels of these options were grouped in scenarios, representing possible implementation strategies. The scenarios were designed to assist decision makers, well owners and other stakeholders in moving gradually towards a sustainable ion regime. Social and economic aspects of each option and scenario were analyzed and presented to stakeholders, together with a of legal, institutional and environmental ramifications. Combining scientific analysis with a participatory approach in the Amman Zarqa Basin groundwater management was devised as a prototype to be used in the management of other

  12. Iridium contents in the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary clays in relation to the K/T boundary, North Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abboud, Iyad Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    The mineralogy, lithology, and geochemistry of five discrete laminations across the K/T boundary of clayey shale at the Yarmouk River area, Jordan, were examined. There were no marked changes in the mineralogy of the clayey shale within the K/T boundary. This outcrop consists of more than 100 m of Maastrichtian oil shale overlying about 20 m limestone. Marly limestone included many clay laminations from organic and volcanic origins, which are considered an evidence of the K/T boundary through detected iridium anomalies. Any of these particular lamellae range from 2 mm to 5 mm in thickness. Smectite was the predominant clay mineral in smectitic shale laminations. It was located at eight meters above the K/T boundary and includes some anomalous concentrations of iridium and traces of other elements. The analysis of geochemical platinum group at the K/T boundary clays showed anomalous enrichments of iridium, compared with other carbonate rocks as a result of weathering processes of oil shale, or through concentration from weathering of basalt flows, but not pointing to an impact process. The clays in late Maastrichtian have Ir-Sc prevailed anomalies and synchronize with increasing of terrigenous and volcanogenic traced elements. Kaolin, smectite, and volkonskoite were the dominant clay minerals at the K/T boundary with high concentrations of iridium. The concentration levels of iridium in some laminations of the Yarmouk sediments ranged between 1.6 and 7.8 ppb.

  13. Chemical evolution of saline waters in the Jordan-Dead Sea transform and in adjoining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Peter; Rosenthal, Eliyahu; Geyer, Stefan; Flexer, Akiva

    2007-06-01

    The Ca Mg relationship in groundwaters strongly points to the overall dolomitization and local albitization. The Mg/Ca ratios reveal two trends by which saline waters develop: increase of Mg/Ca ratio by evaporation and decreasing Mg/Ca ratios due to dolomitization and albitization. Br/Cl vs. Na/Cl ratios demonstrate that albitization does not play a major role which leaves dolomitization to be the main source for decreasing Mg/Ca ratios in saline waters. In the eastern and southern Region of Lake Kinneret, salinization occurs by mixing with a Ca/Mg molar ratio <1 brine (Ha’On type). Along the western shoreline of the Lake, a Ca/Mg > 1 dominates, which developed by the albitization of plagioclase in abundant mafic volcanics and the dolomitization of limestones. The most saline groundwater of the Tabgha-, Fuliya-, and Tiberias clusters could be regional derivatives of at least two mother brines: in diluted form one is represented by Ha’On water, the other is a Na-rich brine of the Zemah type. Additionally, a deep-seated Ca-dominant brine may ascend along the fractures on the western side of Lake Kinneret, which is absent on the eastern side. Groundwaters of the Lower Jordan Valley are chemically different on both sides of the Jordan River, indicating that the exchange of water is insignificant. All saline waters from the Dead Sea and its surroundings represent a complex mixture of brines, and precipitation and local dissolution of halite and gypsum. Many wells of the Arava/Araba Valley pump groundwater from the Upper Cretaceous limestone aquifer, the origin of the water is actually from the Lower Cretaceous Kurnub Group sandstones. Groundwater drawn from the Quaternary alluvial fill either originates from Kurnub Group sandstones (Eilat 108, Yaalon 117) or from altered limestones of the Judea Group. The origin of these waters is from floods flowing through wadis incised into calcareous formations of the Judea Group. On the other hand, as a result of step

  14. Flood monitoring for ungauged rivers: the power of combining space-based monitoring and global forecasting models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Netgeka, Victor; Raynaud, Damien; Thielen, Jutta

    2013-04-01

    Flood warning systems typically rely on forecasts from national meteorological services and in-situ observations from hydrological gauging stations. This capacity is not equally developed in flood-prone developing countries. Low-cost satellite monitoring systems and global flood forecasting systems can be an alternative source of information for national flood authorities. The Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) has been develop jointly with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) and the Joint Research Centre, and it is running quasi operational now since June 2011. The system couples state-of-the art weather forecasts with a hydrological model driven at a continental scale. The system provides downstream countries with information on upstream river conditions as well as continental and global overviews. In its test phase, this global forecast system provides probabilities for large transnational river flooding at the global scale up to 30 days in advance. It has shown its real-life potential for the first time during the flood in Southeast Asia in 2011, and more recently during the floods in Australia in March 2012, India (Assam, September-October 2012) and Chad Floods (August-October 2012).The Joint Research Centre is working on further research and development, rigorous testing and adaptations of the system to create an operational tool for decision makers, including national and regional water authorities, water resource managers, hydropower companies, civil protection and first line responders, and international humanitarian aid organizations. Currently efforts are being made to link GloFAS to the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS). GFDS is a Space-based river gauging and flood monitoring system using passive microwave remote sensing which was developed by a collaboration between the JRC and Dartmouth Flood Observatory. GFDS provides flood alerts based on daily water surface change measurements from space. Alerts are shown on a

  15. Size-dependent distribution of radiocesium in riverbed sediments and its relevance to the migration of radiocesium in river systems after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazuya; Iwatani, Hokuto; Sakaguchi, Aya; Fan, Qiaohui; Takahashi, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the particle size distribution of radiocesium in riverbed sediments after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Riverbed sediments were collected in the Abukuma River system in Fukushima and Miyagi Prefectures. The collected sediments were separated into 11 fractions, ranging from granular size (>2000 μm) to clay size (<2 μm) fractions. Cesium-137 concentrations were higher in the smaller particle size fractions, possibly reflecting specific surface areas and the mineralogy, in particular the clay mineral content. A gap in (137)Cs concentration was observed between the silt size and sand size fractions of riverbed sediments at downstream sites, whereas riverbed sediments at an upstream site did not show such a concentration gap. It is likely that selective transport of small particles in suspended state from upstream areas resulted in an accumulation of radiocesium in downstream areas. PMID:24874435

  16. Jordan 1990: results from the demographic and health survey.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Summary results from the 1990 Jordan Demographic and Health Survey are reported in a series of 27 charts and tables. The sample survey represented regions and the nation. A household questionnaire was collected from 16,296 households; 6461 ever married women 15-49 years completed an individual questionnaire. Information is provided on the general population characteristics and the educational status and urban/rural residence of ever married women. Population was reported as 3.86 million and a growth rate of 3.17%. Fertility is represented as the total fertility rate in 5-year groups since 1955, fertility differentials by residence and educational level, and age specific fertility. Fertility preferences are expressed by age and preferences by number of living children. The desire to stop childbearing is reported by the number of living children among currently married women. The planning status by the number of living children is also reported. Contraceptive prevalence is shown by residence and educational level in one chart and by age and by number of living children in another chart. Current contraceptive usage is revealed by source of supply and method used. Knowledge and use patterns among currently married women is indicated by whether respondent ever used or was currently using. Currently married nonusers were asked to indicate their intention to use in the future, which was tabulated by the number of living children women had. The reason for nonuse by age is provided. Marital and contraceptive status is in terms of marital status by age group, differences in age at first birth, and contraceptive status by marital status. The median duration of postpartum interval is indicated by status: breast feeding, nonsusceptible, amenorrhea, and abstinence. Differences in breast feeding and amenorrhea are shown by residence and educational level. Infant mortality trends and differences by education and residence are given as well as the number of children ever born and

  17. A Report to the 36th Session of the International Conference on Education in Geneve. Jordan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Amman (Jordan).

    The educational system of Jordan follows principles set down by law in 1964. Education is compulsory for nine years, free to all students, and available equally to both sexes and all religious groups. Central administrative functions are carried out by the Ministry of Education which administers examinations, recruits teachers, and sets general…

  18. Facebook Use in Education: Experiences of University Science Education Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Alruz, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the level of Facebook use in education in one public university located in the middle part of Jordan. A sample of 189 undergraduate students enrolled in the science education courses participated in the study by responding to a questionnaire composed of 15 items. The results of the study indicated that…

  19. On the Quality of Higher Education in Jordan: Empirical Evidence from Princess Sumaya University for Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahateet, Mohammed Issa

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the main indicators of scores of K-12 leavers who were admitted at Princess Sumaya University for Technology, PSUT, in Jordan and their graduation scores. It uses time series data covering the period 1993-2012, including all 3,229 Bachelor graduates in all specialisations. The paper applies several statistical techniques to…

  20. Mobile Phone Applications in the University Classroom: Perceptions of Undergraduate Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashour, Rateb; Alzghool, Haneen; Iyadat, Yousef; Abu-Alruz, Jamal

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine the level of mobile phone applications in university classrooms in Jordan. A sample of 313 undergraduate students participated in the study by completing the researchers' designed questionnaire, which is composed of 13 items. The results of the study indicate that participants perceived a high…

  1. Obstacles of Teaching Mathematics Faced by the Class Teachers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejem, Khamis Mousa; Muhanna, Waffa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the obstacles of teaching mathematics faced by the class teachers in Jordan. To achieve this purpose a study sample of 192 male and female class teachers was selected randomly from government schools. The instrument of the study was a questionnaire used to investigate the obstacles of mathematics…

  2. Molecular Diagnosis and Identification of Leishmania Species in Jordan from Saved Dry Samples.

    PubMed

    Hijjawi, Nawal; Kanani, Kalil A; Rasheed, Malak; Atoum, Manar; Abdel-Dayem, Mona; Irhimeh, Mohammad R

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of the endemic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Jordan relies on patient clinical presentation and microscopic identification. Studies toward improved identification of the causative Leishmania species, especially in regions where multiple species exist, and the introduction of these techniques into medical diagnosis is paramount. This study looked at the current epidemiology of CL in Jordan. Clinically diagnosed 41 patients with CL were tested for the presence of Leishmania parasite using both Giemsa staining from skin scraps on glass slides and ITS1-PCR from samples blotted onto storage cards (NucleoCards®). Microscopically, 28 out of the 41 (68.3%) collected samples were positive for amastigotes, whereas the molecular ITS1-PCR amplification successfully identified 30 of the 41 samples (73.2%). Furthermore, PCR-RFLP analysis allowed species identification which is impossible microscopically. Of the 30 PCR positive samples, 28 were Leishmania major positive and the other two samples were Leishmania tropica. This indicates that L. major is the most prevalent species in Jordan and the two L. tropica cases originated from Syria indicating possible future L. tropica outbreaks. Diagnosis of CL based on clinical presentation only may falsely increase its prevalence. Although PCR is more sensitive, it is still not available in our medical laboratories in Jordan. PMID:27403435

  3. The Effect of the Time Management Art on Academic Achievement among High School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zoubi, Maysoon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at recognizing the effect of the Time Management Art on academic achievement among high school students in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The researcher employed the descriptive-analytic research to achieve the purpose of the study where he chose a sample of (2000) high school female and male students as respondents to the…

  4. An Alternative Method to Gauss-Jordan Elimination: Minimizing Fraction Arithmetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Luke; Powell, Joan

    2011-01-01

    When solving systems of equations by using matrices, many teachers present a Gauss-Jordan elimination approach to row reducing matrices that can involve painfully tedious operations with fractions (which I will call the traditional method). In this essay, I present an alternative method to row reduce matrices that does not introduce additional…

  5. I Know There Is No Justice: Palestinian Perceptions of Higher Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marar, Marianne Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study utilizes critical ethnography methods to illustrate Palestinian refugee perceptions of higher education in Jordan. Participants addressed their assimilation to the Jordanian national identity as a means of obtaining education. Content and access to education were more important than assimilation, maintenance of ethnic…

  6. A 16th Suggestions for Educational Curriculum Improvement in Jordan, from the Experts Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahasneh, Omar

    2015-01-01

    The present research was conducted to identify the most important suggestions for educational curriculum improvement in Jordan, from the expert's point of view. A descriptive survey through data and information collection tool (questionnaire) was used as an approach. The study sample consisted of (620) educational experts in the field of…

  7. Potential Use of Course Management Systems in Higher Education Institutions in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shboul, Muhannad

    2011-01-01

    Given the increased adoption of the CMS (course management systems) as an instructional tool, it is important to address the potential use of this technology in Jordanian higher education institutions. This study investigates the potential to use CMS tools in instruction in the academic institutions in Jordan. This study does not seek to evaluate…

  8. Human diversity in Jordan: polymorphic Alu insertions in general Jordanian and Bedouin groups.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Daniela; Sadiq, May; Carreras-Torres, Robert; Khabour, Omar; Alkaraki, Almuthanna; Esteban, Esther; Via, Marc; Moral, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Jordan, located in the Levant region, is an area crucial for the investigation of human migration between Africa and Eurasia. However, the genetic history of Jordanians has yet to be clarified, including the origin of the Bedouins today resident in Jordan. Here, we provide new genetic data on autosomal independent markers in two Jordanian population samples (Bedouins and the general population) to begin to examine the genetic diversity inside this country and to provide new information about the genetic position of these populations in the context of the Mediterranean and Middle East area. The markers analyzed were 18 Alu polymorphic insertions characterized by their identity by descent, known ancestral state (lack of insertion), and apparent selective neutrality. The results indicate significant genetic diffferences between Bedouins and general Jordanians (p = 0.038). Whereas Bedouins show a close genetic proximity to North Africans, general Jordanians appear genetically more similar to other Middle East populations. In general, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that Bedouins had an important role in the peopling of Jordan and constitute the original substrate of the current population. However, migration into Jordan in recent years likely has contributed to the diversity among current Jordanian population groups.

  9. 75 FR 4057 - Jordan Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Limited Partnership; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and...: Original Major License. b. Project No.: 12737-002. c. Date filed: April 16, 2009. d. Applicant:...

  10. Arabic Language Teachers and Islamic Education Teachers' Awareness of Authentic Assessment in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Basheer, Akram; Ashraah, Mamdouh; Alsmadi, Rana

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating Islamic Education teachers' and Arabic Language teachers' perceptions of authentic assessment in Jordan, and exploring the effects of factors related to teachers' specialization, gender and years of experience on their understanding of the implications of this kind of assessment. In this mixed-method research, a…

  11. 76 FR 70437 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal...

  12. The Image of Women in the National Education Text Books in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khalidi, Nasiema Mustafa Sadeq

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the image of women and how it was dealt with in the National Education books in Jordan, where the content of the National Education books analyzed and for multiple age stages, also it addressed the content analysis of images, concepts and fees, activities and evaluation to identify the image of women in the family, at…

  13. Growing School Networks for Instructional Improvement in Jordan, 2009-2010. CPRE Research Report, # RR-70

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Marian A.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan has made a substantial commitment to improving the quality of its public education system. The main vehicle for this work has been the Education Reform for Knowledge Economy (ERfKE) initiative. To date, key investments have been made in early childhood education, school infrastructure,…

  14. Faculty Attitudes toward Students with Disabilities in a Public University in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the attitudes of higher education (HE) faculty members towards inclusion of students with disabilities at one large public University in Jordan using a survey approach. A total of 170 faculty members completed the survey. The most important findings of this study are: (a) regardless of the academic discipline, the majority of…

  15. Impact of Conflict in Syria on Syrian Children at the Zaatari Refugee Camp in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabbar, Sinaria Abdel; Zaza, Haidar Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a study performed to investigate the impact of the conflict in Syria on Syrian refugee children. The Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan was chosen for this task. Two control (comparison) groups of children were selected: one from the Jordanian Ramtha district, which is just across the border from Syria, and that indirectly feel…

  16. Educating Students with Mild Intellectual Disabilities in Regular Schools in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khatib, Jamal M.; Al Khatib, Fareed

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a description of current practices in educating students with mild intellectual disabilities in regular schools in Jordan. The data were obtained using several methods, including interviews with special education staff at the Ministry of Education, summaries of documents and published research related to resource rooms and…

  17. Epidemiological pattern of imported malaria in Jordan from 2007 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Jamain, H M; Abu Shaqra, Q A; Kanani, K A

    2013-12-01

    Imported malaria is of major health concern to countries considered as free from this infection and Jordan is no exception. The aim of this study was to highlight various epidemiological aspects of imported malaria into Jordan over a period of five years. Information pertinent to all malaria cases registered in the Ministry of Health (Jordan) from January 2007 to November 2011 was retrieved from the database of the Department of Parasitic and Zoonotic Diseases. Data was grouped according to age, gender, country of acquisition and etiologic agents. During the study period, a total of 304 malaria cases were registered, 192 cases among Jordanians returning home and the remaining were detected among foreign nationals who arrived in the country for work or tourism. The majority of infections were due to Plasmodium falciparum (199 cases) followed by Plasmodium vivax (93) and then Plasmodium malariae (8). Mixed infection was detected in just 4 cases. The origin of these imported cases was in a descending order; Eritrea, Côte d'Ivoire, India, Sudan, Liberia and Pakistan. These countries contributed to 86.5% of cases while the remaining were acquired from other areas. It is believed that most Jordanians with imported malaria were military personnel who participated in Peace Keeping Forces with the United Nations. It is concluded that with the exception of imported cases reported herein, Jordan remains a malaria free country. Continuous vigilance by health authorities is needed to avoid reintroduction of the disease into the kingdom.

  18. Presidents' Panel: A Conversation with I. King Jordan, Robert Davila, and T. Alan Hurwitz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Brian H.; Jordan, I. King; Davila, Robert; Hurwitz, T. Alan

    2014-01-01

    Former Gallaudet presidents: I. King Jordan and Robert Davila join current president T. Alan Hurwitz on a panel moderated by Brian H. Greenwald as they share their experience leading this institution of higher education and offer insight into the transformative changes brought about by the "Deaf President Now" movement.

  19. On the Myth of the Crisis of Representation: A Response to Gilbourne, Jones and Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gard, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The author observes that, in "Applied Utility and the Auto-Ethnographic Short Story: Persuasions for, and Illustrations of, Writing Critical Social Science," Gilbourne, Jones and Jordan present claims about why we might choose to represent auto-ethnographic data in a literary form such as short story and for the "potential" or…

  20. Boys' Academic Achievement at the Secondary Level in Jordan between 2005 and 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belal, Shadin Yahya

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated factors linked to the underachievement of boys' education in Jordan. These school factors include the availability of male teachers, availability and infrastructure of school, student-teacher ratio (STR), and the quality of teachers. Both qualitative methods and archival research were utilized to collect data in urban and…

  1. The Influence of Demographic Variables on University Students' Adjustment in North Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aderi, Mohd; Jdaitawi, Malek; Ishak, Noor Azniza; Jdaitawi, Farid

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to investigate the student university adjustment particularly the determination of the adjustment level of first year university students in Jordan. The three domains are namely overall college adjustment, domain of social adjustment, and academic adjustment. In addition, in this analysis, gender, age, types of…

  2. 76 FR 12101 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Commission's regulations, 18 CFR part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 447897), the Office of Energy Projects has... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Environmental...

  3. Sexual Offenses Among Children in the North of Jordan: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Shotar, Ali M; Alzyoud, Sukaina; Oweis, Arwa; Alhawamdeh, Khalid A; Khoshnood, Kaveh

    2015-01-01

    Sexual offenses are an important global health problem threatening people of all age groups. There are no reported studies regarding sexual violence among children in Jordan. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the problem of sexual violence among children in the Northern region of Jordan. A retrospective design was adopted to review all reports from the Forensic Medicine Teaching Center of North of Jordan clinic on cases of sexual-related assaults that occurred between 2003 and 2007. Reports were reviewed for age, gender, toxicological analysis, and relevant information provided by victims and their relatives. Results indicated that 53% of the cases were male victims, with a male to female ratio of 1:1. Ages ranged from 3 to 18 years with a mean age of 12.5 years. Most cases were considered indecent assaults, while 37.1% were cases of rape. In most cases, offenders were strangers. It could be concluded that Jordanian children are as susceptible to sexual assaults as their counterparts worldwide. This study is the first to report sexual offenses among children in Jordan. As such, it provides baseline data that can be used to inform policy and prevention strategies focused on reducing sexual violence among this vulnerable segment of the Jordanian population.

  4. Polymorphisms in Factor II and Factor V thrombophilia genes among Circassians in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Dajani, R; Arafat, A; Hakooz, N; Al-Abbadi, Z; Yousef, Al-Motassem; El Khateeb, M; Quadan, F

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Genetic factors are one component of thrombosis. We studied the prevalence of two mutations that are known risk factors in the pathogenesis of arterial and venous thrombosis in the genetically isolated Circassian population in Jordan. Factor II G20210A and Factor V Leiden single nucleotide polymorphisms were analysed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism method in 104 random unrelated subjects from the Circassian population in Jordan. The prevalence rates among the Circassian population in Jordan for Factor II G20210A was 12.2% and for Factor V Leiden was 7.7%. We have shown that the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and that the prevalences of both mutations are within the range of other ethnic groups. This is the first study to describe Circassian health related genetic characteristics in Jordan. Such population-based studies will contribute to understanding the interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. It will remain to be seen whether carriers of Factor II G20210A and Factor V Leiden are more likely to develop thrombosis. This issue should be studied in the future to determine the need for screening of these mutations particularly in thrombophilia patients.

  5. 76 FR 46793 - Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Regulatory Commission's regulations, 18 CFR Part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Jordan Hydroelectric Limited Partnership; Notice of Availability...

  6. Beliefs about Parental Authority Legitimacy among Refugee Youth in Jordan: Between- and Within-Person Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We examined within- and between-person variations in parental legitimacy beliefs in a sample of 883 Arab refugee youth (M[subscript age] = 15.01 years, SD = 1.60), 277 Iraqis, 275 Syrians, and 331 Palestinians, in Amman, Jordan. Latent profile analyses of 22 belief items yielded 4 profiles of youth. The "normative" profile (67% of the…

  7. The EFQM Self-Assessment Processes in HEIs in Spain and in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tari, Juan Jose; Madeleine, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) self-assessment model in higher education institutions (HEIs) in Spain and in Jordan. Case study methodology on eight services provided by a public university in Spain and seven services provided by one public university and one private university in…

  8. Molecular Diagnosis and Identification of Leishmania Species in Jordan from Saved Dry Samples

    PubMed Central

    Hijjawi, Nawal; Kanani, Kalil A.; Rasheed, Malak; Atoum, Manar; Abdel-Dayem, Mona; Irhimeh, Mohammad R.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of the endemic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Jordan relies on patient clinical presentation and microscopic identification. Studies toward improved identification of the causative Leishmania species, especially in regions where multiple species exist, and the introduction of these techniques into medical diagnosis is paramount. This study looked at the current epidemiology of CL in Jordan. Clinically diagnosed 41 patients with CL were tested for the presence of Leishmania parasite using both Giemsa staining from skin scraps on glass slides and ITS1-PCR from samples blotted onto storage cards (NucleoCards®). Microscopically, 28 out of the 41 (68.3%) collected samples were positive for amastigotes, whereas the molecular ITS1-PCR amplification successfully identified 30 of the 41 samples (73.2%). Furthermore, PCR-RFLP analysis allowed species identification which is impossible microscopically. Of the 30 PCR positive samples, 28 were Leishmania major positive and the other two samples were Leishmania tropica. This indicates that L. major is the most prevalent species in Jordan and the two L. tropica cases originated from Syria indicating possible future L. tropica outbreaks. Diagnosis of CL based on clinical presentation only may falsely increase its prevalence. Although PCR is more sensitive, it is still not available in our medical laboratories in Jordan. PMID:27403435

  9. Sexual Offenses Among Children in the North of Jordan: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Shotar, Ali M; Alzyoud, Sukaina; Oweis, Arwa; Alhawamdeh, Khalid A; Khoshnood, Kaveh

    2015-01-01

    Sexual offenses are an important global health problem threatening people of all age groups. There are no reported studies regarding sexual violence among children in Jordan. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the problem of sexual violence among children in the Northern region of Jordan. A retrospective design was adopted to review all reports from the Forensic Medicine Teaching Center of North of Jordan clinic on cases of sexual-related assaults that occurred between 2003 and 2007. Reports were reviewed for age, gender, toxicological analysis, and relevant information provided by victims and their relatives. Results indicated that 53% of the cases were male victims, with a male to female ratio of 1:1. Ages ranged from 3 to 18 years with a mean age of 12.5 years. Most cases were considered indecent assaults, while 37.1% were cases of rape. In most cases, offenders were strangers. It could be concluded that Jordanian children are as susceptible to sexual assaults as their counterparts worldwide. This study is the first to report sexual offenses among children in Jordan. As such, it provides baseline data that can be used to inform policy and prevention strategies focused on reducing sexual violence among this vulnerable segment of the Jordanian population. PMID:26301439

  10. Political Economy of Cost-Sharing in Higher Education: The Case of Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanaan, Taher H.; Al-Salamat, Mamdouh N.; Hanania, May D.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes patterns of expenditure on higher education in Jordan, explores the current system's adequacy, efficiency, and equity, and identifies its strengths and weaknesses in light of current constraints and future challenges. Among the constraints are the relatively low public expenditure on higher education, leaving households to…

  11. Social Adaptation and Its Relationship to Achievement Motivation among High School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlZboon, Saleem Odeh

    2013-01-01

    The study amid at exploring and detecting the level of social adaptation and its relationship with the achievement motivation of the secondary school students in Jordan, the study sample consisted of 495 secondary school students in the province of Jerash, and to achieve the objective of this study comes the development of two tools: the first one…

  12. Assessing Special Needs of Students with Hearing Impairment in Jordan and Its Relation to Some Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Zraigat, Ibrahim A.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to assess special needs for students with hearing impairment. The sample of the study consisted of 231 students enrolled at schools for deaf children in Jordan, 113 males and 118 females. A special needs scale was developed and used in assessing special needs for students. The reliability and validity of…

  13. Effectiveness of Web Quest Strategy in Acquiring Geographic Concepts among Eighth Grade Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AL-Edwan, Zaid Suleiman

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the Effectiveness of using Web Quest Strategy in acquiring the geographic concepts among eighth grade students in Jordan. The study individuals consisted of (119) students in the scholastic year 2013-2014. Four sections were randomly selected from two schools divided into experimental and control groups. They were…

  14. The Impact of Foreign Housemaids on the Children of Working Mothers: A Case Study from Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabbar, Sinaria Kamil Abdel

    2014-01-01

    The role of grandparents and other close relatives in caring for the children of working mothers has been diminishing in modern societies everywhere including Jordan. Concurrently, the dependence on housemaids to care for the children of working mothers has been on the rise. The impact of housemaids on young Jordanian children (4-5 years old) was…

  15. An Integrated Learning Management System for Islamic Studies: An Innovation from Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumzan, Ismael; Chowdhury, Imran; Mirza, Saudah; Idil, Raidah Shah

    2010-01-01

    The use of ICT in the Middle East is expanding at a fast rate; hence managers and decision makers must decide on the best learning solution for their organizations. This article describes how a small team of individuals in Jordan developed an effective learning solution to a social problem. This may provide some useful lessons for other…

  16. Determination of the Fate of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in the Three Wastewater Treatment Plants, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedyan, Mohammed; Al Harahsheh, Ahmed; Qnaisb, Esam

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to assess the composition of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) species, particularly dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), over the traditional wastewater treatment operations in three biological nutrient removal (BNR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Jordan. It had been found that the DON percentage was up to 30% of TDN within…

  17. Human Capital Planning in Higher Education Institutions: A Strategic Human Resource Development Initiative in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to determine the status of human capital planning in higher education institutions in Jordan. Design/methodology/approach: A random sample of 120 faculty members (in administrative positions) responded to a human capital planning (HCP) survey. The survey consisted of a pool of 38 items distributed over…

  18. A question mark on the equivalence of Einstein and Jordan frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Narayan; Majumder, Barun

    2016-03-01

    With an explicit example, we show that Jordan frame and the conformally transformed Einstein frames clearly lead to different physics for a non-minimally coupled theory of gravity, namely Brans-Dicke theory, at least at the quantum level. The example taken up is the spatially flat Friedmann cosmology in Brans-Dicke theory.

  19. Factors Influencing the Career Planning and Development of University Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasawneh, Samer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate and validate an Arabic version of the career influence inventory for use in Jordan. The study also investigated perceptions of university students of the influential factors that have influenced their career planning and development. The validated career influence inventory was administered to 558…

  20. Status of Services Provided to Deaf Woman in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Ihsan Ighdeifan; ALkhateeb, Akef Abdallah

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the status of services provided to deaf woman in Jordan. The study was conducted on a sample of (100) deaf women chosen by the intended available method. A researcher self developed questionnaire consisting of (75) items covering seven most important domains representing the most important services that should be…

  1. Loneliness among Students with Blindness and Sighted Students in Jordan: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadidi, Muna S.; Al Khateeb, Jamal M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated loneliness among students with blindness and those who are sighted in Jordan, and examined whether loneliness levels vary according to gender. Students included 90 students with blindness and 79 sighted students selected from high schools and universities in the capital city of Amman. The instrument used to collect…

  2. Parents' Attitudes towards Inclusion of Students with Autism in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Muhaidat, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of parents in Jordan towards the inclusion of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in public schools and what the parents believed to be the most important prerequisite of child-based skills for successful inclusion. A total of 148 parents were selected to complete the survey. The researchers explored…

  3. Assessing the High School Teachers' Emotional Intelligence in Karak District of Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnabhan, Mousa

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of the current study was to assess the level of the emotional intelligence (EI) of high school teachers in Karak district of Jordan. A sample of 222 teachers was randomly selected and filtered on the basis of an inconsistency index. A scale of 55 items measuring empathy, emotions regulation, interpersonal management, self management,…

  4. The Use of the Arabic CBM Maze among Three Levels of Achievers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the applicability of the Arabic version of the Curriculum Based Measurement Maze (CBM Maze) for Jordanian students. A sample of 150 students was recruited from two public primary schools in Jordan. The students were ranked into high, moderate, and low achievers in terms of their performance in the Arabic course. Then all of…

  5. Mercury and other trace elements in Ohio River fish collected near coal-fired power plants: Interspecific patterns and consideration of consumption risks.

    PubMed

    Reash, Robin J; Brown, Lauren; Merritt, Karen

    2015-07-01

    Many coal-fired electric generating facilities in the United States are discharging higher loads of Hg, Se, and other chemicals to receiving streams due to the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) air pollution control units. There are regulatory concerns about the potential increased uptake of these bioaccumulative trace elements into food webs. We evaluated the concentrations of As, total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and Se in Ohio River fish collected proximal to coal-fired power plants, of which 75% operate FGD systems. Fillet samples (n = 50) from 6 fish species representing 3 trophic levels were analyzed. Geometric mean fillet concentrations of THg (wet wt), MeHg (wet wt), and Se (dry wt) in 3 species were 0.136, 0.1181, and 3.19 mg/kg (sauger); 0.123, 0.1013, and 1.56 mg/kg (channel catfish); and 0.127, 0.0914, and 3.30 mg/kg (hybrid striped bass). For all species analyzed, only 3 fillet samples (6% of total) had MeHg concentrations that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human health criterion (0.3 mg/kg wet wt); all of these were freshwater drum aged ≥ 19 y. None of the samples analyzed exceeded the USEPA proposed muscle and whole body Se thresholds for protection against reproductive effects in freshwater fish. All but 8 fillet samples had a total As concentration less than 1.0 mg/kg dry wt. Mean Se health benefit values (HBVSe ) for all species were ≥ 4, indicating that potential Hg-related health risks associated with consumption of Ohio River fish are likely to be offset by adequate Se concentrations. Overall, we observed no measurable evidence of enhanced trace element bioaccumulation associated with proximity to power plant FGD facilities, however, some enhanced bioaccumulation could have occurred in the wastewater mixing zones. Furthermore, available evidence indicates that, due to hydraulic and physical factors, the main stem Ohio River appears to have low net Hg methylation potential. PMID:25586716

  6. Mercury and other trace elements in Ohio River fish collected near coal-fired power plants: Interspecific patterns and consideration of consumption risks.

    PubMed

    Reash, Robin J; Brown, Lauren; Merritt, Karen

    2015-07-01

    Many coal-fired electric generating facilities in the United States are discharging higher loads of Hg, Se, and other chemicals to receiving streams due to the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) air pollution control units. There are regulatory concerns about the potential increased uptake of these bioaccumulative trace elements into food webs. We evaluated the concentrations of As, total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and Se in Ohio River fish collected proximal to coal-fired power plants, of which 75% operate FGD systems. Fillet samples (n = 50) from 6 fish species representing 3 trophic levels were analyzed. Geometric mean fillet concentrations of THg (wet wt), MeHg (wet wt), and Se (dry wt) in 3 species were 0.136, 0.1181, and 3.19 mg/kg (sauger); 0.123, 0.1013, and 1.56 mg/kg (channel catfish); and 0.127, 0.0914, and 3.30 mg/kg (hybrid striped bass). For all species analyzed, only 3 fillet samples (6% of total) had MeHg concentrations that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human health criterion (0.3 mg/kg wet wt); all of these were freshwater drum aged ≥ 19 y. None of the samples analyzed exceeded the USEPA proposed muscle and whole body Se thresholds for protection against reproductive effects in freshwater fish. All but 8 fillet samples had a total As concentration less than 1.0 mg/kg dry wt. Mean Se health benefit values (HBVSe ) for all species were ≥ 4, indicating that potential Hg-related health risks associated with consumption of Ohio River fish are likely to be offset by adequate Se concentrations. Overall, we observed no measurable evidence of enhanced trace element bioaccumulation associated with proximity to power plant FGD facilities, however, some enhanced bioaccumulation could have occurred in the wastewater mixing zones. Furthermore, available evidence indicates that, due to hydraulic and physical factors, the main stem Ohio River appears to have low net Hg methylation potential.

  7. Health Service Utilization among Syrian Refugees with Chronic Health Conditions in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila; Oweis, Arwa; Al Ward, Nada; Burton, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system, particularly in treating chronic health conditions. This study was undertaken to assess utilization of health services for chronic health conditions among Syrian refugees in non-camp settings. Methods A survey of Syrian refugees in Jordan was undertaken in June 2014 to characterize health seeking behaviors and issues related to accessing care for hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and arthritis. A cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling was used to attain a nationally representative sample of 1550 non-camp Syrian refugee households. Results Of 1363 cases with a chronic health condition diagnosis, 84.7% had received care in Jordan. Public facilities faced a heavy burden serving over half (53.9%) of care-seekers; the remainder received care in the private (29.6%) and NGO/charity (16.6%) sectors. Individuals with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the central region of Jordan and with arthritis had the lowest rates of care-seeking when compared to other regions and conditions. Overall, 31.6% of care-seekers had an out-of-pocket payment for the most recent care-seeking event which averaged 18.8 USD (median = 0 USD), excluding cost of medications. Discussion Forced displacement presents major challenges to those with NCDs, which have the potential to seriously impact both the quality of life and life expectancy amongst refugees. NCD patterns among Syrian refugees indicate the importance of continuing support to public sector services in Jordan to adequately meet expanding needs and ensure appropriate prevention and control of priority NCDs. PMID:27073930

  8. West Nile virus infection in horses in Jordan: clinical cases, seroprevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Abutarbush, S M; Al-Majali, A M

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to report clinical WNV infection in horses and to determine the seroprevalence of and risk factors for WNV infection in horses in Jordan. In late summer and early fall of 2012, two mares were presented for evaluation of neurological signs. The first mare had hind-limb ataxia. The second mare was slightly depressed and lethargic. She had ataxia in her four limbs and cranial nerves deficits. Both horses were found positive for WNV IgM antibodies using commercial IgM-capture ELISA test. Both horses were treated symptomatically and recovered uneventfully. The occurrence of clinical cases initiated the need for a seroprevalence and risk factors study. Two hundred and fifty-three normal horses were randomly enrolled in the study. Enrolled horses were grouped into five major regions according to the geographical proximity and climatic similarities. From each region, around 50 horses were sampled. The serum collected from each horse was screened by a competitive ELISA, and those that reacted positive using the previous ELISA test were further tested using commercial IgM-capture ELISA test. Sixty-three horses (24.9%) of the 253 surveyed were seropositive to WNV. Of the 63 horses, none had IgM antibodies for WNV. The region with the highest prevalence was Jordan Valley and Balqa. Horses used for polo (OR = 9.77; 95%CI = 1.32-25.44) and horses located in Jordan Valley and Balqa region (OR = 13.31; 95% CI = 2.33-32.54) were identified as risk factors for seropositivity to WNV in Jordan. These risk factors were attributed to the hot and humid weather, which enhance vector availability. West Nile virus appears to be endemic in Jordan. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the virus situation in the country during the next few years in an attempt to control it.

  9. River Rance Tidal Power Plant nears 20 years in operation: conservative approach in structural and component testing pays off

    SciTech Connect

    Booda, L.L.

    1985-09-01

    The author presents a brief history of the power plant, on which work began in 1961; the last unit, the 24th, went into service in December 1967. Thoroughness marked the engineering of the plant; for example, research was conducted on the ideal concrete mix to withstand the loads and to last for a long time in the marine environment. The most challenging engineering problem was how to construct the cofferdams for working in the dry, the principal problem being that of setting the caissons during the wide range of tides. Total installed power is 240 MW, and net annual productivity of 544 million kWh.

  10. 75 FR 71427 - Clean River Power 11, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ..., pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Swamp Creek Hydroelectric Project (Swamp Creek project) to be located on Swamp Creek in the vicinity of... consist of the following: (1) A 50-foot- long, 8-foot-high reinforced concrete diversion weir on...

  11. Environmental parameters of the Tennessee River in Alabama. 2: Physical, chemical, and biological parameters. [biological and chemical effects of thermal pollution from nuclear power plants on water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosing, L. M.

    1976-01-01

    Physical, chemical and biological water quality data from five sites in the Tennessee River, two in Guntersville Reservoir and three in Wheeler Reservoir were correlated with climatological data for three annual cycles. Two of the annual cycles are for the years prior to the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant operations and one is for the first 14 months of Plant operations. A comparison of the results of the annual cycles indicates that two distinct physical conditions in the reservoirs occur, one during the warm months when the reservoirs are at capacity and one during the colder winter months when the reservoirs have been drawn-down for water storage during the rainy months and for weed control. The wide variations of physical and chemical parameters to which the biological organisms are subjected on an annual basis control the biological organisms and their population levels. A comparison of the parameters of the site below the Power plant indicates that the heated effluent from the plant operating with two of the three reactors has not had any effect on the organisms at this site. Recommendations given include the development of prediction mathematical models (statistical analysis) for the physical and chemical parameters under specific climatological conditions which affect biological organisms. Tabulated data of chemical analysis of water and organism populations studied is given.

  12. Participatory groundwater management in Jordan: Development and analysis of options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebaane, Mohamed; El-Naser, Hazim; Fitch, Jim; Hijazi, Amal; Jabbarin, Amer

    Groundwater over-exploitation has been on the rise in Jordan. Competing demands have grown in the face of perennial water shortages, a situation which has been exacerbated by drought conditions in the past decade. This paper reports findings of a project in which management options to address over-exploitation were developed for one of Jordan's principal aquifer systems, the Amman-Zarqa Basin. Options for addressing the situation were developed through a participatory approach that involved government officials and various public and private sector interest groups. Particular efforts were made to involve well irrigators, who are likely to be heavily impacted by the changes required to reduce groundwater pumping to a sustainable level. With information obtained from a rapid appraisal survey as well as from interviews with farmers, community groups, government officials, and technical experts, an extensive set of options was identified for evaluation. Based on integrated hydrogeologic, social, and economic analysis, five complementary management options were recommended for implementation. These included the establishment of an Irrigation Advisory Service, buying out farm wells, placing firm limits on well ion and irrigated crop areas, exchanging treated wastewater for groundwater, and measures to increase the efficiency of municipal and industrial water use. Various combinations and levels of these options were grouped in scenarios, representing possible implementation strategies. The scenarios were designed to assist decision makers, well owners and other stakeholders in moving gradually towards a sustainable ion regime. Social and economic aspects of each option and scenario were analyzed and presented to stakeholders, together with a of legal, institutional and environmental ramifications. Combining scientific analysis with a participatory approach in the Amman Zarqa Basin groundwater management was devised as a prototype to be used in the management of other

  13. The impacts of wind power integration on sub-daily variation in river flows downstream of hydroelectric dams.

    PubMed

    Kern, Jordan D; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Characklis, Gregory W

    2014-08-19

    Due to their operational flexibility, hydroelectric dams are ideal candidates to compensate for the intermittency and unpredictability of wind energy production. However, more coordinated use of wind and hydropower resources may exacerbate the impacts dams have on downstream environmental flows, that is, the timing and magnitude of water flows needed to sustain river ecosystems. In this paper, we examine the effects of increased (i.e., 5%, 15%, and 25%) wind market penetration on prices for electricity and reserves, and assess the potential for altered price dynamics to disrupt reservoir release schedules at a hydroelectric dam and cause more variable and unpredictable hourly flow patterns (measured in terms of the Richards-Baker Flashiness (RBF) index). Results show that the greatest potential for wind energy to impact downstream flows occurs at high (∼25%) wind market penetration, when the dam sells more reserves in order to exploit spikes in real-time electricity prices caused by negative wind forecast errors. Nonetheless, compared to the initial impacts of dam construction (and the dam's subsequent operation as a peaking resource under baseline conditions) the marginal effects of any increased wind market penetration on downstream flows are found to be relatively minor. PMID:25061693

  14. The impacts of wind power integration on sub-daily variation in river flows downstream of hydroelectric dams.

    PubMed

    Kern, Jordan D; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Characklis, Gregory W

    2014-08-19

    Due to their operational flexibility, hydroelectric dams are ideal candidates to compensate for the intermittency and unpredictability of wind energy production. However, more coordinated use of wind and hydropower resources may exacerbate the impacts dams have on downstream environmental flows, that is, the timing and magnitude of water flows needed to sustain river ecosystems. In this paper, we examine the effects of increased (i.e., 5%, 15%, and 25%) wind market penetration on prices for electricity and reserves, and assess the potential for altered price dynamics to disrupt reservoir release schedules at a hydroelectric dam and cause more variable and unpredictable hourly flow patterns (measured in terms of the Richards-Baker Flashiness (RBF) index). Results show that the greatest potential for wind energy to impact downstream flows occurs at high (∼25%) wind market penetration, when the dam sells more reserves in order to exploit spikes in real-time electricity prices caused by negative wind forecast errors. Nonetheless, compared to the initial impacts of dam construction (and the dam's subsequent operation as a peaking resource under baseline conditions) the marginal effects of any increased wind market penetration on downstream flows are found to be relatively minor.

  15. Special Education Practicum at The University of Jordan: Preliminary Indicators of Students' Satisfaction and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AL Jabery, Mohammad A.; AL Khamra, Hatem A.

    2013-01-01

    teachers are needed. The Special Education program at the University of Jordan places student teachers for their practicum in different educational settings. The purpose of this study was to report preliminary information about students' satisfaction and concerns…

  16. 76 FR 8997 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan Into...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... published a notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register on October 12, 2010 (75 FR 62500-62501, Docket No. APHIS-2010... weeds via the importation of fresh strawberries from Jordan. DATES: Effective Date: February 16,...

  17. Assessment of potential shale-oil and shale-gas resources in Silurian shales of Jordan, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Nelson, Philip H.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Wandrey, Craig J.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 11 million barrels of potential shale-oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale-gas resources in Silurian shales of Jordan.

  18. Antone Tarazi: the first Palestinian neurosurgeon and the first neurosurgeon in Jordan: a neurosurgeon of two countries.

    PubMed

    Awad, Ahmed J; Jane, John A

    2014-12-01

    Antone (Tony) Tarazi (1927-1999) was the first Palestinian neurosurgeon and the first neurosurgeon in Jordan. In 1952, Tarazi received his medical degree from the American University of Beirut in Lebanon. After completing neurosurgery training at the Montreal Neurological Institute in 1960, he returned to Palestine to practice neurosurgery in both Palestine and Jordan. For almost 10 years, he alone carried the load of neurosurgery for a population of >3 million people. His skills and knowledge enabled him to achieve admirable results with limited available resources. Tarazi was the president of the Palestinian Neurosurgical Society, a member of Jordan medical societies, and a member of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons. His continuous efforts to improve medical services extended beyond neurosurgery to many other fields. This article recounts Antone Tarazi's achievements and contributions to neurosurgery in Palestine and Jordan.

  19. Assessment of groundwater dynamics by applying rare earth elements and stable isotopes &ndash; the case of the Tiberias Basin, Jordan Valley.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, Christian; Möller, Peter; Rödiger, Tino; Al-Raggad, Marwan; Magri, Fabien

    2015-04-01

    The Tiberias basin, situated in the northern part of the Jordan-Dead Sea Transform Valley, is hydraulically connected to the surrounding aquifers of Cretaceous to Cenozoic age. As a result of the local erosion base, the basin hosts Lake Tiberias, recharged mainly by the Upper Jordan River and by fresh groundwater from the Galilee and Golan Heights. However, variably ascending deep-seated brines enhance the chlorinity of the lake to about 250-280 mg/l. In addition to these hot brines, also hot fresh waters emerge on surface, particularly to both sides of the Yarmouk gorge, SE of the basin. Investigation of rare earth element patterns and stable isotopes of water and sulfur, in combination with major elements reveal, that the gorge acts at least partially as a water divide between north and south with enhanced hydraulic conductivity along its axis. Although there are no geological evidences given, we suppose a swarm of hydraulic active fractures/faults parallel to the Lower Yarmouk gorge axis, which force the upward movement of hot fluids, as also suggested by numerical modeling. Additionally, these faults may channel SW-oriented groundwater flow, which has its origin in the Syrian Hauran Plateau. Although exercised in the Tiberias Basin, the application of trace and major element geochemistry in combination with stable isotopes allows analyzing (supra-) regional groundwater movements. This method is even more relevant in areas with either limited access to recharge areas or boreholes along proposed flow-paths and particularly in areas suffering from data scarcity and poor infrastructure.

  20. Field surveys of vegetation during a period of rising electric power generation in the Ohio River Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.S.; Showman, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The phytotoxicity of SO/sub 2/, a byproduct of smelting operations and generation of electricity from fossil fuels, has been known for over a century. Yet, there is disagreement over the potential risk to vegetation by SO/sub 2/ emissions in the U.S. and controversy over the environmental impact of increasing utilization of coal. Combustion of coal and generation of electricity were increasing rapidly in the 1970s, so a program of annual surveys of vegetation was initiated in an area where two new generating stations were to be constructed in addition to two existing ones. The objective was to determine whether increases in SO/sub 2/ emissions would be accompanied by the appearance of foliar symptoms on trees, weeds, crops, or ornamental plants and/or disappearance of SO/sub 2/ susceptible species of lichens. Vegetation surveys have been carried out around emission sources at many different locations to identify air pollutants, locate emission sources, delineate the area of exposure, determine compensation for injury to plants, and evaluate suitability of alternate sites for new emission sources. Observations of higher vegetation are useful because certain species develop characteristic foliar symptoms after exposure to individual episodes of elevated SO/sub 2/. Mapping of lichen populations is also useful because, over long periods of time, lichens respond to repeated or extended exposures to concentrations of SO/sub 2/ that do not necessarily produce characteristic symptoms on foliage of higher plants. The area of study was located in southeastern Ohio and northwestern West Virginia along both sides of the Ohio River. Results of the surveys are presented.

  1. Methods to determine pumped irrigation-water withdrawals from the Snake River between Upper Salmon Falls and Swan Falls Dams, Idaho, using electrical power data, 1990-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1999-01-01

    Pumped withdrawals compose most of the irrigation-water diversions from the Snake River between Upper Salmon Falls and Swan Falls Dams in southwestern Idaho. Pumps at 32 sites along the reach lift water as high as 745 feet to irrigate croplands on plateaus north and south of the river. The number of pump sites at which withdrawals are being continuously measured has been steadily decreasing, from 32 in 1990 to 7 in 1998. A cost-effective and accurate means of estimating annual irrigation-water withdrawals at pump sites that are no longer continuously measured was needed. Therefore, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in 1998, as part of its Water-Use Program, to determine power-consumption coeffi- cients (PCCs) for each pump site so that withdrawals could be estimated by using electrical powerconsumption and total head data. PCC values for each pump site were determined by using withdrawal data that were measured by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1990–92 and 1994–95, energy data reported by Idaho Power Company during the same period, and total head data collected at each site during a field inventory in 1998. Individual average annual withdrawals for the 32 pump sites ranged from 1,120 to 44,480 acre-feet; average PCC values ranged from 103 to 1,248 kilowatthours per acre-foot. During the 1998 field season, power demand, total head, and withdrawal at 18 sites were measured to determine 1998 PCC values. Most of the 1998 PCC values were within 10 percent of the 5-year average, which demonstrates that withdrawals for a site that is no longer continuously measured can be calculated with reasonable accuracy by using the PCC value determined from this study and annual power-consumption data. K-factors, coefficients that describe the amount of energy necessary to lift water, were determined for each pump site by using values of PCC and total head and ranged from 1.11 to 1.89 kilowatthours per acre-foot per foot. Statistical methods were used to define the

  2. Isotopic analyses and hydrochemistry of the thermal springs along the eastern side of the Jordan Dead Sea—Wadi Araba Rift Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh, E.; Rimawi, O.

    1984-07-01

    The isotopic composition of the present precipitation as well as the groundwaters of Jordan is found to lie between the eastern Mediterranean and the meteoric water lines. Whereas the isotopic compositions of precipitation and groundwater from north and central Jordan plot between both lines, those of southern Jordan cluster closer to the meteoric water line. The deep sandstone aquifer complex in central Jordan receives water from the overlying Tertiary—Upper Cretaceous units as well as from the sandstones of southern Jordan. Both contributions mix in the eastern part of central Jordan, flow from there in a westerly direction and discharge on the slopes above the Dead Sea. At the interface of fresh groundwater and Dead Sea water, mixing between the latter two waters takes place under a normal geothermal gradient. The water is then discharged as thermal water with an isotopic composition following the equation: δD = 3.97 δ18O - 16.9 (%)

  3. 78 FR 21924 - Alabama Power Company; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    .... Description of Application: Alabama Power Company seeks approval to replace the Unit 4 turbine at the Jordan... replacement would result in a maximum hydraulic capacity increase of approximately 4.6 percent for Unit 4, and... Energy Regulatory Commission Alabama Power Company; Notice of Application for Amendment of License...

  4. Value and impact of international hospital accreditation: a case study from Jordan.

    PubMed

    Halasa, Y A; Zeng, W; Chappy, E; Shepard, D S

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the economic impact of Joint Commission International hospital accreditation on 5 structural and outcome hospital performance measures in Jordan. We conducted a 4-year retrospective study comparing 2 private accredited acute general hospitals with matched non-accredited hospitals, using difference-in-differences and adjusted covariance analyses to test the impact and value of accreditation on hospital performance measures. Of the 5 selected measures, 3 showed statistically significant effects (all improvements) associated with accreditation: reduction in return to intensive care unit (ICU) within 24 hours of ICU discharge; reduction in staff turnover; and completeness of medical records. The net impact of accreditation was a 1.2 percentage point reduction in patients who returned to the ICU, 12.8% reduction in annual staff turnover and 20.0% improvement in the completeness of medical records. Pooling both hospitals over 3 years, these improvements translated into total savings of US$ 593 000 in Jordan's health-care system.

  5. High frequency of low serum levels of vitamin 12 among patients attending Jordan University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Barghouti, F F; Younes, N A; Halaseh, L J; Said, T T; Ghraiz, S M

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the status of serum vitamin B12 level in patients attending Jordan University Hospital in Amman, and to examine the relationship with demographic data, chronic illness, dietary habits, haematological parameters and symptoms related to vitamin B12 levels. A total of 838 patients completed a questionnaire and gave blood samples; 44.6% were vitamin B12 deficient (< 180 pg/mL) and 34.2% had hypovitaminosis (180-300 pg/mL). Vitamin B12 deficiency was associated with memory impairment, low meat intake and strict vegetarian (vegan) diets. The high frequency of low vitamin B12 warrants the development of a strategy to correct this problem in Jordan.

  6. Knowledge of oral cancer among recently graduated medical and dental professionals in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alami, Arwa Yousef; El Sabbagh, Rula F; Hamdan, Abdelhameed

    2013-10-01

    Oral cancer is a devastating disease, and despite advances in treatment, the survival rate remains low. Early diagnosis can improve survival and outcomes. Delayed referrals are often due to the inadequate knowledge of general health professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of oral cancer among recently graduated dental and medical professionals interested in working in a cancer center in Amman, Jordan. The study was conducted using a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of risk factors and the ability to correctly identify the oral lesions most commonly associated with oral cancer. A total of 112 individuals completed the questionnaire. The results revealed an inadequate level of knowledge of oral cancer among the study population, with significant differences between the dental and medical professionals. This study suggests there is a need for improvement of the undergraduate curriculum in oral cancer in both medical and dental schools in Jordan and for the provision of postgraduate and continuing education on this topic.

  7. Mortality and causes of death in Jordan 1995-96: assessment by verbal autopsy.

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, S. A.; Massad, D.; Fardous, T.

    1999-01-01

    Mortality indicators and causes of death in Jordan were assessed by verbal autopsy. A random sample of 100 clusters of ca. 300 households each were monitored for one year by notification assistants selected from the study area itself. Registered deaths were reported to research assistants who visited the family to complete the verbal autopsy form, which was structured and contained about 100 questions. Causes of death were determined by two physicians according to preset algorithms. A total of 965 deaths were reported among 198,989 persons, giving a crude death rate of 5 per 1000 population per year. The three leading causes of death were diseases of the circulatory system, malignancies and accidents. In the absence of a health information system, verbal autopsy as implemented in Jordan can serve as a reliable substitute. PMID:10516786

  8. Pesticides and trace metals residue in grape and home made wine in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al Nasir, F; Jiries, A G; Batarseh, M I; Beese, F

    2001-02-01

    Sixty home made wine and sixty-four grape samples were collected from five territories in Jordan, where grapes and wine are mostly producted. The collected samples were analyzed for the most used organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and organophosphorous pesticides (OPP) in Jordan, as well as for four heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb). The results showed that OCPs residues were detected in 73% of the wine samples but no OPPs residue were detected which is due to generally shorter half life of the later pesticide. Grapes showed higher incident of contamination than wine, however, OCPs and OPPs with both short and long half-lives were detected. The OPPs were detected in only 8.3% of the analyzed grape samples. Heavy metals showed higher values in grapes than in the wine samples and it was attributed to removal of solids during wine preparation processes or through contamination of wine during storage. Most of the samples were below toxic limit.

  9. Jordan M. Braciszewski: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    PubMed

    2011-11-01

    Presents Jordan M. Braciszewski as the 2011 winner of the American psychological Association APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology. "For his concerted efforts to identify the needs of homeless and other at-risk populations and to design and provide necessary services for them. Jordan M. Braciszewski is committed to using applied psychological science and evidence-based intervention methods to assist the most disadvantaged in our society. He has already provided additions to the relevant research literature and has volunteered countless hours of his time to implement community-based interventions and provide direct services himself. He has sought out the training experiences necessary to assist him in doing an even better job in the future in these public service activities." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Relationship Between Satellite-Derived Snow Cover and Snowmelt-Runoff Timing and Stream Power in the Wind River Range, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Riggs, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Earlier onset of springtime weather including earlier snowmelt has been documented in the western United States over at least the last 50 years. Because the majority (>70%) of the water supply in the western U.S. comes from snowmelt, analysis of the declining spring snowpack (and shrinking glaciers) has important implications for streamflow management. The amount of water in a snowpack influences stream discharge which can also influence erosion and sediment transport by changing stream power, or the rate at which a stream can do work such as move sediment and erode the stream bed. The focus of this work is the Wind River Range (WRR) in west-central Wyoming. Ten years of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover, cloud- gap-filled (CGF) map products and 30 years of discharge and meteorological station data are studied. Streamflow data from six streams in the WRR drainage basins show lower annual discharge and earlier snowmelt in the decade of the 2000s than in the previous three decades, though no trend of either lower streamflow or earlier snowmelt was observed using MODIS snow-cover maps within the decade of the 2000s. Results show a statistically-significant trend at the 95% confidence level (or higher) of increasing weekly maximum air temperature (for three out of the five meteorological stations studied) in the decade of the 1970s, and also for the 40-year study period. MODIS-derived snow cover (percent of basin covered) measured on 30 April explains over 89% of the variance in discharge for maximum monthly streamflow in the decade of the 2000s using Spearman rank correlation analysis. We also investigated stream power for Bull Lake Creek Above Bull Lake from 1970 to 2009; a statistically-significant end toward reduced stream power was found (significant at the 90% confidence level). Observed changes in streamflow and stream power may be related to increasing weekly maximum air temperature measured during the 40-year study period. The

  11. Relationship Between Satellite-Derived Snow Cover and Snowmelt-Runoff Timing and Stream Power in the Wind River Range, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; Riggs, George A.; DiGirolano, Nocolo E.

    2010-01-01

    Earlier onset of springtime weather including earlier snowmelt has been documented in the western United States over at least the last 50 years. Because the majority (>70%) of the water supply in the western U.S. comes from snowmelt, analysis of the declining spring snowpack (and shrinking glaciers) has important implications for streamflow management. The amount of water in a snowpack influences stream discharge which can also influence erosion and sediment transport by changing stream power, or the rate at which a stream can do work such as move sediment and erode the stream bed. The focus of this work is the Wind River Range (WRR) in west-central Wyoming. Ten years of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover, cloud- gap-filled (CGF) map products and 30 years of discharge and meteorological station a are studied. Streamflow data from six streams in the WRR drainage basins show lower annual discharge and earlier snowmelt in the decade of the 2000s than in the previous three decades, though no trend of either lower streamflow or earlier snowmelt was observed using MODIS snow-cover maps within the decade of the 2000s. Results show a statistically-significant trend at the 95% confidence level (or higher) of increasing weekly maximum air temperature (for three out of the five meteorological stations studied) in the decade of the 1970s, and also for the 40-year study period. MODIS- derived snow cover (percent of basin covered) measured on 30 April explains over 89% of the variance in discharge for maximum monthly streamflow in the decade of the 2000s using Spearman rank correlation analysis. We also investigated stream power for Bull Lake Creek Above Bull Lake from 1970 to 2009; a statistically-significant trend toward reduced stream power was found (significant at the 90% confidence level). Observed changes in streamflow and stream power may be related to increasing weekly maximum air temperature measured during the 40-year study period. The

  12. Using environmental isotopes in the study of the recharge-discharge mechanisms of the Yarmouk catchment area in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh, Elias

    The recharge sources, the flow mechanisms and discharge areas of the different groundwater bodies underlying the Yarmouk River catchment area in Jordan, have, until now, not been adequately explained, although a wide range of hydrological, hydrogeological, and hydrochemical studies have been done. Along the Jordanian part of the catchment area of the Yarmouk River, groundwater issues from different aquifers with a variety of chemistries and types within the same aquifer and in between the different aquifers. Conventional recharge/discharge mechanisms, water balances and chemical analyses did not adequately explain the chemical variations and the different water types found in the area. Applying environmental isotopic tools combined with their altitude effects due to topographic variations (250-1,300 m a.s.l. within a distance of 20 km), and taking into consideration re-evaporation effects on the isotopic depletion and enrichment of rainwater, has greatly helped in understanding the recharge discharge mechanisms of the different aquifers. Precipitation along the highlands of an average of 600 mm/year is found to be depleted in its isotopic content of δO18 = -7.0 to -7.26 and δD = -32.2 to -33.28, whereas that of the Jordan Valley of 350 mm/year is highly enriched in isotopes with δO18 = -4.06 and δD = -14.5. The groundwater recharged along the highlands is depleted in isotopes (δO18 = -6, δD = -30), groundwater at the intermediate elevations is enriched (δO18 = -5, δD = -23) and that of the Jordan Valley aquifers containing meteoric water is highly enriched (δO18 -3.8, δD = -18). The deep aquifers in the Jordan Valley foothills are depleted in isotopes (δO18 -18 = -6, δD = -30) and resemble those of the highland aquifers. Only through using isotopes as a tool, were the sources of the different groundwater bodies and recharge and discharge mechanisms unambiguously explained. It was found that recharge takes place all over the study area and produces

  13. Levels of perfluorinated compounds in human breast milk in Jordan: the impact of sociodemographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Al-sheyab, Nihaya A; Al-Qudah, Khaled M; Tahboub, Yahya R

    2015-08-01

    There is scarcity in literature in regards to the exact levels of such compounds in the Middle Eastern region including Jordan. This study was conducted to measure the presence and levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) (perfluoroocane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)) in human milk and local fresh cow milk in northern Jordan and also to investigate the relationship between levels of PFASs and some sociodemographic characteristics of breastfeeding mothers and their infants as well as usage of Teflon kitchenware products. Seventy-nine milk samples were collected from breastfeeding women and 25 samples from local fresh cow milk in northern Jordan. Levels of PFOS and PFOA were liquid/liquid extracted (LLE) by acetone followed by purification on an Oasis hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) solid-phase extraction (SPE). Separations and detections were performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 10 ng/L for both PFOA and PFOS. The measured concentrations ranged between non-detectable (ND) and 178 ng/L for PFOS and between 24 and 1120 ng/L for PFOA in human milk and between ND-178 ng/L and LOQ-160 ng/L in fresh cow milk, respectively. Median concentrations of PFOS in human milk samples from Jordan in this study were lower than those found in a recent study from Italy. Moreover, mean concentrations of PFOA and PFOS were significantly higher in milk samples provided by older women. Also, mean concentrations of PFOA was much higher in multiparas and those who have younger infants. The mean rank of PFOA was twice as high in the milk of women who had older Teflon products in kitchen compared to those who had relatively new Teflon products.

  14. Seroprevalence and Potential Risk Factors Associated with Neospora spp. Infection among Asymptomatic Horses in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Abutarbush, Sameeh M; Rutley, David L

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Neospora spp. infection in horses in Jordan. Management related data were collected from each farm and individual horses. Sera from 227 horses from 5 of 6 climatic regions in Jordan were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to Neospora spp. by ELISA kit. The study was performed during spring of 2010. The association between seropositivity and risk factors was analyzed. A total of 7 (3%) of 227 sera had antibodies for Neospora spp. There was a significant regional difference (P=0.018) between the 5 climatic regions. Positive cases were located in Amman and Irbid, while the other regions (Zarqa, Jordan Valley, and Wadi Mousa) had zero prevalence. The use of anthelmintics at least once a year resulted in a significant reduction of the seroprevalence to Neospora spp. (1.6% vs 9.8%). However, this might be a phenomenon by chance and a better hygiene since owners can invest in anthelmintics. Other risk factors such as age, gender, breed, usage, body condition score, grazing, presence of other animals mixed with the horses in the same property, and a history of previous diseases were not significantly associated with the seroprevalence to Neospora spp. infection. This is the first study to report on the presence of Neospora seropositive horses in Jordan. Further studies are warranted to better understand the role of certain risk factors in the transmission of Neospora spp. among horse population and to determine which Neospora spp. are responsible for the infection.

  15. Regional inequalities in child malnutrition in Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen: a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, Mesbah Fathy; Rashad, Ahmed Shoukry

    2016-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that on average, urban children have better health outcomes than rural children. This paper investigates the underlying factors that account for the regional disparities in child malnutrition in three Arab countries, namely; Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen. We use data on a nationally representative sample from the most recent rounds of the Demographic and Health Survey. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis is conducted to decompose the rural-urban differences in child nutrition outcomes into two components; one that is explained by regional differences in the level of the determinants (covariate effects), and another component that is explained by differences in the effect of the determinants on the child nutritional status (coefficient effects). Results show that the under-five stunting rates are 20 % in Egypt, 46.5 % in Yemen, and 7.7 % in Jordan. The rural- urban gap in child malnutrition was minor in the case of Egypt (2.3 %) and Jordan (1.5 %), while the regional gap was significant in the case of Yemen (17.7 %). Results of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition show that the covariate effect is dominant in the case of Yemen while the coefficients effect dominates in the case of Jordan. Income inequality between urban and rural households explains most of the malnutrition gap. Results were robust to the different decomposition weighting schemes. By identifying the underlying factors behind the rural- urban health disparities, the findings of this paper help in designing effective intervention measures aimed at reducing regional inequalities and improving population health outcomes. PMID:27271178

  16. Construction of linear models: A framework based on commutative Jordan algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covas, R.; Carvalho, F.

    2016-06-01

    We show how to obtain the necessary structures for statistical analysis of the folllowing orthogonal models Y˜(1 μ +∑i Xiβi ,∑j σj2Mj+σ2I ) . These structures rely on the existence of Jordan algebras, in the sequence of [24], [8], [12], [9], [5] and [10].

  17. Regional inequalities in child malnutrition in Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen: a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, Mesbah Fathy; Rashad, Ahmed Shoukry

    2016-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that on average, urban children have better health outcomes than rural children. This paper investigates the underlying factors that account for the regional disparities in child malnutrition in three Arab countries, namely; Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen. We use data on a nationally representative sample from the most recent rounds of the Demographic and Health Survey. A Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis is conducted to decompose the rural-urban differences in child nutrition outcomes into two components; one that is explained by regional differences in the level of the determinants (covariate effects), and another component that is explained by differences in the effect of the determinants on the child nutritional status (coefficient effects). Results show that the under-five stunting rates are 20 % in Egypt, 46.5 % in Yemen, and 7.7 % in Jordan. The rural- urban gap in child malnutrition was minor in the case of Egypt (2.3 %) and Jordan (1.5 %), while the regional gap was significant in the case of Yemen (17.7 %). Results of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition show that the covariate effect is dominant in the case of Yemen while the coefficients effect dominates in the case of Jordan. Income inequality between urban and rural households explains most of the malnutrition gap. Results were robust to the different decomposition weighting schemes. By identifying the underlying factors behind the rural- urban health disparities, the findings of this paper help in designing effective intervention measures aimed at reducing regional inequalities and improving population health outcomes.

  18. Ecological-genomic diversity of microsatellites in wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, populations in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Baek, H J; Beharav, A; Nevo, E

    2003-02-01

    We analyzed the ecological-genomic diversity of microsatellites of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum (C. Koch) Thell., at 18 loci in 306 individuals of 16 populations from Jordan across a southward transect of increasing aridity. The 18 microsatellites revealed a total of 249 alleles, with an average of 13.8 alleles per locus (range 3-29), with nonrandom distribution. The proportion of polymorphic loci per population averaged 0.91 (range 0.83-1.00); gene diversity, He, averaged 0.512 (range 0.38-0.651). We compared the number of alleles of the 18 loci to those found in Israel populations by Turpeinen et al. Out of the 280 alleles, 138 (49.3%) were unique (i.e. occurred in only one of the countries). The percentage of unique alleles in Jordan and Israel populations was 43.0% and 17.9%, respectively, suggesting that Jordan is an important center of origin and diversity of wild barley. Estimates of mean gene diversity were highest in the populations collected near the Golan Heights, such as Shuni North, Shuni South and Jarash. Sixty nine percent of the microsatellite variation was partitioned within populations and 31% between populations. Associations between ecogeographical values and gene diversity were established for eight microsatellite loci. The cluster produced by simple sequence repeat (SSR) data is mostly coincidence with the result of the dendrogram of the Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies of subterranean mole rats in Jordan based on allozyme gene loci. The major soil type in the wild barley habitat of each ecological group was different. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that the variance of gene diversity was explained by altitude (R(2) = 0.362**). These observations suggest that microsatellites are at least partly adaptive and subject to natural selection. PMID:12589539

  19. Discovery of ammocrypta clara (western sand darter) in the upper Ohio River of West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cincotta, Dan A.; Welsh, Stuart A.

    2010-01-01

    Ammocrypta clara Jordan and Meek (western sand darter) occurs primarily in the western portions of Mississippi River system, but also has been reported from a Lake Michigan drainage and a few eastern Texas Gulf Slope rivers. Additional range records depict a semi-disjunct distribution within the Ohio River drainage, including collections from Wabash River in Indiana, the Cumberland, Green, Kentucky and Big Sandy rivers of Kentucky, and the upper Tennessee River in Tennessee and Virginia. This paper documents the occurrence of A. clara from the upper Ohio River drainage within the lower Elk River, West Virginia, based on collections from 1986, 1991, 1995, 2005 and 2006. The Elk River population, consistent with those of other Ohio River drainages, has slightly higher counts for numbers of dorsal-fin rays, scales below lateral line and lateral line scales when compared to data from populations outside of the Ohio River drainage. Modal counts of meristic characters are similar among populations, except for higher modal counts of lateral line scales in the Ohio River population. The discovery of the Elk River population extends the range distribution of A. clara in the Eastern Highlands region, documents wide distributional overlap and additional sympatry with its sister species,A. pellucida (eastern sand darter), and softens support for an east-west Central Highlands vicariance hypothesis for the present distribution of A. clara and A. pellucida.

  20. Initial flux of sediment-associated radiocesium to the ocean from the largest river impacted by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashiki, Yosuke; Onda, Yuichi; Smith, Hugh G.; Blake, William H.; Wakahara, Taeko; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Matsuura, Yuki; Yoshimura, Kazuya

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify the flux of radiocesium in the Abukuma Basin (5,172 km2), the largest river system affected by fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) event. In the period from 10 August 2011 to 11 May 2012 an estimated 84 to 92% of the total radiocesium transported in the basin's fluvial system was carried in particulate form. During this monitoring period Typhoon Roke (September 2011) was observed to induce a significant and temporally punctuated redistribution of radiocesium. The storm-mobilised radiocesium was an estimated 6.18 Terabecquerels corresponding to 61.4% of the total load delivered to the coastal zone during the observation period. The total flux of radiocesium into the Pacific Ocean estimated at the outlet station (basin area 5,172 km2) was 5.34 TBq for 137Cs, and 4.74 TBq for 134Cs, corresponding to 1.13% of the total estimated radiocesium fallout over the basin catchment (890 TBq). This was equivalent to the estimated amount of direct leakage from FDNPP to the ocean during June 2011 to September 2012 of 17 TBq and the Level 3 Scale Leakage on 21August 2013 (24 TBq).

  1. Initial flux of sediment-associated radiocesium to the ocean from the largest river impacted by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Yamashiki, Yosuke; Onda, Yuichi; Smith, Hugh G; Blake, William H; Wakahara, Taeko; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Matsuura, Yuki; Yoshimura, Kazuya

    2014-01-16

    This study aimed to quantify the flux of radiocesium in the Abukuma Basin (5,172 km(2)), the largest river system affected by fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) event. In the period from 10 August 2011 to 11 May 2012 an estimated 84 to 92% of the total radiocesium transported in the basin's fluvial system was carried in particulate form. During this monitoring period Typhoon Roke (September 2011) was observed to induce a significant and temporally punctuated redistribution of radiocesium. The storm-mobilised radiocesium was an estimated 6.18 Terabecquerels corresponding to 61.4% of the total load delivered to the coastal zone during the observation period. The total flux of radiocesium into the Pacific Ocean estimated at the outlet station (basin area 5,172 km(2)) was 5.34 TBq for (137)Cs, and 4.74 TBq for (134)Cs, corresponding to 1.13% of the total estimated radiocesium fallout over the basin catchment (890 TBq). This was equivalent to the estimated amount of direct leakage from FDNPP to the ocean during June 2011 to September 2012 of 17 TBq and the Level 3 Scale Leakage on 21 August 2013 (24 TBq).

  2. Development of an Implementation Plan Related to Biological Opinion on Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System ; Step 1: Review and Critique of Implementation Plans.

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret

    2000-12-01

    The Draft Biological Opinion on Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System calls for the development of 1- and 5-year implementation plans. These plans will provide the roadmap for planning and subsequent implementation of actions intended to meet specific performance standards (i.e., biological objectives) in a timely manner. To develop implementation plans the key tasks and sequences of steps must be determined. Those responsible for specific tasks must be identified and they must understand what they need to do. There must be assurances that the resources (human, physical, and fiscal) to complete the tasks are available. Motivation and incentive systems should be set up. Systems to coordinate efforts and guide activity must be devised and installed. An information management system must be designed to manage and analyze data and ensure that appropriate data are collected. This will aid managers in assessing whether individual activities or actions are tracking with stated goals and objectives. Training programs to improve managerial and worker capability in making and implementing plans should be designed. Managerial leadership to guide the efforts of all individuals in achieving the goals of the anadromous and resident fish recovery must be developed. It is the entire process of managing fish recovery in relationship to the Biological Opinion that will guide, coordinate, motivate, and control work and determine the effectiveness and efficiency of plan implementation.

  3. Home Health Care (HHC) Managers Perceptions About Challenges and Obstacles that Hinder HHC Services in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Ajlouni, Musa T.; Dawani, Hania; Diab, Salah M.

    2015-01-01

    Home care aims at supporting people with various degrees of dependency to remain at home rather than use residential, long-term, or institutional-based nursing care. Demographic, epidemiological, social, and cultural trends in Jordan as in other countries are changing the traditional patterns of care with growing emphasis on home care. The purpose of this study is to highlight the most common challenges related to home health care (HHC) services in Jordan as perceived by the managers of HHC agencies. Methods: a descriptive qualitative design that depends on focus group discussions has been used to collect data from a sample of 18 managers who met the selection criteria and who are willing to participate, the study found that, the main challenges of HHC services as perceived by managers were: shortage of female staff, lack of governance and regulation, poor management, unethical practices, lack of referral systems, and low accessibility of the poor and less privileged as HHC services are not included in health insurance schemes, it concludes also that the home health care industry in Jordan is facing many challenges and problems that may have negative effects on the effectiveness, efficiency, equity and quality of services and should be addressed by health policy makers. PMID:25946949

  4. An Agent-Based Model of Farmer Decision Making in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selby, Philip; Medellin-Azuara, Josue; Harou, Julien; Klassert, Christian; Yoon, Jim

    2016-04-01

    We describe an agent based hydro-economic model of groundwater irrigated agriculture in the Jordan Highlands. The model employs a Multi-Agent-Simulation (MAS) framework and is designed to evaluate direct and indirect outcomes of climate change scenarios and policy interventions on farmer decision making, including annual land use, groundwater use for irrigation, and water sales to a water tanker market. Land use and water use decisions are simulated for groups of farms grouped by location and their behavioural and economic similarities. Decreasing groundwater levels, and the associated increase in pumping costs, are important drivers for change within Jordan'S agricultural sector. We describe how this is considered by coupling of agricultural and groundwater models. The agricultural production model employs Positive Mathematical Programming (PMP), a method for calibrating agricultural production functions to observed planted areas. PMP has successfully been used with disaggregate models for policy analysis. We adapt the PMP approach to allow explicit evaluation of the impact of pumping costs, groundwater purchase fees and a water tanker market. The work demonstrates the applicability of agent-based agricultural decision making assessment in the Jordan Highlands and its integration with agricultural model calibration methods. The proposed approach is designed and implemented with software such that it could be used to evaluate a variety of physical and human influences on decision making in agricultural water management.

  5. Formulation of an Integrated Model for Freshwater Resources Policy Evaluation in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelick, S.; Yoon, J.; Gawel, E.; Klauer, B.; Klassert, C. J. A.; Sigel, K.; Tilmant, A.; Lachaut, T.; Avisse, N.; Harou, J. J.; Padula, S.; Mustafa, D.

    2014-12-01

    Jordan is one of the four water poorest countries in the world. It is a highly vulnerable arid region whose freshwater system is at a tipping point due to the confluence of severely limited water supplies, rapid population growth, refugee influxes, climate change and variability, internal and transboundary competition for shared freshwater resources, and institutional impediments. Our team is engaged in an interdisciplinary effort aimed at developing a new approach to evaluate policies that enhance sustainability of freshwater resource systems. Our work adopts a multi-agent modeling framework that incorporates institutional complexity to evaluate policy instruments for improving water security in Jordan. We are developing this model using a modular approach, integrating biophysical modules that simulate natural and engineered phenomena (e.g., groundwater-surface water flow, reservoir storage, network routing, salt balance, and crop yield) with human modules that represent behavior at multiple scales of decision making. The human modules adopt a multi-agent simulation approach, defining agents as autonomous decision-makers at the government, administrative, organizational, and user levels. Our goal is to construct a suite of policy intervention scenarios that will form the basis for analysis of freshwater sustainability. This work has benefitted from a strong working relationship with leaders of the water sector in Jordan. Our approach and the merit of the policy interventions should have significant transfer value to other water-stressed regions.

  6. Seroepidemiology and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in undergraduate university female students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Obaidat, M M; Al-Sheyab, N A; Bani Salman, A E; Lafi, S Q

    2015-07-01

    This study estimated the seroprevalence and risk factors for acquiring Toxoplasma gondii infection by undergraduate female university students in Jordan. A cross-sectional study from September 2013 to July 2014 analysed 202 blood samples for IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a semi-constructed questionnaire was completed by participants to gather information about Toxoplasma infection risk factors. T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 66.5% of the females. Only one sample was positive for both IgG and IgM. Using χ2 test, six factors showed significant association with T. gondii infection (P ⩽ 0.01). The multivariate logistic regression model showed that female students living in houses, wet areas, with income >US $750/month and using spring (untreated) water were 47.42, 10.20, 5.00, 3.25 more times at risk to be seropositive for T. gondii, respectively, compared to female students living in apartments, dry areas, with income ≤ US $750/month and using treated water, respectively. This study concluded that T. gondii infection in female university students in Jordan is high and most women become infected before marriage; however, congenital toxoplasmosis is still likely to occur in Jordan. Thus, dissemination of protective measures and knowledge by healthcare professionals is essential especially for pregnant women.

  7. CNV Analysis Associates AKNAD1 with Type-2 Diabetes in Jordan Subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Dajani, Rana; Li, Jin; Wei, Zhi; Glessner, Joseph T; Chang, Xiao; Cardinale, Christopher J; Pellegrino, Renata; Wang, Tiancheng; Hakooz, Nancy; Khader, Yousef; Sheshani, Amina; Zandaki, Duaa; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2015-08-21

    Previous studies have identified a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with type-2 diabetes (T2D), but copy number variation (CNV) association has rarely been addressed, especially in populations from Jordan. To investigate CNV associations for T2D in populations in Jordan, we conducted a CNV analysis based on intensity data from genome-wide SNP array, including 34 T2D cases and 110 healthy controls of Chechen ethnicity, as well as 34 T2D cases and 106 healthy controls of Circassian ethnicity. We found a CNV region in protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type D (PTPRD) with significant association with T2D. PTPRD has been reported to be associated with T2D in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We additionally identified 16 CNV regions associated with T2D which overlapped with gene exons. Of particular interest, a CNV region in the gene AKNA Domain Containing 1 (AKNAD1) surpassed the experiment-wide significance threshold. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related pathways were significantly enriched among genes which are predicted to be functionally associated with human or mouse homologues of AKNAD1. This is the first CNV analysis of a complex disease in populations of Jordan. We identified and experimentally validated a significant CNVR in gene AKNAD1 associated with T2D.

  8. Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Mandatory Premarital Screening Among University Students in North Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alkhaldi, Sireen M; Khatatbeh, Moawia M; Berggren, Vanja E M; Taha, Hana A

    2016-01-01

    A mandatory National Premarital Thalassemia Screening Program was implemented in Jordan in 2004. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of university students in North Jordan toward this program. Data was collected from 542 students from four universities (two public and two private universities) located in North Jordan, using a structured questionnaire. Results of t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that while respondents had adequate knowledge of and positive attitudes toward the premarital screening program, there was still a lack of knowledge about the disease itself. Nearly half the respondents were under the impression that β-thalassemia (β-thal) is a disease that can be treated simply. One-third of the respondents believed that if both partners were carriers of β-thal they should proceed with marriage. Negative attitude was revealed when many respondents believed that diagnosing a family member as a carrier affects other family members' future marriage opportunities. Significant associations were detected between the knowledge scores and gender, urban/rural residence, and the university where the students were enrolled. Students in private universities showed significantly lower attitude scores. Consideration of prenatal diagnostic services as part of a β-thal prevention program is necessary. It would also be helpful to include information about β-thal as a preventable inherited illness with a severe debilitating impact on the family in the high school curriculum. There is also a need for social marketing of the program. PMID:26821551

  9. Quantum Explorers: Bohr, Jordan, and Delbrück Venturing into Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joaquim, Leyla; Freire, Olival; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2015-09-01

    This paper disentangles selected intertwined aspects of two great scientific developments: quantum mechanics and molecular biology. We look at the contributions of three physicists who in the 1930s were protagonists of the quantum revolution and explorers of the field of biology: Niels Bohr, Pascual Jordan, and Max Delbrück. Their common platform was the defense of the Copenhagen interpretation in physics and the adoption of the principle of complementarity as a way of looking at biology. Bohr addressed the problem of how far the results reached in physics might influence our views about life. Jordan and Delbrück were followers of Bohr's ideas in the context of quantum mechanics and also of his tendency to expand the implications of the Copenhagen interpretation to biology. We propose that Bohr's perspective on biology was related to his epistemological views, as Jordan's was to his political positions. Delbrück's propensity to migrate was related to his transformation into a key figure in the history of twentieth-century molecular biology.

  10. CNV Analysis Associates AKNAD1 with Type-2 Diabetes in Jordan Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Dajani, Rana; Li, Jin; Wei, Zhi; Glessner, Joseph T.; Chang, Xiao; Cardinale, Christopher J.; Pellegrino, Renata; Wang, Tiancheng; Hakooz, Nancy; Khader, Yousef; Sheshani, Amina; Zandaki, Duaa; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have identified a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with type-2 diabetes (T2D), but copy number variation (CNV) association has rarely been addressed, especially in populations from Jordan. To investigate CNV associations for T2D in populations in Jordan, we conducted a CNV analysis based on intensity data from genome-wide SNP array, including 34 T2D cases and 110 healthy controls of Chechen ethnicity, as well as 34 T2D cases and 106 healthy controls of Circassian ethnicity. We found a CNV region in protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type D (PTPRD) with significant association with T2D. PTPRD has been reported to be associated with T2D in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We additionally identified 16 CNV regions associated with T2D which overlapped with gene exons. Of particular interest, a CNV region in the gene AKNA Domain Containing 1 (AKNAD1) surpassed the experiment-wide significance threshold. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related pathways were significantly enriched among genes which are predicted to be functionally associated with human or mouse homologues of AKNAD1. This is the first CNV analysis of a complex disease in populations of Jordan. We identified and experimentally validated a significant CNVR in gene AKNAD1 associated with T2D. PMID:26292654

  11. Mass psychogenic illness following tetanus-diphtheria toxoid vaccination in Jordan.

    PubMed Central

    Kharabsheh, S.; Al-Otoum, H.; Clements, J.; Abbas, A.; Khuri-Bulos, N.; Belbesi, A.; Gaafar, T.; Dellepiane, N.

    2001-01-01

    In September 1998, more than 800 young people in Jordan believed they had suffered from the side-effects of tetanus-diphtheria toxoid vaccine administered at school; 122 of them were admitted to hospital. For the vast majority, their symptoms did not result from the vaccine but arose from mass psychogenic illness. The role played by the media, the children's parents, and the medical profession in the escalation of this mass reaction appeared, at first sight, to be unusual and even unique to the circumstances in Jordan at the time. A review of the literature showed, however, that this mass reaction was similar in many ways to previous outbreaks, even though the underlying causes varied. There are about 200 published accounts of mass responses to situations involving suspected poisoning or other events. Because such mass reactions are relatively rare and the triggers so diverse, individuals faced with responding to them are unlikely to have prior experience in how to handle them and are unlikely to take bold steps to prevent their escalation. Indeed they may be unaware that such events have been recorded before. The lessons learned from this incident in Jordan may help other immunization programme managers to handle crisis situations elsewhere. PMID:11545334

  12. Serological and molecular detection of avian pneumovirus in chickens with respiratory disease in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, S M; Algharaibeh, G R

    2007-08-01

    Avian pneumovirus (APV) causes upper respiratory tract infection in chickens and turkeys. There is a serious respiratory disease in chickens, resulting in catastrophic economic losses to chicken farmers in Jordan. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of APV as a factor in the respiratory disease of chickens in Jordan by serological and molecular methods. Thirty-eight chicken flocks were examined by competitive ELISA (23 broilers, 8 layers, and 7 broiler breeders), and 150 chicken flocks were examined by reverse-transcription PCR (133 broiler flocks, 7 layer flocks, and 10 broiler breeder flocks). Avian pneumovirus antibodies were detected in 5 out of 23 broiler flocks (21.7%), 6 out of 8 layer flocks (75%), and 7 out of 7 broiler breeder flocks (100%). Avian pneumovirus nucleic acid was detected in 17 broiler flocks (12.8%) and 3 layer flocks (42.9%). None of the broiler breeder flocks tested by reverse-transcription PCR was positive. All of the 20 detected APV isolates were subtype B. This is the first report of APV infection in Jordan. In conclusion, the Jordanian poultry industry, vaccination programs should be adjusted to include the APV vaccine to aid in the control of this respiratory disease.

  13. Seroepidemiology and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in undergraduate university female students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Obaidat, M M; Al-Sheyab, N A; Bani Salman, A E; Lafi, S Q

    2015-07-01

    This study estimated the seroprevalence and risk factors for acquiring Toxoplasma gondii infection by undergraduate female university students in Jordan. A cross-sectional study from September 2013 to July 2014 analysed 202 blood samples for IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a semi-constructed questionnaire was completed by participants to gather information about Toxoplasma infection risk factors. T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 66.5% of the females. Only one sample was positive for both IgG and IgM. Using χ2 test, six factors showed significant association with T. gondii infection (P ⩽ 0.01). The multivariate logistic regression model showed that female students living in houses, wet areas, with income >US $750/month and using spring (untreated) water were 47.42, 10.20, 5.00, 3.25 more times at risk to be seropositive for T. gondii, respectively, compared to female students living in apartments, dry areas, with income ≤ US $750/month and using treated water, respectively. This study concluded that T. gondii infection in female university students in Jordan is high and most women become infected before marriage; however, congenital toxoplasmosis is still likely to occur in Jordan. Thus, dissemination of protective measures and knowledge by healthcare professionals is essential especially for pregnant women. PMID:25543692

  14. The Future Impact of Meteorological, Hydrological, and Agricultural Droughts in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajsekhar, D.; Gorelick, S.

    2015-12-01

    Jordan is one of the most water-poor nations in the world in terms of per-capita water availability. The nation's freshwater resources vulnerability is further exacerbated by consecutive drought events during the past two decades. The intensity and frequency of drought occurrence in this region is expected to increase in the future, thus putting additional stress on the existing freshwater resources. To understand the ramifications of future drought conditions, it is important to distinguish among different types of droughts. In this study, we investigate three different drought types in Jordan: meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural. We use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a hydrological model to simulate the catchment response to these different types of drought. The magnitude, spatial patterns, and temporal variability of these droughts are analyzed to understand the impact on water resources availability for municipal and agricultural use in Jordan. An important component of this study is the association between crop yield and drought magnitude. This association can be used as a tool to project future crop yields, thus enabling water planners to effectively allocate future available freshwater between the urban and agricultural sectors.

  15. Evaluation of melioration area damage on the river Danube caused by the hydroelectric power plant 'Djerdap 1' backwater.

    PubMed

    Pajic, P; Andjelic, L; Urosevic, U; Polomcic, D

    2014-01-01

    Construction of the hydroelectric power plant (HPP) 'Djerdap 1' formed a backwater effect on the Danube and its tributaries, which had an inevitable influence on groundwater level, causing it to rise and thus creating additional threats to all melioration areas on more than 300 km of the Danube riversides, as well as on the riversides of its tributaries: the Sava (100 km) and the Tisa (60 km). In this paper, the HPP 'Djerdap 1' backwater effect on some characteristic melioration areas (34 in all) has been analyzed. In most of these areas intensive agricultural activity has always been present. An assessment of agricultural production damage was carried out by complex hydrodynamic calculations (60 calculation profiles) for different backwater regimes, with the aim to precisely quantify the HPP 'Djerdap 1' backwater effect on groundwater piezometric levels. Combining them with complex agroeconomic analyses, the aim is to quantify agricultural production damage and to consider the perspective of melioration area users. This method, which combines two different, but compatible, aspects of the melioration area threat assessment (hydrodynamic and agroeconomic), may present a quality base for further agricultural production threat assessment on all melioration areas on the Danube riversides, with the final aim to consider the economic effects and the importance of its further protection. PMID:25051487

  16. Spatial distribution patterns of molybdenum (Mo) concentrations in potable groundwater in Northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al Kuisi, Mustafa; Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad; Mashal, Kholoud; Abed, Abdulkader M

    2015-03-01

    Two hundred and three groundwater samples were collected during March 2011 to June 2012 from the B2/A7 aquifer water supply wells of northern part of Jordan. The physicochemical properties were analyzed in situ for the major cations, anions, while certain heavy metals were analyzed in the laboratory. Some oilshale rock samples were geochemically analyzed. The Upper Cretaceous aquifer (B2/A7) is used as water supply for most of the communities in the study area. It consists of limestone, marly limestone, bedded chert, and minor phosphorite. Hydrochemical results from the B2/A7 aquifer indicate two main water types: alkaline-earth water (CaHCO3) and alkaline-earth water with high alkaline component (NaHCO3 (-), Na2SO4). Standard column leaching experiments on oilshale rock samples and the R-mode factor analysis suggest that the sources for elevated Mo concentrations in the groundwater of certain parts of northern Jordan are attributed to water-oilshale interaction, mobility of Mo down to the groundwater and the extensive use of fertilizers within these areas. Molybdenum (Mo) concentrations in the groundwater water range from 0.07 to 1.44 mg/L with an average value of 98 μg/L. They are found to exceed the JISM and WHO guidelines in two areas in northern part of Jordan. Spatial distribution of Mo, using ordinary kriging techniques and the resulting map, shows high Mo concentration in the northwestern part near Wadi Al Arab area reaching concentrations of 650 μg/L and in the southeastern corner of the investigated area, south of Al Ukaydir village, with an average concentration of 468 μg/L. Both areas are characterized by extensive oilshale exposures with average concentration of 11.7 mg/kg Mo and intensive agricultural activities. These two areas represent approximately 33 % of the groundwater in the northern part of Jordan. Mobility of Mo to the groundwater in northern part of Jordan is attributed to two mechanisms. First, there is reductive dissolution of Fe

  17. The Tectonic Geomorphology and the Archeoseismicity of the Dead Sea Transform in Jordan Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Taj, M. M.; Abed, A.; Abou Karaki, N.; Atallah, M.; Ferry, M.; Meghraoui, M.

    2007-12-01

    The Dead Sea transform (DST) extends 1000 km from the Sinai triple junction in the south to the Tauros- Zagros collision zone in Turkey in the north. In Jordan, the DST consists of three morphotectonic elements; the Wadi Araba in the south, the Dead Sea basin in the middle and the Jordan Valley in the north. The Dead Sea is a pull- apart basin that formed due to the overlap of the Wadi Araba fault (WAF) and the Jordan Valley fault (JVF). The movement along the transform is active as indicated from both the geomorphological features and from the seismic activity. The DST is a major left lateral strike slip fault that accommodates the relative motion of the Arabian plate to the east and the Sinai plate to the west, where 107 km of cumulative left lateral offset has occurred over the last 18 million years. Based on this offset, the accumulated slip rate is estimated to be 5-10 mm/yr. Based on aerial photographic analysis of the DST and earthquake catalogue information, it is suggested that the present day slip rate has been slower (1.5-3.5 mm/yr) when compared with the Pleistocene rates. Recent work on offset alluvial fan surfaces and drainage along the northern Wadi Araba fault indicates a slip rate of 4.7 mm/yr (Niemi et al., 2000) and 4 mm/yr (Klinger, 2000). In the Jordan Valley fault a slip rate of 7 mm/yr in the last 13000 years was estimated based on aerial photograph and satellite image interpretation (Al-Taj, 2000). Active strike slip faults display distinct morphological features along its trace. The DST in Jordan Valley has a series of morphotectonic features, such as pressure ridges and sag ponds. These features are formed in the place of fault steps or bends (Keller and Pinter, 1996). Fault scarps are formed along most of the trace indicating a dip slip component of displacement. Historical, archeological and paleoseismic data are combined from two trench sites to build a unique composite catalogue of large past earthquakes. On that basis, evidence for

  18. Impact of flow regulation and power plant effluents on the flow and temperature regimes of the Chattahoochee River; Atlanta to Whitesburg, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faye, Robert E.; Jobson, Harvey E.; Land, Larry F.

    1978-01-01

    A calibrated and verified transient-flow temperature model was used to evaluate the effects of flow regulation and powerplant loadings on the natural temperature regime of the Chattahoochee River in northeast Georgia. Estimates were made of both instantaneous and average natural temperatures in the river during an 8-day period in August 1976. Differences between the computed average natural temperature and an independent estimateof natural temperature based on observed equilibrium temperatures were less than 0.5C. The combined thermal effects of flow regulation and powerplant effluents resulted in mean daily river temperatures downstreams of the powerplants about equal to or less than computed mean natural temperatures. The range and rates of change of computed natural diurnal temperature fluctuations were considerably less than those presently observed (1976) in the river. Except during periods of peak water-supply demand, differences between computed year 2000 river temperatures and observed present-day temperatures were less than 2C. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Dispersal scaling from the world's rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; Fong, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Although rivers provide important biogeochemical inputs to oceans, there are currently no descriptive or predictive relationships of the spatial scales of these river influences. Our combined satellite, laboratory, field and modeling results show that the coastal dispersal areas of small, mountainous rivers exhibit remarkable self-similar scaling relationships over many orders of magnitude. River plume areas scale with source drainage area to a power significantly less than one (average = 0.65), and this power relationship decreases significantly with distance offshore of the river mouth. Observations of plumes from large rivers reveal that this scaling continues over six orders of magnitude of river drainage basin areas. This suggests that the cumulative area of coastal influence for many of the smallest rivers of the world is greater than that of single rivers of equal watershed size. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury and Fine Particulate Matter from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Crist

    2008-12-31

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, evaluated the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation involved two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring included the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station contains sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, O3, etc.). Laboratory analyses of time-integrated samples were used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Nearreal- time measurements were used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 30 months of field data were collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data provides mercury, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis includes (1) development of updated inventories of mercury emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport

  1. Evaluating Social and National Education Textbooks Based on the Criteria of Knowledge-Based Economy from the Perspectives of Elementary Teachers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Edwan, Zaid Suleiman; Hamaidi, Diala Abdul Hadi

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge-based economy is a new implemented trend in the field of education in Jordan. The ministry of education in Jordan attempts to implement this trend's philosophy in its textbooks. This study examined the extent to which the (1st-3rd grade) social and national textbooks reflect knowledge-based economy criteria from the perspective of…

  2. The Effectiveness of Conflict Maps and the V-Shape Teaching Method in Science Conceptual Change among Eighth-Grade Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bawaneh, Ali Khalid Ali; Zain, Ahmad Nurulazam Md; Ghazali, Munirah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effectiveness of Conflict Maps and the V-Shape method as teaching methods in bringing about conceptual change in science among primary eighth-grade students in Jordan. A randomly selected sample (N = 63) from the Bani Kenana region North of Jordan was randomly assigned to the two teaching…

  3. The Securitisation of Refugee Flows and the Schooling of Refugees: Examining the Cases of North Koreans in South Korea and Iraqis in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collet, Bruce A.; Bang, Hyeyoung

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data collected in South Korea, Jordan and the USA, this paper examines the degree to which security concerns impact the schooling of North Korean refugees in South Korea and Iraqi refugees in Jordan. Operating from a framework examining the intersection of migration and securitisation, the authors find that accounts of negative images…

  4. Groundwater-level trends and forecasts, and salinity trends, in the Azraq, Dead Sea, Hammad, Jordan Side Valleys, Yarmouk, and Zarqa groundwater basins, Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Daniel J.; Senior, Lisa A.; Subah, Ali; Jaber, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    Changes in groundwater levels and salinity in six groundwater basins in Jordan were characterized by using linear trends fit to well-monitoring data collected from 1960 to early 2011. On the basis of data for 117 wells, groundwater levels in the six basins were declining, on average about -1 meter per year (m/yr), in 2010. The highest average rate of decline, -1.9 m/yr, occurred in the Jordan Side Valleys basin, and on average no decline occurred in the Hammad basin. The highest rate of decline for an individual well was -9 m/yr. Aquifer saturated thickness, a measure of water storage, was forecast for year 2030 by using linear extrapolation of the groundwater-level trend in 2010. From 30 to 40 percent of the saturated thickness, on average, was forecast to be depleted by 2030. Five percent of the wells evaluated were forecast to have zero saturated thickness by 2030. Electrical conductivity was used as a surrogate for salinity (total dissolved solids). Salinity trends in groundwater were much more variable and less linear than groundwater-level trends. The long-term linear salinity trend at most of the 205 wells evaluated was not increasing, although salinity trends are increasing in some areas. The salinity in about 58 percent of the wells in the Amman-Zarqa basin was substantially increasing, and the salinity in Hammad basin showed a long-term increasing trend. Salinity increases were not always observed in areas with groundwater-level declines. The highest rates of salinity increase were observed in regional discharge areas near groundwater pumping centers.

  5. DNA before Watson & Crick-The Pioneering Studies of J. M. Gulland and D. O. Jordan at Nottingham

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Harold; Hey, Michael J.

    1996-10-01

    A description placed in a historical context, of the physico-chemical investigations of DNA carried out in the period 1940-1950 by a group at University College, Nottingham led by J.M.Gulland and D.O.Jordan. The isolation of a pure sample of DNA from calf thymus was followed by its analysis by potentiometric titrations and by measurements at variable pH of viscosity and streaming birefringence. Unlike the phosphoric acid groups, the primary amino and enolic hydroxyl groups could only be titrated after prior treatment with strong acid or strong base. The conclusion of Gulland and Jordan, that extremes of pH caused liberation of amino and enolic hydoxyl groups by disruption of hydrogen bonds between neighbouring polynucleotide chains, proved to be of considerable importance. The article includes life histories of Gulland and Jordan, and reference to Linus Pauling's remarkable foresight during his Sir Jesse Boot Foundation Lecture delivered at Nottingham in 1948.

  6. Nutritional status of women and child refugees from Syria-Jordan, April-May 2014.

    PubMed

    Bilukha, Oleg O; Jayasekaran, Douglas; Burton, Ann; Faender, Gabriele; King'ori, James; Amiri, Mohammad; Jessen, Dorte; Leidman, Eva

    2014-07-25

    As a result of civil war, an estimated 2.8 million refugees have fled Syria and reside in neighboring countries, mainly Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, and Iraq. The largest Syrian refugee camp in the region is Zaatari camp in Jordan, with approximately 79,000 refugees; another estimated 500,000 Syrian refugees live in Jordanian cities, towns, and villages, mostly in the capital (Amman) and in four northern governorates (Irbid, Mafraq, Jarash, and Zarqa). Although all registered refugees in Jordan receive food vouchers from the World Food Programme (WFP) and vulnerable refugees receive cash assistance from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and nongovernmental organizations, the nutritional status of some refugees might be compromised because of dislocation, lack of income, and limited access to nutritious foods. To assess the nutritional status of Syrian refugees, UNHCR, WFP, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Medair International (a nongovernmental organization), and CDC, in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund and the World Health Organization (WHO), conducted cross-sectional, population-representative cluster surveys in Zaatari camp and among refugees residing in the host community. The surveys were conducted during April-May 2014 with the principal objective of assessing nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Preliminary findings indicated a high prevalence of anemia in Zaatari camp among both children and women (48.4% and 44.8%, respectively). Nutrition policies aimed at ensuring optimal child and maternal micronutrient status and addressing the underlying risk factors for anemia are likely to result in improved health outcomes and a reduction in anemia. PMID:25055188

  7. Transition probabilities of normal states determine the Jordan structure of a quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Chi-Wai; Ng, Chi-Keung; Wong, Ngai-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Let Φ : 𝔖(M1) → 𝔖(M2) be a bijection (not assumed affine nor continuous) between the sets of normal states of two quantum systems, modelled on the self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras M1 and M2, respectively. This paper concerns with the situation when Φ preserves (or partially preserves) one of the following three notions of "transition probability" on the normal state spaces: the transition probability PU introduced by Uhlmann [Rep. Math. Phys. 9, 273-279 (1976)], the transition probability PR introduced by Raggio [Lett. Math. Phys. 6, 233-236 (1982)], and an "asymmetric transition probability" P0 (as introduced in this article). It is shown that the two systems are isomorphic, i.e., M1 and M2 are Jordan ∗-isomorphic, if Φ preserves all pairs with zero Uhlmann (respectively, Raggio or asymmetric) transition probability, in the sense that for any normal states μ and ν, we have P (" separators=" Φ ( μ ) , Φ ( ν ) " separators=" ) = 0 if and only if P(μ, ν) = 0, where P stands for PU (respectively, PR or P0). Furthermore, as an extension of Wigner's theorem, it is shown that there is a Jordan ∗-isomorphism Θ : M2 → M1 satisfying Φ = Θ∗|𝔖(M1) if and only if Φ preserves the "asymmetric transition probability." This is also equivalent to Φ preserving the Raggio transition probability. Consequently, if Φ preserves the Raggio transition probability, it will preserve the Uhlmann transition probability as well. As another application, the sets of normal states equipped with either the usual metric, the Bures metric or "the metric induced by the self-dual cone," are complete Jordan ∗-invariants for the underlying von Neumann algebras.

  8. Nutritional status of women and child refugees from Syria-Jordan, April-May 2014.

    PubMed

    Bilukha, Oleg O; Jayasekaran, Douglas; Burton, Ann; Faender, Gabriele; King'ori, James; Amiri, Mohammad; Jessen, Dorte; Leidman, Eva

    2014-07-25

    As a result of civil war, an estimated 2.8 million refugees have fled Syria and reside in neighboring countries, mainly Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, and Iraq. The largest Syrian refugee camp in the region is Zaatari camp in Jordan, with approximately 79,000 refugees; another estimated 500,000 Syrian refugees live in Jordanian cities, towns, and villages, mostly in the capital (Amman) and in four northern governorates (Irbid, Mafraq, Jarash, and Zarqa). Although all registered refugees in Jordan receive food vouchers from the World Food Programme (WFP) and vulnerable refugees receive cash assistance from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and nongovernmental organizations, the nutritional status of some refugees might be compromised because of dislocation, lack of income, and limited access to nutritious foods. To assess the nutritional status of Syrian refugees, UNHCR, WFP, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Medair International (a nongovernmental organization), and CDC, in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund and the World Health Organization (WHO), conducted cross-sectional, population-representative cluster surveys in Zaatari camp and among refugees residing in the host community. The surveys were conducted during April-May 2014 with the principal objective of assessing nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Preliminary findings indicated a high prevalence of anemia in Zaatari camp among both children and women (48.4% and 44.8%, respectively). Nutrition policies aimed at ensuring optimal child and maternal micronutrient status and addressing the underlying risk factors for anemia are likely to result in improved health outcomes and a reduction in anemia.

  9. Analysis and evaluation of nitrate levels in groundwater at Al-Hashimiya area, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Obeidat, Mutewekil M; Massadeh, Adnan M; Al-Ajlouni, Ahmad M; Athamneh, Faisal S

    2007-12-01

    Water with high nitrate concentration (NO(3) (-)) is unfit for human consumption, especially when its concentration exceeded the threshold limit (50 mg/l) recommended by the health authorities such as the World Health Organization (WHO). In Jordan, there is a great concern for determination and monitoring organic and inorganic pollutants that may reach groundwater. Nitrate is highly mobile and present in domestic, agricultural and industrial waste in Jordan, and thus this study focused initially on nitrate as both a contaminant of concern and as an indicator of potential groundwater contamination. The present study determined the extent of nitrate contamination in groundwater in the study area and examined the likely sources of NO(3) (-). A total of 248 groundwater samples were collected from 16 wells in different sites of Al-Hashimiya area, Zerqa Governorate, Jordan, and investigated for NO(3) (-) concentrations. Moreover, measurements of temperature, electrical conductivity and pH were carried out in the field. Analysis was carried out according to the methods described by the American Public Health Association (APHA). Results showed that there was a dramatic increasing in NO(3) (-) concentrations from the year 2001 to 2006 for some selected wells in the present study. NO(3) (-) concentration in 2006 was ranged from 10 to 330 mg/l with an average of 77 mg/l. Overall, groundwater had elevated nitrate concentration with 92% of the samples containing more than 20 mg/l NO(3) (-), indicating the influence of human activities. This study has shown that there is a strong correlation between the nitrate concentration and the wastewater effluents as a source of pollution.

  10. Health service utilization and access to medicines among Syrian refugee children in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Lyles, Emily; Akhu‐Zaheya, Laila; Burton, Ann; Weiss, William

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background With over one million Syrian refugee children in the region, we undertook this study to characterize care‐seeking behaviors and health service utilization for child refugees with the aim of informing humanitarian programming for non‐camp settings in Jordan. Methods A survey of Syrian refugees living outside of camps in Jordan was conducted using a 125 × 12 cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling to obtain a representative sample. The questionnaire focused on access to health services, including a module on care seeking for children. Results Care seeking was high with 90.9% of households with a child less than 18 years seeking medical care the last time it was needed. Households most often sought care for children in the public sector (54.6%), followed by private (36.5%) and charity sectors (8.9%). Among child care seekers, 88.6% were prescribed medication during the most recent visit, 90.6% of which obtained the medication. Overall, 49.4% of households reported out‐of‐pocket expenditures for either the consultation or prescribed medications at the most recent visit (mean $US21.1 and median $US0). Conclusions Syrian refugees had good access to care for their sick children at the time of the survey; however, this has likely deteriorated since the survey because of the withdrawal of free access for refugees. The number of refugees in Jordan and relative accessibility of care has resulted in a large burden on the health system; the Jordanian government will require additional support if current levels of health access are to be maintained for Syrian refugees. © 2016 The Authors. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26799158

  11. Client-centered counseling improves client satisfaction with family planning visits: evidence from Irbid, Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Kamhawi, Sarah; Underwood, Carol; Murad, Huda; Jabre, Bushra

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: High levels of unmet need for family planning and high contraceptive discontinuation rates persist in Jordan, prompting the Jordan Health Communication Partnership (JHCP) to initiate a client-centered family planning service program called “Consult and Choose” (CC), together with community-based activities to encourage women with unmet need to visit health centers. Methods: We held exit interviews with 461 family planning clients between November–December 2011 to assess, from the clients' perspective, whether trained providers followed the CC protocol and used the CC tools, as well as to measure client satisfaction. We also tracked referral card information from community-based activities to health centers and examined service statistics to explore trends in family planning use. Results: On average, clients reported that providers performed 5.6 of the 7 steps outlined in the CC protocol. Nearly 83% of respondents were very satisfied with their clinic visits. Logistic regression analysis found that the odds of being “very satisfied” increases by 20% with each additional counseling protocol step performed and by 70% with each increase in the number of CC materials used. Between June 2011 and August 2012, 14,490 referral cards from community-based activities were collected in health centers, 59% of which were for family planning services. Service statistic trends indicate an increase in the number of new family planning users and in couple-years of protection after starting the CC program. Conclusions: Implementation of the CC program at health centers nationally, in tandem with community-based interventions, could play a key role in attaining Jordan's goal of reducing its total fertility rate to 2.1 by 2030. Although this initiative would likely be replicated most readily in other middle-income countries, lower-resource countries could also adapt the tested CC approach. PMID:25276531

  12. Management approaches to integrated solid waste in industrialized zones in Jordan: A case of Zarqa City

    SciTech Connect

    Mrayyan, Bassam; Hamdi, Moshrik R. . E-mail: moshrik@hu.edu.jo

    2006-07-01

    There is a need to recognize the difficulties experienced in managing waste and to understand the reasons for those difficulties, especially in developing countries such as Jordan. Zarqa is a Governorate located in central Jordan, which has 2874 registered industries, making up more than 52% of the total industries in the country. Zarqa Governorate suffers from serious solid waste problems. These problems arise from an absence of adequate policies, facilitating legislation, and an environmentally enthused public, which therefore have a negative impact on the environment and health. Solid waste generation in Zarqa Governorate has increased exponentially and has polluted natural resources and the environment. A significant change in municipal solid waste generation was evident between the years 1994 and 2000. The Zarqa Governorate generated 482 tons/day in 2002 with a per capita rate of 0.44 kg/cap-day [Consulting Engineers, 2002, Feasibility study for the treatment of industrial wastewater in Zarqa Governorate. A project funded by METAP and Zarqa Chamber of Industry. Unpublished report]. This manuscript assesses the current operational and management practices of solid waste in the Zarqa Governorate; and evaluates the associated issues of solid waste collection, storage, transport, disposal and recycling in developing countries. The lack of techniques, financial funds and awareness among public and private sectors form an obstacle for achieving a successful environmental program. Several options are proposed to address management goals. Although Jordan became the first country in the Middle East to adopt a national environmental strategy; waste disposal is still largely uncontrolled and large quantities of waste go uncollected. Ensuring proper management of solid wastes, enforcing regulations, and implementing proper environmental awareness programs that will enhance the public understanding and achieve greater efficiency, are the findings of this study.

  13. Determinants of the utilization of maternal and child health services in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abbas, A A; Walker, G J

    1986-09-01

    The utilization of antenatal, delivery and postnatal services by a random sample of married women in Jordan during their most recent pregnancy resulting in a live birth is analysed. Marked variations are shown in the use of these services and of preventive infant care for women living in urban and rural areas. Women with increasing levels of formal education and those living near services were significantly more likely to use services. If effective coverage of these services is to be achieved then it is suggested that greater emphasis should be placed upon outreach and realistic social marketing.

  14. Geophysical analysis of the recent sinkhole trend at Ghor-Haditha (Dead Sea, Jordan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlynck, Christian; Bodet, Ludovic; Galibert, Pierre-Yves; Boucher, Marie; Al-Zoubi, Abdallah

    2013-04-01

    For essentially the last 30 year the water level of the Dead Sea has highly dropped. One of the major associated facts is sinkhole occurrences along the shoreline both in Jordan and Israel. As the principal invoked mechanism, many studies have concluded that sinkhole formation results from the dissolution of a previously immersed salt layer, progressively in contact with fresh to brackish water. In Jordan, the triggering of this phenomenon could also be the result of particular tectonic settings, associated with the Jordan-Dead Sea transform fault system. At Ghor Haditha (south-est Jordan), the consequences have been dramatic for farmers with the shrinking of temporary available lands and industry with the closing of at least one factory. The shallow material in this area is heterogeneous and composed of intercalated sand and clay layers of alluvial-colluvial origin, over a salty substratum, whose precise depth and thickness are yet partially hypothesized. Between 2005 and 2008, a multi-method high-resolution geophysical survey was performed, approximately over a 1 km2 area at Ghor Haditha, associating mainly electromagnetic soundings, magnetic resonance soundings (MRS), and seismic profiling, ground-penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography. At the same time, this specific area was the location of a dramatic evolution of sinkhole occurences, regularly followed by geodetic measurements. Over the 3 years period, about 120 TEM (Transient ElectroMagnetic) soundings allow to map precisely the depth of the conductive layers below the resistive overburden. Two conductive layer are then revealed, the latter showing the lowest resistivity below 1 Ohm.m corresponding to the saline substratum. Several MRS (3 in 2005, repeated in 2007 and 12 additional soundings) show an east-west hydraulic gradient towards the Dead. However, the main sinkhole trend coincides with both: - a clear low transmissivity axis determined from MRS measurements; - the western side of a

  15. Modeling Household Water Consumption in a Hydro-Institutional System - The Case of Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassert, C. J. A.; Gawel, E.; Klauer, B.; Sigel, K.

    2014-12-01

    Jordan faces an archetypal combination of high water scarcity, with a per capita water availability of around 150 CM per year significantly below the absolute scarcity threshold of 500 CM, and strong population growth, especially due to the Syrian refugee crisis. This poses a severe challenge to the already strained institutions in the Jordanian water sector. The Stanford-led G8 Belmont Forum project "Integrated Analysis of Freshwater Resources Sustainability in Jordan" aims at analyzing the potential role of water sector institutions in the pursuit of a sustainable freshwater system performance. In order to do so, the project develops a coupled hydrological and agent-based model, allowing for the exploration of physical as well as socio-economic and institutional scenarios for Jordan's water sector. The part of this integrated model in focus here is the representation of household behavior in Jordan's densely populated capital Amman. Amman's piped water supply is highly intermittent, which also affects its potability. Therefore, Amman's citizens rely on various decentralized modes of supply, depending on their socio-economic characteristics. These include water storage in roof-top and basement tanks, private tanker supply, and the purchase of bottled water. Capturing this combination of centralized and decentralized supply modes is important for an adequate representation of water consumption behavior: Firstly, it will affect the impacts of supply-side and demand-side policies, such as reductions of non-revenue water (including illegal abstractions), the introduction of continuous supply, support for storage enhancements, and water tariff reforms. Secondly, it is also necessary to differentiate the impacts of any policy on the different socio-economic groups in Amman. In order to capture the above aspects of water supply, our model is based on the tiered supply curve approach, developed by Srinivasan et al. in 2011 to model a similar situation in Chennai, India

  16. Open Software Tools Applied to Jordan's National Multi-Agent Water Management Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Stephen; Meier, Philipp; Harou, Julien; Yoon, Jim; Selby, Philip; Lachaut, Thibaut; Klassert, Christian; Avisse, Nicolas; Khadem, Majed; Tilmant, Amaury; Gorelick, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Jordan is the fourth most water scarce country in the world, where demand exceeds supply in a politically and demographically unstable context. The Jordan Water Project (JWP) aims to perform policy evaluation by modelling the hydrology, economics, and governance of Jordan's water resource system. The multidisciplinary nature of the project requires a modelling software system capable of integrating submodels from multiple disciplines into a single decision making process and communicating results to stakeholders. This requires a tool for building an integrated model and a system where diverse data sets can be managed and visualised. The integrated Jordan model is built using Pynsim, an open-source multi-agent simulation framework implemented in Python. Pynsim operates on network structures of nodes and links and supports institutional hierarchies, where an institution represents a grouping of nodes, links or other institutions. At each time step, code within each node, link and institution can executed independently, allowing for their fully autonomous behaviour. Additionally, engines (sub-models) perform actions over the entire network or on a subset of the network, such as taking a decision on a set of nodes. Pynsim is modular in design, allowing distinct modules to be modified easily without affecting others. Data management and visualisation is performed using Hydra (www.hydraplatform.org), an open software platform allowing users to manage network structure and data. The Hydra data manager connects to Pynsim, providing necessary input parameters for the integrated model. By providing a high-level portal to the model, Hydra removes a barrier between the users of the model (researchers, stakeholders, planners etc) and the model itself, allowing them to manage data, run the model and visualise results all through a single user interface. Pynsim's ability to represent institutional hierarchies, inter-network communication and the separation of node, link and

  17. Geochemical orientation for mineral exploration in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Overstreet, W.C.; Grimes, D.J.; Seitz, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    This report is a supplement to previous accounts of geochemical exploration conducted in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan by the Natural Resources Authority of the Royal Government of Jordan and the U.S. Geological Survey. The field work on which this report is based was sponsored by the U.S. Agency for International Development, U.S. Department of State. Procedures used in collecting various kinds of rocks, ores, slags, eluvial and alluvial sediments, heavy-mineral concentrates, and organic materials for use as geochemical sample media are summarized, as are the laboratory procedures followed for the analysis of these sample materials by semiquantitative spectrographic, atomic absorption, fluorometric, and X-ray diffraction methods. Geochemical evaluations of the possibilities for economic mineral deposits in certain areas are presented. The results of these preliminary investigations open concepts for further use in geochemical exploration in the search for metallic mineral deposits in Jordan. Perhaps the most desirable new activity would be hydrogeochemical exploration for uranium and base metals, accompanied by interpretation of such remote-sensing data as results of airborne radiometric surveys and computer-enhanced LANDSAT imagery. For more conventional approaches to geochemical exploration, however, several fundamental problems regarding proper choice of geochemical sample media for different geologic and geographic parts of the Country must be solved before effective surveys can be made. The present results also show that such common geochemical exploration techniques as the determination of the trace-element contents of soils, plant ash, and slags have direct application also toward the resolution of several archaeological problems in Jordan. These include the relation of trace-elements chemistry of local soils to the composition of botanic remains, the trace-elements composition of slags to the technological development of the extractive metallurgy of

  18. Smoking habits among university students in Jordan: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Khader, Y S; Alsadi, A A

    2008-01-01

    Questionnaires were completed by 712 university students in north Jordan to estimate their prevalence of smoking. The reported prevalence of current smoking was 35.0% (56.9% for males and 11.4% for females). About 80% were cigarettes smokers. The majority (86.3%) of smokers smoked daily. Male sex, higher income, lower academic attainment and higher number of friends or family members who smoke were associated with increased prevalence of smoking. Those in the faculty of religion and law were less likely to smoke compared to those in other faculties. The results suggest that policy-makers need to initiate antismoking programmes in Jordanian universities.

  19. Mid-late Holocene palaeoclimate of northern Jordan from speleothem geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, S. A.; Black, S.; Lovell, J.; Atkinson, T. C.

    2009-04-01

    The southern Levant region (encompassing the modern countries of Israel and Jordan) is a climatically sensitive area due to the proximity of the Negev and Arabian Deserts to the south and east. Although there is a general pattern of decreasing rainfall to the south and east of the region, local topographic features, most notably the Dead Sea Rift Valley, have a significant effect on detailed rainfall patterns. Our understanding of the Holocene climate of the southern Levant is principally known from records obtained to the west of the Dead Sea Rift, on the borders of the Negev Desert and from the lakes within the rift valley itself. Palaeoclimate records from the more interior regions, such as Jordan, are fewer in number and, generally at lower stratigraphic resolution. A recent archaeological survey has revealed the existence of limestone caves in northern Jordan, many of which were previously unknown to academics working in the region. These caves contain a variety of architectures, including stalagmites, stalactites, flowstones and soda straws. We present geochemical data (oxygen and carbon-isotopes, and uranium-series dates) from a small speleothem that provides the first detailed mid-late Holocene climate record for the area east. The new data are similar in value and contain similar magnitude shifts to previously published data from Israel (Soreq and Nahal Qanah Caves) and Lebanon (Jeita Cave). Through comparison with these other speleothem records we suggest that the oxygen-isotopic composition of the Jordanian speleothem is consistent with rainfall from Mediterranean-sourced weather systems that evolved to lighter isotopic compositions through rainout of 18O as they moved into the interior of the southern Levant. The Ras Muneef GNIP monitoring station provides a limited record of precipitation rates and isotopic compositions of rainwater. Combining this data with the speleothem data, suggests that Holocene temperatures in northern Jordan were broadly

  20. Road traffic fatalities in Qatar, Jordan and the UAE: estimates using regression analysis and the relationship with economic growth.

    PubMed

    Bener, A; Hussain, S J; Al-Malki, M a; Shotar, M M; Al-Said, M F; Jadaan, K S

    2010-03-01

    Smeed's equation is a widely used model for prediction of traffic fatalities but has been inadequate for use in developing countries. We applied regression analysis to time-series data on vehicles, exponential models for fatality prediction, producing an average absolute error of 20.9% for Qatar, 10.9% for population and traffic fatalities in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Jordan and Qatar. The data were fitted to Jordan and 5.5% for the UAE. We found a strong linear relationship between gross domestic product and fatality rate.

  1. Faunal turnover in the Azraq Basin, eastern Jordan 28,000 to 9000 cal yr BP, signalling climate change and human impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Louise; Edwards, Yvonne H.; Roe, Joe; Garrard, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Recent zooarchaeological analyses of game exploitation in the Epipalaeolithic of the Southern Levant identify a decline in large game in the Natufian, with corresponding increase in small prey, interpreted as hunting pressure driven by population expansion. To date, studies focus on the Mediterranean zone. This paper adopts similar approaches to examine Epipalaeolithic to Neolithic faunal data from 16 sites in the steppic Jordanian Azraq Basin. Results here reveal very different trends. Large game, mainly equids, fluctuate throughout the Epipalaeolithic, due to climatic conditions and available water/vegetation. Cattle thrive in the Azraq oasis, showing no decline in the Late Epipalaeolithic. Gazelle exploitation is predominant and sustainable throughout the Epipalaeolithic, even at Kharaneh IV and Wadi Jilat 6 'megasites'. However, PPNB assemblages from the limestone steppe show intensive game exploitation resulting from longer-stay settlement. The focused gazelle-hunting camp at Dhuweila in the basalt desert also shows pressure from indiscriminate culling impacting herd demography, interpreted as providing meat for onwards exchange. Human impacts on steppe fauna appear both local and in many cases short-term, unlike the large-game suppression reported from west of the Rift Valley. Resource pressures and game over-kill, whether population-driven or otherwise, are not currently apparent east of the Jordan River.

  2. An extensive study of the concentrations of particulate/dissolved radiocaesium derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in various river systems and their relationship with catchment inventory.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Matsuura, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    An extensive investigation of particulate radiocaesium in suspended solids and dissolved radiocaesium in river water was undertaken at 30 sites in Fukushima and Miyagi Prefectures in December 2012, and their relationships with catchment inventory and the solid/liquid distribution coefficient (Kd) were evaluated. Rivers located in the coastal region on the north side of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant exhibited relatively higher particulate radiocaesium concentrations. Significant correlations were found between concentrations of particulate/dissolved radiocaesium and average catchment inventories, indicating that the concentrations of particulate/dissolved radiocaesium could be approximated from the catchment inventory. Particulate radiocaesium concentration was significantly correlated with dissolved radiocaesium concentration (with the exception of concentrations measured in estuaries), and the geometric mean Kd was calculated as 3.6 × 10(5) with a 95% confidence interval of 2.6-5.1 × 10(5). PMID:25242014

  3. River Meander Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Lingenfelter, R.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility of using satellite television photography of geomorphological indices to obtain a correlation between a stream meander power spectrum and stream discharge frequency distribution is considered. Water resources assessment includes information on the average rainfall over large drainage basins and calculations relating flow measurements to geographical areas. Photoelectric optical scanning techniques provide a digitized procedure for locating and following river meander curve points.

  4. Investigations needed to stimulate the development of Jordan's mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKelvey, V.E.

    1979-01-01

    The level of living that any society can attain is a direct function of the use it makes of all kinds of raw materials (soil, water, metals, nonmetals, etc.), all kinds of energy (both animate and inanimate), and all kinds of human ingenuity; and is an inverse function of the size of the population that must share the collective product. The relation between raw materials, energy and ingenuity is such that use of a large amount of one may offset the need for large amounts of others. The most vital raw materials are water, soil, and construction materials, for these are needed in large quantities and are hard to import. Metals, chemicals, and inanimate energy are necessary for industrialization. The more of these minerals a nation possess, the better, but not nation can hope to be self-sufficient in all of the m and therefore must trade for some essential materials. Jordan’s natural resources have been little explored. The grantitc-metamorphic terrane in the southeastern part of the Kingdom could contain deposits of tungsten, rare earths, feldspar, mica, fluorite etc. and the sedimentary terrane over much of the rest of the county is favorable for the occurrence of oil. Even if none of these minerals is found, however, Jordan’s other mineral resource, if fully explored and developed in the light of modern technology, will support a far higher level of living than her people now enjoy. Very likely she can increase her rainfall by about 10 percent by cloud seeding, and she undeveloped supplies in both surface and ground water that are sufficient to nearly double her usable water supply. Even if she does not have oil or have it in large quantities, she can buy it cheaply from neighboring counties, and in addition has undeveloped sources of hydroelectric power, large reserves of bituminous limestone, large reserves of nuclear power as uranium in phosphate rock, and can use solar and wind power for special purposes. Her large supplies of construction, fertilizer, and

  5. Nile River, Lake Nasser, Aswan Dam, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Egypt's High Aswan Dam on the Nile River at the first cataracts, Nile River, (24.0N, 33.0E) was completed in 1971 to provide cheap hydroelectric power and to regulate the historically uneven flow of the Nile River. The contrast between the largely base rock desert east of the Nile versus the sand covered desert west of the river and the ancient irrigated floodplain downstream from the damsite is clearly shown.

  6. River-Corridor Habitat Dynamics, Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Intensive management of the Missouri River for navigation, flood control, and power generation has resulted in substantial physical changes to the river corridor. Historically, the Missouri River was characterized by a shifting, multithread channel and abundant unvegetated sandbars. The shifting channel provided a wide variety of hydraulic environments and large areas of connected and unconnected off-channel water bodies. Beginning in the early 1800s and continuing to the present, the channel of the Lower Missouri River (downstream from Sioux City, Iowa) has been trained into a fast, deep, single-thread channel to stabilize banks and maintain commercial navigation. Wing dikes now concentrate the flow, and revetments and levees keep the channel in place and disconnect it from the flood plain. In addition, reservoir regulation of the Missouri River upstream of Yankton, South Dakota, has substantially changed the annual hydrograph, sediment loads, temperature regime, and nutrient budgets. While changes to the Missouri River have resulted in broad social and economic benefits, they have also been associated with loss of river-corridor habitats and diminished populations of native fish and wildlife species. Today, Missouri River stakeholders are seeking ways to restore some natural ecosystem benefits of the Lower Missouri River without compromising traditional economic uses of the river and flood plain.

  7. New gas discoveries in the Ordovician sandstones, Risha area; northeast Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbah, A.A.; Ramini, H.M.

    1996-12-31

    Over thirty wells for exploration and production purposes were drilled in the Risha Area, northeast Jordan by the Natural Resources Authority since 1986. Commercial gas was discovered in the sandstones of Dubeidib Formation (Late Ordovician age). These sandstones are believed to have been deposited in the form of marine sand bars trending NNE-SSW. During the Early Paleozoic time, Jordan has undergone periods of epirogenic movements ending in Late Ordovician. Two major lineament trends are dominant, one oriented northwest-southeast and the other ENE-WSW. A third trend oriented north-south to NNW-SSE also appears but more discontinuous. Four source rock horizons were developed within the Early Paleozoic times. Oil generation of Lower Paleozoic source horizons took place in the Late Paleozoic. The upper Mudawwara hot shales of Silurian age is believed to have generated liquid hydrocarbons in the Late Cretaceous times, in a second phase of hydrocarbon generation. Dry gas was originated through organic maturation of the Lower Paleozoic source horizons. The Risha Gas Field is producing 30 MMcfgd since it was first discovered in 1987.

  8. Proposed water balance equation for municipal solid waste landfills in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Aljaradin, Mohammad; Persson, Kenneth M

    2013-10-01

    This article presents a water balance equation for predicting leachate generation in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills located in semi-arid areas, using the Akaider landfill in Jordan as an example. HYDRUS-2D/3D software was used to model the effect of co-disposal of wastewater into the landfill on the leachate production rates and for comparison with the results of the simulation of the proposed water balance equation parameters. A series of simulations was carried out for a 30-year period. The suggested water balance equation predicted that leachate will percolate to a depth of 50 m in the simulated period. The result indicates that the co-disposed wastewater plays a major role in controlling the rate and magnitude of the contaminants that percolate from the MSW leachate. As the initial water content of the waste increases, there is greater mobilisation of salts. The concentration of chloride at a given location increased and the time required for the chloride to reach this location decreased as a consequence. However, eliminating the co-disposed wastewater will significantly minimise leachate generation and decrease possible groundwater contamination. This equation is applicable to areas that have geological and hydrological properties similar to Jordan. PMID:23797298

  9. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/8: Cooperative Border Security for Jordan: Assessment and Options

    SciTech Connect

    Qojas, M.

    1999-03-01

    This document is an analysis of options for unilateral and cooperative action to improve the security of Jordan's borders. Sections describe the current political, economic, and social interactions along Jordan's borders. Next, the document discusses border security strategy for cooperation among neighboring countries and the adoption of confidence-building measures. A practical cooperative monitoring system would consist of hardware for early warning, command and control, communications, and transportation. Technical solutions can expand opportunities for the detection and identification of intruders. Sensors (such as seismic, break-wire, pressure-sensing, etc.) can warn border security forces of intrusion and contribute to the identification of the intrusion and help formulate the response. This document describes conceptual options for cooperation, offering three scenarios that relate to three hypothetical levels (low, medium, and high) of cooperation. Potential cooperative efforts under a low cooperation scenario could include information exchanges on military equipment and schedules to prevent misunderstandings and the establishment of protocols for handling emergency situations or unusual circumstances. Measures under a medium cooperation scenario could include establishing joint monitoring groups for better communications, with hot lines and scheduled meetings. The high cooperation scenario describes coordinated responses, joint border patrols, and sharing border intrusion information. Finally, the document lists recommendations for organizational, technical, and operational initiatives that could be applicable to the current situation.

  10. Archaeological evidences of the tectonic activity of Shueib Structure (NW Jordan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Awabdeh, Mohammad; Azañón, J. Miguel; Pérez-Peña, J. Vicente; Booth-Rea, Gillermo

    2014-05-01

    Archaeological damage in buried ruins often offers an excellent record of recent tectonic activity. The lower Jordan valley has experienced a continuous occupation in the last 5000 year, being frequent archaeological remains of human settlements along the valley. In this work we studied the Early Neolithic-to-Middle Islamic Periods archaeological site of Tall al-Hammam (Arabic name, ¨Hill of Baths¨). This ruin is located 27 km southwest of Amman city and it constitutes the largest Bronze Age archaeological site in Jordan. It consists of two main parts; the Upper Tall and the Lower Tall. This ruin lies within the southwestern termination of the Shueib structure (SHS); a Cretaceous fold-bend fault structure thought inactive through the entire Cenozoic. The relics, in the lower Tall, show clear fault-related damage in some walls. Two Middle Bronze Age (MBA) walls are displaced 26 and 20 cm respectively, according with a NNE-SSW fault plane. Apart of wall displacements, hundreds of joints and cracks in boulders of the walls are present. They strike generally NW-SE and NE-SW. Both archaeological evidences, boulder fractures and walls distortion, are coherent with the present-day tectonic setting of the Dead Sea Transform Fault in the region, and suggest a Quaternary reactivation of the SHS.

  11. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about epilepsy and their predictors among university students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hijazeen, Jameel Khaleel; Abu-Helalah, Munir Ahmad; Alshraideh, Hussam Ahmad; Alrawashdeh, Omar Salameh; Hawa, Fadi Nather; Dalbah, Tariq Asem; Abdallah, Fadi Walid

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge about epilepsy and the attitudes toward people with epilepsy (PWE) and their predictors among university students in Jordan. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed in three of the largest public universities in Jordan, and a total of 500 questionnaires were collected from each university. The number of students who reported that they had heard or read about epilepsy was 1165 (77.6%), and their data were analyzed. A significant proportion of students thought that epilepsy could be caused by the evil spirit (31.5%) and the evil eye (28.1%) or that it could be a punishment from God (25.9%). Epilepsy's most commonly reported treatment methods were the Holy Quran (71.4%), medications (71.3%), and herbs (29.3%). The most common negative attitudes toward PWE were that the students would refuse to marry someone with epilepsy (50.5%) and that children with epilepsy must join schools for persons with disabilities (44.4%). Male students, students of humanities, and students with a low socioeconomic status tended to have more negative attitudes toward PWE. In conclusion, many students have misconceptions about the causes, treatment, and nature of epilepsy, and students have moderate negative attitudes toward PWE. Universities should have health promotion programs to increase awareness of their students about major public health problems such as epilepsy.

  12. An agent-based hydroeconomic model to evaluate water policies in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, J.; Gorelick, S.

    2014-12-01

    Modern water systems can be characterized by a complex network of institutional and private actors that represent competing sectors and interests. Identifying solutions to enhance water security in such systems calls for analysis that can adequately account for this level of complexity and interaction. Our work focuses on the development of a hierarchical, multi-agent, hydroeconomic model that attempts to realistically represent complex interactions between hydrologic and multi-faceted human systems. The model is applied to Jordan, one of the most water-poor countries in the world. In recent years, the water crisis in Jordan has escalated due to an ongoing drought and influx of refugees from regional conflicts. We adopt a modular approach in which biophysical modules simulate natural and engineering phenomena, and human modules represent behavior at multiple scales of decision making. The human modules employ agent-based modeling, in which agents act as autonomous decision makers at the transboundary, state, organizational, and user levels. A systematic nomenclature and conceptual framework is used to characterize model agents and modules. Concepts from the Unified Modeling Language (UML) are adopted to promote clear conceptualization of model classes and process sequencing, establishing a foundation for full deployment of the integrated model in a scalable object-oriented programming environment. Although the framework is applied to the Jordanian water context, it is generalizable to other regional human-natural freshwater supply systems.

  13. Qualitative content analysis of complementary topical therapies used to manage diabetic foot in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abu-Qamar, Ma'en Zaid; Wilson, Anne

    2012-01-01

    In order to alleviate diabetic foot problems, patients sometimes seek complementary therapies outside the professional context. This paper describes the use of complementary remedies as a topical treatment for diabetic foot ulcers among Jordanians. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse written responses of 68 patients with diabetes who have used complementary therapies to treat diabetic foot problems. These 68 persons represented a subgroup of the study population surveyed using a questionnaire, to the effect of investigating diabetic foot treatments provided in Jordan. Informants were recruited from eight healthcare facilities established in the southern part of Jordan plus from one hospital established in the Jordanian capital. The study was approved by the Boards of Ethics of the participating healthcare facilities. Content analysis yielded the category "Complementary Therapies Used", which included a range of household items (olive oil, sesame oil, honey, and vinegar), and also some indigenous Jordanian herbs (Wormwood, Myrrh, Caper, and Henna among others). The remedies were used either as a monotherapy or as mixtures, to the common goal of treating diabetic foot problems. Other interventions like Al-cowy were also sought from traditional healers. Educational campaigns are required to increase the awareness of patients and their families on possible hazards of unwise complementary therapy use. The decisions on the use of such therapies should be made in agreement with the attending healthcare professionals. PMID:23983379

  14. Neoproterozoic granitic magmatism and tectonic evolution of the northern Arabian Shield: evidence from southwest Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, K. M.; McCourt, W. J.

    1995-02-01

    The crystalline basement outcrop exposed in southwest Jordan, is subdivided into two broad lithostratigraphic divisions, the older Aqaba complex and the Araba complex separated by a regional unconformity. The Aqaba complex principally comprises calc-alkaline plutonic rods of probable age range 630-580 Ma cut by extensive regional dyke swarms while the Araba complex is characterized by alkaline rhyolitic volcanics and minor coeval granites with an approximate age of 550-540 Ma. The plutonic rocks of the Aqaba complex are interpreted to be the products of subduction at, or dose to, a continental margin, while the Araba complex rods were most probably formed in an extensional setting. The Aqaba complex granitoids are isotopically primitive and were derived from a depleted source region like the mantle. The Arabian Shield of southwest Jordan provides an example of rapid crustal growth during the Neoproterozoic and the new data gives no support to models invoking the presence or involvement of significantly older basement in its development.

  15. Comparison of GRACE data and groundwater levels for the assessment of groundwater depletion in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liesch, Tanja; Ohmer, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) derived groundwater storage (GWS) data are compared with in-situ groundwater levels from five groundwater basins in Jordan, using newly gridded GRACE GRCTellus land data. It is shown that (1) the time series for GRACE-derived GWS data and in-situ groundwater-level measurements can be correlated, with R 2 from 0.55 to 0.74, (2) the correlation can be widely ascribed to the seasonal and trend component, since the detrended and deseasonalized time series show no significant correlation for most cases, implying that anomalous signals that deviate from the trend or seasonal behaviour are overlaid by noise, (3) estimates for water losses in Jordan based on the trend of GRACE data from 2003 to 2013 could be up to four times higher than previously assumed using estimated recharge and abstraction rates, and (4) a significant time-lagged cross correlation of the monthly changes in GRACE-derived groundwater storage and precipitation data was found, suggesting that the conventional method for deriving GWS from GRACE data probably does not account for the typical conditions in the study basins. Furthermore, a new method for deriving plausible specific yields from GRACE data and groundwater levels is demonstrated.

  16. KAr ages, chemical composition and geothermal significance of cenozoic basalt near the Jordan rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, W.A.; McKee, E.H.; El, Salem F.; Teimeh, M.

    1988-01-01

    Late Cenozoic mafic lavas crop out locally along the Jordan rift. Some of these lavas are spatially associated with thermal springs, and this association has prompted some workers to hypothesize that the hot water derives its thermal energy from the shallow, still hot intrusive roots of the volcanic rocks. However, all of the volcanic rocks appear to represent mantle-derived mafic magma that rose rather quickly to the Earth's surface, without filling crustal reservoirs within which differentiation would have produced evolved, derivative products. Moreover, the lavas are too old and of too small a volume to represent the surface expression of an active reservoir of magma within the crust. These interpretations of the volcanic geology are consistent with conclusions drawn from the chemistry of the thermal water; the water has equilibrated with host rocks at no more than 110??C, probably at depths of 2-3 km. Thus, thermal springs along the Jordan rift appear to reflect heating during circulation through a regional regime of average crustal heat flow (Galanis et at., 1986). The magmatic activity may only be a second or third order contributor to this heat flow. ?? 1988.

  17. Quitting smoking and utilization of smoking cessation services in Jordan: a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Jaghbir, M; Shareif, S; Ahram, M

    2014-10-12

    Increasing rates of smoking in Jordan have been documented. It is therefore important to understand the trends and factors associated with attempts to quit smoking, such as the utilization of smoking cessation clinics and hotlines. A population sample of 3196 adults aged 18+ years were interviewed about their smoking habits; 1032 (32.3%) were current smokers and 93 (2.9%) had successfully quit smoking (8.7% of ever-smokers). A high percentage of current smokers (62.8%) had tried, unsuccessfully, to quit smoking. Almost half of them had heard of smoking cessation clinics and hotlines, but only 2.4% had ever utilized them. After being informed about these services, 53.0% of current smokers agreed that they were likely to utilize them. Only 19.9% of current smokers had ever received advice from a health-care practitioner about contacting these services. The study should guide decision-makers on strategies to reduce the high smoking rates in Jordan.

  18. Proposed water balance equation for municipal solid waste landfills in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Aljaradin, Mohammad; Persson, Kenneth M

    2013-10-01

    This article presents a water balance equation for predicting leachate generation in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills located in semi-arid areas, using the Akaider landfill in Jordan as an example. HYDRUS-2D/3D software was used to model the effect of co-disposal of wastewater into the landfill on the leachate production rates and for comparison with the results of the simulation of the proposed water balance equation parameters. A series of simulations was carried out for a 30-year period. The suggested water balance equation predicted that leachate will percolate to a depth of 50 m in the simulated period. The result indicates that the co-disposed wastewater plays a major role in controlling the rate and magnitude of the contaminants that percolate from the MSW leachate. As the initial water content of the waste increases, there is greater mobilisation of salts. The concentration of chloride at a given location increased and the time required for the chloride to reach this location decreased as a consequence. However, eliminating the co-disposed wastewater will significantly minimise leachate generation and decrease possible groundwater contamination. This equation is applicable to areas that have geological and hydrological properties similar to Jordan.

  19. Toxoplasmosis-Related Knowledge and Preventive Practices among Undergraduate Female Students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya A; Obaidat, Mohammad M; Bani Salman, Alaa E; Lafi, Shawkat Q

    2015-06-01

    Foodborne toxoplasmosis is a leading cause of foodborne deaths and hospitalization worldwide. The level of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii is influenced by culture and eating habits. There is a scarcity of data about women's knowledge and perception of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine toxoplasmosis knowledge and preventive practices of young childbearing age women in Jordan. A descriptive cross-sectional study recruited a random sample of 1,390 undergraduate university female students and was stratified based on place of residency. About half of students (51.1%) reported having "ever" heard or read about toxoplasmosis, and almost all students (98.6%) had never been tested for toxoplasmosis. Overall, there was a lack of awareness about toxoplasmosis, its risk factors, symptoms, and timing of infection, and preventive practices. High percentages of females reported a high level of hygienic practices related to hand washing after gardening, changing cat litter, and handling raw meat. However, 16.7% of students reported eating raw meat, 26.5% usually eat traditional herbs, and 17.2% drink untreated spring water. This study establishes a baseline for the awareness levels about toxoplasmosis among young women in Jordan. These findings highlight the urgent need for toxoplasmosis awareness and preventive education for childbearing females. An effective education and outreach program should cover important topics concerning risk factors, high-risk foods, and preventive measures against toxoplasmosis. PMID:26038907

  20. Predictors of waterpipe smoking progression among youth in Irbid, Jordan: A Longitudinal Study (2008-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, Rana; Madhivanan, Purnima; Khader, Yousef; Mzayek, Fawaz; Ward, Kenneth; Maziak, Wasim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The predictors of waterpipe smoking progression are yet to be examined using a longitudinal study that is guided by a theoretical model of behavioral change. This study identifies the gender-specific predictors of waterpipe smoking progression among adolescents in Irbid, Jordan. METHODS This study uses data from a school longitudinal study of smoking behavior in Irbid, Jordan. A random sample of 19 schools was selected by probability proportionate to size. A total of 1781 seventh graders were enrolled at baseline, and completed a questionnaire annually from 2008 through 2011. Students who reported ever smoking waterpipe (N = 864) at any time point were assessed for progression (escalation in the frequency of waterpipe smoking) in the subsequent follow-up. Grouped-time survival analysis was used to identify the risk of progression. RESULTS During the three years of follow-up, 29.6% of students progressed in waterpipe smoking. Predictors of waterpipe smoking progression were higher mother's education, enrollment in public school, frequent physical activity, and low refusal self-efficacy among boys, having ever smoked cigarettes, and having friends and siblings who smoke waterpipe among girls. Awareness of harms of waterpipe was protective among boys and seeing warning labels on the tobacco packs was protective among girls. CONCLUSIONS Even at this early stage, about a third of waterpipe smokers progressed in their habit during the 3 year follow up. Factors predicting progression of use differed by gender, which calls for gender-specific approaches to waterpipe interventions among Jordanian youth. PMID:26024787

  1. Progress report on the geothermal assessment of the Jordan Valley, Salt Lake County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Klauk, R.H.; Darling, R.; Davis, D.A.; Gwynn, J.W.; Murphy, P.J.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D.

    1981-05-01

    Two known geothermal areas have been investigated previously in the Jordan Valley, Salt Lake County, Utah. These reports indicate meteoric water is being circulated to depth and heated by the ambient temperature derived from normal heat flow. This warm water subsequently migrates upward along permiable fault zones. The gravity survey conducted in the valley indicates a number of fault blocks are present beneath the unconsolidated valley sediments. The faults bounding these blocks could provide conduits for the upward migration of warm water. Four areas of warm water wells, in addition to the two known geothermal areas, have been delineated in the valley. However, the chemistry of the Jordan Valley is quite complex and at this time is not fully understood in regard to geothermal potential. Thick sequences of unconsolidated valley fill could conceal geothermal areas due to lateral dispersion or dilution within the principal aquifer, as well as retardation of warm water flow allowing time for cooling prior to discharge in wells or springs. Other areas are possibly diluted and cooled by high quality, ground water recharge from snow melt in the Wasatch Range.

  2. Comparison of GRACE data and groundwater levels for the assessment of groundwater depletion in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liesch, Tanja; Ohmer, Marc

    2016-09-01

    Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) derived groundwater storage (GWS) data are compared with in-situ groundwater levels from five groundwater basins in Jordan, using newly gridded GRACE GRCTellus land data. It is shown that (1) the time series for GRACE-derived GWS data and in-situ groundwater-level measurements can be correlated, with R 2 from 0.55 to 0.74, (2) the correlation can be widely ascribed to the seasonal and trend component, since the detrended and deseasonalized time series show no significant correlation for most cases, implying that anomalous signals that deviate from the trend or seasonal behaviour are overlaid by noise, (3) estimates for water losses in Jordan based on the trend of GRACE data from 2003 to 2013 could be up to four times higher than previously assumed using estimated recharge and abstraction rates, and (4) a significant time-lagged cross correlation of the monthly changes in GRACE-derived groundwater storage and precipitation data was found, suggesting that the conventional method for deriving GWS from GRACE data probably does not account for the typical conditions in the study basins. Furthermore, a new method for deriving plausible specific yields from GRACE data and groundwater levels is demonstrated.

  3. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended. PMID:25307764

  4. Perceptions of lung cancer and smoking among college students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Kofahi, Mariam M; Haddad, Linda G

    2005-07-01

    A descriptive, cross-sectional design was adopted to identify college students' knowledge and perceptions of lung cancer and smoking. A random sample of 400 students at the Jordan University of Science and Technology in northern Jordan was subjected to the Lung Cancer and Smoking Survey, which is based on the Health Belief Model. The results show that the prevalence of current smoking is 16.5% and that the prevalence of former smoking is 10.0%. Most (75.3%) of the respondents were aware of the prevalence of lung cancer. Almost all (90.3%) were aware of the cancer risk from air pollution, but fewer (57.5%) were concerned about the risk caused by side-stream smoke. Most disagreed that lung cancer could be easily cured. Former smokers were more knowledgeable than current smokers about the health hazards of smoking, and those who never smoked were more knowledgeable than both. Engineering students were more likely to agree with the benefits of quitting smoking than were medical or science students. Addiction and friends were the reasons most frequently given for not quitting smoking.

  5. Occurrence of organochlorine pesticide residues in eggs, chicken and meat in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rafat; Salem, Nida' M; Estaitieh, Hussein

    2010-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in 519 samples; comprising eggs, chicken and meat (lamb and beef), collected from Jordan were determined. All samples were analyzed for their residual contents of aldrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs), dieldrin, endosulfan isomers, endrin, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The samples were Soxhlet extracted for 8h in 250mL petroleum ether. The cleanup of the samples was performed by Florisil column chromatography and analysis was done on a gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The results indicated that 28% (38/134), 20% (23/115) and 49% (131/270) of the examined eggs, chicken and meat samples, respectively, were contaminated with OCP residues. HCHs and DDTs are the most prominently noticed compounds, as they were detected at a high incidence. On the other hand, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, HCB, aldrin and endrin compounds were only present in less than 7% of the analyzed samples. These residues are present despite complete ban on the use of OCPs for agricultural purposes in Jordan. No residues of op'-DDD, op'-DDT, dieldrin, alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan were detected. PMID:20042222

  6. Symptoms of anxiety and depression among adolescents with seizures in Irbid, Northern Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alwash, R H; Hussein, M J; Matloub, F F

    2000-09-01

    In Jordan, individuals with epilepsy commonly attend neuropsychiatric clinics. The objective of this study was to assess the psychosocial outcome of epilepsy among adolescents. The study included 101 epileptic adolescents who attended the neurology clinic at the Princess Basma Teaching Hospital in Northern Jordan and 101 non-epileptic controls. Sociodemographic characteristics and all relevant clinical data were collected through interviewing the cases and controls. Identification of the symptoms of anxiety and depression was made according to DSM-IV criteria. The patients were age and sex matched with the controls. The controls had achieved a significantly better education (> 12 years education) than the patients with epilepsy. The adolescents with epilepsy were also shown to be disadvantaged in their living circumstances. Some of them were dependent on their parents in some daily physical activities, such as bathing, which might be a sign of overprotection by their parents. Those with epilepsy had a significantly higher tendency to develop symptoms of anxiety and depression than the control group. Moreover these psychiatric symptoms, especially anxiety symptoms, were more likely to happen when seizures had not been properly medically controlled. Overprotective parental behaviour towards their ill children could also delay their psychosocial maturation. Therefore, counselling of patients and parents about epilepsy is an important factor in the control of seizures and their sequelae. PMID:10985998

  7. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about epilepsy and their predictors among university students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hijazeen, Jameel Khaleel; Abu-Helalah, Munir Ahmad; Alshraideh, Hussam Ahmad; Alrawashdeh, Omar Salameh; Hawa, Fadi Nather; Dalbah, Tariq Asem; Abdallah, Fadi Walid

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge about epilepsy and the attitudes toward people with epilepsy (PWE) and their predictors among university students in Jordan. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed in three of the largest public universities in Jordan, and a total of 500 questionnaires were collected from each university. The number of students who reported that they had heard or read about epilepsy was 1165 (77.6%), and their data were analyzed. A significant proportion of students thought that epilepsy could be caused by the evil spirit (31.5%) and the evil eye (28.1%) or that it could be a punishment from God (25.9%). Epilepsy's most commonly reported treatment methods were the Holy Quran (71.4%), medications (71.3%), and herbs (29.3%). The most common negative attitudes toward PWE were that the students would refuse to marry someone with epilepsy (50.5%) and that children with epilepsy must join schools for persons with disabilities (44.4%). Male students, students of humanities, and students with a low socioeconomic status tended to have more negative attitudes toward PWE. In conclusion, many students have misconceptions about the causes, treatment, and nature of epilepsy, and students have moderate negative attitudes toward PWE. Universities should have health promotion programs to increase awareness of their students about major public health problems such as epilepsy. PMID:25461223

  8. Toxoplasmosis-Related Knowledge and Preventive Practices among Undergraduate Female Students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya A; Obaidat, Mohammad M; Bani Salman, Alaa E; Lafi, Shawkat Q

    2015-06-01

    Foodborne toxoplasmosis is a leading cause of foodborne deaths and hospitalization worldwide. The level of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii is influenced by culture and eating habits. There is a scarcity of data about women's knowledge and perception of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine toxoplasmosis knowledge and preventive practices of young childbearing age women in Jordan. A descriptive cross-sectional study recruited a random sample of 1,390 undergraduate university female students and was stratified based on place of residency. About half of students (51.1%) reported having "ever" heard or read about toxoplasmosis, and almost all students (98.6%) had never been tested for toxoplasmosis. Overall, there was a lack of awareness about toxoplasmosis, its risk factors, symptoms, and timing of infection, and preventive practices. High percentages of females reported a high level of hygienic practices related to hand washing after gardening, changing cat litter, and handling raw meat. However, 16.7% of students reported eating raw meat, 26.5% usually eat traditional herbs, and 17.2% drink untreated spring water. This study establishes a baseline for the awareness levels about toxoplasmosis among young women in Jordan. These findings highlight the urgent need for toxoplasmosis awareness and preventive education for childbearing females. An effective education and outreach program should cover important topics concerning risk factors, high-risk foods, and preventive measures against toxoplasmosis.

  9. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended.

  10. New gas discoveries in the Ordovician sandstones, Risha area; northeast Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Sabbah, A.A.; Ramini, H.M. )

    1996-01-01

    Over thirty wells for exploration and production purposes were drilled in the Risha Area, northeast Jordan by the Natural Resources Authority since 1986. Commercial gas was discovered in the sandstones of Dubeidib Formation (Late Ordovician age). These sandstones are believed to have been deposited in the form of marine sand bars trending NNE-SSW. During the Early Paleozoic time, Jordan has undergone periods of epirogenic movements ending in Late Ordovician. Two major lineament trends are dominant, one oriented northwest-southeast and the other ENE-WSW. A third trend oriented north-south to NNW-SSE also appears but more discontinuous. Four source rock horizons were developed within the Early Paleozoic times. Oil generation of Lower Paleozoic source horizons took place in the Late Paleozoic. The upper Mudawwara hot shales of Silurian age is believed to have generated liquid hydrocarbons in the Late Cretaceous times, in a second phase of hydrocarbon generation. Dry gas was originated through organic maturation of the Lower Paleozoic source horizons. The Risha Gas Field is producing 30 MMcfgd since it was first discovered in 1987.

  11. Prevalence of coeliac disease among adult patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Farahid, O H; Khawaja, N; Shennak, M M; Batieha, A; El-Khateeb, M; Ajlouni, K

    2014-02-11

    The prevalence of coeliac disease among patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism has not been studied before in Jordan and other Arab countries. A cross-sectional record-based review was made of all adult autoimmune hypothyroidism patients who attended a referral centre in Jordan, during an 8-month period. Coeliac disease in these patients was diagnosed by the attending physician based on positive serological tests for anti-endomysial antibodies IgA and IgG followed by duodenal biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of coeliac disease. Of 914 patients recruited, 117 (12.8%) were seropositive for coeliac disease. Of 87 seropositive patients who underwent duodenal biopsy, 39 had positive histological findings of coeliac disease (44.8%). Extrapolating from these findings the overall rate of coeliac disease among autoimmune hypothyroidism patients was estimated to be 5.7%. In multivariate logistic regression coeliac disease was significantly associated with older age (> 40 years), presence of other autoimmune diseases, vitamin B12 deficiency and anaemia.

  12. 78 FR 69285 - Importation of Fresh Beans, Shelled or in Pods, From Jordan Into the Continental United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... beans must be packed in packing facilities that are approved and registered with Jordan's national plant... / Tuesday, November 19, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD69 Importation of Fresh Beans, Shelled or in...

  13. Situation Report--Algeria, Bangladesh, Fiji, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Iran, Jordan, New Zealand, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Algeria, Bangledesh, Fiji, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Iran, Jordan, New Zealand, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  14. Effectiveness of Analogy Instructional Strategy on Undergraduate Student's Acquisition of Organic Chemistry Concepts in Mutah University, Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Nawaf Ahmad Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of analogy instructional strategy on undergraduate students' acquisition of organic chemistry concepts in Mutah University, Jordan. A quasi-experimental design was used in the study; Participants were 97 students who enrolled in organic chemistry course at the department of chemistry during the…

  15. Rationales of a Shift towards Knowledge Economy in Jordan from the Viewpoint of Educational Experts and Relationship with Some Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Zboon, Mohammad Saleem; Al Ahmad, Suliman Diab Ali; Al Zboon, Saleem Odeh

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify rationales underlying a shift towards knowledge economy in education as perceived by the educational experts in Jordan and relationship with some variables. The random stratum sample (n = 90) consisted of educational experts representing faculty members in the Jordanian universities and top leaders…

  16. Utility of multi temporal satellite images for crop water requirements estimation and irrigation management in the Jordan Valley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying the spatial and temporal distribution of crop water requirements is a key for successful management of water resources in the dry areas. Climatic data were obtained from three automated weather stations to estimate reference evapotranspiration (ETO) in the Jordan Valley according to the...

  17. Learning English as a Second Language at the University Level in Jordan: Motivation, Self-Regulation and Learning Environment Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alzubaidi, Eman; Aldridge, Jill M.; Khine, Myint Swe

    2016-01-01

    The overarching aim of this study was to investigate students' perceptions of the learning environment and whether these influenced their motivation and self-regulation in learning English as a second language at the university level in Jordan. Our sample involved 994 students, drawn from 13 schools, within three faculties (humanities, health…

  18. Small ruminant lentiviruses in Jordan: evaluation of sheep and goat serological response using recombinant and peptide antigens.

    PubMed

    Tolari, Francesco; Al-Ramadneh, Wafa'a; Mazzei, Maurizio; Carrozza, Maria Luisa; Forzan, Mario; Bandecchi, Patrizia; Grego, Elena; Rosati, Sergio

    2013-08-01

    Small ruminant lentiviruses infect sheep and goats worldwide, causing chronic progressive diseases and relevant economic losses. Disease eradication and prevention is mostly based on serological testing. The goal of this research was to investigate the presence of the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) in Jordan and to characterize the serological response in sheep and goat populations. A panel of sera were collected from flocks located in Northern Jordan and Jordan Valley. The samples were tested using three ELISA assays: a commercially available ELISA based on p25 recombinant protein and transmembrane peptide derived from British maedi-visna virus (MVV) EV1 strain, an ELISA based on P16-P25 recombinant protein derived from two Italian strains representative of MVV- and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV)-like SRLVs, and an ELISA based on SU5 peptide from the same two Italian isolates. The results indicate that both MVV- and CAEV-like strains are present in Jordan and that the majority of the viruses circulating among sheep and goat populations belong to the MVV-like genotype.

  19. Jordan-3: measuring visual reversals in children as symptoms of learning disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Brian T; Martin, Nancy; Austin, J Sue

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to establish new norms for the Jordan-3 for children ages 5 to 18 years. The research also investigated the frequency of visual reversals in children previously identified as having reading disability, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and broader learning disabilities. Participants were regular education students, ages 5 through 18 years, and special education students previously diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, reading disability, or broader learning disability. Jordan-3 Accuracy and Error raw scores were compared to assess if there was a significant difference between the two groups. Mean Accuracy and Error scores were compared for males and females. Children with learning disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder had higher reversals when compared to regular education children, which lends continued support to the Jordan-3 as a valid and reliable measure of visual reversals in children and adolescents. This study illustrates the utility of the Jordan-3 when assessing children who may require remediation to reach their academic potential.

  20. Educational Attainment and Attitudes towards War in Muslim Countries Contemplating War: The Cases of Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Ross, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the little understood relationship between educational attainment and public attitudes towards war in four predominantly Muslim countries contemplating war: Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey. The multivariate analysis using public opinion data suggests that the educational attainment of respondents has no statistically…